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Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count  

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The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms, 3 bulk milk samples were collected at intervals of 2 wk. The samples were cultured for SPC, coliform count, and staphylococcal count and for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, SCC ...

Koop, G.; Dik, N.; Nielen, M.; Lipman, L. J. A.

2010-01-01

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Validation parameters of instrumental method for determination of total bacterial count in milk  

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Full Text Available The method of flow citometry as rapid, instrumental and routine microbiological method is used for determination of total bacterial count in milk. The results of flow citometry are expressed as individual bacterial cells count. Problems regarding the interpretation of the results of total bacterial count can be avoided by transformation of the results of flow citometry method onto the scale of reference method (HRN ISO 6610:2001.. The method of flow citometry, like any analitycal method, according to the HRN EN ISO/IEC 17025:2000 standard, requires validation and verification. This paper describes parameters of validation: accuracy, precision, specificity, range, robustness and measuring uncertainty for the method of flow citometry.

Nataša Mikulec

2004-10-01

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M1 AFLATOXIN, TOTAL BACTERIAL COUNT AND SOMATIC CELL COUNT IN ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL MILK  

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Comparative quality evaluation of organic and conventional milk produced in similar environmental condition was performed. Bulk-tank milk was sampled once a week during 30 weeks from 10 organic and 10 conventional dairy farms where aflatoxin M1 level was previous tested during 11 months on bulk-tank milk from tanker at the processing plant. Somatic Cells and Total Microbial Counts did not show differences that can be related to the organic production system, suggesting an effect induced by fa...

Coccollone, A.; Canever, A.; Trevisani, M.; Borsari, A.; Giacometti, F.; Serraino, A.

2009-01-01

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M1 AFLATOXIN, TOTAL BACTERIAL COUNT AND SOMATIC CELL COUNT IN ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL MILK  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Comparative quality evaluation of organic and conventional milk produced in similar environmental condition was performed. Bulk-tank milk was sampled once a week during 30 weeks from 10 organic and 10 conventional dairy farms where aflatoxin M1 level was previous tested during 11 months on bulk-tank milk from tanker at the processing plant. Somatic Cells and Total Microbial Counts did not show differences that can be related to the organic production system, suggesting an effect induced by fa...

Coccollone, A.; Canever, A.; Trevisani, M.; Borsari, A.; Giacometti, F.; Serraino, A.

2013-01-01

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M1 AFLATOXIN, TOTAL BACTERIAL COUNT AND SOMATIC CELL COUNT IN ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL MILK  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Comparative quality evaluation of organic and conventional milk produced in similar environmental condition was performed. Bulk-tank milk was sampled once a week during 30 weeks from 10 organic and 10 conventional dairy farms where aflatoxin M1 level was previous tested during 11 months on bulk-tank milk from tanker at the processing plant. Somatic Cells and Total Microbial Counts did not show differences that can be related to the organic production system, suggesting an effect induced by farm size and technical factors. Higher level of Aflatoxin M1 was found in organic than conventional milk.

A. Serraino

2013-02-01

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Short communication: Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms, 3 bulk milk samples were collected at intervals of 2 wk. The samples were cultured for SPC, coliform count, and staphylococcal count and for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, SCC (Fossomatic 5000, Foss, Hillerød, Denmark) and TBC (BactoScan FC 150, Foss) were measured. Staphylococcal count was correlated to SCC (r=0.40), TBC (r=0.51), and SPC (r=0.53). Coliform count was correlated to TBC (r=0.33), but not to any of the other variables. Staphylococcus aureus did not correlate to SCC. The contribution of the staphylococcal count to the SPC was 31%, whereas the coliform count comprised only 1% of the SPC. The agreement of the repeated measurements was low. This study indicates that staphylococci in goat bulk milk are related to SCC and make a significant contribution to SPC. Because of the high variation in bacterial counts, repeated sampling is necessary to draw valid conclusions from bulk milk culturing. PMID:20494165

Koop, G; Dik, N; Nielen, M; Lipman, L J A

2010-06-01

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Short communication: bulk tank total bacterial count in dairy sheep: factors of variation and relationship with somatic cell count.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 9,353 records for bulk tank total bacterial count (TBC) were obtained over 1 yr from 315 dairy ewe flocks belonging to the Sheep Improvement Consortium (CPO) in Castilla-León (Spain). Analysis of variance showed significant effects of flock, breed, month within flock, dry therapy, milking type and installation, and logSCC on logTBC. Flock and month within flock were important variation factors as they accounted for 22.0 and 22.1% of the variance, respectively. Considerable repeatability values were obtained for both random factors. Hand milking and bucket-milking machines elicited highest logTBC (5.31), whereas parlor systems with looped milkline (5.01) elicited the lowest logTBC. The implementation of dry therapy practice (5.12) showed significantly lower logTBC than when not used (5.25). Variability in logTBC among breeds ranged from 5.24 (Awassi) to 5.07 (Churra). However, clinical outbreaks of contagious agalactia did not increase TBC significantly. A statistically significant relationship was found between logTBC and logSCC, the correlation coefficient between the variables being r = 0.23. Programs for improving milk hygiene should be implemented for both total bacterial count and somatic cell count variables at the same time. PMID:16428623

Gonzalo, C; Carriedo, J A; Beneitez, E; Juárez, M T; De La Fuente, L F; San Primitivo, F

2006-02-01

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Determination of total bacterial count in raw milk by flow cytometry  

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Full Text Available The automatic flow cytometry as routine method for total bacterial count determination of raw ex-farm milk has recently been accepted in Croatia. This method significantly differs from the reference method (Standard Plate Count mostly in the presentation of the results obtained. Therefore, this paper summarized experiences in the application of flow cytometry in the dairy laboratories practice. The principle and the practice of the method, methodological details and factors influencing the results were described. In order to avoid problems regarding the interpretation of the results, which aregeneral problems of the quantitative microbiology, this article try to explain an appropriate conversion of the results with regards to SPC/ml, as an official method for the bacteriological quality proposal by the national legislation.

Dubravka Samaržija

2004-01-01

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Microbiologia da carne moida: 1. contagem total de bactérias / Microbiology of ground beef: I. total bacterial count  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Como primeira etapa de um programa de estudos microbiológicos da carne moida comercializada em Piracicaba, quarenta amostras de carne bovina, provenientes de dois tipos de estabelecimento de venda a varejo (açougue e supermercado), correspondendo a dois sistemas de distribuição de carne (um antigo e [...] outro recente), foram analisados quanto ao número total de bactérias, segundo as recomendações da "American Public Health Association". As amostras foram obtidas semanalmente pela manhã e à tarde, durante aproximadamente dois meses. A incubação das placas de Petri foi feita a 21º C (72 horas) e a 32º (48 horas). Os resultados podem ser resumidos como segue: 1) Contagens totais elevadas foram, em geral, observadas, com diversas amostras na faixa de 10(7) a 10(9) bactérias/grama; as médias obtidas foram 6,9 x 10(7) (21ºC) e 2,5 x 10(7) (32ºC) bactérias por grama. 2) A incubação feita a 21ºC resultou, em geral, em contagens mais elevadas que as correspondentes à temperatura de incubação de 32ºC; todavia, a diferença observada não foi estatìsticamente significativa. 3) As contagens obtidas para as amostras correspondentes ao sistema antigo de distribuição de carne foram significativamente mais elevadas que as correspondentes ao sistema recente, o que se relacionou com contagens mais elevadas obtidas para as amostras coletadas pela manhã no estabelecimento menor. Abstract in english As a first step in a program of evaluation of ground beef microbiological quality in the city of Piracicaba, SP, forty samples of ground beef were taken at two kinds of retail markets (meat shop and supermarket), related to an old and a new system of meat merchandising. The samples were taken weekly [...] in the morning and in the afternoon, during a two month period. Total bacterial counts were determined by a procedure recommended by the American Public Health Association and plates were incubated at 21ºC (72 hours) and at 32ºC (48 hours). The results can be summarized as follows = 1) Total counts were generally high, with several samples in the range 10(7) to 10(9) cells/gram; average counts were 6.9x 10(7) cells/gram (21ºC) and 2.5xl0(7) cell/gram (32ºC). 2) Incubation at 21ºC resulted in total counts generally higher than those found at 32ºC, although there was no statistically significant difference between the two incubation temperatures. 3) Total counts were found to be higher in samples from the small shop (old system) than in samples from the supermarket (new system); the difference was related to higher counts in the morning samples taken at the former retail market.

Murilo, Graner; Alcides, Martinelli Filho; Vivaldo F. da, Cruz.

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Evaluation of Vit. B12+Fe and Cu Administration on the Somatic Cell Count, Total Bacterial Count and Compounds Milk of Dairy Cattle  

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The aim of this study was studying the effect of vit. B12+Fe and Cu on the somatic cell count, total bacterial count and compounds milk of Holstein cows. In this study, 4 groups contain 10 dairy Holstein cows were selected with same parity and milk production as control, vit. B12+Fe injectable (10 mL day-1), Cu injectable (2 mL day-1) and vit. B12+Fe along with Cu treatment groups. These were injected from 1 week precalving probably to 1 ...

2012-01-01

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Short communication: effect of storage and preservation on total bacterial counts determined by automated flow cytometry in bulk tank goat milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to evaluate the effects of different storage conditions on total bacterial count (TBC) determinations made in goat bulk tank milk using an automated flow cytometry method. The storage conditions tested were storage temperature (refrigeration at 4 and 10 degrees C or freezing at -20 degrees C), the use of a preservative (no preservative, NP; azidiol, AZ; or bronopol, BR), and the age of the milk samples for each analytical condition (storage times at 4 degrees C: from 0 h to 5 d for NP; and from 0 h to 22 d for AZ and BR; storage times at 10 degrees C: from 24 h to 2 d for NP and from 24 h to 22 for AZ and BR; storage times at -20 degrees C: from 24 h to 22 d for NP, AZ, and BR). Significant effects on individual bacterial count (IBC) variation were shown by the bulk tank milk sample, preservative, storage temperature, interaction preservative x storage temperature, and milk age within the interaction preservative x storage temperature. In preserved samples, the highest IBC were obtained for AZ and the lowest counts were obtained in samples preserved with BR. Because of the variation in IBC recorded in BR-preserved samples, we recommend that BR should not be used for TBC determinations using the automated flow cytometry method. The NP samples stored at 4 and 10 degrees C showed significantly higher IBC at 24 h postcollection, also invalidating these analytical conditions for TBC analyses. The practical implications of our findings are that goat milk samples preserved with AZ and stored at 10 or 4 degrees C are appropriate for TBC by the BactoScan flow cytometry method for up to 24 h and 11 d postcollection, respectively. PMID:19762799

Sierra, D; Sánchez, A; Contreras, A; Luengo, C; Corrales, J C; de la Fe, C; Guirao, I; Morales, C T; Gonzalo, C

2009-10-01

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Robotic milking and milk quality: effects on bacterial counts, somatic cell counts, freezing point and free fatty acids  

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Changes in milk quality after the introduction of automatic milking systems (AM-systems) on dairy farms in The
Netherlands, Germany and Denmark were examined and the data were compared with milk quality results of farms with
conventional milking technology. After introduction, a small, but significant increase in total bacterial count, somatic cell
count, freezing point and free fatty acids was observed. The highest levels for total plate count and cell count ...

Kees de Koning; Betsie Slaghuis; Yvonne van der Vorst

2010-01-01

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Robotic milking and milk quality: effects on bacterial counts, somatic cell counts, freezing point and free fatty acids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Changes in milk quality after the introduction of automatic milking systems (AM-systems) on dairy farms in The Netherlands, Germany and Denmark were examined and the data were compared with milk quality results of farms with conventional milking technology. After introduction, a small, but significant increase in total bacterial count, somatic cell count, freezing point and free fatty acids was observed. The highest levels for total plate count and cell count are found in the first six months...

Koning, C. J. A. M.; Slaghuis, B. A.; Vorst, Y.

2003-01-01

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Automated Counting of Bacterial Colony Forming Units on Agar Plates  

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Manual counting of bacterial colony forming units (CFUs) on agar plates is laborious and error-prone. We therefore implemented a colony counting system with a novel segmentation algorithm to discriminate bacterial colonies from blood and other agar plates.

Brugger, Silvio D.; Baumberger, Christian; Jost, Marcel; Jenni, Werner; Brugger, Urs; Mu?hlemann, Kathrin

2012-01-01

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BRONOPOL AND AZIDIOL CHEMICALS: TIME AND TEMPERATURE INFLUENCE IN THE TOTAL BACTERIAL COUNT OF RAW MILK CONSERVANTES BRONOPOL E AZIDIOL: INFLUÊNCIA DO BINÔMIO TEMPO/TEMPERATURA NA CONTAGEM BACTERIANA TOTAL DO LEITE CRU  

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Full Text Available

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bronopol chemical in contrast to azidiol in the total bacterial counting (TBC in raw milk samples submitted the different temperatures of storage. Four bands of samples storage temperature had been evaluated: T1 – 1.8 the 4.2 ºC; T2 – 6.4 the 8.3ºC; T3 – 12.1 the 14.5ºC; and T4 – 24 the 25.5ºC in three groups: Group 1 – control without chemical; Group 2 – liquid azidiol added of bromofenol blue; Group 3 – Bronopol®. The samples were analyzed during ten consecutive days, starting 24h after sampling. After analyzes by the flow citometry, have been considered raw milk samples of 14 expansion tanks that were divided in two levels of milk contamination: <105 and >106 CFU/mL. The bronopol effect was influenced by the raw milk contamination level. The Bronopol has bacteriostatic effect in milk samples with TBC below of 105 CFU/mL and bactericidal in samples with TBC above of 106 CFU/mL. The TBC gotten in raw milk samples conserved with bronopol was lower to that one gotten in the samples with azidiol. The bronopol effect on the TBC was influenced by the temperature and by the storage time of the sample. The Bronopol® bactericidal effect becomes impracticable its use in raw milk samples destined the TBC. The azidiol efficiency in the raw milk sample destined the CBT as bacteriostatic agent was dependent of the lesser storage temperature of the sample, independent of the initial contamination level. The raw milk sample destined the CBT can be analyzed in up to one week after harvested if the same one will be added of azidiol and kept under refrigeration in temperature between 1ºC and 4 ºC.
  
KEY WORDS: Azidiol, bronopol,  bacterial counting, raw milk, time, temperature.

O presente estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito do conservante bronopol em contraste ao azidiol na contagem bacteriana total (CBT em amostras de leite cru submetidas a diferentes temperaturas de armazenamento. Avaliaram-se quatro faixas de temperatura de armazenamento de amostras: T1 – 1,8 a 4,2 ºC; T2 – 6,4 a 8,3ºC; T3 – 12,1 a 14,5ºC; e T4 – 24 a 25,5ºC, em três grupos: Grupo 1 – controle sem conservante; Grupo 2 – azidiol líquido + corante azul de bromofenol; Grupo 3 – bronopol®. As amostras foram analisadas durante dez dias consecutivos, iniciando 24 horas após colhidas. Após análise por citometria de fluxo pelo equipamento BactoScan FC, consideraram-se amostras de leite cru de quatorze tanques de expansão divididas em dois níveis de contaminação do leite: <105 e >106 UFC/mL. Houve efeito do conservante bronopol pelo nível de contaminação do leite cru. O bronopol possui efeito bacteriostático em amostras de leite com CBT abaixo de 105 UFC/mL e bactericida em amostras com CBT superiores a 106 UFC/mL. A CBT obtida nas amostras de leite cru conservadas com bronopol foi inferior àquela obtida nas amostras com azidiol. Ocorreu efeito do bronopol sobre a CBT pela temperatura e pelo tempo de estocagem da amostra. O efeito bactericida do bronopol® torna inviável sua utilização em amostras de leite cru destinadas à CBT.  A eficiência do azidiol na amostra de leite cru destinada à CBT como agente bacteriostático foi dependente da menor temperatura de armazenamento da amostra, independente do nível de contaminação inicial. A amostra de leite cru destinada à CBT pode ser analisada em até uma semana depois de colhida, se for adicionada de azidiol e mantida sob refrigeração em temperatura entre 1ºC e 4 ºC.

PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Azidiol, bronopol, contagem bacteriana, leite cru, tempo, temperatura.

Márcio Eduardo Pereira Martins

2009-07-01

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Membrane filter staining method: bacterial plate counts in 24 H.  

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We describe a technique to stain bacterial colonies on membrane filters. The procedure yielded reliable and reproducible bacterial plate counts in 24 h. The procedure can be applied to treated and untreated water samples requiring prompt analysis.

1984-01-01

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Study of autoabsorption for total ? and ? counting  

Science.gov (United States)

The RaMsEs Group (Radioprotection et Mesures Environnementales) of the IPHC performs research and offers services mainly in the field of radioactivity measurements and sample analysis. This report will describe some of our recent experience using a semiautomatic evaporation system to prepare large area thin deposits for total ? and ? counting and gives experimental and simulated results for the autoabsorption coefficients.

Saettel, M. A.; Sellam, A.; Nourreddine, A.; Pape, A.

2008-06-01

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Recuento de bacterias totales en leche cruda de tambos que caracterizan la zona noroeste de Santa Fe y sur de Santiago del Estero Total bacterial count in raw milk of dairy farms that characterize the northwest zone of Santa Fe and south of Santiago del Estero  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Un total de 6.998 muestras de leche cruda de pool de tanque, correspondientes a 55 establecimientos lecheros asociados a la Cooperativa Tambera Nueva Alpina Ltda., fueron recolectadas entre los años 1993 y 2002. Se realizó el Recuento de Microorganismos Aerobios Mesófilos Totales, obteniéndose como resultado un valor medio de 1,2 x 105± 2,4 x 105UFC/ml que caracteriza la zona. El año de finalización de la experiencia, se observó un 97% de los tambos evaluados con promedios £ 1,0 x 105UFC/ml. Solamente un 3% sobrepasa este límite, no encontrándose establecimientos con niveles superiores a 1,5 x 105UFC/ml. Al relacionar este indicador con parámetros composicionales, las correlaciones más significativas resultaron para: Recuento de Bacterias Totales vs Acidez (r = 0,292; P A total of 6.998 raw milk samples of bulk tank, belonging to 55 dairy farms associated to the Cooperativa Tambera Nueva Alpina Ltda., were collected between the years 1993 and 2002. The Total Mesophilic Aerobic Microorganisms Count was analyzed, obtaining a medium value of 1.2 x 105± 2.4 x 105CFU/ml that characterizes the zone. The final year of experience, observed a 97% of dairy farms evaluated with averages £ 1,0 x 105CFU/ml. Only a 3% it surpasses this limit, not being found establishments with levels over 1.5 x 105CFU/ml. Relating this indicators with compositionals parameters, the most significant correlation resulted for: Total Bacterial Count vs Acidity (r = 0.292; P < 0.001 and Total Bacterial Count vs Freezing Point (r = 0.157; P < 0.001. The microbiological quality in raw milk of dairy farms belonging to the northwest zone of Santa Fe and south of Santiago del Estero showed a significant improvement during this time.

G.R. Revelli

2004-09-01

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Method of quantitative bacterial count in burn wound  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To describe a technique for conducting Quantitative bacteriology in burn wounds, which is a very important tool in the management of burn wound sepsis. Technique was used in 21 patients with burn wound injury. Biopsy for the bacteriology was taken with the help of punch forceps. Then it was directly put into sterilized pre weighed homogenizer bag containing 1ml normal saline. This bag was re-weighed. Weight of the tissue was obtained and bag was homogenized in homogenizer (Stomacher Lab Blender-80). Four fold dilutions were made of homogenate specimen. From each dilution tube, 0.01 ml was then inoculated on blood agar plates, incubated for 24 hours and number of colonies counted by formula. Four specimens were taken each day and repeated on alternate days for up to 6 days. Out of twenty one patients there were 10 male and 11 female with mean age of 25.95 years. Total body surface area burnt was from 9-41%. Bacterial counts obtained varied from 1.45-8.89. Quantitative bacteriology is simple by the above method and should be employed in every public and private sector burn center. (author)

2007-01-01

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Recuento de bacterias totales en leche cruda de tambos que caracterizan la zona noroeste de Santa Fe y sur de Santiago del Estero / Total bacterial count in raw milk of dairy farms that characterize the northwest zone of Santa Fe and south of Santiago del Estero  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Un total de 6.998 muestras de leche cruda de pool de tanque, correspondientes a 55 establecimientos lecheros asociados a la Cooperativa Tambera Nueva Alpina Ltda., fueron recolectadas entre los años 1993 y 2002. Se realizó el Recuento de Microorganismos Aerobios Mesófilos Totales, obteniéndose como [...] resultado un valor medio de 1,2 x 105± 2,4 x 105UFC/ml que caracteriza la zona. El año de finalización de la experiencia, se observó un 97% de los tambos evaluados con promedios £ 1,0 x 105UFC/ml. Solamente un 3% sobrepasa este límite, no encontrándose establecimientos con niveles superiores a 1,5 x 105UFC/ml. Al relacionar este indicador con parámetros composicionales, las correlaciones más significativas resultaron para: Recuento de Bacterias Totales vs Acidez (r = 0,292; P Abstract in english A total of 6.998 raw milk samples of bulk tank, belonging to 55 dairy farms associated to the Cooperativa Tambera Nueva Alpina Ltda., were collected between the years 1993 and 2002. The Total Mesophilic Aerobic Microorganisms Count was analyzed, obtaining a medium value of 1.2 x 105± 2.4 x 105CFU/ml [...] that characterizes the zone. The final year of experience, observed a 97% of dairy farms evaluated with averages £ 1,0 x 105CFU/ml. Only a 3% it surpasses this limit, not being found establishments with levels over 1.5 x 105CFU/ml. Relating this indicators with compositionals parameters, the most significant correlation resulted for: Total Bacterial Count vs Acidity (r = 0.292; P

Revelli, G.R.; Sbodio, O. A.; Tercero, E.J..

 
 
 
 
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Robotic milking and milk quality: effects on bacterial counts, somatic cell counts, freezing point and free fatty acids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Changes in milk quality after the introduction of automatic milking systems (AM-systems on dairy farms in TheNetherlands, Germany and Denmark were examined and the data were compared with milk quality results of farms withconventional milking technology. After introduction, a small, but significant increase in total bacterial count, somatic cellcount, freezing point and free fatty acids was observed. The highest levels for total plate count and cell count are foundin the first six months after introduction. After this period the milk quality slightly improves to a more stable level.Risk factors related with milk quality concern general farm characteristics, animal health, AM-system, cleaning and cooling,housing, management skills of the farmer and the hygiene on the farm. Total plate count was significantly relatedto milk yield of the herd, cleaning of the area around the AM-system and the overall hygiene on the farm. Bulk milksomatic cell count appeared to be significantly related to milk yield of the herd and the number of milkings before replacementof the liners. An increased milking frequency is not the only explanation of increased free fatty acid levels. Technicalfactors related to free fatty acids mainly concerned the air inlet in the teat cups, bubbling (excessive air inlet and a toolong post run time of the milk pump. However, several questions regarding the causes of increased free fatty acid levelsremained unclear.

Yvonne van der Vorst

2010-01-01

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Relationship between total bacteria counts and somatic cell counts from mammary quarters infected by mastitis pathogens Relação entre contagem total de bactérias e contagem de células somáticas de quartos mamários infectados por patógenos da mastite  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was conducted to establish the relationship between somatic cell count (SCC) and bacterial shedding from mammary quarters according to mastitis pathogens. Milk samples from 638 mammary quarters were examined for mastitis pathogens, SCC and total bacterial count (TBC). The raw data of SCC and TBC were used to perform descriptive statistics. The significance of the arithmetic mean differences between SCC and TBC according to bacteriological examination results was determined by a two...

João Emídio Ferreira Lopes Júnior; Carla Cristine Lange; Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva Brito; Fabiana Ribeiro Santos; Marco Aurélio Souto Silva; Luciano Castro Dutra de Moraes; Guilherme Nunes de Souza

2012-01-01

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The relationship between compost bedded pack performance, management, and bacterial counts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to assess the relationships among temperature, moisture, carbon-to-nitrogen (C:N) ratio, space per cow, and bacterial counts from bedding material collected from compost bedded pack (CBP) barns. A field survey of 42 routinely aerated CBP barns was conducted in Kentucky between October 2010 and March 2011. Two bedding material samples of 1,064.7cm(3) each were collected during a single site visit from 9 evenly distributed locations throughout each barn and thoroughly mixed to create a composite sample representative of the entire CBP. Bacterial counts were determined for coliforms, Escherichia coli, streptococci, staphylococci, and Bacillus spp. University of Kentucky Regulatory Services (Lexington) laboratory personnel performed nutrient analyses to determine moisture, carbon, and nitrogen contents. Surface and 10.2-cm pack depth temperatures were collected for each of the 9 evenly distributed locations and the mean calculated to produce a composite temperature. Space per cow was calculated as the total CBP area divided by number of cows housed on the CBP. The GLM procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) generated models to describe factors affecting bacterial counts. Bacterial counts were 6.3±0.6, 6.0±0.6, 7.2±0.7, 7.9±0.5, and 7.6±0.5 log10cfu/g of dry matter for coliform, Escherichia coli, streptococci, staphylococci, and Bacillus spp., respectively. Composite temperature, CBP moisture, C:N ratio, and space per cow had no effect on coliform counts. Escherichia coli reached a peak concentration when the C:N ratio was between 30:1 and 35:1. Staphylococci counts increased as ambient temperature increased. Streptococci counts decreased with increased space per cow and composite temperature and increased with increasing ambient temperature and moisture. Streptococci counts peaked at a C:N ratio ranging from 16:1 to 18:1. Bacillus spp. counts were reduced with increasing moisture, C:N ratio, and ambient temperature. Mastitis-causing bacteria thrive in similar conditions to that of composting bacteria and microbes, making elimination of these at higher temperatures (55 to 65°C) difficult in an active composting environment. Producers must use recommended milking procedures and other preventative practices to maintain low somatic cell count in herds with a CBP barn. PMID:24630648

Black, R A; Taraba, J L; Day, G B; Damasceno, F A; Newman, M C; Akers, K A; Wood, C L; McQuerry, K J; Bewley, J M

2014-05-01

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Correlation between Total Lymphocyte Count, Hemoglobin, Hematocrit and CD4 Count in HIV/AIDS Patients  

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Full Text Available Lymphocyte CD4+count, a standard laboratory test for staging of HIV infection, is expensive and unavailable in resource-restricted countries. Total lymphocyte count (TLC and hemoglobin (Hb are recommended as simple & inexpensive surrogates. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation, sensitivity and predictive power of these parameters as substitutes for CD4 count. One hundred HIV patients enrolled in this analytic descriptive study in Ahvaz, a city in the South of Iran, from 2005 to 2006. They were tested for CD4 count, TLC, Hb, and hematocrit (Hct. The cutoffs were determined as: 200 cells/µL, 1200 cells/µL, 12 g/dl and 30%, respectively. We used Sys Max SE 9500 for CBC and Flow cytometry for CD4 count. The correlation coefficient established correlation between values. Sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values were calculated. 2 females (%2 and 98 males (%98 of the mean age of 32±5 years were studied. 87 cases (%87 were IV drug users, the majority having a history of imprisonment. The mean CD4 count, TLC, Hb and Hct were 279±225, 2102±1250, 10.7±2.4 and 30.4±9.0, respectively. A strong correlation was observed between CD4 count and TLC (R = 0.645, P = 0.001, but no correlation was seen between CD4 count and Hb or Hct (R= 0.451, P=0.056 and R= 0.375, P=0.816 respectively. This study shows that TLC is a suitable surrogate marker for CD4 count. Hb and Hct are of limited value in predicting CD4 counts and should not be substituted for CD4counts.

Alavi S.M

2009-04-01

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Short communication: Bacterial counts in recycled manure solids bedding replaced daily or deep packed in freestalls.  

Science.gov (United States)

An experiment was conducted to compare bacterial counts of mastitis pathogens in deep-packed manure solids bedding with those in manure solids bedding replaced daily from mattresses. Eighteen Holstein cows were housed in 1 pen with 18 stalls. One row of 9 stalls was equipped with mattresses topped with bedding. The back one-third of these stalls toward the alleyway was covered in 25mm of recycled manure solids, which was removed daily for the next 6 d and replaced with bedding from the brisket board and lunge space areas of stalls. The second row of 9 stalls was bedded for 3 wk with 100 to 150mm of deep-pack recycled manure bedding from which only fecal matter was removed daily. After 3 wk, bedding treatments were changed between rows in a switchback design. Mean total gram-negative bacterial counts did not differ between treatments throughout the experiment. Coliform and Klebsiella spp. bacterial counts were lower in daily replaced bedding compared with deep pack across the experiment and on each of d 0, 1, 2, and 6. Streptococcal counts were reduced in daily replacement stalls compared with deep-pack stalls on d 0 and greater in daily replacement stalls compared with deep-pack stalls on d 1, 2, and 6. Daily replacement of recycled manure bedding from the back one-third of the stalls appeared to be an effective approach to reducing exposure to coliforms, specifically Klebsiella, but not streptococci. However, bacterial counts in bedding from both treatments were elevated throughout the trial and resulted in considerable risk for exposure to teats and development of intramammary infections. PMID:24630654

Sorter, D E; Kester, H J; Hogan, J S

2014-05-01

26

Study of autoabsorption for total {alpha} and {beta} counting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The RaMsEs Group (Radioprotection et Mesures Environnementales) of the IPHC performs research and offers services mainly in the field of radioactivity measurements and sample analysis. This report will describe some of our recent experience using a semiautomatic evaporation system to prepare large area thin deposits for total {alpha} and {beta} counting and gives experimental and simulated results for the autoabsorption coefficients.

Saettel, M.A. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert-Curien (IPHC) UMR 7178 CNRS, et Universite Louis Pasteur Strasbourg I, 23, rue du Loess, BP28, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)], E-mail: marie-antoinette.saettel@ires.in2p3.fr; Sellam, A.; Nourreddine, A.; Pape, A. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert-Curien (IPHC) UMR 7178 CNRS, et Universite Louis Pasteur Strasbourg I, 23, rue du Loess, BP28, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)

2008-06-01

27

Metabolic activity of bacterial cell enumerated by direct viable count  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The direct viable count (DVC) method was modified by incorporation radiolabeled substrates in microautoradiographic analyses to assess bacterial survival in controlled laboratory microcosms. The DVC method, which permits enumeration of culturable and nonculturable cells, discriminates those cells that are responsive to added nutrients but in which division is inhibited by the addition of nalidixic acid. The resulting elongated cells represent all viable cells; this includes those that are culturable on routine media and those that are not. Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis were employed in the microcosm studies, and radiolabeled substrates included [methyl-3H] thymidine or [U-14C] glutamic acid. Samples taken at selected intervals during the survival experiments were examined by epifluorescence microscopy to enumerate cells by the DVC and acridine orange direct count methods, as well as by culture methods. Good correlation was obtained for cell-associated metabolic activity, measured by microautoradiography and substrate responsiveness (by the DVC method) at various stages of survival. Of the cells responsive to nutrients by the DVC method, ca. 90% were metabolically active by the microautoradiographic method. No significant difference was observed between DVC enumerations with or without added radiolabeled substrate

1987-01-01

28

Short communication: appropriate and alternative methods to determine viable bacterial counts in cow milk samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

Farm milk consumption is reported to be inversely related to the development of asthma and atopy in children and it has been hypothesized that microorganisms in milk might contribute to this protective effect. The GABRIEL study was designed to investigate this hypothesis in a large population of European children, calling for a rapid alternative to classical culture techniques to determine bacteriological properties of milk samples. One objective was to evaluate 2 different rapid methods to determine bacteriological properties in a large number of cow milk samples collected under field conditions. BactoScan (Foss Analytical, Hillerød, Denmark), an automated standard flow cytometric method utilized for routine testing of milk quality, and TEMPO (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France), an automated most-probable-number method, were used to assess the total viable bacterial count in farm and commercial milk samples. Both methods were compared with standard plate count method and each other. Measurements based on the TEMPO method were in good agreement with the standard plate count method and showed reliable results, whereas BactoScan results did not correlate with standard plate count measurements and yielded higher bacteria counts in heat-treated milk samples compared with raw milk samples. Most likely, these discrepant results were due to inferences with staining reactions and detection of bacteria in heat-treated milk samples. We conclude that, in contrast to the routinely used BactoScan method, the TEMPO method is an inexpensive and rapid alternative to standard culture methods suitable to assess total bacterial counts in processed and raw milk samples. PMID:22612929

Loss, G; Apprich, S; Kneifel, W; von Mutius, E; Genuneit, J; Braun-Fahrländer, C

2012-06-01

29

Effects of season, milking routine and cow cleanliness on bacterial and somatic cell counts of bulk tank milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of season, cow cleanliness and milking routine on bacterial and somatic cell counts of bulk tank milk. A total of 22 dairy farms in Lombardy (Italy) were visited three times in a year in different seasons. During each visit, samples of bulk tank milk were taken for bacterial and somatic cell counts; swabs from the teat surface of a group of cows were collected after teat cleaning and before milking. Cow cleanliness was assessed by scoring udder, flanks and legs of all milking cows using a 4-point scale system. Season affected cow cleanliness with a significantly higher percentage of non-clean (NC) cows during Cold compared with Mild season. Standard plate count (SPC), laboratory pasteurization count (LPC), coliform count (CC) and somatic cell count, expressed as linear score (LS), in milk significantly increased in Hot compared with Cold season. Coagulase-positive staphylococci on teat swabs showed higher counts in Cold season in comparison with the other ones. The effect of cow cleanliness was significant for SPC, psychrotrophic bacterial count (PBC), CC and Escherichia coli in bulk tank milk. Somatic cell count showed a relationship with udder hygiene score. Milking operation routine strongly affected bacterial counts and LS of bulk tank milk: farms that accomplished a comprehensive milking scheme including two or more operations among forestripping, pre-dipping and post-dipping had lower teat contamination and lower milk SPC, PBC, LPC, CC and LS than farms that did not carry out any operation. PMID:21843397

Zucali, Maddalena; Bava, Luciana; Tamburini, Alberto; Brasca, Milena; Vanoni, Laura; Sandrucci, Anna

2011-11-01

30

Total leucocyte count, C-reactive protein and neutrophil count: Diagnostic Aid in acute appendicitis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background/Aim: Acute appendicitis is one of the most common acute intraabdominal affections seen in surgical departments, which can be treated easily if an accurate diagnosis is made in time. Otherwise, delay in diagnosis and treatment can lead to diffuse peritonitis. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted on 110 patients who were operated for acute appendicitis to determine the role and predictive value of the total leucocyte count (TLC), C-reactive protein (CRP) and ...

Shafi Sheikh; Afsheen Misbha; Reshi Farooq

2009-01-01

31

Association between milking practices and psychrotrophic bacterial counts in bulk tank milk Asociación entre prácticas de ordeño y recuento de organismos psicrótrofos en leche de tanque de frío  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this work was to determine on-farm risk factors for psychrotrophic bacterial counts in bulk tank milk from dairy farms in Argentina. Raw milk samples from bulk tanks of 27 dairy farms were examined for total psychrotrophic counts (TPC), proteolytic psychrotrophic counts (PPC) and lipolytic psychrotrophic counts (LPC) (dependent or outcome variables). A survey recording infrastructure conditions, milking equipment and milking management (independent variables) was performed. B...

Molineri, Ana I.; Signorini, Marcelo L.; Cuatri?n, Alejandra L.; Canavesio, Vilma R.; Neder, Vero?nica E.; Russi, Norma B.; Bonazza, Julio C.; Calvinho, Luis F.

2012-01-01

32

Influence of somatic cell count and total bacterial counts of raw milk in cheese yield using small-scale methodology Influência da contagem de células somáticas e da contagem bacteriana total do leite cru no rendimento da produção de queijos, utilizando metodologia em escala reduzida  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of SCC and TBC of raw milk in cheese yield, using a reduced scale method, and to evaluate theoretical prediction of cheese yield. 270 samples of raw milk were split into three SCC levels (below 200,000; 200,000-750,000; above 750,000 SC/mL and three TBC levels (below 100,000; 100,000-750,000; above 750,000 CFU/mL. Raw milk samples were submitted to compositional analysis (fat, protein, lactose, total solids and SNF content, SCC, TBC, freezing point and pH. The production of the small-scale cheese was conducted according to the method developed at Cornell University (Melilli et al., 2002. Cheese whey samples were submitted to compositional analysis (fat, total protein, true protein, lactose, total solids and SNF content and SCC. The increase in the SCC of raw milk resulted in increased protein loss in cheese whey. High SCC (above 200,000 SC/mL in milk samples was correlated to reduced dry matter yield. There was no effect of TBC in cheese yield in the experimental conditions used. There was a high correlation between the theoretical yield values and the yield values predicted by the small-scale method, indicating that this method is appropriate for cheese yield prediction.Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar a influência da CCS e CBT do leite cru no rendimento de queijos, utilizando método em escala reduzida, e avaliar a predição teórica do rendimento de queijos. Foram utilizadas 270 amostras de leite cru com três níveis de CCS (abaixo de 200.000; 200.000-750.000; acima de 750.000 CS/mL e três níveis de CBT (abaixo de 100.000; 100.000-750.000; acima de 750.000 UFC/mL. As amostras de leite cru foram submetidas a análises de composição (gordura, proteína, lactose, EST e ESD, CCS, CBT, crioscopia e pH. A produção dos queijos em escala reduzida foi feita segundo o método desenvolvido na Universidade de Cornell, EUA (Melilli et al., 2002. As amostras de soro de queijo foram submetidas a análises de composição (gordura, proteína total, proteína verdadeira, lactose, EST e ESD e CCS. O aumento da CCS no leite cru refletiu na maior perda de proteína no soro. CCS elevada (acima de 200.000 CS/mL foi correlacionada ao menor rendimento de massa seca. Foi encontrada uma correlação alta entre os valores teóricos de rendimento e os valores de rendimento preditos pela metodologia em escala reduzida, indicando que esta metodologia pode ser utilizada para a predição do rendimento de queijos.

N.M.A. Silva

2012-10-01

33

Total leucocyte count, C-reactive protein and neutrophil count: Diagnostic Aid in acute appendicitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background/Aim: Acute appendicitis is one of the most common acute intraabdominal affections seen in surgical departments, which can be treated easily if an accurate diagnosis is made in time. Otherwise, delay in diagnosis and treatment can lead to diffuse peritonitis. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted on 110 patients who were operated for acute appendicitis to determine the role and predictive value of the total leucocyte count (TLC, C-reactive protein (CRP and percentage of neutrophil count in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Preoperative TLC, CRP and percentage of neutrophil count were determined and were compared with the results of the histopathology of the removed appendix. Results: Of all the patients studied, 92 had histopathologically positive appendicitis. The TLC was found to be significantly high in 90 patients who proved to have acute appendicitis, whereas CRP was high in only 88 patients and neutrophil percentage was raised in 91; four had a normal CRP level. Thus, TLC had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 97.82%, 55.55% and 91.8%, respectively. CRP had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 95.6%, 77.77% and 95.6% respectively. Percentage of neutrophil count had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 98.9%, 38.88% and 89.21%, respectively. When used in combination, there was a marked improvement in the specificity and the positive predictive value to 88.04% and 98.7%, respectively. Conclusion: The inflammatory markers, i.e., TLC, CRP and neutrophil count can be helpful in the diagnosis when measured together as this increases their specificity and positive predictive value.

Shafi Sheikh

2009-01-01

34

Relationship between bacterial counts and endotoxin concentrations in the air of wastewater treatment plants.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The relationship between bacterial counts and endotoxin concentrations in air samples was studied. Selective EMB medium favored the growth of a larger portion of airborne gram-negative bacteria than LES Endo or MacConkey medium and was a good predictor of the endotoxin levels determined with a chromogenic Limulus assay of the air of wastewater treatment plants. The bacterial counts determined with nonselective media correlated poorly with airborne endotoxin levels; however, R2A medium yielded...

1992-01-01

35

Evaluating total lymphocyte counts as a substitute for CD4 counts in the follow up of AIDS patients  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study evaluated total lymphocyte count (TLC) as a substitute marker for CD4+ cell counts to identify patients who need prophylaxis against opportunistic infection (CD4 < 200 cells/mm³) and patients with CD4 < 350 cells/mm³ (Brazilian threshold value of CD4 count to define AIDS). We evaluated TLC and CD4+ cells count of 1,174 HIV-infected patients, in Salvador, Brazil, from May 2003 to September 2004. CD4+ cell counts were performed by flow cytometry, and TLC was measured with an automa...

Ana Luiza Dias Angelo; Camila Dias Angelo; Alex José Leite Torres; André Maurício Costa Ramos; Márcia Lima; Eduardo Martins Netto; Carlos Brites

2007-01-01

36

Evaluating total lymphocyte counts as a substitute for CD4 counts in the follow up of AIDS patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study evaluated total lymphocyte count (TLC) as a substitute marker for CD4+ cell counts to identify patients who need prophylaxis against opportunistic infection (CD4 [...] C and CD4+ cells count of 1,174 HIV-infected patients, in Salvador, Brazil, from May 2003 to September 2004. CD4+ cell counts were performed by flow cytometry, and TLC was measured with an automated hematological counter. The mean CD4 count was 430 cells/mm³ (range: 4 to 2,531 cells/mm³). Mean TLC was 1,900 cells/mm³ (range: 300 to 6,200 cells/mm³). Using a threshold value of 1,000 cells/mm³ for TLC, the positive predictive value (PPV) was 77% for CD4

Angelo, Ana Luiza Dias; Angelo, Camila Dias; Torres, Alex José Leite; Ramos, André Maurício Costa; Lima, Márcia; Netto, Eduardo Martins; Brites, Carlos.

37

Evaluating total lymphocyte counts as a substitute for CD4 counts in the follow up of AIDS patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study evaluated total lymphocyte count (TLC as a substitute marker for CD4+ cell counts to identify patients who need prophylaxis against opportunistic infection (CD4 < 200 cells/mm³ and patients with CD4 < 350 cells/mm³ (Brazilian threshold value of CD4 count to define AIDS. We evaluated TLC and CD4+ cells count of 1,174 HIV-infected patients, in Salvador, Brazil, from May 2003 to September 2004. CD4+ cell counts were performed by flow cytometry, and TLC was measured with an automated hematological counter. The mean CD4 count was 430 cells/mm³ (range: 4 to 2,531 cells/mm³. Mean TLC was 1,900 cells/mm³ (range: 300 to 6,200 cells/mm³. Using a threshold value of 1,000 cells/mm³ for TLC, the positive predictive value (PPV was 77% for CD4 < 200 cells/mm³, but the sensitivity was only 29%, while the negative predictive value (NPV was 88%, with 98% specificity. Similar findings were observed for CD4 count < 350. Using the same threshold value of 1,000 cells/mm³ for TLC, sensitivity was 14%, and specificity 99% (PPV= 94%; NPV=62%. In 70/1,510 (5% of the samples the sum of CD4 and CD8 cell counts was greater than the TLC and in 27% (419/1,510 this sum was below 65% of the TLC. TLC has a high specificity to identify patients for prophylaxis, but a quite low sensitivity. It is not useful as an alternative to CD4+ T-cell counts as a marker in HIV-infected patients.

Ana Luiza Dias Angelo

2007-10-01

38

Deeper drilling boosts footage totals; well counts are flat  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article reviews total footage drilled in the first quarter of 1984, with a regional analysis showing an increase in footage for seven of nine wells drilled. The article concludes with a forecast for 1985.

Knowlton, J

1985-05-13

39

Total IgE and Absolute Eosinophils Count as a Predictor of Allergic Diseases in Children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To study the role of both serum total IgE levels and the absolute eosinophils count, total IgE alone, absolute eosinophils count alone as a marker of allergy in children, and to see their association with the host factors (age and sex Methods: A retrospective study was conducted at King Abdul Aziz University Hospital ­ Jeddah (KAUH, during the year 2008. Three hundred children below the age of fifteen years meeting the inclusion criteria were enrolled for the study. Serum total IgE levels and absolute eosinophils count were done in all patients. Data was collected and tabulated. Chi-square was applied to test the association of the variables using SPSS and p-value of <0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: Out of 300 patients, 27(9% had raised both serum total IgE and absolute eosinophils count, 146(48.67% had raised serum total IgE alone, 40(13.3% had raised absolute eosinophils count alone. Both IgE plus absolute eosinophilic count, total IgE alone and absolute eosinophilic count alone are not significantly related to the child sex with (P-values 0.759, 0.742, 0.699 respectively, however all are related significantly to the child age (P-values <0.004, <0.001, <0.012 respectively. All are not related significantly to systemic allergies except the significant relation between the absolute eosinophils count with atopic dermatitis (P-value <0.031 Conclusion: Serum total IgE level and absolute eosinophils count, total IgE alone and absolute eosinophils count alone are not a good predictor of allergy in children except that the absolute eosinophils count can be considered as a strong predictor of atopic dermatitis in children. It's clear now, that as the child age increase the positivity of all the tests increase also.

Hamid Habib, ** Moufag Tayeb, *** Majdy Qutub, **** Jamil Samkari

2010-09-01

40

Influence of addition of different antibiotics in semen diluent on viable bacterial count and spermatozoal viability of Awassi ram semen  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of six different antibiotics in controlling the growth of semen contaminating bacteria and if these antibiotics have any adverse effect on Awassi ram spermatozoa. Semen samples from six mature Awassi rams were used in this study. A total number of 120 ejaculates were collected from the rams using an artificial vagina once a week. Semen ejaculates were evaluated for volume, sperm concentration, mass motility, individual motility, percentage live sperm, sperm abnormalities, and viable bacterial count. Semen samples were diluted by sodium citrate-fructose-egg yolk. The diluted semen sample was divided into 7 parts. Six types of antibiotics were added to the semen diluent parts including; penicillin G 1000 IU ml-1 with streptomycin 1 mg ml-1, gentamicin sulphate 250 mg ml-1, tetracycline 0.5 mg ml-1, lincomycin 1 mg ml-1, cefoperazone sodium 1mg ml-1, cefdinir 1 mg ml-1 and the seventh part considered as a control group without antibiotic addition. The diluted semen samples were cooled and preserved at 5 Co for 5 days. Cooled diluted semen samples were examined for individual motility, percent of live sperm, sperm abnormalities, acrosomal defects and bacterial count every 24 h until 5 days. Comparing with the control, all the antibiotics examined were effective in controlling bacterial growth (P<0.05 from 24 h to 96 h of preservation at 5 Co. Cefdinir and cefoperazone sodium proved to be significantly (P<0.05 effective than other antibiotics in controlling bacterial growth at 96 h of preservation as the bacterial count were 23.3 ± 3.7 x 103 / ml and 25.4 ± 6.2 x 103 / ml, respectively. Lincomycin, gentamicin sulphate and tetracycline proved ineffective in controlling bacterial growth at 96 h of preservation as the bacterial count were 57.1 ± 20.1 x 103 / ml, 52.5 ± 29.4 x 103 / ml and 46.5 ± 8.8 x 103 / ml, respectively. The addition of tetracycline to diluted ram semen significantly reduced (P<0.05 sperm individual motility and percent live sperm and a significant increase (P<0.05 acrosomal defects was observed at 96 h of preservation in comparison to control and other antibiotics. Sperm viability was highly correlated with bacterial count in the control part of diluted semen (r = 0.794; P < 0.01. It could be concluded from the results of the present study that additions of cephalosporins (cefdinir or Cefoperazone sodium at the dose of 1 mg ml-1 were most effective amongst the antibiotics used in checking the bacterial growth and improving semen quality of Awassi ram. [Vet. World 2012; 5(2.000: 75-79

O I Azawi

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
41

A new method for total-count ?-ray measurement of radon absorb in activated carbon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, a method for total-count ?-ray measurement of radon in activated carbon is presented, with correction for decay and time delay for the measurement based on the decay of radon and its progeny. Simulation of the total-counts of ?-rays from radon-absorbed activated carbon was performed. The results show that the time-dependent calculated curve of ?-ray total-counts agrees well with the measured one. The front part of the curve, where the counts increase first and decrease later, is the time delay for the measurement. The duration of delayed measurement is closely related to the duration of radon absorbed by activated carbon, but it has nothing to do with the radon concentration. And the longer the adsorption duration,the shorter is the time delay. Then,the counts follow the function of e-0.000125t, which is also independent of the concentration of radon absorbed by activated carbon. (authors)

2009-08-01

42

Bacterial counts from five over-the-counter probiotics: are you getting what you paid for?  

Science.gov (United States)

There is concern that the bacterial colony counts present at the time of manufacture and listed on the probiotic package may not be reflective of the numbers viable colonies at the time of purchase and patient consumption thereby diminishing efficacy. We performed a colony count study of three separate samples of five different probiotics purchased from three different stores: Bifidobacterium infantis (Align(®)); Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285(®) and Lactobacillus casei LBC80R(®) (Bio-K+(®)); Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (Culturelle(®)); Saccharomyces boulardii (Florastor(®)) and "L. acidophilus" and "Lactobacillus helveticus" (Lactinex(®)). Approximately 1 g of powder of each (Lactinex(®) tablets were crushed before testing) was reconstituted in sterile distilled water, serial 10-fold dilutions were prepared and plated in duplicate onto blood agar plates, with incubation for 48 h in an anaerobic chamber (except the Saccharomyces which was incubated aerobically) after which colony counts were performed. The Florastor(®) packaging did not state an expected concentration and was found to have 9.2 × 10(9)-1.3 × 10(10) CFU/g. Lactinex(®), Align(®), Bio-K+(®), and Culturelle(®) had viable colony counts that were similar to those stated on the package. PMID:24184290

Goldstein, Ellie J C; Citron, Diane M; Claros, Marina C; Tyrrell, Kerin L

2014-02-01

43

Manageable risk factors associated with bacterial and coliform counts in unpasteurized bulk milk in Flemish dairy herds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Associations between herd management practices and both bacterial counts (BC) and coliform counts (CC) from 254 and 242 dairy herds in Flanders (Belgium), respectively, were studied. Data were analyzed using multivariable, multilevel linear regression analysis, allowing variance components analyses. Both BC and CC fluctuated throughout the year, although the milk quality parameters followed an opposite pattern. Bacterial count values decreased with each increase of the cleaning frequency of the cubicles (once per week, once per day, twice per day, or more than twice per day) between January and March. Herds with a conventional milking parlor had substantially lower BC than herds where the cows were milked using an automatic milking system. Lower BC were observed when the milking parlor was equipped with an automatic cluster removal system, when premilking teat disinfection was applied, when the dry cows were supplemented with a mix of minerals and vitamins, and when the teats were prepared either first wet and dried or via an automatic milking system. Milking cows with a high-pipeline milking parlor setup or with an automatic milking system was associated with substantially higher CC values. Herds where prepartum heifers were often treated with antimicrobials before calving had a lower CC than farms where heifers were either not or only rarely treated. Most variation in BC and CC resided at the herd level rather than at the observation level, indicating that management is important in the control of both BC and CC. Still, only a small proportion of the total variance was explained by factors capturing information related to the milking, herd health, and dry cow management, which suggests that the bacteriological milk quality and, in particular, CC is primarily driven by other factors than the ones included in this study. PMID:24704236

Piepers, S; Zrimšek, P; Passchyn, P; De Vliegher, S

2014-06-01

44

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis with a very high leukocyte count in ascitic fluid caused by Haemophilus influenzae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tarek Saadi,1,2 Safie Khoury,3 Ella Veitsman,1 Yaacov Baruch,1,4 Ayelet Raz-Pasteur3,41Liver Unit, 2Department of Gastroenterology, 3Department of Internal Medicine A, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel; 4The Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, IsraelAbstract: We report on a case of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP due to Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae in an elderly patient with alcoholic cirrhosis. The patient presented with a 5 day history of fever, cough, and fatigue. Abdominal paracentesis revealed a very high neutrophil count (134,800 cells/µL. Secondary peritonitis and abdominal abscess were ruled out. Peritoneal fluid culture displayed the growth of H. influenzae. The patient was treated with ceftriaxone and showed signs of improvement. Eventually, the patient died due to septic shock caused by other organisms. H. influenzae is a very rare cause of SBP. This case report demonstrates that (1 H. influenzae should be considered a potential cause of SBP, and (2 a very high leukocyte count in ascitic fluid can be found in patients with SBP.Keywords: cirrhosis, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, Haemophilus influenzae

Saadi T

2013-08-01

45

Monte Carlo simulation of uncertainties in three-count total alpha radon progeny measurement techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent studies of three-count total alpha sequential sampling and counting methods using a law of propagation of erros (LPE) model has shown that small variations in pump flow rate and airborne radon progeny concentrations present from measurement to measurement can result in much larger variations in the overall precision of measurement than can be predicted on the basis of counting statistics alone. In contrast, results predicted by a Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) model developed in this work show that these variations have only a small effect on the overall precision of measurement for radon progeny concentrations typically found in uranium mines (1000-3700 Bq m-3) and in buildings with potential alpha energy concentrations equal to or exceeding 4x10-7 J m-3(0.02 WL). The discrepancy observed between results predicted by the MCS model and the LPE model is attributed mainly to the LPE model assumption of independence of variations in alpha count totals and independence of variations in estimated airborne radon progeny concentrations. For the case where radioactive decay is the only source of random error, the LPE model assumption of independence in estimated airborne radon progeny concentrations results in an overestimation of the relative standard deviation of the potential alpha energy concentration by from 80 to 105%. Monte Carlo precision estimates evaluated for sequential three-count total-alpha measurement techniques show that precision estimates based on counting statistics alone are reliable when measurement to measurement pump flow rate variations are less than 3% and litre to litre concentration variations are less than 10%. (orig.)

1985-12-01

46

Development of radiation sterilized dip slides for enumerating lactic acid bacteria and total count in foodstuffs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

APT agar (APT) used for enumeration of lactic acid bacteria and Plate Count agar (PCA) applied for total count were sterilized by gamma radiation using radiation dose of 10-15 kGy. Radiosterilized PCA and APT modified by adding catalase prior to irradiation, or APT with increased content of yeast extract performed, as well as, the heat sterilized commercial media. Growth performance was evaluated on several strains of microorganisms, as well as, by enumeration of bacteria in food products. Radiosterilization of culture media in final packaging, can be applied to produce dip slide kits containing PCA or APT.

Eisenberg, E.; Padova, R.; Kirsch, E.; Weissman, Sh.; Hirshfeld, T.; Shenfeld, A.

1988-01-01

47

Development of radiation sterilized dip slides for enumerating lactic acid bacteria and total count in foodstuffs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

APT agar (APT) used for enumeration of lactic acid bacteria and Plate Count agar (PCA) applied for total count were sterilized by gamma radiation using radiation dose of 10-15 kGy. Radiosterilized PCA and APT modified by adding catalase prior to irradiation, or APT with increased content of yeast extract performed, as well as, the heat sterilized commercial media. Growth performance was evaluated on several strains of microorganisms, as well as, by enumeration of bacteria in food products. Radiosterilization of culture media in final packaging, can be applied to produce dip slide kits containing PCA or APT. (author)

1987-06-05

48

ATP bioluminescence rapid detection of total viable count in soy sauce.  

Science.gov (United States)

The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence rapid determination method may be useful for enumerating the total viable count (TVC) in soy sauce, as it has been previously used in food and beverages for sanitation with good precision. However, many factors interfere with the correlation between total aerobic plate counts and ATP bioluminescence. This study investigated these interfering factors, including ingredients of soy sauce and bacteria at different physiological stages. Using the ATP bioluminescence method, TVC was obtained within 4 h, compared to 48 h required for the conventional aerobic plate count (APC) method. Our results also indicated a high correlation coefficient (r?=?0.90) between total aerobic plate counts and ATP bioluminescence after filtration and resuscitation with special medium. The limit of quantification of the novel detection method is 100 CFU/mL; there is a good linear correlation between the bioluminescence intensity and TVC in soy sauce in the range 1?×?10(2) -3?×?10(4) CFU/mL and even wider. The method employed a luminescence recorder (Tristar LB-941) and 96-well plates and could analyse 50-100 samples simultaneously at low cost. In this study, we evaluated and eliminated the interfering factors and made the ATP bioluminescence rapid method available for enumerating TVC in soy sauce. PMID:21674749

Yan, Shou-Lei; Miao, Su-Na; Deng, Shao-Ya; Zou, Min-Juan; Zhong, Fo-Sheng; Huang, Wen-Biao; Pan, Si-Yi; Wang, Qing-Zhang

2012-01-01

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White blood cell count, absolute neutrophil count, as predictors of hidden bacterial infections in febrile children 1-18 months of age without focus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objectives: To study the relationship between White Blood Cell (WBC), Absolute Neutrophil Count (ANC) in febrile children 1-18 months of age as predictor of bacterial infection, so as to improve our predictability of bacterial infections in emergency room to decrease unnecessary admissions and antibiotic use. Methods: Retrospective review was performed on febrile patients 1-18 months of age that were admitted to hospital between August 2002 and March 2003 on the presumptive diagnosis of fever without focus, Complete septic work up was done for all patients according to local hospital protocol including Complete blood count (CBC), blood culture, urine culture, Chest X-Ray (CXR) and lumbar puncture, Patients who had history of antibiotics use within 48 hours of admission were excluded from the study, History, physical examination, laboratory and radiology data were reviewed. Data about the age, sex, temperature, presence or absence of focal bacterial infection, WBC, ANC, CXR report and body fluid culture results were collected and analyzed. Results: Thirty-four patients were reviewed in this study, Eight patients (23.5%) had bacterial infection: classified as group (2 patchy pneumonia, 3 Urinary tract infection (UTI), 2 meningitis, 1 Occult bacteremia (OB) and 26 patients (76.5%) had no evidence of bacterial infection, classified as group 2, No significant difference was found between the two groups in respect to age, sex, temperature and WBC P>0.05, while there was a significant difference between the two groups in respect to the ANC P = 0.02, also ANC had better sensitivity (78%) and specificity (89%) than WBC (sensitivity 77%, specificity 62%). Conclusion: ANC is a good predictive test for determining bacterial infection in young febrile children without focus, However there is need for other more reliable rapid cost effective measures in dealing with young febrile children at emergency department. (author)

2004-01-01

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Lessons from the organization of a proficiency testing program in food microbiology by interlaboratory comparison: analytical methods in use, impact of methods on bacterial counts and measurement uncertainty of bacterial counts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The proficiency testing program in food microbiology RAEMA (Réseau d'Analyses et d'Echanges en Microbiologie des Aliments), created in 1988, currently includes 450 participating laboratories. This interlaboratory comparison establishes proficiency in detection of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes, as well as enumeration of aerobic micro-organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, beta-glucuronidase-positive Escherichia coli, anaerobic sulfito-reducing bacteria, Clostridium perfringens, coagulase-positive staphylococci, and L. monocytogenes. Twice a year, five units samples are sent to participants to assess their precision and trueness for enumeration and detection of micro-organisms. Most of participating laboratories use standard or validated alternative methods, they were 50-70% in 1994 and, for 5 years, they are 95%. An increasing use of alternative methods was also observed. This phenomenon is all the more significant as standard methods are laborious and time consuming; thus, 50% of the laboratories use alternative methods for the detection of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes. More and more laboratories use ready-to-use media and although the percentage is variable according to the microflora, we can consider that, today, 50-60% of the laboratories participating to the proficiency program only use ready-to-use media. The internal quality assurance programs lead also to an increasing use of media quality controls. The impact of analytical methods on bacterial counts was assessed by grouping together the results obtained by participating laboratories during the 10 last testing schemes from 1999 to 2003. The identified significant factors influencing enumeration results are variable from one microflora to another. Some of them significantly influence many microflora: the plating method (spiral plating or not) is influential for aerobic micro-organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, and staphylococci, the type of culture medium and the medium manufacturer is influential for aerobic micro-organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, E. coli, anaerobic sulfito-reducing bacteria, staphylococci, and L. monocytogenes. Others are specific of some micro-organisms: the resuscitation broth for L. monocytogenes, the mode of medium preparation for staphylococci and the incubation temperature for C. perfringens. These effects lead generally to small differences of about 0.1 log10 cfu g(-1), except for the enumeration of anaerobic sulfito-reducing bacteria, where the difference reaches 0.7 log10 cfu g(-1). These results, although difficult to extrapolate to all actual situations, which associate numerous food constituents and physiological states of bacteria to detect or numerate, allow nevertheless the quantification of interlaboratory variations linked to the methods in use. The analysis of bacterial counts obtained by the laboratories participating to the RAEMA proficiency testing program allowed also to validate a formula to calculate the repeatability of bacterial counts and to estimate the between-laboratory uncertainties for the majority of micro-organisms enumerated in food microbiology. The repeatability uncertainty is only indirectly affected by the method in use but depends essentially on the number of counted colonies. On the other hand, the between-laboratory uncertainty varies with the enumeration method in use, this variability is relatively small for the enumerations calling for methods without colony confirmation, i.e. for the enumeration of aerobic micro-organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, 'total' and thermotolerant coliforms, beta-glucuronidase-positive E. coli and coagulase-positive staphylococci with the technique using the rabbit-plasma fibrinogen agar. For these methods, the average between-laboratory standard deviation is 0.17 log10 cfu g(-1). The between-laboratory uncertainty is, on the contrary, larger for more complex techniques. For the enumeration of coagulase-positive staphylococci with the Baird-Parker agar, the between-laboratory standard deviation is equal to 0.23 log10 cfu g(-1), it is equal to 0.28 lo

Augustin, Jean-Christophe; Carlier, Vincent

2006-02-01

51

Tissue antioxidant capacity and bacterial translocation under total parenteral nutrition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alterations in the antioxidative system have been observed during total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Light exposure or changes in the composition of TPN formulas may affect this system. Bacterial translocation (BT) is frequent under TPN and may be related to oxidative status. The aim of this study was to determine the adverse effects of standard and glutamine-enriched TPN, with or without light exposure, on oxidative status (liver and kidney-reduced glutathione, GSH) and its relationship to BT. Thirty-three adult Wistar rats underwent central-venous cannulation and were randomly assigned to one of four groups receiving different TPN regimes for 10 days. The TPN group (n = 10) had standard TPN, the TPN(-) group (n = 8) standard TPN without light exposure, the GTPN group (n = 8) glutamine-enriched TPN, and the GTPN(-) group (n = 7) glutamine-enriched TPN without light exposure. A sham group (n = 16) receiving chow and water ad libitum and saline i.v. served as controls. At the end of the experiment, GSH was determined in liver and kidney tissue. Mesenteric lymph nodes and peripheral and portal blood samples were cultured for BT. Compared to sham rats, TPN groups had statistically significant lower GSH levels, but there were no differences between standard or glutamine-enriched groups or light-exposure groups. Sham animals had 12% BT. Significantly higher BT (P < 0.05) occurred in TPN rats: 70% in the TPN group, 88% in the TPN(-) group, 86% in GTPN (-) animals, and only 50% in the GTPN group (P = 0.06 vs TPN group). In conclusion, (1) TPN reduces antioxidant capacity; (2) glutamine supplementation or light protection does not improve tissue antioxidant capacity under TPN; (3) the absence of light exposure does not improve TPN-related BT; and (4) glutamine supplementation tends to reduce BT only in the presence of light. PMID:11409162

Eizaguirre, I; Aldámiz, L; Aldazábal, P; García Urkia, N; Asensio, A B; Bachiller, P; García Arenzana, J M; Ruiz, J L; Sanjurjo, P; Perez Nanclares, G

2001-05-01

52

Total count radioactive-tracer technique for determining stream flow rate, Pesanggrahan River, Indonesia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

River and stream flow measurements using radioactive-tracer technique have been widely used in many parts of the world. Radioisotopes in aqueous solution of KBr82 and Cr51 complexed with EDTA were used in our investigations. Flow-rate measurement of Pesanggrahan River, Indonesia using 'The Total Count Method' developed by hull is described. It is concluded that at different water levels the low flow of Pesanggrahan River can be accurately gauged using both radioisotope-tracers. (author)

1984-01-01

53

Precision of helicopter-based total-area counts of large ungulates in bushveld  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Precision in helicopter total-area counts in bushveld for a range of common species are evaluated. Counts were conducted on properties ranging in size from 250 ha to 10 000 ha as part of experiments on precision and power. Counts were conducted in three vegetation types: mopane veld, sourish mixed bushveld and arid bushveld. Scant regard is given to precision as a factor in large herbivore monitoring, with more effort often devoted to accuracy. Coefficients of variation varied from 3.2 % to 70.9 %. Median values are generally acceptable for the establishment of trends for long-term monitoring, but might be inadequate for annual population size monitoring and evaluation. A regression of all species and vegetation types by the standard error showed a significant correlation. Similar regressions were also developed for impala, kudu, warthog, and zebra. Regressions by vegetation type for mopane veld, sourish mixed bushveld, and northwest arid bushveld were also significant. However, the high correlation for some vegetation types might be an artifact of the small sample sizes.

B.K. Reilly

2002-12-01

54

Evaluation of Sysmex UF-100 urine flow cytometer vs chamber counting of supravitally stained specimens and conventional bacterial cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated the Sysmex UF-100 urine flow cytometer (TOA Medical Electronics, Kobe, Japan) with 269 uncentrifuged urine specimens by comparing it with Sternheimer staining and particle counting in 1-microL disposable chambers with both brightfield and phase-contrast microscopy (the reference method). Results of routine test strip analysis, sediment microscopy (182 specimens), and bacterial culture (204 specimens) were also available. Detection of urinary WBCs and RBCs was highly reliable with the UF-100 compared with manual chamber counting (r = .98 and .88, respectively). Identification of bacteria was equal to that with visual microscopy of uncentrifuged specimens; sensitivity was 55%, and specificity 90%, compared with bacterial cultures at a cutoff of > 10(3) colony-forming units per milliliter. Renal damage was difficult to evaluate even with manual methods because of the low counts of renal tubular cells and casts; with standard manual Sternheimer-stained sediment analysis, sensitivity was 65% to 69% and specificity 66% to 91%, compared with the uncentrifuged chamber method at a cutoff of 3 and 10 particles per microliter, respectively. Renal damage was demonstrated with the UF-100 with a sensitivity of 26% to 69% and specificity 92% to 94%, compared with chamber counts. Automated urinalysis with the UF-100 urine flow cytometer offers considerable savings in time and labor. When high sensitivity is needed, visual microscopic review should be performed to detect renal disease. PMID:10396282

Kouri, T T; Kähkönen, U; Malminiemi, K; Vuento, R; Rowan, R M

1999-07-01

55

STUDY REGARDING THE CORELATION BETWEEN TOTAL GERMS COUNT AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION IN RAW MILK  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to quantify the correlations between total germs count (TGC, the major chemical compounds in raw milk (fat, proteins and lactose and milk acidity. Studies were carried out on Romanian Black and White cows, from March 2005 until March 2006 at the Didactical farm from the Banat University of Agricultural Sciences Timisoara. TGC was higher during the warm season (March 2005 – September 2005 721400 – 841750 cfu/ml milk compared with cold season (October 2005 – March 2006 when values ranged between 635250 and 873000 cfu/ml milk. There weren’t any significant differences between seasons for this trait. Obtained results showed that among TGC, major chemical compounds (fat, proteins and lactose and milk acidity there weren’t any statistically proven correlations.

S. ACATINC?I

2013-12-01

56

A CORRELATION STUDY OF TOTAL SALIVARY COUNTS AND VIRULENT MARKERS OF STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS WITH CARIES EXPERIENCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate an impending relationship between salivary Streptococcus mutans count, sucrose dependent glass adherence, and water insoluble glucan synthesis of isolated strains of Streptococcus mutans with caries experience among young adults between the age group of 20 to 23 years which may enable future planning of caries prevention in adults. A total of 70 dental students undergoing compulsory rotary internship were selected for the study based on certain inclusion and exclusion criteria. After assessing DMFT and DMFS of the subjects, stimulated saliva was collected for the above mentioned analysis. Statistical analysis was done using student t test for comparing the means of the results of the two groups. Before applying t test the variances of both the groups was tested using Levene's test

Gandhimathi C

2014-06-01

57

Comparison of effects of suture and cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive on bacterial counts in contaminated lacerations.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We studied the effects of closing lacerations with suture or cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive on staphylococcal counts in inoculated guinea pig lacerations. Wounds closed with adhesive alone had lower counts than wounds containing suture material (P < 0.05). The results of a time-kill study were consistent with a bacteriostatic adhesive effect of the adhesive against Staphylococcus aureus.

Howell, J. M.; Bresnahan, K. A.; Stair, T. O.; Dhindsa, H. S.; Edwards, B. A.

1995-01-01

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Multiparameter Flow Cytometric Analysis of Antibiotic Effects on Membrane Potential, Membrane Permeability, and Bacterial Counts of Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although flow cytometry has been used to study antibiotic effects on bacterial membrane potential (MP) and membrane permeability, flow cytometric results are not always well correlated to changes in bacterial counts. Using new, precise techniques, we simultaneously measured MP, membrane permeability, and particle counts of antibiotic-treated and untreated Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus cells. MP was calculated from the ratio of red and green fluorescence of diethyloxacarbocyanin...

Novo, David J.; Perlmutter, Nancy G.; Hunt, Richard H.; Shapiro, Howard M.

2000-01-01

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Relationship between total bacteria counts and somatic cell counts from mammary quarters infected by mastitis pathogens / Relação entre contagem total de bactérias e contagem de células somáticas de quartos mamários infectados por patógenos da mastite  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo foi realizado com objetivo de estabelecer a relação entre contagem de células somáticas (CCS) e a liberação de bactérias de quartos mamários de acordo com os patógenos da mastite. Amostras de leite de 638 quartos mamários foram examinadas para identificação dos patógenos da mastite, CCS [...] e contagem total de bactérias (CTB). Estatísticas descritivas foram utilizadas para avaliar os dados brutos de CCS e CTB. A diferença entre médias para CCS e CTB de acordo com os resultados dos exames bacteriológicos foi avaliada pelo teste T para amostras independentes. Foram realizadas a correlação de Pearson, de Spearman e regressão linear com os dados transformados. As médias geométricas de acordo com os resultados dos exames bacteriológicos foram (células mL-1; UFC mL-1): sem crescimento (52.000; 12.000), estafilococos coagulase negativo (85.000; 17.000), Staphylococcus aureus (587.000; 77000); outros estreptococus (432.000; 108.000) e Streptococcus agalactiae (1.572.000; 333.000). A correlação de Pearson e Spearman entre CCS e CTB foi maior que 0,60 para todos os patógenos da mastite. O coeficiente angular das regressões lineares mostrou diferentes aumentos da CTB como o mesmo aumento da CCS de acordo com os patógenos da mastite. O coeficiente angular para o S. agalactiae (0.542) foi maior em relação aos outros patógenos da mastite. Os resultados sugerem que a intensidade do processo inflamatório foi associada com a quantidade de bactérias da mastite liberada pela glândula mamária. Abstract in english This study was conducted to establish the relationship between somatic cell count (SCC) and bacterial shedding from mammary quarters according to mastitis pathogens. Milk samples from 638 mammary quarters were examined for mastitis pathogens, SCC and total bacterial count (TBC). The raw data of SCC [...] and TBC were used to perform descriptive statistics. The significance of the arithmetic mean differences between SCC and TBC according to bacteriological examination results was determined by a two-tailed unpaired t-test. Pearson and Spearman´s correlations were done with logarithmic data and linear regression analyses. The geometric means of the bacteriological examination results were (cells mL-1; CFU mL-1): no growth (52,000; 12,000), coagulase-negative staphylococci (85,000; 17,000), Staphylococcus aureus (587,000; 77,000); other streptococci (432,000; 108,000) and Streptococcus agalactiae (1,572,000; 333,000). The Pearson and Spearman's correlations between SCC and TBC were higher than 0.60 for all mastitis pathogens. The regression analyses slopes showed different increase in TBC with the same increase in SCC according to mastitis pathogens. The slope for S. agalactiae (0.542) was higher than that for other mastitis pathogens. The results suggest that the intensity of inflammatory process was associated with number of mastitis pathogens shedding from the mammary gland.

Lopes Júnior, João Emídio Ferreira; Lange, Carla Cristine; Brito, Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva; Santos, Fabiana Ribeiro; Silva, Marco Aurélio Souto; Moraes, Luciano Castro Dutra de; Souza, Guilherme Nunes de.

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Relationship between total bacteria counts and somatic cell counts from mammary quarters infected by mastitis pathogens Relação entre contagem total de bactérias e contagem de células somáticas de quartos mamários infectados por patógenos da mastite  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to establish the relationship between somatic cell count (SCC and bacterial shedding from mammary quarters according to mastitis pathogens. Milk samples from 638 mammary quarters were examined for mastitis pathogens, SCC and total bacterial count (TBC. The raw data of SCC and TBC were used to perform descriptive statistics. The significance of the arithmetic mean differences between SCC and TBC according to bacteriological examination results was determined by a two-tailed unpaired t-test. Pearson and Spearman´s correlations were done with logarithmic data and linear regression analyses. The geometric means of the bacteriological examination results were (cells mL-1; CFU mL-1: no growth (52,000; 12,000, coagulase-negative staphylococci (85,000; 17,000, Staphylococcus aureus (587,000; 77,000; other streptococci (432,000; 108,000 and Streptococcus agalactiae (1,572,000; 333,000. The Pearson and Spearman's correlations between SCC and TBC were higher than 0.60 for all mastitis pathogens. The regression analyses slopes showed different increase in TBC with the same increase in SCC according to mastitis pathogens. The slope for S. agalactiae (0.542 was higher than that for other mastitis pathogens. The results suggest that the intensity of inflammatory process was associated with number of mastitis pathogens shedding from the mammary gland.Este estudo foi realizado com objetivo de estabelecer a relação entre contagem de células somáticas (CCS e a liberação de bactérias de quartos mamários de acordo com os patógenos da mastite. Amostras de leite de 638 quartos mamários foram examinadas para identificação dos patógenos da mastite, CCS e contagem total de bactérias (CTB. Estatísticas descritivas foram utilizadas para avaliar os dados brutos de CCS e CTB. A diferença entre médias para CCS e CTB de acordo com os resultados dos exames bacteriológicos foi avaliada pelo teste T para amostras independentes. Foram realizadas a correlação de Pearson, de Spearman e regressão linear com os dados transformados. As médias geométricas de acordo com os resultados dos exames bacteriológicos foram (células mL-1; UFC mL-1: sem crescimento (52.000; 12.000, estafilococos coagulase negativo (85.000; 17.000, Staphylococcus aureus (587.000; 77000; outros estreptococus (432.000; 108.000 e Streptococcus agalactiae (1.572.000; 333.000. A correlação de Pearson e Spearman entre CCS e CTB foi maior que 0,60 para todos os patógenos da mastite. O coeficiente angular das regressões lineares mostrou diferentes aumentos da CTB como o mesmo aumento da CCS de acordo com os patógenos da mastite. O coeficiente angular para o S. agalactiae (0.542 foi maior em relação aos outros patógenos da mastite. Os resultados sugerem que a intensidade do processo inflamatório foi associada com a quantidade de bactérias da mastite liberada pela glândula mamária.

João Emídio Ferreira Lopes Júnior

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
61

Correlations between total cell concentration, total adenosine tri-phosphate concentration and heterotrophic plate counts during microbial monitoring of drinking water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The general microbial quality of drinking water is normally monitored by heterotrophic plate counts (HPC. This method has been used for more than 100 years and is recommended in drinking water guidelines. However, the HPC method is handicapped because it is time-consuming and restricted to culturable bacteria. Recently, rapid and accurate detection methods have emerged, such as adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP measurements to assess microbial activity in drinking water, and flow cytometry (FCM to determine the total cell concentration (TCC. It is necessary and important for drinking water quality control to understand the relationships among the conventional and new methods. In the current study, all three methods were applied to 200 drinking water samples obtained from two local buildings connected to the same distribution system. Samples were taken both on normal working days and weekends, and the correlations between the different microbiological parameters were determined. TCC in the samples ranged from 0.37–5.61×105 cells/ml, and two clusters, the so-called high (HNA and low (LNA nucleic acid bacterial groups, were clearly distinguished. The results showed that the rapid determination methods (i.e., FCM and ATP correlated well (R2=0.69, but only a weak correlation (R2=0.31 was observed between the rapid methods and conventional HPC data. With respect to drinking water monitoring, both FCM and ATP measurements were confirmed to be useful and complimentary parameters for rapid assessing of drinking water microbial quality.

F. Hammes

2008-06-01

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Comparison of Fecal Indicator Bacterial Counts in Shellfish Harvested from Kedah, Penang and Perak Pre and Post-Tsunami  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objectives of this paper are to examine the level of fecal indicator bacterial counts (Fecal Coliform (FC and Escherichia coli (EC in shellfish harvested from Penang, Perak and Kedah after the tsunami and to compare the mean FC and EC in shellfish from the three states pre and post-tsunami. The data used in this paper were obtained from the Department of Fisheries’ Sanitary and Photosanitary (SPS Program which monitored the shellfish culture areas around the Peninsular Malaysia regularly. Data were analysed using SPSS (Version 11.5. Generally more than 50% of the samples collected from each states after the tsunami complied to the microbiological safety guidelines (0.05 between the mean FC and EC counts in Penang, Perak and Kedah pre and post-tsunami.

Wan Norhana, N.

2006-01-01

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Extraction of Total Nucleic Acids From Ticks for the Detection of Bacterial and Viral Pathogens  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ticks harbor numerous bacterial, protozoal, and viral pathogens that can cause serious infections in humans and domestic animals. Active surveillance of the tick vector can provide insight into the frequency and distribution of important pathogens in the environment. Nucleic-acid based detection of tick-borne bacterial, protozoan, and viral pathogens requires the extraction of both DNA and RNA (total nucleic acids) from ticks. Traditional methods for nucleic acid extraction are limited to ext...

Crowder, Chris D.; Rounds, Megan A.; Phillipson, Curtis A.; Picuri, John M.; Matthews, Heather E.; Halverson, Justina; Schutzer, Steven E.; Ecker, David J.; Eshoo, Mark W.

2010-01-01

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An investigation of total bacterial communities, culturable antibiotic-resistant bacterial communities and integrons in the river water environments of Taipei city.  

Science.gov (United States)

The intensive use of antibiotics may accelerate the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB). The global geographical distribution of environmental ARB has been indicated by many studies. However, the ARB in the water environments of Taiwan has not been extensively investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate the communities of ARB in Huanghsi Stream, which presents a natural acidic (pH 4) water environment. Waishuanghsi Stream provides a neutral (pH 7) water environment and was thus also monitored to allow comparison. The plate counts of culturable bacteria in eight antibiotics indicate that the numbers of culturable carbenicillin- and vancomycin-resistant bacteria in both Huanghsi and Waishuanghsi Streams are greater than the numbers of culturable bacteria resistant to the other antibiotics tested. Using a 16S rDNA sequencing approach, both the antibiotic-resistant bacterial communities (culture-based) and the total bacterial communities (metagenome-based) in Waishuanghsi Stream exhibit a higher diversity than those in Huanghsi Stream were observed. Of the three classes of integron, only class I integrons were identified in Waishuanghsi Stream. Our results suggest that an acidic (pH 4) water environment may not only affect the community composition of antibiotic-resistant bacteria but also the horizontal gene transfer mediated by integrons. PMID:24411460

Yang, Chu-Wen; Chang, Yi-Tang; Chao, Wei-Liang; Shiung, Iau-Iun; Lin, Han-Sheng; Chen, Hsuan; Ho, Szu-Han; Lu, Min-Jheng; Lee, Pin-Hsuan; Fan, Shao-Ning

2014-07-30

65

Longitudinal trends of total white blood cell and differential white blood cell counts of atomic bomb survivors.  

Science.gov (United States)

In studying the late health effects of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, earlier findings were that white blood cell (WBC) count increased with radiation dose in cross-sectional studies. However, a persistent effect of radiation on WBC count and other risk factors has yet to be confirmed. The objectives of the present study were 1) to examine the longitudinal relationship between A-bomb radiation dose and WBC and differential WBC counts among A-bomb survivors and 2) to investigate the potential confounding risk factors (such as age at exposure and smoking status) as well as modification of the radiation dose-response. A total of 7,562 A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were included in this study from 1964-2004. A linear mixed model was applied using the repeated WBC measurements. During the study period, a secular downward trend of WBC count was observed. Radiation exposure was a significant risk factor for elevated WBC and differential WBC counts over time. A significant increase of WBC counts among survivors with high radiation dose (> 2 Gy) was detected in men exposed below the age of 20 and in women regardless of age at exposure. Effects on WBC of low dose radiation remain unclear, however. Cigarette smoking produced the most pronounced effect on WBC counts and its impact was much larger than that of radiation exposure. PMID:20543527

Hsu, Wan-Ling; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Cologne, John; Fujiwara, Saeko

2010-01-01

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Effects of temperature and fertilization on total vs. active bacterial communities exposed to crude and diesel oil pollution in NW Mediterranean Sea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dynamics of total and active microbial communities were studied in seawater microcosms amended with crude or diesel oil at different temperatures (25, 10 and 4 deg. C) in the presence/absence of organic fertilization (Inipol EAP 22). Total and hydrocarbon-degrading microbes were enumerated by fluorescence microscopy and Most Probable Number (MPN) method, respectively. Total (16S rDNA-based) vs. active (16S rRNA) bacterial community structure was monitored by Capillary-Electrophoresis Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (CE-SSCP) fingerprinting. Hydrocarbons were analyzed after 12 weeks of incubation by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total and hydrocarbon-degrading microbial counts were highly influenced by fertilization while no important differences were observed between temperatures. Higher biodegradation levels were observed in fertilized microcosms. Temperature and fertilization induced changes in structure of total bacterial communities. However, fertilization showed a more important effect on active bacterial structure. The calculation of Simpson's diversity index showed similar trends among temperatures whereas fertilization reduced diversity index of both total and active bacterial communities. - Nutrient availability was the most important factor influencing microbial oil biodegradation in coastal waters of the North-western Mediterranean Sea.

2010-03-01

67

Determination of bacterial counts in treated effluents by flow cytometry; Determinazione mediante citometria di flusso della carica batterica residua in reflui trattati  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The work is based on a 6 months sampling period. Samples were collected along the polishing treatment sequence at the wastewater treatment plant Alto Seveso at Fino Mornasco (Como, Italy), at the inlet and at the outlet of ozonization and activated carbon filter. Samples were analyzed for COD and suspended solids and for bacterial counts. Microbiological analyses were performed both by traditional plate count methods and by flow cytometry. COD was already low at the inlet and was only slightly removed by ozonization and activated carbon. Bacterial removal by ozonization was, on average, 98% if evaluated on plate count data while it was only 87% if evaluated on flow cytometry analyses. The difference is probably due to the fact that damaged bacteria are not able to form colonies in a short time after ozonization but are still viable. The difference between the amount of viable bacteria estimated by plate count and by flow cytometry is about one order of magnitude and is very important if referred to the regrowth potential of treated effluents. Activated carbon increases total bacterial counts: the biomass growing on carbon bed is partly released and final bacterial counts are comparable to the inlet ones even if the present species are probably different. [Italian] Per 6 mesi sono stati effettuati campionamenti bisettimanali istantanei in ingresso e in uscita dall'onizzazione e in ingresso e in uscita dal filtro a carbone attivo dell'impianto di depurazione Alto Seveso di Fino Mornasco (Como, Italia). Su questi sono stati misurati il COD ed i solidi sospesi ed e' stata determinata la carica batterica mediante il metodo tradizionale di conta in piastra e mediante citometria di flusso. Il valore del COD, gia' basso in ingresso all'ozonizzazione, diminuisce lievemente a valle di questa e viene ancora lievemente rimosso dal carbone attivo. La rimozione della carica batterica dovuta all'ozonizzazione calcolata in base ai dati delle conte in piastra risulta in media pari al 98%, mentre e' dell'87% se calcolata in base ai dati della citometria di flusso. Le due metodologie mostrano dunque una differente efficienza dell'ozono, probabilmente attribuibile alla difficolta' dei batteri a riprendersi dal trattamento con ozono e quindi a formare colonie in pochi giorni. Inoltre la quantita' di batteri che risulta rimanere vitale in seguito al trattamento e' molto differente (circa un ordine di grandezza superiore quando stimata con la citometria di flusso) e questo assume una notevole importanza in relazione alla valutazione del potenziale di ricrescita dopo la disinfezione. L'effetto del carbone attivo sulla carica batterica, misurata sia con metodi tradizionali che in modo molto piu' efficiente con tecniche citometriche, e' risultato negativo: il rilascio della biomassa che colonizza il letto di carbone e' notevole e tale da comportare la presenza nell'effluente di cariche confrontabili con quelle in uscita dal trattemento secondario anche se si puo' ritenere che le specie presenti siano diverse.

Mezzanotte, V.; Citterio, S.; Ghiani, A.; Labra, M.; Sgorbati, S. [Milan Univ. Bicocca, Milan (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze dell' ambientee del Territorio

2000-08-01

68

Serum albumin and total lymphocyte count as predictors of outcome in hip fractures.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hip fractures are a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in the elderly. Malnutrition is a significant contributor to this, however no consensus exists as to the detection or management of this condition. We hypothesise that results of admission serum albumin and total lymphocyte count (TLC), as markers of Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) can help predict clinical outcome in hip fracture patients aged over 60 years. METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated the nutritional status of patients with hip fractures using albumin and TLC assays and analysed their prognostic relevance. Clinical outcome parameters studied were delay to operation, duration of in-patient stay, re-admission and in-patient, 3- and 12-month mortality. RESULTS: Four hundred and fifteen hip fracture patients were evaluated. Survival data were available for 377 patients at 12 months. In-hospital mortality for PEM patients was 9.8%, compared with 0% for patients without. Patients with PEM had a higher 12-month mortality compared to patients who had normal values of both laboratory parameters (Odds Ratio 4.6; 95% CI: 1.0-21.3). Serum albumin (Hazard Ratio 0.932, 95% CI: 0.9-1.0) and age (Hazard Ratio 1.04, 95% CI: 1.0-1.1) were found to be significant independent prognostic factors of mortality by Cox regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight the relevance of assessing the nutritional status of patients with hip fractures at the time of admission and emphasises the correlation between PEM and outcome in these patients.

O'Daly, Brendan J

2012-02-01

69

BIN PIXEL COUNT, MEAN AND TOTAL OF INTENSITIES EXTRACTED FROM PARTITIONED EQUALIZED HISTOGRAM FOR CBIR  

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Full Text Available In this paper we have introduced three simple feature vector extraction ideas to retrieve the images from database of 2000 images includes 20 different classes into it. The feature extraction process mainly based on splitting the image into three planes, for each plane an equalized histogram will be calculated which is divided in two, three and four equal parts to form the 8, 27 and 64 bins respectively. Three simple ways are used to extract the information in these three different sizes of bin sets. One is, ‘Count’ of the pixels falling in specific range of the histogram of each plane into its destination bin. Second, ‘Total’ intensities of these pixels in each of these bins is taken into consideration, and in third variation is the ‘Mean’ of these intensities is considered to represent the feature vector. Determination of the destination bin address for each pixel under process depends upon the R,G, B value of that pixel which falls in any one part of the equalized partitioned histogram, because based on it the 3digits flag will be assigned to that pixel with respect to its R, G, and B values. This way, sixfeature vector databases are prepared for 2000 images with three variable sizes and 3 variations in the extraction methods. We have maintained the separate set of bins for each plane and that way we have 3 more variations in databases. Means in all we have 18 feature vector databases that is six databases for each Red, Green and Blueplane. Experimentation uses image database of 20 classes having 100 images of each of the following classes: Flower, Sunset, Mountain, Buliding, Bus, Dinosaur, Elephant, Barbie, Mickey, Horses,Kingfisher, Dove, Crow, Rainbowrose, Pyramids, Plates, Car, Trees, Ship and Waterfall. Performance of our approaches is evaluated using two parameters LIRS and LSRR and results are refined and combined using three criteria Criterion1, 2 and 3.

H. B. Kekre

2012-03-01

70

Simultaneous Direct Counting of Total and Specific Microbial Cells in Seawater, Using a Deep-Sea Microbe as Target  

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To rapidly and accurately enumerate total and specific microbes in aquatic samples, fluorescent in situ hybridization was combined with direct counting via direct immobilization of cells on a polymer-coated Nuclepore filter. The technique, named FISH-DC, achieved almost complete recovery of total cells and reproducibility of Psychrobacter pacificensis cells of deep-sea origin (error, ?3%) in a mixed culture and in natural seawater. Target cells immobilized on the filter were also successful...

Maruyama, Akihiko; Sunamura, Michinari

2000-01-01

71

How much locomotive activity is needed for an active physical activity level: analysis of total step counts  

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Abstract Background Although physical activity recommendations for public health have focused on locomotive activity such as walking and running, it is uncertain how much these activities contribute to overall physical activity level (PAL). The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of locomotive activity to PAL using total step counts measured in a calorimeter study. Methods PAL, calculated as total energy expenditure divided by basal me...

Ohkawara Kazunori; Ishikawa-Takata Kazuko; Park Jong; Tabata Izumi; Tanaka Shigeho

2011-01-01

72

BACTERIAL TOC (TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON) REMOVAL ON SAND AND GAC (GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON)  

Science.gov (United States)

A method is developed to separate the effects of adsorption and biodegradation in long term total organic carbon (TOC) removal observed on GAC contactors. TOC removal is compared on parallel sand and GAC contactors. Temperature control is used to manipulate bacterial TOC removal ...

73

Evaluation of total IgE, CRP and blood count parameters in children with asthma and allergic rhinitis  

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Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to research retrospectivelywhether asthma and allergic rhinitis are related to totalIgE, C-reactive protein (CRP and complete blood countparameters.Materials and methods: Files of 443 children who appliedto pediatric outpatient clinics of our hospital,aged2-18 were retrospectively investigated. Patients weregrouped into three as asthma (n=179, allergic rhinitis (n=171 and control group (n= 93. Patients’ ages, genders,total IgE, CRP and hemogram values were recorded.Results: While eosinophil count, MCHC and total IgElevels were significantly higher in asthma group, MCVlevels were significantly lower. Lymphocyte count, CRPand total IgE levels were significantly higher in allergicrhinitis group compared with control group whereas neutrophilcount were significantly lower and eosinophil countdid not change significantly. Total IgE levels were higherin asthma and allergic rhinitis compared with controls.However, CRP levels were higher only in allergic rhinitisgroup. MCV levels were significantly lower in asthmagroup compared with controls. MCHC levels were significantlyhigher in asthma group compared with allergicrhinitis and control groups. Neutrophil count decreasedwhile lymphocyte count increased significantly. Eosinophilcount significantly increased compared with controlgroup whereas a significant difference was not observedbetween allergic rhinitis and controls.Conclusions: Our findings suggest factors effective inasthma pathogenesis might be effective also in erythrocytemorphology. There are remarkable changes in bloodeosinophil levels in asthma and in neuthrophil and lymphocytelevels in allergic rhinitis. Serum total IgE level increasesin asthma group whereas it decreases in allergicrhinitis group.Key words: Asthma, allergic rhinitis, total IgE, CRP, MCV

Feti Tülüba?

2013-03-01

74

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis with a very high leukocyte count in ascitic fluid caused by Haemophilus influenzae  

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Tarek Saadi,1,2 Safie Khoury,3 Ella Veitsman,1 Yaacov Baruch,1,4 Ayelet Raz-Pasteur3,41Liver Unit, 2Department of Gastroenterology, 3Department of Internal Medicine A, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel; 4The Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, IsraelAbstract: We report on a case of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) due to Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) in an elderly patient with alcoholic cirrhosis. The patient presented wi...

Saadi T; Khoury S; Veitsman E; Baruch Y; Raz-Pasteur A

2013-01-01

75

Determining eligibility for antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings using total lymphocyte counts, hemoglobin and body mass index  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background CD4+ T lymphocyte (CD4 cell count testing is the standard method for determining eligibility for antiretroviral therapy (ART, but is not widely available in sub-Saharan Africa. Total lymphocyte counts (TLCs have not proven sufficiently accurate in identifying subjects with low CD4 counts. We developed clinical algorithms using TLCs, hemoglobin (Hb, and body mass index (BMI to identify patients who require ART. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of HIV-infected adults in Uganda, who presented for assessment for ART-eligibility with WHO clinical stages I, II or III. Two by two tables were constructed to examine TLC thresholds, which maximized sensitivity for CD4 cell counts ? 200 cells ?L, while minimizing the number offered ART with counts > 350 cells ?L. Hb and BMI values were then examined to try to improve model performance. Results 1787 subjects were available for analysis. Median CD4 cell counts and TLCs, were 239 cells/?L and 1830 cells/?L, respectively. Offering ART to all subjects with a TLCs ? 2250 cells/?L produced a sensitivity of 0.88 and a false positive ratio of 0.21. Algorithms that treated all patients with a TLC 3000 cells/?L, and used Hb and/or BMI values to determine eligibility for those with TLC values between 2000 and 3000 cells/?L, marginally improved accuracy. Conclusion TLCs appear useful in predicting who would be eligible for ART based on CD4 cell count criteria. Hb and BMI values may be useful in prioritizing patients for ART, but did not improve model accuracy.

Solberg Peter

2007-01-01

76

Flow Cytometry Total Cell Counts: A Field Study Assessing Microbiological Water Quality and Growth in Unchlorinated Drinking Water Distribution Systems  

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e objective of this study was to evaluate the application of flow cytometry total cell counts (TCCs) as a parameter to assess microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems and to determine the relationships between different parameters describing the biostability of treated water. A one-year sampling program was carried out in two distribution systems in The Netherlands. Results demonstrated that, in both systems, the biomass differences measured by ATP were not significant. TCC dif...

Liu, G.; Mark, E. J.; Verberk, J. Q. J. C.; Dijk, J. C.

2013-01-01

77

Comparative analysis of factors influencing total plate count of raw milk in some dairy farms in Hungary  

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The milk processing plants and dairy farms are interested in the producion of basic material (raw milk) of good quality. The importance of the quality of raw milk increased after Hungary had joined to the EU. The aim of this research was to examine the connection between the total plate count in bulk tank milk and housing and milking technologies of twenty-two farms of different size

Peles Ferenc; Kovács Sándor; Szabó András; Béri Béla (1951-) (agrármérnök)

2007-01-01

78

Extraction of total nucleic acids from ticks for the detection of bacterial and viral pathogens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ticks harbor numerous bacterial, protozoal, and viral pathogens that can cause serious infections in humans and domestic animals. Active surveillance of the tick vector can provide insight into the frequency and distribution of important pathogens in the environment. Nucleic-acid based detection of tick-borne bacterial, protozoan, and viral pathogens requires the extraction of both DNA and RNA (total nucleic acids) from ticks. Traditional methods for nucleic acid extraction are limited to extraction of either DNA or the RNA from a sample. Here we present a simple bead-beating based protocol for extraction of DNA and RNA from a single tick and show detection of Borrelia burgdorferi and Powassan virus from individual, infected Ixodes scapularis ticks. We determined expected yields for total nucleic acids by this protocol for a variety of adult tick species. The method is applicable to a variety of arthropod vectors, including fleas and mosquitoes, and was partially automated on a liquid handling robot. PMID:20180313

Crowder, Chris D; Rounds, Megan A; Phillipson, Curtis A; Picuri, John M; Matthews, Heather E; Halverson, Justina; Schutzer, Steven E; Ecker, David J; Eshoo, Mark W

2010-01-01

79

Seasonal changes in bacterial counts and radiation-disinfection of sewage sludge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of radiation on sewage sludge was investigated to disinfect it. The results obtained were as follows: 1. In either activated sludge or digested sludge dewatered by centrifugation, total bacteria and coliforms were up to 3.0 x 109/g and 3.5 x 108/g, respectively. In the activated sludge which was dewatered by a filter-press with calcium oxide and iron chloride, total bacteria were up to 3.0 x 105/g, while coliforms were hardly detected. 2. The fraction of coliforms was somewhat more in centrifuged sludge than in raw sludge. 3. The radiosensitivity of coliforms in raw sludge differed between samples. Namely, some sludge was sterilized with 0.5 Mrad while others were not sterilized even with 1.0 Mrad. On the other hand, coliforms in dewatered sludge were sterilized with 0.5 Mrad without seasonal change, but total bacteria were more radioresistant and more than 13 Mrad was required to reduce it to an undetectable level. From these results it is concluded that the dewatered sludge should be irradiated at 0.5 Mrad to eliminate the coliforms in it. (author)

1981-01-01

80

Quantitative detection of antibody based on single-molecule counting by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy with quantum dot labeling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We presented a sensitive method to quantify antibody based on single-molecule counting by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy with quantum dot labeling. In this method, the biotinylated monoclonal anti-human IgG molecules were immobilized on the silanized glass substrate surface. By the strong biotin-streptavidin affinity, streptavidin-coated quantum dots were labeled to the target molecules as fluorescent probe. Then, images of fluorescent spots in the evanescent wave field were obtained by a high-sensitivity electron multiplying charge-coupled device. Finally, the number of fluorescent spots corresponding to single molecules in the subframe images was counted, one by one. The linear range of 8.0 x 10-14 to 5.0 x 10-12 mol L-1 was obtained between the number of single molecules and the sample concentration

2009-02-16

 
 
 
 
81

Gamma-spectrometric and total alpha-beta counting methods for radioactivity analysis of deuterium depleted water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to national regulations, as well as to the EU directive on the quality of drinking water, the radionuclide concentrations represent some of the drinking water quality parameters. Among the most important radioactivity content parameters are: the total alpha and total beta concentration (Bq/l); K-40 content, and the gamma-nuclides volume activities. The paper presents the measuring methods for low-level total alpha and/or beta counting of volume samples, as well as the high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometric method used to measure the volume activity of nuclides in drinking water. These methods are applied to monitor the radioactivity content and quality of the QLARIVIA brand of Deuterium depleted water (DDW). There are discussed the performances of these applied methods as well as some preliminary results. (authors)

2008-10-29

82

The feasibility of measuring total body carbon by counting neutron inelastic scatter gamma rays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A technique is examined for measuring the mass of carbon of both ambulatory and non-ambulatory subjects. The method is based upon the detection of the 4.43 MeV gamma rays emitted from carbon nuclei when the body is irradiated with fast neutrons. The supine subject is irradiated laterally by a horizontal collimated beam of 14 MeV neutrons and the emitted gamma rays are counted by a shielded NaI(Tl) detector placed underneath the subject. The method has been calibrated for all sizes of subjects from 30 to 90 kg and there appears to be no significant interference from the other bulk elements of the body. Body carbon has been measured in six normal volunteers; body nitrogen was also determined by measuring the "1"3N induced in each subject in a second irradiation. Body fat was estimated from the measured carbon and nitrogen, and the values compared with those derived from skinfold thicknesses. The technique is proposed as a method of estimating long-term energy expenditure. (author)

1982-01-01

83

Mesoscale Distribution and Bacterial Cycling of Total Organic Carbon In North Atlantic Ocean (pomme Area)  

Science.gov (United States)

Seawater samples were collected during September-October 2000 and January- February 2001 in North Eastern Atlantic Ocean in the framework of the French pro- gram SPommeS. They were studied for total organic carbon (TOC) and semi-labile ´ (sl-TOC) by using high combustion technique (HTC). Over 0-600 m, integrated TOC averaged 379.4 s´ 14.6 g C m-2, in September-October and 381.9 s´ 20.1 g C m-2 in January. These results showed that there is little variation of TOC stock in the water column despite we observed different vertical variations of TOC concentrations be- tween the two seasons. For the winter period, we also estimated labile-TOC (l-TOC), as well as bacterial carbon demand and bacterial growth efficiencies through bacterial production measurements and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) biodegradation exper- iments. Here, we discuss about the lability of TOC in relation to the bacterioplankton utilization.

Sempere, R.; van Wambeke, F.; Sohrin, R.; Guigue, C.; Vernet, M.; Lefevre, D.; Bianchi, M.

84

Total bacterial and fungal population after chlorpyrifos and quinalphos treatments in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Short-term inhibitory effect on the total bacterial population was observed after chlorpyrifos and quinalphos applications in the groundnut fields, which recovered within 60 days after seed treatment and by 45 days of soil treatment. The fungal population was significantly enhanced after chlorpyrifos treatment whereas quinalphos inhibited the fungal population during the initial days of treatment but no effect was observed after 60 days of treatment. The residues of chlorpyrifos and quinalphos in the treated soil were not persistent and their half-lives ranged from 7.0 to 9.2 days and 13.2 to 20.6 days, respectively. PMID:14761692

Pandey, Sushma; Singh, Dileep K

2004-04-01

85

Detection of false-positives among total and fecal coliform counts by factorial analysis of correspondence.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Application of an analysis of correspondence to the biochemical characteristics of total and fecal coliforms isolated in the Ivory Coast permitted us to separate two small clusters of isolates different from the main clusters, which included isolates from human and animal feces. The isolates grouped in the small clusters were from water samples. An analysis of the biochemical characteristics which permitted the segregation of the "water-specific" isolates from the main clusters indicates that...

Joncas, M.; Michaud, S.; Carmichael, J. P.; Lavoie, M. C.

1985-01-01

86

An optimised four-count total-alpha measurement scheme for the detection of radon progeny and lead-212 in air  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sequential and overlapped five-count total-alpha measurement schemes are slow and have inadequate sensitivity to obtain precise estimates of 212Bi(ThC) concentrations in the air of uranium mines. For quicker estimates of individual 218Po(RaA), 214Pb(RaB), 214Bi(RaC) and 212Pb(ThB) concentrations (within 3 h) two four-count total-alpha measurement schemes were developed. Inherent in the derivation of these measurement techniques is the assumption that the airborne ThC concentration is zero. The bias error due to this assumption was less than 2% for radon progeny estimates and less than 10% for 212pb(ThB) estimates. The optimal 140 min four-count method developed requires a 20 min sampling period accompanied by total-alpha counts at (0,20) (21,41) (45,95) and (115,140) min during and after sampling. The optimal 180 min four-count method also requires a 20 min sampling period with total alpha counts taken at (0,20) (21,41) (45,115) and (140,180) min during and after sampling. A comparison of the 180 min four-count method with commonly used optimised sequential and overlapped five-count techniques shows that the minimum measurable concentration obtainable using the 180 min count technique is lower than that obtainable using either five-count technique for radon progeny. For radon and thoron progeny concentrations in uranium mines, Monte Carlo precision estimates evaluated for the four-count measurement techniques show that precision estimates based on counting statistics alone are reliable when measurement to measurement pump flow rate variations are less than 2%, and litre to litre concentration variations are less than 5%. (author)

1985-01-01

87

Study on the Total Coliforms Count and Coli Titter in the Waters of Kardzhali Reservoir, Bulgaria  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine TC (total coliforms and coli titter from two sampling stations in the aquatory of Kardzhali Dam Lake and one station in River Arda, in August, 2011. The values of the TC index in the reservoir vary from 1900±674 cfu/100ml in station I, to 1293±194 cfu/100ml in station II, while the TC value of River Arda reaches 1698±134 cfu/100ml. In Reservoir Kardzhali, the smallest volume of water in which Escherichia coli cells were found, varies between 5 and 15 ml, while for the River Arda the value of coli titter is equal to 1. With highest percentage, regarding the presence of microbiological species in the reservoir waters, is the genus Klebsiella (70%, followed by Citrobacter (15%, Enterobacter (10% and Serratia (5%, respectively represented by the species Klebsiella oxytoca, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae and Serattia marcescens. In the river Arda two genuses were found - Serratia (50% and Salmonella (50%.

Oliver Y. Todorov

2012-12-01

88

Bacterial contamination of hospital pagers.  

Science.gov (United States)

We assessed the bacterial contamination of the pagers of healthcare personnel and the efficacy of disinfection with 70% isopropyl alcohol. Microorganisms were isolated from all pagers; 21% yielded Staphylococcus aureus, of which 14% were methicillin resistant. Cleaning with alcohol reduced the total colony count by an average of 94%. Bacterial load varied by healthcare worker group and service assignment. PMID:12026153

Singh, Deepjot; Kaur, Hanspreet; Gardner, William G; Treen, Lisa B

2002-05-01

89

Centroid Position as a Function of Total Counts in a Windowed CMOS Image of a Point Source  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We obtained 960,200 22-by-22-pixel windowed images of a pinhole spot using the Teledyne H2RG CMOS detector with un-cooled SIDECAR readout. We performed an analysis to determine the precision we might expect in the position error signals to a telescope's guider system. We find that, under non-optimized operating conditions, the error in the computed centroid is strongly dependent on the total counts in the point image only below a certain threshold, approximately 50,000 photo-electrons. The LSST guider camera specification currently requires a 0.04 arcsecond error at 10 Hertz. Given the performance measured here, this specification can be delivered with a single star at 14th to 18th magnitude, depending on the passband.

Wurtz, R E; Olivier, S; Riot, V; Hanold, B J; Figer, D F

2010-05-27

90

Correlations of serum Interleukin-16, total IgE, eosinophil cationic protein and total eosinophil counts with disease activity in children with atopic dermatitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several laboratory parameters have been investigated for assessing disease activity in children with atopic dermatitis (AD). Analyses of the correlation between these parameters and clinical severity can help to choose a convincing tool. This study compared the significance of serum interleukin-16 (IL-16), serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE), serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), and total eosinophil count (TEC) in reflecting AD severity to order to identify the most relevant objective tool for assessing AD activity and to assess the correlation between these laboratory parameters. The Severity Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD index) was used for the assessment of disease activity in 48 pediatric patients in the acute exacerbation phase and in the maintenance phase after improvement of clinical findings with conventional treatment for 8 weeks. Serum levels of total IgE, ECP, and IL-16 as well as TEC were measured on the same time points and compared with healthy non-atopic controls. The correlation between SCORAD and each laboratory parameter was tested for significance and compared. Serum levels of ECP and IL-16 of AD patients were significantly higher than those of controls. These serum parameters, except TEC, declined significantly after conventional treatment with clinical improvement. There was positive correlation with SCORAD for serum IgE (r=0.317, p=0.028), TEC(r=0.434, p=0.002), IL-16 (r = 0.321, p=0.026) in the acute exacerbation phase and with SCORAD for serum IgE (r=0.510, p<0.001), TEC(r=0.489, p<0.001), serum ECP (r=0.468, p=0.001) in the maintenance phase. Serum levels of total IgE, IL-16, ECP, and TEC correlated with the SCORAD index in pediatric patients with atopic dermatitis. Thus, they can serve as serum markers for monitoring disease activity in childhood atopic dermatitis. PMID:21496383

Wu, K-G; Li, T-H; Chen, C-J; Cheng, H-I; Wang, T-Y

2011-01-01

91

Some Precautions in Preparation of Blood Plasma Samples Labelled with 3HOH in Liquid Scintillation Counting to Estimate Total Body Water in Farm Animals Using Nuclear Methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accuracy of counting the tritiated water radioactivity in Liquid Scintillation is dependent on the careful control of several experimental variables. Obtaining the data necessary to evaluate the precision of nuclear techniques is the objective of this study. The effect of mixing the suspended precipitate, precipitate of sedimentation, light exposure and temperature on liquid scintillation counting are studied. The results showed that unmixed suspended precipitation decreased the counting of liquid scintillation by 38.2%. In addition, sedimentation of the precipitate of plasma proteins in the liquid scintillation counter is important because the average of the samples count was lower about 3.5% in case plasma samples were counted before the precipitate sedimentation. Plasma samples exposure to either day or florescent light caused over counting by 7.1 and 7.6% respectively. Frozen plasma samples labelled with TOH caused a decrease in normal counting by 9.5%. In addition, it was compared between internal standard and dioxane precipitation techniques to estimate total body water in farm animals with taking the precaution mentioned previously in considerations. The internal standard method and precipitation method gave comparable counting (4599 vs 4317 cpm, respectively) and total body water values (209.3 vs 211.9L, respectively).

2007-01-01

92

Bacterial contamination of the wound during primary total hip and knee replacement  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and purpose Previous work has shown that despite preventive measures, intraoperative contamination of joint replacements is still common, although most of these patients seem to do well in follow-up of up to 5 years. We analyzed the prevalence and bacteriology of intraoperative contamination of primary joint replacement and assessed whether its presence is related to periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) on long-term follow-up. Patients and methods 49 primary total hip replacements (THRs) and 41 total knee replacements (TKRs) performed between 1990 and 1991 were included in the study. 4 bacterial swabs were collected intraoperatively during each procedure. Patients were followed up for joint-related complications until March 2011. Results 19 of 49 THRs and 22 of 41 TKRs had at least 1 positive culture. Coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus were the most common organisms, contaminating 28 and 9 operations respectively. Where information was available, bacteria from 27 of 29 contaminated operations were susceptible to the prophylactic antibiotic administered. 13% of samples gathered before 130 min of surgery were contaminated, as compared to 35% collected after that time. 2 infections were diagnosed, both in TKRs. 1 of them may have been related to intraoperative contamination. Interpretation Intraoperative contamination was common but few infections occurred, possibly due to the effect of prophylactic antibiotics. The rate of contamination was higher with longer duration of surgery. It appears that positive results from intraoperative swabs do not predict the occurrence of PJI.

2014-01-01

93

The effect of gamma radiation and certain insecticides on the total hemocyte counts and its different types in larvae of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis (boisd.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Treatment of the cotton leaf worm larvae Spodoptera Littoralis with gamma radiation gradually decreased the total haemocyte count as the dose increased. While in larvae treated with fenvalerate the total haemocyte count significantly decreased and a further decrease occurred when larvae were treated with gamma rays. Larvae which were treated with sumithion showed insignificant increase of total haemocyte count from control, but when sumithion was applied before gamma irradiation a gradual decrease of the total haemocyte occurred. In case of larvae treated with L c30 level of fenvalerate or sumithion an insignificant increase in the total haemocyte count occurred, while irradiation of larvae after insecticide treatment lead to a gradual decrease in the total haemocyte count as the dose of gamma radiation was increased. The haemocytes of fourth instar larvae were found to consist of eight kinds which are pro haemocytes, plasmatocytes, spindle cells, granulated cells, oenocytoids, adipohaemocytes, cytocytes and sphrule cells. Treatment of larvae with gamma radiation, insecticides (fenvalerate or sumithion) only or with the insecticide combined with gamma radiation significantly affected the percentage of haemocytes. Also significant differences were found between the different types p f haemocytes. Prohaemocytes were the predominant type.5 tab

1993-01-01

94

Correlations between total cell concentration, total adenosine tri-phosphate concentration and heterotrophic plate counts during microbial monitoring of drinking water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The general microbial quality of drinking water is normally monitored by heterotrophic plate counts (HPC. This method has been used for more than 100 years and is recommended in drinking water guidelines. However, the HPC method is significantly handicapped because it is time-consuming and restricted to culturable bacteria. Recently, rapid and accurate detection methods have emerged, such as adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP measurements to assess microbial activity in drinking water, and flow cytometry (FCM to determine the total cell concentration (TCC. It is necessary and important for drinking water quality control to understand the relationships among the conventional and new methods. In the current study, all three methods were applied to 200 drinking water samples obtained from two local buildings connected to the same distribution system. Samples were taken both on normal working days and weekends, and the correlations between the different microbiological parameters were determined. The results showed that the rapid determination methods (i.e., FCM and ATP correlated significantly (R2=0.69, but only a weak correlation (R2=0.31 was observed between the rapid methods and conventional HPC data. With respect to drinking water monitoring, both FCM and ATP measurements were confirmed to be useful and complimentary parameters for rapid assessing of drinking water microbial quality.

F. Hammes

2008-02-01

95

Analytical performance issues: comparison of ATP bioluminescence andaerobic bacterial count for evaluatingsurface cleanliness in an Italian hospital.  

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Contaminated hospital surfaces have been demonstrated to be an important environmental reservoir of microorganisms that can increase the risk of nosocomial infection in exposed patients. As a consequence, cleaning and disinfecting hospital environments play an important role among strategies for preventing healthcare-associated colonization and infections. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether adenosine triphosphate (ATP) presence, measured by bioluminescence methods, can predict microbiological contamination of hospital surfaces. The study was carried out between September and December 2012 at the University Hospital "P. Giaccone" of Palermo. A total of 193 randomly selected surfaces (tables, lockers, furnishings) were sampled and analyzed in order to assess ATP levels (expressed as relative light units or RLU) and aerobic colony count (ACC) or presence of S. aureus. ACC had median values of 1.85 cfu/cm(2)(interquartile range = 4.16) whereas ATP median was 44.6 RLU/cm(2)(interquartile range = 92.3). Overall, 85 (44.0%) surfaces exceeded the established microbial benchmark: 73 (37.8%) exceeded the 2.5 cfu/cm(2)ACC standard, 5 (2.6%) surfaces were positive for S. aureus and 7 (3.6%) showed both the presence of S. aureus and an ACC of more than 2.5 cfu/cm(2). ACC and bioluminescence showed significant differences in the different surface sites (p RLU values (p-value RLU values were significantly associated with a higher risk of failing the benchmark (p < 0.001). Our data suggest that bioluminescence could help in measuring hygienic quality of hospital surfaces using a quick and sensitive test that can be an useful proxy of microbial contamination; however, further analysis will be necessary to assess the cost-efficacy of this methodology before requiring incorporation in hospital procedures. PMID:24369935

Amodio, Emanuele; Cannova, Lucia; Villafrate, Maria Rosaria; Merendino, Anna Maria; Aprea, Luigi; Calamusa, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

96

Effect of gamma irradiation on shelf life extension, total counts of microbials and biochemical sensory change on luncheon meat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate the effect of gamma irradiation and sodium nitrate on storability and marketability of luncheon, packed luncheon was exposed to several treatments; gamma irradiation at doses 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 KGy using a "6"0 CO package irradiator, mixed with sodium nitrite (NaNO_2) 60 mg/Kg meat, with no irradiation and a combined treatment of both NaNO_2 treatment and irradiated with a dose of 2 KGy only. Half of the irradiated and unirradiated samples were stored in refrigeration (1-4 centigrade), to study storability and the second half were stored at room temperature (18-20 centigrade) to study marketability of luncheon. During storage period the population of microorganisms, biochemical changes and sensory properties were evaluated every two weeks for the refrigerated samples and weekly for the unrefrigerated samples. The results indicated that gamma irradiation and sodium nitrite reduced the counts of microorganisms and increased the shelf-life of luncheon. Both treatments (irradiation, sodium nitrite) increased total acidity, lipid oxidation, and the volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) immediately after processing and reduced all of them through out storage. Sensory evaluation (firmness, color, taste, and flavor) indicated no significant differences (P>0.05) between treated and untreated samples. (author)

1999-01-01

97

Lack of dietary calcium effect on chlordecone increased white blood cell count, total iron, and iron-binding capacity in serum of rat.  

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Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 0, 1, 10, 50, and 100 ppm of chlordecone (Cd) mixed in calcium-sufficient (Ca-S) or calcium-deficient (Ca-D) diet for 15 days. The control rats fed with Ca-D diet exhibited a significant increase in white blood cell (WBC) counts compared to the rats fed with Ca-S diet. Dietary calcium (Ca), however, did not elicit any significant effect on total iron content and iron-binding capacity (transferrin) of control rats, whereas Cd at higher concentrations significantly increased WBC counts, total iron, and iron-binding capacity in serum of both Ca-S and Ca-D rats. The data suggest that dietary Ca did not alter Cd-increased WBC count, total iron, and iron-binding capacity in serum of rat. PMID:8727520

Chetty, K N; Fantroy, L; Landau, G; Ivie, G W

1996-04-01

98

Serum total IgE levels and total eosinophil counts: relationship with treatment response in patients with acute asthma Relação dos níveis séricos de IgE total e das contagens de eosinófilos com a resposta ao tratamento em pacientes com asma aguda  

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OBJECTIVE: To determine whether serum total IgE levels and total eosinophil counts have any relationship with the response to routine pharmacological treatment in patients with acute asthma. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 162 patients with acute asthma. Serum total IgE levels, peripheral blood cell counts and eosinophil counts were determined. The treatment was adjusted for each patient according to the severity of asthma. Spirometry was performed at baseline and two weeks after t...

Ebrahim Razi; Gholam Abbass Moosavi

2010-01-01

99

Contribution of endogenous and exogenous damage to the total radiation-induced damage in the bacterial spore  

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Radical scavengers such as polyethylene glycol 4000 and bovine albumin have been used to define the contribution of exogenous and endogenous damage to the total radiation-induced damage in aqueous buffered suspensions of Bacillus pumilus spores. The results indicate that this damage in the bacterial spore is predominantly endogenous.

Jacobs, G.P.; Samuni, A.; Czapski, G.

1980-01-01

100

Contribution of endogenous and exogenous damage to the total radiation-induced damage in the bacterial spore  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radical scavengers such as polyethylene glycol 4000 and bovine albumin have been used to define the contribution of exogenous and endogenous damage to the total radiation-induced damage in aqueous buffered suspensions of Bacillus pumilus spores. The results indicate that this damage in the bacterial spore is predominantly endogenous

1980-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Evaluation of White Cell Count and Differential in Synovial Fluid for Diagnosing Infections after Total Hip or Knee Arthroplasty  

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Background The accuracy of synovial fluid (SF) white cell count (WCC) and polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell evaluation for predicting prosthetic joint infection (PJI) at the total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) site is unknown. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to summarize the diagnostic validity of SF-WCC and SF-PMN for diagnosing PJI. Methods The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and OVID databases were searched for studies that had evaluated the diagnostic validity of SF-WCC and SF-PMN between January 1990 and May 2013. Meta-analysis methods were used to pool sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odd ratios (DORs), the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC), positive likelihood ratios (PLR), negative likelihood ratios (NLR), and post-test probability. We also conducted heterogeneity, publication bias, subgroup, and meta-regression analyses. Results Fifteen articles (15 SF-WCC and 14 SF-PMN) that included a total of 2787 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were considered for analysis. The pooled sensitivity and specificity for PJI detection was 0.88 (95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.81–0.93) and 0.93 (95% CI, 0.88–0.96) for SF-WCC and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.84–0.93) and 0.88 (95% CI, 0.83–0.92) for SF-PMN, respectively. The AUC was 0.96 for SF-WCC and 0.95 for SF-PMN. PLR and NLR were 13.3 and 0.13 for SF-WCC, and 7.6 and 0.12 for SF-PMN, respectively. There was no evidence of publication bias. Low-clinical-scenario (pre-test probability, 20%) post-test probabilities were 3% for both negative SF-WCC and SF-PMN results. The subgroup analyses indicated that the sensitivity/specificity of THA were 0.73/0.96 for SF-WCC and 0.85/0.83 for SF-PMN, whereas those of TKA were 0.90/0.91 for SF-WCC and 0.90/0.88 for SF-PMN. We also found that collection of SF-WCC preoperatively had a higher sensitivity than that obtained intraoperatively (0.91 vs. 0.77). Conclusions SF-WCC and SF-PMN have an adequate and clinically acceptable diagnostic value for detecting PJI, particularly after TKA.

Li, Haowei; Wu, Chuanlong; Li, Yang; Li, Huiwu; Zhu, Zhenan; Qin, An; Dai, Kerong

2014-01-01

102

Effect of partial substitution of NaCl with KCl on Halloumi cheese during storage: chemical composition, lactic bacterial count, and organic acids production.  

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The effect of partial substitution of NaCl with KCl on chemical composition, lactic bacterial count, and organic acids profile of Halloumi cheese was investigated. Halloumi cheeses were made and kept in 4 different brine solutions at 18% including NaCl only (HA), 3NaCl : 1KCl (HB), 1NaCl : 1KCl (HC), and 1NaCl : 3KCl (HD) and then stored at 4 degrees C for 56 d. No significant effect was observed between control and experimental cheeses in terms of moisture, fat, protein, lactic bacterial count, and pH values at the same storage period. There was a significant difference in ash, sodium, and potassium contents among experimental cheeses at the same storage period. Ash, sodium, and potassium contents increased significantly during storage at same salt treatment. There was no significant difference in lactic and citric acid contents among experimental cheeses and that of the control. In contrary, there was a significant difference in acetic acid among experimental cheeses. A strong positive correlation was observed between ash, Na, and K contents. An inverse correlation between organic acids and both Na and K contents was also observed. PMID:20722906

Ayyash, Mutamed M; Shah, Nagendra P

2010-08-01

103

Total biodegradation of 4-chlorobiphenyl (4 CB) by a two-membered bacterial culture  

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Several bacterial strains that can oxidize mono- and dichlorinated biphenyls with one unsubstituted ring have already been described. The major route for this biodegradation leads ultimately to the corresponding chlorobenzoic acid, but several other minor chlorinated metabolites that might possibly be of concern for the environment have also been described previously. Since none of the bacterial strains that are able to oxidize these chlorinated biphenyls in pure culture are known to degrade chlorobenzoic acid, the oxidation of these substrates by axenic cultures always generates chlorobenzoates plus several other metabolites. In the present study, we have estimated the biodegradation of 4-chlorobiphenyl (4CB) by a two-membered bacterial culture containing one strain able to grow on 4CB and to transform it into 4-chlorobenzoate (4CBA) and one strain able to degrade 4CBA. The results were encouraging, since it was shown that the degradation of 4CB was more rapid and complete with the double bacterial culture.

Sylvestre, M.; Fauteux, J.; Masse, R.; Ayotte, C.; Messier, F.

1985-02-01

104

Calibration standard energy influence on the efficiency of a proportional detector for alpha and beta total counting on water samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper the efficiency calibration curves were determined for a thin-window, low-background and gas-flow proportional counter using calibration standards with different energies and different absorber thicknesses. For the gross alpha counting we used 241 Am standard and natural uranium and for the gross beta counting we used 90 Sr/90 Y and 137 Cs in residue thickness ranging from 0 to approximately 18 mg/cm2. Counting efficiency for alpha emitters ranged from 0,266± 0,032 for a weightless residue to 0,023± 0,003 in a planchet containing 15 mg/cm2 of residue for 241 Am standard calibration planchets. Counting efficiency values obtained for natural uranium standard calibration planchets ranged from 0,322± 0,030 for a weightless residue to 0,023± 0,003 in a planchet containing 14,5 mg/cm2 of residue. Counting efficiency for beta emitters ranged from 0,430± 0,036 for a weightless residue to 0,247± 0,020 in a planchet containing 17 mg/cm2 of residue for 137 Cs standard. Counting efficiency values obtained for 90 Sr/90 Y standard calibration planchets ranged from 0,489± 0,041 for a weightless residue to 0,323± 0,026 for a residue thickness of 18 mg/cm2. (author)

2002-08-11

105

Degradation and total mineralization of monohalogenated biphenyls in natural sediment and mixed bacterial culture.  

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Mixed bacterial cultures obtained from polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated river sediments are capable of degrading monohalogenated biphenyls under simulated natural conditions. Culture conditions include river water as supportive medium and mixed bacterial cultures obtained from river sediments. Degradation occurs when the substrates are supplied as the sole carbon source or when added together with glucose. The degradation rates of 2-, 3-, and 4-chlorobiphenyl, at 30 micrograms ml-1, were...

1983-01-01

106

The predictive Value of Total Neutrophil Count and Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio in Predicting In-hospital Mortality and Complications after STEMI  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: Leukocytosis, predominantly neutrophilia, has previously been described following ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The exact contribution of this phenomenon to the clinical outcome of STEMI is yet to be shown. We examined cellular inflammatory response to STEMI in the blood and its association with in-hospital mortality and/or adverse clinical events. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 404 patients who were admitted with the diagnosis of acute STEMI at Madani Heart Hospital from March 2010 to March 2012 were studied. The complete blood cell count (CBC) was obtained from all patientswithin12-24 hours of the onset of symptoms. Total leukocytes were counted and differential count was obtained for neutrophils, lymphocytes and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) were evaluated. Association of cellular response with the incidence of post-MI mortality/complications was assessed by multiple logistic regression analyses. Results: In-hospital mortality and post-STEMI complication rate were 3.7% and 43.6%, respectively. Higher age (P=0.04), female gender (0.002), lower ejection fraction (P<0.001) and absolute neutrophil count (P=0.04) were predictors of mortality. Pump failure in the form of acute pulmonary edema or cardiogenic shock occurred in 35 (8.9%) of patients. Higher leukocyte (P<0.03) and neutrophil counts (P<0.03) and higher NLR (P=0.01) were predictors of failure. The frequency of ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VT/VF) at the first day was associated with higher neutrophil count (P<0.001) and higher NLR level (P<0.001). In multivariate analysis neutrophil count was an independent predictor of mortality (OR=2.94; 1.1-8.4, P=0.04), and neutrophil count [OR=1.1, CI (1.01-1.20), P=0.02], female gender [OR=2.34, CI (1.02-4.88), P=0.04] and diabetes [OR=2.52, CI (1.21-5.2), P=0.003] were independent predictors of heart failure. Conclusion: A single CBC analysis may help to identify STEMI patients at risk for mortality and heart failure, and total neutrophil count is the most valuable in predicting both.

Ghaffari, Samad; Nadiri, Mehdi; Pourafkari, Leili; Sepehrvand, Nariman; Movasagpoor, Aliakbar; Rahmatvand, Neda; Rezazadeh Saatloo, Mohammadamin; Ahmadi, Mona; Nader, Nader D

2014-01-01

107

Micrometer-Sized Supported Lipid Bilayer Arrays for Bacterial Toxin Binding Studies through Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy  

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In this article, we present the use of micron-sized lipid domains, patterned onto planar substrates and within microfluidic channels, to assay the binding of bacterial toxins via total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. The lipid domains were patterned using a polymer lift-off technique and consisted of ganglioside-populated distearoylphosphatidylcholine:cholesterol supported lipid bilayers (SLBs). Lipid patterns were formed on the substrates by vesicle fusion followed by polymer li...

Moran-mirabal, Jose M.; Edel, Joshua B.; Meyer, Grant D.; Throckmorton, Dan; Singh, Anup K.; Craighead, Harold G.

2005-01-01

108

Clinical value of total white blood cells and neutrophil counts in patients with suspected appendicitis: retrospective study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Acute appendicitis (AA is common surgical problem associated with acute-phase reaction. Blood tests role in decision-making process is unclear. This retrospective study aimed to determine diagnostic value of preoperative evaluation of white blood cells (WBCs and neutrophils and its value in predicting AA severity. Methods Medical records of 456 patients who underwent appendectomy during 4-years period were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were subdivided according to histological finding into: normal appendix (n = 29, uncomplicated inflamed appendix (n = 350, complicated appendicitis (n = 77. Diagnostic performances of WBCs and neutrophils were analyzed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves. Results WBCs and neutrophils counts were higher in patients with inflamed and complicated appendix than normal appendix and in complicated than inflamed appendix. In patients, WBCs count 9.400 × 103/mL had sensitivity of 76.81%, specificity of 65.52%, positive predictive value (PPV of 97.0%, negative predictive value (NPV of 16.1%, positive likelihood ratio [LR(+] of 2.23, negative LR(? of 0.35. Neutrophil count 7.540 × 103/mL had sensitivity of 70.96%, specificity of 65.52%, PPV of 96.8%, NPV of 13.3%, LR(+ of 2.06, LR(? of 0.44. Areas under ROC curve were 0.701, 0.680 for elevated WBCs and neutrophils count. Conclusions Clinicians should not rely on either elevated WBCs or neutrophils count as appendicitis indicator as clinical data are superior in decision-making appendectomy.

Al-gaithy Zuhoor K

2012-10-01

109

Leukocyte-subset counts in idiopathic parkinsonism provide clues to a pathogenic pathway involving small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. A surveillance study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Following Helicobacter pylori eradication in idiopathic parkinsonism (IP, hypokinesia improved but flexor-rigidity increased. Small intestinal bacterial-overgrowth (SIBO is a candidate driver of the rigidity: hydrogen-breath-test-positivity is common in IP and case histories suggest that Helicobacter keeps SIBO at bay. Methods In a surveillance study, we explore relationships of IP-facets to peripheral immune/inflammatory-activation, in light of presence/absence of Helicobacter infection (urea-breath- and/or stool-antigen-test: positivity confirmed by gastric-biopsy and hydrogen-breath-test status for SIBO (positivity: >20 ppm increment, 2 consecutive 15-min readings, within 2h of 25G lactulose. We question whether any relationships found between facets and blood leukocyte subset counts stand in patients free from anti-parkinsonian drugs, and are robust enough to defy fluctuations in performance consequent on short t½ therapy. Results Of 51 IP-probands, 36 had current or past Helicobacter infection on entry, 25 having undergone successful eradication (median 3.4 years before. Thirty-four were hydrogen-breath-test-positive initially, 42 at sometime (343 tests during surveillance (2.8 years. Hydrogen-breath-test-positivity was associated inversely with Helicobacter-positivity (OR 0.20 (95% CI 0.04, 0.99, p In 38 patients (untreated (17 or on stable long-t½ IP-medication, the higher the natural-killer count, the shorter stride, slower gait and greater flexor-rigidity (by mean 49 (14, 85 mm, 54 (3, 104 mm.s-1, 89 (2, 177 Nm.10-3, per 100 cells.?l-1 increment, p=0.007, 0.04 & 0.04 respectively, adjusted for patient characteristics. T-helper count was inversely associated with flexor-rigidity before (p=0.01 and after adjustment for natural-killer count (-36(-63, -10 Nm.10-3 per 100 cells.?l-1, p=0.007. Neutrophil count was inversely associated with tremor (visual analogue scale, p=0.01. Effect-sizes were independent of IP-medication, and not masked by including 13 patients receiving levodopa (except natural-killer count on flexor-rigidity. Cellular associations held after allowing for potentially confounding effect of hydrogen-breath-test or Helicobacter status. Moreover, additional reduction in stride and speed (68 (24, 112 mm & 103 (38, 168 mm.s-1, each p=0.002 was seen with Helicobacter-positivity. Hydrogen-breath-test-positivity, itself, was associated with higher natural-killer and T-helper counts, lower neutrophils (p=0.005, 0.02 & 0.008. Conclusion We propose a rigidity-associated subordinate pathway, flagged by a higher natural-killer count, tempered by a higher T-helper, against which Helicobacter protects by keeping SIBO at bay.

Dobbs R

2012-10-01

110

The effect on early plaque formation, gingivitis and salivary bacterial counts of mouthwashes containing hexetidine/zinc, aminefluoride/tin or chlorhexidine.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of mouthwashes containing hexetidine/zinc (HZA) or tin (ASF) in inhibiting plaque formation and gingivitis in humans. 24 dental students and assistants participated in the study (latin square design) with 7-day test periods. They rinsed twice daily for 1 min with one of the following formulations: HZA = 750 ppm hexetidine/750 ppm zinc acetate, ASF = 100 ppm aminefluorid/310 ppm stannous fluoride, CHX = 0.1% chlorhexidine and M = negative control. Plaque accumulation was determined planimetrically and gravimetrically. Gingivitis was evaluated with the papillary bleeding index. Total colony forming units and S. mutans counts were estimated from saliva samples. The results showed that HZA and CHX almost completely inhibited plaque accumulation and gingivitis. ASF was less effective than HZA and CHX but still reduced plaque significantly compared to the negative control. Furthermore, CHX reduced salivary S. mutans counts. PMID:3479455

Hefti, A F; Huber, B

1987-10-01

111

Effects of repeated intra-articular administration of amikacin on serum amyloid A, total protein and nucleated cell count in synovial fluid from healthy horses  

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REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Serum amyloid A (SAA) in synovial fluid has recently been used as a marker for septic arthritis in horses but the effects of repeated intra-articular (IA) administration of amikacin on synovial SAA concentrations are unknown. OBJECTIVES: To report the effect of repeated IA administration of amikacin on SAA, total protein (TP), nucleated cell count (NCC) and differential NCC in synovial fluid of healthy equine joints. METHODS: A controlled, 2 period crossove...

Sanchez Teran, A. F.; Rubio-martinez, Luis M.; Villarino, N. F.; Sanz, Macarena G.

2012-01-01

112

Total Degradation of EDTA by Mixed Cultures and a Bacterial Isolate  

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A bacterial mixed culture, which was obtained from sewage by a special enrichment procedure, utilized EDTA as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen for growth. High concentrations of mineral salts, particularly CaCl2, or the use of a mineral base without nitrogen protected the cells from inactivation after transfer into fresh medium containing 200-mg/liter (0.67 mM) EDTA. The chemical speciation did not influence the biodegradability of EDTA. However, when resting cells of the mixed culture ...

1992-01-01

113

Influence of addition of different antibiotics in semen diluent on viable bacterial count and spermatozoal viability of Awassi ram semen  

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The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of six different antibiotics in controlling the growth of semen contaminating bacteria and if these antibiotics have any adverse effect on Awassi ram spermatozoa. Semen samples from six mature Awassi rams were used in this study. A total number of 120 ejaculates were collected from the rams using an artificial vagina once a week. Semen ejaculates were evaluated for volume, sperm concentration, mass motility, individual motility...

Azawi, O. I.; Ismaeel, M. A.

2012-01-01

114

Versatile assay for total cellulase activity using U-(/sup 14/C)-labelled bacterial cellulose  

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A versatile and sensitive assay for total cellulase activity and not just carboxymethylcellulase activity, is described. The method is equally suitable for studying the kinetics of solubilization of cellulose by growing cells or isolated enzyme fractions. 5 references.

Du Preez, P.; Kistner, A.

1986-01-01

115

Evaluation of total IgE, CRP and blood count parameters in children with asthma and allergic rhinitis  

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Objective: This study aimed to research retrospectivelywhether asthma and allergic rhinitis are related to totalIgE, C-reactive protein (CRP) and complete blood countparameters.Materials and methods: Files of 443 children who appliedto pediatric outpatient clinics of our hospital,aged2-18 were retrospectively investigated. Patients weregrouped into three as asthma (n=179), allergic rhinitis (n=171) and control group (n= 93). Patients’ ages, genders,total IgE, CRP and hemogram values were re...

2013-01-01

116

All about Carbohydrate Counting  

Science.gov (United States)

All About Carbohydrate Counting American Diabetes Association? ? 1–800–DIABETES (342–2383)? ? www.diabetes.org ©2009 by ... Diabetes Association, Inc. 2/14 Toolkit No. 14: All About Carbohydrate Counting continued • If the total carbohydrate ...

117

The application of Monte Carlo modelling to downhole total-count logging of uranium: part I - low grade mineralisation  

Science.gov (United States)

Gamma-ray logging probes are used extensively within the uranium industry to assist with in situ ore-grade estimates by relating count rates to those obtained from model pits. Correction factors are required to accommodate for the differences between field conditions and the model pits, which are often difficult or even impractical to derive empirically. Gamma-ray transport modelling provides the means to better understand how gamma rays are affected by different logging situations. Corrections for casing, water presence and borehole diameter can be calculated for the relevant probe characteristics such as crystal size and composition, low-energy threshold and probe housing (including shielding). An integral part of correcting gamma probe data is the dead-time and Z-effect correction which can be obtained from logging model pits. Modelling has identified the significance of the low-energy threshold of the detector and the effect of the U grades itself on the correction factors. The proposed method for conversion to equivalent uranium is demonstrated by application to data collected at the Angela deposit in the Northern Territory, Australia.

Dickson, Bruce

2013-01-01

118

Leukocyte-subset counts in idiopathic parkinsonism provide clues to a pathogenic pathway involving small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. A surveillance study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Following Helicobacter pylori eradication in idiopathic parkinsonism (IP), hypokinesia improved but flexor-rigidity increased. Small intestinal bacterial-overgrowth (SIBO) is a candidate driver of the rigidity: hydrogen-breath-test-positivity is common in IP and case histories suggest that Helicobacter keeps SIBO at bay. Methods In a surveillance study, we explore relationships of IP-facets to peripheral immune/inflammatory-activation, in light of presence/absence of Helicobacter infection (urea-breath- and/or stool-antigen-test: positivity confirmed by gastric-biopsy) and hydrogen-breath-test status for SIBO (positivity: >20 ppm increment, 2 consecutive 15-min readings, within 2h of 25G lactulose). We question whether any relationships found between facets and blood leukocyte subset counts stand in patients free from anti-parkinsonian drugs, and are robust enough to defy fluctuations in performance consequent on short t½ therapy. Results Of 51 IP-probands, 36 had current or past Helicobacter infection on entry, 25 having undergone successful eradication (median 3.4 years before). Thirty-four were hydrogen-breath-test-positive initially, 42 at sometime (343 tests) during surveillance (2.8 years). Hydrogen-breath-test-positivity was associated inversely with Helicobacter-positivity (OR 0.20 (95% CI 0.04, 0.99), pSIBO at bay.

2012-01-01

119

Some hematological parameters and the prognostic values of CD4, CD8 and total lymphocyte counts and CD4/CD8 cell count ratio in healthy HIV sero-negative, healthy HIV sero-positive and AIDS subjects in Port Harcourt, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study attempts to determine normal values of CD4, CD8, CD4/CD8 ratio, total WBC and differential counts, hematocrit and total lymphocyte count (TLC in healthy HIV sero-negative and sero-positive subjects, and to assess the prognostic significance of these parameters in these subjects as compared to AIDS subjects.METHODS: A total of 300 subjects (147 M, 153 F aged between 17 and 71 years were recruited into the study. Subjects were separated according to sex and divided into three groups: Group A: healthy HIV sero-negative subjects; Group B: healthy HIV sero-positive newly diagnosed ART-naïve subjects; and Group C: AIDS subjects. CD4 and CD8 counts were determined by flow cytometry; hematocrit was determined using Hawksley micro-capillary tubes; total WBC and differential counts were determined manually with the improved Neubauer counting chamber; and TLC was obtained by multiplying the percentage of lymphocytes by the total WBC count.RESULTS: For male subjects, significant differences were found in CD4 count, CD4/CD8 count ratio, hematocrit, total WBC and TLC, whereas for female subjects, significant differences were found only in CD4 and CD4/CD8 count ratio in the three groups of subjects. In both sexes, however, these parameters were found to be highest in healthy HIV sero-negative subjects and lowest in AIDS subjects, with HIV sero-positive subjects having intermediate values. CONCLUSION: The results confirm previous reports that the CD4 count and CD4/CD8 count ratio are fairly reliable indicators of the progression of HIV infection. In addition, the results also apparently suggest that the prognostic value of CD8 count is limited and that of TLC possibly sex-dependent. The results could be of importance in our environment since previous reports have been relatively scarce.

Blessing Didia

2008-12-01

120

The Effect Of 8 Day Storage At 4?C On Total Nucleated Cell Count, Cell Viability, And Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Forming Unit Of Mobilized Peripheral Blood  

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Full Text Available Background: Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC transplantation has brought the possibility of the use of high dose chemotherapy in the treatment of malignant hematopoietic diseases. Short-term HSC preservation at 4?C is the most common method for autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT. Materials and Methods: Thirty-seven mobilized PBSC samples from thirteen hematological patients (4 AML, 4 MM and 5 Lymphoma cases who were selected for autologous PBSCT and 24 normal candidates for allogenic PBSCT were preserved in five separate sterile 2 ml tubes in 4?C. Each sample was evaluated for total nucleated cell (TNC count, dye exclusion cell viability and Granulocyte-Macrophage colony forming unit (GM-CFU; in semisolid medium after 16 days in days 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8. The results were converted to percentages of day 0 measures. The data were analyzed by SPSS 10.0 using Paired Samples T test, Independent Samples T test and Regression. Results: The mean percentages (and standard deviations of TNC count, cell viability and GM-CFU for days 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 are shown below: No significant correlation was found between age, sex, weight and the kind of donor with TNC, viability and GM-CFU. Conclusion: In this study, we have found that during storage of mobilized PBSC in 4?C, TNC count and cell viability still remains higher than 70% after eight days, while GM-CFU decreases more rapidly and falls to less than 50% after day 4.Therefore, TNC count and cell viability do not decrease as fast as GM-CFU.

Mohyeddin Bonab M

2004-06-01

 
 
 
 
121

Assessment of bacterial growth and total organic carbon removal on granular activated carbon contactors.  

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The overall growth rate of bacteria on granular activated carbon (GAC) contactors at the Philadelphia Torresdale Water Treatment Pilot Plant facility was found to decrease until steady state was reached. The growth rate was found to fluctuate between 6.94 X 10(-3) and 8.68 X 10(-4) doublings per h. The microbiological removal of total organic carbon (TOC) was calculated by considering the GAC contactors as semiclosed continuous culture systems and using growth yield factors determined in labo...

Bancroft, K.; Maloney, S. W.; Mcelhaney, J.; Suffet, I. H.; Pipes, W. O.

1983-01-01

122

Total neutron-counting plutonium inventory measurement systems (PIMS) and their potential application to near real time materials accountancy (NRTMA)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A radiometric method of determining the inventory of an operating plutonium plant is described. An array of total neutron counters distributed across the plant is used to estimate hold-up at each plant item. Corrections for the sensitivity of detectors to plutonium in adjacent plant items are achieved through a matrix approach. This paper describes our experience in design, calibration and operation of a Plutonium Inventory Measurement System (PIMS) on an oxalate precipitation plutonium finishing line. Data from a recent trial of Near-Real-Time Materials Accounting (NRTMA) using the PIMS are presented and used to illustrate its present performance and problem areas. The reader is asked to consider what role PIMS might have in future accountancy systems

1988-01-01

123

Total alpha and beta determination by liquid scintillation counting in water samples from a Brazilian intercomparison exercise  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes CNEN/LAPOC's participation in the Brazilian Intercomparison Exercise (PNI) for simultaneous determination of total radioactivity in water samples, which took place in August and December 2008. The Proficiency Test (PT) also involved a short description of the nuclear analytical technique employed, emphasizing sources of uncertainty. A Liquid Scintillation System (Packard TRICARB 2700) was used with appropriate corrections applied to final results, expressed as Bq L-1. Participation and PT data provide independent information on performance of a Laboratory and have an important role in method validation; especially because it allows the assessment of method performance over an entire range of concentrations and matrices. PT is also an important tool to demonstrate equivalence of measurements, if not their metrological comparability, and to promote education and improvement of Lab practices. (author)

2009-10-02

124

Comparison of AgNOR Count and AgNOR Surface Area/Total Nuclear Surface Area Proportions to Sex and Age in Cases with Cystic Nodular Goitre  

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Full Text Available Aim: Different proteins have different roles in various diseases. Argyrophilic nucleolar organising region associated proteins (AgNORs are synthesized from secondary constriction of acrocentric chromosome interested in a variety of diseases including thyroid disorders.Our aim was the comparison of the AgNOR count and AgNOR surface area/total nuclear surface area (NORa/TNa proportions to different sex and age in cases with cystic nodular goitre.Materials and Methods: Twenty female (age range 26-78 and male (age range 26-79 whose fine needle aspiration (FNA materials were compatible with cystic nodular goitre were included in the study. Those biopsy materials were stained for AgNOR detection according to a specific protocol. 100 nuclei per individual have been evaluated, and both AgNOR count and NORa/TNa values of individual cells were detected for each group.Results: Female patients with cystic nodular goitre had not significantly (p=0.131 higher AgNOR count (2.05±0.46% and NORa/TNa (6.53±1.21% than in males (2.35±0.66% and 7.03±1.12% (p=0.211, respectively. Additionally, there is not any correlation between age and AgNOR number (r=0.085 p=0.627 and NORa/TÇa ratio (r=0.286; p=0.096 in both of male and female.Conclusion: There is not any relationship between AgNOR protein synthesis and both of age and sex in cases with cystic nodular goitre.

Eröz R et al.

2012-05-01

125

Effects of temperature and fertilization on the structure of total versus active bacterial communities from sub-Antarctic seawater exposed to crude oil and diesel fuel  

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Full Text Available Polar environments are exposed to the risk of oil pollution. However, there is limited knowledge regarding how the variation of physicochemical factors influencing biodegradation may affect bacterial community structure. The effects of temperature (4, 10 and 20°C and organic fertilization (Inipol EAP 22 on community structure and diversity of bacteria inhabiting Kerguelen sub-Antarctic waters were studied in crude- and diesel-amended microcosms. Dynamics of total (i.e., 16S rDNA-based and metabolically active (i.e., 16S rRNA-based bacterial community structure and diversity were monitored using capillary-electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism. Results showed that total and active community structures were differently influenced by temperature and fertilization in the presence of hydrocarbons. Both fertilization and temperature induced changes in total community structure in the presence of crude oil and diesel. However, temperature showed a limited influence on active community structure, and fertilization induced changes in the presence of crude oil only. Simpson's index decreased for total bacterial communities at all temperatures in the presence of crude oil and diesel, whereas a lower reduction was observed for active bacterial populations. In the presence of fertilizer, the diversity of the whole community approached control values after seven incubation weeks; this was not observed for the active bacterial community. This study evidenced qualitative differences in total and active bacterial community structures of Kerguelen seawaters in the presence of hydrocarbons and different responses relative to variation in temperature and fertilization. These factors and hydrocarbons composition have to be taken into account to understand bacterial community dynamics after an oil spill.

Arturo Rodríguez-Blanco

2013-05-01

126

Comparison of total coliform, fecal coliform, and enterococcus bacterial indicator response for ocean recreational water quality testing.  

Science.gov (United States)

In July 1999, California's ocean recreational bacterial water quality standards were changed from a total coliform (TC) test to a standard requiring testing for all three bacterial indicators: TC, fecal coliforms (FC), and enterococci (EC). To compare the relationship between the bacterial indicators, and the effect that changing the standards would have on recreational water regulatory actions, three regional studies were conducted along the southern California shoreline from Santa Barbara to San Diego, California. Two studies were conducted during dry weather and one following a large storm event. In each study, samples were collected at over 200 sites which were selected using a stratified random design, with strata consisting of open beach areas and rocky shoreline, and areas near freshwater outlets that drain land-based runoff. During the dry weather studies, samples were collected once per week for 5 weeks. For the storm event study, sampling occurred on a single day about 24 h following the storm. The three indicator bacteria were measured at each site and the results were compared to the single sample standards (TC > 10,000; FC > 400 and EC > 104 MPN or cfu/100 ml). EC was the indicator that failed the single sample standards most often. During the wet weather study, 99% of all standard failures were detected using EC, compared with only 56% for FC, and 40% for TC. During the Summer Study, EC was again the indicator that failed the single sample standards most often, with 60% of the failures for EC alone. The increased failure of the EC standard occurred consistently regardless of whether the sample was collected at a beach or rocky shoreline site, or at a site near a freshwater outlet. Agreement among indicators was better during wet weather than during dry weather. During dry weather, agreement among indicators was better near freshwater outlets than along open shoreline. Cumulatively, our results suggest that replacement of a TC standard with an EC standard will lead to a five-fold increase in failures during dry weather and a doubling of failures during wet weather. Replacing a TC standard with one based on all three indicators will lead to an eight-fold increase in failures. Changes in the requirements for water quality testing have strong implications for increases in beach closures and restrictions. PMID:12600392

Noble, R T; Moore, D F; Leecaster, M K; McGee, C D; Weisberg, S B

2003-04-01

127

Influence of total rotation angle and arm positions on the reconstructed count distribution in cardiac SPECT studies performed without attenuation correction: simulations based on CT images  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: In gated blood pool SPECT studies, the volume of the heart ventricles may be determined by a method based on counts. The present work was carried out to determine how the attenuation of photons modifies the reconstructed counts in different regions of a SPECT image of the heart, and how the calculated volumes are influenced by the total acquisition angle. Thoracic CT slices through the central part of the heart, obtained from three patients, were used to simulate the effects of attenuation on SPECT imaging of the heart. Each of three images were converted to arrays containing the linear attenuation coefficients (?-maps) by the use of a look-up table. The table provided the linear attenuation coefficient (?) of 140 KeV photons corresponding to a CT number (HU) entry. Based on these ?-maps, the attenuation along a path from any given point to an imaginary detector could be calculated for any direction of view. For each point in the image, the attenuation values for all actual directions of view were summed and averaged. Subsequently, an array of correction factors (chang coefficients, CC) was built. The specially designed computer program allowed us to add or removed the arms from the image before simulations. The angular SPECT acquisition interval simulated was either 360o or 180o, and the angular spacing was 1o. In the case of a 180o rotation, the acquisition spanned from the 45o RAO to the 45o LPO view. Regions of interest were drawn that covered the entire heart cross section, and the left and right ventricles, respectively. Mean values as well as standard deviations of the CC were calculated for each of there regions. The mean CC in the heart region was 10-20 % higher for a rotation of 360o than for a 180o rotation. As an average for the there patients, the ratio between the mean CC of the left and right ventricle regions, were 1.27 and 1.14 for the 180o and the 360o acquisitions, respectively. The presence of arms in the image lead to increase in both CC and their corresponding standard deviations. Unless a proper attenuation correction method is used, 360o orbit seems to be preferable over 180o for cardiac gated blood pool SPECT, at least when count based methods are applied. (author)

2002-01-08

128

ASSESSMENT AND IMPLICATIONS OF BACTERIAL REGROWTH IN WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

Two water distribution systems were studied over a 1-year period. Temporal fluctuations in a number of physical, chemical and biological parameters were examined. Total and pigmented bacterial counts, total coliforms, and fecal coliforms were determined at four locations within e...

129

Compressed Counting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Counting is among the most fundamental operations in computing. For example, counting the pth frequency moment has been a very active area of research, in theoretical computer science, databases, and data mining. When p=1, the task (i.e., counting the sum) can be accomplished using a simple counter. Compressed Counting (CC) is proposed for efficiently computing the pth frequency moment of a data stream signal A_t, where 0

Li, Ping

2008-01-01

130

The calorically restricted low-fat nutrient-dense diet in Biosphere 2 significantly lowers blood glucose, total leukocyte count, cholesterol, and blood pressure in humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biosphere 2 is a 3.15-acre space containing an ecosystem that is energetically open (sunlight, electric power, and heat) but materially closed, with air, water, and organic material being recycled. Since September 1991, eight subjects (four women and four men) have been sealed inside, living on food crops grown within. Their diet, low in calories (average, 1780 kcal/day; 1 kcal = 4.184 kJ), low in fat (10% of calories), and nutrient-dense, conforms to that which in numerous animal experiments has promoted health, retarded aging, and extended maximum life span. We report here medical data on the eight subjects, comparing preclosure data with data through 6 months of closure. Significant changes included: (i) weight, 74 to 62 kg (men) and 61 to 54 kg (women); (ii) mean systolic/diastolic blood pressure (eight subjects), 109/74 to 89/58 mmHg (1 mmHg = 133 Pa); (iii) total serum cholesterol, from 191 +/- 11 to 123 +/- 9 mg/dl (mean +/- SD; 36% mean reduction), and high density lipoprotein, from 62 +/- 8 to 38 +/- 5 (risk ratio unchanged); (iv) triglyceride, 139 to 96 mg/dl (men) and 78 to 114 mg/dl (women); (v) fasting glucose, 92 to 74 mg/dl; (vi) leukocyte count, 6.7 to 4.7 x 10(9) cells per liter. We conclude that drastic reductions in cholesterol and blood pressure may be instituted in normal individuals in Western countries by application of a carefully chosen diet and that a low-calorie nutrient-dense regime shows physiologic features in humans similar to those in other animal species. PMID:1454844

Walford, R L; Harris, S B; Gunion, M W

1992-12-01

131

The Influence of Sperm Morphology, Total Motile Sperm Count of Semen and the Number of Motile Sperm Inseminated in Sperm Samples on the Success of Intrauterine Insemination  

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Full Text Available Background: The present study aimed to analyze the prognostic value of sperm morphology , totalmotile sperm count (TMSC and the number of motile sperm inseminated (NMSI on the outcomeof intrauterine insemination (IUI.Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out 445 women undergoing 820IUI cycles. All of the patients underwent controlled ovarian hyper stimulation with clomiphencitrate and human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG followed by intrauterine inseminationwith the husband’s sperm. Pregnancy rate (PR per cycle in correlation to sperm morphology,TMSC and NMSI was obtained. Statistical analysis of the data was done by the SPSS version13 (Chicago,USA.Results: A total of 81 clinical pregnancies were obtained for a pregnancy rate per cycle of 9.9%.When the TMSC was 5×106 to <10×106, the PR per cycle was significantly higher than thesubgroups <1×106, 1×106 to <5×106 and ?10×106 (15%, 5.6%, 5.1%, 10.8%, respectively. Spermmorphology was in itself a significant factor that affected the likelihood of IUI success. Nonetheless,the most significant difference of the PR per cycle with sperm morphology was in the subgroup <5% (2.1% vs. 97.9%.When the NMSI was ?10×106, the PR per cycle was significantly higher thanthe subgroups<5×106 and 5×106 to< 10× 106 (11.2%, 4.1%, 5.2%, respectively.Conclusion: The study showed that TMSC 5×106 to < 10×106 and normal sperm morphology ? 5%and NMSI ? 10×106 are useful prognostic factors of IUI cycles.

Nasrin Saharkhiz

2011-01-01

132

Effects of Ensiling Total Mixed Potato Hash Ration with or without Bacterial Inoculation on Silage Fermentation and Nutritive Value for Growing Pigs  

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Total Mixed Rations (TMR) that contained 795 g kg-1 (as is basis) of Potato Hash (PH) were formulated and ensiled in 210 L drums (10 drums treatment-1) with or without lalsil fresh (heterofermentative lactic acid bacterial inoculant). After 3 months of ensiling, drums were opened and analysed for fermentation characteristics and nutritive value. This was followed by an 8 weeks growth study using forty crossbred pigs (Large white X landrace), twenty males and twenty femal...

Nkosi, B. D.; Kanengoni, A. T.; Thomas, R.

2011-01-01

133

Soil Type Is the Primary Determinant of the Composition of the Total and Active Bacterial Communities in Arable Soils  

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Degradation of agricultural land and the resulting loss of soil biodiversity and productivity are of great concern. Land-use management practices can be used to ameliorate such degradation. The soil bacterial communities at three separate arable farms in eastern England, with different farm management practices, were investigated by using a polyphasic approach combining traditional soil analyses, physiological analysis, and nucleic acid profiling. Organic farming did not necessarily result in...

Girvan, Martina S.; Bullimore, Juliet; Pretty, Jules N.; Osborn, A. Mark; Ball, Andrew S.

2003-01-01

134

Ecophysiology of the developing total bacterial and Lactobacillus communities in the terminal small intestine of weaning piglets  

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Weaning of the pig is generally regarded as a stressful event which could lead to clinical implications because of the changes in the intestinal ecosystem. The functional properties of microbiota inhabiting the pig's small intestine (SI), including lactobacilli which are assumed to exert health-promoting properties, are yet poorly described. Thus, we determined the ecophysiology of bacterial groups and within genus Lactobacillus in the SI of weaning piglets and the impact of dietary changes. ...

Pieper, R.; Janzcyk, P.; Zeyner, A.; Smidt, H.; Guiard, V.; Souffrant, W. B.

2008-01-01

135

Behavior of Salmonella heidelberg and Salmonella enteritidis strains following broiler chick inoculation: evaluation of cecal morphometry, liver and cecum bacterial counts and fecal excretion patterns  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the years, Salmonella Heidelberg (SH has gained prominence in North America poultry production and in the poultry production of other countries. Salmonella Heidelberg has been isolated and reported from poultry and poultry products in Brazil since 1962, whereas Salmonella Enteritidis (SE has only emerged as a serious problem in poultry and public health since 1993. These strains of Salmonella can cause intestinal problems in newly hatched chicks, and infection may persist until adulthood. Upon slaughter of chickens, Salmonella can contaminate carcasses, a condition that poses a threat to human health. The aim of this study was to compare the fecal excretion of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Heidelberg in newly hatched chicks (orally inoculated with 10(5ufc/mL each until 20 days of age. In addition, the ratio of cecal villus height:crypt depth (morphometry and liver and cecum cell counts was analyzed in chicks ranging from 0 to 3 days of age and infected with these two Salmonella strains. One hundred seventeen chicks were separated into one of three experimental groups: a control group, an SE-infected group and an SH-infected group. Eight chicks per group were euthanized at 6, 12 and 72 hours post-inoculation (pi to allow for Salmonella isolation from the liver and cecum and for the collection of the cecum for villi and crypt analysis. Other birds were allowed to mature to 20 days of age and cloacal swabs were taken at 2, 6, 13 and 20 days pi to compare the fecal excretion of inoculated strains. The Salmonella Enteritidis group had a higher number of cells excreted during the trial. Both strains were isolated from the liver and cecum by 6h pi. At 12h pi the Salmonella Heidelberg group had high cell counts in the cecum. No difference was found in liver cell counts. Both strains showed lower villus height:crypt depth ratio than the control group post-infection.

Anderlise Borsoi

2011-03-01

136

New method for estimating bacterial cell abundances in natural samples by use of sublimation  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed a new method based on the sublimation of adenine from Escherichia coli to estimate bacterial cell counts in natural samples. To demonstrate this technique, several types of natural samples, including beach sand, seawater, deep-sea sediment, and two soil samples from the Atacama Desert, were heated to a temperature of 500 degrees C for several seconds under reduced pressure. The sublimate was collected on a cold finger, and the amount of adenine released from the samples was then determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV absorbance detection. Based on the total amount of adenine recovered from DNA and RNA in these samples, we estimated bacterial cell counts ranging from approximately 10(5) to 10(9) E. coli cell equivalents per gram. For most of these samples, the sublimation-based cell counts were in agreement with total bacterial counts obtained by traditional DAPI (4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining.

Glavin, Daniel P.; Cleaves, H. James; Schubert, Michael; Aubrey, Andrew; Bada, Jeffrey L.

2004-01-01

137

Comparison between MICRO–CARD–FISH and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries to assess the active versus total bacterial community in the coastal Arctic.  

Science.gov (United States)

We collected surface- and deep-water samples (maximum depth 300 m) during the spring–summer transition in the coastal Arctic along a transect in the Kongsfjorden (Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen, Norway) to determine the structure of the active versus total marine bacterioplankton community using different approaches. Catalysed reporter deposition– fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with microautoradiography (MICRO–CARD–FISH) was used to determine the abundance and activity of different bacterial groups. The bacterial communities were dominated by members of Alphaproteobacteria followed by Bacteroidetes, whereas Gammaproteobacteria were present at low abundance but exhibited a high percentage of active cells taking up leucine. The clone libraries of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA) and 16S rRNA from two different depths were used to decipher the bacterial community structure. Independently of the type of clone libraries analysed (16S rDNA- or 16S rRNA-based), four major and four minor taxonomic groups were detected. The bacterioplankton community was mainly dominated at both the DNA and the RNA levels by Alphaproteobacteria followed by Gammaproteobacteria. The Rhodobacteriaceae were the most abundant members of the Alphaproteobacteria in both DNA and RNA clone libraries, followed by the SAR11 clade, which was only detectable at the 16S PMID:23565124

De Corte, Daniele; Sintes, Eva; Yokokawa, Taichi; Herndl, Gerhard J

2013-04-01

138

Serum total IgE levels and total eosinophil counts: relationship with treatment response in patients with acute asthma Relação dos níveis séricos de IgE total e das contagens de eosinófilos com a resposta ao tratamento em pacientes com asma aguda  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether serum total IgE levels and total eosinophil counts have any relationship with the response to routine pharmacological treatment in patients with acute asthma. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 162 patients with acute asthma. Serum total IgE levels, peripheral blood cell counts and eosinophil counts were determined. The treatment was adjusted for each patient according to the severity of asthma. Spirometry was performed at baseline and two weeks after the treatment. The patients were divided into two groups: high IgE (>100 IU/mL and low IgE (OBJETIVO: Determinar se há uma relação dos níveis de IgE total no soro e das contagens de eosinófilos com a resposta à farmacoterapia de rotina em pacientes com asma aguda. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 162 pacientes com asma aguda. Foram determinados os níveis séricos de IgE total, as contagens de células no sangue periférico e as contagens de eosinófilos. O tratamento foi ajustado individualmente de acordo com a gravidade da asma. Foi realizada espirometria antes do início do tratamento e duas semanas após seu término. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: alto nível de IgE (> 100 UI/mL e baixo nível de IgE (< 100 UI/mL. Foram comparadas entre os dois grupos as relações das determinações basais e das alterações em percentual dos seguintes parâmetros: VEF, CVF, FEF25-75%, contagem de células brancas no sangue periférico e contagem de eosinófilos. RESULTADOS:Não houve diferenças significativas entre os grupos em relação às alterações em percentual dos parâmetros estudados. Tampouco houve diferenças significativas entre os grupos em relação aos valores basais de VEF, CVF e FEF25-75%, em % do predito. CONCLUSÕES: Com base nesses achados, concluímos que os níveis séricos de IgE total, as contagens de células brancas no sangue periférico e as contagens de eosinófilos não são preditores do tratamento farmacológico de pacientes com asma aguda.

Ebrahim Razi

2010-02-01

139

Total volatile fatty acids and bacterial production rates as affected by rations containing untreated or ammonia (urea) treated rice straw in croos-bred cattle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding ammoniated rice straw on ruminal total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) and bacterial production rates. Twelve karan swiss, male, rumen fistulated calves (2-2.5 yrs) were divided in three equal groups. Animals were offered rice straw either untreated (A) or 4 per cent urea+40 per cent moisture treated and ensiled for 30 days (B) or 5 per cent urea+30 per cent moisture treated and ensiled for 30 days (C). Protein requirements were met through concentrate mixture. Levels of NH3-N and TCA-precipitable-N in strained rumen liquor (SRL) were significantly higher (20.34±0.022, 63.26±0.81 (B), 20.78±0.41, 64.98±0.87 (C) (mg/100 ml SRL) in groups fed ammoniated ±0.31, 45.94±1.91 mg/100 ml S RL), respectively. The bacterial production rates in the rumen (g/day) were significantly higher in groups B and C as compared to group A. TVFA concentrations (mmole/100 ml SRL ) and TVFA production rates (mmole/d) were also significantly higher in groups B and C as compared to group A. The bacterial production rates were significantly co-related with TVFA, NH3-N, TCA precipitable-N concentration in the rumen and ATP production. Multiple regression equations relating bacterial production rates with (i)NH3-N and TVFA concentration in the rumen, (ii)NH3-N and TVFA production rates and (iii)NH3-N and ATP produced were also developed. (author). 18 refs., 2 tabs

1990-01-01

140

Reticulocyte count  

Science.gov (United States)

A reticulocyte count measures the percentage of reticulocytes (slightly immature red blood cells) in the blood. ... marrow at an appropriate rate. The number of reticulocytes in the blood is a sign of how ...

 
 
 
 
141

Counting cormorants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This chapter focuses on Cormorant population counts for both summer (i.e. breeding) and winter (i.e. migration, winter roosts) seasons. It also explains differences in the data collected from undertaking â??dayâ?? versus â??roostâ?? counts, gives some definitions of the term â??numbersâ??, and presents two examples of how numerical data can be used to calculate â??Cormorant daysâ?? and breeding success.

Bregnballe, Thomas; Carss, David N

2013-01-01

142

Determination of Pu content in a Spent Fuel Assembly by Measuring Passive Total Neutron count rate and Multiplication with the Differential Die-Away Instrument  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Inspired by approach of Bignan and Martin-Didier (ESARDA 1991) we introduce novel (instrument independent) approach based on multiplication and passive neutron. Based on simulations of SFL-1 the accuracy of determination of {sup tot}Pu content with new approach is {approx}1.3-1.5%. Method applicable for DDA instrument, since it can measure both multiplication and passive neutron count rate. Comparison of pro's & con's of measuring/determining of {sup 239}Pu{sub eff} and {sup tot}Pu suggests a potential for enhanced diversion detection sensitivity.

Henzl, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Croft, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-13

143

Determination of Pu content in a Spent Fuel Assembly by Measuring Passive Total Neutron count rate and Multiplication with the Differential Die-Away Instrument  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inspired by approach of Bignan and Martin-Didier (ESARDA 1991) we introduce novel (instrument independent) approach based on multiplication and passive neutron. Based on simulations of SFL-1 the accuracy of determination of totPu content with new approach is ?1.3-1.5%. Method applicable for DDA instrument, since it can measure both multiplication and passive neutron count rate. Comparison of pro's and con's of measuring/determining of 239Pueff and totPu suggests a potential for enhanced diversion detection sensitivity.

2012-07-15

144

Bacterial Contamination of Iranian Paper Currency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Transmission of human pathogens can be occurred via inert objects. Paper currency is a further common contact surface whereby pathogens can be transferred within a population although the significance remains unknown. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate microbial populations associated with Iranian paper currency.Methods: This study was carried out by getting 108 samples of the Iranian currency notes (1000, 2000, 5000, 10000, 20000 and 50000 RIALS from food-related shops that included food service outlets, greengrocery, supermarket, bakery, confectionary and poultry meat retail outlets. All currency notes were examined for total bacterial count and identification of pathogenic bacteria.Results: The average total bacterial count that was recovered from currency notes was found to be 3.27±0.31 colony forming unites. 2000R had the highest total bacterial count, followed by 5000R, 10000R and the lowest in 50000R. In this study, the isolated bacteria recovered were Bacillus cereus (8.33%, E. coli (48.14%, Staphylococcus aureus (28.7%, Salmonella (0.92%, Listeria monocytogenes (0.92%, Yersinia entrocolitica (6.48%. It was revealed that all the pathogens screened for where encountered on currency notes were recovered from one sample. There were no significant (P>0.05 correlations between the carriage of pathogens/fecal indicator bacteria and currency note condition.Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that Iranian currency notes represent a significant vehicle for human pathogens.

Mir-Hassan Moosavy

2013-09-01

145

Rapid G+ count and subpopulation assessment of the intestinal bacteria in Apodemus sylvaticus and Mus musculus by flow cytometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a novel application of calcein-acetomethyl ester in flow cytometry for rapid estimation of the number of G+-bacteria in rodent feces (Apodemus sylvaticus and Mus sp.f. muridae). We also use the combined application of flow cytometry and Syto-13 or Sypro Orange staining to count rapidly the total bacterial population and to describe bacterial subpopulations in the intestine. PMID:15702550

Moragues, M; Comas-Riu, J; Vives-Rego, J

2004-01-01

146

Effects of Ensiling Total Mixed Potato Hash Ration with or without Bacterial Inoculation on Silage Fermentation and Nutritive Value for Growing Pigs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Total Mixed Rations (TMR that contained 795 g kg-1 (as is basis of Potato Hash (PH were formulated and ensiled in 210 L drums (10 drums treatment-1 with or without lalsil fresh (heterofermentative lactic acid bacterial inoculant. After 3 months of ensiling, drums were opened and analysed for fermentation characteristics and nutritive value. This was followed by an 8 weeks growth study using forty crossbred pigs (Large white X landrace, twenty males and twenty females weighing 203 kg. Inoculating the TMR with lalsil fresh reduced (p-1 which could be attributed to the lower dietary protein (-1 DM and higher fibre contents. Further research is needed to evaluate effects of enzyme addition on the ensiling of potato hash and supplementation of energy and protein on feed intake and growth performance of pigs consuming the silage.

R. Thomas

2011-01-01

147

Heterotrophic plate count vs. in situ bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicon profiles from drinking water reveal completely different communities with distinct spatial and temporal allocations in a distribution net  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Heterotrophic plate count using ISO 6222 agar (HPC) vs. in situ bacterial (DF) community structure from corresponding samples of a drinking water distribution system were investigated by 16S rRNA gene-based polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR DGGE) profiling. The i [...] nvestigation regime covered 10 different sampling locations and 2 points in time (t1, t2). In order to ensure accurate and reproducible 16S rRNA gene profile analysis, rigorous methodical evaluation and standardisation procedures were undertaken (DGGE optimisation, replication of PCR, multiple-lane standardisation, representative sampling volume determination, application of multiple similarity coefficients). The reproducibility level of the profile analysis was determined to be > 90% similarity. Two completely different communities were revealed from HPC vs. DF as indicated by DGGE analysis and sequencing. HPC populations could be identified as ubiquitously occurring cultivable copiotrophic microbes, whilst most DF sequences could be allocated to sequences from microorganisms found in oligotrophic aquatic environments. Spatial- and temporal-based 16S rRNA gene amplicon profile analysis from recovered communities further revealed contrasting results. As proven by Jackknife simulations, DF profiles remarkably corresponded to sampling time, whereas HPC profiles revealed spatial associations within the distribution system. Recovered data demonstrate that cultivation based HPC vs. direct cell-based investigations can result in completely different results if used for monitoring purposes in distribution systems.

MM, Burtscher; F, Zibuschka; RL, Mach; G, Lindner; AH, Farnleitner.

148

Counting Money  

Science.gov (United States)

Today you are going to practice counting money. We will be reviewing the penny, nickel, and dime, and quarter. The coin with the lowest value is the penny. Here is a picture of a penny. A penny is worth one cent or $0.01picture of a penny The next coin of the lowest value is the nickel. Here is a picture of a nickel. picture of a nickel A nickel is worth five cents or $0.05 The next coin ...

Areese

2008-09-25

149

Counting probe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electron counting method has been devised and experimented for the purpose of measuring electron temperature and density, the most fundamental quantities to represent plasma conditions. Electron counting is a method to count the electrons in plasma directly by equipping a probe with the secondary electron multiplier. It has three advantages of adjustable sensitivity, high sensitivity of the secondary electron multiplier, and directional property. Sensitivity adjustment is performed by changing the size of collecting hole (pin hole) on the incident front of the multiplier. The probe is usable as a direct reading thermometer of electron temperature because it requires to collect very small amount of electrons, thus it doesn't disturb the surrounding plasma, and the narrow sweep width of the probe voltage is enough. Therefore it can measure anisotropy more sensitively than a Langmuir probe, and it can be used for very low density plasma. Though many problems remain on anisotropy, computer simulation has been carried out. Also it is planned to provide a Helmholtz coil in the vacuum chamber to eliminate the effect of earth magnetic field. In practical experiments, the measurement with a Langmuir probe and an emission probe mounted to the movable structure, the comparison with the results obtained in reverse magnetic field by using a Helmholtz coil, and the measurement of ionic sound wave are scheduled. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

1976-06-24

150

Counting tube  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The counting tube contains a flat rectangular chamber which has an electrode wire spread out in a meandering line. The cover plate has a window closed by a foil. In order to increase the sensitivity of the counter with respect to gamma radiation the inner walls of the chamber are coated with a gold layer of 2 to 3 ?m thickness. Thus the sensitivity for the gamma radiation of iodine 129 can be increased by a factor of 30. A flushing gas causes diffused in O_2 to be discharged. (DG)

1979-01-01

151

Comparative microbial sampling from eutrophic caves in Slovenia and Slovakia using RIDA®COUNT test kits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available RIDA®COUNT test plates were used as an easy-to-handle and rapid indicator of microbial counts in karst ecosystems of several caves in Slovakia and Slovenia. All of the caves had a high organic input from water streams, tourists, roosting bat colonies or terrestrial surroundings. We sampled swabs, water and air samples to test robustness and universality of the RIDA®COUNT test kit (R-Biopharm AG, Germany, http://www.r-biopharm.com/ for quantification of total bacteria, coliforms, yeast and mold. Using data from swabs (colony-forming units CFU per cm2 we proposed a scale for description of biocontamination level or superficial microbial load of cave niches. Based on this scale, surfaces of Ardovská Cave, Drienovská Cave and Stará Brzotínská Cave (Slovakia were moderately colonized by microbes, with total microbial counts (sum of total bacterial count and total yeast and molds count in the range of 1,001-10,000 CFU/100 cm2, while some surfaces from the show cave Postojna Cave (Slovenia can be considered highly colonized by microbes (total microbial counts ? 10,001 CFU/100 cm2. Ardovská Cave also had a high concentration of airborne microbes, which can be explained by restricted air circulation and regular bat activity. The ratio of coliform to total counts of bacteria in the 9 km of underground Pivka River flow in Postojna Cave dropped approximately 4-fold from the entrance, indicating the high anthropogenic pollution in the most exposed site in the show cave. The RIDA®COUNT test kit was proven to be applicable for regular monitoring of eutrophication and human influence in eutrophic karst caves.

Mulec Janez

2012-01-01

152

White blood cell count - series (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

The White Blood Cell (WBC) Count measures two components: the total number of WBC's (leukocytes), and the differential count. ... and basophils) and non-granulocytes (lymphocytes and monocytes). White blood cells are a major component of the ...

153

Experimental infection of commercial layers with wild or attenuated Salmonella Gallinarum mutant strains: anatomic pathology, total blood cell count and serum protein levels  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate hemogram, blood serum components and anatomopathologic alterations in commercial layers experimentally challenged with an attenuated vaccine candidate strain (SG?cobS?cbiA) and other two pathogenic strains (SGDcobS and SGNalr) of Gallinarum [...] (SG). In total, 280 commercial layers were randomly divided into 4 groups (G1, G2, G3 and G4). At five days of age, birds from groups G1 received approximately 107 colony forming units (CFU) of SGDcobS; meanwhile birds from group G2 and G3 received the same dose of SGNalr and SG?cobS?cbiA, respectively. Birds from G4 were not infected. At 24 hours before (DBI) and 24 hours after (1 DAI), and three (3 DAI), five (5 DAI), seven (7 DAI) ten (10 DAI), and fifteen (15 DAI) days after the infection, 10 birds of each group were humanely killed and blood samples collected to hematological and serum tests. Samples of liver, spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, kidney and heart were also collected for the histological examination. Birds inoculated with SGDcobS and SGNalr showed similar alterations in hemogram, blood serum components and anatomopathologic exams. On the other hand, the exams of birds inoculated with SG?cobS?cbiA strain were similar to those of the uninfected birds. However, changes could be noticed in levels of uric acid and cholesterol during the course of the infection of birds from G3. Decrease in levels of light IgG 3 DAI was also observed in birds from this group. Pyknosis in kidney cells was a microscopic alteration found in birds from G3. Further studies must be done to verify if these alterations will not interfere in the performance of the vaccinate birds with SG?cobS?cbiA strain.

KO, Garcia; A, Berchieri Jr.; AM, Santana; MFF, Alarcon; OC, Freitas Neto; JJ, Fagliari.

154

HETEROTROPHIC PLATE COUNT (HPC) METHODOLOGY IN THE UNITED STATES  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT In the United States (U.S.), the history of bacterial plate counting methods used for water can be traced largely through Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (Standard Methods). The bacterial count method has evolved from the original St...

155

Money Counts  

Science.gov (United States)

In this math lesson, learners count and compare amounts of money less than or equal to one dollar. Learners begin by finding all of the possible combinations of coins that can be used to equal a specified amount of money. They then compare two amounts of money and use number sense skills and problem solving strategies to move coins from one group to another so that both groups are equal in value. Learners play the Money Exchange Game as they roll a die with money amounts and try to be the first person to obtain exactly $1.00. Learners must make monetary exchanges in the game such as trading ten pennies for a dime. Finally, learners shop in a puppet supply store where they are given one dollar to buy items to make a paper bag puppet.

Pbs

2012-01-01

156

Enumerating bacterial cells on bioadhesive coated slides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Quantifying bacterial abundance and biomass is fundamental to many microbiological studies. Directly counting via epifluorescence microscopy has become the method of choice, especially for environmental samples, and conventional techniques require filtration of cells onto black polycarbonate membrane filters. We investigated the utility of instead capturing stained bacterial suspensions on bioadhesive slides, performing tests using pure cultures of bacteria, mixtures of cultured bacteria, and environmental samples from five habitat types. When compared to the standard filtration and flow cytometric approaches, bioadhesive slides were found to be an accurate and precise platform for rapid enumeration of bacteria. Total bacterial counts made using the three methods were positively correlated for acridine orange and Live/Dead® (L/D) staining (0.81?r?0.95, all p?0.002). All platforms had similar precision, though counts obtained using bioadhesive slides were significantly higher than those made with polycarbonate filters and flow cytometry. The specific bioadhesive slides we used resulted in substantial cell mortality for certain pure cultures and river water samples, limiting their use for L/D determination. Cell enumeration using bioadhesive slides is particularly effective because it is highly precise at a wide range of cell concentrations, allows observation of cells that are not readily discernible on filters, reduces the number of steps and processing materials associated with sample analysis, and increases throughput. PMID:21893107

Franklin, Rima B; Campbell, Alaina H; Higgins, Colleen B; Barker, M Kensey; Brown, Bonnie L

2011-11-01

157

Irradiation of sangari (Prosopis cineraria): Effect on composition and microbial counts during storage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fresh dried and old dried sangari (Prosopis cineraria) were treated with 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 7.0 kGy of irradiation and subsequently stored at ambient temperatures. Proximate values and total bacterial counts were evaluated immediately after irradiation and at regular intervals of 1 month during 3 months of storage. No significant changes were found in moisture, fat, protein, ash and fiber contents. Total sugar content was increased in both control and irradiated samples possibly due to conversion of starch into sugars. Irradiation treatment reduces total bacterial counts of dried samples of both fresh and old dried sangari. However, a dose of 5.0 kGy completely decontaminated both sangari and there was no microbial growth in 5.0 kGy irradiated samples during the storage period. Irradiation at 5.0 kGy was enough to extend the shelf-life of dried sangari up to 3 months without any significant change in the nutritional qualities. - Highlights: > Sangari (Prosopis cineraria) was irradiated and stored at ambient temperature. > No significant changes were observed in proximate analysis during storage. > Starch content was decreased during storage at all irradiation doses. > A dose of 5 kGy was found appropriate to eliminate total bacterial counts.

Joshi, Priyanka [S. K. Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner 334 006 (India); Nathawat, N.S. [Central Arid Zone Research Institute, RRS, Bikaner 334 006 (India); Chhipa, B.G. [S. K. Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner 334 006 (India); Hajare, Sachin N. [Food Technology Divisions, BARC, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Goyal, Madhu; Sahu, M.P. [S. K. Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner 334 006 (India); Singh, Govind, E-mail: govindsingh10@rediffmail.com [S. K. Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner 334 006 (India)

2011-11-15

158

Concentrations of procalcitonin and C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, and the immature-to-total neutrophil ratio in the blood of neonates with nosocomial infections: Gram-negative bacilli vs coagulase-negative staphylococci  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was undertaken to determine whether concentrations of procalcitonin in the blood of neonates with nosocomial infections depend on the type of pathogen. Qualification for the study group was based on the clinical signs of infection. We found that infections with Gram-positive (chiefly coagulase-negative staphylococci) and Gram-negative bacteria are accompanied by elevated concentrations of procalcitonin. In the case of Gram-positive bacteria, other laboratory signs of infection studied by us (concentration of C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, immature-to-total neutrophil ratio) were not discriminatory, confirming the diagnostic usefulness of procalcitonin measurements in nosocomial infections of the neonate with Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria.

2011-01-01

159

Determination of main phylogenetic bacterial groups in hyporheic sediments of a small lowland stream (Sitka, Czech Republic) using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Community structure of biofilm microbial communities of hyporheic sediments in the small lowland Sitka Stream (Czech Republic) was analysed using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH provided detection of about 91 % of total DAPI-stained bacterial cells. In general, most of the EUB338-detectable cells (domain Eubacteria) could be related to the four major phylogenetic groups used in this study (?-, ?-, ?-Proteobacteria and Cytophaga-Flavobacterium). The microbial community structure of biofilm analysed was dominated by ?-Proteobacteria (36,3 % of the total counts). In addition to the domain Eubacteria, members of the domain Archaebacteria were detected in hyporheic sediments (approximately 6 % of total bacterial counts). (authors)

2003-06-01

160

Uso de aditivos promotores de crescimento sobre o desempenho, características de carcaça e bactérias totais do intestino de frangos de corte Use of growth promoters additives on performance, carcass yield and total intestinalbacteria counts in broiler  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de aditivos promotores de crescimento em substituição ao antibiótico sobre o desempenho, características de carcaça (partes e gordura abdominal e bactérias totais do intestino delgado e cecos de frangos de corte de 1 a 42 dias de idade, criados em cama reutilizada e alimentados com rações à base de milho moído e farelo de soja. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com um arranjo fatorial 7 x 2, correspondendo a 7 fontes de aditivos (antibiótico, basal, mananoligossacarídeo (MOS, frutoligossacarídeo (FOS, ácido fumárico, cogumelo desidratado e probiótico e dois sexos (macho e fêmea. Foram utilizados um total de 1680 pintos, sexados, da linhagem Hybro, distribuídos em 14 tratamentos com 04 repetições e 30 aves por parcela experimental. Foi observado efeito significativo (PThe objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of growth promoters additives on performance, carcass yield (parts and abdominal fat, total intestinal bacteria counts in broilers from 1 at 42 days old fed with corn and soybean meal based diets, compared to antibiotics supplementation diets. In this study were urilized a 7 x 2 factorial design, with seven differents additives (antibiotic, basal, MOS, FOS, fumaric acid, mutshroom extract and probiotic and two sex (males and females. A total of1680 sexed broilers chickens from Hybro line were distributed in 14 treatments, with 4 replicates and 30 chickens per experimental unit. Effects of growth promotant additives on feed intake , feed conversion and production efficiency factor were measured. Male chickens shown better performance results than females in all parameters evaluated, except for viability. Additives shown positive effects on carcars yield, parts yield, and abdominal fat. Male chickens were heavier at slaughter and shown higher leg yields than females. Additives also influenced total bacteria counts in duodenum and caecum altering the microbiota of the intestinal chickens. These changes in intestinal microbiota might have contributed for a higher stability and better survival of good microorganisms in the intestinal ecosystem, resulting in benefits for the host. The results of this study shown that the use the addictive as a growth promoters should be used in the feeding for broilers chickens, in substitution to the antibiotic, without affecting the performance and carcass yield , in the period from 1 to 42 days of age.

Éder Clementino dos Santos

2005-02-01

 
 
 
 
161

Effect of Chlorination Treatment on Gram Negative Bacterial Composition of Recycled Wastewater  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to assess the quality of recovered wastewater from the treatment plant of Mutah University, analysis was performed on samples collected from influent, polishing pool, chlorination tank and the ultimately disposal site at the university campus. In this assessment following parameters were used: temperature, BOD5, COD, effect of chlorination treatment, total bacterial counts (TBC, type of bacterial species isolated and the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria during the treatment. Though BOD5 and COD values of treated water were within the acceptable range of Jordanian standards, the bacterial counts suggested that the efficiency of applied chlorination treatment was inconsistent. This discrepancy was particularly noticed on the water sample collected from polishing pool. Chlorine treatment of wastewater was not an efficient disinfectant method, besides it`s potential to promote the production of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Some of the coliform species isolated from influent and effluent samples were found to be chlorine resistant. Such resistance seams to be species specific. Also an unexpected bacterial growth profile was observed where the total bacterial counts on some selective media were higher than the counts detected on enriched media. A re-evaluation for the current method of wastewater treatment is recommended.

Khaled Khleifat

2006-01-01

162

Bacterial Contamination of Tsire-Suya, a Nigerian Meat Product  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Samples of raw meat prior to roasting, and tsire-suya were analyzed bacteriologically for total viable, coliform, staphylococcal counts and the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The sensitivity of the bacterial isolates to some antibiotics and spices was evaluated. The total viable count varied from 20x102 to 289x102 cfu/g for the raw meat and 7x102 to 171x102 cfu/g for the tsire-suya. The coliform count was 4x102 to 71x102 cfu/g for the raw meat and 1x102 to 42x102 for the tsire-suya while the staphylococcal count ranged from 1x102 to 60x102 cfu/g for the raw meat and 1x102 to 12x102 cfu/g for tsire-suya. From results obtained, bacterial count was higher in raw meat than in tsire-suya. P. aeruginosa, B. cereus, S. aureus, and E. coli, were isolated from the raw meat and tsire-suya. The isolates were sensitive to some of the antibiotics and spices tested. However, E. coli was only sensitive to gentamicin. While P. aeruginosa on the other hand was resistant to Afromomum melegueta, Piper quinense and Capsicum fructescens, the three spices tested for this study. The incidence of the isolated bacteria in tsire-suya, a ready-to-eat meat product in Nigeria is of health significance.

R.E. Uzeh

2006-01-01

163

Preliminary Study on Efficacy of Leaves, Seeds and Bark Extracts of Moringa oleifera in Reducing Bacterial load in Water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Water quality and treatment are the most important issue in everywhere, especially in the developing countries, where safe and clean water is not continuously provided. Moringa oleifera is one of the best natural coagulants that has effectively used in water treatments. The aqueous extract of seeds, leaves and bark of Moringa oleifera was evaluated for their efficacy in reducing total bacterial load, coliform count and faecal coliform counts in the treatment of drinking water. The standard po...

2013-01-01

164

[Immunocorrecting therapy of chronic bacterial prostatitis].  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 55 patients aged 20-59 years with recurrent chronic bacterial prostatitis (RCBP) entered a trial of immunomodulator panavir. The study group consisted of 40 patients. They were given standard treatment and panavir. The control group (n = 15) matched by all the studied characteristics received standard treatment only. Blood count, bacteriological characteristics of prostatic secretion, immunological status, subjective parameters were studied. RCBP patients were diagnosed to have marked disorders of interferon status. The addition of panavir to standard treatment of RCBP patients significantly improved treatment results. Therefore, panavir is recommended as an adjuvant in combined RCBP treatment. PMID:20973134

Novikov, A I; Zaezzhalkin, V V; Kucherov, V A; Frolov, S Iu

2010-01-01

165

AIDS-associated paracoccidioidomycosis in a patient with a CD4+ T-cell count of 4 cells/mm³ / Paracoccidioidomicose associada a Aids em paciente com a contagem total de quatro células T-CD4+  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho apresenta-se paciente com coinfecção paracoccidioidomicose/Aids. No momento do diagnóstico, a contagem de células T CD4 + era 4 células. No exame histopatológico, observou-se a presença de granulomas tuberculóides bem formados e na imunohistoquímica, ausência de células Foxp3, raros l [...] infócitos T CD4+ e presença de células T CD8+ em moderada quantidade. Com duas semanas de uso da anfotericina B, verificou-se a regressão de grande parte das lesões cutâneas. Após 14 meses, o paciente encontra-se em uso de terapia antiretroviral e sem evidências de atividade da micose Abstract in english We describe a case of a patient presenting with HIV and paracoccidioidomycosis co-infection. At the time of diagnosis total CD4+ T-cell count was 4 cells/mm3. Histopathology revealed tuberculoid granulomas, scarce CD4+ T cells, a moderate number of CD8+ cells and the absence of Foxp3+ cells. Most of [...] the cutaneous lesions healed after two weeks of treatment with amphotericin B. After 14 months the patient is still under antiretroviral therapy and no clinical evidence of recurrence of the mycosis has been observed

Lisiane Machado Contente, Nogueira; Mônica, Santos; Luiz Carlos de Lima, Ferreira; Carolina, Talhari; Rodrigo Ribeiro, Rodrigues; Sinésio, Talhari.

166

A New Method for Estimating Bacterial Abundances in Natural Samples using Sublimation  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed a new method based on the sublimation of adenine from Escherichia coli to estimate bacterial cell counts in natural samples. To demonstrate this technique, several types of natural samples including beach sand, seawater, deep-sea sediment, and two soil samples from the Atacama Desert were heated to a temperature of 500 C for several seconds under reduced pressure. The sublimate was collected on a cold finger and the amount of adenine released from the samples then determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV absorbance detection. Based on the total amount of adenine recovered from DNA and RNA in these samples, we estimated bacterial cell counts ranging from approx. l0(exp 5) to l0(exp 9) E. coli cell equivalents per gram. For most of these samples, the sublimation based cell counts were in agreement with total bacterial counts obtained by traditional DAPI staining. The simplicity and robustness of the sublimation technique compared to the DAPI staining method makes this approach particularly attractive for use by spacecraft instrumentation. NASA is currently planning to send a lander to Mars in 2009 in order to assess whether or not organic compounds, especially those that might be associated with life, are present in Martian surface samples. Based on our analyses of the Atacama Desert soil samples, several million bacterial cells per gam of Martian soil should be detectable using this sublimation technique.

Glavin, Daniel P.; Cleaves, H. James; Schubert, Michael; Aubrey, Andrew; Bada, Jeffrey L.

2004-01-01

167

Application of total-count aeroradiometric maps to the exploration for heavy-mineral deposits in the coastal plain of Virginia, with a section on field-spectrometer-data reduction  

Science.gov (United States)

Total-count contoured aeroradiometric maps for the Coastal Plain of Virginia were used in an effort to locate economic heavy-mineral placer deposits. The principle behind this approach is that heavy- mineral suites commonly contain radioactive minerals that, if the concentration of heavy minerals is exposed at or within inches of the surface, enable the deposit to be located by use of airborne instruments because of its radiometric contrast with the host sediment. Detailed and regional geologic maps, soil maps, land-use and land- cover maps, information on fertilizer use, and ground-spectrometer data were used to study aeroradiometric anomalies for efficient exploration. Aeroradiometric anomalies in the Coastal Plain of Virginia have three general causes. First, the most intense anomalies are associated with cultural features, such as roads made of granitic material. Second, most anomalies of high to intermediate intensity are associated with land used for agricultural purposes and evidently are caused by applications of radioactive fertilizer. Third, anomalies of intermediate to low intensity are associated with heavy-mineral deposits. Results of this study show that aeroradiometric anomalies associated with heavy-mineral accumulations in the Coastal Plain of Virginia have ground radiometric spectra in which thorium is the strongest component and uranium and potassium are lesser components. Heavy-mineral accumulations found in this study by use of the aeroradiometric data are not considered to be of economic importance, mostly because of the low percentage of economic minerals in the heavy-mineral suites and also because of other factors such as the very fine grained nature of the host sediments and competing land use.

Grosz, A. E.; Kosanke, Kenneth L.

1983-01-01

168

Effect of antibiotics on the bacterial population of the rabbit caecum.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect feeding antibiotics has on the bacterial population of the rabbit caecum was investigated. No changes in total volatile fatty acid production or total bacterial counts were observed compared with nonantibiotic treated controls. However, treatment with chlortetracycline resulted in an increase of propionate at the apparent cost of butyrate (Pchlortetracycline and tiamulin) exerted the most similar changes on the bacterial population structure, decreasing the diversity of the profiles. Sequence analysis of DNA from excised denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis bands was carried out. The majority of the sequences observed were most similar to bacterial sequences previously described in other gut environments, with 11% being most similar to those previously reported from the rabbit, and 95% of the sequences having 95% or greater identity to sequences already in GenBank. PMID:17498210

Abecia, Leticia; Fondevila, Manuel; Balcells, Joaquim; Edwards, Joan E; Newbold, C James; McEwan, Neil R

2007-07-01

169

Bacterial gastroenteritis  

Science.gov (United States)

Infectious diarrhea - bacterial gastroenteritis; Acute gastroenteritis; Gastroenteritis - bacterial ... PA: Mosby Elsevier; 2013:chap 94. Bhutta ZA. Acute Gastroenteritis in Children. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson ...

170

Bacterial activity in a reservoir determined by autoradiography and its relationships to phyto- and zooplankton  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the drinking water reservoir Rimov (Southern Bohemia) bacterioplankton was studied during 1983. Special attention was given to the relationships between parameters of bacterial abundance, total and individual activity. Bacterial counts and biomass was assessed and autoradiographic determinations of the proportion of active bacteria incorporating thymidine (Th) and a mixture of amino acids (AA) and total uptake rate of AA were made over a year in the surface layer and during summer stratification from the thermocline and 15 m depth. Specific activity of metabolically active bacteria and specific activity per unit of biomass were negatively correlated with counts of metabolizing cells and with bacterial biomass, respectively. Total and individual heterotrophic activity and counts of bacteria coincided with the changes of phytoplankton biomass, whereas bacteria incorporating Th were more tightly correlated with primary production. The most significant relation of metabolically active bacteria was found to cladoceran biomass. Thus, this part of heterotrophic bacterial activity seems to be stimulated by leakage of dissolved organic matter from phytoplankton being disrupted and incompletely digested by cladocerans rather than from healthy photosynthetizing cells. (author)

171

Exploration of methods used to describe bacterial communities in silage of maize (Zea mays) cultivars.  

Science.gov (United States)

Different techniques to assess bacterial community structure and diversity were evaluated in silages prepared with four different maize cultivars, three conventional and one transgenic (cv. Tundra, event Bt-176). Plants were cultivated in the greenhouse and harvested after 30 days of growth. Silage samples were collected at successive times during fermentation and analyzed for bacterial counts and by various DNA-based fingerprinting techniques. Bacterial counts were similar between cultivars for the total culturable bacteria, sporeforming, and mesophilic and thermophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Further analysis of the species composition of 388 LAB strains by intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) PCR followed by sequencing of 16S rRNA gene did not reveal differences between cultivars. In contrast, molecular fingerprinting methods targeting whole bacterial communities, such as automated ribosomal intergenic spacers analysis (ARISA) and 16S rRNA gene length heterogeneity-PCR (LH-PCR), indicated that different maize silage batches or cultivars hosted different bacterial communities. Thus, ARISA and LH-PCR fingerprinting techniques offer a fast and sensitive method to compare bacterial communities, and to detect differences in silage bacterial communities. PMID:18384727

Brusetti, Lorenzo; Borin, Sara; Rizzi, Aurora; Mora, Diego; Sorlini, Claudia; Daffonchio, Daniele

2008-01-01

172

Bacterial Populations in Complementary Foods and Drinking-water in Households with Children Aged 10-15 Months in Zanzibar, Tanzania  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bacteria were quantified in samples of drinking-water and in two porridges prepared for infant-feeding [fortified instant soy-rice porridge (SRP) and cooked porridge (Lishe bora, LB)] in 54 households. Bacterial numbers were measured again after the porridges had been held at room temperature for four hours (T4). Findings were benchmarked against bacterial numbers in traditional complementary foods sampled from 120 households. Total bacteria, coliform, and Enterobacteriaceae counts were enume...

Kung U, Jacqueline K.; Boor, Kathryn J.; Ame, Shaali M.; Ali, Nadra S.; Jackson, Anna E.; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J.

2009-01-01

173

Relationship between Somatic Cells Counts, Mastitis and Milk Quality in Ettawah Grade and PESA goats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mastitis is a bacterial disease that leads to increased somatic cell counts and reduced milk quality in dairy goats. Reduction in quality is manifested through a reduction in fat, protein, lactose content and an increase in milk somatic cell counts and salts content. Thus mastitis affects productivity of animals and hence their economic value. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of somatic cell counts and mastitis on milk quality in PE and PESA. A total of 38 dairy goats from Cordero farm, Caprito farm and Bogor Livestock Research Center were used. On farm mastitis tests were performed on lactating flock and milk samples were collected from both mastitis positive and healthy animals from which quality parameters were measured using milkotester while bacterial isolation and enumeration were done following standard protocols. Data was analyzed descriptively and the results showed that somatic cell counts and somatic cell score correlate positively with mastitis (P<0.05. Lactose and fat content decreased with severity of mastitis in both breeds whereas in PESA protein content increased with mastitis. Salt content increases with mastitis in both breeds. S.aureus was the most isolated bacteria and associated with high SCC whereas E.coli was poorly isolated. The study concludes that mastitis leads to increased SCC and reduced milk quality in dairy goats.

Molefe PETLANE

2013-01-01

174

Epiphytic bacterial community composition on two common submerged macrophytes in brackish water and freshwater  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants and their heterotrophic bacterial biofilm communities possibly strongly interact, especially in aquatic systems. We aimed to ascertain whether different macrophytes or their habitats determine bacterial community composition. We compared the composition of epiphytic bacteria on two common aquatic macrophytes, the macroalga Chara aspera Willd. and the angiosperm Myriophyllum spicatum L., in two habitats, freshwater (Lake Constance and brackish water (Schaproder Bodden, using fluorescence in situ hybridization. The bacterial community composition was analysed based on habitat, plant species, and plant part. Results The bacterial abundance was higher on plants from brackish water [5.3 × 107 cells (g dry mass-1] than on plants from freshwater [1.3 × 107 cells (g dry mass-1], with older shoots having a higher abundance. The organic content of freshwater plants was lower than that of brackish water plants (35 vs. 58%, and lower in C. aspera than in M. spicatum (41 vs. 52%. The content of nutrients, chlorophyll, total phenolic compounds, and anthocyanin differed in the plants and habitats. Especially the content of total phenolic compounds and anthocyanin was higher in M. spicatum, and in general higher in the freshwater than in the brackish water habitat. Members of the Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroidetes group were abundant in all samples (5–35% of the total cell counts and were especially dominant in M. spicatum samples. Alphaproteobacteria were the second major group (3–17% of the total cell counts. Betaproteobacteria, gammaproteobacteria, and actinomycetes were present in all samples (5 or 10% of the total cell counts. Planctomycetes were almost absent on M. spicatum in freshwater, but present on C. aspera in freshwater and on both plants in brackish water. Conclusion Bacterial biofilm communities on the surface of aquatic plants might be influenced by the host plant and environmental factors. Distinct plant species, plant part and habitat specific differences in total cell counts and two bacterial groups (CFB, planctomycetes support the combined impact of substrate (plant and habitat on epiphytic bacterial community composition. The presence of polyphenols might explain the distinct bacterial community on freshwater M. spicatum compared to that of M. spicatum in brackish water and of C. aspera in both habitats.

Blindow Irmgard

2008-04-01

175

Uji kadar formalin, kadar garam dan total bakteri ikan asin tenggiri asal Kabupaten Sarmi Provinsi Papua  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Food safety is depending on the accurence of a dangerous fisical, chemical and microbiology components. Quality of food with healty and a complete safe nutrient is the most important things in the food material. Because of food that consume influencing people brain and health. The aim of this research was to determine the content of formaldehyde, salt and Total Plate Count of bacteria in the tenggiri salty fish from Sarmi Papua. Formsaldehyde was indentificated by using cromatofat acid method as qualitative and spectrophotometer as quantitative method. Choman method was used to analize salt content. Total Plate Count (TPC was used for bacterial content analysis. The result showed that Tenggiri salty fish from Sarmi is not contain formaldehyde. About 9.76 % to 16.31 % of salt contant and approximately 24.5 x 10- 5- 49.5 x 10 5 colony/gram of bacterial in total. This conclude that Tenggiri salty fish have already

Yenni Y. Salosa

2013-04-01

176

Protective Effect Of Oral And Intranasal Bacterial Lysates In Mice  

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Full Text Available In this study albino mice were used to test the beneficial effect of bacterial lysates vaccination against lethal dose of Pseudomonas aeroginosa. Escherichia coli lysate, Pseudomonas aeroginosa lysate, Staphylococcus aureus lysate and mixed bacterial lysates were administered through the oral and the intranasal routes, both in the presence and absence of Freund's adjuvant versus a placebo. Pseudomonas aeroginosa fifty percent lethal dose ( LD50 was injected intraperitonealy following intranasal and oral vaccination. The placebo and the four bacterial lysates were also used in association with Freund's adjuvant. The results of the LD50 in intranasal vaccinated groups were 50%, 37.5%, 100%, 0% and 12.5%, and those with Freund's adjuvant were 25%, 25% , 12.5%, 62.5%, 0% and 0% respectively. The results of LD50 in oral vaccination were 50%, 25%, 62.5% 0% and 37.5%, and those treated with Freund's adjuvants were 12.5%, 12.5 %, 12.5%, 37.5 %, 0% and 25% respectively. The bacterial lysates vaccinated groups were studied for the total body weight (T, liver (L, spleen (S, thymus (Th weights and the L+S+Th/T ratio. Besides, the peripheral blood and the peritoneal fluid total and differential leucocytic counts were determined and the bone marrow lymphocyte percentage. The serum immunoglobulins G and M were assessed using the immundiffusion plates. Our conclusion is: Bacterial lysates can play an important role as immunomodulators when used by oral or intranasal routes.

Hanaa, A. Mansour* and Maha G. Soliman

2003-12-01

177

Radiation counting statistics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is intended to describe the statistical methods necessary to design and conduct radiation counting experiments and evaluate the data from the experiment. The methods are described for the evaluation of the stability of a counting system and the estimation of the precision of counting data by application of probability distribution models. The methods for the determination of the uncertainty of the results calculated from the number of counts, as well as various statistical methods for the reduction of counting error are also described. (Author). 11 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs

1999-01-01

178

Radiation counting statistics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is intended to describe the statistical methods necessary to design and conduct radiation counting experiments and evaluate the data from the experiment. The methods are described for the evaluation of the stability of a counting system and the estimation of the precision of counting data by application of probability distribution models. The methods for the determination of the uncertainty of the results calculated from the number of counts, as well as various statistical methods for the reduction of counting error are also described. (Author). 11 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs.

Suh, M. Y.; Jee, K. Y.; Park, K. K.; Park, Y. J.; Kim, W. H

1999-08-01

179

Intestinal Bacterial Flora that Compete on the Haem Precursor Iron Fumarate in Iron Deficiency Anemia Cases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aims: The study focused on finding if there is any possible relation between the intestinal bacterial population quantitative and qualitative and the deficiency of the most important iron compounds as haem precursors. Methodology and Results: Blood complete picture and stool analyses were done to 750 volunteer cases whom were asked for these analyses by their physicians. Analyses proved that 560 cases representing 75.2 % were anemic as the RBC(s) based on counts of the total studied cases of ...

2012-01-01

180

Bacterial contamination of automotive fuels in a tropical region: the case of Costa Rica  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Microbial contamination of fuel has been the cause of several problems in transportation and storage of these products. Due to the lack of previous studies related to these problems in Costa Rica, bacterial quality was evaluated biannually in automotive fuels stored in the four oil distribution facilities of the Costa Rican Petroleum Refinery (RECOPE). In 12 oil storage tanks, for a total of 96 samples, mesophilic, heterotrophic aerobic/facultative counts (ASTM D6974-04) and identification of...

Rodri?guez-rodri?guez, Carlos E.; Evelyn Rodríguez-Cavallini; Rigoberto Blanco

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Model Counting in Product Configuration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We describe how to use propositional model counting for a quantitative analysis of product configuration data. Our approach computes valuable meta information such as the total number of valid configurations or the relative frequency of components. This information can be used to assess the severity of documentation errors or to measure documentation quality. As an application example we show how we apply these methods to product documentation formulas of the Mercedes-Benz line of vehicles. I...

Andreas Kübler; Christoph Zengler; Wolfgang Küchlin

2010-01-01

182

Comparison between MICRO–CARD–FISH and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries to assess the active versus total bacterial community in the coastal Arctic  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We collected surface- and deep-water samples (maximum depth 300 m) during the spring–summer transition in the coastal Arctic along a transect in the Kongsfjorden (Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen, Norway) to determine the structure of the active versus total marine bacterioplankton community using different approaches. Catalysed reporter deposition–fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with microautoradiography (MICRO–CARD–FISH) was used to determine the abundance and activity of differ...

Corte, Daniele; Sintes, Eva; Yokokawa, Taichi; Herndl, Gerhard J.

2013-01-01

183

Bacterial Colitis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bacterial colitis results in an inflammatory-type diarrhea that is characterized by bloody, purulent, and mucoid stool. These diseases have been designated as bacterial hemorrhagic enterocolitis. Associated symptoms include fever, tenesmus, and severe abdominal pain. The pathologic changes range from superficial exudative enterocolitis to a transmural enterocolitis with ulceration. Common pathologic bacteria causing bacterial colitis include Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia, a...

Papaconstantinou, Harry T.; Thomas, J. Scott

2007-01-01

184

Association between nematode larvae and "low worm egg count diarrhoea" in sheep in Western Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nine flocks of sheep with a high prevalence (>30%) of diarrhoea and severe breech faecal soiling were investigated over a three-year period to examine the causes of diarrhoea in sheep with low mean faecal worm egg counts (WEC). All nine flocks were located in the southwest of Western Australia in areas with a winter rainfall pattern (Mediterranean climate). There was no difference (p=0.304) in WEC of diarrhoeic sheep (loose faeces and severe breech faecal soiling) and "normal sheep" (pelleted faeces and mild or no breech faecal soiling). Teladorsagia (Ostertagia) circumcincta and Trichostrongylus spp. were the nematodes most commonly identified by total worm counts and differentiation of larvae recovered from faeces and pasture. Larval stages of strongyle worms accounted for the largest proportion of total worm counts in both diarrhoeic and normal sheep. Adult worm burdens were small in most sheep. Diarrhoeic sheep had higher numbers of fourth stage larvae than normal sheep (p=0.046). There was no histopathological evidence of bacterial or viral causes of diarrhoea in any of the flocks or bacteriological evidence of bacterial infections associated with diarrhoea. Two flocks had marginal selenium glutathione peroxidase (selenium) levels. One flock was diagnosed with helminthosis based on rising WEC and high total worm counts. Larval hypersensitivity diarrhoea, nutritional factors or a combination of these two factors were the most likely causes of diarrhoea in the other eight flocks based on exclusion of other known causes of diarrhoea. Treatment with moxidectin and an ivermectin controlled-release capsule did not change faecal moisture content of treated sheep compared to untreated sheep three to five weeks after treatment. The findings suggest that the immune response to strongyle larvae may explain some cases of low WEC diarrhoea observed during winter-spring in immunocompetent mature sheep grazing in Mediterranean environments. PMID:19682795

Jacobson, Caroline; Bell, Kevin; Forshaw, David; Besier, Brown

2009-10-28

185

Health Physics counting room  

CERN Multimedia

The Health Physics counting room, where the quantity of induced radioactivity in materials is determined. This information is used to evaluate possible radiation hazards from the material investigated.

1970-01-01

186

Bacterial and yeast counts in Brazilian commodities and spices Bactérias e leveduras associadas a amêndoas de cajueiro, de castanha-do-Brasil e à pimenta-do-reino preta e branca  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A total of thirteen genera of bacteria and two genera of yeasts were detected in surface sterilized and unsterilized Brazilian commodities and spices such as cashew kernels, Brazil nut kernels, black and white pepper. The genus Bacillus with eight species was by far the most common. The yeasts isolated were Pichia sp., P. guillermondii and Rhodotorula sp. Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in cashew and Brazil nut kernels.Um total de 13 gênero...

Francisco das Chagas Oliveira Freire; Lisa Offord

2002-01-01

187

HETEROTROPHIC PLATE COUNT BACTERIA IN POTABLE WATER: MONITORING METHODS AND APPLICATION  

Science.gov (United States)

The heterotrophic plate count (HPC), formerly known as the standard plate count, is a useful tool for enumerating bacteria in potable water. his chapter briefly reviews the development of the heterotrophic bacterial plate count for use in water quality measurements in the United ...

188

Bacterial contamination of street vending food in Kumasi, Ghana  

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Full Text Available Street vending foods are readily available sources of meals for many people but the biological safe-ty of such food is always in doubt. The aim of this study is to ascertain bacterial isolate and deter-mine total counts of bacterial species responsible for the contamination of the street vending food in Kumasi so as to determine the microbiological safety of such a food. This prospective study was conducted among street vending food at four bus terminals in Kumasi. From November, 2008 to February, 2009, 60 food samples comprising ice-kenkey (15, cocoa drink (15, fufu (5, ready-to-eat red pepper (normally eaten with kenkey (5, salad (10 and macaroni (10 were purchased and ana-lyzed. The food samples were purchased and transported to the laboratory in sterile plastic bags and analyzed for bacterial contamination. Serial dilution of each food was prepared in buffered peptone water and inoculated onto plate count agar (PCA, MacConkey and blood agar plates. Growths on PCA were counted; those on other agar plates were identified by their colonial mor-phology, Gram stain, biochemical and sugar fermentation methods. The mean bacterial counts in these foods expressed to log10 CFU/ml were: fufu 6.36±0.47, cocoa drink 6.16±0.5, red pepper 5.92±0.64, ice-kenkey 5.58 ±0.52, macaroni 5.58±0.97 and salad 5.13±0.77. Most of these foods con-tained higher than acceptable contamination level of <5.0 log10 CFU/ml. The isolates obtained were Coagulate negative staphylococci (23.7%, Bacillus species (21.5%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (18%, Aeromonas pneumophila (17.7%, Enterobacter cloacae (6.7%, Staphylococcus aureus (3.7%, Escherichia coli (2.2% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.2%. Most ready-to-eat foods in Kumasi were contaminated with enteric bacteria and other potential food poisoning organisms with bacterial counts higher than the acceptable levels. Food vendors therefore need education on food hygiene.

Feglo, P.

2012-01-01

189

Calibration standard energy influence on the efficiency of a proportional detector for alpha and beta total counting on water samples; Influencia da energia do padrao de calibracao na eficiencia de um detector proporcional para contagem alfa e beta total em amostras de agua  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper the efficiency calibration curves were determined for a thin-window, low-background and gas-flow proportional counter using calibration standards with different energies and different absorber thicknesses. For the gross alpha counting we used {sup 241} Am standard and natural uranium and for the gross beta counting we used {sup 90} Sr/{sup 90} Y and {sup 137} Cs in residue thickness ranging from 0 to approximately 18 mg/cm{sup 2}. Counting efficiency for alpha emitters ranged from 0,266{+-} 0,032 for a weightless residue to 0,023{+-} 0,003 in a planchet containing 15 mg/cm{sup 2} of residue for {sup 241} Am standard calibration planchets. Counting efficiency values obtained for natural uranium standard calibration planchets ranged from 0,322{+-} 0,030 for a weightless residue to 0,023{+-} 0,003 in a planchet containing 14,5 mg/cm{sup 2} of residue. Counting efficiency for beta emitters ranged from 0,430{+-} 0,036 for a weightless residue to 0,247{+-} 0,020 in a planchet containing 17 mg/cm{sup 2} of residue for {sup 137} Cs standard. Counting efficiency values obtained for {sup 90} Sr/{sup 90} Y standard calibration planchets ranged from 0,489{+-} 0,041 for a weightless residue to 0,323{+-} 0,026 for a residue thickness of 18 mg/cm{sup 2}. (author)

Santos, Cecilia Martins; Pecequilo, Brigitte Roxana Soreanu [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2002-07-01

190

Irradiation of sangari ( Prosopis cineraria): Effect on composition and microbial counts during storage  

Science.gov (United States)

Fresh dried and old dried sangari ( Prosopis cineraria) were treated with 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 7.0 kGy of irradiation and subsequently stored at ambient temperatures. Proximate values and total bacterial counts were evaluated immediately after irradiation and at regular intervals of 1 month during 3 months of storage. No significant changes were found in moisture, fat, protein, ash and fiber contents. Total sugar content was increased in both control and irradiated samples possibly due to conversion of starch into sugars. Irradiation treatment reduces total bacterial counts of dried samples of both fresh and old dried sangari. However, a dose of 5.0 kGy completely decontaminated both sangari and there was no microbial growth in 5.0 kGy irradiated samples during the storage period. Irradiation at 5.0 kGy was enough to extend the shelf-life of dried sangari up to 3 months without any significant change in the nutritional qualities.

Joshi, Priyanka; Nathawat, N. S.; Chhipa, B. G.; Hajare, Sachin N.; Goyal, Madhu; Sahu, M. P.; Singh, Govind

2011-11-01

191

Analog multivariate counting analyzers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Characterizing rates of occurrence of various features of a signal is of great importance in numerous types of physical measurements. Such signal features can be defined as certain discrete coincidence events, e.g. crossings of a signal with a given threshold, or occurrence of extrema of a certain amplitude. We describe measuring rates of such events by means of analog multivariate counting analyzers. Given a continuous scalar or multicomponent (vector) input signal, an analog counting analyzer outputs a continuous signal with the instantaneous magnitude equal to the rate of occurrence of certain coincidence events. The analog nature of the proposed analyzers allows us to reformulate many problems of the traditional counting measurements, and cast them in a form which is readily addressed by methods of differential calculus rather than by algebraic or logical means of digital signal processing. Analog counting analyzers can be easily implemented in discrete or integrated electronic circuits, do not suffer from dead time effects, and allow substantial reduction of pileup effects. Besides extending the scope of counting measurements, analog multivariate counting analyzers allow simple feedback adjustment of the parameters of the acquisition system for optimal performance. In addition, such analyzers can be made simpler, cheaper, lighter, more reliable, more accurate, and less power consuming than digital counting detectors, and thus would be ideally suited for operation in autonomous conditions such as mobile communication, space missions, prosthetic devices, etc. Other obvious immediate applications of the presented analyzers are pulse-height measuring systems used in the acquisition of nuclear radiation spectra

2003-01-11

192

Sublattice Counting and Orbifolds  

CERN Multimedia

Abelian orbifolds of C^3 are known to be encoded by hexagonal brane tilings. To date it is not known how to count all such orbifolds. We fill this gap by employing number theoretic techniques from crystallography, and by making use of Polya's Enumeration Theorem. The results turn out to be beautifully encoded in terms of partition functions and Dirichlet Series. The same methods apply to counting orbifolds of any toric non-compact Calabi-Yau singularity. As additional examples, we count the orbifolds of the conifold, of the L^{aba} theories, and of C^4.

Hanany, Amihay; Reffert, Susanne

2010-01-01

193

Improved bioluminescent assay of somatic cell counts in raw milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

Somatic cell count (SCC) in milk is considered to be a valuable indicator of cow mastitis. For assessment of SCC in milk, the bioluminescent assay based on determination of ATP from somatic cells ([ATPsom]) in milk was proposed earlier. However, this assay is still not widely used in practice owing to lower reliability compared with conventional methods such as direct microscopy and flow cytometry. We revised the bioluminescent SCC assay and developed a simple protocol based on determination of the total non-bacterial ATP concentration in milk. It was shown that the novel ATP-releasing agent Neonol-10 (oxy-ethylated iso-nonyl phenol) has superior performance providing 100% lysis of somatic cells while not disrupting bacterial cells of milk at a concentration of 1.5% w/w. There was high correlation (R2=0.99) between measured bioluminescence and SCC as measured by direct microscopy. The observed detection limit of the bioluminescent milk SCC assay was as low as 900 cell/ml, time of analysis was 2-3 min per sample. The proposed method has high potential for on-site mastitis diagnostics. PMID:18513459

Frundzhyan, Valery G; Parkhomenko, Inna M; Brovko, Lubov Y; Ugarova, Natalia N

2008-08-01

194

Bacterial load in tissues and its predictive value for infection in open fractures.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The role of quantitative bacteriology is considered controversial for the prediction of infection in open fractures. A study was done in 20 patients with open fractures. Post debridement pieces of skin, muscle and periosteal tissue were obtained for quantitative bacterial counts. Among a total of 50 samples from all of the tissues, 29 showed positive bacterial counts (16 of 20 skin, 11 of 20 muscle and 2 of 10 periosteum samples. By quantitative estimation, the bacterial load was >10(5 per gram in 10 skin and 3 muscle tissue samples. Infection developed in 9 of the 20 cases within one month, and eight of these patients had contamination of >10(5 per gram in 8 of the skin but only 3 muscle samples. It was concluded that with tissue specific bacterial load estimation, prediction of subsequent infection can be made if skin tissue contains >10(5 per gram, or if muscle tissue carries any level of bacterial presence.

Sen RK

2000-12-01

195

Scintillation counting apparatus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Apparatus is described for the accurate measurement of radiation by means of scintillation counters and in particular for the liquid scintillation counting of both soft beta radiation and gamma radiation. Full constructional and operating details are given. (UK)

1978-01-01

196

River Tees fish counts  

Details of monthly upstream counts of migratory salmonids (salmon and sea trout) from the Environment Agency fish counter on the River Tees. These data will be updated regularly. Related Searches: tees fish counter

197

Analog multivariate counting analyzers  

CERN Document Server

Characterizing rates of occurrence of various features of a signal is of great importance in numerous types of physical measurements. Such signal features can be defined as certain discrete coincidence events, e.g. crossings of a signal with a given threshold, or occurrence of extrema of a certain amplitude. We describe measuring rates of such events by means of analog multivariate counting analyzers. Given a continuous scalar or multicomponent (vector) input signal, an analog counting analyzer outputs a continuous signal with the instantaneous magnitude equal to the rate of occurrence of certain coincidence events. The analog nature of the proposed analyzers allows us to reformulate many problems of the traditional counting measurements, and cast them in a form which is readily addressed by methods of differential calculus rather than by algebraic or logical means of digital signal processing. Analog counting analyzers can be easily implemented in discrete or integrated electronic circuits, do not suffer fro...

Nikitin, A V; Armstrong, T P

2003-01-01

198

Counting colored random triangulations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We revisit the problem of enumeration of vertex-tricolored planar random triangulations solved in [Nucl. Phys. B 516 [FS] (1998) 543-587] in the light of recent combinatorial developments relating classical planar graph counting problems to the enumeration of decorated trees. We give a direct combinatorial derivation of the associated counting function, involving tricolored trees. This is generalized to arbitrary k-gonal tessellations with cyclic colorings and checked by use of matrix models

2002-10-14

199

Structured count data regression  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Overdispersion in count data regression is often caused by neglection or inappropriate modelling of individual heterogeneity, temporal or spatial correlation, and nonlinear covariate effects. In this paper, we develop and study semiparametric count data models which can deal with these issues by incorporating corresponding components in structured additive form into the predictor. The models are fully Bayesian and inference is carried out by computationally efficient MCMC techniques. In a sim...

2003-01-01

200

Preliminary Study on Efficacy of Leaves, Seeds and Bark Extracts of Moringa oleifera in Reducing Bacterial load in Water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water quality and treatment are the most important issue in everywhere, especially in the developing countries, where safe and clean water is not continuously provided. Moringa oleifera is one of the best natural coagulants that has effectively used in water treatments. The aqueous extract of seeds, leaves and bark of Moringa oleifera was evaluated for their efficacy in reducing total bacterial load, coliform count and faecal coliform counts in the treatment of drinking water. The standard pour plate method and the most probable numbers were used in the determination of bacterial count. The seed extracts showed a great effective in the reduction of total coliform count (55.9% and faecal coliform count (92.5 % as compared to bark (45.0 and 90.7 % and leaf (47.1 and 88.7 % extracts at 3g/100ml, respectively. From the results from this study, it can be concluded that the Moringa oleifera extracts (seed extracts can be used as safe as non-toxic natural coagulant materials in household water treatment, especially in rural areas and small communities where no adequate and safe water supply is provided.

Mohamed S. Osman

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
201

Use of the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN and bacterial source tracking for development of the fecal coliform total maximum daily load (TMDL) for Blacks Run, Rockingham County, Virginia  

Science.gov (United States)

Impairment of surface waters by fecal coliform bacteria is a water-quality issue of national scope and importance. Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires that each State identify surface waters that do not meet applicable water-quality standards. In Virginia, more than 175 stream segments are on the 1998 Section 303(d) list of impaired waters because of violations of the water-quality standard for fecal coliform bacteria. A total maximum daily load (TMDL) will need to be developed by 2006 for each of these impaired streams and rivers by the Virginia Departments of Environmental Quality and Conservation and Recreation. A TMDL is a quantitative representation of the maximum load of a given water-quality constituent, from all point and nonpoint sources, that a stream can assimilate without violating the designated water-quality standard. Blacks Run, in Rockingham County, Virginia, is one of the stream segments listed by the State of Virginia as impaired by fecal coliform bacteria. Watershed modeling and bacterial source tracking were used to develop the technical components of the fecal coliform bacteria TMDL for Accotink Creek. The Hydrological Simulation Program?FORTRAN (HSPF) was used to simulate streamflow, fecal coliform concentrations, and source-specific fecal coliform loading in Blacks Run. Ribotyping, a bacterial source tracking technique, was used to identify the dominant sources of fecal coliform bacteria in the Blacks Run watershed. Ribotyping also was used to determine the relative contributions of specific sources to the observed fecal coliform load in Blacks Run. Data from the ribotyping analysis were incorporated into the calibration of the fecal coliform model. Study results provide information regarding the calibration of the streamflow and fecal coliform bacteria models and also identify the reductions in fecal coliform loads required to meet the TMDL for Blacks Run. The calibrated streamflow model simulated observed streamflow characteristics with respect to total annual runoff, seasonal runoff, average daily streamflow, and hourly stormflow. The calibrated fecal coliform model simulated the patterns and range of observed fecal coliform bacteria concentrations. Observed fecal coliform bacteria concentrations during low-flow periods ranged from 40 to 7,000 colonies per 100 milliliters, and peak concentrations during storm-flow periods ranged from 33,000 to 260,000 colonies per 100 milliliters. Simulated source-specific contributions of fecal coliform bacteria to instream load were matched to the observed contributions from the dominant sources, which were cats, cattle, deer, dogs, ducks, geese, horses, humans, muskrats, poultry, raccoons, and sheep. According to model results, a 95-percent reduction in the current fecal coliform load delivered from the watershed to Blacks Run would result in compliance with the designated water-quality goals and associated TMDL.

Moyer, Douglas L.; Hyer, Kenneth E.

2003-01-01

202

Use of the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN and Bacterial Source Tracking for Development of the fecal coliform Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for Accotink Creek, Fairfax County, Virginia  

Science.gov (United States)

Impairment of surface waters by fecal coliform bacteria is a water-quality issue of national scope and importance. Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires that each State identify surface waters that do not meet applicable water-quality standards. In Virginia, more than 175 stream segments are on the 1998 Section 303(d) list of impaired waters because of violations of the water-quality standard for fecal coliform bacteria. A total maximum daily load (TMDL) will need to be developed by 2006 for each of these impaired streams and rivers by the Virginia Departments of Environmental Quality and Conservation and Recreation. A TMDL is a quantitative representation of the maximum load of a given water-quality constituent, from all point and nonpoint sources, that a stream can assimilate without violating the designated water-quality standard. Accotink Creek, in Fairfax County, Virginia, is one of the stream segments listed by the State of Virginia as impaired by fecal coliform bacteria. Watershed modeling and bacterial source tracking were used to develop the technical components of the fecal coliform bacteria TMDL for Accotink Creek. The Hydrological Simulation Program?FORTRAN (HSPF) was used to simulate streamflow, fecal coliform concentrations, and source-specific fecal coliform loading in Accotink Creek. Ribotyping, a bacterial source tracking technique, was used to identify the dominant sources of fecal coliform bacteria in the Accotink Creek watershed. Ribotyping also was used to determine the relative contributions of specific sources to the observed fecal coliform load in Accotink Creek. Data from the ribotyping analysis were incorporated into the calibration of the fecal coliform model. Study results provide information regarding the calibration of the streamflow and fecal coliform bacteria models and also identify the reductions in fecal coliform loads required to meet the TMDL for Accotink Creek. The calibrated streamflow model simulated observed streamflow characteristics with respect to total annual runoff, seasonal runoff, average daily streamflow, and hourly stormflow. The calibrated fecal coliform model simulated the patterns and range of observed fecal coliform bacteria concentrations. Observed fecal coliform bacteria concentrations during low-flow periods ranged from 25 to 800 colonies per 100 milliliters, and peak concentrations during storm-flow periods ranged from 19,000 to 340,000 colonies per 100 milliliters. Simulated source-specific contributions of fecal coliform bacteria to instream load were matched to the observed contributions from the dominant sources, which were cats, deer, dogs, ducks, geese, humans, muskrats, and raccoons. According to model results, an 89-percent reduction in the current fecal coliform load delivered from the watershed to Accotink Creek would result in compliance with the designated water-quality goals and associated TMDL.

Moyer, Douglas L.; Hyer, Kenneth E.

2003-01-01

203

Enumeration of islets by nuclei counting and light microscopic analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Islet enumeration in impure preparations by conventional dithizone staining and visual counting is inaccurate and operator dependent. We examined nuclei counting for measuring the total number of cells in islet preparations, and we combined it with morphological analysis by light microscopy (LM) for estimating the volume fraction of islets in impure preparations. Cells and islets were disrupted with lysis solution and shear, and accuracy of counting successively diluted nuclei suspensions was verified with (1) visual counting in a hemocytometer after staining with crystal violet, and automatic counting by (2) aperture electrical resistance measurement and (3) flow cytometer measurement after staining with 7-aminoactinomycin-D. DNA content averaged 6.5 and 6.9 pg of DNA per cell for rat and human islets, respectively, in agreement with literature estimates. With pure rat islet preparations, precision improved with increasing counts, and samples with about ?160 islets provided a coefficient of variation of about 6%. Aliquots of human islet preparations were processed for LM analysis by stereological point counting. Total nuclei counts and islet volume fraction from LM analysis were combined to obtain the number of islet equivalents (IEs). Total number of IE by the standard method of dithizone staining/manual counting was overestimated by about 90% compared with LM/nuclei counting for 12 freshly isolated human islet research preparations. Nuclei counting combined with islet volume fraction measurements from LM is a novel method for achieving accurate islet enumeration. PMID:20697375

Pisania, Anna; Papas, Klearchos K; Powers, Daryl E; Rappel, Michael J; Omer, Abdulkadir; Bonner-Weir, Susan; Weir, Gordon C; Colton, Clark K

2010-11-01

204

Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a .sup.3 He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output ) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

Swansen, James E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01

205

Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a /sup 3/He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

Swansen, J.E.

1985-03-05

206

Alpha scintillation radon counting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radon counting chambers which utilize the alpha-scintillation properties of silver activated zinc sulfide are simple to construct, have a high efficiency, and, with proper design, may be relatively insensitive to variations in the pressure or purity of the counter filling. Chambers which were constructed from glass, metal, or plastic in a wide variety of shapes and sizes were evaluated for the accuracy and the precision of the radon counting. The principles affecting the alpha-scintillation radon counting chamber design and an analytic system suitable for a large scale study of the "2"2"2Rn and "2"2"6Ra content of either air or other environmental samples are described. Particular note is taken of those factors which affect the accuracy and the precision of the method for monitoring radioactivity around uranium mines

1977-05-26

207

Measurement of calprotectin in ascitic fluid to identify elevated polymorphonuclear cell count  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the diagnostic capability of calprotectin in ascitic fluid for detecting a polymorphonuclear (PMN cell count > 250/?L ascites. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, a total of 130 ascites samples were analysed from 71 consecutive patients referred for paracentesis. Total and differential leukocyte cell counts were determined manually with a Neubauer chamber and gentian-violet stain. Calprotectin was measured in 1 mL ascetic fluid by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and a point-of-care (POC lateral flow assay with the Quantum Blue® Reader (Bühlmann Laboratories. All measurements were carried out in a central laboratory by senior personnel blinded to patient history. A PMN count > 250/?L was the primary endpoint of the study. The diagnostic value of ascitic calprotectin measurement was assessed by comparing to the final diagnosis of each patient that had been adjudicated by investigators blinded to calprotectin values. RESULTS: The PMN count was > 250/?L in 19 samples (14.6% from 15 patients (21.1% and varied widely among the study population (range 10-19?800/mL and 1-17?820/mL, respectively. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP was the final diagnosis in four patients (5.6%. All patients with PMN ? 250/?L had negative bacterial culture. PMN count was elevated in five patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis, three with lymphoma, one with neuroendocrine carcinoma, and two with secondary peritonitis due to abdominal perforation. PMN cell counts correlated with ascitic calprotectin values (Spearman’s rho; r = 0.457 for ELISA, r = 0.473 for POC. A considerable range of ascitic calprotectin concentrations was detected by ELISA [median 0.43 ?g/mL, interquartile range (IQR 0.23-1.23 (range 0.10-14.93] and POC [median 0.38 ?g/mL, IQR 0.38-0.56 (range 0.38-13.31]. Ascitic calprotectin levels were higher in samples with PMN > 250/?L, by both ELISA [median (IQR 2.48 ?g/mL (1.61-3.65 vs 0.10 ?g/mL (0.10-0.36, P 250/?L, which may prove useful in the diagnosis of SBP, especially with a readily available bedside testing device.

Christoph Beglinger

2013-01-01

208

Bacterial Quality of Informally Marketed Raw Milk in Kenitra City, Morocco  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One hundred and twenty samples of raw milk were randomly collected from six dairies in different locations in Kenitra City (Morocco from October 2010 to March 2011 and were subjected to evaluation. The study has shown that 119 samples were of poor merchantability and 24 samples of bad sanitary quality. Microbiological enumeration revealed that the counts of total mesophilic aerobic bacteria, 6.9x108 cfu mL-1; faecal coliforms, 4.2x107 cfu mL-1 and Staphylococcus aureus, 1.4x105 cfu mL-1. Salmonella sp. were below detection level in all of the samples. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from one sample. The same contamination degree between dairies and districts (p>0.05 was detected. A significant correlation was observed between total bacterial counts and faecal coliforms (r = 0.51; p<0.001 and also between total bacterial counts and temperature of storage (r = -0.37; p<0.001. The microbiological quality of raw milk sold in Kénitra city was judged marginal indicating the need for improved hygienic standards.

Abdelmajid Soulaymani

2012-01-01

209

Total lymphoid irradiation of intractable rheumatoid arthritis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eleven patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis were treated with fractionated total lymphoid irradiation, (total dose 20 Gy). Lasting improvement in clinical symptoms was found in four patients during treatment and the remaining patients experienced similar benefit within 2 months of irradiation. There was marked reduction in exacerbations and number of joints involved. Morning stiffness, joint swelling and tenderness decreased. Complications included severe fatigue during treatment and acute bacterial arthritis in multiple joints in one patient. Four patients have since died, one of renal failure, another of cardiogenic shock following surgery 3 and 24 months after total lymphoid irradiation. Both had generalised amyloidosis. The third patient developed joint empyema and died of toxic cardiac failure. The fourth died 3 months after resection of a Kaposi's sarcoma complicated by wound infection which responded to treatment. Immunologically, total lymphoid irradiation resulted in suppression of the absolute lymphocyte count and reduction in T-helper cells, the number of T-suppressor cells remaining unchanged. These data provide evidence of T-cell involvement in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Total lymphoid irradiation can induce sustained improvement in clinical disease activity, but severe, possibly fatal, side-effects cannot be ignored. (author)

1986-01-01

210

Bacterial growth kinetics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantitative measurement of bacterial growth may be made using a radioassay technique. This method measures, by scintillation counting, the 14CO2 derived from the bacterial metabolism of a 14C-labeled substrate. Mathematical growth models may serve as reliable tools for estimation of the generation rate constant (or slope of the growth curve) and provide a basis for evaluating assay performance. Two models, i.e., exponential and logistic, are proposed. Both models yielded an accurate fit to the data from radioactive measurement of bacterial growth. The exponential model yielded high precision values of the generation rate constant, with an average relative standard deviation of 1.2%. Under most conditions the assay demonstrated no changes in the slopes of growth curves when the number of bacteria per inoculation was changed. However, the radiometric assay by scintillation method had a growth-inhibiting effect on a few strains of bacteria. The source of this problem was thought to be hypersensitivity to trace amounts of toluene remaining on the detector

1989-01-01

211

Serum procalcitonin in viral and bacterial meningitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: In children with meningitis, there is a difficulty to verify the etiology as viral or bacterial. Therefore, intensive research has been carried out to find new and rapid diagnostic methods for differentiating bacterial from viral meningitis. Objectives: The aim of this work was to study the behavior of procalcitonin (PCT and whether it can be used to differentiate children with bacterial from those with viral meningitis. We also compared PCT to C-reactive protein (CRP and white blood cell count. Patients and Methods: Forty children aged from 4 months to 12 years with clinically suspected meningitis were studied. Lumbar punctures were done for all cases before starting initial antibiotic treatment. According to the results of bacterial cultures and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF cytochemical profile, our patients were classified into two groups: bacterial meningitis group and viral meningitis group. PCT, CRP, and leukocyte count were measured at the time of admission and after 3 days. Results: PCT levels were significantly higher in patients with bacterial meningitis (mean, 24.8 ng/ml compared to patients with viral meningitis (mean, 0.3 ng/ml (P<0.001. PCT levels in bacterial meningitis group decreased after 3 days of starting treatment, but remained higher than viral meningitis group (mean, 10.5 ng/ml. All CSF parameters, blood leukocytes, and CRP showed overlapping values between the two groups. Serum PCT with cut off value >2 ng/ml showed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 100%, 66%, 68%, and 100%, respectively, for the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. Conclusion: Serum procalcitonin level has a better diagnostic and prognostic value than CRP or leukocyte count to distinguish between bacterial and viral meningitis. It is also a good indicator of the efficacy of treatment of bacterial meningitis.

Alkholi Usama

2011-01-01

212

Occurrence and diversity of bacterial communities in Tuber magnatum during truffle maturation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tuber magnatum, an ascomycetous fungus and obligate ectomycorrhizal symbiont, forms hypogeous fruit bodies, commonly called Italian white truffles. The diversity of bacterial communities associated with T. magnatum truffles was investigated using culture-independent and -dependent 16S rRNA gene-based approaches. Eighteen truffles were classified in three groups, representing different degrees of ascocarp maturation, based on the percentage of asci containing mature spores. The culturable bacterial fraction was (4.17 +/- 1.61) x 10(7), (2.60 +/- 1.22) x 10(7) and (1.86 +/- 1.32) x 10(6) cfu g(-1) for immature, intermediate and mature ascocarps respectively. The total of bacteria count was two orders of magnitude higher than the cfu g(-1) count. Sequencing results from the clone library showed a significant presence of alpha-Proteobacteria (634 of the 771 total clones screened, c. 82%) affiliated with Sinorhizobium, Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium spp. The bacterial culturable fraction was generally represented by gamma-Proteobacteria (210 of the 384 total strains isolated, c. 55%), which were mostly fluorescent pseudomonads. Fluorescent in situ hybridization confirmed that alpha-Proteobacteria (85.8%) were the predominant components of truffle bacterial communities with beta-Proteobacteria (1.5%), gamma-Proteobacteria (1.9%), Bacteroidetes (2.1%), Firmicutes (2.4%) and Actinobacteria (3%) only poorly represented. Molecular approaches made it possible to identify alpha-Proteobacteria as major constituents of a bacterial component associated with T. magnatum ascoma, independently from the degree of maturation. PMID:17686021

Barbieri, Elena; Guidi, Chiara; Bertaux, Joanne; Frey-Klett, Pascale; Garbaye, Jean; Ceccaroli, Paola; Saltarelli, Roberta; Zambonelli, Alessandra; Stocchi, Vilberto

2007-09-01

213

Bacterial counts of intestinal Lactobacillus species in infants with colic  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Intestinal colonization by lactobacilli is suggested to be a prerequisite to normal mucosal immune functions. An inadequate level of lactobacilli may be involved in appearance of allergic disease of which, infantile colic, is often considered an early clinical manifestation. The aim of the study is to evaluate intestinal lactobacilli in breast-fed infants with infantile colic and healthy infants. Fifty-six breast-fed infants, aged 15-60 days were enrolled in the study and divided into two gro...

Carlone, Nicola; Cuffini, Anna Maria; Roana, Janira; Tullio, Viviana; Silvestro, Leandra; Oggero, Roberto

2005-01-01

214

Use of the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN and bacterial source tracking for development of the fecal coliform total maximum daily load (TMDL) for Christians Creek, Augusta County, Virginia  

Science.gov (United States)

Impairment of surface waters by fecal coliform bacteria is a water-quality issue of national scope and importance. Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires that each State identify surface waters that do not meet applicable water-quality standards. In Virginia, more than 175 stream segments are on the 1998 Section 303(d) list of impaired waters because of violations of the water-quality standard for fecal coliform bacteria. A total maximum daily load (TMDL) will need to be developed by 2006 for each of these impaired streams and rivers by the Virginia Departments of Environmental Quality and Conservation and Recreation. A TMDL is a quantitative representation of the maximum load of a given water-quality constituent, from all point and nonpoint sources, that a stream can assimilate without violating the designated water-quality standard. Christians Creek, in Augusta County, Virginia, is one of the stream segments listed by the State of Virginia as impaired by fecal coliform bacteria. Watershed modeling and bacterial source tracking were used to develop the technical components of the fecal coliform bacteria TMDL for Christians Creek. The Hydrological Simulation Program?FORTRAN (HSPF) was used to simulate streamflow, fecal coliform concentrations, and source-specific fecal coliform loading in Christians Creek. Ribotyping, a bacterial source tracking technique, was used to identify the dominant sources of fecal coliform bacteria in the Christians Creek watershed. Ribotyping also was used to determine the relative contributions of specific sources to the observed fecal coliform load in Christians Creek. Data from the ribotyping analysis were incorporated into the calibration of the fecal coliform model. Study results provide information regarding the calibration of the streamflow and fecal coliform bacteria models and also identify the reductions in fecal coliform loads required to meet the TMDL for Christians Creek. The calibrated streamflow model simulated observed streamflow characteristics with respect to total annual runoff, seasonal runoff, average daily streamflow, and hourly stormflow. The calibrated fecal coliform model simulated the patterns and range of observed fecal coliform bacteria concentrations. Observed fecal coliform bacteria concentrations during low-flow periods ranged from 40 to 2,000 colonies per 100 milliliters, and peak concentrations during stormflow periods ranged from 23,000 to 730,000 colonies per 100 milliliters. Additionally, fecal coliform bacteria concentrations were generally higher upstream and lower downstream. Simulated source-specific contributions of fecal coliform bacteria to instream load were matched to the observed contributions from the dominant sources, which were beaver, cats, cattle, deer, dogs, ducks, geese, horses, humans, muskrats, poultry, raccoons, and sheep. According to model results, a 96-percent reduction in the current fecal coliform load delivered from the watershed to Christians Creek would result in compliance with the designated water-quality goals and associated TMDL.

Moyer, Douglas L.; Hyer, Kenneth E.

2003-01-01

215

The Watt Count System  

Science.gov (United States)

The Watt Count System combines aerospace and computer technology, an engineering systems design approach and the environmental control expertise of a group of engineers who worked on Apollo. First step of the system is a computerized energy consumption analysis based on plans for a new home. Company calculates heating and cooling loads and customizes the most energy efficient system for the particular structure analyzed. A quality control engineer assures that insulation and ducting are installed to specifications. Analysis and design techniques are so accurate that company is able to give homeowner a two-year guarantee that the home's energy consumption will not exceed the kilowatt hour level determined by the computer in step one. In an annual energy performance comparison, a Watt Count home used 45 percent less energy than a conventionally equipped home.

1981-01-01

216

Counting flux vacua  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We develop a technique for computing expected numbers of vacua in Gaussian ensembles of supergravity theories, and apply it to derive an asymptotic formula for the index counting all flux supersymmetric vacua with signs in Calabi-Yau compactification of type IIb string theory, which becomes exact in the limit of a large number of fluxes. This should give a reasonable estimate for actual numbers of vacua in string theory, for CY's with small b3. (author)

2004-01-01

217

Counting supersymmetric branes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Maximal supergravity solutions are revisited and classified, with particular emphasis on objects of co-dimension at most two. This class of solutions includes branes whose tension scales with g_s^{-\\sigma} for \\sigma>2. We present a group theory derivation of the counting of these objects based on the corresponding tensor hierarchies derived from E11 and discrete T- and U-duality transformations. This provides a rationale for the wrapping rules that were recently discussed f...

Kleinschmidt, Axel

2011-01-01

218

Do All Fragments Count?  

CERN Document Server

We aim at finding the minimal set of fragments which achieves maximal parse accuracy in Data Oriented Parsing. Experiments with the Penn Wall Street Journal treebank show that counts of almost arbitrary fragments within parse trees are important, leading to improved parse accuracy over previous models tested on this treebank. We isolate a number of dependency relations which previous models neglect but which contribute to higher parse accuracy.

Bod, R

2000-01-01

219

Counting, checking, and locking.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medication Use (TX.3) stimulates many questions: Is the JCAHO driving your actions; is it a sacred cow; is it "we've always done it this way"; do the state, local, or federal laws and rules mandate that you do these things? The JCAHO requirements differ from other agency mandates-counting ensures an adequate supply of drugs and prevents diversion; checking maintains readiness; and locking controls and secures drugs. PMID:9807423

Kobs, A

1998-06-01

220

Bacterial Adhesion & Blocking Bacterial Adhesion  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Microorganisms are an integral part of all natural ecosystems, and as such are ubiquitous in nature. They often live adhered to or in association with surfaces of either organic or inorganic nature, and all surfaces will almost inevitably be colonized by microorganisms. This often results in the formation of highly complex sessile communities, referred to as biofilms. Such microbial communities are often highly dynamic and heterogeneous in nature. Microbial biofilms are of great importance in a wide range of natural processes and industrial settings, from the commensal flora of the gastrointestinal tract to the microbial flocs in waste water treatment facilities. Microbial biofilms may however also cause a wide range of industrial and medical problems, and have been implicated in a wide range of persistent infectious diseases, including implantassociated microbial infections. Bacterial adhesion is the first committing step in biofilm formation, and has therefore been intensely scrutinized. Much however, stillremains elusive. Bacterial adhesion is a highly complex process, which is influenced by a variety of factors. In this thesis, a range of physico-chemical, molecular and environmental parameters, which influence the transition from a planktonic lifestyle to a sessile lifestyle, have been studied. Protein conditioning film formation was found to influence bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation considerable, and an aqueous extract of fish muscle tissue was shown to significantly reduce or delay bacterial biofilm formation of a range of urinary tract infectious E.coli and Klebsiella isolates. Several other proteinaceous coatings were also found to display anti-adhesive properties, possibly providing a measure for controlling the colonization of implant materials. Several other parameters controlling bacterial adhesion were also studied. Subinhibitory concentrations of certain antimicrobial compounds and several surfactants were found to significantly affect bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, most likely by affecting the production of biofilm extracellular polymeric matrix components. These substances may both mediate and stabilize the bacterial biofilm. Finally, several adhesive structures were examined, and a novel physiological biofilm phenotype in E.coli biofilms was characterized, namely cell chain formation. The autotransporter protein, antigen 43, was implicated in this structural biofilm phenotype, at least in some bacterial strains. Understanding the fundamental requirements of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation may aid in the development of effective preventive measures.

Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Enumeration of islets by nuclei counting and light microscopic analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Islet enumeration in impure preparations by conventional dithizone staining and visual counting is inaccurate and operator dependent. We examined nuclei counting for measuring the total number of cells in islet preparations, and we combined it with morphological analysis by light microscopy (LM) for estimating the volume fraction of islets in impure preparations. Cells and islets were disrupted with lysis solution and shear, and accuracy of counting successively diluted nuclei suspensions was...

Pisania, Anna; Papas, Klearchos K.; Powers, Daryl E.; Rappel, Michael J.; Omer, Abdulkadir; Bonner-weir, Susan; Weir, Gordon C.; Colton, Clark K.

2010-01-01

222

Bacterial clearance in the intact and regenerating liver  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Kupffer cells in the liver play an important role in reticuloendothelial system (RES) function by clearing particulate matter and bacteria from the blood stream. While hepatocyte regeneration and function have been extensively studied following partial hepatectomy, little information is available concerning RES function in the regenerating liver. This study investigates hepatic RES function by evaluating bacterial clearance (live E. coli) in the intact and regenerating liver. Thirty-four young male Sprague Dawley rats were studied. Twenty-two animals underwent a standard 70% partial hepatectomy using ligature technique and 12 had a sham operation. Both groups of rats received 10(9) organism of 35S labeled E coli, intravenously at 24 hours, 72 hours, 2 1/2 weeks, and 6 weeks postoperatively. Rats were killed 10 minutes following injection and liver, lung, spleen, and kidney harvested, fixed, and radioactivity was determined using a scintillation spectrometer interfaced with a micro-computer counting the 35S radiolabel. The total organ count of trapped bacteria in liver in partially hepatectomized rats was lower than intact controls at 24 hours, but was similar at 72 hours, 2 1/2 weeks, and 6 weeks. Partial hepatectomy increased the amount of bacterial trapping in the lung at 24 hours and 72 hours and returned to normal at 2 1/2 weeks and 6 weeks. Splenic activity was increased following hepatectomy at 2 1/2 weeks. Renal clearance was increased at 72 hours and 2 1/2 weeks

1985-01-01

223

Platelet count as a prognostic indicator in burn septicemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evaluation of platelet count and its significance in early detection of post burn septicemia for commencement of timely vigorous treatment against it. Studies investigating the role of platelets and platelet count in burn patients are rare, rather old and mostly presenting case reports. Septicemia is the most important cause of mortality in burns. Burn patients can only be saved if septicemia is detected early which requires very sensitive prognostic indicator. Total 594 adult burn patients were studied, by observing them for septicemia and studying their subsequent platelet counts using visual method. In non-survivors (256) gradual decline in platelet count was observed and minimal platelet count was observed before death of the patient, while in survivors (338) gradual rise in platelet count was observed. No significant variation observed in other laboratory parameters such as total neutrophil count and serum creatinine. In significant number of non survivor (62.11%) platelet count was low before their death and in significant number of survivor (86.09%) platelet count was normal before their discharge. Thus it is conclude that serial declining platelet count is a very sensitive prognostic factor in early detection of post burn septicemia. PMID:24465100

Gajbhiye, Ashok Surybhanji; Meshram, M M; Kathod, Amrish P

2013-12-01

224

Automatic counting of nuclear tracks for improvement in neutron dosimetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, two versions of a software packages designed and developed for automatic counting of nuclear tracks, have been compared. The image processing stages in the first version include: acquisition of grey-scale images of the surface of the detector with tracks, segmentation to generate the binary image, automatic track counting by blob analysis approach to get the total count, removal of spurious features like scratches and digs which can be mistaken for nuclear tracks, obtaining the gross count and finally arriving at the net count after accounting for the tracks formed due to background radiation. The count of tracks is proportional to neutron dose. The first version software shows dose linearity up to 5mSv. Beyond this dose level, overlapping of tracks takes place and total number of actual tracks are underestimated. The second version software is an upgraded one which possesses all the features of the first. Only, the track counting step has been modified to get a more accurate count under higher level of radiation dose. This is achieved by resolving the tracks where two/more tracks overlap. The algorithm is based on object boundary computation, contour smoothing, polygonal cum circular/elliptic arc fitting and sub-pixel edge detection filtering. Testing revealed that the first version counts overlapping tracks as single object resulting in a lower track count. The latter version accounts for the touching/overlapping tracks separately, thus extending the applicability of the software to high dose scenario. (author)

2011-12-01

225

Model Counting in Product Configuration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We describe how to use propositional model counting for a quantitative analysis of product configuration data. Our approach computes valuable meta information such as the total number of valid configurations or the relative frequency of components. This information can be used to assess the severity of documentation errors or to measure documentation quality. As an application example we show how we apply these methods to product documentation formulas of the Mercedes-Benz line of vehicles. In order to process these large formulas we developed and implemented a new model counter for non-CNF formulas. Our model counter can process formulas, whose CNF representations could not be processed up till now.

Andreas Kübler

2010-07-01

226

The right to count does not always count  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The best prescription against illness is learning to read and to count. People who are unable to count have a harder time learning to read. People who have difficulty counting make poorer decisions, are less able to combine information and are less likely to have a strategy for life

Sodemann, Morten

227

Automatic track countings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For convenient utilization of track detectors, results must be obtained quickly, so automatic processes are usually employed. To this end two techniques are investigated: spark counter and quantimet system. The first one is appropriate for low densities (below 4000 tracks/cm"2); for densities between 4000 tracks/cm"2 and 2.2 10"5 tracks/cm"2 counting is performed with a Cambridge Quantimet 720; for higher densities, two different methods are described which take into account the overlapping of tracks

1983-09-04

228

Photon counting and Laguerre detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this correspondence maximum-likelihood binary detection theory is applied to an incoherent optical system model employing photodetectors governed by Laguerre counting statistics. It is shown that a maximum-likelihood Laguerre detector corresponds to a count comparison over each signaling interval. Laguerre error probabilities are presented and compared with those for Poisson counting.

Gagliardi, R. M.

1972-01-01

229

How to count elephants in West African savannahs? Synthesis and comparison of main gamecount methods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The comparison of some elephants count methods – aerial sampling count, aerial total count and direct foot count – has been presented through surveys’ study cases implemented in Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger. We compare them in terms of effort and cost to survey an area (sampling efficiency), efficiency in data collection (detection efficiency) as well as accuracy and precision. Aerial sampling count returns low sampling and detection efficiency and very low precision and accuracy figur...

2012-01-01

230

How to count elephants in West African savannahs? Synthesis and comparison of main gamecount methods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The comparison of some elephants count methods – aerial sampling count, aerial total count and direct foot count – has been presented through surveys' study cases implemented in Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger. We compare them in terms of effort and cost to survey an area (sampling efficiency), efficiency in data collection (detection efficiency) as well as accuracy and precision. Aerial sampling count returns low sampling and detection efficiency and very low precision and accuracy figures...

2012-01-01

231

Bacterial cellulose/boehmite composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Composites based on bacterial cellulose membranes and boehmite were obtained. SEM results indicate that the bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes are totally covered by boehmite and obtained XRD patterns suggest structural changes due to this boehmite addition. Thermal stability is accessed through TG curves and is dependent on boehmite content. Transparency is high comparing to pure BC as can be seen through UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. (author)

2011-10-16

232

Bacterial cellulose/boehmite composites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Composites based on bacterial cellulose membranes and boehmite were obtained. SEM results indicate that the bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes are totally covered by boehmite and obtained XRD patterns suggest structural changes due to this boehmite addition. Thermal stability is accessed through TG curves and is dependent on boehmite content. Transparency is high comparing to pure BC as can be seen through UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. (author)

Salvi, Denise T.B. de; Barud, Hernane S.; Messaddeq, Younes; Ribeiro, Sidney J.L. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho. UNESP. Instituto de Quimica de Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Caiut, Jose Mauricio A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo. Departamento de Quimica - FFCLRP/USP, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

2011-07-01

233

Heavy metals effect on bacterial communities from coastal sediments.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effects of heavy metals on bacterial communities of sea sediments are studied. Samples were taken from a very polluted zone near Barcelona. Bacterial populations were estimated by the plate count method, using culture medium amended with heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Cr and Cu). The authors have also made a numerical taxonomy study with a hundred resistant strains, using 129 unit characters.

Modamio, X.; Mallo, S.

1984-01-01

234

Reduced background scintillation counting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A liquid scintillation system is described for counting sample optical events resulting from the radioactive decay of a constituent of a sample to be measured in a liquid scintillator while reducing the counting of background events which are all optical events other than sample optical events and which are electrical pulses other than electrical pulses representing a sample optical event. The system comprises: detection means located adjacent the sample for detecting optical events and for converting optical events into electrical pulses; coincidence sensing means for receiving the electrical pulses from the plurality of detection means and producing a coincidence signal when the electrical pulses from the plurality of detection means coincide with each other; burst detection means for receiving the coincidence signals from the coincidence sensing means and the electrical pulses from the plurality of detection means for determining the number of electrical pulses present in a selected interval following each of the coincidence signals; and evaluation means connected to the burst detection means for determining, in response to the number of electrical pulses detected in the selected interval, the extent to which the optical event represented by the corresponding coincidence signal should be treated as a sample optical event or a background event.

Valenta, R.

1987-03-17

235

Total-Count Calibration Blocks for use in uranium Exploration  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Transportable calibration blocks for field scintillometers and borehole probes were manufactured from concrete and installed at calibration sites in Denmark and Greece. The concrete mixes were prepared from aggregates of quartz sand and crushed uranium-thorium ore. Hater-reducing agents and silica dust added to the cement paste produced concretes of acceptable porosity and pore structure. The content of ore was adjusted to provide block grades of approximately 2, 140, and 540 units of radioelement concentration (Ur). Thorium was estimated to contribute 0.39 ± 0.02 Ur per ppm Th. The adopted reference grades include concrete pore moisture and are normalized to an effective atomic number of 13. Grade instability due to radon emanation was not detected.

Løvborg, Leif

1983-01-01

236

Bacterial microcompartments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial microcompartments (BMCs) are organelles composed entirely of protein. They promote specific metabolic processes by encapsulating and colocalizing enzymes with their substrates and cofactors, by protecting vulnerable enzymes in a defined microenvironment, and by sequestering toxic or volatile intermediates. Prototypes of the BMCs are the carboxysomes of autotrophic bacteria. However, structures of similar polyhedral shape are being discovered in an ever-increasing number of heterotrophic bacteria, where they participate in the utilization of specialty carbon and energy sources. Comparative genomics reveals that the potential for this type of compartmentalization is widespread across bacterial phyla and suggests that genetic modules encoding BMCs are frequently laterally transferred among bacteria. The diverse functions of these BMCs suggest that they contribute to metabolic innovation in bacteria in a broad range of environments. PMID:20825353

Kerfeld, Cheryl A; Heinhorst, Sabine; Cannon, Gordon C

2010-01-01

237

Bacterial Rheotaxis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The motility of organisms is often directed in response to environmental stimuli. Rheotaxis is the directed movement resulting from fluid velocity gradients, long studied in fish, aquatic invertebrates, and spermatozoa. Using carefully controlled microfluidic flows, we show that rheotaxis also occurs in bacteria. Excellent quantitative agreement between experiments with Bacillus subtilis and a mathematical model reveals that bacterial rheotaxis is a purely physical phenomenon, in contrast to ...

Marcos; Fu, Henry C.; Powers, Thomas R.; Stocker, Roman

2011-01-01

238

Bacterial rheotaxis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The motility of organisms is often directed in response to environmental stimuli. Rheotaxis is the directed movement resulting from fluid velocity gradients, long studied in fish, aquatic invertebrates, and spermatozoa. Using carefully controlled microfluidic flows, we show that rheotaxis also occurs in bacteria. Excellent quantitative agreement between experiments with Bacillus subtilis and a mathematical model reveals that bacterial rheotaxis is a purely physical phenomenon, in contrast to ...

Marcos; Fu, Henry C.; Powers, Thomas R.; Stocker, Roman

2012-01-01

239

Relationships between somatic cell count and intramammary infection in buffaloes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the presence of intramammary infections (IMI) in dairy buffaloes and to examine the relationships among IMI, somatic cell counts (SCC), and milk production traits. Two farms in northern Italy were visited monthly for a complete milking season. Quarter-based milk samples were collected at each visit from 46 buffaloes. A total of 1,912 samples were assessed in this experiment. Samples were cultured for bacterial presence and were tested for SCC and percentages of milk protein and fat. In addition, daily milk yield was recorded from each buffalo. Prevalence of IMI was large; 63% of quarters were infected. No buffalo remained free from IMI throughout the course of the study. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most common pathogen (66% of positive samples). The SCC was distinctly greater in infected quarters; 100% of quarters with SCC >200,000 cell/mL had IMI, whereas 98% of quarters with SCC below this threshold were uninfected. The somatic cell scores (SCS) in these buffaloes were much lower than those commonly observed in dairy cattle. The mean SCS from quarters with IMI was only 2.93. The highest SCS was observed in quarters infected by streptococci. No drastic decrease in milk yield was observed among infected buffaloes relative to healthy contemporaries. The relatively low SCS and lack of a strong effect on milk yield provide evidence to discourage antibiotic treatment of buffaloes for subclinical IMI during lactation. PMID:16507694

Moroni, P; Sgoifo Rossi, C; Pisoni, G; Bronzo, V; Castiglioni, B; Boettcher, P J

2006-03-01

240

Bacterial and toxic pollutants in lakes of river Indus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Indus river water gets polluted through three sources viz., municipal wastewater, industrial wastewater and agricultural runoff through drainage structure. The lakes in Sindh (fed by the river Indus), constitute the important source of drinking water, recreation and fish, etc. and offer employment for many. A large number of chemicals that either exist naturally in the land dissolve in the water, or human excreta added due to human activity thereby, contaminating and leading to various diseases. In order to assess the microbial contamination, detection of pollutant indicator organisms (coliform group), using Coliform test was performed by Most Probable Number technique and total bacterial count by Pour Plate method. The level of various heavy metals (arsenic, calcium, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, mercury, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium, selenium and zinc) and electrolytes (Cl/sup -1/, HCO/sub 3/sup -1/) was monitored in water and fish meat samples collected from Haleji and Keenjhar lakes to assess the impact of toxic pollutants. Metal concentrations in water and fish samples were estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Total coliform organisms were found in both the lake water samples, exceeded in 38% samples than the acceptable limits, while total average aerobic bacterial count analyzed in both the lakes was 102 CFU/ml - 1010 CFU/ml. Toxic chemical contaminants were estimated below the detection limit, while other several (essential) metal ions were found within the range set by WHO, except arsenic, cadmium and iron that exceeded slightly in 12.5% water samples. This study was designed to ensure the access of safe and potable water to urban and rural areas of Sindh. Further, the findings will help public/private enterprises and public health institutions to work for the people health friendly policies. (author)

2011-06-01

 
 
 
 
241

GRID ANALYSIS IMPROVES RELIABILITY IN FOLLICLE COUNTS MADE BY ULTRASONOGRAPHY IN WOMEN WITH POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Poor reliability has been reported when counting the total number of follicles in polycystic ovaries using conventional two-dimensional (2-D) ultrasound viewing methods. In the current study, we report good reliability in follicle counts when observers imposed a programmable grid system over the viewing window. Four observers estimated total follicle counts in 45 ovarian ultrasound scans by compartmentalizing the ovary into 9 to 12 grid sections and performing focused follicle counts per sect...

Lujan, Marla E.; Brooks, Eric D.; Kepley, Anna L.; Chizen, Donna R.; Pierson, Roger A.; Peppin, Andrew K.

2010-01-01

242

Experimental infection with different bacterial strains in larvae and juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei reared in Santa Catarina State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.5471 Experimental infection with different bacterial strains in larvae and juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei reared in Santa Catarina State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.5471  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study evaluated the pathogenic characteristics of bacteria isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei during an outbreak at the Laboratory of Marine Shrimp, UFSC, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Their virulence potential in larvae and juvenile shrimp and the effects on the total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity and serum agglutinate titre were examined after experimental infection. Bacterial strains were isolated from larvae and adult shrimps, identified by the AP120E biochemical system as: two strains of Vibrio alginolyticus, three of Aeromonas salmonicida and one of Pasteurella multocida sp. and Pasteurella sp. All the bacterial strains isolated in this study caused mortality in shrimp. One strain of V. alginolyticus was responsible for 97.3 and 88.7% mortality in larvae and juvenil shrimps, respectively. The shrimp immunological system was influenced by experimental infection with V. alginolyticus. Decrease in the total haemocyte count and increase in the phenoloxidase activity and the serum agglutinate titre (p V. alginolyticus isolated from larvae and juvenile reared marine shrimp.This study evaluated the pathogenic characteristics of bacteria isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei during an outbreak at the Laboratory of Marine Shrimp, UFSC, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Their virulence potential in larvae and juvenile shrimp and the effects on the total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity and serum agglutinate titre were examined after experimental infection. Bacterial strains were isolated from larvae and adult shrimps, identified by the AP120E biochemical system as: two strains of Vibrio alginolyticus, three of Aeromonas salmonicida and one of Pasteurella multocida sp. and Pasteurella sp. All the bacterial strains isolated in this study caused mortality in shrimp. One strain of V. alginolyticus was responsible for 97.3 and 88.7% mortality in larvae and juvenil shrimps, respectively. The shrimp immunological system was influenced by experimental infection with V. alginolyticus. Decrease in the total haemocyte count and increase in the phenoloxidase activity and the serum agglutinate titre (p V. alginolyticus isolated from larvae and juvenile reared marine shrimp.

Adolfo Jatoba

2010-09-01

243

Correlation between mastitis occurrence and the count of microorganisms in bulk raw milk of bovine dairy herds in four selective culture media.  

Science.gov (United States)

Milk is the normal secretion of the mammary gland, practically free of colostrum and obtained by the complete milking of one or more healthy animals. Mastitis is an inflammatory process of the mammary gland and it may cause alterations in the milk. The present work aimed to verify whether it is possible, by means of the counts of microorganism in the bulk raw milk in four selective culture media, to establish a correlation with the occurrence of mastitis and therefore, to monitor this disease in bovine dairy herds. The following selective culture media were used: KF Streptococcus Agar, Edwards Agar, Baird-Parker Agar, Blood Agar plus potassium tellurite. Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated in order to compare the occurrence of mastitis (percentage) in each herd with respective selective culture media counts of microorganisms in bulk raw milk. Thirty-six possibilities were analysed (Tamis and CMT-positive rates were compared with the log-transformed count in four selective culture media) and there was a negative correlation between Tamis 3 and the Baird-Parker Agar plate count. The total results of microbiological tests showed that there were three correlations of the counts in selective culture media. Fifty-two possibilities were analysed and there was a negative correlation between no-bacterial-growth mastitis rates and log10 of KF Streptoccocus Agar plate count and there were two positive correlations between coagulase-positive staphylococci and log10 of Baird-Parker Agar plate count and Blood Agar plus potassium tellurite plate count. PMID:19939321

Souto, Luís I M; Minagawa, Clarice Y; Telles, Evelise O; Garbuglio, Márcio A; Amaku, Marcos; Melville, Priscilla A; Dias, Ricardo A; Sakata, Sonia T; Benites, Nilson R

2010-02-01

244

Counting coalescent histories.  

Science.gov (United States)

Given a species tree and a gene tree, a valid coalescent history is a list of the branches of the species tree on which coalescences in the gene tree take place. I develop a recursion for the number of valid coalescent histories that exist for an arbitrary gene tree/species tree pair, when one gene lineage is studied per species. The result is obtained by defining a concept of m-extended coalescent histories, enumerating and counting these histories, and taking the special case of m = 1. As a sum over valid coalescent histories appears in a formula for the probability that a random gene tree evolving along the branches of a fixed species tree has a specified labeled topology, the enumeration of valid coalescent histories can considerably reduce the effort required for evaluating this formula. PMID:17563317

Rosenberg, Noah A

2007-04-01

245

Application of neutron multiplicity counting to waste assay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the use of a new figure of merit code that calculates both bias and precision for coincidence and multiplicity counting, and determines the optimum regions for each in waste assay applications. A tunable multiplicity approach is developed that uses a combination of coincidence and multiplicity counting to minimize the total assay error. An example is shown where multiplicity analysis is used to solve for mass, alpha, and multiplication and tunable multiplicity is shown to work well. The approach provides a method for selecting coincidence, multiplicity, or tunable multiplicity counting to give the best assay with the lowest total error over a broad spectrum of assay conditions

1997-01-14

246

Application of neutron multiplicity counting to waste assay  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the use of a new figure of merit code that calculates both bias and precision for coincidence and multiplicity counting, and determines the optimum regions for each in waste assay applications. A tunable multiplicity approach is developed that uses a combination of coincidence and multiplicity counting to minimize the total assay error. An example is shown where multiplicity analysis is used to solve for mass, alpha, and multiplication and tunable multiplicity is shown to work well. The approach provides a method for selecting coincidence, multiplicity, or tunable multiplicity counting to give the best assay with the lowest total error over a broad spectrum of assay conditions.

Pickrell, M.M.; Ensslin, N. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Safeguards Science and Technology Group; Sharpe, T.J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

1997-04-01

247

Observing bacterial activity interferometrically.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is shown that bacterial activity, even of slowly growing species, can be detected by precise interferometric measurements of refractive index changes of the culture medium. The bacteria-containing sample is kept in an isothermal block together with a reference liquid without bacteria. The biological activity is obtained from the difference of the index changes of these samples. Experiments were performed with Bacilo Calmette-Guérin. The order of magnitude of the observed total refractive index change was compatible with theoretical estimates based on the amount of available oxygen. An unexpected positive index change during the lag phase was observed, which might permit fast diagnostics in medical applications. This technique may provide cheap and quick tests of bacterial susceptibility with respect to antibiotics. PMID:12679859

Jardim, D Faragó; Santiago Neto, R Batista; Machado, R R P; Aarestrup, F M; de Mendonça, J P R F; Lesche, B

2003-05-01

248

Controlling of bacterial flora contaminating animal diet and its components by gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The total bacterial counts in complete diets were found to range between 103-105 cells/g, which they ranged between 102 and 106 in the main components. One hundred and sixteen bacterial colonies were isolated from the animal diet samples and found to be gram positive belonging to three genera: Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Bacillus. The most radioresistant bacteria isolated at 7.5 KGy were identified as B. megaterium, B. licheniformis, B. pumilus, B.circulans and B.laterosporus. The D10 values for the bacteria contaminated the diet samples ranged between 928 Gy and 2199 Gy. Meanwhile, the D10 values of staph.aureus and Strapt.faecalis artificially contaminated the diet were 400 Gy and 1136 Gy, respectively. It could be recommended from obtained results that dose level of 10 KGy is quite sufficient to eliminate all pathogens from animal diets or their components. In addition, it decreases the microbial count to minimum counts and hence increases the diet shelf life.1 fig.,4 tab

1991-01-01

249

K.CC Counting Mat  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Materials * Counting Mats * Small objects to count, such as bears or tiles. Action The teacher gives students the counting mat and many small objects t...

250

LAWRENCE RADIATION LABORATORY COUNTING HANDBOOK  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Counting Handbook is a compilation of operational techniques and performance specifications on counting equipment in use at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Berkeley. Counting notes have been written from the viewpoint of the user rather than that of the designer or maintenance man. The only maintenance instructions that have been included are those that can easily be performed by the experimenter to assure that the equipment is operating properly.

Group, Nuclear Instrumentation

1966-10-01

251

Bacterial response to siderophore and quorum-sensing chemical signals in the seawater microbial community  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Oceans are iron-deficient and nutrient-poor environments. These conditions impart limitations on our understanding of and our ability to identify microorganisms from the marine environment. However, less of knowledge on the influence of siderophores and N-acyl homoserinelactone as interspecies communication signals on the bacterial diversity of seawater has been understood. Results In the presence of 0.1 nM of the commercial siderophore desferroixamine and the known quorum-sensing chemical signals, synthetic N-(3-oxo-hexanoylhomoserine lactone (0.1 nM or N-octanoylhomoserine lactone (0.1 nM, the total numbers of bacteria in S9905 seawater increased nearly three-fold, and nearly eight-fold in S0011 seawater as determined by DAPI staining and counting, and increased three-fold by counting colony forming units in S9905 seawater after 7 days of incubation. Similar bacterial changes in bacterial abundance were observed when high concentration of desferroixamine (1 ?M and each of homoserine lactone compounds (1 ?M were presented in seawater samples. The number of cultivable bacterial species observed was also found to increase from 3 (without addition to 8 (with additions including three unknown species which were identified by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences. The growth of unknown species was found to be related to their siderophore production with response to the addition of desferroixamine and N-acyl homoserine lactones under iron-limited conditions. Conclusion Artificial addition of siderophores and HSLs may be a possible method to aid in the identification and isolation of marine bacterial species which are thought to be unknown.

Kamino Kei

2001-10-01

252

"Just" Counting: Young Children's Oral Counting and Enumeration  

Science.gov (United States)

This article focuses on the specific skills and abilities of young children in oral counting and enumeration. Responses to an oral counting task and an enumeration task by a sample (n=93) of 3- and 4-year old children attending a range of pre-five establishments in an urban district of northern England are described. The findings, whilst providing…

Threlfall, John; Bruce, Bob

2005-01-01

253

New Method for Counting Bacteria Associated with Coral Mucus ? †  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ability to count bacteria associated with reef-building corals in a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective manner has been hindered by the viscous and highly autofluorescent nature of the coral mucus layer (CML) in which they live. We present a new method that disperses bacterial cells by trypsinization prior to 4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and quantification by epifluorescence microscopy. We sampled seawater and coral mucus from Porites lobata from 6 reef sites influenced...

Garren, Melissa; Azam, Farooq

2010-01-01

254

Desulfovibrio bacterial species are increased in ulcerative colitis.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

BACKGROUND: Debate persists regarding the role of Desulfovibrio subspecies in ulcerative colitis. Combined microscopic and molecular techniques enable this issue to be investigated by allowing precise enumeration of specific bacterial species within the colonic mucous gel. The aim of this study was to combine laser capture microdissection and quantitative polymerase chain reaction to determine Desulfovibrio copy number in crypt-associated mucous gel in health and in acute and chronic ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Colonic mucosal biopsies were harvested from healthy controls (n = 19) and patients with acute (n = 10) or chronic (n = 10) ulcerative colitis. Crypt-associated mucous gel was obtained by laser capture microdissection throughout the colon. Pan-bacterial 16S rRNA and Desulfovibrio copy number\\/mm were obtained by polymerase chain reaction at each locus. Bacterial copy numbers were interrogated for correlation with location and disease activity. Data were evaluated using a combination of ordinary linear methods and linear mixed-effects models to cater for multiple interactions. RESULTS: Desulfovibrio positivity was significantly increased in acute and chronic ulcerative colitis at multiple levels within the colon, and after normalization with total bacterial signal, the relative Desulfovibrio load was increased in acute colitis compared with controls. Desulfovibrio counts did not significantly correlate with age, disease duration, or disease activity but interlevel correlations were found in adjacent colonic segments in the healthy control and chronic ulcerative colitis groups. CONCLUSION: The presence of Desulfovibrio subspecies is increased in ulcerative colitis and the data presented suggest that these bacteria represent an increased percentage of the colonic microbiome in acute ulcerative colitis.

Rowan, Fiachra

2012-02-01

255

Track counting in radon dosimetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The newly developed, computer-controlled track counting system is capable of imaging and analyzing the entire area of nuclear track detectors. The high optical resolution allows a new analysis approach for the process of automated counting using digital image processing technologies. This way, higher exposed detectors can be evaluated reliably by an automated process as well. (orig.)

2013-01-01

256

Detection limits for radioactivity counting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, the detection limits for radioactivity counting are determined. Several decision rules are presented and applied to calculate the critical value. The value obtained by the best approximation for the alpha particles counting was used to evaluate the minimum detectable concentration in water, soil and air.

Mani? G.

2005-01-01

257

Detection limits for radioactivity counting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, the detection limits for radioactivity counting are determined. Several decision rules are presented and applied to calculate the critical value. The value obtained by the best approximation for the alpha particles counting was used to evaluate the minimum detectable concentration in water, soil and air.

Mani? G.; Mani? Vesna M.; Vesi? D.

2005-01-01

258

Counting Points on Elliptic Curves  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we present the first efficient point counting algorithm due to Schoof, before giving a significant improvement due to Elkies. In the final section I give Satoh's algorithm which is even faster and has paved the way for the field of $p$-adic point counting.

Birkedal, Ole Andre Blom

2010-01-01

259

Hanford whole body counting manual  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document, a reprint of the Whole Body Counting Manual, was compiled to train personnel, document operation procedures, and outline quality assurance procedures. The current manual contains information on: the location, availability, and scope of services of Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the administrative aspect of the whole body counting operation; Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the step-by-step procedure involved in the different types of in vivo measurements; the detectors, preamplifiers and amplifiers, and spectroscopy equipment; the quality assurance aspect of equipment calibration and recordkeeping; data processing, record storage, results verification, report preparation, count summaries, and unit cost accounting; and the topics of minimum detectable amount and measurement accuracy and precision. 12 refs., 13 tabs

1987-01-01

260

Isolation, Characterization and Application of Bacterial Population From Agricultural Soil at Sohag Province, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Forty soil samples of agriculture soil were collected from two different sites in Sohag province, Egypt, during hot and cold seasons. Twenty samples were from soil irrigated with canal water (site A and twenty samples were from soil irrigated with wastewater (site B. This study aimed to compare the incidence of plasmids in bacteria isolated from soil and to investigate the occurrence of metal and antibiotic resistance bacteria, and consequently to select the potential application of these bacteria in bioremediation. The total bacterial count (CFU/gm in site (B was higher than that in site (A. Moreover, the CFU values in summer were higher than those values in winter at both sites. A total of 771 bacterial isolates were characterized as Bacillus, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Eschershia, Shigella, Xanthomonas, Acetobacter, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Moraxella and Methylococcus. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of Pb+2, Cu+2, Zn+2, Hg+2, Co+2, Cd+2, Cr+3, Te+2, As+2 and Ni+2 for plasmid-possessed bacteria were determined and the highest MICs were 1200 µg/mL for lead, 800 µg/mL for both Cobalt and Arsenate, 1200 µg/mL for Nickel, 1000 µg/ml for Copper and less than 600 µg/mL for other metals. Bacterial isolates from both sites A and B showed multiple heavy metal resistance. A total of 337 bacterial isolates contained plasmids and the incidence of plasmids was approximately 25-50% higher in bacteria isolated from site (B than that from site (A. These isolates were resistance to different antibiotics. Approximately, 61% of the bacterial isolates were able to assimilate insecticide, carbaryl, as a sole source of carbon and energy. However, the Citrobacter AA101 showed the best growth on carbaryl.

Bahig, A. E.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Changes in bacterial populations during red tides caused by Mesodinium rubrum and Gymnodinium catenatum in North West Coast of Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heterotrophic bacterial communities associated with four red tides caused by Mesodinium rubrum and Gymnodinium catenatum in two Galician Rias (North West Spain) were examined. Three of these were produced by the Mesodinium rubrum and the causative organism of a toxic bloom was Gymnodinium catenatum. In early stages of all the blooms, the diversity decreased but the total marine bacterial counts increased by one or two logs. Vibrio numbers were also incremented by two logs in two blooms of M. rubrum, while in the other bloom of this organism and in the red tide caused by G. catenatum a decrease in number of these bacteria was observed. A total of 116 bacterial strains were identified at the genus level and grouped into 12 phena. During the decomposition processes of two blooms of M. rubrum a zooplanktonic-type bacterial succession was observed (Vibrio, pseudomonads and Moraxella-Acinetobacter). On the other hand, during decomposition of the other red tide of M. rubrum and the bloom of G. catenatum, a typical phytoplanktonic-type succession occurred, as Pseudomonas and Moraxella groups became dominant for all the process. These results support the conflicting taxonomical position of M. rubrum. After the blooms, the changes in the community point towards the restablishment of the normal bacterial flora of the estuary (increase in diversity and decreases of bacterial numbers). Only the Vibrio strains, isolated from the non-toxic first and second red tides, displayed cytotoxic activities. A relationship among bacterial cytotoxicity and toxic effects of blooms cannot therefore be established. PMID:2318743

Romalde, J L; Toranzo, A E; Barja, J L

1990-02-01

262

White blood cell count and mortality in acute myocardial infarction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Coronary atherosclerosis is increasingly viewed as an inflammatory process. We assessed the relation between WBC count on admission and mortality in STEMI patients treated with primary PCI. Material & Method: Totally 205 patients with STEMI less than 24 hours before admission who admitted for primary angioplasty enrolled in study. Study end points were defined as myocardial adverse cardiac event (MACE and mortality at one month and one year follow-up. Result: Totally 205 patients (166 men with mean age 56 ± 11 were enrolled in study. The mean WBC count was 8983 ± 34 and mean follow-up was 12.24 months. WBC count remained a significant predictor of mortality after multivariable adjustment in one month and 12 months follow-up (p = 0.02, p = 0.04. Conclusion: Our results extend previous find-ings that WBC count is an independent marker of cardiac mortality.

Negar Salehi

2013-10-01

263

BACTERIAL PLASMIDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plasmids, extrachromosomal DNA, were identified in bacteria pertaining to family of Enterobacteriacae for the very first time. After that, they were discovered in almost every single observed strain. The structure of plasmids is made of circular double chain DNA molecules which are replicated autonomously in a host cell. Their length may vary from few up to several hundred kilobase (kb. Among the bacteria, plasmids are mostly transferred horizontally by conjugation process. Plasmid replication process can be divided into three stages: initiation, elongation, and termination. The process involves DNA helicase I, DNA gyrase, DNA polymerase III, endonuclease, and ligase.Plasmids contain genes essential for plasmid function and their preservation in a host cell (the beginning and the control of replication. Some of them possess genes whichcontrol plasmid stability. There is a common opinion that plasmids are unnecessary fora growth of bacterial population and their vital functions; thus, in many cases they can be taken up or kicked out with no lethal effects to a plasmid host cell. However,there are numerous biological functions of bacteria related to plasmids. Plasmids identification and classification are based upon their genetic features which are presented permanently in all of them, and these are: abilities to preserve themselves in a host cell and to control a replication process. In this way, plasmids classification among incompatibility groups is performed. The method of replicon typing, which is based on genotype and not on phenotype characteristics, has the same results as in compatibility grouping.

Marina Dinic

2007-12-01

264

Integer sequences counting periodic points  

CERN Document Server

An existing dialogue between number theory and dynamical systems is advanced. A combinatorial device gives necessary and sufficient conditions for a sequence of non-negative integers to count the periodic points in a dynamical system. This is applied to study linear recurrence sequences which count periodic points. Instances where the $p$-parts of an integer sequence themselves count periodic points are studied. The Mersenne sequence provides one example, and the denominators of the Bernoulli numbers provide another. The methods give a dynamical interpretation of many classical congruences such as Euler-Fermat for matrices, and suggest the same for the classical Kummer congruences satisfied by the Bernoulli numbers.

Everest, G; Ward, T; Everest, Graham; Puri, Yash; Ward, Thomas

2002-01-01

265

Occurrence and persistence of bacterial and viral faecal indicators in wastewater biofilms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biofilms within wastewater treatment plants can capture enteric microorganisms initially present in the water phase immobilising them either definitively or temporarily. Consequently, fates of microorganisms may totally change depending on whether they interact or not with biofilms. In this study, we assessed the stability of wastewater biofilms comparing the evolution of the concentrations of bacteria (heterotrophic plate count [HPC], thermotolerant coliforms [TC]) and viral (somatic coliphages [SC] and F-specific phages [F +]) indicators in the biofilms and in the corresponding wastewaters at 4 and 20 dgrees C. Additionally, we assessed the monthly occurrence of these bacterial and viral indicators as well as of pathogenic protozoa (Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts) in three native wastewater biofilms for four months. Our results show that viral indicators (SC and F + ) persist longer in biofilms than in the corresponding wastewaters at 4 degrees C as well as at 20 degrees C. In contrast, persistence of bacterial indicators (TC and HPC) depends on both the temperature and the matrix. Differences between viral and bacterial persistence are discussed. Monthly analysis of native wastewater biofilms shows that bacterial and viral indicators, as well as Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts, attach to wastewater biofilms to a concentration that remains stable in time, probably as a result of a dynamic equilibrium between attachment and detachment processes. PMID:17547008

Skraber, S; Helmi, K; Willame, R; Ferréol, M; Gantzer, C; Hoffmann, L; Cauchie, H M

2007-01-01

266

Semiparametric Model for Citation Counts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pattern of yearly citation counts of a scientific paper, which expresses in some way its importance, is modeled as a discrete time stochastic process with a conditional distribution dependent on a few parameters characterizing the particular scientifi...

A. P. Vanderplas

1988-01-01

267

Counting Triangles to Sum Squares  

Science.gov (United States)

Counting complete subgraphs of three vertices in complete graphs, yields combinatorial arguments for identities for sums of squares of integers, odd integers, even integers and sums of the triangular numbers.

DeMaio, Joe

2012-01-01

268

Bacterial concrete  

Science.gov (United States)

Cracks in concrete are inevitable and are one of the inherent weaknesses of concrete. Water and other salts seep through these cracks, corrosion initiates, and thus reduces the life of concrete. So there was a need to develop an inherent biomaterial, a self-repairing material which can remediate the cracks and fissures in concrete. Bacterial concrete is a material, which can successfully remediate cracks in concrete. This technique is highly desirable because the mineral precipitation induced as a result of microbial activities is pollution free and natural. As the cell wall of bacteria is anionic, metal accumulation (calcite) on the surface of the wall is substantial, thus the entire cell becomes crystalline and they eventually plug the pores and cracks in concrete. This paper discusses the plugging of artificially cracked cement mortar using Bacillus Pasteurii and Sporosarcina bacteria combined with sand as a filling material in artificially made cuts in cement mortar which was cured in urea and CaCl2 medium. The effect on the compressive strength and stiffness of the cement mortar cubes due to the mixing of bacteria is also discussed in this paper. It was found that use of bacteria improves the stiffness and compressive strength of concrete. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to document the role of bacteria in microbiologically induced mineral precipitation. Rod like impressions were found on the face of calcite crystals indicating the presence of bacteria in those places. Energy- dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra of the microbial precipitation on the surface of the crack indicated the abundance of calcium and the precipitation was inferred to be calcite (CaCO3).

Ramakrishnan, Venkataswamy; Ramesh, K. P.; Bang, S. S.

2001-04-01

269

Photon counting based uranium analyser  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper discusses the development of photon counting based instrument for the trace detection of uranium in aqueous samples in ppb level. The long lived luminescence from the uranyl salts is detected by a photon counting module which essentially consists of a time gated PMT, electronics for the pulse preconditioning and high speed counters implemented in FPGA. A microcontroller based embedded system interacts with the FPGA and handles the user interface of the instrument. (author)

2013-02-01

270

[Altered gut bacterial flora and organic acids in feces of patients undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation with quinolone-based antibacterial prophylaxis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Gastrointestinal toxicity and various infections are serious problems associated with high-dose chemotherapy. Antibacterial chemoprophylaxis reduces the incidence of gram-negative bacterial infection; however, it may affect the normal intestinal flora and induce drug resistance in organisms. We evaluated the chronological changes in fecal bacteria and organic acids in 6 patients undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation with quinolone-based chemoprophylaxis. All patients developed grade 2-3 diarrhea. Four patients developed grade 3 febrile neutropenia. The total count of obligatory anaerobic bacteria was significantly decreased on Day 7, but total facultative anaerobic bacterial count did not change throughout transplantation. However, Enterobacteriaceae and Lactobacillus were decreased on Day 7 and Staphylococcus was increased after transplantation. Total organic acid concentration and short-chain fatty acids were decreased on Day 7. The bacterial flora and organic acids in the gut were significantly altered in patients who underwent autologous stem cell transplantation with quinolonebased chemoprophylaxis. These changes may contribute to gastrointestinal toxicity and infections. PMID:20567111

Hagiwara, Shotaro; Hagiwara, Shotaro; Asahara, Takashi; Nomoto, Koji; Morotomi, Masami; Ishizuka, Naoki; Miwa, Akiyoshi; O Yoshida, Takato

2010-06-01

271

Bacterial flora and antimicrobial resistance in raw frozen cultured seafood imported to Denmark.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intensified aquaculture includes the use of antimicrobials for disease control. In contrast to the situation in livestock, Escherichia coli and enterococci are not part of the normal gastrointestinal flora of fish and shrimp and therefore not suitable indicators of antimicrobial resistance in seafood. In this study, the diversity and phenotypic characteristics of the bacterial flora in raw frozen cultured and wild-caught shrimp and fish were evaluated to identify potential indicators of antimicrobial resistance. The bacterial flora cultured on various agar media at different temperatures yielded total viable counts of 4.0 × 10(4) to 3.0 × 10(5) CFU g(-1). Bacterial diversity was indicated by 16S rRNA sequence analysis of 84 isolates representing different colony types; 24 genera and 51 species were identified. Pseudomonas spp. (23% of isolates), Psychrobacter spp. (17%), Serratia spp. (13%), Exiguobacterium spp. (7%), Staphylococcus spp. (6%), and Micrococcus spp. (6%) dominated. Disk susceptibility testing of 39 bacterial isolates to 11 antimicrobials revealed resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, erythromycin, and third generation cephalosporins. Resistance to third generation cephalosporins was found in Pseudomonas, a genus naturally resistant to most ?-lactam antibiotics, and in Staphylococcus hominis. Half of the isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested. Results indicate that identification of a single bacterial resistance indicator naturally present in seafood at point of harvest is unlikely. The bacterial flora found likely represents a processing rather than a raw fish flora because of repeated exposure of raw material to water during processing. Methods and appropriate indicators, such as quantitative PCR of resistance genes, are needed to determine how antimicrobials used in aquaculture affect resistance of bacteria in retailed products. PMID:23462087

Noor Uddin, Gazi M; Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Guardabassi, Luca; Dalsgaard, Anders

2013-03-01

272

Leaf microbiota in an agroecosystem: spatiotemporal variation in bacterial community composition on field-grown lettuce.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence, size and importance of bacterial communities on plant leaf surfaces are widely appreciated. However, information is scarce regarding their composition and how it changes along geographical and seasonal scales. We collected 106 samples of field-grown Romaine lettuce from commercial production regions in California and Arizona during the 2009-2010 crop cycle. Total bacterial populations averaged between 10(5) and 10(6) per gram of tissue, whereas counts of culturable bacteria were on average one (summer season) or two (winter season) orders of magnitude lower. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from 88 samples revealed that Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria were the most abundantly represented phyla. At the genus level, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Massilia, Arthrobacter and Pantoea were the most consistently found across samples, suggesting that they form the bacterial 'core' phyllosphere microbiota on lettuce. The foliar presence of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians, which is the causal agent of bacterial leaf spot of lettuce, correlated positively with the relative representation of bacteria from the genus Alkanindiges, but negatively with Bacillus, Erwinia and Pantoea. Summer samples showed an overrepresentation of Enterobacteriaceae sequences and culturable coliforms compared with winter samples. The distance between fields or the timing of a dust storm, but not Romaine cultivar, explained differences in bacterial community composition between several of the fields sampled. As one of the largest surveys of leaf surface microbiology, this study offers new insights into the extent and underlying causes of variability in bacterial community composition on plant leaves as a function of time, space and environment. PMID:22534606

Rastogi, Gurdeep; Sbodio, Adrian; Tech, Jan J; Suslow, Trevor V; Coaker, Gitta L; Leveau, Johan H J

2012-10-01

273

Total protein  

Science.gov (United States)

The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes of proteins found in the fluid portion of your blood. These are albumin and globulin. Proteins are important parts of all cells and tissues. ...

274

Accuracy in activation analysis: count rate effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accuracy inherent in activation analysis is ultimately limited by the uncertainty of counting statistics. When careful attention is paid to detail, several workers have shown that all systematic errors can be reduced to an insignificant fraction of the total uncertainty, even when the statistical limit is well below one percent. A matter of particular importance is the reduction of errors due to high counting rate. The loss of counts due to random coincidence (pulse pileup) in the amplifier and to digitization time in the ADC may be treated as a series combination of extending and non-extending dead times, respectively. The two effects are experimentally distinct. Live timer circuits in commercial multi-channel analyzers compensate properly for ADC dead time for long-lived sources, but not for pileup. Several satisfactory solutions are available, including pileup rejection and dead time correction circuits, loss-free ADCs, and computed corrections in a calibrated system. These methods are sufficiently reliable and well understood that a decaying source can be measured routinely with acceptably small errors at a dead time as high as 20 percent

1980-04-17

275

CCCP: A CCD Controller for Counting Photons  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

CCCP, a CCD Controller for Counting Photons, is presented. This new controller uses a totally new clocking architecture and allows to drive the CCD in a novel way. Its design is optimized for the driving of EMCCDs at up to 20MHz of pixel rate and fast vertical transfer. Using this controller, the dominant source of noise of EMCCDs at low flux level and high frame rate, the Clock Induced Charges, were reduced to 0.001 - 0.0018 electron/pixel/frame (depending of the electron m...

Daigle, Olivier; Gach, Jean-luc; Guillaume, Christian; Lessard, Simon; Carignan, Claude; Blais-ouellette, Sebastien

2008-01-01

276

Bacterial infection of mudfish Clarias gariepinus (Siluriformes: Clariidae) fingerlings in tropical nursery ponds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial infection among the most common cultured mudfish Clarias gariepinus in Africa, has become a cause of concern, because it constitutes the largest economic loss in fish farms. In order to provide useful biological data of the pathogens for good management practices, samples were collected monthly between January 2008 and December 2009 in three monoculture nursery ponds, located in three different positions: upriver (A, grassland), mid-river (B, mixed forest and grassland) and downriver (C, rainforest) along 200 km length of Cross River floodplains, Nigeria. A total of 720 fingerlings between 15.1 and 20.7 g were analyzed to determine the degree of infection. The bacterial pathogens were taken from their external surfaces, and were isolated and identified by standard methods. The caudal fins of fingerlings from pond A had the highest bacterial load (5.8 x 10(3) cfu/g), while the least counts (1.2 x 103 cfu/g) were identified on the head of fish from pond C, with Flexibacter columnaris as the major etiological agent. Pseudomonas fluorescens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus were identified as co-isolates with P. fluorescens as dominant (0.7 x 10(2) cfu/mL) co-isolates in pond water. Clinical signs of five white spots with red periphery appeared on the external surface of infected fish. All the fish sampled, died after 4 to 9 days. There was no significant difference in the bacterial counts between different ponds, but the difference between fish organs/parts examined was significant. Fish from these ponds are therefore potentially dangerous to consumers and highly devalued, with the economic impact to producers. Preventive methods to avoid these infections are recommended. PMID:21717856

Ikpi, Gabriel; Offem, Benedict

2011-06-01

277

Bacterial Enhancement of Vinyl Fouling by Algae  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The role of bacteria in the development of algae on low-density vinyl was investigated. Unidentified bacterial contaminants in unialgal stock cultures of Phormidium faveolarum and Pleurochloris pyrenoidosa enhanced, by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude, colonization of vinyl by these algae, as determined by epifluorescence microscopy counts and chlorophyll a in extracts of colonized vinyl. Colonization by bacteria always preceded that by algae. Scanning electron microscopy of the colonized Phormidiu...

Holmes, Paul E.

1986-01-01

278

Dynamic Analysis of a Unified Multivariate Counting Process and Its Asymptotic Behavior  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The class of counting processes constitutes a significant part of applied probability. The classic counting processes include Poisson processes, nonhomogeneous Poisson processes, and renewal processes. More sophisticated counting processes, including Markov renewal processes, Markov modulated Poisson processes, age-dependent counting processes, and the like, have been developed for accommodating a wider range of applications. These counting processes seem to be quite different on the surface, forcing one to understand each of them separately. The purpose of this paper is to develop a unified multivariate counting process, enabling one to express all of the above examples using its components, and to introduce new counting processes. The dynamic behavior of the unified multivariate counting process is analyzed, and its asymptotic behavior as t?? is established. As an application, a manufacturing system with certain maintenance policies is considered, where the optimal maintenance policy for minimizing the total cost is obtained numerically.

Ushio Sumita

2009-01-01

279

Hanford whole body counting manual  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

1990-06-01

280

NIF Total Neutron Yield Diagnostic.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have designed a total neutron yield diagnostic for NIF which is based on the activation of In and Cu samples. The particular approach that we have chosen to use is the calibration factor method in which we calibrate the entire counting system. In this ...

G. W. Cooper C. L. Ruiz

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Far-Ultraviolet Number Counts of Field Galaxies  

Science.gov (United States)

The Number counts of far-ultraviolet (FUV) galaxies as a function of magnitude provide a direct statistical measure of the density and evolution of star-forming galaxies. We report on the results of measurements of the rest-frame FUV number counts computed from data of several fields including the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, the Hubble Deep Field North, and the GOODS-North and -South fields. These data were obtained from the Hubble Space Telescope Solar Blind Channel of the Advance Camera for Surveys. The number counts cover an AB magnitude range from 20-29 magnitudes, covering a total area of 15.9 arcmin'. We show that the number counts are lower than those in previous studies using smaller areas. The differences in the counts are likely the result of cosmic variance; our new data cover more area and more lines of sight than the previous studies. The slope of our number counts connects well with local FUV counts and they show good agreement with recent semi-analytical models based on dark matter "merger trees".

Voyer, Elysse N.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Teplitz, Harry I.; Siana, Brian D.; deMello, Duilia F.

2010-01-01

282

FAR-ULTRAVIOLET NUMBER COUNTS OF FIELD GALAXIES  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The far-ultraviolet (FUV) number counts of galaxies constrain the evolution of the star formation rate density of the universe. We report the FUV number counts computed from FUV imaging of several fields including the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, the Hubble Deep Field North, and small areas within the GOODS-North and South fields. These data were obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Solar Blind Channel of the Advance Camera for Surveys. The number counts sample an FUV AB magnitude range from 21 to 29 and cover a total area of 15.9 arcmin2, ?4 times larger than the most recent HST FUV study. Our FUV counts intersect bright FUV Galaxy Evolution Explorer counts at 22.5 mag and they show good agreement with recent semi-analytic models based on dark matter 'merger trees' by R. S. Somerville et al. We show that the number counts are ?35% lower than in previous HST studies that use smaller areas. The differences between these studies are likely the result of cosmic variance; our new data cover more lines of sight and more area than previous HST FUV studies. The integrated light from field galaxies is found to contribute between 65.9+8-8 and 82.6+12-12 photons s-1 cm-2 sr-1 A-1 to the FUV extragalactic background. These measurements set a lower limit for the total FUV background light.

2011-08-01

283

Evaluation of Bacterial Contamination of Water Supply in Dental Unit Water Lines at Zahedan Dental School 2008  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Assessment of microbial contamination in dental unit waterlines has been focused on because of high risk of dangerous infections in immunocompromised patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bacterial contamination of water supply in dental unit water lines at Zahedan Dental School.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive analytical study we investigated 400 water samples collected from four parts of each unit including air/water syringe, turbine handpiece (before & after flushing, cup filler and 1 water sample collected from city water reservoir in Zahedan faculty of dentistry during 2008. Water samples were taken on Saturdays (the first working day in a week and Wednesdays (the last working day in a week, before and after treatment on the same unit. Samples were transported in closed sterile containers to microbiology laboratory. All samples were incubated on blood agar and McCankey plates for 72 hours at 37°C. Bacterial contamination were then evaluted. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and t-test.Results: Total mean bacterial count was 6914 cfu/ml. Mean bacterial contamination on Saturdays (8859 cfu/ml were higher than Wednesdays (4969 cfu/ml. Mean bacterial contamination before treatment was (5155 cfu/ml less than the end of treatment (8673 cfu/ml on the same unit. Mean bacterial contaminations of prosthetics clinic (13439cfu/ml was higher than other clinics. The mean of periodentology clinic bacterial contaminations (3012 cfu/ml was the least.Conclusion: The result of this study demonstrated that microbiological level of dental unit water lines is high. The dentists must be aware of the high level of microorganisms in the dental unit's water and thus minimize the risk of infection in both staff and patients.

Mollashahi Leila

2010-03-01

284

Approximate Counting for Complex-Weighted Boolean Constraint Satisfaction Problems  

CERN Multimedia

Constraint satisfaction problems (or CSPs) have been extensively studied in AI, database theory, graph theory, etc. From an approximation viewpoint, it has been important to approximate the total number of assignments that satisfy all given Boolean constraints. There is a trichotomy theorem for such approximate counting for (non-weighted) Boolean CSPs; namely, all such counting problems are neatly classified into three categories under polynomial-time approximation-preserving reductions [Dyer, Goldberg, and Jerrum, 2010]. We extend this result to approximate counting for complex-weighted Boolean CSPs, provided that all arity-1 constraints are freely available to use. This makes a significant progress in the quest for the approximation classification of all counting Boolean CSPs in the most general form. To deal with complex weights, we employ proof techniques along the line of solving Holant problems [Valiant, 2002, 2008]. Our result also gives an approximation version of the dichotomy theorem of the complexi...

Yamakami, Tomoyuki

2010-01-01

285

Pulse loss and counting statistics with a digital spectrometer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A commercially available digital {gamma}-ray spectrometer is tested at high count rates using a germanium detector and appropriate pulse processing parameters. Correction for pulse loss due to dead time and pileup is done by extending the live time according to the Gedcke-Hale method. The accuracy of this count-loss correction technique is tested experimentally up to saturation count rates. Also the statistical uncertainty applicable to the total number of counts in arbitrary regions of interest in {gamma}-ray spectra is studied experimentally, for measurements at fixed real time as well as at fixed live time. The results are similar to those found with traditional spectrometers using analog technology.

Pomme, S. E-mail: spomme@sckcen.be; Kennedy, G. E-mail: greg.kennedy@meca.polymtl.ca

2000-03-01

286

Pulse loss and counting statistics with a digital spectrometer  

Science.gov (United States)

A commercially available digital gamma-ray spectrometer is tested at high count rates using a germanium detector and appropriate pulse processing parameters. Correction for pulse loss due to dead time and pileup is done by extending the live time according to the Gedcke-Hale method. The accuracy of this count-loss correction technique is tested experimentally up to saturation count rates. Also the statistical uncertainty applicable to the total number of counts in arbitrary regions of interest in gamma-ray spectra is studied experimentally, for measurements at fixed real time as well as at fixed live time. The results are similar to those found with traditional spectrometers using analog technology. PMID:10724377

Pomme; Kennedy

2000-03-01

287

VersaCount: customizable manual tally software for cell counting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The manual counting of cells by microscopy is a commonly used technique across biological disciplines. Traditionally, hand tally counters have been used to track event counts. Although this method is adequate, there are a number of inefficiencies which arise when managing large numbers of samples or large sample sizes. Results We describe software that mimics a traditional multi-register tally counter. Full customizability allows operation on any computer with minimal hardware requirements. The efficiency of counting large numbers of samples and/or large sample sizes is improved through the use of a "multi-count" register that allows single keystrokes to correspond to multiple events. Automatically updated multi-parameter values are implemented as user-specified equations, reducing errors and time required for manual calculations. The user interface was optimized for use with a touch screen and numeric keypad, eliminating the need for a full keyboard and mouse. Conclusions Our software provides an inexpensive, flexible, and productivity-enhancing alternative to manual hand tally counters.

DeRisi Joseph L

2010-01-01

288

Tree modules and counting polynomials  

CERN Document Server

We give a formula for counting tree modules for the quiver S_g with g loops and one vertex in terms of tree modules on its universal cover. This formula, along with work of Helleloid and Rodriguez-Villegas, is used to show that the number of d-dimensional tree modules for S_g is polynomial in g with the same degree and leading coefficient as the counting polynomial A_{S_g}(d, q) for absolutely indecomposables over F_q, evaluated at q=1.

Kinser, Ryan

2011-01-01

289

Basic principles of scintillation counting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of the energy of radiation, the crystal size, the collimation of the beam and scattering on the pulse-height distribution produced by monoenergetic radiation will be discussed. These aspects will be related to scintillation scanning. The effects of voltage on the operation of photomultiplier s and so-called plateaus will be dealt with. Glow-transfer tubes for counting will be dealt with and a useful substraction circuit for comparing the counting rate from two separate scintillation counters will be presented. (author)

1959-02-25

290

A rugged pulse counting detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the results of measurements made on 3 sets of rugged scintillation detector assemblies. The temperature range of 0 - 50 degrees centigrade was covered in steps of 10 degrees. These compact PMT-based detector assemblies are powered by + and - 15VDC and operate in the pulse counting mode. Each unit contains a high voltage power supply that is externally adjustable, and is also equipped with external controls for radiation energy lower limit and window adjustment. Measurements on the dependence of the count rate and the shift in the Am-241 and Cs-137 main peaks on temperature fluctuations were made. The results are reported here

1985-02-01

291

Totally James  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

Owens, Tom

2006-01-01

292

The simultaneous determination of americium and plutonium by liquid scintillation counting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method for the simultaneous determination of americium and plutonium by liquid scintillation counting using a multichannel instrument is developed. The procedure utilizes a two-phase cocktail with plutonium in one phase and americium in the other phase. This new method is much faster than other liquid scintillation counting procedures which require two separate counts. In other methods, the total activity is determined in the first count. Using an extractant cocktail, one isotope is determined in the second count. The second isotope is determined by difference

1986-01-01

293

Inactivation of Selected Bacterial Pathogens in Dairy Cattle Manure by Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion (Balloon Type Digester  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion of animal manure in biogas digesters has shown promise as a technology in reducing the microbial load to safe and recommended levels. We sought to treat dairy manure obtained from the Fort Hare Dairy Farm by investigating the survival rates of bacterial pathogens, through a total viable plate count method, before, during and after mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Different microbiological media were inoculated with different serial dilutions of manure samples that were withdrawn from the biogas digester at 3, 7 and 14 day intervals to determine the viable cells. Data obtained indicated that the pathogens of public health importance were 90%–99% reduced in the order: Campylobacter sp. (18 days < Escherichia coli sp. (62 days < Salmonella sp. (133 days from a viable count of 10.1 × 103, 3.6 × 105, 7.4 × 103 to concentrations below the detection limit (DL = 102 cfu/g manure, respectively. This disparity in survival rates may be influenced by the inherent characteristics of these bacteria, available nutrients as well as the stages of the anaerobic digestion process. In addition, the highest p-value i.e., 0.957 for E. coli showed the statistical significance of its model and the strongest correlation between its reductions with days of digestion. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the specific bacterial pathogens in manure can be considerably reduced through anaerobic digestion after 133 days.

Christy E. Manyi-Loh

2014-07-01

294

A new practical counting-card  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new practical counting-card we developed recently used for advanced personal computer will be introduced in this paper briefly. The counting-card we developed is a general-purpose counter indeed, which is designed based on PCI bus. Mainly, a micro-controller 8051AH and a 6-decade counter chip LS7031 were used to construct this card. The card can be located in an advanced personal computer directly to construct a data acquisition system. The maximum count capacity of this card is 109-1, ranging from 0 to 999 999 999, the maximum counting time range, can be set in 1 cycle, is 1 x 106s, the maximum counting rate is 20 MHz for positive TTL input. There are several counting functions with this card. The card can function as a preset counter, the counting interval can be preset, the minimum counting interval is 10 ms, During the counting interval, the data counted can be displayed and stored each second. Also, this card can count in one cycle or recycle, which can be selected. Under recycle counting mode, the interval between the counting cycle can be preset too. This counting-card has a big counting capacity. It can count in a high frequency. It can be used to replaced normal counter and scaler module or instrument. This card can be used in variety purpose. (authors)

2004-11-06

295

Liquid scintillation, counting, and compositions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The emissions of radioactive isotopes in both aqueous and organic samples can be measured by liquid scintillation counting in micellar systems. The micellar systems are made up of scintillation solvent, scintillation solute and a mixture of surfactants, preferably at least one of which is relatively oil-soluble water-insoluble and another which is relatively water-soluble oil-insoluble

1975-01-01

296

Covers counting via Feynman Calculus  

CERN Document Server

Let $G$ be a finite group. In this paper we present a tool for counting the number of principle $G$-bundles over a surface. As an application, we express (non-standard) generating functions for double Hurwitz numbers as integrals over commutative Frobenius algebras, associated with symmetric groups.

Karev, Maksim

2012-01-01

297

Bacterial Skin Infections  

Science.gov (United States)

... Sections Symptoms Multimedia Table Index In This Topic Skin Disorders Bacterial Skin Infections Overview of Bacterial Skin Infections ... Mouth and Dental Disorders Older People's Health Issues Skin Disorders Special Subjects Women's Health Issues Chapters in Skin ...

298

Application of neutron multiplicity counting to waste assay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the use of a new figure of merit code that calculates both bias and precision for coincidence and multiplicity counting, and determines the optimum regions for each in waste assay applications. A open-quotes tunable multiplicityclose quotes approach is developed that uses a combination of coincidence and multiplicity counting to minimize the total assay error. An example is shown where multiplicity analysis is used to solve for mass, alpha, and multiplication and tunable multiplicity is shown to work well. The approach provides a method for selecting coincidence, multiplicity, or tunable multiplicity counting to give the best assay with the lowest total error over a broad spectrum of assay conditions. 9 refs., 6 figs

1997-01-14

299

Application of neutron multiplicity counting to waste assay  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the use of a new figure of merit code that calculates both bias and precision for coincidence and multiplicity counting, and determines the optimum regions for each in waste assay applications. A {open_quotes}tunable multiplicity{close_quotes} approach is developed that uses a combination of coincidence and multiplicity counting to minimize the total assay error. An example is shown where multiplicity analysis is used to solve for mass, alpha, and multiplication and tunable multiplicity is shown to work well. The approach provides a method for selecting coincidence, multiplicity, or tunable multiplicity counting to give the best assay with the lowest total error over a broad spectrum of assay conditions. 9 refs., 6 figs.

Pickrell, M.M.; Ensslin, N. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Sharpe, T.J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

1997-11-01

300

On Walk Counts and Complexity of General Graphs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This report was motivated by a recent work of Gutman, Rucker and Rucker on walks in simple molecular graphs, i.e., graphs without multiple edges and loops. Three methods for counting walks in general graphs, i.e., graphs with multiple bonds and loops, are presented: (i graphical method based on the Morgan summation procedure, (ii method based on augmented adjacency matrices of higher orders and (iii method based on eigenvalues and eigenvectors of augmented adjacency matrices of higher orders. They represent extensions of the methods discussed previously in the literature for simple graphs. The total walk count (twc was used as a measure for complexity of general graphs. It is shown that twc indices increase with size, branching, cyclicity, the number of loops and multiple bonds, and decrease with symmetry of general graphs. The total walk count appears to be a valuable tool to account for complexity for several types of molecular graphs.

Istvan Lukovits

2002-08-01

 
 
 
 
301

Bacterial start site prediction.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the growing number of completely sequenced bacterial genes, accurate gene prediction in bacterial genomes remains an important problem. Although the existing tools predict genes in bacterial genomes with high overall accuracy, their ability to pinpoint the translation start site remains unsatisfactory. In this paper, we present a novel approach to bacterial start site prediction that takes into account multiple features of a potential start site, viz., ribosome binding site (RBS) binding...

Hannenhalli, S. S.; Hayes, W. S.; Hatzigeorgiou, A. G.; Fickett, J. W.

1999-01-01

302

How to count elephants in West African savannahs? Synthesis and comparison of main gamecount methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The comparison of some elephants count methods – aerial sampling count, aerial total count and direct foot count – has been presented through surveys' study cases implemented in Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger. We compare them in terms of effort and cost to survey an area (sampling efficiency, efficiency in data collection (detection efficiency as well as accuracy and precision. Aerial sampling count returns low sampling and detection efficiency and very low precision and accuracy figures when counting elephants populations below 0.5 elephant·km-2. Precision can partly be improved by stratification. Direct foot count returns the best sampling and detection efficiency but insufficient data number to produce reliable estimates. Therefore some authors often produced no results for elephants. Aerial total count is a costly method in absolute value. It requires important logistic and no measure of error is possible. However it provides relatively good sampling and detection efficiency as well as relatively accurate figures appreciated by wildlife managers if technical requirements are respected. Aerial total count could be recommended to survey small population of West African elephants each 3 to 5 years to minimize yearly count costs.

Bouché, P.

2012-01-01

303

The real-time fitting of radioactive decay curves. Pt. 3. Counting during sampling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An analysis of a least-squares method for the real-time fitting of the theoretical total count function to the actual total count from radioactive decays has been given previously for the case where counting takes place after a sample is taken. The counting may be done in a number of different counting systems which distinguish between different types or energies of radiation emitted from the sample. The method would allow real-time determination of the numbers of atoms and hence activities of the individual isotopes present and has been designated the Time Evolved Least-Squares method (TELS). If the radioactivity which is to be measured exists as an aerosol or in a form where a sample is taken at a constant rate it may be possible to count during sampling and by so doing reduce the total time required to determine the activity of the individual isotopes present. The TELS method is extended here to the case where counting and the evaluation of the activity takes place concurrently with the sampling. The functions which need to be evaluated are derived and the calculations required to implement the method are discussed. As with the TELS method of counting after sampling the technique of counting during sampling and the simultaneous evaluation of activity could be achieved in real-time. Results of testing the method by computer simulation for two counting schemes for the descendants of radon are presented. ((orig.))

Hartley, B.M. (Radiation Health Section, Health Department of Western Australia, 18 Verdun Street, Nedlands (Australia))

1994-08-21

304

RELATIONSHIP OF TOTAL VIABLE AND CULTURABLE CELLS TO EPIPHYTIC POPULATIONS OF PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE  

Science.gov (United States)

The accuracy of the plate count method used routinely for enumeration of viable bacterial populations in natural environments is limited by the culturability of the target population. he method was modified to examine epiphytic populations of Pseudomonas syringae. iable populatio...

305

Mixed response in bacterial and biochemical variables to simulated sand mining in placer-rich beach sediments, Ratnagiri, West coast of India.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the influence on bacterial community and biochemical variables through mechanical disturbance of sediment-akin to small-scale mining in Kalbadevi beach, Ratnagiri, a placer-rich beach ecosystem which is a potential mining site. Changes were investigated by comparing three periods, namely phase I before disturbance, phase II just after disturbance, and phase III 24 h after disturbance as the bacterial generation time is ?7 h. Cores from dune, berm, high-, mid-, and low-tide were examined for changes in distribution of total bacterial abundance, total direct viability (counts under aerobic and anaerobic conditions), culturability and biochemical parameters up to 40 cm depth. Results showed that bacterial abundance decreased by an order from 10(6) cells g(-1) sediment, while, viability reduced marginally. Culturability on different-strength nutrient broth increased by 155% during phase II. Changes in sedimentary proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids were marked at berm and dune and masked at other levels by tidal influence. Sedimentary ATP reduced drastically. During phase III, Pearson's correlation between these variables evolved from non-significant to significant level. Thus, simulated disturbance had a mixed effect on bacterial and biochemical variables of the sediments. It had a negative impact on bacterial abundance, viability and ATP but positive impact on culturability. Viability, culturability, and ATP could act as important indicators reflecting the disturbance in the system at short time intervals. Culturability, which improved by an order, could perhaps be a fraction that contributes to restoration of the system at bacterial level. This baseline information about the potential mining site could help in developing rational approach towards sustainable harnessing of resources with minimum damage to the ecosystem. PMID:21713495

Fernandes, Christabelle E G; Das, Anindita; Nath, B N; Faria, Daphne G; Loka Bharathi, P A

2012-05-01

306

Microbiologically proven bacterial infections in AIDS.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have reviewed the incidence, type and site of microbiologically proven bacterial infection occurring in 52 patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) who presented to Southmead Hospital, Bristol between 1990 and 1994. A total of 30 (58%) patients had significant bacterial isolates. The majority of infections were community acquired. Overall, more infections were caused by Gram-negative organisms but Gram-positive organisms predominated in bacteraemia. Mycobacterium avium i...

1997-01-01

307

Kynetic resazurin assay (KRA) for bacterial quantification of foodborne pathogens  

Science.gov (United States)

Fast detection of bacterial concentrations is important for the food industry and for healthcare. Early detection of infections and appropriate treatment is essential since, the delay of treatments for bacterial infections tends to be associated with higher mortality rates. In the food industry and in healthcare, standard procedures require the count of colony-forming units in order to quantify bacterial concentrations, however, this method is time consuming and reports require three days to be completed. An alternative is metabolic-colorimetric assays which provide time efficient in vitro bacterial concentrations. A colorimetric assay based on Resazurin was developed as a time kinetic assay (KRA) suitable for bacterial concentration measurements. An optimization was performed by finding excitation and emission wavelengths for fluorescent acquisition. A comparison of two non-related bacteria, foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes, was performed in 96 well plates. A metabolic and clonogenic dependence was established for fluorescent kinetic signals.

Arenas, Yaxal; Mandel, Arkady; Lilge, Lothar

2012-02-01

308

High capacity counting device for time analysis of light pulses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An inexpensive, high capacity counting device has been made for time analysis of light pulses by time-amplitude conversion. In order to allow for particularly long storage times, it has two channels with a capacity of 1012 pulses. The result is protected from power cuts. The total recording time is measured by a quartz clock. (orig.)

1981-09-01

309

The automatic recognition and counting of cough  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cough recordings have been undertaken for many years but the analysis of cough frequency and the temporal relation to trigger factors have proven problematic. Because cough is episodic, data collection over many hours is required, along with real-time aural analysis which is equally time-consuming. A method has been developed for the automatic recognition and counting of coughs in sound recordings. Methods The Hull Automatic Cough Counter (HACC is a program developed for the analysis of digital audio recordings. HACC uses digital signal processing (DSP to calculate characteristic spectral coefficients of sound events, which are then classified into cough and non-cough events by the use of a probabilistic neural network (PNN. Parameters such as the total number of coughs and cough frequency as a function of time can be calculated from the results of the audio processing. Thirty three smoking subjects, 20 male and 13 female aged between 20 and 54 with a chronic troublesome cough were studied in the hour after rising using audio recordings. Results Using the graphical user interface (GUI, counting the number of coughs identified by HACC in an hour long recording, took an average of 1 minute 35 seconds, a 97.5% reduction in counting time. HACC achieved a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 96%. Reproducibility of repeated HACC analysis is 100%. Conclusion An automated system for the analysis of sound files containing coughs and other non-cough events has been developed, with a high robustness and good degree of accuracy towards the number of actual coughs in the audio recording.

Morice Alyn H

2006-09-01

310

Far-Ultraviolet Number Counts of Field Galaxies  

CERN Document Server

The far-ultraviolet (FUV) number counts of galaxies constrain the evolution of the star-formation rate density of the universe. We report the FUV number counts computed from FUV imaging of several fields including the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, the Hubble Deep Field North, and small areas within the GOODS-North and -South fields. These data were obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Solar Blind Channel of the Advance Camera for Surveys. The number counts sample a FUV AB magnitude range from 21-29 and cover a total area of 15.9 arcmin^2, ~4 times larger than the most recent HST FUV study. Our FUV counts intersect bright FUV GALEX counts at 22.5 mag and they show good agreement with recent semi-analytic models based on dark matter "merger trees" by Somerville et al. (2011). We show that the number counts are ~35% lower than in previous HST studies that use smaller areas. The differences between these studies are likely the result of cosmic variance; our new data cover more lines of sight and more area than pre...

Voyer, Elysse N; Teplitz, Harry I; Siana, Brian D; de Mello, Duilia F

2011-01-01

311

Ascitic fluid analysis for diagnosis and monitoring of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis  

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Polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell count in the ascitic fluid is essential for the diagnosis and management of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). To date, PMN cell count is routinely performed by traditional manual counting. However, this method is time-consuming, costly, and not always timely available. Therefore, considerable efforts have been made in recent years to develop an alternative test for a more rapid diagnosis and monitoring of SBP. The use of urinary reagent strips was proposed ...

2009-01-01

312

Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting 16S rDNA for bacterial identification in empyema.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Empyema in children causes significant morbidity and mortality. However, identification of organisms is a major concern. Objective: To detect bacterial pathogens in pus specimens of children with empyema by 16S rDNA nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and correlate it with culture and sensitivity. Method: Sixty-six children admitted to the paediatric ward with a diagnosis of empyema were enrolled prospectively. Aspirated pus was subjected to cytochemical examination, culture and sensitivity, and nested PCR targeting 16S rDNA using a universal eubacterial primer. Results: Mean (SD) age was 5·8 (1·8) years (range 1-13). Analysis of aspirated pus demonstrated total leucocyte count >1000×10(6)/L, elevated protein (?20 g/L) and decreased glucose (?2·2 mmol/L) in 80·3%, 98·5% and 100%, respectively. Gram-positive cocci were detected in 29 (43·9%) and Gram-negative bacilli in two patients. Nested PCR for the presence of bacterial pathogens was positive in 50·0%, compared with 36·3% for culture. Conclusion: 16S rDNA PCR improves rates of detection of bacteria in pleural fluid, and can detect bacterial species in a single assay as well as identifying unusual and unexpected causal agents. PMID:24621236

Prasad, Rajniti; Kumari, Chhaya; Das, B K; Nath, Gopal

2014-05-01

313

Effect of lactic acid fermentation on bacterial pathogens and indicator organisms in broiler processing waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

Broiler processing offal (heads, viscera, and feet) was collected on 3 separate days from a commercial processing plant. Each sample was separately ground, supplemented with sucrose (6% initial concentration), inoculated with actively growing lactic acid bacteria (10(6) cfu/g of offal) from a commercial silage culture, and fermented at 37 C. Replicate samples were taken for standard microbiological analysis after 0, 48, and 120 h of fermentation. In fresh offal, heterotrophic plate count, total and fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, and Aeromonas hydrophila concentrations were 7.4, 5.9, 5.9, 5.4, and 3.9 log10 cfu/g wet weight, respectively. After 48 h of fermentation, the bacterial concentrations were 7.6, 2.2, < 1.3, 5.5, and < 2.3 log10 cfu/g wet weight, respectively. After 120 h of fermentation, the bacterial concentrations were 6.9, < 1.1, < 1.1, < 1.1, and < 1.1 log10 cfu/g wet weight, respectively. Salmonella concentrations in fresh, 48-h fermented, and 120-h fermented offal samples were 3.7, < 1.5, and < 1.5 log10 most-probable-number/100 g wet weight, respectively. Lactic acid fermentation appears to be effective in reducing the number of bacterial pathogens and indicator organisms in poultry processing offal. PMID:8378224

Russell, S M; Fletcher, D L; Pancorbo, O C; Merka, W C

1993-08-01

314

Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviations from the Poisson. As a broad class of alternative models, we propose to use nonparametric mixtures of rounded continuous kernels. An efficient Gibbs sampler is developed for posterior computation, and a simulation study is performed to assess performance. Focusing on the rounded Gaussian case, we generalize the modeling framework to account for multivariate count data, joint modeling with continuous and categorical variables, and other complications. The methods are illustrated through applications to a developmental toxicity study and marketing data. This article has supplementary material online. PMID:22523437

Canale, Antonio; Dunson, David B

2011-12-01

315

The Mayan Long Count Calendar  

CERN Multimedia

The Maya had a very elaborate and accurate calendar. First, the Mayan Long Count Calendar (LCC) was used to point historical events from a selected "beginning of time". It is also characterized by the existence of a religious month Tzolk'in of 260 days and a civic year Haab' of 365 days. The LCC is supposed to begin on 11 August -3114 BC known as the Goodman-Martinez-Thompson (GMT) correlation to the Gregorian calendar based on historical facts and end on 21 December 2012 corresponding to a period of approximately 5125 years or 13 Baktun. We propose here to explain the origin the 13 Baktun cycle, the Long Count Periods and the religious month Tzolk'in.

Chanier, Thomas

2013-01-01

316

Counting stem cells: methodological constraints  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The number of stem cells contributing to hematopoiesis has been a matter of debate. Many studies use retroviral tagging of stem cells to measure clonal contribution. Here we argue that methodological factors can impact such clonal analyses. Whereas early studies had low resolution, leading to underestimation, recent methods may result in an overestimation of stem-cell counts. We discuss how restriction enzyme choice, PCR bias, high-throughput sequencing depth and tagging method could affect t...

2012-01-01

317

Registrating device for photon counting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electronic recording device for photon counting is described. The device presents a time selector for the measurement of weak optical pulsed fluxes in nanosecond range. The device is manufactured in the CAMAC standard, the output of the information obtained is possible both in a computer and on its own graphical display.The block-diagram of the device, principle of its operation and basic characteristics are considered. 2 refs.; 7 figs

1988-01-01

318

Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviatio...

Canale, Antonio; Dunson, David B.

2011-01-01

319

Constraint Satisfaction with Counting Quantifiers  

CERN Document Server

We initiate the study of constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) in the presence of counting quantifiers, which may be seen as variants of CSPs in the mould of quantified CSPs (QCSPs). We show that a single counting quantifier strictly between exists^1:=exists and exists^n:=forall (the domain being of size n) already affords the maximal possible complexity of QCSPs (which have both exists and forall), being Pspace-complete for a suitably chosen template. Next, we focus on the complexity of subsets of counting quantifiers on clique and cycle templates. For cycles we give a full trichotomy -- all such problems are in L, NP-complete or Pspace-complete. For cliques we come close to a similar trichotomy, but one case remains outstanding. Afterwards, we consider the generalisation of CSPs in which we augment the extant quantifier exists^1:=exists with the quantifier exists^j (j not 1). Such a CSP is already NP-hard on non-bipartite graph templates. We explore the situation of this generalised CSP on bipartite templ...

Madelaine, Florent; Stacho, Juraj

2011-01-01

320

Serious community-acquired paediatric infections in rural Asia (Bohol Island, Philippines): bacterial meningitis in children less than 5 years of age.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the clinical profile and aetiology of bacterial meningitis in infants and children less than 5 y old admitted to a rural general hospital in the Philippines. A total of 989 infants and children 0-59 months old with suspected meningitis using a standardized guideline based on clinical signs and symptoms were prospectively enrolled from April 1994 to May 2000. Blood and CSF were drawn on admission for culture, antigen testing and cell count. All had blood cultures and 623 (63%) had CSF samples. Bacterial aetiology was found in 54 (5%). The most common bacterial pathogens were H. influenzae type b (Hib) (20, 37%) and S. pneumoniae (Pnc) (10, 18%). All of the Hib infections and 8 (80%) Pnc infections were in infants less than 1 y old. 12 (22%) of the subjects with bacterial meningitis died. All strains of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae were sensitive to chloramphenicol, cotrimoxazole and ampicillin. In conclusion, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae type b are the most common aetiological agents of bacterial meningitis in a rural area in the Philippines, and occur especially in infants less than 1 y old. Aetiological agents were susceptible to the currently recommended antimicrobial agents. PMID:17852943

Abucejo-Ladesma, Erma; Simoes, Eric A F; Lupisan, Socorro P; Sombrero, Lydia T; Quiambao, Beatriz P; Gozum, Lorena S; Herva, Elja; Ruutu, Petri

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Lipid II: total synthesis of the bacterial cell wall precursor and utilization as a substrate for glycosyltransfer and transpeptidation by penicillin binding protein (PBP) 1b of Escherichia coli.  

Science.gov (United States)

An essential feature in the life cycle of both gram positive and gram negative bacteria is the production of new cell wall. Also known as murein, the cell wall is a two-dimensional polymer, consisting of a linear, repeating N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc) and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) motif, cross-linked via peptides appended to MurNAc. The final steps in the maturation of murein are catalyzed by a single, bifunctional enzyme, known as a high MW, class A penicillin binding protein (PBP). PBPs catalyze polymerization of the sugar units (glycosyltransfer), as well as peptide cross-linking (transpeptidation) utilizing Lipid II as substrate. Detailed enzymology on this enzyme has been limited, due to difficulties in obtaining sufficient amounts of Lipid II, as well as the availability of a convenient and informative assay. We report the total chemical synthesis of Lipid II, as well as the development of an appropriate assay system and the observation of both catalytic transformations. PMID:11716719

Schwartz, B; Markwalder, J A; Wang, Y

2001-11-28

322

Effects of seasons on some semen parameters and bacterial contamination of Awassi ram semen.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of season on some semen parameters and bacterial contamination of Awassi ram semen. Semen samples from six mature Awassi rams were used in this study. Semen collection was performed with artificial vagina every week, from September 2009 to October 2010. Volume, sperm concentration, mass motility, individual motility, percentage live sperm and sperm abnormalities were evaluated. Moreover, determination of viable bacterial count of the rams was also recorded weekly. Higher (p Awassi ram semen. There is a significant effect of season on bacterial count on Awassi ram semen. PMID:21883516

Azawi, O I; Ismaeel, M A

2012-06-01

323

Total Benefit  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Investors value the addition of hedge funds to their benchmark portfolios as this can diversify risk, add positive skewness, or eliminate (fat) left tails in the return distributions. We measure total bene?ts via certainty equivalent values (CEVs) which performs better than or on par with alpha or the Sharpe ratio. Adding hedge funds is significantly better than adding real estate, commodities, foreign equities, mutual funds, or funds of funds during 1994-2009. Conditioning on past changes ...

Jackwerth, Jens; Slavutskaya, Anna

2013-01-01

324

Atmospheric pollen count in Monterrey, Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are few reports of pollen count and identification in Mexico; therefore, it is important to generate more information on the subject. This study was designed to describe the prevalence of pollen in the city of Monterrey, Mexico, during the year 2004. Atmospheric pollen was collected with a Hirst air sampler, with an airflow of 10 L/minute during 2004. Pollen was identified with light microscopy; the average monthly pollen count as well as total was calculated from January 2004 to January 2005. The months with the highest concentration of pollen were February and March (289 and 142 grains/m(3) per day, respectively), and July and November had the lowest concentration (20 and 11 grains/m(3) per day, respectively). Most of the pollen recollected corresponded to tree pollen (72%). Fraxinus spp had the highest concentration during the year (19 grains/m(3) per day; 27.5% of the total concentration of pollen). Tree pollen predominated from January through March; with Fraxinus spp, Morus spp, Celtis spp, Cupressus spp, and Pinus spp as the most important. Weed pollen predominated in May, June, and December and the most frequently identified, were Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae, Ambrosia spp, and Parietaria spp. The highest concentration of grass pollen was reported during the months of May, June, September, October, and December with Gramineae/Poaceae predominating. Tree pollen was the most abundant during the year, with the ash tree having the highest concentration. Weed and grass pollen were perennial with peaks during the year. PMID:20819326

González-Díaz, Sandra N; Rodríguez-Ortiz, Pablo G; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; Macías-Weinmann, Alejandra; Cid-Guerrero, Dagoberto; Sedo-Mejia, Giovanni A

2010-01-01

325

NAB (National Allergy Bureau): Pollen Counts  

Science.gov (United States)

... a personalized email alert account through My NAB. Pollen Count Stations Pollen Count Regions United States: Western Region | South Central | ... Immunologist » Learn about Allergies » NAB Data Release Guidelines » Pollen and Mold Links » Reading the Charts » View Images » ...

326

7 CFR 1205.28 - Counting.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Sign-up Period Procedures § 1205.28 Counting. County FSA offices and FSA, Deputy Administrator for Field Operations (DAFO), shall begin counting requests no later than November 30, 2007. FSA shall determine the number of eligible persons...

2010-01-01

327

The liquid scintillation counting efficiency for 137 Cs137m Ba and 129 I  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We compute the liquid scintillation counting efficiency for ''137 Cs+ ''137m Ba and ''129 I taking into account the scintillator chemical composition. We consider the beta transition shape factors for the forbidden beta transitions of these nuclides, and the effects of ''137m Ba and ''129m Xe half-lives on the total counting efficiency

1995-01-01

328

Digital nuclear counting system with timer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A digital nuclear counting system of six digits with four digits electronic timer set-up for counting was constructed. Mode of operation on diagram block is described. Observation on characteristics showed counting stability is 0.01%, temperature stability is 10ppm/deg C and timer accuracy is about 10 ppm. Enduro-test and characteristic measurement results showed that the instrument was applicable for general counting system. (author)

1984-10-01

329

Evaluation of procalcitonin and neopterin level in serum of patients with acute bacterial infection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fever as a common presenting complaint in pediatric patients can be due to various causes. Differentiating bacterial infection from other causes is important because the prompt use of antibiotics is critical in bacterial infection. Traditional markers of infection such as BT and WBC count may be unspecific and culture may be late or absent. CRP and Procalcitonin (PCT have been considered to evaluate the evolution of infections and sepsis in patients presenting with SIRS. Neopterin has also been proposed to aid in the diagnosis of bacterial infection. In this study, we compared the value of the serum PCT, neopterin level, and WBC count for predicting bacterial infection and outcome in children with fever. METHODS: 158 pediatric (2-120-month-old patients suspected to have acute bacterial infection, based on clinical judgment in which other causes of SIRS were ruled out were included in the study. WBC count with differential was determined and PCT and neopterin levels were measured. RESULTS: PCT level was higher in bacterial infection and patients who were complicated or expired. CONCLUSION: Rapid PCT test is superior to neopterin and WBC count for anticipating bacterial infection, especially in ED where prompt decision making is critical. ABBREVIATIONS: BT, body temperature; WBC, white blood cell; PCT, procalcitonin; CRP, C-reactive protein; SIRS, systemic inflammatory response syndrome; ED, emergency department.

Babak Pourakbari

2010-06-01

330

Counting and Computing by $e$  

CERN Multimedia

In this paper we count the number of paths and cycles in complete graphs by using the number $e$. Also, we compute the number of derangements in same way. Connection by $e$ yields some nice formulas for the number of derangements, such as $D_n=\\lfloor\\frac{n!+1}{e}\\rfloor$ and $D_n=\\lfloor(e+e^{-1})n!\\rfloor-\\lfloor en!\\rfloor$, and using these relations allow us to compute some incomplete gamma functions and hypergeometric summations; these connections are hidden in the heart of a nice polynomial that we call it derangement function and a simple ordinary differential equation concerning it.

Hassani, M

2006-01-01

331

Counting closed geodesics in strata  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We compute the asymptotic growth rate of the number N(C, R) of closed geodesics of length less than R in a connected component C of a stratum of quadratic differentials. We prove that for any 0 < \\theta < 1, the number of closed geodesics of length at most R that spend at least \\theta-fraction of time outside of a compact subset of C is exponentially smaller than N(C, R). The theorem follows from a lattice counting statement. For points x, y in the moduli space M of Riemann ...

Eskin, Alex; Mirzakhani, Maryam; Rafi, Kasra

2012-01-01

332

Complete Blood Count (CBC) Interpretation  

Science.gov (United States)

This tutorial is designed to aid first and second year medical students learn how to interpret a complete blood count. It includes material on how the test is done, its general application and pitfalls in interpretation. QuickTime movies and Java script runtime plug-in scripts are required for some pages. The tutorial concludes with a short self-help quiz covering the major points developed. The plug-ins noted above are available free at the following sites: http://www.apple.com/quicktime/download/win.html and http://www.sun.com/. Questions should be directed to Dr. Mark Braun (braunm@indiana.edu).Annotated: false

2010-05-31

333

Cubic curves from instanton counting  

CERN Multimedia

We investigate the possibility to extract Seiberg-Witten curves from the formal series for the prepotential, which was obtained by the Nekrasov approach. A method for models whose Seiberg-Witten curves are not hyperelliptic is proposed. It is applied to the SU(N) model with one symmetric or antisymmetric representations as well as for SU(N_1)xSU(N_2) model with (N_1,N_2) or (N_1,\\bar{N}_2) bifundamental matter. Solutions are compared with known results. For the gauge group product we have checked the instanton corrections which follow from our curves against direct instanton counting computations up to two instantons.

Shadchin, S

2006-01-01

334

Count-doubling time safety circuit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is provided a nuclear reactor count-factor-increase time monitoring circuit which includes a pulse-type neutron detector, and means for counting the number of detected pulses during specific time periods. Counts are compared and the comparison is utilized to develop a reactor scram signal, if necessary.

Keefe, D.J.; McDowell, W.P.; Rusch, G.K.

1981-07-07

335

WBC (White Blood Cell) Differential Count  

Science.gov (United States)

... name: White Blood Cell Differential Related tests: White Blood Cell Count , Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy , ... know? How is it used? The white blood cell differential is often used as part of a complete blood count (CBC) as a general health check. It may ...

336

Cherenkov counting of yttrium-90 in the dry state; correlations with phosphorus-32 Cherenkov counting data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present data that illustrate some advantages of Cherenkov counting for the radioassay of 90Y in the dry state and provide recommendations concerning sample counting geometry. Slightly higher detection efficiencies and figures-of-merit were obtained when counting 90Y in the dry state in polyethylene plastic counting vials compared to the counting of 90Y in 20 ml of water in borosilicate glass vials. The effects of polyethylene plastic counting vials and sample counting geometry are compared to similar data obtained in the Cherenkov counting of 32P. Data are presented to interpret the effects of polyethylene plastic and borosilicate glass on Cherenkov counting efficiency and background counts. Applications of the Cherenkov counting of 90Y and 32P in the dry state in the biological and radiopharmaceutical sciences are foreseen as well as applications in the analysis of 90Sr(90Y) and 32P in health physics and environmental monitoring

2002-06-01

337

Demonstrating Bacterial Flagella.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes an effective laboratory method for demonstrating bacterial flagella that utilizes the Proteus mirabilis organism and a special harvesting technique. Includes safety considerations for the laboratory exercise. (MDH)

Porter, John R.; And Others

1992-01-01

338

Counting bacteria using functionalized gold nanoparticles as the light-scattering reporter.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple and rapid bacterial counting method was developed based on dark-field light-scattering imaging of bacteria and gold nanoparticle (AuNP) reporter simultaneously. Commercially available DH5? E. coli strain was used as the model bacterium to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method. With antibody-conjugated AuNPs, the simple sample treatment and target E. coli strain recognition can be finished within 15-30 min, with a detection limit of 2-6 × 10(4) colony forming unit per milliliter (CFU/mL). By using 90 nm AuNPs as the light-scattering signal reporter, the bacterial recognition and counting can be easily performed with low-cost instrumentation such as an entry-level dark-field microscope setup and a common tungsten lamp as the light source. An automatic image analysis algorithm was also developed to facilitate robust and fast bacterial counting. The preliminary results of water, milk, and fruit juice sample analysis showed that this simple, fast, and cost-effective method can be easily adopted for routine bacterial detection. PMID:23035847

Xu, Xiao; Chen, Yang; Wei, Hejia; Xia, Bin; Liu, Feng; Li, Na

2012-11-20

339

Counting Patterns in Degenerated Sequences  

Science.gov (United States)

Biological sequences like DNA or proteins, are always obtained through a sequencing process which might produce some uncertainty. As a result, such sequences are usually written in a degenerated alphabet where some symbols may correspond to several possible letters (ex: IUPAC DNA alphabet). When counting patterns in such degenerated sequences, the question that naturally arises is: how to deal with degenerated positions ? Since most (usually 99%) of the positions are not degenerated, it is considered harmless to discard the degenerated positions in order to get an observation, but the exact consequences of such a practice are unclear. In this paper, we introduce a rigorous method to take into account the uncertainty of sequencing for biological sequences (DNA, Proteins). We first introduce a Forward-Backward approach to compute the marginal distribution of the constrained sequence and use it both to perform a Expectation-Maximization estimation of parameters, as well as deriving a heterogeneous Markov distribution for the constrained sequence. This distribution is hence used along with known DFA-based pattern approaches to obtain the exact distribution of the pattern count under the constraints. As an illustration, we consider a EST dataset from the EMBL database. Despite the fact that only 1% of the positions in this dataset are degenerated, we show that not taking into account these positions might lead to erroneous observations, further proving the interest of our approach.

Nuel, Grégory

340

Endophytic bacterial community of a Mediterranean marine angiosperm (Posidonia oceanica)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bacterial endophytes are crucial for the survival of many terrestrial plants, but little is known about the presence and importance of bacterial endophytes of marine plants. We conducted a survey of the endophytic bacterial community of the long-living Mediterranean marine angiosperm Posidonia oceanica in surface-sterilized tissues (roots, rhizomes, and leaves) by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). A total of 26 Posidonia oceanica meadows around the Balearic Islands were sampled,...

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Leukocyte counts and activation in spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The etiology for the progressive organ injury in hypertension is largely speculative. Recent studies have shown that leukocytes play a key role in several cardiovascular diseases. As an initial step toward investigating the role of leukocytes in hypertension, we measured leukocyte counts and spontaneous activation of granulocytes of freshly drawn unseparated blood samples in spontaneously hypertensive rats and in their normotensive counterpart, Wistar-Kyoto rats. The animals were derived from one breeder in the United States and from two breeders in Europe. Total leukocyte counts in young, mature, and old hypertensive rats were 50-100% above the controls. The number of granulocytes in mature and old spontaneously hypertensive rats in more than 100% elevated compared with control rats. In young hypertensive rats the mean granulocyte count was only slightly elevated. The number of spontaneously activated granulocytes, as detected by the nitroblue tetrazolium reduction, increases with age in both species; in mature spontaneously hypertensive rats, it is more than 300% above the values in the controls. Furthermore, in mature hypertensive rats the number of monocytes, activated monocytes, and the lymphocyte count are also significantly elevated over the values in the normotensive controls. It is proposed that these elevated leukocyte counts may constitute an enhanced risk for organ injury in the spontaneously hypertensive rat. PMID:1999363

Schmid-Schönbein, G W; Seiffge, D; DeLano, F A; Shen, K; Zweifach, B W

1991-03-01

342

Comparison of bacterial indicators and sampling programs for drinking water systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 48 French villages were selected for a survey of water quality from February 1983 to June 1984 as part of an epidemiological study conducted in the rural area of the Rhône-Alpes region. Water samples were collected and analyzed on a weekly basis in each village. Bacteriological analysis of each water sample included enumeration of standard plate count bacteria, total and thermotolerant coliforms, and fecal streptococci. The water quality regulations are examined as to the analysis frequency, the volume of samples, and the relationship between the various bacterial indicators. Analyzing 300-ml, instead of 100-ml, samples tends to generate better information on single water samples. However, if many samples are analyzed over time from the same community, the value of using large volumes of water samples is diminished. The comparisons between bacterial indicators showed that the information obtained from the various indicators was very similar. However, fecal streptococci had a better predictive value of a negative test than coliforms with respect to the French standards.

Collin, J F; Zmirou, D; Ferley, J P; Charrel, M

1988-01-01

343

Counting efficiencies by liquid scintillation counting. Single isomeric transitions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work we present liquid scintillation counting efficiency tables for several radionuclides with single isomeric transitions, in which electron conversion and gamma emission processes are competitive. We study the radionuclides: 58mCo, 77mSe, 79mBr, 87mSr, S9mY, 93mNb, 103mRh, 107mAg, 109mAg, 113mIn, 131mXe, I33mXe, 135raBa, 137mBa, 167raEr, for two different scintillators, Ultima-Gold and Insta-Gel. We consider volumes of 10 and 15 mL for Ultima Gold, and 15 mL for Insta-Gel. (Author) 18 refs

1995-01-01

344

Rapid determination of 90Sr Optimum use of a limited total analysis time  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method giving the lowest detection limit when a total analysis time has to be split between ingrowth and counting of 90Y in 90Sr determination is described. The detection limit is a function of background count-rate, total analysis time and the fraction of the total analysis time spent on counting. The optimum fraction used for counting was found to be similar 33%, if the total time was less than or equal to 5.4 half-lives of 90Y. An example illustrates the detection limits for different total analysis times using a typical liquid scintillation counter for the Cherenkov measurements of the fast ?- particles from 90Y. For a total analysis time of 24 h and a background count-rate of 25 cpm, the instrumental detection limit is lowered by similar 15%, if the optimum counting time is used compared to a counting time a factor of two shorter than the optimum one. ((orig.))

1995-04-21

345

Impact of commonly used agrochemicals on bacterial diversity in cultivated soils.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of three selected agrochemicals on bacterial diversity in cultivated soil have been studied. The selected agrochemicals are Cerox (an insecticide), Ceresate and Paraquat (both herbicides). The effect on bacterial population was studied by looking at the total heterotrophic bacteria presence and the effect of the agrochemicals on some selected soil microbes. The soil type used was loamy with pH of 6.0-7.0. The soil was placed in opaque pots and bambara bean (Vigna subterranean) seeds cultivated in them. The agrochemicals were applied two weeks after germination of seeds at concentrations based on manufacturer's recommendation. Plant growth was assessed by weekly measurement of plant height, foliage appearance and number of nodules formed after one month. The results indicated that the diversity index (Di) among the bacteria populations in untreated soil and that of Cerox-treated soils were high with mean diversity index above 0.95. Mean Di for Ceresate-treated soil was 0.88, and that for Paraquattreated soil was 0.85 indicating low bacterial populations in these treatment-type soils. The study also showed that application of the agrochemicals caused reduction in the number of total heterotrophic bacteria population sizes in the soil. Ceresate caused 82.50% reduction in bacteria number from a mean of 40 × 10(5) cfu g(-1) of soil sample to 70 × 10(4) cfu g(-1). Paraquat-treated soil showed 92.86% reduction, from a mean of 56 × 10(5) cfu g(-1) to 40 × 10(4) cfu g(-1). Application of Cerox to the soil did not have any remarkable reduction in bacterial population number. Total viable cell count studies using Congo red yeast-extract mannitol agar indicated reduction in the number of Rhizobium spp. after application of the agrochemicals. Mean number of Rhizobium population numbers per gram of soil was 180 × 10(4) for the untreated soil. Cerox-treated soil recorded mean number of 138 × 10(4) rhizobial cfu g(-1) of soil, a 23.33% reduction. Ceresate- and Paraquat-treated soils recorded 20 × 10(4) and 12 × 10(4) cfu g(-1) of soil, respectively, representing 88.89% and 93.33% reduction in Rhizobium population numbers. Correspondingly, the mean number of nodules per plant was 44 for the growth in untreated soil, 30 for the plant in the Cerox-treated soil, 8 for the plant in Paraquat-treated soil and 3 for the plant in Ceresate-treated soil. The study has confirmed detrimental effect of insecticide on bacterial populations in the soil. Total heterotrophic counts, rhizobial counts as well as the number of nodules of all samples taken from the chemically treated soils were all low as compared to values obtained for the untreated soil. However, the effect of the insecticide was minimal in all cases as compared to the effects of the herbicides on the soil fauna. Indiscriminate use of agrochemicals on farms can therefore affect soil flora and subsequently food production. PMID:23100773

Ampofo, J A; Tetteh, W; Bello, M

2009-09-01

346

The relation between differential leukocyte count, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and the presence and severity of coronary artery disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: Total leukocyte count, a marker of inflammation has long been reported to be related with coronary artery disease (CAD). Recently, differenttial leukocyte count and elevated neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (N/L) has been shown to indicate an increased long-term risk of mortality in patients with stable CAD, myocardial infarction and undergoing cardiovascular surgery. Thses studies offer incremental prognostic value to total leukocyte count. We sought to determine the relationship b...

Hatice Selcuk; Lale Dinc; Mehmet Timur Selcuk; Orhan Maden; Ahmet Temizhan

2012-01-01

347

Racial diversity with high nucleated cell counts and CD34 counts achieved in a national network of cord blood banks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Banked, unrelated, partially HLA-matched, umbilical cord blood is an alternative stem cell source for patients in need of transplantation therapy who lack traditionally matched donors. A presumed advantage of cord blood is the ability to increase recruitment of donors of minority ethnic backgrounds. The American Red Cross Cord Blood Program was established in 1999 with 6 banks and 10 collection sites throughout the country. Cord blood donors self-report racial designations on questionnaires, and donor race was collected from each site. Postprocessing nucleated cell counts and CD34(+) counts were obtained on the cord blood units, and results from each racial group (white, black, Asian, Hispanic, and Native American) were compared in the natural logarithmic scale by using analysis of variance. A total of 18878 donors consented: 64% white, 16% black, 12% Hispanic, 4% Asian, 1% Native American, and 3% other. The Detroit area consented the highest percentage of black donors (87%), San Diego consented the highest percentage of Hispanic donors (59%), and Oakland consented the highest percentage of Asian donors (15%). Seven thousand eight hundred sixty-six cord blood units have been banked for transplantation. The mean preprocessing nucleated cell count was 1220 x 10(6) (range, 327-7300 x 10(6)). There was no difference among racial groups when controlled for site (P =.395). The mean CD34(+) count was 3.28 x 10(6). Blacks had a significantly lower CD34(+) count than the other racial/ethnic groups in the Midwest, Northwest, and North Carolina collection sites. A racially diverse cord blood bank can be achieved. Nucleated cell counts were similar among the different racial/ethnic groups. CD34(+) counts were lower for blacks in some collection sites. PMID:15077225

Ballen, Karen K; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Lane, Thomas A; Lindgren, Bruce R; Miller, John P; Nagan, Denis; Newman, Bruce; Rupp, Neil; Haley, N Rebecca

2004-04-01

348

Complete Blood Count and Retinal Vessel Calibers  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective The influence of hematological indices such as complete blood count on microcirculation is poorly understood. Retinal microvasculature can be directly visualized and vessel calibers are associated with a range of ocular and systemic diseases. We examined the association of complete blood count with retinal vessel calibers. Methods Cross-sectional population-based Blue Mountains Eye Study, n?=?3009, aged 49+ years. Complete blood count was measured from fasting blood samples taken at baseline examination, 1992–4. Retinal arteriolar and venular calibers were measured from digitized retinal photographs using a validated semi-automated computer program. Results All analyses adjusted for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, smoking and fellow vessel caliber. Higher hematocrit, white cell count and platelet count were associated with narrower arteriolar caliber (p?=?0.02, 0.03 and 0.001 respectively), while higher hemoglobin, hematocrit, red cell count, white cell count and platelet count were associated with wider venular caliber (p<0.0001 for all). Each quintile increase in hematocrit, white cell count and platelet count was associated with approximately 0.5 µm narrower arteriolar caliber; whereas each quintile increase in all of the complete blood count components was associated with approximately 1–2 µm wider venular caliber. Conclusions These associations show that elevated levels of hematological indices can have adverse effects on the microcirculation.

Liew, Gerald; Wang, Jie Jin; Rochtchina, Elena; Wong, Tien Yin; Mitchell, Paul

2014-01-01

349

Influence of Delay on Coincidence Counting Rates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In coincidence counting not only the 'true' coincidences (corresponding to one disintegration), but also the random coincidences, depend on the delay between the two counting channels, as pointed out by Gandy (1961). For very large delays the counting rate clearly does not change any more with the delay, but for delays comparable with the dead times the counting rate can be much lower than that given by the usual formula 2 ? AB (A, B = counting rates, ? = coincidence resolution time). In general, it is not possible to determine r by simply delaying one channel just enough to eliminate all 'true' coincidences. Experimental curves of the coincidence counting rates from a 4? ?-? coincidence apparatus as a function of the delay are given as well as an approximate formula which describes the results fairly well. For routine determination of ? in the IAEA laboratory, one counting channel is replaced by a generator of recurrent pulses. (author)

1967-03-01

350

Bacterial Profiles and Physico-chemical Parameters of Water Samples from Different Sites of the New Calabar River, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water samples were collected from three sites (Ogbakiri, Choba and Iwofe of the New Calabar River and were evaluated for microbiological and physico-chemical characteristics. Bacterial isolates consisting mainly of gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Acinetobacter spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella spp., Vibrio sp. and Nocardia asteroides were isolated from the samples. The highest total coliform counts log10 2.9 were encountered in water samples from Iwofe but the lowest counts log101.9 occurred in the water samples from Ogbakiri. Ecological parameters varied among the sites with the highest pH value of 7.87 occurring at Iwofe and lowest of 6.12 at Choba. Maximum salinity level of 150/00 was observed at Iwofe and lowest at Choba. In contrast, maximum dissolved oxygen of 10.1ppm was observed at Choba and the minimum at Iwofe. The different bacterial profiles are probably attributable to the anthropogenic and industrial activities of the sites.

Edun O. M.

2012-06-01

351

FAINT SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY COUNTS AT 450 ?m  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present the results of SCUBA-2 observations at 450 ?m and 850 ?m of the field lensed by the massive cluster A370. With a total survey area >100 arcmin2 and 1? sensitivities of 3.92 and 0.82 mJy beam–1 at 450 and 850 ?m, respectively, we find a secure sample of 20 sources at 450 ?m and 26 sources at 850 ?m with a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) > 4. Using the latest lensing model of A370 and Monte Carlo simulations, we derive the number counts at both wavelengths. The 450 ?m number counts probe a factor of four deeper than the counts recently obtained from the Herschel Space Telescope at similar wavelengths, and we estimate that ?47%-61% of the 450 ?m extragalactic background light resolved into individual sources with 450 ?m fluxes greater than 4.5 mJy. The faint 450 ?m sources in the 4? sample have positional accuracies of 3 arcsec, while brighter sources (S/N >6?) are good to 1.4 arcsec. Using a deep radio map (1? ? 6 ?Jy) we find that the percentage of submillimeter sources having secure radio counterparts is 85% for 450 ?m sources with intrinsic fluxes >6 mJy and 67% for 850 ?m sources with intrinsic fluxes >4 mJy. We also find that 67% of the >4? 450 ?m sources are detected at 850 ?m, while the recovery rate at 450 ?m of >4? 850 ?m sources is 54%. Combined with the source redshifts estimated using millimetric flux ratios, the recovered rate is consistent with the scenario where both 450 ?m and 20 cm emission preferentially select lower redshift dusty sources, while 850 ?m emission traces a higher fraction of dusty sources at higher redshifts. We identify potential counterparts in various wavelengths from X-ray to mid-infrared and measure the multiwavelength photometry, which we then use to analyze the characteristics of the sources. We find three X-ray counterparts to our robust submillimeter sample (S/N > 5), giving an active galactic nucleus fraction for our 450 (850) ?m sample of 3/8 (3/9) or 38% (33%). We also find a correlation between the Ks band and the 850 ?m/20 cm flux ratio.

2013-01-10

352

Coincidence counting of radioactive sodium in vivo  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Changes in electrolyte distribution between extracellular and intracellular compartments are difficult to measure since only human blood cells are easily sampled for measurement of intracellular constituents. The human ear cartilage, which is easily accessible, lends itself to the study of such phenomena in vivo. Cartilage has been shown to have high concentrations of cations. The total cation concentration per litre of cartilage water amounts to some 450 mequiv./litre. A dose of 10 ?Ci of 22Na, a positron emitter (physical half-life 2.6 years) was injected intravenously as sterile sodium chloride. Two detectors in coincidence fitted over one ear measured repeatedly the amount of radioactivity passing through the ear for the first few hours and several times daily thereafter. Radioactivity of venous blood samples taken during this time was plotted against the buildup of radioactivity in the ear. Exchangeable sodium was also determined. With this method, we have studied subjects who had no evidence of disturbances of sodium or other electrolytes, patients with compensated and decompensated congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction in normal sodium balance, and patients with hypertension. Patients with a previous myocardial infarction who are now fully compensated clinically, even in the presence of normal cardiac output, have a prolonged effective half-life by coincidence counting over the ear as do patients with hypertension. We believe that coincidence counting of the ear cartilage for positron-emitting radioisotopes has great potential for the study of extracellular and intracellular ion exchange in vivo, particularly in disturbances of sodium metabolism. (author)

1974-07-15

353

Counting Square-Free Numbers  

CERN Document Server

The main topic of this contribution is the problem of counting square-free numbers not exceeding $n$. Before this work we were able to do it in time (Comparing to the Big-O notation, Soft-O ($\\softO$) ignores logarithmic factors) $\\softO(\\sqrt{n})$. Here, the algorithm with time complexity $\\softO(n^{2/5})$ and with memory complexity $\\softO(n^{1/5})$ is presented. Additionally, a parallel version is shown, which achieves full scalability. As of now the highest computed value was for $n=10^{17}$. Using our implementation we were able to calculate the value for $n=10^{36}$ on a cluster.

Pawlewicz, Jakub

2011-01-01

354

Photon counting compressive depth mapping.  

Science.gov (United States)

We demonstrate a compressed sensing, photon counting lidar system based on the single-pixel camera. Our technique recovers both depth and intensity maps from a single under-sampled set of incoherent, linear projections of a scene of interest at ultra-low light levels around 0.5 picowatts. Only two-dimensional reconstructions are required to image a three-dimensional scene. We demonstrate intensity imaging and depth mapping at 256 × 256 pixel transverse resolution with acquisition times as short as 3 seconds. We also show novelty filtering, reconstructing only the difference between two instances of a scene. Finally, we acquire 32 × 32 pixel real-time video for three-dimensional object tracking at 14 frames-per-second. PMID:24104293

Howland, Gregory A; Lum, Daniel J; Ware, Matthew R; Howell, John C

2013-10-01

355

Well coincidence counting and analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In several recent papers a physical/mathematical model was developed to describe the nuclear multiplicative processes in samples containing fissile material from a general statistical viewpoint, starting with the basic underlying physical phenomena. The results of this model agreed with the established picture used in ''standard'' HLNCC (High Level Neutron Coincidence Counter) measurements, but considerably extended them, and allowed a more detailed interpretation of the underlying physical mechanisms and of the higher moments of the neutron counts. The present paper examines some recent measurements made at Y-12 (Oak Ridge) using the AWCC, in the light of this model. The results show internal consistency under a variety of conditions, and give good agreement between experiment and theory

1994-03-14

356

Photon counting compressive depth mapping  

CERN Document Server

We demonstrate a compressed sensing, photon counting lidar system based on the single-pixel camera. Our technique recovers both depth and intensity maps from a single under-sampled set of incoherent, linear projections of a scene of interest at ultra-low light levels around 0.5 picowatts. Only two-dimensional reconstructions are required to image a three-dimensional scene. We demonstrate intensity imaging and depth mapping at 256 x 256 pixel transverse resolution with acquisition times as short as 3 seconds. We also show novelty filtering, reconstructing only the difference between two instances of a scene. Finally, we acquire 32 x 32 pixel real-time video for three-dimensional object tracking at 14 frames-per-second.

Howland, Gregory A; Ware, Matthew R; Howell, John C

2013-01-01

357

Counting system for radioactive fluids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A counting system is described for radioactive fluids including a portable gamma ray detector having a detecting portion; a radiation shielded panel having front and rear sides and including a plurality of openings extending therethrough, each of the panel openings being adapted to physically receive the detecting portion of the detector; a vessel for receiving a radioactive fluid sample associated with at least one of the panel openings and located behind the panel coaxially with the panel opening; means for selectively introducing a radioactive fluid into the sample vessel; means for electrically connecting the detector to instrumentation for analyzing the radioactivity of a radioactive fluid, whereby the radioactivity of a radioactive fluid contained in each of the sample vessels can be selectively determined by inserting the detecting portion of the detector into the corresponding panel opening; and radiation shielded plugs adapted to be inserted into each of the panel openings other than the one in which the detector is inserted

1986-01-01

358

Measurement of calprotectin in ascitic fluid to identify elevated polymorphonuclear cell count  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIM: To evaluate the diagnostic capability of calprotectin in ascitic fluid for detecting a polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell count > 250/?L ascites. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, a total of 130 ascites samples were analysed from 71 consecutive patients referred for paracentesis. Total and differential leukocyte cell counts were determined manually with a Neubauer chamber and gentian-violet stain. Calprotectin was measured in 1 mL ascetic fluid by enzyme-linked immunosorb...

Emanuel Burri; Felix Schulte; Xfc Rgen Muser, J.; Xe My Meier, R.; Christoph Beglinger

2013-01-01

359

Routine bacterial analysis with automated flow cytometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of multi-well plate automation on bacterial flow cytometric analyses was investigated. Cell concentrations in up to 96 samples can be measured accurately, as long as a reproducible staining protocol and a total measurement time of below 80 min is used. Fluorescence distribution in the samples may, however, display some variability. PMID:23684992

Van Nevel, Sam; Koetzsch, Stefan; Weilenmann, Hans-Ulrich; Boon, Nico; Hammes, Frederik

2013-08-01

360

Statistical analysis of the direct count method for enumerating bacteria.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The direct count method for enumerating bacteria in natural environments is widely used. This paper analyzes the sources of variation contributed by the various levels of the method: subsamples, filters, and microscope fields. Based on a nested analysis of variance, we show that most of the variance (less than 80%) is caused by the fields and that the filters contributed nearly all of the remaining variance. The replication at each of the levels determines the total cost and error of a measur...

Kirchman, D.; Sigda, J.; Kapuscinski, R.; Mitchell, R.

1982-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Counting all bent functions in dimension eight 99270589265934370305785861242880  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Based on the classification of the homogeneous Boolean functions of degree 4 in 8 variables we present the strategy that we used to count the number of all bent functions in dimension 8. There are $$99270589265934370305785861242880 \\approx 2^{106}$$such functions in total. Furthermore, we show that most of the bent functions in dimension 8 are nonequivalent to Maioranaâ??McFarland and partial spread functions.

Langevin, Philippe; Leander, Gregor

2011-01-01

362

Evaluation of free-stall mattress bedding treatments to reduce mastitis bacterial growth  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bacterial counts were compared in free-stall mattresses and teat ends exposed to 5 treatments in a factorial study design on 1 dairy farm. Mattresses in five 30-cow groups were subjected to 1 of 5 bedding treatments every other day: 0.5 kg of hydrated limestone, 120 mL of commercial acidic conditioner, 1 kg of coal fly ash, 1 kg of kiln-dried wood shavings, and control (no bedding). Counts of coliforms, Klebsiella spp., Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus spp. were lowest on mattresses bedded with lime. Mattresses bedded with the commercial acidic conditioner had the next lowest counts for coliforms, Klebsiella spp., and Streptococcus spp. Wood shavings and the no-bedding control had the highest counts for coliform and Klebsiella spp. Compared with wood shavings or control, fly ash reduced the counts of coliforms, whereas for the other 3 bacterial groups, the reduction was not always significant. Streptococcus spp. counts were greatest in the control group and did not differ among the shavings and fly ash groups. Teat swab results indicated that hydrated lime was the only bedding treatment that significantly decreased the counts of both coliforms and Klebsiella spp. There were no differences in Streptococcus spp. numbers on the teats between any of the bedding treatments. Bacterial populations grew steadily on mattresses and were generally higher at 36 to 48 h than at 12 to 24 h, whereas bacterial populations on teats grew rapidly by 12 h and then remained constant. Hydrated lime was the only treatment that significantly reduced bacterial counts on both mattresses and teat ends, but it caused some skin irritation.

Kristula, M.A.; Dou, Z.; Toth, J.D.; Smith, B.I.; Harvey, N.; Sabo, M. [University of Penn, Kennett Square, PA (United States)

2008-05-15

363

The nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers on Meloidogyne incognita in sandy soil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In a greenhouse experiment, the nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers including the nitrogen fixing bacteria (NFB) Paenibacillus polymyxa (four strains), the phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) Bacillus megaterium (three strains) and the potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB) B. circu [...] lans (three strains) were evaluated individually on tomato plants infested with the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in potted sandy soil. Comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2, increased the counts of total bacteria and total bacterial spores in plants potted soil from 1.2 to 2.6 folds estimated 60 days post-inoculation. Consequently, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7 increased significantly the shoot length (cm), number of leaves / plant, shoot dry weight (g) / plant and root dry weight (g) / plant by 32.6 %, 30.8 %, 70.3 % and 14.2 %, respectively. Generally, the majority treatments significantly reduced the nematode multiplication which was more obvious after 60 days of inoculation. Among the applied strains, P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2 inoculations resulted in the highest reduction in nematode population comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control. They recorded the highest reduction in numbers of hatched juveniles/root by 95.8 %, females/root by 63.75 % and juveniles/1kg soil by 57.8 %. These results indicated that these bacterial biofertilizers are promising double purpose microorganisms for mobilizing of soil nutrients (nitrogen, phosphate and potassium) and for the biological control of M. incognita.

El-Hadad, M.E; Mustafa, M.I; Selim, Sh.M; El-Tayeb, T.S; Mahgoob, A.E.A; Aziz, Norhan H. Abdel.

364

The nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers on Meloidogyne incognita in sandy soil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a greenhouse experiment, the nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers including the nitrogen fixing bacteria (NFB Paenibacillus polymyxa (four strains, the phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB Bacillus megaterium (three strains and the potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB B. circulans (three strains were evaluated individually on tomato plants infested with the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in potted sandy soil. Comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2, increased the counts of total bacteria and total bacterial spores in plants potted soil from 1.2 to 2.6 folds estimated 60 days post-inoculation. Consequently, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7 increased significantly the shoot length (cm, number of leaves / plant, shoot dry weight (g / plant and root dry weight (g / plant by 32.6 %, 30.8 %, 70.3 % and 14.2 %, respectively. Generally, the majority treatments significantly reduced the nematode multiplication which was more obvious after 60 days of inoculation. Among the applied strains, P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2 inoculations resulted in the highest reduction in nematode population comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control. They recorded the highest reduction in numbers of hatched juveniles/root by 95.8 %, females/root by 63.75 % and juveniles/1kg soil by 57.8 %. These results indicated that these bacterial biofertilizers are promising double purpose microorganisms for mobilizing of soil nutrients (nitrogen, phosphate and potassium and for the biological control of M. incognita.

M.E El-Hadad

2011-03-01

365

Electron counting in quantum dots  

Science.gov (United States)

We use time-resolved charge detection techniques to investigate single-electron tunneling in semiconductor quantum dots. The ability to detect individual charges in real-time makes it possible to count electrons one-by-one as they pass through the structure. The setup can thus be used as a high-precision current meter for measuring ultra-low currents, with resolution several orders of magnitude better than that of conventional current meters. In addition to measuring the average current, the counting procedure also makes it possible to investigate correlations between charge carriers. Electron correlations are conventionally probed in noise measurements, which are technically challenging due to the difficulty to exclude the influence of external noise sources in the experimental setup. Using real-time charge detection techniques, we circumvent the problem by studying the electron correlation directly from the counting statistics of the tunneling electrons. In quantum dots, we find that the strong Coulomb interaction makes electrons try to avoid each other. This leads to electron anti-bunching, giving stronger correlations and reduced noise compared to a current carried by statistically independent electrons. The charge detector is implemented by monitoring changes in conductance in a nearby capacitively coupled quantum point contact. We find that the quantum point contact not only serves as a detector but also causes a back-action onto the measured device. Electron scattering in the quantum point contact leads to emission of microwave radiation. The radiation is found to induce an electronic transition between two quantum dots, similar to the absorption of light in real atoms and molecules. Using a charge detector to probe the electron transitions, we can relate a single-electron tunneling event to the absorption of a single photon. Moreover, since the energy levels of the double quantum dot can be tuned by external gate voltages, we use the device as a frequency-selective single-photon detector operating at microwave energies. The ability to put an on-chip microwave detector close to a quantum conductor opens up the possibility to investigate radiation emitted from mesoscopic structures and gives a deeper understanding of the role of electron-photon interactions in quantum conductors. A central concept of quantum mechanics is the wave-particle duality; matter exhibits both wave- and particle-like properties and cannot be described by either formalism alone. To investigate the wave properties of the electrons, we perform experiments on a structure containing a double quantum dot embedded in the Aharonov-Bohm ring interferometer. Aharonov-Bohm rings are traditionally used to study interference of electron waves traversing different arms of the ring, in a similar way to the double-slit setup used for investigating interference of light waves. In our case, we use the time-resolved charge detection techniques to detect electrons one-by-one as they pass through the interferometer. We find that the individual particles indeed self-interfere and give rise to a strong interference pattern as a function of external magnetic field. The high level of control in the system together with the ability to detect single electrons enables us to make direct observations of non-intuitive fundamental quantum phenomena like single-particle interference or time-energy uncertainty relations.

Gustavsson, S.; Leturcq, R.; Studer, M.; Shorubalko, I.; Ihn, T.; Ensslin, K.; Driscoll, D. C.; Gossard, A. C.

2009-06-01

366

Jellyfish modulate bacterial dynamic and community structure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Jellyfish blooms have increased in coastal areas around the world and the outbreaks have become longer and more frequent over the past few decades. The Mediterranean Sea is among the heavily affected regions and the common bloom-forming taxa are scyphozoans Aurelia aurita s.l., Pelagia noctiluca, and Rhizostoma pulmo. Jellyfish have few natural predators, therefore their carcasses at the termination of a bloom represent an organic-rich substrate that supports rapid bacterial growth, and may have a large impact on the surrounding environment. The focus of this study was to explore whether jellyfish substrate have an impact on bacterial community phylotype selection. We conducted in situ jellyfish-enrichment experiment with three different jellyfish species. Bacterial dynamic together with nutrients were monitored to assess decaying jellyfish-bacteria dynamics. Our results show that jellyfish biomass is characterized by protein rich organic matter, which is highly bioavailable to 'jellyfish-associated' and 'free-living' bacteria, and triggers rapid shifts in bacterial population dynamics and composition. Based on 16S rRNA clone libraries and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, we observed a rapid shift in community composition from unculturable Alphaproteobacteria to culturable species of Gammaproteobacteria and Flavobacteria. The results of sequence analyses of bacterial isolates and of total bacterial community determined by culture independent genetic analysis showed the dominance of the Pseudoalteromonadaceae and the Vibrionaceae families. Elevated levels of dissolved proteins, dissolved organic and inorganic nutrient release, bacterial abundance and carbon production as well as ammonium concentrations characterized the degradation process. The biochemical composition of jellyfish species may influence changes in the amount of accumulated dissolved organic and inorganic nutrients. Our results can contribute insights into possible changes in bacterial population dynamics and nutrient pathways following jellyfish blooms which have important implications for ecology of coastal waters. PMID:22745726

Tinta, Tinkara; Kogovšek, Tjaša; Malej, Alenka; Turk, Valentina

2012-01-01

367

Effect of alternative antibiotics in treatment of cefotaxime resistant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate effective alternative antibiotics in treatment of cefotaxime-resistant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. METHODS: One hundred cirrhotic patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis [ascitic fluid polymorphonuclear cell count (PMNLs ? 250 cells/mm3 at admission] were empirically treated with cefotaxime sodium 2 g/12 h and volume expansion by intravenous human albumin. All patients were subjected to history taking, complete examination, laboratory tests (including a complete blood cell count, prothrombin time, biochemical tests of liver and kidney function, and fresh urine sediment, chest X-ray, a diagnostic abdominal paracentesis, and the sample subjected to total and differential cell count, chemical examination, aerobic and anaerobic cultures. Patients were divided after 2 d by a second ascitic PMNL count into group?I; patients sensitive to cefotaxime (n = 81, group II (n = 19; cases resistant to cefotaxime (less than 25% decrease in ascitic PMNL count. Patients of group II were randomly assigned into meropenem (n = 11 or levofloxacin (n = 8 subgroups. All patients performed an end of treatment ascitic PMNL count. Patients were considered improved when: PMNLs decreased to < 250 cells/mm3, no growth in previously positive culture cases, and improved clinical manifestations with at least 5 d of antibiotic therapy. RESULTS: Age, sex, and Child classes showed no significant difference between group?I?and group II. Fever and abdominal pain were the most frequent manifestations and were reported in 82.7% and 80.2% of patients in group?I?and in 94.7% and 84.2% of patients in group II, respectively. Patients in group II had a more severe ascitic inflammatory response than group?I?and this was demonstrated by more ascitic lactate dehydrogenase (LDH [median: 540 IU/L (range: 150-1200 IU/L vs median: 240 IU/L (range: 180-500 IU/L, P = 0.000] and PMNL [median: 15??000 cell/mm3 (range: 957-23??822 cell/mm3 vs 3400 cell/mm3 (range: 695-26??400 cell/mm3, P = 0.000] counts. Ascitic fluid culture was positive in 32% of cases. Cefotaxime failed in 19% of patients; of these patients, 11 (100% responded to meropenem and 6 (75% responded to levofloxacin. Two patients with failed levofloxacin therapy were treated according to the in vitro culture and sensitivity (one case was treated with vancomycin and one case was treated with ampicillin/sulbactam. In group II the meropenem subgroup had higher LDH (range: 108-860 IU/L vs 120-491 IU/L, P = 0.042 and PMNL counts (range: 957-23??822 cell/mm3 vs 957-15??222 cell/mm3, P = 0.000 at initiation of the alternative antibiotic therapy; there was no significant difference in the studied parameters between patients responsive to meropenem and patients responsive to levofloxacin at the end of therapy (mean ± SD: 316.01 ± 104.03 PMNLs/mm3 vs 265.63 ± 69.61 PMNLs/mm3, P = 0.307. The isolated organisms found in group II were; enterococci, acinetobacter, expanded-spectrum ?-lactamase producing Escherichia coli, ?-lactamase producing Enterobacter and Staphylococcus aureus. CONCLUSION: Empirical treatment with cefotaxime is effective in 81% of cases; meropenem is effective in cefotaxime-resistant cases.

Ahmed Abouelkhair Badawy

2013-01-01

368

Design Study of an Incinerator Ash Conveyor Counting System - 13323  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A design study has been performed for a system that should measure the Cs-137 activity in ash from an incinerator. Radioactive ash, expected to consist of both Cs-134 and Cs-137, will be transported on a conveyor belt at 0.1 m/s. The objective of the counting system is to determine the Cs-137 activity and direct the ash to the correct stream after a diverter. The decision levels are ranging from 8000 to 400000 Bq/kg and the decision error should be as low as possible. The decision error depends on the total measurement uncertainty which depends on the counting statistics and the uncertainty in the efficiency of the geometry. For the low activity decision it is necessary to know the efficiency to be able to determine if the signal from the Cs-137 is above the minimum detectable activity and that it generates enough counts to reach the desired precision. For the higher activity decision the uncertainty of the efficiency needs to be understood to minimize decision errors. The total efficiency of the detector is needed to be able to determine if the detector will be able operate at the count rate at the highest expected activity. The design study that is presented in this paper describes how the objectives of the monitoring systems were obtained, the choice of detector was made and how ISOCS (In Situ Object Counting System) mathematical modeling was used to calculate the efficiency. The ISOCS uncertainty estimator (IUE) was used to determine which parameters of the ash was important to know accurately in order to minimize the uncertainty of the efficiency. The examined parameters include the height of the ash on the conveyor belt, the matrix composition and density and relative efficiency of the detector. (authors)

2013-02-24

369

Design Study of an Incinerator Ash Conveyor Counting System - 13323  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A design study has been performed for a system that should measure the Cs-137 activity in ash from an incinerator. Radioactive ash, expected to consist of both Cs-134 and Cs-137, will be transported on a conveyor belt at 0.1 m/s. The objective of the counting system is to determine the Cs-137 activity and direct the ash to the correct stream after a diverter. The decision levels are ranging from 8000 to 400000 Bq/kg and the decision error should be as low as possible. The decision error depends on the total measurement uncertainty which depends on the counting statistics and the uncertainty in the efficiency of the geometry. For the low activity decision it is necessary to know the efficiency to be able to determine if the signal from the Cs-137 is above the minimum detectable activity and that it generates enough counts to reach the desired precision. For the higher activity decision the uncertainty of the efficiency needs to be understood to minimize decision errors. The total efficiency of the detector is needed to be able to determine if the detector will be able operate at the count rate at the highest expected activity. The design study that is presented in this paper describes how the objectives of the monitoring systems were obtained, the choice of detector was made and how ISOCS (In Situ Object Counting System) mathematical modeling was used to calculate the efficiency. The ISOCS uncertainty estimator (IUE) was used to determine which parameters of the ash was important to know accurately in order to minimize the uncertainty of the efficiency. The examined parameters include the height of the ash on the conveyor belt, the matrix composition and density and relative efficiency of the detector. (authors)

Jaederstroem, Henrik; Bronson, Frazier [Canberra Industries Inc., 800 Research Parkway Meriden CT 06450 (United States)

2013-07-01

370

Full counting statistics of Andreev tunneling.  

Science.gov (United States)

We employ a single-charge counting technique to measure the full counting statistics of Andreev events in which Cooper pairs are either produced from electrons that are reflected as holes at a superconductor-normal-metal interface or annihilated in the reverse process. The full counting statistics consists of quiet periods with no Andreev processes, interrupted by the tunneling of a single electron that triggers an avalanche of Andreev events giving rise to strongly super-Poissonian distributions. PMID:24484157

Maisi, Ville F; Kambly, Dania; Flindt, Christian; Pekola, Jukka P

2014-01-24

371

Full Counting Statistics of Andreev Tunneling  

Science.gov (United States)

We employ a single-charge counting technique to measure the full counting statistics of Andreev events in which Cooper pairs are either produced from electrons that are reflected as holes at a superconductor-normal-metal interface or annihilated in the reverse process. The full counting statistics consists of quiet periods with no Andreev processes, interrupted by the tunneling of a single electron that triggers an avalanche of Andreev events giving rise to strongly super-Poissonian distributions.

Maisi, Ville F.; Kambly, Dania; Flindt, Christian; Pekola, Jukka P.

2014-01-01

372

Counting unrooted maps using tree-decomposition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a new method to count unrooted maps on the sphere up to orientation-preserving homeomorphisms. The principle, called tree-decomposition, is to deform a map into an arborescent structure whose nodes are occupied by constrained maps. Tree-decomposition turns out to be very efficient and flexible for the enumeration of constrained families of maps. In this article, the method is applied to count unrooted 2-connected maps and, more importantly, to count unrooted 3-con...

Fusy, Eric

2006-01-01

373

Minimal count level required for quantification of left ventricular function with gated myocardial perfusion tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the minimal count density required for accurate quantification of global and regional function using gated myocardial perfusion tomography and the QGS algorithm. Material and Methods: Ten patients with low likelihood of coronary artery disease were injected with 925MBq of Tc99m labelled tetrofosmin. Imaging was started 60min after tracer administration on a 3-head gamma camera equipped with LEHR collimators. Parameters of acquisition were as follows: 360-degree rotation, 96 projections, 64x64 matrix, 5.79mm pixel size, step-and-shoot, 40s per step and 8 time bins. In order to create test data sets with lower count densities, the original data were redistributed using binomial deviates. For each patient, five different noise realizations were generated for six different noise levels corresponding to 1/2, 1/4, 1/6, 1/8, 1/10 and 1/16 of the original count density. Transverse slices were reconstructed using filtered backprojection (Butterworth filter: cut-off frequency 0.44 cycle/cm, order 5) and reoriented according to the left ventricular long axis using exactly the same angles for each individual patient. End-diastolic volume (EDV), ejection fraction (EF) and regional wall thickening (WT) were automatically calculated with the QGS algorithm. The root-mean-square difference (RMSD) between the five low-count realizations and the original high-count study were calculated for every noise level and evaluated in function of the total myocardial count density measured on the non-gated projections. Results: The total myocardial count density averaged 5.0+/-0.9 million counts in the original high-count studies. Using these original data, EDV, EF and WT averaged 117+/-15ml, 55+/-4% and 34+/-4%, respectively. The RMSD of the EDV, EF and WT increased slightly with decreasing count levels until a total myocardial count density of 1.5 million counts. At that very low count level, RMSD was still below 6 ml for EDV and below 5% for EF and WT, respectively. Lower count levels generated unacceptable RMSD. Conclusion: QGS provides accurate and highly reproducible quantitative measurements of global and regional left ventricular function with gated myocardial perfusion tomographic studies containing as low as 1.5 million counts

2002-09-01

374

Radiation Counting System Software Using Visual Basic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been created a Gamma Radiation Counting System using interface card, which paired with Personal Computer (PC) and operated by the Visual Basic program. The program was set through varied menu selections such as ”Multi Counting” , ”Counting and Record” and ”View Data”. An interface card for data acquisition was formed by using AMD9513 components as a counter and timer which can be programmed. This counting system was tested and used in waste facility in PTNBR and the result is quite good. (author)

2009-11-01

375

Count rate limitations in pulsed accelerator fields  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses various concepts involved in the counting losses of pulse-counting health physics instrumentation when used within the pulsed radiation environments of typical accelerator fields, in order to pre-establish appropriate limitations in use. Discussed are the 'narrow' pulse and the 'wide' pulse cases, the special effect of neutron moderating assemblies, and the effect of pulse microstructure on the counting losses of the pulse-counting instrumentation. Examples are provided which highlight the various concepts and limitations.

Justus, Alan L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-15

376

Count rate effect in proportional counters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The count rate effect on the pulse height and resolution observed in gas-proportional counters is - in a wide range of the count rate - the result of the rise-time variations of current pulses generated in the active volume of the counter. The paper presents a description of the probable physical processes governing the variations of the pulse rise-time which occur during the operation of the counter and are due to varying either the count rate or the applied voltage. On the basis of the pulse rise-time concept the differences in the count rate effect observed in various types of proportional counters are discussed. (author)

1980-01-01

377

Efficiency of ciprofloxacin for bacterial control, post-thaw quality, and in vivo fertility of buffalo spermatozoa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ciprofloxacin (CP) was evaluated for bacterial control, post-thaw quality, and fertility of buffalo semen. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Proteus sp., Corynebacterium sp., Micrococcus sp., and Staphylococcus sp. were isolated from buffalo semen. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Corynebacterium sp., and Micrococcus sp. were resistant to streptomycin, whereas P. aeruginosa and Proteus sp. were resistant to penicillin. All bacteria were susceptible to CP. In vitro dose toxicity was assessed in sodium citrate buffer containing 0, 200 to 2000 ?g/mL of CP. CP up to 1000 ?g/mL was found nontoxic to motility and viability of buffalo sperm. For post-thaw quality, buffalo semen was frozen in Tris-citric acid extender containing streptomycin-penicillin (SP; 1000 ?g/mL-1000 IU/mL) or CP 600 ?g/mL and was assessed for total aerobic bacterial count (post-thaw), motility, plasma membrane integrity, viability at 0, 2, and 4 hours post-thaw. At 4 hours post-thaw, plasma membrane integrity (%) was higher (P semen (two bulls) frozen in Tris-citric acid extender containing SP or CP was used to inseminate, and 400 inseminations (200/group) were recorded. Higher (P ? 0.05) fertility rate was recorded with CP (55%) compared with SP (41%). In conclusion, use of CP in extender was efficient to control the bacterial contamination without compromising the post-thaw quality and fertility of cryopreserved water buffalo bull semen. PMID:23746693

Akhter, S; Ansari, M S; Rakha, B A; Andrabi, S M H; Qadeer, S; Iqbal, R; Ullah, N

2013-09-01

378

Counting Group Valued Graph Colorings  

CERN Document Server

There are many variations on partition functions for graph homomorphisms or colorings. The case considered here is a counting or hard constraint problem in which the range or color graph carries a free and vertex transitive Abelian group action so that the colors are identified with the elements of this group. A Fourier transform is used to obtain an expansion for the numbers of colorings with terms indexed by isthmus free subgraphs of the domain. The terms are products of a polynomial in the edge density a of the color graph and the number of colorings of the indexing subgraph of the domain into the complementary color graph. The polynomial in a is independent of the color group and the term has order (1-a) to the r where r is the number of vertices minus the number of components in the indexing subgraph. Thus if (1-a) is small there is a main term indexed by the empty subgraph which is a polynomial in a and the first dependence on the coloring group occurs in the lowest order corrections which are indexed b...

Babson, Eric

2012-01-01

379

The dispersion of adhered marine bacteria by pyrophosphate and ultrasound prior to direct counting.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A technique has been investigated for dispersing adhered marine bacteria from various surfaces prior to direct counting. The bacterial cells were initially preserved and strengthened by use of 3.7% formaldehyde (v/v final concentration). Seawater samples were then treated with 0.001 M of tetrasodium pyrophosphate (final concentration), a sequestering and deflocculating agent. Surface sediment and kelp disc samples were treated with 0.01 M tetrasodium pyrophosphate (final concentration) after ...

Velji, M.; Albright, L.

1984-01-01

380

Evaluation of procalcitonin and neopterin level in serum of patients with acute bacterial infection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Fever as a common presenting complaint in pediatric patients can be due to various causes. Differentiating bacterial infection from other causes is important because the prompt use of antibiotics is critical in bacterial infection. Traditional markers of infection such as BT and WBC coun [...] t may be unspecific and culture may be late or absent. CRP and Procalcitonin (PCT) have been considered to evaluate the evolution of infections and sepsis in patients presenting with SIRS. Neopterin has also been proposed to aid in the diagnosis of bacterial infection. In this study, we compared the value of the serum PCT, neopterin level, and WBC count for predicting bacterial infection and outcome in children with fever. METHODS: 158 pediatric (2-120-month-old) patients suspected to have acute bacterial infection, based on clinical judgment in which other causes of SIRS were ruled out were included in the study. WBC count with differential was determined and PCT and neopterin levels were measured. RESULTS: PCT level was higher in bacterial infection and patients who were complicated or expired. CONCLUSION: Rapid PCT test is superior to neopterin and WBC count for anticipating bacterial infection, especially in ED where prompt decision making is critical. ABBREVIATIONS: BT, body temperature; WBC, white blood cell; PCT, procalcitonin; CRP, C-reactive protein; SIRS, systemic inflammatory response syndrome; ED, emergency department.

Pourakbari, Babak; Mamishi, Setareh; Zafari, Javid; Khairkhah, Hanieh; Ashtiani, Mohammad H; Abedini, Masomeh; Afsharpaiman, Shahla; Rad, Soroush Seifi.

 
 
 
 
381

Calibrating bacterial evolution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Attempts to calibrate bacterial evolution have relied on the assumption that rates of molecular sequence divergence in bacteria are similar to those of higher eukaryotes, or to those of the few bacterial taxa for which ancestors can be reliably dated from ecological or geological evidence. Despite similarities in the substitution rates estimated for some lineages, comparisons of the relative rates of evolution at different classes of nucleotide sites indicate no basis for their universal appl...

Ochman, Howard; Elwyn, Susannah; Moran, Nancy A.

1999-01-01

382

[Therapy of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis].  

Science.gov (United States)

The outcome of untreated spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is fatal. In the onset of SBP clinical manifestations may be subtle, therefore every patient with hepatogenic ascites has to be examined for SBP at admission. If polynuclear cell count in ascitic fluid exceeds 250/microliter, antibiotic therapy has to begin immediately, until irreversible complications develop. Aerobic gram-negative bacilli of the normal intestinal flora are responsible for most cases of SBP, followed by gram-positive organisms and anaerobes. Antibiotic agents with extended spectrum, such as third-generation cephalosporins are considered the drugs of choice for SBP. In severe cases combination with metronidazole is recommended. As soon as repeated paracenteses show polynuclear cells beyond 250/microliter, the antibiotic therapy can be stopped. Selective decontamination of the gut with norfloxacin is effective to prevent SBP in high-risk patients. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is superior due to its activity even against gram-positive organisms. Overall prognosis of patients with SBP, however, is determined mainly to complications specific for cirrhosis, e.g. variceal bleeding, coma etc. PMID:9064727

Gräter, H

1997-01-21

383

Sensitive and descript ? and ?-? counting assemblies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper are described recent advances that have been made in the authors' laboratory towards 'high-sensitivity' and 'descript' measurement of trace quantities of radioactivity due to ? and ?-? emitters in solid sources of relatively high specific activity. The ?-detection assembly provides accurate information on the characteristic energy of the radiation permitting its identification at low levels. The detection system is relatively inexpensive and simple as Geiger counters are used as detectors. The information on the energy of the ? radiation is obtained while measuring the total disintegration rate; thus the system has the versatility of detectors capable of providing information on the energy of individual ? particles, e. g. solid state detectors and scintillators. The observed counting efficiencies and background rates of a few ? and ?-? systems constructed are discussed. The figure of merit of these detectors can be considerably enhanced by certain modifications which are in progress. The techniques discussed above have been developed to meet specific requirements encountered in the study of certain problems in nuclear physics and geocosmophysics. The ?-? system has been employed to measure the half-life of 48Ca for single ? decay: the measurements to date have yielded a lower limit of 1019 yr for its half-life. (author)

1967-08-01

384

Rapid quantification of planktonic ciliates: comparison of improved live counting with other methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

THE FOLLOWING EFFICIENT AND QUANTITATIVELY VALID METHOD TO FILTER CONCENTRATE AND COUNT LIVE PLANKTONIC CILIATES WAS DEVELOPED AND COMPARED WITH OTHER TREATMENTS: unconcentrated (raw) samples and centrifuged samples were counted live, and the effects of five different fixatives (HgCl(2), Lugol's iodine, formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, and Champy-DaFano) on the counts were monitored. Samples originated from a eutrophic mountain lake (Lake Aydat, near Clermont-Ferrand, France). Overall, live filtered counts were similar to counts of raw samples, but they were significantly higher (2 to 2.3 fold, P < 0.05) by analysis of variance than counts from centrifuged samples. Nevertheless, some taxa, i.e., Halteria and Loxodes spp., were sensitive to filtration. The live filtered counts were also comparable to counts of raw HgCl(2)-fixed and settled samples. HgCl(2) and Lugol fixation consistently gave the highest total counts, while significantly lower counts were always obtained with Champy-DaFano-fixed samples. Losses due to fixation were insignificant for raw samples but were substantial and statistically significant in concentrated samples (15% after filtration and 71% after centrifugation, compared with counts from the corresponding live samples). Live counting of passively filter-concentrated ciliates has many advantages over other methods. It is two to four times quicker and more efficient. Ciliates are recognized with certainty, more species are identified, and enumeration of dead organisms (e.g., tintinnid loricas) is avoided. It should be recommended as a quantitatively valid alternative to classical methods for assessing planktonic ciliate populations. PMID:16348242

Sime-Ngando, T; Hartmann, H J; Groliere, C A

1990-07-01

385

Whole-body counting 1990  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to determine the doses from radiocesium in foods after the Chernobyl accident, four groups were chosen in 1987. Two groups, presumed to have a large consumption of food items with a high radiocesium content, were selected. These were Lapp reindeer breeders from central parts of Norway, and hunters a.o. from the municipality of Oeystre Slidre. Two other groups were randomly selected, one from the municipality of Sel, and one from Oslo. The persons in these two groups were presumed to have an average diet. The fall-out in Sel was fairly large (100 kBq/m"2), whereas in Oslo the fall-out level was low (2 kBq/m"2). The persons in each group were monitored once a year with whole-body counters, and in connection with these countings dietary surveys were preformed. In 1990 the Sel-group and the Lapps in central parts of Norway were followed. Average whole-body activity in each group is compared to earlier years's results, and an average yearly effective dose equivalent is computed. The Sel-group has an average whole-body activity of 2800 Bq for men, and 690 Bq for women. Compared to earlier years, there is a steady but slow decrease in whole-body activities. Yearly dose is calculated to 0.06 mSv for 1990. The Lapps in central parts of Norway have an average whole-body content of 23800 Bq for men and 13600 Bq for women. This results in an average yearly dose of 0.9 mSv for the individuals in the group. Compared to earlier years, the Lapp group show a decrease in whole-body contents since 1988. This decrease is larger among men than women. 5 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs

1990-01-01

386

Role of lipids in bacterial radioresistance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioresistance of three bacterial isolates was determined. S. aureus was the most sensitive one (D10 value 0.14 KGy), B. coagulans was moderate resistant (D10 value 3.3 KGy) and the most resistant one was B.megaterium (D10 value 3.7 KGy). Total lipids and lipid patterns of these bacteria were determined and the role of lipids in radioresistance was investigated. Least amount of total lipids was detected in the most sensitive organism (S. aureus). The increase in the bacterial content of total lipids was concomitant with high degrees of radioresistance. The most resistant organism (B. megaterium was characterized by high content of methyl esters of fatty acids, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, followed by appreciable amounts in the moderate resistant (B. coagulans) and the least amounts were detected in the most sensitive organism (S.aureus).6 fig., 3 tab

1992-01-01

387

The importance of the viable but non-culturable state in human bacterial pathogens  

Science.gov (United States)

Many bacterial species have been found to exist in a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state since its discovery in 1982. VBNC cells are characterized by a loss of culturability on routine agar, which impairs their detection by conventional plate count techniques. This leads to an underestimation of total viable cells in environmental or clinical samples, and thus poses a risk to public health. In this review, we present recent findings on the VBNC state of human bacterial pathogens. The characteristics of VBNC cells, including the similarities and differences to viable, culturable cells and dead cells, and different detection methods are discussed. Exposure to various stresses can induce the VBNC state, and VBNC cells may be resuscitated back to culturable cells under suitable stimuli. The conditions that trigger the induction of the VBNC state and resuscitation from it are summarized and the mechanisms underlying these two processes are discussed. Last but not least, the significance of VBNC cells and their potential influence on human health are also reviewed.

Li, Laam; Mendis, Nilmini; Trigui, Hana; Oliver, James D.; Faucher, Sebastien P.

2014-01-01

388

Degradation Studies on Diesel Oil Using Bacterial Consortium Isolated from Oil Polluted Soil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Present study was conducted to evaluate the degradation ef?ciency of bacterial consortium isolated from oil contaminated sites at Ernakulum District in India . Soil samples were used to isolate organisms. Isolated 5 pure cultures 2 Staphylococcus sp, Pseudomonas sp, 2 Bacillus sp were identi?ed based on morphological, biochemical and physiological characters according to Bergey's Manual of determinative bacteriology. In-Vitro diesel degradation studies were done by using commercial diesel as a carbon source. In preliminary degradation studies,25ml of diesel was used in nutrient agar and but 25ml &12.5 ml were used in minimal agar to con?rm the degradation capacity of test organisms. Oil recovery, width of oil layer and appearance were noted after 7 days of incubation. More potent strain E1 was allowed to grow in various parameters such as pH( 5,6,7,8 0 0,temperature ( 27 C,37 C, and diesel concentrations(12.5 ml ,6.25 ml, 3.12.5 ml assessed their pH change, nd th th st dry weight, optical density and enumeration of total viable bacterial count were determined in 2 , 7 , 15 & 21day.

Nisha. P

2013-08-01

389

System and method of liquid scintillation counting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method of liquid scintillation counting utilizing a combustion step to overcome quenching effects comprises novel features of automatic sequential introduction of samples into a combustion zone and automatic sequential collection and delivery of combustion products into a counting zone. 37 claims, 13 figures

1977-01-01

390

New emulsion scintillator for liquid scintillation counting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new emulsion scintillator used for the liquid scintillation counting has been proposed, and its composition and various characteristics are described. The use of this scintillator enables the measurement with a high counting efficiency and a large figure of merit, not followed by a large amount of chemiluminescence, compared with the other emulsion scintillator. (author)

1981-01-01

391

Bacterial adherence to polymethylmethacrylate posterior chamber IOLs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: Bacterial adherence to intraocular lenses (IOLs has been incriminated in the pathogenesis of postoperative endophthalmitis. Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most common organism isolated. We studied the in-vitro adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis to Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA IOLs and the effect of duration of exposure to adherence. Methods: Two groups of 10 IOLs each were incubated in Staphylococcus epidermidis suspension for 2 minutes and 20 minutes respectively. Adhesion of bacterial cells was determined by counting the number of viable bacteria attached to IOLs. Results: The mean bacterial adherence with 2 minutes incubation was 12,889 ± 7,150 bacteria / IOL and with 20 minutes incubation was 84,226 ± 35,024 bacteria/IOL (P< 0.01. Conclusion: Our results show that Staphylococcus epidermidis adheres to PMMA IOLs in vitro and the degree of adherence is less for shorter duration of exposure. We conclude that viable bacteria irreversibly adherent to IOLs may play a role in the pathogenesis of postoperative endophthalmitis. Shorter duration of operative manipulation and exposure to contaminating sources may decrease the chances of postoperative endophthalmitis.

Tyagi Shalini

2001-01-01

392

Microbial counts and particulate matter levels in roadside air samples under skytrain stations, Bangkok, Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

In conditions with heavy traffic and crowds of people on roadside areas under skytrain stations in Bangkok, the natural air ventilation may be insufficient and air quality may be poor. A study of 350 air samples collected from the roadside, under skytrain stations in Bangkok, was carried out to assess microbial counts (210 air samples) and particulate matter (PM10) levels (140 samples). The results reveal the mean +/- standard deviation bacterial counts and fungal counts were 406.8 +/- 302.7 cfu/m3 and 128.9 +/- 89.7 cfu/m3, respectively. The PM10 level was 186.1 +/- 188.1 microg/m3. When compared to recommended levels, 4.8% of air samples (10/210 samples) had bacterial counts more than recommended levels (> 1,000 cfu/ m3) and 27.1% (38/140 samples) had PM10 levels more than recommended levels (> 120 microg/m3). These may affect human health, especially of street venders who spend most of their working time in these areas. PMID:20578558

Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Kongtip, Pornpimol

2010-05-01

393

Bacterial Biovolume and Biomass Estimations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The biomass of bacterial populations in aquatic ecosystems is often estimated by measuring bacterial biovolume and converting this into biomass in terms of carbon. A reliable conversion factor relating the measured bacterial biovolume to bacterial carbon content is essential for this approach. Based on direct measurements of bacterial cell carbon content, cell number, and biovolume, I have derived an average conversion factor of 5.6 × 10?13 g of C ?m?3. This conversion factor is 3.4 to ...

Bratbak, Gunnar

1985-01-01

394

[Value of the "Bacterial Meningitis Score" (BMS) for the differential diagnosis of bacterial versus viral meningitis].  

Science.gov (United States)

The "Bacterial Meningitis Score" (BMS) has been designed to identify children at low (BMS = 0) or high (BMS > or = 2) risk of bacterial meningitis (M). Its calculation is simple; it is based on 5 different items: Gram stain, seizure at or before presentation, peripheral white blood cell count (WBC), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) WBC and CSF protein concentration. As of today, it has been validated in one single study in the United States. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the BMS performance in children hospitalized for M over a 5 years period. The medical records of 277 patients diagnosed with M, aged 29 days to 15 years and hospitalized in the Department of Pediatrics of the CHR Ci