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Sample records for total bacterial count

  1. Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count

    Koop, G; Dik, N; Nielen, M; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms, 3 bulk milk samples were collected at intervals of 2 wk. The samples were cultured for SPC, coliform count, and staphylococcal count and for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, SCC ...

  2. Validation parameters of instrumental method for determination of total bacterial count in milk

    Nataša Mikulec; Dubravka Samaržija; Neven Antunac; Šimun Zamberlin; Zrinka Kuliš; Iva Horvat

    2004-01-01

    The method of flow citometry as rapid, instrumental and routine microbiological method is used for determination of total bacterial count in milk. The results of flow citometry are expressed as individual bacterial cells count. Problems regarding the interpretation of the results of total bacterial count can be avoided by transformation of the results of flow citometry method onto the scale of reference method (HRN ISO 6610:2001.). The method of flow citometry, like any analitycal method, acc...

  3. Validation parameters of instrumental method for determination of total bacterial count in milk

    Nataša Mikulec

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The method of flow citometry as rapid, instrumental and routine microbiological method is used for determination of total bacterial count in milk. The results of flow citometry are expressed as individual bacterial cells count. Problems regarding the interpretation of the results of total bacterial count can be avoided by transformation of the results of flow citometry method onto the scale of reference method (HRN ISO 6610:2001.. The method of flow citometry, like any analitycal method, according to the HRN EN ISO/IEC 17025:2000 standard, requires validation and verification. This paper describes parameters of validation: accuracy, precision, specificity, range, robustness and measuring uncertainty for the method of flow citometry.

  4. M1 AFLATOXIN, TOTAL BACTERIAL COUNT AND SOMATIC CELL COUNT IN ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL MILK

    A. Coccollone

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Comparative quality evaluation of organic and conventional milk produced in similar environmental condition was performed. Bulk-tank milk was sampled once a week during 30 weeks from 10 organic and 10 conventional dairy farms where aflatoxin M1 level was previous tested during 11 months on bulk-tank milk from tanker at the processing plant. Somatic Cells and Total Microbial Counts did not show differences that can be related to the organic production system, suggesting an effect induced by farm size and technical factors. Higher level of Aflatoxin M1 was found in organic than conventional milk.

  5. Determination of total bacterial count in raw milk by flow cytometry

    Dubravka Samaržija

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The automatic flow cytometry as routine method for total bacterial count determination of raw ex-farm milk has recently been accepted in Croatia. This method significantly differs from the reference method (Standard Plate Count mostly in the presentation of the results obtained. Therefore, this paper summarized experiences in the application of flow cytometry in the dairy laboratories practice. The principle and the practice of the method, methodological details and factors influencing the results were described. In order to avoid problems regarding the interpretation of the results, which aregeneral problems of the quantitative microbiology, this article try to explain an appropriate conversion of the results with regards to SPC/ml, as an official method for the bacteriological quality proposal by the national legislation.

  6. Effect of milk temperature during irradiation on total bacterial count and keeping quality

    Cows' and buffaloes' milk samples were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation (100, 200 and 300 Kr) at 10 and 30°C. Irradiation of milk at 10°C caused more reduction in total bacterial count than that occurred at 30°C. The rate of microbial destruction due to irradiation at 10°C was higher than that occurred at 30°C. The keeping quality was determined daily for 15 days by clot-on-boiling test for samples kept at room temperature and in a refrigerator. The keeping quality recorded for cows' and buffaloes' milk samples in the refrigerator was 4 days, while it was only 1 day at room temperature. Irradiation of milk at 10°C was more effective than irradiation at 30°C, to increase the keeping quality of irradiated milk kept at refrigeration. Irradiation of milk samples at 10°C by 200 Kr increased the keeping quality for two weeks in the refrigerator, i.e. such a treatment increased the keeping quality by 4 folds

  7. Evaluation of Vit. B12+Fe and Cu Administration on the Somatic Cell Count, Total Bacterial Count and Compounds Milk of Dairy Cattle

    S.A. Saheb Fosoul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was studying the effect of vit. B12+Fe and Cu on the somatic cell count, total bacterial count and compounds milk of Holstein cows. In this study, 4 groups contain 10 dairy Holstein cows were selected with same parity and milk production as control, vit. B12+Fe injectable (10 mL day-1, Cu injectable (2 mL day-1 and vit. B12+Fe along with Cu treatment groups. These were injected from 1 week precalving probably to 1 week after parturition. Milk samples were collected as twice weekly from the calving time to 1 week. Total Bacterial Count (TBC, Somatic Cell Count (SCC, fat, protein, Solid Non Fat (SNF and lactose of milk were evaluated. Results showed the increasing rate of fat and lactose in vit. B12+Fe along with Cu treatment group compared to other groups. All groups were lower than control group in protein level. On the other hand, vit. B12+Fe treatment group was high in milk production, low in SNF and so, it had high effect on reducing bacterial total count compared to other groups. Furthermore, Cu treatment group was better than other groups in SCC. It was concluded that vit. B12+Fe and Cu have beneficial effects on udder immune system and compounds milk of Holstein cows.

  8. Preliminary stochastic model for managing Vibrio parahaemolyticus and total viable bacterial counts in a Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) supply chain.

    Fernandez-Piquer, Judith; Bowman, John P; Ross, Tom; Estrada-Flores, Silvia; Tamplin, Mark L

    2013-07-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus can accumulate and grow in oysters stored without refrigeration, representing a potential food safety risk. High temperatures during oyster storage can lead to an increase in total viable bacteria counts, decreasing product shelf life. Therefore, a predictive tool that allows the estimation of both V. parahaemolyticus populations and total viable bacteria counts in parallel is needed. A stochastic model was developed to quantitatively assess the populations of V. parahaemolyticus and total viable bacteria in Pacific oysters for six different supply chain scenarios. The stochastic model encompassed operations from oyster farms through consumers and was built using risk analysis software. Probabilistic distributions and predictions for the percentage of Pacific oysters containing V. parahaemolyticus and high levels of viable bacteria at the point of consumption were generated for each simulated scenario. This tool can provide valuable information about V. parahaemolyticus exposure and potential control measures and can help oyster companies and regulatory agencies evaluate the impact of product quality and safety during cold chain management. If coupled with suitable monitoring systems, such models could enable preemptive action to be taken to counteract unfavorable supply chain conditions. PMID:23834791

  9. Influncia de diferentes tipos de micro-organismos na contagem bacteriana total por citometria de fluxo do leite cru refrigerado / Influence of different types of microorganisms in total bacterial count by flow cytometry of refrigerated raw milk

    V.S.C., Sampaio; F.N., Souza; C.J.C., Saraiva; R.P., Santos; M.O., Leite; G.M., Resende; N.C., Gonalves; F.L., Dionizio; M.M.O.P., Cerqueira.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Contagens bacterianas de 179 amostras de leite cru refrigerado, provenientes de diferentes bacias leiteiras de Minas Gerais, foram realizadas pelos mtodos de citometria de fluxo e contagem padro em placas. O estudo das associaes entre a contagem bacteriana total e as contagens bacterianas dos di [...] ferentes grupos de micro-organismos foi realizado pela correlao de Pearson. Houve uma forte correlao positiva e significativa entre os valores de contagem de psicrotrficos (r = 0,67) e mesfilos (r = 0,70), determinados pelo mtodo de referncia, e os valores da contagem bacteriana total, determinados pela citometria de fluxo. Foi possvel estabelecer uma curva de calibrao para o citmetro de fluxo utilizando equaes de regresso linear. As equaes para a contagem bacteriana obtida por citometria de fluxo em funo da contagem de mesfilos e psicrotrficos foram: log (CBI) = 0,701 log mesfilos + 1,9091 e log (CBI) = 0,4703 log psicrotrficos + 3,2784, respectivamente. No foi possvel estabelecer curvas de calibraes para termfilos e termodricos, pois as correlaes obtidas entre as contagens desses micro-organismos e a contagem bacteriana total, determinada por citometria de fluxo, foram fracas (r = 0,30 e 0,27, respectivamente). Abstract in english Total Bacterial count was performed in 179 raw milk samples from different dairy farms in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, through flow cytometry and standard plate count, that was regarded as the reference method. There was significant strong correlation between the values of psychrotrophic and mesophil [...] ic counts determined by the reference method with the values of bacterial count determined by flow cytometry (r = 0.67 and 0.70, respectively), which allowed to establish linear regression equations for bacterial count to calibrate the flow cytometry and estimate the count of mesophilic (log bacterial individual count (BIC) by flow cytometry = 0.701 log mesophilic + 1.9091) and psychrotrophic (log BIC by flow cytometry = 0.4703 log psychrotrophic + 3.2784) bacteria. It was not possible to establish calibration curves for thermophiles and thermodurics due to the weak to moderate correlation coefficients found among these microorganism counts and total bacterial count determined by flow cytometry (r = 0.30 and 0.27, respectively).

  10. Bacterial colony counting by Convolutional Neural Networks.

    Ferrari, Alessandro; Lombardi, Stefano; Signoroni, Alberto

    2015-08-01

    Counting bacterial colonies on microbiological culture plates is a time-consuming, error-prone, nevertheless fundamental task in microbiology. Computer vision based approaches can increase the efficiency and the reliability of the process, but accurate counting is challenging, due to the high degree of variability of agglomerated colonies. In this paper, we propose a solution which adopts Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) for counting the number of colonies contained in confluent agglomerates, that scored an overall accuracy of the 92.8% on a large challenging dataset. The proposed CNN-based technique for estimating the cardinality of colony aggregates outperforms traditional image processing approaches, becoming a promising approach to many related applications. PMID:26738016

  11. 21 CFR 1210.16 - Method of bacterial count.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of bacterial count. 1210.16 Section 1210.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing 1210.16 Method of bacterial count. The bacterial count...

  12. Robotic milking and milk quality: effects on bacterial counts, somatic cell counts, freezing point and free fatty acids

    Yvonne van der Vorst; Betsie Slaghuis; Kees de Koning

    2003-01-01

    Changes in milk quality after the introduction of automatic milking systems (AM-systems) on dairy farms in TheNetherlands, Germany and Denmark were examined and the data were compared with milk quality results of farms withconventional milking technology. After introduction, a small, but significant increase in total bacterial count, somatic cellcount, freezing point and free fatty acids was observed. The highest levels for total plate count and cell count are foundin the first six months aft...

  13. BRONOPOL AND AZIDIOL CHEMICALS: TIME AND TEMPERATURE INFLUENCE IN THE TOTAL BACTERIAL COUNT OF RAW MILK CONSERVANTES BRONOPOL E AZIDIOL: INFLUNCIA DO BINMIO TEMPO/TEMPERATURA NA CONTAGEM BACTERIANA TOTAL DO LEITE CRU

    Mrcio Eduardo Pereira Martins

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bronopol chemical in contrast to azidiol in the total bacterial counting (TBC in raw milk samples submitted the different temperatures of storage. Four bands of samples storage temperature had been evaluated: T1 1.8 the 4.2 C; T2 6.4 the 8.3C; T3 12.1 the 14.5C; and T4 24 the 25.5C in three groups: Group 1 control without chemical; Group 2 liquid azidiol added of bromofenol blue; Group 3 Bronopol. The samples were analyzed during ten consecutive days, starting 24h after sampling. After analyzes by the flow citometry, have been considered raw milk samples of 14 expansion tanks that were divided in two levels of milk contamination: <105 and >106 CFU/mL. The bronopol effect was influenced by the raw milk contamination level. The Bronopol has bacteriostatic effect in milk samples with TBC below of 105 CFU/mL and bactericidal in samples with TBC above of 106 CFU/mL. The TBC gotten in raw milk samples conserved with bronopol was lower to that one gotten in the samples with azidiol. The bronopol effect on the TBC was influenced by the temperature and by the storage time of the sample. The Bronopol bactericidal effect becomes impracticable its use in raw milk samples destined the TBC. The azidiol efficiency in the raw milk sample destined the CBT as bacteriostatic agent was dependent of the lesser storage temperature of the sample, independent of the initial contamination level. The raw milk sample destined the CBT can be analyzed in up to one week after harvested if the same one will be added of azidiol and kept under refrigeration in temperature between 1C and 4 C.

    KEY WORDS: Azidiol, bronopol, bacterial counting, raw milk, time, temperature.

    O presente estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito do conservante bronopol em contraste ao azidiol na contagem bacteriana total (CBT em amostras de leite cru submetidas a diferentes temperaturas de armazenamento. Avaliaram-se quatro faixas de temperatura de armazenamento de amostras: T1 1,8 a 4,2 C; T2 6,4 a 8,3C; T3 12,1 a 14,5C; e T4 24 a 25,5C, em trs grupos: Grupo 1 controle sem conservante; Grupo 2 azidiol lquido + corante azul de bromofenol; Grupo 3 bronopol. As amostras foram analisadas durante dez dias consecutivos, iniciando 24 horas aps colhidas. Aps anlise por citometria de fluxo pelo equipamento BactoScan FC, consideraram-se amostras de leite cru de quatorze tanques de expanso divididas em dois nveis de contaminao do leite: <105 e >106 UFC/mL. Houve efeito do conservante bronopol pelo nvel de contaminao do leite cru. O bronopol possui efeito bacteriosttico em amostras de leite com CBT abaixo de 105 UFC/mL e bactericida em amostras com CBT superiores a 106 UFC/mL. A CBT obtida nas amostras de leite cru conservadas com bronopol foi inferior quela obtida nas amostras com azidiol. Ocorreu efeito do bronopol sobre a CBT pela temperatura e pelo tempo de estocagem da amostra. O efeito bactericida do bronopol torna invivel sua utilizao em amostras de leite cru destinadas CBT. A eficincia do azidiol na amostra de leite cru destinada CBT como agente bacteriosttico foi dependente da menor temperatura de armazenamento da amostra, independente do nvel de contaminao inicial. A amostra de leite cru destinada CBT pode ser analisada em at uma semana depois de colhida, se for adicionada de azidiol e mantida sob refrigerao em temperatura entre 1C e 4 C.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Azidiol, bronopol, contagem bacteriana, leite cru, tempo, temperatura.

  14. Recuento de bacterias totales en leche cruda de tambos que caracterizan la zona noroeste de Santa Fe y sur de Santiago del Estero Total bacterial count in raw milk of dairy farms that characterize the northwest zone of Santa Fe and south of Santiago del Estero

    G.R. Revelli

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Un total de 6.998 muestras de leche cruda de pool de tanque, correspondientes a 55 establecimientos lecheros asociados a la Cooperativa Tambera Nueva Alpina Ltda., fueron recolectadas entre los aos 1993 y 2002. Se realiz el Recuento de Microorganismos Aerobios Mesfilos Totales, obtenindose como resultado un valor medio de 1,2 x 105 2,4 x 105UFC/ml que caracteriza la zona. El ao de finalizacin de la experiencia, se observ un 97% de los tambos evaluados con promedios 1,0 x 105UFC/ml. Solamente un 3% sobrepasa este lmite, no encontrndose establecimientos con niveles superiores a 1,5 x 105UFC/ml. Al relacionar este indicador con parmetros composicionales, las correlaciones ms significativas resultaron para: Recuento de Bacterias Totales vs Acidez (r = 0,292; P A total of 6.998 raw milk samples of bulk tank, belonging to 55 dairy farms associated to the Cooperativa Tambera Nueva Alpina Ltda., were collected between the years 1993 and 2002. The Total Mesophilic Aerobic Microorganisms Count was analyzed, obtaining a medium value of 1.2 x 105 2.4 x 105CFU/ml that characterizes the zone. The final year of experience, observed a 97% of dairy farms evaluated with averages 1,0 x 105CFU/ml. Only a 3% it surpasses this limit, not being found establishments with levels over 1.5 x 105CFU/ml. Relating this indicators with compositionals parameters, the most significant correlation resulted for: Total Bacterial Count vs Acidity (r = 0.292; P < 0.001 and Total Bacterial Count vs Freezing Point (r = 0.157; P < 0.001. The microbiological quality in raw milk of dairy farms belonging to the northwest zone of Santa Fe and south of Santiago del Estero showed a significant improvement during this time.

  15. Robotic milking and milk quality: effects on bacterial counts, somatic cell counts, freezing point and free fatty acids

    Yvonne van der Vorst

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in milk quality after the introduction of automatic milking systems (AM-systems on dairy farms in TheNetherlands, Germany and Denmark were examined and the data were compared with milk quality results of farms withconventional milking technology. After introduction, a small, but significant increase in total bacterial count, somatic cellcount, freezing point and free fatty acids was observed. The highest levels for total plate count and cell count are foundin the first six months after introduction. After this period the milk quality slightly improves to a more stable level.Risk factors related with milk quality concern general farm characteristics, animal health, AM-system, cleaning and cooling,housing, management skills of the farmer and the hygiene on the farm. Total plate count was significantly relatedto milk yield of the herd, cleaning of the area around the AM-system and the overall hygiene on the farm. Bulk milksomatic cell count appeared to be significantly related to milk yield of the herd and the number of milkings before replacementof the liners. An increased milking frequency is not the only explanation of increased free fatty acid levels. Technicalfactors related to free fatty acids mainly concerned the air inlet in the teat cups, bubbling (excessive air inlet and a toolong post run time of the milk pump. However, several questions regarding the causes of increased free fatty acid levelsremained unclear.

  16. Commercial bacterial colony counter for semiautomatic track counting

    Bacterial colony counters have not been widely used for track counting. However, they do provide an economical alternative to sophisticated optical analyzers for applications that require reproducible track density measurements for large numbers of samples. Simple measurements of size characteristics can be made when there is little need for high resolutions. Such systems are particularly well suited for neutron and alpha dosimetry work, particularly if electrochemical etching or some other track enhancement method has been used. 5 refs., 3 figs

  17. CORRELATION BETWEEN CLINICAL PROFILE, CD 4 COUNT AND TOTAL LYMPHOCYTE COUNT IN HIV INFECTED PERSONS

    Keshava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: HIV infection can be monitored by laboratory and clinical markers of disease progression. In the absence of CD 4 count , the use of Total Lymphocyte Count has been advocated to predict CD 4 count and to stage HIV disease. This study was undertaken to show whether the TLC accurately predicts a low CD 4 count in HIV infected persons and its clinical correlation. METHODOLOGY: The data for the study was collected from HIV positive inpatients and outpatients of KIMS Hospital , Bangalore fr om March 2004 to March 2006. A total 50 patients were subjected to clinical examination and relevant investigations including CD 4 Count and TLC. RESULTS: In our study , males (39 , outnumbered females (11. The major risk factor for HIV infection in these patients was unprotected , multiple sexual contacts. Fever , Anorexia , Weight loss , Lethargy , Cough , Diarrhea and Mouth ulcers were the common presenting symptoms. Tuberculosis , Chronic diarrhea , Oropharyngeal candidiasis were the most common opportunistic i nfections. Majority of the patients had CD 4 Count less than 350 cells/μl and were symptomatic. The Total Lymphocyte Counts of 1750 cells/μl and 2450 cells/μl correlated to CD 4 counts of 200 cells/μl and 350 cells/μl respectively. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUS ION: There was a highly significant correlation between CD 4 Count and Total Lymphocyte Count. TLC can be used as an effective laboratory tool to monitor disease progression in HIV infected persons where CD 4 is not available and in resource poor countries .

  18. Study of autoabsorption for total α and β counting

    Saettel, M. A.; Sellam, A.; Nourreddine, A.; Pape, A.

    2008-06-01

    The RaMsEs Group (Radioprotection et Mesures Environnementales) of the IPHC performs research and offers services mainly in the field of radioactivity measurements and sample analysis. This report will describe some of our recent experience using a semiautomatic evaporation system to prepare large area thin deposits for total α and β counting and gives experimental and simulated results for the autoabsorption coefficients.

  19. Validity of total leucocytes count and neutrophil count (differential leucocytes) in diagnosing suspected acute appendicitis

    Objective: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of Total Leucocytes Count (TLC) with Neutrophil count; Differential Leucocytes Count (DLC) in diagnosing cases of suspected acute appendicitis. Study design: Validation study. Place and duration of the study: Department of Surgery, Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Rawalpindi, from April 2008 to October 2008. Method: A total of 100 patients of Pain right iliac fossae who underwent appendicectomy were included. Detailed history of all the patients was taken for pain in right lower abdomen, its severity, its nature, relieving or provoking factors. Clinical examination was done in detail. Total and Differential Leucocytes Count was done. Every patient's appendix was examined grossly after appendicectomy for evidence of appendicitis. Diagnostic measures of TLC and DLC were calculated by standard formulas. Results: Sensitivity and specificity of TLC is 86.9% and 81.25% respectively and that of DLC is 82% and 68.75% respectively. Accuracy was 86% for TLC and 80% for DLC. Conclusion: TLC is more sensitive, specific and accurate test as compared to DLC and it should be used as diagnostic aid for suspected acute appendicitis cases. (author)

  20. Is total lymphocyte count a predictor for CD4 cell count in initiation antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients?

    Alireza Abdollahi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since laboratory assessments of HIV-infected patients by flow cytometric methods are expensive and unavailable in resource-limited countries, total lymphocyte count by haematology cell counter is supposed to be a suitable surrogate marker to initiate and monitor course of the disease in these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of total lymphocyte count as a surrogate marker for CD4 count in HIV-infected patients. Patients and Methods: In a prospective study 560 HIV-positive individuals evaluated for total and CD4 lymphocyte count. For correlation between CD4 count and total lymphocyte count, haemoglobin and haematocrit we defined cut-off values as 200 cell/μl, 1200 cell/μl, 12 gr/dl and 30%, respectively, and compared CD4 count with each parameter separately. Positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivity and specificity of varying total lymphocyte count cutoffs were computed for CD4 count ≤ 200 cell/μl and ≤ 350 cell/μl. Results: Strong degree of correlation was noted between CD4 and total lymphocyte count (r: 0.610, P < 0.001. Mean and standard deviation of total lymphocyte count, haemoglobin and haematocrit in relation to CD4 count were calculated which indicated significant correlation between these variables. Kappa coefficient for agreement was also calculated which showed fair correlation between CD4 200 cell/μl and total lymphocyte count 1200 cell/μl ( 0.35. Conclusion: This study reveals that despite low sensitivity and specificity of total lymphocyte count as a surrogate marker for CD4, total lymphocyte count is of great importance and benefit in resource-limited settings.

  1. Influence of somatic cell count and total bacterial counts of raw milk in cheese yield using small-scale methodology / Influncia da contagem de clulas somticas e da contagem bacteriana total do leite cru no rendimento da produo de queijos, utilizando metodologia em escala reduzida

    N.M.A., Silva; L.P.F., Bastos; D.L.S., Oliveira; M.C.P.P., Oliveira; L.M., Fonseca.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar a influncia da CCS e CBT do leite cru no rendimento de queijos, utilizando mtodo em escala reduzida, e avaliar a predio terica do rendimento de queijos. Foram utilizadas 270 amostras de leite cru com trs nveis de CCS (abaixo de 200.000; 200.000-750. [...] 000; acima de 750.000 CS/mL) e trs nveis de CBT (abaixo de 100.000; 100.000-750.000; acima de 750.000 UFC/mL). As amostras de leite cru foram submetidas a anlises de composio (gordura, protena, lactose, EST e ESD), CCS, CBT, crioscopia e pH. A produo dos queijos em escala reduzida foi feita segundo o mtodo desenvolvido na Universidade de Cornell, EUA (Melilli et al., 2002). As amostras de soro de queijo foram submetidas a anlises de composio (gordura, protena total, protena verdadeira, lactose, EST e ESD) e CCS. O aumento da CCS no leite cru refletiu na maior perda de protena no soro. CCS elevada (acima de 200.000 CS/mL) foi correlacionada ao menor rendimento de massa seca. Foi encontrada uma correlao alta entre os valores tericos de rendimento e os valores de rendimento preditos pela metodologia em escala reduzida, indicando que esta metodologia pode ser utilizada para a predio do rendimento de queijos. Abstract in english The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of SCC and TBC of raw milk in cheese yield, using a reduced scale method, and to evaluate theoretical prediction of cheese yield. 270 samples of raw milk were split into three SCC levels (below 200,000; 200,000-750,000; above 750,000 SC/mL) [...] and three TBC levels (below 100,000; 100,000-750,000; above 750,000 CFU/mL). Raw milk samples were submitted to compositional analysis (fat, protein, lactose, total solids and SNF content), SCC, TBC, freezing point and pH. The production of the small-scale cheese was conducted according to the method developed at Cornell University (Melilli et al., 2002). Cheese whey samples were submitted to compositional analysis (fat, total protein, true protein, lactose, total solids and SNF content) and SCC. The increase in the SCC of raw milk resulted in increased protein loss in cheese whey. High SCC (above 200,000 SC/mL) in milk samples was correlated to reduced dry matter yield. There was no effect of TBC in cheese yield in the experimental conditions used. There was a high correlation between the theoretical yield values and the yield values predicted by the small-scale method, indicating that this method is appropriate for cheese yield prediction.

  2. Total leucocyte count, C-reactive protein and neutrophil count: Diagnostic Aid in acute appendicitis

    Shafi Sheikh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Acute appendicitis is one of the most common acute intraabdominal affections seen in surgical departments, which can be treated easily if an accurate diagnosis is made in time. Otherwise, delay in diagnosis and treatment can lead to diffuse peritonitis. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted on 110 patients who were operated for acute appendicitis to determine the role and predictive value of the total leucocyte count (TLC, C-reactive protein (CRP and percentage of neutrophil count in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Preoperative TLC, CRP and percentage of neutrophil count were determined and were compared with the results of the histopathology of the removed appendix. Results: Of all the patients studied, 92 had histopathologically positive appendicitis. The TLC was found to be significantly high in 90 patients who proved to have acute appendicitis, whereas CRP was high in only 88 patients and neutrophil percentage was raised in 91; four had a normal CRP level. Thus, TLC had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 97.82%, 55.55% and 91.8%, respectively. CRP had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 95.6%, 77.77% and 95.6% respectively. Percentage of neutrophil count had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 98.9%, 38.88% and 89.21%, respectively. When used in combination, there was a marked improvement in the specificity and the positive predictive value to 88.04% and 98.7%, respectively. Conclusion: The inflammatory markers, i.e., TLC, CRP and neutrophil count can be helpful in the diagnosis when measured together as this increases their specificity and positive predictive value.

  3. Agreement, Precision, and Accuracy of Epifluorescence Microscopy Methods for Enumeration of Total Bacterial Numbers ▿ †

    Seo, Eun-Young; Ahn, Tae-Seok; Zo, Young-Gun

    2010-01-01

    To assess interchangeability of estimates of bacterial abundance by different epifluorescence microscopy methods, total bacterial numbers (TBNs) determined by most widely accepted protocols were statistically compared. Bacteria in a set of distinctive samples were stained with acridine orange (AO), 4′-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), and BacLight and enumerated by visual counting (VC) and supervised image analysis (IA). Model II regression and Bland-Altman analysis proved general agreements...

  4. Effect of Bacterial Content and Somatic Cell Count on Sheep Milk Quality in Kosovo

    Hysen Bytyqi; Hajrip Mehmeti; Idriz Vehapi; Fillojeta Rrustemaj; Ibrahim Mehmeti

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze the effect of bacterial content (CFU) and somatic cell count (SCC) in milk quality in sheep (Ovis aries) farms according to the existing standards for fresh milk quality in Kosovo. A total of 2256 milk test day records from 379 Bardhoka (BAR), Sharri sheep (SHA), Kosovo sheep (KOS) and Balusha (BAL) ewes in eight herds across the country were collected and analyzed through a period April-October 2010. The general linear model and Duncan’s test ...

  5. Low-Cost, High-Throughput, Automated Counting of Bacterial Colonies

    Clarke, Matthew L.; Burton, Robert L.; Hill, A. Nayo; Litorja, Maritoni; Nahm, Moon H.; Hwang, Jeeseong

    2010-01-01

    Research involving bacterial pathogens often requires enumeration of bacteria colonies. Here we present a low-cost, high-throughput colony counting system consisting of colony counting software and a consumer-grade digital camera or document scanner. We demonstrate that this software, called NICE (NIST's Integrated Colony Enumerator), can count bacterial colonies as part of a high-throughput multiplexed opsonophagocytic killing assay (MOPA) used to characterize pneumococcal vaccine efficacy...

  6. Total lymphocyte count as a substitute to cd4 count in management of hiv infected individuals in resource limited society

    Pakistan is a resource limited society and gold standard parameters to monitor HIV disease activity are very costly. The objective of the study was to evaluate total lymphocyte count (TLC) as a surrogate to CD4 count to monitor disease activity in HIV/AIDS in resource limited society. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out at HIV/AIDS treatment centre, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad. A total of seven hundred and seventy four (774) HIV positive patients were enrolled in this study, and their CD4 count and total lymphocyte count were checked to find any correlation between the two by using Spearman ranked correlation coefficient. Results: The mean CD4 count was (434.30 ± 269.23), with minimum CD4 count of (9.00), and maximum of (1974.00). The mean total lymphocyte count (TLC) was (6764.0052 ± 2364.02) with minimum TLC (1200.00) and maximum TLC was (20200.00). Using the Pearson's correlation (r) there was a significant and positive correlation between TLC and CD4 count. (r2=0.127 and p=0.000) at 0.01 level. Conclusion: Our study showed a significant positive correlation between CD4 count and total lymphocyte count (TLC), so TLC can be used as a marker of disease activity in HIV infected patients. (author)

  7. Is total lymphocyte count a predictor for CD4 cell count in initiation antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients?

    Alireza Abdollahi; Hana Saffar; Saeed Shoar; Siroos Jafari

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since laboratory assessments of HIV-infected patients by flow cytometric methods are expensive and unavailable in resource-limited countries, total lymphocyte count by haematology cell counter is supposed to be a suitable surrogate marker to initiate and monitor course of the disease in these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of total lymphocyte count as a surrogate marker for CD4 count in HIV-infected patients. Patients and Methods: In a prospective stud...

  8. Effect of cleaning procedure and hygienic condition of milking equipment on bacterial count of bulk tank milk.

    Bava, Luciana; Zucali, Maddalena; Sandrucci, Anna; Brasca, Milena; Vanoni, Laura; Zanini, Lucio; Tamburini, Alberto

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics of cleaning procedures for milking equipment applied in intensive dairy farms in Lombardy (Italy) and to study their relationships with bacterial count of bulk milk and hygienic condition of milking machine components. A group of 22 dairy farms was visited twice (winter and summer) in order to collect bulk tank milk and post-rinse water samples and swabs from liners and milk receiver. Samples were analysed to determine: standard plate count (SPC), laboratory pasteurization count (LPC), psychrotrophic bacteria count (PBC), coliform count (CC) and Escherichia coli. Cleaning procedures were monitored using electronic milk flow meters with specific software for the measurement of the duration of each cleaning phase, circulating solution temperature and electrical conductivity, turbulence and water filling percentage of pipelines. The results showed that farms classified as high and low milk total bacteria count significantly differed both in terms of liners and receiver bacterial contamination and in terms of water temperature reached during the detergent phase of cleaning milking equipment. Significant positive correlations were found among total bacteria count in milk and bacterial contamination of the liners. Maximum water temperature reached during the cleaning cycle of milking equipment was very low (34.4±8.9°C on average); most of the observations (88.6%) corresponded to water temperatures milk and post-rinse water and coliform count in liners. Routine check and regulation of water temperature during the washing phase of the milking machine can be a simple and effective way to control one of the main risk factors for bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk. PMID:21371358

  9. The Effects of Total Colectomy on Bacterial Translocation in a Model of Acute Pancreatitis.

    Şenocak, Rahman; Yigit, Taner; Kılbaş, Zafer; Coşkun, Ali Kağan; Harlak, Ali; Menteş, Mustafa Öner; Kılıç, Abdullah; Günal, Armağan; Kozak, Orhan

    2015-12-01

    Prevention of secondary infection is currently the main goal of treatment for acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Colon was considered as the main origin of secondary infection. Our aim was to investigate whether prophylactic total colectomy would reduce the rate of bacterial translocation and infection of pancreatic necrosis. Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Pancreatitis was created by ductal infusion of sodium taurocholate. Rats were divided into four groups: group-1, laparotomy + pancreatic ductal infusion of saline; group-2, laparotomy + pancreatic ductal infusion of sodium taurocholate; group-3, total colectomy + pancreatic ductal infusion of saline; and group-4, total colectomy + pancreatic ductal infusion of sodium taurocholate. Forty-eight hours later, tissue and blood samples were collected for microbiological and histopathological analysis. Total colectomy caused small bowel bacterial overgrowth with gram-negative and gram-positive microorganisms. Bacterial count of gram-negative rods in the small intestine and pancreatic tissue in rats with colectomy and acute pancreatitis were significantly higher than in rats with acute pancreatitis only (group-2 versus group-4; small bowel, p = bacterial overgrowth and pancreatic infection (r = 0,836, p = 0.001). In acute pancreatitis, prophylactic total colectomy (which can mimic colonic cleansing and reduction of colonic flora) induces small bowel bacterial overgrowth, which is associated with increased bacterial translocation to the pancreas. PMID:26730036

  10. Real-time bacterial microcolony counting using on-chip microscopy

    Jung, Jae Hee; Lee, Jung Eun

    2016-02-01

    Observing microbial colonies is the standard method for determining the microbe titer and investigating the behaviors of microbes. Here, we report an automated, real-time bacterial microcolony-counting system implemented on a wide field-of-view (FOV), on-chip microscopy platform, termed ePetri. Using sub-pixel sweeping microscopy (SPSM) with a super-resolution algorithm, this system offers the ability to dynamically track individual bacterial microcolonies over a wide FOV of 5.7 mm × 4.3 mm without requiring a moving stage or lens. As a demonstration, we obtained high-resolution time-series images of S. epidermidis at 20-min intervals. We implemented an image-processing algorithm to analyze the spatiotemporal distribution of microcolonies, the development of which could be observed from a single bacterial cell. Test bacterial colonies with a minimum diameter of 20 μm could be enumerated within 6 h. We showed that our approach not only provides results that are comparable to conventional colony-counting assays but also can be used to monitor the dynamics of colony formation and growth. This microcolony-counting system using on-chip microscopy represents a new platform that substantially reduces the detection time for bacterial colony counting. It uses chip-scale image acquisition and is a simple and compact solution for the automation of colony-counting assays and microbe behavior analysis with applications in antibacterial drug discovery.

  11. Real-time bacterial microcolony counting using on-chip microscopy.

    Jung, Jae Hee; Lee, Jung Eun

    2016-01-01

    Observing microbial colonies is the standard method for determining the microbe titer and investigating the behaviors of microbes. Here, we report an automated, real-time bacterial microcolony-counting system implemented on a wide field-of-view (FOV), on-chip microscopy platform, termed ePetri. Using sub-pixel sweeping microscopy (SPSM) with a super-resolution algorithm, this system offers the ability to dynamically track individual bacterial microcolonies over a wide FOV of 5.7 mm × 4.3 mm without requiring a moving stage or lens. As a demonstration, we obtained high-resolution time-series images of S. epidermidis at 20-min intervals. We implemented an image-processing algorithm to analyze the spatiotemporal distribution of microcolonies, the development of which could be observed from a single bacterial cell. Test bacterial colonies with a minimum diameter of 20 μm could be enumerated within 6 h. We showed that our approach not only provides results that are comparable to conventional colony-counting assays but also can be used to monitor the dynamics of colony formation and growth. This microcolony-counting system using on-chip microscopy represents a new platform that substantially reduces the detection time for bacterial colony counting. It uses chip-scale image acquisition and is a simple and compact solution for the automation of colony-counting assays and microbe behavior analysis with applications in antibacterial drug discovery. PMID:26902822

  12. Relationship between total bacteria counts and somatic cell counts from mammary quarters infected by mastitis pathogens Relação entre contagem total de bactérias e contagem de células somáticas de quartos mamários infectados por patógenos da mastite

    João Emídio Ferreira Lopes Júnior; Carla Cristine Lange; Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva Brito; Fabiana Ribeiro Santos; Marco Aurélio Souto Silva; Luciano Castro Dutra de Moraes; Guilherme Nunes de Souza

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to establish the relationship between somatic cell count (SCC) and bacterial shedding from mammary quarters according to mastitis pathogens. Milk samples from 638 mammary quarters were examined for mastitis pathogens, SCC and total bacterial count (TBC). The raw data of SCC and TBC were used to perform descriptive statistics. The significance of the arithmetic mean differences between SCC and TBC according to bacteriological examination results was determined by a two...

  13. A commercial bacterial colony counter for semi-automatic track counting

    The information one must obtain from a solid state track detector depends on the specific application. The most common information need is the measurement of track density. The number of tracks per unit area is commonly used in neutron and alpha dosimetry, for example, to determine radiation dose. In recent years, a class of semi-automatic counting systems has become available for under $15,000. These systems, usually developed for bacterial colony counting, are capable of measuring track density. The basic instrument is designed to count relatively large objects with low magnification using an illuminated stage. However, track counting can be done with an accessory television camera coupled to an optical microscope. Tracks from electrochemical etching can be counted easily with objectives as low as 2X. (author)

  14. Bacterial and yeast counts in Brazilian commodities and spices

    Freire Francisco das Chagas Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of thirteen genera of bacteria and two genera of yeasts were detected in surface sterilized and unsterilized Brazilian commodities and spices such as cashew kernels, Brazil nut kernels, black and white pepper. The genus Bacillus with eight species was by far the most common. The yeasts isolated were Pichia sp., P. guillermondii and Rhodotorula sp. Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in cashew and Brazil nut kernels.

  15. Bacterial and yeast counts in Brazilian commodities and spices

    Freire Francisco das Chagas Oliveira; Offord Lisa

    2002-01-01

    A total of thirteen genera of bacteria and two genera of yeasts were detected in surface sterilized and unsterilized Brazilian commodities and spices such as cashew kernels, Brazil nut kernels, black and white pepper. The genus Bacillus with eight species was by far the most common. The yeasts isolated were Pichia sp., P. guillermondii and Rhodotorula sp. Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in cashew and Brazil nut kernels.

  16. Utility of total lymphocyte count as a surrogate marker for CD4 counts in HIV-1 infected children in Kenya

    Wamalwa Dalton C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In resource-limited settings, such as Kenya, access to CD4 testing is limited. Therefore, evaluation of less expensive laboratory diagnostics is urgently needed to diagnose immuno-suppression in children. Objectives To evaluate utility of total lymphocyte count (TLC as surrogate marker for CD4 count in HIV-infected children. Methods This was a hospital based retrospective study conducted in three HIV clinics in Kisumu and Nairobi in Kenya. TLC, CD4 count and CD4 percent data were abstracted from hospital records of 487 antiretroviral-naïve HIV-infected children aged 1 month - 12 years. Results TLC and CD4 count were positively correlated (r = 0.66, p 59 months of age (r = 0.68, p 3, age 12-35 months (CD4 count 3, and age above 59 months (CD4 count 3. WHO recommended TLC threshold values for severe immuno-suppression of 4000, 3000, 2500 and 2000 cells/mm3 for age categories 59 months had low sensitivity of 25%, 23%, 33% and 62% respectively in predicting severe immuno-suppression using CD4 count as gold standard. Raising TLC thresholds to 7000, 6000, 4500 and 3000 cells/mm3 for each of the stated age categories increased sensitivity to 71%, 64%, 56% and 86%, with positive predictive values of 85%, 61%, 37%, 68% respectively but reduced specificity to 73%, 62%, 54% and 68% with negative predictive values of 54%, 65%, 71% and 87% respectively. Conclusion TLC is positively correlated with absolute CD4 count in children but current WHO age-specific thresholds had low sensitivity to identify severely immunosuppressed Kenyan children. Sensitivity and therefore utility of TLC to identify immuno-suppressed children may be improved by raising the TLC cut off levels across the various age categories.

  17. Microbiological assessment of house and imported bottled water by comparison of bacterial endotoxin concentration, heterotrophic plate count, and fecal coliform count.

    Reyes, Mayra I; Prez, Cynthia M; Negrn, Edna L

    2008-03-01

    Consumers increasingly use bottled water and home water treatment systems to avoid direct tap water. According to the International Bottled Water Association (IBWA), an industry trade group, 5 billion gallons of bottled water were consumed by North Americans in 2001. The principal aim of this study was to assess the microbial quality of in-house and imported bottled water for human consumption, by measurement and comparison of the concentration of bacterial endotoxin and standard cultivable methods of indicator microorganisms, specifically, heterotrophic and fecal coliform plate counts. A total of 21 brands of commercial bottled water, consisting of 10 imported and 11 in-house brands, selected at random from 96 brands that are consumed in Puerto Rico, were tested at three different time intervals. The Standard Limulus Amebocyte Lysate test, gel clot method, was used to measure the endotoxin concentrations. The minimum endotoxin concentration in 63 water samples was less than 0.0625 EU/mL, while the maximum was 32 EU/mL. The minimum bacterial count showed no growth, while the maximum was 7,500 CFU/mL. Bacterial isolates like P. fluorescens, Corynebacterium sp. J-K, S. paucimobilis, P. versicularis, A. baumannii, P. chlororaphis, F. indologenes, A. faecalis and P. cepacia were identified. Repeated measures analysis of variance demonstrated that endotoxin concentration did not change over time, while there was a statistically significant (p water samples, endotoxin was present. Measurement of Gram-negative bacterial endotoxins is one of the methods that have been suggested as a rapid way of determining bacteriological water quality. PMID:18450229

  18. Effect of alginate chemical disinfection on bacterial count over gypsum cast

    Al-Dowah, Omir S.; Gana, Naif S.; Al-Hytham, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate the efficacy of sodium hypochlorite (1 : 10) and iodophor disinfectants on alginate impressions along with their effect on the survived bacterium count on the gypsum cast. MATERIALS AND METHODS Four alginate impression on each dentate patients were made, of which Group I were not washed or disinfected, Group II impressions were merely washed with water, Group III were disinfected by spraying with sodium hypochlorite (1 : 10), Group IV were disinfected with iodophor (1 : 213). Gypsum cast (type III) were made from all the impression. Impressions and gypsum cast were swabbed in mid palatal region for bacterial culture. Bacterial colony counting done after 3 days of incubation at 37? in blood agar media. The data obtained was analyzed by one way ANOVA test at a significant difference level of 0.05. RESULTS Group I and Group II showed significantly more bacteria compared to Group III and Group IV. Bacterial colonies on the alginate impression and gypsum cast in group disinfected with Sodium hypochlorite (1 : 10) were 0.18, 0.82 respectively compared to group treated with iodophor (1 : 213). There was an increase in bacterial count on dental cast compared to source alginate impressions. CONCLUSION Sodium hypochlorite (1 : 10) was found to be better disinfectant for alginate impression. There was an indication of increase in number of bacteria from alginate impression to making of dental cast. Additional gypsum cast disinfectant procedures need to be encouraged to completely eliminate cross infection to dental laboratory. PMID:22737312

  19. Influence of addition of different antibiotics in semen diluent on viable bacterial count and spermatozoal viability of Awassi ram semen

    O I Azawi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of six different antibiotics in controlling the growth of semen contaminating bacteria and if these antibiotics have any adverse effect on Awassi ram spermatozoa. Semen samples from six mature Awassi rams were used in this study. A total number of 120 ejaculates were collected from the rams using an artificial vagina once a week. Semen ejaculates were evaluated for volume, sperm concentration, mass motility, individual motility, percentage live sperm, sperm abnormalities, and viable bacterial count. Semen samples were diluted by sodium citrate-fructose-egg yolk. The diluted semen sample was divided into 7 parts. Six types of antibiotics were added to the semen diluent parts including; penicillin G 1000 IU ml-1 with streptomycin 1 mg ml-1, gentamicin sulphate 250 mg ml-1, tetracycline 0.5 mg ml-1, lincomycin 1 mg ml-1, cefoperazone sodium 1mg ml-1, cefdinir 1 mg ml-1 and the seventh part considered as a control group without antibiotic addition. The diluted semen samples were cooled and preserved at 5 Co for 5 days. Cooled diluted semen samples were examined for individual motility, percent of live sperm, sperm abnormalities, acrosomal defects and bacterial count every 24 h until 5 days. Comparing with the control, all the antibiotics examined were effective in controlling bacterial growth (P<0.05 from 24 h to 96 h of preservation at 5 Co. Cefdinir and cefoperazone sodium proved to be significantly (P<0.05 effective than other antibiotics in controlling bacterial growth at 96 h of preservation as the bacterial count were 23.3 ± 3.7 x 103 / ml and 25.4 ± 6.2 x 103 / ml, respectively. Lincomycin, gentamicin sulphate and tetracycline proved ineffective in controlling bacterial growth at 96 h of preservation as the bacterial count were 57.1 ± 20.1 x 103 / ml, 52.5 ± 29.4 x 103 / ml and 46.5 ± 8.8 x 103 / ml, respectively. The addition of tetracycline to diluted ram semen significantly reduced (P<0.05 sperm individual motility and percent live sperm and a significant increase (P<0.05 acrosomal defects was observed at 96 h of preservation in comparison to control and other antibiotics. Sperm viability was highly correlated with bacterial count in the control part of diluted semen (r = 0.794; P < 0.01. It could be concluded from the results of the present study that additions of cephalosporins (cefdinir or Cefoperazone sodium at the dose of 1 mg ml-1 were most effective amongst the antibiotics used in checking the bacterial growth and improving semen quality of Awassi ram. [Vet. World 2012; 5(2.000: 75-79

  20. Total airborne mold particle sampling: evaluation of sample collection, preparation and counting procedures, and collection devices.

    Godish, Diana; Godish, Thad

    2008-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate (i) procedures used to collect, prepare, and count total airborne mold spore/particle concentrations, and (ii) the relative field performance of three commercially available total airborne mold spore/particle sampling devices. Differences between factory and laboratory airflow calibration values of axial fan-driven sampling instruments (used in the study) indicated a need for laboratory calibration using a mass flow meter to ensure that sample results were accurately calculated. An aniline blue-amended Calberla's solution adjusted to a pH of 4.2-4.4 provided good sample mounting/counting results using Dow Corning high vacuum grease, Dow Corning 280A adhesive, and Dow Corning 316 silicone release spray for samples collected using mini-Burkard and Allergenco samplers. Count variability among analysts was most pronounced in 5% counts of relatively low mold particle deposition density samples and trended downward with increased count percentage and particle deposition density. No significant differences were observed among means of 5, 10, and 20% counts and among analysts; a significant interaction effect was observed between analysts' counts and particle deposition densities. Significantly higher mini-Burkard and Air-O-Cell total mold spore/particle counts for 600x vs. 400x (1.9 and 2.3 x higher, respectively), 1000x vs. 600x (1.9 and 2.2 x higher, respectively) and 1000x vs. 400x (3.6 and 4.6 x higher, respectively) comparisons indicated that 1000x magnification counts best quantified total airborne mold spore/particles using light microscopy, and that lower magnification counts may result in unacceptable underreporting of airborne mold spore/particle concentrations. Modest but significantly higher (1.2x) total mold spore concentrations were observed with Allergenco vs. mini-Burkard samples collected in co-located, concurrently operated sampler studies; moderate but significantly higher mini-Burkard count values (1.4x) were observed in similar studies with Air-O-Cell samplers. These count differences were relatively small compared with the large differences observed among three count magnifications. PMID:18085480

  1. Determinants, reproducibility, and seasonal variation of bacterial cell wall components and viable counts in house dust.

    Leppnen, H K; Tubel, M; Roponen, M; Vepslinen, A; Rantakokko, P; Pekkanen, J; Nevalainen, A; von Mutius, E; Hyvrinen, A

    2015-06-01

    The objectives of this study were (i) to assess the determinants that affect concentrations of the bacterial cell wall components 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH FAs) and muramic acid and of total viable bacteria and actinomycetes in house dust; and (ii) to examine the seasonal variation and reproducibility of these bacterial cell wall components in house dust. A number of lifestyle and environmental factors, mostly not consistent for different bacterial measures but commonly including the type of dwelling and farming (number of livestock), explained up to 37% of the variation of the bacterial concentrations in 212 homes in Eastern Finland. The reproducibility of 3-OH FAs and muramic acid measurements in house dust were studied in five urban homes and were found to be generally high (ICC 74-84%). Temporal variation observed in repeated sampling of the same home throughout a year was more pronounced for 3-OH FAs determinations (ICC 22%) than for muramic acid (ICC 55-66%). We conclude that determinants vary largely for different types of bacterial measurements in house dust; the measured parameters represent different aspects of the bacterial content indoors. More than one sample is needed to describe bacterial concentrations in house dust in the home environment due to large temporal variation. PMID:24992650

  2. Bacterial counts from five over-the-counter probiotics: are you getting what you paid for?

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Citron, Diane M; Claros, Marina C; Tyrrell, Kerin L

    2014-02-01

    There is concern that the bacterial colony counts present at the time of manufacture and listed on the probiotic package may not be reflective of the numbers viable colonies at the time of purchase and patient consumption thereby diminishing efficacy. We performed a colony count study of three separate samples of five different probiotics purchased from three different stores: Bifidobacterium infantis (Align(®)); Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285(®) and Lactobacillus casei LBC80R(®) (Bio-K+(®)); Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (Culturelle(®)); Saccharomyces boulardii (Florastor(®)) and "L. acidophilus" and "Lactobacillus helveticus" (Lactinex(®)). Approximately 1 g of powder of each (Lactinex(®) tablets were crushed before testing) was reconstituted in sterile distilled water, serial 10-fold dilutions were prepared and plated in duplicate onto blood agar plates, with incubation for 48 h in an anaerobic chamber (except the Saccharomyces which was incubated aerobically) after which colony counts were performed. The Florastor(®) packaging did not state an expected concentration and was found to have 9.2 × 10(9)-1.3 × 10(10) CFU/g. Lactinex(®), Align(®), Bio-K+(®), and Culturelle(®) had viable colony counts that were similar to those stated on the package. PMID:24184290

  3. Manageable risk factors associated with bacterial and coliform counts in unpasteurized bulk milk in Flemish dairy herds.

    Piepers, S; Zrimšek, P; Passchyn, P; De Vliegher, S

    2014-01-01

    Associations between herd management practices and both bacterial counts (BC) and coliform counts (CC) from 254 and 242 dairy herds in Flanders (Belgium), respectively, were studied. Data were analyzed using multivariable, multilevel linear regression analysis, allowing variance components analyses. Both BC and CC fluctuated throughout the year, although the milk quality parameters followed an opposite pattern. Bacterial count values decreased with each increase of the cleaning frequency of the cubicles (once per week, once per day, twice per day, or more than twice per day) between January and March. Herds with a conventional milking parlor had substantially lower BC than herds where the cows were milked using an automatic milking system. Lower BC were observed when the milking parlor was equipped with an automatic cluster removal system, when premilking teat disinfection was applied, when the dry cows were supplemented with a mix of minerals and vitamins, and when the teats were prepared either first wet and dried or via an automatic milking system. Milking cows with a high-pipeline milking parlor setup or with an automatic milking system was associated with substantially higher CC values. Herds where prepartum heifers were often treated with antimicrobials before calving had a lower CC than farms where heifers were either not or only rarely treated. Most variation in BC and CC resided at the herd level rather than at the observation level, indicating that management is important in the control of both BC and CC. Still, only a small proportion of the total variance was explained by factors capturing information related to the milking, herd health, and dry cow management, which suggests that the bacteriological milk quality and, in particular, CC is primarily driven by other factors than the ones included in this study. PMID:24704236

  4. Development of radiation sterilized dip slides for enumerating lactic acid bacteria and total count in foodstuffs

    APT agar (APT) used for enumeration of lactic acid bacteria and Plate Count agar (PCA) applied for total count were sterilized by gamma radiation using radiation dose of 10-15 kGy. Radiosterilized PCA and APT modified by adding catalase prior to irradiation, or APT with increased content of yeast extract performed, as well as, the heat sterilized commercial media. Growth performance was evaluated on several strains of microorganisms, as well as, by enumeration of bacteria in food products. Radiosterilization of culture media in final packaging, can be applied to produce dip slide kits containing PCA or APT. (author)

  5. Development of radiation sterilized dip slides for enumerating lactic acid bacteria and total count in foodstuffs

    Eisenberg, E.; Padova, R.; Kirsch, E.; Weissman, Sh.; Hirshfeld, T.; Shenfeld, A.

    APT agar (APT) used for enumeration of lactic acid bacteria and Plate Count agar (PCA) applied for total count were sterilized by gamma radiation using radiation dose of 10-15 kGy. Radiosterilized PCA and APT modified by adding catalase prior to irradiation, or APT with increased content of yeast extract performed, as well as, the heat sterilized commercial media. Growth performance was evaluated on several strains of microorganisms, as well as, by enumeration of bacteria in food products. Radiosterilization of culture media in final packaging, can be applied to produce dip slide kits containing PCA or APT.

  6. Total Counts of Marine Bacteria Include a Large Fraction of Non-Nucleoid-Containing Bacteria (Ghosts)

    Zweifel, U L; Hagstrom, A.

    1995-01-01

    Counts of heterotrophic bacteria in marine waters are usually in the order of 5 x 10(sup5) to 3 x 10(sup6) bacteria ml(sup-1). These numbers are derived from unspecific fluorescent staining techniques (J. E. Hobbie, R. J. Daley, and S. Jasper, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 33:1225-1228, 1977; K. G. Porter and Y. S. Feig, Limnol. Oceanogr. 25:943-948, 1980) and are subsequently defined as total counts of bacteria. In samples from the Baltic Sea, the North Sea (Skagerrak), and the northeastern Medi...

  7. Detection of the total viable counts in chicken based on visible/near-infrared spectroscopy

    Jiang, Fachao; Long, Yuan; Tang, Xiuying; Zhao, Linlin; Peng, Yankun; Wang, Caiping

    2014-05-01

    The viable counts in chicken have significant effects on food safety. Exceeding standard index can have negative influence to the public. Visible-near infrared spectra have had rapid development in food safety recently. The objective of this study was to detect the total viable counts in chicken breast fillets.36 chicken breast fillets used in the study were stored in a refrigerator at 4°C for 9 days. Each day four samples were taken and Vis/NIR spectra were collected from each sample before detecting their total viable counts by standard method. The original data was processed in four main steps: Savitzky-Golay smoothing method, standard normalized variate (SNV), model calibrating and model validating. Prediction model was established using partial least squares regression (PLSR) method. Several statistical indicators such as root mean squared errors and coefficients were calculated for determination of calibration and validation accuracy respectively. As a result, the Rc, SEC, Rv and SEV, of the best model were obtained to be 0.8854, 0.7455, 0.9070 and 0.6045 respectively, which demonstrate that visible-near infrared spectra is a potential technique to detect the total viable counts(TVC) in chicken and the best wavelengths for the establishment of the calibration model are near 449nm.

  8. Flow cytometry analysis using sysmex UF-1000i classifies uropathogens based on bacterial, leukocyte, and erythrocyte counts in urine specimens among patients with urinary tract infections.

    Monsen, Tor; Rydn, Patrik

    2015-02-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the second most common bacterial infection. Urine culture is the gold standard for diagnosis, but new techniques, such as flow cytometry analysis (FCA), have been introduced. The aim of the present study was to evaluate FCA characteristics regarding bacteriuria, leukocyturia, and erythrocyturia in relation to cultured uropathogens in specimens from patients with a suspected UTI. We also wanted to evaluate whether the FCA characteristics can identify uropathogens prior to culture. From a prospective study, 1,587 consecutive urine specimens underwent FCA prior to culture during January and February 2012. Outpatients and inpatients (79.6% and 19.4%, respectively) were included, of whom women represented 67.5%. In total, 620 specimens yielded growth, of which Escherichia coli represented 65%, Enterococcus spp. 8%, Klebsiella spp. 7%, and Staphylococcus spp. 5%. For the uropathogens, the outcome of FCA was compared against the results for specimens with E. coli and those with a negative culture. E. coli had high bacterial (median, 17,914/?l), leukocyte (median, 348/?l), and erythrocyte (median, 23/?l) counts. With the exception of Klebsiella spp., the majority of the uropathogens had considerable or significantly lower bacterial counts than that of E. coli. High leukocyte counts were found in specimens with Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and group C streptococci. Elevated erythrocyte counts were found for P. vulgaris, P. aeruginosa, and group C streptococci, as well as for Staphylococcus saprophyticus. In essence, FCA adds new information about the bacterial, leukocyte, and erythrocyte counts in urine specimens for different uropathogens. Based on FCA characteristics, uropathogens can be classified and identified prior to culture. E. coli and Klebsiella spp. have similar FCA characteristics. PMID:25472486

  9. A CORRELATION STUDY OF TOTAL SALIVARY COUNTS AND VIRULENT MARKERS OF STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS WITH CARIES EXPERIENCE

    Gandhimathi C; Michael A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate an impending relationship between salivary Streptococcus mutans count, sucrose dependent glass adherence, and water insoluble glucan synthesis of isolated strains of Streptococcus mutans with caries experience among young adults between the age group of 20 to 23 years which may enable future planning of caries prevention in adults. A total of 70 dental students undergoing compulsory rotary internship were selected for the study based on...

  10. White blood cell count, absolute neutrophil count, as predictors of hidden bacterial infections in febrile children 1-18 months of age without focus

    Objectives: To study the relationship between White Blood Cell (WBC), Absolute Neutrophil Count (ANC) in febrile children 1-18 months of age as predictor of bacterial infection, so as to improve our predictability of bacterial infections in emergency room to decrease unnecessary admissions and antibiotic use. Methods: Retrospective review was performed on febrile patients 1-18 months of age that were admitted to hospital between August 2002 and March 2003 on the presumptive diagnosis of fever without focus, Complete septic work up was done for all patients according to local hospital protocol including Complete blood count (CBC), blood culture, urine culture, Chest X-Ray (CXR) and lumbar puncture, Patients who had history of antibiotics use within 48 hours of admission were excluded from the study, History, physical examination, laboratory and radiology data were reviewed. Data about the age, sex, temperature, presence or absence of focal bacterial infection, WBC, ANC, CXR report and body fluid culture results were collected and analyzed. Results: Thirty-four patients were reviewed in this study, Eight patients (23.5%) had bacterial infection: classified as group (2 patchy pneumonia, 3 Urinary tract infection (UTI), 2 meningitis, 1 Occult bacteremia (OB) and 26 patients (76.5%) had no evidence of bacterial infection, classified as group 2, No significant difference was found between the two groups in respect to age, sex, temperature and WBC P>0.05, while there was a significant difference between the two groups in respect to the ANC P = 0.02, also ANC had better sensitivity (78%) and specificity (89%) than WBC (sensitivity 77%, specificity 62%). Conclusion: ANC is a good predictive test for determining bacterial infection in young febrile children without focus, However there is need for other more reliable rapid cost effective measures in dealing with young febrile children at emergency department. (author)

  11. The association between total leukocyte count and longevity: Evidence from longitudinal and cross-sectional data.

    Chmielewski, Piotr Paweł; Borysławski, Krzysztof; Chmielowiec, Krzysztof; Chmielowiec, Jolanta; Strzelec, Bartłomiej

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between age-dependent changes in total leukocyte count (TLC) and certain selected differential counts expressed as frequencies (granulocytes, band cells, eosinophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes) and longevity in physically healthy men and women aged 45+. Longitudinal data on cell counts from 142 subjects (68 men and 74 women; all aged 45-70 and examined for 25 years) were compared with cross-sectional data from 225 subjects (113 men and 112 women; this group was divided into four categories of average lifespan; i.e.: 53, 63, 68, and 76+ years of age). ANOVA, t-test, and regression analysis were employed. Secular changes in leukocyte count were controlled. Men had continuously higher TLC compared with women. Moreover, sex differences in patterns of changes with age were found. The longitudinal assessment revealed a U-shaped pattern of changes in TLC in men (y=0.0026x(2)-0.2866x+14.4374; R(2)=0.852) and women (y=0.0048x(2)-0.5386x+20.922; R(2)=0.938), whereas the cross-sectional comparison showed an inverted U-shaped pattern in men (y=-0.0021x(2)+0.2421x; R(2)=0.417) and women (y=-0.0017x(2)+0.2061x; R(2)=0.888). In general, the comparison of longitudinal and cross-sectional data on changes with age in TLC indicates that longevity favors individuals with lower yet normal TLC and this correlation is more pronounced in men. In conclusion, our findings are in line with previous longitudinal studies of aging and suggest that lower TLC within the normal range (4.0-10.0×10(3)μL(-1)) can be a useful predictor of longevity in physically healthy individuals. PMID:26434754

  12. Assay for estimating total bacterial load: relative qPCR normalisation of bacterial load with associated clinical implications.

    Brukner, Ivan; Longtin, Yves; Oughton, Matthew; Forgetta, Vincenzo; Dascal, Andre

    2015-09-01

    Relative microorganism abundance is a parameter describing biodiversity, referring to how common a bacterial species is within the total bacterial flora. Anal, rectal, skin, mucal, and respiratory swabs are typical clinical samples where knowledge of relative bacterial abundance might make distinction between asymptomatic carriers and symptomatic cases. Assays trying to measure total bacterial load are usually based on the amplification of universal segments of 16S rRNA genes. Previous assays were not adoptable to "direct" PCR protocols, and/or they were not compatible with hydrolysis-based detection. Using the latest summary of universal 16S sequence motifs present in literature and testing our design with 500 liquid and 50 formed stool samples, we illustrate the performance characteristics of a new 16S quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay, which addresses well-known technical problems, including a) positive priming reaction in the absence of intended target due to self-priming and/or mispriming of unintended targets; b) amplification bias due to nonoptimal primer/probe coverage; and c) too large amplicons for clinical qPCR. Stool swabs ranked into bins of different bacterial loads show significant correlation with threshold cycle values of our new assay. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of qPCR assay measuring individual differences of total bacterial load present in human stool. PMID:26008123

  13. Determination of total viable count (TVC) in chicken breast fillets by near-infrared hyperspectral imaging and spectroscopic transforms.

    Feng, Yao-Ze; Sun, Da-Wen

    2013-02-15

    Near infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging (HSI) and different spectroscopic transforms were investigated for their potential in detecting total viable counts in raw chicken fillets. A laboratory-based pushbroom hyperspectral imaging system was utilized to acquire images of raw chicken breast fillets and the resulting reflectance images were corrected and transformed into hypercubes in absorbance and Kubelka-Munck (K-M) units. Full wavelength partial least regression models were established to correlate the three spectral profiles with measured bacterial counts, and the best calibration model was based on absorbance spectra, where the correlation coefficients (R) were 0.97 and 0.93, and the root mean squared errors (RMSEs) were 0.37 and 0.57 log10 colony forming units (CFU) per gram for calibration and cross validation, respectively. To simplify the models, several wavelengths were selected by stepwise regression. More robustness was found in the resulting simplified models and the model based on K-M spectra was found to be excellent with an indicative high ratio of performance to deviation (RPD) value of 3.02. The correlation coefficients and RMSEs for this model were 0.96 and 0.40 log10 CFU per gram as well as 0.94 and 0.50 log10 CFU per gram for calibration and cross validation, respectively. Visualization maps produced by applying the developed models to the images could be an alternative to test the adaptability of a calibration model. Moreover, multi-spectral imaging systems were suggested to be developed for online applications. PMID:23598014

  14. Effect of 2 different premilking teat sanitation routines on reduction of bacterial counts on teat skin of cows on commercial dairy farms.

    Baumberger, C; Guarín, J F; Ruegg, P L

    2016-04-01

    Premilking teat sanitation reduces the load of bacteria on teat skin before milking and it is a fundamental practice used to ensure collection of high-quality milk. The objective of this study was to compare reduction in bacterial populations of teat skin after premilking preparation using either predipping with 0.5% iodine followed by drying (conventional; CONV) or using a semiautomated teat scrubber that uses chlorine dioxide (TS; FutureCow, Longwood, FL). Ten farms currently using a commercial teat scrubber system were enrolled. Cows (n=40 per farm) were assigned to CONV (n=198) or TS (n=196) premilking udder preparation. Teat skin swabs were collected before and after udder preparation and analyzed for total bacterial count (TBC), Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and gram-negative bacteria (GNB). Reduction (RED) of each bacterial group was defined as the difference in the number of bacteria measured before and after udder preparation. Before udder preparation, Staphylococcus spp. (15,036 cfu/mL) and Streptococcus spp. (12,621 cfu/mL) were the most numerous microflora. Gram-negative bacteria were less numerous (1,538 cfu/mL). A significant treatment by farm interaction was identified for RED of all bacterial counts. Compared with teats prepared using TS, teats prepared using CONV preparation had greater RED of TBC on 3 farms, of Streptococcus spp. on 2 farms, and of Staphylococcus spp. on 1 farm. On all other farms, RED in TBC, Streptococcus spp., and Staphylococcus spp. did not differ based on teat preparation method. Use of TS resulted in greater RED of GNB of teats on 3 farms, but RED in GNB was greater for teats cleaned by CONV on 1 farm; for the other 6 farms, RED of GNB did not differ between methods. For all bacterial counts, an effect of chlorine dioxide concentration used in the teat scrubber was observed. Results from this study suggest both CONV and TS can effectively reduce bacterial counts, but farm conditions and management practices can have a significant effect on the effectiveness of teat disinfection. PMID:26898276

  15. Persistence patterns of bacterial outcomes and somatic cell counts in Dutch cows milk related to Staphylococcus aureus

    Fokker, M.

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis in dairy is a big problem in animal welfare as it is in economic perspective. Staphtylococcus aureus is a major pathogen causing mastitis in cattle. Milk of 130 multiparous cows was sampled three times: at dry off, within 24 hours post partum and between 7 and 21 days in lactation. Bacterial investigation and somatic cell count was done on these samples. There is no relation between somatic cell count at dry off and at 7-21 days of lactation. In lactation a positive relation was visi...

  16. Anomalies from aerial spectrometric and total count radiometric surveys in the southeastern United States

    Aerial radiometric reconnaissance surveys are conducted because of their cost, time, and manpower savings compared to surface studies. Two types of aerial surveys are being flown in the southeastern United States: total count gamma-ray surveys for the Coastal Plains Regional Commission and the US Geological Survey, and differential gamma-ray spectrometric surveys for the US Department of Energy. Anomalous radioactivity detected during aerial surveys is related to higher concentrations of naturally occurring uranium, or to cultural activities, natural causes, or mapping errors which simulate real uranium anomalies. Each anomaly should be ground checked; however, several types of anomalies may be eliminated by evaluation of the aerial data in the office if field time is limited

  17. Binomial distribution of Poisson statistics and tracks overlapping probability to estimate total tracks count with low uncertainty

    In the solid state nuclear track detectors of chemically etched type, nuclear tracks with center-to-center neighborhood of distance shorter than two times the radius of tracks will emerge as overlapping tracks. Track overlapping in this type of detectors causes tracks count losses and it becomes rather severe in high track densities. Therefore, tracks counting in this condition should include a correction factor for count losses of different tracks overlapping orders since a number of overlapping tracks may be counted as one track. Another aspect of the problem is the cases where imaging the whole area of the detector and counting all tracks are not possible. In these conditions a statistical generalization method is desired to be applicable in counting a segmented area of the detector and the results can be generalized to the whole surface of the detector. Also there is a challenge in counting the tracks in densely overlapped tracks because not sufficient geometrical or contextual information are available. It this paper we present a statistical counting method which gives the user a relation between the tracks overlapping probabilities on a segmented area of the detector surface and the total number of tracks. To apply the proposed method one can estimate the total number of tracks on a solid state detector of arbitrary shape and dimensions by approximating the tracks averaged area, whole detector surface area and some orders of tracks overlapping probabilities. It will be shown that this method is applicable in high and ultra high density tracks images and the count loss error can be enervated using a statistical generalization approach. - Highlights: • A correction factor for count losses of different tracks overlapping orders. • For the cases imaging the whole area of the detector is not possible. • Presenting a statistical generalization method for segmented areas. • Giving a relation between the tracks overlapping probabilities and the total tracks

  18. Correlations between total cell concentration, total adenosine tri-phosphate concentration and heterotrophic plate counts during microbial monitoring of drinking water

    F. Hammes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The general microbial quality of drinking water is normally monitored by heterotrophic plate counts (HPC. This method has been used for more than 100 years and is recommended in drinking water guidelines. However, the HPC method is handicapped because it is time-consuming and restricted to culturable bacteria. Recently, rapid and accurate detection methods have emerged, such as adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP measurements to assess microbial activity in drinking water, and flow cytometry (FCM to determine the total cell concentration (TCC. It is necessary and important for drinking water quality control to understand the relationships among the conventional and new methods. In the current study, all three methods were applied to 200 drinking water samples obtained from two local buildings connected to the same distribution system. Samples were taken both on normal working days and weekends, and the correlations between the different microbiological parameters were determined. TCC in the samples ranged from 0.37–5.61×105 cells/ml, and two clusters, the so-called high (HNA and low (LNA nucleic acid bacterial groups, were clearly distinguished. The results showed that the rapid determination methods (i.e., FCM and ATP correlated well (R2=0.69, but only a weak correlation (R2=0.31 was observed between the rapid methods and conventional HPC data. With respect to drinking water monitoring, both FCM and ATP measurements were confirmed to be useful and complimentary parameters for rapid assessing of drinking water microbial quality.

  19. Total and Differential Leukocyte Counts in Relation to Incidence of Diabetes Mellitus: A Prospective Population-Based Cohort Study

    Borné, Yan; Smith, J. Gustav; Nilsson, Peter M; Melander, Olle; Hedblad, Bo; Engström, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Objective High concentrations of leukocytes in blood have been associated with diabetes mellitus. This prospective study aimed to explore whether total and differential leukocyte counts are associated with incidence of diabetes. A missense variant R262W in the SH2B3 (SH2B adaptor protein 3) gene, coding for a protein that negatively regulates hematopoietic cell proliferation, was also studied in relation to incidence of diabetes. Methods and Results Leukocyte count and its subtypes (neutrophi...

  20. Comparison of effects of suture and cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive on bacterial counts in contaminated lacerations.

    Howell, J M; Bresnahan, K A; Stair, T O; Dhindsa, H S; Edwards, B A

    1995-01-01

    We studied the effects of closing lacerations with suture or cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive on staphylococcal counts in inoculated guinea pig lacerations. Wounds closed with adhesive alone had lower counts than wounds containing suture material (P < 0.05). The results of a time-kill study were consistent with a bacteriostatic adhesive effect of the adhesive against Staphylococcus aureus.

  1. Total Counting and Spectroscopy in the Assessment of Alpha Radioactivity in Human Tissues

    A seven-year programme of measurements of alpha radioactivity is briefly reviewed. The programme which was based initially on a sensitive and simple counting technique, using thin zinc cadmium sulphide screens, now employs in addition techniques of alpha spectroscopy developed for work with very large area low-specific-activity sources. These techniques are capable of measuring specific activities down to 10-13 c/g and can in certain cases provide energy resolution of the order of 40 keV together with independent identification based on half-life measurements. Two alpha spectrometers are described which have been used on a wide variety of human and environmental materials. Particular attention has been given to the study of Po210, now known to be present in a variety of foods and human tissues. Techniques are also described for the study of Pu239 in the atmosphere and examples given of .the results of measurements of low-level air contamination with this material. Techniques for the measurement of Pu239 in normal human tissues are described and some results given. Consideration is given to the contribution made by Po210 to the natural background radiation dose-rate in human bone and reproductive organs. It is shown that this contribution may be a significant fraction of the total dose received. (author)

  2. Oil flow rate measurements using 198Au and total count technique

    In industrial plants, oil and oil compounds are usually transported by closed pipelines with circular cross-section. The use of radiotracers in oil transport and processing industrial facilities allows calibrating flowmeters, measuring mean residence time in cracking columns, locate points of obstruction or leak in underground ducts, as well as investigating flow behavior or industrial processes such as in distillation towers. Inspection techniques using radiotracers are non-destructive, simple, economic and highly accurate. Among them, Total Count, which uses a small amount of radiotracer with known activity, is acknowledged as an absolute technique for flow rate measurement. A viscous fluid transport system, composed by four PVC pipelines with 13m length (12m horizontal and 1m vertical) and 1/2, 3/4, 1 and 2-inch gauges, respectively, interconnected by maneuvering valves was designed and assembled in order to conduct the research. This system was used to simulate different flow conditions of petroleum compounds and for experimental studies of flow profile in the horizontal and upward directions. As 198Au presents a single photopeak (411,8 keV), it was the radioisotope chosen for oil labeling, in small amounts (6 ml) or around 200 kBq activity, and it was injected in the oil transport lines. A NaI scintillation detector 2'x 2', with well-defined geometry, was used to measure total activity, determine the calibration factor F and, positioned after a homogenization distance and interconnected to a standardized electronic set of nuclear instrumentation modules (NIM), to detect the radioactive cloud. (author)

  3. Serum albumin and total lymphocyte count as predictors of outcome in hip fractures.

    O'Daly, Brendan J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hip fractures are a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in the elderly. Malnutrition is a significant contributor to this, however no consensus exists as to the detection or management of this condition. We hypothesise that results of admission serum albumin and total lymphocyte count (TLC), as markers of Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) can help predict clinical outcome in hip fracture patients aged over 60 years. METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated the nutritional status of patients with hip fractures using albumin and TLC assays and analysed their prognostic relevance. Clinical outcome parameters studied were delay to operation, duration of in-patient stay, re-admission and in-patient, 3- and 12-month mortality. RESULTS: Four hundred and fifteen hip fracture patients were evaluated. Survival data were available for 377 patients at 12 months. In-hospital mortality for PEM patients was 9.8%, compared with 0% for patients without. Patients with PEM had a higher 12-month mortality compared to patients who had normal values of both laboratory parameters (Odds Ratio 4.6; 95% CI: 1.0-21.3). Serum albumin (Hazard Ratio 0.932, 95% CI: 0.9-1.0) and age (Hazard Ratio 1.04, 95% CI: 1.0-1.1) were found to be significant independent prognostic factors of mortality by Cox regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight the relevance of assessing the nutritional status of patients with hip fractures at the time of admission and emphasises the correlation between PEM and outcome in these patients.

  4. Quality of raw cow milk in Republic of Macedonia determined through the testing of somatic cell count and total viable count

    Angelovski Ljupco

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Somatic cells count and total viable count are criteria used to estimate the compliance of raw cow milk with the Book of rules for demands for safety and hygiene and procedures for official controls of milk and milk products, Official Gazette of RM 157/2007. According to the given demands, raw milk operators are obliged to conduct all procedures and to guarantee that milk is in compliance with the criteria laid down in Book of rules. At the same time, Republic of Macedonia have to fulfill EU criteria laid down in Directive 92/46 (Council directive 92/46/EEC laying down the health rules for the production and placing on the market of raw milk, heat-treated milk and milkbased products for quality of raw milk as part of implementation of community legislation and milk production. The independent laboratory for milk quality control at FVM-Skopje, in frame of its activities in the period February- August 2008 has conducted a study for obtaining preliminary results for the situation with raw milk quality produced in R. of Macedonia for somatic cells counts and total viable count. In the study we analyzed 2065 samples for TVC and 1625 samples for SCC of raw milk samples produced in different parts of the country. From the tested samples only 41,8% fulfill criteria for SCC and 41,45% criteria for TVC lay down in Book of rules for 2008. Assessment of the results in light of Council Directive it is obvious that only 42,7% of the samples for SCC and 10,7% for TVC fulfill the criteria of Council Directive having in mind different requirements vs. Book of rules.

  5. Association between milking practices and psychrotrophic bacterial counts in bulk tank milk / Asociacin entre prcticas de ordeo y recuento de organismos psicrtrofos en leche de tanque de fro

    Ana I., Molineri; Marcelo L., Signorini; Alejandra L., Cuatrn; Vilma R., Canavesio; Vernica E., Neder; Norma B., Russi; Julio C., Bonazza; Luis F., Calvinho.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar los factores de riesgo para altos recuentos de organismos psicrtrofos en leche de tanques de tambos de la Argentina. Se examinaron muestras de leche cruda de tanques de fro de 27 tambos, y se realiz el recuento de organismos psicrtrofos totales (PT), de psi [...] crtrofos proteolticos (PP) y de psicrtrofos lipolticos (PL) (variables dependientes). Se realiz una encuesta para registrar las condiciones de infraestructura, el equipo de ordeo y las prcticas de ordeo (variables independientes). Se utilizaron pruebas bivariadas de asociacin y regresin logstica para determinar la asociacin entre las variables independientes y los recuentos de organismos psicrtrofos. La leche enfriada en sistemas de placas de intercambio o tanques tipo cuba tuvo una probabilidad mayor de dar recuentos elevados de PT y PP (16,39 y 10,52) comparada con la enfriada en tanques tipo "panza fra". La limpieza peridica del equipo de fro (3 veces por semana o diariamente) se asoci con bajos recuentos de PT (aproximadamente 1,5 log de UFC/ml). Los tambos cuyos ordeadores no se higienizaban las manos durante el ordeo tuvieron una probabilidad 7,81 veces mayor de tener recuentos elevados de PP. No se encontr asociacin entre el recuento de PL y las variables independientes. La nica variable asociada con los recuentos de PT y PP en el modelo de regresin logstica fue el sistema de enfriamiento utilizado en el tambo. El tipo de sistema de refrigeracin usado y su adecuado mantenimiento higinico son importantes para la obtencin de leche con baja carga de organismos psicrtrofos en el tambo. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine on-farm risk factors for psychrotrophic bacterial counts in bulk tank milk from dairy farms in Argentina. Raw milk samples from bulk tanks of 27 dairy farms were examined for total psychrotrophic counts (TPC), proteolytic psychrotrophic counts (PPC) and li [...] polytic psychrotrophic counts (LPC) (dependent or outcome variables). A survey recording infrastructure conditions, milking equipment and milking management (independent variables) was performed. Bivariate association proofs and logistic regression analyses were used to determine association between independent variables and psychrotrophic bacterial counts. Milk cooled in plate heat exchangers or barrel tanks were 16.39 and 10.52 times more likely to yield TPC and PPC above the standard established for high quality milk compared with milk cooled in bulk tanks, respectively. Periodic cleaning of cooling tanks (3 times a week or daily) was associated with lower TPC (approximately 1.5 log CFU/ml) than weekly cleaning frequency and farms where milkers did not wash their hands during milking time were 7.81 times more likely to have higher PPC. No association was found between LPC and any of the independent variables. The only variable associated with TPC and PPC in a logistic regression model was the refrigeration system used on the farm. Dairy farms that possessed bulk milk cooling tanks yielded the lowest bacterial counts. Results of this study highlight the importance of both the type of cooling system used on the farm and its adequate hygienic maintenance for obtaining low pshychrotrophic counts at dairy farm.

  6. Association between milking practices and psychrotrophic bacterial counts in bulk tank milk Asociacin entre prcticas de ordeo y recuento de organismos psicrtrofos en leche de tanque de fro

    Ana I. Molineri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine on-farm risk factors for psychrotrophic bacterial counts in bulk tank milk from dairy farms in Argentina. Raw milk samples from bulk tanks of 27 dairy farms were examined for total psychrotrophic counts (TPC, proteolytic psychrotrophic counts (PPC and lipolytic psychrotrophic counts (LPC (dependent or outcome variables. A survey recording infrastructure conditions, milking equipment and milking management (independent variables was performed. Bivariate association proofs and logistic regression analyses were used to determine association between independent variables and psychrotrophic bacterial counts. Milk cooled in plate heat exchangers or barrel tanks were 16.39 and 10.52 times more likely to yield TPC and PPC above the standard established for high quality milk compared with milk cooled in bulk tanks, respectively. Periodic cleaning of cooling tanks (3 times a week or daily was associated with lower TPC (approximately 1.5 log CFU/ml than weekly cleaning frequency and farms where milkers did not wash their hands during milking time were 7.81 times more likely to have higher PPC. No association was found between LPC and any of the independent variables. The only variable associated with TPC and PPC in a logistic regression model was the refrigeration system used on the farm. Dairy farms that possessed bulk milk cooling tanks yielded the lowest bacterial counts. Results of this study highlight the importance of both the type of cooling system used on the farm and its adequate hygienic maintenance for obtaining low pshychrotrophic counts at dairy farm.El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar los factores de riesgo para altos recuentos de organismos psicrtrofos en leche de tanques de tambos de la Argentina. Se examinaron muestras de leche cruda de tanques de fro de 27 tambos, y se realiz el recuento de organismos psicrtrofos totales (PT, de psicrtrofos proteolticos (PP y de psicrtrofos lipolticos (PL (variables dependientes. Se realiz una encuesta para registrar las condiciones de infraestructura, el equipo de ordeo y las prcticas de ordeo (variables independientes. Se utilizaron pruebas bivariadas de asociacin y regresin logstica para determinar la asociacin entre las variables independientes y los recuentos de organismos psicrtrofos. La leche enfriada en sistemas de placas de intercambio o tanques tipo cuba tuvo una probabilidad mayor de dar recuentos elevados de PT y PP (16,39 y 10,52 comparada con la enfriada en tanques tipo "panza fra". La limpieza peridica del equipo de fro (3 veces por semana o diariamente se asoci con bajos recuentos de PT (aproximadamente 1,5 log de UFC/ml. Los tambos cuyos ordeadores no se higienizaban las manos durante el ordeo tuvieron una probabilidad 7,81 veces mayor de tener recuentos elevados de PP. No se encontr asociacin entre el recuento de PL y las variables independientes. La nica variable asociada con los recuentos de PT y PP en el modelo de regresin logstica fue el sistema de enfriamiento utilizado en el tambo. El tipo de sistema de refrigeracin usado y su adecuado mantenimiento higinico son importantes para la obtencin de leche con baja carga de organismos psicrtrofos en el tambo.

  7. Comparative seric TGF(β1, β2) levels and platelets count response in total body irradiated baboons

    Total body irradiation associated or not with r-hIL-6 treatment a relation between TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 blood levels and platelets count. During radio-induced thrombocytopenia, by decreasing its ability to inhibit proliferation of stem cells and megakaryocytopoiesis, the TGF-β falling induced a favorable condition for hematopoietic recovery. (author)

  8. Influence of PAHs among other coastal environmental variables on total and PAH-degrading bacterial communities.

    Sauret, Caroline; Tedetti, Marc; Guigue, Catherine; Dumas, Chloé; Lami, Raphaël; Pujo-Pay, Mireille; Conan, Pascal; Goutx, Madeleine; Ghiglione, Jean-François

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated the relative impact of anthropogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) among biogeochemical variables on total, metabolically active, and PAH bacterial communities in summer and winter in surface microlayer (SML) and subsurface seawaters (SSW) across short transects along the NW Mediterranean coast from three harbors, one wastewater effluent, and one nearshore observatory reference site. At both seasons, significant correlations were found between dissolved total PAH concentrations and PAH-degrading bacteria that formed a gradient from the shore to nearshore waters. Accumulation of PAH degraders was particularly high in the SML, where PAHs accumulated. Harbors and wastewater outfalls influenced drastically and in a different way the total and active bacterial community structure, but they only impacted the communities from the nearshore zone (analysis, we confirmed the significant effect of PAH concentrations on the spatial and temporal dynamic of total and active communities in this area, but this effect was putted in perspective by the importance of other biogeochemical variables. PMID:26122564

  9. Immature-to-total neutrophil ratio as an early diagnostic tool of bacterial neonatal sepsis

    DarnifayantI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Bacterial sepsis is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment for the condition can reduce mortality rates. Blood cultures are the gold standard to diagnose bacterial sepsis, but they require 3-5 days for results, whilst the disease may progress rapidly in neonates. Examination of immature-to-total neutrophil ratio (I/T ratio in peripheral blood smears is a quicker and less expensive method to diagnose bacterial sepsis in neonates. Some studies found the sensitivity of I/T ratio to be 88%-90% in predicting bacterial spesis. Objective To assess the usefulness of the I/T ratio as an early diagnostic tool for neonatal bacterial sepsis. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March 2011. Subjects were collected by consecutive sampling. Fifty-three neonates suspected to have bacterial sepsis in the Perinatology Unit at H. Adam Malik Hospital were included. Subjects underwent routine blood examinations, C-reactive protein level measurements, blood cultures, and peripheral blood smears. All statistical analyses were conducted with SPSS (version 16.0 for Windows. Results Of the 53 subjects, 26 had bacterial sepsis based on blood cultures. The I/T ratio had a sensitivity of 88.46%, specificity 81.84%, positive predictive value 82.14%, and negative predictive value 88%. The receiver operating characteristic curve showed a cut-off point of 83.3 (95%CI 71.3 to 95.3%. Conclusion The I/T ratio may be a good alternative to blood cultures as an early indicator of bacterial neonatal sepsis, as it is faster, less expensive and has good sensitivity and specificity. [Paediatr Indones. 2015;55:153-7.].

  10. Determining eligibility for antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings using total lymphocyte counts, hemoglobin and body mass index

    Solberg Peter

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD4+ T lymphocyte (CD4 cell count testing is the standard method for determining eligibility for antiretroviral therapy (ART, but is not widely available in sub-Saharan Africa. Total lymphocyte counts (TLCs have not proven sufficiently accurate in identifying subjects with low CD4 counts. We developed clinical algorithms using TLCs, hemoglobin (Hb, and body mass index (BMI to identify patients who require ART. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of HIV-infected adults in Uganda, who presented for assessment for ART-eligibility with WHO clinical stages I, II or III. Two by two tables were constructed to examine TLC thresholds, which maximized sensitivity for CD4 cell counts ≤ 200 cells μL, while minimizing the number offered ART with counts > 350 cells μL. Hb and BMI values were then examined to try to improve model performance. Results 1787 subjects were available for analysis. Median CD4 cell counts and TLCs, were 239 cells/μL and 1830 cells/μL, respectively. Offering ART to all subjects with a TLCs ≤ 2250 cells/μL produced a sensitivity of 0.88 and a false positive ratio of 0.21. Algorithms that treated all patients with a TLC 3000 cells/μL, and used Hb and/or BMI values to determine eligibility for those with TLC values between 2000 and 3000 cells/μL, marginally improved accuracy. Conclusion TLCs appear useful in predicting who would be eligible for ART based on CD4 cell count criteria. Hb and BMI values may be useful in prioritizing patients for ART, but did not improve model accuracy.

  11. The Total Time on Test Plot and the Cumulative Total Time on Test Statistic for a Counting Process

    1986-01-01

    Results on the total time on test plot are usually obtained on the assumption that the number of events to be observed is fixed in advance. Here it is shown that the same large sample results hold when the number of events is random if a simple condition is satisfied.

  12. Total Antioxidant Capacity and Total Oxidant Status in Saliva of Periodontitis Patients in Relation to Bacterial Load

    Zhang, Taowen; Andrukhov, Oleh; Haririan, Hady; Müller-Kern, Michael; Liu, Shutai; Liu, Zhonghao; Rausch-Fan, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    The detection of salivary biomarkers has a potential application in early diagnosis and monitoring of periodontal inflammation. However, searching sensitive salivary biomarkers for periodontitis is still ongoing. Oxidative stress is supposed to play an important role in periodontitis progression and tissue destruction. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) in saliva of periodontitis patients compared to healthy controls and their relationship with periodontopathic bacteria and periodontal disease severity. Unstimulated saliva was collected from 45 patients with generalized severe periodontitis and 37 healthy individuals and the TAC/TOS were measured. In addition, salivary levels of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, and Fusobacterium nucleatum in saliva were measured. Salivary TAC was lower in periodontitis patients compared to healthy controls. Moreover, a significant negative correlation of salivary TAC with clinical attachment loss was observed in periodontitis patients. No significant difference in the salivary TOS was observed between periodontitis patients and healthy controls. Bacterial load was enhanced in periodontitis patients and exhibited correlation with periodontal disease severity but not with salivary TAC/TOS. Our data suggest that changes in antioxidant capacity in periodontitis patients are not associated with increased bacterial load and are probably due to a dysregulated immune response. PMID:26779448

  13. Flow cytometry total cell counts: a field study assessing microbiological water quality and growth in unchlorinated drinking water distribution systems:

    J. C. Van Dijk; Liu, G.; Mark, E.J.; Verberk, J.Q.J.C.

    2013-01-01

    e objective of this study was to evaluate the application of flow cytometry total cell counts (TCCs) as a parameter to assess microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems and to determine the relationships between different parameters describing the biostability of treated water. A one-year sampling program was carried out in two distribution systems in The Netherlands. Results demonstrated that, in both systems, the biomass differences measured by ATP were not significant. TCC dif...

  14. Influence of Salinity and Management Practices on the Shrimp (Penaeus monodon) Production and Bacterial Counts of Modified Extensive Brackishwater Ponds

    Abraham, T. Jawahar; Sasmal, Debasis

    2009-01-01

    The influence of salinity and management practices on the production of Penaeus monodon and changes in the counts of total heterotrophs (THCs), presumptive vibrios (PVCs) and luminous vibrios (LBCs) in nine modified extensive brackishwater ponds was investigated for one crop period, ranging from 102 to 132 days. The THCs ranging from 104 to 106/ml pond water and 105 to 107/g pond sediment and PVCs from 102-105/ml pond water and 103-106/g pond sediment were recorded. The LBCs were detected onl...

  15. Seasonal changes in bacterial counts and radiation-disinfection of sewage sludge

    The effect of radiation on sewage sludge was investigated to disinfect it. The results obtained were as follows: 1. In either activated sludge or digested sludge dewatered by centrifugation, total bacteria and coliforms were up to 3.0 x 109/g and 3.5 x 108/g, respectively. In the activated sludge which was dewatered by a filter-press with calcium oxide and iron chloride, total bacteria were up to 3.0 x 105/g, while coliforms were hardly detected. 2. The fraction of coliforms was somewhat more in centrifuged sludge than in raw sludge. 3. The radiosensitivity of coliforms in raw sludge differed between samples. Namely, some sludge was sterilized with 0.5 Mrad while others were not sterilized even with 1.0 Mrad. On the other hand, coliforms in dewatered sludge were sterilized with 0.5 Mrad without seasonal change, but total bacteria were more radioresistant and more than 13 Mrad was required to reduce it to an undetectable level. From these results it is concluded that the dewatered sludge should be irradiated at 0.5 Mrad to eliminate the coliforms in it. (author)

  16. Incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with ascites. Diagnostic value of white blood cell count and pH measurement in ascitic fluid

    Storgaard, J S; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Hegnhj, J; Krintel, J J; Nielsen, P B

    1991-01-01

    During a 21-month period, 65 consecutive patients admitted with ascites were included in a prospective study of the incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and paracentesis was performed on admission. The ascitic fluid was cultured, ascitic leucocytes were counted and pH was measured. Bac...... patients with SBP. In contrast to several previous studies, neither ascites pH nor ascites leucocyte counts were any help in obtaining a rapid diagnosis. Survival time of patients with SBP was significantly shorter than of patients without SBP.......During a 21-month period, 65 consecutive patients admitted with ascites were included in a prospective study of the incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and paracentesis was performed on admission. The ascitic fluid was cultured, ascitic leucocytes were counted and pH was measured...

  17. How much locomotive activity is needed for an active physical activity level: analysis of total step counts

    Ohkawara Kazunori

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although physical activity recommendations for public health have focused on locomotive activity such as walking and running, it is uncertain how much these activities contribute to overall physical activity level (PAL. The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of locomotive activity to PAL using total step counts measured in a calorimeter study. Methods PAL, calculated as total energy expenditure divided by basal metabolic rate, was evaluated in 11 adult men using three different conditions for 24-hour human calorimeter measurements: a low-activity day (L-day targeted at a low active level of PAL (1.45, and a high-frequency moderate activity day (M-day or a high-frequency vigorous activity day (V-day targeted at an active level of PAL (1.75. These subjects were permitted only light activities except prescribed activities. In a separate group of 41 adults, free-living PAL was evaluated using doubly-labeled water (DLW. In both experiments, step counts per day were also measured using an accelerometer. Results In the human calorimeter study, PAL and step counts were 1.42 ± 0.10 and 8,973 ± 543 steps/d (L-day, 1.82 ± 0.14 and 29,588 ± 1,126 steps/d (M-day, and 1.74 ± 0.15 and 23,755 ± 1,038 steps/d (V-day, respectively. In the DLW study, PAL and step counts were 1.73 ± 0.15 and 10,022 ± 2,605 steps/d, and there was no significant relationship between PAL and daily step counts. Conclusions These results indicate that an enormous number of steps are needed for an active level of PAL if individuals extend physical activity-induced energy expenditure by only locomotive activity. Therefore, non-locomotive activity such as household activity should also play a significant role in increasing PAL under free-living conditions.

  18. Detection of false-positives among total and fecal coliform counts by factorial analysis of correspondence.

    Joncas, M; Michaud, S; Carmichael, J P; Lavoie, M C

    1985-01-01

    Application of an analysis of correspondence to the biochemical characteristics of total and fecal coliforms isolated in the Ivory Coast permitted us to separate two small clusters of isolates different from the main clusters, which included isolates from human and animal feces. The isolates grouped in the small clusters were from water samples. An analysis of the biochemical characteristics which permitted the segregation of the "water-specific" isolates from the main clusters indicates that...

  19. Model calculations of the total electron count for the GPS satellites system

    Surotkin, V. A.; Klimenko, V. V.; Koren'kov, Yu. N.

    2007-02-01

    [1] The global numerical model of the thermosphere, ionosphere, and protonosphere of the Earth, making it possible to calculate all the main parameters of the near-Earth plasma, is used to calculate the total electron content (TEC). The calculations are performed along the ray of the signal propagation between the ground-based reception point and a GPS system satellite. The values of TEC calculated according to satellite data are compared with the ``true model'' value of TEC for magnetically quiet conditions of the spring equinox at moderate solar activity. Relative errors in determination of the satellite TEC for two European stations Brest (48.5o N, 5.5o W) and Kaliningrad (55o N, 20o E) are calculated. It is demonstrated that an increase of the number of the observed satellites does not always lead to an increase of the accuracy of the TEC measured with the help of the satellites.

  20. Study on the Total Coliforms Count and Coli Titter in the Waters of Kardzhali Reservoir, Bulgaria

    Oliver Y. Todorov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine TC (total coliforms and coli titter from two sampling stations in the aquatory of Kardzhali Dam Lake and one station in River Arda, in August, 2011. The values of the TC index in the reservoir vary from 1900674 cfu/100ml in station I, to 1293194 cfu/100ml in station II, while the TC value of River Arda reaches 1698134 cfu/100ml. In Reservoir Kardzhali, the smallest volume of water in which Escherichia coli cells were found, varies between 5 and 15 ml, while for the River Arda the value of coli titter is equal to 1. With highest percentage, regarding the presence of microbiological species in the reservoir waters, is the genus Klebsiella (70%, followed by Citrobacter (15%, Enterobacter (10% and Serratia (5%, respectively represented by the species Klebsiella oxytoca, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae and Serattia marcescens. In the river Arda two genuses were found - Serratia (50% and Salmonella (50%.

  1. Canine cerebrospinal fluid total nucleated cell counts and cytology associations with the prevalence of magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities

    Hugo TB

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Timothy B Hugo, Kathryn L Heading, Robert H Labuc Melbourne Veterinary Specialist Centre, Glen Waverley, Vic, Australia Introduction: The combination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI are often used to investigate intracranial disease in dogs. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine if the total nucleated cell count (TNCC or cytology findings in abnormal CSF are associated with the prevalence of MRI abnormalities. Materials and methods: For each case, the TNCC was categorized into one of three groups: A (<25106/L; B (25100106/L; and C (>100106/L. Cytology findings were categorized by the predominant cell type as lymphocytic, monocytoid, neutrophilic, or eosinopilic. MRI descriptions were classified as either normal or abnormal, and abnormal studies were further evaluated for the presence of specific characteristics (multifocal or diffuse disease versus focal disease, positive T2-weighted hyperintensity, positive FLAIR hyperintensity, contrast enhancement, mass effect, and the presence of poorly or well-defined lesion margins. Results: Forty-five dogs met the inclusion criteria and MRI abnormalities were found in 29/45 (64% dogs. TNCCs were not associated with the prevalence of MRI abnormalities or specific characteristics. Cytology categories were significantly associated with the prevalence of MRI abnormalities (P<0.001. Specifically, monocytoid cytology was 22.8 times more likely to have an abnormal MRI than lymphocytic cytology. CSF cytology was not significantly associated with specific abnormal MRI characteristics. Conclusion: There are minimal associations between CSF abnormalities and the prevalence of MRI abnormalities. These results support the continued importance of utilizing both tests when investigating intracranial disease. When CSF analysis must be performed initially, this study has demonstrated that an abnormal CSF with a monocytoid cytology supports the value of performing a brain MRI in dogs with evidence of intracranial neurological disease. Keywords: cerebrospinal fluid, magnetic resonance imaging, canine, total nucleated cell counts, cytology

  2. A PROFILE OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTED PATIENTS IN YENEPOYA MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL WITH SPECIAL REFERANCE TO CORRELATION BETWEEN CD4 COUNT AND TOTAL LYMPHOCYTE COUNT

    Sajid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES : To study the clinical presentation , spectrum of systemic involvement , opportunistic infections and the correlation between CD4 + cell count and TLC for monitoring disease progression in HIV patients. Previous studies have shown that TLC is an inexpensive and useful tool for monitoring HIV progression. METHODS: This was a 2 year prospective study in which ca ses were examined and according to theproforma , TLC and CD4+ counts were assessed in 50 HIV positive patients who attended Yenepoya Medical College Hospital , Mangalore between October 2005 and September 2007. Sensitivity and specificity of various TLC cut - off were computed for CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 and statistical indices computed. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to find out the correlation between CD4+ count and TLC at baseline. RESULTS: 45 male and 5 female patients , having mean age of 38.08± 9.01 years (range 20 – 60 years were studied. 70% were in 20 - 40 years age group. 34% were related to transport services. Heterosexual mode of transmission was seen in 64% , commonest presenting symptoms were fever and weight loss , oral candidiasis was present in 26% and lymphadenopathy in 46% of subjects. Tuberculosis was the most common opportunistic infection seen in 68% of subjects. One patient had AIDS dementia complex , one had HIV nephropathy and in 1 and a presumptive diagnosi s of Kaposi's sarcoma was made . Tubercular meningitis was the most common neurological manifestation. The mean baseline CD4+ count in study group was 175 cells/mm3. The mean baseline TLC was 1338 cells/mm3 . The scatter diagram shows , as the CD4 T cells ris es , the TLC level also rises. The sensitivity and specificity of TLC < 1200 and CD4 count <200 was 91% and 53% respectively with a positive predictive value of 70% (p = 0.0001. CONCLUSION: Occupation was the important risk factor for HIV transmission and h eterosexual contact is the commonest mode of spread. Among opportunistic infections , tuberculosis was most common. There was a definite correlation between the TLC and CD4 count in HIV positive patients before treatment. It is evident from this study that TLC can be used in place of CD4+ T cell counts in resource - limited settings to monitor the disease progression

  3. Some Precautions in Preparation of Blood Plasma Samples Labelled with 3HOH in Liquid Scintillation Counting to Estimate Total Body Water in Farm Animals Using Nuclear Methods

    Accuracy of counting the tritiated water radioactivity in Liquid Scintillation is dependent on the careful control of several experimental variables. Obtaining the data necessary to evaluate the precision of nuclear techniques is the objective of this study. The effect of mixing the suspended precipitate, precipitate of sedimentation, light exposure and temperature on liquid scintillation counting are studied. The results showed that unmixed suspended precipitation decreased the counting of liquid scintillation by 38.2%. In addition, sedimentation of the precipitate of plasma proteins in the liquid scintillation counter is important because the average of the samples count was lower about 3.5% in case plasma samples were counted before the precipitate sedimentation. Plasma samples exposure to either day or florescent light caused over counting by 7.1 and 7.6% respectively. Frozen plasma samples labelled with TOH caused a decrease in normal counting by 9.5%. In addition, it was compared between internal standard and dioxane precipitation techniques to estimate total body water in farm animals with taking the precaution mentioned previously in considerations. The internal standard method and precipitation method gave comparable counting (4599 vs 4317 cpm, respectively) and total body water values (209.3 vs 211.9L, respectively).

  4. Diagnostic Accuracy of Peripheral White Blood Cell Count, Fever and Acute Leukocutosis for Bacterial Meningitis in Patients with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    Hosseinali Khalili

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the diagnostic value of serum white blood cell (WBC count, fever (>38˚C and WBC rise (>10% for bacterial meningitis in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Shahid Rajaei hospital affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences during a 1-year period from 2013 to 2014. We included consecutively all the patients with severe TBI admitted to our center during the study period who were febrile (>38˚C orally and underwent lumbar puncture (LP and analysis and culture of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. Laboratory analysis of CSF and blood were performed within 2 hours of LP. CSF culture was considered the gold standard for diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value (PPV, NPV of peripheral blood WBC count, fever (>38˚C and WBC rise (>10% was determined according to the CSF culture. Results: Overall we included242 consecutive patients with severe TBI. The mean age of the participants was 32.8 ± 17.4 years. Acinetobacter was the most common organism found in the CSF cultures. The sensitivity and specificity of peripheral WBC count (>10,000was 48.4% (95% CI: 0.42-0.56 and 47% (95% CI: 0.37-0.58 respectively. The PPV and NPV was 13.1% (95% CI: 0.33-0.52 and 84.8% (95% CI: 0.42-0.61, respectively. The AUC for WBC count was 0.478 (95% CI: 0.37-0.58 indicating low accuracy for the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. The AUC for WBC rise (>10% and temperature >38˚C was0.460 (95% CI: 0.351-0.569 and 0.517 (95% CI: 0.410-0.624 respectively, both indicating low accuracy for diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. Conclusion: The results of the current study indicates that peripheral blood leukocyte count, fever (>38˚C and WBC rise (>10% is a non-reliable marker for diagnosis of bacterial meningitis in patients with severe TBI.

  5. The effect of gamma radiation and certain insecticides on the total hemocyte counts and its different types in larvae of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis (boisd.)

    Treatment of the cotton leaf worm larvae Spodoptera Littoralis with gamma radiation gradually decreased the total haemocyte count as the dose increased. While in larvae treated with fenvalerate the total haemocyte count significantly decreased and a further decrease occurred when larvae were treated with gamma rays. Larvae which were treated with sumithion showed insignificant increase of total haemocyte count from control, but when sumithion was applied before gamma irradiation a gradual decrease of the total haemocyte occurred. In case of larvae treated with L c30 level of fenvalerate or sumithion an insignificant increase in the total haemocyte count occurred, while irradiation of larvae after insecticide treatment lead to a gradual decrease in the total haemocyte count as the dose of gamma radiation was increased. The haemocytes of fourth instar larvae were found to consist of eight kinds which are pro haemocytes, plasmatocytes, spindle cells, granulated cells, oenocytoids, adipohaemocytes, cytocytes and sphrule cells. Treatment of larvae with gamma radiation, insecticides (fenvalerate or sumithion) only or with the insecticide combined with gamma radiation significantly affected the percentage of haemocytes. Also significant differences were found between the different types p f haemocytes. Prohaemocytes were the predominant type.5 tab

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on shelf life extension, total counts of microbials and biochemical sensory change on luncheon meat

    To investigate the effect of gamma irradiation and sodium nitrate on storability and marketability of luncheon, packed luncheon was exposed to several treatments; gamma irradiation at doses 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 KGy using a 60 CO package irradiator, mixed with sodium nitrite (NaNO2) 60 mg/Kg meat, with no irradiation and a combined treatment of both NaNO2 treatment and irradiated with a dose of 2 KGy only. Half of the irradiated and unirradiated samples were stored in refrigeration (1-4 centigrade), to study storability and the second half were stored at room temperature (18-20 centigrade) to study marketability of luncheon. During storage period the population of microorganisms, biochemical changes and sensory properties were evaluated every two weeks for the refrigerated samples and weekly for the unrefrigerated samples. The results indicated that gamma irradiation and sodium nitrite reduced the counts of microorganisms and increased the shelf-life of luncheon. Both treatments (irradiation, sodium nitrite) increased total acidity, lipid oxidation, and the volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) immediately after processing and reduced all of them through out storage. Sensory evaluation (firmness, color, taste, and flavor) indicated no significant differences (P>0.05) between treated and untreated samples. (author)

  7. Increased tender point counts before and after total hip arthroplasty are associated with poorer outcomes but are not individually predictive.

    Bogoch, Earl R; Olschewski, Eli; Zangger, Philippe; Henke, Marjorie L; Smythe, Hugh A

    2010-09-01

    In a prospective study, total hip arthroplasty (THA) patients were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively (n = 95) to determine if tender points (TPs) are associated with poor THA outcomes. Patients with high follow-up TP counts had higher visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and sleep, higher follow-up Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (pain, stiffness, function), lower Health Assessment Questionnaire, Harris Hip, and Short Form 36 (physical functioning, bodily pain, physical component summary) scores. High follow-up TP were associated with increased pain, pain not relieved by surgery, poor function, and poor sleep. Visual analog scale pain and sleep, Short Form 36 (physical functioning, bodily pain), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index, Health Assessment Questionnaire, and Harris hip scores improved significantly after THA; TP scores did not. Higher preoperative TP were predictive of higher follow-up TP but were poorly predictive of poor outcome measures after surgery in individual patients, suggesting that preoperative TPs are not [corrected] contraindicative for THA. PMID:19837554

  8. Validation of EIA sampling methods - bacterial and biochemical analysis

    Sheelu, G.; LokaBharathi, P.A.; Nair, S.; Raghukumar, C.; Mohandass, C.

    the Indian Experiment (INDEX) during September 1996 and June-Sept. 1997. Analysis were done for lipid, protein and carbohydrates, which comprise the labile organic matter (LOM), total organic carbon (TOC) and total bacterial counts (TC). Of the 5 variables...

  9. Multilevel analysis of bacterial counts from chronic periodontitis after root planing/scaling, surgery, and systemic and local antibiotics: 2-year results

    Ibrahimu Mdala

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To follow changes (over 2 years in subgingival bacterial counts of five microbial complexes including health-related Actinomyces spp. in deeper pockets (≥5 mm after periodontal treatments. Methods: Eight different treatments were studied: (1 scaling+root planing (SRP; (2 periodontal surgery (SURG+systemic amoxicillin (AMOX+systemic metronidazole (MET; (3 SURG+locally delivered tetracycline (TET; (4 SURG; (5 AMOX+MET+TET; (6 AMOX+MET; (7 TET; and (8 SURG+AMOX+MET+TET. Antibiotics were given immediately following SRP. Subgingival plaque was collected mesiobuccally from each tooth, except third molars, from 176 subjects, completing the study, at baseline, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months post-treatment and analysed for 40 different bacteria using checkerboard hybridization. A negative binomial (NB generalized estimating equation (NB GEE model was used to analyze count data and a logistic GEE was used for proportions. Results: We observed short-term beneficial changes in the composition of the red complex of up to 3 months by treating subjects with AMOX+MET+TET. Similar short-term improvements with the same treatment were observed for Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola of the red complex. SURG had also short-term beneficial effect on Porphyromonas gingivalis. No periodontal treatments applied to severely affected sites promoted the growth of Actinomyces. Smoking elevated counts of both the red and orange complex while bleeding on probing (BOP and gingival redness were also predictors of more red complex counts. Comparatively similar findings were obtained by analyzing counts and by analyzing proportions. Conclusions: Although short-term reductions in the counts of the red complex were observed in sites that were treated with AMOX+MET+TET, long-term significant effects were not observed with any of the eight treatments. Poor oral hygiene in patients with severe chronic periodontitis diminished the beneficial effects of treatment.

  10. Assessment of the efficiency of SimPlate™ total plate count color indicator (TPC CI) to quantify mesophilic aerobic microorganisms in pasteurized milk Avaliação da eficiência do SimPlate™ Total Plate Count Color Indicator (TPC CI) para enumeração de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos em leite pasteurizado

    Luís Augusto Nero; Vanerli Beloti,; Márcia Aguiar Ferreira Barros; Elsa Helena Walter de Santana; Mykel Steffani Pereira; Viviane Vieira Gusmão; Luciane Bilia de Moraes

    2002-01-01

    The SimPlate™ TPC CI system is a rapid method to count mesophilic aerobic microorganisms (MAM) in foods, based on the use of resazurine to indicate bacterial growth. Its efficiency in pasteurized milk was evaluated using 142 pasteurized milk samples (38 type A, 43 type B and 61 type C) collected in Londrina, PR. The standard plating method, using Plate Count Agar (PCA) was used for comparison. The plates of both systems were incubated at 35ºC and read after 24h and 48h. The occurrence of...

  11. Asociación entre recuento bacteriano en la bilis y desarrollo de morbilidad postoperatoria en pacientes con colangitis aguda Association between bile bacterial count and postoperative complications aniong patients with acute cholangitis

    HÉCTOR LOSADA M

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La colonización bacteriana de la bilis parece ser frecuente en pacientes con obstrucción de la vía biliar ya sea con o sin signos de sepsis. Objetivos: Determinar asociación entre el recuento bacteriano en la bilis de pacientes con colangitis aguda (CA y el desarrollo de complicaciones postoperatorias; y, determinar asociación entre variables fisiológicas y desarrollo de complicaciones en el mismo grupo. Material y Método: Reporte preliminar de estudio de cohorte de pacientes con CA litiásica, intervenidos quirúrgicamente en los servicios de cirugía y urgencias del Hospital Regional de Temuco en el período diciembre de 2004 a noviembre de 2006. Se realizó cultivo cuantitativo y se registraron variables clínicas y de laboratorio al ingreso. Se efectuó medición de complicaciones postoperatorias, estancia hospitalaria y evolución de los pacientes. Se aplicó estadística descriptiva y posteriormente análisis univariado y multivariado. Resultados: Se estudió un total de 54 pacientes, 34 (63% fueron de género femenino y 20 (37% de género masculino, con una mediana de edad de 68 años (25 a 95 años. El germen más frecuentemente aislado fue Escherichia coli en 32 cultivos (50%, seguido por Klebsiella pneumoniae en 6 cultivos (9%. De los gérmenes aislados 45 (82% tenían cargas bacterianas sobre 10(5 UFC/ml. De los pacientes que presentaron alguna complicación 68% tenían cargas bacterianas superiores a 10(5 UFC/ml y de los pacientes que no presentaron complicaciones 69% tenían cargas bacterianas inferiores a 10(5 UFC/ml (p = 0,513. En el análisis univariado se encontró asociación entre desarrollo de complicaciones y las variables frecuencia cardíaca, creatinina, recuento de plaquetas y tiempo de protrombina. Con el análisis multivariado se determinó asociación entre desarrollo de complicaciones y las variables recuento de plaquetas y tiempo de protrombina (OR: 4,35 y 4,58. Conclusiones: No se encontró asociación entre la carga bacteriana y el desarrollo de complicaciones en pacientes con CA. Se determinó asociación entre desarrollo de complicaciones y las variables recuento de plaquetas y tiempo de protrombina.Background: Bacterial colonization of bile is common in patients with bile duct obstruction, even in the absence of clinical signs of sepsis. Aim: To determine the association between bile bacterial count and postoperative complications in patients with bile duct obstruction. Material and Methods: A bile bacterial count was performed to patients with acute cholangitis caused by biliary stones, operated between 2004 and 2006. Post operative complications and length of hospital stay were recorded in these patients. Results: Fifty four patients aged between 25 and 95 years (34 females were studied. The most common bacteria found, were Escherichia coli in 32 cultures (50%, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae in 6 cultures (9%. In 45 cases the bacterial load was over 10(5 colony forming units (CFU/ml. Among patients with and without complications, 68 and 69% had a bacterial load over 10(5 CFU/ml, respectively (p = NS. A multivariate analysis showed an association between platelet count and prothrombin time with the incidence of complications. Conclusions: In this series of patients with acute cholangitis, no association between bile bacterial count and postoperative complications was observed.

  12. Comparison between cultivated and total bacterial communities associated with Cucurbita pepo using cultivation-dependent techniques and 454 pyrosequencing.

    Eevers, N; Beckers, B; Op de Beeck, M; White, J C; Vangronsveld, J; Weyens, N

    2016-02-01

    Endophytic bacteria often have beneficial effects on their host plants that can be exploited for bioremediation applications but, according to the literature, only 0.001-1% of all endophytic microbes should be cultivable. This study compared the cultivated endophytic communities of the roots and shoots of Cucurbita pepo with the total endophytic communities as determined by cultivation-dependent techniques and 454 pyrosequencing. The ten most abundant taxa of the total communities aligned well with the cultivated taxa; however, the abundance of these taxa in the two communities differed greatly. Enterobacter showed very low presence in the total communities, whereas they were dominantly present in the cultivated communities. Although Rhizobium dominated in total root and shoot communities, it was poorly cultivable and even then only in growth media containing plant extract. Since endophytes likely contribute to plant-growth promotion, cultivated bacterial strains were tested for their plant-growth promoting capabilities, and the results were correlated with their abundance in the total community. Bacillus and Pseudomonas showed promising results when considering cultivability, abundance in the total community and plant-growth promoting capability. This study demonstrated that, although a limited number of bacterial genera were cultivable, current cultivation-dependent techniques may be sufficient for further isolation and inoculation experiments that aim to improve phytoremediation efficiency. PMID:26656884

  13. Total bacterial load within Echinacea purpurea, determined using a new PCR-based quantification method, is correlated with LPS levels and In vitro macrophage activity

    In the present study, total bacterial load was determined within E. purpurea samples and ranged from 6.4 106 to 3.3 108 bacteria/g of dry plant material. To estimate total bacterial load, we developed a PCR-based quantification method that circumvents the problems associated with nonviable/noncu...

  14. Comparison of bacterial counts in expressed breast milk following standard or strict infection control regimens in neonatal intensive care units: compliance of mothers does matter.

    Haiden, N; Pimpel, B; Assadian, O; Binder, C; Kreissl, A; Repa, A; Thanhäuser, M; Roberts, C D; Berger, A

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial counts in 1466 expressed breast milk (EBM) samples from women following one of two infection control regimens (standard vs strict) were investigated. Overall, 12% of samples yielded Gram-negative bacteria, with no significant differences between the standard [11.9% (94/788)] and strict [12.1% (82/678)] regimens (P = 0.92). Significantly more samples were contaminated when expressed at home (standard regimen home/hospital: 17.9% vs 6.1%; strict regimen home/hospital: 19.6% vs 3.4%; P hygiene during milk collection seem to be of limited value. Good hygiene of collection and storage equipment is likely to be the most important way to ensure the microbiological quality of EBM. PMID:26850928

  15. Development of Microelectrode Arrays Using Electroless Plating for CMOS-Based Direct Counting of Bacterial and HeLa Cells.

    Niitsu, Kiichi; Ota, Shoko; Gamo, Kohei; Kondo, Hiroki; Hori, Masaru; Nakazato, Kazuo

    2015-10-01

    The development of two new types of high-density, electroless plated microelectrode arrays for CMOS-based high-sensitivity direct bacteria and HeLa cell counting are presented. For emerging high-sensitivity direct pathogen counting, two technical challenges must be addressed. One is the formation of a bacteria-sized microelectrode, and the other is the development of a high-sensitivity and high-speed amperometry circuit. The requirement for microelectrode formation is that the gold microelectrodes are required to be as small as the target cell. By improving a self-aligned electroless plating technique, the dimensions of the microelectrodes on a CMOS sensor chip in this work were successfully reduced to 1.2 ?m 2.05 ?m. This is 1/20th of the smallest size reported in the literature. Since a bacteria-sized microelectrode has a severe limitation on the current flow, the amperometry circuit has to have a high sensitivity and high speed with low noise. In this work, a current buffer was inserted to mitigate the potential fluctuation. Three test chips were fabricated using a 0.6- ?m CMOS process: two with 1.2 ?m 2.05 ?m (1024 1024 and 4 4) sensor arrays and one with 6- ?m square (16 16) sensor arrays; and the microelectrodes were formed on them using electroless plating. The uniformity among the 1024 1024 electrodes arranged with a pitch of 3.6 ?m 4.45 ?m was optically verified. For improving sensitivity, the trenches on each microelectrode were developed and verified optically and electrochemically for the first time. Higher sensitivity can be achieved by introducing a trench structure than by using a conventional microelectrode formed by contact photolithography. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements obtained using the 1.2 ?m 2.05 ?m 4 4 and 6- ?m square 16 16 sensor array with electroless-plated microelectrodes successfully demonstrated direct counting of the bacteria-sized microbeads and HeLa cells. PMID:26561481

  16. Total Degradation of EDTA by Mixed Cultures and a Bacterial Isolate

    Nörtemann, Bernd

    1992-01-01

    A bacterial mixed culture, which was obtained from sewage by a special enrichment procedure, utilized EDTA as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen for growth. High concentrations of mineral salts, particularly CaCl2, or the use of a mineral base without nitrogen protected the cells from inactivation after transfer into fresh medium containing 200-mg/liter (0.67 mM) EDTA. The chemical speciation did not influence the biodegradability of EDTA. However, when resting cells of the mixed culture ...

  17. Leukocyte-subset counts in idiopathic parkinsonism provide clues to a pathogenic pathway involving small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. A surveillance study

    Dobbs R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following Helicobacter pylori eradication in idiopathic parkinsonism (IP, hypokinesia improved but flexor-rigidity increased. Small intestinal bacterial-overgrowth (SIBO is a candidate driver of the rigidity: hydrogen-breath-test-positivity is common in IP and case histories suggest that Helicobacter keeps SIBO at bay. Methods In a surveillance study, we explore relationships of IP-facets to peripheral immune/inflammatory-activation, in light of presence/absence of Helicobacter infection (urea-breath- and/or stool-antigen-test: positivity confirmed by gastric-biopsy and hydrogen-breath-test status for SIBO (positivity: >20 ppm increment, 2 consecutive 15-min readings, within 2h of 25G lactulose. We question whether any relationships found between facets and blood leukocyte subset counts stand in patients free from anti-parkinsonian drugs, and are robust enough to defy fluctuations in performance consequent on short t½ therapy. Results Of 51 IP-probands, 36 had current or past Helicobacter infection on entry, 25 having undergone successful eradication (median 3.4 years before. Thirty-four were hydrogen-breath-test-positive initially, 42 at sometime (343 tests during surveillance (2.8 years. Hydrogen-breath-test-positivity was associated inversely with Helicobacter-positivity (OR 0.20 (95% CI 0.04, 0.99, p In 38 patients (untreated (17 or on stable long-t½ IP-medication, the higher the natural-killer count, the shorter stride, slower gait and greater flexor-rigidity (by mean 49 (14, 85 mm, 54 (3, 104 mm.s-1, 89 (2, 177 Nm.10-3, per 100 cells.μl-1 increment, p=0.007, 0.04 & 0.04 respectively, adjusted for patient characteristics. T-helper count was inversely associated with flexor-rigidity before (p=0.01 and after adjustment for natural-killer count (-36(-63, -10 Nm.10-3 per 100 cells.μl-1, p=0.007. Neutrophil count was inversely associated with tremor (visual analogue scale, p=0.01. Effect-sizes were independent of IP-medication, and not masked by including 13 patients receiving levodopa (except natural-killer count on flexor-rigidity. Cellular associations held after allowing for potentially confounding effect of hydrogen-breath-test or Helicobacter status. Moreover, additional reduction in stride and speed (68 (24, 112 mm & 103 (38, 168 mm.s-1, each p=0.002 was seen with Helicobacter-positivity. Hydrogen-breath-test-positivity, itself, was associated with higher natural-killer and T-helper counts, lower neutrophils (p=0.005, 0.02 & 0.008. Conclusion We propose a rigidity-associated subordinate pathway, flagged by a higher natural-killer count, tempered by a higher T-helper, against which Helicobacter protects by keeping SIBO at bay.

  18. Influence of addition of different antibiotics in semen diluent on viable bacterial count and spermatozoal viability of Awassi ram semen

    O. I. Azawi; M A Ismaeel

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of six different antibiotics in controlling the growth of semen contaminating bacteria and if these antibiotics have any adverse effect on Awassi ram spermatozoa. Semen samples from six mature Awassi rams were used in this study. A total number of 120 ejaculates were collected from the rams using an artificial vagina once a week. Semen ejaculates were evaluated for volume, sperm concentration, mass motility, individual motility...

  19. Correction of counting rate drop at the end of blood pool ROI curves on the bases of the total visual field curve

    A correction method based on the constant total counting rate in the final diastolic phase is described. The method should be applied in cases without time standardisation. If Fourier techniques are used for curve smoothing and for the calculation of phase and amplitude images, also users who do not have list mode, hybrid mode or frame mode with direct correction will be able to apply the method of gated blood pool scanning. In fact, time correction at a later stage may even have some advantages. (orig.)

  20. The Effect Of 8 Day Storage At 4?C On Total Nucleated Cell Count, Cell Viability, And Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Forming Unit Of Mobilized Peripheral Blood

    Mohyeddin Bonab M

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC transplantation has brought the possibility of the use of high dose chemotherapy in the treatment of malignant hematopoietic diseases. Short-term HSC preservation at 4?C is the most common method for autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT. Materials and Methods: Thirty-seven mobilized PBSC samples from thirteen hematological patients (4 AML, 4 MM and 5 Lymphoma cases who were selected for autologous PBSCT and 24 normal candidates for allogenic PBSCT were preserved in five separate sterile 2 ml tubes in 4?C. Each sample was evaluated for total nucleated cell (TNC count, dye exclusion cell viability and Granulocyte-Macrophage colony forming unit (GM-CFU; in semisolid medium after 16 days in days 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8. The results were converted to percentages of day 0 measures. The data were analyzed by SPSS 10.0 using Paired Samples T test, Independent Samples T test and Regression. Results: The mean percentages (and standard deviations of TNC count, cell viability and GM-CFU for days 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 are shown below: No significant correlation was found between age, sex, weight and the kind of donor with TNC, viability and GM-CFU. Conclusion: In this study, we have found that during storage of mobilized PBSC in 4?C, TNC count and cell viability still remains higher than 70% after eight days, while GM-CFU decreases more rapidly and falls to less than 50% after day 4.Therefore, TNC count and cell viability do not decrease as fast as GM-CFU.

  1. Some hematological parameters and the prognostic values of CD4, CD8 and total lymphocyte counts and CD4/CD8 cell count ratio in healthy HIV sero-negative, healthy HIV sero-positive and AIDS subjects in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Blessing Didia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study attempts to determine normal values of CD4, CD8, CD4/CD8 ratio, total WBC and differential counts, hematocrit and total lymphocyte count (TLC in healthy HIV sero-negative and sero-positive subjects, and to assess the prognostic significance of these parameters in these subjects as compared to AIDS subjects.METHODS: A total of 300 subjects (147 M, 153 F aged between 17 and 71 years were recruited into the study. Subjects were separated according to sex and divided into three groups: Group A: healthy HIV sero-negative subjects; Group B: healthy HIV sero-positive newly diagnosed ART-nave subjects; and Group C: AIDS subjects. CD4 and CD8 counts were determined by flow cytometry; hematocrit was determined using Hawksley micro-capillary tubes; total WBC and differential counts were determined manually with the improved Neubauer counting chamber; and TLC was obtained by multiplying the percentage of lymphocytes by the total WBC count.RESULTS: For male subjects, significant differences were found in CD4 count, CD4/CD8 count ratio, hematocrit, total WBC and TLC, whereas for female subjects, significant differences were found only in CD4 and CD4/CD8 count ratio in the three groups of subjects. In both sexes, however, these parameters were found to be highest in healthy HIV sero-negative subjects and lowest in AIDS subjects, with HIV sero-positive subjects having intermediate values. CONCLUSION: The results confirm previous reports that the CD4 count and CD4/CD8 count ratio are fairly reliable indicators of the progression of HIV infection. In addition, the results also apparently suggest that the prognostic value of CD8 count is limited and that of TLC possibly sex-dependent. The results could be of importance in our environment since previous reports have been relatively scarce.

  2. Determination of Total Protein Content of Bacterial Cells by SYPRO Staining and Flow Cytometry

    Zubkov, Mikhail V.; Fuchs, Bernhard M.; Eilers, Heike; Burkill, Peter H.; Amann, Rudolf

    1999-01-01

    An assay has been developed for measuring protein biomass of marine planktonic bacteria by flow cytometry. The method was calibrated by using five species of Bacteria (an Arcobacter sp., a Cytophaga sp., an Oceanospirillum sp., a Pseudoalteromonas sp., and a Vibrio sp.) recently isolated from seawater samples and grown in culture at different temperatures. The intensity of SYPRO-protein fluorescence of these bacteria strongly correlated with their total protein content, measured by the bicinc...

  3. Design and development of novel insect growth regulators: synthesis, characterization and effect of benzoyl thymyl thioureas and ureas on total haemocyte count of Dysdercus koenigii.

    Zade, Chetan M; Pete, Umesh D; Patil, Smita S; Bhosale, Jitendra D; Hadole, Chakradhar D; Kadam, Meghraj S; Bendre, Ratnamala S

    2012-01-01

    Insect-growth regulators (IGRs) have been receiving foremost attention as potential means of selective insect control. Benzoyl phenyl urea (BPU) is a well-known IGR having chitin synthesis inhibitor activity. Mimics of BPU have been synthesized by suitable derivatization of a naturally occurring monoterpenoid, thymol (2-isopropyl-5-methyl phenol) to form a = series of substituted benzoyl thymyl thioureas (BTTUs) [IVa-f] and benzoyl thymyl ureas (BTUs) [Va-f]. The synthesized compounds have been characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR, LC-MS and elemental analysis. These derivatives have been screened for their effect on total haemocyte count of Dysdercus koenigii. It has been observed that the introduction of substituted benzoyl thiourea and urea linkage into a thymol ring via an amino group results in higher activity than the parent compound thymol and a comparable pattern of results with the standard insect-growth regulators, Penfluron. Urea [Va-f] compounds exhibited greater effect on Total Haemocyte Count (THC) than thiourea [IVa-f]. Fluoro substitution enhanced the effect on THC more than chloro substituted compounds, while ortho-substitution resulted in a better effect than para-substitution. The results described in this paper are promising and provide new array of synthetic chemicals that may be utilized as insect growth regulators. PMID:22251213

  4. Total alpha and beta determination by liquid scintillation counting in water samples from a Brazilian intercomparison exercise

    This paper describes CNEN/LAPOC's participation in the Brazilian Intercomparison Exercise (PNI) for simultaneous determination of total radioactivity in water samples, which took place in August and December 2008. The Proficiency Test (PT) also involved a short description of the nuclear analytical technique employed, emphasizing sources of uncertainty. A Liquid Scintillation System (Packard TRICARB 2700) was used with appropriate corrections applied to final results, expressed as Bq L-1. Participation and PT data provide independent information on performance of a Laboratory and have an important role in method validation; especially because it allows the assessment of method performance over an entire range of concentrations and matrices. PT is also an important tool to demonstrate equivalence of measurements, if not their metrological comparability, and to promote education and improvement of Lab practices. (author)

  5. Total neutron-counting plutonium inventory measurement systems (PIMS) and their potential application to near real time materials accountancy (NRTMA)

    A radiometric method of determining the inventory of an operating plutonium plant is described. An array of total neutron counters distributed across the plant is used to estimate hold-up at each plant item. Corrections for the sensitivity of detectors to plutonium in adjacent plant items are achieved through a matrix approach. This paper describes our experience in design, calibration and operation of a Plutonium Inventory Measurement System (PIMS) on an oxalate precipitation plutonium finishing line. Data from a recent trial of Near-Real-Time Materials Accounting (NRTMA) using the PIMS are presented and used to illustrate its present performance and problem areas. The reader is asked to consider what role PIMS might have in future accountancy systems

  6. Changes in the total leukocyte and platelet counts in Papuan and non Papuan adults from northeast Papua infected with acute Plasmodium vivax or uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    Tjitra Emiliana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are limited data on the evolution of the leukocyte and platelet counts in malaria patients. Methods In a clinical trial of chloroquine vs. chloroquine plus doxycycline vs. doxycycline alone against Plasmodium vivax (n = 64 or Plasmodium falciparum (n = 98 malaria, the total white cell (WCC and platelet (PLT counts were measured on Days 0, 3, 7 and 28 in 57 indigenous Papuans with life long malaria exposure and 105 non Papuan immigrants from other parts of Indonesia with limited malaria exposure. Results The mean Day 0 WCC (n = 152 was 6.492 (range 2.113.4 109/L and was significantly lower in the Papuans compared to the non Papuans: 5.77 109/L vs. 6.86 109/L, difference = -1.09 [(95% CI -0.42 to -1.79 109/L, P = 0.0018]. 14 (9.2% and 9 (5.9% patients had leukopaenia (9/L and leukocytosis (>10.0 109/L, respectively. By Day 28, the mean WCC increased significantly (P = 0.0003 from 6.37 to 7.47 109/L (73 paired values and was similar between the two groups. Ethnicity was the only WCC explanatory factor and only on Day 0. The mean Day 0 platelet count (n = 151 was 113.0 (range 8.0313.0 109/L and rose significantly to 186.308 109/L by Day 28 (P 9/L: 119/151 (78.81% vs. 16/73 (21.92%, P 9/L vs. falciparum (122.125 109/L patients. Conclusion Changes in leukocytes and platelets were consistent with other malaria studies. The Papuan non Papuan difference in the mean Day 0 WCC was small but might be related to the difference in malaria exposure.

  7. Model of sepsis (Caecal Ligation and Puncture in rats caused by mixed and pure bacterial cultures and changes in white blood cell counts

    Stojanović Dragica

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of leucocytes and immunocompetent cells, was investigated during a clinical form of sepsis in rats. The experiments were carried out on 104 male rats, Wistar strain, of body weight 190 to 240 g. The rats were divided into four groups: three with 28 animals and one control group with 20 animals. The animals were killed 12, 24, 72 or 120 hours after surgical intervention. This consisted of caecal ligation and puncture (CLP, with inoculation of mixed bacteria or pure cultures of Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus. They induced similar changes in the total leukocyte counts and percentages of different white blood cells. The significant leucopenia in the first half (early sepsis of the examined period preceded significant leukosis in the rats with sepsis in the second half of the experiment (late sepsis. Also there were significant alterations in the numbers of granulocytes and agranulocytes. Neutrophilia and lymphopenia dominated during the whole period.

  8. Determination of total Pu content in a Spent Fuel Assembly by Measuring Passive Neutron Count rate and Multiplication with the Differential Die-Away Instrument

    A key objective of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) is to evaluate and develop non-destructive assay (NDA) techniques to determine the elemental plutonium content in a commercial-grade nuclear spent fuel assembly (SFA) (1). Within this framework, we investigate by simulation a novel analytical approach based on combined information from passive measurement of the total neutron count rate of a SFA and its multiplication determined by the active interrogation using an instrument based on a Differential Die-Away technique (DDA). We use detailed MCNPX simulations across an extensive set of SFA characteristics to establish the approach and demonstrate its robustness. It is predicted that Pu content can be determined by the proposed method to a few %.

  9. Rapid staining and enumeration of small numbers of total bacteria in water by solid-phase laser cytometry

    Broadaway, Susan C.; Barton, Stephanie A.; Pyle, Barry H.

    2003-01-01

    The nucleic acid stain SYBR Green I was evaluated for use with solid-phase laser cytometry to obtain total bacterial cell counts from several water sources with small bacterial numbers. Results were obtained within 30 min and exceeded or equaled counts on R2A agar plates incubated for 14 days at room temperature.

  10. Evaluation of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate test in conjunction with a gram negative bacterial plate count for detecting irradiation of chicken

    A study to evaluate the potential of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) test in conjunction with a Gram negative bacterial (GNB) plate count for detecting the irradiation of chicken is described. Preliminary studies demonstrated that chickens irradiated at an absorbed dose of 2.5 kGy could be differentiated from unirradiated birds by measuring levels of endotoxin and of numbers of GNB on chicken skin. Irradiated birds were found to have endotoxin levels similar to those found in unirradiated birds but significantly lower numbers of GNB. In a limited study the test was found to be applicable to birds from different processors. The effect of temperature abuse on the microbiological profile, and thus the efficacy of the test, was also investigated. After temperature abuse, the irradiated birds were identifiable at worst up to 3 days after irradiation treatment at the 2.5 kGy level and at best some 13 days after irradiation. Temperature abuse at 150C resulted in rapid recovery of surviving micro-organisms which made differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds using this test unreliable. The microbiological quality of the bird prior to irradiation treatment also affected the test as large numbers of GNB present on the bird prior to irradiation treatment resulted in larger numbers of survivors. In addition, monitoring the developing flora after irradiation treatment amd during subsequent chilled storage also aided differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds. Large numbers of yeast and Gram positive cocci were isolated from irradiated carcasses whereas Gram negative oxidative rods were the predominant spoilage flora on unirradiated birds. (author)

  11. Influence of total rotation angle and arm positions on the reconstructed count distribution in cardiac SPECT studies performed without attenuation correction: simulations based on CT images

    Full text: In gated blood pool SPECT studies, the volume of the heart ventricles may be determined by a method based on counts. The present work was carried out to determine how the attenuation of photons modifies the reconstructed counts in different regions of a SPECT image of the heart, and how the calculated volumes are influenced by the total acquisition angle. Thoracic CT slices through the central part of the heart, obtained from three patients, were used to simulate the effects of attenuation on SPECT imaging of the heart. Each of three images were converted to arrays containing the linear attenuation coefficients (μ-maps) by the use of a look-up table. The table provided the linear attenuation coefficient (μ) of 140 KeV photons corresponding to a CT number (HU) entry. Based on these μ-maps, the attenuation along a path from any given point to an imaginary detector could be calculated for any direction of view. For each point in the image, the attenuation values for all actual directions of view were summed and averaged. Subsequently, an array of correction factors (chang coefficients, CC) was built. The specially designed computer program allowed us to add or removed the arms from the image before simulations. The angular SPECT acquisition interval simulated was either 360o or 180o, and the angular spacing was 1o. In the case of a 180o rotation, the acquisition spanned from the 45o RAO to the 45o LPO view. Regions of interest were drawn that covered the entire heart cross section, and the left and right ventricles, respectively. Mean values as well as standard deviations of the CC were calculated for each of there regions. The mean CC in the heart region was 10-20 % higher for a rotation of 360o than for a 180o rotation. As an average for the there patients, the ratio between the mean CC of the left and right ventricle regions, were 1.27 and 1.14 for the 180o and the 360o acquisitions, respectively. The presence of arms in the image lead to increase in both CC and their corresponding standard deviations. Unless a proper attenuation correction method is used, 360o orbit seems to be preferable over 180o for cardiac gated blood pool SPECT, at least when count based methods are applied. (author)

  12. Bioprospecting from Marine Sediments of New Brunswick, Canada: Exploring the Relationship between Total Bacterial Diversity and Actinobacteria Diversity

    Katherine Duncan; Bradley Haltli; Krista A. Gill; Kerr, Russell G.

    2014-01-01

    Actinomycetes are an important resource for the discovery of natural products with therapeutic properties. Bioprospecting for actinomycetes typically proceeds without a priori knowledge of the bacterial diversity present in sampled habitats. In this study, we endeavored to determine if overall bacterial diversity in marine sediments, as determined by 16S rDNA amplicon pyrosequencing, could be correlated with culturable actinomycete diversity, and thus serve as a powerful tool in guiding futu...

  13. Analysis of bacterial diversity during the fermentation of inyu, a high-temperature fermented soy sauce, using nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and the plate count method.

    Wei, Chia-Li; Chao, Shiou-Huei; Tsai, Wen-Bin; Lee, Pei-Shan; Tsau, Nai-Hung; Chen, Jhih-Shan; Lai, Wen-Lin; Tu, James Ching-Yueh; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2013-04-01

    The diversity of bacteria associated with the fermentation of inyu, also known as black soy sauce, was studied through the nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of samples collected from the fermentation stages of the inyu production process. The DGGE profiles targeted the bacterial 16S rDNA and revealed the presence of Citrobacter farmeri, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter hormaechei, Enterococcus faecium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pantoea agglomerans, Salmonella enterica, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus sciuri and Weissella confusa. The bacterial compositions of 4 fermented samples were further elucidated using the plate count method. The bacteria isolated from the koji-making stage exhibited the highest diversity; Brachybacterium rhamnosum, E. hormaechei, K. pneumoniae, Kurthia gibsonii, Pantoea dispersa, Staphylococcus gallinarum, Staphylococcus kloosii and S. sciuri were identified. Koji collected during the preincubation stage presented the largest cell counts, and E. hormaechei, K. pneumoniae, E. cloacae and Enterobacter pulveris were identified. In brine samples aged for 7 and 31 days, the majority of the bacteria isolated belonged to 4 Bacillus species, but 4 Staphylococcus species and Delftia tsuruhatensis were also detected. This study demonstrates the benefits of using a combined approach to obtain a more complete picture of microbial populations and provides useful information for the control or development of bacterial flora during inyu fermentation. PMID:23200659

  14. Bioprospecting from Marine Sediments of New Brunswick, Canada: Exploring the Relationship between Total Bacterial Diversity and Actinobacteria Diversity

    Katherine Duncan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycetes are an important resource for the discovery of natural products with therapeutic properties. Bioprospecting for actinomycetes typically proceeds without a priori knowledge of the bacterial diversity present in sampled habitats. In this study, we endeavored to determine if overall bacterial diversity in marine sediments, as determined by 16S rDNA amplicon pyrosequencing, could be correlated with culturable actinomycete diversity, and thus serve as a powerful tool in guiding future bioprospecting efforts. Overall bacterial diversity was investigated in eight marine sediments from four sites in New Brunswick, Canada, resulting in over 44,000 high quality sequences (x̄ = 5610 per sample. Analysis revealed all sites exhibited significant diversity (H’ = 5.4 to 6.7. Furthermore, statistical analysis of species level bacterial communities (D = 0.03 indicated community composition varied according to site and was strongly influenced by sediment physiochemical composition. In contrast, cultured actinomycetes (n = 466, 98.3% Streptomyces were ubiquitously distributed among all sites and distribution was not influenced by sediment composition, suggesting that the biogeography of culturable actinomycetes does not correlate with overall bacterial diversity in the samples examined. These actinomycetes provide a resource for future secondary metabolite discovery, as exemplified by the antimicrobial activity observed from preliminary investigation.

  15. Bacterial Community Structure in Tree Hole Habitats of Ochlerotatus Triseriatus: Influences of Larval Feeding

    Xu, Y.; Chen, S.; Kaufman, M. G.; Maknojia, S.; Bagdasarian, M; WALKER, E. D.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the bacterial community composition of tree holes in relation to the presence and absence of larvae of the mosquito Ochlerotatus triseriatus. Larvae were eliminated from a subset of natural tree holes with Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis, and total bacterial numbers, slow- and fast-growing colony-forming units on minimal media, and 16S rRNA gene sequence data from water column and leaf material were obtained. Total bacterial counts did not change significantly with ...

  16. Seal Counts

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Database of seal counts from aerial photography. Counts by image, site, species, and date are stored in the database along with information on entanglements and...

  17. Effects of Ensiling Total Mixed Potato Hash Ration with or without Bacterial Inoculation on Silage Fermentation and Nutritive Value for Growing Pigs

    R. Thomas; Kanengoni, A. T.; B.D. Nkosi

    2011-01-01

    Total Mixed Rations (TMR) that contained 795 g kg-1 (as is basis) of Potato Hash (PH) were formulated and ensiled in 210 L drums (10 drums treatment-1) with or without lalsil fresh (heterofermentative lactic acid bacterial inoculant). After 3 months of ensiling, drums were opened and analysed for fermentation characteristics and nutritive value. This was followed by an 8 weeks growth study using forty crossbred pigs (Large white X landrace), twenty males and twenty females weighing 203 kg. In...

  18. Comparison of the TEMPO System, Petrifilm , and Cultural MPN Procedure for Enumeration of E. coli, Coliforms and Total Aerobic Plate Counts

    Introduction: Recent innovations in microbiological methods for analysis of food products have been in methods for detection of bacterial pathogens. Petrifilm dehydrated plates are the only significant addition to cultural procedures for indicator organisms in the last 20 years. An automated most...

  19. Leukocyte-subset counts in idiopathic parkinsonism provide clues to a pathogenic pathway involving small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. A surveillance study

    Dobbs R; Charlett André; Dobbs Sylvia M; Weller Clive; A Ibrahim Mohammad A; Iguodala Owens; Smee Cori; Plant J; Lawson Andrew J; Taylor David; Bjarnason Ingvar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Following Helicobacter pylori eradication in idiopathic parkinsonism (IP), hypokinesia improved but flexor-rigidity increased. Small intestinal bacterial-overgrowth (SIBO) is a candidate driver of the rigidity: hydrogen-breath-test-positivity is common in IP and case histories suggest that Helicobacter keeps SIBO at bay. Methods In a surveillance study, we explore relationships of IP-facets to peripheral immune/inflammatory-activation, in light of presence/absence of Helic...

  20. Flow Cytometry Analysis Using Sysmex UF-1000i Classifies Uropathogens Based on Bacterial, Leukocyte, and Erythrocyte Counts in Urine Specimens among Patients with Urinary Tract Infections

    Monsen, Tor; Rydn, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the second most common bacterial infection. Urine culture is the gold standard for diagnosis, but new techniques, such as flow cytometry analysis (FCA), have been introduced. The aim of the present study was to evaluate FCA characteristics regarding bacteriuria, leukocyturia, and erythrocyturia in relation to cultured uropathogens in specimens from patients with a suspected UTI. We also wanted to evaluate whether the FCA characteristics can identify uropath...

  1. Variations in total and differential milk somatic cell counts and plasmin levels and their role in proteolysis and quality of milk and cheese

    Kelly, Alan L.

    1995-01-01

    Increased plasmin and plasminogen levels and elevated somatic cell counts (SCC) and polymorphonuclear leucocyte levels (PMN) were evident in late lactation milk. Compositional changes in these milks were associated with increased SCC. The quality of late lactation milks was related to nutritional status of herds, with milks from herds on a high plane of nutrition having composition and clotting properties similar to, or superior to, early-mid lactation milks. Nutritionally-deficient cows had ...

  2. Counting cormorants

    Bregnballe, Thomas; Carss, David N; Lorentsen, Svein-Hkon; Newson, Stuart; Pasquet, Jean-Yves; Parz-Gollner, Rosemarie; Volponi, Stefano

    This chapter focuses on Cormorant population counts for both summer (i.e. breeding) and winter (i.e. migration, winter roosts) seasons. It also explains differences in the data collected from undertaking day versus roost counts, gives some definitions of the term numbers, and presents two...

  3. Counting on Using a Number Game

    Betts, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Counting all and counting on are distinct counting strategies that can be used to compute such quantities as the total number of objects in two sets (Wright, Martland, and Stafford 2010). Given five objects and three more objects, for example, children who use counting all to determine quantity will count both collections; that is, they count…

  4. Determination of Pu content in a Spent Fuel Assembly by Measuring Passive Total Neutron count rate and Multiplication with the Differential Die-Away Instrument

    Inspired by approach of Bignan and Martin-Didier (ESARDA 1991) we introduce novel (instrument independent) approach based on multiplication and passive neutron. Based on simulations of SFL-1 the accuracy of determination of totPu content with new approach is ∼1.3-1.5%. Method applicable for DDA instrument, since it can measure both multiplication and passive neutron count rate. Comparison of pro's and con's of measuring/determining of 239Pueff and totPu suggests a potential for enhanced diversion detection sensitivity.

  5. Total volatile fatty acids and bacterial production rates as affected by rations containing untreated or ammonia (urea) treated rice straw in croos-bred cattle

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding ammoniated rice straw on ruminal total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) and bacterial production rates. Twelve karan swiss, male, rumen fistulated calves (2-2.5 yrs) were divided in three equal groups. Animals were offered rice straw either untreated (A) or 4 per cent urea+40 per cent moisture treated and ensiled for 30 days (B) or 5 per cent urea+30 per cent moisture treated and ensiled for 30 days (C). Protein requirements were met through concentrate mixture. Levels of NH3-N and TCA-precipitable-N in strained rumen liquor (SRL) were significantly higher (20.34±0.022, 63.26±0.81 (B), 20.78±0.41, 64.98±0.87 (C) (mg/100 ml SRL) in groups fed ammoniated ±0.31, 45.94±1.91 mg/100 ml S RL), respectively. The bacterial production rates in the rumen (g/day) were significantly higher in groups B and C as compared to group A. TVFA concentrations (mmole/100 ml SRL ) and TVFA production rates (mmole/d) were also significantly higher in groups B and C as compared to group A. The bacterial production rates were significantly co-related with TVFA, NH3-N, TCA precipitable-N concentration in the rumen and ATP production. Multiple regression equations relating bacterial production rates with (i)NH3-N and TVFA concentration in the rumen, (ii)NH3-N and TVFA production rates and (iii)NH3-N and ATP produced were also developed. (author). 18 refs., 2 tabs

  6. Assessment of the efficiency of SimPlate™ total plate count color indicator (TPC CI to quantify mesophilic aerobic microorganisms in pasteurized milk Avaliação da eficiência do SimPlate™ Total Plate Count Color Indicator (TPC CI para enumeração de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos em leite pasteurizado

    Luís Augusto Nero

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The SimPlate™ TPC CI system is a rapid method to count mesophilic aerobic microorganisms (MAM in foods, based on the use of resazurine to indicate bacterial growth. Its efficiency in pasteurized milk was evaluated using 142 pasteurized milk samples (38 type A, 43 type B and 61 type C collected in Londrina, PR. The standard plating method, using Plate Count Agar (PCA was used for comparison. The plates of both systems were incubated at 35ºC and read after 24h and 48h. The occurrence of false-positive and false-negative wells and the predominant microorganisms in them were also evaluated. The results were compared by simple correlation and mean variance analyses. The correlation (r and mean variance values were 0.6811 and 0.7583 for the results obtained after 24h, respectively, and 0.9126 and 0.0842 for the results obtained after 48h, respectively. These results indicate that the performance of the system increases when the plates are incubated for 48h. When the three types of milk were evaluated separately, these values were 0.9285 and 0.0817 for type A milk, 0.9231 and 0.0466 for type B milk and 0.7209 and 0.1082 for type C milk. These results indicate that the better the quality of the milk the better the performance of SimPlate™ TPC CI. False-negative wells, found more frequently in samples with high MAM counts, were caused by Gram positive microorganisms, poorly detected by the SimPlate™ TPC CI system because they grew slowly and had low reduction capacity. The results indicated a higher efficiency of the SimPlate™ TPC CI system in the reading at 48h.O sistema SimPlate™ TPC CI é um método rápido para enumeração de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos (MAM em alimentos que utiliza a resazurina como substância indicadora de crescimento bacteriano. Para avaliar sua eficiência em leite pasteurizado, 142 amostras (38 de leite tipo A, 43 de leite tipo B e 61 de leite tipo C foram colhidas em Londrina, PR, e analisadas pelo SimPlate™ TPC CI e pelo método de contagem em placas com ágar padrão de contagem (PCA. As placas de ambos os sistemas foram incubadas a 35ºC e as leituras realizadas em 24 e 48h. Também foi verificada a presença de resultados falso-positivos e falso-negativos bem como a microbiota láctea predominante nas cavidades do SimPlate™ TPC CI e a capacidade redutora dos diversos grupos de microrganismos. Os resultados foram comparados através de correlação simples e variância média. Considerando a leitura em 24h do SimPlate™ TPC CI, os resultados obtidos apresentaram uma correlação (r de 0,6811 (var. média: 0,7583 com os resultados do método padrão; na leitura em 48h, a correlação encontrada entre os dois métodos foi de 0,9126 (var. média: 0,0842. Considerando os diferentes tipos de leite, as leituras em 48h do SimPlate™ TPC CI apresentaram as seguintes correlações com o método padrão: leite tipo A, r: 0,9285 (var. média: 0,0817; leite tipo B, r: 0,9231 (var. média: 0,0466; leite C, r: 0,7209 (var. média: 0,1082. Nas amostras com altas contagens de MAM, verificou-se uma maior freqüência de cavidades falso-negativas e uma grande participação de microrganismos Gram positivos, que são pobremente detectados pelo sistema SimPlate™ TPC CI por crescerem lentamente e possuírem baixa capacidade redutora. Os resultados indicaram um melhor eficiência do sistema SimPlate™ TPC CI na leitura em 48h, além da influência direta da qualidade do leite analisado, ou seja, quanto melhor a qualidade microbiológica do leite, melhor o desempenho do sistema. A alta correlação entre os métodos indica que o SimPlate™ TPC CI pode ser utilizado como uma alternativa viável ao método padrão de contagem de MAM em leite pasteurizado tipos A e B, desde que a leitura seja realizada em 48h.

  7. Multiplicity Counting

    Geist, William H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  8. Neutrino counting

    By counting the massless neutrinos which exist in Nature the number of massive sequential leptons ('asthenons') are also counted. A laboratory experiment based on the chain of reactions e+e-?V'?V????anti-? can count the number of neutrinos. V' is the first excited state of the quark-antiquark bound system. When qanti-q ground state V decays weakly into ?anti-?, the only detected particles in the final state are the two pions recoiling against the missing mass corresponding to the V

  9. Socioeconomic and technical assistance factors related to total bacteria count and somatic cell count of milk from bulk tanks in southern Minas Gerais State, Brazil / Fatores socioeconmicos e de assistncia tcnica relacionados a contagem bacteriana total e clulas somticas do leite de tanques no sul do estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Marcel Gomes, Paixo; Guilherme Nunes de, Souza; Marcos Aurlio, Lopes; Geraldo Mrcio da, Costa; Luiz Ronaldo de, Abreu; Sandra Maria, Pinto.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o perfil socioeconmico e de assistncia tcnica de produtores de leite provenientes de seis cidades no sul do estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, e identificar os possveis fatores de risco associados com a contagem bacteriana total (CBT) do leite acima de 43.000 U [...] FC mL-1 e contagem de clulas somticas do leite do tanque (CCST) acima 595.000 clulas mL-1. A maioria dos produtores possua entre 41 e 60 anos de idade (48,9%), 74,2% no alcanaram o ensino mdio e, 72,3% dos entrevistados estavam satisfeitos com a sua profisso, embora 63% no recomendaria a pecuria leiteira para os seus filhos. Apenas 34,7% utilizaram assistncia tcnica periodicamente, mas 59,1% a consultava em caso de dvidas. Os fatores de risco encontrados nos modelos finais de regresso multivariada foram: CBT (No consulta a assistncia tcnica em caso de dvidas, OR 3,97 e P=0,030; Aposentadoria, OR 9,32 e P=0,041) e CCST (Produtor no reside na fazenda, OR 4,06 e P=0,046; Presena de assistncia tcnica OR 3,29 e P=0,041). Pode-se concluir que a busca por assistncia tcnica de forma emergencial, conforme relatado pelos agricultores, foi eficaz contra os problemas de CBT; no entanto, ineficaz para o controle de mastite no rebanho e na reduo dos nveis de CCST. O programa de controle de mastite de 10 pontos do National Mastitis Council precisa ser includo nas fazendas pesquisadas, especialmente em relao assessoria tcnica permanente por veterinrios, visando o estabelecimento de metas para o status de sade do bere, revises e registros. Abstract in english The purpose of this survey was to evaluate the socioeconomic and technical assistance profiles of dairy farmers from six districts in the south of Minas Gerais state, Brazil, and to identify the possible risk factors associated with total milk bacteria count (TBC) above 43,000 CFU mL-1 and bulk milk [...] somatic cell count (BMSCC) above 595,000 cells mL-1. Most of the producers were between 41 and 60 years of age (48.9%), 74.2% did not reach high school, and 72.3% of the respondents were satisfied with their profession, although 63% would not recommend dairy farming to their children. Only 34.7% used periodic technical assistance, but 59.1% consulted it in cases of doubt. The risk factors found in the final multivariable regression models were: TBC (Did not consult technical assistance in case of doubt, OR 3.97, P=0.030; Retirement, OR 9.32, P=0.041) and BMSCC (Producer does not reside on farm, OR 4.06, P=0.046; Presence of technical assistance OR 3.29, P=0.041). It can be concluded that the search for emergency technical assistance, as reported by farmers, was effective against the TBC problems; however, it was ineffective for controlling mastitis in the herd and reducing BMSCC levels. The 10 step mastitis control program from the National Mastitis Council needs to be included on the surveyed farms, especially the permanent advisory technical assistance from veterinarians, aiming towards the establishment of goals for udder health status, reviews and records.

  10. Counting carbohydrates

    Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet ... Many foods contain carbohydrates (carbs), including: Fruit and fruit juice Cereal, bread, pasta, and rice Milk, soy milk, yogurt, and ice cream Beans, ...

  11. Effects of Ensiling Total Mixed Potato Hash Ration with or without Bacterial Inoculation on Silage Fermentation and Nutritive Value for Growing Pigs

    R. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Total Mixed Rations (TMR that contained 795 g kg-1 (as is basis of Potato Hash (PH were formulated and ensiled in 210 L drums (10 drums treatment-1 with or without lalsil fresh (heterofermentative lactic acid bacterial inoculant. After 3 months of ensiling, drums were opened and analysed for fermentation characteristics and nutritive value. This was followed by an 8 weeks growth study using forty crossbred pigs (Large white X landrace, twenty males and twenty females weighing 203 kg. Inoculating the TMR with lalsil fresh reduced (p-1 which could be attributed to the lower dietary protein (-1 DM and higher fibre contents. Further research is needed to evaluate effects of enzyme addition on the ensiling of potato hash and supplementation of energy and protein on feed intake and growth performance of pigs consuming the silage.

  12. Use of a total traffic count metric to investigate the impact of roadways on asthma severity: a case-control study

    deVos Annemarie JBM

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study had two principal objectives: (i to investigate the relationship between asthma severity and proximity to major roadways in Perth, Western Australia; (ii to demonstrate a more accurate method of exposure assessment for traffic pollutants using an innovative GIS-based measure that fully integrates all traffic densities around subject residences. Methods We conducted a spatial case-control study, in which 'cases' were defined as individuals aged under 19 years of age with more severe asthma (defined here as two or more emergency department contacts with asthma in a defined 5-year period versus age- and gender-matched 'controls' with less severe asthma (defined here as one emergency department contact for asthma. Traffic exposures were measured using a GIS-based approach to determine the lengths of the roads falling within a buffer area, and then multiplying them by their respective traffic counts. Results We examined the spatial relationship between emergency department contacts for asthma at three different buffer sizes: 50 metres, 100 metres and 150 metres. No effect was noted for the 50 metre buffer (OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 0.91-1.26, but elevated odds ratios were observed with for crude (unadjusted estimates OR = 1.21 (95% CI: 1.00-1.46 for 100 metre buffers and OR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.02-1.54 for 150 metre buffers. For adjusted risk estimates, only the 150 metre buffer yielded a statistically significant finding (OR = 1.24; 95% CI:1.00-1.52. Conclusions Our study revealed a significant 24% increase in the risk of experiencing multiple emergency department contacts for asthma for every log-unit of traffic exposure. This study provides support for the hypothesis that traffic related air pollution increases the frequency of health service contacts for asthma. This study used advanced GIS techniques to establish traffic-weighted buffer zones around the geocoded residential location of subjects to provide an accurate assessment of exposure to traffic emissions, thereby providing a quantification of the ranges over which pollutants may exert a health effect.

  13. Bacterial Contamination of Iranian Paper Currency

    Mir-Hassan Moosavy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transmission of human pathogens can be occurred via inert objects. Paper currency is a further common contact surface whereby pathogens can be transferred within a population although the significance remains unknown. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate microbial populations associated with Iranian paper currency.Methods: This study was carried out by getting 108 samples of the Iranian currency notes (1000, 2000, 5000, 10000, 20000 and 50000 RIALS from food-related shops that included food service outlets, greengrocery, supermarket, bakery, confectionary and poultry meat retail outlets. All currency notes were examined for total bacterial count and identification of pathogenic bacteria.Results: The average total bacterial count that was recovered from currency notes was found to be 3.27±0.31 colony forming unites. 2000R had the highest total bacterial count, followed by 5000R, 10000R and the lowest in 50000R. In this study, the isolated bacteria recovered were Bacillus cereus (8.33%, E. coli (48.14%, Staphylococcus aureus (28.7%, Salmonella (0.92%, Listeria monocytogenes (0.92%, Yersinia entrocolitica (6.48%. It was revealed that all the pathogens screened for where encountered on currency notes were recovered from one sample. There were no significant (P>0.05 correlations between the carriage of pathogens/fecal indicator bacteria and currency note condition.Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that Iranian currency notes represent a significant vehicle for human pathogens.

  14. Counting domino trains

    Oller-Marcen, Antonio M

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a way to count the number of trains that we can construct with a given set of domino pieces. As an application we obtain a new method to compute the total number of eulerian paths in an undirected graph as well as their starting and ending vertices.

  15. Short communication: Environmental mastitis pathogen counts in freestalls bedded with composted and fresh recycled manure solids.

    Cole, K J; Hogan, J S

    2016-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare bacterial counts of environmental mastitis pathogens in composted recycled manure solids bedding with those in fresh recycled manure solids. Eighteen Holstein cows were housed in 1 pen with 18 stalls. One row of 9 freestalls included mattresses and was bedded weekly with composted recycled manure solids. The second row of 9 freestalls included mattresses and was bedded weekly with fresh recycled manure solids. The back one-third of stalls toward the alleyway was covered in 25 to 50mm of bedding. Samples were taken from the back one-third of 4 stalls for both treatments on d 0, 1, 2, and 6 of each week. After 3wk, bedding treatments were switched between rows, making the total duration 6wk. Mean total gram-negative bacterial counts were approximately 0.5 log10 cfu/g of dry matter lower in the composted recycled manure solids on d 0 compared with fresh recycled manure solids. Klebsiella species, coliform, and Streptococcus species counts were at least 1.0 log10 cfu/g of dry matter lower in composted compared with fresh recycled manure solids on d 0. Only gram-negative bacterial counts on d 1 were reduced in composted recycled manure solids compared with fresh recycled manure solids. Differences were not observed between treatments in gram-negative bacterial, coliform, Klebsiella species, or Streptococcus species counts on d 2 and 6. Ash content was higher in composted recycled manure solids compared with fresh recycled manure solids on d 0, 1, 2, and 6. Despite the increase in ash after composting, bacterial counts of mastitis pathogens in composted recycled manure solids were comparable with those in fresh recycled manure when used as freestall bedding. PMID:26709164

  16. Volatile and biogenic amines, microbiological counts, and bacterial amino acid decarboxylase activity throughout the salt-ripening process of anchovies (Engraulis encrasicholus).

    Pons-Sánchez-Cascado, S; Veciana-Nogués, M T; Bover-Cid, S; Mariné-Font, A; Vidal-Carou, M C

    2005-08-01

    Chemical and microbiological parameters were studied during the industrial production of salt-ripened anchovies (Engraulis encrasicholus). Gradual acidification and increases in the proteolysis index and in total volatile basic nitrogen were observed. At the end of the maturing process, the values reached pH 5.55 +/- 0.03, 21.33 +/- 5.82%, and 44.06 +/- 12.47 mg/ 100 g, respectively. In the three studied anchovy batches, the biogenic amines tyramine, histamine, putrescine, cadaverine, and agmatine increased during ripening. The highest values were found in the batch where initial microbial load was highest (batch 1), especially for enterobacteria and enterococci. Tyramine was the most abundant amine, reaching values from nondetectable to 90 mg/kg, whereas histamine did not surpass 20 mg/kg. Among the microorganisms isolated, Enterobacter cloacae, Aerococcus viridans, Kocuria varians, and Staphylococcus chromogenes were able to decarboxylate amino acids and produce biogenic amines in vitro. Most (70.59%) of the microorganisms identified were able to produce histamine, 23.53% were able to produce the diamines putrescine and cadaverine, and only 11.76% were able to produce tyramine, although this substance was the major biogenic amine found in anchovy samples. PMID:21132979

  17. Counting exotics

    Qinfeng Guo

    2011-01-01

    An introduced or exotic species is commonly defined as an organism accidentally or intentionally introduced to a new location by human activity (Williamson 1996; Richardson et al. 2000; Guo and Ricklefs 2010). However, the counting of exotics is often inconsistent. For example, in the US, previously published plant richness data for each state are only those either native or exotic to the US (USDA and NRCS 2004), not actually to the state. Yet, within-country (e.g., among states, counties) sp...

  18. Profile counting

    In ''profile counting'', a counter is moved progressively along the whole length of the body, and is so collimated that, at each position, it records the radioisotope content of the whole width of the body, but of only a short section of its length. If the counting rate at each position is plotted against the distance of the counter from the vertex of the head, the ''profile'' so obtained gives a rapid and quantitative measure of the radioisotope distribution throughout the body. When a suitable isotope is selectively concentrated in certain organs or tissues of the body, the profile will show peaks indicative of the sites and extent of such concentration, the organs concerned being identified by two-dimensional mapping, and profile counts continued to follow the turnover or changes of concentration in these organs. This technique has been used in the study of I131 concentration and metabolism in thyroid carcinomata, and its value in the management of the radioiodine treatment of such tumours will be discussed. It has also been used in examining the distribution of labelled thyroxine and triiodothyronine after intravenous administration, and of yttrium-90 oxide particles after intrapulmonary artery injection; and of other isotopes by gamma radiation or bremsstrahlung. The method gives a clinically convenient simplification of whole body mapping which lends itself particularly to the quantitative comparison of isotope distribution at different intervals after a radioisotope dose, or after successive doses. (author)

  19. White blood cell count - series (image)

    The White Blood Cell (WBC) Count measures two components: the total number of WBC's (leukocytes), and the differential count. ... and basophils) and non-granulocytes (lymphocytes and monocytes). White blood cells are a major component of the ...

  20. Comparative microbial sampling from eutrophic caves in Slovenia and Slovakia using RIDA®COUNT test kits

    Mulec Janez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available RIDA®COUNT test plates were used as an easy-to-handle and rapid indicator of microbial counts in karst ecosystems of several caves in Slovakia and Slovenia. All of the caves had a high organic input from water streams, tourists, roosting bat colonies or terrestrial surroundings. We sampled swabs, water and air samples to test robustness and universality of the RIDA®COUNT test kit (R-Biopharm AG, Germany, http://www.r-biopharm.com/ for quantification of total bacteria, coliforms, yeast and mold. Using data from swabs (colony-forming units CFU per cm2 we proposed a scale for description of biocontamination level or superficial microbial load of cave niches. Based on this scale, surfaces of Ardovská Cave, Drienovská Cave and Stará Brzotínská Cave (Slovakia were moderately colonized by microbes, with total microbial counts (sum of total bacterial count and total yeast and molds count in the range of 1,001-10,000 CFU/100 cm2, while some surfaces from the show cave Postojna Cave (Slovenia can be considered highly colonized by microbes (total microbial counts ≥ 10,001 CFU/100 cm2. Ardovská Cave also had a high concentration of airborne microbes, which can be explained by restricted air circulation and regular bat activity. The ratio of coliform to total counts of bacteria in the 9 km of underground Pivka River flow in Postojna Cave dropped approximately 4-fold from the entrance, indicating the high anthropogenic pollution in the most exposed site in the show cave. The RIDA®COUNT test kit was proven to be applicable for regular monitoring of eutrophication and human influence in eutrophic karst caves.

  1. Diversity of the total bacterial community associated with Ghanaian and Brazilian cocoa bean fermentation samples as revealed by a 16 S rRNA gene clone library.

    Garcia-Armisen, Tamara; Papalexandratou, Zoi; Hendryckx, Hugo; Camu, Nicholas; Vrancken, Gino; De Vuyst, Luc; Cornelis, Pierre

    2010-08-01

    Cocoa bean fermentation is a spontaneous process involving a succession of microbial activities, starting with yeasts, followed by lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. So far, all microbiological studies about cocoa bean fermentation were based on culture-dependent (isolation, cultivation, and identification), or, more recently, culture-independent (PCR-DGGE, or polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) methods. Using a metagenomic approach, total DNA was extracted from heap and box fermentations at different time points and from different locations (Ghana and Brazil, respectively) to generate a 16 S rDNA clone library that was sequenced. The sequencing data revealed a low bacterial diversity in the fermentation samples and were in accordance with the results obtained through culture-dependent and a second, culture-independent analysis (PCR-DGGE), suggesting that almost all bacteria involved in the fermentation process are cultivable. One exception was the identification by 16 S rDNA library sequencing of Gluconacetobacter species of acetic acid bacteria that were not detected by the two other approaches. The presence of Enterobacteriaceae related to Erwinia/Pantoea/Tatumella, as revealed by 16 S rDNA library sequencing, suggests an impact of these bacteria on fermentation. PMID:20559826

  2. Bacterial populations in complementary foods and drinking-water in households with children aged 10-15 months in Zanzibar, Tanzania.

    Kung'u, Jacqueline K; Boor, Kathryn J; Ame, Shaali M; Ali, Nadra S; Jackson, Anna E; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2009-02-01

    Bacteria were quantified in samples of drinking-water and in two porridges prepared for infant-feeding [fortified instant soy-rice porridge (SRP) and cooked porridge (Lishe bora, LB)] in 54 households. Bacterial numbers were measured again after the porridges had been held at room temperature for four hours (T4). Findings were benchmarked against bacterial numbers in traditional complementary foods sampled from 120 households. Total bacteria, coliform, and Enterobacteriaceae counts were enumerated using Petrifilm. The mean log bacterial numbers were the lowest for LB at TO (2.24 +/- 0.84 cfu/g aerobic counts) and the highest for SRP at T4 (4.63 +/- 0.56 cfu/g aerobic counts). The total bacteria, coliform and Enterobacteriaceae counts were higher at T4 than at T0 for LB (p foods, and SRP4 all had the mean aerobic counts higher than the acceptable cut-off but the total bacterial count in SRP0 was not significantly (p=0.543) different from drinking-water. However, coliform and Enterobacteriaceae counts in SRPO were higher than in drinking-water (p0.999) different from traditional foods, the coliform and Enterobacteriaceae counts were significantly higher in SRP4 than in traditional foods (pfood safety concerns be addressed when improving complementary foods. PMID:19248647

  3. Bacterial incorporation of tritiated thymidine and populations of bacteriophagous fauna in the rhizosphere of wheat

    Christensen, Henrik; Griffiths, Bryan; Christensen, Søren

    1992-01-01

    3HTdr incorporation was lower than in bulk or unplanted soils and showed high variability. The populations of bacterial-feeding protozoa and nematodes indicated that rhizosphere bacterial activity was actually 3–4 times greater in rhizosphere than bulk soil in accordance with the results of the......Bacterial and microfaunal populations, and bacterial productivity measured by tritiated thymidine (3HTdr) incorporation, in the rhizosphere of wheat seedlings were measured. Soil from planted pots was fractionated into rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere (bulk) soil, while unplanted soil was taken from...... pots without plants. Total bacterial counts and biovolume did not differ between fractions but viable (plate) counts were 8 times higher in the rhizosphere compared to bulk and unplanted soil. 3HTdr was incorporated at a constant rate with low variability in bulk or unplanted soil. In rhizosphere soil...

  4. Uso de aditivos promotores de crescimento sobre o desempenho, caractersticas de carcaa e bactrias totais do intestino de frangos de corte Use of growth promoters additives on performance, carcass yield and total intestinalbacteria counts in broiler

    der Clementino dos Santos

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de aditivos promotores de crescimento em substituio ao antibitico sobre o desempenho, caractersticas de carcaa (partes e gordura abdominal e bactrias totais do intestino delgado e cecos de frangos de corte de 1 a 42 dias de idade, criados em cama reutilizada e alimentados com raes base de milho modo e farelo de soja. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com um arranjo fatorial 7 x 2, correspondendo a 7 fontes de aditivos (antibitico, basal, mananoligossacardeo (MOS, frutoligossacardeo (FOS, cido fumrico, cogumelo desidratado e probitico e dois sexos (macho e fmea. Foram utilizados um total de 1680 pintos, sexados, da linhagem Hybro, distribudos em 14 tratamentos com 04 repeties e 30 aves por parcela experimental. Foi observado efeito significativo (PThe objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of growth promoters additives on performance, carcass yield (parts and abdominal fat, total intestinal bacteria counts in broilers from 1 at 42 days old fed with corn and soybean meal based diets, compared to antibiotics supplementation diets. In this study were urilized a 7 x 2 factorial design, with seven differents additives (antibiotic, basal, MOS, FOS, fumaric acid, mutshroom extract and probiotic and two sex (males and females. A total of1680 sexed broilers chickens from Hybro line were distributed in 14 treatments, with 4 replicates and 30 chickens per experimental unit. Effects of growth promotant additives on feed intake , feed conversion and production efficiency factor were measured. Male chickens shown better performance results than females in all parameters evaluated, except for viability. Additives shown positive effects on carcars yield, parts yield, and abdominal fat. Male chickens were heavier at slaughter and shown higher leg yields than females. Additives also influenced total bacteria counts in duodenum and caecum altering the microbiota of the intestinal chickens. These changes in intestinal microbiota might have contributed for a higher stability and better survival of good microorganisms in the intestinal ecosystem, resulting in benefits for the host. The results of this study shown that the use the addictive as a growth promoters should be used in the feeding for broilers chickens, in substitution to the antibiotic, without affecting the performance and carcass yield , in the period from 1 to 42 days of age.

  5. Monitoring of bacterial community in a coniferous forest soil after a wildfire.

    Kim, Ok-Sun; Yoo, Jae-Jun; Lee, Dong-Hun; Ahn, Tae-Seok; Song, Hong-Gyu

    2004-12-01

    Changes in the soil bacterial community of a coniferous forest were analyzed to assess microbial responses to wildfire. Soil samples were collected from three different depths in lightly and severely burned areas, as well as a nearby unburned control area. Direct bacterial counts ranged from 3.3-22.6 x 10(8) cells/(g.soil). In surface soil, direct bacterial counts of unburned soil exhibited a great degree of fluctuation. Those in lightly burned soil changed less, but no significant variation was observed in the severely burned soil. The fluctuations of direct bacterial count were less in the middle and deep soil layers. The structure of the bacterial community was analyzed via the fluorescent in situ hybridization method. The number of bacteria detected with the eubacteria-targeted probe out of the direct bacterial count varied from 30.3 to 84.7%, and these ratios were generally higher in the burned soils than in the unburned control soils. In the surface unburned soil, the ratios of alpha-, beta- and gamma-proteobacteria, Cytophaga-Flavobacterium group, and other eubacteria groups to total eubacteria were 9.9, 10.6, 15.5, 9.0, and 55.0%, respectively, and these ratios were relatively stable. The ratios of alpha-, beta- and gamma-proteobacteria, and Cytophaga-Flavobacterium group to total eubacteria increased immediately after the wildfire, and the other eubacterial proportions decreased in the surface and middle layer soils. By way of contrast, the composition of the 5 groups of eubacteria in the subsurface soil exhibited no significant fluctuations during the entire period. The total bacterial population and bacterial community structure disturbed by wildfire soon began to recover, and original levels seemed to be restored 3 months after the wildfire. PMID:15650683

  6. AIDS-associated paracoccidioidomycosis in a patient with a CD4+ T-cell count of 4 cells/mm Paracoccidioidomicose associada a Aids em paciente com a contagem total de quatro clulas T-CD4+

    Lisiane Machado Contente Nogueira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of a patient presenting with HIV and paracoccidioidomycosis co-infection. At the time of diagnosis total CD4+ T-cell count was 4 cells/mm3. Histopathology revealed tuberculoid granulomas, scarce CD4+ T cells, a moderate number of CD8+ cells and the absence of Foxp3+ cells. Most of the cutaneous lesions healed after two weeks of treatment with amphotericin B. After 14 months the patient is still under antiretroviral therapy and no clinical evidence of recurrence of the mycosis has been observedNeste trabalho apresenta-se paciente com coinfeco paracoccidioidomicose/Aids. No momento do diagnstico, a contagem de clulas T CD4 + era 4 clulas. No exame histopatolgico, observou-se a presena de granulomas tuberculides bem formados e na imunohistoqumica, ausncia de clulas Foxp3, raros linfcitos T CD4+ e presena de clulas T CD8+ em moderada quantidade. Com duas semanas de uso da anfotericina B, verificou-se a regresso de grande parte das leses cutneas. Aps 14 meses, o paciente encontra-se em uso de terapia antiretroviral e sem evidncias de atividade da micose

  7. Evolution of bacterial communities in the Gironde Estuary (France) according to a salinity gradient

    Prieur, D.; Troussellier, M.; Romana, A.; Chamroux, S.; Mevel, G.; Baleux, B.

    1987-01-01

    Three surveys were performed in the Gironde Estuary (France) in August 1981, March 1982 and July 1982. For each campaign, seventy samples were taken by helicopter, in order to follow the tide along the estuary. Of the parameters that were studied, salinity appeared to be the most important and which controls the bacterial communities along the estuary. This paper deals with the evolution of bacterial communities along a salinity gradient. The information obtained from various bacteriological parameters (total bacterial counts, viable counts on salted and unsalted media, functional evenness) were convergent. The bacterial community is dominated by an halotolerant microflora. In the estuary, a continental microflora is followed by a marine microflora. The succession zone between these two microflora is located between 5 and 10 areas of salinity.

  8. Bacterial contamination of street vending food in Kumasi, Ghana

    Feglo, P.; Sakyi, K.

    2012-01-01

    Street vending foods are readily available sources of meals for many people but the biological safe-ty of such food is always in doubt. The aim of this study is to ascertain bacterial isolate and deter-mine total counts of bacterial species responsible for the contamination of the street vending food in Kumasi so as to determine the microbiological safety of such a food. This prospective study was conducted among street vending food at four bus terminals in Kumasi. From November, 2008 to Febr...

  9. Preliminary Study on Efficacy of Leaves, Seeds and Bark Extracts of Moringa oleifera in Reducing Bacterial load in Water

    Mohamed S. Osman; Arafat M. Goja

    2013-01-01

    Water quality and treatment are the most important issue in everywhere, especially in the developing countries, where safe and clean water is not continuously provided. Moringa oleifera is one of the best natural coagulants that has effectively used in water treatments. The aqueous extract of seeds, leaves and bark of Moringa oleifera was evaluated for their efficacy in reducing total bacterial load, coliform count and faecal coliform counts in the treatment of drinking water. The standard po...

  10. In vitro predation of pure bacterial species by rumen protozoa from monofaunated sheep, determined by qPCR

    de la Fuente Oliver, Gabriel; Morgavi, Diego P.; Belanche, A.; Fondevila, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Predation of bacteria has important implications on rumen microbial ecology and metabolism. The predation rate of bacteria by protozoa in vitro was studied by bacterial DNA quantification. Entodinium caudatum (EC), Diplodinium dentatum (DD) and Metadinium medium (MM) from monofaunated sheep rumen contents were incubated with two pure cultures of bacteria: the fibrolytic Ruminococcus albus (Ra) and the amylolytic Streptococcus bovis (Sb). Total bacterial and protozoal numbers were counted in t...

  11. Radio-resistance of some bacterial pathogens in soft-shell clams (Mya arenaria) and mussels (Mytilus edulis)

    Gamma-irradiation decimal reduction doses were determined for E. coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, Strept. faecalis, Staph, aureus, and the Total Plate Count in a soft-shell clam or mussel substrate. Factors to be considered for designing and irradiation bacterial-decontamination process for shellfish are discussed

  12. Residual Structure of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm following Complete Disinfection Favors Secondary Bacterial Adhesion and Biofilm Re-Development

    Ohsumi, Tatsuya; Takenaka, Shoji; Wakamatsu, Rika; Sakaue, Yuuki; Narisawa, Naoki; Senpuku, Hidenobu; Ohshima, Hayato; Terao, Yutaka; Okiji, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Chemical disinfection of oral biofilms often leaves biofilm structures intact. This study aimed to examine whether the residual structure promotes secondary bacterial adhesion. Streptococcus mutans biofilms generated on resin-composite disks in a rotating disc reactor were disinfected completely with 70% isopropyl alcohol, and were again cultured in the same reactor after resupplying with the same bacterial solution. Specimens were subjected to fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy, viable cell counts and PCR-Invader assay in order to observe and quantify secondarily adhered cells. Fluorescence microscopic analysis, particularly after longitudinal cryosectioning, demonstrated stratified patterns of viable cells on the disinfected biofilm structure. Viable cell counts of test specimens were significantly higher than those of controls, and increased according to the amount of residual structure and culture period. Linear regression analysis exhibited a high correlation between viable and total cell counts. It was concluded that disinfected biofilm structures favored secondary bacterial adhesion. PMID:25635770

  13. Evaluation of the Bacterial Contamination of the Iranian Currency Notes

    E Khajeh Ali

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackground and Objectives: In many countries, there is a popular belief that the simultaneous "nhandling of food and money contributes to the incidence of food-related public health incidents. "nThe objective of this study was to determine the total bacterial count and the presence of food borne "nbacterial pathogens on Iranian currency notes, collected from food-related shops. "n "nMaterials and Methods: A total of 120 Iranian currency notes, comprising notes in four  denomination (2000, 5000, 10000 and 20000 R were collected from various food-related shops including, butchery, bakery, confectionary, fast food, ice cream and poultry meat shop. The currency notes were categorized into three groups according to their physical conditions. All currency notes were examined for total bacterial count, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella and Listeria according to the standard techniques."nResults: The average number of total bacterial count in four denomination of currency notes (2000,  5000, 10000 and 20000 R were 118.49, 106.32, 69.44 and 220.81 CFU/cm2, respectively. The association between total bacterial count and denomination of the currency was not statistically significant. Of the 120 currency notes on which bacteriological analysis was conducted 13.3 %, 32.5% and 10.8 % were contaminated with E. coli, S. aureus and B. cereus, respectively. Salmonella and Listeria were not isolated from samples. Currency notes collected from butchery, bakery, confectionary, fast food, ice cream and poultry meat shop were contaminated with E. coli at the rate of 60, 0, 5, 5, 0 and 10 %; with S. aureus at the rate of 55, 30, 10, 25, 40 and 35 %; with B. cereus at the rate of 0, 10, 20, 5, 20 and 10 %, respectively. There was not a statistically significant association between physical condition and bacterial contamination of the currency notes. The effect of presence or absence of cashier in food-related shops on bacterial contamination of the currency notes was also evaluated."nConclusion: Money has got the potential to change through many different hands and could be  exposed to many different environments at a relatively high frequency. Since there is very little information regarding the hygienic history of any forms of currency, great care should be taken when the same person facilitates the handling of money and the preparation and handling of food to avoid cross contamination.

  14. Measuring nasal bacterial load and its association with otitis media

    Hunter Neil

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nasal colonisation with otitis media (OM pathogens, particularly Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis, is a precursor to the onset of OM. Many children experience asymptomatic nasal carriage of these pathogens whereas others will progress to otitis media with effusion (OME or suppurative OM. We observed a disparity in the prevalence of suppurative OM between Aboriginal children living in remote communities and non-Aboriginal children attending child-care centres; up to 60% and Methods Quantitative measures (colony counts and real-time quantitative PCR of the respiratory pathogens S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis, and total bacterial load were analysed in nasal swabs from Aboriginal children from remote communities, and non-Aboriginal children attending urban child-care centres. Results In both populations nearly all swabs were positive for at least one of these respiratory pathogens. Using either quantification method, positive correlations between bacterial load and ear state (no OM, OME, or suppurative OM were observed. This relationship held for single and combined bacterial respiratory pathogens, total bacterial load, and the proportion of respiratory pathogens to total bacterial load. Comparison of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children, all with a diagnosis of OME, demonstrated significantly higher loads of S. pneumoniae and M. catarrhalis in the Aboriginal group. The increased bacterial load despite similar clinical condition may predict persistence of middle ear effusions and progression to suppurative OM in the Aboriginal population. Our data also demonstrated the presence of PCR-detectable non-cultivable respiratory pathogens in 36% of nasal swabs. This may have implications for the pathogenesis of OM including persistence of infection despite aggressive therapies. Conclusion Nasal bacterial load was significantly higher among Aboriginal children and may explain their increased risk of suppurative OM. It was also positively correlated with ear state. We believe that a reduction in bacterial load in high-risk populations may be required before dramatic reductions in OM can be achieved.

  15. Bacterial activity in a reservoir determined by autoradiography and its relationships to phyto- and zooplankton

    In the drinking water reservoir Rimov (Southern Bohemia) bacterioplankton was studied during 1983. Special attention was given to the relationships between parameters of bacterial abundance, total and individual activity. Bacterial counts and biomass was assessed and autoradiographic determinations of the proportion of active bacteria incorporating thymidine (Th) and a mixture of amino acids (AA) and total uptake rate of AA were made over a year in the surface layer and during summer stratification from the thermocline and 15 m depth. Specific activity of metabolically active bacteria and specific activity per unit of biomass were negatively correlated with counts of metabolizing cells and with bacterial biomass, respectively. Total and individual heterotrophic activity and counts of bacteria coincided with the changes of phytoplankton biomass, whereas bacteria incorporating Th were more tightly correlated with primary production. The most significant relation of metabolically active bacteria was found to cladoceran biomass. Thus, this part of heterotrophic bacterial activity seems to be stimulated by leakage of dissolved organic matter from phytoplankton being disrupted and incompletely digested by cladocerans rather than from healthy photosynthetizing cells. (author)

  16. Gypsum amendment to rice paddy soil stimulated bacteria involved in sulfur cycling but largely preserved the phylogenetic composition of the total bacterial community.

    Wörner, Susanne; Zecchin, Sarah; Dan, Jianguo; Todorova, Nadezhda Hristova; Loy, Alexander; Conrad, Ralf; Pester, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Rice paddies are indispensable for human food supply but emit large amounts of the greenhouse gas methane. Sulfur cycling occurs at high rates in these water-submerged soils and controls methane production, an effect that is increased by sulfate-containing fertilizers or soil amendments. We grew rice plants until their late vegetative phase with and without gypsum (CaSO4 ·2H2 O) amendment and identified responsive bacteria by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Gypsum amendment decreased methane emissions by up to 99% but had no major impact on the general phylogenetic composition of the bacterial community. It rather selectively stimulated or repressed a small number of 129 and 27 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (out of 1883-2287 observed) in the rhizosphere and bulk soil, respectively. Gypsum-stimulated OTUs were affiliated with several potential sulfate-reducing (Syntrophobacter, Desulfovibrio, unclassified Desulfobulbaceae, unclassified Desulfobacteraceae) and sulfur-oxidizing taxa (Thiobacillus, unclassified Rhodocyclaceae), while gypsum-repressed OTUs were dominated by aerobic methanotrophs (Methylococcaceae). Abundance correlation networks suggested that two abundant (>1%) OTUs (Desulfobulbaceae, Rhodocyclaceae) were central to the reductive and oxidative parts of the sulfur cycle. PMID:27085098

  17. Effect of supplementing orchardgrass herbage with a total mixed ration or flaxseed fermentation profile and bacterial protein synthesis in continuous culture

    A 4-unit dual-flow continuous culture fermentor system was used to evaluate the effects of herbage, a total mixed ration (TMR) and flaxseed on nutrient digestibility and microbial N synthesis. Treatments were randomly assigned to fermentors in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Each fermentor was fed a to...

  18. 89th Christmas Bird Count : Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These are the results of the 1988 Christmas Bird Count on Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge. A total of 9 species and 398 individual birds were counted.

  19. Frequency of Bacterial Frequency of Bacterial Contamination in Traditional Ice Cream Produced in Arak, Iran (2011

    Rezaei, M. (MSc

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Ice cream is a suitable environment for microbial growth due to its chemical structure, ingredients, and its increased supply and demand. In the absence of hygienic considerations, it can cause poisoning. This study aimed to determine bacterial contamination in traditional ice cream produced in Arak city in 2011. Material and Methods: The samples (n= 30 were randomly obtained from different parts of Arak in, 2011. The Samples were shipped in cold conditions and total count of microorganisms test was performed according to Iranian national standards. Results: In 16.66%, the microbial contamination was below the limit of microbial load (5×104, and in 83.3% the contamination was more than allowed level. Conclusion: This study highlights the dire situation for bacterial contamination of traditional ice cream in Arak city. Keywords: Arak, Ice Cream, Microbial Contamination

  20. Total phenolic and flavonoid content and antibacterial activity of Punica granatum L. var. pleniflora flowers (Golnar) against bacterial strains causing foodborne diseases

    Mahboubi, Arash; Asgarpanah, Jinous; Sadaghiyani, Parisa Nosrati; Faizi, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Background Flowers of Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae) var. pleniflora, known as “Golnar” in Iranian traditional medicine have been used for the prevention and treatment of foodborne diseases. In this study, antibacterial activities of ethanol extract of Golnar and its fractions were scientifically evaluated against bacteria causing foodborne diseases including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Shigella dysantriae, and Salmonella typhi. The total...

  1. Impact of Intensive Land-Based Fish Culture in Qingdao, China, on the Bacterial Communities in Surrounding Marine Waters and Sediments

    Li, Qiufen; Zhang, Yan; Juck, David; Fortin, Nathalie; Greer, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of intensive land-based fish culture in Qingdao, China, on the bacterial communities in surrounding marine environment was analyzed. Culture-based studies showed that the highest counts of heterotrophic, ammonium-oxidizing, nitrifying, and nitrate-reducing bacteria were found in fish ponds and the effluent channel, with lower counts in the adjacent marine area and the lowest counts in the samples taken from 500?m off the effluent channel. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis was used to assess total bacterial diversity. Fewer bands were observed from the samples taken from near the effluent channel compared with more distant sediment samples, suggesting that excess nutrients from the aquaculture facility may be reducing the diversity of bacterial communities in nearby sediments. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequenced DGGE bands indicated that the bacteria community of fish-culture-associated environments was mainly composed of Flavobacteriaceae, gamma- and deltaproteobacteria, including genera Gelidibacter, Psychroserpen, Lacinutrix, and Croceimarina. PMID:21922024

  2. REACTIVE THROMBOCYTOSIS IN FEBRILE CHILDREN WITH SERIOUS BACTERIAL INFECTION

    Amita Jane D

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fever is a common presenting symptom in paediatric outpatient practices and emergency rooms, particularly in children 99°F. Neonates with a clinical suspicion of sepsis were included in the study. A thorough history and physical examination and laboratory investigations – complete blood count, urine routine, C-reactive protein were retrieved from records. Cultures were obtained where indicated. OBSERVATIONS: A total of 44 children (18.3% were diagnosed to have serious bacterial infection (SBI out of the 240 febrile children studied during the 6 month period from Jan-June 2014. The incidence of reactive thrombocytosis was 20.7% and of these 28.6% was due to serious bacterial infection. The sensitivity and specificity of CRP in predicting SBI was 68.2% and 60.4% respectively considering a cut off value of >7mg/dl. Thrombocytosis i.e. platelet count >4lakh was more specific in diagnosing SBI with a sensitivity and specificity of 31.8% and 82.9% respectively. Leucocytosis ie total count >15000/mm3 also showed a higher specificity i.e., 63.9% than sensitivity i.e., 45.5%. Duration of pyrexia (>7days had the maximum specificity of 91.7% thus having the best diagnostic accuracy among the variables studied i.e. 76.6%. Among the investigative methods platelet count had the best diagnostic accuracy i.e., 72.57%. CONCLUSION: Thrombocytosis was found to have the best diagnostic accuracy, among the investigative methods studied, in predicting serious bacterial infection (SBI.

  3. The Differential Counting Polynomial

    Lange-Hegermann, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is a quantitative analysis of the solution set of a system of polynomial nonlinear differential equations, both in the ordinary and partial case. Therefore, we introduce the differential counting polynomial, a common generalization of the dimension polynomial and the (algebraic) counting polynomial. Under mild additional asumptions, the differential counting polynomial decides whether a given set of solutions of a system of differential equations is the complete set of s...

  4. Counts of faint galaxies

    Numerical results on the counts of galaxies to msub(B)=24sup(m) have been presented by Karachentsev and Kopylov (1977). In the present work data published by different authors and also counts of galaxies on plates obtained at the prime focus of the 6-metre telescope are used. The photometric accuracy of the counts is about a quarter of a magnitude. (Auth.)

  5. Low Counts of B Cells, Natural Killer Cells, Monocytes, Dendritic Cells, Basophils, and Eosinophils are Associated with Postengraftment Infections after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    Podgorny, Peter J; Pratt, Laura M; Liu, Yiping; Dharmani-Khan, Poonam; Luider, Joanne; Auer-Grzesiak, Iwona; Mansoor, Adnan; Williamson, Tyler S; Ugarte-Torres, Alejandra; Hoegh-Petersen, Mette; Khan, Faisal M; Larratt, Loree; Jimenez-Zepeda, Victor H; Stewart, Douglas A; Russell, James A; Daly, Andrew; Storek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients are immunocompromised and thus predisposed to infections. We set out to determine the deficiency of which immune cell subset(s) may predispose to postengraftment infections. We determined day 28, 56, 84, and 180 blood counts of multiple immune cell subsets in 219 allogeneic transplant recipients conditioned with busulfan, fludarabine, and Thymoglobulin. Deficiency of a subset was considered to be associated with infections if the low subset count was significantly associated with subsequent high infection rate per multivariate analysis in both discovery and validation cohorts. Low counts of monocytes (total and inflammatory) and basophils, and low IgA levels were associated with viral infections. Low plasmacytoid dendritic cell (PDC) counts were associated with bacterial infections. Low inflammatory monocyte counts were associated with fungal infections. Low counts of total and naive B cells, total and CD56(high) natural killer (NK) cells, total and inflammatory monocytes, myeloid dendritic cells (MDCs), PDCs, basophils and eosinophils, and low levels of IgA were associated with any infections (due to any pathogen or presumed). In conclusion, deficiencies of B cells, NK cells, monocytes, MDCs, PDCs, basophils, eosinophils, and/or IgA plasma cells appear to predispose to postengraftment infections. PMID:26363444

  6. Practical Gamma Counting of Unirradiated Uranium-235

    During the fabrication of reactor fuel elements it is necessary to have assurance regarding the accuracy of the fabricator's uranium assignment within the specified tolerances. Destructive analysis of random samples is both expensive and time-consuming. Where the uranium-bearing components are suitable for gamma counting, a non-destructive method of assay can be used with greater efficiency and equal accuracy. The particular method described was used for checking fuel cores of nominal 30 wt.% enriched uranium in aluminium measuring about two inches square by 0.080 in. and 0.160 in. thick. The equipment was a basic Nal scintillation counter equipped with a single-channel analyser. The analyser, however, was operated with a very wide window covering both the 90-keV and 184-keV peaks characteristic of uranium-235. In practice, the threshold level acid the window opening, were adjusted to give the optimum maximum count rate as indicated by a ratemeter. The counting of a fuel core was then performed with the Nal crystal essentially unshielded and located several inches above the fuel core. The counting time was adjusted to yield a total count in the range of 105 to 106 in order to minimize the counting error. Effects due to variations in the counting geometry and to non-uniform uranium distribution were minimized by the relatively large separation of the crystal from the fuel core. Effects due to shifting of analyser window were minimized by use of a wide opening. To compensate for possible non-uniform uranium distribution through the thickness of a fuel core, each core was counted on both sides. The total count obtained in this manner was directly proportioned to the uranium-235 content of the fuel core. In application, the counting equipment was set up in the fabricator's plant and a number of production fuel cores were counted. The plotting of the total counts against the fabricator's uranium-235 assignment revealed an unexpected error in the fabricator's system. This error was revealed on a qualitative basis before any destructive analyses were made to obtain quantitative correlation. Mention is also made of three other applications of the same equipment. With the addition of a crystal traversing device and an output recorder, finished fuel plates were scanned to determine uranium distribution while a total count of the plate at the same time gave an indication of the total uranium content. Some unknown samples were assayed by the standard method of measuring self-absorption and comparing with a known uranium-235 standard. The addition of a well-type crystal allowed for assaying dilute uranium-235 solutions with sufficient accuracy for waste sampling and criticality evaluation. (author)

  7. Inactivation of Selected Bacterial Pathogens in Dairy Cattle Manure by Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion (Balloon Type Digester)

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E.; Mamphweli, Sampson N.; Meyer, Edson L.; Okoh, Anthony I.; Golden Makaka; Michael Simon

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of animal manure in biogas digesters has shown promise as a technology in reducing the microbial load to safe and recommended levels. We sought to treat dairy manure obtained from the Fort Hare Dairy Farm by investigating the survival rates of bacterial pathogens, through a total viable plate count method, before, during and after mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Different microbiological media were inoculated with different serial dilutions of manure samples that were with...

  8. Bacterial Tracheitis

    ... Respiratory Disorders in Children Asthma in Children Bronchiolitis Croup Bacterial Tracheitis Wheezing in Infants and Young Children ... bacterial tracheitis may develop as a complication of croup (see Croup ) or endotracheal intubation (insertion of a ...

  9. Bacterial Colitis

    Papaconstantinou, Harry T.; Thomas, J. Scott

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial colitis results in an inflammatory-type diarrhea that is characterized by bloody, purulent, and mucoid stool. These diseases have been designated as bacterial hemorrhagic enterocolitis. Associated symptoms include fever, tenesmus, and severe abdominal pain. The pathologic changes range from superficial exudative enterocolitis to a transmural enterocolitis with ulceration. Common pathologic bacteria causing bacterial colitis include Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia, a...

  10. Use of fluorochromes for direct enumeration of total bacteria in environmental samples: past and present.

    Kepner, R L; Pratt, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    Understanding the role of bacteria in microbial food webs is intimately connected to the methods applied in the direct enumeration of bacteria. We have examined over 220 papers describing studies in which fluorochrome staining followed by epifluorescent microscopic direct counts was used to estimate total bacterial abundances. In this review, we summarize patterns in the use of 3,6-bis[dimethylamino]acridinium chloride (acridine orange) and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), the two stains...

  11. Total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in shrimp: Fast and reliable quantification by real-time PCR

    Copin, S; Gay, M.; Malle, P

    2010-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is found in aquatic environments and is the leading cause of gastroenteritis due to seafood consumption worldwide. We evaluated a quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR) assay with hydrolysis probes, to determine whether this method could be used for the efficient counting of total, tdh and trh-positive V. parahaemolyticus in shrimps. We assessed the specificity of this assay, using 62 strains from 12 non target bacterial species of the Vibrio, Photobacterium, Shewanella an...

  12. Counting Sheep in Basque

    Araujo, Frank P.

    1975-01-01

    Demonstrates the interplay of a cognitive system, the Basque numerative system, and a behavioral one, counting sheep. The significant features of the Basque numerative system are analyzed; then it is shown how use of these features facilitates the counting of sheep on open ranges by Basque sheep farmers in California. (Author/RM)

  13. CSF cell count

    A CSF cell count is a test to measure the number of red and white blood cells that are in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ... The CSF cell count may help detect: Meningitis and infection of the brain or spinal cord Tumor, abscess, or area of tissue death ( ...

  14. Influence of surface characteristics and microstructure on adhesion of bacterial cells onto a type 304 stainless steel.

    George, R P; Muraleedharan, P; Sreekumari, K R; Khatak, H S

    2003-02-01

    A study was carried out to understand the influence of the surface characteristics/microstructure of a type 304 stainless steel on bacterial adhesion by exposing solution-annealed, sensitized and air-oxidized stainless steel specimens in a culture of Pseudomonas sp. in dilute nutrient broth. Epifluorescence microscopy of the exposed surfaces revealed that the pattern of adhesion as well as number density of bacterial cells was different depending on the metallurgical condition of the substratum. Among the specimens with different microstructures, the sensitized specimens had the highest bacterial density, followed by the solution annealed and the oxidized specimens. The same trend was shown by the total viable counts on the various surfaces, estimated by a plate count technique. The study assumes significance in the context of the widely reported observation of preferential attack of the welded region during microbiologically influenced corrosion of fabricated components. PMID:14618684

  15. Bacterial contamination of street vending food in Kumasi, Ghana

    Feglo, P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Street vending foods are readily available sources of meals for many people but the biological safe-ty of such food is always in doubt. The aim of this study is to ascertain bacterial isolate and deter-mine total counts of bacterial species responsible for the contamination of the street vending food in Kumasi so as to determine the microbiological safety of such a food. This prospective study was conducted among street vending food at four bus terminals in Kumasi. From November, 2008 to February, 2009, 60 food samples comprising ice-kenkey (15, cocoa drink (15, fufu (5, ready-to-eat red pepper (normally eaten with kenkey (5, salad (10 and macaroni (10 were purchased and ana-lyzed. The food samples were purchased and transported to the laboratory in sterile plastic bags and analyzed for bacterial contamination. Serial dilution of each food was prepared in buffered peptone water and inoculated onto plate count agar (PCA, MacConkey and blood agar plates. Growths on PCA were counted; those on other agar plates were identified by their colonial mor-phology, Gram stain, biochemical and sugar fermentation methods. The mean bacterial counts in these foods expressed to log10 CFU/ml were: fufu 6.36±0.47, cocoa drink 6.16±0.5, red pepper 5.92±0.64, ice-kenkey 5.58 ±0.52, macaroni 5.58±0.97 and salad 5.13±0.77. Most of these foods con-tained higher than acceptable contamination level of <5.0 log10 CFU/ml. The isolates obtained were Coagulate negative staphylococci (23.7%, Bacillus species (21.5%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (18%, Aeromonas pneumophila (17.7%, Enterobacter cloacae (6.7%, Staphylococcus aureus (3.7%, Escherichia coli (2.2% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.2%. Most ready-to-eat foods in Kumasi were contaminated with enteric bacteria and other potential food poisoning organisms with bacterial counts higher than the acceptable levels. Food vendors therefore need education on food hygiene.

  16. Neutron counting for confirmatory measurements

    Passive neutron counting can be used to give a convenient and rapid confirmation of plutonium content for shipper-receiver confirmation. Different types of neutron detectors have been designed to accommodate a large variety of sample containers. When neutron coincidence counting is used, the measurement becomes relatively insensitive to neutron backgrounds and rather specific to the fertile (240Pu-effective) content. For samples with significant neutron self-multiplication, the reals-to-total ratio (R/T) gives an additional confirmation that the induced multiplication is consistent with the declared fissile content. For samples with a very high (α,n) yield, the induced fission rate can be used to directly confirm the fissile content

  17. Analog multivariate counting analyzers

    Characterizing rates of occurrence of various features of a signal is of great importance in numerous types of physical measurements. Such signal features can be defined as certain discrete coincidence events, e.g. crossings of a signal with a given threshold, or occurrence of extrema of a certain amplitude. We describe measuring rates of such events by means of analog multivariate counting analyzers. Given a continuous scalar or multicomponent (vector) input signal, an analog counting analyzer outputs a continuous signal with the instantaneous magnitude equal to the rate of occurrence of certain coincidence events. The analog nature of the proposed analyzers allows us to reformulate many problems of the traditional counting measurements, and cast them in a form which is readily addressed by methods of differential calculus rather than by algebraic or logical means of digital signal processing. Analog counting analyzers can be easily implemented in discrete or integrated electronic circuits, do not suffer from dead time effects, and allow substantial reduction of pileup effects. Besides extending the scope of counting measurements, analog multivariate counting analyzers allow simple feedback adjustment of the parameters of the acquisition system for optimal performance. In addition, such analyzers can be made simpler, cheaper, lighter, more reliable, more accurate, and less power consuming than digital counting detectors, and thus would be ideally suited for operation in autonomous conditions such as mobile communication, space missions, prosthetic devices, etc. Other obvious immediate applications of the presented analyzers are pulse-height measuring systems used in the acquisition of nuclear radiation spectra

  18. Counting trees using symmetries

    Bernardi, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    We present a new approach for counting trees, and we apply it to count multitype Cayley trees and to prove the multivariate Lagrange inversion formula. The gist of our approach is to exploit the symmetries of refined enumerative formulas: proving these symmetries is easy, and once the symmetries are proved the formulas follow effortlessly. Somewhat surprisingly, our formula for the generating function of multitype Cayley trees appears to be new, and implies certain recent results by Bousquet-M\\'elou and Chapuy. We also adapt our approach to recover known enumerative formulas for cacti counted according to their degree distribution.

  19. Reticulocyte Count Test

    ... reticulocyte count (absolute number or percentage) is a reflection of recent bone marrow activity. Results may indicate ... may indicate conditions such as: Bleeding: If an individual bleeds ( hemorrhage ), then the number of reticulocytes will ...

  20. Housing Inventory Count

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the data communities reported to HUD about the nature of their dedicated homeless inventory, referred to as their Housing Inventory Count...

  1. 1996 : Track Count Protocol

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuges Track Count Protocol is to provide an index to the population size of game animals inhabiting St. Vincent Island.

  2. Counting interesting elections

    Pudwell, Lara K

    2008-01-01

    We provide an elementary proof of a formula for the number of northeast lattice paths that lie in a certain region of the plane. Equivalently, this formula counts the lattice points inside the Pitman--Stanley polytope.

  3. Understanding Blood Counts

    ... below. Red Cells White Cells Platelets High counts Smoking Carbon monoxide exposure Chronic lung disease Kidney disease Certain forms of heart disease Alcoholism Liver disease Conditions that affect the body's fluid level Infection Inflammation Severe physical ...

  4. Analog multivariate counting analyzers

    Nikitin, A V; Armstrong, T P

    2003-01-01

    Characterizing rates of occurrence of various features of a signal is of great importance in numerous types of physical measurements. Such signal features can be defined as certain discrete coincidence events, e.g. crossings of a signal with a given threshold, or occurrence of extrema of a certain amplitude. We describe measuring rates of such events by means of analog multivariate counting analyzers. Given a continuous scalar or multicomponent (vector) input signal, an analog counting analyzer outputs a continuous signal with the instantaneous magnitude equal to the rate of occurrence of certain coincidence events. The analog nature of the proposed analyzers allows us to reformulate many problems of the traditional counting measurements, and cast them in a form which is readily addressed by methods of differential calculus rather than by algebraic or logical means of digital signal processing. Analog counting analyzers can be easily implemented in discrete or integrated electronic circuits, do not suffer fro...

  5. Complete Blood Count

    ... chicken pox , cytomegalovirus (CMV) , Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) , herpes , rubella ) Certain bacterial infections (e.g., pertussis (whooping cough) , tuberculosis (TB) ) Toxoplasmosis Chronic inflammatory disorder (e.g., ulcerative colitis) Lymphocytic leukemia, lymphoma Stress (acute) Mono Absolute monocyte ...

  6. Effect of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zylenicum supplementation on the intestinal selected bacterial population in Japanese quail

    A. Baraa Mohamed,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of adding graded levels (0, 1.0 and 1.5% of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zylenicum in the basal diet on the intestinal bacterial population of the Japanese quail. Sixty Japanese quail were randomly distributed into 3 groups. Each treatment contained four replicates (5 birds/replicate. The results showed significant (P<0.05 improvement in lactobacillus of birds fed 1.5% cinnamon. Total bacterial count, coli form and fungi count was significantly (P<0.05 lower compared to the control. In conclusion, 1.5% level of cinnamon may be used for antimicrobial balance in gut for Japanese quail.

  7. KANDUNGAN BAKTERI TOTAL Coli DAN Escherechia coli / FECAL Coli AIR MINUM DARI DEPOT AIR MINUM ISI ULANG DI JAKARTA, TANGERANG, DAN BEKASI

    Athena Athena; Sukar Sukar; Haryono Haryono

    2012-01-01

    A study on drinking water quality produced by drinking water refill depots (AMIU) was done in Jakarta, Tangerang and Bekasi. Analysis unit of the study was drinking water refill depots with the sample number of 38 depots. For every selected depot, laboratory analysis were done for natural water (clean water) and drinking water produced by the depots. The total number of sample were 76 water samples. One of the parameters analyzed was microbiological contents, namey total coli bacterial count ...

  8. Bacterial biomass and activity in the marginal ice zone of the northern Barents Sea

    Tammert, Helen; Olli, Kalle; Sturluson, Maria; Hodal, Helene

    2008-10-01

    Bacteria in the Arctic Waters are well adapted to low temperatures and play a key role in the transformation of organic matter. However, the activity of planktonic bacteria at cellular level remains poorly understood. In this study, we use fluorescent markers (4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC), Live/Dead BacLight viability kit) to discriminate between bacterial cells with a variety of physiological activities in the 0-200 m water column and sinking particles. During two field studies (July 2003 and 2004), we covered nine stations in the northern Barents Sea. The median bacterial abundance (DAPI staining) in the upper 50 m layer was 0.9×10 6 cells ml -1 (range 0.2-3.2×10 6 cells ml -1) in 2003 and 0.5×10 6 cells ml -1 (range 0.2-1.0×10 6 cells ml -1) in 2004. Bacteria with sufficient electron transport activity to be stained with CTC were on average 10% of the total count and ca. 20% of the total cells had intact cell membranes. In the water column, proxies of substrate availability (POC, PON, chlorophyll a, primary production) and bacterial production (thymidine and leucine uptake) correlated strongly with total bacterial count, CTC-stained cells and cells with 'leaky' membrane (stained with propidium iodine), but not with the concentration of cells with intact cell membrane. Contrary to expectations, the proportion of CTC-stained bacteria was not higher in the sinking particles (captured with sediment traps) compared to the ambient water. However, out of the bacteria with intact cell membranes, a higher proportion scored as CTC positive in the aggregates compared to the ambient water. Bacterial cells with 'leaky' cell membranes formed the largest part of total cell count in all samples, and accumulated in sites with high microbial activity (sinking aggregates, chlorophyll maxima, layers of high primary and bacterial production). We hypothesize that the source of the bacterial cells with 'leaky' cell membranes was metabolically the most active fraction of the bacterial assemblage (stained with CTC).

  9. Effect of Activated Carbon Amendment on Bacterial Community Structure and Functions in a PAH Impacted Urban Soil

    Meynet, Paola; Sarah E. Hale; Davenport, Russell J.; Cornelissen, Gerard; Gijs D. Breedveld; Werner, David

    2012-01-01

    We collected urban soil samples impacted by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a sorbent-based remediation field trial to address concerns about unwanted side-effects of 2% powdered (PAC) or granular (GAC) activated carbon amendment on soil microbiology and pollutant biodegradation. After three years, total microbial cell counts and respiration rates were highest in the GAC amended soil. The predominant bacterial community structure derived from denaturing gradient gel electrophores...

  10. Total lymphoid irradiation of intractable rheumatoid arthritis

    Eleven patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis were treated with fractionated total lymphoid irradiation, (total dose 20 Gy). Lasting improvement in clinical symptoms was found in four patients during treatment and the remaining patients experienced similar benefit within 2 months of irradiation. There was marked reduction in exacerbations and number of joints involved. Morning stiffness, joint swelling and tenderness decreased. Complications included severe fatigue during treatment and acute bacterial arthritis in multiple joints in one patient. Four patients have since died, one of renal failure, another of cardiogenic shock following surgery 3 and 24 months after total lymphoid irradiation. Both had generalised amyloidosis. The third patient developed joint empyema and died of toxic cardiac failure. The fourth died 3 months after resection of a Kaposi's sarcoma complicated by wound infection which responded to treatment. Immunologically, total lymphoid irradiation resulted in suppression of the absolute lymphocyte count and reduction in T-helper cells, the number of T-suppressor cells remaining unchanged. These data provide evidence of T-cell involvement in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Total lymphoid irradiation can induce sustained improvement in clinical disease activity, but severe, possibly fatal, side-effects cannot be ignored. (author)

  11. Rainflow counting revisited

    Soeker, H. [Deutsches Windenergie-Institut (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    As state of the art method the rainflow counting technique is presently applied everywhere in fatigue analysis. However, the author feels that the potential of the technique is not fully recognized in wind energy industries as it is used, most of the times, as a mere data reduction technique disregarding some of the inherent information of the rainflow counting results. The ideas described in the following aim at exploitation of this information and making it available for use in the design and verification process. (au)

  12. Digital count ratemeter

    Wiring is proposed for a digital count ratemeter with manually preset measurement time in which automatic division of the measured count rate by the measurement time is achieved by switching. The input of the decoder with weight 4 is wired via a code selector to either the output of the quinary divi--der second state or the output of the binary divider state. This wiring offers the possibility of using the finer time series of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, etc. seconds or minutes in the clock. (M.S.)

  13. Computerized radioautographic grain counting

    In recent years, radiolabeling techniques have become fundamental assays in physiology and biochemistry experiments. They also have assumed increasingly important roles in morphologic studies. Characteristically, radioautographic analysis of structure has been qualitative rather than quantitative, however, microcomputers have opened the door to several methods for quantifying grain counts and density. The overall goal of this chapter is to describe grain counting using the Bioquant, an image analysis package based originally on the Apple II+, and now available for several popular microcomputers. The authors discuss their image analysis procedures by applying them to a study of development in the central nervous system

  14. Determination of main phylogenetic bacterial groups in hyporheic sediments of a small lowland stream (Sitka, Czech Republic) using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)

    Community structure of biofilm microbial communities of hyporheic sediments in the small lowland Sitka Stream (Czech Republic) was analysed using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH provided detection of about 91 % of total DAPI-stained bacterial cells. In general, most of the EUB338-detectable cells (domain Eubacteria) could be related to the four major phylogenetic groups used in this study (α-, β-, γ-Proteobacteria and Cytophaga-Flavobacterium). The microbial community structure of biofilm analysed was dominated by β-Proteobacteria (36,3 % of the total counts). In addition to the domain Eubacteria, members of the domain Archaebacteria were detected in hyporheic sediments (approximately 6 % of total bacterial counts). (authors)

  15. Measurement of calprotectin in ascitic fluid to identify elevated polymorphonuclear cell count

    Christoph Beglinger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the diagnostic capability of calprotectin in ascitic fluid for detecting a polymorphonuclear (PMN cell count > 250/?L ascites. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, a total of 130 ascites samples were analysed from 71 consecutive patients referred for paracentesis. Total and differential leukocyte cell counts were determined manually with a Neubauer chamber and gentian-violet stain. Calprotectin was measured in 1 mL ascetic fluid by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and a point-of-care (POC lateral flow assay with the Quantum Blue Reader (Bhlmann Laboratories. All measurements were carried out in a central laboratory by senior personnel blinded to patient history. A PMN count > 250/?L was the primary endpoint of the study. The diagnostic value of ascitic calprotectin measurement was assessed by comparing to the final diagnosis of each patient that had been adjudicated by investigators blinded to calprotectin values. RESULTS: The PMN count was > 250/?L in 19 samples (14.6% from 15 patients (21.1% and varied widely among the study population (range 10-19?800/mL and 1-17?820/mL, respectively. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP was the final diagnosis in four patients (5.6%. All patients with PMN ? 250/?L had negative bacterial culture. PMN count was elevated in five patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis, three with lymphoma, one with neuroendocrine carcinoma, and two with secondary peritonitis due to abdominal perforation. PMN cell counts correlated with ascitic calprotectin values (Spearmans rho; r = 0.457 for ELISA, r = 0.473 for POC. A considerable range of ascitic calprotectin concentrations was detected by ELISA [median 0.43 ?g/mL, interquartile range (IQR 0.23-1.23 (range 0.10-14.93] and POC [median 0.38 ?g/mL, IQR 0.38-0.56 (range 0.38-13.31]. Ascitic calprotectin levels were higher in samples with PMN > 250/?L, by both ELISA [median (IQR 2.48 ?g/mL (1.61-3.65 vs 0.10 ?g/mL (0.10-0.36, P 250/?L, which may prove useful in the diagnosis of SBP, especially with a readily available bedside testing device.

  16. Effect of Occupational Exposure on WBC Count and Oxidative Stress in Rice Mill Workers

    Praveen S. Patil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are several occupations where individuals are exposed to high concentration of dust particles. The exposed dust can be organic, inorganic, bacterial toxins, viruses or lipopolysaccharides. Exposure to rice husk causes activation of eosinophils and in?ammation reactions. Cardiovascular diseases are associated with increased lipid peroxidation and decrease in levels of antioxidants. Aim & Objectives: Aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of occupational exposure on haematological and biochemical parameters of rice mill workers by analyzing blood cell Counts, Malondialdehyde (MDA, Nitric Oxide (NO and Ascorbic acid. Material and Methods: A total of 134 eligible individuals who had been exposed to dust in rice mills for more than 5 years were included in the study group where as another 134 unexposed individuals constituted control group. Estimation of serum MDA, serum NO and plasma Ascorbic acid were done by using semiautoanalyzer. Results: There was no signi?cant difference between Total Leucocyte Count of exposed and unexposed individuals. Lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil and basophil counts are signi?cantly increased in exposed individuals. Serum levels of MDA, NO and Ascorbic acid are also signi?cantly increased in exposed group compared with control group. Conclusion: The ?ndings of our study clearly indicate that the rice mill workers are under high level of dust exposure which has deleterious effects on their blood and tissues. Increased MDA, NO and decreased Vitamin-C are probably due to high oxidative stress.

  17. Radiation intensity counting system

    A method is described of excluding the natural dead time of the radiation detector (or eg Geiger-Mueller counter) in a ratemeter counting circuit, thus eliminating the need for dead time corrections. Using a pulse generator an artificial dead time is introduced which is longer than the natural dead time of the detector. (U.K.)

  18. Single count monitor

    A single count monitor is made to detect a variation of a counter with a photomultiplier. One hundred counters at maximum are monitored one by one in some sampling times. The result of the monitor is printed out automatically using the digital printer at the end of monitoring. (author)

  19. Liquid scintillation counting system

    Automatic liquid scintillation counter developed recently is a system for quantitative detection of low energy beta, other types of radiation and certain luminiscent processes. The detection system consists of two matched bialkalia photomultiplier-tubes operating at room temperature. Background noise from detectors is reduced by the inclusion of a high speed coincidence circuit. Pulses from PMT's, representing the beta decay events or other luminescent processes, are summed and subsequently screened in two channels of pulse height analyzer. Pulses resulting from events, occuring within the energy range are counted in scalers. External standard ratio has also been incorporated, in addition to, sample-channel ratio for determination of counting efficiency. The system is microprocessor based for the control of sample-changer in automatic mode and for data processing and counting in different modes like SCR, ESR. Hundred samples are handled and each sample can be repeated any number of times. Printer output provides sample number, preset-time, channel-counts, efficiency and disintegrations per minute. The data can be store d on a 'Personal Computer' with the serial-interface which, alternatively, is used for printer. (author)

  20. What Counts as Evidence?

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly

  1. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    This patent describes a high speed circuit for accurate neutron coincidence counting comprising: neutron detecting means for providing an above-threshold signal upon neutron detection; amplifying means inputted by the neutron detecting means for providing a pulse output having a pulse width of about 0.5 microseconds upon the input of each above threshold signal; digital processing means inputted by the pulse output of the amplifying means for generating a pulse responsive to each input pulse from the amplifying means and having a pulse width of about 50 nanoseconds effective for processing an expected neutron event rate of about 1 Mpps: pulse stretching means inputted by the digital processing means for producing a pulse having a pulse width of several milliseconds for each pulse received form the digital processing means; visual indicating means inputted by the pulse stretching means for producing a visual output for each pulse received from the digital processing means; and derandomizing means effective to receive the 50 ns neutron event pulses from the digital processing means for storage at a rate up to the neutron event rate of 1 Mpps and having first counter means for storing the input neutron event pulses

  2. VCS parameters of neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes may indicate local bacterial infection in cancer patients who accepted cytotoxic chemotherapeutics.

    Zhou, N; Liu, L; Li, D; Zeng, Q; Song, X

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infections increased greatly in cancer patients who accepted cytotoxic chemotherapeutics. VCS parameters of neutrophils were reported to be an indicator for acute bacterial infection accompanied by increased WBC counts. Here we explored the possibility of VCS parameters of neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes in indicating the local bacterial infection in cancer patients. A total of 310 cancer patients and 90 healthy controls were retrospectively analyzed, and 190 of them were diagnosed as acute local bacterial infection. The VCS parameters acquired from a Beckman Coulter LH750 haematology analyzer were investigated to determine which VCS parameters could indicate local bacterial infection in cancer patients with leucopenia caused by cytotoxic agents. VCS parameters of cancer patients were significantly affected by infection. For diagnosing bacterial infection of cancer patients, the best single indicator was mean monocyte light scatter (MMS) with a sensitivity of 95.12% and a specificity of 58.82% and the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.792. A combination of the following five parameters: mean neutrophil volume (MNV), MMS, mean lymphocyte conductivity (MLC), mean lymphocyte light scatter (MLS) and neutrophil volume distribution width (NDW) could provide a better index in diagnosing bacterial infection than any single parameter (sensitivity 75.8%, specificity 64.72%, AUC 0.763). Taking WBC counts into consideration, VCS parameters could better indicate bacterial infection for cancer patients with abnormal WBC level than that with normal WBC level. Aside from neutrophils, the VCS of monocytes and lymphocytes were also ideal indicators for bacterial infection. The combination of VCS parameters could increase the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of diagnosis of cancer patients. PMID:26563897

  3. Prostatitis - bacterial

    Any bacteria that can cause a urinary tract infection can cause acute bacterial prostatitis. Infections spread through sexual contact can cause prostatitis. These include chlamydia and gonorrhea . Sexually transmitted ...

  4. Bacterial Vaginosis

    ... 586. Related Content STDs during Pregnancy Fact Sheet Pregnancy and HIV, Viral Hepatitis, and STD Prevention Pelvic Inflammatory Disease ( ... Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ... STDs See Also Pregnancy Reproductive ...

  5. Effect of Gaseous Ozone Exposure on the Bacteria Counts and Oxidative Properties of Ground Hanwoo Beef at Refrigeration Temperature

    Cho, Youngjae; Muhlisin,; Choi, Ji Hye; Hahn, Tae-Wook; Lee, Sung Ki

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to elucidate the effect of ozone exposure on the bacteria counts and oxidative properties of ground Hanwoo beef contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 at refrigeration temperature. Ground beef was inoculated with 7 Log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 isolated from domestic pigs and was then subjected to ozone exposure (10×10−6 kg O3 h−1) at 4℃ for 3 d. E. coli O157:H7, total aerobic and anaerobic bacterial growth and oxidative properties including instrumental color chang...

  6. Breast carcinoma vascularity, A comparison of manual microvessel count and Chalkley count

    Dhakal, Hari Prasad; Bassarova, Assia; Naume, Bjrn; Synnestvedt, Marit; Borgen, Elin; Kaaresen, Rolf; Schlichting, Ellen; Wiedswang, Gro; Giercksky, Karl- Erik; Nesland, Jahn M.

    2009-01-01

    . Manual counting of microvessels as intratumoral microvessel density (MVD) and Chalkley counting have been used in several studies to assess the prognostic impact of vascularity in invasive breast carcinomas. In our present study, the aim was to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis in invasive breast carcinoma assessed by MVD and Chalkley techniques in the same series of patients. A total of 498 breast carcinoma patients with median follow up time 85 month...

  7. Spurious rise in the automated platelet count because of bacteria

    Kakkar, N

    2004-01-01

    The era of automation in haematology, although improving the accuracy and precision of results, has also introduced the laboratory haematologist to a vast array of spurious parameters. The identification of these results is important so that inappropriate management decisions are avoided. The case presented here illustrates a spuriously raised automated platelet count resulting from bacterial overgrowth in the blood sample.

  8. Analysis Of Mast Cell Counts In Oral Leukoplakia

    Vindhya Savithri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are regarded as one of the important cells of the immune system. They are generally believed to have different roles in human health and disease. Present study aimed to evaluate the total mast cell count, the distribution of degranulated mast cells and the possible role played by them in Oral Leukoplakia (OLK. Total mast cell count and the count of degranulated mast cells were analyzed separately in 40 histopathologically confirmed cases of OLK after staining the sections with 1% Toluidine blue. These values were compared with sections taken from clinically healthy papillary gingival in 10 normal subjects. The count of degranulated mast cells was also separately evaluated in the three zones viz. Sub-epithelial, Intermediate and Deeper zones of the connective tissue in all the OLK cases. There was significant increase in the total mast cell count and the count of degranulated mast cells in Oral Leukoplakia as compared to normal oral mucosa (p < 0.001. The count of degranulated cells was found to be the highest in the Deep zone in all the OLK cases studied. The resent study revealed that the total count of mast cells and the count of degranulated mast cells were significantly increased in oral leukoplakia. This may be attributed to their pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic role in oral leukoplakia and may actually play a significant role in its progression to invasive carcinoma.

  9. Metal ion levels and lymphocyte counts

    Penny, Jeannette ; Varmarken, Jens-Erik; Ovesen, Ole; Nielsen, Christian; Overgaard, Sren

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Wear particles from metal-on-metal arthroplasties are under suspicion for adverse effects both locally and systemically, and the DePuy ASR Hip Resurfacing System (RHA) has above-average failure rates. We compared lymphocyte counts in RHA and total hip arthroplasty (THA) an...

  10. Effects of Prolonged Empirical Antibiotic Administration on Post-Surgical Intestinal Bacterial Flora of Local Dogs Undergoing Non-Laparoscopic Gastrectomy

    J.F. Akinrinmade

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged post-surgical antibiotic administration may be of less advantage in prevention of post-surgical infections. This study therefore, aimed at investigating the prolonged effect of empiric administration of three most-prescribed antibiotics (amoxicillin, cefotaxime and oxytetracycline by veterinary practices in Southwest Nigeria on intestinal bacterial population of dogs undergoing partial, non-laparoscopic gastrectomy. Using conventional quantitative and qualitative microbial culture procedures, the total bacterial populations were mostly too numerous to count (TNTC before gastrectomy but log103-105 cfu/mL after, while control were log 105-107 cfu/mL after gastrectomy. On general-purpose, special, differential and selective culture media, total bacterial counts with increasing post-operative days were- amoxicillin (11 mg/kg day 4: log 105-10-9/TNTC cfu/mL vs. day 8: log 103-105 cfu/mL; cefotaxime (25 mg/kg day 4: log 103-108/TNTC/cfu/mL vs. day 8: log 102-105 cfu/mL; oxytetracycline (10 mg/kg day 4: log 104-109 TNTC cfu/mL vs. day 8: log 102-106 cfu/mL. Total bacterial counts of control animals were- day 4: log 105-108/TNTC cfu/mL vs. day 8: log 105-109. Total qualitative populations of predominant, easily-recoverable aerobic and anaerobic rectal canine bacteria, Bacillus, Citrobacter aerogenes, Clostridium, E. coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Salmonella, Shigella, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus and lactobacilli were significantly less after gastrectomy but reductions in post-operative bacterial populations were mostly more pronounced among the anaerobes (lactobacilli and Clostridium perfringens. No post-operative infection was recorded among all the experimental animals, including the control animals. In conclusion, this study confirmed significant reduction effect of prolonged empiric antibiotic administration on rectal (intestinal bacterial populations of experimental local dogs that had partial, non-laparoscopic gastrectomy.

  11. Interactive/automated method to count bacterial colonies

    Ribeiro, João António Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    O crescimento e manutenção de bactérias em placas de agar (placas de Petri) tem sido uma prática comum em microbiologia. O número de colónias numa cultura é normalmente contado manualmente para calcular a concentração de bactérias, no entanto, este processo é demorado, enfadonho e propenso a erros. A maioria dos sistemas automáticos de contagem, existentes na literatura; realizam a contagem de forma adequada quando as colónias estão bem espaçadas, são grandes, e de forma circular e têm um ...

  12. Plant transient counting system

    Kim, J.S.; Jeong, I.S. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2001-07-01

    This is final report of plant transient counting system which has been developed during the study of {sup P}LiM(II), 1998. 7 - 2001. 6 {sup .} Purpose of NPP transient analysis, screening of operating parameter, data acquisition through plant OACS(Operating Aid Computer System), methodology and procedure for transient analysis, methodology of fuzzy pattern study and calculation of matching ratio between present transient and standard transient pattern are described in this paper. (author) 7 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Elementary Primes Counting Methods

    Carella, N. A.

    2012-01-01

    This work proposes elementary proofs of several related primes counting problems, based on an elementary weighted sieve. The subsets of primes considered here are the followings: the subset of twin primes PT = {p and p + 2 are primes}, the subset of Germain primes PG = {p and 2p + 1 are primes}, and the subset of quadratic primes Pf = {p = n^2 + 1 primes}. These subsets of primes are widely believed to be infinite subsets of prime numbers.

  14. Fragments of approximate counting

    Buss, S.R.; Kolodziejczyk, L.. A.; Thapen, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 2 (2014), s. 496-525. ISSN 0022-4812 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : approximate counting * bounded arithmetic * ordering principle Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.541, year: 2014 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=9287274&fileId=S0022481213000376

  15. Propagating Regular Counting Constraints

    Beldiceanu, Nicolas; Flener, Pierre; Pearson, Justin; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Constraints over finite sequences of variables are ubiquitous in sequencing and timetabling. Moreover, the wide variety of such constraints in practical applications led to general modelling techniques and generic propagation algorithms, often based on deterministic finite automata (DFA) and their extensions. We consider counter-DFAs (cDFA), which provide concise models for regular counting constraints, that is constraints over the number of times a regular-language pattern occurs in a sequen...

  16. Counting supersymmetric branes

    Kleinschmidt, A.

    2011-01-01

    Maximal supergravity solutions are revisited and classified, with particular emphasis on objects of co-dimension at most two. This class of solutions includes branes whose tension scales with g_s^{-\\sigma} for \\sigma>2. We present a group theory derivation of the counting of these objects based on the corresponding tensor hierarchies derived from E11 and discrete T- and U-duality transformations. This provides a rationale for the wrapping rules that were recently discussed for \\sigma

  17. Bacterial rheotaxis.

    Marcos; Fu, Henry C; Powers, Thomas R; Stocker, Roman

    2012-03-27

    The motility of organisms is often directed in response to environmental stimuli. Rheotaxis is the directed movement resulting from fluid velocity gradients, long studied in fish, aquatic invertebrates, and spermatozoa. Using carefully controlled microfluidic flows, we show that rheotaxis also occurs in bacteria. Excellent quantitative agreement between experiments with Bacillus subtilis and a mathematical model reveals that bacterial rheotaxis is a purely physical phenomenon, in contrast to fish rheotaxis but in the same way as sperm rheotaxis. This previously unrecognized bacterial taxis results from a subtle interplay between velocity gradients and the helical shape of flagella, which together generate a torque that alters a bacterium's swimming direction. Because this torque is independent of the presence of a nearby surface, bacterial rheotaxis is not limited to the immediate neighborhood of liquid-solid interfaces, but also takes place in the bulk fluid. We predict that rheotaxis occurs in a wide range of bacterial habitats, from the natural environment to the human body, and can interfere with chemotaxis, suggesting that the fitness benefit conferred by bacterial motility may be sharply reduced in some hydrodynamic conditions. PMID:22411815

  18. Total-Count Calibration Blocks for use in uranium Exploration

    Løvborg, Leif

    Transportable calibration blocks for field scintillometers and borehole probes were manufactured from concrete and installed at calibration sites in Denmark and Greece. The concrete mixes were prepared from aggregates of quartz sand and crushed uranium-thorium ore. Hater-reducing agents and silica...

  19. Automatic counting of nuclear tracks for improvement in neutron dosimetry

    In this paper, two versions of a software packages designed and developed for automatic counting of nuclear tracks, have been compared. The image processing stages in the first version include: acquisition of grey-scale images of the surface of the detector with tracks, segmentation to generate the binary image, automatic track counting by blob analysis approach to get the total count, removal of spurious features like scratches and digs which can be mistaken for nuclear tracks, obtaining the gross count and finally arriving at the net count after accounting for the tracks formed due to background radiation. The count of tracks is proportional to neutron dose. The first version software shows dose linearity up to 5mSv. Beyond this dose level, overlapping of tracks takes place and total number of actual tracks are underestimated. The second version software is an upgraded one which possesses all the features of the first. Only, the track counting step has been modified to get a more accurate count under higher level of radiation dose. This is achieved by resolving the tracks where two/more tracks overlap. The algorithm is based on object boundary computation, contour smoothing, polygonal cum circular/elliptic arc fitting and sub-pixel edge detection filtering. Testing revealed that the first version counts overlapping tracks as single object resulting in a lower track count. The latter version accounts for the touching/overlapping tracks separately, thus extending the applicability of the software to high dose scenario. (author)

  20. Laboratory testing protocol to identify critical factors in bacterial compliance monitoring.

    Abbaszadegan, M; Ghatpande, P; Brereton, J; Alum, A; Narasimhan, R

    2003-01-01

    This research focused on providing guidelines for water utilities on the collection and handling of routine bacteriological samples and in developing scientifically-based approaches in selecting the most representative sampling locations. A laboratory-scale pilot distribution system was designed comprising two parallel loops, one using unlined cast-iron pipe and one using PVC pipe. Each loop contained six sampling ports, including (1) a distribution main dead end faucet, (2) one long (5.5 m; 18 feet) and (3) one short (0.3 m; 1 foot) household copper service line with threaded hose-bibb taps, (4) one hose-bibb with welded faucet, (5) one dedicated sampling port (modeled after a manufacturer's specifications) and (6) one laboratory-style (PVC) stop-cock sampling port. Residual chlorine concentrations were maintained at 0, 0.5, 1.5 and 2.0 mg/L stages during the course of the experiment. Bacterial samples were collected from the different sampling ports and assayed by membrane filtration and/or spread plate. Nutrient and R2A agars were used for heterotrophic plate counts (HPC), m-Endo agar for total coliform (TC) counts and Chromocult agar for injured bacterial analyses. Several methods of sample collection were tested using various combinations of flushing and tap disinfection, including "first flush" (no flushing, without tap disinfection), flushing only, tap disinfection only (using alcohol or hypochlorite solution) and flushing coupled with tap disinfection. The results indicated that the bacterial counts in samples drawn from dead ends were not significantly different from counts in samples from the other sample port configurations. First flush samples consistently produced the highest bacterial count results. Bacterial counts in samples from the long household copper service line were typically three orders of magnitude higher than in samples from the other sample ports. Thus, there is evidence that long copper household service connections may be unsuitable sample tap configurations for collecting samples intended to represent microbial quality in the distribution system. PMID:12639017

  1. The right to count does not always count

    Sodemann, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The best prescription against illness is learning to read and to count. People who are unable to count have a harder time learning to read. People who have difficulty counting make poorer decisions, are less able to combine information and are less likely to have a strategy for life...

  2. Bacterial adenosine triphosphate as a measure of urinary tract infection

    Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L.

    1971-01-01

    Procedure detects and counts bacteria present in urine samples. Method also determines bacterial levels in other aqueous body fluids including lymph fluid, plasma, blood, spinal fluid, saliva and mucous.

  3. Petrifilm plates for enumeration of bacteria counts in goat milk

    PetrifilmTM Aerobic Count (AC) and Coliform Count (CC) plates were validated against standard methods for enumeration of coliforms, total bacteria, and psychrotrophic bacteria in raw (n = 39) and pasteurized goat milk (n = 17) samples. All microbiological data were transformed into log form and sta...

  4. Methodological limitations of counting total leukocytes and thrombocytes in reptiles (Amazon turtle, Podocnemis expansa: an analysis and discussion Limitações metodológicas de contagens de leucócitos e trombócitos totais em répteis (tartaruga da Amazônia, Podocnemis expansa: uma análise e discussão

    Marcos Tavares-Dias

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare three different methods for counting white blood cells [WBC] (Natt and Herrick method, estimation with 1,000 and 2,000 erythrocytes and three methods for counting total thrombocytes [TT] (Wojtaszek method, estimation with 1,000 and 2,000 erythrocytes in a South American freshwater turtle species, Podocnemis expansa, Schweigger 1812 (Reptilia, Pelomedusidae. Direct WBC counts using the Natt and Herrick method showed limitations, which are discussed here. The WBC and TT counts using 1,000 erythrocytes from blood smears are not recommended for Amazon turtles nor other reptilian species, since wide variation in counts can be observed. Estimation methods for determining WBC and TT based on 2,000 erythrocytes of blood smears were most acceptable because they allow a differentiation between leukocytes and thrombocytes and also had a smaller variation. The methods investigated here for the Amazon turtle, which have been widely used in other reptile species, provided evidence that the most acceptable method is not that of using diluted stains and a hemocytometer.O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar três diferentes métodos para contar leucócitos totais [LT] (método de Natt & Herrick, de estimação em 1000 e 2000 eritrócitos e três métodos para contar trombócitos totais [TT] ( método de Wojtaszek, de estimação em 1000 e 2000 eritrócitos em uma espécie de tartaruga de água doce da América do Sul, Podocnemis expansa, Schweigger 1812 (Reptilia, Pelomedusidae. As contagens diretas de LT usando o método de Natt & Herrick mostraram limitações que são aqui discutidas. As contagens de LT e TT usando estimativa em 1000 eritrócitos na extensão sanguínea não são recomendadas para tartaruga-da-Amazônia nem para outras espécies de répteis, pois houve ampla variação nestas contagens. Os métodos para determinar LT e TT baseados em 2000 eritrócitos nas extensões sanguíneas foram mais aceitáveis porque eles permitem uma diferenciação entre leucócitos e trombócitos, além disso, teve uma variação menor. Os métodos aqui investigados para tartaruga-da-Amazônia, os quais são amplamente usados em outras espécies de répteis, proveram evidências de que o método mais aceitável não é o que usa corantes diluentes e um hemocitômetro.

  5. Counting plane Mumford curves

    Bradley, Patrick Erik

    2008-01-01

    A $p$-adic version of Gromov-Witten invariants for counting plane curves of genus $g$ and degree $d$ through a given number of points is discussed. The multiloop version of $p$-adic string theory considered by Chekhov and others motivates us to ask how many of these curves are Mumford curves, i.e.\\ uniformisable by a domain at the boundary of the Bruhat-Tits tree for $\\PGL_2(\\mathbb{Q}_p)$. Generally, the number of Mumford curves depends on the position of the given points in $\\mathbb{P}^2$. ...

  6. Automatic track countings

    For convenient utilization of track detectors, results must be obtained quickly, so automatic processes are usually employed. To this end two techniques are investigated: spark counter and quantimet system. The first one is appropriate for low densities (below 4000 tracks/cm2); for densities between 4000 tracks/cm2 and 2.2 x 105 tracks/cm2 counting is performed with a Cambridge Quantimet 720; for higher densities, two different methods are described which take into account the overlapping of tracks. (author)

  7. Bacterial clearance in the intact and regenerating liver

    The Kupffer cells in the liver play an important role in reticuloendothelial system (RES) function by clearing particulate matter and bacteria from the blood stream. While hepatocyte regeneration and function have been extensively studied following partial hepatectomy, little information is available concerning RES function in the regenerating liver. This study investigates hepatic RES function by evaluating bacterial clearance (live E. coli) in the intact and regenerating liver. Thirty-four young male Sprague Dawley rats were studied. Twenty-two animals underwent a standard 70% partial hepatectomy using ligature technique and 12 had a sham operation. Both groups of rats received 10(9) organism of 35S labeled E coli, intravenously at 24 hours, 72 hours, 2 1/2 weeks, and 6 weeks postoperatively. Rats were killed 10 minutes following injection and liver, lung, spleen, and kidney harvested, fixed, and radioactivity was determined using a scintillation spectrometer interfaced with a micro-computer counting the 35S radiolabel. The total organ count of trapped bacteria in liver in partially hepatectomized rats was lower than intact controls at 24 hours, but was similar at 72 hours, 2 1/2 weeks, and 6 weeks. Partial hepatectomy increased the amount of bacterial trapping in the lung at 24 hours and 72 hours and returned to normal at 2 1/2 weeks and 6 weeks. Splenic activity was increased following hepatectomy at 2 1/2 weeks. Renal clearance was increased at 72 hours and 2 1/2 weeks

  8. Whole body counting of radon daughters

    This paper reports on five adult males that were exposed for one hour to radon and radon daughter products in an exposure chamber and subsequently measured for radon daughter product activity in the chest region by whole body counting methods. The gamma-ray detection rate was approximated by a single exponential with a 35 minute half period, consistent with the physical decay of a mixture of RaB and RaC. About half of the deposited activity was associated with internal deposition and half with external deposition on clothing, skin and hair. The average counting rate from radon daughters on clothing was 10 times the average from skin and hair. Under as well as outer clothing contributed substantially to the counting rate. A strong correlation was found between internal and external deposition indicating that total activity provides a useful index of internal deposition

  9. Counting statistics in radioactivity measurements

    The application of statistical methods to radioactivity measurement problems is analyzed in several chapters devoted successively to: the statistical nature of radioactivity counts; the application to radioactive counting of two theoretical probability distributions, Poisson's distribution law and the Laplace-Gauss law; true counting laws; corrections related to the nature of the apparatus; statistical techniques in gamma spectrometry

  10. Photon counting and Laguerre detection.

    Gagliardi, R. M.

    1972-01-01

    In this correspondence maximum-likelihood binary detection theory is applied to an incoherent optical system model employing photodetectors governed by Laguerre counting statistics. It is shown that a maximum-likelihood Laguerre detector corresponds to a count comparison over each signaling interval. Laguerre error probabilities are presented and compared with those for Poisson counting.

  11. Bacterial Adhesion & Blocking Bacterial Adhesion

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

    2008-01-01

    tract to the microbial flocs in waste water treatment facilities. Microbial biofilms may however also cause a wide range of industrial and medical problems, and have been implicated in a wide range of persistent infectious diseases, including implantassociated microbial infections. Bacterial adhesion is...... the first committing step in biofilm formation, and has therefore been intensely scrutinized. Much however, still remains elusive. Bacterial adhesion is a highly complex process, which is influenced by a variety of factors. In this thesis, a range of physico-chemical, molecular and environmental...... parameters, which influence the transition from a planktonic lifestyle to a sessile lifestyle, have been studied. Protein conditioning film formation was found to influence bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation considerable, and an aqueous extract of fish muscle tissue was shown to...

  12. Bacterial Ecology

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial ecology is concerned with the interactions between bacteria and their biological and nonbiological environments and with the role of bacteria in biogeochemical element cycling. Many fundamental properties of bacteria are consequences of their small size. Thus, they can efficiently exploit...

  13. Counting RG flows

    Gukov, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    Interpreting renormalization group flows as solitons interpolating between different fixed points, we ask various questions that are normally asked in soliton physics but not in renormalization theory. Can one count RG flows? Are there different "topological sectors" for RG flows? What is the moduli space of an RG flow, and how does it compare to familiar moduli spaces of (supersymmetric) dowain walls? Analyzing these questions in a wide variety of contexts — from counting RG walls to AdS/CFT correspondence — will not only provide favorable answers, but will also lead us to a unified general framework that is powerful enough to account for peculiar RG flows and predict new physical phenomena. Namely, using Bott's version of Morse theory we relate the topology of conformal manifolds to certain properties of RG flows that can be used as precise diagnostics and "topological obstructions" for the strong form of the C-theorem in any dimension. Moreover, this framework suggests a precise mechanism for how the violation of the strong C-theorem happens and predicts "phase transitions" along the RG flow when the topological obstruction is non-trivial. Along the way, we also find new conformal manifolds in well-known 4d CFT's and point out connections with the superconformal index and classifying spaces of global symmetry groups.

  14. Do your syringes count?

    Full text: This study was designed to investigate anecdotal evidence that residual Sestamibi (MIBI) activity vaned in certain situations. For rest studies different brands of syringes were tested to see if the residuals varied. The period of time MIBI doses remained in the syringe between dispensing and injection was also considered as a possible source of increased residual counts. Stress Mibi syringe residual activities were measured to assess if the method of stress test affected residual activity. MIBI was reconstituted using 13 Gbq of Technetium in 3mls of normal saline then boiled for 10 minutes. Doses were dispensed according to department protocol and injected via cannula. Residual syringes were collected for three syringe types. In each case the barrel and plunger were measured separately. As the syringe is flushed during the exercise stress test and not the pharmacological stress test the chosen method was recorded. No relationship was demonstrated between the time MIBI remained in a syringe prior to injection and residual activity. Residual activity was not affected by method of stress test used. Actual injected activity can be calculated if the amount of activity remaining in the syringe post injection is known. Imaging time can be adjusted for residual activity to optimise count statistics. Preliminary results in this study indicate there is no difference in residual activity between syringe brands.Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  15. Breast carcinoma vascularity: a comparison of manual microvessel count and Chalkley count.

    Dhakal, Hari Prasad; Bassarova, Assia; Naume, Bjrn; Synnestvedt, Marit; Borgen, Elin; Kaaresen, Rolf; Schlichting, Ellen; Wiedswang, Gro; Giercksky, Karl-Erik; Nesland, Jahn M

    2009-08-01

    Manual counting of microvessels as intratumoral microvessel density (MVD) and Chalkley counting have been used in several studies to assess the prognostic impact of vascularity in invasive breast carcinomas. In our present study, the aim was to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis in invasive breast carcinoma assessed by MVD and Chalkley techniques in the same series of patients. A total of 498 breast carcinoma patients with median follow up time 85 months were evaluated. The tumour vascularity was quantified by both manual microvessel count (MVD) and Chalkley count in CD34 stained breast carcinoma slides by a single investigator blinded to clinical information. Other relevant clinicopathological parameters were noted, including breast cancer related death and both loco-regional and systemic relapse. The patients were stratified by converting MVD and Chalkley counts to categorical variables to assess prognostic impact, and results were compared. High vascular grades using MVD count did not demonstrate any prognostic significance for breast cancer specific survival (BCSS) or distant disease free survival (DDFS) either in whole patient group (BCSS, p=0.517, DDFS, p=0.301) or in non-treated node negative patients (p>0.05). Chalkley count showed prognostic significance for both DDFS and BCSS in whole patient group (p<0.001) and also in untreated node negative patient group (p<0.05). In multivariate analysis, Chalkley count, but not MVD, retained the prognostic value for BCSS (p=0.007) and DDFS (p=0.014). The Chalkley count for assessing angiogenesis in invasive breast carcinomas demonstrated prognostic value. The Chalkley method appears to be the better method in estimating the prognostic impact of vascularity in invasive breast carcinomas. PMID:19554512

  16. Neutral sugar composition and gravimetric yield of plant and bacterial fractions of feces.

    Cabotaje, L M; López-Guisa, J M; Shinnick, F L; Marlett, J A

    1990-06-01

    Separating dietary fiber from other polysaccharides in digesta and feces is necessary to understand its mechanisms of action. A gravimetric method that separates fecal plant and bacterial matter based on size and density was evaluated and modified to determine the plant and bacterial mass of lyophilized whole and blended rat and human feces. Three screen mech combinations (150 and 75 microns, 150 and 35 microns, 35 microns) were used with rat feces. Filtration of a homogenized rat fecal slurry sequentially through 150- and 35-microns-mesh screens versus 150- and 75-microns-mesh screens decreased the gravimetric recovery of bacteria from congruent to 35 to congruent to 25% of fecal dry weight and increased the plant fraction weight. Neutral sugar composition, determined by gas chromatography of alditol acetates, and bacterial counts of the fractions suggested that the decreased yield of bacterial fraction represented removal of plant material and not a loss of bacteria. Rat excreta contained 29.5% (dry weight) total neutral sugar, 88% of which was recovered in the plant material. Human feces containing wheat bran, fractionated with the 150- and 35-microns-mesh screens, was 21% neutral sugar, congruent to 65% of which was in the plant fraction. The plant fractions had more xylose and arabinose and less glucose than the bacterial fractions. Processing samples in a Waring blender had no adverse effect on the rat or human fecal bacterial counts. The use of this gravimetric method in combination with the sugar analysis of the fractions provided a better measure of plant and bacteria than only gravimetric yield. PMID:2200340

  17. Optimal Staining and Sample Storage Time for Direct Microscopic Enumeration of Total and Active Bacteria in Soil with Two Fluorescent Dyes

    Yu, W; Dodds, W. K.; Banks, M K; Skalsky, J; Strauss, E. A.

    1995-01-01

    Direct counting techniques, first developed for aquatic samples, can be used to enumerate bacteria in soil and groundwater sediments. Two fluorescent dyes, 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) for actively respiring bacteria and 4(prm1),6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) for total bacteria, were tested for their usefulness in epifluorescent direct bacterial enumeration in soil. Both dyes can be used for the same soil sample without affecting enumeration results. Staining for 8 h with...

  18. 100-Mc counting system

    A complete 100-Mc counting system is described for use in experiments with accelerators. Current-switching logic, using both transistors and germanium tunnel diodes, is used for all high-speed logic. All critical circuits have a rise-time and time-jitter of 2 ns or less. The logical elements are a pulse-height limiter, a discriminator, a multichannel coincidence circuit, a four-fold fanout, and a scale of 8. The fanout enables a limiter or discriminator output to drive any combination of four elements. Each element is a separate plug-in module. Elements are interconnected by a 50-? cable with at least one termination. Most module inputs and outputs are compatible so that, for example, a discriminator can either drive or be driven from a coincidence circuit by switching cables. To insure reliable high-speed operation and good time and temperature stability the transistors were operated at unity change-gain either in a current-switching mode or in a linear mode as a distributed amplifier. Each tunnel diode provided an additional switching charge-gain of from 2 to 5 with the same stability and bandpass as the transistors. Each module was designed for operation up to a continuous counting rate of 100 megapulses per second. High system duty cycles were made possible by DC interconnections and by double-delay-line clipping for recovery between pulses. No loss in system performance is anticipated for counting rates to 50 Mc. The basic discriminator has a sensitivity adjustable from 2 to 10 mA with a DC-Coupled output of 10 mA at ground potential. Output rise and fall times are 1 ns; pulse width is set by delay cable; maximum output duty cycle is 50% for 95% input recovery. Time jitter from threshold firing to three times that level is 2 ns or less. A more sophisticated version has 10 times the sensitivity. It has a distributed amplifier and a switching chain of two tunnel diodes. Output specifications are the same. Other logic systems for discriminators will also be discussed. The scale of 8 has tunnel diode binaries. These are (unconventionally) steered with ordinary diodes. (author)

  19. Fitting a distribution to miccrobial counts: making sense of zeros

    Ribeiro Duarte, Ana Sofia; Stockmarr, Anders; Nauta, Maarten

    Non-detects or left-censored results are inherent to the traditional methods of microbial enumeration in foods. Typically, a low concentration of microorganisms in a food unit goes undetected in plate counts or most probable number (MPN) counts, and produces “artificial zeros”. However, these...... “artificial zeros” are only a share of the total number of zero counts resulting from a sample, as their number adds up to the number of “true zeros” resulting from uncontaminated units. In the process of fitting a probability distribution to microbial counts, “artificial” and “true” zeros are usually...... standard deviation) and the prevalence of contaminated food units (one minus the proportion of “true zeros”) from a set of microbial counts. By running the model with in silico generated concentration and count data, we could evaluate the performance of this method in terms of estimation of the three...

  20. Heterotrophic plate count methodology in the United States.

    Reasoner, Donald J

    2004-05-01

    In the United States (US), the history of bacterial plate counting (BPC) methods used for water can be traced largely through Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (Standard Methods). The bacterial count method has evolved from the original Standard Methods (1st edition, 1905) plate count which used nutrient gelatin and incubation at 20 degrees C for 48 h, to the HPC method options in the latest edition of Standard Methods that provide greater flexibility of application, depending on the data needs of the water analyst. The use of agar-agar as a gelling agent, replacing gelatin, allowed the use of higher incubation temperatures and resulted in the "body temperature count" (37 degrees C) found in the 3rd through the 8th edition of Standard Methods. The change from 37 degrees C incubation to 35+/-0.5 degrees C accommodated laboratories that did both milk and water analyses. By using a single temperature, fewer incubators were needed. The term "standard plate count" (SPC) first appeared in 1960 (11th edition) along with plate count agar. Incubation at 20 degrees C for the plate count was dropped from the 13th to 15th editions and few changes were made in the SPC method from the 11th edition through the 13th editions. Plate count analysis of bottled waters was included in the 14th edition (1975), calling for incubation at 35+/-0.5 degrees C for 72+/-4 h. Perhaps the most significant changes in plate count methods occurred with the 16th edition (1985). The term heterotrophic plate count replaced the standard plate count, and the spread plate (SP) and membrane filter (MF) methods were added along with new media for pour and spread plates (R2A agar and NWRI agar, both low nutrient) and for the membrane filter method (mHPC medium). The use of low nutrient media, lower incubation temperature, and longer incubation times, results in higher plate count results for most water samples. The options currently available, including low and high nutrient media, incubation temperatures (20 degrees C, 28 degrees C or 35 degrees C), plating methods (pour plate (PP), spread plate and membrane filter) and range of incubation times (24, 48, 72 h and 5-7 days) provide great flexibility in the application of the HPC analysis to drinking water. PMID:15145589

  1. Heavy metals effect on bacterial communities from coastal sediments.

    Modamio, X; Mallo, S

    1984-01-01

    The effects of heavy metals on bacterial communities of sea sediments are studied. Samples were taken from a very polluted zone near Barcelona. Bacterial populations were estimated by the plate count method, using culture medium amended with heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Cr and Cu). The authors have also made a numerical taxonomy study with a hundred resistant strains, using 129 unit characters.

  2. Bacterial cellulose/boehmite composites

    Composites based on bacterial cellulose membranes and boehmite were obtained. SEM results indicate that the bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes are totally covered by boehmite and obtained XRD patterns suggest structural changes due to this boehmite addition. Thermal stability is accessed through TG curves and is dependent on boehmite content. Transparency is high comparing to pure BC as can be seen through UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. (author)

  3. Bacterial cellulose/boehmite composites

    Salvi, Denise T.B. de; Barud, Hernane S.; Messaddeq, Younes; Ribeiro, Sidney J.L. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho. UNESP. Instituto de Quimica de Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Caiut, Jose Mauricio A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo. Departamento de Quimica - FFCLRP/USP, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Composites based on bacterial cellulose membranes and boehmite were obtained. SEM results indicate that the bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes are totally covered by boehmite and obtained XRD patterns suggest structural changes due to this boehmite addition. Thermal stability is accessed through TG curves and is dependent on boehmite content. Transparency is high comparing to pure BC as can be seen through UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. (author)

  4. Count-Min Tree Sketch: Approximate counting for NLP

    Pitel, Guillaume; Fouquier, Geoffroy; Marchand, Emmanuel; Mouhamadsultane, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    The Count-Min Sketch is a widely adopted structure for approximate event counting in large scale processing. In a previous work we improved the original version of the Count-Min-Sketch (CMS) with conservative update using approximate counters instead of linear counters. These structures are computationaly efficient and improve the average relative error (ARE) of a CMS at constant memory footprint. These improvements are well suited for NLP tasks, in which one is interested by the low-frequenc...

  5. Bacterial sensitivity to fosfomycin in pregnant women with urinary infection

    Rodrigo Batista Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim this study was to determine the in vitrosusceptibility to fosfomycin of bacteria isolated from urine samples of pregnant women with urinary tract infection. Samples of urine culture with bacterial growth of pregnant women were collected from clinical laboratories in Tubarão, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, between September 2012 and May 2013. In the experimental stage, the colonies were tested for sensitivity to fosfomycin by using the Kirby-Bauer method. The following information relating to the samples was also collected: patients' age, colony count, type(s of identified bacterial(s and result of the antimicrobial sensitivity test. Student's t-test was used for mean comparison. A total of 134 samples were selected for the study. The age of the subjects ranged from 15 to 40 years (mean 26.7. Escherichia coli(Gram-negative and Staphylococcus aureus(Gram-positive were the most commonly identified species. In 89% of cases, the microorganisms were sensitive to fosfomycin. E. coliand S. aureuswere the main species of bacteria responsible for urinary tract infections in women in the study area. The most prevalent microorganisms in pregnant women with urinary tract infection were susceptible to fosfomycin.

  6. Application of neutron multiplicity counting to waste assay

    This paper describes the use of a new figure of merit code that calculates both bias and precision for coincidence and multiplicity counting, and determines the optimum regions for each in waste assay applications. A tunable multiplicity approach is developed that uses a combination of coincidence and multiplicity counting to minimize the total assay error. An example is shown where multiplicity analysis is used to solve for mass, alpha, and multiplication and tunable multiplicity is shown to work well. The approach provides a method for selecting coincidence, multiplicity, or tunable multiplicity counting to give the best assay with the lowest total error over a broad spectrum of assay conditions

  7. Bacterial and toxic pollutants in lakes of river Indus

    Indus river water gets polluted through three sources viz., municipal wastewater, industrial wastewater and agricultural runoff through drainage structure. The lakes in Sindh (fed by the river Indus), constitute the important source of drinking water, recreation and fish, etc. and offer employment for many. A large number of chemicals that either exist naturally in the land dissolve in the water, or human excreta added due to human activity thereby, contaminating and leading to various diseases. In order to assess the microbial contamination, detection of pollutant indicator organisms (coliform group), using Coliform test was performed by Most Probable Number technique and total bacterial count by Pour Plate method. The level of various heavy metals (arsenic, calcium, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, mercury, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium, selenium and zinc) and electrolytes (Cl/sup -1/, HCO/sub 3/sup -1/) was monitored in water and fish meat samples collected from Haleji and Keenjhar lakes to assess the impact of toxic pollutants. Metal concentrations in water and fish samples were estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Total coliform organisms were found in both the lake water samples, exceeded in 38% samples than the acceptable limits, while total average aerobic bacterial count analyzed in both the lakes was 102 CFU/ml - 1010 CFU/ml. Toxic chemical contaminants were estimated below the detection limit, while other several (essential) metal ions were found within the range set by WHO, except arsenic, cadmium and iron that exceeded slightly in 12.5% water samples. This study was designed to ensure the access of safe and potable water to urban and rural areas of Sindh. Further, the findings will help public/private enterprises and public health institutions to work for the people health friendly policies. (author)

  8. Procalcitonin as a marker of bacterial infection Review

    Çelebi, Gönen; Taştan, Yücel

    2002-01-01

    Because of the early diagnosis and treatment of bacterial infection markedly improves the outcome the use of nonspecific screening tests for assesment of the potentially infected patient are often employed Inflammatory markers currently in use such as leucocyte count C reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate do not reliably differentiate between bacterial and viral infection The ability to screen for bacterial infection has been evolving over time Procalcitonin is a newer marker o...

  9. Total algorithms

    Tel, G.

    1993-01-01

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of distributed algorithms. For some important network control problems it can be shown that an algorithm solving it is necessarily total, and that any total algorithm can solve the problem. We study some to...

  10. Bacterial contamination in Saeng-go-gi, a ready-to-eat fresh raw beef dish sold in restaurants in South Korea.

    Park, Myoung Su; Moon, Jin San; Todd, Ewen C D; Bahk, Gyung Jin

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the bacterial contamination levels in ready-to-eat fresh raw beef, Saeng-go-gi in Korean, sold in restaurants. A total of 462 samples were analyzed by performing an aerobic bacterial plate count, a coliform count, and an Escherichia coli O157:H7 count. Aerobic bacterial plate counts of fresh raw beef obtained from Seoul, Cheonan, Daegu, Gunsan, and Gwangju retail store restaurants were 6.46, 6.89, 6.39, 6.58, and 6.67 log CFU/g, respectively, and coliforms were 4.05, 4.97, 4.76, 3.62, and 3.32 log CFU/g, respectively. Among the 462 assessed samples, suspected E. coli O157:H7 colonies were found in 32, 24, 20, 22, and 16 samples obtained from Seoul, Cheonan, Daegu, Gunsan, and Gwangju, respectively. The identity of these isolated colonies was further assessed by using a latex agglutination kit. The agglutination assay data showed that the isolates were not E. coli O157:H7. The data from this study could be used to design better food handling practices for reducing foodborne illnesses linked to fresh raw beef consumption. PMID:25719891

  11. LAWRENCE RADIATION LABORATORY COUNTING HANDBOOK

    Group, Nuclear Instrumentation

    1966-10-01

    The Counting Handbook is a compilation of operational techniques and performance specifications on counting equipment in use at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Berkeley. Counting notes have been written from the viewpoint of the user rather than that of the designer or maintenance man. The only maintenance instructions that have been included are those that can easily be performed by the experimenter to assure that the equipment is operating properly.

  12. SUMS Counts-Related Projects

    Social Security Administration — Staging Instance for all SUMs Counts related projects including: Redeterminations/Limited Issue, Continuing Disability Resolution, CDR Performance Measures, Initial...

  13. Multivariate ultrametric root counting

    Avendano, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Let $K$ be a field, complete with respect to a discrete non-archimedian valuation and let $k$ be the residue field. Consider a system $F$ of $n$ polynomial equations in $K\\vars$. Our first result is a reformulation of the classical Hensel's Lemma in the language of tropical geometry: we show sufficient conditions (semiregularity at $w$) that guarantee that the first digit map $\\delta:(K^\\ast)^n\\to(k^\\ast)^n$ is a one to one correspondence between the solutions of $F$ in $(K^\\ast)^n$ with valuation $w$ and the solutions in $(k^\\ast)^n$ of the initial form system ${\\rm in}_w(F)$. Using this result, we provide an explicit formula for the number of solutions in $(K^\\ast)^n$ of a certain class of systems of polynomial equations (called regular), characterized by having finite tropical prevariety, by having initial forms consisting only of binomials, and by being semiregular at any point in the tropical prevariety. Finally, as a consequence of the root counting formula, we obtain the expected number of roots in $(K...

  14. Making environmental DNA count.

    Kelly, Ryan P

    2016-01-01

    The arc of reception for a new technology or method - like the reception of new information itself - can pass through predictable stages, with audiences' responses evolving from 'I don't believe it', through 'well, maybe' to 'yes, everyone knows that' to, finally, 'old news'. The idea that one can sample a volume of water, sequence DNA out of it, and report what species are living nearby has experienced roughly this series of responses among biologists, beginning with the microbial biologists who developed genetic techniques to reveal the unseen microbiome. 'Macrobial' biologists and ecologists - those accustomed to dealing with species they can see and count - have been slower to adopt such molecular survey techniques, in part because of the uncertain relationship between the number of recovered DNA sequences and the abundance of whole organisms in the sampled environment. In this issueof Molecular Ecology Resources, Evans etal. () quantify this relationship for a suite of nine vertebrate species consisting of eight fish and one amphibian. Having detected all of the species present with a molecular toolbox of six primer sets, they consistently find DNA abundances are associated with species' biomasses. The strength and slope of this association vary for each species and each primer set - further evidence that there is no universal parameter linking recovered DNA to species abundance - but Evans and colleagues take a significant step towards being able to answer the next question audiences tend to ask: 'Yes, but how many are there?' PMID:26768195

  15. Photomultipliers for Tritium Counting

    The use of liquid scintillators in which a tritiumlabelled compound is dispersed requires a photomultiplier tube which will give primary signals of amplitude as great as possible. Since the average energy per disintegration is about 5 keV, a large proportion of events will give only one or two photoelectrons from the tube cathode; and these must be distinguished from the thermionic electrons of the tube background. The paper discusses the development of tubes giving a high ratio of photosensitivity to dark counts and shows that improvements obtained by a combination of processing and geometry changes give satisfactory performance at room temperature with a single tube arrangement. Efficiencies around 15% in toluene solution with a tube background of between 30 and 180 cpm are readily obtainable. The advantages of cooling and the problem of obtaining the best performance from a coincidence arrangement, with particular reference to the phenomen of ''talk back'', are discussed. The fundamental aspects of dark emission in photomultiplier tubes are considered in the light of the discussion, and predictions regarding ultimate performance are hazarded. (author)

  16. Gamma radiation effects on bacterial contamination and organoleptic characteristics of frozen Ponaeus Monodon

    The aim of this study was the application of irradiation process to decrease bacterial contamination of the penaeus monodon. The shrimp samples were obtained from Hormozgan and were sent to the microbiological laboratory. Bacterial contamination of shrimp were determined by counting the aerobic mesophil bacteria, Staphylococcus areus, Coliforms, Vibrio. parahaemolyticus and Salmonella. The shrimp samples were irradiated at different doses of gamma ray. Finally, the optimum dose of the gamma ray for bacterial decontamination of shrimp, especially of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus, was obtained to be 2 kGy. Also, the chemical factors of irradiated and non-irradiated samples such as Protein, Fat, total volatile Nitrogen, Non Protein Nitrogen, Peroxide Value and Amino Acids were measured. There were not any important difference among them. Also, there were not any significant difference between total volatile Nitrogen and Peroxide Value (P>0.05) for the irradiated and non-irradiated shrimp samples. Study of bacterial contaminations of the irradiated and non irradiated samples after 12 months showed that irradiation by 2 kGy can control the microbial contaminations. Four types of films for packaging: Pet.pe, Pp.pe, Bopp, and Pe.20 were used for storage of the irradiated and non irradiated shrimp samples in-18degreeC during 12 months. All of the packages were studied on the aspects of color, odor, tissue and taste of shrimp samples and elasticity and pressing of packages. For the irradiated and non irradiated shrimp Pet.pe and Pp.pe were preferred, respectively.

  17. Total protein

    The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes of proteins found in the fluid portion of your blood. These are albumin and globulin. Proteins are important parts of all cells and tissues. ...

  18. KANDUNGAN BAKTERI TOTAL Coli DAN Escherechia coli / FECAL Coli AIR MINUM DARI DEPOT AIR MINUM ISI ULANG DI JAKARTA, TANGERANG, DAN BEKASI

    Athena Athena

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A study on drinking water quality produced by drinking water refill depots (AMIU was done in Jakarta, Tangerang and Bekasi. Analysis unit of the study was drinking water refill depots with the sample number of 38 depots. For every selected depot, laboratory analysis were done for natural water (clean water and drinking water produced by the depots. The total number of sample were 76 water samples. One of the parameters analyzed was microbiological contents, namey total coli bacterial count and Escherechia coli / fecal coli. For collecting information about the sources and storage of natural waters, drinking water treatment processes, treatment equipment, and so on, the depots operators and drinking water refill association personnel were interviewed as well as the water treatment equipment distributors. Based on the interview, it can be stated that the main principles of the water treatment processes from natural water to become drinking water in the AMIU depots were only filtration and disinfections processes. Natural water sources mostly was mountain spring water (89.5%, originated from Bogor (60.5%. and Sukabumi (26.3%. According to the results of laboratory analysis, it can be stated that the percentages of the natural water samples which were not complying with the standards of total coli bacterial count was 31.6% and that of fecal coli was 28.9%. Whereas for drinking water produced by the depots, the percentages of water samples which were not complying with the total coli bacterial count and fecal coli standards were 28.9% and 18.4% respectively. Additionally, the drinking water treatment processes were not sufficient for natural water with the high contents (around 1.600 MPN/100 ml of total coli and fecal coli bacterial.

  19. Surface Bacterial-Spore Assay Using Tb3+/DPA Luminescence

    Ponce, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    Equipment and a method for rapidly assaying solid surfaces for contamination by bacterial spores are undergoing development. The method would yield a total (nonviable plus viable) spore count of a surface within minutes and a viable-spore count in about one hour. In this method, spores would be collected from a surface by use of a transparent polymeric tape coated on one side with a polymeric adhesive that would be permeated with one or more reagent(s) for detection of spores by use of visible luminescence. The sticky side of the tape would be pressed against a surface to be assayed, then the tape with captured spores would be placed in a reader that illuminates the sample with ultraviolet light and counts the green luminescence spots under a microscope to quantify the number of bacterial spores per unit area. The visible luminescence spots seen through the microscope would be counted to determine the concentration of spores on the surface. This method is based on the chemical and physical principles of methods described in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, including Live/Dead Spore Assay Using DPA-Triggered Tb Luminescence (NPO-30444), Vol. 27, No. 3 (March 2003), page 7a. To recapitulate: The basic idea is to exploit the observations that (1) dipicolinic acid (DPA) is present naturally only in bacterial spores; and (2) when bound to Tb3+ ions, DPA triggers intense green luminescence of the ions under ultraviolet excitation; (3) DPA can be released from the viable spores by using L-alanine to make them germinate; and (4) by autoclaving, microwaving, or sonicating the sample, one can cause all the spores (non-viable as well as viable) to release their DPA. One candidate material for use as the adhesive in the present method is polydimethysiloxane (PDMS). In one variant of the method for obtaining counts of all (viable and nonviable) spores the PDMS would be doped with TbCl3. After collection of a sample, the spores immobilized on the sticky tape surface would be lysed by heating or microwaving to release their DPA. Tb3+ ions from the TbCl3 would become bound to the released DPA. The tape would then be irradiated with ultraviolet and examined as described above. In another variant of the method - for obtaining counts of viable spores only - the PDMS would be doped with L-alanine in addition to TbCl3. As now envisioned, a fully developed apparatus for implementing this method would include a pulsed source of ultraviolet light and a time-gated electronic camera to record the images seen through the microscope during a prescribed exposure interval at a prescribed short time after an ultraviolet pulse. As in the method of the second-mentioned prior article, the pulsing and time-gating would be used to discriminate between the longer-lived Tb3+/DPA luminescence and the shorter-lived background luminescence in the same wavelength range. In a time-gated image, the bright luminescence from bacterial spores could easily be seen against a dark background.

  20. Adult counting is resource demanding.

    Camos, Valrie; Barrouillet, Pierre

    2004-02-01

    Several recent studies on both the development of counting and working-memory span tasks have provided results that could be interpreted as ruling out any cognitive resource model for counting. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that, even in adults, counting is a demanding task that requires the allocation of cognitive resources. In a first experiment, we asked adults to count arrays of dots while maintaining 5 items in memory (either digits or letters). As we predicted, the concurrent memory load did not increase the rate of errors but induced longer counting times. In a second experiment, we asked adults to count using either the numeric chain or the alphabet while they maintained 1, 3 or 5 items in memory (digits or letters). First, we replicated the load effect observed in Experiment 1. Second, though both types of counting required similar amounts of time, counting with the less automatized chain (i.e. the alphabet) resulted in a poorer recall performance. Finally, this detrimental effect in recall was all the more pronounced the greater the number of items to be recalled. These results are interpreted within theoretical frameworks that consider cognitive resources as attentional capacities. PMID:15005865

  1. Integrated counting system - user guide

    The facilities of a nucleonic counting system in one module in the standard 6000 series and its use in applications is described. Details are given of ways of employing the module for the rapid and low cost development of computer-based systems in nucleonic counting applications. (author)

  2. Vote Counting as Mathematical Proof

    Schürmann, Carsten; Pattinson, Dirk

    Trust in the correctness of an election outcome requires proof of the correctness of vote counting. By formalising particular voting protocols as rules, correctness of vote counting amounts to verifying that all rules have been applied correctly. A proof of the outcome of any particular election ...

  3. Microcontroller based count rate meter

    Count rate meters are often used in reactor instrumentation which require signal processing in pulse mode. The newly developed count rate meter design is based on microcontroller and removes the most of the drawbacks faced with analog versions and has several other advantages. Its design and software is briefly described. Performance is evaluated. (author). 1 fig

  4. Hanford whole body counting manual

    This document, a reprint of the Whole Body Counting Manual, was compiled to train personnel, document operation procedures, and outline quality assurance procedures. The current manual contains information on: the location, availability, and scope of services of Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the administrative aspect of the whole body counting operation; Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the step-by-step procedure involved in the different types of in vivo measurements; the detectors, preamplifiers and amplifiers, and spectroscopy equipment; the quality assurance aspect of equipment calibration and recordkeeping; data processing, record storage, results verification, report preparation, count summaries, and unit cost accounting; and the topics of minimum detectable amount and measurement accuracy and precision. 12 refs., 13 tabs

  5. Bacterial response to siderophore and quorum-sensing chemical signals in the seawater microbial community

    Kamino Kei

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oceans are iron-deficient and nutrient-poor environments. These conditions impart limitations on our understanding of and our ability to identify microorganisms from the marine environment. However, less of knowledge on the influence of siderophores and N-acyl homoserinelactone as interspecies communication signals on the bacterial diversity of seawater has been understood. Results In the presence of 0.1 nM of the commercial siderophore desferroixamine and the known quorum-sensing chemical signals, synthetic N-(3-oxo-hexanoylhomoserine lactone (0.1 nM or N-octanoylhomoserine lactone (0.1 nM, the total numbers of bacteria in S9905 seawater increased nearly three-fold, and nearly eight-fold in S0011 seawater as determined by DAPI staining and counting, and increased three-fold by counting colony forming units in S9905 seawater after 7 days of incubation. Similar bacterial changes in bacterial abundance were observed when high concentration of desferroixamine (1 μM and each of homoserine lactone compounds (1 μM were presented in seawater samples. The number of cultivable bacterial species observed was also found to increase from 3 (without addition to 8 (with additions including three unknown species which were identified by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences. The growth of unknown species was found to be related to their siderophore production with response to the addition of desferroixamine and N-acyl homoserine lactones under iron-limited conditions. Conclusion Artificial addition of siderophores and HSLs may be a possible method to aid in the identification and isolation of marine bacterial species which are thought to be unknown.

  6. Biogeochemical controls on the bacterial population in the eastern Atlantic Ocean

    S. B. Neogi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about bacterial dynamics in the oligotrophic ocean, particularly about its cultivable population. We examined the abundance of total and cultivable bacteria in relation to changes in biogeochemical conditions in the eastern Atlantic Ocean with special regard to Vibrio spp., a group of bacteria that can cause diseases in human and aquatic organisms. Surface, deep water and plankton samples (<20 ?m, 2055 ?m and >55 ?m were collected between 50 N and 24 S. Chlorophyll-a was very low (<0.3 ?g l?1 in most areas of the nutrient-poor Atlantic, except at a few locations near upwelling regions. In surface water, dissolved organic carbon (DOC and nitrogen (DON concentrations were 6495 ?M C and 210 ?M N accounting for ?90 % and ?76 % of total organic C and N, respectively. DOC and DON gradually decreased to ~45 ?M C and <5 ?M N in the bottom water while dissolved inorganic nutrients (Si, P, N increased with depth. In the surface layer, culture independent total bacteria, represented by 4-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI counts, ranged mostly between 107 and 108 cells l?1, while cultivable bacterial counts (CBC and Vibrio spp. were found at concentrations of 104107 and 102105 colony forming units (CFU l?1, respectively. Most bacteria (>99 % were found in the nanoplankton fraction (<20 ?m, however, bacterial abundance did not correlate with suspended particulates (chlorophyll-a, particulate organic C and N. Instead, we found a highly significant correlation between bacterial abundance and temperature (p < 0.001 and a significant correlation with DOC and DON. Among the cultivable bacteria, the abundance of Vibrio was also highly significantly correlated with DOC and DON (p < 0.0005 and p < 0.005, respectively. In cold waters of the mid-pelagic and abyssal zones, CBC was 50 to 100-times lower than in the surface layer; however, cultivable Vibrio spp. could be isolated from the bathypelagic zone and even near the seafloor (average ~10 CFU l?1. In contrast, DAPI counts revealed a homogenous distribution of the non-cultivable bacterial population throughout the oceanic depths. Our study indicates that Vibrio and other bacteria may largely depend on dissolved organic matter to survive in nutrient-poor oceanic habitats, without being associated with plankton or particles.

  7. Log-supermodular functions, functional clones and counting CSPs

    Bulatov, Andrei A; Goldberg, Leslie Ann; Jerrum, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by a desire to understand the computational complexity of counting constraint satisfaction problems (counting CSPs), particularly the complexity of approximation, we study functional clones of functions on the Boolean domain, which are analogous to the familiar relational clones constituting Post's lattice. One of these clones is the collection of log-supermodular (lsm) functions, which turns out to play a significant role in classifying counting CSPs. In our study, we assume that non-negative unary functions (weights) are available. Given this, we prove that there are no functional clones lying strictly between the clone of lsm functions and the total clone (containing all functions). Thus, any counting CSP that contains a single non-lsm function is computationally as hard as any problem in #P. Furthermore, any non-trivial functional clone (in a sense that will be made precise below) contains the binary function "implies". As a consequence, all non-trivial counting CSPs (with non-negative unary wei...

  8. Bacterial hydrodynamics

    Lauga, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria predate plants and animals by billions of years. Today, they are the world's smallest cells yet they represent the bulk of the world's biomass, and the main reservoir of nutrients for higher organisms. Most bacteria can move on their own, and the majority of motile bacteria are able to swim in viscous fluids using slender helical appendages called flagella. Low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamics is at the heart of the ability of flagella to generate propulsion at the micron scale. In fact, fluid dynamic forces impact many aspects of bacteriology, ranging from the ability of cells to reorient and search their surroundings to their interactions within mechanically and chemically-complex environments. Using hydrodynamics as an organizing framework, we review the biomechanics of bacterial motility and look ahead to future challenges.

  9. Bacterial Hydrodynamics

    Lauga, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria predate plants and animals by billions of years. Today, they are the world's smallest cells, yet they represent the bulk of the world's biomass and the main reservoir of nutrients for higher organisms. Most bacteria can move on their own, and the majority of motile bacteria are able to swim in viscous fluids using slender helical appendages called flagella. Low-Reynolds number hydrodynamics is at the heart of the ability of flagella to generate propulsion at the micrometer scale. In fact, fluid dynamic forces impact many aspects of bacteriology, ranging from the ability of cells to reorient and search their surroundings to their interactions within mechanically and chemically complex environments. Using hydrodynamics as an organizing framework, I review the biomechanics of bacterial motility and look ahead to future challenges.

  10. Clinical, Laboratory and Bacterial Profile of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Chronic Liver Disease Patients

    Objective: To determine the clinical and laboratory features, bacterial profile and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis (SBP) in Chronic Liver Disease (CLD) patients presenting at a tertiary care hospital of Karachi. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: PMRC Centre for Gastroenterology and Hepatology and Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from April 2010 to March 2012. Methodology: CLD patients with ascites were recruited from PMRC Centre for Gastroenterology and Hepatology and Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi. Basic demographics, symptoms and clinical signs of patients were recorded. Patients with the history of antibiotic use within last 3 days or any intra-abdominal source of infection were excluded. Diagnostic paracentesis was done for ascitic fluid detailed report (D/R) and culture. Blood sample was collected for total leukocyte count, serum proteins and billirubin levels. Results: Out of a total 152 CLD patients, 38 (25%) were diagnosed with SBP. Eight (24.2%) patients presented with classical SBP, 20 (52.6%) had culture negative neutrocytic ascites and 10 (26%) had bacterascites. Fever, abdominal tenderness and constipation were common in SBP patients. Ascitic fluid culture was positive in 19 (50%) patients. E. coli (65%) was the predominant pathogen followed by Enterococcus species (15%). Resistance was high against cephalosporins (78%) and fluoroquinolones (69.6%) and least against amikacin (13%) and meropenem (12%). Conclusion: Ascitic fluid D/R and culture together can lead to the accurate diagnosis of SBP and can guide for the right antibiotic choice as resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotic is common in such patients. (author)

  11. Relationship of information density to pre-set counts obtained in brain, lung and liver scintigraphy

    The total number of counts required per view for brain and lung scintigraphy to achieve information or count density (CD) of 1000 counts/cm2 and 2000 counts/cm2 for liver scans was examined. To achieve these CDs, 600,000 counts per view are required for brain scans. For the lung, 500,000 counts in anterior and posterior views are required; 400,000 counts in the lateral view are sufficient. For 2000 CD in the liver scan, 600,000 counts should be obtained in the anterior view and 500,000 in the right lateral. This number of counts assures the desired CD in 97% of cases

  12. Desulfovibrio bacterial species are increased in ulcerative colitis.

    Rowan, Fiachra

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Debate persists regarding the role of Desulfovibrio subspecies in ulcerative colitis. Combined microscopic and molecular techniques enable this issue to be investigated by allowing precise enumeration of specific bacterial species within the colonic mucous gel. The aim of this study was to combine laser capture microdissection and quantitative polymerase chain reaction to determine Desulfovibrio copy number in crypt-associated mucous gel in health and in acute and chronic ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Colonic mucosal biopsies were harvested from healthy controls (n = 19) and patients with acute (n = 10) or chronic (n = 10) ulcerative colitis. Crypt-associated mucous gel was obtained by laser capture microdissection throughout the colon. Pan-bacterial 16S rRNA and Desulfovibrio copy number\\/mm were obtained by polymerase chain reaction at each locus. Bacterial copy numbers were interrogated for correlation with location and disease activity. Data were evaluated using a combination of ordinary linear methods and linear mixed-effects models to cater for multiple interactions. RESULTS: Desulfovibrio positivity was significantly increased in acute and chronic ulcerative colitis at multiple levels within the colon, and after normalization with total bacterial signal, the relative Desulfovibrio load was increased in acute colitis compared with controls. Desulfovibrio counts did not significantly correlate with age, disease duration, or disease activity but interlevel correlations were found in adjacent colonic segments in the healthy control and chronic ulcerative colitis groups. CONCLUSION: The presence of Desulfovibrio subspecies is increased in ulcerative colitis and the data presented suggest that these bacteria represent an increased percentage of the colonic microbiome in acute ulcerative colitis.

  13. High Count Rate Single Photon Counting Detector Array Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An optical communications receiver requires efficient and high-rate photon-counting capability so that the information from every photon, received at the aperture,...

  14. Evaluating Methods for Counting Aircraft Operations at Non-Towered Airports

    Muia, Maria; Johnson, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Methods for Counting Aircraft at Non-Towered Airports | This Transportation Research Board–funded project analyzed three different methods for counting aircraft operations at airports without air traffic controllers: estimating operations per based aircraft, computing a flight plan to total operations ratio, and expanding a sample count. For taking sample counts, three different technologies were evaluated: acoustical, security cameras, and video image detection with ADS-B transponder receive...

  15. White blood cell counting system

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

  16. Galaxy number counts: Pt. 1

    We present galaxy number-magnitude counts and colour distributions from objectively defined catalogues of faint (bjFj, rF and I pass-bands, determined from COSMOS machine measurements of Anglo-Australian Telescope photographs. We have recalibrated three further fields analysed in a similar way in earlier papers, and used all six to investigate the variation in count normalization from field-to-field. The new data define the mean faint galaxy number-magnitude relation to 9 per cent. The aim is to determine whether the previously observed large scatter in the faint counts is due to galaxy clustering or some other systematic effect. (author)

  17. Isolation, Characterization and Application of Bacterial Population From Agricultural Soil at Sohag Province, Egypt

    Bahig, A. E.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty soil samples of agriculture soil were collected from two different sites in Sohag province, Egypt, during hot and cold seasons. Twenty samples were from soil irrigated with canal water (site A and twenty samples were from soil irrigated with wastewater (site B. This study aimed to compare the incidence of plasmids in bacteria isolated from soil and to investigate the occurrence of metal and antibiotic resistance bacteria, and consequently to select the potential application of these bacteria in bioremediation. The total bacterial count (CFU/gm in site (B was higher than that in site (A. Moreover, the CFU values in summer were higher than those values in winter at both sites. A total of 771 bacterial isolates were characterized as Bacillus, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Eschershia, Shigella, Xanthomonas, Acetobacter, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Moraxella and Methylococcus. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of Pb+2, Cu+2, Zn+2, Hg+2, Co+2, Cd+2, Cr+3, Te+2, As+2 and Ni+2 for plasmid-possessed bacteria were determined and the highest MICs were 1200 µg/mL for lead, 800 µg/mL for both Cobalt and Arsenate, 1200 µg/mL for Nickel, 1000 µg/ml for Copper and less than 600 µg/mL for other metals. Bacterial isolates from both sites A and B showed multiple heavy metal resistance. A total of 337 bacterial isolates contained plasmids and the incidence of plasmids was approximately 25-50% higher in bacteria isolated from site (B than that from site (A. These isolates were resistance to different antibiotics. Approximately, 61% of the bacterial isolates were able to assimilate insecticide, carbaryl, as a sole source of carbon and energy. However, the Citrobacter AA101 showed the best growth on carbaryl.

  18. Detection of bacterial concentration variations based on dielectric magnetic flux.

    Chen, Jingyao; Cai, Jie; Huang, Xingjian; Yi, Tian; Wang, Kexing; Pan, Siyi

    2016-02-01

    This study is based on the development of bacterial count quantification generated by medium dielectric variations and consequent polarization material release. The proposed approach is an action method for the fast detection of bacterial concentration in orange juice. The sensing method relies on bacterial attachment up to biofilm formation. Furthermore, different media provide more oxygen group content to enhance capacitance and self-discharge. The test took only 30 min and it provided the means for rapid bacterial detection in the juice industry. PMID:26304394

  19. Growth of Microorganisms in Total Parenteral Nutrition Solutions Containing Lipid

    Takashi Kuwahara, Kazuyuki Shimono, Shinya Kaneda, Takumi Tamura, Masao Ichihara, Yoshifumi Nakashima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To identify the microorganisms that can grow rapidly in total parenteral nutrition (TPN solutions, we investigated the growth of the major causes of catheter-related blood stream infection (Staphylococcus aureus, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus cereus, and Candida albicans in TPN solutions containing lipid. Methods: The pH value of a TPN solution containing lipid (pH 6.0, containing 20 ppm of NaHSO3 was adjusted by the addition of HCl to 5.7, 5.4, or 4.9. The pH value of another TPN solution (pH5.5, containing 400 ppm of NaHSO3 was adjusted by the addition of NaOH to 5.9, 6.3, or 6.8. A specific number of each microorganism was added to 10 mL of each test solution and incubated at room temperature. The number of microorganisms was counted as colony forming units at 0, 24, and 48 hrs later. Results: C albicans increased similarly at any pH values in the TPN solution. The bacterial species also increased rapidly at pH6.0 in the solution containing 20 ppm of NaHSO3, but growth was suppressed as the pH value was reduced, with growth halted at pH4.9. However, these bacterial species did not increase, even at pH5.9, in the other solution containing 400 ppm of NaHSO3. Conclusions: These results suggest that Candida species can grow rapidly in almost all TPN solutions regardless of the acidity, lipid, and NaHSO3; also, some bacterial species may grow in TPN solutions containing lipid unless the pH value is 5.0 or less. Therefore, each TPN solution should be examined whether or not the bacterial species can proliferate.

  20. The Contribution of Capsulated Bacteria to the Total Bacterial Community in the Water Column of the Northern Marmara Sea, Küçükçekmece Lagoon and Strait of Istanbul, Turkey

    Altug, Gülsen; Bayrak, Yunus

    2003-01-01

    Abstract The contribution of capsule-bearing bacteria to the total number of bacterioplankton community was enumerated to assume the metabolically active number of bacterioplankton in the eight different water masses of the Marmara Sea, Kucukcekmece lagoon and Istanbul strait. Capsulated and non-capsulated bacteria were determined using modified the negative staining technique. Total bacteria abundance and capsulated bacteria number was compared according to sampling area. As a result c...

  1. Fundamental uncertainties in lung counting.

    Kramer, Gary H; Hauck, Barry M

    2007-10-01

    The HML has investigated the effect the uncertainty introduced into an activity estimate from a lung count due to 1) replicate counts and 2) lung set variability. Replicate counts in the HML seem to only be affected by random statistics as the uncertainty can be predicted by Monte Carlo simulations. These findings from the lung set variability experiments suggest that a lung set has an unquantified uncertainty on its activity that adds a component to the uncertainty on the counting efficiency, and ultimately the activity estimate, as they can differ by as much as 30% at 17.5 keV or about 13% at 185.7 keV, when one is expecting only a 3% difference. PMID:17846529

  2. Counting Triangles to Sum Squares

    DeMaio, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Counting complete subgraphs of three vertices in complete graphs, yields combinatorial arguments for identities for sums of squares of integers, odd integers, even integers and sums of the triangular numbers.

  3. CTC staining and counting of actively respiring bacteria in natural stone using confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    Bartosch, S; Mansch, R; Kntzsch, K; Bock, E

    2003-01-01

    A method was established for staining and counting of actively respiring bacteria in natural stone by using the tetrazolium salt 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyltetrazolium chloride (CTC) in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Applying 5 mM CTC for 2 h to pure cultures of representative stone-inhabiting microorganisms showed that chemoorganotrophic bacteria and fungi-in contrast to lithoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria-were able to reduce CTC to CTF, the red fluorescing formazan crystals of CTC. Optimal staining conditions for microorganisms in stone material were found to be 15 mM CTC applied for 24 h. The cells could be visualized on transparent and nontransparent mineral materials by means of CLSM. A semi-automated method was used to count the cells within the pore system of the stone. The percentage of CTC-stained bacteria was dependent on temperature and humidity of the material. At 28 degrees C and high humidity (maximum water holding capacity) in the laboratory, about 58% of the total bacterial microflora was active. On natural stone exposed for 9 years at an urban exposure site in Germany, 52-56% of the bacterial microflora was active at the east, west, and north side of the specimen, while only 18% cells were active at the south side. This is consistent with microclimatic differences on the south side which was more exposed to sunshine thus causing UV and water stress as well as higher temperatures on a microscale level. In combination with CLSM, staining by CTC can be used as a fast method for monitoring the metabolic activity of chemoorganotrophic bacteria in monuments, buildings of historic interest or any art objects of natural stone. Due to the small size of samples required, the damage to these objects and buildings can be minimized. PMID:12401229

  4. The Mayan Long Count Calendar

    Chanier, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The Maya were known for their astronomical proficiency. This is demonstrated in the Mayan codices where ritual practices were related to astronomical events/predictions. Whereas Mayan mathematics were based on a vigesimal system, they used a different base when dealing with long periods of time, the Long Count Calendar (LCC), composed of different Long Count Periods: the Tun of 360 days, the Katun of 7200 days and the Baktun of 144000 days. There were two other calendars used in addition to t...

  5. Citation counts in transportation research

    Hanssen, Thor-Erik Sandberg; Jørgensen, Finn

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the number of published articles, citation counts are traditionally interpreted as measures of publication merit. They are therefore used to evaluate researchers, research departments, universities and journals. Building on research conducted in scientometrics, we employ data from research articles in transportation research to investigate the influence on article citation counts of article and author characteristics in that particular field of research. Using standard OLS-reg...

  6. Counting Defective Parking Functions

    Cameron, Peter J; Prellberg, Thomas; Schweitzer, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    Suppose that $n$ drivers each choose a preferred parking space in a linear car park with $m$ spaces. Each driver goes to the chosen space and parks there if it is free, and otherwise takes the first available space with larger number (if any). If all drivers park successfully, the sequence of choices is called a parking function. In general, if $k$ drivers fail to park, we have a \\emph{defective parking function} of \\emph{defect} $k$. Let $\\cp(n,m,k)$ be the number of such functions. In this paper, we establish a recurrence relation for the numbers $\\cp(n,m,k)$, and express this as an equation for a three-variable generating function. We solve this equation using the kernel method, and extract the coefficients explicitly: it turns out that the cumulative totals are partial sums in Abel's binomial identity. Finally, we compute the asymptotics of $\\cp(n,m,k)$. In particular, for the case $m=n$, if choices are made independently at random, the limiting distribution of the defect (the number of drivers who fail t...

  7. A mind you can count on: validating breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness

    Levinson, Daniel B.; Stoll, Eli L.; Kindy, Sonam D.; Merry, Hillary L.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness practice of present moment awareness promises many benefits, but has eluded rigorous behavioral measurement. To date, research has relied on self-reported mindfulness or heterogeneous mindfulness trainings to infer skillful mindfulness practice and its effects. In four independent studies with over 400 total participants, we present the first construct validation of a behavioral measure of mindfulness, breath counting. We found it was reliable, correlated with self-reported mindfu...

  8. Metal ion levels and lymphocyte counts

    Penny, Jeannette Ø; Varmarken, Jens-Erik; Ovesen, Ole; Nielsen, Christian; Overgaard, Søren

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Wear particles from metal-on-metal arthroplasties are under suspicion for adverse effects both locally and systemically, and the DePuy ASR Hip Resurfacing System (RHA) has above-average failure rates. We compared lymphocyte counts in RHA and total hip arthroplasty (THA) an....../ppb. INTERPRETATION: Circulating T-lymphocyte levels may decline after surgery, regardless of implant type. Metal ions-particularly cobalt-may have a general depressive effect on T- and B-lymphocyte levels. Registered with ClinicalTrials.gov under # NCT01113762....... investigated whether cobalt and chromium ions affected the lymphocyte counts. METHOD: In a randomized controlled trial, we followed 19 RHA patients and 19 THA patients. Lymphocyte subsets and chromium and cobalt ion concentrations were measured at baseline, at 8 weeks, at 6 months, and at 1 and 2 years....... RESULTS: The T-lymphocyte counts for both implant types declined over the 2-year period. This decline was statistically significant for CD3(+)CD8(+) in the THA group, with a regression coefficient of -0.04 × 10(9)cells/year (95% CI: -0.08 to -0.01). Regression analysis indicated a depressive effect of...

  9. Statistical treatment of nuclear counting results

    Doli?anin ?emal B.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the exact time a specific nucleus undergoes radioactive decay cannot be specified, nor can showers caused by secondary cosmic rays be predicted, statistical laws play an important role in almost all cases of experimental nuclear physics. This paper describes the method for the statistical treatment of nuclear counting results obtained experimentally by taking into account random variables pertaining to both frequent and infrequent phenomena. When processing counting measurement data, it is recommended to first discard spurious random variables that spoil the statistics by using Chauvenets criterion, as well as to test if the results in the statistical sample follow a unique statistical distribution by using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test (U-test. The verification of the suggested statistical method was performed on counting statistics obtained both from the radioactive source Cs-137 and background radiation, expected to follow the normal distribution and the Poisson distribution, respectively. Results show that the application of the proposed statistical method excludes random fluctuations of the radioactive source or of the background radiation from the total statistical sample, as well as possible inadequacies in the experimental set-up and show an extremely effective agreement of the theoretical distribution of random variables with the corresponding experimentally obtained random variables.

  10. Monitoring of the bacterial and fungal biodiversity and dynamics during Massa Medicata Fermentata fermentation.

    Xu, Yun; Xie, Yan-Bo; Zhang, Xin-Ran; Chen, Chen; Xiang, Hongyu; Xie, Qiuhong

    2013-11-01

    The microbial community dynamics play an important role during Massa Medicata Fermentata (MMF) fermentation. In this study, bacterial and fungal communities were investigated based on the culture-dependent method and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis. Meanwhile the dynamic changes of digestive enzyme activities were also examined. Plating results showed that MMF fermentation comprised two stages: pre-fermentation stage (0-4days) was dominated by bacterial community and post-fermentation stage (5-9days) was dominated by fungal community. The amount of bacteria reached the highest copy number 1.2??10(10)CFU/g at day 2, but the fungi counts reached 6.3??10(5)CFU/g at day 9. A total of 170 isolates were closely related to genera Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Mucor, Saccharomyces, Rhodotorula, and Amylomyces. DGGE analysis showed a clear reduction of bacterial and fungal diversity during fermentation, and the dominant microbes belonged to genera Enterobacter, Pediococcus, Pseudomonas, Mucor, and Saccharomyces. Digestive enzyme assay showed filter paper activity; the activities of amylase, carboxymethyl cellulase, and lipase reached a peak at day 4; and the protease activity constantly increased until the end of the fermentation. In this study, we carried out a detailed and comprehensive analysis of microbial communities as well as four digestive enzymes' activities during MMF fermentation process. The monitoring of bacterial and fungal biodiversity and dynamics during MMF fermentation has significant potential for controlling the fermentation process. PMID:23982327

  11. Volatilization of fluorescein mercuric acetate by marine bacterial from Minamata Bay

    Nakamura, Kunihiko (National Institute for Minamata Disease, Minamata City Kumamoto (Japan))

    1989-05-01

    Some bacteria that live in a mercury-polluted environment are resistant to mercury compounds. A majority of these mercury-resistant bacterial have been found to volatilize organic as well as inorganic mercury compounds into elemental mercury vapor by means of their enzymes. One compound, fluorescein mercuric acetate (FMA) has long been in use as a disinfectant in hospitals; yet, there has been little definitive information on bacterial resistance to this compound. Minamata Bay has been heavily polluted by mercury, which has caused methylmercury poisoning in humans, called Minamata disease. Sediments from the Bay still contain high concentrations of mercury. The percentage of mercury-resistant bacteria in the total bacterial count is higher in these sediments than in those of other marine environments. FMA-pollution, however, has not been reported. Research into the mechanism of bacterial resistance to FMA will not only add to our general understanding of the ability of certain bacteria to resist mercury, but will also help in defining the role bacteria play in the mercury cycle of a mercury-polluted environment. The purpose of the present study is to determine the mechanism of resistance to FMA of the FMA-resistant bacteria living in the Bay.

  12. Bacterial concrete

    Ramakrishnan, Venkataswamy; Ramesh, K. P.; Bang, S. S.

    2001-04-01

    Cracks in concrete are inevitable and are one of the inherent weaknesses of concrete. Water and other salts seep through these cracks, corrosion initiates, and thus reduces the life of concrete. So there was a need to develop an inherent biomaterial, a self-repairing material which can remediate the cracks and fissures in concrete. Bacterial concrete is a material, which can successfully remediate cracks in concrete. This technique is highly desirable because the mineral precipitation induced as a result of microbial activities is pollution free and natural. As the cell wall of bacteria is anionic, metal accumulation (calcite) on the surface of the wall is substantial, thus the entire cell becomes crystalline and they eventually plug the pores and cracks in concrete. This paper discusses the plugging of artificially cracked cement mortar using Bacillus Pasteurii and Sporosarcina bacteria combined with sand as a filling material in artificially made cuts in cement mortar which was cured in urea and CaCl2 medium. The effect on the compressive strength and stiffness of the cement mortar cubes due to the mixing of bacteria is also discussed in this paper. It was found that use of bacteria improves the stiffness and compressive strength of concrete. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to document the role of bacteria in microbiologically induced mineral precipitation. Rod like impressions were found on the face of calcite crystals indicating the presence of bacteria in those places. Energy- dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra of the microbial precipitation on the surface of the crack indicated the abundance of calcium and the precipitation was inferred to be calcite (CaCO3).

  13. Standardization of 241Am by digital coincidence counting, liquid scintillation counting and defined solid angle counting

    Balpardo, C; Rodrigues, D; Arenillas, P

    2010-01-01

    The nuclide 241Am decays by alpha emission to 237Np. Most of the decays (84.6 %) populate the excited level of 237Np with energy of 59.54 keV. Digital Coincidence Counting was applied to standardize a solution of 241Am by alpha-gamma coincidence counting with efficiency extrapolation. Electronic discrimination was implemented with a pressurized proportional counter and the results were compared with two other independent techniques: Liquid Scintillation Counting using the logical sum of double coincidences in a TDCR array and Defined Solid Angle Counting taking into account activity inhomogeneity in the active deposit. The results show consistency between the three methods within a limit of a 0.3%. An ampoule of this solution will be sent to the International Reference System (SIR) during 2009. Uncertainties were analysed and compared in detail for the three applied methods.

  14. Evaluation of heterotrophic plate and chromogenic agar colony counting in water quality laboratories

    Gary Hallas; Paul Monis

    2015-01-01

    The enumeration of bacteria using plate-based counts is a core technique used by food and water microbiology testing laboratories. However, manual counting of bacterial colonies is both time and labour intensive, can vary between operators and also requires manual entry of results into laboratory information management systems, which can be a source of data entry error. An alternative is to use automated digital colony counters, but there is a lack of peer-reviewed validation data to allow in...

  15. Cerenkov counting as a complement to liquid scintillation counting

    A commercially available spectrometer was calibrated for liquid scintillation (LS) and Cerenkov counting efficiency (CCE) using National Institute of Standards and Technology traceable solutions. The CCE increased linearly over a 3 order of magnitude range in 40K β activity, and by 42% per MeV as β-energies increased from 0.300 to 3.54 MeV, achieving a maximum value of 80% for 106Ru/106Rh The CCE can be enhanced by 10-15% when a wavelength shifter is used. A comparison of the data showed that the CCE was typically 20-50% less than the LS counting efficiency for β-particles with maximum energies >1 MeV. Applications that utilize sequential CCE and LS counting to quantitate activity concentrations are discussed for samples containing two β-emitting nuclides of differing energies. (Author)

  16. Total inexperiencia

    Pedro Alonso

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir de la ruptura entre las diferentes ramas del arte, y de los posteriores intentos por reagrupar la disciplina en un arte total, Alonso trata de hilvanar un hilo entre esa totalidad y la ciudad. Si para los situacionistas la ciudad es el escenario último de la vida del hombre -y como tal, el marco ideal para realizar esta integración- aparece entonces un compromiso nuevo entre el urbanismo, la arquitectura y la experiencia que el ciudadano vive, cotidianamente, en sus recorridos y paseosStarting from the current split of the different artistic disciplines, and the later attempts to regroup them into a total art, Alonso proposes a link between that totality and the city. If, for the situationists, the city is the ultimate staging of man's life -and, as such, the ideal frame for this integration-, then urbanism, architecture, and the citizen's everyday lived experience must assume together a new kind of commitment

  17. Influence of zinc on bacterial populations and their proteolytic enzyme activities in freshwater environments: a cross-site comparison.

    Rasmussen, Lauren; Olapade, Ola A

    2016-04-01

    Temporal responses of indigenous bacterial populations and proteolytic enzyme (i.e., aminopeptidase) activities in the bacterioplankton assemblages from 3 separate freshwater environments were examined after exposure to various zinc (Zn) concentrations under controlled microcosm conditions. Zn concentrations (ranging from 0 to 10 μmol/L) were added to water samples collected from the Kalamazoo River, Rice Creek, and Huron River and examined for bacterial abundance and aminopeptidase activities at various time intervals over a 48 h incubation period in the dark. The results showed that the Zn concentrations did not significantly influence total bacterial counts directly; however, aminopeptidase activities varied significantly to increasing zinc treatments over time. Also, analysis of variance and linear regression analyses revealed significant positive relationships between bacterial numbers and their hydrolytic enzyme activities, suggesting that both probably co-vary with increasing Zn concentrations in aquatic systems. The results from this study serve as additional evidence of the ecological role of Zn as an extracellular peptidase cofactor on the dynamics of bacterial assemblages in aquatic environments. PMID:26877164

  18. Dynamic Analysis of a Unified Multivariate Counting Process and Its Asymptotic Behavior

    Ushio Sumita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The class of counting processes constitutes a significant part of applied probability. The classic counting processes include Poisson processes, nonhomogeneous Poisson processes, and renewal processes. More sophisticated counting processes, including Markov renewal processes, Markov modulated Poisson processes, age-dependent counting processes, and the like, have been developed for accommodating a wider range of applications. These counting processes seem to be quite different on the surface, forcing one to understand each of them separately. The purpose of this paper is to develop a unified multivariate counting process, enabling one to express all of the above examples using its components, and to introduce new counting processes. The dynamic behavior of the unified multivariate counting process is analyzed, and its asymptotic behavior as t?? is established. As an application, a manufacturing system with certain maintenance policies is considered, where the optimal maintenance policy for minimizing the total cost is obtained numerically.

  19. Hanford whole body counting manual

    This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs

  20. Far-Ultraviolet Number Counts of Field Galaxies

    Voyer, Elysse N.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Teplitz, Harry I.; Siana, Brian D.; deMello, Duilia F.

    2010-01-01

    The Number counts of far-ultraviolet (FUV) galaxies as a function of magnitude provide a direct statistical measure of the density and evolution of star-forming galaxies. We report on the results of measurements of the rest-frame FUV number counts computed from data of several fields including the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, the Hubble Deep Field North, and the GOODS-North and -South fields. These data were obtained from the Hubble Space Telescope Solar Blind Channel of the Advance Camera for Surveys. The number counts cover an AB magnitude range from 20-29 magnitudes, covering a total area of 15.9 arcmin'. We show that the number counts are lower than those in previous studies using smaller areas. The differences in the counts are likely the result of cosmic variance; our new data cover more area and more lines of sight than the previous studies. The slope of our number counts connects well with local FUV counts and they show good agreement with recent semi-analytical models based on dark matter "merger trees".

  1. Bacterial Enhancement of Vinyl Fouling by Algae

    Holmes, Paul E.

    1986-01-01

    The role of bacteria in the development of algae on low-density vinyl was investigated. Unidentified bacterial contaminants in unialgal stock cultures of Phormidium faveolarum and Pleurochloris pyrenoidosa enhanced, by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude, colonization of vinyl by these algae, as determined by epifluorescence microscopy counts and chlorophyll a in extracts of colonized vinyl. Colonization by bacteria always preceded that by algae. Scanning electron microscopy of the colonized Phormidiu...

  2. Bacterial infection of mudfish Clarias gariepinus (Siluriformes: Clariidae fingerlings in tropical nursery ponds

    Gabriel Ikpi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infection among the most common cultured mudfish Clarias gariepinus in Africa, has become a cause of concern, because it constitutes the largest economic loss in fish farms. In order to provide useful biological data of the pathogens for good management practices, samples were collected monthly between January 2008 and December 2009 in three monoculture nursery ponds, located in three different positions: upriver (A, grassland, mid-river (B, mixed forest and grassland and downriver (C, rainforest along 200km length of Cross River floodplains, Nigeria. A total of 720 fingerlings between 15.1 and 20.7g were analyzed to determine the degree of infection. The bacterial pathogens were taken from their external surfaces, and were isolated and identified by standard methods. The caudal fins of fingerlings from pond A had the highest bacterial load (5.8x10cfu/g, while the least counts (1.2x103cfu/g were identified on the head of fish from pond C, with Flexibacter columnaris as the major etiological agent. Pseudomonas fluorescens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus were identified as co-isolates with P. fluorescens as dominant (0.7x10cfu/mL co-isolates in pond water. Clinical signs of five white spots with red periphery appeared on the external surface of infected fish. All the fish sampled, died after 4 to 9 days. There was no significant difference in the bacterial counts between different ponds, but the difference between fish organs/parts examined was significant. Fish from these ponds are therefore potentially dangerous to consumers and highly devalued, with the economic impact to producers. Preventive methods to avoid these infections are recommended. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (2: 751-759. Epub 2011 June 01.

  3. Prevention of bacterial adhesion

    Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria

    2010-01-01

    imposes selection pressure for resistant bacteria. New approaches are urgently needed. Targeting bacterial virulence functions directly is an attractive alternative. An obvious target is bacterial adhesion. Bacterial adhesion to surfaces is the first step in colonization, invasion, and biofilm formation....... As such, adhesion represents the Achilles heel of crucial pathogenic functions. It follows that interference with adhesion can reduce bacterial virulence. Here, we illustrate this important topic with examples of techniques being developed that can inhibit bacterial adhesion. Some of these will...

  4. Growth of Microorganisms in Total Parenteral Nutrition Solutions Without Lipid

    Takashi Kuwahara, Shinya Kaneda, Kazuyuki Shimono, Yoshifumi Inoue

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To identify the microorganisms that can grow rapidly in total parenteral nutrition (TPN solutions, we investigated the growth of the major causes of catheter-related blood stream infection (Staphylococcus aureus, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus cereus, and Candida albicans in TPN solutions without lipid. Methods: Experiment 1: A commercial TPN solution without lipid containing multivitamins (pH5.6 was used. A specific number of each test microorganism was added to each 10 mL of the TPN solution and incubated at room temperature. An aliquot of test solution was sampled and inoculated to SCD agar plates at 0, 24, and 48 hrs after the addition of the microorganisms. The number of microorganisms was counted as colony forming units. Experiment 2: The other 2 commercial TPN solutions without lipid (pH5.5 were supplemented with multivitamins. The pH values of the solutions were adjusted to about 6.0, 6.5, or 7.0 using 0.5 mol/L NaOH. The addition of microorganisms, incubation, and counting were performed in the same manner. Results: Experiment 1: S. aureus, S. marcescens, and B. cereus did not increase in the TPN solution without lipid containing multivitamins (pH5.6, but C. albicans increased rapidly. Experiment 2: The 3 bacterial species did not increase even at pH6.0, but increased at pH6.5 and increased rapidly at pH7.0 in both TPN solutions. C. albicans increased similarly at any pH. Conclusion: These results suggest that bacterial species cannot grow in TPN solutions without lipid due to the acidity (pH5.6 or lower, but Candida species can grow regardless of the acidity.

  5. Reticulocyte count: comparison among methods

    Karina Augusta Viana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The automated counting of reticulocytes has some advantages over the manual method routinely used in clinical laboratories. Technological innovations provide more statistically reliable results, while optimizing the time to perform this test. However, the cost for implementing the automated procedure in laboratory routines still constitutes a barrier to its use in small- and medium-size Brazilian laboratories. Objective: This study evaluated the performance of a new laboratory protocol for reticulocyte counting by flow cytometry using acridine orange (FC/AO, compared with the manual method and with another automated one by flow cytometry using the commercial kit BD Retic-Count (FC/RC Conclusion: The results showed that, besides being comparable to the manual method, still considered standard, the evaluated new protocol is economically more advantageous than the automated methods currently available, and its cost is comparable to that of the manual method for laboratories that already have appropriate equipment and infrastructure.

  6. VersaCount: customizable manual tally software for cell counting

    DeRisi Joseph L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The manual counting of cells by microscopy is a commonly used technique across biological disciplines. Traditionally, hand tally counters have been used to track event counts. Although this method is adequate, there are a number of inefficiencies which arise when managing large numbers of samples or large sample sizes. Results We describe software that mimics a traditional multi-register tally counter. Full customizability allows operation on any computer with minimal hardware requirements. The efficiency of counting large numbers of samples and/or large sample sizes is improved through the use of a "multi-count" register that allows single keystrokes to correspond to multiple events. Automatically updated multi-parameter values are implemented as user-specified equations, reducing errors and time required for manual calculations. The user interface was optimized for use with a touch screen and numeric keypad, eliminating the need for a full keyboard and mouse. Conclusions Our software provides an inexpensive, flexible, and productivity-enhancing alternative to manual hand tally counters.

  7. Basic principles of scintillation counting

    The effect of the energy of radiation, the crystal size, the collimation of the beam and scattering on the pulse-height distribution produced by monoenergetic radiation will be discussed. These aspects will be related to scintillation scanning. The effects of voltage on the operation of photomultiplier s and so-called plateaus will be dealt with. Glow-transfer tubes for counting will be dealt with and a useful substraction circuit for comparing the counting rate from two separate scintillation counters will be presented. (author)

  8. Total Benefit

    Jackwerth, Jens; Slavutskaya, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Investors value the addition of hedge funds to their benchmark portfolios as this can diversify risk, add positive skewness, or eliminate (fat) left tails in the return distributions. We measure total benefits via certainty equivalent values (CEVs) which performs better than or on par with alpha or the Sharpe ratio. Adding hedge funds is significantly better than adding real estate, commodities, foreign equities, mutual funds, or funds of funds during 1994-2009. Conditioning on past changes in...

  9. Predictive Value of Decoy Receptor 3 in Postoperative Nosocomial Bacterial Meningitis

    Yong-Juan Liu; Li-Hua Shao; Qian Wang; Jian Zhang; Rui-Ping Ma; Hai-Hong Liu; Xiao-Meng Dong; Li-Xian Ma

    2014-01-01

    Nosocomial bacterial meningitis requires timely treatment, but what is difficult is the prompt and accurate diagnosis of this disease. The aim of this study was to assess the potential role of decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) levels in the differentiation of bacterial meningitis from non-bacterial meningitis. A total of 123 patients were recruited in this study, among them 80 patients being with bacterial meningitis and 43 patients with non-bacterial meningitis. Bacterial meningitis was confirmed by...

  10. Does leucocytosis identify bacterial infections in febrile neonates presenting to the emergency department?

    Brown, L.; Shaw, T.; Wittlake, W

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study was undertaken to evaluate the discriminatory power of the peripheral white blood cell (WBC) count to identify bacterial infections in a cohort of febrile neonates (?28 days of age) presenting to an emergency department.

  11. Distribution of bacterial contamination in a teaching hospital in Tehran - a special focus on Staphylococcus aureus.

    Mirzaii, Mehdi; Emaneini, Mohammad; Maleknejad, Parviz; Jonaidi, Nematollah; Fooladi, Abbas Ali Imani; Aligholi, Marzieh; Jabalameli, Fereshteh; Halimi, Shahnaz; Taherikalani, Morovat; Kasaeian, Amir

    2012-03-01

    There are documents that confirm the cycle of bacterial transmission between patients, staff, and the inanimate environment. The environment may have more effect on intensive care units (ICUs), because the patients who require intensive care have unstable clinical conditions and are more sensitive to infections. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of bacteria in air and inanimate surface in the ICUs and to compare the microbial levels to standard levels.Air and inanimate surface in the four ICUs of a teaching hospital underwent weekly surveillance by means of air sampler and swabs for a period of six-month. Total bacterial counts were evaluated onto trypticase soy agar and mannitol salt agar (MSA).A total of 725 samples [air (168) and inanimate surfaces (557)] were collected. The total mean SD CFU/m3 of airborne bacteria in all of the ICUs were 115.93 48.04. The most common bacteria in air of the ICUs were Gram-positive cocci (84.2%). The total mean SD airborne of Staphylococcus aureus was 12.108.11 CFU/m3. The highest levels of S. aureus contamination were found in ventilators and bed ledges. More suitable disinfection of hospital environments and monthly rotation in utilization of the various disinfectant agents are needed for the prevention of airborne and inanimate transmission of S. aureus. PMID:22510282

  12. Determination of Contamination Profiles of Human Bacterial Pathogens in Shrimp Obtained from Java, Indonesia

    Shrimp continues to be an important export commodity for Indonesia and contributed significantly to the country’s revenue. However, shrimp exports have been frequently rejected by importing countries due to filth, Salmonella and insanitary conditions. This study was conducted to evaluate the profiles of bacterial contamination of ocean and aquaculture shrimp obtained from the area of West, Central and East Java; frozen shrimp and shrimp during industry production of frozen shrimp. The study indicated that both ocean and aquaculture shrimp obtained from the study area were heavily contaminated. On the average, shrimp obtained from West Java were more contaminated than those obtained from East and Central Java. The total bacterial counts were generally higher in ocean shrimp than those of aquaculture ones. Salmonella was present in two of 32 samples of ocean shrimp and in four of 32 samples of aquaculture shrimp obtained from the study area. Vibrio cholerae was not detected in shrimp from West Java, but was found in three out of 16 samples obtained from East and Central Java. V. parahaemolyticus was frequently identified in aquaculture shrimp but absent in fresh ocean shrimp. Studies on shrimp collected from six sampling points during frozen shrimp production revealed that processing will reduce the number of total bacterial, E. coli, and Staphylococal counts. However, the processing did not effectively reduce the incidence of Salmonella or V. parahaemolyticus when the raw material has been contaminated with the pathogens. Sizing and grading as well as arrangement of shrimp before freezing were considered as the critical points where bacteria should be controlled to inhibit growth and cross contamination with bacteria such as Listeria. Implementation of Good Agricultural Practices in production of raw shrimp as well as Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point at the line processing are expected to improve the quality of fresh and frozen shrimp. (author)

  13. 7 CFR 993.105 - Size count.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Size count. 993.105 Section 993.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions 993.105 Size count. Size count means the count or number...

  14. 7 CFR 993.502 - Size count.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Size count. 993.502 Section 993.502 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Pack Specification as to Size Definitions 993.502 Size count. Size count means the count or number...

  15. On Counting the Rational Numbers

    Almada, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…

  16. Kids Count Data Sheet, 2000.

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD.

    Data from the 50 United States are listed for 1997 from Kids Count in an effort to track state-by-state the status of children in the United States and to secure better futures for all children. Data include percent low birth weight babies; infant mortality rate; child death rate; rate of teen deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; teen birth…

  17. Verbal Counting in Bilingual Contexts

    Donevska-Todorova, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Informal experiences in mathematics often include playful competitions among young children in counting numbers in as many as possible different languages. Can these enjoyable experiences result with excellence in the formal processes of education? This article discusses connections between mathematical achievements and natural languages within…

  18. Phase space quark counting rule

    A simple quark counting rule based on phase space consideration suggested before is used to fit all 39 recent experimental data points on inclusive reactions. Parameter free relations are found to agree with experiments. Excellent detail fits are obtained for 11 inclusive reactions

  19. Meal Counting and Claiming Manual.

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual contains information about the selection and implementation of a meal counting and claiming system for the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast Program (BSP). Federal reimbursement is provided for each meal that meets program requirements and is served to an eligible student. Part 1 explains the six elements of…

  20. Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 2002.

    Ingraham, Sandy

    This Kids Count Factbook details county and statewide trends in the well-being of children in Oklahoma. The statistical portrait is based on seven indicators or benchmarks of child well-being: (1) low birthweight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to young teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child and teen death; (6) high school…

  1. Application of neutron multiplicity counting to waste assay

    Pickrell, M.M.; Ensslin, N. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Sharpe, T.J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This paper describes the use of a new figure of merit code that calculates both bias and precision for coincidence and multiplicity counting, and determines the optimum regions for each in waste assay applications. A {open_quotes}tunable multiplicity{close_quotes} approach is developed that uses a combination of coincidence and multiplicity counting to minimize the total assay error. An example is shown where multiplicity analysis is used to solve for mass, alpha, and multiplication and tunable multiplicity is shown to work well. The approach provides a method for selecting coincidence, multiplicity, or tunable multiplicity counting to give the best assay with the lowest total error over a broad spectrum of assay conditions. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Application of neutron multiplicity counting to waste assay

    This paper describes the use of a new figure of merit code that calculates both bias and precision for coincidence and multiplicity counting, and determines the optimum regions for each in waste assay applications. A open-quotes tunable multiplicityclose quotes approach is developed that uses a combination of coincidence and multiplicity counting to minimize the total assay error. An example is shown where multiplicity analysis is used to solve for mass, alpha, and multiplication and tunable multiplicity is shown to work well. The approach provides a method for selecting coincidence, multiplicity, or tunable multiplicity counting to give the best assay with the lowest total error over a broad spectrum of assay conditions. 9 refs., 6 figs

  3. Intestinal Bacterial Flora that Compete on the Haem Precursor Iron Fumarate in Iron Deficiency Anemia Cases

    Selim, S. A. H.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The study focused on finding if there is any possible relation between the intestinal bacterial population quantitative and qualitative and the deficiency of the most important iron compounds as haem precursors. Methodology and Results: Blood complete picture and stool analyses were done to 750 volunteer cases whom were asked for these analyses by their physicians. Analyses proved that 560 cases representing 75.2 % were anemic as the RBC(s based on counts of the total studied cases of less than 263 x 104 and the haemoglobin amount ranged between 7.2 and 11.3 g/dl, while the remainder 24.8 % of the volunteer sample was not anemic. A high male/female ratio ofanemic cases, 1:27 was also documented. Considering that all the studied stool samples should be completely free from any parasites or any other anemia-related diseases was a priority. Bacteriological analysis of stool samples of the anemic cases resulted in the detection of high counts of total viable bacteria, exceeded 42 x 109 cfu/g, while it was never more than 26 x 106 cfu/g and decreased to 4 x 106 cfu/g in many cases in this study. Identifying of the 361 bacterial isolates, were found to belong to 12 genera and 19 species, 6 of them; Pseudomonas putrefaciens, Micrococcus luteus, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus coagulans , were found and in high counts in the stool samples of only anemic cases. The ability of these isolates to compete for iron compounds such as ferrous fumarate alone or with glucose and phytate as activators or inhibitors to these abilities was investigated. Results proved 11 species out of the 19 identified species are capable to use and compete on ferrous fumarate as a haemprecursor. Sensitivity test for the representatives of the 19 species and 6 of the most commonly used antibiotics in the Egyptian pharmacy, using standard disc method, revealed variable susceptibilities of almost all of them to more than one of the studied antibiotics, except Corynebacterium equatium, which was found very resistant to two antibiotics; colistin sulfate and erythrocin. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The study finally concluded the strong role of intestinal bacterial counts and types as competitors on the haem precursor iron-containing compounds like ferrous fumarate.

  4. [Effect of free surface flow wetland and subsurface flow wetland on bacterial diversity in Beijing Cuihu Wetland Park].

    Wang, Xiao-dan; Zhai, Zhen-hua; Zhao, Shuang; Li, Rong-qi; Ma, Wen-lin; Li, Yan-hong

    2009-01-01

    To achieve the effects of artificial wetland on the bacterial diversity, the culturable bacteria and total cell counts of three wetland cells, including sewage pond (SP), free surface wetland (SF) and subsurface flow wetland (SSF), were investigated using the traditional culture-dependent approach and flow cytometry method, based on the detecting the water quality. The bacterial diversity and dominant groups were also compared by PCR-DGGE profiles and 16S rDNA library technique based on its V3 region. Results show that SF and SSF cells can remove the nutrients effectively, the highest removal ratio of COD, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus reach to 42.33%, 52.92% and 41.4%, respectively; The total microbes are increased continuously with the treatment by SF and SSF, and the culturable bacteria clones are decreased after treatment by SF, and increased after further train by SSF. The Shannon-Weaver index is increased to 3.2850 from 3.0819 while the water flowing through SF, but decreased to 3.0181 after flowing through SSF; The dominant groups in SP include Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria and alpha-Proteobacteria, reach to 38%, 18% and 18%, respectively; but the most dominant bacteria is changed to beta-Proteobacteria with the ratio of 32% and 44%, after treatment by SF and SSF, respectively. Cytophagal Flexibacter/Bacteroides (CFB) phylum is also increased to 24% finally. Therefore, while the Cuihu Wetland removing the nutrients,the bacterial counts, diversity and dominant groups are also changed,some beneficial bacteria in beta-Proteobacteria and CFB phylum increased, and part of those deleterious bacteria in Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria decreased. PMID:19353894

  5. Biogeochemical controls on the bacterial populations in the eastern Atlantic Ocean

    Neogi, S. B.; Koch, B. P.; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.; Pohl, C.; Kattner, G.; Yamasaki, S.; Lara, R. J.

    2011-12-01

    Little is known about bacterial dynamics in the oligotrophic ocean, particularly about cultivable bacteria. We examined the abundance of total and cultivable bacteria in relation to changes in biogeochemical conditions in the eastern Atlantic Ocean with special regard to Vibrio spp., a group of bacteria that can cause diseases in human and aquatic organisms. Surface, deep water and plankton (55 μm) samples were collected between 50° N and 24° S. Chlorophyll-a was very low (bacteria and other prokaryotes represented by 4´-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) counts, ranged mostly between 107 and 108 cells l-1, while cultivable bacterial counts (CBC) and Vibrio spp. were found at concentrations of 104-107 and 102-105 colony forming units (CFU) l-1, respectively. Most bacteria (>99 %) were found in the nanoplankton fraction (stained prokaryotes, cultivable Vibrio showed a stronger and highly significant correlation with DOC and DON (p bacteria may largely depend on dissolved organic matter to survive in nutrient-poor oceanic habitats.

  6. Inactivation of Selected Bacterial Pathogens in Dairy Cattle Manure by Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion (Balloon Type Digester

    Christy E. Manyi-Loh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion of animal manure in biogas digesters has shown promise as a technology in reducing the microbial load to safe and recommended levels. We sought to treat dairy manure obtained from the Fort Hare Dairy Farm by investigating the survival rates of bacterial pathogens, through a total viable plate count method, before, during and after mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Different microbiological media were inoculated with different serial dilutions of manure samples that were withdrawn from the biogas digester at 3, 7 and 14 day intervals to determine the viable cells. Data obtained indicated that the pathogens of public health importance were 90%–99% reduced in the order: Campylobacter sp. (18 days < Escherichia coli sp. (62 days < Salmonella sp. (133 days from a viable count of 10.1 × 103, 3.6 × 105, 7.4 × 103 to concentrations below the detection limit (DL = 102 cfu/g manure, respectively. This disparity in survival rates may be influenced by the inherent characteristics of these bacteria, available nutrients as well as the stages of the anaerobic digestion process. In addition, the highest p-value i.e., 0.957 for E. coli showed the statistical significance of its model and the strongest correlation between its reductions with days of digestion. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the specific bacterial pathogens in manure can be considerably reduced through anaerobic digestion after 133 days.

  7. How to count elephants in West African savannahs? Synthesis and comparison of main gamecount methods

    Bouch, P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparison of some elephants count methods aerial sampling count, aerial total count and direct foot count has been presented through surveys' study cases implemented in Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger. We compare them in terms of effort and cost to survey an area (sampling efficiency, efficiency in data collection (detection efficiency as well as accuracy and precision. Aerial sampling count returns low sampling and detection efficiency and very low precision and accuracy figures when counting elephants populations below 0.5 elephantkm-2. Precision can partly be improved by stratification. Direct foot count returns the best sampling and detection efficiency but insufficient data number to produce reliable estimates. Therefore some authors often produced no results for elephants. Aerial total count is a costly method in absolute value. It requires important logistic and no measure of error is possible. However it provides relatively good sampling and detection efficiency as well as relatively accurate figures appreciated by wildlife managers if technical requirements are respected. Aerial total count could be recommended to survey small population of West African elephants each 3 to 5 years to minimize yearly count costs.

  8. Bacterial carbon cycling in a subarctic fjord

    Middelboe, Mathias; Glud, Ronnie Nøhr; Sejr, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    In this seasonal study, we examined the environmental controls and quantitative importance of bacterial carbon consumption in the water column and the sediment in the subarctic Kobbefjord, Greenland. Depth-integrated bacterial production in the photic zone varied from 5.0 ± 2.7 mg C m−2 d−1 in...... total microbial respiration in the system. Concentration of bioavailable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) ranged from 144 ± 37 µg C L−1 in the riverine input to the fjord to a maximum of 341 ± 37 µg C L−1 in the surface waters in September. Parallel enrichment experiments showed that bacterial production...... effect of viruses on bacterial mortality (4–36% of cell production) and carbon cycling. Heterotrophic bacterial consumption was closely coupled with autochthonous BDOC production, and the majority of the primary production was consumed by pelagic bacteria at all seasons. The relatively low measured BGE...

  9. Simple Identification of Complex ADHD Subtypes Using Current Symptom Counts

    Volk, Heather E.; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Hay, David A.; Todd, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    The results of the assessment of the accuracy of simple rules based on symptom count for assigning youths to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder subtypes show that having six or more total symptoms and fewer than three hyperactive-impulsive symptoms is an accurate predictor for the latent class sever inattentive subtype.

  10. Counting all bent functions in dimension eight 99270589265934370305785861242880

    Langevin, Philippe; Leander, Gregor

    Based on the classification of the homogeneous Boolean functions of degree 4 in 8 variables we present the strategy that we used to count the number of all bent functions in dimension 8. There are $$99270589265934370305785861242880 \\approx 2^{106}$$such functions in total. Furthermore, we show th...

  11. A method for counting monosodium urate crystals in synovial fluid

    P. Montagna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to standardize the technique for counting monosodium urate (MSU crystals in the synovial fluid (SF of patients with gout. A total of 52 SF specimens were examined under a polarized light microscope. The amount of SF ranged between 0.1 and 45 mL (median 3 mL. MSU crystals were counted in four areas with the same size at 400x magnification. Cytological examination of the same specimens was also performed. Median leukocyte count was 400 cells/mm3 (range 50-14,000 cells/mm3, with a median percentage of polymorphonuclear leukocytes of 9% (range 0%-98%. Median crystal count was 179.5 (range 3-1600. Inter- reader and intra-reader agreement in crystal counting were good with a weighed k of 0.89 [95% confidence interval (CI 0.85-0.94] and 0.89 (95% CI 0.84-0.93, respectively. Our data indicate that the SF MSU crystal count is a feasible and highly reliable technique.

  12. Counting statistics modified by two dead times in series

    Counting statistics modified by introducing two dead times in series under a Poisson input distribution are discussed. A previous study examined the two cases of series combinations of nonextended-extended (NE-E) and extended-extended (EE) dead times. The present study investigated the remaining two cases of extended-nonextended (E-NE) and nonextended-nonextended (NE-NE) dead times. For the three time origins of the counting processes - ordinary, equilibrium, and shifted processes - a set of formulae was newly developed from a general formulation and presented for the event time interval densities, total densities, and exact mean and variance of the counts in a given counting duration. The asymptotic expressions for the mean and variance of the counts, which are most convenient for applications, were fully listed. The equilibrium mean count rates distorted by the three dead times in series were newly derived from the information obtained in these studies. An application of the derived formulae is briefly discussed

  13. Bacterial Nasal Infections

    ... News) Preventing Ear Infections Additional Content Medical News Bacterial Nasal Infections By Marvin P. Fried, MD NOTE: This is ... Sinus Disorders Deviated Septum Perforations of the Septum Bacterial Nasal Infections Rhinitis Nasal Polyps Objects in the Nose Sinusitis ...

  14. Bacterial Nail Infection (Paronychia)

    ... of nail infection is often caused by a bacterial infection but may also be caused by herpes, a ... to a type of yeast called Candida , or bacterial infection, and this may lead to abnormal nail growth. ...

  15. Complete Totalities

    Shalom, Rafi

    2011-01-01

    The cumulative hierarchy conception of set, which is based on a metaphor of elements of sets being prior to their collection, is generally considered to be a good way to create a set conception that seems safe from contradictions. This imposes two restrictions on sets. One is a "limitation of size," and the other is the rejection of non well-founded sets. Quine's NF system of axioms, does not have any of the two restrictions, but it has a formal restriction on allowed formulas in its comprehension axiom schema, which reflects a similar notion of elements being prior to sets. The suggestion made here is that a possible reason for set antinomies is the tension between our perception of sets and their elements as lying on a different conceptual planes, and our wish to be able to refer to mathematical objects without contemplating their relation with other objects. A new approach to sets as totalities is presented which is based on a notion of "concurrent aggregation," which instead of avoiding "viscous circles,"...

  16. Theory of photoelectron counting statistics

    The purpose of the present essay is to provide a detailed analysis of those theoretical aspects of photoelectron counting which are capable of experimental verification. Most of our interest is in the physical phenomena themselves, while part is in the mathematical techniques. Many of the mathematical methods used in the analysis of the photoelectron counting problem are generally unfamiliar to physicists interested in the subject. For this reason we have developed the essay in such a fashion that, although primary interest is focused on the physical phenomena, we have also taken pains to carry out enough of the analysis so that the reader can follow the main details. We have chosen to present a consistently quantum mechanical version of the subject, in that we follow the Glauber theory throughout. (orig./WL)

  17. Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts.

    Canale, Antonio; Dunson, David B

    2011-12-01

    Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviations from the Poisson. As a broad class of alternative models, we propose to use nonparametric mixtures of rounded continuous kernels. An efficient Gibbs sampler is developed for posterior computation, and a simulation study is performed to assess performance. Focusing on the rounded Gaussian case, we generalize the modeling framework to account for multivariate count data, joint modeling with continuous and categorical variables, and other complications. The methods are illustrated through applications to a developmental toxicity study and marketing data. This article has supplementary material online. PMID:22523437

  18. Counting Irreducible Double Occurrence Words

    BURNS, JONATHAN; Muche, Tilahun

    2011-01-01

    A double occurrence word $w$ over a finite alphabet $\\Sigma$ is a word in which each alphabet letter appears exactly twice. Such words arise naturally in the study of topology, graph theory, and combinatorics. Recently, double occurrence words have been used for studying DNA recombination events. We develop formulas for counting and enumerating several elementary classes of double occurrence words such as palindromic, irreducible, and strongly-irreducible words.

  19. Radioactivity determination by coincidence counting

    The 4 π β-γ coincidence counting equipment used in the Lucas Heights radioisotope standards laboratory for international comparisons is described in detail. A radioactivity standard is a method rather than a material object; as such it can be specified clearly only by discussing fully the setting-up and operation of one particular set of equipment. This manual is written for persons who are setting up such equipment for the first time

  20. Counting and testing dominant polynomials

    Dubickas, ArtŪras; Sha, Min

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we concentrate on counting and testing dominant polynomials with integer coefficients. A polynomial is called dominant if it has a simple root whose modulus is strictly greater than the moduli of its remaining roots. In particular, our results imply that the probability that the dominant root assumption holds for a random monic polynomial with integer coefficients tends to 1 in some setting. However, for arbitrary integer polynomials it does not tend to 1. For instance, the pro...

  1. Reticulocyte count: comparison among methods

    Karina Augusta Viana; Olindo Assis Martins Filho,; Luci Maria SantAna Dusse; Renato Sathler Avelar; Danielle Marquete Vitelli Avelar; Beatriz Carvalho; Claudia Maria Franco Ribeiro; Lis Ribeiro do Valle Antonelli; Andrea Teixeira; Maria das Graas Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The automated counting of reticulocytes has some advantages over the manual method routinely used in clinical laboratories. Technological innovations provide more statistically reliable results, while optimizing the time to perform this test. However, the cost for implementing the automated procedure in laboratory routines still constitutes a barrier to its use in small- and medium-size Brazilian laboratories. Objective: This study evaluated the performance of a new laboratory...

  2. It's not the pixel count, you fool

    Kriss, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    The first thing a "marketing guy" asks the digital camera engineer is "how many pixels does it have, for we need as many mega pixels as possible since the other guys are killing us with their "umpteen" mega pixel pocket sized digital cameras. And so it goes until the pixels get smaller and smaller in order to inflate the pixel count in the never-ending pixel-wars. These small pixels just are not very good. The truth of the matter is that the most important feature of digital cameras in the last five years is the automatic motion control to stabilize the image on the sensor along with some very sophisticated image processing. All the rest has been hype and some "cool" design. What is the future for digital imaging and what will drive growth of camera sales (not counting the cell phone cameras which totally dominate the market in terms of camera sales) and more importantly after sales profits? Well sit in on the Dark Side of Color and find out what is being done to increase the after sales profits and don't be surprised if has been done long ago in some basement lab of a photographic company and of course, before its time.

  3. Microbial Air Quality and Bacterial Surface Contamination in Ambulances During Patient Services

    Pipat Luksamijarulkul

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We sought to assess microbial air quality and bacterial surface contamination on medical instruments and the surrounding areas among 30 ambulance runs during service. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of 106 air samples collected from 30 ambulances before patient services and 212 air samples collected during patient services to assess the bacterial and fungal counts at the two time points. Additionally, 226 surface swab samples were collected from medical instrument surfaces and the surrounding areas before and after ambulance runs. Groups or genus of isolated bacteria and fungi were preliminarily identified by Grams stain and lactophenol cotton blue. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, and Pearsons correlation coefficient with a p-value of less than 0.050 considered significant. Results: The mean and standard deviation of bacterial and fungal counts at the start of ambulance runs were 318485cfu/m3 and 522581cfu/m3, respectively. Bacterial counts during patient services were 468607cfu/m3 and fungal counts were 656612cfu/m3. Mean bacterial and fungal counts during patient services were significantly higher than those at the start of ambulance runs, p=0.005 and p=0.030, respectively. For surface contamination, the overall bacterial counts before and after patient services were 0.80.7cfu/cm2 and 1.31.1cfu/cm2, respectively (p<0.001. The predominant isolated bacteria and fungi were Staphylococcus spp. and Aspergillus spp., respectively. Additionally, there was a significantly positive correlation between bacterial (r=0.3, p<0.010 and fungal counts (r=0.2, p=0.020 in air samples and bacterial counts on medical instruments and allocated areas. Conclusions: This study revealed high microbial contamination (bacterial and fungal in ambulance air during services and higher bacterial contamination on medical instrument surfaces and allocated areas after ambulance services compared to the start of ambulance runs. Additionally, bacterial and fungal counts in ambulance air showed a significantly positive correlation with the bacterial surface contamination on medical instruments and allocated areas. Further studies should be conducted to determine the optimal intervention to reduce microbial contamination in the ambulance environment.

  4. Microbiological and biochemical effectiveness of an antiseptic gel on the bacterial contamination of the inner space of dental implants: a 3-month human longitudinal study.

    D'Ercole, S; Tetè, S; Catamo, G; Sammartino, G; Femminella, B; Tripodi, D; Spoto, G; Paolantonio, M

    2009-01-01

    Microbial penetration inside the implants internal cavity produces a bacterial reservoir that is associated with an area of inflamed connective tissue facing the fixture-abutment junction. The aim of this clinical trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of a 1 percent chlorhexidine gel on the internal bacterial contamination of implants with screw-retained abutments and on the level of AST secreted in peri-implant crevicular fluid. Twenty-five patients (aged 29 to 58 years) each received one implant. Three months after the end of the restorative treatment, and immediately after a clinical and radiographic examination and the abutment removal, microbiological samples were obtained from the internal part of each fixture and biochemical samples were collected by peri-implant sulci. The patients were then divided into two groups: the control (CG; n=10) and test (TG; n=15) groups. The CG had the abutment screwed into place and the crown cemented without any further intervention. In contrast, before the abutment placement and screw tightening, the TG had the internal part of the fixture filled with a 1 percent chlorhexidine gel. Three months later, the same clinical, microbiological and biochemical procedures were repeated in both groups. Total bacterial count, specific pathogens and AST activity were detected. The clinical parameters remained stable throughout the study. From baseline to the 3-month examination, the total bacterial counts underwent a significant reduction only in the TG. In contrast, the AST activity showed a significant increase in the CG. The administration of a 1% chlorhexidine gel appears to be an effective method for the reduction of bacterial colonization of the implant cavity and for safeguarding the health status of peri-implant tissue over a 3-month administration period. PMID:20074465

  5. Bacterial pathogen indicators regrowth and reduced sulphur compounds' emissions during storage of electro-dewatered biosolids.

    Navab-Daneshmand, Tala; Enayet, Samia; Gehr, Ronald; Frigon, Dominic

    2014-10-01

    Electro-dewatering (ED) increases biosolids dryness from 10-15 to 30-50%, which helps wastewater treatment facilities control disposal costs. Previous work showed that high temperatures due to Joule heating during ED inactivate total coliforms to meet USEPA Class A biosolids requirements. This allows biosolids land application if the requirements are still met after the storage period between production and application. In this study, we examined bacterial regrowth and odour emissions during the storage of ED biosolids. No regrowth of total coliforms was observed in ED biosolids over 7d under aerobic or anaerobic incubations. To mimic on-site contamination during storage or transport, ED samples were seeded with untreated sludge. Total coliform counts decreased to detection limits after 4d in inoculated samples. Olfactometric analysis of ED biosolids odours showed that odour concentrations were lower compared to the untreated and heat-treated control biosolids. Furthermore, under anaerobic conditions, odorous reduced sulphur compounds (methanethiol, dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl disulphide) were produced by untreated and heat-treated biosolids, but were not detected in the headspaces above ED samples. The data demonstrate that ED provides advantages not only as a dewatering technique, but also for producing biosolids with lower microbial counts and odour levels. PMID:25065797

  6. Constraint Satisfaction with Counting Quantifiers

    Madelaine, Florent; Stacho, Juraj

    2011-01-01

    We initiate the study of constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) in the presence of counting quantifiers, which may be seen as variants of CSPs in the mould of quantified CSPs (QCSPs). We show that a single counting quantifier strictly between exists^1:=exists and exists^n:=forall (the domain being of size n) already affords the maximal possible complexity of QCSPs (which have both exists and forall), being Pspace-complete for a suitably chosen template. Next, we focus on the complexity of subsets of counting quantifiers on clique and cycle templates. For cycles we give a full trichotomy -- all such problems are in L, NP-complete or Pspace-complete. For cliques we come close to a similar trichotomy, but one case remains outstanding. Afterwards, we consider the generalisation of CSPs in which we augment the extant quantifier exists^1:=exists with the quantifier exists^j (j not 1). Such a CSP is already NP-hard on non-bipartite graph templates. We explore the situation of this generalised CSP on bipartite templ...

  7. Effect of UV irradiation, sample thickness and storage temperature on storability, bacterial activity and functional properties of liquid egg.

    Abdanan Mehdizadeh, S; Minaei, S; Karimi Torshizi, M A; Mohajerani, E

    2015-07-01

    Effect of sample thickness, ultraviolet irradiation and storage temperature on bacterial activity, storability and functional properties (foamability and stability) of liquid egg were investigated. Eggs were contaminated with prepared Salmonella suspension 108/mL. Separated albumen and yolk samples were poured in three thicknesses (1, 2 and 3 mm) and irradiated at 3, 5 10, 15 min with ultraviolet radiation and were stored at 5, 15, 25, 37 °C for up to 8 days. Observations indicated that all ultraviolet irradiation times, reduced the total count of Salmonella bacteria in egg samples. Although, functional properties were improved, protein oxidation in both albumen and yolk increased. After the first 2 days of storage, total counts of Salmonella and protein oxidation of eggs decreased solely in the 5 °C treatment. It is concluded that irradiation treatment can be used to decrease bacterial contamination of liquid egg albeit not below the safe level for raw consumption. Furthermore, the best irradiation times to improve foam ability and stability were 10 and 5 min, respectively. PMID:26139907

  8. Mixed response in bacterial and biochemical variables to simulated sand mining in placer-rich beach sediments, Ratnagiri, West coast of India.

    Fernandes, Christabelle E G; Das, Anindita; Nath, B N; Faria, Daphne G; Loka Bharathi, P A

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the influence on bacterial community and biochemical variables through mechanical disturbance of sediment-akin to small-scale mining in Kalbadevi beach, Ratnagiri, a placer-rich beach ecosystem which is a potential mining site. Changes were investigated by comparing three periods, namely phase I before disturbance, phase II just after disturbance, and phase III 24 h after disturbance as the bacterial generation time is ≤7 h. Cores from dune, berm, high-, mid-, and low-tide were examined for changes in distribution of total bacterial abundance, total direct viability (counts under aerobic and anaerobic conditions), culturability and biochemical parameters up to 40 cm depth. Results showed that bacterial abundance decreased by an order from 10(6) cells g(-1) sediment, while, viability reduced marginally. Culturability on different-strength nutrient broth increased by 155% during phase II. Changes in sedimentary proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids were marked at berm and dune and masked at other levels by tidal influence. Sedimentary ATP reduced drastically. During phase III, Pearson's correlation between these variables evolved from non-significant to significant level. Thus, simulated disturbance had a mixed effect on bacterial and biochemical variables of the sediments. It had a negative impact on bacterial abundance, viability and ATP but positive impact on culturability. Viability, culturability, and ATP could act as important indicators reflecting the disturbance in the system at short time intervals. Culturability, which improved by an order, could perhaps be a fraction that contributes to restoration of the system at bacterial level. This baseline information about the potential mining site could help in developing rational approach towards sustainable harnessing of resources with minimum damage to the ecosystem. PMID:21713495

  9. Kynetic resazurin assay (KRA) for bacterial quantification of foodborne pathogens

    Arenas, Yaxal; Mandel, Arkady; Lilge, Lothar

    2012-03-01

    Fast detection of bacterial concentrations is important for the food industry and for healthcare. Early detection of infections and appropriate treatment is essential since, the delay of treatments for bacterial infections tends to be associated with higher mortality rates. In the food industry and in healthcare, standard procedures require the count of colony-forming units in order to quantify bacterial concentrations, however, this method is time consuming and reports require three days to be completed. An alternative is metabolic-colorimetric assays which provide time efficient in vitro bacterial concentrations. A colorimetric assay based on Resazurin was developed as a time kinetic assay (KRA) suitable for bacterial concentration measurements. An optimization was performed by finding excitation and emission wavelengths for fluorescent acquisition. A comparison of two non-related bacteria, foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes, was performed in 96 well plates. A metabolic and clonogenic dependence was established for fluorescent kinetic signals.

  10. Prevention of bacterial adhesion

    Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria

    2010-01-01

    Management of bacterial infections is becoming increasingly difficult due to the emergence and increasing prevalence of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to available antibiotics. Conventional antibiotics generally kill bacteria by interfering with vital cellular functions, an approach that...... imposes selection pressure for resistant bacteria. New approaches are urgently needed. Targeting bacterial virulence functions directly is an attractive alternative. An obvious target is bacterial adhesion. Bacterial adhesion to surfaces is the first step in colonization, invasion, and biofilm formation....... As such, adhesion represents the Achilles heel of crucial pathogenic functions. It follows that interference with adhesion can reduce bacterial virulence. Here, we illustrate this important topic with examples of techniques being developed that can inhibit bacterial adhesion. Some of these will...

  11. Bacterial community and proteome analysis of fresh-cut lettuce as affected by packaging.

    Di Carli, Mariasole; De Rossi, Patrizia; Paganin, Patrizia; Del Fiore, Antonella; Lecce, Francesca; Capodicasa, Cristina; Bianco, Linda; Perrotta, Gaetano; Mengoni, Alessio; Bacci, Giovanni; Daroda, Lorenza; Dalmastri, Claudia; Donini, Marcello; Bevivino, Annamaria

    2016-01-01

    With the growing demand of fresh-cut vegetables, a variety of packaging films are produced specifically to improve safety and quality of the fresh vegetables over the storage period. The aim of our work was to evaluate the influence of different packaging films on the quality of fresh-cut lettuce analyzing changes in bacterial community composition and modifications at the proteome level, by means of culture-dependent/culture-independent methods and differential gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry analysis. Total viable counts indicated the presence of a highly variable and complex microbial flora, around a mean value of 6.26 log10 CFUg(-1). Analysis of terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism data indicated that bacterial communities changed with packaging films and time, showing differences in community composition and diversity indices between the commercially available package (F) and the new packages (A and C), in the first days after packaging. Also proteomic analysis revealed significant changes, involving proteins related to energy metabolism, photosynthesis, plant defense and oxidative stress processes, between F and A/C packages. In conclusion, microbiological and proteomic analysis have proved to be powerful tools to provide new insights into both the composition of leaf-associated bacterial communities and protein content of fresh-cut lettuce during the shelf-life storage process. PMID:26511951

  12. Bacterial concentration and diversity in fresh tropical shrimps (Penaeus notialis) and the surrounding brackish waters and sediment.

    Dabad, D Sylvain; Wolkers-Rooijackers, Judith C M; Azokpota, Paulin; Hounhouigan, D Joseph; Zwietering, Marcel H; Nout, M J Rob; den Besten, Heidy M W

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed at determining bacterial concentration and diversity in fresh tropical shrimps (Penaeus notialis) and their surrounding brackish waters and sediment. Freshly caught shrimp, water and sediment samples were collected in Lakes Nokoue and Aheme in Benin (West Africa) during two periods with different water salinity and temperature. We used complementary culture-dependent and culture-independent methods for microbiota analysis. During both sampling periods, total mesophilic aerobic counts in shrimp samples ranged between 4.4 and 5.9logCFU/g and were significantly higher than in water or sediment samples. In contrast, bacterial diversity was higher in sediment or water than in shrimps. The dominant phyla were Firmicutes and Proteobacteria in shrimps, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria in water, and Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi in sediment. At species level, distinct bacterial communities were associated with sediment, water and shrimps sampled at the same site the same day. The study suggests that the bacterial community of tropical brackish water shrimps cannot be predicted from the microbiota of their aquatic environment. Thus, monitoring of microbiological quality of aquatic environments might not reflect shrimp microbiological quality. PMID:26656527

  13. Jejunal bacterial overgrowth and intestinal permeability in children with immunodeficiency syndromes.

    Pignata, C; Budillon, G; Monaco, G.; Nani, E; Cuomo, R; Parrilli, G; Ciccimarra, F

    1990-01-01

    Seventeen paediatric patients with immunodeficiency syndromes (10 with selective IgA deficiency, four with panhypogammaglobulinaemia, and three with selective T cell deficiency) were investigated for bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine and gut permeability to macromolecules. Five of 12 patients showed viable bacterial counts of more than 2 x 10(5)/ml in jejunal fluid. Bacterial overgrowth was also confirmed indirectly by breath hydrogen determination, which was higher than 10 ppm in f...

  14. Leukocyte nucleus segmentation and nucleus lobe counting

    Zheng Zong-Han

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leukocytes play an important role in the human immune system. The family of leukocytes is comprised of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, and neutrophils. Any infection or acute stress may increase or decrease the number of leukocytes. An increased percentage of neutrophils may be caused by an acute infection, while an increased percentage of lymphocytes can be caused by a chronic bacterial infection. It is important to realize an abnormal variation in the leukocytes. The five types of leukocytes can be distinguished by their cytoplasmic granules, staining properties of the granules, size of cell, the proportion of the nuclear to the cytoplasmic material, and the type of nucleolar lobes. The number of lobes increased when leukemia, chronic nephritis, liver disease, cancer, sepsis, and vitamin B12 or folate deficiency occurred. Clinical neutrophil hypersegmentation has been widely used as an indicator of B12 or folate deficiency.Biomedical technologists can currently recognize abnormal leukocytes using human eyes. However, the quality and efficiency of diagnosis may be compromised due to the limitations of the biomedical technologists' eyesight, strength, and medical knowledge. Therefore, the development of an automatic leukocyte recognition system is feasible and necessary. It is essential to extract the leukocyte region from a blood smear image in order to develop an automatic leukocyte recognition system. The number of lobes increased when leukemia, chronic nephritis, liver disease, cancer, sepsis, and vitamin B12 or folate deficiency occurred. Clinical neutrophil hypersegmentation has been widely used as an indicator of B12 or folate deficiency. Results The purpose of this paper is to contribute an automatic leukocyte nuclei image segmentation method for such recognition technology. The other goal of this paper is to develop the method of counting the number of lobes in a cell nucleus. The experimental results demonstrated impressive segmentation accuracy. Conclusions Insensitive to the variance of images, the LNS (Leukocyte Nuclei Segmentation method functioned well to isolate the leukocyte nuclei from a blood smear image with much better UR (Under Segmentation Rate, ER (Overall Error Rate, and RDE (Relative Distance Error. The presented LC (Lobe Counting method is capable of splitting leukocyte nuclei into lobes. The experimental results illuminated that both methods can give expressive performances. In addition, three advanced image processing techniques were proposed as weighted Sobel operator, GDW (Gradient Direction Weight, and GBPD (Genetic-based Parameter Detector.

  15. Tallahatchie NWR - Landbird Point Counts in 2009

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior Avian point counts were done in selected areas of mature forest on Tallahatchie Refuge in 2009. Report contains summary of avain point counts done in mature...

  16. Alaska Steller Sea Lion Pup Count Database

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce This database contains counts of Steller sea lion pups on rookeries in Alaska made between 1961 and 2014. Pup counts are conducted in late June-July. Pups are...

  17. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    Neutropenia and cancer; Absolute neutrophil count and cancer; ANC and cancer ... A person with cancer can get a low white blood cell count from the cancer or from treatment for the cancer. Cancer may ...

  18. Digital nuclear counting system with timer

    A digital nuclear counting system of six digits with four digits electronic timer set-up for counting was constructed. Mode of operation on diagram block is described. Observation on characteristics showed counting stability is 0.01%, temperature stability is 10ppm/deg C and timer accuracy is about 10 ppm. Enduro-test and characteristic measurement results showed that the instrument was applicable for general counting system. (author)

  19. The liquid scintillation counting efficiency for 137 Cs137m Ba and 129 I

    We compute the liquid scintillation counting efficiency for ''137 Cs+ ''137m Ba and ''129 I taking into account the scintillator chemical composition. We consider the beta transition shape factors for the forbidden beta transitions of these nuclides, and the effects of ''137m Ba and ''129m Xe half-lives on the total counting efficiency

  20. Improvement of bremsstrahlung counting method for measurements of gaseous tritium

    A thin beryllium disk coated with a gold evaporated film of about 80 nm thickness was fabricated as an effective radiation window of bremsstrahlung X-rays. Its characteristics were examined in detail. The bremsstrahlung counting rate was proportional to the partial pressure of tritium above 0.1 Pa. The specific counting rate was evaluated as 70.8 cps/Pa. On the other hand, it decreased gradually with the total pressure above 2 kPa. This behavior was interpreted in terms of the self-absorption of β-particles in gas phase. It was revealed that the counting rate could be reproduced very well by a simple exponential function. From these results, it was concluded that the beryllium window coated with a thin gold evaporated film is a powerful device for in-situ measurements of tritium concentration in a wide range. 9 refs., 7 figs

  1. 46 CFR 122.504 - Passenger count.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger count. 122.504 Section 122.504 Shipping COAST... Emergencies 122.504 Passenger count. The master of a vessel, except a vessel listed in 122.502(a), shall keep a correct, written count of all passengers that embark on and disembark from the vessel. Prior...

  2. 46 CFR 185.504 - Passenger count.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger count. 185.504 Section 185.504 Shipping COAST...) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies 185.504 Passenger count. The master of a vessel, except a vessel listed in 185.502(a) of this part, shall keep a correct, written count of all passengers that embark...

  3. DC KIDS COUNT e-Databook Indicators

    DC Action for Children, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report presents indicators that are included in DC Action for Children's 2012 KIDS COUNT e-databook, their definitions and sources and the rationale for their selection. The indicators for DC KIDS COUNT represent a mix of traditional KIDS COUNT indicators of child well-being, such as the number of children living in poverty, and indicators of

  4. Oral bacterial DNA findings in pericardial fluid

    Anne-Mari Louhelainen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: We recently reported that large amounts of oral bacterial DNA can be found in thrombus aspirates of myocardial infarction patients. Some case reports describe bacterial findings in pericardial fluid, mostly done with conventional culturing and a few with PCR; in purulent pericarditis, nevertheless, bacterial PCR has not been used as a diagnostic method before. Objective: To find out whether bacterial DNA can be measured in the pericardial fluid and if it correlates with pathologicanatomic findings linked to cardiovascular diseases. Methods: Twenty-two pericardial aspirates were collected aseptically prior to forensic autopsy at Tampere University Hospital during 20092010. Of the autopsies, 10 (45.5% were free of coronary artery disease (CAD, 7 (31.8% had mild and 5 (22.7% had severe CAD. Bacterial DNA amounts were determined using real-time quantitative PCR with specific primers and probes for all bacterial strains associated with endodontic disease (Streptococcus mitis group, Streptococcus anginosus group, Staphylococcus aureus/Staphylococcus epidermidis, Prevotella intermedia, Parvimonas micra and periodontal disease (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatus, and Dialister pneumosintes. Results: Of 22 cases, 14 (63.6% were positive for endodontic and 8 (36.4% for periodontal-disease-associated bacteria. Only one case was positive for bacterial culturing. There was a statistically significant association between the relative amount of bacterial DNA in the pericardial fluid and the severity of CAD (p=0.035. Conclusions: Oral bacterial DNA was detectable in pericardial fluid and an association between the severity of CAD and the total amount of bacterial DNA in pericardial fluid was found, suggesting that this kind of measurement might be useful for clinical purposes.

  5. Association between diabetes complications and leukocyte counts in Iranian patients

    Moradi S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sedigheh Moradi1, Scott Reza Jafarian Kerman2, Farzaneh Rohani1, Fereshteh Salari21Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center (Firouzgar, Hemmat Campus, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, 2Scientific Students Research Committee, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IranBackground: The long term complications of diabetes can be fatal. They are also renowned for being an economic burden. Previous studies have demonstrated a relationship between inflammatory markers and complications of diabetes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between leukocyte counts and these complications.Methods: The study included 184 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The study was carried out in Iran during 2007 and 2008. Data collected on the subjects were as follows: age, gender, weight, height, blood pressure, smoking history, lipid profile including low density lipoprotein (LDL, high density lipoprotein (HDL, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and leukocyte count, albuminuria, and retinopathy. Furthermore, information on cardiac history for 100 patients was collected. The subjects were split into two groups according to their leukocyte levels: low (≤7000/mm³ and high (>7000/mm³; and then analyzed by Student's t-test or Mann–Whitney U-test as appropriate.Results: The average leukocyte count in these patients was 7594 ± 1965/mm³. Leukocyte count was significantly different in patients with and without retinopathy and albuminuria (P < 0.0001. According to this analysis, a leukocyte count of 6750/mm³ with a sensitivity of 80.2% and a specificity of 56.4%, and a count of 7550/mm³ with a sensitivity of 63.2% and a specificity of 74.6% indicated at least one diabetes complication.Conclusion: An elevated leukocyte count even within the normal range was associated with chronic complications in type 2 diabetes.Keywords: leukocytes, diabetes complications, inflammation

  6. Radiometric assay of bacterial growth: analysis of factors determining system performance and optimization of assay technique

    A quantitative technique for the measurement of 14CO2 released from a bacterial culture was evaluated. The technique uses liquid scintillation counting to record 14CO2 accumulation on a fluor-impregnated filter paper within a double-chambered scintillation vial that also houses the bacterial growth medium. We have successfully identified and corrected the major causes for a variably low detection efficiency, and also established the optimum mixture of reagents for the detection system. Incorporation of Triton X-100 into the scintillation fluid used for the detector reduced the variability between identical assays in a single batch from 50% to 5%, and, in conjunction with an increase in the scintillator concentration, raised the counting efficiency from 30% to 70-88%. The response of the improved detector is linear over a wide range of count-rates. Another significant modification was the interchange of growth and detector chambers. Overall, a 40-fold increase in count-rate during the exponential phase of bacterial growth was obtained by improving 14CO2 detection efficiency, increasing the rate of 14CO2 transfer from liquid to gas phases and enlarging the growth supporting capacity of the detector system. The minimum detection time for bacterial growth was shortened and the exponential phase of bacterial proliferation was lengthened by at least 2 hr. High counting efficiency, precision, and linearity make the improved detector a sensitive and reliable tool for radiometry of bacterial growth and metabolism

  7. Exploring the Bacterial Diversity of Belgian Steak Tartare Using Metagenetics and Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis.

    Delhalle, L; Korsak, N; Taminiau, B; Nezer, C; Burteau, S; Delcenserie, V; Poullet, J B; Daube, G

    2016-02-01

    Steak tartare is a popular meat dish in Belgium. It is prepared with raw minced beef and is eaten with sauce, vegetables, and spices. Because it contains raw meat, steak tartare is highly prone to bacterial spoilage. The objective of this study was to explore the diversity of bacterial flora in steak tartare in Belgium according to the source and to determine which bacteria are able to grow during shelf life. A total of 58 samples from butchers' shops, restaurants, sandwich shops, and supermarkets were collected. These samples were analyzed using 16S rDNA metagenetics, a classical microbiological technique, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) targeting the Lactobacillus genus. Samples were analyzed at the beginning and at the end of their shelf life, except for those from restaurants and sandwich shops, which were analyzed only on the purchase date. Metagenetic analysis identified up to 180 bacterial species and 90 genera in some samples. But only seven bacterial species were predominant in the samples, depending on the source: Brochothrix thermosphacta, Lactobacillus algidus, Lactococcus piscium, Leuconostoc gelidum, Photobacterium kishitani, Pseudomonas spp., and Xanthomonas oryzae. With this work, an alternative method is proposed to evaluate the total flora in food samples based on the number of reads from metagenetic analysis and the results of qPCR. The degree of underestimation of aerobic plate counts at 30°C estimated with the classical microbiology method was demonstrated in comparison with the proposed culture-independent method. Compared with culture-based methods, metagenetic analysis combined with qPCR targeting Lactobacillus provides valuable information for characterizing the bacterial flora of raw meat. PMID:26818982

  8. Counting efficiencies by liquid scintillation counting. Single isomeric transitions

    In this work we present liquid scintillation counting efficiency tables for several radionuclides with single isomeric transitions, in which electron conversion and gamma emission processes are competitive. We study the radionuclides: ''58m CO, ''77mSE, ''79mBR, ''87mSR,''89mY,''93mNB,''103mRh, ''107mAG, ''109mAG, ''113mIn, ''131mXe; ''133mXe,''135mBa, ''167mEr, for two different scintillators, Ultima-Gold and Insta-Gel. We consider volumes of 10 and 15 mL for Ultima gold, and 15 mL for Insta-Gel

  9. Counting efficiencies by liquid scintillation counting. Single isomeric transitions

    In this work we present liquid scintillation counting efficiency tables for several radionuclides with single isomeric transitions, in which electron conversion and gamma emission processes are competitive. We study the radionuclides: 58mCo, 77mSe, 79mBr, 87mSr, S9mY, 93mNb, 103mRh, 107mAg, 109mAg, 113mIn, 131mXe, I33mXe, 135raBa, 137mBa, 167raEr, for two different scintillators, Ultima-Gold and Insta-Gel. We consider volumes of 10 and 15 mL for Ultima Gold, and 15 mL for Insta-Gel. (Author) 18 refs

  10. How much do women count if they not counted?

    Federica Taddia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The condition of women throughout the world is marked by countless injustices and violations of the most fundamental rights established by the Universal Declaration of human rights and every culture is potentially prone to commit discrimination against women in various forms. Women are worse fed, more exposed to physical violence, more exposed to diseases and less educated; they have less access to, or are excluded from, vocational training paths; they are the most vulnerable among prisoners of conscience, refugees and immigrants and the least considered within ethnic minorities; from their very childhood, women are humiliated, undernourished, sold, raped and killed; their work is generally less paid compared to men’s work and in some countries they are victims of forced marriages. Such condition is the result of old traditions that implicit gender-differentiated education has long promoted through cultural models based on theories, practices and policies marked by discrimination and structured differentially for men and women. Within these cultural models, the basic educational institutions have played and still play a major role in perpetuating such traditions. Nevertheless, if we want to overcome inequalities and provide women with empowerment, we have to start right from the educational institutions and in particular from school, through the adoption of an intercultural approach to education: an approach based on active pedagogy and on methods of analysis, exchange and enhancement typical of socio-educational animation. The intercultural approach to education is attentive to promote the realisation of each individual and the dignity and right of everyone to express himself/herself in his/her own way. Such an approach will give women the opportunity to become actual agents of collective change and to get the strength and wellbeing necessary to count and be counted as human beings entitled to freedom and equality, and to have access to all the rights set out in Declarations, Covenants and Conventions.

  11. Study on rising the counting efficiency of 32P by the liquid scintillation counting

    The study compares the Cerekov counting with the liquid scintillation counting for 32P, while the experimental comparisons were made for 32P counting efficiency to the various sample bottles and the effect of scintillation solutions. The results show the way of rising the counting efficiency for 32P

  12. Demonstrating Bacterial Flagella.

    Porter, John R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes an effective laboratory method for demonstrating bacterial flagella that utilizes the Proteus mirabilis organism and a special harvesting technique. Includes safety considerations for the laboratory exercise. (MDH)

  13. Quantification of bioavailable chlortetracycline in pig feces using a bacterial whole-cell biosensor

    Hansen, L. H.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Sørensen, S. J.

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial whole-cell biosensors were used to measure the concentration of chlortetracycline (CTC) in the feces of pigs. In this study, the Escherichia coli biosensor used has a detection limit of 0.03 mg/kg CTC in pig feces. The tetracycline concentration was correlated with the appearance and...... maintenance of fecal coliform bacteria resistant to tetracycline. Initially, large quantities of water-extractable CTC were excreted from the pigs and measurable amounts were detected even at 30 days after treatment cessation. This led to a sharp rise in the number of tetracycline resistant coliform bacteria...... in the feces, to within the same order of magnitude as the total coliform count. The high level of tetracycline resistance was maintained in spite of the declining concentration of tetracycline. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  14. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of blood cultures from cattle clinically suspected of bacterial endocarditis

    Houe, Hans; Eriksen, L.; Jungersen, Gregers; Pedersen, D.; Krogh, H. V.

    1993-01-01

    This study investigated the number of blood culture-positive cattle among 215 animals clinically suspected of having bacterial endocarditis. For animals that were necropsied, the sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of the diagnosis of endocarditis were calculated on the basis of the...... isolation of the causative bacteria from blood. Furthermore, it was investigated whether the glutaraldehyde coagulation time, total leucocyte count, per cent neutrophil granulocytes, pulse rate and duration of disease could help to discriminate endocarditis from other diseases. Among 138 animals necropsied...... the sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of blood cultivation were 70.7 per cent, 93.8 per cent and 89.1 per cent, respectively. None of the other measurements could be used to discriminate between endocarditis and non-endocarditis cases....

  15. The rare bacterial biosphere.

    Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    All communities are dominated by a few species that account for most of the biomass and carbon cycling. On the other hand, a large number of species are represented by only a few individuals. In the case of bacteria, these rare species were until recently invisible. Owing to their low numbers, conventional molecular techniques could not retrieve them. Isolation in pure culture was the only way to identify some of them, but current culturing techniques are unable to isolate most of the bacteria in nature. The recent development of fast and cheap high-throughput sequencing has begun to allow access to the rare species. In the case of bacteria, the exploration of this rare biosphere has several points of interest. First, it will eventually produce a reasonable estimate of the total number of bacterial taxa in the oceans; right now, we do not even know the right order of magnitude. Second, it will answer the question of whether "everything is everywhere." Third, it will require hypothesizing and testing the ecological mechanisms that allow subsistence of many species in low numbers. And fourth, it will open an avenue of research into the immense reserve of genes with potential applications hidden in the rare biosphere. PMID:22457983

  16. Pseudoalteromonas spp. Serve as Initial Bacterial Attractants in Mesocosms of Coastal Waters but Have Subsequent Antifouling Capacity in Mesocosms and when Embedded in Paint

    Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yin; Møller, Stefan; Gram, Lone

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine if the monoculture antifouling effect of several pigmented pseudoalteromonads was retained in in vitro mesocosm systems using natural coastal seawater and when the bacteria were embedded in paint used on surfaces submerged in coastal waters...... attachment when used to coat stainless steel surfaces and submerged in mesocosms with natural seawater. The bacterial density on surfaces coated with sterile growth medium was 105 cells/cm2 after 7 days, whereas counts on surfaces precoated with Pseudoalteromonas were significantly higher, at 106 to 108...... cells/cm2. However, after 53 days, seven of eight Pseudoalteromonas strains had reduced total bacterial adhesion compared to the control. P. piscicida, P. antarctica, and P. ulvae remained on the surface, at levels similar to those in the initial coating, whereas P. tunicata could not be detected...

  17. Bacterial community characterization of a sequencing batch reactor treating pre-ozonized sulfamethoxazole in water.

    Esplugas, Marc; Gonzlez, Oscar; Sans, Carme

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotics are pharmaceutical compounds widely used to treat a broad range of infections. These chemicals appear to be recalcitrant compounds when released to water systems, and their presence at the effluent of wastewater treatment plants and surface waters has been widely documented. Sulfamethoxazole (SMX), a sulfonamide commonly used to treat urinary infections, is one of them. Ozonation was proved to be a suitable method to remove SMX antibiotic in water. However, it is stated that a high ozone dosage would be necessary to achieve the complete mineralization of the intermediates. In this work, ozonation is coupled with a Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor (SBBR) in order to completely degrade SMX and its metabolites from water solutions. Moreover, a precise description of the microbial community in the bioreactor is provided by means of traditional microscopy and molecular biology techniques. The results obtained showed high Total Organic Carbon removals at the end of the biological treatment (89% removal). Furthermore, nitrates produced during the aerobic SBBR's performance were monitored and eliminated by adding an anoxic stage, achieving an overall nitrogen removal of 86%. A bacterial community analysis of the SBBR during aerobic and aerobic-anoxic conditions was performed, targeting the bacterial 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene. These results revealed a dominant contribution of bacteria from the Proteobacteria class, with a major contribution from the Rhizobiales and Burkholderiales orders during the bioreactor performance, counting 52% of the total population. PMID:24191493

  18. Counting Homomorphisms and Partition Functions

    Grohe, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Homomorphisms between relational structures are not only fundamental mathematical objects, but are also of great importance in an applied computational context. Indeed, constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs), a wide class of algorithmic problems that occur in many different areas of computer science such as artificial intelligence or database theory, may be viewed as asking for homomorphisms between two relational structures [FedVar98]. In a logical setting, homomorphisms may be viewed as witnesses for positive primitive formulae in a relational language. As we shall see, homomorphisms, or more precisely the numbers of homomorphisms between two structures, are also related to a fundamental computational problem of statistical physics. In this article, we are concerned with the complexity of counting homomorphisms from a given structure A to a fixed structure B. Actually, we are mainly interested in a generalisation of this problem to weighted homomorphisms (or partition functions). We almost exclusively focu...

  19. Counting hypermaps by Egorychev's method

    Mednykh, Alexander; Nedela, Roman

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to find explicit formulae for the number of rooted hypermaps with a given number of darts on an orientable surface of genus g≤ 3 . Such formulae were obtained earlier for g=0 and g=1 by Walsh and Arquès respectively. We first employ the Egorychev's method of counting combinatorial sums to obtain a new version of the Arquès formula for genus g=1 . Then we apply the same approach to get new results for genus g=2,3 . We could do it due to recent results by Giorgetti, Walsh, and Kazarian, Zograf who derived two different, but equivalent, forms of the generating functions for the number of hypermaps of genus two and three.

  20. Photon counting compressive depth mapping

    Howland, Gregory A; Ware, Matthew R; Howell, John C

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a compressed sensing, photon counting lidar system based on the single-pixel camera. Our technique recovers both depth and intensity maps from a single under-sampled set of incoherent, linear projections of a scene of interest at ultra-low light levels around 0.5 picowatts. Only two-dimensional reconstructions are required to image a three-dimensional scene. We demonstrate intensity imaging and depth mapping at 256 x 256 pixel transverse resolution with acquisition times as short as 3 seconds. We also show novelty filtering, reconstructing only the difference between two instances of a scene. Finally, we acquire 32 x 32 pixel real-time video for three-dimensional object tracking at 14 frames-per-second.

  1. Counting paths with Schur transitions

    Diaz, Pablo; Veliz-Osorio, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    In this work we explore the structure of the branching graph of the unitary group using Schur transitions. We find that these transitions suggest a new combinatorial expression for counting paths in the branching graph. This formula, which is valid for any rank of the unitary group, reproduces known asymptotic results. We proceed to establish the general validity of this expression by a formal proof. The form of this equation strongly hints towards a quantum generalization. Thus, we introduce a notion of quantum relative dimension and subject it to the appropriate consistency tests. This new quantity finds its natural environment in the context of RCFTs and fractional statistics; where the already established notion of quantum dimension has proven to be of great physical importance.

  2. Procalcitonin in sepsis and bacterial infections

    Abhijit Chaudhury

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The differentiation of sepsis and systemic bacterial infections from other causes of systemic inflammatory response is crucial from the therapeutic point of view. The clinical signs and symptoms are non-specific and traditional biomarkers like white cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein are not sufficiently sensitive or specific to guide therapeutic decisions. Procalcitonin (PCT is considered a reliable marker for the diagnosis and prognosis of moderate to severe bacterial infections, and it has also been evaluated to guide the clinicians in the rational usage of antibiotics. This review describes the diagnostic and prognostic role of PCT as a biomarker in various clinical settings along with the laboratory aspects and its usefulness in risk stratification and antibiotic stewardship.

  3. Measurement of calprotectin in ascitic fluid to identify elevated polymorphonuclear cell count

    Christoph Beglinger; Rmy Meier; Jrgen Muser; Felix Schulte; Emanuel Burri

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the diagnostic capability of calprotectin in ascitic fluid for detecting a polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell count > 250/?L ascites. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, a total of 130 ascites samples were analysed from 71 consecutive patients referred for paracentesis. Total and differential leukocyte cell counts were determined manually with a Neubauer chamber and gentian-violet stain. Calprotectin was measured in 1 mL ascetic fluid by enzyme-linked immunosorb...

  4. Plasma lipid levels in patients with acute bacterial infections

    NASSAJI, Mohammad; GHORBANI, Raheb

    2012-01-01

    To assess the impact of acute bacterial infections on plasma lipid levels and to determine the value of plasma lipid measurements in the diagnosis of acute bacterial infection. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 112 patients with acute bacterial infections admitted in hospital and 112 healthy individuals as controls. Levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides were measured in blood samples ...

  5. Succession of lignocellulolytic bacterial consortia bred anaerobically from lake sediment.

    Korenblum, Elisa; Jiménez, Diego Javier; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2016-03-01

    Anaerobic bacteria degrade lignocellulose in various anoxic and organically rich environments, often in a syntrophic process. Anaerobic enrichments of bacterial communities on a recalcitrant lignocellulose source were studied combining polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and culturing. Three consortia were constructed using the microbiota of lake sediment as the starting inoculum and untreated switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) (acid or heat) or treated (with either acid or heat) as the sole source of carbonaceous compounds. Additionally, nitrate was used in order to limit sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. Bacterial growth took place, as evidenced from 3 to 4 log unit increases in the 16S rRNA gene copy numbers as well as direct cell counts through three transfers on cleaned and reused substrate placed in fresh mineral medium. After 2 days, Aeromonas bestiarum-like organisms dominated the enrichments, irrespective of the substrate type. One month later, each substrate revealed major enrichments of organisms affiliated with different species of Clostridium. Moreover, only the heat-treated substrate selected Dysgonomonas capnocytophagoides-affiliated bacteria (Bacteroidetes). Towards the end of the experiment, members of the Proteobacteria (Aeromonas, Rhizobium and/or Serratia) became dominant in all three types of substrates. A total of 160 strains was isolated from the enrichments. Most of the strains tested (78%) were able to grow anaerobically on carboxymethyl cellulose and xylan. The final consortia yield attractive biological tools for the depolymerization of recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials and are proposed for the production of precursors of biofuels. PMID:26875750

  6. A method for high throughput determination of viable bacteria cell counts in 96-well plates

    Hazan Ronen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are several methods for quantitating bacterial cells, each with advantages and disadvantages. The most common method is bacterial plating, which has the advantage of allowing live cell assessment through colony forming unit (CFU counts but is not well suited for high throughput screening (HTS. On the other hand, spectrophotometry is adaptable to HTS applications but does not differentiate between dead and living bacteria and has low sensitivity. Results Here, we report a bacterial cell counting method termed Start Growth Time (SGT that allows rapid and serial quantification of the absolute or relative number of live cells in a bacterial culture in a high throughput manner. We combined the methodology of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR calculations with a previously described qualitative method of bacterial growth determination to develop an improved quantitative method. We show that SGT detects only live bacteria and is sensitive enough to differentiate between 40 and 400 cells/mL. SGT is based on the re-growth time required by a growing cell culture to reach a threshold, and the notion that this time is proportional to the number of cells in the initial inoculum. We show several applications of SGT, including assessment of antibiotic effects on cell viability and determination of an antibiotic tolerant subpopulation fraction within a cell population. SGT results do not differ significantly from results obtained by CFU counts. Conclusion SGT is a relatively quick, highly sensitive, reproducible and non-laborious method that can be used in HTS settings to longitudinally assess live cells in bacterial cell cultures.

  7. Bacterial corrosion of metals

    Two approaches exist to deal with the questions of bacterial corrosion of metals: the first one reveals the microbiological effects of bacterial corrosion and the second one tries to determine the action mechanisms due to such or such metallic alloy category. This second approach is particularly developed considering the cases of carbon steels, stainless steels, copper alloys and light alloys. (O.M.)

  8. Vimentin in Bacterial Infections

    Tim N. Mak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite well-studied bacterial strategies to target actin to subvert the host cell cytoskeleton, thus promoting bacterial survival, replication, and dissemination, relatively little is known about the bacterial interaction with other components of the host cell cytoskeleton, including intermediate filaments (IFs. IFs have not only roles in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, but they are also involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, immune signaling, and autophagy, processes that are important in the context of bacterial infections. Here, we summarize the knowledge about the role of IFs in bacterial infections, focusing on the type III IF protein vimentin. Recent studies have revealed the involvement of vimentin in host cell defenses, acting as ligand for several pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. Two main aspects of bacteria-vimentin interactions are presented in this review: the role of vimentin in pathogen-binding on the cell surface and subsequent bacterial invasion and the interaction of cytosolic vimentin and intracellular pathogens with regards to innate immune signaling. Mechanistic insight is presented involving distinct bacterial virulence factors that target vimentin to subvert its function in order to change the host cell fate in the course of a bacterial infection.

  9. Immunity and Simplicity for Exact Counting and Other Counting Classes

    Rothe, J

    1998-01-01

    Ko [RAIRO 24, 1990] and Bruschi [TCS 102, 1992] showed that in some relativized world, PSPACE (in fact, ParityP) contains a set that is immune to the polynomial hierarchy (PH). In this paper, we study and settle the question of (relativized) separations with immunity for PH and the counting classes PP, C_{=}P, and ParityP in all possible pairwise combinations. Our main result is that there is an oracle A relative to which C_{=}P contains a set that is immune to BPP^{ParityP}. In particular, this C_{=}P^A set is immune to PH^{A} and ParityP^{A}. Strengthening results of Torn [J.ACM 38, 1991] and Green [IPL 37, 1991], we also show that, in suitable relativizations, NP contains a C_{=}P-immune set, and ParityP contains a PP^{PH}-immune set. This implies the existence of a C_{=}P^{B}-simple set for some oracle B, which extends results of Balczar et al. [SIAM J.Comp. 14, 1985; RAIRO 22, 1988] and provides the first example of a simple set in a class not known to be contained in PH. Our proof technique requires...

  10. Small Count Privacy and Large Count Utility in Data Publishing

    Fu, Ada Wai-Chee; Wang, Ke; Wong, Raymond Chi-Wing

    2012-01-01

    While the introduction of differential privacy has been a major breakthrough in the study of privacy preserving data publication, some recent work has pointed out a number of cases where it is not possible to limit inference about individuals. The dilemma that is intrinsic in the problem is the simultaneous requirement of data utility in the published data. Differential privacy does not aim to protect information about an individual that can be uncovered even without the participation of the individual. However, this lack of coverage may violate the principle of individual privacy. Here we propose a solution by providing protection to sensitive information, by which we refer to the answers for aggregate queries with small counts. Previous works based on $\\ell$-diversity can be seen as providing a special form of this kind of protection. Our method is developed with another goal which is to provide differential privacy guarantee, and for that we introduce a more refined form of differential privacy to deal wit...

  11. Photon Counting 3-D Object Recognition Using Digital Holography

    Latorre Carmona, Pedro; Javidi, Bahram, 1959-; Pla Ban, Filiberto; Tajahuerce, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of the recognition performance of 3-D objects reconstructed from digital holograms recorded under photon counting conditions. The digital holograms are computed by applying four-step phase-shifting techniques to interferograms recorded with weak coherent light. Recognition capability is analyzed as a function of the total number of photons by using a maximum-likelihood approach adapted to one-class classification problems. The likelihood is modeled assumi...

  12. Counting people from above: Airborne video based crowd analysis

    Perko, Roland; Schnabel, Thomas; Fritz, Gerald; Almer, Alexander; Paletta, Lucas

    2013-01-01

    Crowd monitoring and analysis in mass events are highly important technologies to support the security of attending persons. Proposed methods based on terrestrial or airborne image/video data often fail in achieving sufficiently accurate results to guarantee a robust service. We present a novel framework for estimating human count, density and motion from video data based on custom tailored object detection techniques, a regression based density estimate and a total variation based optical fl...

  13. The Painful Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    McDowell, Mitchell; Park, Andrew; Gerlinger, Tad L

    2016-04-01

    There are many causes of residual pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Evaluation and management begins with a comprehensive history and physical examination, followed by radiographic evaluation of the replaced and adjacent joints, as well as previous films of the replaced joint. Further workup includes laboratory analysis, along with a synovial fluid aspirate to evaluate the white blood cell count with differential as well as culture. Advanced imaging modalities may be beneficial when the diagnosis remains unclear. Revision surgery is not advisable without a clear diagnosis, as it may be associated with poor results. PMID:26772940

  14. Very high count rate gamma spectroscopy

    Recent improvements in the electronics that amplify and analyze gamma photon-induced pulses have made it possible for HPGe coaxial detectors to accept input rates of one-million, one-MeV gamma photons-per-second and still provide the spectroscopist with spectra that can be analyzed. Data are presented that illustrate peak area variances and changes in counting uncertainty statistics due to the greatly extended count rate range. Software algorithms are presented that allow gain shift and peak resolution to be adjusted automatically on a sample-by-sample basis. Relationships are developed between integrated count rate and the variances of full energy photon peak area and counting uncertainty when using the real time correction mode of pulse processing. Finally, the results of integrating hardware and software into a system are used to illustrate that quantitative gamma spectroscopy over counting rates of one- to one-million counts-per-second are achievable

  15. Design Study of an Incinerator Ash Conveyor Counting System - 13323

    Jaederstroem, Henrik; Bronson, Frazier [Canberra Industries Inc., 800 Research Parkway Meriden CT 06450 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A design study has been performed for a system that should measure the Cs-137 activity in ash from an incinerator. Radioactive ash, expected to consist of both Cs-134 and Cs-137, will be transported on a conveyor belt at 0.1 m/s. The objective of the counting system is to determine the Cs-137 activity and direct the ash to the correct stream after a diverter. The decision levels are ranging from 8000 to 400000 Bq/kg and the decision error should be as low as possible. The decision error depends on the total measurement uncertainty which depends on the counting statistics and the uncertainty in the efficiency of the geometry. For the low activity decision it is necessary to know the efficiency to be able to determine if the signal from the Cs-137 is above the minimum detectable activity and that it generates enough counts to reach the desired precision. For the higher activity decision the uncertainty of the efficiency needs to be understood to minimize decision errors. The total efficiency of the detector is needed to be able to determine if the detector will be able operate at the count rate at the highest expected activity. The design study that is presented in this paper describes how the objectives of the monitoring systems were obtained, the choice of detector was made and how ISOCS (In Situ Object Counting System) mathematical modeling was used to calculate the efficiency. The ISOCS uncertainty estimator (IUE) was used to determine which parameters of the ash was important to know accurately in order to minimize the uncertainty of the efficiency. The examined parameters include the height of the ash on the conveyor belt, the matrix composition and density and relative efficiency of the detector. (authors)

  16. Design Study of an Incinerator Ash Conveyor Counting System - 13323

    A design study has been performed for a system that should measure the Cs-137 activity in ash from an incinerator. Radioactive ash, expected to consist of both Cs-134 and Cs-137, will be transported on a conveyor belt at 0.1 m/s. The objective of the counting system is to determine the Cs-137 activity and direct the ash to the correct stream after a diverter. The decision levels are ranging from 8000 to 400000 Bq/kg and the decision error should be as low as possible. The decision error depends on the total measurement uncertainty which depends on the counting statistics and the uncertainty in the efficiency of the geometry. For the low activity decision it is necessary to know the efficiency to be able to determine if the signal from the Cs-137 is above the minimum detectable activity and that it generates enough counts to reach the desired precision. For the higher activity decision the uncertainty of the efficiency needs to be understood to minimize decision errors. The total efficiency of the detector is needed to be able to determine if the detector will be able operate at the count rate at the highest expected activity. The design study that is presented in this paper describes how the objectives of the monitoring systems were obtained, the choice of detector was made and how ISOCS (In Situ Object Counting System) mathematical modeling was used to calculate the efficiency. The ISOCS uncertainty estimator (IUE) was used to determine which parameters of the ash was important to know accurately in order to minimize the uncertainty of the efficiency. The examined parameters include the height of the ash on the conveyor belt, the matrix composition and density and relative efficiency of the detector. (authors)

  17. Triple-Label ? Liquid Scintillation Counting

    BUKOWSKI, THOMAS R.; Moffett, Tyler C.; Revkin, James H.; Ploger, James D.; Bassingthwaighte, James B.

    1992-01-01

    The detection of radioactive compounds by liquid scintillation has revolutionized modern biology, yet few investigators make full use of the power of this technique. Even though multiple isotope counting is considerably more difficult than single isotope counting, many experimental designs would benefit from using more than one isotope. The development of accurate isotope counting techniques enabling the simultaneous use of three ?-emitting tracers has facilitated studies in our laboratory us...

  18. Counting Majorana zero modes in superconductors

    Santos, Luiz; Nishida, Yusuke; chamon, Claudio; Mudry, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    A counting formula for computing the number of (Majorana) zero modes bound to topological point defects is evaluated in a gradient expansion for systems with charge-conjugation symmetry. This semi-classical counting of zero modes is applied to some examples that include graphene and a chiral p-wave superconductor in two-dimensional space. In all cases, we explicitly relate the counting of zero modes to Chern numbers.

  19. Minimal count level required for quantification of left ventricular function with gated myocardial perfusion tomography

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the minimal count density required for accurate quantification of global and regional function using gated myocardial perfusion tomography and the QGS algorithm. Material and Methods: Ten patients with low likelihood of coronary artery disease were injected with 925MBq of Tc99m labelled tetrofosmin. Imaging was started 60min after tracer administration on a 3-head gamma camera equipped with LEHR collimators. Parameters of acquisition were as follows: 360-degree rotation, 96 projections, 64x64 matrix, 5.79mm pixel size, step-and-shoot, 40s per step and 8 time bins. In order to create test data sets with lower count densities, the original data were redistributed using binomial deviates. For each patient, five different noise realizations were generated for six different noise levels corresponding to 1/2, 1/4, 1/6, 1/8, 1/10 and 1/16 of the original count density. Transverse slices were reconstructed using filtered backprojection (Butterworth filter: cut-off frequency 0.44 cycle/cm, order 5) and reoriented according to the left ventricular long axis using exactly the same angles for each individual patient. End-diastolic volume (EDV), ejection fraction (EF) and regional wall thickening (WT) were automatically calculated with the QGS algorithm. The root-mean-square difference (RMSD) between the five low-count realizations and the original high-count study were calculated for every noise level and evaluated in function of the total myocardial count density measured on the non-gated projections. Results: The total myocardial count density averaged 5.0+/-0.9 million counts in the original high-count studies. Using these original data, EDV, EF and WT averaged 117+/-15ml, 55+/-4% and 34+/-4%, respectively. The RMSD of the EDV, EF and WT increased slightly with decreasing count levels until a total myocardial count density of 1.5 million counts. At that very low count level, RMSD was still below 6 ml for EDV and below 5% for EF and WT, respectively. Lower count levels generated unacceptable RMSD. Conclusion: QGS provides accurate and highly reproducible quantitative measurements of global and regional left ventricular function with gated myocardial perfusion tomographic studies containing as low as 1.5 million counts

  20. Vector perturbations of galaxy number counts

    Durrer, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    We derive the contribution to relativistic galaxy number count fluctuations from vector and tensor perturbations within linear perturbation theory. Our result is consistent with the the relativistic corrections to number counts due to scalar perturbation, where the Bardeen potentials are replaced with line-of-sight projection of vector and tensor quantities. Since vector and tensor perturbations do not lead to density fluctuations the standard density term in the number counts is absent. We apply our results to vector perturbations which are induced from scalar perturbations at second order and give numerical estimates of their contributions to the power spectrum of relativistic galaxy number counts.

  1. Effect of counting errors on immunoassay precision

    Using mathematical analysis and computer simulation, we studied the effect of gamma scintillation counting error on two radioimmunoassays (RIAs) and an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). To analyze the propagation of the counting errors into the estimation of analyte concentration, we empirically derived parameters for logit-log data-reduction models for assays of digoxin and triiodothyronine (RIAs) and ferritin (IRMA). The component of the analytical error attributable to counting variability, when expressed as a CV of the analyte concentration, decreased approximately linearly with the inverse of the square root of the maximum counts bound. Larger counting-error CVs were found at lower concentrations for both RIAs and the IRMA. Substantially smaller CVs for overall assay were found when the maximum counts bound progressively increased from 500 to 10,000 counts, but further increases in maximum bound counts resulted in little decrease in overall assay CV except when very low concentrations of analyte were being measured. Therefore, RIA and IRMA systems based in duplicate determinations having at least 10,000 maximum counts bound should have adequate precision, except possibly at very low concentrations

  2. Identification of CSF fistulas by radionuclide counting

    Yamamoto, Y.; Kunishio, K.; Sunami, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satoh, T.; Suga, M.; Asari, S. (Matsuyama Shimin Hospital (Japan))

    1990-07-01

    A radionuclide counting method, performed with the patient prone and the neck flexed, was used successfully to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea in two patients. A normal radionuclide ratio (radionuclide counts in pledget/radionuclide counts in 1-ml blood sample) was obtained in 11 normal control subjects. Significance was determined to be a ratio greater than 0.37. Use of radionuclide counting method of determining CSF rhinorrhea is recommended when other methods have failed to locate a site of leakage or when posttraumatic meningitis suggests subclinical CSF rhinorrhea.

  3. Identification of CSF fistulas by radionuclide counting

    A radionuclide counting method, performed with the patient prone and the neck flexed, was used successfully to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea in two patients. A normal radionuclide ratio (radionuclide counts in pledget/radionuclide counts in 1-ml blood sample) was obtained in 11 normal control subjects. Significance was determined to be a ratio greater than 0.37. Use of radionuclide counting method of determining CSF rhinorrhea is recommended when other methods have failed to locate a site of leakage or when posttraumatic meningitis suggests subclinical CSF rhinorrhea

  4. Total viable bacteria removal by means of an electrostatic air cleaner; Abbattimento della carica batterica totale aerodispersa mediante barriera filtrante di tipo elettrostatico

    Bontempi, L. [Tecnica Bontempi snc, Calvisano BS (Italy); D' Errico, M. [Ancona Univ., Ancona (Italy). Facolta' di Medicina; Fava, G. [Ancona Univ., Ancona (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze dei Materiali e della Terra

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents the methodology followed in order to define the relationship between the removal of inorganic and/or viable particulates and a commercial electrostatic precipitator, FEMEC like configured. Inorganic aerosols needed to control the efficiency removal were generated through an ultrasonic home humidifier, while a bacterial characterised air flow was obtained directly from the duet work of the central heating and cooling system serving the environmental analyses laboratory of the University of Ancona. Microbiological analyses were performed by a traditional plate count method. The difference between the amount of viable bacteria evaluated on plate count data, in the presence of electrostatic filtration, results statistically significative. Bacterial removal by electrostatic filtration resulted on an average of 79% of the samples analysed. [Italian] Il presente lavoro riassume la metodologia seguita per la definizione del rapporto esistente fra il funzionamento di un filtro elettrostatico commerciale a piastre doppio stadio tipo FEMEC e l'abbattimento sia di particolato inorganico sia di particolato di tipo biologico vivo, provenienti da impianti di termoventilazione. La generazione di particolato inorganico e' stata realizzata tramite generatore ultrasonico alimentato con soluzione salina di solfato di ammonio. La carica batterica in ingresso al filtro e' stata ottenuta direttamente dall'impianto di climatizzazione di tipo misto al servizio del laboratorio chimico ambientale dell'Universita' di Ancona. Nelle condizioni operative impiegate e' stata verificata una differenza statisticamente significativa dell'abbattimento della carica batterica totale ottenuta tramite filtrazione elettrostatica dell'aria. Il risultato dei conteggi nei campioni di aria filtrati evidenzia un conteggio nullo nel 79%, contro un 37% nei prelievi eseguiti in assenza di filtrazione.

  5. Dual isotope separation technique for radioassay. The effect of cross counting between two simultaneously counted isotopes

    A theoretical model, describing the effects of cross counting on the dual-isotope-corrected bound count rate and on the precision with which it is estimated, is presented. Experimental support for the validity of the model is given. The bound count rate is shown to be independent of the amount of marker isotope incorrectly counted as label isotope. The precision with which the bound count rate is estimated appears to be dependent on the size of this cross counting correction, although other factors such as pipetting errors are of more importance. Implications for the choice of assay system are discussed. (Auth.)

  6. Evaluation of free-stall mattress bedding treatments to reduce mastitis bacterial growth

    Kristula, M.A.; Dou, Z.; Toth, J.D.; Smith, B.I.; Harvey, N.; Sabo, M. [University of Penn, Kennett Square, PA (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Bacterial counts were compared in free-stall mattresses and teat ends exposed to 5 treatments in a factorial study design on 1 dairy farm. Mattresses in five 30-cow groups were subjected to 1 of 5 bedding treatments every other day: 0.5 kg of hydrated limestone, 120 mL of commercial acidic conditioner, 1 kg of coal fly ash, 1 kg of kiln-dried wood shavings, and control (no bedding). Counts of coliforms, Klebsiella spp., Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus spp. were lowest on mattresses bedded with lime. Mattresses bedded with the commercial acidic conditioner had the next lowest counts for coliforms, Klebsiella spp., and Streptococcus spp. Wood shavings and the no-bedding control had the highest counts for coliform and Klebsiella spp. Compared with wood shavings or control, fly ash reduced the counts of coliforms, whereas for the other 3 bacterial groups, the reduction was not always significant. Streptococcus spp. counts were greatest in the control group and did not differ among the shavings and fly ash groups. Teat swab results indicated that hydrated lime was the only bedding treatment that significantly decreased the counts of both coliforms and Klebsiella spp. There were no differences in Streptococcus spp. numbers on the teats between any of the bedding treatments. Bacterial populations grew steadily on mattresses and were generally higher at 36 to 48 h than at 12 to 24 h, whereas bacterial populations on teats grew rapidly by 12 h and then remained constant. Hydrated lime was the only treatment that significantly reduced bacterial counts on both mattresses and teat ends, but it caused some skin irritation.

  7. Capacity building: benchmark for production of meat with low levels of bacterial contamination in local slaughterhouses in Somaliland.

    Wamalwa, Kinyanjui; Castiello, Massimo; Ombui, Jackson Nyarangi; Gathuma, Joseph

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate and assess the impact of trainings on the levels of meat contamination produced from local livestock slaughter facilities in the North-West region of Somalia (Somaliland). The investigation considered slaughter facilities where workers had been trained or not. The survey was carried out in four local slaughter facilities. A pre-tested questionnaire on abattoir hygiene and food safety standards was administered to International Aid Organizations, government officials, abattoir workers and supervisors. In addition, a total of 320 surface meat swab samples were collected from randomly selected small ruminant carcasses slaughtered from four purposefully selected local slaughter facilities. The samples were analyzed at Analabs laboratories in Nairobi, Kenya, for total viable counts, total coliforms count and presence of Salmonella species. Meat contamination risk factors associated with hygiene practices based on training offered or not was identified. It was noted that slaughter facilities where abattoir workers had not received trainings on minimum meat hygiene standards and quality assurance systems of good hygiene practices and sanitary standard operating procedures produced carcasses with high levels of bacterial contamination in comparison with those where workers had received the said trainings. The laboratory results were in agreement with poor hygiene meat handling practices and lack of compliance with minimum meat hygiene and food safety standards in Berbera and Burao local livestock slaughter facilities where personnel had not been trained. PMID:21779942

  8. Effect of alternative antibiotics in treatment of cefotaxime resistant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

    Ahmed Abouelkhair Badawy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate effective alternative antibiotics in treatment of cefotaxime-resistant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. METHODS: One hundred cirrhotic patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis [ascitic fluid polymorphonuclear cell count (PMNLs ≥ 250 cells/mm3 at admission] were empirically treated with cefotaxime sodium 2 g/12 h and volume expansion by intravenous human albumin. All patients were subjected to history taking, complete examination, laboratory tests (including a complete blood cell count, prothrombin time, biochemical tests of liver and kidney function, and fresh urine sediment, chest X-ray, a diagnostic abdominal paracentesis, and the sample subjected to total and differential cell count, chemical examination, aerobic and anaerobic cultures. Patients were divided after 2 d by a second ascitic PMNL count into group I; patients sensitive to cefotaxime (n = 81, group II (n = 19; cases resistant to cefotaxime (less than 25% decrease in ascitic PMNL count. Patients of group II were randomly assigned into meropenem (n = 11 or levofloxacin (n = 8 subgroups. All patients performed an end of treatment ascitic PMNL count. Patients were considered improved when: PMNLs decreased to < 250 cells/mm3, no growth in previously positive culture cases, and improved clinical manifestations with at least 5 d of antibiotic therapy. RESULTS: Age, sex, and Child classes showed no significant difference between group I and group II. Fever and abdominal pain were the most frequent manifestations and were reported in 82.7% and 80.2% of patients in group I and in 94.7% and 84.2% of patients in group II, respectively. Patients in group II had a more severe ascitic inflammatory response than group I and this was demonstrated by more ascitic lactate dehydrogenase (LDH [median: 540 IU/L (range: 150-1200 IU/L vs median: 240 IU/L (range: 180-500 IU/L, P = 0.000] and PMNL [median: 15  000 cell/mm3 (range: 957-23  822 cell/mm3 vs 3400 cell/mm3 (range: 695-26  400 cell/mm3, P = 0.000] counts. Ascitic fluid culture was positive in 32% of cases. Cefotaxime failed in 19% of patients; of these patients, 11 (100% responded to meropenem and 6 (75% responded to levofloxacin. Two patients with failed levofloxacin therapy were treated according to the in vitro culture and sensitivity (one case was treated with vancomycin and one case was treated with ampicillin/sulbactam. In group II the meropenem subgroup had higher LDH (range: 108-860 IU/L vs 120-491 IU/L, P = 0.042 and PMNL counts (range: 957-23  822 cell/mm3 vs 957-15  222 cell/mm3, P = 0.000 at initiation of the alternative antibiotic therapy; there was no significant difference in the studied parameters between patients responsive to meropenem and patients responsive to levofloxacin at the end of therapy (mean ± SD: 316.01 ± 104.03 PMNLs/mm3 vs 265.63 ± 69.61 PMNLs/mm3, P = 0.307. The isolated organisms found in group II were; enterococci, acinetobacter, expanded-spectrum β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli, β-lactamase producing Enterobacter and Staphylococcus aureus. CONCLUSION: Empirical treatment with cefotaxime is effective in 81% of cases; meropenem is effective in cefotaxime-resistant cases.

  9. A priori precision estimation for neutron triples counting

    The nondestructive assay of Plutonium bearing items for criticality, safety, security, safeguards, inventory balance, process control, waste management and compliance is often undertaken using correlated neutron counting. In particular Multiplicity Shift Register analysis allows one to extract autocorrelation parameters from the pulse train which can, within the framework of a simple interpretational model, be related to the effective 240Pu spontaneous fission mass present. The effective 240Pu mass is a weighted sum of the 238Pu, 240Pu and 242Pu masses so if the relative isotopic composition of the Pu can be established from the measured 240Pu effective mass one can estimate the total Pu mass and also the masses of the individual isotopes, example the fissile species 239Pu and 241Pu. In multiplicity counting three counting rates are obtained. These are the Singles, Doubles and Triples rates. The Singles rate is just the gross, totals or trigger rate. The Doubles and Triples rates are calculated from factorial moments of the observed signal triggered neutron multiplicity distributions following spontaneous fission in the item and can be thought of as the rate of observed coincident pairs and coincident triplets on the pulse train. Coincident events come about because the spontaneous fission and induced fission chains taking place in the item result in bursts of neutrons. These remain time correlated during the detection process and so retain information, through the burst size distribution, about the Pu content. In designing and assessing the performance of a detector system to meet a given goal it is necessary to make a priori estimates of the counting precision for all three kinds of rates. This is non-trivial because the counting does not obey the familiar rules of a Poissonian counting experiment because the pulse train has time correlated events on it and the train is sampled by event triggered gates that may overlap. For Singles and Doubles simple approximate analytical empirical rules for how to estimate the variance have been developed guided by theory and refined by experiment. However, for Triples no equivalent rules have been put forward and tested until now. In this work we propose an analytical expression, the CSH relation, for the variance on the Triples count and exercise it against experimental data gathered for Pu items measured in the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter (ENMC). Preliminary results are encouraging and reasonable agreement with observation, considered fit for scoping studies, is obtained. We have also looked at the behavior using Monte Carlo simulations. (authors)

  10. Radon Daughters Background Reduction in Alpha Particles Counting System

    The ABPC method is using a serially occurring events of the beta decay of the 214Bi fallow by alpha decay of the 214Po that take place almost simultaneously to detect the Pseudo Coincidence Event (PCE) from the RDP, and to subtract them from the gross alpha counts. 267 This work showed that it is possible to improve the efficiency of RDP background reduction, including subtracting the 218Po contribution by using the ABPC method based on a single solid state silicon PIPS detector. False counts percentage obtained at the output of the PCE circuit were smaller than 0.1%. The results show that the PCE circuit was not influenced by non RDP alpha emitters. The PCE system did not reduce the non PCE of the 218Po. After 20 minutes the 218Po was strongly decayed, and its contribution became negligible. In order to overcome this disadvantage, a mathematical matching calculations for the 214Po and the 218Po decay equations were employed, and a constant ratio of the APo214(0) / APo218(0) was obtained. This ratio can be used to estimate the count rate of the 218Po at the first 20 minutes, and to subtract it from the total count rate in order to obtain correct RDP reduction

  11. Quantitative monitoring of the fluorination process by neutron counting

    Plutonium metal is produced by reducing PuF4 prepared from PuO2 by fluorination. Both fluorination and reduction are batch processes at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The conversion of plutonium oxide to fluoride greatly increases the neutron yield, a result of the high cross section for alpha-neutron (?,n) reactions on fluorine targets compared to the (more than 100 times) smaller ?,n yield on oxygen targets. Because of the increase, total neutron counting can be used to monitor the conversion process. This monitoring ability can lead to an improved metal product, reduced scrap for recycle, waste reduction, minimized reagent usage, and reduce personnel radiation exposures. A new stirred-bed fluorination process has been developed simultaneously with a recent evaluation of an automated neutron-counting instrument for quantitative process monitoring. Neutrons are counted with polyethylene-moderated 3He-gas proportional counters. Results include a calibration of the real-time neutron-count-rate indicator for the extent of fluorination using reference values obtained from destructive analysis of samples from the blended fluoroinated batch

  12. Bacteria counting method based on polyaniline/bacteria thin film.

    Zhihua, Li; Xuetao, Hu; Jiyong, Shi; Xiaobo, Zou; Xiaowei, Huang; Xucheng, Zhou; Tahir, Haroon Elrasheid; Holmes, Mel; Povey, Malcolm

    2016-07-15

    A simple and rapid bacteria counting method based on polyaniline (PANI)/bacteria thin film was proposed. Since the negative effects of immobilized bacteria on the deposition of PANI on glass carbon electrode (GCE), PANI/bacteria thin films containing decreased amount of PANI would be obtained when increasing the bacteria concentration. The prepared PANI/bacteria film was characterized with cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique to provide quantitative index for the determination of the bacteria count, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was also performed to further investigate the difference in the PANI/bacteria films. Good linear relationship of the peak currents of the CVs and the log total count of bacteria (Bacillus subtilis) could be established using the equation Y=-30.413X+272.560 (R(2)=0.982) over the range of 5.3×10(4) to 5.3×10(8)CFUmL(-1), which also showed acceptable stability, reproducibility and switchable ability. The proposed method was feasible for simple and rapid counting of bacteria. PMID:26921555

  13. The nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers on Meloidogyne incognita in sandy soil

    M.E El-Hadad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In a greenhouse experiment, the nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers including the nitrogen fixing bacteria (NFB Paenibacillus polymyxa (four strains, the phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB Bacillus megaterium (three strains and the potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB B. circulans (three strains were evaluated individually on tomato plants infested with the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in potted sandy soil. Comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2, increased the counts of total bacteria and total bacterial spores in plants potted soil from 1.2 to 2.6 folds estimated 60 days post-inoculation. Consequently, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7 increased significantly the shoot length (cm, number of leaves / plant, shoot dry weight (g / plant and root dry weight (g / plant by 32.6 %, 30.8 %, 70.3 % and 14.2 %, respectively. Generally, the majority treatments significantly reduced the nematode multiplication which was more obvious after 60 days of inoculation. Among the applied strains, P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2 inoculations resulted in the highest reduction in nematode population comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control. They recorded the highest reduction in numbers of hatched juveniles/root by 95.8 %, females/root by 63.75 % and juveniles/1kg soil by 57.8 %. These results indicated that these bacterial biofertilizers are promising double purpose microorganisms for mobilizing of soil nutrients (nitrogen, phosphate and potassium and for the biological control of M. incognita.

  14. Sensitive and descript ? and ?-? counting assemblies

    In this paper are described recent advances that have been made in the authors' laboratory towards 'high-sensitivity' and 'descript' measurement of trace quantities of radioactivity due to ? and ?-? emitters in solid sources of relatively high specific activity. The ?-detection assembly provides accurate information on the characteristic energy of the radiation permitting its identification at low levels. The detection system is relatively inexpensive and simple as Geiger counters are used as detectors. The information on the energy of the ? radiation is obtained while measuring the total disintegration rate; thus the system has the versatility of detectors capable of providing information on the energy of individual ? particles, e. g. solid state detectors and scintillators. The observed counting efficiencies and background rates of a few ? and ?-? systems constructed are discussed. The figure of merit of these detectors can be considerably enhanced by certain modifications which are in progress. The techniques discussed above have been developed to meet specific requirements encountered in the study of certain problems in nuclear physics and geocosmophysics. The ?-? system has been employed to measure the half-life of 48Ca for single ? decay: the measurements to date have yielded a lower limit of 1019 yr for its half-life. (author)

  15. Antibiotic resistance in triclosan heterotrophic plate count bacteria from sewage water / Ilsé Coetzee

    Coetzee, Ilsé

    2015-01-01

    The concentration of triclosan in antiseptics, disinfectants and preservatives in products exceeds the minimal lethal levels. Extensive use of triclosan and antibiotics results in bacterial resistance to their active ingredients. The precise relationship between use and resistance, however, has been challenging to define. The aim of the study was to identify and determine antibiotic resistance profiles of triclosan tolerant heterotrophic plate count bacteria isolates from sewag...

  16. Jellyfish modulate bacterial dynamic and community structure.

    Tinta, Tinkara; Kogovšek, Tjaša; Malej, Alenka; Turk, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    Jellyfish blooms have increased in coastal areas around the world and the outbreaks have become longer and more frequent over the past few decades. The Mediterranean Sea is among the heavily affected regions and the common bloom-forming taxa are scyphozoans Aurelia aurita s.l., Pelagia noctiluca, and Rhizostoma pulmo. Jellyfish have few natural predators, therefore their carcasses at the termination of a bloom represent an organic-rich substrate that supports rapid bacterial growth, and may have a large impact on the surrounding environment. The focus of this study was to explore whether jellyfish substrate have an impact on bacterial community phylotype selection. We conducted in situ jellyfish-enrichment experiment with three different jellyfish species. Bacterial dynamic together with nutrients were monitored to assess decaying jellyfish-bacteria dynamics. Our results show that jellyfish biomass is characterized by protein rich organic matter, which is highly bioavailable to 'jellyfish-associated' and 'free-living' bacteria, and triggers rapid shifts in bacterial population dynamics and composition. Based on 16S rRNA clone libraries and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, we observed a rapid shift in community composition from unculturable Alphaproteobacteria to culturable species of Gammaproteobacteria and Flavobacteria. The results of sequence analyses of bacterial isolates and of total bacterial community determined by culture independent genetic analysis showed the dominance of the Pseudoalteromonadaceae and the Vibrionaceae families. Elevated levels of dissolved proteins, dissolved organic and inorganic nutrient release, bacterial abundance and carbon production as well as ammonium concentrations characterized the degradation process. The biochemical composition of jellyfish species may influence changes in the amount of accumulated dissolved organic and inorganic nutrients. Our results can contribute insights into possible changes in bacterial population dynamics and nutrient pathways following jellyfish blooms which have important implications for ecology of coastal waters. PMID:22745726

  17. Procalcitonin as a diagnostic tool for bacterial neonatal sepsis

    Nelly

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Bacterial sepsis is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can reduce the mortality rate. Blood culture is the gold standard for diagnosis of bacterial sepsis, but it requires 3-5 days for results. Since the disease may progress rapidly in neonates, a faster diagnostic test is needed. Measurement of procalcitonin levels may be a quick method to diagnose bacterial sepsis in neonates. Some studies found the sensitivity of procalcitonin to be between 92-100%. Objective To assess the use of procalcitonin as an early diagnostic tool for bacterial neonatal sepsis. Methods This diagnostic study was conducted from October 2011 to February 2012. Forty-three neonates in the Perinatology Unit at H. Adam Malik Hospital were suspected to have bacterial sepsis. They underwent routine blood counts, blood cultures, as well as C-reactive protein and procalcitonin measurements. Subjects were collected by consecutive sampling. The gold standard of sepsis was based on any microorganism found in blood culture. Results Of 43 neonates, 36 neonates had bacterial sepsis. We found that procalcitonin sensitivity was 100%, specificity 85.71%, positive predictive value 97.29% and negative predictive value 100%. The ROC curve showed a cut-off point of 0.929 (95%CI 0.713 to 0.953. Conclusion Procalcitonin is useful as an early diagnostic tool for bacterial neonatal sepsis.

  18. Whole-body counting 1990

    In order to determine the doses from radiocesium in foods after the Chernobyl accident, four groups were chosen in 1987. Two groups, presumed to have a large consumption of food items with a high radiocesium content, were selected. These were Lapp reindeer breeders from central parts of Norway, and hunters a.o. from the municipality of Oeystre Slidre. Two other groups were randomly selected, one from the municipality of Sel, and one from Oslo. The persons in these two groups were presumed to have an average diet. The fall-out in Sel was fairly large (100 kBq/m2), whereas in Oslo the fall-out level was low (2 kBq/m2). The persons in each group were monitored once a year with whole-body counters, and in connection with these countings dietary surveys were preformed. In 1990 the Sel-group and the Lapps in central parts of Norway were followed. Average whole-body activity in each group is compared to earlier years's results, and an average yearly effective dose equivalent is computed. The Sel-group has an average whole-body activity of 2800 Bq for men, and 690 Bq for women. Compared to earlier years, there is a steady but slow decrease in whole-body activities. Yearly dose is calculated to 0.06 mSv for 1990. The Lapps in central parts of Norway have an average whole-body content of 23800 Bq for men and 13600 Bq for women. This results in an average yearly dose of 0.9 mSv for the individuals in the group. Compared to earlier years, the Lapp group show a decrease in whole-body contents since 1988. This decrease is larger among men than women. 5 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs

  19. 2009 KidsCount in Colorado!

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2009

    2009-01-01

    "KidsCount in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. KidsCount in Colorado! informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as a valuable resource for…

  20. A Count of Classical Field Theory Graphs

    Chalmers, Gordon

    2005-01-01

    A generating function is derived that counts the number of diagrams in an arbitrary scalar field theory. The number of graphs containing any number $n_j$ of $j$-point vertices is given. The count is also used to obtain the number of classical graphs in gauge theory and gravity.

  1. Is It Counting, or Is It Adding?

    Eisenhardt, Sara; Fisher, Molly H.; Thomas, Jonathan; Schack, Edna O.; Tassell, Janet; Yoder, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI 2010) expect second grade students to "fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies" (2.OA.B.2). Most children begin with number word sequences and counting approximations and then develop greater skill with counting. But do all teachers really understand how this

  2. Is It Counting, or Is It Adding?

    Eisenhardt, Sara; Fisher, Molly H.; Thomas, Jonathan; Schack, Edna O.; Tassell, Janet; Yoder, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI 2010) expect second grade students to "fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies" (2.OA.B.2). Most children begin with number word sequences and counting approximations and then develop greater skill with counting. But do all teachers really understand how this…

  3. System and method of liquid scintillation counting

    A method of liquid scintillation counting utilizing a combustion step to overcome quenching effects comprises novel features of automatic sequential introduction of samples into a combustion zone and automatic sequential collection and delivery of combustion products into a counting zone. 37 claims, 13 figures

  4. Small bowel bacterial overgrowth

    Small bowel bacterial overgrowth is a condition in which very large numbers of bacteria grow in the small intestine. ... Unlike the large intestine, the small intestine does not have a ... are too many bacteria in the small intestine, these organisms ...

  5. Bacterial Wound Culture

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Bacterial Wound Culture Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Aerobic Wound Culture; Anaerobic Wound Culture Formal name: Culture, wound Related ...

  6. Bacterial surface adaptation

    Utada, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Biofilms are structured multi-cellular communities that are fundamental to the biology and ecology of bacteria. Parasitic bacterial biofilms can cause lethal infections and biofouling, but commensal bacterial biofilms, such as those found in the gut, can break down otherwise indigestible plant polysaccharides and allow us to enjoy vegetables. The first step in biofilm formation, adaptation to life on a surface, requires a working knowledge of low Reynolds number fluid physics, and the coordination of biochemical signaling, polysaccharide production, and molecular motility motors. These crucial early stages of biofilm formation are at present poorly understood. By adapting methods from soft matter physics, we dissect bacterial social behavior at the single cell level for several prototypical bacterial species, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae.

  7. Bacterial meningitis in the absence of cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis: A case report and review of the literature

    Hase, Ryota; Hosokawa, Naoto; Yaegashi, Makito; Muranaka, Kiyoharu

    2014-01-01

    Elevation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cell count is a key sign in the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. However, there have been reports of bacterial meningitis with no abnormalities in initial CSF testing. This type of presentation is extremely rare in adult patients. Here, a case involving an 83-year-old woman who was later diagnosed with bacterial meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis is described, in whom CSF at initial and second lumbar puncture did not show elevation of cell cou...

  8. The effect of silver impregnation of surgical scrub suits on surface bacterial contamination.

    Freeman, A I; Halladay, L J; Cripps, P

    2012-06-01

    Silver-impregnated fabrics are widely used for their antibacterial and antifungal effects, including for clinical clothing such as surgical scrub suits (scrubs). This study investigated whether silver impregnation reduces surface bacterial contamination of surgical scrubs during use in a veterinary hospital. Using agar contact plates, abdominal and lumbar areas of silver-impregnated nylon or polyester/cotton scrubs were sampled for surface bacterial contamination before (0 h) and after 4 and 8h of use. The number of bacterial colonies on each contact plate was counted after 24 and 48 h incubation at 37C. Standard basic descriptive statistics and mixed-effects linear regression were used to investigate the association of possible predictors of the level of bacterial contamination of the scrubs with surface bacterial counts. Silver-impregnated scrubs had significantly lowered bacterial colony counts (BCC) at 0 h compared with polyester/cotton scrubs. However, after 4 and 8h of wear, silver impregnation had no effect on BCC. Scrub tops with higher BCC at 0 h had significantly higher BCC at 4 and 8h, suggesting that contamination present at 0 h persisted during wear. Sampling from the lumbar area was associated with lower BCC at all three time points. Other factors (contamination of the scrub top with a medication/drug, restraint of patients, working in the anaesthesia recovery area) also affected BCC at some time points. Silver impregnation appeared to be ineffective in reducing bacterial contamination of scrubs during use in a veterinary hospital. PMID:22015140

  9. Evaluation of procalcitonin and neopterin level in serum of patients with acute bacterial infection

    Babak, Pourakbari; Setareh, Mamishi; Javid, Zafari; Hanieh, Khairkhah; Mohammad H, Ashtiani; Masomeh, Abedini; Shahla, Afsharpaiman; Soroush Seifi, Rad.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fever as a common presenting complaint in pediatric patients can be due to various causes. Differentiating bacterial infection from other causes is important because the prompt use of antibiotics is critical in bacterial infection. Traditional markers of infection such as BT and WBC coun [...] t may be unspecific and culture may be late or absent. CRP and Procalcitonin (PCT) have been considered to evaluate the evolution of infections and sepsis in patients presenting with SIRS. Neopterin has also been proposed to aid in the diagnosis of bacterial infection. In this study, we compared the value of the serum PCT, neopterin level, and WBC count for predicting bacterial infection and outcome in children with fever. METHODS: 158 pediatric (2-120-month-old) patients suspected to have acute bacterial infection, based on clinical judgment in which other causes of SIRS were ruled out were included in the study. WBC count with differential was determined and PCT and neopterin levels were measured. RESULTS: PCT level was higher in bacterial infection and patients who were complicated or expired. CONCLUSION: Rapid PCT test is superior to neopterin and WBC count for anticipating bacterial infection, especially in ED where prompt decision making is critical. ABBREVIATIONS: BT, body temperature; WBC, white blood cell; PCT, procalcitonin; CRP, C-reactive protein; SIRS, systemic inflammatory response syndrome; ED, emergency department.

  10. Counting Human Neural Stem Cells

    Marchenko, Steven; Flanagan, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of the exact number of viable cells in a given volume of a cell suspension is required for many routine tissue culture manipulations, such as plating cells for immunocytochemistry or for cell transfections. This protocol describes a straightforward and fast method for differentiating between live and dead cells and quantifying the cell concentration and total cell number using a hemacytometer. This procedure first requires detaching cells from a growth surface and resuspending the...

  11. Application of a good manufacturing practices checklist and enumeration of total coliform in swine feed mills

    Debora da Cruz Payao Pellegrini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study in four swine feed mills aimed to evaluate the correlation between the score of the inspection checklist defined in the Normative Instruction 4 (IN 4/ Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply, and the enumeration of total coliforms throughout the manufacturing process. The most of non-conformities was found in the physical structure of the feed mills. Feed mill B showed the lowest number of unconformities while units A and D had the largest number of nonconformities. In 38.53% (489/1269 of the samples the presence of total coliform was detected, however no significant difference in the bacterial counts was observed between sampling sites and feed mills. The logistic regression pointed higher odds ratio (OR for total coliforms isolation at dosing (OR = 9.51, 95% CI: 4.43 to 20.41, grinding (OR = 7.10, 95% CI = 3.27 to 15.40 and residues (OR = 6.21, 95% CI: 3.88 to 9.95 In spite of having the second score in the checklist inspection, feed mill C presented the highest odds for total coliforms isolation (OR= 2,43, IC 95%: 1,68-3,53. The data indicate no association between the score of checklist and the presence of hygienic indicators in feed mills.

  12. Bacterial DNA findings in ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms.

    Pyysalo, Mikko J; Pyysalo, Liisa M; Pessi, Tanja; Karhunen, Pekka J; Lehtimki, Terho; Oksala, Niku; hman, Juha E

    2016-05-01

    Objective Chronic inflammation has earlier been detected in ruptured intracranial aneurysms. A previous study detected both dental bacterial DNA and bacterial-driven inflammation in ruptured intracranial aneurysm walls. The aim of this study was to compare the presence of oral and pharyngeal bacterial DNA in ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms. The hypothesis was that oral bacterial DNA findings would be more common and the amount of bacterial DNA would be higher in ruptured aneurysm walls than in unruptured aneurysm walls. Materials and methods A total of 70 ruptured (n?=?42) and unruptured (n?=?28) intracranial aneurysm specimens were obtained perioperatively in aneurysm clipping operations. Aneurysmal sac tissue was analysed using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to detect bacterial DNA from several oral species. Both histologically non-atherosclerotic healthy vessel wall obtained from cardiac by-pass operations (LITA) and arterial blood samples obtained from each aneurysm patient were used as control samples. Results Bacterial DNA was detected in 49/70 (70%) of the specimens. A total of 29/42 (69%) of the ruptured and 20/28 (71%) of the unruptured aneurysm samples contained bacterial DNA of oral origin. Both ruptured and unruptured aneurysm tissue samples contained significantly more bacterial DNA than the LITA control samples (p-values 0.003 and 0.001, respectively). There was no significant difference in the amount of bacterial DNA between the ruptured and unruptured samples. Conclusion Dental bacterial DNA can be found using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction in both ruptured and unruptured aneurysm walls, suggesting that bacterial DNA plays a role in the pathogenesis of cerebral aneurysms in general, rather than only in ruptured aneurysms. PMID:26777430

  13. Systematic effects in neutron coincidence and multiplicity counting

    Evans, Louise G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Favorite, Jeffrey A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Correlated neutron counting, including neutron coincidence and multiplicity counting, is an important tool in nuclear material accountancy verification. The accuracy of such measurements is of interest to the safeguards community because as the accuracy of NDA improves, the number of samples that are required to undergo destructive analysis (DA) decreases. The accuracy of a neutron mUltiplicity measurement can be affected by a number of variables. Monte Carlo neutron transport simulations with MCNPX have been performed to understand how the properties of the sample affect the count rate. These resultant count rates have been analyzed with the 'point model' in order to determine the effect on the deduced plutonium mass. The sample properties that have been investigated are density, sample position within the detector cavity, moisture content, isotopic composition, plutonium to total actinide ratio and heavy metal fraction. These parameters affect the Singles, Doubles and Triples count rates in different ways. In addition, different analysis methods use these measured quantities in different combinations, so that the final sensitivity of the {sup 240}Pu mass to each parameter also depends on the analysis method used. For example, the passive calibration curve method only used the Doubles rate to produce the {sup 240}Pu mass and so is not sensitive to changes in the Singles rate (to first order). The analysis methods considered here were passive calibration curve (non-multiplication corrected), known alpha (multiplication corrected) and multiplicity with known efficiency. The effects were studied on both a small mass MOX sample (1 g Pu) and a large MOX sample (6000 g Pu) both measured in high efficiency neutron multiplicity counters. In order to determine the final effect of each parameter it is necessary to know not only the sensitivity of the plutonium mass to that parameter, but also the range over which the parameter can realistically vary. Some estimates are given.

  14. Molecular Methods for Assessement the Bacterial Communities from Different Type of Soils in Romania

    Călina Petruţa CORNEA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Rhizobia are soil bacteria that are capable to form nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with leguminous plants. This ability, as well as the diversity of microbial populations in the soil, and in the rhizosphere of host plants and non-host plants is influenced by several factors, including crop management. The aim of this work was the examination of the influence of some factors on indigenous populations of rhizobia in soils under different crop managements. The genetic diversity of rhizobial strains isolated directly from soil (free-living state or from root nodules of three herbaceous perennial legumes was examined. The study was conducted in the experimental fields located in Moara Domnească area (South of Romania and in the Braşov County. The characteristics of brown reddish soil were determined (nitrogen content, organic carbon content and pH. Counting of the rhizobia populations was done by most probable number estimation and by viable plate counts. Bacterial strains were isolated directly from soil samples or from root nodules of different plant species (Trifolium repens, T. pratense and Lotus corniculatus. The characterization of rhizobia was performed by DNA fingerprinting (ERIC PCR and BOX PCR and the bacterial diversity of soils was examined by DGGE technique. The results revealed that the rhizobial diversity was significantly lower in soils under increased fertilization with N. A reduced intraspecific polymorphism was observed in the strains recovered from the same plant species (Trifolium spp., whatever the origin of the plant (Moara Domnească or Braşov but clear differences appeared to be related to the origin of nodules (red or white clover as revealed by DNA fingerprints. However, various amplicon profiles were observed by DGGE when total DNA isolated from soils was examined, the differences being associated with the fertilization level.

  15. Role of lipids in bacterial radioresistance

    The radioresistance of three bacterial isolates was determined. S. aureus was the most sensitive one (D10 value 0.14 KGy), B. coagulans was moderate resistant (D10 value 3.3 KGy) and the most resistant one was B.megaterium (D10 value 3.7 KGy). Total lipids and lipid patterns of these bacteria were determined and the role of lipids in radioresistance was investigated. Least amount of total lipids was detected in the most sensitive organism (S. aureus). The increase in the bacterial content of total lipids was concomitant with high degrees of radioresistance. The most resistant organism (B. megaterium was characterized by high content of methyl esters of fatty acids, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, followed by appreciable amounts in the moderate resistant (B. coagulans) and the least amounts were detected in the most sensitive organism (S.aureus).6 fig., 3 tab

  16. Evaluation of the PetrifilmTM and TEMPO systems and the conventional method for counting microorganisms in pasteurized milk

    Andria Cirolini; Andressa Mara Baseggio; Marlia Miotto; Roberta Juliano Ramos; Cristhiane Stecanella de Oliveira Cattani; Cleide Rosana Werneck Vieira

    2013-01-01

    New microbiological methods have been developed and commercialized, but their performance must be guaranteed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the PetrifilmTM and TEMPO systems compared to the conventional method for counting microorganisms in pasteurized milk. A total of 141 samples of pasteurized milk were analyzed by counting mesophilic aerobic, Coliforms at 35 C, Coliforms at 45 C, and Escherichia coli microorganisms. High correlation was found between the methods for count...

  17. Colonization resistance of defined bacterial plaques to Streptococcus mutans implantation on teeth in a model mouth.

    Perrons, C J; Donoghue, H D

    1990-02-01

    We investigated the ability of Streptococcus mutans C67-1 to colonize simple bacterial plaques and the effects of age and stability of the pre-formed plaque on colonization resistance. Mixed-plaques of Actinomyces viscosus WVU627, 'Streptococcus mitior' LPA-1, and Veillonella dispar OMZ193 were grown on tooth segments, mounted back to back for simulation of approximal sites in a model mouth for 66 h. S. mutans C67-1 was either included in the original inoculum or super-inoculated onto the developing plaque. Inclusion of S. mutans C67-1 did not alter the total viable counts, but the proportional composition changed due to inter-species interactions. Colonization resistance of the mixed-plaque samples developed within 24 h, although S. mutans C67-1 was always able to colonize these stagnation sites. Colonization resistance of 24-hour plaque against a fresh isolate, S. mutans CP3, was also studied. There was greater colonization resistance by the basic plaque to this organism, compared with S. mutans C67-1, although the reasons for this were not clear. These initial experiments demonstrate the way in which the factors involved in bacterial colonization resistance in microbial films on teeth can be studied under controlled conditions. PMID:2307751

  18. Inactivation of selected bacterial pathogens in dairy cattle manure by mesophilic anaerobic digestion (balloon type digester).

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E; Mamphweli, Sampson N; Meyer, Edson L; Okoh, Anthony I; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion of animal manure in biogas digesters has shown promise as a technology in reducing the microbial load to safe and recommended levels. We sought to treat dairy manure obtained from the Fort Hare Dairy Farm by investigating the survival rates of bacterial pathogens, through a total viable plate count method, before, during and after mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Different microbiological media were inoculated with different serial dilutions of manure samples that were withdrawn from the biogas digester at 3, 7 and 14 day intervals to determine the viable cells. Data obtained indicated that the pathogens of public health importance were 90%-99% reduced in the order: Campylobacter sp. (18 days) bacteria, available nutrients as well as the stages of the anaerobic digestion process. In addition, the highest p-value i.e., 0.957 for E. coli showed the statistical significance of its model and the strongest correlation between its reductions with days of digestion. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the specific bacterial pathogens in manure can be considerably reduced through anaerobic digestion after 133 days. PMID:25026086

  19. Peroxide test strips detect added hydrogen peroxide in raw milk at levels affecting bacterial load.

    Martin, Nicole H; Friedlander, Adam; Mok, Allen; Kent, David; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J

    2014-10-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has a long-established history of use as a preservative in milk worldwide. The use of H2O2 to activate the inherent lactoperoxidase enzyme system has dramatically improved the quality of raw dairy products in areas in which cooling is not widely available. In the United States, however, where refrigeration is widely available, the addition of H2O2 to milk is not permitted, with the exception of certain applications prior to cheesemaking and during the preparation of modified whey. Due to the relatively quick deterioration of H2O2 in fluid milk, the detection of raw milk adulterated with the compound can be challenging. In this study we evaluated (i) total aerobic bacterial counts and (ii) ability of peroxide test strips to detect H2O2 in raw milk with various concentrations (0, 100, 300, 500, 700, and 900 ppm) of added H2O2, incubated at both 6 and 21°C for 0, 24, and 48 h. Results showed that at both 6 and 21°C the H2O2 concentration and time had a significant effect on bacterial loads in raw milk. Additionally, commercially available test strips were able to detect H2O2 in raw milk, with predicted probability of >90%, immediately after addition and after 24 and 48 h for the higher concentrations used, offering a viable method for detecting raw milk adulteration with H2O2. PMID:25285503

  20. Detection of irradiated chicken and fish meats by the determination of Gram negative bacterial count and bacterial endotoxins

    The aim of this investigation was to study the possibility of detecting irradiated chicken and fish meats by the determination of Gram negative bacteria combined with the determination of endotoxin concentrations. Samples of chicken breast with skin, skinless chicken breast and eviscerated Bolti fish (Tilabia nilotica) were irradiated at room temperature at doses of 0, 1.5 and 3 kGy followed by storage at refrigeration temperature (4 ± 1 degree C) for 12 days or frozen storage at -18 degree C for 60 days. Furthermore, other samples of chicken and Bolti fish were irradiated in the frozen sate at doses of 0, 3, and 7 kGy followed by frozen storage at - 18 degree C for 60 days. Then the enumeration of Gram negative bacteria in conjunction with the determination of endotoxin concentrations were carried out for both irradiated and non-irradiated samples post treatments and during storage in addition to the discovery of Pseudomonas spp. The obtained results showed that chicken and fish samples irradiated at dose of 1.5 kGy could be identified during refrigerated storage for 6 and 9 days, respectively, while all samples irradiated at dose of 3 kGy were identifiable during 12 days of refrigerated storage. Moreover, all irradiated and frozen stored samples were identifiable during their frozen storage (- 18 degree C). The absence of Pseudomonads in all irradiated samples may aid in the differentiation of irradiated and non-irradiated samples especially during refrigerated storage. This method can be applied as a general screening method to predict the possible treatment of chicken and fish meats by ionizing radiation

  1. Maximum entropy deconvolution of low count nuclear medicine images

    Maximum entropy is applied to the problem of deconvolving nuclear medicine images, with special consideration for very low count data. The physics of the formation of scintigraphic images is described, illustrating the phenomena which degrade planar estimates of the tracer distribution. Various techniques which are used to restore these images are reviewed, outlining the relative merits of each. The development and theoretical justification of maximum entropy as an image processing technique is discussed. Maximum entropy is then applied to the problem of planar deconvolution, highlighting the question of the choice of error parameters for low count data. A novel iterative version of the algorithm is suggested which allows the errors to be estimated from the predicted Poisson mean values. This method is shown to produce the exact results predicted by combining Poisson statistics and a Bayesian interpretation of the maximum entropy approach. A facility for total count preservation has also been incorporated, leading to improved quantification. In order to evaluate this iterative maximum entropy technique, two comparable methods, Wiener filtering and a novel Bayesian maximum likelihood expectation maximisation technique, were implemented. The comparison of results obtained indicated that this maximum entropy approach may produce equivalent or better measures of image quality than the compared methods, depending upon the accuracy of the system model used. The novel Bayesian maximum likelihood expectation maximisation technique was shown to be preferable over many existing maximum a posteriori methods due to its simplicity of implementation. A single parameter is required to define the Bayesian prior, which suppresses noise in the solution and may reduce the processing time substantially. Finally, maximum entropy deconvolution was applied as a pre-processing step in single photon emission computed tomography reconstruction of low count data. Higher contrast results were obtained than those achieved by a Wiener pre-filtering approach and a scatter-subtracted attenuation corrected filtered back projection method. Maximum entropy optimised for low counts holds promise for nuclear medicine applications where counts are necessarily low, and may facilitate reduction of the administered activity for other applications. The algorithm was in fact deemed advantageous for the processing of low count Poisson data in general. (author)

  2. Total body water and total body potassium in anorexia nervosa

    Dempsey, D.T.; Crosby, L.O.; Lusk, E.; Oberlander, J.L.; Pertschuk, M.J.; Mullen, J.L.

    1984-08-01

    In the ill hospitalized patient with clinically relevant malnutrition, there is a measurable decrease in the ratio of the total body potassium to total body water (TBK/TBW) and a detectable increase in the ratio of total exchangeable sodium to total exchangeable potassium (Nae/Ke). To evaluate body composition analyses in anorexia nervosa patients with chronic uncomplicated semistarvation, TBK and TBW were measured by whole body K40 counting and deuterium oxide dilution in 10 females with stable anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched female controls. The ratio of TBK/TBW was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in anorexia nervosa patients than controls. The close inverse correlation found in published studies between TBK/TBW and Nae/Ke together with our results suggest that in anorexia nervosa, Nae/Ke may be low or normal. A decreased TBK/TBW is not a good indicator of malnutrition in the anorexia nervosa patient. The use of a decreased TBK/TBW ratio or an elevated Nae/Ke ratio as a definition of malnutrition may result in inappropriate nutritional management in the patient with severe nonstressed chronic semistarvation.

  3. Total body water and total body potassium in anorexia nervosa

    In the ill hospitalized patient with clinically relevant malnutrition, there is a measurable decrease in the ratio of the total body potassium to total body water (TBK/TBW) and a detectable increase in the ratio of total exchangeable sodium to total exchangeable potassium (Nae/Ke). To evaluate body composition analyses in anorexia nervosa patients with chronic uncomplicated semistarvation, TBK and TBW were measured by whole body K40 counting and deuterium oxide dilution in 10 females with stable anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched female controls. The ratio of TBK/TBW was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in anorexia nervosa patients than controls. The close inverse correlation found in published studies between TBK/TBW and Nae/Ke together with our results suggest that in anorexia nervosa, Nae/Ke may be low or normal. A decreased TBK/TBW is not a good indicator of malnutrition in the anorexia nervosa patient. The use of a decreased TBK/TBW ratio or an elevated Nae/Ke ratio as a definition of malnutrition may result in inappropriate nutritional management in the patient with severe nonstressed chronic semistarvation

  4. Characteristics of fission track spark counting

    The fission track spark counting has been widely used for neutron monitoring by polycarbonate film. We have studied spark counting characteristics using polycarbonate detector films of different thickness and aluminized polycarbonate sheets of different aluminum thickness for an electrode, and observed the etch-pit sizes in relation to spark counting. Results obtained are as follows: 1. On spark counting of high density of etch-pits, round etch-pits seemed to be easily spark-punched and rod-like etch-pits remained unpunched. 2. The size of etch-pits due to uranium fission fragments appeared to be somewhat larger than due to thorium fission fragments. And the percentage of rod-like etch-pits to all etch-pits due to uranium fission fragments is smaller than that due to thorium fission fragments. 3. As the thickness of detector films decreases, percentage of round etch-pits to all etch-pits increased and spark counting efficiency increased. From our experiments, Makrofol KG of 10 μm thick of Lumirror of 6 μm thick appears to be suitable for routine use. 4. As the aluminum thickness of aluminized sheet electrode increases, spark counting efficiency increases slightly, range of spark counting plateau shortens, and multiple sparks occur at low voltage. (author)

  5. Patients count on it: an initiative to reduce incorrect counts and prevent retained surgical items.

    Norton, Elizabeth K; Martin, Cornelia; Micheli, Anne J

    2012-01-01

    Retained surgical items were the most frequently reported sentinel event in 2010, according to The Joint Commission. Perioperative nurse leaders at Children's Hospital Boston, a pediatric teaching hospital, conducted a quality improvement initiative to reduce or eliminate incorrect counts and count discrepancies, which increase the risk of an item being unintentionally retained after surgery. Work included educating the perioperative staff members, standardizing count practices, formally reviewing every reported count discrepancy with the nursing team, and reviewing and revising the count policy for prevention of retained surgical items. The initiative reduced the number of incorrect counts and count discrepancies by 50% between 2009 to 2010. These initiatives continue to be expanded, and the results have been sustained on an ongoing basis. PMID:22201575

  6. An Adaptive Smoother for Counting Measurements

    Counting measurements associated with nuclear instruments are tricky to carry out due to the stochastic process of the radioactivity. Indeed events counting have to be processed and filtered in order to display a stable count rate value and to allow variations monitoring in the measured activity. Smoothers (as the moving average) are adjusted by a time constant defined as a compromise between stability and response time. A new approach has been developed and consists in improving the response time while maintaining count rate stability. It uses the combination of a smoother together with a detection filter. A memory of counting data is processed to calculate several count rate estimates using several integration times. These estimates are then sorted into the memory from short to long integration times. A measurement position, in terms of integration time, is then chosen into this memory after a detection test. An inhomogeneity into the Poisson counting process is detected by comparison between current position estimate and the other estimates contained into the memory in respect with the associated statistical variance calculated with homogeneous assumption. The measurement position (historical time) and the ability to forget an obsolete data or to keep in memory a useful data are managed using the detection test result. The proposed smoother is then an adaptive and a learning algorithm allowing an optimization of the response time while maintaining measurement counting stability and converging efficiently to the best counting estimate after an effective change in activity. This algorithm has also the specificity to be low recursive and thus easily embedded into DSP electronics based on FPGA or micro-controllers meeting 'real life' time requirements. (authors)

  7. Characterization of bacterial communities and functions of two submerged soils from San Vitale park (Italy)

    Mocali, Stefano; Chiellini, Carolina; Lagomarsino, Alessandra; Ferronato, Chiara; Vittori Antisari, Livia; Vianello, Gilmo

    2015-04-01

    Subaqueous soils has been introduced in the last edition of the Keys to Soil Taxonomy (Soil surveystaff, 2014), to describe soils covered by a water column of up to 2.5 m where different pedogenetic processes can be recognized. However, the role of bacterial community structure and function in such environments and its potential use as pedogenetic indicator is still largely unknown. Two submerged soils (WAS-2 and WAS-4) were collected from San Vitale park (Italy), a site where the evolution of the landscape from subaqueous wetland to interdunal and dunal system, and the interfacing of freshwater with saltwater, made this site particularly suitable for examining the pedogenetic indicators which can characterize and predict the soil hydromorphism in trasitional ecosystems. The two soils were classified and their physicochemical and morphological features were investigated. Selective media were used to isolate both culturable aerobic and anaerobic (microaerophilic) bacteria associated with each horizon. In WAS-2 seven horizons were identified (depths 4-0, 0-6, 6-13, 13-20, 20-36, 36-59/60, and 59/60-83 cm) while in WAS-4, five horizons were identified (depths 0-14, 14-20, 20-40, 40-45, 45-100 cm) for a total of 12 horizons (samples). For each sample, aerobic bacterial plate count was performed on solid LB medium, coupled with microaerophilic bacterial plate count either on SA500 minimal medium and AYE medium (0.5% soft agar each). Molecular identification (16S rRNA gene sequencing) of ~100 strains isolated from each of the three used medium was performed, for a total of ~300 strains for each sample. To complete the characterization of the microbial communities in all horizons, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) analysis was carried out with 454 platform on each of the 12 samples. Moreover, the N2O and CH4 emissions were determined from each pedon. All the parameters were used to highlight the similarities and the differences between and within the pedons. The results will potentially help to highlight some features related to the origin and morphogenesis of submerged soils, and also to clarify the process of differentiation of soil horizons from a biological point of view.

  8. Microbial counts of food contact surfaces at schools depending on a feeding scheme

    Nthabiseng, Nhlapo; Ryk J.F., Lues; Willem H., Groenewald.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The prominence of disease transmission between individuals in confined environments is a concern, particularly in the educational environment. With respect to school feeding schemes, food contact surfaces have been shown to be potential vehicles of foodborne pathogens. The aim of this study was to a [...] ssess the cleanliness of the surfaces that come into contact with food that is provided to children through the National School Nutrition Programme in central South Africa. In each school under study, microbiological samples were collected from the preparation surface and the dominant hand and apron of the food handler. The samples were analysed for total viable counts, coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and yeasts and moulds. The criteria specified in the British Columbia Guide for Environmental Health Officers were used to evaluate the results. Total viable counts were high for all surfaces, with the majority of colonies being too numerous to count (over 100 colonies per plate). Counts of organisms were relatively low, with 20% of the surfaces producing unsatisfactory enumeration of S. aureus and E. coli and 30% unsatisfactory for coliforms. Yeast and mould produced 50% and 60% unsatisfactory counts from preparation surfaces and aprons, respectively. Statistically significant differences could not be established amongst microbial counts of the surfaces, which suggests cross-contamination may have occurred. Contamination may be attributed to foodstuffs and animals in the vicinity of the preparation area rather than to the food handlers, because hands had the lowest counts of enumerated organisms amongst the analysed surfaces.

  9. Counting sequences, Gray codes and lexicodes

    Suparta, I.N.

    2006-01-01

    A counting sequence of length n is a list of all 2^n binary n-tuples (binary codewords of length n). The number of bit positions where two codewords differ is called the Hamming distance of these two codewords. The average Hamming distance of a counting sequence of length n is defined as the average Hamming distance between the 2^n pairs of successive codewords, including the pair of the last and the first codeword. A counting sequence of length n which has average Hamming distance equal to n...

  10. Radiation Counting System Software Using Visual Basic

    It has been created a Gamma Radiation Counting System using interface card, which paired with Personal Computer (PC) and operated by the Visual Basic program. The program was set through varied menu selections such as ”Multi Counting” , ”Counting and Record” and ”View Data”. An interface card for data acquisition was formed by using AMD9513 components as a counter and timer which can be programmed. This counting system was tested and used in waste facility in PTNBR and the result is quite good. (author)

  11. Reconstruction of the whole body counting system

    The Whole Body Counting System serves for diagnostics of human body contaminations by radioactive elements and consists of two functional subsystems: detection chamber and electronic unit. This paper describes the reconstruction of the Whole Body Counting System that encompassed: the NaI(Tl) scintillation detector repairmen's, the new design of detector signal preamplifier, the new measurement system links and interfacing with new signal processing, storage, displaying and analysis equipment. The good function and operation of the reconstructed Whole Body Counting System performance has been verified during 1.5 year of its exploitation during which period of time over 130 persons have been successfully treated. (author)

  12. B Counting at BaBar

    McGregor, Grant Duncan

    2008-12-16

    In this thesis we examine the method of counting B{bar B} events produced in the BABAR experiment. The original method was proposed in 2000, but improvements to track reconstruction and our understanding of the detector since that date make it appropriate to revisit the B Counting method. We propose a new set of cuts designed to minimize the sensitivity to time-varying backgrounds. We find the new method counts B{bar B} events with an associated systematic uncertainty of {+-} 0.6%.

  13. Radon measurement by absorptive plastic scintillation counting

    Polystyrene is the main component of plastic scintillator, and absorbs radon as well as liquid aromatic solvents. I proposed a new radon monitor which detects radon distributed into plastic scintillator. As a preliminary experiment, plastic scintillator was put in a counting vial together with radon water and was measured by liquid scintillation counter. It was found that the scintillation spectrum of radon series was observed and the counting rate was proportional to the radon concentration in water. Then the radon concentration in water could be measured by plastic scintillator absorbent of radon. This method, APS: Absorptive Plastic Scintillation counting, is practicable to continuous radon monitor for environmental research. (author)

  14. Gross alpha/beta analyses in water by liquid scintillation counting

    The standard procedure for analyzing gross alpha and gross beta in water is evaporation of the sample and radioactivity determination of the resultant solids by proportional counting. This technique lacks precision, and lacks sensitivity for samples with high total dissolved solids. Additionally, the analytical results are dependent on the choice of radionuclide calibration standard and the sample matrix. Direct analysis by liquid scintillation counting has the advantages of high counting efficiencies and minimal sample preparation time. However, due to the small sample aliquants used for analysis, long count times are necessary to reach required detection limits. The procedure proposed consists of evaporating a sample aliquant to dryness, dissolving the resultant solids in a small volume of dilute acid, followed by liquid scintillation counting to determine radioactivity. This procedure can handle sample aliquants containing up to 500 mg of dissolved solids. Various acids, scintillation cocktail mixtures, instrument discriminator settings, and regions of interest (ROI) were evaluated to determine optimum counting conditions. Precision is improved and matrix effects are reduced as compared to proportional counting. Tests indicate that this is a viable alternative to proportional counting for gross alpha and gross beta analyses of water samples. (author)

  15. Comparative microbial sampling from eutrophic caves in Slovenia and Slovakia using RIDA®COUNT test kits

    Mulec Janez; Krištůfek Václav; Chroňáková Alica

    2012-01-01

    RIDA®COUNT test plates were used as an easy-to-handle and rapid indicator of microbial counts in karst ecosystems of several caves in Slovakia and Slovenia. All of the caves had a high organic input from water streams, tourists, roosting bat colonies or terrestrial surroundings. We sampled swabs, water and air samples to test robustness and universality of the RIDA®COUNT test kit (R-Biopharm AG, Germany, http://www.r-biopharm.com/) for quantification of total bacteria, coliforms, yeast and mo...

  16. Phonotactic language recognition using i-vectors and phoneme posteriogram counts

    D'haro Enrquez, Luis Fernando; Glembek, Ond?ej; Plchot, Old?ich; Mat?jka, Pavel; Sou?far, Mehdi; Crdoba Herralde, Ricardo de; ?ernock, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a novel approach to phonotactic LID, where instead of using soft-counts based on phoneme lattices, we use posteriogram to obtain n-gram counts. The high-dimensional vectors of counts are reduced to low-dimensional units for which we adapted the commonly used term i-vectors. The reduction is based on multinomial subspace modeling and is designed to work in the total-variability space. The proposed technique was tested on the NIST 2009 LRE set with better results to a syste...

  17. Determination of tritium by counting

    Ionisation chamber assay of tritium in any gaseous mixture is a simple, fast and accurate method. We used the method of relative determination by comparison to a standard rather than the method of absolute assay in which case the constants are known with too little accuracy. The efficiency of the chamber was studied in connection to the pressure inside the chamber and its total volume. The calibration is linear in the range we are taking into account (1 to 80 millicuries). The reproducibility of the method is good: 13 runs gave a coefficient of variation of 1.6 per cent. The relative accuracy was found equal to ± 1.3 per cent. To end the paper, we describe in detail the apparatus and the ways of proceedings. (authors)

  18. From particle counting to Gaussian tomography

    Parthasarathy, K. R.; Sengupta, Ritabrata

    2015-12-01

    The momentum and position observables in an n-mode boson Fock space Γ(ℂn) have the whole real line ℝ as their spectrum. But the total number operator N has a discrete spectrum ℤ+ = {0, 1, 2,…}. An n-mode Gaussian state in Γ(ℂn) is completely determined by the mean values of momentum and position observables and their covariance matrix which together constitute a family of n(2n + 3) real parameters. Starting with N and its unitary conjugates by the Weyl displacement operators and operators from a representation of the symplectic group Sp(2n) in Γ(ℂn), we construct n(2n + 3) observables with spectrum ℤ+ but whose expectation values in a Gaussian state determine all its mean and covariance parameters. Thus measurements of discrete-valued observables enable the tomography of the underlying Gaussian state and it can be done by using five one-mode and four two-mode Gaussian symplectic gates in single and pair mode wires of Γ(ℂn) = Γ(ℂ)⊗n. Thus the tomography protocol admits a simple description in a language similar to circuits in quantum computation theory. Such a Gaussian tomography applied to outputs of a Gaussian channel with coherent input states permit a tomography of the channel parameters. However, in our procedure the number of counting measurements exceeds the number of channel parameters slightly. Presently, it is not clear whether a more efficient method exists for reducing this tomographic complexity. As a byproduct of our approach an elementary derivation of the probability generating function of N in a Gaussian state is given. In many cases the distribution turns out to be infinitely divisible and its underlying Lévy measure can be obtained. However, we are unable to derive the exact distribution in all cases. Whether this property of infinite divisibility holds in general is left as an open problem.

  19. Surface topography of composite restorative materials following ultrasonic scaling and its Impact on bacterial plaque accumulation. An in-vitro SEM study

    Hossam, A. Eid; Rafi, A. Togoo; Ahmed, A Saleh; Sumanth, Phani CR

    2013-01-01

    Background: This is an in vitro study to investigate the effects of ultrasonic scaling on the surface roughness and quantitative bacterial count on four different types of commonly used composite restorative materials for class V cavities.

  20. The liquid scintillation counting efficiency for 137mCs+137mBa and ''129 I

    We compute the liquid scintillation counting efficiency for 137Cs+137mBa and ''129 I taking into account the scintillator chemical composition. We consider the beta transition shape factors for the for bidden beta transitions of these nuclides, and the effects of 137mBa and 129mXe half-lives on the total counting efficiency. (Author) 8 refs

  1. Estimated average annual rate of change of CD4(+) T-cell counts in patients on combination antiretroviral therapy

    Mocroft, Amanda; Phillips, Andrew N; Ledergerber, Bruno; Smith, Colette; Bogner, Johannes R; Lacombe, Karine; Wiercinska-Drapalo, Alicje; Reiss, Peter; Kirk, Ole; Lundgren, Jens

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) might continue treatment with a virologically failing regimen. We sought to identify annual change in CD4(+) T-cell count according to levels of viraemia in patients on cART. METHODS: A total of 111,371 CD4(+) T-cell counts ...

  2. Interfering with bacterial gossip

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Givskov, Michael

    defense. Antibiotics exhibit a rather limited effect on biofilms. Furthermore, antibiotics have an inherent obsolescence because they select for development of resistance. Bacterial infections with origin in bacterial biofilms have become a serious threat in developed countries. Pseudomonas aeruginosa...... biofilms are thought to be the dominant agent in many chronic infections including those in cystic fibrosis lungs and chronic wounds. With the present days awareness of biofilms, the future task is to exploit this knowledge for development and application of antimicrobial intervention strategies that...... appropriately target bacteria in their relevant habitat with the aim of mitigating their destructive impact on patients. In this review we describe molecular mechanisms involved in bacterial gossip (more scientifically referred to as quorum sensing (QS) and c-di-GMP signaling), virulence, biofilm formation...

  3. Bacterial meningitis in children

    To demonstrate the epidemiology, clinical manifestations and bacteriological profile of bacterial meningitis in children beyond the neonatal period in our hospital. This was a retrospective descriptive study conducted at Prince Rashid Hospital in Irbid, Jordan. The medical records of 50 children with the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis during 4 years period, were reviewed. The main cause of infection was streptococcus pneumoniae, followed by Haemophilus influenza and Niesseria meningitides. Mortality was higher in infants and meningococcal infection, while complications were more encountered in cases of streptococcus pneumoniae. Cerebrospinal fluid culture was positive in 11 cases and Latex agglutination test in 39. There is a significant reduction of the numbers of bacterial meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenza type B species. (author)

  4. Vimentin in Bacterial Infections

    Mak, Tim N; Brüggemann, Holger

    2016-01-01

    filaments (IFs). IFs have not only roles in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, but they are also involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, immune signaling, and autophagy, processes that are important in the context of bacterial infections. Here, we summarize the knowledge...... about the role of IFs in bacterial infections, focusing on the type III IF protein vimentin. Recent studies have revealed the involvement of vimentin in host cell defenses, acting as ligand for several pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. Two main aspects of bacteria...... virulence factors that target vimentin to subvert its function in order to change the host cell fate in the course of a bacterial infection....

  5. A measurement technique for counting processes

    A technique for the estimation of first and second order properties of a stationary counting process is presented here which uses standard instruments for analysis of a continuous stationary random signal. (orig.)

  6. CoC Housing Inventory Count Reports

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Continuum of Care (CoC) Homeless Assistance Programs Housing Inventory Count Reports are a snapshot of a CoC’s housing inventory, available at the national and...

  7. Koyukuk NWR 1986 duck pair count

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A duck pair count was conducted in five trend areas on 30 May 1986 in the Koyukuk NWR. Forty pairs from eight species of ducks were observed.

  8. Leukocyte Populations and C-Reactive Protein as Predictors of Bacterial Infections in Febrile Outpatient Children

    Zhre Kaya; Aynur Kkcongar; Do?u? Vurall?; Hamdi Cihan Emeksiz; Trkiz Grsel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Infections remain the major cause of unnecessary antibiotic use in pediatric outpatient settings. Complete blood count (CBC) is the essential test in the diagnosis of infections. C-reactive protein (CRP) is also useful for assessment of young children with serious bacterial infections. The purpose of the study was to evaluate leukocyte populations and CRP level to predict bacterial infections in febrile outpatient children. METHODS: The values of CBC by Cell-DYN 4000 autoanalyz...

  9. Evaluation of procalcitonin and neopterin level in serum of patients with acute bacterial infection

    Babak Pourakbari; Setareh Mamishi; Javid Zafari; Hanieh Khairkhah; Mohammad H Ashtiani; Masomeh Abedini; Shahla Afsharpaiman; Soroush Seifi Rad

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fever as a common presenting complaint in pediatric patients can be due to various causes. Differentiating bacterial infection from other causes is important because the prompt use of antibiotics is critical in bacterial infection. Traditional markers of infection such as BT and WBC count may be unspecific and culture may be late or absent. CRP and Procalcitonin (PCT) have been considered to evaluate the evolution of infections and sepsis in patients presenting with SIRS. Neopteri...

  10. SPARTA: Simple Program for Automated reference-based bacterial RNA-seq Transcriptome Analysis

    Johnson, Benjamin K.; Scholz, Matthew B.; Teal, Tracy K; Abramovitch, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many tools exist in the analysis of bacterial RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) transcriptional profiling experiments to identify differentially expressed genes between experimental conditions. Generally, the workflow includes quality control of reads, mapping to a reference, counting transcript abundance, and statistical tests for differentially expressed genes. In spite of the numerous tools developed for each component of an RNA-seq analysis workflow, easy-to-use bacterially oriented wor...

  11. Sleeping position and upper airways bacterial flora: relevance to cot death.

    Bell, S.; Crawley, B A; Oppenheim, B A; Drucker, D. B.; Morris, J A

    1996-01-01

    The hypothesis that the prone sleeping position is associated with accumulation of upper airways secretions and increased bacterial growth was investigated in adults. Ten subjects with upper respiratory tract infection lay prone for one hour and then supine for one hour. Nasal swabs after the prone period yielded higher bacterial counts than swabs obtained after the supine period. This result could be relevant to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), as infants who sleep in the prone position ...

  12. Bacterial Enrichment at the Gas-Water Interface of a Laboratory Apparatus

    Powelson, D K; Mills, A. L.

    1996-01-01

    The gas-water interface (GWI) is likely to have important effects on bacterial adsorption and transport in unsaturated porous media. A glass apparatus that isolated GWIs in ports above a flowthrough suspension of a groundwater bacterial isolate was used to represent unsaturated porous media. The surface microlayer was collected by placing a polycarbonate filter on the GWI. The filter was stained, and the bacteria were enumerated by direct count. The significance of five independent variables ...

  13. A Rare Case of Toxic Myocarditis Caused by Bacterial Liver Abscess Mimicking Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Zou, Yuhai; Lin, Lin; Xiao, Hua; Xiang, Dingcheng

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 66 Final Diagnosis: Toxic myocarditis Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Emergency Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Rare disease Background: Chills, high fever, right upper abdomen pain, and increased white blood cell count are the main and common clinical features of bacterial liver abscess. It is rare to see bacterial liver abscess present symptoms of myocardial injury first, and this can lead to misdiagnosis. Case Report: We report a case of toxic myocarditis caus...

  14. EFFECT OF REFINED PETROLEUM PRODUCTS CONTAMINATION ON BACTERIAL POPULATION AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTIVATED AGRICULTURAL SOIL

    Adewale Sogo Olalemi; Daniel Juwon Arotupin

    2012-01-01

    An investigation into the effect of refined petroleum products contamination on bacterial population and physicochemical characteristics of cultivated agricultural soil was carried out. The soil samples obtained from the Teaching and Research Farm, Obakekere, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State were contaminated with varying volumes of petrol, diesel and kerosene. The results revealed higher bacterial populations in uncontaminated soils than contaminated soils. The counts of b...

  15. Bacterial flora of spices and its control by gamma irradiation

    The bacterial contamination was tested in 26 samples of spices. Chili, allspice and paprika were the most contaminated spices by bacteria. Five bacterial genera were isolated, namely bacillus, staphylococcus, streptococcus, micrococcus, and coccobacillus, all being gram-positive. Most isolates have been related to the genus bacillus. The bacterial isolates were identified as B. alvei, B. circulans, B. megaterium, B. pasteurii, B. pumilus, B. thuringiensis, B. sphaericus, B. incertaesedis, Micrococcus luteus, staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus sp. and coccobacillus sp. Irradiation of spices led to a significant decrease in the bacterial count of all samples. The dose required to inhibit completely the natural bacterial flora was 25 KGY. The most radioresistant isolates were staphylococcus aureus and micrococcus luteus which were subjected to sublethal doses of 15 and 20 KGY respectively. The dose response curves of the 2 most radioresistant isolates showed simple exponential relationship. The D 10-value of S. aureus and M. luteus were 0.9 and 1.1 KGY, respectively. The effect of storage period on the bacterial load of, as well as, the antibacterial activity of the tested spices were investigated. (author)

  16. 20 CFR 418.3410 - Whose resources do we count?

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whose resources do we count? 418.3410 Section... Subsidies Resources 418.3410 Whose resources do we count? (a) We count your resources. We count the... we redetermine your subsidy as described in 418.3120(b)(1), we will stop counting the resources...

  17. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis

    Đukić Slobodanka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis is a common, complex clinical syndrome characterized by alterations in the normal vaginal flora. When symptomatic, it is associated with a malodorous vaginal discharge and on occasion vaginal burning or itching. Under normal conditions, lactobacilli constitute 95% of the bacteria in the vagina. Bacterial vaginosis is associated with severe reduction or absence of the normal H2O2­producing lactobacilli and overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria and Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Mycoplasma hominis and Mobiluncus species. Most types of infectious disease are diagnosed by culture, by isolating an antigen or RNA/DNA from the microbe, or by serodiagnosis to determine the presence of antibodies to the microbe. Therefore, demonstration of the presence of an infectious agent is often a necessary criterion for the diagnosis of the disease. This is not the case for bacterial vaginosis, since the ultimate cause of the disease is not yet known. There are a variety of methods for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis but no method can at present be regarded as the best. Diagnosing bacterial vaginosis has long been based on the clinical criteria of Amsel, whereby three of four defined criteria must be satisfied. Nugent’s scoring system has been further developed and includes validation of the categories of observable bacteria structures. Up­to­date molecular tests are introduced, and better understanding of vaginal microbiome, a clear definition for bacterial vaginosis, and short­term and long­term fluctuations in vaginal microflora will help to better define molecular tests within the broader clinical context.

  18. Remote system for counting of nuclear pulses

    In this work, it is describe technically the remote system for counting of nuclear pulses, an integral system of the project radiological monitoring in a petroleum distillation tower. The system acquires the counting of incident nuclear particles in a nuclear detector which process this information and send it in serial form, using the RS-485 toward a remote receiver, which can be a Personal computer or any other device capable to interpret the communication protocol. (Author)

  19. Estimating mutation rate: how to count mutations?

    Fu, Yun-Xin; Huai, Haying

    2003-01-01

    Mutation rate is an essential parameter in genetic research. Counting the number of mutant individuals provides information for a direct estimate of mutation rate. However, mutant individuals in the same family can share the same mutations due to premeiotic mutation events, so that the number of mutant individuals can be significantly larger than the number of mutation events observed. Since mutation rate is more closely related to the number of mutation events, whether one should count only ...

  20. Full counting statistics of incoherent Andreev transport

    Belzig, W

    2003-01-01

    We study the full counting statistics of heterostructures consisting of normal metal parts connected to a superconducting terminal. Assuming that coherent superconducting correlations are suppressed in the normal metals we show, using Keldysh-Nambu Green's functions, that the system can be mapped onto a purely normal system with twice the number of elements. For a superconducting beam splitter with several normal terminals we obtain general results for the counting statistics.

  1. How to count an introduction to combinatorics

    Allenby, RBJT

    2010-01-01

    What's It All About? What Is Combinatorics? Classic Problems What You Need to Know Are You Sitting Comfortably? Permutations and Combinations The Combinatorial Approach Permutations CombinationsApplications to Probability Problems The Multinomial Theorem Permutations and Cycles Occupancy Problems Counting the Solutions of Equations New Problems from Old A ""Reduction"" Theorem for the Stirling Numbers The Inclusion-Exclusion Principle Double Counting Derangements A Formula for the Stirling NumbersStirling and Catalan Numbers Stirling Numbers Permutations and Stirling Numbers Catalan Numbers Pa

  2. High efficiency photon counting using stopped light

    Imamoglu, A.

    2002-01-01

    Single-photon detection and photon counting play a central role in a large number of quantum communication and computation protocols. While the efficiency of state-of-the-art photo-detectors is well below the desired limits, quantum state measurements in trapped ions can be carried out with efficiencies approaching 100%. Here, we propose a method that can in principle achieve ideal photon counting, by combining the techniques of photonic quantum memory and ion-trap fluorescence detection: aft...

  3. Optical planar waveguide for cell counting

    LeBlanc, John; Mueller, Andrew J.; Prinz, Adrian; Butte, Manish J.

    2012-01-01

    Low cost counting of cells has medical applications in screening, military medicine, disaster medicine, and rural healthcare. In this report, we present a shallow, buried, planar waveguide fabricated by potassium ion exchange in glass that enables low-cost and rapid counting of metal-tagged objects that lie in the evanescent field of the waveguide. Laser light transmitted through the waveguide was attenuated proportionately to the presence of metal-coated microstructures fabricated from photo...

  4. Molecular Analysis of Bacterial Microbiota on Brazilian Currency Note Surfaces

    Tairacan Augusto Pereira da Fonseca

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Currency notes have been implicated as a vehicle for transmitting community-acquired bacterial infections. However, the overall diversity of the bacterial population residing on banknotes is still unknown in Brazil. In this study, we aimed to investigate the overall bacterial population from 150 different Brazilian Rial (R$ notes in circulation using a culture-independent Illumina massively parallel sequencing approach of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were randomly collected from three different street markets or “feiras” in the metropolitan region of São Paulo. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Proteobacteria phyla, followed by Firmicutes and Streptophyta, with a total of 1193 bacterial families and 3310 bacterial genera. Most of these bacterial genera are of human, animal, and environmental origins. Also, our analysis revealed the presence of some potential pathogenic bacterial genera including Salmonella, Staphylococcus, and Klebsiella. The results demonstrate that there is a tremendous diversity of bacterial contamination on currency notes, including organisms known to be opportunistic pathogens. One of the factors that may contribute to the richness of bacterial diversity in currency notes is personal hygiene. Thus, our results underscore the need to increase public awareness of the importance of personal hygiene of money handlers who also handle food.

  5. Factors affecting leukocyte count in healthy adults.

    Carel, R S; Eviatar, J

    1985-09-01

    The relationships between white blood cell (WBC) count, smoking, and other health variables were determined among 35,000 apparently healthy men and women. The effect of smoking on the WBC count was greater than that of all other variables. The leukocyte level and the variance in WBC count values increased with increased smoking intensity. The relationship between smoking intensity and leukocyte level is expressed quantitatively by the following regression equation: WBC (10(3)/mm3) = 7.1 + 0.05(SM), where SM has seven values according to the smoking level. Multiple regression analysis with additional variables other than smoking did not much improve the predictive value of the equation. The effect of smoking on WBC count could be only partially explained by an inflammatory process, e.g., chronic bronchitis. Relationships of statistical significance (but mostly with r values of less than 0.10) were found between WBC count and the following variables: hemoglobin, heart rate, weight (or Quetelet index), cholesterol, uric acid, creatinine, sex, ethnic origin, systolic blood pressure, height, blood sugar, and diastolic blood pressure. The normal WBC count range for smokers differs from that of nonsmokers and is shifted to the right according to the smoking level. This may have both a diagnostic and prognostic significance in different clinical settings. PMID:4070192

  6. The Complexity of Approximately Counting Stable Matchings

    Chebolu, Prasad; Martin, Russell

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the complexity of approximately counting stable matchings in the $k$-attribute model, where the preference lists are determined by dot products of "preference vectors" with "attribute vectors", or by Euclidean distances between "preference points" and "attribute points". Irving and Leather proved that counting the number of stable matchings in the general case is $#P$-complete. Counting the number of stable matchings is reducible to counting the number of downsets in a (related) partial order and is interreducible, in an approximation-preserving sense, to a class of problems that includes counting the number of independent sets in a bipartite graph ($#BIS$). It is conjectured that no FPRAS exists for this class of problems. We show this approximation-preserving interreducibilty remains even in the restricted $k$-attribute setting when $k \\geq 3$ (dot products) or $k \\geq 2$ (Euclidean distances). Finally, we show it is easy to count the number of stable matchings in the 1-attribute dot-product ...

  7. Predicted galaxy counts in CO emission

    Verter, Frances

    1992-01-01

    The CO galaxy counts are predicted from studies of LCO in nearby galaxies, with consideration given to how these counts may be compared to the current understanding of recent galaxy evolution. The average number of galaxies per square degree with CO (1-0) emission above a brightness threshold of 4.5 x 10 exp -20 W/sq m is predicted to be 0.5 +/-4.0. The expressed uncertainty in the predicted galaxy counts comes primarily from uncertainties in the absolute scale and high-luminosity cutoff of the CO luminosity function. Using present-technology mm-radio telescopes and receivers, it is possible to employ galaxy counts in CO (1-0) emission to test theories of recent (z is less than about 0.4) galaxy evolution. If it is true that interactions among galaxies and consequent starbursts were more common in the recent past, as suggested by galaxy counts at far-IR and cm-radio wavelengths, then it is anticipated that the molecular emission of galaxies will increase with redshift and the CO galaxy counts will exceed this prediction based on nearby galaxies.

  8. Absence of association between total heterotrophic and total coliform bacteria from a public water supply.

    Edberg, S; Smith, D. B.

    1989-01-01

    Heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) and total coliforms (TC) are two major microbial indicators that are used to monitor the potability of water. Although the presence of heterotrophs has been hypothesized to predict the presence of TC, there have been few documented reports. Intensive sampling of raw, treated effluent and distribution water from a public water supply serving 400,000 people provided an opportunity to study the relationship between these two indicator groups of bacteria. A total ...

  9. Physiological Studies and Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Bacterial Pathogen Isolated from Some Nigerian Fast Food

    Y.O. Fajemilo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most food handlers in fast food centers have no knowledge of food safety practices and of prevention of food-borne diseases which has resulted in the transmission of food-borne pathogens to the people consuming such food. Therefore, this study was aimed at evaluating the level of bacterial contamination in some fast food in Ogbomoso, Nigeria and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility and physiological profile of the bacterial contaminants. Bacterial pathogens were isolated from fast food vended in Ogbomoso, Oyo state, Nigeria. The isolates were characterized and identified as Enterobacter aerogenes, Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas putida, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas chlororaphis and Bacillus subtilis. The total bacteria colony count ranged from 2.4x104-4.2x106. The antibiotic susceptibility profile of the isolates was determined and 75% sensitivity to the clinically relevant antibiotic disc was noted while 25% resistance was found. The effect of physiological parameters including temperature, pH and sodium chloride concentration on the growth rate of isolates was evaluated. As temperature of incubation increased from 50-80°C, the rate of growth of all the isolate decreased and as the pH of the growth medium increased from 3-9, the rate of growth of all the isolates also increased. As the concentration of sodium chloride increased from 2-5%, the rate of growth of isolates also reduced. The results of this study showed that most of the fast food samples examined did not meet bacteriological quality standards. Hence, it is recommended that a regular monitoring of fast food should be carried out by putting in place appropriate agency.

  10. Dynamics of bacterial communities before and after distribution in a full-scale drinking water network

    El-Chakhtoura, Joline

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the biological stability of drinking water distribution systems is imperative in the framework of process control and risk management. The objective of this research was to examine the dynamics of the bacterial community during drinking water distribution at high temporal resolution. Water samples (156 in total) were collected over short time-scales (minutes/hours/days) from the outlet of a treatment plant and a location in its corresponding distribution network. The drinking water is treated by biofiltration and disinfectant residuals are absent during distribution. The community was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and flow cytometry as well as conventional, culture-based methods. Despite a random dramatic event (detected with pyrosequencing and flow cytometry but not with plate counts), the bacterial community profile at the two locations did not vary significantly over time. A diverse core microbiome was shared between the two locations (58-65% of the taxa and 86-91% of the sequences) and found to be dependent on the treatment strategy. The bacterial community structure changed during distribution, with greater richness detected in the network and phyla such as Acidobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes becoming abundant. The rare taxa displayed the highest dynamicity, causing the major change during water distribution. This change did not have hygienic implications and is contingent on the sensitivity of the applied methods. The concept of biological stability therefore needs to be revised. Biostability is generally desired in drinking water guidelines but may be difficult to achieve in large-scale complex distribution systems that are inherently dynamic.

  11. Radiolabel ratio method for measuring pulmonary clearance of intratracheal bacterial challenges

    Calculation of bacterial clearance is a fundamental step in any study of in situ lung antibacterial defenses. A method is described whereby about 85% of a radiolabeled bacterial inoculum was consistently introduced into the bronchopulmonary tree of a mouse by the intratracheal route. Mice were then killed 1 and 4 hours later; their lungs were removed aseptically and homogenized, and viable bacteria and radiolabel counts were determined. Radiolabel counts fell slowly, and more than 80% of the original radiolabel was still present in homogenized lung samples from animals sacrificed 4 hours after challenge. Bacteria/isotope ratios for the bacterial inoculum and homogenized lung samples from animals sacrificed immediately after challenge were very similar. Bacterial clearance values were the same whether computed from bacterial counts alone or according to a radiolabel ratio method whereby the change in the bacteria/isotope ratio in ground lung aliquots was divided by a similar ratio from bacteria used to inoculate animals. Some contamination resulted from oral streptococci being swept into the bronchopulmonary free during the aspiration process. This contamination was not a problem when penicillin was incorporated into the agar and penicillin-resistant strains were used for the bacterial challenges

  12. Changes in ruminal bacterial community composition following feeding of alfalfa ensiled with a lactic acid bacterial inoculant.

    Mohammed, R; Stevenson, D M; Beauchemin, K A; Muck, R E; Weimer, P J

    2012-01-01

    Some silage inoculants help to improve silage quality and promote an increase in milk production, possibly through altering the rumen microflora. We hypothesized that rumen bacterial community composition (BCC) would be different in cows fed alfalfa ensiled with the inoculant Lactobacillus plantarum MTD/1 (LP) compared with those fed alfalfa ensiled without the inoculant (Ctrl). Eight ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were allotted to 2 diets (Ctrl or LP) in a double crossover design with four 28-d periods. Diets were formulated to contain (% dry matter basis) 28.0% neutral detergent fiber and 16.2% crude protein, and contained alfalfa silage, 50.9; corn silage, 20.6; high-moisture shelled corn, 21.4; soy hulls, 4.7; plus minerals and vitamins, 2.4. Ruminal digesta were collected just before feeding on 3 consecutive days near the end of each period, and were separated into solid and liquid phases. Microbial DNA was extracted from each phase, amplified by PCR using domain-level bacterial primers, and subjected to automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis. The pH was 4.56 and 4.86 and the lactate-to-acetate ratio 9.8 and 4.4, respectively, for the treated and untreated alfalfa silages. Dry matter intakes and milk production data were not influenced by diets but showed a cow effect. Total volatile fatty acids (mM) tended to be greater for LP compared with Ctrl. Individual volatile fatty acids were not influenced by diets but showed a significant cow effect. Ruminal acetate (mol/100 mol) and acetate-to-propionate ratio were lower and propionate (mol/100 mol) greater for the 2 milk fat-depressed (MFD; <3.2% fat content) cows compared with the other 6 cows. Correspondence analysis of the 265 peaks in the automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis profile across the 188 samples revealed that the first 2 components contributed 7.1 and 3.8% to the total variation in the profile. The ordination points representing the liquid and solid phases clustered separately, indicating that these phases differed in BCC. The analysis of similarity data showed differences between Ctrl and LP. The lactic acid bacterial counts (log(10) cfu/g of wet silage) were 3.94 and 4.53 for the untreated and treated silage, respectively, at ensiling. The relative population size (RPS) of L. plantarum, determined by real-time PCR of 16S rRNA gene copies, was greater in LP compared with Ctrl. The ordination points corresponding to certain individual cows clustered separately, and the most distinctive bacterial communities were those associated with MFD cows. The RPS of Megasphaera elsdenii was greater in 1 of the 2 MFD cows, although mean RPS of M. elsdenii did not differ between the treatments. In addition to the differences in rumen BCC between LP and Ctrl, MFD cows also displayed differences in BCC compared with cows with normal milk fat yield. PMID:22192212

  13. Quantum circuits for -multiplication with subquadratic gate count

    Kepley, Shane; Steinwandt, Rainer

    2015-07-01

    One of the most cost-critical operations when applying Shor's algorithm to binary elliptic curves is the underlying field arithmetic. Here, we consider binary fields in polynomial basis representation, targeting especially field sizes as used in elliptic curve cryptography. Building on Karatsuba's algorithm, our software implementation automatically synthesizes a multiplication circuit with the number of -gates being bounded by for any given reduction polynomial of degree . If an irreducible trinomial of degree exists, then a multiplication circuit with a total gate count of is available.

  14. Bacterial microflora of nectarines

    Microflora of fruit surfaces has been the best source of antagonists against fungi causing postharvest decays of fruit. However, there is little information on microflora colonizing surfaces of fruits other than grapes, apples, and citrus fruit. We characterized bacterial microflora on nectarine f...

  15. Staining bacterial flagella easily.

    Heimbrook, M E; Wang, W L; Campbell, G.

    1989-01-01

    A wet-mount technique for staining bacterial flagella is highly successful when a stable stain and regular slides and cover slips are used. Although not producing a permanent mount, the technique is simple for routine use when the number and arrangement of flagella are critical in identifying species of motile bacteria.

  16. Effects of nisin on Staphylococcus aureus count and physicochemical properties of Minas Frescal cheese.

    Felicio, Bruna A; Pinto, Maximiliano S; Oliveira, Francielly S; Lempk, Marcus W; Pires, Ana Clarissa S; Lelis, Carini A

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of nisin on in vitro and in situ Staphylococcus aureus counts. For in vitro experiment, milk was inoculated with 5.0 log cfu·mL(-1) of S. aureus and nisin was added at concentrations of 0, 100, 200, 400, and 500 IU mL(-1). The main effect of the bacteriocin was lag phase extension from 0h, for 0 and 100 IU·mL(-1) to 8h, when 200, 400, and 500 IU·mL(-1) of nisin were used; however, log phase was not affected. Microbial growth rate was found to be exponential and around 0.11 log cfu·mL(-1)·h(-1) for all treatments. For in situ experiments, 0, 400, and 500 IU·mL(-1) of nisin were directly added to pasteurized milk previously inoculated with 5.0 log cfu·g(-1) of S. aureus. Milk, curd, and whey were analyzed to S. aureus counts. Nisin at concentration of 500 IU·mL(-1) was able to reduce S. aureus count in curd and whey, demonstrating nisin partition between both phases. Throughout storage at 4°C, S. aureus count increased for all treatments, but the bacterial grew slower when nisin was added in both concentrations, maintaining S. aureus count about 1.5 log cycles lower than the control, despite abusive initial S. aureus count. Therefore, nisin seems to play an important role in reducing S. aureus initial count in cheese made with highly contaminated milk. Nisin showed potential to be used as an additional, important hurdle to improve Minas Frescal cheese safety, without replacing good manufacturing practices. PMID:25981063

  17. Mucin secretion in germfree rats fed fiber-free and psyllium diets and bacterial mass and carbohydrate fermentation after colonization.

    Cabotaje, L M; Shinnick, F L; Lopéz-Guisa, J M; Marlett, J A

    1994-04-01

    The effect of psyllium on mucin secretion was determined by comparing water-soluble and -insoluble fractions of excreta from germfree rats fed a fiber-free (FF) diet or a diet containing psyllium seed husk (PS). Excreta from the same rats after colonization with a rat mixed cecal culture were separated into water-soluble, plant, and bacterial fractions to compare the remaining carbohydrate and the mass of bacteria. The sugar composition and water solubility of carbohydrate in excreta from germfree rats fed FF diets indicated that a primary fermentable substrate was mucin. PS increased fecal excretion of mucin-derived sugars almost threefold in germfree rats. Fecal carbohydrate was reduced from 619 to 237 mumol/g of dry feces and mostly in the bacterial fraction when rats fed an FF diet were colonized. The total sugar content and the amount of muramic acid, but not bacterial counts and mass, indicated that PS increased fecal bacteria. Fractionation of excreta from PS-fed rats was complicated by a gel which, based on sugar composition, was PS. Sugar composition of the water-soluble fraction from excreta from PS-fed rats suggested that it contained some bacterial component, possibly exopolysaccharides and some of the PS, but not mucin. PS digestibility ranged from 60 to 80%, depending on what fecal fraction was used for output. Because of the presence of PS-derived sugars in the gel and soluble fraction, it was not possible to determine which, if any, of the PS digestibilities was correct. PMID:8017918

  18. Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford Count Rumford on the nature of heat

    Brown, Sanborn C

    1967-01-01

    Men of Physics: Benjamin Thompson - Count Rumford: Count Rumford on the Nature of Heat covers the significant contributions of Count Rumford in the fields of physics. Count Rumford was born with the name Benjamin Thompson on March 23, 1753, in Woburn, Massachusetts. This book is composed of two parts encompassing 11 chapters, and begins with a presentation of Benjamin Thompson's biography and his interest in physics, particularly as an advocate of an """"anti-caloric"""" theory of heat. The subsequent chapters are devoted to his many discoveries that profoundly affected the physical thought

  19. Bacterial infections other than spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhosis

    Chalermrat Bunchorntavakul; Disaya Chavalitdhamrong

    2012-01-01

    Cirrhotic patients are immunocompromised with a high risk of infection. Proinflammatory cytokines and hemodynamic circulation derangement further facilitate the development of serious consequences of infections. Other than spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, bacteremia and bacterial infections of other organ systems are frequently observed. Gram-negative enteric bacteria are the most common causative organism. Other bacterial infections, such as enterococci, Vibrio spp., Aeromonas spp., Clostr...

  20. Effect of Gaseous Ozone Exposure on the Bacteria Counts and Oxidative Properties of Ground Hanwoo Beef at Refrigeration Temperature.

    Cho, Youngjae; Muhlisin; Choi, Ji Hye; Hahn, Tae-Wook; Lee, Sung Ki

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to elucidate the effect of ozone exposure on the bacteria counts and oxidative properties of ground Hanwoo beef contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 at refrigeration temperature. Ground beef was inoculated with 7 Log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 isolated from domestic pigs and was then subjected to ozone exposure (10×10(-6) kg O3 h(-1)) at 4℃ for 3 d. E. coli O157:H7, total aerobic and anaerobic bacterial growth and oxidative properties including instrumental color changes, TBARS, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were evaluated. Ozone exposure significantly prohibited (pOzone exposure reduced (pozone had no clear effect. Ozone exposure increased the TBARS values during 1 to 3 d of storage (pozone exposure until 2 and 3 d of storage, respectively. This study provides information about the use of ozone exposure as an antimicrobial agent for meat under refrigerated storage. The results of this study provide a foundation for the further application of ozone exposure by integrating an ozone generator inside a refrigerator. Further studies regarding the ozone concentrations and exposure times are needed. PMID:26761291