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Sample records for total bacterial count

  1. Determination of total bacterial count in raw milk by flow cytometry

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    Dubravka Samaržija

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The automatic flow cytometry as routine method for total bacterial count determination of raw ex-farm milk has recently been accepted in Croatia. This method significantly differs from the reference method (Standard Plate Count mostly in the presentation of the results obtained. Therefore, this paper summarized experiences in the application of flow cytometry in the dairy laboratories practice. The principle and the practice of the method, methodological details and factors influencing the results were described. In order to avoid problems regarding the interpretation of the results, which aregeneral problems of the quantitative microbiology, this article try to explain an appropriate conversion of the results with regards to SPC/ml, as an official method for the bacteriological quality proposal by the national legislation.

  2. Microbiologia da carne moida: 1. contagem total de bactérias / Microbiology of ground beef: I. total bacterial count

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Murilo, Graner; Alcides, Martinelli Filho; Vivaldo F. da, Cruz.

    Full Text Available Como primeira etapa de um programa de estudos microbiológicos da carne moida comercializada em Piracicaba, quarenta amostras de carne bovina, provenientes de dois tipos de estabelecimento de venda a varejo (açougue e supermercado), correspondendo a dois sistemas de distribuição de carne (um antigo e [...] outro recente), foram analisados quanto ao número total de bactérias, segundo as recomendações da "American Public Health Association". As amostras foram obtidas semanalmente pela manhã e à tarde, durante aproximadamente dois meses. A incubação das placas de Petri foi feita a 21º C (72 horas) e a 32º (48 horas). Os resultados podem ser resumidos como segue: 1) Contagens totais elevadas foram, em geral, observadas, com diversas amostras na faixa de 10(7) a 10(9) bactérias/grama; as médias obtidas foram 6,9 x 10(7) (21ºC) e 2,5 x 10(7) (32ºC) bactérias por grama. 2) A incubação feita a 21ºC resultou, em geral, em contagens mais elevadas que as correspondentes à temperatura de incubação de 32ºC; todavia, a diferença observada não foi estatìsticamente significativa. 3) As contagens obtidas para as amostras correspondentes ao sistema antigo de distribuição de carne foram significativamente mais elevadas que as correspondentes ao sistema recente, o que se relacionou com contagens mais elevadas obtidas para as amostras coletadas pela manhã no estabelecimento menor. Abstract in english As a first step in a program of evaluation of ground beef microbiological quality in the city of Piracicaba, SP, forty samples of ground beef were taken at two kinds of retail markets (meat shop and supermarket), related to an old and a new system of meat merchandising. The samples were taken weekly [...] in the morning and in the afternoon, during a two month period. Total bacterial counts were determined by a procedure recommended by the American Public Health Association and plates were incubated at 21ºC (72 hours) and at 32ºC (48 hours). The results can be summarized as follows = 1) Total counts were generally high, with several samples in the range 10(7) to 10(9) cells/gram; average counts were 6.9x 10(7) cells/gram (21ºC) and 2.5xl0(7) cell/gram (32ºC). 2) Incubation at 21ºC resulted in total counts generally higher than those found at 32ºC, although there was no statistically significant difference between the two incubation temperatures. 3) Total counts were found to be higher in samples from the small shop (old system) than in samples from the supermarket (new system); the difference was related to higher counts in the morning samples taken at the former retail market.

  3. Evaluation of Vit. B12+Fe and Cu Administration on the Somatic Cell Count, Total Bacterial Count and Compounds Milk of Dairy Cattle

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    S.A. Saheb Fosoul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was studying the effect of vit. B12+Fe and Cu on the somatic cell count, total bacterial count and compounds milk of Holstein cows. In this study, 4 groups contain 10 dairy Holstein cows were selected with same parity and milk production as control, vit. B12+Fe injectable (10 mL day-1, Cu injectable (2 mL day-1 and vit. B12+Fe along with Cu treatment groups. These were injected from 1 week precalving probably to 1 week after parturition. Milk samples were collected as twice weekly from the calving time to 1 week. Total Bacterial Count (TBC, Somatic Cell Count (SCC, fat, protein, Solid Non Fat (SNF and lactose of milk were evaluated. Results showed the increasing rate of fat and lactose in vit. B12+Fe along with Cu treatment group compared to other groups. All groups were lower than control group in protein level. On the other hand, vit. B12+Fe treatment group was high in milk production, low in SNF and so, it had high effect on reducing bacterial total count compared to other groups. Furthermore, Cu treatment group was better than other groups in SCC. It was concluded that vit. B12+Fe and Cu have beneficial effects on udder immune system and compounds milk of Holstein cows.

  4. Evaluation of Vit. B12+Fe and Cu Administration on the Somatic Cell Count, Total Bacterial Count and Compounds Milk of Dairy Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    S.A. Saheb Fosoul; A. Pirestani

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was studying the effect of vit. B12+Fe and Cu on the somatic cell count, total bacterial count and compounds milk of Holstein cows. In this study, 4 groups contain 10 dairy Holstein cows were selected with same parity and milk production as control, vit. B12+Fe injectable (10 mL day-1), Cu injectable (2 mL day-1) and vit. B12+Fe along with Cu treatment groups. These were injected from 1 week precalving probably to 1 week after parturition. Milk samples were collected as ...

  5. Total bacterial count and somatic cell count in refrigerated raw milk stored in communal tanks / Contagem bacteriana total e contagem de células somáticas em leite cru refrigerado armazenado em tanques comunitários

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edmar da Costa, Alves; Alice Maria, Dahmer; Aurélio Ferreira, Borges.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A atual demanda da indústria por produtos lácteos com shelf life prolongado tem resultado em novos desafios para a manutenção da qualidade microbiológica do leite, pois o processamento da matéria-prima com altas contagens microbianas compromete a qualidade e o rendimento industrial de seus derivados [...] . O estudo objetivou avaliar a contagem bacteriana total (CBT) e a contagem de células somáticas (CSS) de 768 amostras de leite cru refrigerado provenientes de 32 tanques comunitários. As amostras foram coletadas no primeiro trimestre dos anos de 2010, 2011, 2012 e 2013 e analisadas pelo Laboratório de Qualidade do Leite. Os resultados apontaram que 62,5%, 37,5%, 15,6% e 28,1% das médias para a CBT em 2010, 2011, 2012 e 2013, respectivamente, estavam acima dos valores preconizados pela legislação. Entretanto observou-se uma redução significativa nos níveis de contagem bacteriana total (CBT) nos períodos analisados. Para a contagem de células somáticas, 100% das médias apontaram valores abaixo de 600 mil células/mL, estando essa contagem de acordo com as legislações vigentes no Brasil. Portanto, os valores encontrados para a contagem de células somáticas sugerem a adoção de medidas efetivas de controle sanitário do rebanho. Porém, os resultados obtidos para a contagem bacteriana total devem ser considerados com cautela, uma vez que eles indicam a necessidade de melhoria da qualidade da matéria-prima, até que se atinjam resultados efetivamente confiáveis. Abstract in english The current industry demand for dairy products with extended shelf life has resulted in new challenges for milk quality maintenance. The processing of milk with high bacterial counts compromises the quality and performance of industrial products. The study aimed to evaluate the total bacteria counts [...] (TBC) and somatic cell count (SCC) in 768 samples of refrigerated raw milk, from 32 communal tanks. Samples were collected in the first quarter of 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 and analyzed by the Laboratory of Milk Quality - LQL. Results showed that 62.5%, 37.5%, 15.6% and 27.1% of the means for TBC in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively, were above the values established by legislation. However, we observed a significant reduction in the levels of total bacterial count (TBC) in the studied periods. For somatic cell count, 100% of the means indicated values below 600.000 cells/mL, complying with the actual Brazilian legislation. The values found for the somatic cell count suggests the adoption of effective measures for the sanitary control of the herd. However, the results must be considered with caution as it highlights the need for quality improvements of the raw material until it achieves reliable results effectively.

  6. Contagem bacteriana total do leite em diferentes sistemas de ordenha e de resfriamento / Total bacterial count of milk in different systems of milking and cooling

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.E., Taffarel; P.B., Costa; N.T.E. de, Oliveira; G.C., Braga; W.J., Zonin.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito dos sistemas de ordenha e de resfriamento na contagem bacteriana total (CBT) e na quantidade de leite com CBT [...] ste do Paraná, no período de janeiro a outubro de 2006. Após as coletas, a qualidade do leite foi analisada em laboratório pelo método de citometria de fluxo. Os dados de CBT foram classificados por sistema de ordenha, tipo de resfriador e intervalos da CBT, segundo critério da Instrução Normativa 62, e submetidos à análise de independência de Qui-Quadrado. As proporções de CBT do leite entre tipos de resfriadores, em cada sistema de ordenha, foram comparadas utilizando-se a estatística calculada Z. Observou-se menor (p Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the effect of milking systems and cooling on total bacterial count (TBC), and the amount of milk samples with TBC [...] Brazil, from January to October 2006. After the sampling was conducted, the milk quality was analyzed in the laboratory by the method of flow cytometry. The TBC data were classified by milking system, type of coolers and intervals of the TBC, in accordance with Normative Instruction 62, and submitted to the chi-square test for independence. The proportions of milk TBC among types of coolers at each milking system were compared using the calculated statistic Z. A lower TBC value (p

  7. Preliminary stochastic model for managing Vibrio parahaemolyticus and total viable bacterial counts in a Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Piquer, Judith; Bowman, John P; Ross, Tom; Estrada-Flores, Silvia; Tamplin, Mark L

    2013-07-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus can accumulate and grow in oysters stored without refrigeration, representing a potential food safety risk. High temperatures during oyster storage can lead to an increase in total viable bacteria counts, decreasing product shelf life. Therefore, a predictive tool that allows the estimation of both V. parahaemolyticus populations and total viable bacteria counts in parallel is needed. A stochastic model was developed to quantitatively assess the populations of V. parahaemolyticus and total viable bacteria in Pacific oysters for six different supply chain scenarios. The stochastic model encompassed operations from oyster farms through consumers and was built using risk analysis software. Probabilistic distributions and predictions for the percentage of Pacific oysters containing V. parahaemolyticus and high levels of viable bacteria at the point of consumption were generated for each simulated scenario. This tool can provide valuable information about V. parahaemolyticus exposure and potential control measures and can help oyster companies and regulatory agencies evaluate the impact of product quality and safety during cold chain management. If coupled with suitable monitoring systems, such models could enable preemptive action to be taken to counteract unfavorable supply chain conditions. PMID:23834791

  8. Influência de diferentes tipos de micro-organismos na contagem bacteriana total por citometria de fluxo do leite cru refrigerado / Influence of different types of microorganisms in total bacterial count by flow cytometry of refrigerated raw milk

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    V.S.C., Sampaio; F.N., Souza; C.J.C., Saraiva; R.P., Santos; M.O., Leite; G.M., Resende; N.C., Gonçalves; F.L., Dionizio; M.M.O.P., Cerqueira.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Contagens bacterianas de 179 amostras de leite cru refrigerado, provenientes de diferentes bacias leiteiras de Minas Gerais, foram realizadas pelos métodos de citometria de fluxo e contagem padrão em placas. O estudo das associações entre a contagem bacteriana total e as contagens bacterianas dos di [...] ferentes grupos de micro-organismos foi realizado pela correlação de Pearson. Houve uma forte correlação positiva e significativa entre os valores de contagem de psicrotróficos (r = 0,67) e mesófilos (r = 0,70), determinados pelo método de referência, e os valores da contagem bacteriana total, determinados pela citometria de fluxo. Foi possível estabelecer uma curva de calibração para o citômetro de fluxo utilizando equações de regressão linear. As equações para a contagem bacteriana obtida por citometria de fluxo em função da contagem de mesófilos e psicrotróficos foram: log (CBI) = 0,701 log mesófilos + 1,9091 e log (CBI) = 0,4703 log psicrotróficos + 3,2784, respectivamente. Não foi possível estabelecer curvas de calibrações para termófilos e termodúricos, pois as correlações obtidas entre as contagens desses micro-organismos e a contagem bacteriana total, determinada por citometria de fluxo, foram fracas (r = 0,30 e 0,27, respectivamente). Abstract in english Total Bacterial count was performed in 179 raw milk samples from different dairy farms in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, through flow cytometry and standard plate count, that was regarded as the reference method. There was significant strong correlation between the values of psychrotrophic and mesophil [...] ic counts determined by the reference method with the values of bacterial count determined by flow cytometry (r = 0.67 and 0.70, respectively), which allowed to establish linear regression equations for bacterial count to calibrate the flow cytometry and estimate the count of mesophilic (log bacterial individual count (BIC) by flow cytometry = 0.701 log mesophilic + 1.9091) and psychrotrophic (log BIC by flow cytometry = 0.4703 log psychrotrophic + 3.2784) bacteria. It was not possible to establish calibration curves for thermophiles and thermodurics due to the weak to moderate correlation coefficients found among these microorganism counts and total bacterial count determined by flow cytometry (r = 0.30 and 0.27, respectively).

  9. Adequação da contagem de células somáticas e da contagem bacteriana total em leite cru refrigerado aos parâmetros da legislação / Suitability of somatic cell count and total bacterial count in raw refrigerated milk to legislation standards

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G.A., Bozo; L.C.A., Alegro; L.C., Silva; E.H.W., Santana; W., Okano; L.C.C., Silva.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi adequar a qualidade do leite cru refrigerado de cinco propriedades leiteiras aos parâmetros microbiológicos e de contagem de células somáticas (CCS) estabelecidos pela legislação estadual do Paraná. As propriedades leiteiras estudadas foram monitoradas durante sete mese [...] s após a implantação de boas práticas de ordenha e de recomendações quanto ao tratamento de mastites e à manutenção e higienização de equipamentos de ordenha. Antes da adoção das recomendações, a contagem bacteriana total (CBT) média era de 1,36 x 10(6)UFC/mL e a CCS média, de 1,87 x 10(6)/mL. Todas as propriedades atingiram os padrões estabelecidos para CBT, com redução média de 93,4%. A redução de CCS foi, em média, 74,3%. Apenas três propriedades atingiram os valores estabelecidos para CCS. As demais atingiram valores muito próximos ao limite. A adequação aos padrões de CBT e CCS gerou aumento na renda mensal, em razão do pagamento por qualidade do produto, entre R$120,00 e R$828,00, de acordo com a produção de cada propriedade. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to adequate raw refrigerated milk quality of five dairy farms to microbiological and somatic cell count (SCC) standards established by Paraná state legislation. The dairy farms were monitored during seven months after the implementation of good milking practices and recommen [...] dations regarding mastitis treatment, and milking equipment maintenance and hygiene. Before the adoption of recommendations, the average total bacterial count (TBC) was 1.36 x 10(6)CFU/mL and average SCC was 1.87 x 10(6)/mL. All farms reached established standards for TBC, originating an average reduction of 93.4%. Average SCC reduction was 74.3%. Only three farms reached established values for SCC. The remaining reached values near the limits. The suitability of TBC and SCC produced an increase in the monthly income due to payment quality reward of the dairy product, between R$120.00 and R$828.00, according to each farm production.

  10. Bacterial colony counting by Convolutional Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Alessandro; Lombardi, Stefano; Signoroni, Alberto

    2015-08-01

    Counting bacterial colonies on microbiological culture plates is a time-consuming, error-prone, nevertheless fundamental task in microbiology. Computer vision based approaches can increase the efficiency and the reliability of the process, but accurate counting is challenging, due to the high degree of variability of agglomerated colonies. In this paper, we propose a solution which adopts Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) for counting the number of colonies contained in confluent agglomerates, that scored an overall accuracy of the 92.8% on a large challenging dataset. The proposed CNN-based technique for estimating the cardinality of colony aggregates outperforms traditional image processing approaches, becoming a promising approach to many related applications. PMID:26738016

  11. 21 CFR 1210.16 - Method of bacterial count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of bacterial count. 1210.16 Section 1210.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.16 Method of bacterial count. The bacterial count...

  12. BRONOPOL AND AZIDIOL CHEMICALS: TIME AND TEMPERATURE INFLUENCE IN THE TOTAL BACTERIAL COUNT OF RAW MILK CONSERVANTES BRONOPOL E AZIDIOL: INFLUÊNCIA DO BINÔMIO TEMPO/TEMPERATURA NA CONTAGEM BACTERIANA TOTAL DO LEITE CRU

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    Márcio Eduardo Pereira Martins

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bronopol chemical in contrast to azidiol in the total bacterial counting (TBC in raw milk samples submitted the different temperatures of storage. Four bands of samples storage temperature had been evaluated: T1 – 1.8 the 4.2 ºC; T2 – 6.4 the 8.3ºC; T3 – 12.1 the 14.5ºC; and T4 – 24 the 25.5ºC in three groups: Group 1 – control without chemical; Group 2 – liquid azidiol added of bromofenol blue; Group 3 – Bronopol®. The samples were analyzed during ten consecutive days, starting 24h after sampling. After analyzes by the flow citometry, have been considered raw milk samples of 14 expansion tanks that were divided in two levels of milk contamination: <105 and >106 CFU/mL. The bronopol effect was influenced by the raw milk contamination level. The Bronopol has bacteriostatic effect in milk samples with TBC below of 105 CFU/mL and bactericidal in samples with TBC above of 106 CFU/mL. The TBC gotten in raw milk samples conserved with bronopol was lower to that one gotten in the samples with azidiol. The bronopol effect on the TBC was influenced by the temperature and by the storage time of the sample. The Bronopol® bactericidal effect becomes impracticable its use in raw milk samples destined the TBC. The azidiol efficiency in the raw milk sample destined the CBT as bacteriostatic agent was dependent of the lesser storage temperature of the sample, independent of the initial contamination level. The raw milk sample destined the CBT can be analyzed in up to one week after harvested if the same one will be added of azidiol and kept under refrigeration in temperature between 1ºC and 4 ºC.
      
    KEY WORDS: Azidiol, bronopol,  bacterial counting, raw milk, time, temperature.

    O presente estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito do conservante bronopol em contraste ao azidiol na contagem bacteriana total (CBT em amostras de leite cru submetidas a diferentes temperaturas de armazenamento. Avaliaram-se quatro faixas de temperatura de armazenamento de amostras: T1 – 1,8 a 4,2 ºC; T2 – 6,4 a 8,3ºC; T3 – 12,1 a 14,5ºC; e T4 – 24 a 25,5ºC, em três grupos: Grupo 1 – controle sem conservante; Grupo 2 – azidiol líquido + corante azul de bromofenol; Grupo 3 – bronopol®. As amostras foram analisadas durante dez dias consecutivos, iniciando 24 horas após colhidas. Após análise por citometria de fluxo pelo equipamento BactoScan FC, consideraram-se amostras de leite cru de quatorze tanques de expansão divididas em dois níveis de contaminação do leite: <105 e >106 UFC/mL. Houve efeito do conservante bronopol pelo nível de contaminação do leite cru. O bronopol possui efeito bacteriostático em amostras de leite com CBT abaixo de 105 UFC/mL e bactericida em amostras com CBT superiores a 106 UFC/mL. A CBT obtida nas amostras de leite cru conservadas com bronopol foi inferior àquela obtida nas amostras com azidiol. Ocorreu efeito do bronopol sobre a CBT pela temperatura e pelo tempo de estocagem da amostra. O efeito bactericida do bronopol® torna inviável sua utilização em amostras de leite cru destinadas à CBT.  A eficiência do azidiol na amostra de leite cru destinada à CBT como agente bacteriostático foi dependente da menor temperatura de armazenamento da amostra, independente do nível de contaminação inicial. A amostra de leite cru destinada à CBT pode ser analisada em até uma semana depois de colhida, se for adicionada de azidiol e mantida sob refrigeração em temperatura entre 1ºC e 4 ºC.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Azidiol, bronopol, contagem bacteriana, leite cru, tempo, temperatura.

  13. Climate factors influencing bacterial count in background air samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Roy M.; Jones, Alan M.; Biggins, Peter D. E.; Pomeroy, Nigel; Cox, Christopher S.; Kidd, Stephen P.; Hobman, Jon L.; Brown, Nigel L.; Beswick, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Total (as opposed to culturable) bacterial number counts are reported for four sites in the United Kingdom measured during campaigns over four separate seasons. These are interpreted in relation to simple climatic factors, i.e. temperature, wind speed and wind direction. Temperature has a marked effect at all four sites with data for a rural coastal site conforming best to a simple exponential model. Data for the other rural and urban locations show a baseline similar to that determined at the coastal rural location, but with some very significant positive excursions. The temperature dependence of bacterial number is found to conform to that typical of bacterial growth rates. At the coastal rural location, bacterial numbers normalised for temperature show no dependence on wind speed whilst at the inland sites there is a decrease with increasing wind speed of the form expected for a large area source. Only one site appeared to show a systematic relationship of bacterial concentrations to wind direction that being a site in the suburbs of Birmingham with highest number concentrations observed on a wind sector approaching from the city centre. PCR techniques have been used to identify predominant types of bacteria and results are presented which show that Bacillus was the dominant genus observed at the three inland sites during the winter and summer seasons. Pseudomonas appeared with comparable frequency at certain sites and seasons. There was in general a greater diversity of bacteria at the coastal site than at the inland sites.

  14. Recuento de bacterias totales en leche cruda de tambos que caracterizan la zona noroeste de Santa Fe y sur de Santiago del Estero Total bacterial count in raw milk of dairy farms that characterize the northwest zone of Santa Fe and south of Santiago del Estero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R. Revelli

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Un total de 6.998 muestras de leche cruda de pool de tanque, correspondientes a 55 establecimientos lecheros asociados a la Cooperativa Tambera Nueva Alpina Ltda., fueron recolectadas entre los años 1993 y 2002. Se realizó el Recuento de Microorganismos Aerobios Mesófilos Totales, obteniéndose como resultado un valor medio de 1,2 x 105± 2,4 x 105UFC/ml que caracteriza la zona. El año de finalización de la experiencia, se observó un 97% de los tambos evaluados con promedios £ 1,0 x 105UFC/ml. Solamente un 3% sobrepasa este límite, no encontrándose establecimientos con niveles superiores a 1,5 x 105UFC/ml. Al relacionar este indicador con parámetros composicionales, las correlaciones más significativas resultaron para: Recuento de Bacterias Totales vs Acidez (r = 0,292; P A total of 6.998 raw milk samples of bulk tank, belonging to 55 dairy farms associated to the Cooperativa Tambera Nueva Alpina Ltda., were collected between the years 1993 and 2002. The Total Mesophilic Aerobic Microorganisms Count was analyzed, obtaining a medium value of 1.2 x 105± 2.4 x 105CFU/ml that characterizes the zone. The final year of experience, observed a 97% of dairy farms evaluated with averages £ 1,0 x 105CFU/ml. Only a 3% it surpasses this limit, not being found establishments with levels over 1.5 x 105CFU/ml. Relating this indicators with compositionals parameters, the most significant correlation resulted for: Total Bacterial Count vs Acidity (r = 0.292; P < 0.001 and Total Bacterial Count vs Freezing Point (r = 0.157; P < 0.001. The microbiological quality in raw milk of dairy farms belonging to the northwest zone of Santa Fe and south of Santiago del Estero showed a significant improvement during this time.

  15. Method of quantitative bacterial count in burn wound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe a technique for conducting Quantitative bacteriology in burn wounds, which is a very important tool in the management of burn wound sepsis. Technique was used in 21 patients with burn wound injury. Biopsy for the bacteriology was taken with the help of punch forceps. Then it was directly put into sterilized pre weighed homogenizer bag containing 1ml normal saline. This bag was re-weighed. Weight of the tissue was obtained and bag was homogenized in homogenizer (Stomacher Lab Blender-80). Four fold dilutions were made of homogenate specimen. From each dilution tube, 0.01 ml was then inoculated on blood agar plates, incubated for 24 hours and number of colonies counted by formula. Four specimens were taken each day and repeated on alternate days for up to 6 days. Out of twenty one patients there were 10 male and 11 female with mean age of 25.95 years. Total body surface area burnt was from 9-41%. Bacterial counts obtained varied from 1.45-8.89. Quantitative bacteriology is simple by the above method and should be employed in every public and private sector burn center. (author)

  16. Contagem total de bactérias e enumeração de coliformes em cortes de varejo de carne bovina e em equipamentos de supermercados / Total bacterial counts, enumeration (MPN) of coliform organisms and Escherichia coli on samples of meat retail. Cuts and boning equipamentin supermakets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alcides, Martinelli Filho; Murilo, Graner; Décio, Barbin; Expedito T. F., Silveira.

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho foi determinada a contagem total de bactérias (incubação a 32°C e a 5°C) existentes na superfície de alguns cortes de varejo de carne bovina comercializada por tres supermercados de Piracicaba, SP, bem como da superfície de diversos tipos de equipamento utilizado nas salas de de [...] sossa desses estabelecimentos. Foi determinado também o número mais provável (NMP) de coliformes totais e, para um grupo de amostras de carne, o NMP de Escherichia coli. Para um dos supermercados (o mais antigo e menos adequado sob o aspecto sanitário) foi possível constatar uma diferença significativa entre as contagens totais em cortes recebidos já desossados pelo estabelecimento, a favor destes, e as contagens em cortes preparados na sala de desossa. O equipamento, tanto no estado considerado limpo (após o dia de trabalho) e aquele em uso apresentaram contagens totais excessivas; não houve diferença significativa entre um e outro caso, e, em ambos, a temperatura de incubação 32°C resultou em valores estatisticamente superiores aos obtidos com a incubação a 5°C. As contagens provenientes de análises de superfícies de madeira foram significativamente mais elevadas que as verificadas em superfícies metálicas (serra elétrica, facas, afiadores). A ocorrência de coliformes totais foi geral, tanto na carne como no equipamento, muitas vezes em números elevados. Em amostras de carne, analisadas quanto à presença e ao número de coliformes totais e de Escherichia coli, verificou-se que 96% daquelas positivas para coliformes totais também o eram para esta bactéria. Atras de material em uso foram positivas quanto à ocorrência de coliformes totais. Tal como ocorreu a carne, o número mais possível (NMP) assumiu, em vários casos, elevados valores. Embora não comprovado estatisticamente, os resultados sugerem uma maior ocorrência desse grupo de microrganismos nas superfícies de madeira (mesa e ou cepo). Abstract in english Total bacterial counts (32°C and 5°C) and most probable numbers (MPN) of coliform organisms and E. coli were determined for samples of three retail bovine meat cuts and cutting and boning equipment three supermarkets. In the oldest of these, total counts were higher on meat cuts prepared in the cutt [...] ing room than on meat boned in the packing plant. Total counts were generally high on the equipment (higher for incubation at 32°C), with the wooden surfaces (tables, cutting boards) showing significaitly higher numbers than the metallic ones (eletric saw, knives). No differences could be found between counts on "clean" equipment and counts on equipment being-used. Coliform organisms were generally present; when meat samples were tested for this group of bacteria and for E. coli, it was found that 96% of the samples were positive for both.

  17. Testing for bacterial resistance to arsenic in monitoring well water by the direct viable counting method.

    OpenAIRE

    Zelibor, J L; Doughten, M W; Grimes, D. J.; Colwell, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    Direct viable counting of metal-resistant bacteria (DVCMR) has been found to be useful in both enumerating and differentiating metal-resistant and metal-sensitive strains of bacteria. The DVCMR bioassay was used to detect effects of low and high concentrations of arsenic and arsenicals on bacterial populations in groundwater. The level of resistance of the bacterial populations to arsenate was determined by the DVCMR bioassay, and the results showed a linear correlation with the total arsenic...

  18. Commercial bacterial colony counter for semiautomatic track counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacterial colony counters have not been widely used for track counting. However, they do provide an economical alternative to sophisticated optical analyzers for applications that require reproducible track density measurements for large numbers of samples. Simple measurements of size characteristics can be made when there is little need for high resolutions. Such systems are particularly well suited for neutron and alpha dosimetry work, particularly if electrochemical etching or some other track enhancement method has been used. 5 refs., 3 figs

  19. High Count Rates with Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Hassler, Kai; Anhut, Tiemo; Rigler, Rudolf; Gösch, Michael; Lasser, Theo

    2004-01-01

    We achieved photon count rates per molecule as high as with commonly used confocal fluorescence correlation spectroscopy instruments using a new total internal reflection fluorescence correlation spectroscopy system based on an epi-illumination configuration.

  20. Caracterización de sistemas productivos lecheros en el Sur de Chile con distintos sistemas de manejo y su relación con el recuento total bacteriano de la leche producida: un análisis multivariable / Characterisation of milk production systems of Southern Chile under different farm management systems and their relationship with total bacterial count of milk: a multivariate analysis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    BL, Carrillo; C, Pinargote; C, Brito; J, González; VH, Moreira; A, Báez.

    Full Text Available Este estudio determinó y caracterizó tipos de sistemas productivos lecheros para obtención de leche (SP) en el Sur de Chile, asociando las variables de manejo con recuentos bacterianos de las partidas de leche de éstos. Se utilizó información cualitativa referente a diversas variables de manejo para [...] producir leche. Se analizaron 108 productores, mediante análisis de correspondencias múltiples y análisis de conglomerados. Se identificó 4 formas de obtener leche. El grupo SP1 (43% de la muestra) aportó el 87% de la leche a la industria y presentó adecuadas formas de manejo, clasificando todos, el 100% de sus partidas de leche en el mejor rango de calidad (? 20.000 ufc/mL). El SP2 (20% de la muestra) aportó un 10% del total de leche aunque mayoritariamente presentó inadecuadas formas de manejo, y clasificó un 77% de las partidas de leche en el mejor rango de calidad (? 20.000 ufc/mL), esta inconsistencia sugiere la necesidad de analizar en mayor profundidad este grupo. Finalmente, los grupos SP3 y SP4, que en conjunto entregaron sólo un 3% de la leche de la muestra total a la industria pero que representaron un 37% de la muestra, presentaron inadecuadas formas de manejo y se consideraron "grupos problema", predominando en ambos partidas de leche de mala calidad con recuentos > 200.000 ufc/mL en un 76 y 72%, respectivamente, en especial en SP3 con un 61% de las partidas de leche clasificadas en el peor rango establecido (> 800.000 ufc/mL). Consecuentemente se deben realizar acciones correctivas, relacionadas fundamentalmente con la temperatura de almacenamiento de la leche y con el correcto lavado de equipos, estanques y utensilios en SP3 y SP4. Abstract in english In this study, different types of dairy management systems for milk production (SP) in Southern Chile were determined and characterised, relating management variables to bacterial count in raw milk. Qualitative information on several management variables was utilised for evaluation. A survey was con [...] ducted on 108 dairy farmers and the management systems were evaluated using both multiple correspondence and conglomerate analysis. Four milk production systems were identified. The SP1 group (43% of the surveyed farmers) that delivered 87% of the industry milk had an adequate production management, with 100% of the produced milk being classified as best quality (? 20.000 cfu/mL). The SP2 group (20% of surveyed farmers) that produced 10% of the total milk delivered, mainly showed inadequate ways of milk production, however, 77% of the milk was classified as best quality. The uneven results suggest that further in-depth analysis of the group is required. Finally, the SP3 and SP4 groups that produced only 3% of the milk delivered but represented 37% of the surveyed farmers, had inadequate production management and were classified as "problem groups" with low milk quality with bacterial counts > 200.000 cfu/mL for 76% and 72% of the produced milk, respectively; specially the SP3 group with 61% of the milk in the worst quality category (> 800.000 cfu/mL). Therefore, corrective actions, mainly related to milk storage temperature and milking equipment cleaning, are required for the SP3 and SP4 groups.

  1. Influence of somatic cell count and total bacterial counts of raw milk in cheese yield using small-scale methodology / Influência da contagem de células somáticas e da contagem bacteriana total do leite cru no rendimento da produção de queijos, utilizando metodologia em escala reduzida

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N.M.A., Silva; L.P.F., Bastos; D.L.S., Oliveira; M.C.P.P., Oliveira; L.M., Fonseca.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar a influência da CCS e CBT do leite cru no rendimento de queijos, utilizando método em escala reduzida, e avaliar a predição teórica do rendimento de queijos. Foram utilizadas 270 amostras de leite cru com três níveis de CCS (abaixo de 200.000; 200.000-750. [...] 000; acima de 750.000 CS/mL) e três níveis de CBT (abaixo de 100.000; 100.000-750.000; acima de 750.000 UFC/mL). As amostras de leite cru foram submetidas a análises de composição (gordura, proteína, lactose, EST e ESD), CCS, CBT, crioscopia e pH. A produção dos queijos em escala reduzida foi feita segundo o método desenvolvido na Universidade de Cornell, EUA (Melilli et al., 2002). As amostras de soro de queijo foram submetidas a análises de composição (gordura, proteína total, proteína verdadeira, lactose, EST e ESD) e CCS. O aumento da CCS no leite cru refletiu na maior perda de proteína no soro. CCS elevada (acima de 200.000 CS/mL) foi correlacionada ao menor rendimento de massa seca. Foi encontrada uma correlação alta entre os valores teóricos de rendimento e os valores de rendimento preditos pela metodologia em escala reduzida, indicando que esta metodologia pode ser utilizada para a predição do rendimento de queijos. Abstract in english The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of SCC and TBC of raw milk in cheese yield, using a reduced scale method, and to evaluate theoretical prediction of cheese yield. 270 samples of raw milk were split into three SCC levels (below 200,000; 200,000-750,000; above 750,000 SC/mL) [...] and three TBC levels (below 100,000; 100,000-750,000; above 750,000 CFU/mL). Raw milk samples were submitted to compositional analysis (fat, protein, lactose, total solids and SNF content), SCC, TBC, freezing point and pH. The production of the small-scale cheese was conducted according to the method developed at Cornell University (Melilli et al., 2002). Cheese whey samples were submitted to compositional analysis (fat, total protein, true protein, lactose, total solids and SNF content) and SCC. The increase in the SCC of raw milk resulted in increased protein loss in cheese whey. High SCC (above 200,000 SC/mL) in milk samples was correlated to reduced dry matter yield. There was no effect of TBC in cheese yield in the experimental conditions used. There was a high correlation between the theoretical yield values and the yield values predicted by the small-scale method, indicating that this method is appropriate for cheese yield prediction.

  2. Rapid radiorespirometric method for the estimation of bacterial counts of cellulomonas cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of bacterial counts in cultures of Cellulomonas species C-72-4 by a radiorespirometric technique was twenty times faster than the conventional method. A linear correlation was found between the bacterial counts and the 14CO2 metabolized from labelled glucose added to the cellulose medium. (orig.)

  3. Total leucocyte count, C-reactive protein and neutrophil count: Diagnostic Aid in acute appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafi Sheikh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Acute appendicitis is one of the most common acute intraabdominal affections seen in surgical departments, which can be treated easily if an accurate diagnosis is made in time. Otherwise, delay in diagnosis and treatment can lead to diffuse peritonitis. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted on 110 patients who were operated for acute appendicitis to determine the role and predictive value of the total leucocyte count (TLC, C-reactive protein (CRP and percentage of neutrophil count in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Preoperative TLC, CRP and percentage of neutrophil count were determined and were compared with the results of the histopathology of the removed appendix. Results: Of all the patients studied, 92 had histopathologically positive appendicitis. The TLC was found to be significantly high in 90 patients who proved to have acute appendicitis, whereas CRP was high in only 88 patients and neutrophil percentage was raised in 91; four had a normal CRP level. Thus, TLC had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 97.82%, 55.55% and 91.8%, respectively. CRP had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 95.6%, 77.77% and 95.6% respectively. Percentage of neutrophil count had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 98.9%, 38.88% and 89.21%, respectively. When used in combination, there was a marked improvement in the specificity and the positive predictive value to 88.04% and 98.7%, respectively. Conclusion: The inflammatory markers, i.e., TLC, CRP and neutrophil count can be helpful in the diagnosis when measured together as this increases their specificity and positive predictive value.

  4. Low-Cost, High-Throughput, Automated Counting of Bacterial Colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Matthew L.; Burton, Robert L.; Hill, A. Nayo; Litorja, Maritoni; Nahm, Moon H.; Hwang, Jeeseong

    2010-01-01

    Research involving bacterial pathogens often requires enumeration of bacteria colonies. Here we present a low-cost, high-throughput colony counting system consisting of colony counting software and a consumer-grade digital camera or document scanner. We demonstrate that this software, called “NICE” (NIST's Integrated Colony Enumerator), can count bacterial colonies as part of a high-throughput multiplexed opsonophagocytic killing assay (MOPA) used to characterize pneumococcal vaccine efficacy...

  5. Total lymphocyte count as a substitute to cd4 count in management of hiv infected individuals in resource limited society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan is a resource limited society and gold standard parameters to monitor HIV disease activity are very costly. The objective of the study was to evaluate total lymphocyte count (TLC) as a surrogate to CD4 count to monitor disease activity in HIV/AIDS in resource limited society. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out at HIV/AIDS treatment centre, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad. A total of seven hundred and seventy four (774) HIV positive patients were enrolled in this study, and their CD4 count and total lymphocyte count were checked to find any correlation between the two by using Spearman ranked correlation coefficient. Results: The mean CD4 count was (434.30 ± 269.23), with minimum CD4 count of (9.00), and maximum of (1974.00). The mean total lymphocyte count (TLC) was (6764.0052 ± 2364.02) with minimum TLC (1200.00) and maximum TLC was (20200.00). Using the Pearson's correlation (r) there was a significant and positive correlation between TLC and CD4 count. (r2=0.127 and p=0.000) at 0.01 level. Conclusion: Our study showed a significant positive correlation between CD4 count and total lymphocyte count (TLC), so TLC can be used as a marker of disease activity in HIV infected patients. (author)

  6. Effect of cleaning procedure and hygienic condition of milking equipment on bacterial count of bulk tank milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bava, Luciana; Zucali, Maddalena; Sandrucci, Anna; Brasca, Milena; Vanoni, Laura; Zanini, Lucio; Tamburini, Alberto

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics of cleaning procedures for milking equipment applied in intensive dairy farms in Lombardy (Italy) and to study their relationships with bacterial count of bulk milk and hygienic condition of milking machine components. A group of 22 dairy farms was visited twice (winter and summer) in order to collect bulk tank milk and post-rinse water samples and swabs from liners and milk receiver. Samples were analysed to determine: standard plate count (SPC), laboratory pasteurization count (LPC), psychrotrophic bacteria count (PBC), coliform count (CC) and Escherichia coli. Cleaning procedures were monitored using electronic milk flow meters with specific software for the measurement of the duration of each cleaning phase, circulating solution temperature and electrical conductivity, turbulence and water filling percentage of pipelines. The results showed that farms classified as high and low milk total bacteria count significantly differed both in terms of liners and receiver bacterial contamination and in terms of water temperature reached during the detergent phase of cleaning milking equipment. Significant positive correlations were found among total bacteria count in milk and bacterial contamination of the liners. Maximum water temperature reached during the cleaning cycle of milking equipment was very low (34.4±8.9°C on average); most of the observations (88.6%) corresponded to water temperatures milk and post-rinse water and coliform count in liners. Routine check and regulation of water temperature during the washing phase of the milking machine can be a simple and effective way to control one of the main risk factors for bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk. PMID:21371358

  7. The Effects of Total Colectomy on Bacterial Translocation in a Model of Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ?enocak, Rahman; Yigit, Taner; K?lba?, Zafer; Co?kun, Ali Ka?an; Harlak, Ali; Mente?, Mustafa Öner; K?l?ç, Abdullah; Günal, Arma?an; Kozak, Orhan

    2015-12-01

    Prevention of secondary infection is currently the main goal of treatment for acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Colon was considered as the main origin of secondary infection. Our aim was to investigate whether prophylactic total colectomy would reduce the rate of bacterial translocation and infection of pancreatic necrosis. Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Pancreatitis was created by ductal infusion of sodium taurocholate. Rats were divided into four groups: group-1, laparotomy?+?pancreatic ductal infusion of saline; group-2, laparotomy?+?pancreatic ductal infusion of sodium taurocholate; group-3, total colectomy?+?pancreatic ductal infusion of saline; and group-4, total colectomy?+?pancreatic ductal infusion of sodium taurocholate. Forty-eight hours later, tissue and blood samples were collected for microbiological and histopathological analysis. Total colectomy caused small bowel bacterial overgrowth with gram-negative and gram-positive microorganisms. Bacterial count of gram-negative rods in the small intestine and pancreatic tissue in rats with colectomy and acute pancreatitis were significantly higher than in rats with acute pancreatitis only (group-2 versus group-4; small bowel, p?=?bowel bacterial overgrowth and pancreatic infection (r?=?0,836, p?=?0.001). In acute pancreatitis, prophylactic total colectomy (which can mimic colonic cleansing and reduction of colonic flora) induces small bowel bacterial overgrowth, which is associated with increased bacterial translocation to the pancreas. PMID:26730036

  8. Real-time bacterial microcolony counting using on-chip microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Hee; Lee, Jung Eun

    2016-01-01

    Observing microbial colonies is the standard method for determining the microbe titer and investigating the behaviors of microbes. Here, we report an automated, real-time bacterial microcolony-counting system implemented on a wide field-of-view (FOV), on-chip microscopy platform, termed ePetri. Using sub-pixel sweeping microscopy (SPSM) with a super-resolution algorithm, this system offers the ability to dynamically track individual bacterial microcolonies over a wide FOV of 5.7 mm × 4.3 mm without requiring a moving stage or lens. As a demonstration, we obtained high-resolution time-series images of S. epidermidis at 20-min intervals. We implemented an image-processing algorithm to analyze the spatiotemporal distribution of microcolonies, the development of which could be observed from a single bacterial cell. Test bacterial colonies with a minimum diameter of 20 μm could be enumerated within 6 h. We showed that our approach not only provides results that are comparable to conventional colony-counting assays but also can be used to monitor the dynamics of colony formation and growth. This microcolony-counting system using on-chip microscopy represents a new platform that substantially reduces the detection time for bacterial colony counting. It uses chip-scale image acquisition and is a simple and compact solution for the automation of colony-counting assays and microbe behavior analysis with applications in antibacterial drug discovery. PMID:26902822

  9. Real-time bacterial microcolony counting using on-chip microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Hee; Lee, Jung Eun

    2016-02-01

    Observing microbial colonies is the standard method for determining the microbe titer and investigating the behaviors of microbes. Here, we report an automated, real-time bacterial microcolony-counting system implemented on a wide field-of-view (FOV), on-chip microscopy platform, termed ePetri. Using sub-pixel sweeping microscopy (SPSM) with a super-resolution algorithm, this system offers the ability to dynamically track individual bacterial microcolonies over a wide FOV of 5.7 mm × 4.3 mm without requiring a moving stage or lens. As a demonstration, we obtained high-resolution time-series images of S. epidermidis at 20-min intervals. We implemented an image-processing algorithm to analyze the spatiotemporal distribution of microcolonies, the development of which could be observed from a single bacterial cell. Test bacterial colonies with a minimum diameter of 20 μm could be enumerated within 6 h. We showed that our approach not only provides results that are comparable to conventional colony-counting assays but also can be used to monitor the dynamics of colony formation and growth. This microcolony-counting system using on-chip microscopy represents a new platform that substantially reduces the detection time for bacterial colony counting. It uses chip-scale image acquisition and is a simple and compact solution for the automation of colony-counting assays and microbe behavior analysis with applications in antibacterial drug discovery.

  10. Relationship between total bacteria counts and somatic cell counts from mammary quarters infected by mastitis pathogens Relação entre contagem total de bactérias e contagem de células somáticas de quartos mamários infectados por patógenos da mastite

    OpenAIRE

    João Emídio Ferreira Lopes Júnior; Carla Cristine Lange; Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva Brito; Fabiana Ribeiro Santos; Marco Aurélio Souto Silva; Luciano Castro Dutra de Moraes; Guilherme Nunes de Souza

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to establish the relationship between somatic cell count (SCC) and bacterial shedding from mammary quarters according to mastitis pathogens. Milk samples from 638 mammary quarters were examined for mastitis pathogens, SCC and total bacterial count (TBC). The raw data of SCC and TBC were used to perform descriptive statistics. The significance of the arithmetic mean differences between SCC and TBC according to bacteriological examination results was determined by a two...

  11. Bacterial counts from hospital doctors' ties are higher than those from shirts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Pedro-Jose; Ron, Ori; Parthasarathy, Prabha; Soothill, James; Spitz, Lewis

    2009-02-01

    Doctor ties are often contaminated with bacteria, and it has been suggested that they should not be worn. We have compared bacterial counts from the ties and shirt pockets of 50 doctors. Counts were higher (P = .002) from ties that were rarely, if ever, cleaned than from shirts that were washed every 2 days or more frequently. The results support the need for further research on unwashable clothing of hospital staff. PMID:19171249

  12. Bacterial and yeast counts in Brazilian commodities and spices

    OpenAIRE

    Freire Francisco das Chagas Oliveira; Offord Lisa

    2002-01-01

    A total of thirteen genera of bacteria and two genera of yeasts were detected in surface sterilized and unsterilized Brazilian commodities and spices such as cashew kernels, Brazil nut kernels, black and white pepper. The genus Bacillus with eight species was by far the most common. The yeasts isolated were Pichia sp., P. guillermondii and Rhodotorula sp. Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in cashew and Brazil nut kernels.

  13. Bacterial and yeast counts in Brazilian commodities and spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freire Francisco das Chagas Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of thirteen genera of bacteria and two genera of yeasts were detected in surface sterilized and unsterilized Brazilian commodities and spices such as cashew kernels, Brazil nut kernels, black and white pepper. The genus Bacillus with eight species was by far the most common. The yeasts isolated were Pichia sp., P. guillermondii and Rhodotorula sp. Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in cashew and Brazil nut kernels.

  14. Declining total leucoyte count, an indication of transient abnormal myelopoisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh K Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonates with Down syndrome have an increased predisposition to transient abnormal myelopoisis, a haematological abnormality which is characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of myeloblasts. The unique ability of this disorder to spontaneously enter in to a state of remission led to the creation of a new class in 2008 World Health Organization (W.H.O. classification of haemopoitic and lymphoid tumours. It has now been classified as transient abnormal myelopoisis (TAM. The cause of remission is still not clear although it is possibly linked to the abnormal expression of GATA-1 transcription factor and to a switch from hepatic haematopoesis to medullary haematopoesis. Simple laboratory monitoring by serial complete blood count and peripheral smear can give indication of this rare disorder. As very few cases of this disorder exist we share our experience and report a case of transient myeloproliferative disorder in a male newborn having Down syndrome.

  15. Microbiological assessment of house and imported bottled water by comparison of bacterial endotoxin concentration, heterotrophic plate count, and fecal coliform count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Mayra I; Pérez, Cynthia M; Negrón, Edna L

    2008-03-01

    Consumers increasingly use bottled water and home water treatment systems to avoid direct tap water. According to the International Bottled Water Association (IBWA), an industry trade group, 5 billion gallons of bottled water were consumed by North Americans in 2001. The principal aim of this study was to assess the microbial quality of in-house and imported bottled water for human consumption, by measurement and comparison of the concentration of bacterial endotoxin and standard cultivable methods of indicator microorganisms, specifically, heterotrophic and fecal coliform plate counts. A total of 21 brands of commercial bottled water, consisting of 10 imported and 11 in-house brands, selected at random from 96 brands that are consumed in Puerto Rico, were tested at three different time intervals. The Standard Limulus Amebocyte Lysate test, gel clot method, was used to measure the endotoxin concentrations. The minimum endotoxin concentration in 63 water samples was less than 0.0625 EU/mL, while the maximum was 32 EU/mL. The minimum bacterial count showed no growth, while the maximum was 7,500 CFU/mL. Bacterial isolates like P. fluorescens, Corynebacterium sp. J-K, S. paucimobilis, P. versicularis, A. baumannii, P. chlororaphis, F. indologenes, A. faecalis and P. cepacia were identified. Repeated measures analysis of variance demonstrated that endotoxin concentration did not change over time, while there was a statistically significant (p water samples, endotoxin was present. Measurement of Gram-negative bacterial endotoxins is one of the methods that have been suggested as a rapid way of determining bacteriological water quality. PMID:18450229

  16. Utility of total lymphocyte count as a surrogate marker for CD4 counts in HIV-1 infected children in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wamalwa Dalton C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In resource-limited settings, such as Kenya, access to CD4 testing is limited. Therefore, evaluation of less expensive laboratory diagnostics is urgently needed to diagnose immuno-suppression in children. Objectives To evaluate utility of total lymphocyte count (TLC as surrogate marker for CD4 count in HIV-infected children. Methods This was a hospital based retrospective study conducted in three HIV clinics in Kisumu and Nairobi in Kenya. TLC, CD4 count and CD4 percent data were abstracted from hospital records of 487 antiretroviral-naïve HIV-infected children aged 1 month - 12 years. Results TLC and CD4 count were positively correlated (r = 0.66, p 59 months of age (r = 0.68, p 3, age 12-35 months (CD4 count 3, and age above 59 months (CD4 count 3. WHO recommended TLC threshold values for severe immuno-suppression of 4000, 3000, 2500 and 2000 cells/mm3 for age categories 59 months had low sensitivity of 25%, 23%, 33% and 62% respectively in predicting severe immuno-suppression using CD4 count as gold standard. Raising TLC thresholds to 7000, 6000, 4500 and 3000 cells/mm3 for each of the stated age categories increased sensitivity to 71%, 64%, 56% and 86%, with positive predictive values of 85%, 61%, 37%, 68% respectively but reduced specificity to 73%, 62%, 54% and 68% with negative predictive values of 54%, 65%, 71% and 87% respectively. Conclusion TLC is positively correlated with absolute CD4 count in children but current WHO age-specific thresholds had low sensitivity to identify severely immunosuppressed Kenyan children. Sensitivity and therefore utility of TLC to identify immuno-suppressed children may be improved by raising the TLC cut off levels across the various age categories.

  17. Effect of alginate chemical disinfection on bacterial count over gypsum cast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dowah, Omir S.; Gana, Naif S.; Al-Hytham, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate the efficacy of sodium hypochlorite (1 : 10) and iodophor disinfectants on alginate impressions along with their effect on the survived bacterium count on the gypsum cast. MATERIALS AND METHODS Four alginate impression on each dentate patients were made, of which Group I were not washed or disinfected, Group II impressions were merely washed with water, Group III were disinfected by spraying with sodium hypochlorite (1 : 10), Group IV were disinfected with iodophor (1 : 213). Gypsum cast (type III) were made from all the impression. Impressions and gypsum cast were swabbed in mid palatal region for bacterial culture. Bacterial colony counting done after 3 days of incubation at 37? in blood agar media. The data obtained was analyzed by one way ANOVA test at a significant difference level of 0.05. RESULTS Group I and Group II showed significantly more bacteria compared to Group III and Group IV. Bacterial colonies on the alginate impression and gypsum cast in group disinfected with Sodium hypochlorite (1 : 10) were 0.18, 0.82 respectively compared to group treated with iodophor (1 : 213). There was an increase in bacterial count on dental cast compared to source alginate impressions. CONCLUSION Sodium hypochlorite (1 : 10) was found to be better disinfectant for alginate impression. There was an indication of increase in number of bacteria from alginate impression to making of dental cast. Additional gypsum cast disinfectant procedures need to be encouraged to completely eliminate cross infection to dental laboratory. PMID:22737312

  18. Influence of addition of different antibiotics in semen diluent on viable bacterial count and spermatozoal viability of Awassi ram semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O I Azawi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of six different antibiotics in controlling the growth of semen contaminating bacteria and if these antibiotics have any adverse effect on Awassi ram spermatozoa. Semen samples from six mature Awassi rams were used in this study. A total number of 120 ejaculates were collected from the rams using an artificial vagina once a week. Semen ejaculates were evaluated for volume, sperm concentration, mass motility, individual motility, percentage live sperm, sperm abnormalities, and viable bacterial count. Semen samples were diluted by sodium citrate-fructose-egg yolk. The diluted semen sample was divided into 7 parts. Six types of antibiotics were added to the semen diluent parts including; penicillin G 1000 IU ml-1 with streptomycin 1 mg ml-1, gentamicin sulphate 250 mg ml-1, tetracycline 0.5 mg ml-1, lincomycin 1 mg ml-1, cefoperazone sodium 1mg ml-1, cefdinir 1 mg ml-1 and the seventh part considered as a control group without antibiotic addition. The diluted semen samples were cooled and preserved at 5 Co for 5 days. Cooled diluted semen samples were examined for individual motility, percent of live sperm, sperm abnormalities, acrosomal defects and bacterial count every 24 h until 5 days. Comparing with the control, all the antibiotics examined were effective in controlling bacterial growth (P<0.05 from 24 h to 96 h of preservation at 5 Co. Cefdinir and cefoperazone sodium proved to be significantly (P<0.05 effective than other antibiotics in controlling bacterial growth at 96 h of preservation as the bacterial count were 23.3 ± 3.7 x 103 / ml and 25.4 ± 6.2 x 103 / ml, respectively. Lincomycin, gentamicin sulphate and tetracycline proved ineffective in controlling bacterial growth at 96 h of preservation as the bacterial count were 57.1 ± 20.1 x 103 / ml, 52.5 ± 29.4 x 103 / ml and 46.5 ± 8.8 x 103 / ml, respectively. The addition of tetracycline to diluted ram semen significantly reduced (P<0.05 sperm individual motility and percent live sperm and a significant increase (P<0.05 acrosomal defects was observed at 96 h of preservation in comparison to control and other antibiotics. Sperm viability was highly correlated with bacterial count in the control part of diluted semen (r = 0.794; P < 0.01. It could be concluded from the results of the present study that additions of cephalosporins (cefdinir or Cefoperazone sodium at the dose of 1 mg ml-1 were most effective amongst the antibiotics used in checking the bacterial growth and improving semen quality of Awassi ram. [Vet. World 2012; 5(2.000: 75-79

  19. Determinants, reproducibility, and seasonal variation of bacterial cell wall components and viable counts in house dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, H K; Täubel, M; Roponen, M; Vepsäläinen, A; Rantakokko, P; Pekkanen, J; Nevalainen, A; von Mutius, E; Hyvärinen, A

    2015-06-01

    The objectives of this study were (i) to assess the determinants that affect concentrations of the bacterial cell wall components 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH FAs) and muramic acid and of total viable bacteria and actinomycetes in house dust; and (ii) to examine the seasonal variation and reproducibility of these bacterial cell wall components in house dust. A number of lifestyle and environmental factors, mostly not consistent for different bacterial measures but commonly including the type of dwelling and farming (number of livestock), explained up to 37% of the variation of the bacterial concentrations in 212 homes in Eastern Finland. The reproducibility of 3-OH FAs and muramic acid measurements in house dust were studied in five urban homes and were found to be generally high (ICC 74-84%). Temporal variation observed in repeated sampling of the same home throughout a year was more pronounced for 3-OH FAs determinations (ICC 22%) than for muramic acid (ICC 55-66%). We conclude that determinants vary largely for different types of bacterial measurements in house dust; the measured parameters represent different aspects of the bacterial content indoors. More than one sample is needed to describe bacterial concentrations in house dust in the home environment due to large temporal variation. PMID:24992650

  20. Manageable risk factors associated with bacterial and coliform counts in unpasteurized bulk milk in Flemish dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepers, S; Zrimšek, P; Passchyn, P; De Vliegher, S

    2014-01-01

    Associations between herd management practices and both bacterial counts (BC) and coliform counts (CC) from 254 and 242 dairy herds in Flanders (Belgium), respectively, were studied. Data were analyzed using multivariable, multilevel linear regression analysis, allowing variance components analyses. Both BC and CC fluctuated throughout the year, although the milk quality parameters followed an opposite pattern. Bacterial count values decreased with each increase of the cleaning frequency of the cubicles (once per week, once per day, twice per day, or more than twice per day) between January and March. Herds with a conventional milking parlor had substantially lower BC than herds where the cows were milked using an automatic milking system. Lower BC were observed when the milking parlor was equipped with an automatic cluster removal system, when premilking teat disinfection was applied, when the dry cows were supplemented with a mix of minerals and vitamins, and when the teats were prepared either first wet and dried or via an automatic milking system. Milking cows with a high-pipeline milking parlor setup or with an automatic milking system was associated with substantially higher CC values. Herds where prepartum heifers were often treated with antimicrobials before calving had a lower CC than farms where heifers were either not or only rarely treated. Most variation in BC and CC resided at the herd level rather than at the observation level, indicating that management is important in the control of both BC and CC. Still, only a small proportion of the total variance was explained by factors capturing information related to the milking, herd health, and dry cow management, which suggests that the bacteriological milk quality and, in particular, CC is primarily driven by other factors than the ones included in this study. PMID:24704236

  1. Site-specific mouth rinsing can improve oral odor by altering bacterial counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqumber, Mohammed A.; Arafa, Khaled A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether site-specific mouth rinsing with oral disinfectants can improve oral odor beyond the traditional panoral mouth disinfection with mouth rinses by targeting specifically oral malodor implicated anaerobic bacteria Methods: Twenty healthy fasting subjects volunteered for a blinded prospective, descriptive correlational crossover cross-section clinical trial conducted during the month of Ramadan between July and August 2013 in Albaha province in Saudi Arabia involving the application of Listerine® Cool Mint® mouth rinse by either the traditional panoral rinsing method, or a site-specific disinfection method targeting the subgingival and supragingival plaque and the posterior third of the tongue dorsum, while avoiding the remaining locations within the oral cavity. The viable anaerobic and aerobic bacterial counts, volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) levels, organoleptic assessment of oral odor, and the tongue-coating index were compared at baseline, one, 5, and 9 hours after the treatment. Results: The site-specific disinfection method reduced the VSCs and anaerobic bacterial loads while keeping the aerobic bacterial numbers higher than the traditional panoral rinsing method. Conclusion: Site-specific disinfection can more effectively maintain a healthy oral cavity by predominantly disinfecting the niches of anaerobic bacteria within the oral cavity. PMID:25399224

  2. Development of radiation sterilized dip slides for enumerating lactic acid bacteria and total count in foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    APT agar (APT) used for enumeration of lactic acid bacteria and Plate Count agar (PCA) applied for total count were sterilized by gamma radiation using radiation dose of 10-15 kGy. Radiosterilized PCA and APT modified by adding catalase prior to irradiation, or APT with increased content of yeast extract performed, as well as, the heat sterilized commercial media. Growth performance was evaluated on several strains of microorganisms, as well as, by enumeration of bacteria in food products. Radiosterilization of culture media in final packaging, can be applied to produce dip slide kits containing PCA or APT. (author)

  3. Development of radiation sterilized dip slides for enumerating lactic acid bacteria and total count in foodstuffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, E.; Padova, R.; Kirsch, E.; Weissman, Sh.; Hirshfeld, T.; Shenfeld, A.

    APT agar (APT) used for enumeration of lactic acid bacteria and Plate Count agar (PCA) applied for total count were sterilized by gamma radiation using radiation dose of 10-15 kGy. Radiosterilized PCA and APT modified by adding catalase prior to irradiation, or APT with increased content of yeast extract performed, as well as, the heat sterilized commercial media. Growth performance was evaluated on several strains of microorganisms, as well as, by enumeration of bacteria in food products. Radiosterilization of culture media in final packaging, can be applied to produce dip slide kits containing PCA or APT.

  4. Detection of the total viable counts in chicken based on visible/near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fachao; Long, Yuan; Tang, Xiuying; Zhao, Linlin; Peng, Yankun; Wang, Caiping

    2014-05-01

    The viable counts in chicken have significant effects on food safety. Exceeding standard index can have negative influence to the public. Visible-near infrared spectra have had rapid development in food safety recently. The objective of this study was to detect the total viable counts in chicken breast fillets.36 chicken breast fillets used in the study were stored in a refrigerator at 4°C for 9 days. Each day four samples were taken and Vis/NIR spectra were collected from each sample before detecting their total viable counts by standard method. The original data was processed in four main steps: Savitzky-Golay smoothing method, standard normalized variate (SNV), model calibrating and model validating. Prediction model was established using partial least squares regression (PLSR) method. Several statistical indicators such as root mean squared errors and coefficients were calculated for determination of calibration and validation accuracy respectively. As a result, the Rc, SEC, Rv and SEV, of the best model were obtained to be 0.8854, 0.7455, 0.9070 and 0.6045 respectively, which demonstrate that visible-near infrared spectra is a potential technique to detect the total viable counts(TVC) in chicken and the best wavelengths for the establishment of the calibration model are near 449nm.

  5. Flow cytometry analysis using sysmex UF-1000i classifies uropathogens based on bacterial, leukocyte, and erythrocyte counts in urine specimens among patients with urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsen, Tor; Rydén, Patrik

    2015-02-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the second most common bacterial infection. Urine culture is the gold standard for diagnosis, but new techniques, such as flow cytometry analysis (FCA), have been introduced. The aim of the present study was to evaluate FCA characteristics regarding bacteriuria, leukocyturia, and erythrocyturia in relation to cultured uropathogens in specimens from patients with a suspected UTI. We also wanted to evaluate whether the FCA characteristics can identify uropathogens prior to culture. From a prospective study, 1,587 consecutive urine specimens underwent FCA prior to culture during January and February 2012. Outpatients and inpatients (79.6% and 19.4%, respectively) were included, of whom women represented 67.5%. In total, 620 specimens yielded growth, of which Escherichia coli represented 65%, Enterococcus spp. 8%, Klebsiella spp. 7%, and Staphylococcus spp. 5%. For the uropathogens, the outcome of FCA was compared against the results for specimens with E. coli and those with a negative culture. E. coli had high bacterial (median, 17,914/?l), leukocyte (median, 348/?l), and erythrocyte (median, 23/?l) counts. With the exception of Klebsiella spp., the majority of the uropathogens had considerable or significantly lower bacterial counts than that of E. coli. High leukocyte counts were found in specimens with Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and group C streptococci. Elevated erythrocyte counts were found for P. vulgaris, P. aeruginosa, and group C streptococci, as well as for Staphylococcus saprophyticus. In essence, FCA adds new information about the bacterial, leukocyte, and erythrocyte counts in urine specimens for different uropathogens. Based on FCA characteristics, uropathogens can be classified and identified prior to culture. E. coli and Klebsiella spp. have similar FCA characteristics. PMID:25472486

  6. A CORRELATION STUDY OF TOTAL SALIVARY COUNTS AND VIRULENT MARKERS OF STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS WITH CARIES EXPERIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Gandhimathi C; . Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate an impending relationship between salivary Streptococcus mutans count, sucrose dependent glass adherence, and water insoluble glucan synthesis of isolated strains of Streptococcus mutans with caries experience among young adults between the age group of 20 to 23 years which may enable future planning of caries prevention in adults. A total of 70 dental students undergoing compulsory rotary internship were selected for the study based on...

  7. White blood cell count, absolute neutrophil count, as predictors of hidden bacterial infections in febrile children 1-18 months of age without focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To study the relationship between White Blood Cell (WBC), Absolute Neutrophil Count (ANC) in febrile children 1-18 months of age as predictor of bacterial infection, so as to improve our predictability of bacterial infections in emergency room to decrease unnecessary admissions and antibiotic use. Methods: Retrospective review was performed on febrile patients 1-18 months of age that were admitted to hospital between August 2002 and March 2003 on the presumptive diagnosis of fever without focus, Complete septic work up was done for all patients according to local hospital protocol including Complete blood count (CBC), blood culture, urine culture, Chest X-Ray (CXR) and lumbar puncture, Patients who had history of antibiotics use within 48 hours of admission were excluded from the study, History, physical examination, laboratory and radiology data were reviewed. Data about the age, sex, temperature, presence or absence of focal bacterial infection, WBC, ANC, CXR report and body fluid culture results were collected and analyzed. Results: Thirty-four patients were reviewed in this study, Eight patients (23.5%) had bacterial infection: classified as group (2 patchy pneumonia, 3 Urinary tract infection (UTI), 2 meningitis, 1 Occult bacteremia (OB) and 26 patients (76.5%) had no evidence of bacterial infection, classified as group 2, No significant difference was found between the two groups in respect to age, sex, temperature and WBC P>0.05, while there was a significant difference between the two groups in respect to the ANC P = 0.02, also ANC had better sensitivity (78%) and specificity (89%) than WBC (sensitivity 77%, specificity 62%). Conclusion: ANC is a good predictive test for determining bacterial infection in young febrile children without focus, However there is need for other more reliable rapid cost effective measures in dealing with young febrile children at emergency department. (author)

  8. Lessons from the organization of a proficiency testing program in food microbiology by interlaboratory comparison: analytical methods in use, impact of methods on bacterial counts and measurement uncertainty of bacterial counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Jean-Christophe; Carlier, Vincent

    2006-02-01

    The proficiency testing program in food microbiology RAEMA (Réseau d'Analyses et d'Echanges en Microbiologie des Aliments), created in 1988, currently includes 450 participating laboratories. This interlaboratory comparison establishes proficiency in detection of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes, as well as enumeration of aerobic micro-organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, beta-glucuronidase-positive Escherichia coli, anaerobic sulfito-reducing bacteria, Clostridium perfringens, coagulase-positive staphylococci, and L. monocytogenes. Twice a year, five units samples are sent to participants to assess their precision and trueness for enumeration and detection of micro-organisms. Most of participating laboratories use standard or validated alternative methods, they were 50-70% in 1994 and, for 5 years, they are 95%. An increasing use of alternative methods was also observed. This phenomenon is all the more significant as standard methods are laborious and time consuming; thus, 50% of the laboratories use alternative methods for the detection of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes. More and more laboratories use ready-to-use media and although the percentage is variable according to the microflora, we can consider that, today, 50-60% of the laboratories participating to the proficiency program only use ready-to-use media. The internal quality assurance programs lead also to an increasing use of media quality controls. The impact of analytical methods on bacterial counts was assessed by grouping together the results obtained by participating laboratories during the 10 last testing schemes from 1999 to 2003. The identified significant factors influencing enumeration results are variable from one microflora to another. Some of them significantly influence many microflora: the plating method (spiral plating or not) is influential for aerobic micro-organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, and staphylococci, the type of culture medium and the medium manufacturer is influential for aerobic micro-organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, E. coli, anaerobic sulfito-reducing bacteria, staphylococci, and L. monocytogenes. Others are specific of some micro-organisms: the resuscitation broth for L. monocytogenes, the mode of medium preparation for staphylococci and the incubation temperature for C. perfringens. These effects lead generally to small differences of about 0.1 log10 cfu g(-1), except for the enumeration of anaerobic sulfito-reducing bacteria, where the difference reaches 0.7 log10 cfu g(-1). These results, although difficult to extrapolate to all actual situations, which associate numerous food constituents and physiological states of bacteria to detect or numerate, allow nevertheless the quantification of interlaboratory variations linked to the methods in use. The analysis of bacterial counts obtained by the laboratories participating to the RAEMA proficiency testing program allowed also to validate a formula to calculate the repeatability of bacterial counts and to estimate the between-laboratory uncertainties for the majority of micro-organisms enumerated in food microbiology. The repeatability uncertainty is only indirectly affected by the method in use but depends essentially on the number of counted colonies. On the other hand, the between-laboratory uncertainty varies with the enumeration method in use, this variability is relatively small for the enumerations calling for methods without colony confirmation, i.e. for the enumeration of aerobic micro-organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, 'total' and thermotolerant coliforms, beta-glucuronidase-positive E. coli and coagulase-positive staphylococci with the technique using the rabbit-plasma fibrinogen agar. For these methods, the average between-laboratory standard deviation is 0.17 log10 cfu g(-1). The between-laboratory uncertainty is, on the contrary, larger for more complex techniques. For the enumeration of coagulase-positive staphylococci with the Baird-Parker agar, the between-laboratory standard deviation is equal to 0.23 log10 cfu g(-1), it is equal to 0.28 lo

  9. The association between total leukocyte count and longevity: Evidence from longitudinal and cross-sectional data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Piotr Pawe?; Borys?awski, Krzysztof; Chmielowiec, Krzysztof; Chmielowiec, Jolanta; Strzelec, Bart?omiej

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between age-dependent changes in total leukocyte count (TLC) and certain selected differential counts expressed as frequencies (granulocytes, band cells, eosinophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes) and longevity in physically healthy men and women aged 45+. Longitudinal data on cell counts from 142 subjects (68 men and 74 women; all aged 45-70 and examined for 25 years) were compared with cross-sectional data from 225 subjects (113 men and 112 women; this group was divided into four categories of average lifespan; i.e.: 53, 63, 68, and 76+ years of age). ANOVA, t-test, and regression analysis were employed. Secular changes in leukocyte count were controlled. Men had continuously higher TLC compared with women. Moreover, sex differences in patterns of changes with age were found. The longitudinal assessment revealed a U-shaped pattern of changes in TLC in men (y=0.0026x(2)-0.2866x+14.4374; R(2)=0.852) and women (y=0.0048x(2)-0.5386x+20.922; R(2)=0.938), whereas the cross-sectional comparison showed an inverted U-shaped pattern in men (y=-0.0021x(2)+0.2421x; R(2)=0.417) and women (y=-0.0017x(2)+0.2061x; R(2)=0.888). In general, the comparison of longitudinal and cross-sectional data on changes with age in TLC indicates that longevity favors individuals with lower yet normal TLC and this correlation is more pronounced in men. In conclusion, our findings are in line with previous longitudinal studies of aging and suggest that lower TLC within the normal range (4.0-10.0×10(3)?L(-1)) can be a useful predictor of longevity in physically healthy individuals. PMID:26434754

  10. Assay for estimating total bacterial load: relative qPCR normalisation of bacterial load with associated clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brukner, Ivan; Longtin, Yves; Oughton, Matthew; Forgetta, Vincenzo; Dascal, Andre

    2015-09-01

    Relative microorganism abundance is a parameter describing biodiversity, referring to how common a bacterial species is within the total bacterial flora. Anal, rectal, skin, mucal, and respiratory swabs are typical clinical samples where knowledge of relative bacterial abundance might make distinction between asymptomatic carriers and symptomatic cases. Assays trying to measure total bacterial load are usually based on the amplification of universal segments of 16S rRNA genes. Previous assays were not adoptable to "direct" PCR protocols, and/or they were not compatible with hydrolysis-based detection. Using the latest summary of universal 16S sequence motifs present in literature and testing our design with 500 liquid and 50 formed stool samples, we illustrate the performance characteristics of a new 16S quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay, which addresses well-known technical problems, including a) positive priming reaction in the absence of intended target due to self-priming and/or mispriming of unintended targets; b) amplification bias due to nonoptimal primer/probe coverage; and c) too large amplicons for clinical qPCR. Stool swabs ranked into bins of different bacterial loads show significant correlation with threshold cycle values of our new assay. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of qPCR assay measuring individual differences of total bacterial load present in human stool. PMID:26008123

  11. Point-of-care method for total white cell count: an evaluation of the HemoCue WBC device

    OpenAIRE

    OSEI-BIMPONG, A; Jury, C; McLean, R.; Lewis, S M

    2009-01-01

    Point-of-care testing (POCT) is becoming an important adjunct to haematology laboratory practice. An important component of the blood count is the total white cell count (WBC). Previously, this required laborious microscopic cell counting, but it can now be performed by means of automation; however, in many under-resourced countries, costly automated counters are only available in very few central hospitals. Moreover, neither method is practical in most POCT situations. The HemoCue WBC has be...

  12. Persistence patterns of bacterial outcomes and somatic cell counts in Dutch cow’s milk related to Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Fokker, M.

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis in dairy is a big problem in animal welfare as it is in economic perspective. Staphtylococcus aureus is a major pathogen causing mastitis in cattle. Milk of 130 multiparous cows was sampled three times: at dry off, within 24 hours post partum and between 7 and 21 days in lactation. Bacterial investigation and somatic cell count was done on these samples. There is no relation between somatic cell count at dry off and at 7-21 days of lactation. In lactation a positive relation was visi...

  13. Determination of total viable count (TVC) in chicken breast fillets by near-infrared hyperspectral imaging and spectroscopic transforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yao-Ze; Sun, Da-Wen

    2013-02-15

    Near infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging (HSI) and different spectroscopic transforms were investigated for their potential in detecting total viable counts in raw chicken fillets. A laboratory-based pushbroom hyperspectral imaging system was utilized to acquire images of raw chicken breast fillets and the resulting reflectance images were corrected and transformed into hypercubes in absorbance and Kubelka-Munck (K-M) units. Full wavelength partial least regression models were established to correlate the three spectral profiles with measured bacterial counts, and the best calibration model was based on absorbance spectra, where the correlation coefficients (R) were 0.97 and 0.93, and the root mean squared errors (RMSEs) were 0.37 and 0.57 log10 colony forming units (CFU) per gram for calibration and cross validation, respectively. To simplify the models, several wavelengths were selected by stepwise regression. More robustness was found in the resulting simplified models and the model based on K-M spectra was found to be excellent with an indicative high ratio of performance to deviation (RPD) value of 3.02. The correlation coefficients and RMSEs for this model were 0.96 and 0.40 log10 CFU per gram as well as 0.94 and 0.50 log10 CFU per gram for calibration and cross validation, respectively. Visualization maps produced by applying the developed models to the images could be an alternative to test the adaptability of a calibration model. Moreover, multi-spectral imaging systems were suggested to be developed for online applications. PMID:23598014

  14. Anomalies from aerial spectrometric and total count radiometric surveys in the southeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerial radiometric reconnaissance surveys are conducted because of their cost, time, and manpower savings compared to surface studies. Two types of aerial surveys are being flown in the southeastern United States: total count gamma-ray surveys for the Coastal Plains Regional Commission and the US Geological Survey, and differential gamma-ray spectrometric surveys for the US Department of Energy. Anomalous radioactivity detected during aerial surveys is related to higher concentrations of naturally occurring uranium, or to cultural activities, natural causes, or mapping errors which simulate real uranium anomalies. Each anomaly should be ground checked; however, several types of anomalies may be eliminated by evaluation of the aerial data in the office if field time is limited

  15. Binomial distribution of Poisson statistics and tracks overlapping probability to estimate total tracks count with low uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the solid state nuclear track detectors of chemically etched type, nuclear tracks with center-to-center neighborhood of distance shorter than two times the radius of tracks will emerge as overlapping tracks. Track overlapping in this type of detectors causes tracks count losses and it becomes rather severe in high track densities. Therefore, tracks counting in this condition should include a correction factor for count losses of different tracks overlapping orders since a number of overlapping tracks may be counted as one track. Another aspect of the problem is the cases where imaging the whole area of the detector and counting all tracks are not possible. In these conditions a statistical generalization method is desired to be applicable in counting a segmented area of the detector and the results can be generalized to the whole surface of the detector. Also there is a challenge in counting the tracks in densely overlapped tracks because not sufficient geometrical or contextual information are available. It this paper we present a statistical counting method which gives the user a relation between the tracks overlapping probabilities on a segmented area of the detector surface and the total number of tracks. To apply the proposed method one can estimate the total number of tracks on a solid state detector of arbitrary shape and dimensions by approximating the tracks averaged area, whole detector surface area and some orders of tracks overlapping probabilities. It will be shown that this method is applicable in high and ultra high density tracks images and the count loss error can be enervated using a statistical generalization approach. - Highlights: • A correction factor for count losses of different tracks overlapping orders. • For the cases imaging the whole area of the detector is not possible. • Presenting a statistical generalization method for segmented areas. • Giving a relation between the tracks overlapping probabilities and the total tracks

  16. Relationship between total bacteria counts and somatic cell counts from mammary quarters infected by mastitis pathogens / Relação entre contagem total de bactérias e contagem de células somáticas de quartos mamários infectados por patógenos da mastite

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    João Emídio Ferreira, Lopes Júnior; Carla Cristine, Lange; Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva, Brito; Fabiana Ribeiro, Santos; Marco Aurélio Souto, Silva; Luciano Castro Dutra de, Moraes; Guilherme Nunes de, Souza.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com objetivo de estabelecer a relação entre contagem de células somáticas (CCS) e a liberação de bactérias de quartos mamários de acordo com os patógenos da mastite. Amostras de leite de 638 quartos mamários foram examinadas para identificação dos patógenos da mastite, CCS [...] e contagem total de bactérias (CTB). Estatísticas descritivas foram utilizadas para avaliar os dados brutos de CCS e CTB. A diferença entre médias para CCS e CTB de acordo com os resultados dos exames bacteriológicos foi avaliada pelo teste T para amostras independentes. Foram realizadas a correlação de Pearson, de Spearman e regressão linear com os dados transformados. As médias geométricas de acordo com os resultados dos exames bacteriológicos foram (células mL-1; UFC mL-1): sem crescimento (52.000; 12.000), estafilococos coagulase negativo (85.000; 17.000), Staphylococcus aureus (587.000; 77000); outros estreptococus (432.000; 108.000) e Streptococcus agalactiae (1.572.000; 333.000). A correlação de Pearson e Spearman entre CCS e CTB foi maior que 0,60 para todos os patógenos da mastite. O coeficiente angular das regressões lineares mostrou diferentes aumentos da CTB como o mesmo aumento da CCS de acordo com os patógenos da mastite. O coeficiente angular para o S. agalactiae (0.542) foi maior em relação aos outros patógenos da mastite. Os resultados sugerem que a intensidade do processo inflamatório foi associada com a quantidade de bactérias da mastite liberada pela glândula mamária. Abstract in english This study was conducted to establish the relationship between somatic cell count (SCC) and bacterial shedding from mammary quarters according to mastitis pathogens. Milk samples from 638 mammary quarters were examined for mastitis pathogens, SCC and total bacterial count (TBC). The raw data of SCC [...] and TBC were used to perform descriptive statistics. The significance of the arithmetic mean differences between SCC and TBC according to bacteriological examination results was determined by a two-tailed unpaired t-test. Pearson and Spearman´s correlations were done with logarithmic data and linear regression analyses. The geometric means of the bacteriological examination results were (cells mL-1; CFU mL-1): no growth (52,000; 12,000), coagulase-negative staphylococci (85,000; 17,000), Staphylococcus aureus (587,000; 77,000); other streptococci (432,000; 108,000) and Streptococcus agalactiae (1,572,000; 333,000). The Pearson and Spearman's correlations between SCC and TBC were higher than 0.60 for all mastitis pathogens. The regression analyses slopes showed different increase in TBC with the same increase in SCC according to mastitis pathogens. The slope for S. agalactiae (0.542) was higher than that for other mastitis pathogens. The results suggest that the intensity of inflammatory process was associated with number of mastitis pathogens shedding from the mammary gland.

  17. Evaluation of a Novel Dry Sheet Culture Method for Rapid Enumeration of Total Aerobic Count in Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramura, Hajime; Iwasaki, Mihoko; Ushiyama, Masashi; Ogihara, Hirokazu

    2015-10-01

    A novel dry sheet culture method (Sanita-kun ACplus; SkACp) for rapid enumeration of total viable count has been developed. This rehydrated plate system comprises an adhesive sheet, nonwoven fabric coated with nutrients, and two types of water absorption polymers. In addition, SkACp facilitates methods for both rapid count (rapid mode: 24-h incubation) and accurate enumeration (standard mode: 48-h incubation) because it not only contains conventional 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride but also contains two kinds of new tetrazolium salts for rapid and accurate enumeration of total aerobic count. When SkACp was assessed with 91 microorganisms, 87 strains (95.6%), excluding lactic acid and psychrotrophic bacteria, formed red-colored colonies within 24 h, whereas all microorganisms tested formed colonies within 48 h. The SkACp method, with both 24 and 48 h of incubation, was compared with plate count agar (PCA) and 3M Petrifilm AC (PAC) by using 107 naturally contaminated foods. For all foods tested (n = 107), the linear correlation coefficients of 48-h counts on SkACp compared with PCA and PAC were 0.98 and 0.75, respectively, while the 24-h counts on SkACp compared with PCA and PAC were 0.77 and 0.96, respectively. For foods tested, excluding yogurt and lactic beverages ( n = 101), the linear correlation coefficients of 48-h counts on SkACp compared with PCA and PAC were 0.98 and 0.96, respectively, while the 24-h counts on SkACp compared with PCA and PAC were 0.96 and 0.95, respectively. These results demonstrated that SkACp (48 h) is a useful alternative for the enumeration of the total aerobic count for all foods, whereas SkACp (24 h) was also an effective method for rapid enumeration in foods, excluding yogurt and lactic beverages. PMID:26408139

  18. Total and Differential Leukocyte Counts in Relation to Incidence of Diabetes Mellitus: A Prospective Population-Based Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Borné, Yan; Smith, J. Gustav; Nilsson, Peter M; Melander, Olle; Hedblad, Bo; Engström, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Objective High concentrations of leukocytes in blood have been associated with diabetes mellitus. This prospective study aimed to explore whether total and differential leukocyte counts are associated with incidence of diabetes. A missense variant R262W in the SH2B3 (SH2B adaptor protein 3) gene, coding for a protein that negatively regulates hematopoietic cell proliferation, was also studied in relation to incidence of diabetes. Methods and Results Leukocyte count and its subtypes (neutrophi...

  19. Total Counting and Spectroscopy in the Assessment of Alpha Radioactivity in Human Tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A seven-year programme of measurements of alpha radioactivity is briefly reviewed. The programme which was based initially on a sensitive and simple counting technique, using thin zinc cadmium sulphide screens, now employs in addition techniques of alpha spectroscopy developed for work with very large area low-specific-activity sources. These techniques are capable of measuring specific activities down to 10-13 c/g and can in certain cases provide energy resolution of the order of 40 keV together with independent identification based on half-life measurements. Two alpha spectrometers are described which have been used on a wide variety of human and environmental materials. Particular attention has been given to the study of Po210, now known to be present in a variety of foods and human tissues. Techniques are also described for the study of Pu239 in the atmosphere and examples given of .the results of measurements of low-level air contamination with this material. Techniques for the measurement of Pu239 in normal human tissues are described and some results given. Consideration is given to the contribution made by Po210 to the natural background radiation dose-rate in human bone and reproductive organs. It is shown that this contribution may be a significant fraction of the total dose received. (author)

  20. Association between milking practices and psychrotrophic bacterial counts in bulk tank milk / Asociación entre prácticas de ordeño y recuento de organismos psicrótrofos en leche de tanque de frío

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana I., Molineri; Marcelo L., Signorini; Alejandra L., Cuatrín; Vilma R., Canavesio; Verónica E., Neder; Norma B., Russi; Julio C., Bonazza; Luis F., Calvinho.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar los factores de riesgo para altos recuentos de organismos psicrótrofos en leche de tanques de tambos de la Argentina. Se examinaron muestras de leche cruda de tanques de frío de 27 tambos, y se realizó el recuento de organismos psicrótrofos totales (PT), de psi [...] crótrofos proteolíticos (PP) y de psicrótrofos lipolíticos (PL) (variables dependientes). Se realizó una encuesta para registrar las condiciones de infraestructura, el equipo de ordeño y las prácticas de ordeño (variables independientes). Se utilizaron pruebas bivariadas de asociación y regresión logística para determinar la asociación entre las variables independientes y los recuentos de organismos psicrótrofos. La leche enfriada en sistemas de placas de intercambio o tanques tipo cuba tuvo una probabilidad mayor de dar recuentos elevados de PT y PP (16,39 y 10,52) comparada con la enfriada en tanques tipo "panza fría". La limpieza periódica del equipo de frío (3 veces por semana o diariamente) se asoció con bajos recuentos de PT (aproximadamente 1,5 log de UFC/ml). Los tambos cuyos ordeñadores no se higienizaban las manos durante el ordeño tuvieron una probabilidad 7,81 veces mayor de tener recuentos elevados de PP. No se encontró asociación entre el recuento de PL y las variables independientes. La única variable asociada con los recuentos de PT y PP en el modelo de regresión logística fue el sistema de enfriamiento utilizado en el tambo. El tipo de sistema de refrigeración usado y su adecuado mantenimiento higiénico son importantes para la obtención de leche con baja carga de organismos psicrótrofos en el tambo. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine on-farm risk factors for psychrotrophic bacterial counts in bulk tank milk from dairy farms in Argentina. Raw milk samples from bulk tanks of 27 dairy farms were examined for total psychrotrophic counts (TPC), proteolytic psychrotrophic counts (PPC) and li [...] polytic psychrotrophic counts (LPC) (dependent or outcome variables). A survey recording infrastructure conditions, milking equipment and milking management (independent variables) was performed. Bivariate association proofs and logistic regression analyses were used to determine association between independent variables and psychrotrophic bacterial counts. Milk cooled in plate heat exchangers or barrel tanks were 16.39 and 10.52 times more likely to yield TPC and PPC above the standard established for high quality milk compared with milk cooled in bulk tanks, respectively. Periodic cleaning of cooling tanks (3 times a week or daily) was associated with lower TPC (approximately 1.5 log CFU/ml) than weekly cleaning frequency and farms where milkers did not wash their hands during milking time were 7.81 times more likely to have higher PPC. No association was found between LPC and any of the independent variables. The only variable associated with TPC and PPC in a logistic regression model was the refrigeration system used on the farm. Dairy farms that possessed bulk milk cooling tanks yielded the lowest bacterial counts. Results of this study highlight the importance of both the type of cooling system used on the farm and its adequate hygienic maintenance for obtaining low pshychrotrophic counts at dairy farm.

  1. Association between milking practices and psychrotrophic bacterial counts in bulk tank milk Asociación entre prácticas de ordeño y recuento de organismos psicrótrofos en leche de tanque de frío

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I. Molineri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine on-farm risk factors for psychrotrophic bacterial counts in bulk tank milk from dairy farms in Argentina. Raw milk samples from bulk tanks of 27 dairy farms were examined for total psychrotrophic counts (TPC, proteolytic psychrotrophic counts (PPC and lipolytic psychrotrophic counts (LPC (dependent or outcome variables. A survey recording infrastructure conditions, milking equipment and milking management (independent variables was performed. Bivariate association proofs and logistic regression analyses were used to determine association between independent variables and psychrotrophic bacterial counts. Milk cooled in plate heat exchangers or barrel tanks were 16.39 and 10.52 times more likely to yield TPC and PPC above the standard established for high quality milk compared with milk cooled in bulk tanks, respectively. Periodic cleaning of cooling tanks (3 times a week or daily was associated with lower TPC (approximately 1.5 log CFU/ml than weekly cleaning frequency and farms where milkers did not wash their hands during milking time were 7.81 times more likely to have higher PPC. No association was found between LPC and any of the independent variables. The only variable associated with TPC and PPC in a logistic regression model was the refrigeration system used on the farm. Dairy farms that possessed bulk milk cooling tanks yielded the lowest bacterial counts. Results of this study highlight the importance of both the type of cooling system used on the farm and its adequate hygienic maintenance for obtaining low pshychrotrophic counts at dairy farm.El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar los factores de riesgo para altos recuentos de organismos psicrótrofos en leche de tanques de tambos de la Argentina. Se examinaron muestras de leche cruda de tanques de frío de 27 tambos, y se realizó el recuento de organismos psicrótrofos totales (PT, de psicrótrofos proteolíticos (PP y de psicrótrofos lipolíticos (PL (variables dependientes. Se realizó una encuesta para registrar las condiciones de infraestructura, el equipo de ordeño y las prácticas de ordeño (variables independientes. Se utilizaron pruebas bivariadas de asociación y regresión logística para determinar la asociación entre las variables independientes y los recuentos de organismos psicrótrofos. La leche enfriada en sistemas de placas de intercambio o tanques tipo cuba tuvo una probabilidad mayor de dar recuentos elevados de PT y PP (16,39 y 10,52 comparada con la enfriada en tanques tipo "panza fría". La limpieza periódica del equipo de frío (3 veces por semana o diariamente se asoció con bajos recuentos de PT (aproximadamente 1,5 log de UFC/ml. Los tambos cuyos ordeñadores no se higienizaban las manos durante el ordeño tuvieron una probabilidad 7,81 veces mayor de tener recuentos elevados de PP. No se encontró asociación entre el recuento de PL y las variables independientes. La única variable asociada con los recuentos de PT y PP en el modelo de regresión logística fue el sistema de enfriamiento utilizado en el tambo. El tipo de sistema de refrigeración usado y su adecuado mantenimiento higiénico son importantes para la obtención de leche con baja carga de organismos psicrótrofos en el tambo.

  2. Quality of raw cow milk in Republic of Macedonia determined through the testing of somatic cell count and total viable count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelovski Ljupco

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Somatic cells count and total viable count are criteria used to estimate the compliance of raw cow milk with the Book of rules for demands for safety and hygiene and procedures for official controls of milk and milk products, Official Gazette of RM 157/2007. According to the given demands, raw milk operators are obliged to conduct all procedures and to guarantee that milk is in compliance with the criteria laid down in Book of rules. At the same time, Republic of Macedonia have to fulfill EU criteria laid down in Directive 92/46 (Council directive 92/46/EEC laying down the health rules for the production and placing on the market of raw milk, heat-treated milk and milkbased products for quality of raw milk as part of implementation of community legislation and milk production. The independent laboratory for milk quality control at FVM-Skopje, in frame of its activities in the period February- August 2008 has conducted a study for obtaining preliminary results for the situation with raw milk quality produced in R. of Macedonia for somatic cells counts and total viable count. In the study we analyzed 2065 samples for TVC and 1625 samples for SCC of raw milk samples produced in different parts of the country. From the tested samples only 41,8% fulfill criteria for SCC and 41,45% criteria for TVC lay down in Book of rules for 2008. Assessment of the results in light of Council Directive it is obvious that only 42,7% of the samples for SCC and 10,7% for TVC fulfill the criteria of Council Directive having in mind different requirements vs. Book of rules.

  3. Serum albumin and total lymphocyte count as predictors of outcome in hip fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Daly, Brendan J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hip fractures are a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in the elderly. Malnutrition is a significant contributor to this, however no consensus exists as to the detection or management of this condition. We hypothesise that results of admission serum albumin and total lymphocyte count (TLC), as markers of Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) can help predict clinical outcome in hip fracture patients aged over 60 years. METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated the nutritional status of patients with hip fractures using albumin and TLC assays and analysed their prognostic relevance. Clinical outcome parameters studied were delay to operation, duration of in-patient stay, re-admission and in-patient, 3- and 12-month mortality. RESULTS: Four hundred and fifteen hip fracture patients were evaluated. Survival data were available for 377 patients at 12 months. In-hospital mortality for PEM patients was 9.8%, compared with 0% for patients without. Patients with PEM had a higher 12-month mortality compared to patients who had normal values of both laboratory parameters (Odds Ratio 4.6; 95% CI: 1.0-21.3). Serum albumin (Hazard Ratio 0.932, 95% CI: 0.9-1.0) and age (Hazard Ratio 1.04, 95% CI: 1.0-1.1) were found to be significant independent prognostic factors of mortality by Cox regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight the relevance of assessing the nutritional status of patients with hip fractures at the time of admission and emphasises the correlation between PEM and outcome in these patients.

  4. Effects of temperature and fertilization on total vs. active bacterial communities exposed to crude and diesel oil pollution in NW Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics of total and active microbial communities were studied in seawater microcosms amended with crude or diesel oil at different temperatures (25, 10 and 4 deg. C) in the presence/absence of organic fertilization (Inipol EAP 22). Total and hydrocarbon-degrading microbes were enumerated by fluorescence microscopy and Most Probable Number (MPN) method, respectively. Total (16S rDNA-based) vs. active (16S rRNA) bacterial community structure was monitored by Capillary-Electrophoresis Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (CE-SSCP) fingerprinting. Hydrocarbons were analyzed after 12 weeks of incubation by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total and hydrocarbon-degrading microbial counts were highly influenced by fertilization while no important differences were observed between temperatures. Higher biodegradation levels were observed in fertilized microcosms. Temperature and fertilization induced changes in structure of total bacterial communities. However, fertilization showed a more important effect on active bacterial structure. The calculation of Simpson's diversity index showed similar trends among temperatures whereas fertilization reduced diversity index of both total and active bacterial communities. - Nutrient availability was the most important factor influencing microbial oil biodegradation in coastal waters of the North-western Mediterranean Sea.

  5. Comparative seric TGF(β1, β2) levels and platelets count response in total body irradiated baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total body irradiation associated or not with r-hIL-6 treatment a relation between TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 blood levels and platelets count. During radio-induced thrombocytopenia, by decreasing its ability to inhibit proliferation of stem cells and megakaryocytopoiesis, the TGF-β falling induced a favorable condition for hematopoietic recovery. (author)

  6. Métodos de conservação de amostras de leite para determinação da contagem bacteriana total por citometria de fluxo Milk sample conservation methods to determine the total bacteria count by flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte Dagher Cassoli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da temperatura de armazenamento e da idade da amostra sobre a contagem bacteriana total de amostras de leite conservadas com azidiol para verificar a possibilidade de utilização de uma única amostra nas análises previstas na Instrução Normativa 51 (IN-51. Utilizaram-se 320 alíquotas de leite coletado de um tanque de expansão para avaliação de três temperaturas de armazenamento - a 0 ºC (congelada, 7 ºC (refrigerada e 24 ºC (à temperatura ambiente -, três tipos de conservação (bronopol, azidiol e sem conservante e quatro idades da amostra (1, 3, 5 e 7 dias. Para contagem bacteriana total, foram consideradas controle amostras refrigeradas, com azidiol e amostras de um dia e, para composição e contagem de células somáticas (CCS, os controles foram amostras refrigeradas, com bronopol e de um dia. Nas amostras conservadas com bronopol, a contagem bacteriana total foi menor que na controle, independentemente da idade e da temperatura. O mesmo foi observado nas amostras com azidiol e congeladas. Amostras com azidiol apresentaram aumento da contagem bacteriana total, independentemente da idade, enquanto, naquelas que não receberam azidiol, a contagem bacteriana total foi superior à das amostras refrigeradas, conservadas com azidiol e de um dia. As amostras conservadas com azidiol e refrigeradas tiveram aumento linear na contagem bacteriana total de 0,0058 log por dia, o que pode ser considerado sem importância prática. Amostras conservadas com azidiol e refrigeradas apresentaram CCS menor, em todas as idades, em relação a amostras refrigeradas e conservadas com bronopol. Os teores de gordura e lactose reduziram após o quinto dia. Foi necessária a coleta de duas amostras: uma destinada à determinação de CCS e da composição contendo bronopol e outra para contagem bacteriana total contendo azidiol. Amostras para contagem bacteriana total podem ser analisadas em até sete dias, se mantidas a 7 ºC e adicionadas de azidiol.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of storage temperature and sample age on the total bacterial count (TBC of milk samples preserved with azidiol to verify whether a single sample could be used to perform regulatory milk analysis under the Normative Instruction 51 (IN-51. Three hundred and twenty milk aliquots were used collected from an expansion tank to assess three storage temperatures (0 ºC - frozen: 7 ºC - refrigerated, and 24 ºC - room temperature, three types of conservation (bronopol, azidiol and no preservative and four sample ages (1, 3, 5, and 7 days. For the total bacteria count, refrigerated control samples, with azidiol and one day old samples, and for composition and somatic cell count (SCC, the controls were defined as one day old refrigerated samples containing bronopol. Samples conserved with bronopol presented lower total bacteria count than the control regardless of storage temperature and sample age. Milk samples conserved with azidiol and stored refrigerated presented lower SCC, regardless of age, compared to refrigerated samples conserved with bronopol. The fat and lactose contents decreased after the fifth day. Two samples had to be collected: one for SCC determination and composition containing bronopol and another for the total bacteria count containing azidiol. Milk samples used for total bacteria count can be tested up to 7 days if they are kept at 7 ºC with the addition of azidiol.

  7. Determining eligibility for antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings using total lymphocyte counts, hemoglobin and body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solberg Peter

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD4+ T lymphocyte (CD4 cell count testing is the standard method for determining eligibility for antiretroviral therapy (ART, but is not widely available in sub-Saharan Africa. Total lymphocyte counts (TLCs have not proven sufficiently accurate in identifying subjects with low CD4 counts. We developed clinical algorithms using TLCs, hemoglobin (Hb, and body mass index (BMI to identify patients who require ART. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of HIV-infected adults in Uganda, who presented for assessment for ART-eligibility with WHO clinical stages I, II or III. Two by two tables were constructed to examine TLC thresholds, which maximized sensitivity for CD4 cell counts ? 200 cells ?L, while minimizing the number offered ART with counts > 350 cells ?L. Hb and BMI values were then examined to try to improve model performance. Results 1787 subjects were available for analysis. Median CD4 cell counts and TLCs, were 239 cells/?L and 1830 cells/?L, respectively. Offering ART to all subjects with a TLCs ? 2250 cells/?L produced a sensitivity of 0.88 and a false positive ratio of 0.21. Algorithms that treated all patients with a TLC 3000 cells/?L, and used Hb and/or BMI values to determine eligibility for those with TLC values between 2000 and 3000 cells/?L, marginally improved accuracy. Conclusion TLCs appear useful in predicting who would be eligible for ART based on CD4 cell count criteria. Hb and BMI values may be useful in prioritizing patients for ART, but did not improve model accuracy.

  8. The use of flow cytometry to accurately ascertain total and viable counts of Lactobacillus rhamnosus in chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Yves; Champagne, Claude P

    2015-04-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the precision and accuracy of flow cytometry (FC) methodologies in the evaluation of populations of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011) in two commercial dried forms, and ascertain the challenges in enumerating them in a chocolate matrix. FC analyses of total (FC(T)) and viable (FC(V)) counts in liquid or dried cultures were almost two times more precise (reproducible) than traditional direct microscopic counts (DCM) or colony forming units (CFU). With FC, it was possible to ascertain low levels of dead cells (FC(D)) in fresh cultures, which is not possible with traditional CFU and DMC methodologies. There was no interference of chocolate solids on FC counts of probiotics when inoculation was above 10(7) bacteria per g. Addition of probiotics in chocolate at 40 °C resulted in a 37% loss in viable cells. Blending of the probiotic powder into chocolate was not uniform which raised a concern that the precision of viable counts could suffer. FCT data can serve to identify the correct inoculation level of a sample, and viable counts (FCV or CFU) can subsequently be better interpreted. PMID:25475282

  9. Flow cytometry total cell counts: a field study assessing microbiological water quality and growth in unchlorinated drinking water distribution systems:

    OpenAIRE

    J. C. Van Dijk; Liu, G.; Mark, E.J.; Verberk, J.Q.J.C.

    2013-01-01

    e objective of this study was to evaluate the application of flow cytometry total cell counts (TCCs) as a parameter to assess microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems and to determine the relationships between different parameters describing the biostability of treated water. A one-year sampling program was carried out in two distribution systems in The Netherlands. Results demonstrated that, in both systems, the biomass differences measured by ATP were not significant. TCC dif...

  10. Suitability of total coliform ?-D-galactosidase activity and CFU counts in monitoring faecal contamination of environmental water samples

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    VC, Wutor; CA, Togo; BI, Pletschke.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Total coliforms are a group of bacteria found in high numbers in mammalian intestines; hence their presence in water indicates the possible contamination with faecal material. Total and faecal coliform counts were monitored over a period of 18 months using mFC, m-Endo and CM1046 media together with [...] enzymatic assays on 215 environmental water samples obtained from the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. A positive correlation, with an R² value of 0.9393 was observed between faecal and total coliform colony units employing mFc and m-Endo media, and 0.8818 using CM1046 media. Also, a positive correlation was observed between Escherichia coli colony-forming units and ?-d-galactosidase (B-GAL) activity (R²=0.8542). Overall, this study indicated that faecal contamination of environmental water samples could be monitored by measuring total coliform ?-galactosidase activity and total coliform colony-forming units.

  11. Seasonal changes in bacterial counts and radiation-disinfection of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of radiation on sewage sludge was investigated to disinfect it. The results obtained were as follows: 1. In either activated sludge or digested sludge dewatered by centrifugation, total bacteria and coliforms were up to 3.0 x 109/g and 3.5 x 108/g, respectively. In the activated sludge which was dewatered by a filter-press with calcium oxide and iron chloride, total bacteria were up to 3.0 x 105/g, while coliforms were hardly detected. 2. The fraction of coliforms was somewhat more in centrifuged sludge than in raw sludge. 3. The radiosensitivity of coliforms in raw sludge differed between samples. Namely, some sludge was sterilized with 0.5 Mrad while others were not sterilized even with 1.0 Mrad. On the other hand, coliforms in dewatered sludge were sterilized with 0.5 Mrad without seasonal change, but total bacteria were more radioresistant and more than 13 Mrad was required to reduce it to an undetectable level. From these results it is concluded that the dewatered sludge should be irradiated at 0.5 Mrad to eliminate the coliforms in it. (author)

  12. Incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with ascites. Diagnostic value of white blood cell count and pH measurement in ascitic fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, J S; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Hegnhøj, J; Krintel, J J; Nielsen, P B

    1991-01-01

    During a 21-month period, 65 consecutive patients admitted with ascites were included in a prospective study of the incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and paracentesis was performed on admission. The ascitic fluid was cultured, ascitic leucocytes were counted and pH was measured. Bac...... patients with SBP. In contrast to several previous studies, neither ascites pH nor ascites leucocyte counts were any help in obtaining a rapid diagnosis. Survival time of patients with SBP was significantly shorter than of patients without SBP.......During a 21-month period, 65 consecutive patients admitted with ascites were included in a prospective study of the incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and paracentesis was performed on admission. The ascitic fluid was cultured, ascitic leucocytes were counted and pH was measured...

  13. How much locomotive activity is needed for an active physical activity level: analysis of total step counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohkawara Kazunori

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although physical activity recommendations for public health have focused on locomotive activity such as walking and running, it is uncertain how much these activities contribute to overall physical activity level (PAL. The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of locomotive activity to PAL using total step counts measured in a calorimeter study. Methods PAL, calculated as total energy expenditure divided by basal metabolic rate, was evaluated in 11 adult men using three different conditions for 24-hour human calorimeter measurements: a low-activity day (L-day targeted at a low active level of PAL (1.45, and a high-frequency moderate activity day (M-day or a high-frequency vigorous activity day (V-day targeted at an active level of PAL (1.75. These subjects were permitted only light activities except prescribed activities. In a separate group of 41 adults, free-living PAL was evaluated using doubly-labeled water (DLW. In both experiments, step counts per day were also measured using an accelerometer. Results In the human calorimeter study, PAL and step counts were 1.42 ± 0.10 and 8,973 ± 543 steps/d (L-day, 1.82 ± 0.14 and 29,588 ± 1,126 steps/d (M-day, and 1.74 ± 0.15 and 23,755 ± 1,038 steps/d (V-day, respectively. In the DLW study, PAL and step counts were 1.73 ± 0.15 and 10,022 ± 2,605 steps/d, and there was no significant relationship between PAL and daily step counts. Conclusions These results indicate that an enormous number of steps are needed for an active level of PAL if individuals extend physical activity-induced energy expenditure by only locomotive activity. Therefore, non-locomotive activity such as household activity should also play a significant role in increasing PAL under free-living conditions.

  14. Reducing Staphylococcus aureus bacterial counts in a dental clinic using an Ionic Breeze air purifier: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubar, J Sean; Pelon, William; Strother, Elizabeth A; Sicard, F Scott

    2009-01-01

    Aerosols and droplets generated by dental procedures are contaminated with blood and bacteria and represent a potential route for the transmission of disease. This study sought to determine if Ionic Breeze air purifiers are effective in collecting and destroying bacteria found in dental aerosols (such as Staphylococcus aureus). This study placed one Sharper Image Professional Series Ionic Breeze Quadra unit and one Ionic Breeze GP unit (with germicidal protection) in dental operatories within the Louisiana State University School of Dentistry. After six hours of operation, bacterial samples were collected and streaked over surfaces of petri dishes containing trypticase soy sucrose bacitracin agar that had been supplemented with 5% sheep blood. The samples were incubated at 37 degrees C for 48 hours; at that point, the microbial colonies were counted. Additional testing was performed on suspect colonies to identify S. aureus strains and to determine if any of those isolates were pathogenic with or without antibiotic resistance. The Ionic Breeze GP unit killed more than 99% of all bacteria on the stainless steel collecting blades. The non-germicidal Ionic Breeze Quadra air purifier collected numerous bacteria that were found to include some pathogenic strains of S. aureus; however, none of these were resistant to antibiotics. PMID:19819810

  15. Detection of false-positives among total and fecal coliform counts by factorial analysis of correspondence.

    OpenAIRE

    Joncas, M; Michaud, S; Carmichael, J P; Lavoie, M C

    1985-01-01

    Application of an analysis of correspondence to the biochemical characteristics of total and fecal coliforms isolated in the Ivory Coast permitted us to separate two small clusters of isolates different from the main clusters, which included isolates from human and animal feces. The isolates grouped in the small clusters were from water samples. An analysis of the biochemical characteristics which permitted the segregation of the "water-specific" isolates from the main clusters indicates that...

  16. Study on the Total Coliforms Count and Coli Titter in the Waters of Kardzhali Reservoir, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Y. Todorov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine TC (total coliforms and coli titter from two sampling stations in the aquatory of Kardzhali Dam Lake and one station in River Arda, in August, 2011. The values of the TC index in the reservoir vary from 1900±674 cfu/100ml in station I, to 1293±194 cfu/100ml in station II, while the TC value of River Arda reaches 1698±134 cfu/100ml. In Reservoir Kardzhali, the smallest volume of water in which Escherichia coli cells were found, varies between 5 and 15 ml, while for the River Arda the value of coli titter is equal to 1. With highest percentage, regarding the presence of microbiological species in the reservoir waters, is the genus Klebsiella (70%, followed by Citrobacter (15%, Enterobacter (10% and Serratia (5%, respectively represented by the species Klebsiella oxytoca, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae and Serattia marcescens. In the river Arda two genuses were found - Serratia (50% and Salmonella (50%.

  17. Centroid Position as a Function of Total Counts in a Windowed CMOS Image of a Point Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurtz, R E; Olivier, S; Riot, V; Hanold, B J; Figer, D F

    2010-05-27

    We obtained 960,200 22-by-22-pixel windowed images of a pinhole spot using the Teledyne H2RG CMOS detector with un-cooled SIDECAR readout. We performed an analysis to determine the precision we might expect in the position error signals to a telescope's guider system. We find that, under non-optimized operating conditions, the error in the computed centroid is strongly dependent on the total counts in the point image only below a certain threshold, approximately 50,000 photo-electrons. The LSST guider camera specification currently requires a 0.04 arcsecond error at 10 Hertz. Given the performance measured here, this specification can be delivered with a single star at 14th to 18th magnitude, depending on the passband.

  18. Canine cerebrospinal fluid total nucleated cell counts and cytology associations with the prevalence of magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo TB

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Timothy B Hugo, Kathryn L Heading, Robert H Labuc Melbourne Veterinary Specialist Centre, Glen Waverley, Vic, Australia Introduction: The combination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI are often used to investigate intracranial disease in dogs. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine if the total nucleated cell count (TNCC or cytology findings in abnormal CSF are associated with the prevalence of MRI abnormalities. Materials and methods: For each case, the TNCC was categorized into one of three groups: A (<25×106/L; B (25–100×106/L; and C (>100×106/L. Cytology findings were categorized by the predominant cell type as lymphocytic, monocytoid, neutrophilic, or eosinopilic. MRI descriptions were classified as either normal or abnormal, and abnormal studies were further evaluated for the presence of specific characteristics (multifocal or diffuse disease versus focal disease, positive T2-weighted hyperintensity, positive FLAIR hyperintensity, contrast enhancement, mass effect, and the presence of poorly or well-defined lesion margins. Results: Forty-five dogs met the inclusion criteria and MRI abnormalities were found in 29/45 (64% dogs. TNCCs were not associated with the prevalence of MRI abnormalities or specific characteristics. Cytology categories were significantly associated with the prevalence of MRI abnormalities (P<0.001. Specifically, monocytoid cytology was 22.8 times more likely to have an abnormal MRI than lymphocytic cytology. CSF cytology was not significantly associated with specific abnormal MRI characteristics. Conclusion: There are minimal associations between CSF abnormalities and the prevalence of MRI abnormalities. These results support the continued importance of utilizing both tests when investigating intracranial disease. When CSF analysis must be performed initially, this study has demonstrated that an abnormal CSF with a monocytoid cytology supports the value of performing a brain MRI in dogs with evidence of intracranial neurological disease. Keywords: cerebrospinal fluid, magnetic resonance imaging, canine, total nucleated cell counts, cytology

  19. A PROFILE OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTED PATIENTS IN YENEPOYA MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL WITH SPECIAL REFERANCE TO CORRELATION BETWEEN CD4 COUNT AND TOTAL LYMPHOCYTE COUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES : To study the clinical presentation , spectrum of systemic involvement , opportunistic infections and the correlation between CD4 + cell count and TLC for monitoring disease progression in HIV patients. Previous studies have shown that TLC is an inexpensive and useful tool for monitoring HIV progression. METHODS: This was a 2 year prospective study in which ca ses were examined and according to theproforma , TLC and CD4+ counts were assessed in 50 HIV positive patients who attended Yenepoya Medical College Hospital , Mangalore between October 2005 and September 2007. Sensitivity and specificity of various TLC cut - off were computed for CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 and statistical indices computed. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to find out the correlation between CD4+ count and TLC at baseline. RESULTS: 45 male and 5 female patients , having mean age of 38.08± 9.01 years (range 20 – 60 years were studied. 70% were in 20 - 40 years age group. 34% were related to transport services. Heterosexual mode of transmission was seen in 64% , commonest presenting symptoms were fever and weight loss , oral candidiasis was present in 26% and lymphadenopathy in 46% of subjects. Tuberculosis was the most common opportunistic infection seen in 68% of subjects. One patient had AIDS dementia complex , one had HIV nephropathy and in 1 and a presumptive diagnosi s of Kaposi's sarcoma was made . Tubercular meningitis was the most common neurological manifestation. The mean baseline CD4+ count in study group was 175 cells/mm3. The mean baseline TLC was 1338 cells/mm3 . The scatter diagram shows , as the CD4 T cells ris es , the TLC level also rises. The sensitivity and specificity of TLC < 1200 and CD4 count <200 was 91% and 53% respectively with a positive predictive value of 70% (p = 0.0001. CONCLUSION: Occupation was the important risk factor for HIV transmission and h eterosexual contact is the commonest mode of spread. Among opportunistic infections , tuberculosis was most common. There was a definite correlation between the TLC and CD4 count in HIV positive patients before treatment. It is evident from this study that TLC can be used in place of CD4+ T cell counts in resource - limited settings to monitor the disease progression

  20. Cultivation of a bacterial consortium with the potential to degrade total petroleum hydrocarbon using waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, S; Song, Y C; Kim, S H; Jang, S H

    2015-11-01

    Waste activated sludge was aerobically treated to demonstrate multiple uses such as cultivating an oil degrading bacterial consortium; studying the influence of a bulking agent (peat moss) and total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration on bacterial growth and producing a soil conditioner using waste activated sludge. After 30 days of incubation, the concentration of oil-degrading bacteria was 4.3 x 10(8) CFU g(-1) and 4.5 x 10(8) CFU g(-1) for 5 and 10 g of total petroleum hydrocarbon, respectively, in a mixture of waste activated sludge (1 kg) and peat moss (0.1 kg). This accounts for approximately 88.4 and 91.1%, respectively, of the total heterotrophic bacteria (total-HB). The addition of bulking agent enhanced total-HB population and total petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial population. Over 90% of total petroleum hydrocarbon degradation was achieved by the mixture of waste activated sludge, bulking agent and total petroleum hydrocarbon. The results of physico-chemical parameters of the compost (waste activated sludge with and without added peat moss compost) and a substantial reduction in E. coli showed that the use of this final product did not exhibit risk when used as soil conditioner. Finally, the present study demonstrated that cultivation of total petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial consortium and production of compost from waste activated sludge by aerobic treatment was feasible. PMID:26688976

  1. Some Precautions in Preparation of Blood Plasma Samples Labelled with 3HOH in Liquid Scintillation Counting to Estimate Total Body Water in Farm Animals Using Nuclear Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accuracy of counting the tritiated water radioactivity in Liquid Scintillation is dependent on the careful control of several experimental variables. Obtaining the data necessary to evaluate the precision of nuclear techniques is the objective of this study. The effect of mixing the suspended precipitate, precipitate of sedimentation, light exposure and temperature on liquid scintillation counting are studied. The results showed that unmixed suspended precipitation decreased the counting of liquid scintillation by 38.2%. In addition, sedimentation of the precipitate of plasma proteins in the liquid scintillation counter is important because the average of the samples count was lower about 3.5% in case plasma samples were counted before the precipitate sedimentation. Plasma samples exposure to either day or florescent light caused over counting by 7.1 and 7.6% respectively. Frozen plasma samples labelled with TOH caused a decrease in normal counting by 9.5%. In addition, it was compared between internal standard and dioxane precipitation techniques to estimate total body water in farm animals with taking the precaution mentioned previously in considerations. The internal standard method and precipitation method gave comparable counting (4599 vs 4317 cpm, respectively) and total body water values (209.3 vs 211.9L, respectively).

  2. Diagnostic Accuracy of Peripheral White Blood Cell Count, Fever and Acute Leukocutosis for Bacterial Meningitis in Patients with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseinali Khalili

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the diagnostic value of serum white blood cell (WBC count, fever (>38?C and WBC rise (>10% for bacterial meningitis in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Shahid Rajaei hospital affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences during a 1-year period from 2013 to 2014. We included consecutively all the patients with severe TBI admitted to our center during the study period who were febrile (>38?C orally and underwent lumbar puncture (LP and analysis and culture of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. Laboratory analysis of CSF and blood were performed within 2 hours of LP. CSF culture was considered the gold standard for diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value (PPV, NPV of peripheral blood WBC count, fever (>38?C and WBC rise (>10% was determined according to the CSF culture. Results: Overall we included242 consecutive patients with severe TBI. The mean age of the participants was 32.8 ± 17.4 years. Acinetobacter was the most common organism found in the CSF cultures. The sensitivity and specificity of peripheral WBC count (>10,000was 48.4% (95% CI: 0.42-0.56 and 47% (95% CI: 0.37-0.58 respectively. The PPV and NPV was 13.1% (95% CI: 0.33-0.52 and 84.8% (95% CI: 0.42-0.61, respectively. The AUC for WBC count was 0.478 (95% CI: 0.37-0.58 indicating low accuracy for the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. The AUC for WBC rise (>10% and temperature >38?C was0.460 (95% CI: 0.351-0.569 and 0.517 (95% CI: 0.410-0.624 respectively, both indicating low accuracy for diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. Conclusion: The results of the current study indicates that peripheral blood leukocyte count, fever (>38?C and WBC rise (>10% is a non-reliable marker for diagnosis of bacterial meningitis in patients with severe TBI.

  3. The effect of gamma radiation and certain insecticides on the total hemocyte counts and its different types in larvae of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis (boisd.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment of the cotton leaf worm larvae Spodoptera Littoralis with gamma radiation gradually decreased the total haemocyte count as the dose increased. While in larvae treated with fenvalerate the total haemocyte count significantly decreased and a further decrease occurred when larvae were treated with gamma rays. Larvae which were treated with sumithion showed insignificant increase of total haemocyte count from control, but when sumithion was applied before gamma irradiation a gradual decrease of the total haemocyte occurred. In case of larvae treated with L c30 level of fenvalerate or sumithion an insignificant increase in the total haemocyte count occurred, while irradiation of larvae after insecticide treatment lead to a gradual decrease in the total haemocyte count as the dose of gamma radiation was increased. The haemocytes of fourth instar larvae were found to consist of eight kinds which are pro haemocytes, plasmatocytes, spindle cells, granulated cells, oenocytoids, adipohaemocytes, cytocytes and sphrule cells. Treatment of larvae with gamma radiation, insecticides (fenvalerate or sumithion) only or with the insecticide combined with gamma radiation significantly affected the percentage of haemocytes. Also significant differences were found between the different types p f haemocytes. Prohaemocytes were the predominant type.5 tab

  4. Dose-response effects of an antimicrobial peptide, a cecropin hybrid, on growth performance, nutrient utilisation, bacterial counts in the digesta and intestinal morphology in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Liu-Fa; He, Jian-Guo

    2012-11-28

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of an antimicrobial peptide, cecropin A(1-11)-D(12-37)-Asn (CADN), as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoter (AGP) in poultry diets. A total of 1500 14-d-old indigenous male chickens (222 (sd 13) g) were randomly allocated to five groups with five replicate cages of sixty birds each, and fed ad libitum five grower diets and subsequently five finisher diets for 14 d each. The diets were made up by supplementing their basal diets with a CADN liquid sample (CADNL) at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 ml/kg, respectively. During the feeding period, a metabolic experiment was carried out to determine the apparent digestibility of diethyl ether extract, nitrogen retention and apparent metabolisable energy of the diet sample fed to each cage of chicks. At the end of the feeding experiment, one chick from each cage was killed for bacteriological, light microscopic and scanning electron microscopic examination of the intestinal villi. CADN had a negative linear, positive quadratic and negative linear effect on feed intake (F), weight gain (G) and feed:gain ratio (F:G), respectively, for the growers; it had a quadratic effect on F, G or F:G for the finishers; it increased nutrient utilisation for both growers and finishers; it decreased aerobic bacterial counts in both jejunal and caecal digesta in a dose-dependent manner; it enhanced intestinal villus heights in a dose-dependent manner and made the duodenum villi of the CADNL8 group at 42 d appear as a netted leaf-like structure. CADN is therefore a possible alternative to AGP in broiler feeds. PMID:22251659

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on shelf life extension, total counts of microbials and biochemical sensory change on luncheon meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the effect of gamma irradiation and sodium nitrate on storability and marketability of luncheon, packed luncheon was exposed to several treatments; gamma irradiation at doses 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 KGy using a 60 CO package irradiator, mixed with sodium nitrite (NaNO2) 60 mg/Kg meat, with no irradiation and a combined treatment of both NaNO2 treatment and irradiated with a dose of 2 KGy only. Half of the irradiated and unirradiated samples were stored in refrigeration (1-4 centigrade), to study storability and the second half were stored at room temperature (18-20 centigrade) to study marketability of luncheon. During storage period the population of microorganisms, biochemical changes and sensory properties were evaluated every two weeks for the refrigerated samples and weekly for the unrefrigerated samples. The results indicated that gamma irradiation and sodium nitrite reduced the counts of microorganisms and increased the shelf-life of luncheon. Both treatments (irradiation, sodium nitrite) increased total acidity, lipid oxidation, and the volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) immediately after processing and reduced all of them through out storage. Sensory evaluation (firmness, color, taste, and flavor) indicated no significant differences (P>0.05) between treated and untreated samples. (author)

  6. Dissolved total hydrolyzable enantiomeric amino acids in precipitation: Implications on bacterial contributions to atmospheric organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ge; Kim, Guebuem; Kim, Jeonghyun; Jeong, Yu-Sik; Kim, Young Il

    2015-03-01

    We analyzed dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), and dissolved enantiomeric amino acids in precipitation samples collected at two sites in Korea over a one-year period. The average concentrations of DOC, DON, and total hydrolyzable amino acids at Seoul (an inland urban area) were lower than those at Uljin (a coastal rural area). The different bulk compositions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) at these two sites (reflected by qualitative indicators) were mainly attributed to differences in contributing sources. The D-enantiomers of four individual amino acids (aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, and alanine) were ubiquitously present, with average enantiomeric (D/L) ratios of 0.34, 0.26, 0.21, and 0.61 for Seoul, and 0.18, 0.11, 0.09, and 0.31 for Uljin, respectively. The much higher D/L ratios observed at Seoul than at Uljin might result from more advanced diagenetic stages as well as higher contributions from bacteria inhabiting terrestrial environments. The C- and N-normalized yields of D-alanine in DOM of our samples were found to be comparable to literature values reported for aquatic systems, where a significant portion of DOM was suggested to be of bacterial origin. Our study suggests that bacteria and their remnants might constitute an important fraction of OM in the atmosphere, contributing significantly to the quality of atmospheric OM and its post-depositional bioavailability in the surface ecosystems.

  7. Validation of EIA sampling methods - bacterial and biochemical analysis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sheelu, G.; LokaBharathi, P.A.; Nair, S.; Raghukumar, C.; Mohandass, C.

    the Indian Experiment (INDEX) during September 1996 and June-Sept. 1997. Analysis were done for lipid, protein and carbohydrates, which comprise the labile organic matter (LOM), total organic carbon (TOC) and total bacterial counts (TC). Of the 5 variables...

  8. Multilevel analysis of bacterial counts from chronic periodontitis after root planing/scaling, surgery, and systemic and local antibiotics: 2-year results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahimu Mdala

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To follow changes (over 2 years in subgingival bacterial counts of five microbial complexes including health-related Actinomyces spp. in deeper pockets (?5 mm after periodontal treatments. Methods: Eight different treatments were studied: (1 scaling+root planing (SRP; (2 periodontal surgery (SURG+systemic amoxicillin (AMOX+systemic metronidazole (MET; (3 SURG+locally delivered tetracycline (TET; (4 SURG; (5 AMOX+MET+TET; (6 AMOX+MET; (7 TET; and (8 SURG+AMOX+MET+TET. Antibiotics were given immediately following SRP. Subgingival plaque was collected mesiobuccally from each tooth, except third molars, from 176 subjects, completing the study, at baseline, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months post-treatment and analysed for 40 different bacteria using checkerboard hybridization. A negative binomial (NB generalized estimating equation (NB GEE model was used to analyze count data and a logistic GEE was used for proportions. Results: We observed short-term beneficial changes in the composition of the red complex of up to 3 months by treating subjects with AMOX+MET+TET. Similar short-term improvements with the same treatment were observed for Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola of the red complex. SURG had also short-term beneficial effect on Porphyromonas gingivalis. No periodontal treatments applied to severely affected sites promoted the growth of Actinomyces. Smoking elevated counts of both the red and orange complex while bleeding on probing (BOP and gingival redness were also predictors of more red complex counts. Comparatively similar findings were obtained by analyzing counts and by analyzing proportions. Conclusions: Although short-term reductions in the counts of the red complex were observed in sites that were treated with AMOX+MET+TET, long-term significant effects were not observed with any of the eight treatments. Poor oral hygiene in patients with severe chronic periodontitis diminished the beneficial effects of treatment.

  9. Comparison of bacterial counts in expressed breast milk following standard or strict infection control regimens in neonatal intensive care units: compliance of mothers does matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiden, N; Pimpel, B; Assadian, O; Binder, C; Kreissl, A; Repa, A; Thanhäuser, M; Roberts, C D; Berger, A

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial counts in 1466 expressed breast milk (EBM) samples from women following one of two infection control regimens (standard vs strict) were investigated. Overall, 12% of samples yielded Gram-negative bacteria, with no significant differences between the standard [11.9% (94/788)] and strict [12.1% (82/678)] regimens (P = 0.92). Significantly more samples were contaminated when expressed at home (standard regimen home/hospital: 17.9% vs 6.1%; strict regimen home/hospital: 19.6% vs 3.4%; P < 0.001). Bacterial contamination of EBM was not associated with the regimen, but was associated with the location of breast milk expression. Attempts to improve personal hygiene during milk collection seem to be of limited value. Good hygiene of collection and storage equipment is likely to be the most important way to ensure the microbiological quality of EBM. PMID:26850928

  10. Contribution of endogenous and exogenous damage to the total radiation-induced damage in the bacterial spore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radical scavengers such as polyethylene glycol 4000 and bovine albumin have been used to define the contribution of exogenous and endogenous damage to the total radiation-induced damage in aqueous buffered suspensions of Bacillus pumilus spores. The results indicate that this damage in the bacterial spore is predominantly endogenous

  11. Assessment of the efficiency of SimPlate? total plate count color indicator (TPC CI) to quantify mesophilic aerobic microorganisms in pasteurized milk Avaliação da eficiência do SimPlate? Total Plate Count Color Indicator (TPC CI) para enumeração de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos em leite pasteurizado

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Augusto Nero; Vanerli Beloti; Márcia Aguiar Ferreira Barros; Elsa Helena Walter Santana; Mykel Steffani Pereira; Viviane Vieira Gusmão; Luciane Bilia Moraes

    2002-01-01

    The SimPlate? TPC CI system is a rapid method to count mesophilic aerobic microorganisms (MAM) in foods, based on the use of resazurine to indicate bacterial growth. Its efficiency in pasteurized milk was evaluated using 142 pasteurized milk samples (38 type A, 43 type B and 61 type C) collected in Londrina, PR. The standard plating method, using Plate Count Agar (PCA) was used for comparison. The plates of both systems were incubated at 35ºC and read after 24h and 48h. The occurrence of...

  12. Comparison of the SimPlate total plate count method with Petrifilm, Redigel, conventional pour-plate methods for enumerating aerobic microorganisms in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuchat, L R; Copeland, F; Curiale, M S; Danisavich, T; Gangar, V; King, B W; Lawlis, T L; Likin, R O; Okwusoa, J; Smith, C F; Townsend, D E

    1998-01-01

    The SimPlate Total Plate Count (TPC) method, developed by IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., is designed to determine the most probable number of aerobic microorganisms in foods. The 24-h test was compared to the conventional plate count agar (PCA) method, the Petrifilm Aerobic Count plates, and the Redigel Total Count procedure for enumerating microflora in 751 food samples. Results using the SimPlate TPC method were highly correlated (r > or = 0.96) with results from other test methods. Slopes (0.96-0.97) were not significantly different from 1, and y intercepts (-0.03-0.08) were not different from O. The SimPlate has a high counting range (> 1600 most probable number per single dilution), thus requiring fewer dilutions of samples compared to other methods evaluated. Some foods, e.g., raw liver, wheat flour, and nuts, contain enzymes that gave false-positive reactions on SimPlates. Overall, however, the SimPlate TPC method is a suitable alternative to conventional PCA, Petrifilm, and Redigel methods for estimating populations of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms in a wide range of foods. PMID:9708246

  13. Micrometer-Sized Supported Lipid Bilayer Arrays for Bacterial Toxin Binding Studies through Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Moran-Mirabal, Jose M.; Edel , Joshua B.; Meyer, Grant D.; Throckmorton, Dan; Singh, Anup K; Craighead, Harold G.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we present the use of micron-sized lipid domains, patterned onto planar substrates and within microfluidic channels, to assay the binding of bacterial toxins via total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. The lipid domains were patterned using a polymer lift-off technique and consisted of ganglioside-populated distearoylphosphatidylcholine:cholesterol supported lipid bilayers (SLBs). Lipid patterns were formed on the substrates by vesicle fusion followed by polymer li...

  14. Total bacterial load within Echinacea purpurea, determined using a new PCR-based quantification method, is correlated with LPS levels and In vitro macrophage activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the present study, total bacterial load was determined within E. purpurea samples and ranged from 6.4 × 106 to 3.3 × 108 bacteria/g of dry plant material. To estimate total bacterial load, we developed a PCR-based quantification method that circumvents the problems associated with nonviable/noncu...

  15. Comparison between cultivated and total bacterial communities associated with Cucurbita pepo using cultivation-dependent techniques and 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eevers, N; Beckers, B; Op de Beeck, M; White, J C; Vangronsveld, J; Weyens, N

    2016-02-01

    Endophytic bacteria often have beneficial effects on their host plants that can be exploited for bioremediation applications but, according to the literature, only 0.001-1% of all endophytic microbes should be cultivable. This study compared the cultivated endophytic communities of the roots and shoots of Cucurbita pepo with the total endophytic communities as determined by cultivation-dependent techniques and 454 pyrosequencing. The ten most abundant taxa of the total communities aligned well with the cultivated taxa; however, the abundance of these taxa in the two communities differed greatly. Enterobacter showed very low presence in the total communities, whereas they were dominantly present in the cultivated communities. Although Rhizobium dominated in total root and shoot communities, it was poorly cultivable and even then only in growth media containing plant extract. Since endophytes likely contribute to plant-growth promotion, cultivated bacterial strains were tested for their plant-growth promoting capabilities, and the results were correlated with their abundance in the total community. Bacillus and Pseudomonas showed promising results when considering cultivability, abundance in the total community and plant-growth promoting capability. This study demonstrated that, although a limited number of bacterial genera were cultivable, current cultivation-dependent techniques may be sufficient for further isolation and inoculation experiments that aim to improve phytoremediation efficiency. PMID:26656884

  16. Development of Microelectrode Arrays Using Electroless Plating for CMOS-Based Direct Counting of Bacterial and HeLa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niitsu, Kiichi; Ota, Shoko; Gamo, Kohei; Kondo, Hiroki; Hori, Masaru; Nakazato, Kazuo

    2015-10-01

    The development of two new types of high-density, electroless plated microelectrode arrays for CMOS-based high-sensitivity direct bacteria and HeLa cell counting are presented. For emerging high-sensitivity direct pathogen counting, two technical challenges must be addressed. One is the formation of a bacteria-sized microelectrode, and the other is the development of a high-sensitivity and high-speed amperometry circuit. The requirement for microelectrode formation is that the gold microelectrodes are required to be as small as the target cell. By improving a self-aligned electroless plating technique, the dimensions of the microelectrodes on a CMOS sensor chip in this work were successfully reduced to 1.2 ?m × 2.05 ?m. This is 1/20th of the smallest size reported in the literature. Since a bacteria-sized microelectrode has a severe limitation on the current flow, the amperometry circuit has to have a high sensitivity and high speed with low noise. In this work, a current buffer was inserted to mitigate the potential fluctuation. Three test chips were fabricated using a 0.6- ?m CMOS process: two with 1.2 ?m × 2.05 ?m (1024 × 1024 and 4 × 4) sensor arrays and one with 6- ?m square (16 × 16) sensor arrays; and the microelectrodes were formed on them using electroless plating. The uniformity among the 1024 × 1024 electrodes arranged with a pitch of 3.6 ?m × 4.45 ?m was optically verified. For improving sensitivity, the trenches on each microelectrode were developed and verified optically and electrochemically for the first time. Higher sensitivity can be achieved by introducing a trench structure than by using a conventional microelectrode formed by contact photolithography. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements obtained using the 1.2 ?m × 2.05 ?m 4 × 4 and 6- ?m square 16 × 16 sensor array with electroless-plated microelectrodes successfully demonstrated direct counting of the bacteria-sized microbeads and HeLa cells. PMID:26561481

  17. Leukocyte-subset counts in idiopathic parkinsonism provide clues to a pathogenic pathway involving small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. A surveillance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobbs R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following Helicobacter pylori eradication in idiopathic parkinsonism (IP, hypokinesia improved but flexor-rigidity increased. Small intestinal bacterial-overgrowth (SIBO is a candidate driver of the rigidity: hydrogen-breath-test-positivity is common in IP and case histories suggest that Helicobacter keeps SIBO at bay. Methods In a surveillance study, we explore relationships of IP-facets to peripheral immune/inflammatory-activation, in light of presence/absence of Helicobacter infection (urea-breath- and/or stool-antigen-test: positivity confirmed by gastric-biopsy and hydrogen-breath-test status for SIBO (positivity: >20 ppm increment, 2 consecutive 15-min readings, within 2h of 25G lactulose. We question whether any relationships found between facets and blood leukocyte subset counts stand in patients free from anti-parkinsonian drugs, and are robust enough to defy fluctuations in performance consequent on short t½ therapy. Results Of 51 IP-probands, 36 had current or past Helicobacter infection on entry, 25 having undergone successful eradication (median 3.4 years before. Thirty-four were hydrogen-breath-test-positive initially, 42 at sometime (343 tests during surveillance (2.8 years. Hydrogen-breath-test-positivity was associated inversely with Helicobacter-positivity (OR 0.20 (95% CI 0.04, 0.99, p In 38 patients (untreated (17 or on stable long-t½ IP-medication, the higher the natural-killer count, the shorter stride, slower gait and greater flexor-rigidity (by mean 49 (14, 85 mm, 54 (3, 104 mm.s-1, 89 (2, 177 Nm.10-3, per 100 cells.μl-1 increment, p=0.007, 0.04 & 0.04 respectively, adjusted for patient characteristics. T-helper count was inversely associated with flexor-rigidity before (p=0.01 and after adjustment for natural-killer count (-36(-63, -10 Nm.10-3 per 100 cells.μl-1, p=0.007. Neutrophil count was inversely associated with tremor (visual analogue scale, p=0.01. Effect-sizes were independent of IP-medication, and not masked by including 13 patients receiving levodopa (except natural-killer count on flexor-rigidity. Cellular associations held after allowing for potentially confounding effect of hydrogen-breath-test or Helicobacter status. Moreover, additional reduction in stride and speed (68 (24, 112 mm & 103 (38, 168 mm.s-1, each p=0.002 was seen with Helicobacter-positivity. Hydrogen-breath-test-positivity, itself, was associated with higher natural-killer and T-helper counts, lower neutrophils (p=0.005, 0.02 & 0.008. Conclusion We propose a rigidity-associated subordinate pathway, flagged by a higher natural-killer count, tempered by a higher T-helper, against which Helicobacter protects by keeping SIBO at bay.

  18. Influence of addition of different antibiotics in semen diluent on viable bacterial count and spermatozoal viability of Awassi ram semen

    OpenAIRE

    O. I. Azawi; M A Ismaeel

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of six different antibiotics in controlling the growth of semen contaminating bacteria and if these antibiotics have any adverse effect on Awassi ram spermatozoa. Semen samples from six mature Awassi rams were used in this study. A total number of 120 ejaculates were collected from the rams using an artificial vagina once a week. Semen ejaculates were evaluated for volume, sperm concentration, mass motility, individual motility...

  19. Correction of counting rate drop at the end of blood pool ROI curves on the bases of the total visual field curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A correction method based on the constant total counting rate in the final diastolic phase is described. The method should be applied in cases without time standardisation. If Fourier techniques are used for curve smoothing and for the calculation of phase and amplitude images, also users who do not have list mode, hybrid mode or frame mode with direct correction will be able to apply the method of gated blood pool scanning. In fact, time correction at a later stage may even have some advantages. (orig.)

  20. Some hematological parameters and the prognostic values of CD4, CD8 and total lymphocyte counts and CD4/CD8 cell count ratio in healthy HIV sero-negative, healthy HIV sero-positive and AIDS subjects in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing Didia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study attempts to determine normal values of CD4, CD8, CD4/CD8 ratio, total WBC and differential counts, hematocrit and total lymphocyte count (TLC in healthy HIV sero-negative and sero-positive subjects, and to assess the prognostic significance of these parameters in these subjects as compared to AIDS subjects.METHODS: A total of 300 subjects (147 M, 153 F aged between 17 and 71 years were recruited into the study. Subjects were separated according to sex and divided into three groups: Group A: healthy HIV sero-negative subjects; Group B: healthy HIV sero-positive newly diagnosed ART-naïve subjects; and Group C: AIDS subjects. CD4 and CD8 counts were determined by flow cytometry; hematocrit was determined using Hawksley micro-capillary tubes; total WBC and differential counts were determined manually with the improved Neubauer counting chamber; and TLC was obtained by multiplying the percentage of lymphocytes by the total WBC count.RESULTS: For male subjects, significant differences were found in CD4 count, CD4/CD8 count ratio, hematocrit, total WBC and TLC, whereas for female subjects, significant differences were found only in CD4 and CD4/CD8 count ratio in the three groups of subjects. In both sexes, however, these parameters were found to be highest in healthy HIV sero-negative subjects and lowest in AIDS subjects, with HIV sero-positive subjects having intermediate values. CONCLUSION: The results confirm previous reports that the CD4 count and CD4/CD8 count ratio are fairly reliable indicators of the progression of HIV infection. In addition, the results also apparently suggest that the prognostic value of CD8 count is limited and that of TLC possibly sex-dependent. The results could be of importance in our environment since previous reports have been relatively scarce.

  1. The Effect Of 8 Day Storage At 4?C On Total Nucleated Cell Count, Cell Viability, And Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Forming Unit Of Mobilized Peripheral Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohyeddin Bonab M

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC transplantation has brought the possibility of the use of high dose chemotherapy in the treatment of malignant hematopoietic diseases. Short-term HSC preservation at 4?C is the most common method for autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT. Materials and Methods: Thirty-seven mobilized PBSC samples from thirteen hematological patients (4 AML, 4 MM and 5 Lymphoma cases who were selected for autologous PBSCT and 24 normal candidates for allogenic PBSCT were preserved in five separate sterile 2 ml tubes in 4?C. Each sample was evaluated for total nucleated cell (TNC count, dye exclusion cell viability and Granulocyte-Macrophage colony forming unit (GM-CFU; in semisolid medium after 16 days in days 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8. The results were converted to percentages of day 0 measures. The data were analyzed by SPSS 10.0 using Paired Samples T test, Independent Samples T test and Regression. Results: The mean percentages (and standard deviations of TNC count, cell viability and GM-CFU for days 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 are shown below: No significant correlation was found between age, sex, weight and the kind of donor with TNC, viability and GM-CFU. Conclusion: In this study, we have found that during storage of mobilized PBSC in 4?C, TNC count and cell viability still remains higher than 70% after eight days, while GM-CFU decreases more rapidly and falls to less than 50% after day 4.Therefore, TNC count and cell viability do not decrease as fast as GM-CFU.

  2. Design and development of novel insect growth regulators: synthesis, characterization and effect of benzoyl thymyl thioureas and ureas on total haemocyte count of Dysdercus koenigii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zade, Chetan M; Pete, Umesh D; Patil, Smita S; Bhosale, Jitendra D; Hadole, Chakradhar D; Kadam, Meghraj S; Bendre, Ratnamala S

    2012-01-01

    Insect-growth regulators (IGRs) have been receiving foremost attention as potential means of selective insect control. Benzoyl phenyl urea (BPU) is a well-known IGR having chitin synthesis inhibitor activity. Mimics of BPU have been synthesized by suitable derivatization of a naturally occurring monoterpenoid, thymol (2-isopropyl-5-methyl phenol) to form a = series of substituted benzoyl thymyl thioureas (BTTUs) [IVa-f] and benzoyl thymyl ureas (BTUs) [Va-f]. The synthesized compounds have been characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR, LC-MS and elemental analysis. These derivatives have been screened for their effect on total haemocyte count of Dysdercus koenigii. It has been observed that the introduction of substituted benzoyl thiourea and urea linkage into a thymol ring via an amino group results in higher activity than the parent compound thymol and a comparable pattern of results with the standard insect-growth regulators, Penfluron. Urea [Va-f] compounds exhibited greater effect on Total Haemocyte Count (THC) than thiourea [IVa-f]. Fluoro substitution enhanced the effect on THC more than chloro substituted compounds, while ortho-substitution resulted in a better effect than para-substitution. The results described in this paper are promising and provide new array of synthetic chemicals that may be utilized as insect growth regulators. PMID:22251213

  3. Total neutron-counting plutonium inventory measurement systems (PIMS) and their potential application to near real time materials accountancy (NRTMA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiometric method of determining the inventory of an operating plutonium plant is described. An array of total neutron counters distributed across the plant is used to estimate hold-up at each plant item. Corrections for the sensitivity of detectors to plutonium in adjacent plant items are achieved through a matrix approach. This paper describes our experience in design, calibration and operation of a Plutonium Inventory Measurement System (PIMS) on an oxalate precipitation plutonium finishing line. Data from a recent trial of Near-Real-Time Materials Accounting (NRTMA) using the PIMS are presented and used to illustrate its present performance and problem areas. The reader is asked to consider what role PIMS might have in future accountancy systems

  4. Total alpha and beta determination by liquid scintillation counting in water samples from a Brazilian intercomparison exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes CNEN/LAPOC's participation in the Brazilian Intercomparison Exercise (PNI) for simultaneous determination of total radioactivity in water samples, which took place in August and December 2008. The Proficiency Test (PT) also involved a short description of the nuclear analytical technique employed, emphasizing sources of uncertainty. A Liquid Scintillation System (Packard TRICARB 2700) was used with appropriate corrections applied to final results, expressed as Bq L-1. Participation and PT data provide independent information on performance of a Laboratory and have an important role in method validation; especially because it allows the assessment of method performance over an entire range of concentrations and matrices. PT is also an important tool to demonstrate equivalence of measurements, if not their metrological comparability, and to promote education and improvement of Lab practices. (author)

  5. Comparison of Fluorescence Microscopy and Solid-Phase Cytometry Methods for Counting Bacteria in Water

    OpenAIRE

    Lisle, John T.; Hamilton, Martin A.; Willse, Alan R.; McFeters, Gordon A.

    2004-01-01

    Total direct counts of bacterial abundance are central in assessing the biomass and bacteriological quality of water in ecological and industrial applications. Several factors have been identified that contribute to the variability in bacterial abundance counts when using fluorescent microscopy, the most significant of which is retaining an adequate number of cells per filter to ensure an acceptable level of statistical confidence in the resulting data. Previous studies that have assessed the...

  6. Model of sepsis (Caecal Ligation and Puncture in rats caused by mixed and pure bacterial cultures and changes in white blood cell counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanovi? Dragica

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of leucocytes and immunocompetent cells, was investigated during a clinical form of sepsis in rats. The experiments were carried out on 104 male rats, Wistar strain, of body weight 190 to 240 g. The rats were divided into four groups: three with 28 animals and one control group with 20 animals. The animals were killed 12, 24, 72 or 120 hours after surgical intervention. This consisted of caecal ligation and puncture (CLP, with inoculation of mixed bacteria or pure cultures of Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus. They induced similar changes in the total leukocyte counts and percentages of different white blood cells. The significant leucopenia in the first half (early sepsis of the examined period preceded significant leukosis in the rats with sepsis in the second half of the experiment (late sepsis. Also there were significant alterations in the numbers of granulocytes and agranulocytes. Neutrophilia and lymphopenia dominated during the whole period.

  7. Changes in the total leukocyte and platelet counts in Papuan and non Papuan adults from northeast Papua infected with acute Plasmodium vivax or uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjitra Emiliana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are limited data on the evolution of the leukocyte and platelet counts in malaria patients. Methods In a clinical trial of chloroquine vs. chloroquine plus doxycycline vs. doxycycline alone against Plasmodium vivax (n = 64 or Plasmodium falciparum (n = 98 malaria, the total white cell (WCC and platelet (PLT counts were measured on Days 0, 3, 7 and 28 in 57 indigenous Papuans with life long malaria exposure and 105 non Papuan immigrants from other parts of Indonesia with limited malaria exposure. Results The mean Day 0 WCC (n = 152 was 6.492 (range 2.1–13.4 × 109/L and was significantly lower in the Papuans compared to the non Papuans: 5.77 × 109/L vs. 6.86 × 109/L, difference = -1.09 [(95% CI -0.42 to -1.79 × 109/L, P = 0.0018]. 14 (9.2% and 9 (5.9% patients had leukopaenia (9/L and leukocytosis (>10.0 × 109/L, respectively. By Day 28, the mean WCC increased significantly (P = 0.0003 from 6.37 to 7.47 × 109/L (73 paired values and was similar between the two groups. Ethnicity was the only WCC explanatory factor and only on Day 0. The mean Day 0 platelet count (n = 151 was 113.0 (range 8.0–313.0 × 109/L and rose significantly to 186.308 × 109/L by Day 28 (P 9/L: 119/151 (78.81% vs. 16/73 (21.92%, P 9/L vs. falciparum (122.125 × 109/L patients. Conclusion Changes in leukocytes and platelets were consistent with other malaria studies. The Papuan non Papuan difference in the mean Day 0 WCC was small but might be related to the difference in malaria exposure.

  8. Evaluation of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate test in conjunction with a gram negative bacterial plate count for detecting irradiation of chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study to evaluate the potential of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) test in conjunction with a Gram negative bacterial (GNB) plate count for detecting the irradiation of chicken is described. Preliminary studies demonstrated that chickens irradiated at an absorbed dose of 2.5 kGy could be differentiated from unirradiated birds by measuring levels of endotoxin and of numbers of GNB on chicken skin. Irradiated birds were found to have endotoxin levels similar to those found in unirradiated birds but significantly lower numbers of GNB. In a limited study the test was found to be applicable to birds from different processors. The effect of temperature abuse on the microbiological profile, and thus the efficacy of the test, was also investigated. After temperature abuse, the irradiated birds were identifiable at worst up to 3 days after irradiation treatment at the 2.5 kGy level and at best some 13 days after irradiation. Temperature abuse at 150C resulted in rapid recovery of surviving micro-organisms which made differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds using this test unreliable. The microbiological quality of the bird prior to irradiation treatment also affected the test as large numbers of GNB present on the bird prior to irradiation treatment resulted in larger numbers of survivors. In addition, monitoring the developing flora after irradiation treatment amd during subsequent chilled storage also aided differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds. Large numbers of yeast and Gram positive cocci were isolated from irradiated carcasses whereas Gram negative oxidative rods were the predominant spoilage flora on unirradiated birds. (author)

  9. Effects of temperature and fertilization on the structure of total versus active bacterial communities from sub-Antarctic seawater exposed to crude oil and diesel fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Rodríguez-Blanco

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Polar environments are exposed to the risk of oil pollution. However, there is limited knowledge regarding how the variation of physicochemical factors influencing biodegradation may affect bacterial community structure. The effects of temperature (4, 10 and 20°C and organic fertilization (Inipol EAP 22 on community structure and diversity of bacteria inhabiting Kerguelen sub-Antarctic waters were studied in crude- and diesel-amended microcosms. Dynamics of total (i.e., 16S rDNA-based and metabolically active (i.e., 16S rRNA-based bacterial community structure and diversity were monitored using capillary-electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism. Results showed that total and active community structures were differently influenced by temperature and fertilization in the presence of hydrocarbons. Both fertilization and temperature induced changes in total community structure in the presence of crude oil and diesel. However, temperature showed a limited influence on active community structure, and fertilization induced changes in the presence of crude oil only. Simpson's index decreased for total bacterial communities at all temperatures in the presence of crude oil and diesel, whereas a lower reduction was observed for active bacterial populations. In the presence of fertilizer, the diversity of the whole community approached control values after seven incubation weeks; this was not observed for the active bacterial community. This study evidenced qualitative differences in total and active bacterial community structures of Kerguelen seawaters in the presence of hydrocarbons and different responses relative to variation in temperature and fertilization. These factors and hydrocarbons composition have to be taken into account to understand bacterial community dynamics after an oil spill.

  10. Influence of total rotation angle and arm positions on the reconstructed count distribution in cardiac SPECT studies performed without attenuation correction: simulations based on CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In gated blood pool SPECT studies, the volume of the heart ventricles may be determined by a method based on counts. The present work was carried out to determine how the attenuation of photons modifies the reconstructed counts in different regions of a SPECT image of the heart, and how the calculated volumes are influenced by the total acquisition angle. Thoracic CT slices through the central part of the heart, obtained from three patients, were used to simulate the effects of attenuation on SPECT imaging of the heart. Each of three images were converted to arrays containing the linear attenuation coefficients (?-maps) by the use of a look-up table. The table provided the linear attenuation coefficient (?) of 140 KeV photons corresponding to a CT number (HU) entry. Based on these ?-maps, the attenuation along a path from any given point to an imaginary detector could be calculated for any direction of view. For each point in the image, the attenuation values for all actual directions of view were summed and averaged. Subsequently, an array of correction factors (chang coefficients, CC) was built. The specially designed computer program allowed us to add or removed the arms from the image before simulations. The angular SPECT acquisition interval simulated was either 360o or 180o, and the angular spacing was 1o. In the case of a 180o rotation, the acquisition spanned from the 45o RAO to the 45o LPO view. Regions of interest were drawn that covered the entire heart cross section, and the left and right ventricles, respectively. Mean values as well as standard deviations of the CC were calculated for each of there regions. The mean CC in the heart region was 10-20 % higher for a rotation of 360o than for a 180o rotation. As an average for the there patients, the ratio between the mean CC of the left and right ventricle regions, were 1.27 and 1.14 for the 180o and the 360o acquisitions, respectively. The presence of arms in the image lead to increase in both CC and their corresponding standard deviations. Unless a proper attenuation correction method is used, 360o orbit seems to be preferable over 180o for cardiac gated blood pool SPECT, at least when count based methods are applied. (author)

  11. Blood count and C-reactive protein evolution in gastric cancer patients with total gastrectomy surgery / Evolução do hemograma e proteína C-reativa em pacientes com câncer gástrico operados por gastrectomia total

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Attila CSENDES, J.; Andrea MUÑOZ, Ch.; Ana María BURGOS, L..

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: O hemograma completo (CBC) e a proteína C-reativa (PCR) são úteis para excluir parâmetros inflamatórios e complicações inflamatórias agudas pós-operatórias. OBJETIVO: Determinar muda [...] nças nesses parâmetros em pacientes com câncer gástrico submetidos à gastrectomia total. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo com 36 pacientes com câncer gástrico submetidos todos à gastrectomia eletiva. No primeiro, terceiro e quinto dias pós-operatórios (PO), alterações do hemograma e as mudanças de PCR foram avaliadas. Os pacientes com complicações pós-operatórias foram excluídos. RESULTADOS: Vinte e um (58%) eram homens e 15 (42%) mulheres. A média de idade era de 65 anos. Os leucócitos atingiram o pico no primeiro PO com média de 13.826 u/mm³??, e decresceram para 8.266 u/mm³ no quinto. Os bastonetes atingiram o pico no primeiro PO com valor máximo de 1,48%. O nível máximo da PCR foi no 3º PO, com média de 144,64 mg/l±44,84. O hematócrito pré-operatório (HCT) foi de 35% e de 33,67% até o 5o PO. A hemoglobina não apresentou alterações. CONCLUSÕES: Houve aumento de leucócitos no 1o PO mas atingiram valores normais até o 5o PO. PCR atingiu o pico no 3º PO, mas não atingiu os valores normais até o quinto. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: The complete blood count (CBC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are useful inflammatory parameters for ruling out acute postoperative inflammatory complications. AIM: [...] To determine their changes in gastric cancer patients submitted to total gastrectomy. METHODS: This is a prospective study, with 36 patients with gastric cancer who were submitted to elective total gastrectomy. On the first, third and fifth postoperative day (POD), blood count and CRP changes were assessed. Patients with postoperative complications were excluded. RESULTS: Twenty-one (58%) were men and 15 (42%) women. The mean age was 65 years. The leukocytes peaked on the 1st POD with a mean of 13,826 u/mm³, and decreased to 8,266 u/mm³ by the 5th POD. The bacilliforms peaked on the 1st POD with a maximum value of 1.48%. CRP reached its maximum level on the 3rd POD with a mean of 144.64 mg/l±44.84. Preoperative hematocrit (HCT) was 35% and 33.67% by the 5th POD. Hemoglobin, showed similar values. CONCLUSIONS: Leukocytes increased during the 1st POD but reached normal values by the 5th POD. CRP peaked on the 3rd POD but did not reach normal values by the 5th POD.

  12. Bioprospecting from Marine Sediments of New Brunswick, Canada: Exploring the Relationship between Total Bacterial Diversity and Actinobacteria Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine Duncan; Bradley Haltli; Krista A. Gill; Kerr, Russell G.

    2014-01-01

    Actinomycetes are an important resource for the discovery of natural products with therapeutic properties. Bioprospecting for actinomycetes typically proceeds without a priori knowledge of the bacterial diversity present in sampled habitats. In this study, we endeavored to determine if overall bacterial diversity in marine sediments, as determined by 16S rDNA amplicon pyrosequencing, could be correlated with culturable actinomycete diversity, and thus serve as a powerful tool in guiding futu...

  13. Bioprospecting from Marine Sediments of New Brunswick, Canada: Exploring the Relationship between Total Bacterial Diversity and Actinobacteria Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Katherine; Haltli, Bradley; Gill, Krista A.; Kerr, Russell G.

    2014-01-01

    Actinomycetes are an important resource for the discovery of natural products with therapeutic properties. Bioprospecting for actinomycetes typically proceeds without a priori knowledge of the bacterial diversity present in sampled habitats. In this study, we endeavored to determine if overall bacterial diversity in marine sediments, as determined by 16S rDNA amplicon pyrosequencing, could be correlated with culturable actinomycete diversity, and thus serve as a powerful tool in guiding future bioprospecting efforts. Overall bacterial diversity was investigated in eight marine sediments from four sites in New Brunswick, Canada, resulting in over 44,000 high quality sequences (x = 5610 per sample). Analysis revealed all sites exhibited significant diversity (H’ = 5.4 to 6.7). Furthermore, statistical analysis of species level bacterial communities (D = 0.03) indicated community composition varied according to site and was strongly influenced by sediment physiochemical composition. In contrast, cultured actinomycetes (n = 466, 98.3% Streptomyces) were ubiquitously distributed among all sites and distribution was not influenced by sediment composition, suggesting that the biogeography of culturable actinomycetes does not correlate with overall bacterial diversity in the samples examined. These actinomycetes provide a resource for future secondary metabolite discovery, as exemplified by the antimicrobial activity observed from preliminary investigation. PMID:24531187

  14. Bioprospecting from Marine Sediments of New Brunswick, Canada: Exploring the Relationship between Total Bacterial Diversity and Actinobacteria Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Duncan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycetes are an important resource for the discovery of natural products with therapeutic properties. Bioprospecting for actinomycetes typically proceeds without a priori knowledge of the bacterial diversity present in sampled habitats. In this study, we endeavored to determine if overall bacterial diversity in marine sediments, as determined by 16S rDNA amplicon pyrosequencing, could be correlated with culturable actinomycete diversity, and thus serve as a powerful tool in guiding future bioprospecting efforts. Overall bacterial diversity was investigated in eight marine sediments from four sites in New Brunswick, Canada, resulting in over 44,000 high quality sequences (x̄ = 5610 per sample. Analysis revealed all sites exhibited significant diversity (H’ = 5.4 to 6.7. Furthermore, statistical analysis of species level bacterial communities (D = 0.03 indicated community composition varied according to site and was strongly influenced by sediment physiochemical composition. In contrast, cultured actinomycetes (n = 466, 98.3% Streptomyces were ubiquitously distributed among all sites and distribution was not influenced by sediment composition, suggesting that the biogeography of culturable actinomycetes does not correlate with overall bacterial diversity in the samples examined. These actinomycetes provide a resource for future secondary metabolite discovery, as exemplified by the antimicrobial activity observed from preliminary investigation.

  15. Effects of temperature and fertilization on the structure of total versus active bacterial communities from sub-Antarctic seawater exposed to crude oil and diesel fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Arturo Rodríguez-Blanco; Audrey Duval; Emilien Pelletier; Daniel Delille; Jean-François Ghiglione

    2013-01-01

    Polar environments are exposed to the risk of oil pollution. However, there is limited knowledge regarding how the variation of physicochemical factors influencing biodegradation may affect bacterial community structure. The effects of temperature (4, 10 and 20°C) and organic fertilization (Inipol EAP 22) on community structure and diversity of bacteria inhabiting Kerguelen sub-Antarctic waters were studied in crude- and diesel-amended microcosms. Dynamics of total (i.e., 16S rDNA-base...

  16. Effects of Ensiling Total Mixed Potato Hash Ration with or without Bacterial Inoculation on Silage Fermentation and Nutritive Value for Growing Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    R. Thomas; Kanengoni, A. T.; B.D. Nkosi

    2011-01-01

    Total Mixed Rations (TMR) that contained 795 g kg-1 (as is basis) of Potato Hash (PH) were formulated and ensiled in 210 L drums (10 drums treatment-1) with or without lalsil fresh (heterofermentative lactic acid bacterial inoculant). After 3 months of ensiling, drums were opened and analysed for fermentation characteristics and nutritive value. This was followed by an 8 weeks growth study using forty crossbred pigs (Large white X landrace), twenty males and twenty females weighing 203 kg. In...

  17. Flow Cytometry Analysis Using Sysmex UF-1000i Classifies Uropathogens Based on Bacterial, Leukocyte, and Erythrocyte Counts in Urine Specimens among Patients with Urinary Tract Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Monsen, Tor; Rydén, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the second most common bacterial infection. Urine culture is the gold standard for diagnosis, but new techniques, such as flow cytometry analysis (FCA), have been introduced. The aim of the present study was to evaluate FCA characteristics regarding bacteriuria, leukocyturia, and erythrocyturia in relation to cultured uropathogens in specimens from patients with a suspected UTI. We also wanted to evaluate whether the FCA characteristics can identify uropath...

  18. Leukocyte-subset counts in idiopathic parkinsonism provide clues to a pathogenic pathway involving small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. A surveillance study

    OpenAIRE

    Dobbs R; Charlett André; Dobbs Sylvia M; Weller Clive; A Ibrahim Mohammad A; Iguodala Owens; Smee Cori; Plant J; Lawson Andrew J; Taylor David; Bjarnason Ingvar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Following Helicobacter pylori eradication in idiopathic parkinsonism (IP), hypokinesia improved but flexor-rigidity increased. Small intestinal bacterial-overgrowth (SIBO) is a candidate driver of the rigidity: hydrogen-breath-test-positivity is common in IP and case histories suggest that Helicobacter keeps SIBO at bay. Methods In a surveillance study, we explore relationships of IP-facets to peripheral immune/inflammatory-activation, in light of presence/absence of Helic...

  19. Comparison of the TEMPO® System, Petrifilm® , and Cultural MPN Procedure for Enumeration of E. coli, Coliforms and Total Aerobic Plate Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Recent innovations in microbiological methods for analysis of food products have been in methods for detection of bacterial pathogens. Petrifilm dehydrated plates are the only significant addition to cultural procedures for indicator organisms in the last 20 years. An automated most...

  20. Behavior of Salmonella heidelberg and Salmonella enteritidis strains following broiler chick inoculation: evaluation of cecal morphometry, liver and cecum bacterial counts and fecal excretion patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderlise Borsoi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, Salmonella Heidelberg (SH has gained prominence in North America poultry production and in the poultry production of other countries. Salmonella Heidelberg has been isolated and reported from poultry and poultry products in Brazil since 1962, whereas Salmonella Enteritidis (SE has only emerged as a serious problem in poultry and public health since 1993. These strains of Salmonella can cause intestinal problems in newly hatched chicks, and infection may persist until adulthood. Upon slaughter of chickens, Salmonella can contaminate carcasses, a condition that poses a threat to human health. The aim of this study was to compare the fecal excretion of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Heidelberg in newly hatched chicks (orally inoculated with 10(5ufc/mL each until 20 days of age. In addition, the ratio of cecal villus height:crypt depth (morphometry and liver and cecum cell counts was analyzed in chicks ranging from 0 to 3 days of age and infected with these two Salmonella strains. One hundred seventeen chicks were separated into one of three experimental groups: a control group, an SE-infected group and an SH-infected group. Eight chicks per group were euthanized at 6, 12 and 72 hours post-inoculation (pi to allow for Salmonella isolation from the liver and cecum and for the collection of the cecum for villi and crypt analysis. Other birds were allowed to mature to 20 days of age and cloacal swabs were taken at 2, 6, 13 and 20 days pi to compare the fecal excretion of inoculated strains. The Salmonella Enteritidis group had a higher number of cells excreted during the trial. Both strains were isolated from the liver and cecum by 6h pi. At 12h pi the Salmonella Heidelberg group had high cell counts in the cecum. No difference was found in liver cell counts. Both strains showed lower villus height:crypt depth ratio than the control group post-infection.

  1. Behavior of Salmonella heidelberg and Salmonella enteritidis strains following broiler chick inoculation: evaluation of cecal morphometry, liver and cecum bacterial counts and fecal excretion patterns

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anderlise, Borsoi; Luciana Ruschel do, Santos; Laura Beatriz, Rodrigues; Hamilton Luiz de Souza, Moraes; Carlos Tadeu Pippi, Salle; Vladimir Pinheiro do, Nascimento.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) has gained prominence in North America poultry production and in the poultry production of other countries. Salmonella Heidelberg has been isolated and reported from poultry and poultry products in Brazil since 1962, whereas Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) has [...] only emerged as a serious problem in poultry and public health since 1993. These strains of Salmonella can cause intestinal problems in newly hatched chicks, and infection may persist until adulthood. Upon slaughter of chickens, Salmonella can contaminate carcasses, a condition that poses a threat to human health. The aim of this study was to compare the fecal excretion of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Heidelberg in newly hatched chicks (orally inoculated with 10(5)ufc/mL each) until 20 days of age. In addition, the ratio of cecal villus height:crypt depth (morphometry) and liver and cecum cell counts was analyzed in chicks ranging from 0 to 3 days of age and infected with these two Salmonella strains. One hundred seventeen chicks were separated into one of three experimental groups: a control group, an SE-infected group and an SH-infected group. Eight chicks per group were euthanized at 6, 12 and 72 hours post-inoculation (pi) to allow for Salmonella isolation from the liver and cecum and for the collection of the cecum for villi and crypt analysis. Other birds were allowed to mature to 20 days of age and cloacal swabs were taken at 2, 6, 13 and 20 days pi to compare the fecal excretion of inoculated strains. The Salmonella Enteritidis group had a higher number of cells excreted during the trial. Both strains were isolated from the liver and cecum by 6h pi. At 12h pi the Salmonella Heidelberg group had high cell counts in the cecum. No difference was found in liver cell counts. Both strains showed lower villus height:crypt depth ratio than the control group post-infection.

  2. Bacterial Contamination of Tsire-Suya, a Nigerian Meat Product

    OpenAIRE

    R.E. Uzeh; R.E. Ohenhen; O.O. Adeniji

    2006-01-01

    Samples of raw meat prior to roasting, and tsire-suya were analyzed bacteriologically for total viable, coliform, staphylococcal counts and the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The sensitivity of the bacterial isolates to some antibiotics and spices was evaluated. The total viable count varied from 20x102 to 289x102 cfu/g for the raw meat and 7x102 to 171x102 cfu/g for the tsire-suya. The coliform count was 4x102 to 71x10...

  3. Counting cormorants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Thomas; Carss, David N; Lorentsen, Svein-Håkon; Newson, Stuart; Pasquet, Jean-Yves; Parz-Gollner, Rosemarie; Volponi, Stefano

    This chapter focuses on Cormorant population counts for both summer (i.e. breeding) and winter (i.e. migration, winter roosts) seasons. It also explains differences in the data collected from undertaking ‘day’ versus ‘roost’ counts, gives some definitions of the term ‘numbers’, and presents two...

  4. Neutrino counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By counting the massless neutrinos which exist in Nature the number of massive sequential leptons ('asthenons') are also counted. A laboratory experiment based on the chain of reactions e+e-?V'?V????anti-? can count the number of neutrinos. V' is the first excited state of the quark-antiquark bound system. When qanti-q ground state V decays weakly into ?anti-?, the only detected particles in the final state are the two pions recoiling against the missing mass corresponding to the V

  5. Multiplicity Counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, William H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  6. Total volatile fatty acids and bacterial production rates as affected by rations containing untreated or ammonia (urea) treated rice straw in croos-bred cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding ammoniated rice straw on ruminal total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) and bacterial production rates. Twelve karan swiss, male, rumen fistulated calves (2-2.5 yrs) were divided in three equal groups. Animals were offered rice straw either untreated (A) or 4 per cent urea+40 per cent moisture treated and ensiled for 30 days (B) or 5 per cent urea+30 per cent moisture treated and ensiled for 30 days (C). Protein requirements were met through concentrate mixture. Levels of NH3-N and TCA-precipitable-N in strained rumen liquor (SRL) were significantly higher (20.34±0.022, 63.26±0.81 (B), 20.78±0.41, 64.98±0.87 (C) (mg/100 ml SRL) in groups fed ammoniated ±0.31, 45.94±1.91 mg/100 ml S RL), respectively. The bacterial production rates in the rumen (g/day) were significantly higher in groups B and C as compared to group A. TVFA concentrations (mmole/100 ml SRL ) and TVFA production rates (mmole/d) were also significantly higher in groups B and C as compared to group A. The bacterial production rates were significantly co-related with TVFA, NH3-N, TCA precipitable-N concentration in the rumen and ATP production. Multiple regression equations relating bacterial production rates with (i)NH3-N and TVFA concentration in the rumen, (ii)NH3-N and TVFA production rates and (iii)NH3-N and ATP produced were also developed. (author). 18 refs., 2 tabs

  7. Assessment of the efficiency of SimPlate? total plate count color indicator (TPC CI to quantify mesophilic aerobic microorganisms in pasteurized milk Avaliação da eficiência do SimPlate? Total Plate Count Color Indicator (TPC CI para enumeração de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos em leite pasteurizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Augusto Nero

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The SimPlate? TPC CI system is a rapid method to count mesophilic aerobic microorganisms (MAM in foods, based on the use of resazurine to indicate bacterial growth. Its efficiency in pasteurized milk was evaluated using 142 pasteurized milk samples (38 type A, 43 type B and 61 type C collected in Londrina, PR. The standard plating method, using Plate Count Agar (PCA was used for comparison. The plates of both systems were incubated at 35ºC and read after 24h and 48h. The occurrence of false-positive and false-negative wells and the predominant microorganisms in them were also evaluated. The results were compared by simple correlation and mean variance analyses. The correlation (r and mean variance values were 0.6811 and 0.7583 for the results obtained after 24h, respectively, and 0.9126 and 0.0842 for the results obtained after 48h, respectively. These results indicate that the performance of the system increases when the plates are incubated for 48h. When the three types of milk were evaluated separately, these values were 0.9285 and 0.0817 for type A milk, 0.9231 and 0.0466 for type B milk and 0.7209 and 0.1082 for type C milk. These results indicate that the better the quality of the milk the better the performance of SimPlate? TPC CI. False-negative wells, found more frequently in samples with high MAM counts, were caused by Gram positive microorganisms, poorly detected by the SimPlate? TPC CI system because they grew slowly and had low reduction capacity. The results indicated a higher efficiency of the SimPlate? TPC CI system in the reading at 48h.O sistema SimPlate? TPC CI é um método rápido para enumeração de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos (MAM em alimentos que utiliza a resazurina como substância indicadora de crescimento bacteriano. Para avaliar sua eficiência em leite pasteurizado, 142 amostras (38 de leite tipo A, 43 de leite tipo B e 61 de leite tipo C foram colhidas em Londrina, PR, e analisadas pelo SimPlate? TPC CI e pelo método de contagem em placas com ágar padrão de contagem (PCA. As placas de ambos os sistemas foram incubadas a 35ºC e as leituras realizadas em 24 e 48h. Também foi verificada a presença de resultados falso-positivos e falso-negativos bem como a microbiota láctea predominante nas cavidades do SimPlate? TPC CI e a capacidade redutora dos diversos grupos de microrganismos. Os resultados foram comparados através de correlação simples e variância média. Considerando a leitura em 24h do SimPlate? TPC CI, os resultados obtidos apresentaram uma correlação (r de 0,6811 (var. média: 0,7583 com os resultados do método padrão; na leitura em 48h, a correlação encontrada entre os dois métodos foi de 0,9126 (var. média: 0,0842. Considerando os diferentes tipos de leite, as leituras em 48h do SimPlate? TPC CI apresentaram as seguintes correlações com o método padrão: leite tipo A, r: 0,9285 (var. média: 0,0817; leite tipo B, r: 0,9231 (var. média: 0,0466; leite C, r: 0,7209 (var. média: 0,1082. Nas amostras com altas contagens de MAM, verificou-se uma maior freqüência de cavidades falso-negativas e uma grande participação de microrganismos Gram positivos, que são pobremente detectados pelo sistema SimPlate™ TPC CI por crescerem lentamente e possuírem baixa capacidade redutora. Os resultados indicaram um melhor eficiência do sistema SimPlate? TPC CI na leitura em 48h, além da influência direta da qualidade do leite analisado, ou seja, quanto melhor a qualidade microbiológica do leite, melhor o desempenho do sistema. A alta correlação entre os métodos indica que o SimPlate? TPC CI pode ser utilizado como uma alternativa viável ao método padrão de contagem de MAM em leite pasteurizado tipos A e B, desde que a leitura seja realizada em 48h.

  8. Socioeconomic and technical assistance factors related to total bacteria count and somatic cell count of milk from bulk tanks in southern Minas Gerais State, Brazil / Fatores socioeconômicos e de assistência técnica relacionados a contagem bacteriana total e células somáticas do leite de tanques no sul do estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcel Gomes, Paixão; Guilherme Nunes de, Souza; Marcos Aurélio, Lopes; Geraldo Márcio da, Costa; Luiz Ronaldo de, Abreu; Sandra Maria, Pinto.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o perfil socioeconômico e de assistência técnica de produtores de leite provenientes de seis cidades no sul do estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, e identificar os possíveis fatores de risco associados com a contagem bacteriana total (CBT) do leite acima de 43.000 U [...] FC mL-1 e contagem de células somáticas do leite do tanque (CCST) acima 595.000 células mL-1. A maioria dos produtores possuía entre 41 e 60 anos de idade (48,9%), 74,2% não alcançaram o ensino médio e, 72,3% dos entrevistados estavam satisfeitos com a sua profissão, embora 63% não recomendaria a pecuária leiteira para os seus filhos. Apenas 34,7% utilizaram assistência técnica periodicamente, mas 59,1% a consultava em caso de dúvidas. Os fatores de risco encontrados nos modelos finais de regressão multivariada foram: CBT (Não consulta a assistência técnica em caso de dúvidas, OR 3,97 e P=0,030; Aposentadoria, OR 9,32 e P=0,041) e CCST (Produtor não reside na fazenda, OR 4,06 e P=0,046; Presença de assistência técnica OR 3,29 e P=0,041). Pode-se concluir que a busca por assistência técnica de forma emergencial, conforme relatado pelos agricultores, foi eficaz contra os problemas de CBT; no entanto, ineficaz para o controle de mastite no rebanho e na redução dos níveis de CCST. O programa de controle de mastite de 10 pontos do National Mastitis Council precisa ser incluído nas fazendas pesquisadas, especialmente em relação à assessoria técnica permanente por veterinários, visando o estabelecimento de metas para o status de saúde do úbere, revisões e registros. Abstract in english The purpose of this survey was to evaluate the socioeconomic and technical assistance profiles of dairy farmers from six districts in the south of Minas Gerais state, Brazil, and to identify the possible risk factors associated with total milk bacteria count (TBC) above 43,000 CFU mL-1 and bulk milk [...] somatic cell count (BMSCC) above 595,000 cells mL-1. Most of the producers were between 41 and 60 years of age (48.9%), 74.2% did not reach high school, and 72.3% of the respondents were satisfied with their profession, although 63% would not recommend dairy farming to their children. Only 34.7% used periodic technical assistance, but 59.1% consulted it in cases of doubt. The risk factors found in the final multivariable regression models were: TBC (Did not consult technical assistance in case of doubt, OR 3.97, P=0.030; Retirement, OR 9.32, P=0.041) and BMSCC (Producer does not reside on farm, OR 4.06, P=0.046; Presence of technical assistance OR 3.29, P=0.041). It can be concluded that the search for emergency technical assistance, as reported by farmers, was effective against the TBC problems; however, it was ineffective for controlling mastitis in the herd and reducing BMSCC levels. The 10 step mastitis control program from the National Mastitis Council needs to be included on the surveyed farms, especially the permanent advisory technical assistance from veterinarians, aiming towards the establishment of goals for udder health status, reviews and records.

  9. Relationship between lactic acid concentration and bacterial spoilage in ground beef.

    OpenAIRE

    Nassos, P S; King, A. D.; Stafford, A E

    1983-01-01

    Lactic acid concentration correlated with organoleptic spoilage of refrigerated, coarsely ground beef stored in casings with low oxygen permeability. The samples were assayed over time for lactic acid concentration, total aerobic plate count, percentage of gram-positive organisms, and pH. Lactic acid increased in all samples, as did the bacterial counts and percentage of gram-positive organisms in the total microflora, the latter representing an increase in the lactic acid-producing bacteria....

  10. Platelet Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as immune thrombocytopenic purpura, is the result of antibody production against platelets. Viral infections such as mononucleosis , hepatitis , HIV or ... counts. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) results in low platelets ... heparin therapy develops an antibody. (For more on this, see the article on ...

  11. Effects of Ensiling Total Mixed Potato Hash Ration with or without Bacterial Inoculation on Silage Fermentation and Nutritive Value for Growing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Total Mixed Rations (TMR that contained 795 g kg-1 (as is basis of Potato Hash (PH were formulated and ensiled in 210 L drums (10 drums treatment-1 with or without lalsil fresh (heterofermentative lactic acid bacterial inoculant. After 3 months of ensiling, drums were opened and analysed for fermentation characteristics and nutritive value. This was followed by an 8 weeks growth study using forty crossbred pigs (Large white X landrace, twenty males and twenty females weighing 203 kg. Inoculating the TMR with lalsil fresh reduced (p-1 which could be attributed to the lower dietary protein (-1 DM and higher fibre contents. Further research is needed to evaluate effects of enzyme addition on the ensiling of potato hash and supplementation of energy and protein on feed intake and growth performance of pigs consuming the silage.

  12. Bacterial Contamination of Iranian Paper Currency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir-Hassan Moosavy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transmission of human pathogens can be occurred via inert objects. Paper currency is a further common contact surface whereby pathogens can be transferred within a population although the significance remains unknown. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate microbial populations associated with Iranian paper currency.Methods: This study was carried out by getting 108 samples of the Iranian currency notes (1000, 2000, 5000, 10000, 20000 and 50000 RIALS from food-related shops that included food service outlets, greengrocery, supermarket, bakery, confectionary and poultry meat retail outlets. All currency notes were examined for total bacterial count and identification of pathogenic bacteria.Results: The average total bacterial count that was recovered from currency notes was found to be 3.27±0.31 colony forming unites. 2000R had the highest total bacterial count, followed by 5000R, 10000R and the lowest in 50000R. In this study, the isolated bacteria recovered were Bacillus cereus (8.33%, E. coli (48.14%, Staphylococcus aureus (28.7%, Salmonella (0.92%, Listeria monocytogenes (0.92%, Yersinia entrocolitica (6.48%. It was revealed that all the pathogens screened for where encountered on currency notes were recovered from one sample. There were no significant (P>0.05 correlations between the carriage of pathogens/fecal indicator bacteria and currency note condition.Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that Iranian currency notes represent a significant vehicle for human pathogens.

  13. The use of sources emitting coincident gamma-rays for the determination of photopeak and total efficiencies in non-point-source counting geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The validity of a previously published method for determination of full-energy peak as well as total efficiency curves and source activity from a 82Br spectrum is experimentally tested for the case of a thin slab mounted on the end cap of a 20% relative efficiency HpGe detector, as well as for a Marinelli beaker geometry. It is concluded that, even though a full-energy and total efficiency curve can be found that reproduce the measured 82Br spectrum, the corresponding source activity is an underestimation of the true value, apparently depending on the degree of variation of the efficiencies over the source volume. The applicability of the curves found to other radionuclides is as yet unclear. (orig.)

  14. Counting domino trains

    CERN Document Server

    Oller-Marcen, Antonio M

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a way to count the number of trains that we can construct with a given set of domino pieces. As an application we obtain a new method to compute the total number of eulerian paths in an undirected graph as well as their starting and ending vertices.

  15. Volatile and biogenic amines, microbiological counts, and bacterial amino acid decarboxylase activity throughout the salt-ripening process of anchovies (Engraulis encrasicholus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons-Sánchez-Cascado, S; Veciana-Nogués, M T; Bover-Cid, S; Mariné-Font, A; Vidal-Carou, M C

    2005-08-01

    Chemical and microbiological parameters were studied during the industrial production of salt-ripened anchovies (Engraulis encrasicholus). Gradual acidification and increases in the proteolysis index and in total volatile basic nitrogen were observed. At the end of the maturing process, the values reached pH 5.55 +/- 0.03, 21.33 +/- 5.82%, and 44.06 +/- 12.47 mg/ 100 g, respectively. In the three studied anchovy batches, the biogenic amines tyramine, histamine, putrescine, cadaverine, and agmatine increased during ripening. The highest values were found in the batch where initial microbial load was highest (batch 1), especially for enterobacteria and enterococci. Tyramine was the most abundant amine, reaching values from nondetectable to 90 mg/kg, whereas histamine did not surpass 20 mg/kg. Among the microorganisms isolated, Enterobacter cloacae, Aerococcus viridans, Kocuria varians, and Staphylococcus chromogenes were able to decarboxylate amino acids and produce biogenic amines in vitro. Most (70.59%) of the microorganisms identified were able to produce histamine, 23.53% were able to produce the diamines putrescine and cadaverine, and only 11.76% were able to produce tyramine, although this substance was the major biogenic amine found in anchovy samples. PMID:21132979

  16. Short communication: Environmental mastitis pathogen counts in freestalls bedded with composted and fresh recycled manure solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, K J; Hogan, J S

    2016-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare bacterial counts of environmental mastitis pathogens in composted recycled manure solids bedding with those in fresh recycled manure solids. Eighteen Holstein cows were housed in 1 pen with 18 stalls. One row of 9 freestalls included mattresses and was bedded weekly with composted recycled manure solids. The second row of 9 freestalls included mattresses and was bedded weekly with fresh recycled manure solids. The back one-third of stalls toward the alleyway was covered in 25 to 50mm of bedding. Samples were taken from the back one-third of 4 stalls for both treatments on d 0, 1, 2, and 6 of each week. After 3wk, bedding treatments were switched between rows, making the total duration 6wk. Mean total gram-negative bacterial counts were approximately 0.5 log10 cfu/g of dry matter lower in the composted recycled manure solids on d 0 compared with fresh recycled manure solids. Klebsiella species, coliform, and Streptococcus species counts were at least 1.0 log10 cfu/g of dry matter lower in composted compared with fresh recycled manure solids on d 0. Only gram-negative bacterial counts on d 1 were reduced in composted recycled manure solids compared with fresh recycled manure solids. Differences were not observed between treatments in gram-negative bacterial, coliform, Klebsiella species, or Streptococcus species counts on d 2 and 6. Ash content was higher in composted recycled manure solids compared with fresh recycled manure solids on d 0, 1, 2, and 6. Despite the increase in ash after composting, bacterial counts of mastitis pathogens in composted recycled manure solids were comparable with those in fresh recycled manure when used as freestall bedding. PMID:26709164

  17. Use of a total traffic count metric to investigate the impact of roadways on asthma severity: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    deVos Annemarie JBM

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study had two principal objectives: (i to investigate the relationship between asthma severity and proximity to major roadways in Perth, Western Australia; (ii to demonstrate a more accurate method of exposure assessment for traffic pollutants using an innovative GIS-based measure that fully integrates all traffic densities around subject residences. Methods We conducted a spatial case-control study, in which 'cases' were defined as individuals aged under 19 years of age with more severe asthma (defined here as two or more emergency department contacts with asthma in a defined 5-year period versus age- and gender-matched 'controls' with less severe asthma (defined here as one emergency department contact for asthma. Traffic exposures were measured using a GIS-based approach to determine the lengths of the roads falling within a buffer area, and then multiplying them by their respective traffic counts. Results We examined the spatial relationship between emergency department contacts for asthma at three different buffer sizes: 50 metres, 100 metres and 150 metres. No effect was noted for the 50 metre buffer (OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 0.91-1.26, but elevated odds ratios were observed with for crude (unadjusted estimates OR = 1.21 (95% CI: 1.00-1.46 for 100 metre buffers and OR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.02-1.54 for 150 metre buffers. For adjusted risk estimates, only the 150 metre buffer yielded a statistically significant finding (OR = 1.24; 95% CI:1.00-1.52. Conclusions Our study revealed a significant 24% increase in the risk of experiencing multiple emergency department contacts for asthma for every log-unit of traffic exposure. This study provides support for the hypothesis that traffic related air pollution increases the frequency of health service contacts for asthma. This study used advanced GIS techniques to establish traffic-weighted buffer zones around the geocoded residential location of subjects to provide an accurate assessment of exposure to traffic emissions, thereby providing a quantification of the ranges over which pollutants may exert a health effect.

  18. Counting “exotics”

    OpenAIRE

    Qinfeng Guo

    2011-01-01

    An introduced or exotic species is commonly defined as an organism accidentally or intentionally introduced to a new location by human activity (Williamson 1996; Richardson et al. 2000; Guo and Ricklefs 2010). However, the counting of exotics is often inconsistent. For example, in the US, previously published plant richness data for each state are only those either native or exotic to the US (USDA and NRCS 2004), not actually to the state. Yet, within-country (e.g., among states, counties) sp...

  19. Heterotrophic plate count vs. in situ bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicon profiles from drinking water reveal completely different communities with distinct spatial and temporal allocations in a distribution net

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MM, Burtscher; F, Zibuschka; RL, Mach; G, Lindner; AH, Farnleitner.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Heterotrophic plate count using ISO 6222 agar (HPC) vs. in situ bacterial (DF) community structure from corresponding samples of a drinking water distribution system were investigated by 16S rRNA gene-based polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR DGGE) profiling. The i [...] nvestigation regime covered 10 different sampling locations and 2 points in time (t1, t2). In order to ensure accurate and reproducible 16S rRNA gene profile analysis, rigorous methodical evaluation and standardisation procedures were undertaken (DGGE optimisation, replication of PCR, multiple-lane standardisation, representative sampling volume determination, application of multiple similarity coefficients). The reproducibility level of the profile analysis was determined to be > 90% similarity. Two completely different communities were revealed from HPC vs. DF as indicated by DGGE analysis and sequencing. HPC populations could be identified as ubiquitously occurring cultivable copiotrophic microbes, whilst most DF sequences could be allocated to sequences from microorganisms found in oligotrophic aquatic environments. Spatial- and temporal-based 16S rRNA gene amplicon profile analysis from recovered communities further revealed contrasting results. As proven by Jackknife simulations, DF profiles remarkably corresponded to sampling time, whereas HPC profiles revealed spatial associations within the distribution system. Recovered data demonstrate that cultivation based HPC vs. direct cell-based investigations can result in completely different results if used for monitoring purposes in distribution systems.

  20. Profile counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In ''profile counting'', a counter is moved progressively along the whole length of the body, and is so collimated that, at each position, it records the radioisotope content of the whole width of the body, but of only a short section of its length. If the counting rate at each position is plotted against the distance of the counter from the vertex of the head, the ''profile'' so obtained gives a rapid and quantitative measure of the radioisotope distribution throughout the body. When a suitable isotope is selectively concentrated in certain organs or tissues of the body, the profile will show peaks indicative of the sites and extent of such concentration, the organs concerned being identified by two-dimensional mapping, and profile counts continued to follow the turnover or changes of concentration in these organs. This technique has been used in the study of I131 concentration and metabolism in thyroid carcinomata, and its value in the management of the radioiodine treatment of such tumours will be discussed. It has also been used in examining the distribution of labelled thyroxine and triiodothyronine after intravenous administration, and of yttrium-90 oxide particles after intrapulmonary artery injection; and of other isotopes by gamma radiation or bremsstrahlung. The method gives a clinically convenient simplification of whole body mapping which lends itself particularly to the quantitative comparison of isotope distribution at different intervals after a radioisotope dose, or after successive doses. (author)

  1. Experimental infection of commercial layers with wild or attenuated Salmonella Gallinarum mutant strains: anatomic pathology, total blood cell count and serum protein levels

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    KO, Garcia; A, Berchieri Jr.; AM, Santana; MFF, Alarcon; OC, Freitas Neto; JJ, Fagliari.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate hemogram, blood serum components and anatomopathologic alterations in commercial layers experimentally challenged with an attenuated vaccine candidate strain (SG?cobS?cbiA) and other two pathogenic strains (SGDcobS and SGNalr) of Gallinarum [...] (SG). In total, 280 commercial layers were randomly divided into 4 groups (G1, G2, G3 and G4). At five days of age, birds from groups G1 received approximately 107 colony forming units (CFU) of SGDcobS; meanwhile birds from group G2 and G3 received the same dose of SGNalr and SG?cobS?cbiA, respectively. Birds from G4 were not infected. At 24 hours before (DBI) and 24 hours after (1 DAI), and three (3 DAI), five (5 DAI), seven (7 DAI) ten (10 DAI), and fifteen (15 DAI) days after the infection, 10 birds of each group were humanely killed and blood samples collected to hematological and serum tests. Samples of liver, spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, kidney and heart were also collected for the histological examination. Birds inoculated with SGDcobS and SGNalr showed similar alterations in hemogram, blood serum components and anatomopathologic exams. On the other hand, the exams of birds inoculated with SG?cobS?cbiA strain were similar to those of the uninfected birds. However, changes could be noticed in levels of uric acid and cholesterol during the course of the infection of birds from G3. Decrease in levels of light IgG 3 DAI was also observed in birds from this group. Pyknosis in kidney cells was a microscopic alteration found in birds from G3. Further studies must be done to verify if these alterations will not interfere in the performance of the vaccinate birds with SG?cobS?cbiA strain.

  2. Bacterial populations in complementary foods and drinking-water in households with children aged 10-15 months in Zanzibar, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung'u, Jacqueline K; Boor, Kathryn J; Ame, Shaali M; Ali, Nadra S; Jackson, Anna E; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2009-02-01

    Bacteria were quantified in samples of drinking-water and in two porridges prepared for infant-feeding [fortified instant soy-rice porridge (SRP) and cooked porridge (Lishe bora, LB)] in 54 households. Bacterial numbers were measured again after the porridges had been held at room temperature for four hours (T4). Findings were benchmarked against bacterial numbers in traditional complementary foods sampled from 120 households. Total bacteria, coliform, and Enterobacteriaceae counts were enumerated using Petrifilm. The mean log bacterial numbers were the lowest for LB at TO (2.24 +/- 0.84 cfu/g aerobic counts) and the highest for SRP at T4 (4.63 +/- 0.56 cfu/g aerobic counts). The total bacteria, coliform and Enterobacteriaceae counts were higher at T4 than at T0 for LB (p foods, and SRP4 all had the mean aerobic counts higher than the acceptable cut-off but the total bacterial count in SRP0 was not significantly (p=0.543) different from drinking-water. However, coliform and Enterobacteriaceae counts in SRPO were higher than in drinking-water (p0.999) different from traditional foods, the coliform and Enterobacteriaceae counts were significantly higher in SRP4 than in traditional foods (pfood safety concerns be addressed when improving complementary foods. PMID:19248647

  3. White blood cell count - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The White Blood Cell (WBC) Count measures two components: the total number of WBC's (leukocytes), and the differential count. ... and basophils) and non-granulocytes (lymphocytes and monocytes). White blood cells are a major component of the ...

  4. Comparative microbial sampling from eutrophic caves in Slovenia and Slovakia using RIDA®COUNT test kits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulec Janez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available RIDA®COUNT test plates were used as an easy-to-handle and rapid indicator of microbial counts in karst ecosystems of several caves in Slovakia and Slovenia. All of the caves had a high organic input from water streams, tourists, roosting bat colonies or terrestrial surroundings. We sampled swabs, water and air samples to test robustness and universality of the RIDA®COUNT test kit (R-Biopharm AG, Germany, http://www.r-biopharm.com/ for quantification of total bacteria, coliforms, yeast and mold. Using data from swabs (colony-forming units CFU per cm2 we proposed a scale for description of biocontamination level or superficial microbial load of cave niches. Based on this scale, surfaces of Ardovská Cave, Drienovská Cave and Stará Brzotínská Cave (Slovakia were moderately colonized by microbes, with total microbial counts (sum of total bacterial count and total yeast and molds count in the range of 1,001-10,000 CFU/100 cm2, while some surfaces from the show cave Postojna Cave (Slovenia can be considered highly colonized by microbes (total microbial counts ≥ 10,001 CFU/100 cm2. Ardovská Cave also had a high concentration of airborne microbes, which can be explained by restricted air circulation and regular bat activity. The ratio of coliform to total counts of bacteria in the 9 km of underground Pivka River flow in Postojna Cave dropped approximately 4-fold from the entrance, indicating the high anthropogenic pollution in the most exposed site in the show cave. The RIDA®COUNT test kit was proven to be applicable for regular monitoring of eutrophication and human influence in eutrophic karst caves.

  5. Leaf microbiota in an agroecosystem: spatiotemporal variation in bacterial community composition on field-grown lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Rastogi, Gurdeep; Sbodio, Adrian; Tech, Jan J; Suslow, Trevor V; Coaker, Gitta L; Leveau, Johan H J

    2012-01-01

    The presence, size and importance of bacterial communities on plant leaf surfaces are widely appreciated. However, information is scarce regarding their composition and how it changes along geographical and seasonal scales. We collected 106 samples of field-grown Romaine lettuce from commercial production regions in California and Arizona during the 2009–2010 crop cycle. Total bacterial populations averaged between 105 and 106 per gram of tissue, whereas counts of culturable bacteria were on ...

  6. Uso de aditivos promotores de crescimento sobre o desempenho, características de carcaça e bactérias totais do intestino de frangos de corte Use of growth promoters additives on performance, carcass yield and total intestinalbacteria counts in broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder Clementino dos Santos

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de aditivos promotores de crescimento em substituição ao antibiótico sobre o desempenho, características de carcaça (partes e gordura abdominal e bactérias totais do intestino delgado e cecos de frangos de corte de 1 a 42 dias de idade, criados em cama reutilizada e alimentados com rações à base de milho moído e farelo de soja. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com um arranjo fatorial 7 x 2, correspondendo a 7 fontes de aditivos (antibiótico, basal, mananoligossacarídeo (MOS, frutoligossacarídeo (FOS, ácido fumárico, cogumelo desidratado e probiótico e dois sexos (macho e fêmea. Foram utilizados um total de 1680 pintos, sexados, da linhagem Hybro, distribuídos em 14 tratamentos com 04 repetições e 30 aves por parcela experimental. Foi observado efeito significativo (PThe objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of growth promoters additives on performance, carcass yield (parts and abdominal fat, total intestinal bacteria counts in broilers from 1 at 42 days old fed with corn and soybean meal based diets, compared to antibiotics supplementation diets. In this study were urilized a 7 x 2 factorial design, with seven differents additives (antibiotic, basal, MOS, FOS, fumaric acid, mutshroom extract and probiotic and two sex (males and females. A total of1680 sexed broilers chickens from Hybro line were distributed in 14 treatments, with 4 replicates and 30 chickens per experimental unit. Effects of growth promotant additives on feed intake , feed conversion and production efficiency factor were measured. Male chickens shown better performance results than females in all parameters evaluated, except for viability. Additives shown positive effects on carcars yield, parts yield, and abdominal fat. Male chickens were heavier at slaughter and shown higher leg yields than females. Additives also influenced total bacteria counts in duodenum and caecum altering the microbiota of the intestinal chickens. These changes in intestinal microbiota might have contributed for a higher stability and better survival of good microorganisms in the intestinal ecosystem, resulting in benefits for the host. The results of this study shown that the use the addictive as a growth promoters should be used in the feeding for broilers chickens, in substitution to the antibiotic, without affecting the performance and carcass yield , in the period from 1 to 42 days of age.

  7. Uso de aditivos promotores de crescimento sobre o desempenho, características de carcaça e bactérias totais do intestino de frangos de corte / Use of growth promoters additives on performance, carcass yield and total intestinalbacteria counts in broiler

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Éder Clementino dos, Santos; Antônio Soares, Teixeira; Rilke Tadeu Fonseca de, Freitas; Paulo Borges, Rodrigues; Eustáquio Souza, Dias; Luis David Solis, Murgas.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de aditivos promotores de crescimento em substituição ao antibiótico sobre o desempenho, características de carcaça (partes e gordura abdominal) e bactérias totais do intestino delgado e cecos de frangos de corte de 1 a 42 dias de idade, criados em [...] cama reutilizada e alimentados com rações à base de milho moído e farelo de soja. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com um arranjo fatorial 7 x 2, correspondendo a 7 fontes de aditivos (antibiótico, basal, mananoligossacarídeo (MOS), frutoligossacarídeo (FOS), ácido fumárico, cogumelo desidratado e probiótico) e dois sexos (macho e fêmea). Foram utilizados um total de 1680 pintos, sexados, da linhagem Hybro, distribuídos em 14 tratamentos com 04 repetições e 30 aves por parcela experimental. Foi observado efeito significativo (P Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of growth promoters additives on performance, carcass yield (parts and abdominal fat), total intestinal bacteria counts in broilers from 1 at 42 days old fed with corn and soybean meal based diets, compared to antibiotics supplementation diets. [...] In this study were urilized a 7 x 2 factorial design, with seven differents additives (antibiotic, basal, MOS, FOS, fumaric acid, mutshroom extract and probiotic) and two sex (males and females). A total of1680 sexed broilers chickens from Hybro line were distributed in 14 treatments, with 4 replicates and 30 chickens per experimental unit. Effects of growth promotant additives on feed intake , feed conversion and production efficiency factor were measured. Male chickens shown better performance results than females in all parameters evaluated, except for viability. Additives shown positive effects on carcars yield, parts yield, and abdominal fat. Male chickens were heavier at slaughter and shown higher leg yields than females. Additives also influenced total bacteria counts in duodenum and caecum altering the microbiota of the intestinal chickens. These changes in intestinal microbiota might have contributed for a higher stability and better survival of good microorganisms in the intestinal ecosystem, resulting in benefits for the host. The results of this study shown that the use the addictive as a growth promoters should be used in the feeding for broilers chickens, in substitution to the antibiotic, without affecting the performance and carcass yield , in the period from 1 to 42 days of age.

  8. Irradiation of sangari (Prosopis cineraria): Effect on composition and microbial counts during storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Priyanka [S. K. Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner 334 006 (India); Nathawat, N.S. [Central Arid Zone Research Institute, RRS, Bikaner 334 006 (India); Chhipa, B.G. [S. K. Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner 334 006 (India); Hajare, Sachin N. [Food Technology Divisions, BARC, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Goyal, Madhu; Sahu, M.P. [S. K. Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner 334 006 (India); Singh, Govind, E-mail: govindsingh10@rediffmail.com [S. K. Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner 334 006 (India)

    2011-11-15

    Fresh dried and old dried sangari (Prosopis cineraria) were treated with 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 7.0 kGy of irradiation and subsequently stored at ambient temperatures. Proximate values and total bacterial counts were evaluated immediately after irradiation and at regular intervals of 1 month during 3 months of storage. No significant changes were found in moisture, fat, protein, ash and fiber contents. Total sugar content was increased in both control and irradiated samples possibly due to conversion of starch into sugars. Irradiation treatment reduces total bacterial counts of dried samples of both fresh and old dried sangari. However, a dose of 5.0 kGy completely decontaminated both sangari and there was no microbial growth in 5.0 kGy irradiated samples during the storage period. Irradiation at 5.0 kGy was enough to extend the shelf-life of dried sangari up to 3 months without any significant change in the nutritional qualities. - Highlights: > Sangari (Prosopis cineraria) was irradiated and stored at ambient temperature. > No significant changes were observed in proximate analysis during storage. > Starch content was decreased during storage at all irradiation doses. > A dose of 5 kGy was found appropriate to eliminate total bacterial counts.

  9. Irradiation of sangari (Prosopis cineraria): Effect on composition and microbial counts during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresh dried and old dried sangari (Prosopis cineraria) were treated with 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 7.0 kGy of irradiation and subsequently stored at ambient temperatures. Proximate values and total bacterial counts were evaluated immediately after irradiation and at regular intervals of 1 month during 3 months of storage. No significant changes were found in moisture, fat, protein, ash and fiber contents. Total sugar content was increased in both control and irradiated samples possibly due to conversion of starch into sugars. Irradiation treatment reduces total bacterial counts of dried samples of both fresh and old dried sangari. However, a dose of 5.0 kGy completely decontaminated both sangari and there was no microbial growth in 5.0 kGy irradiated samples during the storage period. Irradiation at 5.0 kGy was enough to extend the shelf-life of dried sangari up to 3 months without any significant change in the nutritional qualities. - Highlights: ? Sangari (Prosopis cineraria) was irradiated and stored at ambient temperature. ? No significant changes were observed in proximate analysis during storage. ? Starch content was decreased during storage at all irradiation doses. ? A dose of 5 kGy was found appropriate to eliminate total bacterial counts.

  10. Monitoring of bacterial community in a coniferous forest soil after a wildfire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ok-Sun; Yoo, Jae-Jun; Lee, Dong-Hun; Ahn, Tae-Seok; Song, Hong-Gyu

    2004-12-01

    Changes in the soil bacterial community of a coniferous forest were analyzed to assess microbial responses to wildfire. Soil samples were collected from three different depths in lightly and severely burned areas, as well as a nearby unburned control area. Direct bacterial counts ranged from 3.3-22.6 x 10(8) cells/(g.soil). In surface soil, direct bacterial counts of unburned soil exhibited a great degree of fluctuation. Those in lightly burned soil changed less, but no significant variation was observed in the severely burned soil. The fluctuations of direct bacterial count were less in the middle and deep soil layers. The structure of the bacterial community was analyzed via the fluorescent in situ hybridization method. The number of bacteria detected with the eubacteria-targeted probe out of the direct bacterial count varied from 30.3 to 84.7%, and these ratios were generally higher in the burned soils than in the unburned control soils. In the surface unburned soil, the ratios of alpha-, beta- and gamma-proteobacteria, Cytophaga-Flavobacterium group, and other eubacteria groups to total eubacteria were 9.9, 10.6, 15.5, 9.0, and 55.0%, respectively, and these ratios were relatively stable. The ratios of alpha-, beta- and gamma-proteobacteria, and Cytophaga-Flavobacterium group to total eubacteria increased immediately after the wildfire, and the other eubacterial proportions decreased in the surface and middle layer soils. By way of contrast, the composition of the 5 groups of eubacteria in the subsurface soil exhibited no significant fluctuations during the entire period. The total bacterial population and bacterial community structure disturbed by wildfire soon began to recover, and original levels seemed to be restored 3 months after the wildfire. PMID:15650683

  11. Determination of main phylogenetic bacterial groups in hyporheic sediments of a small lowland stream (Sitka, Czech Republic) using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Community structure of biofilm microbial communities of hyporheic sediments in the small lowland Sitka Stream (Czech Republic) was analysed using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH provided detection of about 91 % of total DAPI-stained bacterial cells. In general, most of the EUB338-detectable cells (domain Eubacteria) could be related to the four major phylogenetic groups used in this study (?-, ?-, ?-Proteobacteria and Cytophaga-Flavobacterium). The microbial community structure of biofilm analysed was dominated by ?-Proteobacteria (36,3 % of the total counts). In addition to the domain Eubacteria, members of the domain Archaebacteria were detected in hyporheic sediments (approximately 6 % of total bacterial counts). (authors)

  12. Evolution of bacterial communities in the Gironde Estuary (France) according to a salinity gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieur, D.; Troussellier, M.; Romana, A.; Chamroux, S.; Mevel, G.; Baleux, B.

    1987-01-01

    Three surveys were performed in the Gironde Estuary (France) in August 1981, March 1982 and July 1982. For each campaign, seventy samples were taken by helicopter, in order to follow the tide along the estuary. Of the parameters that were studied, salinity appeared to be the most important and which controls the bacterial communities along the estuary. This paper deals with the evolution of bacterial communities along a salinity gradient. The information obtained from various bacteriological parameters (total bacterial counts, viable counts on salted and unsalted media, functional evenness) were convergent. The bacterial community is dominated by an halotolerant microflora. In the estuary, a continental microflora is followed by a marine microflora. The succession zone between these two microflora is located between 5 and 10‰ areas of salinity.

  13. Bacterial contamination of street vending food in Kumasi, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Feglo, P.; Sakyi, K.

    2012-01-01

    Street vending foods are readily available sources of meals for many people but the biological safe-ty of such food is always in doubt. The aim of this study is to ascertain bacterial isolate and deter-mine total counts of bacterial species responsible for the contamination of the street vending food in Kumasi so as to determine the microbiological safety of such a food. This prospective study was conducted among street vending food at four bus terminals in Kumasi. From November, 2008 to Febr...

  14. AIDS-associated paracoccidioidomycosis in a patient with a CD4+ T-cell count of 4 cells/mm³ Paracoccidioidomicose associada a Aids em paciente com a contagem total de quatro células T-CD4+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Machado Contente Nogueira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of a patient presenting with HIV and paracoccidioidomycosis co-infection. At the time of diagnosis total CD4+ T-cell count was 4 cells/mm3. Histopathology revealed tuberculoid granulomas, scarce CD4+ T cells, a moderate number of CD8+ cells and the absence of Foxp3+ cells. Most of the cutaneous lesions healed after two weeks of treatment with amphotericin B. After 14 months the patient is still under antiretroviral therapy and no clinical evidence of recurrence of the mycosis has been observedNeste trabalho apresenta-se paciente com coinfecção paracoccidioidomicose/Aids. No momento do diagnóstico, a contagem de células T CD4 + era 4 células. No exame histopatológico, observou-se a presença de granulomas tuberculóides bem formados e na imunohistoquímica, ausência de células Foxp3, raros linfócitos T CD4+ e presença de células T CD8+ em moderada quantidade. Com duas semanas de uso da anfotericina B, verificou-se a regressão de grande parte das lesões cutâneas. Após 14 meses, o paciente encontra-se em uso de terapia antiretroviral e sem evidências de atividade da micose

  15. Preliminary Study on Efficacy of Leaves, Seeds and Bark Extracts of Moringa oleifera in Reducing Bacterial load in Water

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed S. Osman; Arafat M. Goja

    2013-01-01

    Water quality and treatment are the most important issue in everywhere, especially in the developing countries, where safe and clean water is not continuously provided. Moringa oleifera is one of the best natural coagulants that has effectively used in water treatments. The aqueous extract of seeds, leaves and bark of Moringa oleifera was evaluated for their efficacy in reducing total bacterial load, coliform count and faecal coliform counts in the treatment of drinking water. The standard po...

  16. Radio-resistance of some bacterial pathogens in soft-shell clams (Mya arenaria) and mussels (Mytilus edulis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-irradiation decimal reduction doses were determined for E. coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, Strept. faecalis, Staph, aureus, and the Total Plate Count in a soft-shell clam or mussel substrate. Factors to be considered for designing and irradiation bacterial-decontamination process for shellfish are discussed

  17. Residual Structure of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm following Complete Disinfection Favors Secondary Bacterial Adhesion and Biofilm Re-Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsumi, Tatsuya; Takenaka, Shoji; Wakamatsu, Rika; Sakaue, Yuuki; Narisawa, Naoki; Senpuku, Hidenobu; Ohshima, Hayato; Terao, Yutaka; Okiji, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Chemical disinfection of oral biofilms often leaves biofilm structures intact. This study aimed to examine whether the residual structure promotes secondary bacterial adhesion. Streptococcus mutans biofilms generated on resin-composite disks in a rotating disc reactor were disinfected completely with 70% isopropyl alcohol, and were again cultured in the same reactor after resupplying with the same bacterial solution. Specimens were subjected to fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy, viable cell counts and PCR-Invader assay in order to observe and quantify secondarily adhered cells. Fluorescence microscopic analysis, particularly after longitudinal cryosectioning, demonstrated stratified patterns of viable cells on the disinfected biofilm structure. Viable cell counts of test specimens were significantly higher than those of controls, and increased according to the amount of residual structure and culture period. Linear regression analysis exhibited a high correlation between viable and total cell counts. It was concluded that disinfected biofilm structures favored secondary bacterial adhesion. PMID:25635770

  18. Evaluation of the Bacterial Contamination of the Iranian Currency Notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Khajeh Ali

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackground and Objectives: In many countries, there is a popular belief that the simultaneous "nhandling of food and money contributes to the incidence of food-related public health incidents. "nThe objective of this study was to determine the total bacterial count and the presence of food borne "nbacterial pathogens on Iranian currency notes, collected from food-related shops. "n "nMaterials and Methods: A total of 120 Iranian currency notes, comprising notes in four  denomination (2000, 5000, 10000 and 20000 R were collected from various food-related shops including, butchery, bakery, confectionary, fast food, ice cream and poultry meat shop. The currency notes were categorized into three groups according to their physical conditions. All currency notes were examined for total bacterial count, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella and Listeria according to the standard techniques."nResults: The average number of total bacterial count in four denomination of currency notes (2000,  5000, 10000 and 20000 R were 118.49, 106.32, 69.44 and 220.81 CFU/cm2, respectively. The association between total bacterial count and denomination of the currency was not statistically significant. Of the 120 currency notes on which bacteriological analysis was conducted 13.3 %, 32.5% and 10.8 % were contaminated with E. coli, S. aureus and B. cereus, respectively. Salmonella and Listeria were not isolated from samples. Currency notes collected from butchery, bakery, confectionary, fast food, ice cream and poultry meat shop were contaminated with E. coli at the rate of 60, 0, 5, 5, 0 and 10 %; with S. aureus at the rate of 55, 30, 10, 25, 40 and 35 %; with B. cereus at the rate of 0, 10, 20, 5, 20 and 10 %, respectively. There was not a statistically significant association between physical condition and bacterial contamination of the currency notes. The effect of presence or absence of cashier in food-related shops on bacterial contamination of the currency notes was also evaluated."nConclusion: Money has got the potential to change through many different hands and could be  exposed to many different environments at a relatively high frequency. Since there is very little information regarding the hygienic history of any forms of currency, great care should be taken when the same person facilitates the handling of money and the preparation and handling of food to avoid cross contamination.

  19. Determining random counts in liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During measurements involving coincidence counting techniques, errors can arise due to the detection of chance or random coincidences in the multiple detectors used. A method and the electronic circuits necessary are here described for eliminating this source of error in liquid scintillation detectors used in coincidence counting. (UK)

  20. Bacterial Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bacteria usually responsible for this type of keratitis infection are Staphylococcus Aureus and, for contact lens wearers, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa . What Is Bacterial Keratitis? Bacterial Keratitis Symptoms ...

  1. Frequency of Bacterial Frequency of Bacterial Contamination in Traditional Ice Cream Produced in Arak, Iran (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaei, M. (MSc

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Ice cream is a suitable environment for microbial growth due to its chemical structure, ingredients, and its increased supply and demand. In the absence of hygienic considerations, it can cause poisoning. This study aimed to determine bacterial contamination in traditional ice cream produced in Arak city in 2011. Material and Methods: The samples (n= 30 were randomly obtained from different parts of Arak in, 2011. The Samples were shipped in cold conditions and total count of microorganisms test was performed according to Iranian national standards. Results: In 16.66%, the microbial contamination was below the limit of microbial load (5×104, and in 83.3% the contamination was more than allowed level. Conclusion: This study highlights the dire situation for bacterial contamination of traditional ice cream in Arak city. Keywords: Arak, Ice Cream, Microbial Contamination

  2. Uji kadar formalin, kadar garam dan total bakteri ikan asin tenggiri asal Kabupaten Sarmi Provinsi Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenni Y. Salosa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Food safety is depending on the accurence of a dangerous fisical, chemical and microbiology components. Quality of food with healty and a complete safe nutrient is the most important things in the food material. Because of food that consume influencing people brain and health. The aim of this research was to determine the content of formaldehyde, salt and Total Plate Count of bacteria in the tenggiri salty fish from Sarmi Papua. Formsaldehyde was indentificated by using cromatofat acid method as qualitative and spectrophotometer as quantitative method. Choman method was used to analize salt content. Total Plate Count (TPC was used for bacterial content analysis. The result showed that Tenggiri salty fish from Sarmi is not contain formaldehyde. About 9.76 % to 16.31 % of salt contant and approximately 24.5 x 10- 5- 49.5 x 10 5 colony/gram of bacterial in total. This conclude that Tenggiri salty fish have already

  3. Radiation counting statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is intended to describe the statistical methods necessary to design and conduct radiation counting experiments and evaluate the data from the experiment. The methods are described for the evaluation of the stability of a counting system and the estimation of the precision of counting data by application of probability distribution models. The methods for the determination of the uncertainty of the results calculated from the number of counts, as well as various statistical methods for the reduction of counting error are also described. (Author). 11 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs

  4. 90th Christmas Bird Count : Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These are the results of the 1989 Christmas Bird Count on Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge. A total of 14 species and 1,126 individual birds were counted.

  5. Effect of supplementing orchardgrass herbage with a total mixed ration or flaxseed fermentation profile and bacterial protein synthesis in continuous culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 4-unit dual-flow continuous culture fermentor system was used to evaluate the effects of herbage, a total mixed ration (TMR) and flaxseed on nutrient digestibility and microbial N synthesis. Treatments were randomly assigned to fermentors in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Each fermentor was fed a to...

  6. Impact of Intensive Land-Based Fish Culture in Qingdao, China, on the Bacterial Communities in Surrounding Marine Waters and Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiufen; Zhang, Yan; Juck, David; Fortin, Nathalie; Greer, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of intensive land-based fish culture in Qingdao, China, on the bacterial communities in surrounding marine environment was analyzed. Culture-based studies showed that the highest counts of heterotrophic, ammonium-oxidizing, nitrifying, and nitrate-reducing bacteria were found in fish ponds and the effluent channel, with lower counts in the adjacent marine area and the lowest counts in the samples taken from 500?m off the effluent channel. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis was used to assess total bacterial diversity. Fewer bands were observed from the samples taken from near the effluent channel compared with more distant sediment samples, suggesting that excess nutrients from the aquaculture facility may be reducing the diversity of bacterial communities in nearby sediments. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequenced DGGE bands indicated that the bacteria community of fish-culture-associated environments was mainly composed of Flavobacteriaceae, gamma- and deltaproteobacteria, including genera Gelidibacter, Psychroserpen, Lacinutrix, and Croceimarina. PMID:21922024

  7. REACTIVE THROMBOCYTOSIS IN FEBRILE CHILDREN WITH SERIOUS BACTERIAL INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Jane D

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fever is a common presenting symptom in paediatric outpatient practices and emergency rooms, particularly in children 99°F. Neonates with a clinical suspicion of sepsis were included in the study. A thorough history and physical examination and laboratory investigations – complete blood count, urine routine, C-reactive protein were retrieved from records. Cultures were obtained where indicated. OBSERVATIONS: A total of 44 children (18.3% were diagnosed to have serious bacterial infection (SBI out of the 240 febrile children studied during the 6 month period from Jan-June 2014. The incidence of reactive thrombocytosis was 20.7% and of these 28.6% was due to serious bacterial infection. The sensitivity and specificity of CRP in predicting SBI was 68.2% and 60.4% respectively considering a cut off value of >7mg/dl. Thrombocytosis i.e. platelet count >4lakh was more specific in diagnosing SBI with a sensitivity and specificity of 31.8% and 82.9% respectively. Leucocytosis ie total count >15000/mm3 also showed a higher specificity i.e., 63.9% than sensitivity i.e., 45.5%. Duration of pyrexia (>7days had the maximum specificity of 91.7% thus having the best diagnostic accuracy among the variables studied i.e. 76.6%. Among the investigative methods platelet count had the best diagnostic accuracy i.e., 72.57%. CONCLUSION: Thrombocytosis was found to have the best diagnostic accuracy, among the investigative methods studied, in predicting serious bacterial infection (SBI.

  8. Counts of faint galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical results on the counts of galaxies to msub(B)=24sup(m) have been presented by Karachentsev and Kopylov (1977). In the present work data published by different authors and also counts of galaxies on plates obtained at the prime focus of the 6-metre telescope are used. The photometric accuracy of the counts is about a quarter of a magnitude. (Auth.)

  9. Assessment of viability in the bacterial standing stock of the Antarctic Sea from the Indian side

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; Nair, S.; DeSouza, M.J.B.D.; Chandramohan, D.

    that there is a paradigm shift in pelagic food web organization in Antarctic waters in that a large fraction of energy and material flow through the micro- bial loop. Total bacterial numbers give an appreciation of *Correspondence and reprints. E-mail address... were incubated under low ambient tem- peratures of 8–12 °C. For retrievable counts (RC), colony- forming units (CFU) were counted on ZoBell’s medium by spread-plating. The plates were incubated at 8–10 °C for 10–20 d till the numbers of colonies were...

  10. Health Physics counting room

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    The Health Physics counting room, where the quantity of induced radioactivity in materials is determined. This information is used to evaluate possible radiation hazards from the material investigated.

  11. Inactivation of Selected Bacterial Pathogens in Dairy Cattle Manure by Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion (Balloon Type Digester)

    OpenAIRE

    Christy E. Manyi-Loh; Mamphweli, Sampson N.; Meyer, Edson L.; Okoh, Anthony I.; Golden Makaka; Michael Simon

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of animal manure in biogas digesters has shown promise as a technology in reducing the microbial load to safe and recommended levels. We sought to treat dairy manure obtained from the Fort Hare Dairy Farm by investigating the survival rates of bacterial pathogens, through a total viable plate count method, before, during and after mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Different microbiological media were inoculated with different serial dilutions of manure samples that were with...

  12. Practical Gamma Counting of Unirradiated Uranium-235

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the fabrication of reactor fuel elements it is necessary to have assurance regarding the accuracy of the fabricator's uranium assignment within the specified tolerances. Destructive analysis of random samples is both expensive and time-consuming. Where the uranium-bearing components are suitable for gamma counting, a non-destructive method of assay can be used with greater efficiency and equal accuracy. The particular method described was used for checking fuel cores of nominal 30 wt.% enriched uranium in aluminium measuring about two inches square by 0.080 in. and 0.160 in. thick. The equipment was a basic Nal scintillation counter equipped with a single-channel analyser. The analyser, however, was operated with a very wide window covering both the 90-keV and 184-keV peaks characteristic of uranium-235. In practice, the threshold level acid the window opening, were adjusted to give the optimum maximum count rate as indicated by a ratemeter. The counting of a fuel core was then performed with the Nal crystal essentially unshielded and located several inches above the fuel core. The counting time was adjusted to yield a total count in the range of 105 to 106 in order to minimize the counting error. Effects due to variations in the counting geometry and to non-uniform uranium distribution were minimized by the relatively large separation of the crystal from the fuel core. Effects due to shifting of analyser window were minimized by use of a wide opening. To compensate for possible non-uniform uranium distribution through the thickness of a fuel core, each core was counted on both sides. The total count obtained in this manner was directly proportioned to the uranium-235 content of the fuel core. In application, the counting equipment was set up in the fabricator's plant and a number of production fuel cores were counted. The plotting of the total counts against the fabricator's uranium-235 assignment revealed an unexpected error in the fabricator's system. This error was revealed on a qualitative basis before any destructive analyses were made to obtain quantitative correlation. Mention is also made of three other applications of the same equipment. With the addition of a crystal traversing device and an output recorder, finished fuel plates were scanned to determine uranium distribution while a total count of the plate at the same time gave an indication of the total uranium content. Some unknown samples were assayed by the standard method of measuring self-absorption and comparing with a known uranium-235 standard. The addition of a well-type crystal allowed for assaying dilute uranium-235 solutions with sufficient accuracy for waste sampling and criticality evaluation. (author)

  13. CSF cell count

    Science.gov (United States)

    A CSF cell count is a test to measure the number of red and white blood cells that are in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ... The CSF cell count may help detect: Meningitis and infection of the brain or spinal cord Tumor, abscess, or area of tissue death ( ...

  14. Complexities of Counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stake, Bernadine Evans

    This document focuses on one child's skip counting methods. The pupil, a second grade student at Steuben School, in Kankakee, Illinois, was interviewed as she made several attempts at counting twenty-five poker chips on a circular piece of paper. The interview was part of a larger study of "Children's Conceptions of Number and Numeral," funded by…

  15. Total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in shrimp: Fast and reliable quantification by real-time PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Copin, S; Gay, M.; Malle, P

    2010-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is found in aquatic environments and is the leading cause of gastroenteritis due to seafood consumption worldwide. We evaluated a quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR) assay with hydrolysis probes, to determine whether this method could be used for the efficient counting of total, tdh and trh-positive V. parahaemolyticus in shrimps. We assessed the specificity of this assay, using 62 strains from 12 non target bacterial species of the Vibrio, Photobacterium, Shewanella an...

  16. Bacterial contamination of street vending food in Kumasi, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feglo, P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Street vending foods are readily available sources of meals for many people but the biological safe-ty of such food is always in doubt. The aim of this study is to ascertain bacterial isolate and deter-mine total counts of bacterial species responsible for the contamination of the street vending food in Kumasi so as to determine the microbiological safety of such a food. This prospective study was conducted among street vending food at four bus terminals in Kumasi. From November, 2008 to February, 2009, 60 food samples comprising ice-kenkey (15, cocoa drink (15, fufu (5, ready-to-eat red pepper (normally eaten with kenkey (5, salad (10 and macaroni (10 were purchased and ana-lyzed. The food samples were purchased and transported to the laboratory in sterile plastic bags and analyzed for bacterial contamination. Serial dilution of each food was prepared in buffered peptone water and inoculated onto plate count agar (PCA, MacConkey and blood agar plates. Growths on PCA were counted; those on other agar plates were identified by their colonial mor-phology, Gram stain, biochemical and sugar fermentation methods. The mean bacterial counts in these foods expressed to log10 CFU/ml were: fufu 6.36±0.47, cocoa drink 6.16±0.5, red pepper 5.92±0.64, ice-kenkey 5.58 ±0.52, macaroni 5.58±0.97 and salad 5.13±0.77. Most of these foods con-tained higher than acceptable contamination level of <5.0 log10 CFU/ml. The isolates obtained were Coagulate negative staphylococci (23.7%, Bacillus species (21.5%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (18%, Aeromonas pneumophila (17.7%, Enterobacter cloacae (6.7%, Staphylococcus aureus (3.7%, Escherichia coli (2.2% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.2%. Most ready-to-eat foods in Kumasi were contaminated with enteric bacteria and other potential food poisoning organisms with bacterial counts higher than the acceptable levels. Food vendors therefore need education on food hygiene.

  17. Neutron counting for confirmatory measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passive neutron counting can be used to give a convenient and rapid confirmation of plutonium content for shipper-receiver confirmation. Different types of neutron detectors have been designed to accommodate a large variety of sample containers. When neutron coincidence counting is used, the measurement becomes relatively insensitive to neutron backgrounds and rather specific to the fertile (240Pu-effective) content. For samples with significant neutron self-multiplication, the reals-to-total ratio (R/T) gives an additional confirmation that the induced multiplication is consistent with the declared fissile content. For samples with a very high (α,n) yield, the induced fission rate can be used to directly confirm the fissile content

  18. Bacterial Proteasomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrab, Jordan B; Darwin, K Heran

    2015-10-15

    Interest in bacterial proteasomes was sparked by the discovery that proteasomal degradation is required for the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, one of the world's deadliest pathogens. Although bacterial proteasomes are structurally similar to their eukaryotic and archaeal homologs, there are key differences in their mechanisms of assembly, activation, and substrate targeting for degradation. In this article, we compare and contrast bacterial proteasomes with their archaeal and eukaryotic counterparts, and we discuss recent advances in our understanding of how bacterial proteasomes function to influence microbial physiology. PMID:26488274

  19. Housing Inventory Count

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the data communities reported to HUD about the nature of their dedicated homeless inventory, referred to as their Housing Inventory Count...

  20. Analog multivariate counting analyzers

    CERN Document Server

    Nikitin, A V; Armstrong, T P

    2003-01-01

    Characterizing rates of occurrence of various features of a signal is of great importance in numerous types of physical measurements. Such signal features can be defined as certain discrete coincidence events, e.g. crossings of a signal with a given threshold, or occurrence of extrema of a certain amplitude. We describe measuring rates of such events by means of analog multivariate counting analyzers. Given a continuous scalar or multicomponent (vector) input signal, an analog counting analyzer outputs a continuous signal with the instantaneous magnitude equal to the rate of occurrence of certain coincidence events. The analog nature of the proposed analyzers allows us to reformulate many problems of the traditional counting measurements, and cast them in a form which is readily addressed by methods of differential calculus rather than by algebraic or logical means of digital signal processing. Analog counting analyzers can be easily implemented in discrete or integrated electronic circuits, do not suffer fro...

  1. 1996 : Track Count Protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuges Track Count Protocol is to provide an index to the population size of game animals inhabiting St. Vincent Island.

  2. Counting interesting elections

    CERN Document Server

    Pudwell, Lara K

    2008-01-01

    We provide an elementary proof of a formula for the number of northeast lattice paths that lie in a certain region of the plane. Equivalently, this formula counts the lattice points inside the Pitman--Stanley polytope.

  3. Reticulocyte Count Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reticulocyte count (absolute number or percentage) is a reflection of recent bone marrow activity. Results may indicate ... may indicate conditions such as: Bleeding: If an individual bleeds ( hemorrhage ), then the number of reticulocytes will ...

  4. Effect of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zylenicum supplementation on the intestinal selected bacterial population in Japanese quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baraa Mohamed,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of adding graded levels (0, 1.0 and 1.5% of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zylenicum in the basal diet on the intestinal bacterial population of the Japanese quail. Sixty Japanese quail were randomly distributed into 3 groups. Each treatment contained four replicates (5 birds/replicate. The results showed significant (P<0.05 improvement in lactobacillus of birds fed 1.5% cinnamon. Total bacterial count, coli form and fungi count was significantly (P<0.05 lower compared to the control. In conclusion, 1.5% level of cinnamon may be used for antimicrobial balance in gut for Japanese quail.

  5. Digital count ratemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiring is proposed for a digital count ratemeter with manually preset measurement time in which automatic division of the measured count rate by the measurement time is achieved by switching. The input of the decoder with weight 4 is wired via a code selector to either the output of the quinary divi--der second state or the output of the binary divider state. This wiring offers the possibility of using the finer time series of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, etc. seconds or minutes in the clock. (M.S.)

  6. Rainflow counting revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeker, H. [Deutsches Windenergie-Institut (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    As state of the art method the rainflow counting technique is presently applied everywhere in fatigue analysis. However, the author feels that the potential of the technique is not fully recognized in wind energy industries as it is used, most of the times, as a mere data reduction technique disregarding some of the inherent information of the rainflow counting results. The ideas described in the following aim at exploitation of this information and making it available for use in the design and verification process. (au)

  7. Measurement of calprotectin in ascitic fluid to identify elevated polymorphonuclear cell count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Beglinger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the diagnostic capability of calprotectin in ascitic fluid for detecting a polymorphonuclear (PMN cell count > 250/?L ascites. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, a total of 130 ascites samples were analysed from 71 consecutive patients referred for paracentesis. Total and differential leukocyte cell counts were determined manually with a Neubauer chamber and gentian-violet stain. Calprotectin was measured in 1 mL ascetic fluid by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and a point-of-care (POC lateral flow assay with the Quantum Blue® Reader (Bühlmann Laboratories. All measurements were carried out in a central laboratory by senior personnel blinded to patient history. A PMN count > 250/?L was the primary endpoint of the study. The diagnostic value of ascitic calprotectin measurement was assessed by comparing to the final diagnosis of each patient that had been adjudicated by investigators blinded to calprotectin values. RESULTS: The PMN count was > 250/?L in 19 samples (14.6% from 15 patients (21.1% and varied widely among the study population (range 10-19?800/mL and 1-17?820/mL, respectively. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP was the final diagnosis in four patients (5.6%. All patients with PMN ? 250/?L had negative bacterial culture. PMN count was elevated in five patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis, three with lymphoma, one with neuroendocrine carcinoma, and two with secondary peritonitis due to abdominal perforation. PMN cell counts correlated with ascitic calprotectin values (Spearman’s rho; r = 0.457 for ELISA, r = 0.473 for POC. A considerable range of ascitic calprotectin concentrations was detected by ELISA [median 0.43 ?g/mL, interquartile range (IQR 0.23-1.23 (range 0.10-14.93] and POC [median 0.38 ?g/mL, IQR 0.38-0.56 (range 0.38-13.31]. Ascitic calprotectin levels were higher in samples with PMN > 250/?L, by both ELISA [median (IQR 2.48 ?g/mL (1.61-3.65 vs 0.10 ?g/mL (0.10-0.36, P 250/?L, which may prove useful in the diagnosis of SBP, especially with a readily available bedside testing device.

  8. Effect of Occupational Exposure on WBC Count and Oxidative Stress in Rice Mill Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen S. Patil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are several occupations where individuals are exposed to high concentration of dust particles. The exposed dust can be organic, inorganic, bacterial toxins, viruses or lipopolysaccharides. Exposure to rice husk causes activation of eosinophils and in?ammation reactions. Cardiovascular diseases are associated with increased lipid peroxidation and decrease in levels of antioxidants. Aim & Objectives: Aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of occupational exposure on haematological and biochemical parameters of rice mill workers by analyzing blood cell Counts, Malondialdehyde (MDA, Nitric Oxide (NO and Ascorbic acid. Material and Methods: A total of 134 eligible individuals who had been exposed to dust in rice mills for more than 5 years were included in the study group where as another 134 unexposed individuals constituted control group. Estimation of serum MDA, serum NO and plasma Ascorbic acid were done by using semiautoanalyzer. Results: There was no signi?cant difference between Total Leucocyte Count of exposed and unexposed individuals. Lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil and basophil counts are signi?cantly increased in exposed individuals. Serum levels of MDA, NO and Ascorbic acid are also signi?cantly increased in exposed group compared with control group. Conclusion: The ?ndings of our study clearly indicate that the rice mill workers are under high level of dust exposure which has deleterious effects on their blood and tissues. Increased MDA, NO and decreased Vitamin-C are probably due to high oxidative stress.

  9. Bacterial Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sometimes find and identify the bacteria if the cultures do not. Â Top of Page Treatment Bacterial ... antibiotics are needed. Maintaining healthy habits, like not smoking and avoiding cigarette smoke, getting plenty of rest, ...

  10. Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Follow STD STD on Twitter STD on Facebook Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Bacterial Vaginosis – CDC Fact Sheet Language: English ... 9877 Sources Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2015 . MMWR, 64(RR-3) (2015). ...

  11. What Counts as Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…

  12. Radiation intensity counting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described of excluding the natural dead time of the radiation detector (or eg Geiger-Mueller counter) in a ratemeter counting circuit, thus eliminating the need for dead time corrections. Using a pulse generator an artificial dead time is introduced which is longer than the natural dead time of the detector. (U.K.)

  13. Single count monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single count monitor is made to detect a variation of a counter with a photomultiplier. One hundred counters at maximum are monitored one by one in some sampling times. The result of the monitor is printed out automatically using the digital printer at the end of monitoring. (author)

  14. VCS parameters of neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes may indicate local bacterial infection in cancer patients who accepted cytotoxic chemotherapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, N; Liu, L; Li, D; Zeng, Q; Song, X

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infections increased greatly in cancer patients who accepted cytotoxic chemotherapeutics. VCS parameters of neutrophils were reported to be an indicator for acute bacterial infection accompanied by increased WBC counts. Here we explored the possibility of VCS parameters of neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes in indicating the local bacterial infection in cancer patients. A total of 310 cancer patients and 90 healthy controls were retrospectively analyzed, and 190 of them were diagnosed as acute local bacterial infection. The VCS parameters acquired from a Beckman Coulter LH750 haematology analyzer were investigated to determine which VCS parameters could indicate local bacterial infection in cancer patients with leucopenia caused by cytotoxic agents. VCS parameters of cancer patients were significantly affected by infection. For diagnosing bacterial infection of cancer patients, the best single indicator was mean monocyte light scatter (MMS) with a sensitivity of 95.12 % and a specificity of 58.82 % and the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.792. A combination of the following five parameters: mean neutrophil volume (MNV), MMS, mean lymphocyte conductivity (MLC), mean lymphocyte light scatter (MLS) and neutrophil volume distribution width (NDW) could provide a better index in diagnosing bacterial infection than any single parameter (sensitivity 75.8 %, specificity 64.72 %, AUC 0.763). Taking WBC counts into consideration, VCS parameters could better indicate bacterial infection for cancer patients with abnormal WBC level than that with normal WBC level. Aside from neutrophils, the VCS of monocytes and lymphocytes were also ideal indicators for bacterial infection. The combination of VCS parameters could increase the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of diagnosis of cancer patients. PMID:26563897

  15. Total lymphoid irradiation of intractable rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleven patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis were treated with fractionated total lymphoid irradiation, (total dose 20 Gy). Lasting improvement in clinical symptoms was found in four patients during treatment and the remaining patients experienced similar benefit within 2 months of irradiation. There was marked reduction in exacerbations and number of joints involved. Morning stiffness, joint swelling and tenderness decreased. Complications included severe fatigue during treatment and acute bacterial arthritis in multiple joints in one patient. Four patients have since died, one of renal failure, another of cardiogenic shock following surgery 3 and 24 months after total lymphoid irradiation. Both had generalised amyloidosis. The third patient developed joint empyema and died of toxic cardiac failure. The fourth died 3 months after resection of a Kaposi's sarcoma complicated by wound infection which responded to treatment. Immunologically, total lymphoid irradiation resulted in suppression of the absolute lymphocyte count and reduction in T-helper cells, the number of T-suppressor cells remaining unchanged. These data provide evidence of T-cell involvement in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Total lymphoid irradiation can induce sustained improvement in clinical disease activity, but severe, possibly fatal, side-effects cannot be ignored. (author)

  16. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a high speed circuit for accurate neutron coincidence counting comprising: neutron detecting means for providing an above-threshold signal upon neutron detection; amplifying means inputted by the neutron detecting means for providing a pulse output having a pulse width of about 0.5 microseconds upon the input of each above threshold signal; digital processing means inputted by the pulse output of the amplifying means for generating a pulse responsive to each input pulse from the amplifying means and having a pulse width of about 50 nanoseconds effective for processing an expected neutron event rate of about 1 Mpps: pulse stretching means inputted by the digital processing means for producing a pulse having a pulse width of several milliseconds for each pulse received form the digital processing means; visual indicating means inputted by the pulse stretching means for producing a visual output for each pulse received from the digital processing means; and derandomizing means effective to receive the 50 ns neutron event pulses from the digital processing means for storage at a rate up to the neutron event rate of 1 Mpps and having first counter means for storing the input neutron event pulses

  17. Breast carcinoma vascularity, A comparison of manual microvessel count and Chalkley count

    OpenAIRE

    Dhakal, Hari Prasad; Bassarova, Assia; Naume, Bjørn; Synnestvedt, Marit; Borgen, Elin; Kaaresen, Rolf; Schlichting, Ellen; Wiedswang, Gro; Giercksky, Karl- Erik; Nesland, Jahn M.

    2009-01-01

    . Manual counting of microvessels as intratumoral microvessel density (MVD) and Chalkley counting have been used in several studies to assess the prognostic impact of vascularity in invasive breast carcinomas. In our present study, the aim was to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis in invasive breast carcinoma assessed by MVD and Chalkley techniques in the same series of patients. A total of 498 breast carcinoma patients with median follow up time 85 month...

  18. Effects of Prolonged Empirical Antibiotic Administration on Post-Surgical Intestinal Bacterial Flora of Local Dogs Undergoing Non-Laparoscopic Gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Akinrinmade

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged post-surgical antibiotic administration may be of less advantage in prevention of post-surgical infections. This study therefore, aimed at investigating the prolonged effect of empiric administration of three most-prescribed antibiotics (amoxicillin, cefotaxime and oxytetracycline by veterinary practices in Southwest Nigeria on intestinal bacterial population of dogs undergoing partial, non-laparoscopic gastrectomy. Using conventional quantitative and qualitative microbial culture procedures, the total bacterial populations were mostly too numerous to count (TNTC before gastrectomy but log103-105 cfu/mL after, while control were log 105-107 cfu/mL after gastrectomy. On general-purpose, special, differential and selective culture media, total bacterial counts with increasing post-operative days were- amoxicillin (11 mg/kg day 4: log 105-10-9/TNTC cfu/mL vs. day 8: log 103-105 cfu/mL; cefotaxime (25 mg/kg day 4: log 103-108/TNTC/cfu/mL vs. day 8: log 102-105 cfu/mL; oxytetracycline (10 mg/kg day 4: log 104-109 TNTC cfu/mL vs. day 8: log 102-106 cfu/mL. Total bacterial counts of control animals were- day 4: log 105-108/TNTC cfu/mL vs. day 8: log 105-109. Total qualitative populations of predominant, easily-recoverable aerobic and anaerobic rectal canine bacteria, Bacillus, Citrobacter aerogenes, Clostridium, E. coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Salmonella, Shigella, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus and lactobacilli were significantly less after gastrectomy but reductions in post-operative bacterial populations were mostly more pronounced among the anaerobes (lactobacilli and Clostridium perfringens. No post-operative infection was recorded among all the experimental animals, including the control animals. In conclusion, this study confirmed significant reduction effect of prolonged empiric antibiotic administration on rectal (intestinal bacterial populations of experimental local dogs that had partial, non-laparoscopic gastrectomy.

  19. Analysis Of Mast Cell Counts In Oral Leukoplakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vindhya Savithri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are regarded as one of the important cells of the immune system. They are generally believed to have different roles in human health and disease. Present study aimed to evaluate the total mast cell count, the distribution of degranulated mast cells and the possible role played by them in Oral Leukoplakia (OLK. Total mast cell count and the count of degranulated mast cells were analyzed separately in 40 histopathologically confirmed cases of OLK after staining the sections with 1% Toluidine blue. These values were compared with sections taken from clinically healthy papillary gingival in 10 normal subjects. The count of degranulated mast cells was also separately evaluated in the three zones viz. Sub-epithelial, Intermediate and Deeper zones of the connective tissue in all the OLK cases. There was significant increase in the total mast cell count and the count of degranulated mast cells in Oral Leukoplakia as compared to normal oral mucosa (p < 0.001. The count of degranulated cells was found to be the highest in the Deep zone in all the OLK cases studied. The resent study revealed that the total count of mast cells and the count of degranulated mast cells were significantly increased in oral leukoplakia. This may be attributed to their pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic role in oral leukoplakia and may actually play a significant role in its progression to invasive carcinoma.

  20. Metal ion levels and lymphocyte counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Ø; Varmarken, Jens-Erik; Ovesen, Ole; Nielsen, Christian; Overgaard, Søren

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Wear particles from metal-on-metal arthroplasties are under suspicion for adverse effects both locally and systemically, and the DePuy ASR Hip Resurfacing System (RHA) has above-average failure rates. We compared lymphocyte counts in RHA and total hip arthroplasty (THA) an...

  1. Counting Migrant Buddhists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, JØrn

    2015-01-01

    Religious demography is generally a challenging endeavor, and counting and defining religions and religious identities in an Asian context is notoriously difficult. Buddhists in both Asia and the West have a long tradition of grey zone religiosity, which means that membership and mono-identity is less common than syncretic engagement and hybrid identity. The immigrant Buddhists in the West are far more numerous than the convert and new age Buddhists. Their numbers are, however, extremely difficult to obtain. This article discusses the methodological and theoretical problems in quantifying immigrant religion and the challenges of operationalizing such constraints into concrete methods. The empirical data derive from the author’s engagement in several research projects on Buddhism in Denmark in which traditions from both Theravada and Mahayana groups are represented. While concrete figures are suggested, it is also concluded that further empirical research as well as comparison with more contexts is necessary for the continued refinement of usable methods in counting immigrant religion.

  2. Counting supersymmetric branes

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinschmidt, A.

    2011-01-01

    Maximal supergravity solutions are revisited and classified, with particular emphasis on objects of co-dimension at most two. This class of solutions includes branes whose tension scales with g_s^{-\\sigma} for \\sigma>2. We present a group theory derivation of the counting of these objects based on the corresponding tensor hierarchies derived from E11 and discrete T- and U-duality transformations. This provides a rationale for the wrapping rules that were recently discussed for \\sigma

  3. Propagating Regular Counting Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Beldiceanu, Nicolas; Flener, Pierre; Pearson, Justin; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Constraints over finite sequences of variables are ubiquitous in sequencing and timetabling. Moreover, the wide variety of such constraints in practical applications led to general modelling techniques and generic propagation algorithms, often based on deterministic finite automata (DFA) and their extensions. We consider counter-DFAs (cDFA), which provide concise models for regular counting constraints, that is constraints over the number of times a regular-language pattern occurs in a sequen...

  4. Bacterial adenosine triphosphate as a measure of urinary tract infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L.

    1971-01-01

    Procedure detects and counts bacteria present in urine samples. Method also determines bacterial levels in other aqueous body fluids including lymph fluid, plasma, blood, spinal fluid, saliva and mucous.

  5. A simple method to assess bacterial attachment to surfaces

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sonak, S.; Bhosle, N.B.

    The crystal violet microplate adhension assay was modified to evaluate bacterial adhesion to metal and non-metal surfaces. Both viable cell count and the absorbance of the crystal violet stained cells attached to aluminium increased over the period...

  6. Bacterial Adhesion & Blocking Bacterial Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

    2008-01-01

    Microorganisms are an integral part of all natural ecosystems, and as such are ubiquitous in nature. They often live adhered to or in association with surfaces of either organic or inorganic nature, and all surfaces will almost inevitably be colonized by microorganisms. This often results in the formation of highly complex sessile communities, referred to as biofilms. Such microbial communities are often highly dynamic and heterogeneous in nature. Microbial biofilms are of great importance in a wide range of natural processes and industrial settings, from the commensal flora of the gastrointestinal tract to the microbial flocs in waste water treatment facilities. Microbial biofilms may however also cause a wide range of industrial and medical problems, and have been implicated in a wide range of persistent infectious diseases, including implantassociated microbial infections. Bacterial adhesion is the first committing step in biofilm formation, and has therefore been intensely scrutinized. Much however, stillremains elusive. Bacterial adhesion is a highly complex process, which is influenced by a variety of factors. In this thesis, a range of physico-chemical, molecular and environmental parameters, which influence the transition from a planktonic lifestyle to a sessile lifestyle, have been studied. Protein conditioning film formation was found to influence bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation considerable, and an aqueous extract of fish muscle tissue was shown to significantly reduce or delay bacterial biofilm formation of a range of urinary tract infectious E.coli and Klebsiella isolates. Several other proteinaceous coatings were also found to display anti-adhesive properties, possibly providing a measure for controlling the colonization of implant materials. Several other parameters controlling bacterial adhesion were also studied. Subinhibitory concentrations of certain antimicrobial compounds and several surfactants were found to significantly affect bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, most likely by affecting the production of biofilm extracellular polymeric matrix components. These substances may both mediate and stabilize the bacterial biofilm. Finally, several adhesive structures were examined, and a novel physiological biofilm phenotype in E.coli biofilms was characterized, namely cell chain formation. The autotransporter protein, antigen 43, was implicated in this structural biofilm phenotype, at least in some bacterial strains. Understanding the fundamental requirements of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation may aid in the development of effective preventive measures.

  7. The right to count does not always count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The best prescription against illness is learning to read and to count. People who are unable to count have a harder time learning to read. People who have difficulty counting make poorer decisions, are less able to combine information and are less likely to have a strategy for life...

  8. Effect of preputial washing on bacterial load and preservability of semen in Murrah buffalo bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Meena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of preputial washing on bacterial load, preservability and semen quality in Murrah buffalo bulls Materials and Methods: A total of 36 collections of three Murrah buffalo bulls maintained at Artificial Breeding Research Centre, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, were collected at weekly intervals from each bull without preputial washing and latter ejaculates from same bull with preputial washing by infusing normal saline (0.85%, KMnO4 (0.02% and savlon (2.0% to first, second and third bull, respectively. The microbial load and semen quality were evaluated during different hours of storage at refrigerated temperature (0, 24 and 48 h and after thrawing of cryopreserved (at ?196°C semen. Results: The results of preservation of semen at refrigerated temperature showed that bacterial load was markedly lower in ejaculates of bulls subjected to preputial washing. Semen preserved at refrigerator temperature and cryopreserved, the effect of washing solution was significant for individual motility (IM, non-eosiniphilic count, hypo-osmotic swelling reactivity (HOST, total plate count (TPC and acrosome integrity. KMnO4 was found to be the best in lowering bacterial load, sperm abnormalities and in improving semen quality such as motility, non-eosinophilic count, HOST and acrosome integrity even up to 48 h of preservation and cryopreserved semen. Effect of duration of preservation and stage of cryopreservation was also significant for IM, non-eosiniphilic count, HOST, sperm abnormalities and acrosome integrity. Conclusion: Overall the results suggested that preputial washing with KMnO4 solution improved the semen quality and reduced microbial load of Murrah buffalo bull’s semen preserved at refrigerated temperature and cryopreservation.

  9. Total-count calibration blocks for use in uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transportable calibration blocks for field scintillometers and borehole probes were manufactured from concrete and installed at calibration sites in Denmark and Greece. The concrete mixes were prepared from aggregates of quartz sand and crushed uranium-thorium ore. Water-reducing agents and silica dust added to the cement paste produced concretes of acceptable porosity and pore structure. The content of ore was adjusted to provide block grades of approximately 2, 140, and 540 units of radioelement concentration (Ur). Thorium was estimated to contribute 0.39 +- 0.02 Ur per ppm Th. The adopted reference grades include concrete pore moisture and are normalized to an effective atomic number of 13. Grade instability due to radon emanation was not detected. (author)

  10. Total-Count Calibration Blocks for use in uranium Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif

    dust added to the cement paste produced concretes of acceptable porosity and pore structure. The content of ore was adjusted to provide block grades of approximately 2, 140, and 540 units of radioelement concentration (Ur). Thorium was estimated to contribute 0.39 ± 0.02 Ur per ppm Th. The adopted...

  11. Bacterial clearance in the intact and regenerating liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kupffer cells in the liver play an important role in reticuloendothelial system (RES) function by clearing particulate matter and bacteria from the blood stream. While hepatocyte regeneration and function have been extensively studied following partial hepatectomy, little information is available concerning RES function in the regenerating liver. This study investigates hepatic RES function by evaluating bacterial clearance (live E. coli) in the intact and regenerating liver. Thirty-four young male Sprague Dawley rats were studied. Twenty-two animals underwent a standard 70% partial hepatectomy using ligature technique and 12 had a sham operation. Both groups of rats received 10(9) organism of 35S labeled E coli, intravenously at 24 hours, 72 hours, 2 1/2 weeks, and 6 weeks postoperatively. Rats were killed 10 minutes following injection and liver, lung, spleen, and kidney harvested, fixed, and radioactivity was determined using a scintillation spectrometer interfaced with a micro-computer counting the 35S radiolabel. The total organ count of trapped bacteria in liver in partially hepatectomized rats was lower than intact controls at 24 hours, but was similar at 72 hours, 2 1/2 weeks, and 6 weeks. Partial hepatectomy increased the amount of bacterial trapping in the lung at 24 hours and 72 hours and returned to normal at 2 1/2 weeks and 6 weeks. Splenic activity was increased following hepatectomy at 2 1/2 weeks. Renal clearance was increased at 72 hours and 2 1/2 weeks

  12. Automatic track countings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For convenient utilization of track detectors, results must be obtained quickly, so automatic processes are usually employed. To this end two techniques are investigated: spark counter and quantimet system. The first one is appropriate for low densities (below 4000 tracks/cm2); for densities between 4000 tracks/cm2 and 2.2 x 105 tracks/cm2 counting is performed with a Cambridge Quantimet 720; for higher densities, two different methods are described which take into account the overlapping of tracks. (author)

  13. Counting plane Mumford curves

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, Patrick Erik

    2008-01-01

    A $p$-adic version of Gromov-Witten invariants for counting plane curves of genus $g$ and degree $d$ through a given number of points is discussed. The multiloop version of $p$-adic string theory considered by Chekhov and others motivates us to ask how many of these curves are Mumford curves, i.e.\\ uniformisable by a domain at the boundary of the Bruhat-Tits tree for $\\PGL_2(\\mathbb{Q}_p)$. Generally, the number of Mumford curves depends on the position of the given points in $\\mathbb{P}^2$. ...

  14. Petrifilm plates for enumeration of bacteria counts in goat milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    PetrifilmTM Aerobic Count (AC) and Coliform Count (CC) plates were validated against standard methods for enumeration of coliforms, total bacteria, and psychrotrophic bacteria in raw (n = 39) and pasteurized goat milk (n = 17) samples. All microbiological data were transformed into log form and sta...

  15. Photon counting and Laguerre detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, R. M.

    1972-01-01

    In this correspondence maximum-likelihood binary detection theory is applied to an incoherent optical system model employing photodetectors governed by Laguerre counting statistics. It is shown that a maximum-likelihood Laguerre detector corresponds to a count comparison over each signaling interval. Laguerre error probabilities are presented and compared with those for Poisson counting.

  16. Counting statistics in radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of statistical methods to radioactivity measurement problems is analyzed in several chapters devoted successively to: the statistical nature of radioactivity counts; the application to radioactive counting of two theoretical probability distributions, Poisson's distribution law and the Laplace-Gauss law; true counting laws; corrections related to the nature of the apparatus; statistical techniques in gamma spectrometry

  17. How to count elephants in West African savannahs? Synthesis and comparison of main gamecount methods

    OpenAIRE

    Bouché, P.; Lejeune, P.; VERMEULEN, C

    2012-01-01

    The comparison of some elephants count methods – aerial sampling count, aerial total count and direct foot count – has been presented through surveys’ study cases implemented in Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger. We compare them in terms of effort and cost to survey an area (sampling efficiency), efficiency in data collection (detection efficiency) as well as accuracy and precision. Aerial sampling count returns low sampling and detection efficiency and very low precision and accuracy figures whe...

  18. Do your syringes count?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This study was designed to investigate anecdotal evidence that residual Sestamibi (MIBI) activity vaned in certain situations. For rest studies different brands of syringes were tested to see if the residuals varied. The period of time MIBI doses remained in the syringe between dispensing and injection was also considered as a possible source of increased residual counts. Stress Mibi syringe residual activities were measured to assess if the method of stress test affected residual activity. MIBI was reconstituted using 13 Gbq of Technetium in 3mls of normal saline then boiled for 10 minutes. Doses were dispensed according to department protocol and injected via cannula. Residual syringes were collected for three syringe types. In each case the barrel and plunger were measured separately. As the syringe is flushed during the exercise stress test and not the pharmacological stress test the chosen method was recorded. No relationship was demonstrated between the time MIBI remained in a syringe prior to injection and residual activity. Residual activity was not affected by method of stress test used. Actual injected activity can be calculated if the amount of activity remaining in the syringe post injection is known. Imaging time can be adjusted for residual activity to optimise count statistics. Preliminary results in this study indicate there is no difference in residual activity between syringe brands.Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  19. Counting RG flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gukov, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    Interpreting renormalization group flows as solitons interpolating between different fixed points, we ask various questions that are normally asked in soliton physics but not in renormalization theory. Can one count RG flows? Are there different "topological sectors" for RG flows? What is the moduli space of an RG flow, and how does it compare to familiar moduli spaces of (supersymmetric) dowain walls? Analyzing these questions in a wide variety of contexts — from counting RG walls to AdS/CFT correspondence — will not only provide favorable answers, but will also lead us to a unified general framework that is powerful enough to account for peculiar RG flows and predict new physical phenomena. Namely, using Bott's version of Morse theory we relate the topology of conformal manifolds to certain properties of RG flows that can be used as precise diagnostics and "topological obstructions" for the strong form of the C-theorem in any dimension. Moreover, this framework suggests a precise mechanism for how the violation of the strong C-theorem happens and predicts "phase transitions" along the RG flow when the topological obstruction is non-trivial. Along the way, we also find new conformal manifolds in well-known 4d CFT's and point out connections with the superconformal index and classifying spaces of global symmetry groups.

  20. Methodological limitations of counting total leukocytes and thrombocytes in reptiles (Amazon turtle, Podocnemis expansa: an analysis and discussion Limitações metodológicas de contagens de leucócitos e trombócitos totais em répteis (tartaruga da Amazônia, Podocnemis expansa: uma análise e discussão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Tavares-Dias

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare three different methods for counting white blood cells [WBC] (Natt and Herrick method, estimation with 1,000 and 2,000 erythrocytes and three methods for counting total thrombocytes [TT] (Wojtaszek method, estimation with 1,000 and 2,000 erythrocytes in a South American freshwater turtle species, Podocnemis expansa, Schweigger 1812 (Reptilia, Pelomedusidae. Direct WBC counts using the Natt and Herrick method showed limitations, which are discussed here. The WBC and TT counts using 1,000 erythrocytes from blood smears are not recommended for Amazon turtles nor other reptilian species, since wide variation in counts can be observed. Estimation methods for determining WBC and TT based on 2,000 erythrocytes of blood smears were most acceptable because they allow a differentiation between leukocytes and thrombocytes and also had a smaller variation. The methods investigated here for the Amazon turtle, which have been widely used in other reptile species, provided evidence that the most acceptable method is not that of using diluted stains and a hemocytometer.O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar três diferentes métodos para contar leucócitos totais [LT] (método de Natt & Herrick, de estimação em 1000 e 2000 eritrócitos e três métodos para contar trombócitos totais [TT] ( método de Wojtaszek, de estimação em 1000 e 2000 eritrócitos em uma espécie de tartaruga de água doce da América do Sul, Podocnemis expansa, Schweigger 1812 (Reptilia, Pelomedusidae. As contagens diretas de LT usando o método de Natt & Herrick mostraram limitações que são aqui discutidas. As contagens de LT e TT usando estimativa em 1000 eritrócitos na extensão sanguínea não são recomendadas para tartaruga-da-Amazônia nem para outras espécies de répteis, pois houve ampla variação nestas contagens. Os métodos para determinar LT e TT baseados em 2000 eritrócitos nas extensões sanguíneas foram mais aceitáveis porque eles permitem uma diferenciação entre leucócitos e trombócitos, além disso, teve uma variação menor. Os métodos aqui investigados para tartaruga-da-Amazônia, os quais são amplamente usados em outras espécies de répteis, proveram evidências de que o método mais aceitável não é o que usa corantes diluentes e um hemocitômetro.

  1. Neutral sugar composition and gravimetric yield of plant and bacterial fractions of feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabotaje, L M; López-Guisa, J M; Shinnick, F L; Marlett, J A

    1990-06-01

    Separating dietary fiber from other polysaccharides in digesta and feces is necessary to understand its mechanisms of action. A gravimetric method that separates fecal plant and bacterial matter based on size and density was evaluated and modified to determine the plant and bacterial mass of lyophilized whole and blended rat and human feces. Three screen mech combinations (150 and 75 microns, 150 and 35 microns, 35 microns) were used with rat feces. Filtration of a homogenized rat fecal slurry sequentially through 150- and 35-microns-mesh screens versus 150- and 75-microns-mesh screens decreased the gravimetric recovery of bacteria from congruent to 35 to congruent to 25% of fecal dry weight and increased the plant fraction weight. Neutral sugar composition, determined by gas chromatography of alditol acetates, and bacterial counts of the fractions suggested that the decreased yield of bacterial fraction represented removal of plant material and not a loss of bacteria. Rat excreta contained 29.5% (dry weight) total neutral sugar, 88% of which was recovered in the plant material. Human feces containing wheat bran, fractionated with the 150- and 35-microns-mesh screens, was 21% neutral sugar, congruent to 65% of which was in the plant fraction. The plant fractions had more xylose and arabinose and less glucose than the bacterial fractions. Processing samples in a Waring blender had no adverse effect on the rat or human fecal bacterial counts. The use of this gravimetric method in combination with the sugar analysis of the fractions provided a better measure of plant and bacteria than only gravimetric yield. PMID:2200340

  2. Breast carcinoma vascularity: a comparison of manual microvessel count and Chalkley count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Hari Prasad; Bassarova, Assia; Naume, Bjørn; Synnestvedt, Marit; Borgen, Elin; Kaaresen, Rolf; Schlichting, Ellen; Wiedswang, Gro; Giercksky, Karl-Erik; Nesland, Jahn M

    2009-08-01

    Manual counting of microvessels as intratumoral microvessel density (MVD) and Chalkley counting have been used in several studies to assess the prognostic impact of vascularity in invasive breast carcinomas. In our present study, the aim was to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis in invasive breast carcinoma assessed by MVD and Chalkley techniques in the same series of patients. A total of 498 breast carcinoma patients with median follow up time 85 months were evaluated. The tumour vascularity was quantified by both manual microvessel count (MVD) and Chalkley count in CD34 stained breast carcinoma slides by a single investigator blinded to clinical information. Other relevant clinicopathological parameters were noted, including breast cancer related death and both loco-regional and systemic relapse. The patients were stratified by converting MVD and Chalkley counts to categorical variables to assess prognostic impact, and results were compared. High vascular grades using MVD count did not demonstrate any prognostic significance for breast cancer specific survival (BCSS) or distant disease free survival (DDFS) either in whole patient group (BCSS, p=0.517, DDFS, p=0.301) or in non-treated node negative patients (p>0.05). Chalkley count showed prognostic significance for both DDFS and BCSS in whole patient group (p<0.001) and also in untreated node negative patient group (p<0.05). In multivariate analysis, Chalkley count, but not MVD, retained the prognostic value for BCSS (p=0.007) and DDFS (p=0.014). The Chalkley count for assessing angiogenesis in invasive breast carcinomas demonstrated prognostic value. The Chalkley method appears to be the better method in estimating the prognostic impact of vascularity in invasive breast carcinomas. PMID:19554512

  3. 100-Mc counting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complete 100-Mc counting system is described for use in experiments with accelerators. Current-switching logic, using both transistors and germanium tunnel diodes, is used for all high-speed logic. All critical circuits have a rise-time and time-jitter of 2 ns or less. The logical elements are a pulse-height limiter, a discriminator, a multichannel coincidence circuit, a four-fold fanout, and a scale of 8. The fanout enables a limiter or discriminator output to drive any combination of four elements. Each element is a separate plug-in module. Elements are interconnected by a 50-? cable with at least one termination. Most module inputs and outputs are compatible so that, for example, a discriminator can either drive or be driven from a coincidence circuit by switching cables. To insure reliable high-speed operation and good time and temperature stability the transistors were operated at unity change-gain either in a current-switching mode or in a linear mode as a distributed amplifier. Each tunnel diode provided an additional switching charge-gain of from 2 to 5 with the same stability and bandpass as the transistors. Each module was designed for operation up to a continuous counting rate of 100 megapulses per second. High system duty cycles were made possible by DC interconnections and by double-delay-line clipping for recovery between pulses. No loss in system performance is anticipated for counting rates to 50 Mc. The basic discriminator has a sensitivity adjustable from 2 to 10 mA with a DC-Coupled output of 10 mA at ground potential. Output rise and fall times are 1 ns; pulse width is set by delay cable; maximum output duty cycle is 50% for 95% input recovery. Time jitter from threshold firing to three times that level is 2 ns or less. A more sophisticated version has 10 times the sensitivity. It has a distributed amplifier and a switching chain of two tunnel diodes. Output specifications are the same. Other logic systems for discriminators will also be discussed. The scale of 8 has tunnel diode binaries. These are (unconventionally) steered with ordinary diodes. (author)

  4. Bacterial cellulose/boehmite composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Composites based on bacterial cellulose membranes and boehmite were obtained. SEM results indicate that the bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes are totally covered by boehmite and obtained XRD patterns suggest structural changes due to this boehmite addition. Thermal stability is accessed through TG curves and is dependent on boehmite content. Transparency is high comparing to pure BC as can be seen through UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. (author)

  5. Heavy metals effect on bacterial communities from coastal sediments.

    OpenAIRE

    Modamio, X; Mallo, S

    1984-01-01

    The effects of heavy metals on bacterial communities of sea sediments are studied. Samples were taken from a very polluted zone near Barcelona. Bacterial populations were estimated by the plate count method, using culture medium amended with heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Cr and Cu). The authors have also made a numerical taxonomy study with a hundred resistant strains, using 129 unit characters.

  6. Enhanced counting efficiency of Cerenkov radiation from bismuth-210

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the measurement of 210Bi by Cerenkov counting in a commercial liquid scintillation counter. The counting efficiency in water is 0.17 counts per second per Becquerel (17%). When the enhancers Triton X-100 (15% v/v) and sodium salicylate (1% m/v) are added to the solution the counting efficiency for 210Bi increases from 17% to 75%. The 210Po daughter of 210Bi causes interference of 0.85 counts per second per Becquerel in the presence of the enhancers but not in water. When 210Bi and 210Po are present in secular equilibrium the total counting efficiency is 160%. When 210Bi and 210Po are not in secular equilibrium the 210Po can be removed immediately before counting by plating onto silver foil. The use of the enhancers gives a substantial increase in counting efficiency compared to counting in water. Compared with solutions used in liquid scintillation counting the enhancer solution is inexpensive and can be disposed of without environmental hazard. (author)

  7. Bacterial sensitivity to fosfomycin in pregnant women with urinary infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Batista Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim this study was to determine the in vitrosusceptibility to fosfomycin of bacteria isolated from urine samples of pregnant women with urinary tract infection. Samples of urine culture with bacterial growth of pregnant women were collected from clinical laboratories in Tubarão, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, between September 2012 and May 2013. In the experimental stage, the colonies were tested for sensitivity to fosfomycin by using the Kirby-Bauer method. The following information relating to the samples was also collected: patients' age, colony count, type(s of identified bacterial(s and result of the antimicrobial sensitivity test. Student's t-test was used for mean comparison. A total of 134 samples were selected for the study. The age of the subjects ranged from 15 to 40 years (mean 26.7. Escherichia coli(Gram-negative and Staphylococcus aureus(Gram-positive were the most commonly identified species. In 89% of cases, the microorganisms were sensitive to fosfomycin. E. coliand S. aureuswere the main species of bacteria responsible for urinary tract infections in women in the study area. The most prevalent microorganisms in pregnant women with urinary tract infection were susceptible to fosfomycin.

  8. Bacterial sensitivity to fosfomycin in pregnant women with urinary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Rodrigo Batista; Trevisol, Daisson José; Schuelter-Trevisol, Fabiana

    2015-01-01

    The aim this study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility to fosfomycin of bacteria isolated from urine samples of pregnant women with urinary tract infection. Samples of urine culture with bacterial growth of pregnant women were collected from clinical laboratories in Tubarão, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, between September 2012 and May 2013. In the experimental stage, the colonies were tested for sensitivity to fosfomycin by using the Kirby-Bauer method. The following information relating to the samples was also collected: patients' age, colony count, type(s) of identified bacterial(s) and result of the antimicrobial sensitivity test. Student's t-test was used for mean comparison. A total of 134 samples were selected for the study. The age of the subjects ranged from 15 to 40 years (mean 26.7). Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) were the most commonly identified species. In 89% of cases, the microorganisms were sensitive to fosfomycin. E. coli and S. aureus were the main species of bacteria responsible for urinary tract infections in women in the study area. The most prevalent microorganisms in pregnant women with urinary tract infection were susceptible to fosfomycin. PMID:25626961

  9. Bacterial and toxic pollutants in lakes of river Indus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indus river water gets polluted through three sources viz., municipal wastewater, industrial wastewater and agricultural runoff through drainage structure. The lakes in Sindh (fed by the river Indus), constitute the important source of drinking water, recreation and fish, etc. and offer employment for many. A large number of chemicals that either exist naturally in the land dissolve in the water, or human excreta added due to human activity thereby, contaminating and leading to various diseases. In order to assess the microbial contamination, detection of pollutant indicator organisms (coliform group), using Coliform test was performed by Most Probable Number technique and total bacterial count by Pour Plate method. The level of various heavy metals (arsenic, calcium, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, mercury, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium, selenium and zinc) and electrolytes (Cl/sup -1/, HCO/sub 3/sup -1/) was monitored in water and fish meat samples collected from Haleji and Keenjhar lakes to assess the impact of toxic pollutants. Metal concentrations in water and fish samples were estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Total coliform organisms were found in both the lake water samples, exceeded in 38% samples than the acceptable limits, while total average aerobic bacterial count analyzed in both the lakes was 102 CFU/ml - 1010 CFU/ml. Toxic chemical contaminants were estimated below the detection limit, while other several (essential) metal ions were found within the range set by WHO, except arsenic, cadmium and iron that exceeded slightly in 12.5% water samples. This study was designed to ensure the access of safe and potable water to urban and rural areas of Sindh. Further, the findings will help public/private enterprises and public health institutions to work for the people health friendly policies. (author)

  10. Bacterial Adhesion & Blocking Bacterial Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

    2008-01-01

    tract to the microbial flocs in waste water treatment facilities. Microbial biofilms may however also cause a wide range of industrial and medical problems, and have been implicated in a wide range of persistent infectious diseases, including implantassociated microbial infections. Bacterial adhesion is...... formation of highly complex sessile communities, referred to as biofilms. Such microbial communities are often highly dynamic and heterogeneous in nature. Microbial biofilms are of great importance in a wide range of natural processes and industrial settings, from the commensal flora of the gastrointestinal...... polymeric matrix components. These substances may both mediate and stabilize the bacterial biofilm. Finally, several adhesive structures were examined, and a novel physiological biofilm phenotype in E.coli biofilms was characterized, namely cell chain formation. The autotransporter protein, antigen 43, was...

  11. Application of neutron multiplicity counting to waste assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the use of a new figure of merit code that calculates both bias and precision for coincidence and multiplicity counting, and determines the optimum regions for each in waste assay applications. A tunable multiplicity approach is developed that uses a combination of coincidence and multiplicity counting to minimize the total assay error. An example is shown where multiplicity analysis is used to solve for mass, alpha, and multiplication and tunable multiplicity is shown to work well. The approach provides a method for selecting coincidence, multiplicity, or tunable multiplicity counting to give the best assay with the lowest total error over a broad spectrum of assay conditions

  12. Bacterial contamination in Saeng-go-gi, a ready-to-eat fresh raw beef dish sold in restaurants in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung Su; Moon, Jin San; Todd, Ewen C D; Bahk, Gyung Jin

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the bacterial contamination levels in ready-to-eat fresh raw beef, Saeng-go-gi in Korean, sold in restaurants. A total of 462 samples were analyzed by performing an aerobic bacterial plate count, a coliform count, and an Escherichia coli O157:H7 count. Aerobic bacterial plate counts of fresh raw beef obtained from Seoul, Cheonan, Daegu, Gunsan, and Gwangju retail store restaurants were 6.46, 6.89, 6.39, 6.58, and 6.67 log CFU/g, respectively, and coliforms were 4.05, 4.97, 4.76, 3.62, and 3.32 log CFU/g, respectively. Among the 462 assessed samples, suspected E. coli O157:H7 colonies were found in 32, 24, 20, 22, and 16 samples obtained from Seoul, Cheonan, Daegu, Gunsan, and Gwangju, respectively. The identity of these isolated colonies was further assessed by using a latex agglutination kit. The agglutination assay data showed that the isolates were not E. coli O157:H7. The data from this study could be used to design better food handling practices for reducing foodborne illnesses linked to fresh raw beef consumption. PMID:25719891

  13. Fluoroscence in situ hybridization of chicken intestinal samples with bacterial rRNA targeted oligonucleotide probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Katja Nyholm; Francesch, M.; Christensen, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    were counted by the EUB338 probe. Three weeks old male broiler Ross 308 chickens were used to investigate the bacterial composition of the intestine. The birds received a wheat-barley diet. Counts with the EUB338 probe were 1.97x108(std 1.45x108) The means of counts obtained with probes targeting the r...

  14. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial ecology is concerned with the interactions between bacteria and their biological and nonbiological environments and with the role of bacteria in biogeochemical element cycling. Many fundamental properties of bacteria are consequences of their small size. Thus, they can efficiently exploit...... very dilute solutions of organic matter and their potential growth rates are very high. Bacteria do not have a cytoskeleton and they are covered by a rigid cells wall. Therefore they can only take up dissolved low-molecular-weight compounds from their surroundings; when bacteria exploit polymeric...

  15. LAWRENCE RADIATION LABORATORY COUNTING HANDBOOK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Group, Nuclear Instrumentation

    1966-10-01

    The Counting Handbook is a compilation of operational techniques and performance specifications on counting equipment in use at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Berkeley. Counting notes have been written from the viewpoint of the user rather than that of the designer or maintenance man. The only maintenance instructions that have been included are those that can easily be performed by the experimenter to assure that the equipment is operating properly.

  16. [Bacterial diseases of rape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, O M; Mel'nychuk, M D; Dankevych, L A; Patyka, V P

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial destruction of the culture was described and its agents identified in the spring and winter rape crops. Typical symptoms are the following: browning of stem tissue and its mucilagization, chlorosis of leaves, yellowing and beginning of soft rot in the place of leaf stalks affixion to stems, loss of pigmentation (violet). Pathogenic properties of the collection strains and morphological, cultural, physiological, and biochemical properties of the agents of rape's bacterial diseases isolated by the authors have been investigated. It was found that all the isolates selected by the authors are highly or moderately aggressive towards different varieties of rape. According to the complex of phenotypic properties 44% of the total number of isolates selected by the authors are related to representatives of the genus Pseudomonas, 37% - to Xanthomonas and 19% - to Pectobacterium. PMID:23293826

  17. SUMS Counts-Related Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Staging Instance for all SUMs Counts related projects including: Redeterminations/Limited Issue, Continuing Disability Resolution, CDR Performance Measures, Initial...

  18. Photomultipliers for Tritium Counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of liquid scintillators in which a tritiumlabelled compound is dispersed requires a photomultiplier tube which will give primary signals of amplitude as great as possible. Since the average energy per disintegration is about 5 keV, a large proportion of events will give only one or two photoelectrons from the tube cathode; and these must be distinguished from the thermionic electrons of the tube background. The paper discusses the development of tubes giving a high ratio of photosensitivity to dark counts and shows that improvements obtained by a combination of processing and geometry changes give satisfactory performance at room temperature with a single tube arrangement. Efficiencies around 15% in toluene solution with a tube background of between 30 and 180 cpm are readily obtainable. The advantages of cooling and the problem of obtaining the best performance from a coincidence arrangement, with particular reference to the phenomen of ''talk back'', are discussed. The fundamental aspects of dark emission in photomultiplier tubes are considered in the light of the discussion, and predictions regarding ultimate performance are hazarded. (author)

  19. Making environmental DNA count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ryan P

    2016-01-01

    The arc of reception for a new technology or method - like the reception of new information itself - can pass through predictable stages, with audiences' responses evolving from 'I don't believe it', through 'well, maybe' to 'yes, everyone knows that' to, finally, 'old news'. The idea that one can sample a volume of water, sequence DNA out of it, and report what species are living nearby has experienced roughly this series of responses among biologists, beginning with the microbial biologists who developed genetic techniques to reveal the unseen microbiome. 'Macrobial' biologists and ecologists - those accustomed to dealing with species they can see and count - have been slower to adopt such molecular survey techniques, in part because of the uncertain relationship between the number of recovered DNA sequences and the abundance of whole organisms in the sampled environment. In this issue of Molecular Ecology Resources, Evans et al. () quantify this relationship for a suite of nine vertebrate species consisting of eight fish and one amphibian. Having detected all of the species present with a molecular toolbox of six primer sets, they consistently find DNA abundances are associated with species' biomasses. The strength and slope of this association vary for each species and each primer set - further evidence that there is no universal parameter linking recovered DNA to species abundance - but Evans and colleagues take a significant step towards being able to answer the next question audiences tend to ask: 'Yes, but how many are there?' PMID:26768195

  20. Multivariate ultrametric root counting

    CERN Document Server

    Avendano, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Let $K$ be a field, complete with respect to a discrete non-archimedian valuation and let $k$ be the residue field. Consider a system $F$ of $n$ polynomial equations in $K\\vars$. Our first result is a reformulation of the classical Hensel's Lemma in the language of tropical geometry: we show sufficient conditions (semiregularity at $w$) that guarantee that the first digit map $\\delta:(K^\\ast)^n\\to(k^\\ast)^n$ is a one to one correspondence between the solutions of $F$ in $(K^\\ast)^n$ with valuation $w$ and the solutions in $(k^\\ast)^n$ of the initial form system ${\\rm in}_w(F)$. Using this result, we provide an explicit formula for the number of solutions in $(K^\\ast)^n$ of a certain class of systems of polynomial equations (called regular), characterized by having finite tropical prevariety, by having initial forms consisting only of binomials, and by being semiregular at any point in the tropical prevariety. Finally, as a consequence of the root counting formula, we obtain the expected number of roots in $(K...

  1. Bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S Y

    1996-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are polyesters of hydroxyalkanoates (HAs) synthesized by numerous bacteria as intracellular carbon and energy storage compounds and accumulated as granules in the cytoplasm of cells. More than 80 HAs have been detected as constituents of PHAs, which allows these thermoplastic materials to have various mechanical properties resembling hard crystalline polymer or elastic rubber depending on the incorporated monomer units. Even though PHAs have been recognized as good candidates for biodegradable plastics, their high price compared with conventional plastics has limited their use in a wide range of applications. A number of bacteria including Alcaligenes eutrophus, Alcaligenes latus, Azotobacter vinelandii, methylotrophs, pseudomonads, and recombinant Escherichia coli have been employed for the production of PHAs, and the productivity of greater than 2 g PHA/L/h has been achieved. Recent advances in understanding metabolism, molecular biology, and genetics of the PHA-synthesizing bacteria and cloning of more than 20 different PHA biosynthesis genes allowed construction of various recombinant strains that were able to synthesize polyesters having different monomer units and/or to accumulate much more polymers. Also, genetically engineered plants harboring the bacterial PHA biosynthesis genes are being developed for the economical production of PHAs. Improvements in fermentation/separation technology and the development of bacterial strains or plants that more efficiently synthesize PHAs will bring the costs down to make PHAs competitive with the conventional plastics. PMID:18623547

  2. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial ecology is concerned with the interactions between bacteria and their biological and nonbiological environments and with the role of bacteria in biogeochemical element cycling. Many fundamental properties of bacteria are consequences of their small size. Thus, they can efficiently exploit very dilute solutions of organic matter and their potential growth rates are very high. Bacteria do not have a cytoskeleton and they are covered by a rigid cells wall. Therefore they can only take up dissolved low-molecular-weight compounds from their surroundings; when bacteria exploit polymeric compounds these must first be undergo extracellular hydrolysis. Bacteria have a great diversity with respect to types of metabolism that far exceeds the metabolic repertoire of eukaryotic organisms. Bacteria play a fundamental role in the biosphere and certain key processes such as, for example, the production and oxidation of methane, nitrate reduction and fixation of atmospheric nitrogen are exclusively carried out by different groups of bacteria. Some bacterial species – ‘extremophiles’ – thrive in extreme environments in which no eukaryotic organisms can survive with respect to temperature, salinity or pH. Key Concepts:Key Concepts: * Fundamental properties of bacteria are related to their small size and lack of cytoskeleton. * Bacteria display a great diversity in types of metabolism. * Bacteria play a key role in the biosphere in terms of transfer of matter and energy. * A number of fundamental biogeochemical processes are carried exclusively by bacteria. * Bacteria play an important role in all types of habitats including some that cannot support eukaryotic life.

  3. Gamma radiation effects on bacterial contamination and organoleptic characteristics of frozen Ponaeus Monodon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was the application of irradiation process to decrease bacterial contamination of the penaeus monodon. The shrimp samples were obtained from Hormozgan and were sent to the microbiological laboratory. Bacterial contamination of shrimp were determined by counting the aerobic mesophil bacteria, Staphylococcus areus, Coliforms, Vibrio. parahaemolyticus and Salmonella. The shrimp samples were irradiated at different doses of gamma ray. Finally, the optimum dose of the gamma ray for bacterial decontamination of shrimp, especially of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus, was obtained to be 2 kGy. Also, the chemical factors of irradiated and non-irradiated samples such as Protein, Fat, total volatile Nitrogen, Non Protein Nitrogen, Peroxide Value and Amino Acids were measured. There were not any important difference among them. Also, there were not any significant difference between total volatile Nitrogen and Peroxide Value (P>0.05) for the irradiated and non-irradiated shrimp samples. Study of bacterial contaminations of the irradiated and non irradiated samples after 12 months showed that irradiation by 2 kGy can control the microbial contaminations. Four types of films for packaging: Pet.pe, Pp.pe, Bopp, and Pe.20 were used for storage of the irradiated and non irradiated shrimp samples in-18degreeC during 12 months. All of the packages were studied on the aspects of color, odor, tissue and taste of shrimp samples and elasticity and pressing of packages. For the irradiated and non irradiated shrimp Pet.pe and Pp.pe were preferred, respectively.

  4. Effect of a high-beef diet on the fecal bacterial flora of humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentges, D J; Maier, B R; Burton, G C; Flynn, M A; Tsutakawa, R K

    1977-02-01

    Ten human volunteers completed a 4-month diet series consisting of 1 month each of a control diet, a meatless diet, a high-beef diet, and the same control diet. Fat and fiber contents were essentially the same in all four diets, but protein content was doubled during the high-beef diet. During the 4th week on each diet, three stool specimens collected from each volunteer were analyzed for chemical composition and content of facultative, aerobic, and anaerobic bacteria. The bacteriological data are presented in this paper. High beef protein consumption had little effect on the composition of the intestinal flora. There were no significant differences in total counts of facultative and aerobic or anaerobic organisms in the feces when volunteers were on meatless or high-beef diets. At the species level, when counts during the two control diets were comparable, in only three instances did the change from the meatless to a high-beef diet significantly influence the bacterial numbers. The ratio of mean counts of anaerobic to facultative and aerobic organisms was approximately 15:1 during the meatless diet and 34:1 during the high-meat diet. The data indicate that animal protein consumption has little effect on the fecal bacterial profile in humans. PMID:832279

  5. Surface Bacterial-Spore Assay Using Tb3+/DPA Luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    Equipment and a method for rapidly assaying solid surfaces for contamination by bacterial spores are undergoing development. The method would yield a total (nonviable plus viable) spore count of a surface within minutes and a viable-spore count in about one hour. In this method, spores would be collected from a surface by use of a transparent polymeric tape coated on one side with a polymeric adhesive that would be permeated with one or more reagent(s) for detection of spores by use of visible luminescence. The sticky side of the tape would be pressed against a surface to be assayed, then the tape with captured spores would be placed in a reader that illuminates the sample with ultraviolet light and counts the green luminescence spots under a microscope to quantify the number of bacterial spores per unit area. The visible luminescence spots seen through the microscope would be counted to determine the concentration of spores on the surface. This method is based on the chemical and physical principles of methods described in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, including Live/Dead Spore Assay Using DPA-Triggered Tb Luminescence (NPO-30444), Vol. 27, No. 3 (March 2003), page 7a. To recapitulate: The basic idea is to exploit the observations that (1) dipicolinic acid (DPA) is present naturally only in bacterial spores; and (2) when bound to Tb3+ ions, DPA triggers intense green luminescence of the ions under ultraviolet excitation; (3) DPA can be released from the viable spores by using L-alanine to make them germinate; and (4) by autoclaving, microwaving, or sonicating the sample, one can cause all the spores (non-viable as well as viable) to release their DPA. One candidate material for use as the adhesive in the present method is polydimethysiloxane (PDMS). In one variant of the method for obtaining counts of all (viable and nonviable) spores the PDMS would be doped with TbCl3. After collection of a sample, the spores immobilized on the sticky tape surface would be lysed by heating or microwaving to release their DPA. Tb3+ ions from the TbCl3 would become bound to the released DPA. The tape would then be irradiated with ultraviolet and examined as described above. In another variant of the method - for obtaining counts of viable spores only - the PDMS would be doped with L-alanine in addition to TbCl3. As now envisioned, a fully developed apparatus for implementing this method would include a pulsed source of ultraviolet light and a time-gated electronic camera to record the images seen through the microscope during a prescribed exposure interval at a prescribed short time after an ultraviolet pulse. As in the method of the second-mentioned prior article, the pulsing and time-gating would be used to discriminate between the longer-lived Tb3+/DPA luminescence and the shorter-lived background luminescence in the same wavelength range. In a time-gated image, the bright luminescence from bacterial spores could easily be seen against a dark background.

  6. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the bacterial microbiota of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) cultured in earthen ponds in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakingking, Rolando; Palma, Peter; Usero, Roselyn

    2015-02-01

    The quantity and composition of the bacterial microbiota in the rearing water, sediment, gills and intestines of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus collected every 2 weeks from Day 30 to Day 120 after stocking for grow-out culture in 6 earthen brackish water ponds in the Philippines were examined. The total heterotrophic aerobic bacterial counts obtained in the water, sediment, gills and intestines of tilapia ranged from 10(3) to 10(4) c.f.u. ml(-1), 10(3)-10(5), 10(5)-10(7) and 10(4)-10(7) c.f.u. g(-1), respectively. In terms of composition, a total of 20 bacterial genera and 31 species were identified with the preponderance of gram-negative bacteria constituting 84 % of all bacterial isolates examined. Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus spp., Plesiomonas shigelloides, Shewanella putrefaciens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Staphylococcus spp. and Vibrio cholerae were the dominant bacteria identified in the gills and intestine of tilapia. These bacteria also dominated in the pond sediment and rearing water, except for the nil isolation of S. putrefaciens and V. cholerae in the water samples examined, indicating that resident bacteria in the pond water and sediment congruently typify the composition of bacterial microbiota in the gills and intestine of tilapia which under stressful conditions may propel the ascendance of disease epizootics. PMID:25555375

  7. Vote Counting as Mathematical Proof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Pattinson, Dirk

    Trust in the correctness of an election outcome requires proof of the correctness of vote counting. By formalising particular voting protocols as rules, correctness of vote counting amounts to verifying that all rules have been applied correctly. A proof of the outcome of any particular election...

  8. Adult counting is resource demanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camos, Valérie; Barrouillet, Pierre

    2004-02-01

    Several recent studies on both the development of counting and working-memory span tasks have provided results that could be interpreted as ruling out any cognitive resource model for counting. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that, even in adults, counting is a demanding task that requires the allocation of cognitive resources. In a first experiment, we asked adults to count arrays of dots while maintaining 5 items in memory (either digits or letters). As we predicted, the concurrent memory load did not increase the rate of errors but induced longer counting times. In a second experiment, we asked adults to count using either the numeric chain or the alphabet while they maintained 1, 3 or 5 items in memory (digits or letters). First, we replicated the load effect observed in Experiment 1. Second, though both types of counting required similar amounts of time, counting with the less automatized chain (i.e. the alphabet) resulted in a poorer recall performance. Finally, this detrimental effect in recall was all the more pronounced the greater the number of items to be recalled. These results are interpreted within theoretical frameworks that consider cognitive resources as attentional capacities. PMID:15005865

  9. Microcontroller based count rate meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Count rate meters are often used in reactor instrumentation which require signal processing in pulse mode. The newly developed count rate meter design is based on microcontroller and removes the most of the drawbacks faced with analog versions and has several other advantages. Its design and software is briefly described. Performance is evaluated. (author). 1 fig

  10. Integrated counting system - user guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The facilities of a nucleonic counting system in one module in the standard 6000 series and its use in applications is described. Details are given of ways of employing the module for the rapid and low cost development of computer-based systems in nucleonic counting applications. (author)

  11. Bacterial response to siderophore and quorum-sensing chemical signals in the seawater microbial community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamino Kei

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oceans are iron-deficient and nutrient-poor environments. These conditions impart limitations on our understanding of and our ability to identify microorganisms from the marine environment. However, less of knowledge on the influence of siderophores and N-acyl homoserinelactone as interspecies communication signals on the bacterial diversity of seawater has been understood. Results In the presence of 0.1 nM of the commercial siderophore desferroixamine and the known quorum-sensing chemical signals, synthetic N-(3-oxo-hexanoylhomoserine lactone (0.1 nM or N-octanoylhomoserine lactone (0.1 nM, the total numbers of bacteria in S9905 seawater increased nearly three-fold, and nearly eight-fold in S0011 seawater as determined by DAPI staining and counting, and increased three-fold by counting colony forming units in S9905 seawater after 7 days of incubation. Similar bacterial changes in bacterial abundance were observed when high concentration of desferroixamine (1 ?M and each of homoserine lactone compounds (1 ?M were presented in seawater samples. The number of cultivable bacterial species observed was also found to increase from 3 (without addition to 8 (with additions including three unknown species which were identified by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences. The growth of unknown species was found to be related to their siderophore production with response to the addition of desferroixamine and N-acyl homoserine lactones under iron-limited conditions. Conclusion Artificial addition of siderophores and HSLs may be a possible method to aid in the identification and isolation of marine bacterial species which are thought to be unknown.

  12. Bacterial hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lauga, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria predate plants and animals by billions of years. Today, they are the world's smallest cells yet they represent the bulk of the world's biomass, and the main reservoir of nutrients for higher organisms. Most bacteria can move on their own, and the majority of motile bacteria are able to swim in viscous fluids using slender helical appendages called flagella. Low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamics is at the heart of the ability of flagella to generate propulsion at the micron scale. In fact, fluid dynamic forces impact many aspects of bacteriology, ranging from the ability of cells to reorient and search their surroundings to their interactions within mechanically and chemically-complex environments. Using hydrodynamics as an organizing framework, we review the biomechanics of bacterial motility and look ahead to future challenges.

  13. Bacterial Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauga, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria predate plants and animals by billions of years. Today, they are the world's smallest cells, yet they represent the bulk of the world's biomass and the main reservoir of nutrients for higher organisms. Most bacteria can move on their own, and the majority of motile bacteria are able to swim in viscous fluids using slender helical appendages called flagella. Low–Reynolds number hydrodynamics is at the heart of the ability of flagella to generate propulsion at the micrometer scale. In fact, fluid dynamic forces impact many aspects of bacteriology, ranging from the ability of cells to reorient and search their surroundings to their interactions within mechanically and chemically complex environments. Using hydrodynamics as an organizing framework, I review the biomechanics of bacterial motility and look ahead to future challenges.

  14. KANDUNGAN BAKTERI TOTAL Coli DAN Escherechia coli / FECAL Coli AIR MINUM DARI DEPOT AIR MINUM ISI ULANG DI JAKARTA, TANGERANG, DAN BEKASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena Athena

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A study on drinking water quality produced by drinking water refill depots (AMIU was done in Jakarta, Tangerang and Bekasi. Analysis unit of the study was drinking water refill depots with the sample number of 38 depots. For every selected depot, laboratory analysis were done for natural water (clean water and drinking water produced by the depots. The total number of sample were 76 water samples. One of the parameters analyzed was microbiological contents, namey total coli bacterial count and Escherechia coli / fecal coli. For collecting information about the sources and storage of natural waters, drinking water treatment processes, treatment equipment, and so on, the depots operators and drinking water refill association personnel were interviewed as well as the water treatment equipment distributors. Based on the interview, it can be stated that the main principles of the water treatment processes from natural water to become drinking water in the AMIU depots were only filtration and disinfections processes. Natural water sources mostly was mountain spring water (89.5%, originated from Bogor (60.5%. and Sukabumi (26.3%. According to the results of laboratory analysis, it can be stated that the percentages of the natural water samples which were not complying with the standards of total coli bacterial count was 31.6% and that of fecal coli was 28.9%. Whereas for drinking water produced by the depots, the percentages of water samples which were not complying with the total coli bacterial count and fecal coli standards were 28.9% and 18.4% respectively. Additionally, the drinking water treatment processes were not sufficient for natural water with the high contents (around 1.600 MPN/100 ml of total coli and fecal coli bacterial.

  15. Hanford whole body counting manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, H.E.; Brim, C.P.; Rieksts, G.A.; Rhoads, M.C.

    1987-05-01

    This document, a reprint of the Whole Body Counting Manual, was compiled to train personnel, document operation procedures, and outline quality assurance procedures. The current manual contains information on: the location, availability, and scope of services of Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the administrative aspect of the whole body counting operation; Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the step-by-step procedure involved in the different types of in vivo measurements; the detectors, preamplifiers and amplifiers, and spectroscopy equipment; the quality assurance aspect of equipment calibration and recordkeeping; data processing, record storage, results verification, report preparation, count summaries, and unit cost accounting; and the topics of minimum detectable amount and measurement accuracy and precision. 12 refs., 13 tabs.

  16. Hanford whole body counting manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document, a reprint of the Whole Body Counting Manual, was compiled to train personnel, document operation procedures, and outline quality assurance procedures. The current manual contains information on: the location, availability, and scope of services of Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the administrative aspect of the whole body counting operation; Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the step-by-step procedure involved in the different types of in vivo measurements; the detectors, preamplifiers and amplifiers, and spectroscopy equipment; the quality assurance aspect of equipment calibration and recordkeeping; data processing, record storage, results verification, report preparation, count summaries, and unit cost accounting; and the topics of minimum detectable amount and measurement accuracy and precision. 12 refs., 13 tabs

  17. Biogeochemical controls on the bacterial population in the eastern Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Neogi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about bacterial dynamics in the oligotrophic ocean, particularly about its cultivable population. We examined the abundance of total and cultivable bacteria in relation to changes in biogeochemical conditions in the eastern Atlantic Ocean with special regard to Vibrio spp., a group of bacteria that can cause diseases in human and aquatic organisms. Surface, deep water and plankton samples (<20 ?m, 20–55 ?m and >55 ?m were collected between 50° N and 24° S. Chlorophyll-a was very low (<0.3 ?g l?1 in most areas of the nutrient-poor Atlantic, except at a few locations near upwelling regions. In surface water, dissolved organic carbon (DOC and nitrogen (DON concentrations were 64–95 ?M C and 2–10 ?M N accounting for ?90 % and ?76 % of total organic C and N, respectively. DOC and DON gradually decreased to ~45 ?M C and <5 ?M N in the bottom water while dissolved inorganic nutrients (Si, P, N increased with depth. In the surface layer, culture independent total bacteria, represented by 4´-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI counts, ranged mostly between 107 and 108 cells l?1, while cultivable bacterial counts (CBC and Vibrio spp. were found at concentrations of 104–107 and 102–105 colony forming units (CFU l?1, respectively. Most bacteria (>99 % were found in the nanoplankton fraction (<20 ?m, however, bacterial abundance did not correlate with suspended particulates (chlorophyll-a, particulate organic C and N. Instead, we found a highly significant correlation between bacterial abundance and temperature (p < 0.001 and a significant correlation with DOC and DON. Among the cultivable bacteria, the abundance of Vibrio was also highly significantly correlated with DOC and DON (p < 0.0005 and p < 0.005, respectively. In cold waters of the mid-pelagic and abyssal zones, CBC was 50 to 100-times lower than in the surface layer; however, cultivable Vibrio spp. could be isolated from the bathypelagic zone and even near the seafloor (average ~10 CFU l?1. In contrast, DAPI counts revealed a homogenous distribution of the non-cultivable bacterial population throughout the oceanic depths. Our study indicates that Vibrio and other bacteria may largely depend on dissolved organic matter to survive in nutrient-poor oceanic habitats, without being associated with plankton or particles.

  18. Resultados preliminares de la evaluación de diferentResultados diferentes concentraciones de la suspensión bacteriana empleada como inóculo en el Ensayo bactericida de Sangre Total / Preliminary evaluation of different concentrations of bacterial suspensions used in the Whole Blood Bactericidal Assay

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Amalia, Camaraza; Natasha, Anwar; Teresita, Leiva; Aida, G. Arnet; Franklin, Sotolongo; Catherine, Ison.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available El Ensayo Bactericida del Suero (EBS), está considerado como la “prueba de oro” para evaluar la eficacia serológica de vacunas antimeningocócicas, teniendo en cuenta que la presencia de anticuerpos bactericidas en el suero se relaciona con la protección frente a esta enfermedad. Los niveles de antic [...] uerpos anticapsulares obtenidos frente a los serogrupos A y C de Neisseria meningitidis han confirmado la utilidad de esta técnica. Sin embargo, se señala una pobre correlación entre los resultados de laboratorio y la protección clínica demostrada después de la aplicación de vacunas compuestas por vesículas de membrana externa del serogrupo B. Ison y colaboradores desarrollaron el Ensayo de Sangre Total (EST), que evalúa la capacidad bactericida de la sangre. Los resultados obtenidos indican que es un marcador de inmunidad más sensible que el EBS para el serogrupo B. En un estudio de evaluación de la vacuna antimeningocócica cubana VA-MENGOC-BC®, realizado en infantes y empleando el EST, se obtuvo un 50% de respondedores a la cepa homóloga (B:4:P1.19,15). La respuesta contra cepas heterólogas resultó baja. Teniendo en cuenta estos resultados y los de otros estudios realizados por los autores, se evaluó el comportamiento de la prueba utilizando concentraciones menores de la suspensión bacteriana empleada como inóculo. Para este propósito se estudió la actividad bactericida de la sangre de dos adultos sanos, mediante el EST frente a las cepas B:4:P1.19,15 (Cu 385/83) y B:15:P1.7,16 (MC58). Se evaluaron, además de la concentración recomendada originalmente (106ó107 UFC/mL), dos inferiores (105 y 104 UFC/mL). El primer donante mostró una actividad lítica del 40% frente a la cepa homóloga, a una concentración de inóculo de 107 UFC/mL. Para las concentraciones de 105 y 104 UFC/mL la lisis fue de alrededor del 80%. El comportamiento frente a la cepa heteróloga fue de un 25% de lisis a la mayor concentración del inóculo y aproximadamente de un 60% para las concentraciones inferiores. El segundo donante no mostró actividad lítica alguna frente a un inóculo de 107 UFC/mL de la cepa homóloga, mientras que empleando inóculos de 105 y 104 UFC/mL se obtuvieron respuestas de alrededor del 55% y del 65% respectivamente. El comportamiento frente a la cepa heteróloga fue de un 40% de lisis a la mayor concentración del inóculo y de un 70% y 80% a las concentraciones 105 y 104 UFC/mL respectivamente Abstract in english The Serum Bactericidal Assay (SBA) has been considered the “golden standard” to evaluate the serological efficacy of meningococcal vaccines, taking into account that the presence of serum bactericidal antibodies is related with protection. The levels of A and C capsular polysaccharide antibodies aga [...] inst these serogroups has confirmed the reliability of this assay. The SBA has also been used to asses the efficacy of serogroup B vaccines, but in some studies, the correlation between serological efficacy and protection has been poor. Ison et al developed the Whole Blood Assay (WBA) that measures the complete bactericidal activity in blood. The results obtained indicate that this model is a more sensitive marker of immunity than SBA for serogroup B. The results from the evaluation of the Cuban meningococcal vaccine (VA-MENGOC-BC®) in infants using WBA showed that after the immunisation around 50% of infants exhibited >50% lysis of the vaccine strain (B:4:P1.19,15). The results against heterologous strains were poor. Taking into account these and other results we evaluated the behavior of the WBA using lower concentrations of the bacterial suspension used as inoculum. Blood from two healthy adults was screened for bactericidal activity using the WBA, against B:4:P1.19,15(Cu 385/83) and B:15:P1.7,16 (MC58) strains. In addition to the recommended concentration (106 or 107 CFU/mL), two lower concentrations were used (105 and 104 CFU/mL). The first donor showed a lytic activity of 40% against the homologous strain, at a concentration of 107 CFU/mL. At 105

  19. Log-supermodular functions, functional clones and counting CSPs

    CERN Document Server

    Bulatov, Andrei A; Goldberg, Leslie Ann; Jerrum, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by a desire to understand the computational complexity of counting constraint satisfaction problems (counting CSPs), particularly the complexity of approximation, we study functional clones of functions on the Boolean domain, which are analogous to the familiar relational clones constituting Post's lattice. One of these clones is the collection of log-supermodular (lsm) functions, which turns out to play a significant role in classifying counting CSPs. In our study, we assume that non-negative unary functions (weights) are available. Given this, we prove that there are no functional clones lying strictly between the clone of lsm functions and the total clone (containing all functions). Thus, any counting CSP that contains a single non-lsm function is computationally as hard as any problem in #P. Furthermore, any non-trivial functional clone (in a sense that will be made precise below) contains the binary function "implies". As a consequence, all non-trivial counting CSPs (with non-negative unary wei...

  20. Clinical, Laboratory and Bacterial Profile of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Chronic Liver Disease Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the clinical and laboratory features, bacterial profile and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis (SBP) in Chronic Liver Disease (CLD) patients presenting at a tertiary care hospital of Karachi. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: PMRC Centre for Gastroenterology and Hepatology and Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from April 2010 to March 2012. Methodology: CLD patients with ascites were recruited from PMRC Centre for Gastroenterology and Hepatology and Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi. Basic demographics, symptoms and clinical signs of patients were recorded. Patients with the history of antibiotic use within last 3 days or any intra-abdominal source of infection were excluded. Diagnostic paracentesis was done for ascitic fluid detailed report (D/R) and culture. Blood sample was collected for total leukocyte count, serum proteins and billirubin levels. Results: Out of a total 152 CLD patients, 38 (25%) were diagnosed with SBP. Eight (24.2%) patients presented with classical SBP, 20 (52.6%) had culture negative neutrocytic ascites and 10 (26%) had bacterascites. Fever, abdominal tenderness and constipation were common in SBP patients. Ascitic fluid culture was positive in 19 (50%) patients. E. coli (65%) was the predominant pathogen followed by Enterococcus species (15%). Resistance was high against cephalosporins (78%) and fluoroquinolones (69.6%) and least against amikacin (13%) and meropenem (12%). Conclusion: Ascitic fluid D/R and culture together can lead to the accurate diagnosis of SBP and can guide for the right antibiotic choice as resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotic is common in such patients. (author)

  1. Desulfovibrio bacterial species are increased in ulcerative colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rowan, Fiachra

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Debate persists regarding the role of Desulfovibrio subspecies in ulcerative colitis. Combined microscopic and molecular techniques enable this issue to be investigated by allowing precise enumeration of specific bacterial species within the colonic mucous gel. The aim of this study was to combine laser capture microdissection and quantitative polymerase chain reaction to determine Desulfovibrio copy number in crypt-associated mucous gel in health and in acute and chronic ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Colonic mucosal biopsies were harvested from healthy controls (n = 19) and patients with acute (n = 10) or chronic (n = 10) ulcerative colitis. Crypt-associated mucous gel was obtained by laser capture microdissection throughout the colon. Pan-bacterial 16S rRNA and Desulfovibrio copy number\\/mm were obtained by polymerase chain reaction at each locus. Bacterial copy numbers were interrogated for correlation with location and disease activity. Data were evaluated using a combination of ordinary linear methods and linear mixed-effects models to cater for multiple interactions. RESULTS: Desulfovibrio positivity was significantly increased in acute and chronic ulcerative colitis at multiple levels within the colon, and after normalization with total bacterial signal, the relative Desulfovibrio load was increased in acute colitis compared with controls. Desulfovibrio counts did not significantly correlate with age, disease duration, or disease activity but interlevel correlations were found in adjacent colonic segments in the healthy control and chronic ulcerative colitis groups. CONCLUSION: The presence of Desulfovibrio subspecies is increased in ulcerative colitis and the data presented suggest that these bacteria represent an increased percentage of the colonic microbiome in acute ulcerative colitis.

  2. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes of proteins found in the fluid portion of your blood. These are albumin and globulin. Proteins are important parts of all cells and tissues. ...

  3. Relationship of information density to pre-set counts obtained in brain, lung and liver scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total number of counts required per view for brain and lung scintigraphy to achieve information or count density (CD) of 1000 counts/cm2 and 2000 counts/cm2 for liver scans was examined. To achieve these CDs, 600,000 counts per view are required for brain scans. For the lung, 500,000 counts in anterior and posterior views are required; 400,000 counts in the lateral view are sufficient. For 2000 CD in the liver scan, 600,000 counts should be obtained in the anterior view and 500,000 in the right lateral. This number of counts assures the desired CD in 97% of cases

  4. High Count Rate Single Photon Counting Detector Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An optical communications receiver requires efficient and high-rate photon-counting capability so that the information from every photon, received at the aperture,...

  5. Detection of bacterial concentration variations based on dielectric magnetic flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingyao; Cai, Jie; Huang, Xingjian; Yi, Tian; Wang, Kexing; Pan, Siyi

    2016-02-01

    This study is based on the development of bacterial count quantification generated by medium dielectric variations and consequent polarization material release. The proposed approach is an action method for the fast detection of bacterial concentration in orange juice. The sensing method relies on bacterial attachment up to biofilm formation. Furthermore, different media provide more oxygen group content to enhance capacitance and self-discharge. The test took only 30 min and it provided the means for rapid bacterial detection in the juice industry. PMID:26304394

  6. Isolation, Characterization and Application of Bacterial Population From Agricultural Soil at Sohag Province, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahig, A. E.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty soil samples of agriculture soil were collected from two different sites in Sohag province, Egypt, during hot and cold seasons. Twenty samples were from soil irrigated with canal water (site A and twenty samples were from soil irrigated with wastewater (site B. This study aimed to compare the incidence of plasmids in bacteria isolated from soil and to investigate the occurrence of metal and antibiotic resistance bacteria, and consequently to select the potential application of these bacteria in bioremediation. The total bacterial count (CFU/gm in site (B was higher than that in site (A. Moreover, the CFU values in summer were higher than those values in winter at both sites. A total of 771 bacterial isolates were characterized as Bacillus, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Eschershia, Shigella, Xanthomonas, Acetobacter, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Moraxella and Methylococcus. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of Pb+2, Cu+2, Zn+2, Hg+2, Co+2, Cd+2, Cr+3, Te+2, As+2 and Ni+2 for plasmid-possessed bacteria were determined and the highest MICs were 1200 µg/mL for lead, 800 µg/mL for both Cobalt and Arsenate, 1200 µg/mL for Nickel, 1000 µg/ml for Copper and less than 600 µg/mL for other metals. Bacterial isolates from both sites A and B showed multiple heavy metal resistance. A total of 337 bacterial isolates contained plasmids and the incidence of plasmids was approximately 25-50% higher in bacteria isolated from site (B than that from site (A. These isolates were resistance to different antibiotics. Approximately, 61% of the bacterial isolates were able to assimilate insecticide, carbaryl, as a sole source of carbon and energy. However, the Citrobacter AA101 showed the best growth on carbaryl.

  7. Galaxy number counts: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present galaxy number-magnitude counts and colour distributions from objectively defined catalogues of faint (bjFj, rF and I pass-bands, determined from COSMOS machine measurements of Anglo-Australian Telescope photographs. We have recalibrated three further fields analysed in a similar way in earlier papers, and used all six to investigate the variation in count normalization from field-to-field. The new data define the mean faint galaxy number-magnitude relation to ±9 per cent. The aim is to determine whether the previously observed large scatter in the faint counts is due to galaxy clustering or some other systematic effect. (author)

  8. BACTERIAL PLASMIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Dinic

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasmids, extrachromosomal DNA, were identified in bacteria pertaining to family of Enterobacteriacae for the very first time. After that, they were discovered in almost every single observed strain. The structure of plasmids is made of circular double chain DNA molecules which are replicated autonomously in a host cell. Their length may vary from few up to several hundred kilobase (kb. Among the bacteria, plasmids are mostly transferred horizontally by conjugation process. Plasmid replication process can be divided into three stages: initiation, elongation, and termination. The process involves DNA helicase I, DNA gyrase, DNA polymerase III, endonuclease, and ligase.Plasmids contain genes essential for plasmid function and their preservation in a host cell (the beginning and the control of replication. Some of them possess genes whichcontrol plasmid stability. There is a common opinion that plasmids are unnecessary fora growth of bacterial population and their vital functions; thus, in many cases they can be taken up or kicked out with no lethal effects to a plasmid host cell. However,there are numerous biological functions of bacteria related to plasmids. Plasmids identification and classification are based upon their genetic features which are presented permanently in all of them, and these are: abilities to preserve themselves in a host cell and to control a replication process. In this way, plasmids classification among incompatibility groups is performed. The method of replicon typing, which is based on genotype and not on phenotype characteristics, has the same results as in compatibility grouping.

  9. Counting Triangles to Sum Squares

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMaio, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Counting complete subgraphs of three vertices in complete graphs, yields combinatorial arguments for identities for sums of squares of integers, odd integers, even integers and sums of the triangular numbers.

  10. CTC staining and counting of actively respiring bacteria in natural stone using confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosch, S; Mansch, R; Knötzsch, K; Bock, E

    2003-01-01

    A method was established for staining and counting of actively respiring bacteria in natural stone by using the tetrazolium salt 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyltetrazolium chloride (CTC) in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Applying 5 mM CTC for 2 h to pure cultures of representative stone-inhabiting microorganisms showed that chemoorganotrophic bacteria and fungi-in contrast to lithoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria-were able to reduce CTC to CTF, the red fluorescing formazan crystals of CTC. Optimal staining conditions for microorganisms in stone material were found to be 15 mM CTC applied for 24 h. The cells could be visualized on transparent and nontransparent mineral materials by means of CLSM. A semi-automated method was used to count the cells within the pore system of the stone. The percentage of CTC-stained bacteria was dependent on temperature and humidity of the material. At 28 degrees C and high humidity (maximum water holding capacity) in the laboratory, about 58% of the total bacterial microflora was active. On natural stone exposed for 9 years at an urban exposure site in Germany, 52-56% of the bacterial microflora was active at the east, west, and north side of the specimen, while only 18% cells were active at the south side. This is consistent with microclimatic differences on the south side which was more exposed to sunshine thus causing UV and water stress as well as higher temperatures on a microscale level. In combination with CLSM, staining by CTC can be used as a fast method for monitoring the metabolic activity of chemoorganotrophic bacteria in monuments, buildings of historic interest or any art objects of natural stone. Due to the small size of samples required, the damage to these objects and buildings can be minimized. PMID:12401229

  11. Link invariants via counting surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenbursky, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A Gauss diagram is a simple, combinatorial way to present a knot. It is known that any Vassiliev invariant may be obtained from a Gauss diagram formula that involves counting (with signs and multiplicities) subdiagrams of certain combinatorial types. These formulas generalize the calculation of a linking number by counting signs of crossings in a link diagram. Until recently, explicit formulas of this type were known only for few invariants of low degrees. In this paper we p...

  12. The Mayan Long Count Calendar

    OpenAIRE

    Chanier, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The Maya were known for their astronomical proficiency. This is demonstrated in the Mayan codices where ritual practices were related to astronomical events/predictions. Whereas Mayan mathematics were based on a vigesimal system, they used a different base when dealing with long periods of time, the Long Count Calendar (LCC), composed of different Long Count Periods: the Tun of 360 days, the Katun of 7200 days and the Baktun of 144000 days. There were two other calendars used in addition to t...

  13. Bacterial concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Venkataswamy; Ramesh, K. P.; Bang, S. S.

    2001-04-01

    Cracks in concrete are inevitable and are one of the inherent weaknesses of concrete. Water and other salts seep through these cracks, corrosion initiates, and thus reduces the life of concrete. So there was a need to develop an inherent biomaterial, a self-repairing material which can remediate the cracks and fissures in concrete. Bacterial concrete is a material, which can successfully remediate cracks in concrete. This technique is highly desirable because the mineral precipitation induced as a result of microbial activities is pollution free and natural. As the cell wall of bacteria is anionic, metal accumulation (calcite) on the surface of the wall is substantial, thus the entire cell becomes crystalline and they eventually plug the pores and cracks in concrete. This paper discusses the plugging of artificially cracked cement mortar using Bacillus Pasteurii and Sporosarcina bacteria combined with sand as a filling material in artificially made cuts in cement mortar which was cured in urea and CaCl2 medium. The effect on the compressive strength and stiffness of the cement mortar cubes due to the mixing of bacteria is also discussed in this paper. It was found that use of bacteria improves the stiffness and compressive strength of concrete. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to document the role of bacteria in microbiologically induced mineral precipitation. Rod like impressions were found on the face of calcite crystals indicating the presence of bacteria in those places. Energy- dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra of the microbial precipitation on the surface of the crack indicated the abundance of calcium and the precipitation was inferred to be calcite (CaCO3).

  14. Counting Defective Parking Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, Peter J; Prellberg, Thomas; Schweitzer, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    Suppose that $n$ drivers each choose a preferred parking space in a linear car park with $m$ spaces. Each driver goes to the chosen space and parks there if it is free, and otherwise takes the first available space with larger number (if any). If all drivers park successfully, the sequence of choices is called a parking function. In general, if $k$ drivers fail to park, we have a \\emph{defective parking function} of \\emph{defect} $k$. Let $\\cp(n,m,k)$ be the number of such functions. In this paper, we establish a recurrence relation for the numbers $\\cp(n,m,k)$, and express this as an equation for a three-variable generating function. We solve this equation using the kernel method, and extract the coefficients explicitly: it turns out that the cumulative totals are partial sums in Abel's binomial identity. Finally, we compute the asymptotics of $\\cp(n,m,k)$. In particular, for the case $m=n$, if choices are made independently at random, the limiting distribution of the defect (the number of drivers who fail t...

  15. Growth of Microorganisms in Total Parenteral Nutrition Solutions Containing Lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kuwahara, Kazuyuki Shimono, Shinya Kaneda, Takumi Tamura, Masao Ichihara, Yoshifumi Nakashima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To identify the microorganisms that can grow rapidly in total parenteral nutrition (TPN solutions, we investigated the growth of the major causes of catheter-related blood stream infection (Staphylococcus aureus, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus cereus, and Candida albicans in TPN solutions containing lipid. Methods: The pH value of a TPN solution containing lipid (pH 6.0, containing 20 ppm of NaHSO3 was adjusted by the addition of HCl to 5.7, 5.4, or 4.9. The pH value of another TPN solution (pH5.5, containing 400 ppm of NaHSO3 was adjusted by the addition of NaOH to 5.9, 6.3, or 6.8. A specific number of each microorganism was added to 10 mL of each test solution and incubated at room temperature. The number of microorganisms was counted as colony forming units at 0, 24, and 48 hrs later. Results: C albicans increased similarly at any pH values in the TPN solution. The bacterial species also increased rapidly at pH6.0 in the solution containing 20 ppm of NaHSO3, but growth was suppressed as the pH value was reduced, with growth halted at pH4.9. However, these bacterial species did not increase, even at pH5.9, in the other solution containing 400 ppm of NaHSO3. Conclusions: These results suggest that Candida species can grow rapidly in almost all TPN solutions regardless of the acidity, lipid, and NaHSO3; also, some bacterial species may grow in TPN solutions containing lipid unless the pH value is 5.0 or less. Therefore, each TPN solution should be examined whether or not the bacterial species can proliferate.

  16. Monitoring of the bacterial and fungal biodiversity and dynamics during Massa Medicata Fermentata fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yun; Xie, Yan-Bo; Zhang, Xin-Ran; Chen, Chen; Xiang, Hongyu; Xie, Qiuhong

    2013-11-01

    The microbial community dynamics play an important role during Massa Medicata Fermentata (MMF) fermentation. In this study, bacterial and fungal communities were investigated based on the culture-dependent method and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis. Meanwhile the dynamic changes of digestive enzyme activities were also examined. Plating results showed that MMF fermentation comprised two stages: pre-fermentation stage (0-4 days) was dominated by bacterial community and post-fermentation stage (5-9 days) was dominated by fungal community. The amount of bacteria reached the highest copy number 1.2?×?10(10) CFU/g at day 2, but the fungi counts reached 6.3?×?10(5) CFU/g at day 9. A total of 170 isolates were closely related to genera Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Mucor, Saccharomyces, Rhodotorula, and Amylomyces. DGGE analysis showed a clear reduction of bacterial and fungal diversity during fermentation, and the dominant microbes belonged to genera Enterobacter, Pediococcus, Pseudomonas, Mucor, and Saccharomyces. Digestive enzyme assay showed filter paper activity; the activities of amylase, carboxymethyl cellulase, and lipase reached a peak at day 4; and the protease activity constantly increased until the end of the fermentation. In this study, we carried out a detailed and comprehensive analysis of microbial communities as well as four digestive enzymes' activities during MMF fermentation process. The monitoring of bacterial and fungal biodiversity and dynamics during MMF fermentation has significant potential for controlling the fermentation process. PMID:23982327

  17. Evolution of bacterial community during bioremediation of PAHs in a coal tar contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lors, C.; Ryngaert, A.; Perie, F.; Diels, L.; Damidot, D. [University of Lille, Lille (France)

    2010-11-15

    The monitoring of a windrow treatment applied to soil contaminated by mostly 2, 3- and 4-ring PAHs produced by coal tar distillation was performed by following the evolution of both PAH concentration and the bacterial community. Total and PAH-degrading bacterial community structures were followed by 165 rRNA PCR-DGGE in parallel with quantification by bacterial counts and 16 PAH measurements. Six months of biological treatment led to a strong decrease in 2-, 3- and 4-ring PAH concentrations (98, 97 and 82%, respectively). This result was associated with the activity of bacterial PAH-degraders belonging mainly to the Gamma proteobacteria, in particular the Enterobacteria and Pseudomonas genera which were detected over the course of the treatment. This group was considered to be a good bioindicator to determine the potential PAH biodegradation of contaminated soil. Conversely other species like the Beta proteobacteria were detected after 3 months when 2-, 3- and 4-ring PAHs were almost completely degraded. Thus presence of the Beta proteobacteria group could be considered a good candidate indicator to estimate the endpoint of biotreatment of this type of PAH contaminated soil.

  18. A tutorial on count regression and zero-altered count models for longitudinal substance use data

    OpenAIRE

    David C. Atkins; Baldwin, Scott A.; Zheng, Cheng; Gallop, Robert J; Neighbors, Clayton

    2012-01-01

    Critical research questions in the study of addictive behaviors concern how these behaviors change over time - either as the result of intervention or in naturalistic settings. The combination of count outcomes that are often strongly skewed with many zeroes (e.g., days using, number of total drinks, number of drinking consequences) with repeated assessments (e.g., longitudinal follow-up after intervention or daily diary data) present challenges for data analyses. The current article provides...

  19. A mind you can count on: validating breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness

    OpenAIRE

    Levinson, Daniel B.; Stoll, Eli L.; Kindy, Sonam D.; Merry, Hillary L.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness practice of present moment awareness promises many benefits, but has eluded rigorous behavioral measurement. To date, research has relied on self-reported mindfulness or heterogeneous mindfulness trainings to infer skillful mindfulness practice and its effects. In four independent studies with over 400 total participants, we present the first construct validation of a behavioral measure of mindfulness, breath counting. We found it was reliable, correlated with self-reported mindfu...

  20. Statistical treatment of nuclear counting results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doli?anin ?emal B.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the exact time a specific nucleus undergoes radioactive decay cannot be specified, nor can showers caused by secondary cosmic rays be predicted, statistical laws play an important role in almost all cases of experimental nuclear physics. This paper describes the method for the statistical treatment of nuclear counting results obtained experimentally by taking into account random variables pertaining to both frequent and infrequent phenomena. When processing counting measurement data, it is recommended to first discard spurious random variables that spoil the statistics by using Chauvenet’s criterion, as well as to test if the results in the statistical sample follow a unique statistical distribution by using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test (U-test. The verification of the suggested statistical method was performed on counting statistics obtained both from the radioactive source Cs-137 and background radiation, expected to follow the normal distribution and the Poisson distribution, respectively. Results show that the application of the proposed statistical method excludes random fluctuations of the radioactive source or of the background radiation from the total statistical sample, as well as possible inadequacies in the experimental set-up and show an extremely effective agreement of the theoretical distribution of random variables with the corresponding experimentally obtained random variables.

  1. Standardization of 241Am by digital coincidence counting, liquid scintillation counting and defined solid angle counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclide 241Am decays by alpha emission to 237Np. Most of the decays (84.6%) populate the excited level of 237Np with energy of 59.54 keV. Digital coincidence counting was applied to standardize a solution of 241Am by alpha-gamma coincidence counting with efficiency extrapolation. Electronic discrimination was implemented with a pressurized proportional counter and the results were compared with two other independent techniques: Liquid scintillation counting using the logical sum of double coincidences in a TDCR array and defined solid angle counting taking into account activity inhomogeneity in the active deposit. The results show consistency between the three methods within a limit of a 0.3%. An ampoule of this solution will be sent to the International Reference System (SIR) during 2009. Uncertainties were analysed and compared in detail for the three applied methods.

  2. CCCP: A CCD Controller for Counting Photons

    OpenAIRE

    Daigle, Olivier; Gach, Jean-Luc; Guillaume, Christian; Lessard, Simon; Carignan, Claude; Blais-Ouellette, Sebastien

    2008-01-01

    CCCP, a CCD Controller for Counting Photons, is presented. This new controller uses a totally new clocking architecture and allows to drive the CCD in a novel way. Its design is optimized for the driving of EMCCDs at up to 20MHz of pixel rate and fast vertical transfer. Using this controller, the dominant source of noise of EMCCDs at low flux level and high frame rate, the Clock Induced Charges, were reduced to 0.001 - 0.0018 electron/pixel/frame (depending of the electron m...

  3. Metal ion levels and lymphocyte counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Ø; Varmarken, Jens-Erik; Ovesen, Ole; Nielsen, Christian; Overgaard, Søren

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Wear particles from metal-on-metal arthroplasties are under suspicion for adverse effects both locally and systemically, and the DePuy ASR Hip Resurfacing System (RHA) has above-average failure rates. We compared lymphocyte counts in RHA and total hip arthroplasty (THA) and....../ppb. INTERPRETATION: Circulating T-lymphocyte levels may decline after surgery, regardless of implant type. Metal ions-particularly cobalt-may have a general depressive effect on T- and B-lymphocyte levels. Registered with ClinicalTrials.gov under # NCT01113762....

  4. Prevention of bacterial adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria

    2010-01-01

    Management of bacterial infections is becoming increasingly difficult due to the emergence and increasing prevalence of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to available antibiotics. Conventional antibiotics generally kill bacteria by interfering with vital cellular functions, an approach that imposes selection pressure for resistant bacteria. New approaches are urgently needed. Targeting bacterial virulence functions directly is an attractive alternative. An obvious target is bacterial adhesi...

  5. Evaluation of heterotrophic plate and chromogenic agar colony counting in water quality laboratories

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Hallas; Paul Monis

    2015-01-01

    The enumeration of bacteria using plate-based counts is a core technique used by food and water microbiology testing laboratories. However, manual counting of bacterial colonies is both time and labour intensive, can vary between operators and also requires manual entry of results into laboratory information management systems, which can be a source of data entry error. An alternative is to use automated digital colony counters, but there is a lack of peer-reviewed validation data to allow in...

  6. Hanford whole body counting manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs

  7. Bacterial infection of mudfish Clarias gariepinus (Siluriformes: Clariidae fingerlings in tropical nursery ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Ikpi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infection among the most common cultured mudfish Clarias gariepinus in Africa, has become a cause of concern, because it constitutes the largest economic loss in fish farms. In order to provide useful biological data of the pathogens for good management practices, samples were collected monthly between January 2008 and December 2009 in three monoculture nursery ponds, located in three different positions: upriver (A, grassland, mid-river (B, mixed forest and grassland and downriver (C, rainforest along 200km length of Cross River floodplains, Nigeria. A total of 720 fingerlings between 15.1 and 20.7g were analyzed to determine the degree of infection. The bacterial pathogens were taken from their external surfaces, and were isolated and identified by standard methods. The caudal fins of fingerlings from pond A had the highest bacterial load (5.8x10³cfu/g, while the least counts (1.2x103cfu/g were identified on the head of fish from pond C, with Flexibacter columnaris as the major etiological agent. Pseudomonas fluorescens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus were identified as co-isolates with P. fluorescens as dominant (0.7x10²cfu/mL co-isolates in pond water. Clinical signs of five white spots with red periphery appeared on the external surface of infected fish. All the fish sampled, died after 4 to 9 days. There was no significant difference in the bacterial counts between different ponds, but the difference between fish organs/parts examined was significant. Fish from these ponds are therefore potentially dangerous to consumers and highly devalued, with the economic impact to producers. Preventive methods to avoid these infections are recommended. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (2: 751-759. Epub 2011 June 01.

  8. Dynamic Analysis of a Unified Multivariate Counting Process and Its Asymptotic Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ushio Sumita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The class of counting processes constitutes a significant part of applied probability. The classic counting processes include Poisson processes, nonhomogeneous Poisson processes, and renewal processes. More sophisticated counting processes, including Markov renewal processes, Markov modulated Poisson processes, age-dependent counting processes, and the like, have been developed for accommodating a wider range of applications. These counting processes seem to be quite different on the surface, forcing one to understand each of them separately. The purpose of this paper is to develop a unified multivariate counting process, enabling one to express all of the above examples using its components, and to introduce new counting processes. The dynamic behavior of the unified multivariate counting process is analyzed, and its asymptotic behavior as t?? is established. As an application, a manufacturing system with certain maintenance policies is considered, where the optimal maintenance policy for minimizing the total cost is obtained numerically.

  9. PROCALCITONIN AS A BIOMARKER OF BACTERIAL INFECTION IN SICKLE CELL VASO-OCCLUSIVE CRISIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Kumar Patel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infection is an important trigger of vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC in sickle cell anaemia (SCA. SCA Patients with VOC have signs of inflammation and it is difficult to diagnose bacterial infection in them. This study was undertaken to evaluate serum procalcitonin (PCT as a biomarker of bacterial infection in acute sickle cell vaso-occlusive crisis. Hundred SCA patients were studied at Sickle Cell Clinic and Molecular Biology Laboratory, V.S.S. Medical College, Burla, Odisha, India. SCA was diagnosed by haemoglobin electrophoresis, HPLC and molecular analysis. Patients were divided into 3categories namely Category-A (VOC/ACS with fever but without evidence of bacterial infection-66 patients; Category-B (VOC with fever and documentedbacterial infection-24 patients; and Category-C (Patients in steady statewithout VOC/ACS or fever-10 patients. Investigations like complete blood count, C-reactive protein estimation and PCT measurement was done in all the cases. There was no significant difference in total leucocytes count and C-reactiveprotein values between category A and B. In category A the PCT level was <0.5ng/mL in 83.3% and 0.5-2ng/mL in 16.7% of cases. In category B all the cases had PCT value >0.5ng/mL with 87.5% of cases having >2ng/mL. In category C, PCT value was <0.5ng/mL.  The PCTvalue differed significantly (p<0.0001 in three categories. PCT had a highsensitivity (100% and negative predictive value (100% for bacterial infection at a cut-off value of 0.5ng/mL; whereas the specificity is excellent at a cutoff value of 2ng/mL. SCA patients with VOC/ACS with fever presenting with a PCT level of <0.5ng/mL do not have bacterial infection. In patients with VOC/ACS and fever, PCT value of >2ng/mL is indicative of bacterial infection necessitating antimicrobial therapy. Patients with indeterminate PCT value of0.5-2ng/mL, need a repeat PCT estimation or an empirical antibiotic therapyawaiting the availability of microbiological report as deemed necessary.

  10. Far-Ultraviolet Number Counts of Field Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyer, Elysse N.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Teplitz, Harry I.; Siana, Brian D.; deMello, Duilia F.

    2010-01-01

    The Number counts of far-ultraviolet (FUV) galaxies as a function of magnitude provide a direct statistical measure of the density and evolution of star-forming galaxies. We report on the results of measurements of the rest-frame FUV number counts computed from data of several fields including the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, the Hubble Deep Field North, and the GOODS-North and -South fields. These data were obtained from the Hubble Space Telescope Solar Blind Channel of the Advance Camera for Surveys. The number counts cover an AB magnitude range from 20-29 magnitudes, covering a total area of 15.9 arcmin'. We show that the number counts are lower than those in previous studies using smaller areas. The differences in the counts are likely the result of cosmic variance; our new data cover more area and more lines of sight than the previous studies. The slope of our number counts connects well with local FUV counts and they show good agreement with recent semi-analytical models based on dark matter "merger trees".

  11. Reticulocyte count: comparison among methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Augusta Viana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The automated counting of reticulocytes has some advantages over the manual method routinely used in clinical laboratories. Technological innovations provide more statistically reliable results, while optimizing the time to perform this test. However, the cost for implementing the automated procedure in laboratory routines still constitutes a barrier to its use in small- and medium-size Brazilian laboratories. Objective: This study evaluated the performance of a new laboratory protocol for reticulocyte counting by flow cytometry using acridine orange (FC/AO, compared with the manual method and with another automated one by flow cytometry using the commercial kit BD Retic-Count (FC/RC Conclusion: The results showed that, besides being comparable to the manual method, still considered standard, the evaluated new protocol is economically more advantageous than the automated methods currently available, and its cost is comparable to that of the manual method for laboratories that already have appropriate equipment and infrastructure.

  12. Fitting a distribution to miccrobial counts: making sense of zeros

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro Duarte, Ana Sofia; Stockmarr, Anders; Nauta, Maarten

    “artificial zeros” are only a share of the total number of zero counts resulting from a sample, as their number adds up to the number of “true zeros” resulting from uncontaminated units. In the process of fitting a probability distribution to microbial counts, “artificial” and “true” zeros are usually...... standard deviation) and the prevalence of contaminated food units (one minus the proportion of “true zeros”) from a set of microbial counts. By running the model with in silico generated concentration and count data, we could evaluate the performance of this method in terms of estimation of the three...... of the distribution parameters mean and standard deviation by running the same model for different prevalence scenarios....

  13. Basic principles of scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the energy of radiation, the crystal size, the collimation of the beam and scattering on the pulse-height distribution produced by monoenergetic radiation will be discussed. These aspects will be related to scintillation scanning. The effects of voltage on the operation of photomultiplier s and so-called plateaus will be dealt with. Glow-transfer tubes for counting will be dealt with and a useful substraction circuit for comparing the counting rate from two separate scintillation counters will be presented. (author)

  14. Predictive Value of Decoy Receptor 3 in Postoperative Nosocomial Bacterial Meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Yong-Juan Liu; Li-Hua Shao; Qian Wang; Jian Zhang; Rui-Ping Ma; Hai-Hong Liu; Xiao-Meng Dong; Li-Xian Ma

    2014-01-01

    Nosocomial bacterial meningitis requires timely treatment, but what is difficult is the prompt and accurate diagnosis of this disease. The aim of this study was to assess the potential role of decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) levels in the differentiation of bacterial meningitis from non-bacterial meningitis. A total of 123 patients were recruited in this study, among them 80 patients being with bacterial meningitis and 43 patients with non-bacterial meningitis. Bacterial meningitis was confirmed by...

  15. Relationship between Somatic Cell Counts, Mastitis and Milk Quality in Ettawah Grade and PESA Goats

    OpenAIRE

    Molefe PETLANE; Ronny Rachman NOOR; Rarah Ratih Adjie MAHESWARI

    2013-01-01

    Mastitis is a bacterial disease that leads to increased somatic cell counts and reduced milk quality in dairy goats. Reduction in quality is manifested through a reduction in fat, protein, lactose content and an increase in milk somatic cell counts and salts content. Thus mastitis affects productivity of animals and hence their economic value. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of somatic cell counts (SCC) and mastitis on milk quality in PE and PESA. On-Farm mastitis tests were ...

  16. Does leucocytosis identify bacterial infections in febrile neonates presenting to the emergency department?

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, L.; Shaw, T.; Wittlake, W

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study was undertaken to evaluate the discriminatory power of the peripheral white blood cell (WBC) count to identify bacterial infections in a cohort of febrile neonates (?28 days of age) presenting to an emergency department.

  17. Distribution of bacterial contamination in a teaching hospital in Tehran - a special focus on Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaii, Mehdi; Emaneini, Mohammad; Maleknejad, Parviz; Jonaidi, Nematollah; Fooladi, Abbas Ali Imani; Aligholi, Marzieh; Jabalameli, Fereshteh; Halimi, Shahnaz; Taherikalani, Morovat; Kasaeian, Amir

    2012-03-01

    There are documents that confirm the cycle of bacterial transmission between patients, staff, and the inanimate environment. The environment may have more effect on intensive care units (ICUs), because the patients who require intensive care have unstable clinical conditions and are more sensitive to infections. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of bacteria in air and inanimate surface in the ICUs and to compare the microbial levels to standard levels.Air and inanimate surface in the four ICUs of a teaching hospital underwent weekly surveillance by means of air sampler and swabs for a period of six-month. Total bacterial counts were evaluated onto trypticase soy agar and mannitol salt agar (MSA).A total of 725 samples [air (168) and inanimate surfaces (557)] were collected. The total mean ± SD CFU/m3 of airborne bacteria in all of the ICUs were 115.93 ± 48.04. The most common bacteria in air of the ICUs were Gram-positive cocci (84.2%). The total mean ± SD airborne of Staphylococcus aureus was 12.10±8.11 CFU/m3. The highest levels of S. aureus contamination were found in ventilators and bed ledges. More suitable disinfection of hospital environments and monthly rotation in utilization of the various disinfectant agents are needed for the prevention of airborne and inanimate transmission of S. aureus. PMID:22510282

  18. Growth of Microorganisms in Total Parenteral Nutrition Solutions Without Lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kuwahara, Shinya Kaneda, Kazuyuki Shimono, Yoshifumi Inoue

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To identify the microorganisms that can grow rapidly in total parenteral nutrition (TPN solutions, we investigated the growth of the major causes of catheter-related blood stream infection (Staphylococcus aureus, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus cereus, and Candida albicans in TPN solutions without lipid. Methods: Experiment 1: A commercial TPN solution without lipid containing multivitamins (pH5.6 was used. A specific number of each test microorganism was added to each 10 mL of the TPN solution and incubated at room temperature. An aliquot of test solution was sampled and inoculated to SCD agar plates at 0, 24, and 48 hrs after the addition of the microorganisms. The number of microorganisms was counted as colony forming units. Experiment 2: The other 2 commercial TPN solutions without lipid (pH5.5 were supplemented with multivitamins. The pH values of the solutions were adjusted to about 6.0, 6.5, or 7.0 using 0.5 mol/L NaOH. The addition of microorganisms, incubation, and counting were performed in the same manner. Results: Experiment 1: S. aureus, S. marcescens, and B. cereus did not increase in the TPN solution without lipid containing multivitamins (pH5.6, but C. albicans increased rapidly. Experiment 2: The 3 bacterial species did not increase even at pH6.0, but increased at pH6.5 and increased rapidly at pH7.0 in both TPN solutions. C. albicans increased similarly at any pH. Conclusion: These results suggest that bacterial species cannot grow in TPN solutions without lipid due to the acidity (pH5.6 or lower, but Candida species can grow regardless of the acidity.

  19. Determination of Contamination Profiles of Human Bacterial Pathogens in Shrimp Obtained from Java, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrimp continues to be an important export commodity for Indonesia and contributed significantly to the country’s revenue. However, shrimp exports have been frequently rejected by importing countries due to filth, Salmonella and insanitary conditions. This study was conducted to evaluate the profiles of bacterial contamination of ocean and aquaculture shrimp obtained from the area of West, Central and East Java; frozen shrimp and shrimp during industry production of frozen shrimp. The study indicated that both ocean and aquaculture shrimp obtained from the study area were heavily contaminated. On the average, shrimp obtained from West Java were more contaminated than those obtained from East and Central Java. The total bacterial counts were generally higher in ocean shrimp than those of aquaculture ones. Salmonella was present in two of 32 samples of ocean shrimp and in four of 32 samples of aquaculture shrimp obtained from the study area. Vibrio cholerae was not detected in shrimp from West Java, but was found in three out of 16 samples obtained from East and Central Java. V. parahaemolyticus was frequently identified in aquaculture shrimp but absent in fresh ocean shrimp. Studies on shrimp collected from six sampling points during frozen shrimp production revealed that processing will reduce the number of total bacterial, E. coli, and Staphylococal counts. However, the processing did not effectively reduce the incidence of Salmonella or V. parahaemolyticus when the raw material has been contaminated with the pathogens. Sizing and grading as well as arrangement of shrimp before freezing were considered as the critical points where bacteria should be controlled to inhibit growth and cross contamination with bacteria such as Listeria. Implementation of Good Agricultural Practices in production of raw shrimp as well as Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point at the line processing are expected to improve the quality of fresh and frozen shrimp. (author)

  20. 7 CFR 993.105 - Size count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Size count. 993.105 Section 993.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 993.105 Size count. Size count means the count or number...

  1. 7 CFR 993.502 - Size count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Size count. 993.502 Section 993.502 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Pack Specification as to Size Definitions § 993.502 Size count. Size count means the count or number...

  2. Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingraham, Sandy

    This Kids Count Factbook details county and statewide trends in the well-being of children in Oklahoma. The statistical portrait is based on seven indicators or benchmarks of child well-being: (1) low birthweight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to young teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child and teen death; (6) high school…

  3. Shakespeare Live! and Character Counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    This paper discusses a live production of Shakespeare's "Macbeth" (in full costume but with no sets) for all public middle school and high school students in Harrisonburg and Rockingham, Virginia. The paper states that the "Character Counts" issues that are covered in the play are: decision making, responsibility and citizenship, trustworthiness,…

  4. Approximate counting of regular hypergraphs

    OpenAIRE

    Dudek, Andrzej; Frieze, Alan; Ruci?ski, Andrzej; Šileikis, Matas

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we asymptotically count $d$-regular $k$-uniform hypergraphs on $n$ vertices, provided $k$ is fixed and $d=d(n)=o(n^{1/2})$. In doing so, we extend to hypergraphs a switching technique of McKay and Wormald.

  5. New interactions and neutrino counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anomalous events in p-barp collisions suggest the possibility of a new interaction. We calculate the contribution of such a new interaction to the neutrino-counting process e+e-???nu-bar and show how to eliminate this contribution if the new interaction is not completely known

  6. Maryland Kids Count Factbook, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advocates for Children and Youth, Baltimore, MD.

    This 7th annual Kids Count Factbook provides information on trends in the well-being of children in Maryland and its 24 jurisdictions. The statistical portrait is based on 18 indicators of well-being: (1) low birth-weight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) early prenatal care; (4) binge drinking; (5) child deaths; (6) child injury rate; (7) grade…

  7. Kids Count Data Sheet, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD.

    Data from the 50 United States are listed for 1997 from Kids Count in an effort to track state-by-state the status of children in the United States and to secure better futures for all children. Data include percent low birth weight babies; infant mortality rate; child death rate; rate of teen deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; teen birth…

  8. Intestinal Bacterial Flora that Compete on the Haem Precursor Iron Fumarate in Iron Deficiency Anemia Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim, S. A. H.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The study focused on finding if there is any possible relation between the intestinal bacterial population quantitative and qualitative and the deficiency of the most important iron compounds as haem precursors. Methodology and Results: Blood complete picture and stool analyses were done to 750 volunteer cases whom were asked for these analyses by their physicians. Analyses proved that 560 cases representing 75.2 % were anemic as the RBC(s based on counts of the total studied cases of less than 263 x 104 and the haemoglobin amount ranged between 7.2 and 11.3 g/dl, while the remainder 24.8 % of the volunteer sample was not anemic. A high male/female ratio ofanemic cases, 1:27 was also documented. Considering that all the studied stool samples should be completely free from any parasites or any other anemia-related diseases was a priority. Bacteriological analysis of stool samples of the anemic cases resulted in the detection of high counts of total viable bacteria, exceeded 42 x 109 cfu/g, while it was never more than 26 x 106 cfu/g and decreased to 4 x 106 cfu/g in many cases in this study. Identifying of the 361 bacterial isolates, were found to belong to 12 genera and 19 species, 6 of them; Pseudomonas putrefaciens, Micrococcus luteus, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus coagulans , were found and in high counts in the stool samples of only anemic cases. The ability of these isolates to compete for iron compounds such as ferrous fumarate alone or with glucose and phytate as activators or inhibitors to these abilities was investigated. Results proved 11 species out of the 19 identified species are capable to use and compete on ferrous fumarate as a haemprecursor. Sensitivity test for the representatives of the 19 species and 6 of the most commonly used antibiotics in the Egyptian pharmacy, using standard disc method, revealed variable susceptibilities of almost all of them to more than one of the studied antibiotics, except Corynebacterium equatium, which was found very resistant to two antibiotics; colistin sulfate and erythrocin. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The study finally concluded the strong role of intestinal bacterial counts and types as competitors on the haem precursor iron-containing compounds like ferrous fumarate.

  9. Inactivation of Selected Bacterial Pathogens in Dairy Cattle Manure by Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion (Balloon Type Digester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christy E. Manyi-Loh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion of animal manure in biogas digesters has shown promise as a technology in reducing the microbial load to safe and recommended levels. We sought to treat dairy manure obtained from the Fort Hare Dairy Farm by investigating the survival rates of bacterial pathogens, through a total viable plate count method, before, during and after mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Different microbiological media were inoculated with different serial dilutions of manure samples that were withdrawn from the biogas digester at 3, 7 and 14 day intervals to determine the viable cells. Data obtained indicated that the pathogens of public health importance were 90%–99% reduced in the order: Campylobacter sp. (18 days < Escherichia coli sp. (62 days < Salmonella sp. (133 days from a viable count of 10.1 × 103, 3.6 × 105, 7.4 × 103 to concentrations below the detection limit (DL = 102 cfu/g manure, respectively. This disparity in survival rates may be influenced by the inherent characteristics of these bacteria, available nutrients as well as the stages of the anaerobic digestion process. In addition, the highest p-value i.e., 0.957 for E. coli showed the statistical significance of its model and the strongest correlation between its reductions with days of digestion. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the specific bacterial pathogens in manure can be considerably reduced through anaerobic digestion after 133 days.

  10. Application of neutron multiplicity counting to waste assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickrell, M.M.; Ensslin, N. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Sharpe, T.J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This paper describes the use of a new figure of merit code that calculates both bias and precision for coincidence and multiplicity counting, and determines the optimum regions for each in waste assay applications. A {open_quotes}tunable multiplicity{close_quotes} approach is developed that uses a combination of coincidence and multiplicity counting to minimize the total assay error. An example is shown where multiplicity analysis is used to solve for mass, alpha, and multiplication and tunable multiplicity is shown to work well. The approach provides a method for selecting coincidence, multiplicity, or tunable multiplicity counting to give the best assay with the lowest total error over a broad spectrum of assay conditions. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Application of neutron multiplicity counting to waste assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the use of a new figure of merit code that calculates both bias and precision for coincidence and multiplicity counting, and determines the optimum regions for each in waste assay applications. A open-quotes tunable multiplicityclose quotes approach is developed that uses a combination of coincidence and multiplicity counting to minimize the total assay error. An example is shown where multiplicity analysis is used to solve for mass, alpha, and multiplication and tunable multiplicity is shown to work well. The approach provides a method for selecting coincidence, multiplicity, or tunable multiplicity counting to give the best assay with the lowest total error over a broad spectrum of assay conditions. 9 refs., 6 figs

  12. Assessment of the uncertainty budget associated with 4?? counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiam, C.; Bobin, C.; Maringer, F. J.; Peyres, V.; Pommé, S.

    2015-06-01

    The 4??-counting technique is recognized as a powerful primary method for the standardization of radionuclides decaying with abundant gamma emissions. Based on the use of a gamma detector in quasi 4?-geometry, a detection efficiency close to 100% and a low uncertainty can be achieved thanks to the summing effect of subsequent gamma transitions. Uncertainties have to be assigned to the realistic modelling of the source-detector geometry with respect to dimensions, density and material composition, the calculation of the total counting efficiency of the detector for the various emitted radiation, and the effect of possible flaws in the decay scheme of a radionuclide on the calculated total efficiency. Other uncertainty factors pertain to typical metrological sources of uncertainty, such as weighing, nuclear counting with pulse pile-up and system dead-time effects, impurity corrections, decay corrections, timing and frequency, etc. In order to ensure good metrological practices at NMIs, the uncertainties particular to the method are discussed.

  13. Bacterial Nail Infection (Paronychia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of nail infection is often caused by a bacterial infection but may also be caused by herpes, a ... to a type of yeast called Candida , or bacterial infection, and this may lead to abnormal nail growth. ...

  14. How to count elephants in West African savannahs? Synthesis and comparison of main gamecount methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouché, P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparison of some elephants count methods – aerial sampling count, aerial total count and direct foot count – has been presented through surveys' study cases implemented in Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger. We compare them in terms of effort and cost to survey an area (sampling efficiency, efficiency in data collection (detection efficiency as well as accuracy and precision. Aerial sampling count returns low sampling and detection efficiency and very low precision and accuracy figures when counting elephants populations below 0.5 elephant·km-2. Precision can partly be improved by stratification. Direct foot count returns the best sampling and detection efficiency but insufficient data number to produce reliable estimates. Therefore some authors often produced no results for elephants. Aerial total count is a costly method in absolute value. It requires important logistic and no measure of error is possible. However it provides relatively good sampling and detection efficiency as well as relatively accurate figures appreciated by wildlife managers if technical requirements are respected. Aerial total count could be recommended to survey small population of West African elephants each 3 to 5 years to minimize yearly count costs.

  15. Bacterial carbon cycling in a subarctic fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middelboe, Mathias; Glud, Ronnie Nøhr; Sejr, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    In this seasonal study, we examined the environmental controls and quantitative importance of bacterial carbon consumption in the water column and the sediment in the subarctic Kobbefjord, Greenland. Depth-integrated bacterial production in the photic zone varied from 5.0 ± 2.7 mg C m?2 d?1 in...... total microbial respiration in the system. Concentration of bioavailable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) ranged from 144 ± 37 µg C L?1 in the riverine input to the fjord to a maximum of 341 ± 37 µg C L?1 in the surface waters in September. Parallel enrichment experiments showed that bacterial production...... effect of viruses on bacterial mortality (4–36% of cell production) and carbon cycling. Heterotrophic bacterial consumption was closely coupled with autochthonous BDOC production, and the majority of the primary production was consumed by pelagic bacteria at all seasons. The relatively low measured BGE...

  16. Qualità totale e mobilità totale Total Quality and Total Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Trieste

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available FIABA ONLUS (Italian Fund for Elimination of Architectural Barriers was founded in 2000 with the aim of promoting a culture of equal opportunities and, above all, it has as its main goal to involve public and private institutions to create a really accessible and usable environment for everyone. Total accessibility, Total usability and Total mobility are key indicators to define quality of life within cities. A supportive environment that is free of architectural, cultural and psychological barriers allows everyone to live with ease and universality. In fact, people who access to goods and services in the urban context can use to their advantage time and space, so they can do their activities and can maintain relationships that are deemed significant for their social life. The main aim of urban accessibility is to raise the comfort of space for citizens, eliminating all barriers that discriminate people, and prevent from an equality of opportunity. “FIABA FUND - City of ... for the removal of architectural barriers” is an idea of FIABA that has already affected many regions of Italy as Lazio, Lombardy, Campania, Abruzzi and Calabria. It is a National project which provides for opening a bank account in the cities of referring, in which for the first time, all together, individuals and private and public institutions can make a donation to fund initiatives for the removal of architectural barriers within its own territory for a real and effective total accessibility. Last February the fund was launched in Rome with the aim of achieving a Capital without barriers and a Town European model of accessibility and usability. Urban mobility is a prerequisite to access to goods and services, and to organize activities related to daily life. FIABA promotes the concept of sustainable mobility for all, supported by the European Commission’s White Paper. We need a cultural change in management and organization of public means, which might focus on individual in its totality, with all its needs. For this reason it is necessary to focus on output of public and private transports which must be totally and globally accessible. Metropolitan and suburban transports need to have modern buses, and it has been calculated that it is possible to provide a total replacement of the fleet in a period from five to ten years. Total Quality must become the goal of every Local Government. FIABA suggests that a Total Quality Manager be always present in the institutional environment, as a guarantor of quality perceived by people living in their city for tourism, work, and leisure. It is essential to establish a favorable environment for all, to ensure the comfort of 100% of the population to give some definite and reliable answers.FIABA ONLUS (Italian Fund for Elimination of Architectural Barriers was founded in 2000 with the aim of promoting a culture of equal opportunities and, above all, it has as its main goal to involve public and private institutions to create a really accessible and usable environment for everyone. Total accessibility, Total usability and Total mobility are key indicators to define quality of life within cities. A supportive environment that is free of architectural, cultural and psychological barriers allows everyone to live with ease and universality. In fact, people who access to goods and services in the urban context can use to their advantage time and space, so they can do their activities and can maintain relationships that are deemed significant for their social life. The main aim of urban accessibility is to raise the comfort of space for citizens, eliminating all barriers that discriminate people, and prevent from an equality of opportunity. “FIABA FUND - City of ... for the removal of architectural barriers” is an idea of FIABA that has already affected many regions of Italy as Lazio, Lombardy, Campania, Abruzzi and Calabria. It is a National project which provides for opening a bank account in the cities of referring, in which for the first time, all together, individ

  17. A method for counting monosodium urate crystals in synovial fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Montagna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to standardize the technique for counting monosodium urate (MSU crystals in the synovial fluid (SF of patients with gout. A total of 52 SF specimens were examined under a polarized light microscope. The amount of SF ranged between 0.1 and 45 mL (median 3 mL. MSU crystals were counted in four areas with the same size at 400x magnification. Cytological examination of the same specimens was also performed. Median leukocyte count was 400 cells/mm3 (range 50-14,000 cells/mm3, with a median percentage of polymorphonuclear leukocytes of 9% (range 0%-98%. Median crystal count was 179.5 (range 3-1600. Inter- reader and intra-reader agreement in crystal counting were good with a weighed k of 0.89 [95% confidence interval (CI 0.85-0.94] and 0.89 (95% CI 0.84-0.93, respectively. Our data indicate that the SF MSU crystal count is a feasible and highly reliable technique.

  18. Microbial Air Quality and Bacterial Surface Contamination in Ambulances During Patient Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pipat Luksamijarulkul

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We sought to assess microbial air quality and bacterial surface contamination on medical instruments and the surrounding areas among 30 ambulance runs during service. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of 106 air samples collected from 30 ambulances before patient services and 212 air samples collected during patient services to assess the bacterial and fungal counts at the two time points. Additionally, 226 surface swab samples were collected from medical instrument surfaces and the surrounding areas before and after ambulance runs. Groups or genus of isolated bacteria and fungi were preliminarily identified by Gram’s stain and lactophenol cotton blue. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient with a p-value of less than 0.050 considered significant. Results: The mean and standard deviation of bacterial and fungal counts at the start of ambulance runs were 318±485cfu/m3 and 522±581cfu/m3, respectively. Bacterial counts during patient services were 468±607cfu/m3 and fungal counts were 656±612cfu/m3. Mean bacterial and fungal counts during patient services were significantly higher than those at the start of ambulance runs, p=0.005 and p=0.030, respectively. For surface contamination, the overall bacterial counts before and after patient services were 0.8±0.7cfu/cm2 and 1.3±1.1cfu/cm2, respectively (p<0.001. The predominant isolated bacteria and fungi were Staphylococcus spp. and Aspergillus spp., respectively. Additionally, there was a significantly positive correlation between bacterial (r=0.3, p<0.010 and fungal counts (r=0.2, p=0.020 in air samples and bacterial counts on medical instruments and allocated areas. Conclusions: This study revealed high microbial contamination (bacterial and fungal in ambulance air during services and higher bacterial contamination on medical instrument surfaces and allocated areas after ambulance services compared to the start of ambulance runs. Additionally, bacterial and fungal counts in ambulance air showed a significantly positive correlation with the bacterial surface contamination on medical instruments and allocated areas. Further studies should be conducted to determine the optimal intervention to reduce microbial contamination in the ambulance environment.

  19. Theory of photoelectron counting statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present essay is to provide a detailed analysis of those theoretical aspects of photoelectron counting which are capable of experimental verification. Most of our interest is in the physical phenomena themselves, while part is in the mathematical techniques. Many of the mathematical methods used in the analysis of the photoelectron counting problem are generally unfamiliar to physicists interested in the subject. For this reason we have developed the essay in such a fashion that, although primary interest is focused on the physical phenomena, we have also taken pains to carry out enough of the analysis so that the reader can follow the main details. We have chosen to present a consistently quantum mechanical version of the subject, in that we follow the Glauber theory throughout. (orig./WL)

  20. Counting Irreducible Double Occurrence Words

    OpenAIRE

    BURNS, JONATHAN; Muche, Tilahun

    2011-01-01

    A double occurrence word $w$ over a finite alphabet $\\Sigma$ is a word in which each alphabet letter appears exactly twice. Such words arise naturally in the study of topology, graph theory, and combinatorics. Recently, double occurrence words have been used for studying DNA recombination events. We develop formulas for counting and enumerating several elementary classes of double occurrence words such as palindromic, irreducible, and strongly-irreducible words.

  1. Reticulocyte count: comparison among methods

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Augusta Viana; Olindo Assis Martins Filho,; Luci Maria Sant’Ana Dusse; Renato Sathler Avelar; Danielle Marquete Vitelli Avelar; Beatriz Carvalho; Claudia Maria Franco Ribeiro; Lis Ribeiro do Valle Antonelli; Andrea Teixeira; Maria das Graças Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The automated counting of reticulocytes has some advantages over the manual method routinely used in clinical laboratories. Technological innovations provide more statistically reliable results, while optimizing the time to perform this test. However, the cost for implementing the automated procedure in laboratory routines still constitutes a barrier to its use in small- and medium-size Brazilian laboratories. Objective: This study evaluated the performance of a new laboratory...

  2. Bacterial pathogen indicators regrowth and reduced sulphur compounds' emissions during storage of electro-dewatered biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navab-Daneshmand, Tala; Enayet, Samia; Gehr, Ronald; Frigon, Dominic

    2014-10-01

    Electro-dewatering (ED) increases biosolids dryness from 10-15 to 30-50%, which helps wastewater treatment facilities control disposal costs. Previous work showed that high temperatures due to Joule heating during ED inactivate total coliforms to meet USEPA Class A biosolids requirements. This allows biosolids land application if the requirements are still met after the storage period between production and application. In this study, we examined bacterial regrowth and odour emissions during the storage of ED biosolids. No regrowth of total coliforms was observed in ED biosolids over 7d under aerobic or anaerobic incubations. To mimic on-site contamination during storage or transport, ED samples were seeded with untreated sludge. Total coliform counts decreased to detection limits after 4d in inoculated samples. Olfactometric analysis of ED biosolids odours showed that odour concentrations were lower compared to the untreated and heat-treated control biosolids. Furthermore, under anaerobic conditions, odorous reduced sulphur compounds (methanethiol, dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl disulphide) were produced by untreated and heat-treated biosolids, but were not detected in the headspaces above ED samples. The data demonstrate that ED provides advantages not only as a dewatering technique, but also for producing biosolids with lower microbial counts and odour levels. PMID:25065797

  3. Effect of UV irradiation, sample thickness and storage temperature on storability, bacterial activity and functional properties of liquid egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdanan Mehdizadeh, S; Minaei, S; Karimi Torshizi, M A; Mohajerani, E

    2015-07-01

    Effect of sample thickness, ultraviolet irradiation and storage temperature on bacterial activity, storability and functional properties (foamability and stability) of liquid egg were investigated. Eggs were contaminated with prepared Salmonella suspension 108/mL. Separated albumen and yolk samples were poured in three thicknesses (1, 2 and 3 mm) and irradiated at 3, 5 10, 15 min with ultraviolet radiation and were stored at 5, 15, 25, 37 °C for up to 8 days. Observations indicated that all ultraviolet irradiation times, reduced the total count of Salmonella bacteria in egg samples. Although, functional properties were improved, protein oxidation in both albumen and yolk increased. After the first 2 days of storage, total counts of Salmonella and protein oxidation of eggs decreased solely in the 5 °C treatment. It is concluded that irradiation treatment can be used to decrease bacterial contamination of liquid egg albeit not below the safe level for raw consumption. Furthermore, the best irradiation times to improve foam ability and stability were 10 and 5 min, respectively. PMID:26139907

  4. It's not the pixel count, you fool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriss, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    The first thing a "marketing guy" asks the digital camera engineer is "how many pixels does it have, for we need as many mega pixels as possible since the other guys are killing us with their "umpteen" mega pixel pocket sized digital cameras. And so it goes until the pixels get smaller and smaller in order to inflate the pixel count in the never-ending pixel-wars. These small pixels just are not very good. The truth of the matter is that the most important feature of digital cameras in the last five years is the automatic motion control to stabilize the image on the sensor along with some very sophisticated image processing. All the rest has been hype and some "cool" design. What is the future for digital imaging and what will drive growth of camera sales (not counting the cell phone cameras which totally dominate the market in terms of camera sales) and more importantly after sales profits? Well sit in on the Dark Side of Color and find out what is being done to increase the after sales profits and don't be surprised if has been done long ago in some basement lab of a photographic company and of course, before its time.

  5. Kynetic resazurin assay (KRA) for bacterial quantification of foodborne pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Yaxal; Mandel, Arkady; Lilge, Lothar

    2012-03-01

    Fast detection of bacterial concentrations is important for the food industry and for healthcare. Early detection of infections and appropriate treatment is essential since, the delay of treatments for bacterial infections tends to be associated with higher mortality rates. In the food industry and in healthcare, standard procedures require the count of colony-forming units in order to quantify bacterial concentrations, however, this method is time consuming and reports require three days to be completed. An alternative is metabolic-colorimetric assays which provide time efficient in vitro bacterial concentrations. A colorimetric assay based on Resazurin was developed as a time kinetic assay (KRA) suitable for bacterial concentration measurements. An optimization was performed by finding excitation and emission wavelengths for fluorescent acquisition. A comparison of two non-related bacteria, foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes, was performed in 96 well plates. A metabolic and clonogenic dependence was established for fluorescent kinetic signals.

  6. Prevention of bacterial adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria

    2010-01-01

    Management of bacterial infections is becoming increasingly difficult due to the emergence and increasing prevalence of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to available antibiotics. Conventional antibiotics generally kill bacteria by interfering with vital cellular functions, an approach that...... imposes selection pressure for resistant bacteria. New approaches are urgently needed. Targeting bacterial virulence functions directly is an attractive alternative. An obvious target is bacterial adhesion. Bacterial adhesion to surfaces is the first step in colonization, invasion, and biofilm formation....... As such, adhesion represents the Achilles heel of crucial pathogenic functions. It follows that interference with adhesion can reduce bacterial virulence. Here, we illustrate this important topic with examples of techniques being developed that can inhibit bacterial adhesion. Some of these will...

  7. Total quality management

    OpenAIRE

    ????????, ???????

    1993-01-01

    ? ?????? ??????????????? ???? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ? ???????????????? ??????????? ? ????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????? Total Quality Management. ???????????????? ?? ?????? ????? - ????????????, ??????????, ??????????? ? ?????????. ????????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????? ???????????? ?????....

  8. Bacterial community and proteome analysis of fresh-cut lettuce as affected by packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Carli, Mariasole; De Rossi, Patrizia; Paganin, Patrizia; Del Fiore, Antonella; Lecce, Francesca; Capodicasa, Cristina; Bianco, Linda; Perrotta, Gaetano; Mengoni, Alessio; Bacci, Giovanni; Daroda, Lorenza; Dalmastri, Claudia; Donini, Marcello; Bevivino, Annamaria

    2016-01-01

    With the growing demand of fresh-cut vegetables, a variety of packaging films are produced specifically to improve safety and quality of the fresh vegetables over the storage period. The aim of our work was to evaluate the influence of different packaging films on the quality of fresh-cut lettuce analyzing changes in bacterial community composition and modifications at the proteome level, by means of culture-dependent/culture-independent methods and differential gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry analysis. Total viable counts indicated the presence of a highly variable and complex microbial flora, around a mean value of 6.26 log10 CFU g(-1). Analysis of terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism data indicated that bacterial communities changed with packaging films and time, showing differences in community composition and diversity indices between the commercially available package (F) and the new packages (A and C), in the first days after packaging. Also proteomic analysis revealed significant changes, involving proteins related to energy metabolism, photosynthesis, plant defense and oxidative stress processes, between F and A/C packages. In conclusion, microbiological and proteomic analysis have proved to be powerful tools to provide new insights into both the composition of leaf-associated bacterial communities and protein content of fresh-cut lettuce during the shelf-life storage process. PMID:26511951

  9. Bacterial concentration and diversity in fresh tropical shrimps (Penaeus notialis) and the surrounding brackish waters and sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabadé, D Sylvain; Wolkers-Rooijackers, Judith C M; Azokpota, Paulin; Hounhouigan, D Joseph; Zwietering, Marcel H; Nout, M J Rob; den Besten, Heidy M W

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed at determining bacterial concentration and diversity in fresh tropical shrimps (Penaeus notialis) and their surrounding brackish waters and sediment. Freshly caught shrimp, water and sediment samples were collected in Lakes Nokoue and Aheme in Benin (West Africa) during two periods with different water salinity and temperature. We used complementary culture-dependent and culture-independent methods for microbiota analysis. During both sampling periods, total mesophilic aerobic counts in shrimp samples ranged between 4.4 and 5.9logCFU/g and were significantly higher than in water or sediment samples. In contrast, bacterial diversity was higher in sediment or water than in shrimps. The dominant phyla were Firmicutes and Proteobacteria in shrimps, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria in water, and Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi in sediment. At species level, distinct bacterial communities were associated with sediment, water and shrimps sampled at the same site the same day. The study suggests that the bacterial community of tropical brackish water shrimps cannot be predicted from the microbiota of their aquatic environment. Thus, monitoring of microbiological quality of aquatic environments might not reflect shrimp microbiological quality. PMID:26656527

  10. Leukocyte nucleus segmentation and nucleus lobe counting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zong-Han

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leukocytes play an important role in the human immune system. The family of leukocytes is comprised of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, and neutrophils. Any infection or acute stress may increase or decrease the number of leukocytes. An increased percentage of neutrophils may be caused by an acute infection, while an increased percentage of lymphocytes can be caused by a chronic bacterial infection. It is important to realize an abnormal variation in the leukocytes. The five types of leukocytes can be distinguished by their cytoplasmic granules, staining properties of the granules, size of cell, the proportion of the nuclear to the cytoplasmic material, and the type of nucleolar lobes. The number of lobes increased when leukemia, chronic nephritis, liver disease, cancer, sepsis, and vitamin B12 or folate deficiency occurred. Clinical neutrophil hypersegmentation has been widely used as an indicator of B12 or folate deficiency.Biomedical technologists can currently recognize abnormal leukocytes using human eyes. However, the quality and efficiency of diagnosis may be compromised due to the limitations of the biomedical technologists' eyesight, strength, and medical knowledge. Therefore, the development of an automatic leukocyte recognition system is feasible and necessary. It is essential to extract the leukocyte region from a blood smear image in order to develop an automatic leukocyte recognition system. The number of lobes increased when leukemia, chronic nephritis, liver disease, cancer, sepsis, and vitamin B12 or folate deficiency occurred. Clinical neutrophil hypersegmentation has been widely used as an indicator of B12 or folate deficiency. Results The purpose of this paper is to contribute an automatic leukocyte nuclei image segmentation method for such recognition technology. The other goal of this paper is to develop the method of counting the number of lobes in a cell nucleus. The experimental results demonstrated impressive segmentation accuracy. Conclusions Insensitive to the variance of images, the LNS (Leukocyte Nuclei Segmentation method functioned well to isolate the leukocyte nuclei from a blood smear image with much better UR (Under Segmentation Rate, ER (Overall Error Rate, and RDE (Relative Distance Error. The presented LC (Lobe Counting method is capable of splitting leukocyte nuclei into lobes. The experimental results illuminated that both methods can give expressive performances. In addition, three advanced image processing techniques were proposed as weighted Sobel operator, GDW (Gradient Direction Weight, and GBPD (Genetic-based Parameter Detector.

  11. Alaska Steller Sea Lion Pup Count Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains counts of Steller sea lion pups on rookeries in Alaska made between 1961 and 2014. Pup counts are conducted in late June-July. Pups are...

  12. Tallahatchie NWR - Landbird Point Counts in 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Avian point counts were done in selected areas of mature forest on Tallahatchie Refuge in 2009. Report contains summary of avain point counts done in mature...

  13. Understanding and Reducing Crater Counting Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tar, P. D.; Thacker, N. A.

    2015-05-01

    We propose a crater counting model which incorporates uncertainties from false positive and false negative crater detections. We show how binomial statistics and Linear Poisson Models can be used to better understand and to reduce counting errors.

  14. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neutropenia and cancer; Absolute neutrophil count and cancer; ANC and cancer ... A person with cancer can get a low white blood cell count from the cancer or from treatment for the cancer. Cancer may ...

  15. Hydrodebridement of wounds: effectiveness in reducing wound bacterial contamination and potential for air bacterial contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstrong David G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to assess the level of air contamination with bacteria after surgical hydrodebridement and to determine the effectiveness of hydro surgery on bacterial reduction of a simulated infected wound. Methods Four porcine samples were scored then infected with a broth culture containing a variety of organisms and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. The infected samples were then debrided with the hydro surgery tool (Versajet, Smith and Nephew, Largo, Florida, USA. Samples were taken for microbiology, histology and scanning electron microscopy pre-infection, post infection and post debridement. Air bacterial contamination was evaluated before, during and after debridement by using active and passive methods; for active sampling the SAS-Super 90 air sampler was used, for passive sampling settle plates were located at set distances around the clinic room. Results There was no statistically significant reduction in bacterial contamination of the porcine samples post hydrodebridement. Analysis of the passive sampling showed a significant (p 3 to 16780 CFUs/m3 were observed with active sampling of the air whilst using hydro surgery equipment compared with a basal count of 582 CFUs/m3. During removal of the wound dressing, a significant increase was observed relative to basal counts (p Conclusion The results suggest a significant increase in bacterial air contamination both by active sampling and passive sampling. We believe that action might be taken to mitigate fallout in the settings in which this technique is used.

  16. Oral bacterial DNA findings in pericardial fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Mari Louhelainen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: We recently reported that large amounts of oral bacterial DNA can be found in thrombus aspirates of myocardial infarction patients. Some case reports describe bacterial findings in pericardial fluid, mostly done with conventional culturing and a few with PCR; in purulent pericarditis, nevertheless, bacterial PCR has not been used as a diagnostic method before. Objective: To find out whether bacterial DNA can be measured in the pericardial fluid and if it correlates with pathologic–anatomic findings linked to cardiovascular diseases. Methods: Twenty-two pericardial aspirates were collected aseptically prior to forensic autopsy at Tampere University Hospital during 2009–2010. Of the autopsies, 10 (45.5% were free of coronary artery disease (CAD, 7 (31.8% had mild and 5 (22.7% had severe CAD. Bacterial DNA amounts were determined using real-time quantitative PCR with specific primers and probes for all bacterial strains associated with endodontic disease (Streptococcus mitis group, Streptococcus anginosus group, Staphylococcus aureus/Staphylococcus epidermidis, Prevotella intermedia, Parvimonas micra and periodontal disease (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatus, and Dialister pneumosintes. Results: Of 22 cases, 14 (63.6% were positive for endodontic and 8 (36.4% for periodontal-disease-associated bacteria. Only one case was positive for bacterial culturing. There was a statistically significant association between the relative amount of bacterial DNA in the pericardial fluid and the severity of CAD (p=0.035. Conclusions: Oral bacterial DNA was detectable in pericardial fluid and an association between the severity of CAD and the total amount of bacterial DNA in pericardial fluid was found, suggesting that this kind of measurement might be useful for clinical purposes.

  17. Digital nuclear counting system with timer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A digital nuclear counting system of six digits with four digits electronic timer set-up for counting was constructed. Mode of operation on diagram block is described. Observation on characteristics showed counting stability is 0.01%, temperature stability is 10ppm/deg C and timer accuracy is about 10 ppm. Enduro-test and characteristic measurement results showed that the instrument was applicable for general counting system. (author)

  18. Counting the homeless in Los Angeles County

    OpenAIRE

    Berk, Richard; Kriegler, Brian; Ylvisaker, Donald

    2008-01-01

    Over the past two decades, a variety of methods have been used to count the homeless in large metropolitan areas. In this paper, we report on an effort to count the homeless in Los Angeles County, one that employed the sampling of census tracts. A number of complications are discussed, including\\^{E} the need to impute homeless counts to areas of \\^{E}the County\\^{E} not sampled. We conclude that, despite their imperfections, estimated counts provided useful and credible inf...

  19. Counting closed geodesics in strata

    OpenAIRE

    Eskin, Alex; Mirzakhani, Maryam; Rafi, Kasra

    2012-01-01

    We compute the asymptotic growth rate of the number N(C, R) of closed geodesics of length less than R in a connected component C of a stratum of quadratic differentials. We prove that for any 0 < \\theta < 1, the number of closed geodesics of length at most R that spend at least \\theta-fraction of time outside of a compact subset of C is exponentially smaller than N(C, R). The theorem follows from a lattice counting statement. For points x, y in the moduli space M of Riemann ...

  20. Counting and Computing by $e$

    OpenAIRE

    Hassani, Mehdi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we count the number of paths and cycles in complete graphs by using the number $e$. Also, we compute the number of derangements in same way. Connection by $e$ yields some nice formulas for the number of derangements, such as $D_n=\\lfloor\\frac{n!+1}{e}\\rfloor$ and $D_n=\\lfloor(e+e^{-1})n!\\rfloor-\\lfloor en!\\rfloor$, and using these relations allow us to compute some incomplete gamma functions and hypergeometric summations; these connections are hidden in the hea...

  1. The liquid scintillation counting efficiency for 137 Cs137m Ba and 129 I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compute the liquid scintillation counting efficiency for ''137 Cs+ ''137m Ba and ''129 I taking into account the scintillator chemical composition. We consider the beta transition shape factors for the forbidden beta transitions of these nuclides, and the effects of ''137m Ba and ''129m Xe half-lives on the total counting efficiency

  2. 46 CFR 122.504 - Passenger count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger count. 122.504 Section 122.504 Shipping COAST... Emergencies § 122.504 Passenger count. The master of a vessel, except a vessel listed in § 122.502(a), shall keep a correct, written count of all passengers that embark on and disembark from the vessel. Prior...

  3. 46 CFR 185.504 - Passenger count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger count. 185.504 Section 185.504 Shipping COAST...) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.504 Passenger count. The master of a vessel, except a vessel listed in § 185.502(a) of this part, shall keep a correct, written count of all passengers that embark...

  4. DC KIDS COUNT e-Databook Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    DC Action for Children, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report presents indicators that are included in DC Action for Children's 2012 KIDS COUNT e-databook, their definitions and sources and the rationale for their selection. The indicators for DC KIDS COUNT represent a mix of traditional KIDS COUNT indicators of child well-being, such as the number of children living in poverty, and indicators of…

  5. Radiometric assay of bacterial growth: analysis of factors determining system performance and optimization of assay technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantitative technique for the measurement of 14CO2 released from a bacterial culture was evaluated. The technique uses liquid scintillation counting to record 14CO2 accumulation on a fluor-impregnated filter paper within a double-chambered scintillation vial that also houses the bacterial growth medium. We have successfully identified and corrected the major causes for a variably low detection efficiency, and also established the optimum mixture of reagents for the detection system. Incorporation of Triton X-100 into the scintillation fluid used for the detector reduced the variability between identical assays in a single batch from 50% to 5%, and, in conjunction with an increase in the scintillator concentration, raised the counting efficiency from 30% to 70-88%. The response of the improved detector is linear over a wide range of count-rates. Another significant modification was the interchange of growth and detector chambers. Overall, a 40-fold increase in count-rate during the exponential phase of bacterial growth was obtained by improving 14CO2 detection efficiency, increasing the rate of 14CO2 transfer from liquid to gas phases and enlarging the growth supporting capacity of the detector system. The minimum detection time for bacterial growth was shortened and the exponential phase of bacterial proliferation was lengthened by at least 2 hr. High counting efficiency, precision, and linearity make the improved detector a sensitive and reliable tool for radiometry of bacterial growth and metabolism

  6. Improvement of bremsstrahlung counting method for measurements of gaseous tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thin beryllium disk coated with a gold evaporated film of about 80 nm thickness was fabricated as an effective radiation window of bremsstrahlung X-rays. Its characteristics were examined in detail. The bremsstrahlung counting rate was proportional to the partial pressure of tritium above 0.1 Pa. The specific counting rate was evaluated as 70.8 cps/Pa. On the other hand, it decreased gradually with the total pressure above 2 kPa. This behavior was interpreted in terms of the self-absorption of β-particles in gas phase. It was revealed that the counting rate could be reproduced very well by a simple exponential function. From these results, it was concluded that the beryllium window coated with a thin gold evaporated film is a powerful device for in-situ measurements of tritium concentration in a wide range. 9 refs., 7 figs

  7. Counting efficiency of scintillating gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scintillating gels that are suitable for the counting of insoluble radioact+ve samples, sometimes exhibit in addition a higher scintillation yield than the corresponding liquid scintillators. This property, observable when silica is added into dioxane liquid scintillators, is inherent in some primary solutes (PPO, PBD, butyl-PBD) while not obvious for others (CPO, PFD, BPO, ?NPO). Quenching properties of chlorinated compounds (CHCl3, CCl4) and energy transfer mechanisms are not changed by silica addition. On the other hand, PPO, PBD and butyl-PBD fluorescence quantum yields are markedly increased under these conditions, probably because of the higher viscosity of the samples. Another scintillating gel was prepared by the addition of HP55 (hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose phthalate) into PPO-dioxane liquid scintillator; its scintillation yield is reduced without any change of transfer mechanisms and at the same time PPO fluorescence quantum yield is diminished. A static quenching process by HP55 is likely to occur, which screens the viscosity effect noticed in the presence of Cab-O-Sil. Thus, PPO, PBD and butyl-PBD seem to be the most efficient primary solutes among those studied since they provide gel scintillator giving improved counting efficiency compared to that of liquid scintillator. (author)

  8. Counting efficiencies by liquid scintillation counting. Single isomeric transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we present liquid scintillation counting efficiency tables for several radionuclides with single isomeric transitions, in which electron conversion and gamma emission processes are competitive. We study the radionuclides: 58mCo, 77mSe, 79mBr, 87mSr, S9mY, 93mNb, 103mRh, 107mAg, 109mAg, 113mIn, 131mXe, I33mXe, 135raBa, 137mBa, 167raEr, for two different scintillators, Ultima-Gold and Insta-Gel. We consider volumes of 10 and 15 mL for Ultima Gold, and 15 mL for Insta-Gel. (Author) 18 refs

  9. How much do women count if they not counted?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Taddia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The condition of women throughout the world is marked by countless injustices and violations of the most fundamental rights established by the Universal Declaration of human rights and every culture is potentially prone to commit discrimination against women in various forms. Women are worse fed, more exposed to physical violence, more exposed to diseases and less educated; they have less access to, or are excluded from, vocational training paths; they are the most vulnerable among prisoners of conscience, refugees and immigrants and the least considered within ethnic minorities; from their very childhood, women are humiliated, undernourished, sold, raped and killed; their work is generally less paid compared to men’s work and in some countries they are victims of forced marriages. Such condition is the result of old traditions that implicit gender-differentiated education has long promoted through cultural models based on theories, practices and policies marked by discrimination and structured differentially for men and women. Within these cultural models, the basic educational institutions have played and still play a major role in perpetuating such traditions. Nevertheless, if we want to overcome inequalities and provide women with empowerment, we have to start right from the educational institutions and in particular from school, through the adoption of an intercultural approach to education: an approach based on active pedagogy and on methods of analysis, exchange and enhancement typical of socio-educational animation. The intercultural approach to education is attentive to promote the realisation of each individual and the dignity and right of everyone to express himself/herself in his/her own way. Such an approach will give women the opportunity to become actual agents of collective change and to get the strength and wellbeing necessary to count and be counted as human beings entitled to freedom and equality, and to have access to all the rights set out in Declarations, Covenants and Conventions.

  10. Comparison of plate counts, Petrifilm, dipslides, and adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence for monitoring bacteria in cooling-tower waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sherry A; Anderson, James E; Kim, Byung R; Ball, James C

    2009-04-01

    Effective bacterial control in cooling-tower systems requires accurate and timely methods to count bacteria. Plate-count methods are difficult to implement on-site, because they are time- and labor-intensive and require sterile techniques. Several field-applicable methods (dipslides, Petrifilm, and adenosine triphosphate [ATP] bioluminescence) were compared with the plate count for two sample matrices--phosphate-buffered saline solution containing a pure culture of Pseudomonas fluorescens and cooling-tower water containing an undefined mixed bacterial culture. For the pure culture, (1) counts determined on nutrient agar and plate-count agar (PCA) media and expressed as colony-forming units (CFU) per milliliter were equivalent to those on R2A medium (p = 1.0 and p = 1.0, respectively); (2) Petrifilm counts were not significantly different from R2A plate counts (p = 0.99); (3) the dipslide counts were up to 2 log units higher than R2A plate counts, but this discrepancy was not statistically significant (p = 0.06); and (4) a discernable correlation (r2 = 0.67) existed between ATP readings and plate counts. For cooling-tower water samples (n = 62), (1) bacterial counts using R2A medium were higher (but not significant; p = 0.63) than nutrient agar and significantly higher than tryptone-glucose yeast extract (TGE; p = 0.03) and PCA (p < 0.001); (2) Petrifilm counts were significantly lower than nutrient agar or R2A (p = 0.02 and p < 0.001, respectively), but not statistically different from TGE, PCA, and dipslides (p = 0.55, p = 0.69, and p = 0.91, respectively); (3) the dipslide method yielded bacteria counts 1 to 3 log units lower than nutrient agar and R2A (p < 0.001), but was not significantly different from Petrifilm (p = 0.91), PCA (p = 1.00) or TGE (p = 0.07); (4) the differences between dipslides and the other methods became greater with a 6-day incubation time; and (5) the correlation between ATP readings and plate counts varied from system to system, was poor (r2 values ranged from < 0.01 to 0.47), and the ATP method was not sufficiently sensitive to measure counts below approximately 10(4) CFU/mL. PMID:19445329

  11. Quantification of bioavailable chlortetracycline in pig feces using a bacterial whole-cell biosensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L. H.; Aarestrup, Frank MØller

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial whole-cell biosensors were used to measure the concentration of chlortetracycline (CTC) in the feces of pigs. In this study, the Escherichia coli biosensor used has a detection limit of 0.03 mg/kg CTC in pig feces. The tetracycline concentration was correlated with the appearance and maintenance of fecal coliform bacteria resistant to tetracycline. Initially, large quantities of water-extractable CTC were excreted from the pigs and measurable amounts were detected even at 30 days after treatment cessation. This led to a sharp rise in the number of tetracycline resistant coliform bacteria in the feces, to within the same order of magnitude as the total coliform count. The high level of tetracycline resistance was maintained in spite of the declining concentration of tetracycline. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantification of bioavailable chlortetracycline in pig feces using a bacterial whole-cell biosensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Aarestrup, Frank; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial whole-cell biosensors were used to measure the concentration of chlortetracycline (CTC) in the feces of pigs. In this study, the Escherichia coli biosensor used has a detection limit of 0.03 mg/kg CTC in pig feces. The tetracycline concentration was correlated with the appearance and...... maintenance of fecal coliform bacteria resistant to tetracycline. Initially, large quantities of water-extractable CTC were excreted from the pigs and measurable amounts were detected even at 30 days after treatment cessation. This led to a sharp rise in the number of tetracycline resistant coliform bacteria...... in the feces, to within the same order of magnitude as the total coliform count. The high level of tetracycline resistance was maintained in spite of the declining concentration of tetracycline....

  13. Quantification of bioavailable chlortetracycline in pig feces using a bacterial whole-cell biosensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L. H.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Sørensen, S. J.

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial whole-cell biosensors were used to measure the concentration of chlortetracycline (CTC) in the feces of pigs. In this study, the Escherichia coli biosensor used has a detection limit of 0.03 mg/kg CTC in pig feces. The tetracycline concentration was correlated with the appearance and...... maintenance of fecal coliform bacteria resistant to tetracycline. Initially, large quantities of water-extractable CTC were excreted from the pigs and measurable amounts were detected even at 30 days after treatment cessation. This led to a sharp rise in the number of tetracycline resistant coliform bacteria...... in the feces, to within the same order of magnitude as the total coliform count. The high level of tetracycline resistance was maintained in spite of the declining concentration of tetracycline. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  14. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of blood cultures from cattle clinically suspected of bacterial endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houe, Hans; Eriksen, L.; Jungersen, Gregers; Pedersen, D.; Krogh, H. V.

    1993-01-01

    This study investigated the number of blood culture-positive cattle among 215 animals clinically suspected of having bacterial endocarditis. For animals that were necropsied, the sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of the diagnosis of endocarditis were calculated on the basis of the...... isolation of the causative bacteria from blood. Furthermore, it was investigated whether the glutaraldehyde coagulation time, total leucocyte count, per cent neutrophil granulocytes, pulse rate and duration of disease could help to discriminate endocarditis from other diseases. Among 138 animals necropsied...... the sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of blood cultivation were 70.7 per cent, 93.8 per cent and 89.1 per cent, respectively. None of the other measurements could be used to discriminate between endocarditis and non-endocarditis cases....

  15. Study on rising the counting efficiency of 32P by the liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study compares the Cerekov counting with the liquid scintillation counting for 32P, while the experimental comparisons were made for 32P counting efficiency to the various sample bottles and the effect of scintillation solutions. The results show the way of rising the counting efficiency for 32P

  16. The rare bacterial biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    All communities are dominated by a few species that account for most of the biomass and carbon cycling. On the other hand, a large number of species are represented by only a few individuals. In the case of bacteria, these rare species were until recently invisible. Owing to their low numbers, conventional molecular techniques could not retrieve them. Isolation in pure culture was the only way to identify some of them, but current culturing techniques are unable to isolate most of the bacteria in nature. The recent development of fast and cheap high-throughput sequencing has begun to allow access to the rare species. In the case of bacteria, the exploration of this rare biosphere has several points of interest. First, it will eventually produce a reasonable estimate of the total number of bacterial taxa in the oceans; right now, we do not even know the right order of magnitude. Second, it will answer the question of whether "everything is everywhere." Third, it will require hypothesizing and testing the ecological mechanisms that allow subsistence of many species in low numbers. And fourth, it will open an avenue of research into the immense reserve of genes with potential applications hidden in the rare biosphere. PMID:22457983

  17. Procalcitonin in sepsis and bacterial infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Chaudhury

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The differentiation of sepsis and systemic bacterial infections from other causes of systemic inflammatory response is crucial from the therapeutic point of view. The clinical signs and symptoms are non-specific and traditional biomarkers like white cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein are not sufficiently sensitive or specific to guide therapeutic decisions. Procalcitonin (PCT is considered a reliable marker for the diagnosis and prognosis of moderate to severe bacterial infections, and it has also been evaluated to guide the clinicians in the rational usage of antibiotics. This review describes the diagnostic and prognostic role of PCT as a biomarker in various clinical settings along with the laboratory aspects and its usefulness in risk stratification and antibiotic stewardship.

  18. FAINT SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY COUNTS AT 450 ?m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results of SCUBA-2 observations at 450 ?m and 850 ?m of the field lensed by the massive cluster A370. With a total survey area >100 arcmin2 and 1? sensitivities of 3.92 and 0.82 mJy beam–1 at 450 and 850 ?m, respectively, we find a secure sample of 20 sources at 450 ?m and 26 sources at 850 ?m with a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) > 4. Using the latest lensing model of A370 and Monte Carlo simulations, we derive the number counts at both wavelengths. The 450 ?m number counts probe a factor of four deeper than the counts recently obtained from the Herschel Space Telescope at similar wavelengths, and we estimate that ?47%-61% of the 450 ?m extragalactic background light resolved into individual sources with 450 ?m fluxes greater than 4.5 mJy. The faint 450 ?m sources in the 4? sample have positional accuracies of 3 arcsec, while brighter sources (S/N >6?) are good to 1.4 arcsec. Using a deep radio map (1? ? 6 ?Jy) we find that the percentage of submillimeter sources having secure radio counterparts is 85% for 450 ?m sources with intrinsic fluxes >6 mJy and 67% for 850 ?m sources with intrinsic fluxes >4 mJy. We also find that 67% of the >4? 450 ?m sources are detected at 850 ?m, while the recovery rate at 450 ?m of >4? 850 ?m sources is 54%. Combined with the source redshifts estimated using millimetric flux ratios, the recovered rate is consistent with the scenario where both 450 ?m and 20 cm emission preferentially select lower redshift dusty sources, while 850 ?m emission traces a higher fraction of dusty sources at higher redshifts. We identify potential counterparts in various wavelengths from X-ray to mid-infrared and measure the multiwavelength photometry, which we then use to analyze the characteristics of the sources. We find three X-ray counterparts to our robust submillimeter sample (S/N > 5), giving an active galactic nucleus fraction for our 450 (850) ?m sample of 3/8 (3/9) or 38% (33%). We also find a correlation between the Ks band and the 850 ?m/20 cm flux ratio.

  19. Bacterial community characterization of a sequencing batch reactor treating pre-ozonized sulfamethoxazole in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esplugas, Marc; González, Oscar; Sans, Carme

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotics are pharmaceutical compounds widely used to treat a broad range of infections. These chemicals appear to be recalcitrant compounds when released to water systems, and their presence at the effluent of wastewater treatment plants and surface waters has been widely documented. Sulfamethoxazole (SMX), a sulfonamide commonly used to treat urinary infections, is one of them. Ozonation was proved to be a suitable method to remove SMX antibiotic in water. However, it is stated that a high ozone dosage would be necessary to achieve the complete mineralization of the intermediates. In this work, ozonation is coupled with a Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor (SBBR) in order to completely degrade SMX and its metabolites from water solutions. Moreover, a precise description of the microbial community in the bioreactor is provided by means of traditional microscopy and molecular biology techniques. The results obtained showed high Total Organic Carbon removals at the end of the biological treatment (89% removal). Furthermore, nitrates produced during the aerobic SBBR's performance were monitored and eliminated by adding an anoxic stage, achieving an overall nitrogen removal of 86%. A bacterial community analysis of the SBBR during aerobic and aerobic-anoxic conditions was performed, targeting the bacterial 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene. These results revealed a dominant contribution of bacteria from the Proteobacteria class, with a major contribution from the Rhizobiales and Burkholderiales orders during the bioreactor performance, counting 52% of the total population. PMID:24191493

  20. Coincidence counting of radioactive sodium in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in electrolyte distribution between extracellular and intracellular compartments are difficult to measure since only human blood cells are easily sampled for measurement of intracellular constituents. The human ear cartilage, which is easily accessible, lends itself to the study of such phenomena in vivo. Cartilage has been shown to have high concentrations of cations. The total cation concentration per litre of cartilage water amounts to some 450 mequiv./litre. A dose of 10 ?Ci of 22Na, a positron emitter (physical half-life 2.6 years) was injected intravenously as sterile sodium chloride. Two detectors in coincidence fitted over one ear measured repeatedly the amount of radioactivity passing through the ear for the first few hours and several times daily thereafter. Radioactivity of venous blood samples taken during this time was plotted against the buildup of radioactivity in the ear. Exchangeable sodium was also determined. With this method, we have studied subjects who had no evidence of disturbances of sodium or other electrolytes, patients with compensated and decompensated congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction in normal sodium balance, and patients with hypertension. Patients with a previous myocardial infarction who are now fully compensated clinically, even in the presence of normal cardiac output, have a prolonged effective half-life by coincidence counting over the ear as do patients with hypertension. We believe that coincidence counting of the ear cartilage for positron-emitting radioisotopes has great potential for the study of extracellular and intracellular ion exchange in vivo, particularly in disturbances of sodium metabolism. (author)

  1. Characterisation of the gastrointestinal bacterial community in pigs fed fermented liquid feed and dry feed : composition and fermentation capacity (phenotypic fingerprint).

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HØjberg, Ole; Knudsen, B.

    2001-01-01

    Feeding pigs with fermented liquid feed (FLF) has been shown to reduce the number of enteropathogens such as Salmonella and Brachyospira hyodysenteriae as well as coliform bacteria in general in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Also the commensal bacterial populations have been shown to respond to the use of FLF, e.g. the total counts of anaerobes, including lactic acid bacteria are reduced. In the present work we demonstrate that the capacity to ferment a series of substrates (mainly low-molecular weight carbohydrates) is reduced in caecum, colon and faeces of pigs fed FLF compared to pigs fed dry feed. This reduction could be due to the fact that these substrates are partially depleted by fermentation in the liquid feed prior to entering the animal. Therefore nutrient availability may be limited in the large intestine of pigs fed FLF, which may again affect bacterial enzyme synthesis and growth and thus the possibility for pathogenic and zoonotic bacteria to establish.

  2. Yoctocalorimetry phonon counting in nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Roukes, M L

    1998-01-01

    It appears feasible with nanostructures to perform calorimetry at the level of individual thermal phonons. Here I outline an approach employing monocrystalline mesoscopic insulators, which can now be patterned from semiconductor heterostructures into complex geometries with full, three- dimensional relief. Successive application of these techniques also enables definition of integrated nanoscale thermal transducers; coupling these to a dc SQUID readout yields the requisite energy sensitivity and temporal resolution with minimal back action. The prospect of phonon counting opens intriguing experimental possibilities with analogies in quantum optics. These include fluctuation-based phonon spectroscopy, phonon shot noise in the energy relaxation of nanoscale systems, and quantum statistical phenomena such as phonon bunching and anticorrelated electron-phonon exchange.

  3. Photon counting compressive depth mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Gregory A; Lum, Daniel J; Ware, Matthew R; Howell, John C

    2013-10-01

    We demonstrate a compressed sensing, photon counting lidar system based on the single-pixel camera. Our technique recovers both depth and intensity maps from a single under-sampled set of incoherent, linear projections of a scene of interest at ultra-low light levels around 0.5 picowatts. Only two-dimensional reconstructions are required to image a three-dimensional scene. We demonstrate intensity imaging and depth mapping at 256 × 256 pixel transverse resolution with acquisition times as short as 3 seconds. We also show novelty filtering, reconstructing only the difference between two instances of a scene. Finally, we acquire 32 × 32 pixel real-time video for three-dimensional object tracking at 14 frames-per-second. PMID:24104293

  4. Photon counting compressive depth mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Howland, Gregory A; Ware, Matthew R; Howell, John C

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a compressed sensing, photon counting lidar system based on the single-pixel camera. Our technique recovers both depth and intensity maps from a single under-sampled set of incoherent, linear projections of a scene of interest at ultra-low light levels around 0.5 picowatts. Only two-dimensional reconstructions are required to image a three-dimensional scene. We demonstrate intensity imaging and depth mapping at 256 x 256 pixel transverse resolution with acquisition times as short as 3 seconds. We also show novelty filtering, reconstructing only the difference between two instances of a scene. Finally, we acquire 32 x 32 pixel real-time video for three-dimensional object tracking at 14 frames-per-second.

  5. Counting Homomorphisms and Partition Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Grohe, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Homomorphisms between relational structures are not only fundamental mathematical objects, but are also of great importance in an applied computational context. Indeed, constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs), a wide class of algorithmic problems that occur in many different areas of computer science such as artificial intelligence or database theory, may be viewed as asking for homomorphisms between two relational structures [FedVar98]. In a logical setting, homomorphisms may be viewed as witnesses for positive primitive formulae in a relational language. As we shall see, homomorphisms, or more precisely the numbers of homomorphisms between two structures, are also related to a fundamental computational problem of statistical physics. In this article, we are concerned with the complexity of counting homomorphisms from a given structure A to a fixed structure B. Actually, we are mainly interested in a generalisation of this problem to weighted homomorphisms (or partition functions). We almost exclusively focu...

  6. Mass counting of radioactivity samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method and apparatus for concurrently counting a plurality of radioactive samples is claimed. The position sensitive circuitry of a scintillation camera is employed to sort electrical pulses resulting from scintillations according to the geometrical locations of scintillations causing those pulses. A scintillation means, in the form of a scintillating crystal material or a liquid scintillator, is positioned proximate to an array of radioactive samples. Improvement in the accuracy of pulse classification may be obtained by employing collimating means. If a plurality of scintillation crystals are employed to measure the iodine-125 content of samples, a method and means are provided for correcting for variations in crystal light transmission properties, sample volume, and sample container radiation absorption. 2 claims, 7 drawing figures

  7. Plasma lipid levels in patients with acute bacterial infections

    OpenAIRE

    NASSAJI, Mohammad; GHORBANI, Raheb

    2012-01-01

    To assess the impact of acute bacterial infections on plasma lipid levels and to determine the value of plasma lipid measurements in the diagnosis of acute bacterial infection. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 112 patients with acute bacterial infections admitted in hospital and 112 healthy individuals as controls. Levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides were measured in blood samples ...

  8. Endophytic bacterial community of a Mediterranean marine angiosperm (Posidonia oceanica)

    OpenAIRE

    NeusGarcias-Bonet; CarlosMDuarte

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial endophytes are crucial for the survival of many terrestrial plants, but little is known about the presence and importance of bacterial endophytes of marine plants. We conducted a survey of the endophytic bacterial community of the long-living Mediterranean marine angiosperm Posidonia oceanica in surface-sterilized tissues (roots, rhizomes and leaves) by DGGE. A total of 26 Posidonia oceanica meadows around the Balearic Islands were sampled, and the band patterns obtained for each m...

  9. Bacterial corrosion of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two approaches exist to deal with the questions of bacterial corrosion of metals: the first one reveals the microbiological effects of bacterial corrosion and the second one tries to determine the action mechanisms due to such or such metallic alloy category. This second approach is particularly developed considering the cases of carbon steels, stainless steels, copper alloys and light alloys. (O.M.)

  10. Measurement of calprotectin in ascitic fluid to identify elevated polymorphonuclear cell count

    OpenAIRE

    Christoph Beglinger; Rémy Meier; Jürgen Muser; Felix Schulte; Emanuel Burri

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the diagnostic capability of calprotectin in ascitic fluid for detecting a polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell count > 250/?L ascites. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, a total of 130 ascites samples were analysed from 71 consecutive patients referred for paracentesis. Total and differential leukocyte cell counts were determined manually with a Neubauer chamber and gentian-violet stain. Calprotectin was measured in 1 mL ascetic fluid by enzyme-linked immunosorb...

  11. Small Count Privacy and Large Count Utility in Data Publishing

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Ada Wai-Chee; Wang, Ke; Wong, Raymond Chi-Wing

    2012-01-01

    While the introduction of differential privacy has been a major breakthrough in the study of privacy preserving data publication, some recent work has pointed out a number of cases where it is not possible to limit inference about individuals. The dilemma that is intrinsic in the problem is the simultaneous requirement of data utility in the published data. Differential privacy does not aim to protect information about an individual that can be uncovered even without the participation of the individual. However, this lack of coverage may violate the principle of individual privacy. Here we propose a solution by providing protection to sensitive information, by which we refer to the answers for aggregate queries with small counts. Previous works based on $\\ell$-diversity can be seen as providing a special form of this kind of protection. Our method is developed with another goal which is to provide differential privacy guarantee, and for that we introduce a more refined form of differential privacy to deal wit...

  12. Immunity and Simplicity for Exact Counting and Other Counting Classes

    CERN Document Server

    Rothe, J

    1998-01-01

    Ko [RAIRO 24, 1990] and Bruschi [TCS 102, 1992] showed that in some relativized world, PSPACE (in fact, ParityP) contains a set that is immune to the polynomial hierarchy (PH). In this paper, we study and settle the question of (relativized) separations with immunity for PH and the counting classes PP, C_{=}P, and ParityP in all possible pairwise combinations. Our main result is that there is an oracle A relative to which C_{=}P contains a set that is immune to BPP^{ParityP}. In particular, this C_{=}P^A set is immune to PH^{A} and ParityP^{A}. Strengthening results of Torán [J.ACM 38, 1991] and Green [IPL 37, 1991], we also show that, in suitable relativizations, NP contains a C_{=}P-immune set, and ParityP contains a PP^{PH}-immune set. This implies the existence of a C_{=}P^{B}-simple set for some oracle B, which extends results of Balcázar et al. [SIAM J.Comp. 14, 1985; RAIRO 22, 1988] and provides the first example of a simple set in a class not known to be contained in PH. Our proof technique requires...

  13. The absolute lymphocyte count accurately estimates CD4 counts in HIV-infected adults with virologic suppression and immune reconstitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnaby Young

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The clinical value of monitoring CD4 counts in immune reconstituted, virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients is limited. We investigated if absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC from an automated blood counting machine could accurately estimate CD4 counts. Materials and Methods: CD4 counts, ALC and HIV viral load (VL were extracted from an electronic laboratory database for all patients in HIV care at the Communicable Diseases Centre, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore (2008–13. Virologic suppression was defined as consecutive HIV VLs 300 cells/mm3. CD4 counts were estimated using the CD4% from the first value >300 and an ALC 181–540 days later. Results: A total of 1215 periods of virologic suppression were identified from 1183 patients, with 2227 paired CD4-ALCs available for analysis. 98.3% of CD4 estimates were within 50% of the actual value. 83.3% within 25% and 40.5% within 10%. The error pattern was approximately symmetrically distributed around a mean of ?6.5%, but significant peaked and with mild positive skew (kurtosis 4.45, skewness 1.07. Causes for these errors were explored. Variability between lymphocyte counts measured by ALC and flow cytometry did not follow an apparent pattern, and contributed to 32% of the total error (median absolute error 5.5%, IQR 2.6–9.3. The CD4% estimate was significantly lower than the actual value (t-test, p<0.0001. The magnitude of this difference was greater for lower values, and above 25%, there was no significant difference. Precision of the CD4 estimate was similar as baseline CD4% increased, however accuracy improved significantly: from a median 16% underestimation to 0% as baseline CD4% increased from 12 to 30. Above a CD4% baseline of 25, estimates of CD4 were within 25% of the actual value 90.2% of the time with a median 2% underestimation. A robust (bisqaure linear regression model was developed to correct for the rise in CD4% with time, when baseline was 14–24 (coefficients: intercept=3.30, CD4=0.939. This improved accuracy from 82.0% to 85.4%, and median error from 11% underestimation to 1% (p<0.0001. Adding time since baseline CD4% into the model increased complexity without significantly improving accuracy. Conclusion: In virologically suppressed hosts with CD4 ?300 cells/mm3 and percentage ?14, CD4 counts can be predicted with 85–90% confidence to within 25% of the actual value using the ALC.

  14. Photon Counting 3-D Object Recognition Using Digital Holography

    OpenAIRE

    Latorre Carmona, Pedro; Javidi, Bahram, 1959-; Pla Bañón, Filiberto; Tajahuerce, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of the recognition performance of 3-D objects reconstructed from digital holograms recorded under photon counting conditions. The digital holograms are computed by applying four-step phase-shifting techniques to interferograms recorded with weak coherent light. Recognition capability is analyzed as a function of the total number of photons by using a maximum-likelihood approach adapted to one-class classification problems. The likelihood is modeled assumi...

  15. Counting people from above: Airborne video based crowd analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Perko, Roland; Schnabel, Thomas; Fritz, Gerald; Almer, Alexander; Paletta, Lucas

    2013-01-01

    Crowd monitoring and analysis in mass events are highly important technologies to support the security of attending persons. Proposed methods based on terrestrial or airborne image/video data often fail in achieving sufficiently accurate results to guarantee a robust service. We present a novel framework for estimating human count, density and motion from video data based on custom tailored object detection techniques, a regression based density estimate and a total variatio...

  16. Somatic cell and factors which affect their count in milk

    OpenAIRE

    Zrinka ?a?i?; Samir Kalit; Neven Antunac; Mato ?a?i?

    2003-01-01

    Milk quality is determined by chemical composition, physical characteristics and hygienic parameters. The main indicators of hygienic quality of milk are total number of microorganisms and somatic cell count (SCC.) Environmental factors have the greatest influence on increasing SCC. The most important environmental parameters are status of udder infection, age of cow, stage of lactation, number of lactation, breed, housing, geographicalarea and seasons, herd size, stress, heavy physical activ...

  17. Whales from Space: Counting Southern Right Whales by Satellite

    OpenAIRE

    Fretwell, Peter T; Staniland, Iain J.; Forcada, Jaume

    2014-01-01

    We describe a method of identifying and counting whales using very high resolution satellite imagery through the example of southern right whales breeding in part of the Golfo Nuevo, Península Valdés in Argentina. Southern right whales have been extensively hunted over the last 300 years and although numbers have recovered from near extinction in the early 20th century, current populations are fragmented and are estimated at only a small fraction of pre-hunting total. Recent extreme right wha...

  18. Differentiation of bacterial and viral pneumonia in children

    OpenAIRE

    Virkki, R; Juven, T; Rikalainen, H; Svedstrom, E; Mertsola, J; Ruuskanen, O.

    2002-01-01

    Background: A study was undertaken to investigate the differential diagnostic role of chest radiographic findings, total white blood cell count (WBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and serum C reactive protein (CRP) in children with community acquired pneumonia of varying aetiology.

  19. Very high count rate gamma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent improvements in the electronics that amplify and analyze gamma photon-induced pulses have made it possible for HPGe coaxial detectors to accept input rates of one-million, one-MeV gamma photons-per-second and still provide the spectroscopist with spectra that can be analyzed. Data are presented that illustrate peak area variances and changes in counting uncertainty statistics due to the greatly extended count rate range. Software algorithms are presented that allow gain shift and peak resolution to be adjusted automatically on a sample-by-sample basis. Relationships are developed between integrated count rate and the variances of full energy photon peak area and counting uncertainty when using the real time correction mode of pulse processing. Finally, the results of integrating hardware and software into a system are used to illustrate that quantitative gamma spectroscopy over counting rates of one- to one-million counts-per-second are achievable

  20. Design Study of an Incinerator Ash Conveyor Counting System - 13323

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaederstroem, Henrik; Bronson, Frazier [Canberra Industries Inc., 800 Research Parkway Meriden CT 06450 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A design study has been performed for a system that should measure the Cs-137 activity in ash from an incinerator. Radioactive ash, expected to consist of both Cs-134 and Cs-137, will be transported on a conveyor belt at 0.1 m/s. The objective of the counting system is to determine the Cs-137 activity and direct the ash to the correct stream after a diverter. The decision levels are ranging from 8000 to 400000 Bq/kg and the decision error should be as low as possible. The decision error depends on the total measurement uncertainty which depends on the counting statistics and the uncertainty in the efficiency of the geometry. For the low activity decision it is necessary to know the efficiency to be able to determine if the signal from the Cs-137 is above the minimum detectable activity and that it generates enough counts to reach the desired precision. For the higher activity decision the uncertainty of the efficiency needs to be understood to minimize decision errors. The total efficiency of the detector is needed to be able to determine if the detector will be able operate at the count rate at the highest expected activity. The design study that is presented in this paper describes how the objectives of the monitoring systems were obtained, the choice of detector was made and how ISOCS (In Situ Object Counting System) mathematical modeling was used to calculate the efficiency. The ISOCS uncertainty estimator (IUE) was used to determine which parameters of the ash was important to know accurately in order to minimize the uncertainty of the efficiency. The examined parameters include the height of the ash on the conveyor belt, the matrix composition and density and relative efficiency of the detector. (authors)

  1. Design Study of an Incinerator Ash Conveyor Counting System - 13323

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A design study has been performed for a system that should measure the Cs-137 activity in ash from an incinerator. Radioactive ash, expected to consist of both Cs-134 and Cs-137, will be transported on a conveyor belt at 0.1 m/s. The objective of the counting system is to determine the Cs-137 activity and direct the ash to the correct stream after a diverter. The decision levels are ranging from 8000 to 400000 Bq/kg and the decision error should be as low as possible. The decision error depends on the total measurement uncertainty which depends on the counting statistics and the uncertainty in the efficiency of the geometry. For the low activity decision it is necessary to know the efficiency to be able to determine if the signal from the Cs-137 is above the minimum detectable activity and that it generates enough counts to reach the desired precision. For the higher activity decision the uncertainty of the efficiency needs to be understood to minimize decision errors. The total efficiency of the detector is needed to be able to determine if the detector will be able operate at the count rate at the highest expected activity. The design study that is presented in this paper describes how the objectives of the monitoring systems were obtained, the choice of detector was made and how ISOCS (In Situ Object Counting System) mathematical modeling was used to calculate the efficiency. The ISOCS uncertainty estimator (IUE) was used to determine which parameters of the ash was important to know accurately in order to minimize the uncertainty of the efficiency. The examined parameters include the height of the ash on the conveyor belt, the matrix composition and density and relative efficiency of the detector. (authors)

  2. Heterogeneous counting on filter support media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many investigators in the biomedical research area have used filter paper as the support for radioactive samples. This means that a heterogeneous counting of sample sometimes results. The count rate of a sample on a filter will be affected by positioning, degree of dryness, sample application procedure, the type of filter, and the type of cocktail used. Positioning of the filter (up or down) in the counting vial can cause a variation of 35% or more when counting tritiated samples on filter paper. Samples of varying degrees of dryness when added to the counting cocktail can cause nonreproducible counts if handled improperly. Count rates starting at 2400 CPM initially can become 10,000 CPM in 24 hours for 3H-DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) samples dried on standard cellulose acetate membrane filters. Data on cellulose nitrate filters show a similar trend. Sample application procedures in which the sample is applied to the filter in a small spot or on a large amount of the surface area can cause nonreproducible or very low counting rates. A tritiated DNA sample, when applied topically, gives a count rate of 4,000 CPM. When the sample is spread over the whole filter, 13,400 CPM are obtained with a much better coefficient of variation (5% versus 20%). Adding protein carrier (bovine serum albumin-BSA) to the sample to trap more of the tritiated DNA on the filter during the filtration process causes a serious beta absorption problem. Count rates which are one-fourth the count rate applied to the filter are obtained on calibrated runs. Many of the problems encountered can be alleviated by a proper choice of filter and the use of a liquid scintillation cocktail which dissolves the filter. Filter-Solv has been used to dissolve cellulose nitrate filters and filters which are a combination of cellulose nitrate and cellulose acetate. Count rates obtained for these dissolved samples are very reproducible and highly efficient

  3. Triple-Label ? Liquid Scintillation Counting

    OpenAIRE

    BUKOWSKI, THOMAS R.; Moffett, Tyler C.; Revkin, James H.; Ploger, James D.; Bassingthwaighte, James B.

    1992-01-01

    The detection of radioactive compounds by liquid scintillation has revolutionized modern biology, yet few investigators make full use of the power of this technique. Even though multiple isotope counting is considerably more difficult than single isotope counting, many experimental designs would benefit from using more than one isotope. The development of accurate isotope counting techniques enabling the simultaneous use of three ?-emitting tracers has facilitated studies in our laboratory us...

  4. Counting Majorana zero modes in superconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Luiz; Nishida, Yusuke; chamon, Claudio; Mudry, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    A counting formula for computing the number of (Majorana) zero modes bound to topological point defects is evaluated in a gradient expansion for systems with charge-conjugation symmetry. This semi-classical counting of zero modes is applied to some examples that include graphene and a chiral p-wave superconductor in two-dimensional space. In all cases, we explicitly relate the counting of zero modes to Chern numbers.

  5. Effect of counting errors on immunoassay precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using mathematical analysis and computer simulation, we studied the effect of gamma scintillation counting error on two radioimmunoassays (RIAs) and an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). To analyze the propagation of the counting errors into the estimation of analyte concentration, we empirically derived parameters for logit-log data-reduction models for assays of digoxin and triiodothyronine (RIAs) and ferritin (IRMA). The component of the analytical error attributable to counting variability, when expressed as a CV of the analyte concentration, decreased approximately linearly with the inverse of the square root of the maximum counts bound. Larger counting-error CVs were found at lower concentrations for both RIAs and the IRMA. Substantially smaller CVs for overall assay were found when the maximum counts bound progressively increased from 500 to 10,000 counts, but further increases in maximum bound counts resulted in little decrease in overall assay CV except when very low concentrations of analyte were being measured. Therefore, RIA and IRMA systems based in duplicate determinations having at least 10,000 maximum counts bound should have adequate precision, except possibly at very low concentrations

  6. Resonance ionization spectroscopy: Counting noble gas atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to describe new work on the counting of noble gas atoms, using lasers for the selective ionization and detectors for counting individual particles (electrons or positive ions). When positive ions are counted, various kinds of mass analyzers (magnetic, quadrupole, or time-of-flight) can be incorporated to provide A selectivity. We show that a variety of interesting and important applications can be made with atom-counting techniques which are both atomic number (Z) and mass number (A) selective. (orig./FKS)

  7. Identification of CSF fistulas by radionuclide counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Kunishio, K.; Sunami, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satoh, T.; Suga, M.; Asari, S. (Matsuyama Shimin Hospital (Japan))

    1990-07-01

    A radionuclide counting method, performed with the patient prone and the neck flexed, was used successfully to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea in two patients. A normal radionuclide ratio (radionuclide counts in pledget/radionuclide counts in 1-ml blood sample) was obtained in 11 normal control subjects. Significance was determined to be a ratio greater than 0.37. Use of radionuclide counting method of determining CSF rhinorrhea is recommended when other methods have failed to locate a site of leakage or when posttraumatic meningitis suggests subclinical CSF rhinorrhea.

  8. Identification of CSF fistulas by radionuclide counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radionuclide counting method, performed with the patient prone and the neck flexed, was used successfully to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea in two patients. A normal radionuclide ratio (radionuclide counts in pledget/radionuclide counts in 1-ml blood sample) was obtained in 11 normal control subjects. Significance was determined to be a ratio greater than 0.37. Use of radionuclide counting method of determining CSF rhinorrhea is recommended when other methods have failed to locate a site of leakage or when posttraumatic meningitis suggests subclinical CSF rhinorrhea

  9. Radiation Counting System Software Using Visual Basic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been created a Gamma Radiation Counting System using interface card, which paired with Personal Computer (PC) and operated by the Visual Basic program. The program was set through varied menu selections such as ”Multi Counting” , ”Counting and Record” and ”View Data”. An interface card for data acquisition was formed by using AMD9513 components as a counter and timer which can be programmed. This counting system was tested and used in waste facility in PTNBR and the result is quite good. (author)

  10. Counting pairs of faint galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Woods, D; Richer, H B; Woods, David; Fahlman, Gregory G; Richer, Harvey B

    1995-01-01

    The number of close pairs of galaxies observed to faint magnitude limits, when compared to nearby samples, determines the interaction or merger rate as a function of redshift. The prevalence of mergers at intermediate redshifts is fundamental to understanding how galaxies evolve and the relative population of galaxy types. Mergers have been used to explain the excess of galaxies in faint blue counts above the numbers expected from no-evolution models. Using deep CFHT (I\\leq24) imaging of a ``blank'' field we find a pair fraction which is consistent with the galaxies in our sample being randomly distributed with no significant excess of ``physical'' close pairs. This is contrary to the pair fraction of 34\\%\\pm9\\% found by Burkey {\\it et al.} for similar magnitude limits and using an identical approach to the pair analysis. Various reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. Colors and morphologies of our close pairs are consistent with the bulk of them being random superpositions although, as indicators of int...

  11. Minimal count level required for quantification of left ventricular function with gated myocardial perfusion tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the minimal count density required for accurate quantification of global and regional function using gated myocardial perfusion tomography and the QGS algorithm. Material and Methods: Ten patients with low likelihood of coronary artery disease were injected with 925MBq of Tc99m labelled tetrofosmin. Imaging was started 60min after tracer administration on a 3-head gamma camera equipped with LEHR collimators. Parameters of acquisition were as follows: 360-degree rotation, 96 projections, 64x64 matrix, 5.79mm pixel size, step-and-shoot, 40s per step and 8 time bins. In order to create test data sets with lower count densities, the original data were redistributed using binomial deviates. For each patient, five different noise realizations were generated for six different noise levels corresponding to 1/2, 1/4, 1/6, 1/8, 1/10 and 1/16 of the original count density. Transverse slices were reconstructed using filtered backprojection (Butterworth filter: cut-off frequency 0.44 cycle/cm, order 5) and reoriented according to the left ventricular long axis using exactly the same angles for each individual patient. End-diastolic volume (EDV), ejection fraction (EF) and regional wall thickening (WT) were automatically calculated with the QGS algorithm. The root-mean-square difference (RMSD) between the five low-count realizations and the original high-count study were calculated for every noise level and evaluated in function of the total myocardial count density measured on the non-gated projections. Results: The total myocardial count density averaged 5.0+/-0.9 million counts in the original high-count studies. Using these original data, EDV, EF and WT averaged 117+/-15ml, 55+/-4% and 34+/-4%, respectively. The RMSD of the EDV, EF and WT increased slightly with decreasing count levels until a total myocardial count density of 1.5 million counts. At that very low count level, RMSD was still below 6 ml for EDV and below 5% for EF and WT, respectively. Lower count levels generated unacceptable RMSD. Conclusion: QGS provides accurate and highly reproducible quantitative measurements of global and regional left ventricular function with gated myocardial perfusion tomographic studies containing as low as 1.5 million counts

  12. Dual isotope separation technique for radioassay. The effect of cross counting between two simultaneously counted isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical model, describing the effects of cross counting on the dual-isotope-corrected bound count rate and on the precision with which it is estimated, is presented. Experimental support for the validity of the model is given. The bound count rate is shown to be independent of the amount of marker isotope incorrectly counted as label isotope. The precision with which the bound count rate is estimated appears to be dependent on the size of this cross counting correction, although other factors such as pipetting errors are of more importance. Implications for the choice of assay system are discussed. (Auth.)

  13. Evaluation of free-stall mattress bedding treatments to reduce mastitis bacterial growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristula, M.A.; Dou, Z.; Toth, J.D.; Smith, B.I.; Harvey, N.; Sabo, M. [University of Penn, Kennett Square, PA (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Bacterial counts were compared in free-stall mattresses and teat ends exposed to 5 treatments in a factorial study design on 1 dairy farm. Mattresses in five 30-cow groups were subjected to 1 of 5 bedding treatments every other day: 0.5 kg of hydrated limestone, 120 mL of commercial acidic conditioner, 1 kg of coal fly ash, 1 kg of kiln-dried wood shavings, and control (no bedding). Counts of coliforms, Klebsiella spp., Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus spp. were lowest on mattresses bedded with lime. Mattresses bedded with the commercial acidic conditioner had the next lowest counts for coliforms, Klebsiella spp., and Streptococcus spp. Wood shavings and the no-bedding control had the highest counts for coliform and Klebsiella spp. Compared with wood shavings or control, fly ash reduced the counts of coliforms, whereas for the other 3 bacterial groups, the reduction was not always significant. Streptococcus spp. counts were greatest in the control group and did not differ among the shavings and fly ash groups. Teat swab results indicated that hydrated lime was the only bedding treatment that significantly decreased the counts of both coliforms and Klebsiella spp. There were no differences in Streptococcus spp. numbers on the teats between any of the bedding treatments. Bacterial populations grew steadily on mattresses and were generally higher at 36 to 48 h than at 12 to 24 h, whereas bacterial populations on teats grew rapidly by 12 h and then remained constant. Hydrated lime was the only treatment that significantly reduced bacterial counts on both mattresses and teat ends, but it caused some skin irritation.

  14. Effect of alternative antibiotics in treatment of cefotaxime resistant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abouelkhair Badawy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate effective alternative antibiotics in treatment of cefotaxime-resistant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. METHODS: One hundred cirrhotic patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis [ascitic fluid polymorphonuclear cell count (PMNLs ≥ 250 cells/mm3 at admission] were empirically treated with cefotaxime sodium 2 g/12 h and volume expansion by intravenous human albumin. All patients were subjected to history taking, complete examination, laboratory tests (including a complete blood cell count, prothrombin time, biochemical tests of liver and kidney function, and fresh urine sediment, chest X-ray, a diagnostic abdominal paracentesis, and the sample subjected to total and differential cell count, chemical examination, aerobic and anaerobic cultures. Patients were divided after 2 d by a second ascitic PMNL count into group I; patients sensitive to cefotaxime (n = 81, group II (n = 19; cases resistant to cefotaxime (less than 25% decrease in ascitic PMNL count. Patients of group II were randomly assigned into meropenem (n = 11 or levofloxacin (n = 8 subgroups. All patients performed an end of treatment ascitic PMNL count. Patients were considered improved when: PMNLs decreased to < 250 cells/mm3, no growth in previously positive culture cases, and improved clinical manifestations with at least 5 d of antibiotic therapy. RESULTS: Age, sex, and Child classes showed no significant difference between group I and group II. Fever and abdominal pain were the most frequent manifestations and were reported in 82.7% and 80.2% of patients in group I and in 94.7% and 84.2% of patients in group II, respectively. Patients in group II had a more severe ascitic inflammatory response than group I and this was demonstrated by more ascitic lactate dehydrogenase (LDH [median: 540 IU/L (range: 150-1200 IU/L vs median: 240 IU/L (range: 180-500 IU/L, P = 0.000] and PMNL [median: 15  000 cell/mm3 (range: 957-23  822 cell/mm3 vs 3400 cell/mm3 (range: 695-26  400 cell/mm3, P = 0.000] counts. Ascitic fluid culture was positive in 32% of cases. Cefotaxime failed in 19% of patients; of these patients, 11 (100% responded to meropenem and 6 (75% responded to levofloxacin. Two patients with failed levofloxacin therapy were treated according to the in vitro culture and sensitivity (one case was treated with vancomycin and one case was treated with ampicillin/sulbactam. In group II the meropenem subgroup had higher LDH (range: 108-860 IU/L vs 120-491 IU/L, P = 0.042 and PMNL counts (range: 957-23  822 cell/mm3 vs 957-15  222 cell/mm3, P = 0.000 at initiation of the alternative antibiotic therapy; there was no significant difference in the studied parameters between patients responsive to meropenem and patients responsive to levofloxacin at the end of therapy (mean ± SD: 316.01 ± 104.03 PMNLs/mm3 vs 265.63 ± 69.61 PMNLs/mm3, P = 0.307. The isolated organisms found in group II were; enterococci, acinetobacter, expanded-spectrum β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli, β-lactamase producing Enterobacter and Staphylococcus aureus. CONCLUSION: Empirical treatment with cefotaxime is effective in 81% of cases; meropenem is effective in cefotaxime-resistant cases.

  15. Capacity building: benchmark for production of meat with low levels of bacterial contamination in local slaughterhouses in Somaliland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamalwa, Kinyanjui; Castiello, Massimo; Ombui, Jackson Nyarangi; Gathuma, Joseph

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate and assess the impact of trainings on the levels of meat contamination produced from local livestock slaughter facilities in the North-West region of Somalia (Somaliland). The investigation considered slaughter facilities where workers had been trained or not. The survey was carried out in four local slaughter facilities. A pre-tested questionnaire on abattoir hygiene and food safety standards was administered to International Aid Organizations, government officials, abattoir workers and supervisors. In addition, a total of 320 surface meat swab samples were collected from randomly selected small ruminant carcasses slaughtered from four purposefully selected local slaughter facilities. The samples were analyzed at Analabs laboratories in Nairobi, Kenya, for total viable counts, total coliforms count and presence of Salmonella species. Meat contamination risk factors associated with hygiene practices based on training offered or not was identified. It was noted that slaughter facilities where abattoir workers had not received trainings on minimum meat hygiene standards and quality assurance systems of good hygiene practices and sanitary standard operating procedures produced carcasses with high levels of bacterial contamination in comparison with those where workers had received the said trainings. The laboratory results were in agreement with poor hygiene meat handling practices and lack of compliance with minimum meat hygiene and food safety standards in Berbera and Burao local livestock slaughter facilities where personnel had not been trained. PMID:21779942

  16. A tutorial on count regression and zero-altered count models for longitudinal substance use data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, David C; Baldwin, Scott A; Zheng, Cheng; Gallop, Robert J; Neighbors, Clayton

    2013-03-01

    Critical research questions in the study of addictive behaviors concern how these behaviors change over time: either as the result of intervention or in naturalistic settings. The combination of count outcomes that are often strongly skewed with many zeroes (e.g., days using, number of total drinks, number of drinking consequences) with repeated assessments (e.g., longitudinal follow-up after intervention or daily diary data) present challenges for data analyses. The current article provides a tutorial on methods for analyzing longitudinal substance use data, focusing on Poisson, zero-inflated, and hurdle mixed models, which are types of hierarchical or multilevel models. Two example datasets are used throughout, focusing on drinking-related consequences following an intervention and daily drinking over the past 30 days, respectively. Both datasets as well as R, SAS, Mplus, Stata, and SPSS code showing how to fit the models are available on a supplemental website. PMID:22905895

  17. A priori precision estimation for neutron triples counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nondestructive assay of Plutonium bearing items for criticality, safety, security, safeguards, inventory balance, process control, waste management and compliance is often undertaken using correlated neutron counting. In particular Multiplicity Shift Register analysis allows one to extract autocorrelation parameters from the pulse train which can, within the framework of a simple interpretational model, be related to the effective 240Pu spontaneous fission mass present. The effective 240Pu mass is a weighted sum of the 238Pu, 240Pu and 242Pu masses so if the relative isotopic composition of the Pu can be established from the measured 240Pu effective mass one can estimate the total Pu mass and also the masses of the individual isotopes, example the fissile species 239Pu and 241Pu. In multiplicity counting three counting rates are obtained. These are the Singles, Doubles and Triples rates. The Singles rate is just the gross, totals or trigger rate. The Doubles and Triples rates are calculated from factorial moments of the observed signal triggered neutron multiplicity distributions following spontaneous fission in the item and can be thought of as the rate of observed coincident pairs and coincident triplets on the pulse train. Coincident events come about because the spontaneous fission and induced fission chains taking place in the item result in bursts of neutrons. These remain time correlated during the detection process and so retain information, through the burst size distribution, about the Pu content. In designing and assessing the performance of a detector system to meet a given goal it is necessary to make a priori estimates of the counting precision for all three kinds of rates. This is non-trivial because the counting does not obey the familiar rules of a Poissonian counting experiment because the pulse train has time correlated events on it and the train is sampled by event triggered gates that may overlap. For Singles and Doubles simple approximate analytical empirical rules for how to estimate the variance have been developed guided by theory and refined by experiment. However, for Triples no equivalent rules have been put forward and tested until now. In this work we propose an analytical expression, the CSH relation, for the variance on the Triples count and exercise it against experimental data gathered for Pu items measured in the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter (ENMC). Preliminary results are encouraging and reasonable agreement with observation, considered fit for scoping studies, is obtained. We have also looked at the behavior using Monte Carlo simulations. (authors)

  18. Procalcitonin as a diagnostic tool for bacterial neonatal sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Bacterial sepsis is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can reduce the mortality rate. Blood culture is the gold standard for diagnosis of bacterial sepsis, but it requires 3-5 days for results. Since the disease may progress rapidly in neonates, a faster diagnostic test is needed. Measurement of procalcitonin levels may be a quick method to diagnose bacterial sepsis in neonates. Some studies found the sensitivity of procalcitonin to be between 92-100%. Objective To assess the use of procalcitonin as an early diagnostic tool for bacterial neonatal sepsis. Methods This diagnostic study was conducted from October 2011 to February 2012. Forty-three neonates in the Perinatology Unit at H. Adam Malik Hospital were suspected to have bacterial sepsis. They underwent routine blood counts, blood cultures, as well as C-reactive protein and procalcitonin measurements. Subjects were collected by consecutive sampling. The gold standard of sepsis was based on any microorganism found in blood culture. Results Of 43 neonates, 36 neonates had bacterial sepsis. We found that procalcitonin sensitivity was 100%, specificity 85.71%, positive predictive value 97.29% and negative predictive value 100%. The ROC curve showed a cut-off point of 0.929 (95%CI 0.713 to 0.953. Conclusion Procalcitonin is useful as an early diagnostic tool for bacterial neonatal sepsis.

  19. The Painful Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Mitchell; Park, Andrew; Gerlinger, Tad L

    2016-04-01

    There are many causes of residual pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Evaluation and management begins with a comprehensive history and physical examination, followed by radiographic evaluation of the replaced and adjacent joints, as well as previous films of the replaced joint. Further workup includes laboratory analysis, along with a synovial fluid aspirate to evaluate the white blood cell count with differential as well as culture. Advanced imaging modalities may be beneficial when the diagnosis remains unclear. Revision surgery is not advisable without a clear diagnosis, as it may be associated with poor results. PMID:26772940

  20. Quantitative monitoring of the fluorination process by neutron counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium metal is produced by reducing PuF4 prepared from PuO2 by fluorination. Both fluorination and reduction are batch processes at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The conversion of plutonium oxide to fluoride greatly increases the neutron yield, a result of the high cross section for alpha-neutron (?,n) reactions on fluorine targets compared to the (more than 100 times) smaller ?,n yield on oxygen targets. Because of the increase, total neutron counting can be used to monitor the conversion process. This monitoring ability can lead to an improved metal product, reduced scrap for recycle, waste reduction, minimized reagent usage, and reduce personnel radiation exposures. A new stirred-bed fluorination process has been developed simultaneously with a recent evaluation of an automated neutron-counting instrument for quantitative process monitoring. Neutrons are counted with polyethylene-moderated 3He-gas proportional counters. Results include a calibration of the real-time neutron-count-rate indicator for the extent of fluorination using reference values obtained from destructive analysis of samples from the blended fluoroinated batch

  1. Radon Daughters Background Reduction in Alpha Particles Counting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ABPC method is using a serially occurring events of the beta decay of the 214Bi fallow by alpha decay of the 214Po that take place almost simultaneously to detect the Pseudo Coincidence Event (PCE) from the RDP, and to subtract them from the gross alpha counts. 267 This work showed that it is possible to improve the efficiency of RDP background reduction, including subtracting the 218Po contribution by using the ABPC method based on a single solid state silicon PIPS detector. False counts percentage obtained at the output of the PCE circuit were smaller than 0.1%. The results show that the PCE circuit was not influenced by non RDP alpha emitters. The PCE system did not reduce the non PCE of the 218Po. After 20 minutes the 218Po was strongly decayed, and its contribution became negligible. In order to overcome this disadvantage, a mathematical matching calculations for the 214Po and the 218Po decay equations were employed, and a constant ratio of the APo214(0) / APo218(0) was obtained. This ratio can be used to estimate the count rate of the 218Po at the first 20 minutes, and to subtract it from the total count rate in order to obtain correct RDP reduction

  2. Bacterial surface adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utada, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Biofilms are structured multi-cellular communities that are fundamental to the biology and ecology of bacteria. Parasitic bacterial biofilms can cause lethal infections and biofouling, but commensal bacterial biofilms, such as those found in the gut, can break down otherwise indigestible plant polysaccharides and allow us to enjoy vegetables. The first step in biofilm formation, adaptation to life on a surface, requires a working knowledge of low Reynolds number fluid physics, and the coordination of biochemical signaling, polysaccharide production, and molecular motility motors. These crucial early stages of biofilm formation are at present poorly understood. By adapting methods from soft matter physics, we dissect bacterial social behavior at the single cell level for several prototypical bacterial species, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae.

  3. Bacterial Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quiz) Structure and Function of the Skin (Video) Skin Cancer (News) Health Tip: Recognizing Signs of Nail Fungus (News) Health Tip: Easing Hives Additional Content Medical News Overview of Bacterial Skin Infections by A. Damian Dhar, MD, JD NOTE: ...

  4. Constituent rearrangement diagrams, quark counting and duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, some basic problems of two body hadron reactions are discussed. Many features of hadron reactions can be attributed to the patterns of constituent rearrangement diagram (CRD). A simple explanation of the ratio of the total cross sections of meson-baryon and baryon-baryon collision by the quark counting can be considered as indication that a meson and a baryon are composite systems of the quark = antiquark and three quark, respectively. The countable nature of constituents is described in terms of CRD. CRD manifests not only flavor symmetry but also the dynamical aspects of hadron reactions. A two-body hadron reaction is described by the amplitude which is given by a sum of the constituent (quark) rearrangement amplitude, each of which corresponds to a CRD. Each CRD can be specified by either of rearranged quark numbers or pair quark numbers. Each quark line of CRD corresponds to a contraction of superscripts and subscript of two different tensors with flavor indices. An assumption, spectator assumption, was introduced to study a spin or helicity in hadron reactions. From this assumption, many relationships are obtained. The most of relationships are satisfied by experimental data, and the S- channel helicities are conserved well in the diffraction process. The concept of duality which is one of the important characteristics of hadron reactions is conceived in the CRD. Discussions of this problem is given at the last part of this paper. (Kato, T

  5. Sensitive and descript ? and ?-? counting assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper are described recent advances that have been made in the authors' laboratory towards 'high-sensitivity' and 'descript' measurement of trace quantities of radioactivity due to ? and ?-? emitters in solid sources of relatively high specific activity. The ?-detection assembly provides accurate information on the characteristic energy of the radiation permitting its identification at low levels. The detection system is relatively inexpensive and simple as Geiger counters are used as detectors. The information on the energy of the ? radiation is obtained while measuring the total disintegration rate; thus the system has the versatility of detectors capable of providing information on the energy of individual ? particles, e. g. solid state detectors and scintillators. The observed counting efficiencies and background rates of a few ? and ?-? systems constructed are discussed. The figure of merit of these detectors can be considerably enhanced by certain modifications which are in progress. The techniques discussed above have been developed to meet specific requirements encountered in the study of certain problems in nuclear physics and geocosmophysics. The ?-? system has been employed to measure the half-life of 48Ca for single ? decay: the measurements to date have yielded a lower limit of 1019 yr for its half-life. (author)

  6. The dispersion of adhered marine bacteria by pyrophosphate and ultrasound prior to direct counting.

    OpenAIRE

    Velji, M; Albright, L

    1984-01-01

    A technique has been investigated for dispersing adhered marine bacteria from various surfaces prior to direct counting. The bacterial cells were initially preserved and strengthened by use of 3.7% formaldehyde (v/v final concentration). Seawater samples were then treated with 0.001 M of tetrasodium pyrophosphate (final concentration), a sequestering and deflocculating agent. Surface sediment and kelp disc samples were treated with 0.01 M tetrasodium pyrophosphate (final concentration) after ...

  7. Whole-body counting 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to determine the doses from radiocesium in foods after the Chernobyl accident, four groups were chosen in 1987. Two groups, presumed to have a large consumption of food items with a high radiocesium content, were selected. These were Lapp reindeer breeders from central parts of Norway, and hunters a.o. from the municipality of Oeystre Slidre. Two other groups were randomly selected, one from the municipality of Sel, and one from Oslo. The persons in these two groups were presumed to have an average diet. The fall-out in Sel was fairly large (100 kBq/m2), whereas in Oslo the fall-out level was low (2 kBq/m2). The persons in each group were monitored once a year with whole-body counters, and in connection with these countings dietary surveys were preformed. In 1990 the Sel-group and the Lapps in central parts of Norway were followed. Average whole-body activity in each group is compared to earlier years's results, and an average yearly effective dose equivalent is computed. The Sel-group has an average whole-body activity of 2800 Bq for men, and 690 Bq for women. Compared to earlier years, there is a steady but slow decrease in whole-body activities. Yearly dose is calculated to 0.06 mSv for 1990. The Lapps in central parts of Norway have an average whole-body content of 23800 Bq for men and 13600 Bq for women. This results in an average yearly dose of 0.9 mSv for the individuals in the group. Compared to earlier years, the Lapp group show a decrease in whole-body contents since 1988. This decrease is larger among men than women. 5 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs

  8. Evaluation of environmental bacterial contamination and procedures to control cross infection in a sample of Italian dental surgeries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monarca, S.; Grottolo, M.; Renzi, D.; Paganelli, C.; Sapelli, P.; Zerbini, I.; Nardi, G.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To perform a pilot study on bacterial contamination in some dental surgeries (n=51) in a local health unit in Brescia (Lombardy Region, Italy) and to evaluate the procedures to control cross infection used by the personnel to reduce the risk of infection in dental practice.?METHODS—A survey was carried out by interviewing 133 dental personnel with a questionnaire on the procedures used to control infection. The autoclaves, chemical baths (chemiclaves), and ovens present in the surgeries were tested for sterilisation efficiency with a spore test, and already packed and sterilised instruments were randomly sampled and tested for sterility. Microbial contamination of air, surface, and dental unit water samples were also studied.?RESULTS—The dental personnel did not generally follow the principal procedures for infection control: 30% of personnel were not vaccinated against hepatitis B virus, infected instruments were often not decontaminated, periodic checks of autoclave efficiency were lacking, and the knowledge of disinfection mechanisms and procedures was incomplete. High bacteriological contamination of water at dental surgeries was often found and total bacteriological counts in air samples were high. Surface studies showed widespread bacterial contamination.?CONCLUSIONS—On the basis of these results, an educational programme for the prevention of infective hazards has been prepared and carried out. The results of this pilot study will be used for planning a national survey.???Keywords: dental surgeries; bacterial contamination; cross infection control procedures PMID:11024194

  9. Bacterial meningitis in the absence of cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis: A case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Hase, Ryota; Hosokawa, Naoto; Yaegashi, Makito; Muranaka, Kiyoharu

    2014-01-01

    Elevation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cell count is a key sign in the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. However, there have been reports of bacterial meningitis with no abnormalities in initial CSF testing. This type of presentation is extremely rare in adult patients. Here, a case involving an 83-year-old woman who was later diagnosed with bacterial meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis is described, in whom CSF at initial and second lumbar puncture did not show elevation of cell cou...

  10. Evaluation of procalcitonin and neopterin level in serum of patients with acute bacterial infection

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Babak, Pourakbari; Setareh, Mamishi; Javid, Zafari; Hanieh, Khairkhah; Mohammad H, Ashtiani; Masomeh, Abedini; Shahla, Afsharpaiman; Soroush Seifi, Rad.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fever as a common presenting complaint in pediatric patients can be due to various causes. Differentiating bacterial infection from other causes is important because the prompt use of antibiotics is critical in bacterial infection. Traditional markers of infection such as BT and WBC coun [...] t may be unspecific and culture may be late or absent. CRP and Procalcitonin (PCT) have been considered to evaluate the evolution of infections and sepsis in patients presenting with SIRS. Neopterin has also been proposed to aid in the diagnosis of bacterial infection. In this study, we compared the value of the serum PCT, neopterin level, and WBC count for predicting bacterial infection and outcome in children with fever. METHODS: 158 pediatric (2-120-month-old) patients suspected to have acute bacterial infection, based on clinical judgment in which other causes of SIRS were ruled out were included in the study. WBC count with differential was determined and PCT and neopterin levels were measured. RESULTS: PCT level was higher in bacterial infection and patients who were complicated or expired. CONCLUSION: Rapid PCT test is superior to neopterin and WBC count for anticipating bacterial infection, especially in ED where prompt decision making is critical. ABBREVIATIONS: BT, body temperature; WBC, white blood cell; PCT, procalcitonin; CRP, C-reactive protein; SIRS, systemic inflammatory response syndrome; ED, emergency department.

  11. The effect of silver impregnation of surgical scrub suits on surface bacterial contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, A I; Halladay, L J; Cripps, P

    2012-06-01

    Silver-impregnated fabrics are widely used for their antibacterial and antifungal effects, including for clinical clothing such as surgical scrub suits (scrubs). This study investigated whether silver impregnation reduces surface bacterial contamination of surgical scrubs during use in a veterinary hospital. Using agar contact plates, abdominal and lumbar areas of silver-impregnated nylon or polyester/cotton scrubs were sampled for surface bacterial contamination before (0 h) and after 4 and 8h of use. The number of bacterial colonies on each contact plate was counted after 24 and 48 h incubation at 37°C. Standard basic descriptive statistics and mixed-effects linear regression were used to investigate the association of possible predictors of the level of bacterial contamination of the scrubs with surface bacterial counts. Silver-impregnated scrubs had significantly lowered bacterial colony counts (BCC) at 0 h compared with polyester/cotton scrubs. However, after 4 and 8h of wear, silver impregnation had no effect on BCC. Scrub tops with higher BCC at 0 h had significantly higher BCC at 4 and 8h, suggesting that contamination present at 0 h persisted during wear. Sampling from the lumbar area was associated with lower BCC at all three time points. Other factors (contamination of the scrub top with a medication/drug, restraint of patients, working in the anaesthesia recovery area) also affected BCC at some time points. Silver impregnation appeared to be ineffective in reducing bacterial contamination of scrubs during use in a veterinary hospital. PMID:22015140

  12. A Count of Classical Field Theory Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Chalmers, Gordon

    2005-01-01

    A generating function is derived that counts the number of diagrams in an arbitrary scalar field theory. The number of graphs containing any number $n_j$ of $j$-point vertices is given. The count is also used to obtain the number of classical graphs in gauge theory and gravity.

  13. 2009 KidsCount in Colorado!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2009

    2009-01-01

    "KidsCount in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. KidsCount in Colorado! informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as a valuable resource for…

  14. Is It Counting, or Is It Adding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, Sara; Fisher, Molly H.; Thomas, Jonathan; Schack, Edna O.; Tassell, Janet; Yoder, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI 2010) expect second grade students to "fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies" (2.OA.B.2). Most children begin with number word sequences and counting approximations and then develop greater skill with counting. But do all teachers really understand how this…

  15. 2013 Kids Count in Colorado! Community Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Kids Count in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Children's Campaign, providing state and county level data on child well-being factors including child health, education, and economic status. Since its first release 20 years ago, "Kids Count in Colorado!" has become the most trusted source for data and information on…

  16. Bacterial populations colonizing and degrading rice straw in anoxic paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, S; Stubner, S; Conrad, R

    2001-03-01

    Rice straw is a major substrate for the production of methane, a greenhouse gas, in flooded rice fields. The bacterial community degrading rice straw under anoxic conditions was investigated with molecular methods. Rice straw was incubated in paddy soil anaerobically for 71 days. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the amplified bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed that the composition of the bacterial community changed during the first 15 days but then was stable until the end of incubation. Fifteen DGGE bands with different signal intensities were excised, cloned, and sequenced. In addition, DNA was extracted from straw incubated for 1 and 29 days and the bacterial 16S rRNA genes were amplified and cloned. From these clone libraries 16 clones with different electrophoretic mobilities on a DGGE gel were sequenced. From a total of 31 clones, 20 belonged to different phylogenetic clusters of the clostridia, i.e., clostridial clusters I (14 clones), III (1 clone), IV (1 clone), and XIVa (4 clones). One clone fell also within the clostridia but could not be affiliated to one of the clostridial clusters. Ten clones grouped closely with the genera Bacillus (3 clones), Nitrosospira (1 clone), Fluoribacter (1 clones), and Acidobacterium (2 clones) and with clone sequences previously obtained from rice field soil (3 clones). The relative abundances of various phylogenetic groups in the rice straw-colonizing community were determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Bacteria were detached from the incubated rice straw with an efficiency of about 80 to 90%, as determined by dot blot hybridization of 16S rRNA in extract and residue. The number of active (i.e., a sufficient number of ribosomes) Bacteria detected with a general eubacterial probe (Eub338) after 8 days of incubation was 61% of the total cell counts. This percentage decreased to 17% after 29 days of incubation. Most (55%) of the active cells on day 8 belonged to the genus Clostridium, mainly to clostridial clusters I (24%), III (6%), and XIVa (24%). An additional 5% belonged to the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium cluster of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides phylum, 4% belonged to the alpha, beta, and gamma Proteobacteria, and 1.3% belonged to the Bacillus subbranch of the gram-positive bacteria with a low G+C content. The results show that the bacterial community colonizing and decomposing rice straw developed during the first 15 days of incubation and was dominated by members of different clostridial clusters, especially clusters I, III, and XIVa. PMID:11229927

  17. Dying dyons don't count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Miranda C. N.; Verlinde, Erik P.

    2007-09-01

    The dyonic 1/4-BPS states in 4D string theory with Script N = 4 spacetime supersymmetry are counted by a Siegel modular form. The pole structure of the modular form leads to a contour dependence in the counting formula obscuring its duality invariance. We exhibit the relation between this ambiguity and the (dis-)appearance of bound states of 1/2-BPS configurations. Using this insight we propose a precise moduli-dependent contour prescription for the counting formula. We then show that the degeneracies are duality-invariant and are correctly adjusted at the walls of marginal stability to account for the (dis-)appearance of the two-centered bound states. Especially, for large black holes none of these bound states exists at the attractor point and none of these ambiguous poles contributes to the counting formula. Using this fact we also propose a second, moduli-independent contour which counts the ``immortal dyons" that are stable everywhere.

  18. Dying Dyons Don't Count

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Miranda C N

    2007-01-01

    The dyonic 1/4-BPS states in 4D string theory with N=4 spacetime supersymmetry are counted by a Siegel modular form. The pole structure of the modular form leads to a contour dependence in the counting formula obscuring its duality invariance. We exhibit the relation between this ambiguity and the (dis-)appearance of bound states of 1/2-BPS configurations. Using this insight we propose a precise moduli-dependent contour prescription for the counting formula. We then show that the degeneracies are duality-invariant and are correctly adjusted at the walls of marginal stability to account for the (dis-)appearance of the two-centered bound states. Especially, for large black holes none of these bound states exists at the attractor point and none of these ambiguous poles contributes to the counting formula. Using this fact we also propose a second, moduli-independent contour which counts the "immortal dyons" that are stable everywhere.

  19. Dying dyons don't count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dyonic 1/4-BPS states in 4D string theory with N = 4 spacetime supersymmetry are counted by a Siegel modular form. The pole structure of the modular form leads to a contour dependence in the counting formula obscuring its duality invariance. We exhibit the relation between this ambiguity and the (dis-)appearance of bound states of 1/2-BPS configurations. Using this insight we propose a precise moduli-dependent contour prescription for the counting formula. We then show that the degeneracies are duality-invariant and are correctly adjusted at the walls of marginal stability to account for the (dis-)appearance of the two-centered bound states. Especially, for large black holes none of these bound states exists at the attractor point and none of these ambiguous poles contributes to the counting formula. Using this fact we also propose a second, moduli-independent contour which counts the 'immortal dyons' that are stable everywhere

  20. Bacterial DNA findings in ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyysalo, Mikko J; Pyysalo, Liisa M; Pessi, Tanja; Karhunen, Pekka J; Lehtimäki, Terho; Oksala, Niku; Öhman, Juha E

    2016-05-01

    Objective Chronic inflammation has earlier been detected in ruptured intracranial aneurysms. A previous study detected both dental bacterial DNA and bacterial-driven inflammation in ruptured intracranial aneurysm walls. The aim of this study was to compare the presence of oral and pharyngeal bacterial DNA in ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms. The hypothesis was that oral bacterial DNA findings would be more common and the amount of bacterial DNA would be higher in ruptured aneurysm walls than in unruptured aneurysm walls. Materials and methods A total of 70 ruptured (n?=?42) and unruptured (n?=?28) intracranial aneurysm specimens were obtained perioperatively in aneurysm clipping operations. Aneurysmal sac tissue was analysed using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to detect bacterial DNA from several oral species. Both histologically non-atherosclerotic healthy vessel wall obtained from cardiac by-pass operations (LITA) and arterial blood samples obtained from each aneurysm patient were used as control samples. Results Bacterial DNA was detected in 49/70 (70%) of the specimens. A total of 29/42 (69%) of the ruptured and 20/28 (71%) of the unruptured aneurysm samples contained bacterial DNA of oral origin. Both ruptured and unruptured aneurysm tissue samples contained significantly more bacterial DNA than the LITA control samples (p-values 0.003 and 0.001, respectively). There was no significant difference in the amount of bacterial DNA between the ruptured and unruptured samples. Conclusion Dental bacterial DNA can be found using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction in both ruptured and unruptured aneurysm walls, suggesting that bacterial DNA plays a role in the pathogenesis of cerebral aneurysms in general, rather than only in ruptured aneurysms. PMID:26777430

  1. Counting Human Neural Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Marchenko, Steven; Flanagan, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of the exact number of viable cells in a given volume of a cell suspension is required for many routine tissue culture manipulations, such as plating cells for immunocytochemistry or for cell transfections. This protocol describes a straightforward and fast method for differentiating between live and dead cells and quantifying the cell concentration and total cell number using a hemacytometer. This procedure first requires detaching cells from a growth surface and resuspending the...

  2. Evaluation of a routine antiseptic and two disinfectants for reducing bacterial population of cow hoof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosa Javdani,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A routine antiseptic and two disinfectant agents were used separately for reducing bacterial population of cow hoof: 1 7.5% povidone–iodine scrub mixed with 10% povidone–iodine solution, 2 10% copper sulfate, and 3 8% formaldehyde. Swabbing for microbial colony counts were used to evaluate pre and post–scrub of hooves of eight cows. The results revealed no significant differences in reduction of bacterial colony count between post–scrubs of povidone–iodine and formaldehyde. Bacterial colony counts after the povidone–iodine scrub solution and formaldehyde scrub were significantly different from those obtained after the copper sulfate scrub. Significant reduction in number of microbial colony in post–scrub by povidone–iodine, formaldehyde, and copper sulfate were observed which were different from the control (warm tap water.

  3. Relationship between Somatic Cell Counts, Mastitis and Milk Quality in Ettawah Grade and PESA Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molefe PETLANE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is a bacterial disease that leads to increased somatic cell counts and reduced milk quality in dairy goats. Reduction in quality is manifested through a reduction in fat, protein, lactose content and an increase in milk somatic cell counts and salts content. Thus mastitis affects productivity of animals and hence their economic value. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of somatic cell counts (SCC and mastitis on milk quality in PE and PESA. On-Farm mastitis tests were performed on 38 lactating dairy goats and milk samples were collected from both mastitis positive and healthy animals from which quality parameters were measured using a milko tester while bacterial isolation and enumeration were done following standard protocols. Data was analyzed descriptively and the results showed that somatic cell counts and somatic cell score correlate positively with mastitis (P < 0.05. Lactose and fat content decreased with severity of mastitis in both breeds whereas in PESA protein content increased with mastitis. Salt content increases with mastitis in both breeds. S. aureus was the most isolated bacteria and associated with high SCC whereas E. coli was poorly isolated. The study concludes that mastitis leads to increased SCC and reduced milk quality in dairy goats.

  4. Role of lipids in bacterial radioresistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioresistance of three bacterial isolates was determined. S. aureus was the most sensitive one (D10 value 0.14 KGy), B. coagulans was moderate resistant (D10 value 3.3 KGy) and the most resistant one was B.megaterium (D10 value 3.7 KGy). Total lipids and lipid patterns of these bacteria were determined and the role of lipids in radioresistance was investigated. Least amount of total lipids was detected in the most sensitive organism (S. aureus). The increase in the bacterial content of total lipids was concomitant with high degrees of radioresistance. The most resistant organism (B. megaterium was characterized by high content of methyl esters of fatty acids, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, followed by appreciable amounts in the moderate resistant (B. coagulans) and the least amounts were detected in the most sensitive organism (S.aureus).6 fig., 3 tab

  5. [Relationships between atmospheric Sugi (Japanese cedar)-pollen counts and indices of climatic conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenda, Y; Teranishi, H; Kasuya, M; Katoh, T; Taira, H

    1995-08-01

    Atmospheric pollen surveys have been conducted using Durham's standard sampler for 12 years in Toyama Prefecture. The relationships between Sugi (Japanese cedar, Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) pollen and some indices of climatic conditions were analyzed. The results were as follows: 1. Total pollen counts showed a tendency to increase for 12 years, although the variation of the count was relatively large. 2. Significant correlations were found between pollen counts and some indices of the climatic conditions in July of the previous year, such as duration of sunshine, mean daily temperature and daily maximum, as well as minimum temperature. 3. Significant correlation was found between pollen count and duration of sunshine in January and March, and the amount of snowfall in March of the observed year using multiple regression analysis. Pollen counts were shown to be relatively high in years with short sunshine in January and long sunshine and heavy snow in March. PMID:8520050

  6. Detection of irradiated chicken and fish meats by the determination of Gram negative bacterial count and bacterial endotoxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this investigation was to study the possibility of detecting irradiated chicken and fish meats by the determination of Gram negative bacteria combined with the determination of endotoxin concentrations. Samples of chicken breast with skin, skinless chicken breast and eviscerated Bolti fish (Tilabia nilotica) were irradiated at room temperature at doses of 0, 1.5 and 3 kGy followed by storage at refrigeration temperature (4 ± 1 degree C) for 12 days or frozen storage at -18 degree C for 60 days. Furthermore, other samples of chicken and Bolti fish were irradiated in the frozen sate at doses of 0, 3, and 7 kGy followed by frozen storage at - 18 degree C for 60 days. Then the enumeration of Gram negative bacteria in conjunction with the determination of endotoxin concentrations were carried out for both irradiated and non-irradiated samples post treatments and during storage in addition to the discovery of Pseudomonas spp. The obtained results showed that chicken and fish samples irradiated at dose of 1.5 kGy could be identified during refrigerated storage for 6 and 9 days, respectively, while all samples irradiated at dose of 3 kGy were identifiable during 12 days of refrigerated storage. Moreover, all irradiated and frozen stored samples were identifiable during their frozen storage (- 18 degree C). The absence of Pseudomonads in all irradiated samples may aid in the differentiation of irradiated and non-irradiated samples especially during refrigerated storage. This method can be applied as a general screening method to predict the possible treatment of chicken and fish meats by ionizing radiation

  7. Systematic effects in neutron coincidence and multiplicity counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Louise G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Favorite, Jeffrey A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Correlated neutron counting, including neutron coincidence and multiplicity counting, is an important tool in nuclear material accountancy verification. The accuracy of such measurements is of interest to the safeguards community because as the accuracy of NDA improves, the number of samples that are required to undergo destructive analysis (DA) decreases. The accuracy of a neutron mUltiplicity measurement can be affected by a number of variables. Monte Carlo neutron transport simulations with MCNPX have been performed to understand how the properties of the sample affect the count rate. These resultant count rates have been analyzed with the 'point model' in order to determine the effect on the deduced plutonium mass. The sample properties that have been investigated are density, sample position within the detector cavity, moisture content, isotopic composition, plutonium to total actinide ratio and heavy metal fraction. These parameters affect the Singles, Doubles and Triples count rates in different ways. In addition, different analysis methods use these measured quantities in different combinations, so that the final sensitivity of the {sup 240}Pu mass to each parameter also depends on the analysis method used. For example, the passive calibration curve method only used the Doubles rate to produce the {sup 240}Pu mass and so is not sensitive to changes in the Singles rate (to first order). The analysis methods considered here were passive calibration curve (non-multiplication corrected), known alpha (multiplication corrected) and multiplicity with known efficiency. The effects were studied on both a small mass MOX sample (1 g Pu) and a large MOX sample (6000 g Pu) both measured in high efficiency neutron multiplicity counters. In order to determine the final effect of each parameter it is necessary to know not only the sensitivity of the plutonium mass to that parameter, but also the range over which the parameter can realistically vary. Some estimates are given.

  8. Prevalence of plasmid mediated pesticide resistant bacterial assemblages in crop fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umamaheswari, S; Murali, M

    2010-11-01

    Three crop fields namely paddy sugarcane and tomato exposed to bavistin [Methyl (1H-benzimidazol-2-yl) carbomate], monocrotophos[Dimethyl(E)-1-methyl-2-(methyl-carbamoyl) vinyl phosphate] and kinado plus [(EZ)-2-chloro-3-dimethoxyphosphinoyloxy-X1, X1-diethylbut-2-enamide], respectively were chosen for the present investigation to know the bacterial population and degradation of pesticides. The chemical nature of the soil and water samples from the pesticide contaminated fields was analysed along with counting of the total heterotrophic bacteria (THB), Staphylococci and Enterococcci population. Mean calcium, phosphate and biological oxygen demand were maximum in tomato field water Field water recorded maximum phophate and silicate content, whereas, sugarcane field water elicited maximum dissolved oxygen content. On the other hand, available phosphate and exchangeable potassium were maximum is sugarcane field soil. Significant variations in the bacterial population were evident between the treatments in sugarcane field soil and tomato field water exposed to monocrotophos and kinado plus, respectively In addition, significant variations between THB, Staphlyococci and Enterococci population were also evinced in both the sugarcane andtomato fields. The dominant pesticide resistant bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeuroginosa harboured plasmids and the resistant trait observed were found to be plasmid borne. PMID:21506482

  9. Colonization resistance of defined bacterial plaques to Streptococcus mutans implantation on teeth in a model mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrons, C J; Donoghue, H D

    1990-02-01

    We investigated the ability of Streptococcus mutans C67-1 to colonize simple bacterial plaques and the effects of age and stability of the pre-formed plaque on colonization resistance. Mixed-plaques of Actinomyces viscosus WVU627, 'Streptococcus mitior' LPA-1, and Veillonella dispar OMZ193 were grown on tooth segments, mounted back to back for simulation of approximal sites in a model mouth for 66 h. S. mutans C67-1 was either included in the original inoculum or super-inoculated onto the developing plaque. Inclusion of S. mutans C67-1 did not alter the total viable counts, but the proportional composition changed due to inter-species interactions. Colonization resistance of the mixed-plaque samples developed within 24 h, although S. mutans C67-1 was always able to colonize these stagnation sites. Colonization resistance of 24-hour plaque against a fresh isolate, S. mutans CP3, was also studied. There was greater colonization resistance by the basic plaque to this organism, compared with S. mutans C67-1, although the reasons for this were not clear. These initial experiments demonstrate the way in which the factors involved in bacterial colonization resistance in microbial films on teeth can be studied under controlled conditions. PMID:2307751

  10. Peroxide test strips detect added hydrogen peroxide in raw milk at levels affecting bacterial load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicole H; Friedlander, Adam; Mok, Allen; Kent, David; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J

    2014-10-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has a long-established history of use as a preservative in milk worldwide. The use of H2O2 to activate the inherent lactoperoxidase enzyme system has dramatically improved the quality of raw dairy products in areas in which cooling is not widely available. In the United States, however, where refrigeration is widely available, the addition of H2O2 to milk is not permitted, with the exception of certain applications prior to cheesemaking and during the preparation of modified whey. Due to the relatively quick deterioration of H2O2 in fluid milk, the detection of raw milk adulterated with the compound can be challenging. In this study we evaluated (i) total aerobic bacterial counts and (ii) ability of peroxide test strips to detect H2O2 in raw milk with various concentrations (0, 100, 300, 500, 700, and 900 ppm) of added H2O2, incubated at both 6 and 21°C for 0, 24, and 48 h. Results showed that at both 6 and 21°C the H2O2 concentration and time had a significant effect on bacterial loads in raw milk. Additionally, commercially available test strips were able to detect H2O2 in raw milk, with predicted probability of >90%, immediately after addition and after 24 and 48 h for the higher concentrations used, offering a viable method for detecting raw milk adulteration with H2O2. PMID:25285503

  11. Bacterial contamination of automotive fuels in a tropical region: the case of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Rodríguez-Cavallini, Evelyn; Blanco, Rigoberto

    2009-09-01

    Microbial contamination of fuel has been the cause of several problems in transportation and storage of these products. Due to the lack of previous studies related to these problems in Costa Rica, bacterial quality was evaluated biannually in automotive fuels stored in the four oil distribution facilities of the Costa Rican Petroleum Refinery (RECOPE). In 12 oil storage tanks, for a total of 96 samples, mesophilic, heterotrophic aerobic/facultative counts (ASTM D6974-04) and identification of bacteria presented in regular gas, premium gas and diesel from the bottom and superior part of the tanks were done; in the samples containing an aqueous phase, sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) were also quantified by the most probable number technique (MPN), according to the ASTM D4412-84 standard. The higher contamination was shown at the bottom of the tanks (populations up to 10(4) UFC/l), especially if there was accumulated water, in which case populations reached 10(8) UFC/l. The most contaminated fuel was diesel (counts up to 10(4) UFC/l), whereas the less contaminated was premium gas. The less contaminated fuels were from the facilities of La Garita and Barranca, whereas the most contaminated were from Ochomogo. Nevertheless, the quantified populations did not cause significant alteration in quality physicochemical parameters in the samples analyzed. A total of 149 bacterial strains were isolated, 136 (91.3%) Gram positive and 13 (8.7%) Gram negative. The most frequent genera were Staphylococcus (24.0%), Micrococcus (21.9%), Bacillus (18.8%) and Kocuria (11.5%) among Gram positive bacteria and Pseudomonas (7.3%) among Gram negative bacteria. The majority of these genera have been found as fuel contaminants or even as degraders of this kind of products; nevertheless, some species for which their appearance or growth in hydrocarbons have not been described were found with low frequencies. SRB were present in counts up to 10(5) MPN/l in 42.9% of water containing samples (including all from diesel tanks), indicating biocorrosion processes risk in fuel transport and storage systems. From the findings in this study it is recommended to give a frequent maintenance to fuel containers, based on continuous drainage and removal of accumulated water, antimicrobial agent addition and microbial quality monitoring in country's fuels. PMID:19928449

  12. Evaluation of the PetrifilmTM and TEMPO® systems and the conventional method for counting microorganisms in pasteurized milk

    OpenAIRE

    Andréia Cirolini; Andressa Mara Baseggio; Marília Miotto; Roberta Juliano Ramos; Cristhiane Stecanella de Oliveira Cattani; Cleide Rosana Werneck Vieira

    2013-01-01

    New microbiological methods have been developed and commercialized, but their performance must be guaranteed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the PetrifilmTM and TEMPO® systems compared to the conventional method for counting microorganisms in pasteurized milk. A total of 141 samples of pasteurized milk were analyzed by counting mesophilic aerobic, Coliforms at 35 ºC, Coliforms at 45 ºC, and Escherichia coli microorganisms. High correlation was found between the methods for count...

  13. Maximum entropy deconvolution of low count nuclear medicine images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximum entropy is applied to the problem of deconvolving nuclear medicine images, with special consideration for very low count data. The physics of the formation of scintigraphic images is described, illustrating the phenomena which degrade planar estimates of the tracer distribution. Various techniques which are used to restore these images are reviewed, outlining the relative merits of each. The development and theoretical justification of maximum entropy as an image processing technique is discussed. Maximum entropy is then applied to the problem of planar deconvolution, highlighting the question of the choice of error parameters for low count data. A novel iterative version of the algorithm is suggested which allows the errors to be estimated from the predicted Poisson mean values. This method is shown to produce the exact results predicted by combining Poisson statistics and a Bayesian interpretation of the maximum entropy approach. A facility for total count preservation has also been incorporated, leading to improved quantification. In order to evaluate this iterative maximum entropy technique, two comparable methods, Wiener filtering and a novel Bayesian maximum likelihood expectation maximisation technique, were implemented. The comparison of results obtained indicated that this maximum entropy approach may produce equivalent or better measures of image quality than the compared methods, depending upon the accuracy of the system model used. The novel Bayesian maximum likelihood expectation maximisation technique was shown to be preferable over many existing maximum a posteriori methods due to its simplicity of implementation. A single parameter is required to define the Bayesian prior, which suppresses noise in the solution and may reduce the processing time substantially. Finally, maximum entropy deconvolution was applied as a pre-processing step in single photon emission computed tomography reconstruction of low count data. Higher contrast results were obtained than those achieved by a Wiener pre-filtering approach and a scatter-subtracted attenuation corrected filtered back projection method. Maximum entropy optimised for low counts holds promise for nuclear medicine applications where counts are necessarily low, and may facilitate reduction of the administered activity for other applications. The algorithm was in fact deemed advantageous for the processing of low count Poisson data in general. (author)

  14. Characteristics of fission track spark counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fission track spark counting has been widely used for neutron monitoring by polycarbonate film. We have studied spark counting characteristics using polycarbonate detector films of different thickness and aluminized polycarbonate sheets of different aluminum thickness for an electrode, and observed the etch-pit sizes in relation to spark counting. Results obtained are as follows: 1. On spark counting of high density of etch-pits, round etch-pits seemed to be easily spark-punched and rod-like etch-pits remained unpunched. 2. The size of etch-pits due to uranium fission fragments appeared to be somewhat larger than due to thorium fission fragments. And the percentage of rod-like etch-pits to all etch-pits due to uranium fission fragments is smaller than that due to thorium fission fragments. 3. As the thickness of detector films decreases, percentage of round etch-pits to all etch-pits increased and spark counting efficiency increased. From our experiments, Makrofol KG of 10 ?m thick of Lumirror of 6 ?m thick appears to be suitable for routine use. 4. As the aluminum thickness of aluminized sheet electrode increases, spark counting efficiency increases slightly, range of spark counting plateau shortens, and multiple sparks occur at low voltage. (author)

  15. Characterization of bacterial communities and functions of two submerged soils from San Vitale park (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocali, Stefano; Chiellini, Carolina; Lagomarsino, Alessandra; Ferronato, Chiara; Vittori Antisari, Livia; Vianello, Gilmo

    2015-04-01

    Subaqueous soils has been introduced in the last edition of the Keys to Soil Taxonomy (Soil surveystaff, 2014), to describe soils covered by a water column of up to 2.5 m where different pedogenetic processes can be recognized. However, the role of bacterial community structure and function in such environments and its potential use as pedogenetic indicator is still largely unknown. Two submerged soils (WAS-2 and WAS-4) were collected from San Vitale park (Italy), a site where the evolution of the landscape from subaqueous wetland to interdunal and dunal system, and the interfacing of freshwater with saltwater, made this site particularly suitable for examining the pedogenetic indicators which can characterize and predict the soil hydromorphism in trasitional ecosystems. The two soils were classified and their physicochemical and morphological features were investigated. Selective media were used to isolate both culturable aerobic and anaerobic (microaerophilic) bacteria associated with each horizon. In WAS-2 seven horizons were identified (depths 4-0, 0-6, 6-13, 13-20, 20-36, 36-59/60, and 59/60-83 cm) while in WAS-4, five horizons were identified (depths 0-14, 14-20, 20-40, 40-45, 45-100 cm) for a total of 12 horizons (samples). For each sample, aerobic bacterial plate count was performed on solid LB medium, coupled with microaerophilic bacterial plate count either on SA500 minimal medium and AYE medium (0.5% soft agar each). Molecular identification (16S rRNA gene sequencing) of ~100 strains isolated from each of the three used medium was performed, for a total of ~300 strains for each sample. To complete the characterization of the microbial communities in all horizons, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) analysis was carried out with 454 platform on each of the 12 samples. Moreover, the N2O and CH4 emissions were determined from each pedon. All the parameters were used to highlight the similarities and the differences between and within the pedons. The results will potentially help to highlight some features related to the origin and morphogenesis of submerged soils, and also to clarify the process of differentiation of soil horizons from a biological point of view.

  16. An Adaptive Smoother for Counting Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Counting measurements associated with nuclear instruments are tricky to carry out due to the stochastic process of the radioactivity. Indeed events counting have to be processed and filtered in order to display a stable count rate value and to allow variations monitoring in the measured activity. Smoothers (as the moving average) are adjusted by a time constant defined as a compromise between stability and response time. A new approach has been developed and consists in improving the response time while maintaining count rate stability. It uses the combination of a smoother together with a detection filter. A memory of counting data is processed to calculate several count rate estimates using several integration times. These estimates are then sorted into the memory from short to long integration times. A measurement position, in terms of integration time, is then chosen into this memory after a detection test. An inhomogeneity into the Poisson counting process is detected by comparison between current position estimate and the other estimates contained into the memory in respect with the associated statistical variance calculated with homogeneous assumption. The measurement position (historical time) and the ability to forget an obsolete data or to keep in memory a useful data are managed using the detection test result. The proposed smoother is then an adaptive and a learning algorithm allowing an optimization of the response time while maintaining measurement counting stability and converging efficiently to the best counting estimate after an effective change in activity. This algorithm has also the specificity to be low recursive and thus easily embedded into DSP electronics based on FPGA or micro-controllers meeting 'real life' time requirements. (authors)

  17. Standardization of {sup 241}Am by digital coincidence counting, liquid scintillation counting and defined solid angle counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balpardo, C., E-mail: balpardo@cae.cnea.gov.a [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radioisotopos, CNEA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Capoulat, M.E.; Rodrigues, D.; Arenillas, P. [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radioisotopos, CNEA, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-07-15

    The nuclide {sup 241}Am decays by alpha emission to {sup 237}Np. Most of the decays (84.6%) populate the excited level of {sup 237}Np with energy of 59.54 keV. Digital coincidence counting was applied to standardize a solution of {sup 241}Am by alpha-gamma coincidence counting with efficiency extrapolation. Electronic discrimination was implemented with a pressurized proportional counter and the results were compared with two other independent techniques: Liquid scintillation counting using the logical sum of double coincidences in a TDCR array and defined solid angle counting taking into account activity inhomogeneity in the active deposit. The results show consistency between the three methods within a limit of a 0.3%. An ampoule of this solution will be sent to the International Reference System (SIR) during 2009. Uncertainties were analysed and compared in detail for the three applied methods.

  18. Patients count on it: an initiative to reduce incorrect counts and prevent retained surgical items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Elizabeth K; Martin, Cornelia; Micheli, Anne J

    2012-01-01

    Retained surgical items were the most frequently reported sentinel event in 2010, according to The Joint Commission. Perioperative nurse leaders at Children's Hospital Boston, a pediatric teaching hospital, conducted a quality improvement initiative to reduce or eliminate incorrect counts and count discrepancies, which increase the risk of an item being unintentionally retained after surgery. Work included educating the perioperative staff members, standardizing count practices, formally reviewing every reported count discrepancy with the nursing team, and reviewing and revising the count policy for prevention of retained surgical items. The initiative reduced the number of incorrect counts and count discrepancies by 50% between 2009 to 2010. These initiatives continue to be expanded, and the results have been sustained on an ongoing basis. PMID:22201575

  19. / Endogenous bacterial strains utilization in the bioremediation of oil contaminated water

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ismenia, Araujo; Gustavo, Romero; Carmen, Cárdenas; Nancy, Angulo; Gustavo, Morillo; Judith, Navarro; María, Méndez.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue la utilización de cepas bacterianas autóctonas en la biorremediación de agua contaminada con aceite lubricante. Se tomaron muestras de agua del Lago de Maracaibo, sector Capitán Chico, Edo. Zulia. Se aislaron 16 cepas bacterianas, las cuales fueron sometidas a un ensa [...] yo de factibilidad, utilizando gasoil como única fuente de carbono. Se seleccionaron e identificaron las siete cepas más eficientes en la degradación de los hidrocarburos. Se preparó un cultivo mixto con dichas cepas, el cual se utilizó en un estudio de biotratabilidad. En tanques plásticos de 25 L se dispensaron: cultivo mixto (10%), aceite lubricante (7000 mg/L), nitrógeno y fósforo (0,5; 0,75; 1 g/L), en un volumen de 20 L. En cuatro de los tratamientos, se aplicó aireación. Mensualmente, se registró el contaje bacteriano, el contenido de aceite y el contenido de nitrógeno y fósforo totales. Se aplicó un análisis de varianza con tres repeticiones, utilizando un modelo lineal estadístico. El efecto de la aplicación de cultivo mixto, fertilización y aireación sobre la degradación de aceite resultó significativo (P Abstract in english The objective of this work was the bioremediation of contaminated water with lubricant oil by using endogenous bacterial strains. Samples of water were taken from the Lake of Maracaibo, sector Capitan Chico, Edo. Zulia. From the water samples, 16 bacterial strains were isolated, which were subjected [...] to a essay of feasibility using gasoil as carbon source. The seven bacterial strains more efficient during the essay of feasibility were identified and utilized as a mixed culture in a biotratabilidad study. The essay were prepared in plastic tanks of 25 L with mixed culture (10%), oil lubricant (7000 mg/L), nitrogen and phosphorus (0,5; 0,75; 1 g/L), in a total volume of 20 L. In four of the treatments aeration was applied. Monthly the bacterial count, the oil content, the nitrogen and total phosphorus content were registered. In the inoculated, fertilized and aired tanks the highest removals were achieved, until 95% of the oil was present.

  20. Radon measurement by absorptive plastic scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polystyrene is the main component of plastic scintillator, and absorbs radon as well as liquid aromatic solvents. I proposed a new radon monitor which detects radon distributed into plastic scintillator. As a preliminary experiment, plastic scintillator was put in a counting vial together with radon water and was measured by liquid scintillation counter. It was found that the scintillation spectrum of radon series was observed and the counting rate was proportional to the radon concentration in water. Then the radon concentration in water could be measured by plastic scintillator absorbent of radon. This method, APS: Absorptive Plastic Scintillation counting, is practicable to continuous radon monitor for environmental research. (author)

  1. Counting Lattice Paths By Gessel Pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Xin, G

    2004-01-01

    We count a large class of lattice paths by using factorizations of free monoids. Besides the classical lattice paths counting problems related to Catalan numbers, we give a new approach to the problem of counting walks on the slit plane (walks avoid a half line) that was first solved by Bousquet-M\\'{e}lou and Schaeffer. We also solve a problem about walks in the half plane avoiding a half line by subsequently applying the factorizations of two different Gessel pairs, giving a generalization of a result of Bousquet-M\\'{e}lou.

  2. Sample preparation procedures for liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is reviewed in sections, entitled: introduction, basic design of instrumentation and scintillation vials, solvents and solutes in the scintillator system, homogeneity and heterogeneity, preprocessing for homogeneous liquid scintillation counting, inorganic ions, combustion methods, solubilization methods, cerenkov light measurement, preprocessing for heterogeneous liquid scintillation counting, monitoring of continuous-flow systems, scintillant in the liquid phase, colloidal scintillation counting, correction procedures, artefacts, and data processing, chemiluminescence and phosphorescence, biochemical applications, radioimmunoassay and related techniques, archaeological and hydrological applications, miscellaneous applications. (U.K.)

  3. Genetic Regulatory Networks that count to 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Martin; Sneppen, K.

    2013-01-01

    Sensing a graded input and differentiating between its different levels is at the core of many developmental decisions. Here, we want to examine how this can be realized for a simple system. We model gene regulatory circuits that reach distinct states when setting the underlying gene copy number to 1, 2 and 3. This distinction can be considered as counting the copy number. We explore different circuits that allow for counting and keeping memory of the count after resetting the copy number to 1. ...

  4. Counting, Measuring And The Semantics Of Classifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Rothstein

    2010-01-01

    This paper makes two central claims. The first is that there is an intimate and non-trivial relation between the mass/count distinction on the one hand and the measure/individuation distinction on the other: a (if not the) defining property of mass nouns is that they denote sets of entities which can be measured, while count nouns denote sets of entities which can be counted. Crucially, this is a difference in grammatical perspective and not in ontological status. The second claim is that the...

  5. Quantum Abacus for counting and factorizing numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Suslov, M. V.; Lesovik, G. B.; Blatter, G.

    2010-01-01

    We generalize the binary quantum counting algorithm of Lesovik, Suslov, and Blatter [Phys. Rev. A 82, 012316 (2010)] to higher counting bases. The algorithm makes use of qubits, qutrits, and qudits to count numbers in a base 2, base 3, or base d representation. In operating the algorithm, the number n < N = d^K is read into a K-qudit register through its interaction with a stream of n particles passing in a nearby wire; this step corresponds to a quantum Fourier transformati...

  6. B Counting at BaBar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis we examine the method of counting B(bar B) events produced in the BABAR experiment. The original method was proposed in 2000, but improvements to track reconstruction and our understanding of the detector since that date make it appropriate to revisit the B Counting method. We propose a new set of cuts designed to minimize the sensitivity to time-varying backgrounds. We find the new method counts B(bar B) events with an associated systematic uncertainty of ± 0.6%

  7. Dying Dyons Don't Count

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Miranda C. N.; Verlinde, Erik

    2007-01-01

    The dyonic 1/4-BPS states in 4D string theory with N=4 spacetime supersymmetry are counted by a Siegel modular form. The pole structure of the modular form leads to a contour dependence in the counting formula obscuring its duality invariance. We exhibit the relation between this ambiguity and the (dis-)appearance of bound states of 1/2-BPS configurations. Using this insight we propose a precise moduli-dependent contour prescription for the counting formula. We then show tha...

  8. Microbial counts of food contact surfaces at schools depending on a feeding scheme

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nthabiseng, Nhlapo; Ryk J.F., Lues; Willem H., Groenewald.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The prominence of disease transmission between individuals in confined environments is a concern, particularly in the educational environment. With respect to school feeding schemes, food contact surfaces have been shown to be potential vehicles of foodborne pathogens. The aim of this study was to a [...] ssess the cleanliness of the surfaces that come into contact with food that is provided to children through the National School Nutrition Programme in central South Africa. In each school under study, microbiological samples were collected from the preparation surface and the dominant hand and apron of the food handler. The samples were analysed for total viable counts, coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and yeasts and moulds. The criteria specified in the British Columbia Guide for Environmental Health Officers were used to evaluate the results. Total viable counts were high for all surfaces, with the majority of colonies being too numerous to count (over 100 colonies per plate). Counts of organisms were relatively low, with 20% of the surfaces producing unsatisfactory enumeration of S. aureus and E. coli and 30% unsatisfactory for coliforms. Yeast and mould produced 50% and 60% unsatisfactory counts from preparation surfaces and aprons, respectively. Statistically significant differences could not be established amongst microbial counts of the surfaces, which suggests cross-contamination may have occurred. Contamination may be attributed to foodstuffs and animals in the vicinity of the preparation area rather than to the food handlers, because hands had the lowest counts of enumerated organisms amongst the analysed surfaces.

  9. Interfering with bacterial gossip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Givskov, Michael

    defense. Antibiotics exhibit a rather limited effect on biofilms. Furthermore, antibiotics have an ‘inherent obsolescence’ because they select for development of resistance. Bacterial infections with origin in bacterial biofilms have become a serious threat in developed countries. Pseudomonas aeruginosa...... biofilms are thought to be the dominant agent in many chronic infections including those in cystic fibrosis lungs and chronic wounds. With the present day’s awareness of biofilms, the future task is to exploit this knowledge for development and application of antimicrobial intervention strategies that...... appropriately target bacteria in their relevant habitat with the aim of mitigating their destructive impact on patients. In this review we describe molecular mechanisms involved in “bacterial gossip” (more scientifically referred to as quorum sensing (QS) and c-di-GMP signaling), virulence, biofilm formation...

  10. Bacterial meningitis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To demonstrate the epidemiology, clinical manifestations and bacteriological profile of bacterial meningitis in children beyond the neonatal period in our hospital. This was a retrospective descriptive study conducted at Prince Rashid Hospital in Irbid, Jordan. The medical records of 50 children with the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis during 4 years period, were reviewed. The main cause of infection was streptococcus pneumoniae, followed by Haemophilus influenza and Niesseria meningitides. Mortality was higher in infants and meningococcal infection, while complications were more encountered in cases of streptococcus pneumoniae. Cerebrospinal fluid culture was positive in 11 cases and Latex agglutination test in 39. There is a significant reduction of the numbers of bacterial meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenza type B species. (author)

  11. The use of the full blood count and differential parameters to assess immune activation levels in asymptomatic, untreated HIV infection

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N, Vanker; H, Ipp.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A feature of HIV/AIDS is chronic immune activation, which results in a number of complications including inflammation-related disorders and blood cytopaenias. Immune activation status is not routinely tested in HIV infection. However, the full blood count (FBC) is a commonly performed te [...] st. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesised that FBC parameters would be significantly different in HIV-infected v. -uninfected individuals, and that some of these parameters would correlate with markers of immune activation (i.e. percentage CD38 expression on CD8+ T cells (%CD38onCD8)) and disease progression (i.e. CD4+ counts) in HIV infection. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study with 83 HIV-infected adults who were antiretroviral therapy-naive and clinically well, and 51 HIV-uninfected adults. The %CD38onCD8 and CD4+ counts were determined by flow cytometry and the FBC was performed on a Siemens ADVIA 2120 system. FBC parameters investigated were total white cell count (WCC), haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, platelet count, absolute neutrophil count, absolute lymphocyte count, and percentage of large unstained cells (%LUCs). RESULTS: Significant differences were found between the HIV-infected and -uninfected groups for total WCC, Hb, neutrophil count, lymphocyte count and %LUCs. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) for the total WCC (5.3±1.3 v. 6.9±2.2; p

  12. The Calar Alto Deep Imaging Survey: K-band Galaxy Number Counts

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, J.-S.; Thompson, D.; Kümmel, M. W.; Meisenheimer, K; de Wolf, C.; S. V. W. Beckwith; Fockenbrock, J. W. Fried R.; Hippelein, H.; von Kuhlmann, B; Phleps, S.; Röser, H. -J.; Thommes, E.

    2001-01-01

    We present K-band number counts for the faint galaxies in the Calar Alto Deep Imaging Survey (CADIS). We covered 4 CADIS fields, a total area of 0.2deg^2, in the broad band filters B, R and K. We detect about 4000 galaxies in the K-band images, with a completeness limit of K=19.75mag, and derive the K-band galaxy number counts in the range of 14.25 < K < 19.75mag. This is the largest medium deep K-band survey to date in this magnitude range. The B- and R-band number counts a...

  13. Comparative microbial sampling from eutrophic caves in Slovenia and Slovakia using RIDA®COUNT test kits

    OpenAIRE

    Mulec Janez; Krištůfek Václav; Chroňáková Alica

    2012-01-01

    RIDA®COUNT test plates were used as an easy-to-handle and rapid indicator of microbial counts in karst ecosystems of several caves in Slovakia and Slovenia. All of the caves had a high organic input from water streams, tourists, roosting bat colonies or terrestrial surroundings. We sampled swabs, water and air samples to test robustness and universality of the RIDA®COUNT test kit (R-Biopharm AG, Germany, http://www.r-biopharm.com/) for quantification of total bacteria, coliforms, yeast and mo...

  14. Phonotactic language recognition using i-vectors and phoneme posteriogram counts

    OpenAIRE

    D'haro Enríquez, Luis Fernando; Glembek, Ond?ej; Plchot, Old?ich; Mat?jka, Pavel; Sou?far, Mehdi; Córdoba Herralde, Ricardo de; ?ernocký, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a novel approach to phonotactic LID, where instead of using soft-counts based on phoneme lattices, we use posteriogram to obtain n-gram counts. The high-dimensional vectors of counts are reduced to low-dimensional units for which we adapted the commonly used term i-vectors. The reduction is based on multinomial subspace modeling and is designed to work in the total-variability space. The proposed technique was tested on the NIST 2009 LRE set with better results to a syste...

  15. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Slobodanka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis is a common, complex clinical syndrome characterized by alterations in the normal vaginal flora. When symptomatic, it is associated with a malodorous vaginal discharge and on occasion vaginal burning or itching. Under normal conditions, lactobacilli constitute 95% of the bacteria in the vagina. Bacterial vaginosis is associated with severe reduction or absence of the normal H2O2­producing lactobacilli and overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria and Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Mycoplasma hominis and Mobiluncus species. Most types of infectious disease are diagnosed by culture, by isolating an antigen or RNA/DNA from the microbe, or by serodiagnosis to determine the presence of antibodies to the microbe. Therefore, demonstration of the presence of an infectious agent is often a necessary criterion for the diagnosis of the disease. This is not the case for bacterial vaginosis, since the ultimate cause of the disease is not yet known. There are a variety of methods for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis but no method can at present be regarded as the best. Diagnosing bacterial vaginosis has long been based on the clinical criteria of Amsel, whereby three of four defined criteria must be satisfied. Nugent’s scoring system has been further developed and includes validation of the categories of observable bacteria structures. Up­to­date molecular tests are introduced, and better understanding of vaginal microbiome, a clear definition for bacterial vaginosis, and short­term and long­term fluctuations in vaginal microflora will help to better define molecular tests within the broader clinical context.

  16. Determination of tritium by counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionisation chamber assay of tritium in any gaseous mixture is a simple, fast and accurate method. We used the method of relative determination by comparison to a standard rather than the method of absolute assay in which case the constants are known with too little accuracy. The efficiency of the chamber was studied in connection to the pressure inside the chamber and its total volume. The calibration is linear in the range we are taking into account (1 to 80 millicuries). The reproducibility of the method is good: 13 runs gave a coefficient of variation of 1.6 per cent. The relative accuracy was found equal to ± 1.3 per cent. To end the paper, we describe in detail the apparatus and the ways of proceedings. (authors)

  17. Association of weight and breed type with adjusted 40K count and certain indices of carcass composition in beef steers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four phantoms weighing 500, 700, 900 and 1100 pounds were developed to determine the influence of body mass on whole-body counting efficiency. Counting efficiency was observed to decrease as phantom weight increased from 500 to 1100 pounds. Standard source counting efficiency accounted for greater than 98 percent of the variation in phantom counting efficiency. Two counts, obtained on the same animal on the same day were determined to be highly repeatable. Significant breed type and weight group differences were found for adjusted count. Linear like trends were observed for the relationships between count data and weight. Adjusted count was more strongly associated with composition than was weight, on a within slaughter weight basis. Within weight group standard errors for fat-free lean and total body fat were generally less when using adjusted count as the independent variable than when using weight, regardless of breed type. A combination of both variables generally provided the most precise estimates of composition. Across weight regression resulted in empty body weight accounting for a larger proportion of the variation in composition than accounted for by adjusted count. A significant reduction in the across weight standard errors of estimate was noted when both adjusted count and weight were fitted to the model. Significant breed type and weight group effects were noted for carcass measurements and carcass composition

  18. Bacterial flora of spices and its control by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bacterial contamination was tested in 26 samples of spices. Chili, allspice and paprika were the most contaminated spices by bacteria. Five bacterial genera were isolated, namely bacillus, staphylococcus, streptococcus, micrococcus, and coccobacillus, all being gram-positive. Most isolates have been related to the genus bacillus. The bacterial isolates were identified as B. alvei, B. circulans, B. megaterium, B. pasteurii, B. pumilus, B. thuringiensis, B. sphaericus, B. incertaesedis, Micrococcus luteus, staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus sp. and coccobacillus sp. Irradiation of spices led to a significant decrease in the bacterial count of all samples. The dose required to inhibit completely the natural bacterial flora was 25 KGY. The most radioresistant isolates were staphylococcus aureus and micrococcus luteus which were subjected to sublethal doses of 15 and 20 KGY respectively. The dose response curves of the 2 most radioresistant isolates showed simple exponential relationship. The D 10-value of S. aureus and M. luteus were 0.9 and 1.1 KGY, respectively. The effect of storage period on the bacterial load of, as well as, the antibacterial activity of the tested spices were investigated. (author)

  19. EFFECT OF REFINED PETROLEUM PRODUCTS CONTAMINATION ON BACTERIAL POPULATION AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTIVATED AGRICULTURAL SOIL

    OpenAIRE

    Adewale Sogo Olalemi; Daniel Juwon Arotupin

    2012-01-01

    An investigation into the effect of refined petroleum products contamination on bacterial population and physicochemical characteristics of cultivated agricultural soil was carried out. The soil samples obtained from the Teaching and Research Farm, Obakekere, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State were contaminated with varying volumes of petrol, diesel and kerosene. The results revealed higher bacterial populations in uncontaminated soils than contaminated soils. The counts of b...

  20. Leukocyte Populations and C-Reactive Protein as Predictors of Bacterial Infections in Febrile Outpatient Children

    OpenAIRE

    Zühre Kaya; Aynur Küçükcongar; Do?u? Vurall?; Hamdi Cihan Emeksiz; Türkiz Gürsel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Infections remain the major cause of unnecessary antibiotic use in pediatric outpatient settings. Complete blood count (CBC) is the essential test in the diagnosis of infections. C-reactive protein (CRP) is also useful for assessment of young children with serious bacterial infections. The purpose of the study was to evaluate leukocyte populations and CRP level to predict bacterial infections in febrile outpatient children. METHODS: The values of CBC by Cell-DYN 4000 autoanalyz...

  1. SPARTA: Simple Program for Automated reference-based bacterial RNA-seq Transcriptome Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Benjamin K.; Scholz, Matthew B.; Teal, Tracy K; Abramovitch, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many tools exist in the analysis of bacterial RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) transcriptional profiling experiments to identify differentially expressed genes between experimental conditions. Generally, the workflow includes quality control of reads, mapping to a reference, counting transcript abundance, and statistical tests for differentially expressed genes. In spite of the numerous tools developed for each component of an RNA-seq analysis workflow, easy-to-use bacterially oriented wor...

  2. Evaluation of the ultrasonic method for solubilizing Daphnia magna before liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adult Daphnia magna were exposed to 14C-labeled phenol and tissues analyzed for 14C uptake by three methods: (1) tissue solubilizer, (2) tissue solubilizer plus sonication, and (3) sonication alone. Analysis by liquid scintillation counting revealed that measurements of total activity among treatments were not significantly different (? ? 0.10) at two count levels. Sonicated samples showed less variation than tissue samples that were solubilized. 5 references, 1 table

  3. From particle counting to Gaussian tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, K. R.; Sengupta, Ritabrata

    2015-12-01

    The momentum and position observables in an n-mode boson Fock space ?(?n) have the whole real line ? as their spectrum. But the total number operator N has a discrete spectrum ?+ = {0, 1, 2,…}. An n-mode Gaussian state in ?(?n) is completely determined by the mean values of momentum and position observables and their covariance matrix which together constitute a family of n(2n + 3) real parameters. Starting with N and its unitary conjugates by the Weyl displacement operators and operators from a representation of the symplectic group Sp(2n) in ?(?n), we construct n(2n + 3) observables with spectrum ?+ but whose expectation values in a Gaussian state determine all its mean and covariance parameters. Thus measurements of discrete-valued observables enable the tomography of the underlying Gaussian state and it can be done by using five one-mode and four two-mode Gaussian symplectic gates in single and pair mode wires of ?(?n) = ?(?)?n. Thus the tomography protocol admits a simple description in a language similar to circuits in quantum computation theory. Such a Gaussian tomography applied to outputs of a Gaussian channel with coherent input states permit a tomography of the channel parameters. However, in our procedure the number of counting measurements exceeds the number of channel parameters slightly. Presently, it is not clear whether a more efficient method exists for reducing this tomographic complexity. As a byproduct of our approach an elementary derivation of the probability generating function of N in a Gaussian state is given. In many cases the distribution turns out to be infinitely divisible and its underlying Lévy measure can be obtained. However, we are unable to derive the exact distribution in all cases. Whether this property of infinite divisibility holds in general is left as an open problem.

  4. Adult bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, C N; Samuelsson, I S; Galle, M; Bangsborg, Jette Marie

    2004-01-01

    Episodes of adult bacterial meningitis (ABM) at a Danish hospital in 1991-2000 were identified from the databases of the Department of Clinical Microbiology, and compared with data from the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Notification System. Reduced penicillin susceptibi......Episodes of adult bacterial meningitis (ABM) at a Danish hospital in 1991-2000 were identified from the databases of the Department of Clinical Microbiology, and compared with data from the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Notification System. Reduced penicillin...

  5. Surface topography of composite restorative materials following ultrasonic scaling and its Impact on bacterial plaque accumulation. An in-vitro SEM study

    OpenAIRE

    Hossam, A. Eid; Rafi, A. Togoo; Ahmed, A Saleh; Sumanth, Phani CR

    2013-01-01

    Background: This is an in vitro study to investigate the effects of ultrasonic scaling on the surface roughness and quantitative bacterial count on four different types of commonly used composite restorative materials for class V cavities.

  6. A precise, efficient radiometric assay for bacterial growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two-compartment radiometric assay for bacterial growth promised major advantages over systems in clinical use, but poor reproducibility and counting efficiency limited its application. In this method, 14-CO/sub 2/ produced by bacterial metabolism of C-14-glucose is trapped and counted on filter paper impregnated with NaOH and fluors. The authors sought to improve assay efficiency and precision through a systematic study of relevant physical and chemical factors. Improvements in efficiency (88% vs. 10%) and in precision (relative S.D. 5% vs. 40%) were produced by a) reversing growth medium and scintillator chambers to permit vigorous agitation, b) increasing NaOH quantity and using a supersaturated PPO solution and c) adding detergent to improve uniformity of NaOH-PPO mixture. Inoculum size, substrate concentration and O/sub 2/ transfer rate affected assay sensitivity but not bacterial growth rate. The authors' assay reliably detects bacterial growth for inocula of 10,000 organisms in 1 hour and for 25 organisms within 4 1/2 hours, thus surpassing other existing clinical and research methods

  7. Molecular Analysis of Bacterial Microbiota on Brazilian Currency Note Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira da Fonseca, Tairacan Augusto; Pessôa, Rodrigo; Sanabani, Sabri Saeed

    2015-10-01

    Currency notes have been implicated as a vehicle for transmitting community-acquired bacterial infections. However, the overall diversity of the bacterial population residing on banknotes is still unknown in Brazil. In this study, we aimed to investigate the overall bacterial population from 150 different Brazilian Rial (R$) notes in circulation using a culture-independent Illumina massively parallel sequencing approach of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were randomly collected from three different street markets or "feiras" in the metropolitan region of São Paulo. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Proteobacteria phyla, followed by Firmicutes and Streptophyta, with a total of 1193 bacterial families and 3310 bacterial genera. Most of these bacterial genera are of human, animal, and environmental origins. Also, our analysis revealed the presence of some potential pathogenic bacterial genera including Salmonella, Staphylococcus, and Klebsiella. The results demonstrate that there is a tremendous diversity of bacterial contamination on currency notes, including organisms known to be opportunistic pathogens. One of the factors that may contribute to the richness of bacterial diversity in currency notes is personal hygiene. Thus, our results underscore the need to increase public awareness of the importance of personal hygiene of money handlers who also handle food. PMID:26506368

  8. Molecular Analysis of Bacterial Microbiota on Brazilian Currency Note Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira da Fonseca, Tairacan Augusto; Pessôa, Rodrigo; Sanabani, Sabri Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Currency notes have been implicated as a vehicle for transmitting community-acquired bacterial infections. However, the overall diversity of the bacterial population residing on banknotes is still unknown in Brazil. In this study, we aimed to investigate the overall bacterial population from 150 different Brazilian Rial (R$) notes in circulation using a culture-independent Illumina massively parallel sequencing approach of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were randomly collected from three different street markets or “feiras” in the metropolitan region of São Paulo. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Proteobacteria phyla, followed by Firmicutes and Streptophyta, with a total of 1193 bacterial families and 3310 bacterial genera. Most of these bacterial genera are of human, animal, and environmental origins. Also, our analysis revealed the presence of some potential pathogenic bacterial genera including Salmonella, Staphylococcus, and Klebsiella. The results demonstrate that there is a tremendous diversity of bacterial contamination on currency notes, including organisms known to be opportunistic pathogens. One of the factors that may contribute to the richness of bacterial diversity in currency notes is personal hygiene. Thus, our results underscore the need to increase public awareness of the importance of personal hygiene of money handlers who also handle food. PMID:26506368

  9. Molecular Analysis of Bacterial Microbiota on Brazilian Currency Note Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tairacan Augusto Pereira da Fonseca

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Currency notes have been implicated as a vehicle for transmitting community-acquired bacterial infections. However, the overall diversity of the bacterial population residing on banknotes is still unknown in Brazil. In this study, we aimed to investigate the overall bacterial population from 150 different Brazilian Rial (R$ notes in circulation using a culture-independent Illumina massively parallel sequencing approach of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were randomly collected from three different street markets or “feiras” in the metropolitan region of São Paulo. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Proteobacteria phyla, followed by Firmicutes and Streptophyta, with a total of 1193 bacterial families and 3310 bacterial genera. Most of these bacterial genera are of human, animal, and environmental origins. Also, our analysis revealed the presence of some potential pathogenic bacterial genera including Salmonella, Staphylococcus, and Klebsiella. The results demonstrate that there is a tremendous diversity of bacterial contamination on currency notes, including organisms known to be opportunistic pathogens. One of the factors that may contribute to the richness of bacterial diversity in currency notes is personal hygiene. Thus, our results underscore the need to increase public awareness of the importance of personal hygiene of money handlers who also handle food.

  10. Koyukuk NWR 1986 duck pair count

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A duck pair count was conducted in five trend areas on 30 May 1986 in the Koyukuk NWR. Forty pairs from eight species of ducks were observed.

  11. CoC Housing Inventory Count Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Continuum of Care (CoC) Homeless Assistance Programs Housing Inventory Count Reports are a snapshot of a CoC’s housing inventory, available at the national and...

  12. A measurement technique for counting processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique for the estimation of first and second order properties of a stationary counting process is presented here which uses standard instruments for analysis of a continuous stationary random signal. (orig.)

  13. 20 CFR 418.3410 - Whose resources do we count?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whose resources do we count? 418.3410 Section... Subsidies Resources § 418.3410 Whose resources do we count? (a) We count your resources. We count the... we redetermine your subsidy as described in § 418.3120(b)(1), we will stop counting the resources...

  14. Colors, Luminosity Function and Counts of Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Saracco, P.; Chincarini, G.; Iovino, A.

    1995-01-01

    Standard models for deep galaxy counts are based on luminosity functions (LF) with relatively flat faint end ($\\alpha\\sim-1.0$). Galaxy counts in the B--band exceed the prediction of such models by a factor of 2 to more than 5, forcing the introduction of strong luminosity and/or density evolution. Recently Marzke et al. (1994a) using the CfA redshift survey sample find that the number of galaxies in the range $-16

  15. Proteinuria and malaria parasite counts in children

    OpenAIRE

    Mahrani Lubis; Rusdidjas; Rafita Ramayati; Oke Rina Ramayani; Rosmayanti S Siregar; Supriatmo

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria-induced proteinuria has been observed in severe cases of malaria. Few studies have been done to assess for an association between proteinuria and malaria parasite counts before the disease becomes severe. Objective To investigate a possible association between proteinuria and malaria parasite counts in children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on school-aged children in Panyabungan, Natal, between September to November 2010. Malaria was diagnosed by mi...

  16. How to count an introduction to combinatorics

    CERN Document Server

    Allenby, RBJT

    2010-01-01

    What's It All About? What Is Combinatorics? Classic Problems What You Need to Know Are You Sitting Comfortably? Permutations and Combinations The Combinatorial Approach Permutations CombinationsApplications to Probability Problems The Multinomial Theorem Permutations and Cycles Occupancy Problems Counting the Solutions of Equations New Problems from Old A ""Reduction"" Theorem for the Stirling Numbers The Inclusion-Exclusion Principle Double Counting Derangements A Formula for the Stirling NumbersStirling and Catalan Numbers Stirling Numbers Permutations and Stirling Numbers Catalan Numbers Pa

  17. Power Counting in Dimensionally Regularized NRQCD

    OpenAIRE

    Luke, Michael; Savage, Martin J.

    1997-01-01

    We present a scheme for calculating in NRQCD with consistent power counting in the heavy quark velocity v. As an example, we perform the systematic matching of an external current onto NRQCD at subleading order in v, a calculation relevant for the process e^+e^- -> hadrons near threshold. Consistent velocity power counting in dimensional regularization is achieved by including two distinct gluon fields, one corresponding to gluon radiation and one corresponding to an instant...

  18. High efficiency photon counting using stopped light

    OpenAIRE

    Imamoglu, A.

    2002-01-01

    Single-photon detection and photon counting play a central role in a large number of quantum communication and computation protocols. While the efficiency of state-of-the-art photo-detectors is well below the desired limits, quantum state measurements in trapped ions can be carried out with efficiencies approaching 100%. Here, we propose a method that can in principle achieve ideal photon counting, by combining the techniques of photonic quantum memory and ion-trap fluorescence detection: aft...

  19. Fixation, Counting, and Manipulation of Heterotrophic Nanoflagellates

    OpenAIRE

    Bloem, Jaap; Bär-Gilissen, Marie-José B.; Cappenberg, Thomas E.

    1986-01-01

    Quantitative effects of several fixatives on heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNAN) and phototrophic nanoflagellates (PNAN) were investigated by hemacytometer and epifluorescence counting techniques. Counts of Monas sp. cultures before and after fixation with unbuffered 0.3% glutaraldehyde and 5% formaldehyde showed no loss of cells during fixation, and cell concentrations remained constant for several weeks after fixation. Buffering of fixatives with borax caused severe losses, up to 100% with...

  20. Statistical treatment of nuclear counting results

    OpenAIRE

    Doli?anin ?emal B.; Stankovi? Koviljka ?.; Doli?anin Diana ?.; Lon?ar Boris B.

    2011-01-01

    Since the exact time a specific nucleus undergoes radioactive decay cannot be specified, nor can showers caused by secondary cosmic rays be predicted, statistical laws play an important role in almost all cases of experimental nuclear physics. This paper describes the method for the statistical treatment of nuclear counting results obtained experimentally by taking into account random variables pertaining to both frequent and infrequent phenomena. When processing counting measurement da...

  1. Estimating mutation rate: how to count mutations?

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Yun-Xin; Huai, Haying

    2003-01-01

    Mutation rate is an essential parameter in genetic research. Counting the number of mutant individuals provides information for a direct estimate of mutation rate. However, mutant individuals in the same family can share the same mutations due to premeiotic mutation events, so that the number of mutant individuals can be significantly larger than the number of mutation events observed. Since mutation rate is more closely related to the number of mutation events, whether one should count only ...

  2. Improving cycle counting with buffer time management

    OpenAIRE

    Broodryk, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a view of how inventory accuracy can be improved when Buffer Time Management principals is applied to Cycle Counting procedures. With no base module from which customer specific solutions can be designed from leads to brand new Cycle Counting modules being developed for each and every customer, this results in waste of time, money and other resources. The need to develop a module that would act as base module for future developments was identified and addressed. Different...

  3. Optical planar waveguide for cell counting

    OpenAIRE

    LeBlanc, John; Mueller, Andrew J.; Prinz, Adrian; Butte, Manish J.

    2012-01-01

    Low cost counting of cells has medical applications in screening, military medicine, disaster medicine, and rural healthcare. In this report, we present a shallow, buried, planar waveguide fabricated by potassium ion exchange in glass that enables low-cost and rapid counting of metal-tagged objects that lie in the evanescent field of the waveguide. Laser light transmitted through the waveguide was attenuated proportionately to the presence of metal-coated microstructures fabricated from photo...

  4. Full counting statistics of incoherent Andreev transport

    CERN Document Server

    Belzig, W

    2003-01-01

    We study the full counting statistics of heterostructures consisting of normal metal parts connected to a superconducting terminal. Assuming that coherent superconducting correlations are suppressed in the normal metals we show, using Keldysh-Nambu Green's functions, that the system can be mapped onto a purely normal system with twice the number of elements. For a superconducting beam splitter with several normal terminals we obtain general results for the counting statistics.

  5. Remote system for counting of nuclear pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, it is describe technically the remote system for counting of nuclear pulses, an integral system of the project radiological monitoring in a petroleum distillation tower. The system acquires the counting of incident nuclear particles in a nuclear detector which process this information and send it in serial form, using the RS-485 toward a remote receiver, which can be a Personal computer or any other device capable to interpret the communication protocol. (Author)

  6. Metal ion levels and lymphocyte counts : ASR hip resurfacing prosthesis vs. standard THA: 2-year results from a randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Ø; Varmarken, Jens-Erik

    2013-01-01

    Wear particles from metal-on-metal arthroplasties are under suspicion for adverse effects both locally and systemically, and the DePuy ASR Hip Resurfacing System (RHA) has above-average failure rates. We compared lymphocyte counts in RHA and total hip arthroplasty (THA) and investigated whether cobalt and chromium ions affected the lymphocyte counts.

  7. Estimated average annual rate of change of CD4(+) T-cell counts in patients on combination antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocroft, Amanda; Phillips, Andrew N; Ledergerber, Bruno; Smith, Colette; Bogner, Johannes R; Lacombe, Karine; Wiercinska-Drapalo, Alicje; Reiss, Peter; Kirk, Ole; Lundgren, Jens

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) might continue treatment with a virologically failing regimen. We sought to identify annual change in CD4(+) T-cell count according to levels of viraemia in patients on cART. METHODS: A total of 111,371 CD4(+) T-cell counts ...

  8. The liquid scintillation counting efficiency for 137mCs+137mBa and ''129 I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compute the liquid scintillation counting efficiency for 137Cs+137mBa and ''129 I taking into account the scintillator chemical composition. We consider the beta transition shape factors for the for bidden beta transitions of these nuclides, and the effects of 137mBa and 129mXe half-lives on the total counting efficiency. (Author) 8 refs

  9. Total body water and total body potassium in anorexia nervosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the ill hospitalized patient with clinically relevant malnutrition, there is a measurable decrease in the ratio of the total body potassium to total body water (TBK/TBW) and a detectable increase in the ratio of total exchangeable sodium to total exchangeable potassium (Nae/Ke). To evaluate body composition analyses in anorexia nervosa patients with chronic uncomplicated semistarvation, TBK and TBW were measured by whole body K40 counting and deuterium oxide dilution in 10 females with stable anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched female controls. The ratio of TBK/TBW was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in anorexia nervosa patients than controls. The close inverse correlation found in published studies between TBK/TBW and Nae/Ke together with our results suggest that in anorexia nervosa, Nae/Ke may be low or normal. A decreased TBK/TBW is not a good indicator of malnutrition in the anorexia nervosa patient. The use of a decreased TBK/TBW ratio or an elevated Nae/Ke ratio as a definition of malnutrition may result in inappropriate nutritional management in the patient with severe nonstressed chronic semistarvation

  10. Total body water and total body potassium in anorexia nervosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dempsey, D.T.; Crosby, L.O.; Lusk, E.; Oberlander, J.L.; Pertschuk, M.J.; Mullen, J.L.

    1984-08-01

    In the ill hospitalized patient with clinically relevant malnutrition, there is a measurable decrease in the ratio of the total body potassium to total body water (TBK/TBW) and a detectable increase in the ratio of total exchangeable sodium to total exchangeable potassium (Nae/Ke). To evaluate body composition analyses in anorexia nervosa patients with chronic uncomplicated semistarvation, TBK and TBW were measured by whole body K40 counting and deuterium oxide dilution in 10 females with stable anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched female controls. The ratio of TBK/TBW was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in anorexia nervosa patients than controls. The close inverse correlation found in published studies between TBK/TBW and Nae/Ke together with our results suggest that in anorexia nervosa, Nae/Ke may be low or normal. A decreased TBK/TBW is not a good indicator of malnutrition in the anorexia nervosa patient. The use of a decreased TBK/TBW ratio or an elevated Nae/Ke ratio as a definition of malnutrition may result in inappropriate nutritional management in the patient with severe nonstressed chronic semistarvation.

  11. Physiological Studies and Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Bacterial Pathogen Isolated from Some Nigerian Fast Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.O. Fajemilo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most food handlers in fast food centers have no knowledge of food safety practices and of prevention of food-borne diseases which has resulted in the transmission of food-borne pathogens to the people consuming such food. Therefore, this study was aimed at evaluating the level of bacterial contamination in some fast food in Ogbomoso, Nigeria and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility and physiological profile of the bacterial contaminants. Bacterial pathogens were isolated from fast food vended in Ogbomoso, Oyo state, Nigeria. The isolates were characterized and identified as Enterobacter aerogenes, Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas putida, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas chlororaphis and Bacillus subtilis. The total bacteria colony count ranged from 2.4x104-4.2x106. The antibiotic susceptibility profile of the isolates was determined and 75% sensitivity to the clinically relevant antibiotic disc was noted while 25% resistance was found. The effect of physiological parameters including temperature, pH and sodium chloride concentration on the growth rate of isolates was evaluated. As temperature of incubation increased from 50-80°C, the rate of growth of all the isolate decreased and as the pH of the growth medium increased from 3-9, the rate of growth of all the isolates also increased. As the concentration of sodium chloride increased from 2-5%, the rate of growth of isolates also reduced. The results of this study showed that most of the fast food samples examined did not meet bacteriological quality standards. Hence, it is recommended that a regular monitoring of fast food should be carried out by putting in place appropriate agency.

  12. Dynamics of bacterial communities before and after distribution in a full-scale drinking water network

    KAUST Repository

    El-Chakhtoura, Joline

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the biological stability of drinking water distribution systems is imperative in the framework of process control and risk management. The objective of this research was to examine the dynamics of the bacterial community during drinking water distribution at high temporal resolution. Water samples (156 in total) were collected over short time-scales (minutes/hours/days) from the outlet of a treatment plant and a location in its corresponding distribution network. The drinking water is treated by biofiltration and disinfectant residuals are absent during distribution. The community was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and flow cytometry as well as conventional, culture-based methods. Despite a random dramatic event (detected with pyrosequencing and flow cytometry but not with plate counts), the bacterial community profile at the two locations did not vary significantly over time. A diverse core microbiome was shared between the two locations (58-65% of the taxa and 86-91% of the sequences) and found to be dependent on the treatment strategy. The bacterial community structure changed during distribution, with greater richness detected in the network and phyla such as Acidobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes becoming abundant. The rare taxa displayed the highest dynamicity, causing the major change during water distribution. This change did not have hygienic implications and is contingent on the sensitivity of the applied methods. The concept of biological stability therefore needs to be revised. Biostability is generally desired in drinking water guidelines but may be difficult to achieve in large-scale complex distribution systems that are inherently dynamic.

  13. Predicted galaxy counts in CO emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verter, Frances

    1992-01-01

    The CO galaxy counts are predicted from studies of LCO in nearby galaxies, with consideration given to how these counts may be compared to the current understanding of recent galaxy evolution. The average number of galaxies per square degree with CO (1-0) emission above a brightness threshold of 4.5 x 10 exp -20 W/sq m is predicted to be 0.5 +/-4.0. The expressed uncertainty in the predicted galaxy counts comes primarily from uncertainties in the absolute scale and high-luminosity cutoff of the CO luminosity function. Using present-technology mm-radio telescopes and receivers, it is possible to employ galaxy counts in CO (1-0) emission to test theories of recent (z is less than about 0.4) galaxy evolution. If it is true that interactions among galaxies and consequent starbursts were more common in the recent past, as suggested by galaxy counts at far-IR and cm-radio wavelengths, then it is anticipated that the molecular emission of galaxies will increase with redshift and the CO galaxy counts will exceed this prediction based on nearby galaxies.

  14. Bacterial Wound Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript , your ability to navigate ... Bacterial Wound Culture Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ...

  15. Bacterial microflora of nectarines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microflora of fruit surfaces has been the best source of antagonists against fungi causing postharvest decays of fruit. However, there is little information on microflora colonizing surfaces of fruits other than grapes, apples, and citrus fruit. We characterized bacterial microflora on nectarine f...

  16. Sperm counts and sperm sex ratio in male infertility patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Michael L; Murthy, Lata; Hwang, Kathleen; Lamb, Dolores J; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2012-09-01

    In recent years, investigators have noted a trend toward a declining proportion of male births in many industrialized nations. While men bear the sex-determining chromosome, the role of the female partner as it pertains to fertilization or miscarriage may also alter the gender ratio. We attempted to determine a man's secondary sex ratio (F1 generation) by directly examining the sex chromosomes of his sperm. We examined our male infertility clinic database for all men who had undergone a semen fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Patient demographic and semen parameters were recorded. Chi-squared analysis was used to compare gender ratios (Y chromosomes/total chromosomes). Multivariable logistic regression was used to predict the odds of possessing a Y-bearing sperm after accounting for demographic and semen parameters. A total of 185 men underwent sperm FISH. For the entire cohort, the proportion of Y chromosome-bearing sperm was 51.5%. Men with less than five million motile sperm had a significantly lower proportion of Y chromosome-bearing sperm (50.8%) compared to men with higher sperm counts (51.6%; P=0.02). After multivariable adjustment, a higher sperm concentration, total motile sperm count and semen volume significantly increased the odds of having a Y chromosome-bearing sperm (P<0.01). As a man's sperm production declines, so does the proportion of Y chromosome-bearing sperm. Thus, a man's reproductive potential may predict his ability to sire male offspring. PMID:22842703

  17. Bacterial infections other than spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhosis

    OpenAIRE

    Chalermrat Bunchorntavakul; Disaya Chavalitdhamrong

    2012-01-01

    Cirrhotic patients are immunocompromised with a high risk of infection. Proinflammatory cytokines and hemodynamic circulation derangement further facilitate the development of serious consequences of infections. Other than spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, bacteremia and bacterial infections of other organ systems are frequently observed. Gram-negative enteric bacteria are the most common causative organism. Other bacterial infections, such as enterococci, Vibrio spp., Aeromonas spp., Clostr...

  18. A counting pixel readout chip for imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pixel readout chip for imaging applications has been designed and tested. It consists of an array of 12 x 63 pixels with an active pixel cell area of 50 ?m x 350 ?m. Every pixel contains a low-noise charge sensitive amplifier, a CMOS comparator including individually adjustable thresholds, and a 15 bit counter realized using a linear feedback shift register. During data accumulation, every pixel independently counts the number of signal hits above threshold. After accumulation all counters in a column are sequentially read out, all columns in parallel. Thresholds can be set globally with the possibility of an individual threshold adjust in every cell. The chip can be operated with threshold settings in every cell well below equivalent noise charges (ENC) of 1000 electrons. The dead time of a pixel after being hit is ?500 ns. The chip is alive for data accumulation in >99.9% of the total data acquisition time. For photon counting in biomedical or material science applications, a suitable sensor with high Z material can be bump bonded to the counting chip. (orig.)

  19. Strontium-85 profile counting in fractures of the tibial shaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 203 profile countings were performed on 68 fractures of the tibial shaft, which included 25 normally healing cases, 37 cases of delayed union, and six cases of non-union. The measurements were performed on the 1st and the 7th day after the injection of strontium. In 27 cases the fracture received 2-3 strontium injections with associated profile counting at different stages of the healing process. The cases of normally healing fractures and delayed union showed differences in the average strontium uptake. However, these differences were not distinct enough to enable classification of individual fractures into groups. In cases requiring bone grafting, the transplant was found to accelerate metabolism and increase the accretion of strontium at the site of the fracture. The investigation shows that the real value of strontium profile counting lies in its ability to give information about the osteogenetic activity of the bone, which is a necessary prerequisite for the healing of the fracture. (author)

  20. Mucin secretion in germfree rats fed fiber-free and psyllium diets and bacterial mass and carbohydrate fermentation after colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabotaje, L M; Shinnick, F L; Lopéz-Guisa, J M; Marlett, J A

    1994-04-01

    The effect of psyllium on mucin secretion was determined by comparing water-soluble and -insoluble fractions of excreta from germfree rats fed a fiber-free (FF) diet or a diet containing psyllium seed husk (PS). Excreta from the same rats after colonization with a rat mixed cecal culture were separated into water-soluble, plant, and bacterial fractions to compare the remaining carbohydrate and the mass of bacteria. The sugar composition and water solubility of carbohydrate in excreta from germfree rats fed FF diets indicated that a primary fermentable substrate was mucin. PS increased fecal excretion of mucin-derived sugars almost threefold in germfree rats. Fecal carbohydrate was reduced from 619 to 237 mumol/g of dry feces and mostly in the bacterial fraction when rats fed an FF diet were colonized. The total sugar content and the amount of muramic acid, but not bacterial counts and mass, indicated that PS increased fecal bacteria. Fractionation of excreta from PS-fed rats was complicated by a gel which, based on sugar composition, was PS. Sugar composition of the water-soluble fraction from excreta from PS-fed rats suggested that it contained some bacterial component, possibly exopolysaccharides and some of the PS, but not mucin. PS digestibility ranged from 60 to 80%, depending on what fecal fraction was used for output. Because of the presence of PS-derived sugars in the gel and soluble fraction, it was not possible to determine which, if any, of the PS digestibilities was correct. PMID:8017918