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Sample records for total bacterial count

  1. Determination of total bacterial count in raw milk by flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Samaržija

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The automatic flow cytometry as routine method for total bacterial count determination of raw ex-farm milk has recently been accepted in Croatia. This method significantly differs from the reference method (Standard Plate Count mostly in the presentation of the results obtained. Therefore, this paper summarized experiences in the application of flow cytometry in the dairy laboratories practice. The principle and the practice of the method, methodological details and factors influencing the results were described. In order to avoid problems regarding the interpretation of the results, which aregeneral problems of the quantitative microbiology, this article try to explain an appropriate conversion of the results with regards to SPC/ml, as an official method for the bacteriological quality proposal by the national legislation.

  2. Microbiologia da carne moida: 1. contagem total de bactérias / Microbiology of ground beef: I. total bacterial count

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Murilo, Graner; Alcides, Martinelli Filho; Vivaldo F. da, Cruz.

    Full Text Available Como primeira etapa de um programa de estudos microbiológicos da carne moida comercializada em Piracicaba, quarenta amostras de carne bovina, provenientes de dois tipos de estabelecimento de venda a varejo (açougue e supermercado), correspondendo a dois sistemas de distribuição de carne (um antigo e [...] outro recente), foram analisados quanto ao número total de bactérias, segundo as recomendações da "American Public Health Association". As amostras foram obtidas semanalmente pela manhã e à tarde, durante aproximadamente dois meses. A incubação das placas de Petri foi feita a 21º C (72 horas) e a 32º (48 horas). Os resultados podem ser resumidos como segue: 1) Contagens totais elevadas foram, em geral, observadas, com diversas amostras na faixa de 10(7) a 10(9) bactérias/grama; as médias obtidas foram 6,9 x 10(7) (21ºC) e 2,5 x 10(7) (32ºC) bactérias por grama. 2) A incubação feita a 21ºC resultou, em geral, em contagens mais elevadas que as correspondentes à temperatura de incubação de 32ºC; todavia, a diferença observada não foi estatìsticamente significativa. 3) As contagens obtidas para as amostras correspondentes ao sistema antigo de distribuição de carne foram significativamente mais elevadas que as correspondentes ao sistema recente, o que se relacionou com contagens mais elevadas obtidas para as amostras coletadas pela manhã no estabelecimento menor. Abstract in english As a first step in a program of evaluation of ground beef microbiological quality in the city of Piracicaba, SP, forty samples of ground beef were taken at two kinds of retail markets (meat shop and supermarket), related to an old and a new system of meat merchandising. The samples were taken weekly [...] in the morning and in the afternoon, during a two month period. Total bacterial counts were determined by a procedure recommended by the American Public Health Association and plates were incubated at 21ºC (72 hours) and at 32ºC (48 hours). The results can be summarized as follows = 1) Total counts were generally high, with several samples in the range 10(7) to 10(9) cells/gram; average counts were 6.9x 10(7) cells/gram (21ºC) and 2.5xl0(7) cell/gram (32ºC). 2) Incubation at 21ºC resulted in total counts generally higher than those found at 32ºC, although there was no statistically significant difference between the two incubation temperatures. 3) Total counts were found to be higher in samples from the small shop (old system) than in samples from the supermarket (new system); the difference was related to higher counts in the morning samples taken at the former retail market.

  3. Evaluation of Vit. B12+Fe and Cu Administration on the Somatic Cell Count, Total Bacterial Count and Compounds Milk of Dairy Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Saheb Fosoul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was studying the effect of vit. B12+Fe and Cu on the somatic cell count, total bacterial count and compounds milk of Holstein cows. In this study, 4 groups contain 10 dairy Holstein cows were selected with same parity and milk production as control, vit. B12+Fe injectable (10 mL day-1, Cu injectable (2 mL day-1 and vit. B12+Fe along with Cu treatment groups. These were injected from 1 week precalving probably to 1 week after parturition. Milk samples were collected as twice weekly from the calving time to 1 week. Total Bacterial Count (TBC, Somatic Cell Count (SCC, fat, protein, Solid Non Fat (SNF and lactose of milk were evaluated. Results showed the increasing rate of fat and lactose in vit. B12+Fe along with Cu treatment group compared to other groups. All groups were lower than control group in protein level. On the other hand, vit. B12+Fe treatment group was high in milk production, low in SNF and so, it had high effect on reducing bacterial total count compared to other groups. Furthermore, Cu treatment group was better than other groups in SCC. It was concluded that vit. B12+Fe and Cu have beneficial effects on udder immune system and compounds milk of Holstein cows.

  4. Evaluation of Vit. B12+Fe and Cu Administration on the Somatic Cell Count, Total Bacterial Count and Compounds Milk of Dairy Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    S.A. Saheb Fosoul; A. Pirestani

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was studying the effect of vit. B12+Fe and Cu on the somatic cell count, total bacterial count and compounds milk of Holstein cows. In this study, 4 groups contain 10 dairy Holstein cows were selected with same parity and milk production as control, vit. B12+Fe injectable (10 mL day-1), Cu injectable (2 mL day-1) and vit. B12+Fe along with Cu treatment groups. These were injected from 1 week precalving probably to 1 week after parturition. Milk samples were collected as ...

  5. Bulk milk somatic cell counts are related to bulk milk total bacterial counts and several herd-level risk factors in dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, G; Nielen, M; van Werven, T

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the temporal variation in bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) on Dutch dairy goat farms and to assess the correlation of BMSCC with bulk milk total bacterial counts (BMTBC) and with several herd management factors. Bulk milk somatic cell count and BMTBC data were recorded from 90% of the dairy goat farms in the Netherlands over the years 2005 to 2007. Farm characteristics and management information was collected by means of questionnaires. The bulk milk data and the questionnaire data were linked and linear mixed models were used to identify risk factors for increased BMSCC and BMTBC. Bulk milk somatic cell count was found to display a distinct pattern throughout the year, being highest around December and lowest around June. Bulk milk somatic cell count correlated to BMTBC (r = 0.4). Significant factors in the BMSCC model were month in lactation, treating mastitic animals instead of culling, caprine arthritis encephalitis status, milk fever prevalence, and liner material. Month in lactation and treating mastitic animals instead of culling were also significant in the BMTBC model. In the high-BMSCC period, a higher number of goats with an extended lactation significantly reduced the BMSCC. Thus, this study indicates that mastitis-related factors account for some of the variation in BMSCC and BMTBC levels between dairy goat herds. It shows that intramammary infection is probably the most important factor driving the correlation between BMSCC and BMTBC, suggesting that programs to improve udder health may have a positive effect on both BMSCC and BMTBC. PMID:19700695

  6. Total bacterial count and somatic cell count in refrigerated raw milk stored in communal tanks / Contagem bacteriana total e contagem de células somáticas em leite cru refrigerado armazenado em tanques comunitários

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edmar da Costa, Alves; Alice Maria, Dahmer; Aurélio Ferreira, Borges.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A atual demanda da indústria por produtos lácteos com shelf life prolongado tem resultado em novos desafios para a manutenção da qualidade microbiológica do leite, pois o processamento da matéria-prima com altas contagens microbianas compromete a qualidade e o rendimento industrial de seus derivados [...] . O estudo objetivou avaliar a contagem bacteriana total (CBT) e a contagem de células somáticas (CSS) de 768 amostras de leite cru refrigerado provenientes de 32 tanques comunitários. As amostras foram coletadas no primeiro trimestre dos anos de 2010, 2011, 2012 e 2013 e analisadas pelo Laboratório de Qualidade do Leite. Os resultados apontaram que 62,5%, 37,5%, 15,6% e 28,1% das médias para a CBT em 2010, 2011, 2012 e 2013, respectivamente, estavam acima dos valores preconizados pela legislação. Entretanto observou-se uma redução significativa nos níveis de contagem bacteriana total (CBT) nos períodos analisados. Para a contagem de células somáticas, 100% das médias apontaram valores abaixo de 600 mil células/mL, estando essa contagem de acordo com as legislações vigentes no Brasil. Portanto, os valores encontrados para a contagem de células somáticas sugerem a adoção de medidas efetivas de controle sanitário do rebanho. Porém, os resultados obtidos para a contagem bacteriana total devem ser considerados com cautela, uma vez que eles indicam a necessidade de melhoria da qualidade da matéria-prima, até que se atinjam resultados efetivamente confiáveis. Abstract in english The current industry demand for dairy products with extended shelf life has resulted in new challenges for milk quality maintenance. The processing of milk with high bacterial counts compromises the quality and performance of industrial products. The study aimed to evaluate the total bacteria counts [...] (TBC) and somatic cell count (SCC) in 768 samples of refrigerated raw milk, from 32 communal tanks. Samples were collected in the first quarter of 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 and analyzed by the Laboratory of Milk Quality - LQL. Results showed that 62.5%, 37.5%, 15.6% and 27.1% of the means for TBC in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively, were above the values established by legislation. However, we observed a significant reduction in the levels of total bacterial count (TBC) in the studied periods. For somatic cell count, 100% of the means indicated values below 600.000 cells/mL, complying with the actual Brazilian legislation. The values found for the somatic cell count suggests the adoption of effective measures for the sanitary control of the herd. However, the results must be considered with caution as it highlights the need for quality improvements of the raw material until it achieves reliable results effectively.

  7. Contagem bacteriana total do leite em diferentes sistemas de ordenha e de resfriamento / Total bacterial count of milk in different systems of milking and cooling

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.E., Taffarel; P.B., Costa; N.T.E. de, Oliveira; G.C., Braga; W.J., Zonin.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito dos sistemas de ordenha e de resfriamento na contagem bacteriana total (CBT) e na quantidade de leite com CBT [...] ste do Paraná, no período de janeiro a outubro de 2006. Após as coletas, a qualidade do leite foi analisada em laboratório pelo método de citometria de fluxo. Os dados de CBT foram classificados por sistema de ordenha, tipo de resfriador e intervalos da CBT, segundo critério da Instrução Normativa 62, e submetidos à análise de independência de Qui-Quadrado. As proporções de CBT do leite entre tipos de resfriadores, em cada sistema de ordenha, foram comparadas utilizando-se a estatística calculada Z. Observou-se menor (p Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the effect of milking systems and cooling on total bacterial count (TBC), and the amount of milk samples with TBC [...] Brazil, from January to October 2006. After the sampling was conducted, the milk quality was analyzed in the laboratory by the method of flow cytometry. The TBC data were classified by milking system, type of coolers and intervals of the TBC, in accordance with Normative Instruction 62, and submitted to the chi-square test for independence. The proportions of milk TBC among types of coolers at each milking system were compared using the calculated statistic Z. A lower TBC value (p

  8. Influência de diferentes tipos de micro-organismos na contagem bacteriana total por citometria de fluxo do leite cru refrigerado / Influence of different types of microorganisms in total bacterial count by flow cytometry of refrigerated raw milk

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    V.S.C., Sampaio; F.N., Souza; C.J.C., Saraiva; R.P., Santos; M.O., Leite; G.M., Resende; N.C., Gonçalves; F.L., Dionizio; M.M.O.P., Cerqueira.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Contagens bacterianas de 179 amostras de leite cru refrigerado, provenientes de diferentes bacias leiteiras de Minas Gerais, foram realizadas pelos métodos de citometria de fluxo e contagem padrão em placas. O estudo das associações entre a contagem bacteriana total e as contagens bacterianas dos di [...] ferentes grupos de micro-organismos foi realizado pela correlação de Pearson. Houve uma forte correlação positiva e significativa entre os valores de contagem de psicrotróficos (r = 0,67) e mesófilos (r = 0,70), determinados pelo método de referência, e os valores da contagem bacteriana total, determinados pela citometria de fluxo. Foi possível estabelecer uma curva de calibração para o citômetro de fluxo utilizando equações de regressão linear. As equações para a contagem bacteriana obtida por citometria de fluxo em função da contagem de mesófilos e psicrotróficos foram: log (CBI) = 0,701 log mesófilos + 1,9091 e log (CBI) = 0,4703 log psicrotróficos + 3,2784, respectivamente. Não foi possível estabelecer curvas de calibrações para termófilos e termodúricos, pois as correlações obtidas entre as contagens desses micro-organismos e a contagem bacteriana total, determinada por citometria de fluxo, foram fracas (r = 0,30 e 0,27, respectivamente). Abstract in english Total Bacterial count was performed in 179 raw milk samples from different dairy farms in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, through flow cytometry and standard plate count, that was regarded as the reference method. There was significant strong correlation between the values of psychrotrophic and mesophil [...] ic counts determined by the reference method with the values of bacterial count determined by flow cytometry (r = 0.67 and 0.70, respectively), which allowed to establish linear regression equations for bacterial count to calibrate the flow cytometry and estimate the count of mesophilic (log bacterial individual count (BIC) by flow cytometry = 0.701 log mesophilic + 1.9091) and psychrotrophic (log BIC by flow cytometry = 0.4703 log psychrotrophic + 3.2784) bacteria. It was not possible to establish calibration curves for thermophiles and thermodurics due to the weak to moderate correlation coefficients found among these microorganism counts and total bacterial count determined by flow cytometry (r = 0.30 and 0.27, respectively).

  9. Adequação da contagem de células somáticas e da contagem bacteriana total em leite cru refrigerado aos parâmetros da legislação / Suitability of somatic cell count and total bacterial count in raw refrigerated milk to legislation standards

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G.A., Bozo; L.C.A., Alegro; L.C., Silva; E.H.W., Santana; W., Okano; L.C.C., Silva.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi adequar a qualidade do leite cru refrigerado de cinco propriedades leiteiras aos parâmetros microbiológicos e de contagem de células somáticas (CCS) estabelecidos pela legislação estadual do Paraná. As propriedades leiteiras estudadas foram monitoradas durante sete mese [...] s após a implantação de boas práticas de ordenha e de recomendações quanto ao tratamento de mastites e à manutenção e higienização de equipamentos de ordenha. Antes da adoção das recomendações, a contagem bacteriana total (CBT) média era de 1,36 x 10(6)UFC/mL e a CCS média, de 1,87 x 10(6)/mL. Todas as propriedades atingiram os padrões estabelecidos para CBT, com redução média de 93,4%. A redução de CCS foi, em média, 74,3%. Apenas três propriedades atingiram os valores estabelecidos para CCS. As demais atingiram valores muito próximos ao limite. A adequação aos padrões de CBT e CCS gerou aumento na renda mensal, em razão do pagamento por qualidade do produto, entre R$120,00 e R$828,00, de acordo com a produção de cada propriedade. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to adequate raw refrigerated milk quality of five dairy farms to microbiological and somatic cell count (SCC) standards established by Paraná state legislation. The dairy farms were monitored during seven months after the implementation of good milking practices and recommen [...] dations regarding mastitis treatment, and milking equipment maintenance and hygiene. Before the adoption of recommendations, the average total bacterial count (TBC) was 1.36 x 10(6)CFU/mL and average SCC was 1.87 x 10(6)/mL. All farms reached established standards for TBC, originating an average reduction of 93.4%. Average SCC reduction was 74.3%. Only three farms reached established values for SCC. The remaining reached values near the limits. The suitability of TBC and SCC produced an increase in the monthly income due to payment quality reward of the dairy product, between R$120.00 and R$828.00, according to each farm production.

  10. Membrane filter staining method: bacterial plate counts in 24 H.

    OpenAIRE

    Tse, K M; Lewis, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    We describe a technique to stain bacterial colonies on membrane filters. The procedure yielded reliable and reproducible bacterial plate counts in 24 h. The procedure can be applied to treated and untreated water samples requiring prompt analysis.

  11. Climate factors influencing bacterial count in background air samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Roy M.; Jones, Alan M.; Biggins, Peter D. E.; Pomeroy, Nigel; Cox, Christopher S.; Kidd, Stephen P.; Hobman, Jon L.; Brown, Nigel L.; Beswick, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Total (as opposed to culturable) bacterial number counts are reported for four sites in the United Kingdom measured during campaigns over four separate seasons. These are interpreted in relation to simple climatic factors, i.e. temperature, wind speed and wind direction. Temperature has a marked effect at all four sites with data for a rural coastal site conforming best to a simple exponential model. Data for the other rural and urban locations show a baseline similar to that determined at the coastal rural location, but with some very significant positive excursions. The temperature dependence of bacterial number is found to conform to that typical of bacterial growth rates. At the coastal rural location, bacterial numbers normalised for temperature show no dependence on wind speed whilst at the inland sites there is a decrease with increasing wind speed of the form expected for a large area source. Only one site appeared to show a systematic relationship of bacterial concentrations to wind direction that being a site in the suburbs of Birmingham with highest number concentrations observed on a wind sector approaching from the city centre. PCR techniques have been used to identify predominant types of bacteria and results are presented which show that Bacillus was the dominant genus observed at the three inland sites during the winter and summer seasons. Pseudomonas appeared with comparable frequency at certain sites and seasons. There was in general a greater diversity of bacteria at the coastal site than at the inland sites.

  12. Method of quantitative bacterial count in burn wound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe a technique for conducting Quantitative bacteriology in burn wounds, which is a very important tool in the management of burn wound sepsis. Technique was used in 21 patients with burn wound injury. Biopsy for the bacteriology was taken with the help of punch forceps. Then it was directly put into sterilized pre weighed homogenizer bag containing 1ml normal saline. This bag was re-weighed. Weight of the tissue was obtained and bag was homogenized in homogenizer (Stomacher Lab Blender-80). Four fold dilutions were made of homogenate specimen. From each dilution tube, 0.01 ml was then inoculated on blood agar plates, incubated for 24 hours and number of colonies counted by formula. Four specimens were taken each day and repeated on alternate days for up to 6 days. Out of twenty one patients there were 10 male and 11 female with mean age of 25.95 years. Total body surface area burnt was from 9-41%. Bacterial counts obtained varied from 1.45-8.89. Quantitative bacteriology is simple by the above method and should be employed in every public and private sector burn center. (author)

  13. Testing for bacterial resistance to arsenic in monitoring well water by the direct viable counting method.

    OpenAIRE

    Zelibor, J L; Doughten, M W; Grimes, D. J.; Colwell, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    Direct viable counting of metal-resistant bacteria (DVCMR) has been found to be useful in both enumerating and differentiating metal-resistant and metal-sensitive strains of bacteria. The DVCMR bioassay was used to detect effects of low and high concentrations of arsenic and arsenicals on bacterial populations in groundwater. The level of resistance of the bacterial populations to arsenate was determined by the DVCMR bioassay, and the results showed a linear correlation with the total arsenic...

  14. High Count Rates with Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Hassler, Kai; Anhut, Tiemo; Rigler, Rudolf; Gösch, Michael; Lasser, Theo

    2004-01-01

    We achieved photon count rates per molecule as high as with commonly used confocal fluorescence correlation spectroscopy instruments using a new total internal reflection fluorescence correlation spectroscopy system based on an epi-illumination configuration.

  15. Caracterización de sistemas productivos lecheros en el Sur de Chile con distintos sistemas de manejo y su relación con el recuento total bacteriano de la leche producida: un análisis multivariable / Characterisation of milk production systems of Southern Chile under different farm management systems and their relationship with total bacterial count of milk: a multivariate analysis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    BL, Carrillo; C, Pinargote; C, Brito; J, González; VH, Moreira; A, Báez.

    Full Text Available Este estudio determinó y caracterizó tipos de sistemas productivos lecheros para obtención de leche (SP) en el Sur de Chile, asociando las variables de manejo con recuentos bacterianos de las partidas de leche de éstos. Se utilizó información cualitativa referente a diversas variables de manejo para [...] producir leche. Se analizaron 108 productores, mediante análisis de correspondencias múltiples y análisis de conglomerados. Se identificó 4 formas de obtener leche. El grupo SP1 (43% de la muestra) aportó el 87% de la leche a la industria y presentó adecuadas formas de manejo, clasificando todos, el 100% de sus partidas de leche en el mejor rango de calidad (? 20.000 ufc/mL). El SP2 (20% de la muestra) aportó un 10% del total de leche aunque mayoritariamente presentó inadecuadas formas de manejo, y clasificó un 77% de las partidas de leche en el mejor rango de calidad (? 20.000 ufc/mL), esta inconsistencia sugiere la necesidad de analizar en mayor profundidad este grupo. Finalmente, los grupos SP3 y SP4, que en conjunto entregaron sólo un 3% de la leche de la muestra total a la industria pero que representaron un 37% de la muestra, presentaron inadecuadas formas de manejo y se consideraron "grupos problema", predominando en ambos partidas de leche de mala calidad con recuentos > 200.000 ufc/mL en un 76 y 72%, respectivamente, en especial en SP3 con un 61% de las partidas de leche clasificadas en el peor rango establecido (> 800.000 ufc/mL). Consecuentemente se deben realizar acciones correctivas, relacionadas fundamentalmente con la temperatura de almacenamiento de la leche y con el correcto lavado de equipos, estanques y utensilios en SP3 y SP4. Abstract in english In this study, different types of dairy management systems for milk production (SP) in Southern Chile were determined and characterised, relating management variables to bacterial count in raw milk. Qualitative information on several management variables was utilised for evaluation. A survey was con [...] ducted on 108 dairy farmers and the management systems were evaluated using both multiple correspondence and conglomerate analysis. Four milk production systems were identified. The SP1 group (43% of the surveyed farmers) that delivered 87% of the industry milk had an adequate production management, with 100% of the produced milk being classified as best quality (? 20.000 cfu/mL). The SP2 group (20% of surveyed farmers) that produced 10% of the total milk delivered, mainly showed inadequate ways of milk production, however, 77% of the milk was classified as best quality. The uneven results suggest that further in-depth analysis of the group is required. Finally, the SP3 and SP4 groups that produced only 3% of the milk delivered but represented 37% of the surveyed farmers, had inadequate production management and were classified as "problem groups" with low milk quality with bacterial counts > 200.000 cfu/mL for 76% and 72% of the produced milk, respectively; specially the SP3 group with 61% of the milk in the worst quality category (> 800.000 cfu/mL). Therefore, corrective actions, mainly related to milk storage temperature and milking equipment cleaning, are required for the SP3 and SP4 groups.

  16. Agreement, Precision, and Accuracy of Epifluorescence Microscopy Methods for Enumeration of Total Bacterial Numbers ? †

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Eun-Young; Ahn, Tae-Seok; Zo, Young-Gun

    2010-01-01

    To assess interchangeability of estimates of bacterial abundance by different epifluorescence microscopy methods, total bacterial numbers (TBNs) determined by most widely accepted protocols were statistically compared. Bacteria in a set of distinctive samples were stained with acridine orange (AO), 4?-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), and BacLight and enumerated by visual counting (VC) and supervised image analysis (IA). Model II regression and Bland-Altman analysis proved general agreements...

  17. Rapid radiorespirometric method for the estimation of bacterial counts of cellulomonas cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of bacterial counts in cultures of Cellulomonas species C-72-4 by a radiorespirometric technique was twenty times faster than the conventional method. A linear correlation was found between the bacterial counts and the 14CO2 metabolized from labelled glucose added to the cellulose medium. (orig.)

  18. Influence of somatic cell count and total bacterial counts of raw milk in cheese yield using small-scale methodology / Influência da contagem de células somáticas e da contagem bacteriana total do leite cru no rendimento da produção de queijos, utilizando metodologia em escala reduzida

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N.M.A., Silva; L.P.F., Bastos; D.L.S., Oliveira; M.C.P.P., Oliveira; L.M., Fonseca.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar a influência da CCS e CBT do leite cru no rendimento de queijos, utilizando método em escala reduzida, e avaliar a predição teórica do rendimento de queijos. Foram utilizadas 270 amostras de leite cru com três níveis de CCS (abaixo de 200.000; 200.000-750. [...] 000; acima de 750.000 CS/mL) e três níveis de CBT (abaixo de 100.000; 100.000-750.000; acima de 750.000 UFC/mL). As amostras de leite cru foram submetidas a análises de composição (gordura, proteína, lactose, EST e ESD), CCS, CBT, crioscopia e pH. A produção dos queijos em escala reduzida foi feita segundo o método desenvolvido na Universidade de Cornell, EUA (Melilli et al., 2002). As amostras de soro de queijo foram submetidas a análises de composição (gordura, proteína total, proteína verdadeira, lactose, EST e ESD) e CCS. O aumento da CCS no leite cru refletiu na maior perda de proteína no soro. CCS elevada (acima de 200.000 CS/mL) foi correlacionada ao menor rendimento de massa seca. Foi encontrada uma correlação alta entre os valores teóricos de rendimento e os valores de rendimento preditos pela metodologia em escala reduzida, indicando que esta metodologia pode ser utilizada para a predição do rendimento de queijos. Abstract in english The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of SCC and TBC of raw milk in cheese yield, using a reduced scale method, and to evaluate theoretical prediction of cheese yield. 270 samples of raw milk were split into three SCC levels (below 200,000; 200,000-750,000; above 750,000 SC/mL) [...] and three TBC levels (below 100,000; 100,000-750,000; above 750,000 CFU/mL). Raw milk samples were submitted to compositional analysis (fat, protein, lactose, total solids and SNF content), SCC, TBC, freezing point and pH. The production of the small-scale cheese was conducted according to the method developed at Cornell University (Melilli et al., 2002). Cheese whey samples were submitted to compositional analysis (fat, total protein, true protein, lactose, total solids and SNF content) and SCC. The increase in the SCC of raw milk resulted in increased protein loss in cheese whey. High SCC (above 200,000 SC/mL) in milk samples was correlated to reduced dry matter yield. There was no effect of TBC in cheese yield in the experimental conditions used. There was a high correlation between the theoretical yield values and the yield values predicted by the small-scale method, indicating that this method is appropriate for cheese yield prediction.

  19. Macroscopic purulence, leukocyte counts, and bacterial morphotypes in relation to culture findings for sinus secretions in acute maxillary sinusitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Jousimies-Somer, H R; Savolainen, S.; Ylikoski, J S

    1988-01-01

    Macroscopic purulence, leukocyte counts, and bacterial morphotypes in Gram-stained smears were investigated in 335 sinus secretions (240 aspirates and 95 injection aspirates) obtained by puncture in 234 young patients with acute maxillary sinusitis. Over 90% of the 147 aspirates macroscopically classified as purulent also contained high numbers of leukocytes (greater than 20 per oil immersion field). A total of 82% of the 147 macroscopically purulent aspirates and 79% of the 156 aspirates con...

  20. Total lymphocyte count as a substitute to cd4 count in management of hiv infected individuals in resource limited society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan is a resource limited society and gold standard parameters to monitor HIV disease activity are very costly. The objective of the study was to evaluate total lymphocyte count (TLC) as a surrogate to CD4 count to monitor disease activity in HIV/AIDS in resource limited society. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out at HIV/AIDS treatment centre, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad. A total of seven hundred and seventy four (774) HIV positive patients were enrolled in this study, and their CD4 count and total lymphocyte count were checked to find any correlation between the two by using Spearman ranked correlation coefficient. Results: The mean CD4 count was (434.30 ± 269.23), with minimum CD4 count of (9.00), and maximum of (1974.00). The mean total lymphocyte count (TLC) was (6764.0052 ± 2364.02) with minimum TLC (1200.00) and maximum TLC was (20200.00). Using the Pearson's correlation (r) there was a significant and positive correlation between TLC and CD4 count. (r2=0.127 and p=0.000) at 0.01 level. Conclusion: Our study showed a significant positive correlation between CD4 count and total lymphocyte count (TLC), so TLC can be used as a marker of disease activity in HIV infected patients. (author)

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing in 90 min by bacterial cell count monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeren, M A C; Maas, Y; Retera, E; Arents, N L A

    2013-03-01

    The rise in antimicrobial resistance has become a serious global health problem. Restrictive use of antibiotics seems the only option to temper this accession since research in new antibiotics has halted. Antimicrobial stewardship programmes rely on quick access to susceptibility data. This study evaluated the concept of bacterial cell count monitoring as a fast method to determine susceptibility. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus strains were tested for amoxicillin/piperacillin and gentamicin by three conventional methods (VITEK2(®) , Etest(®) and broth-macrodilution). Bacterial cell count monitoring reliably predicted susceptibility after 90 min for Escherichia coli and after 120 min for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus without any minor, major or very major discrepancies. Time-to-result was reduced by 74%, 83% and 76%, respectively. Bacterial cell count monitoring shows great potential for rapid susceptibility testing. PMID:22390723

  2. EFFECT OF GRADE -III EXERCISE ON TOTAL LEUCOCYTE COUNT AND DIFFERENTIAL LEUCOCYTE COUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrutha.K,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exercise is a type of physical activity and is defined as a planned. Structured and repetitive bodily movement done to improve and to maintain physical fitness .exercise stress releases some amount of adrenaline from adrenal medulla. Adrenaline brings about a beta receptor mediated vasodilatation in skeletal muscles which may contribute to the anticipatory vasodilatation in the blood vassals, and increased blood flow is seen during and for a short while after the exercise. Due to the stimulation of bone marrow more number of white blood cells (WBC produced from marginal pool and released into circulation. Materials & Methods: Thirty subjects both male and female were randomly selected as control and study groups. Control group sample was collected after taking rest for 1 hour and study group sample was collected immediately after grade III exercise. Conclusion: After exercise total leukocyte count (TLC increased significantly p. value being ?0.0001 and differential leukocyte count(DLC increased significantly p. value being ?0.01.

  3. Bacterial counts from hospital doctors' ties are higher than those from shirts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Pedro-Jose; Ron, Ori; Parthasarathy, Prabha; Soothill, James; Spitz, Lewis

    2009-02-01

    Doctor ties are often contaminated with bacteria, and it has been suggested that they should not be worn. We have compared bacterial counts from the ties and shirt pockets of 50 doctors. Counts were higher (P = .002) from ties that were rarely, if ever, cleaned than from shirts that were washed every 2 days or more frequently. The results support the need for further research on unwashable clothing of hospital staff. PMID:19171249

  4. A commercial bacterial colony counter for semi-automatic track counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The information one must obtain from a solid state track detector depends on the specific application. The most common information need is the measurement of track density. The number of tracks per unit area is commonly used in neutron and alpha dosimetry, for example, to determine radiation dose. In recent years, a class of semi-automatic counting systems has become available for under $15,000. These systems, usually developed for bacterial colony counting, are capable of measuring track density. The basic instrument is designed to count relatively large objects with low magnification using an illuminated stage. However, track counting can be done with an accessory television camera coupled to an optical microscope. Tracks from electrochemical etching can be counted easily with objectives as low as 2X. (author)

  5. Microbiological assessment of house and imported bottled water by comparison of bacterial endotoxin concentration, heterotrophic plate count, and fecal coliform count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Mayra I; Pérez, Cynthia M; Negrón, Edna L

    2008-03-01

    Consumers increasingly use bottled water and home water treatment systems to avoid direct tap water. According to the International Bottled Water Association (IBWA), an industry trade group, 5 billion gallons of bottled water were consumed by North Americans in 2001. The principal aim of this study was to assess the microbial quality of in-house and imported bottled water for human consumption, by measurement and comparison of the concentration of bacterial endotoxin and standard cultivable methods of indicator microorganisms, specifically, heterotrophic and fecal coliform plate counts. A total of 21 brands of commercial bottled water, consisting of 10 imported and 11 in-house brands, selected at random from 96 brands that are consumed in Puerto Rico, were tested at three different time intervals. The Standard Limulus Amebocyte Lysate test, gel clot method, was used to measure the endotoxin concentrations. The minimum endotoxin concentration in 63 water samples was less than 0.0625 EU/mL, while the maximum was 32 EU/mL. The minimum bacterial count showed no growth, while the maximum was 7,500 CFU/mL. Bacterial isolates like P. fluorescens, Corynebacterium sp. J-K, S. paucimobilis, P. versicularis, A. baumannii, P. chlororaphis, F. indologenes, A. faecalis and P. cepacia were identified. Repeated measures analysis of variance demonstrated that endotoxin concentration did not change over time, while there was a statistically significant (p water samples, endotoxin was present. Measurement of Gram-negative bacterial endotoxins is one of the methods that have been suggested as a rapid way of determining bacteriological water quality. PMID:18450229

  6. Bacterial and yeast counts in Brazilian commodities and spices

    OpenAIRE

    Freire Francisco das Chagas Oliveira; Offord Lisa

    2002-01-01

    A total of thirteen genera of bacteria and two genera of yeasts were detected in surface sterilized and unsterilized Brazilian commodities and spices such as cashew kernels, Brazil nut kernels, black and white pepper. The genus Bacillus with eight species was by far the most common. The yeasts isolated were Pichia sp., P. guillermondii and Rhodotorula sp. Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in cashew and Brazil nut kernels.

  7. Bacterial and yeast counts in Brazilian commodities and spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freire Francisco das Chagas Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of thirteen genera of bacteria and two genera of yeasts were detected in surface sterilized and unsterilized Brazilian commodities and spices such as cashew kernels, Brazil nut kernels, black and white pepper. The genus Bacillus with eight species was by far the most common. The yeasts isolated were Pichia sp., P. guillermondii and Rhodotorula sp. Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in cashew and Brazil nut kernels.

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing in 90 min by bacterial cell count monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Broeren, M A C; Maas, Y; Retera, E; Arents, N L A

    2012-01-01

    The rise in antimicrobial resistance has become a serious global health problem. Restrictive use of antibiotics seems the only option to temper this accession since research in new antibiotics has halted. Antimicrobial stewardship programmes rely on quick access to susceptibility data. This study evaluated the concept of bacterial cell count monitoring as a fast method to determine susceptibility. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus strains were tested for amoxi...

  9. Declining total leucoyte count, an indication of transient abnormal myelopoisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh K Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonates with Down syndrome have an increased predisposition to transient abnormal myelopoisis, a haematological abnormality which is characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of myeloblasts. The unique ability of this disorder to spontaneously enter in to a state of remission led to the creation of a new class in 2008 World Health Organization (W.H.O. classification of haemopoitic and lymphoid tumours. It has now been classified as transient abnormal myelopoisis (TAM. The cause of remission is still not clear although it is possibly linked to the abnormal expression of GATA-1 transcription factor and to a switch from hepatic haematopoesis to medullary haematopoesis. Simple laboratory monitoring by serial complete blood count and peripheral smear can give indication of this rare disorder. As very few cases of this disorder exist we share our experience and report a case of transient myeloproliferative disorder in a male newborn having Down syndrome.

  10. Determinants, reproducibility, and seasonal variation of bacterial cell wall components and viable counts in house dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, H K; Täubel, M; Roponen, M; Vepsäläinen, A; Rantakokko, P; Pekkanen, J; Nevalainen, A; von Mutius, E; Hyvärinen, A

    2015-06-01

    The objectives of this study were (i) to assess the determinants that affect concentrations of the bacterial cell wall components 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH FAs) and muramic acid and of total viable bacteria and actinomycetes in house dust; and (ii) to examine the seasonal variation and reproducibility of these bacterial cell wall components in house dust. A number of lifestyle and environmental factors, mostly not consistent for different bacterial measures but commonly including the type of dwelling and farming (number of livestock), explained up to 37% of the variation of the bacterial concentrations in 212 homes in Eastern Finland. The reproducibility of 3-OH FAs and muramic acid measurements in house dust were studied in five urban homes and were found to be generally high (ICC 74-84%). Temporal variation observed in repeated sampling of the same home throughout a year was more pronounced for 3-OH FAs determinations (ICC 22%) than for muramic acid (ICC 55-66%). We conclude that determinants vary largely for different types of bacterial measurements in house dust; the measured parameters represent different aspects of the bacterial content indoors. More than one sample is needed to describe bacterial concentrations in house dust in the home environment due to large temporal variation. PMID:24992650

  11. Bacterial counts from five over-the-counter probiotics: are you getting what you paid for?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Citron, Diane M; Claros, Marina C; Tyrrell, Kerin L

    2014-02-01

    There is concern that the bacterial colony counts present at the time of manufacture and listed on the probiotic package may not be reflective of the numbers viable colonies at the time of purchase and patient consumption thereby diminishing efficacy. We performed a colony count study of three separate samples of five different probiotics purchased from three different stores: Bifidobacterium infantis (Align(®)); Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285(®) and Lactobacillus casei LBC80R(®) (Bio-K+(®)); Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (Culturelle(®)); Saccharomyces boulardii (Florastor(®)) and "L. acidophilus" and "Lactobacillus helveticus" (Lactinex(®)). Approximately 1 g of powder of each (Lactinex(®) tablets were crushed before testing) was reconstituted in sterile distilled water, serial 10-fold dilutions were prepared and plated in duplicate onto blood agar plates, with incubation for 48 h in an anaerobic chamber (except the Saccharomyces which was incubated aerobically) after which colony counts were performed. The Florastor(®) packaging did not state an expected concentration and was found to have 9.2 × 10(9)-1.3 × 10(10) CFU/g. Lactinex(®), Align(®), Bio-K+(®), and Culturelle(®) had viable colony counts that were similar to those stated on the package. PMID:24184290

  12. Site-specific mouth rinsing can improve oral odor by altering bacterial counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqumber, Mohammed A.; Arafa, Khaled A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether site-specific mouth rinsing with oral disinfectants can improve oral odor beyond the traditional panoral mouth disinfection with mouth rinses by targeting specifically oral malodor implicated anaerobic bacteria Methods: Twenty healthy fasting subjects volunteered for a blinded prospective, descriptive correlational crossover cross-section clinical trial conducted during the month of Ramadan between July and August 2013 in Albaha province in Saudi Arabia involving the application of Listerine® Cool Mint® mouth rinse by either the traditional panoral rinsing method, or a site-specific disinfection method targeting the subgingival and supragingival plaque and the posterior third of the tongue dorsum, while avoiding the remaining locations within the oral cavity. The viable anaerobic and aerobic bacterial counts, volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) levels, organoleptic assessment of oral odor, and the tongue-coating index were compared at baseline, one, 5, and 9 hours after the treatment. Results: The site-specific disinfection method reduced the VSCs and anaerobic bacterial loads while keeping the aerobic bacterial numbers higher than the traditional panoral rinsing method. Conclusion: Site-specific disinfection can more effectively maintain a healthy oral cavity by predominantly disinfecting the niches of anaerobic bacteria within the oral cavity. PMID:25399224

  13. Assay for estimating total bacterial load: relative qPCR normalisation of bacterial load with associated clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brukner, Ivan; Longtin, Yves; Oughton, Matthew; Forgetta, Vincenzo; Dascal, Andre

    2015-09-01

    Relative microorganism abundance is a parameter describing biodiversity, referring to how common a bacterial species is within the total bacterial flora. Anal, rectal, skin, mucal, and respiratory swabs are typical clinical samples where knowledge of relative bacterial abundance might make distinction between asymptomatic carriers and symptomatic cases. Assays trying to measure total bacterial load are usually based on the amplification of universal segments of 16S rRNA genes. Previous assays were not adoptable to "direct" PCR protocols, and/or they were not compatible with hydrolysis-based detection. Using the latest summary of universal 16S sequence motifs present in literature and testing our design with 500 liquid and 50 formed stool samples, we illustrate the performance characteristics of a new 16S quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay, which addresses well-known technical problems, including a) positive priming reaction in the absence of intended target due to self-priming and/or mispriming of unintended targets; b) amplification bias due to nonoptimal primer/probe coverage; and c) too large amplicons for clinical qPCR. Stool swabs ranked into bins of different bacterial loads show significant correlation with threshold cycle values of our new assay. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of qPCR assay measuring individual differences of total bacterial load present in human stool. PMID:26008123

  14. Lessons from the organization of a proficiency testing program in food microbiology by interlaboratory comparison: analytical methods in use, impact of methods on bacterial counts and measurement uncertainty of bacterial counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Jean-Christophe; Carlier, Vincent

    2006-02-01

    The proficiency testing program in food microbiology RAEMA (Réseau d'Analyses et d'Echanges en Microbiologie des Aliments), created in 1988, currently includes 450 participating laboratories. This interlaboratory comparison establishes proficiency in detection of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes, as well as enumeration of aerobic micro-organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, beta-glucuronidase-positive Escherichia coli, anaerobic sulfito-reducing bacteria, Clostridium perfringens, coagulase-positive staphylococci, and L. monocytogenes. Twice a year, five units samples are sent to participants to assess their precision and trueness for enumeration and detection of micro-organisms. Most of participating laboratories use standard or validated alternative methods, they were 50-70% in 1994 and, for 5 years, they are 95%. An increasing use of alternative methods was also observed. This phenomenon is all the more significant as standard methods are laborious and time consuming; thus, 50% of the laboratories use alternative methods for the detection of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes. More and more laboratories use ready-to-use media and although the percentage is variable according to the microflora, we can consider that, today, 50-60% of the laboratories participating to the proficiency program only use ready-to-use media. The internal quality assurance programs lead also to an increasing use of media quality controls. The impact of analytical methods on bacterial counts was assessed by grouping together the results obtained by participating laboratories during the 10 last testing schemes from 1999 to 2003. The identified significant factors influencing enumeration results are variable from one microflora to another. Some of them significantly influence many microflora: the plating method (spiral plating or not) is influential for aerobic micro-organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, and staphylococci, the type of culture medium and the medium manufacturer is influential for aerobic micro-organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, E. coli, anaerobic sulfito-reducing bacteria, staphylococci, and L. monocytogenes. Others are specific of some micro-organisms: the resuscitation broth for L. monocytogenes, the mode of medium preparation for staphylococci and the incubation temperature for C. perfringens. These effects lead generally to small differences of about 0.1 log10 cfu g(-1), except for the enumeration of anaerobic sulfito-reducing bacteria, where the difference reaches 0.7 log10 cfu g(-1). These results, although difficult to extrapolate to all actual situations, which associate numerous food constituents and physiological states of bacteria to detect or numerate, allow nevertheless the quantification of interlaboratory variations linked to the methods in use. The analysis of bacterial counts obtained by the laboratories participating to the RAEMA proficiency testing program allowed also to validate a formula to calculate the repeatability of bacterial counts and to estimate the between-laboratory uncertainties for the majority of micro-organisms enumerated in food microbiology. The repeatability uncertainty is only indirectly affected by the method in use but depends essentially on the number of counted colonies. On the other hand, the between-laboratory uncertainty varies with the enumeration method in use, this variability is relatively small for the enumerations calling for methods without colony confirmation, i.e. for the enumeration of aerobic micro-organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, 'total' and thermotolerant coliforms, beta-glucuronidase-positive E. coli and coagulase-positive staphylococci with the technique using the rabbit-plasma fibrinogen agar. For these methods, the average between-laboratory standard deviation is 0.17 log10 cfu g(-1). The between-laboratory uncertainty is, on the contrary, larger for more complex techniques. For the enumeration of coagulase-positive staphylococci with the Baird-Parker agar, the between-laboratory standard deviation is equal to 0.23 log10 cfu g(-1), it is equal to 0.28 lo

  15. White blood cell count, absolute neutrophil count, as predictors of hidden bacterial infections in febrile children 1-18 months of age without focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To study the relationship between White Blood Cell (WBC), Absolute Neutrophil Count (ANC) in febrile children 1-18 months of age as predictor of bacterial infection, so as to improve our predictability of bacterial infections in emergency room to decrease unnecessary admissions and antibiotic use. Methods: Retrospective review was performed on febrile patients 1-18 months of age that were admitted to hospital between August 2002 and March 2003 on the presumptive diagnosis of fever without focus, Complete septic work up was done for all patients according to local hospital protocol including Complete blood count (CBC), blood culture, urine culture, Chest X-Ray (CXR) and lumbar puncture, Patients who had history of antibiotics use within 48 hours of admission were excluded from the study, History, physical examination, laboratory and radiology data were reviewed. Data about the age, sex, temperature, presence or absence of focal bacterial infection, WBC, ANC, CXR report and body fluid culture results were collected and analyzed. Results: Thirty-four patients were reviewed in this study, Eight patients (23.5%) had bacterial infection: classified as group (2 patchy pneumonia, 3 Urinary tract infection (UTI), 2 meningitis, 1 Occult bacteremia (OB) and 26 patients (76.5%) had no evidence of bacterial infection, classified as group 2, No significant difference was found between the two groups in respect to age, sex, temperature and WBC P>0.05, while there was a significant difference between the two groups in respect to the ANC P = 0.02, also ANC had better sensitivity (78%) and specificity (89%) than WBC (sensitivity 77%, specificity 62%). Conclusion: ANC is a good predictive test for determining bacterial infection in young febrile children without focus, However there is need for other more reliable rapid cost effective measures in dealing with young febrile children at emergency department. (author)

  16. Total Counts of Marine Bacteria Include a Large Fraction of Non-Nucleoid-Containing Bacteria (Ghosts)

    OpenAIRE

    Zweifel, U. L.; Hagstrom, A.

    1995-01-01

    Counts of heterotrophic bacteria in marine waters are usually in the order of 5 x 10(sup5) to 3 x 10(sup6) bacteria ml(sup-1). These numbers are derived from unspecific fluorescent staining techniques (J. E. Hobbie, R. J. Daley, and S. Jasper, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 33:1225-1228, 1977; K. G. Porter and Y. S. Feig, Limnol. Oceanogr. 25:943-948, 1980) and are subsequently defined as total counts of bacteria. In samples from the Baltic Sea, the North Sea (Skagerrak), and the northeastern Medi...

  17. Detection of the total viable counts in chicken based on visible/near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fachao; Long, Yuan; Tang, Xiuying; Zhao, Linlin; Peng, Yankun; Wang, Caiping

    2014-05-01

    The viable counts in chicken have significant effects on food safety. Exceeding standard index can have negative influence to the public. Visible-near infrared spectra have had rapid development in food safety recently. The objective of this study was to detect the total viable counts in chicken breast fillets.36 chicken breast fillets used in the study were stored in a refrigerator at 4°C for 9 days. Each day four samples were taken and Vis/NIR spectra were collected from each sample before detecting their total viable counts by standard method. The original data was processed in four main steps: Savitzky-Golay smoothing method, standard normalized variate (SNV), model calibrating and model validating. Prediction model was established using partial least squares regression (PLSR) method. Several statistical indicators such as root mean squared errors and coefficients were calculated for determination of calibration and validation accuracy respectively. As a result, the Rc, SEC, Rv and SEV, of the best model were obtained to be 0.8854, 0.7455, 0.9070 and 0.6045 respectively, which demonstrate that visible-near infrared spectra is a potential technique to detect the total viable counts(TVC) in chicken and the best wavelengths for the establishment of the calibration model are near 449nm.

  18. Measurement of radium micro-precipitates using alpha spectrometry and total alpha counting methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: This study consists of two parts. The first part deals with both qualitative and quantitative analysis of 226 Ra suing alpha spectrometry measurement method. In the second part, the percentage of radioactive equilibrium between 226 Radium and its daughter products were determined by alpha spectrometry and total alpha measurement system after elapsed time of 15 days from precipitation. Materials and methods: Twelve 226 Radium samples as Barium-Radium Sulfate in form of micro-precipitates on millipore and What man 42 filters were prepared. An alpha spectrometer with surface barrier detector and a total alpha measurement system consists of scintillation crystal assembly Zinc Silver were used for counting. Results: The minimum detection limit of alpha spectrometry and total alpha counting for 226 Radium measurements in samples for counting time equal to 10000 seconds, were found to be 3.7 mBq and 15.8 mBq respectively. Results from total alpha counting showed that radioactive equilibrium between 226 Radium and its daughter products reached to about 92%± 3.5, where as, in the case of alpha spectrometry radioactive equilibrium, it was destroyed due to vacuum during counting the sample. Also in case of alpha spectrometry, the optimum sample to detector distance, was found to be 0.5 centimeter. Conclusion: From this study it was concluded that micro-precipitation can be used as a proper method for sample preparation and alpha spectrometry due to its lower detection limit to measure low concentration of 224 Radium and 226 Radium in these precipitates, prepared from different samples. Besides it is not time consuming and sources can be measured immediately after sample preparation

  19. A CORRELATION STUDY OF TOTAL SALIVARY COUNTS AND VIRULENT MARKERS OF STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS WITH CARIES EXPERIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Gandhimathi C; . Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate an impending relationship between salivary Streptococcus mutans count, sucrose dependent glass adherence, and water insoluble glucan synthesis of isolated strains of Streptococcus mutans with caries experience among young adults between the age group of 20 to 23 years which may enable future planning of caries prevention in adults. A total of 70 dental students undergoing compulsory rotary internship were selected for the study based on...

  20. Hemocyte types and total and differential counts in unparasitized and parasitized Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera, Tephritidae larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVA J. E. B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The hemocyte types, in addition to total and differential hemocyte counts were studied in parasitized and unparasitized Anastrepha obliqua larvae at the beginning and at the end of the third instar. In both developmental phases, in parasitized and unparasitized larvae, prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, adipohemocytes, spherulocytes and oenocytoids cells were observed. Mitotic figures indicate prohemocytes as stem cells. Prohemocytes, plasmatocytes and granulocytes are the most numerous cells in the hemolymph of A. obliqua. Difference in the total number of hemocytes was observed between unparasitized and parasitized larvae at the end of the third instar, but not at the beginning.

  1. Effects of temperature and fertilization on total vs. active bacterial communities exposed to crude and diesel oil pollution in NW Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics of total and active microbial communities were studied in seawater microcosms amended with crude or diesel oil at different temperatures (25, 10 and 4 deg. C) in the presence/absence of organic fertilization (Inipol EAP 22). Total and hydrocarbon-degrading microbes were enumerated by fluorescence microscopy and Most Probable Number (MPN) method, respectively. Total (16S rDNA-based) vs. active (16S rRNA) bacterial community structure was monitored by Capillary-Electrophoresis Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (CE-SSCP) fingerprinting. Hydrocarbons were analyzed after 12 weeks of incubation by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total and hydrocarbon-degrading microbial counts were highly influenced by fertilization while no important differences were observed between temperatures. Higher biodegradation levels were observed in fertilized microcosms. Temperature and fertilization induced changes in structure of total bacterial communities. However, fertilization showed a more important effect on active bacterial structure. The calculation of Simpson's diversity index showed similar trends among temperatures whereas fertilization reduced diversity index of both total and active bacterial communities. - Nutrient availability was the most important factor influencing microbial oil biodegradation in coastal waters of the North-western Mediterranean Sea.

  2. Point-of-care method for total white cell count: an evaluation of the HemoCue WBC device

    OpenAIRE

    OSEI-BIMPONG, A; Jury, C; McLean, R.; Lewis, S M

    2009-01-01

    Point-of-care testing (POCT) is becoming an important adjunct to haematology laboratory practice. An important component of the blood count is the total white cell count (WBC). Previously, this required laborious microscopic cell counting, but it can now be performed by means of automation; however, in many under-resourced countries, costly automated counters are only available in very few central hospitals. Moreover, neither method is practical in most POCT situations. The HemoCue WBC has be...

  3. Determination of total viable count (TVC) in chicken breast fillets by near-infrared hyperspectral imaging and spectroscopic transforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yao-Ze; Sun, Da-Wen

    2013-02-15

    Near infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging (HSI) and different spectroscopic transforms were investigated for their potential in detecting total viable counts in raw chicken fillets. A laboratory-based pushbroom hyperspectral imaging system was utilized to acquire images of raw chicken breast fillets and the resulting reflectance images were corrected and transformed into hypercubes in absorbance and Kubelka-Munck (K-M) units. Full wavelength partial least regression models were established to correlate the three spectral profiles with measured bacterial counts, and the best calibration model was based on absorbance spectra, where the correlation coefficients (R) were 0.97 and 0.93, and the root mean squared errors (RMSEs) were 0.37 and 0.57 log10 colony forming units (CFU) per gram for calibration and cross validation, respectively. To simplify the models, several wavelengths were selected by stepwise regression. More robustness was found in the resulting simplified models and the model based on K-M spectra was found to be excellent with an indicative high ratio of performance to deviation (RPD) value of 3.02. The correlation coefficients and RMSEs for this model were 0.96 and 0.40 log10 CFU per gram as well as 0.94 and 0.50 log10 CFU per gram for calibration and cross validation, respectively. Visualization maps produced by applying the developed models to the images could be an alternative to test the adaptability of a calibration model. Moreover, multi-spectral imaging systems were suggested to be developed for online applications. PMID:23598014

  4. Association between milking practices and psychrotrophic bacterial counts in bulk tank milk / Asociación entre prácticas de ordeño y recuento de organismos psicrótrofos en leche de tanque de frío

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana I., Molineri; Marcelo L., Signorini; Alejandra L., Cuatrín; Vilma R., Canavesio; Verónica E., Neder; Norma B., Russi; Julio C., Bonazza; Luis F., Calvinho.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar los factores de riesgo para altos recuentos de organismos psicrótrofos en leche de tanques de tambos de la Argentina. Se examinaron muestras de leche cruda de tanques de frío de 27 tambos, y se realizó el recuento de organismos psicrótrofos totales (PT), de psi [...] crótrofos proteolíticos (PP) y de psicrótrofos lipolíticos (PL) (variables dependientes). Se realizó una encuesta para registrar las condiciones de infraestructura, el equipo de ordeño y las prácticas de ordeño (variables independientes). Se utilizaron pruebas bivariadas de asociación y regresión logística para determinar la asociación entre las variables independientes y los recuentos de organismos psicrótrofos. La leche enfriada en sistemas de placas de intercambio o tanques tipo cuba tuvo una probabilidad mayor de dar recuentos elevados de PT y PP (16,39 y 10,52) comparada con la enfriada en tanques tipo "panza fría". La limpieza periódica del equipo de frío (3 veces por semana o diariamente) se asoció con bajos recuentos de PT (aproximadamente 1,5 log de UFC/ml). Los tambos cuyos ordeñadores no se higienizaban las manos durante el ordeño tuvieron una probabilidad 7,81 veces mayor de tener recuentos elevados de PP. No se encontró asociación entre el recuento de PL y las variables independientes. La única variable asociada con los recuentos de PT y PP en el modelo de regresión logística fue el sistema de enfriamiento utilizado en el tambo. El tipo de sistema de refrigeración usado y su adecuado mantenimiento higiénico son importantes para la obtención de leche con baja carga de organismos psicrótrofos en el tambo. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine on-farm risk factors for psychrotrophic bacterial counts in bulk tank milk from dairy farms in Argentina. Raw milk samples from bulk tanks of 27 dairy farms were examined for total psychrotrophic counts (TPC), proteolytic psychrotrophic counts (PPC) and li [...] polytic psychrotrophic counts (LPC) (dependent or outcome variables). A survey recording infrastructure conditions, milking equipment and milking management (independent variables) was performed. Bivariate association proofs and logistic regression analyses were used to determine association between independent variables and psychrotrophic bacterial counts. Milk cooled in plate heat exchangers or barrel tanks were 16.39 and 10.52 times more likely to yield TPC and PPC above the standard established for high quality milk compared with milk cooled in bulk tanks, respectively. Periodic cleaning of cooling tanks (3 times a week or daily) was associated with lower TPC (approximately 1.5 log CFU/ml) than weekly cleaning frequency and farms where milkers did not wash their hands during milking time were 7.81 times more likely to have higher PPC. No association was found between LPC and any of the independent variables. The only variable associated with TPC and PPC in a logistic regression model was the refrigeration system used on the farm. Dairy farms that possessed bulk milk cooling tanks yielded the lowest bacterial counts. Results of this study highlight the importance of both the type of cooling system used on the farm and its adequate hygienic maintenance for obtaining low pshychrotrophic counts at dairy farm.

  5. A CORRELATION STUDY OF TOTAL SALIVARY COUNTS AND VIRULENT MARKERS OF STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS WITH CARIES EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandhimathi C

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate an impending relationship between salivary Streptococcus mutans count, sucrose dependent glass adherence, and water insoluble glucan synthesis of isolated strains of Streptococcus mutans with caries experience among young adults between the age group of 20 to 23 years which may enable future planning of caries prevention in adults. A total of 70 dental students undergoing compulsory rotary internship were selected for the study based on certain inclusion and exclusion criteria. After assessing DMFT and DMFS of the subjects, stimulated saliva was collected for the above mentioned analysis. Statistical analysis was done using student t test for comparing the means of the results of the two groups. Before applying t test the variances of both the groups was tested using Levene's test

  6. Relationship between total bacteria counts and somatic cell counts from mammary quarters infected by mastitis pathogens / Relação entre contagem total de bactérias e contagem de células somáticas de quartos mamários infectados por patógenos da mastite

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    João Emídio Ferreira, Lopes Júnior; Carla Cristine, Lange; Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva, Brito; Fabiana Ribeiro, Santos; Marco Aurélio Souto, Silva; Luciano Castro Dutra de, Moraes; Guilherme Nunes de, Souza.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com objetivo de estabelecer a relação entre contagem de células somáticas (CCS) e a liberação de bactérias de quartos mamários de acordo com os patógenos da mastite. Amostras de leite de 638 quartos mamários foram examinadas para identificação dos patógenos da mastite, CCS [...] e contagem total de bactérias (CTB). Estatísticas descritivas foram utilizadas para avaliar os dados brutos de CCS e CTB. A diferença entre médias para CCS e CTB de acordo com os resultados dos exames bacteriológicos foi avaliada pelo teste T para amostras independentes. Foram realizadas a correlação de Pearson, de Spearman e regressão linear com os dados transformados. As médias geométricas de acordo com os resultados dos exames bacteriológicos foram (células mL-1; UFC mL-1): sem crescimento (52.000; 12.000), estafilococos coagulase negativo (85.000; 17.000), Staphylococcus aureus (587.000; 77000); outros estreptococus (432.000; 108.000) e Streptococcus agalactiae (1.572.000; 333.000). A correlação de Pearson e Spearman entre CCS e CTB foi maior que 0,60 para todos os patógenos da mastite. O coeficiente angular das regressões lineares mostrou diferentes aumentos da CTB como o mesmo aumento da CCS de acordo com os patógenos da mastite. O coeficiente angular para o S. agalactiae (0.542) foi maior em relação aos outros patógenos da mastite. Os resultados sugerem que a intensidade do processo inflamatório foi associada com a quantidade de bactérias da mastite liberada pela glândula mamária. Abstract in english This study was conducted to establish the relationship between somatic cell count (SCC) and bacterial shedding from mammary quarters according to mastitis pathogens. Milk samples from 638 mammary quarters were examined for mastitis pathogens, SCC and total bacterial count (TBC). The raw data of SCC [...] and TBC were used to perform descriptive statistics. The significance of the arithmetic mean differences between SCC and TBC according to bacteriological examination results was determined by a two-tailed unpaired t-test. Pearson and Spearman´s correlations were done with logarithmic data and linear regression analyses. The geometric means of the bacteriological examination results were (cells mL-1; CFU mL-1): no growth (52,000; 12,000), coagulase-negative staphylococci (85,000; 17,000), Staphylococcus aureus (587,000; 77,000); other streptococci (432,000; 108,000) and Streptococcus agalactiae (1,572,000; 333,000). The Pearson and Spearman's correlations between SCC and TBC were higher than 0.60 for all mastitis pathogens. The regression analyses slopes showed different increase in TBC with the same increase in SCC according to mastitis pathogens. The slope for S. agalactiae (0.542) was higher than that for other mastitis pathogens. The results suggest that the intensity of inflammatory process was associated with number of mastitis pathogens shedding from the mammary gland.

  7. Correlations between total cell concentration, total adenosine tri-phosphate concentration and heterotrophic plate counts during microbial monitoring of drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hammes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The general microbial quality of drinking water is normally monitored by heterotrophic plate counts (HPC. This method has been used for more than 100 years and is recommended in drinking water guidelines. However, the HPC method is handicapped because it is time-consuming and restricted to culturable bacteria. Recently, rapid and accurate detection methods have emerged, such as adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP measurements to assess microbial activity in drinking water, and flow cytometry (FCM to determine the total cell concentration (TCC. It is necessary and important for drinking water quality control to understand the relationships among the conventional and new methods. In the current study, all three methods were applied to 200 drinking water samples obtained from two local buildings connected to the same distribution system. Samples were taken both on normal working days and weekends, and the correlations between the different microbiological parameters were determined. TCC in the samples ranged from 0.37–5.61×105 cells/ml, and two clusters, the so-called high (HNA and low (LNA nucleic acid bacterial groups, were clearly distinguished. The results showed that the rapid determination methods (i.e., FCM and ATP correlated well (R2=0.69, but only a weak correlation (R2=0.31 was observed between the rapid methods and conventional HPC data. With respect to drinking water monitoring, both FCM and ATP measurements were confirmed to be useful and complimentary parameters for rapid assessing of drinking water microbial quality.

  8. Evaluation of a Novel Dry Sheet Culture Method for Rapid Enumeration of Total Aerobic Count in Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramura, Hajime; Iwasaki, Mihoko; Ushiyama, Masashi; Ogihara, Hirokazu

    2015-10-01

    A novel dry sheet culture method (Sanita-kun ACplus; SkACp) for rapid enumeration of total viable count has been developed. This rehydrated plate system comprises an adhesive sheet, nonwoven fabric coated with nutrients, and two types of water absorption polymers. In addition, SkACp facilitates methods for both rapid count (rapid mode: 24-h incubation) and accurate enumeration (standard mode: 48-h incubation) because it not only contains conventional 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride but also contains two kinds of new tetrazolium salts for rapid and accurate enumeration of total aerobic count. When SkACp was assessed with 91 microorganisms, 87 strains (95.6%), excluding lactic acid and psychrotrophic bacteria, formed red-colored colonies within 24 h, whereas all microorganisms tested formed colonies within 48 h. The SkACp method, with both 24 and 48 h of incubation, was compared with plate count agar (PCA) and 3M Petrifilm AC (PAC) by using 107 naturally contaminated foods. For all foods tested (n = 107), the linear correlation coefficients of 48-h counts on SkACp compared with PCA and PAC were 0.98 and 0.75, respectively, while the 24-h counts on SkACp compared with PCA and PAC were 0.77 and 0.96, respectively. For foods tested, excluding yogurt and lactic beverages ( n = 101), the linear correlation coefficients of 48-h counts on SkACp compared with PCA and PAC were 0.98 and 0.96, respectively, while the 24-h counts on SkACp compared with PCA and PAC were 0.96 and 0.95, respectively. These results demonstrated that SkACp (48 h) is a useful alternative for the enumeration of the total aerobic count for all foods, whereas SkACp (24 h) was also an effective method for rapid enumeration in foods, excluding yogurt and lactic beverages. PMID:26408139

  9. Métodos de conservação de amostras de leite para determinação da contagem bacteriana total por citometria de fluxo Milk sample conservation methods to determine the total bacteria count by flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte Dagher Cassoli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da temperatura de armazenamento e da idade da amostra sobre a contagem bacteriana total de amostras de leite conservadas com azidiol para verificar a possibilidade de utilização de uma única amostra nas análises previstas na Instrução Normativa 51 (IN-51. Utilizaram-se 320 alíquotas de leite coletado de um tanque de expansão para avaliação de três temperaturas de armazenamento - a 0 ºC (congelada, 7 ºC (refrigerada e 24 ºC (à temperatura ambiente -, três tipos de conservação (bronopol, azidiol e sem conservante e quatro idades da amostra (1, 3, 5 e 7 dias. Para contagem bacteriana total, foram consideradas controle amostras refrigeradas, com azidiol e amostras de um dia e, para composição e contagem de células somáticas (CCS, os controles foram amostras refrigeradas, com bronopol e de um dia. Nas amostras conservadas com bronopol, a contagem bacteriana total foi menor que na controle, independentemente da idade e da temperatura. O mesmo foi observado nas amostras com azidiol e congeladas. Amostras com azidiol apresentaram aumento da contagem bacteriana total, independentemente da idade, enquanto, naquelas que não receberam azidiol, a contagem bacteriana total foi superior à das amostras refrigeradas, conservadas com azidiol e de um dia. As amostras conservadas com azidiol e refrigeradas tiveram aumento linear na contagem bacteriana total de 0,0058 log por dia, o que pode ser considerado sem importância prática. Amostras conservadas com azidiol e refrigeradas apresentaram CCS menor, em todas as idades, em relação a amostras refrigeradas e conservadas com bronopol. Os teores de gordura e lactose reduziram após o quinto dia. Foi necessária a coleta de duas amostras: uma destinada à determinação de CCS e da composição contendo bronopol e outra para contagem bacteriana total contendo azidiol. Amostras para contagem bacteriana total podem ser analisadas em até sete dias, se mantidas a 7 ºC e adicionadas de azidiol.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of storage temperature and sample age on the total bacterial count (TBC of milk samples preserved with azidiol to verify whether a single sample could be used to perform regulatory milk analysis under the Normative Instruction 51 (IN-51. Three hundred and twenty milk aliquots were used collected from an expansion tank to assess three storage temperatures (0 ºC - frozen: 7 ºC - refrigerated, and 24 ºC - room temperature, three types of conservation (bronopol, azidiol and no preservative and four sample ages (1, 3, 5, and 7 days. For the total bacteria count, refrigerated control samples, with azidiol and one day old samples, and for composition and somatic cell count (SCC, the controls were defined as one day old refrigerated samples containing bronopol. Samples conserved with bronopol presented lower total bacteria count than the control regardless of storage temperature and sample age. Milk samples conserved with azidiol and stored refrigerated presented lower SCC, regardless of age, compared to refrigerated samples conserved with bronopol. The fat and lactose contents decreased after the fifth day. Two samples had to be collected: one for SCC determination and composition containing bronopol and another for the total bacteria count containing azidiol. Milk samples used for total bacteria count can be tested up to 7 days if they are kept at 7 ºC with the addition of azidiol.

  10. Métodos de conservação de amostras de leite para determinação da contagem bacteriana total por citometria de fluxo / Milk sample conservation methods to determine the total bacteria count by flow cytometry

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laerte Dagher, Cassoli; Paulo Fernando, Machado; Arlei, Coldebella.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da temperatura de armazenamento e da idade da amostra sobre a contagem bacteriana total de amostras de leite conservadas com azidiol para verificar a possibilidade de utilização de uma única amostra nas análises previstas na Instrução Normativa 51 (IN-51). Utilizaram-se 320 alíqu [...] otas de leite coletado de um tanque de expansão para avaliação de três temperaturas de armazenamento - a 0 ºC (congelada), 7 ºC (refrigerada) e 24 ºC (à temperatura ambiente) -, três tipos de conservação (bronopol, azidiol e sem conservante) e quatro idades da amostra (1, 3, 5 e 7 dias). Para contagem bacteriana total, foram consideradas controle amostras refrigeradas, com azidiol e amostras de um dia e, para composição e contagem de células somáticas (CCS), os controles foram amostras refrigeradas, com bronopol e de um dia. Nas amostras conservadas com bronopol, a contagem bacteriana total foi menor que na controle, independentemente da idade e da temperatura. O mesmo foi observado nas amostras com azidiol e congeladas. Amostras com azidiol apresentaram aumento da contagem bacteriana total, independentemente da idade, enquanto, naquelas que não receberam azidiol, a contagem bacteriana total foi superior à das amostras refrigeradas, conservadas com azidiol e de um dia. As amostras conservadas com azidiol e refrigeradas tiveram aumento linear na contagem bacteriana total de 0,0058 log por dia, o que pode ser considerado sem importância prática. Amostras conservadas com azidiol e refrigeradas apresentaram CCS menor, em todas as idades, em relação a amostras refrigeradas e conservadas com bronopol. Os teores de gordura e lactose reduziram após o quinto dia. Foi necessária a coleta de duas amostras: uma destinada à determinação de CCS e da composição contendo bronopol e outra para contagem bacteriana total contendo azidiol. Amostras para contagem bacteriana total podem ser analisadas em até sete dias, se mantidas a 7 ºC e adicionadas de azidiol. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of storage temperature and sample age on the total bacterial count (TBC) of milk samples preserved with azidiol to verify whether a single sample could be used to perform regulatory milk analysis under the Normative Instruction 51 (IN-51). Three [...] hundred and twenty milk aliquots were used collected from an expansion tank to assess three storage temperatures (0 ºC - frozen: 7 ºC - refrigerated, and 24 ºC - room temperature), three types of conservation (bronopol, azidiol and no preservative) and four sample ages (1, 3, 5, and 7 days). For the total bacteria count, refrigerated control samples, with azidiol and one day old samples, and for composition and somatic cell count (SCC), the controls were defined as one day old refrigerated samples containing bronopol. Samples conserved with bronopol presented lower total bacteria count than the control regardless of storage temperature and sample age. Milk samples conserved with azidiol and stored refrigerated presented lower SCC, regardless of age, compared to refrigerated samples conserved with bronopol. The fat and lactose contents decreased after the fifth day. Two samples had to be collected: one for SCC determination and composition containing bronopol and another for the total bacteria count containing azidiol. Milk samples used for total bacteria count can be tested up to 7 days if they are kept at 7 ºC with the addition of azidiol.

  11. Quality of raw cow milk in Republic of Macedonia determined through the testing of somatic cell count and total viable count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelovski Ljupco

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Somatic cells count and total viable count are criteria used to estimate the compliance of raw cow milk with the Book of rules for demands for safety and hygiene and procedures for official controls of milk and milk products, Official Gazette of RM 157/2007. According to the given demands, raw milk operators are obliged to conduct all procedures and to guarantee that milk is in compliance with the criteria laid down in Book of rules. At the same time, Republic of Macedonia have to fulfill EU criteria laid down in Directive 92/46 (Council directive 92/46/EEC laying down the health rules for the production and placing on the market of raw milk, heat-treated milk and milkbased products for quality of raw milk as part of implementation of community legislation and milk production. The independent laboratory for milk quality control at FVM-Skopje, in frame of its activities in the period February- August 2008 has conducted a study for obtaining preliminary results for the situation with raw milk quality produced in R. of Macedonia for somatic cells counts and total viable count. In the study we analyzed 2065 samples for TVC and 1625 samples for SCC of raw milk samples produced in different parts of the country. From the tested samples only 41,8% fulfill criteria for SCC and 41,45% criteria for TVC lay down in Book of rules for 2008. Assessment of the results in light of Council Directive it is obvious that only 42,7% of the samples for SCC and 10,7% for TVC fulfill the criteria of Council Directive having in mind different requirements vs. Book of rules.

  12. BIN PIXEL COUNT, MEAN AND TOTAL OF INTENSITIES EXTRACTED FROM PARTITIONED EQUALIZED HISTOGRAM FOR CBIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Kekre

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have introduced three simple feature vector extraction ideas to retrieve the images from database of 2000 images includes 20 different classes into it. The feature extraction process mainly based on splitting the image into three planes, for each plane an equalized histogram will be calculated which is divided in two, three and four equal parts to form the 8, 27 and 64 bins respectively. Three simple ways are used to extract the information in these three different sizes of bin sets. One is, ‘Count’ of the pixels falling in specific range of the histogram of each plane into its destination bin. Second, ‘Total’ intensities of these pixels in each of these bins is taken into consideration, and in third variation is the ‘Mean’ of these intensities is considered to represent the feature vector. Determination of the destination bin address for each pixel under process depends upon the R,G, B value of that pixel which falls in any one part of the equalized partitioned histogram, because based on it the 3digits flag will be assigned to that pixel with respect to its R, G, and B values. This way, sixfeature vector databases are prepared for 2000 images with three variable sizes and 3 variations in the extraction methods. We have maintained the separate set of bins for each plane and that way we have 3 more variations in databases. Means in all we have 18 feature vector databases that is six databases for each Red, Green and Blueplane. Experimentation uses image database of 20 classes having 100 images of each of the following classes: Flower, Sunset, Mountain, Buliding, Bus, Dinosaur, Elephant, Barbie, Mickey, Horses,Kingfisher, Dove, Crow, Rainbowrose, Pyramids, Plates, Car, Trees, Ship and Waterfall. Performance of our approaches is evaluated using two parameters LIRS and LSRR and results are refined and combined using three criteria Criterion1, 2 and 3.

  13. Serum albumin and total lymphocyte count as predictors of outcome in hip fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Daly, Brendan J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hip fractures are a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in the elderly. Malnutrition is a significant contributor to this, however no consensus exists as to the detection or management of this condition. We hypothesise that results of admission serum albumin and total lymphocyte count (TLC), as markers of Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) can help predict clinical outcome in hip fracture patients aged over 60 years. METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated the nutritional status of patients with hip fractures using albumin and TLC assays and analysed their prognostic relevance. Clinical outcome parameters studied were delay to operation, duration of in-patient stay, re-admission and in-patient, 3- and 12-month mortality. RESULTS: Four hundred and fifteen hip fracture patients were evaluated. Survival data were available for 377 patients at 12 months. In-hospital mortality for PEM patients was 9.8%, compared with 0% for patients without. Patients with PEM had a higher 12-month mortality compared to patients who had normal values of both laboratory parameters (Odds Ratio 4.6; 95% CI: 1.0-21.3). Serum albumin (Hazard Ratio 0.932, 95% CI: 0.9-1.0) and age (Hazard Ratio 1.04, 95% CI: 1.0-1.1) were found to be significant independent prognostic factors of mortality by Cox regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight the relevance of assessing the nutritional status of patients with hip fractures at the time of admission and emphasises the correlation between PEM and outcome in these patients.

  14. Influence of Salinity and Management Practices on the Shrimp (Penaeus monodon) Production and Bacterial Counts of Modified Extensive Brackishwater Ponds

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, T. Jawahar; Sasmal, Debasis

    2009-01-01

    The influence of salinity and management practices on the production of Penaeus monodon and changes in the counts of total heterotrophs (THCs), presumptive vibrios (PVCs) and luminous vibrios (LBCs) in nine modified extensive brackishwater ponds was investigated for one crop period, ranging from 102 to 132 days. The THCs ranging from 104 to 106/ml pond water and 105 to 107/g pond sediment and PVCs from 102-105/ml pond water and 103-106/g pond sediment were recorded. The LBCs were detected onl...

  15. Determining eligibility for antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings using total lymphocyte counts, hemoglobin and body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solberg Peter

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD4+ T lymphocyte (CD4 cell count testing is the standard method for determining eligibility for antiretroviral therapy (ART, but is not widely available in sub-Saharan Africa. Total lymphocyte counts (TLCs have not proven sufficiently accurate in identifying subjects with low CD4 counts. We developed clinical algorithms using TLCs, hemoglobin (Hb, and body mass index (BMI to identify patients who require ART. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of HIV-infected adults in Uganda, who presented for assessment for ART-eligibility with WHO clinical stages I, II or III. Two by two tables were constructed to examine TLC thresholds, which maximized sensitivity for CD4 cell counts ? 200 cells ?L, while minimizing the number offered ART with counts > 350 cells ?L. Hb and BMI values were then examined to try to improve model performance. Results 1787 subjects were available for analysis. Median CD4 cell counts and TLCs, were 239 cells/?L and 1830 cells/?L, respectively. Offering ART to all subjects with a TLCs ? 2250 cells/?L produced a sensitivity of 0.88 and a false positive ratio of 0.21. Algorithms that treated all patients with a TLC 3000 cells/?L, and used Hb and/or BMI values to determine eligibility for those with TLC values between 2000 and 3000 cells/?L, marginally improved accuracy. Conclusion TLCs appear useful in predicting who would be eligible for ART based on CD4 cell count criteria. Hb and BMI values may be useful in prioritizing patients for ART, but did not improve model accuracy.

  16. The use of flow cytometry to accurately ascertain total and viable counts of Lactobacillus rhamnosus in chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Yves; Champagne, Claude P

    2015-04-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the precision and accuracy of flow cytometry (FC) methodologies in the evaluation of populations of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011) in two commercial dried forms, and ascertain the challenges in enumerating them in a chocolate matrix. FC analyses of total (FC(T)) and viable (FC(V)) counts in liquid or dried cultures were almost two times more precise (reproducible) than traditional direct microscopic counts (DCM) or colony forming units (CFU). With FC, it was possible to ascertain low levels of dead cells (FC(D)) in fresh cultures, which is not possible with traditional CFU and DMC methodologies. There was no interference of chocolate solids on FC counts of probiotics when inoculation was above 10(7) bacteria per g. Addition of probiotics in chocolate at 40 °C resulted in a 37% loss in viable cells. Blending of the probiotic powder into chocolate was not uniform which raised a concern that the precision of viable counts could suffer. FCT data can serve to identify the correct inoculation level of a sample, and viable counts (FCV or CFU) can subsequently be better interpreted. PMID:25475282

  17. Suitability of total coliform ?-D-galactosidase activity and CFU counts in monitoring faecal contamination of environmental water samples

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    VC, Wutor; CA, Togo; BI, Pletschke.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Total coliforms are a group of bacteria found in high numbers in mammalian intestines; hence their presence in water indicates the possible contamination with faecal material. Total and faecal coliform counts were monitored over a period of 18 months using mFC, m-Endo and CM1046 media together with [...] enzymatic assays on 215 environmental water samples obtained from the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. A positive correlation, with an R² value of 0.9393 was observed between faecal and total coliform colony units employing mFc and m-Endo media, and 0.8818 using CM1046 media. Also, a positive correlation was observed between Escherichia coli colony-forming units and ?-d-galactosidase (B-GAL) activity (R²=0.8542). Overall, this study indicated that faecal contamination of environmental water samples could be monitored by measuring total coliform ?-galactosidase activity and total coliform colony-forming units.

  18. Reducing Staphylococcus aureus bacterial counts in a dental clinic using an Ionic Breeze air purifier: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubar, J Sean; Pelon, William; Strother, Elizabeth A; Sicard, F Scott

    2009-01-01

    Aerosols and droplets generated by dental procedures are contaminated with blood and bacteria and represent a potential route for the transmission of disease. This study sought to determine if Ionic Breeze air purifiers are effective in collecting and destroying bacteria found in dental aerosols (such as Staphylococcus aureus). This study placed one Sharper Image Professional Series Ionic Breeze Quadra unit and one Ionic Breeze GP unit (with germicidal protection) in dental operatories within the Louisiana State University School of Dentistry. After six hours of operation, bacterial samples were collected and streaked over surfaces of petri dishes containing trypticase soy sucrose bacitracin agar that had been supplemented with 5% sheep blood. The samples were incubated at 37 degrees C for 48 hours; at that point, the microbial colonies were counted. Additional testing was performed on suspect colonies to identify S. aureus strains and to determine if any of those isolates were pathogenic with or without antibiotic resistance. The Ionic Breeze GP unit killed more than 99% of all bacteria on the stainless steel collecting blades. The non-germicidal Ionic Breeze Quadra air purifier collected numerous bacteria that were found to include some pathogenic strains of S. aureus; however, none of these were resistant to antibiotics. PMID:19819810

  19. Cultivation of a bacterial consortium with the potential to degrade total petroleum hydrocarbon using waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, S; Song, Y C; Kim, S H; Jang, S H

    2015-11-01

    Waste activated sludge was aerobically treated to demonstrate multiple uses such as cultivating an oil degrading bacterial consortium; studying the influence of a bulking agent (peat moss) and total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration on bacterial growth and producing a soil conditioner using waste activated sludge. After 30 days of incubation, the concentration of oil-degrading bacteria was 4.3 x 10(8) CFU g(-1) and 4.5 x 10(8) CFU g(-1) for 5 and 10 g of total petroleum hydrocarbon, respectively, in a mixture of waste activated sludge (1 kg) and peat moss (0.1 kg). This accounts for approximately 88.4 and 91.1%, respectively, of the total heterotrophic bacteria (total-HB). The addition of bulking agent enhanced total-HB population and total petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial population. Over 90% of total petroleum hydrocarbon degradation was achieved by the mixture of waste activated sludge, bulking agent and total petroleum hydrocarbon. The results of physico-chemical parameters of the compost (waste activated sludge with and without added peat moss compost) and a substantial reduction in E. coli showed that the use of this final product did not exhibit risk when used as soil conditioner. Finally, the present study demonstrated that cultivation of total petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial consortium and production of compost from waste activated sludge by aerobic treatment was feasible. PMID:26688976

  20. Point-of-care method for total white cell count: an evaluation of the HemoCue WBC device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei-Bimpong, A; Jury, C; McLean, R; Lewis, S M

    2009-12-01

    Point-of-care testing (POCT) is becoming an important adjunct to haematology laboratory practice. An important component of the blood count is the total white cell count (WBC). Previously, this required laborious microscopic cell counting, but it can now be performed by means of automation; however, in many under-resourced countries, costly automated counters are only available in very few central hospitals. Moreover, neither method is practical in most POCT situations. The HemoCue WBC has been developed as a simplified alternative method, consisting of a reagent pre-loaded disposable cuvette together with basic image analysis technology. This report describes an assessment of its utility. The WBC of 500 routine blood samples from the hospital were tested in parallel by the HemoCue WBC and by a reference analyser to assess accuracy and utility of the former. The tests included precision, linearity, type of blood sample and anticoagulant and potential interfering substances in blood specimens. In the tests for accuracy, 192 of the 200 showed percentage difference from the NEQAS reference of 2% normoblasts or reticulocytosis showed significant differences from the reference measurements. The HemoCue WBC is reliable for WBC counts within the analytical range of 0.4-30.0 x 10(9)/l, except in samples where there are significant numbers of normoblasts or reticulocytes. It is simple to use and provides a valuable advance in the facilities available for POCT in haematology. PMID:18759736

  1. Quantification of voxel-wise total fibre density: Investigating the problems associated with track-count mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamante, Fernando; Smith, Robert E; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Raffelt, David; Connelly, Alan

    2015-08-15

    A biological parameter that would be valuable to be able to extract from diffusion MRI data is the local white matter axonal density. Track-density imaging (TDI) has been used as if it could provide such a measure; however, this has been the subject of controversy, primarily due to the fact that track-count quantitation is highly sensitive to tracking biases and errors. The spherical-deconvolution informed filtering of tractograms (SIFT) post-processing method was recently introduced to minimise tractography biases, and thus provides a more biologically meaningful measure that could be used in track-count mapping (i.e. TDI following SIFT). The TDI intensity following SIFT ideally corresponds to the orientational average of the fibre orientation distribution (FOD), which corresponds to the total Apparent Fibre Density (AFDtotal) within the AFD framework; in fact, AFDtotal provides a direct measure of local fibre density at native resolution that does not rely on fibre-tracking. In this study, we demonstrate problems associated with quantitative TDI investigations, which can be avoided by using SIFT processing or directly by using AFDtotal maps. We also characterise the intra- and inter-subject reproducibility of TDI maps (with and without SIFT pre-processing) and AFDtotal maps. It is shown that SIFT improves the quantitative characteristics of TDI, but is still vastly inferior to the properties of the AFDtotal parameter itself, because the latter does not require tracking. While standard TDI might be preferable in applications when high anatomical contrast is required, particularly when combined with super-resolution, for voxel-wise quantitation of total tract density (i.e. without tract orientation information) at native resolution, the total AFD maps are preferable to TDI or other related track-count maps. Regardless of the track-count measure, it should be noted that all of these voxel-averaged approaches discard important information that is retained in fibre-specific approaches such as AFD. PMID:26037054

  2. Total count gamma-ray logging: correction factors and logging model grade assignments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A unified approach is developed to the inter-related problems of calibration, grade assignment, and log reduction. Factors common to all three problems are dead time, water-filled or mud-filled hole size, casing thickness, Z-effect (or photoelectric absorption-effect), and formation moisture. Dead time for most logging systems is a function of count rate rather than a constant as usually assumed, and a better method can be used to correct for dead time. Z-effect is significant for some tools in zones having concentrations as low as 0.1 percent eU3O8, and a method is developed to measure the magnitude of the Z-effect. The method used to compute area under a log is significant in some calibration models because corrections must be made for count-rate contributions from the barren zones. A calibration procedure is developed for simultaneously determining calibration factors needed for dead-time corrections, Z-effect corrections, and grade computation (K-factor). The procedure is based on a least-squares solution and can be implemented on programmable calculators. Field measurements are referenced to calibrations commonly done in logging models having assigned grades; and the assigned grades of logging models are referenced to radiometric assays, made in the laboratory, on physical samples from the models. Conditions which differ from field to logging model, and logging model to laboratory (especially moisture) must be taken into account

  3. How much locomotive activity is needed for an active physical activity level: analysis of total step counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohkawara Kazunori

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although physical activity recommendations for public health have focused on locomotive activity such as walking and running, it is uncertain how much these activities contribute to overall physical activity level (PAL. The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of locomotive activity to PAL using total step counts measured in a calorimeter study. Methods PAL, calculated as total energy expenditure divided by basal metabolic rate, was evaluated in 11 adult men using three different conditions for 24-hour human calorimeter measurements: a low-activity day (L-day targeted at a low active level of PAL (1.45, and a high-frequency moderate activity day (M-day or a high-frequency vigorous activity day (V-day targeted at an active level of PAL (1.75. These subjects were permitted only light activities except prescribed activities. In a separate group of 41 adults, free-living PAL was evaluated using doubly-labeled water (DLW. In both experiments, step counts per day were also measured using an accelerometer. Results In the human calorimeter study, PAL and step counts were 1.42 ± 0.10 and 8,973 ± 543 steps/d (L-day, 1.82 ± 0.14 and 29,588 ± 1,126 steps/d (M-day, and 1.74 ± 0.15 and 23,755 ± 1,038 steps/d (V-day, respectively. In the DLW study, PAL and step counts were 1.73 ± 0.15 and 10,022 ± 2,605 steps/d, and there was no significant relationship between PAL and daily step counts. Conclusions These results indicate that an enormous number of steps are needed for an active level of PAL if individuals extend physical activity-induced energy expenditure by only locomotive activity. Therefore, non-locomotive activity such as household activity should also play a significant role in increasing PAL under free-living conditions.

  4. Globulinas totales y recuento linfocitario como marcadores de mortalidad en sepsis y shock séptico / Total globulins and lymphocyte count as markers of mortality in sepsis and septic shock

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo, Conlledo; Álvaro, Rodríguez; Javiera, Godoy; Carlos, Merino; Felipe, Martínez.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: No existen estudios que demuestren si pacientes en sepsis o shock séptico que presentan globulinas plasmáticas totales y/o recuento linfocitario plasmático disminuidos, tendrían mayor mortalidad. Pacientes y Método: Estudio de cohorte prospectivo de 103 pacientes ingresados a la Unidad [...] de Cuidados Intensivos, que cumplían criterios de sepsis o shock séptico, seguidos diariamente en el Hospital Dr. Gustavo Fricke entre junio y noviembre de 2009. Resultados: Hubo asociación entre mortalidad y recuento linfocitario medido a partir del tercer día (valor p 0,05). El área bajo la curva ROC del recuento linfocitario medido al tercer día fue 0,68 (IC 95% 0,530,82), con una sensibilidad de 75%, especificidad 52%, LR(+) 1,57 y LR(-) 0,48 para un punto de corte de 510 linfocitos/mm³, comportándose además como factor de riesgo independiente de mortalidad (OR 3,67, IC 95% 1,03-13,1). Discusión: El recuento linfocitario se asocia precozmente y en forma independiente al pronóstico de mayor mortalidad en estos pacientes. Abstract in english Background: There are no studies probing if patients in sepsis or septic shock with lower levels of total plas-matic globulins and/or lymphocyte count have higher mortality. Patients and Method: Prospective cohort study of 103 patients admitted in Intensive Care Unit followed daily at the Dr. Gustav [...] o Fricke Hospital between June and November of 2009, with sepsis or septic shock criteria. Results: There was association between mortality and lymphocytic count measured from the third day of their hospitalization (P 0.05). The area under ROC curve for the mean lymphocyte count at the third day was 0.68 (95% CI 0.53-0.82), with a sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 52%, LR(+) 1.57 and LR(-) 0.48 for a cut-off at 510 lymphocytes/mm³, behaving also as an independent risk factor of mortality (OR 3.67, 95% CI 1.03-13.1). Discussion: Lymphocyte count is early and independently associated with increased mortality in patients with sepsis or septic shock.

  5. Dose-response effects of an antimicrobial peptide, a cecropin hybrid, on growth performance, nutrient utilisation, bacterial counts in the digesta and intestinal morphology in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Liu-Fa; He, Jian-Guo

    2012-11-28

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of an antimicrobial peptide, cecropin A(1-11)-D(12-37)-Asn (CADN), as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoter (AGP) in poultry diets. A total of 1500 14-d-old indigenous male chickens (222 (sd 13) g) were randomly allocated to five groups with five replicate cages of sixty birds each, and fed ad libitum five grower diets and subsequently five finisher diets for 14 d each. The diets were made up by supplementing their basal diets with a CADN liquid sample (CADNL) at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 ml/kg, respectively. During the feeding period, a metabolic experiment was carried out to determine the apparent digestibility of diethyl ether extract, nitrogen retention and apparent metabolisable energy of the diet sample fed to each cage of chicks. At the end of the feeding experiment, one chick from each cage was killed for bacteriological, light microscopic and scanning electron microscopic examination of the intestinal villi. CADN had a negative linear, positive quadratic and negative linear effect on feed intake (F), weight gain (G) and feed:gain ratio (F:G), respectively, for the growers; it had a quadratic effect on F, G or F:G for the finishers; it increased nutrient utilisation for both growers and finishers; it decreased aerobic bacterial counts in both jejunal and caecal digesta in a dose-dependent manner; it enhanced intestinal villus heights in a dose-dependent manner and made the duodenum villi of the CADNL8 group at 42 d appear as a netted leaf-like structure. CADN is therefore a possible alternative to AGP in broiler feeds. PMID:22251659

  6. Detection of false-positives among total and fecal coliform counts by factorial analysis of correspondence.

    OpenAIRE

    Joncas, M; Michaud, S; Carmichael, J P; Lavoie, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    Application of an analysis of correspondence to the biochemical characteristics of total and fecal coliforms isolated in the Ivory Coast permitted us to separate two small clusters of isolates different from the main clusters, which included isolates from human and animal feces. The isolates grouped in the small clusters were from water samples. An analysis of the biochemical characteristics which permitted the segregation of the "water-specific" isolates from the main clusters indicates that...

  7. Contribution of endogenous and exogenous damage to the total radiation-induced damage in the bacterial spore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radical scavengers such as polyethylene glycol 4000 and bovine albumin have been used to define the contribution of exogenous and endogenous damage to the total radiation-induced damage in aqueous buffered suspensions of Bacillus pumilus spores. The results indicate that this damage in the bacterial spore is predominantly endogenous

  8. Dissolved total hydrolyzable enantiomeric amino acids in precipitation: Implications on bacterial contributions to atmospheric organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ge; Kim, Guebuem; Kim, Jeonghyun; Jeong, Yu-Sik; Kim, Young Il

    2015-03-01

    We analyzed dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), and dissolved enantiomeric amino acids in precipitation samples collected at two sites in Korea over a one-year period. The average concentrations of DOC, DON, and total hydrolyzable amino acids at Seoul (an inland urban area) were lower than those at Uljin (a coastal rural area). The different bulk compositions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) at these two sites (reflected by qualitative indicators) were mainly attributed to differences in contributing sources. The D-enantiomers of four individual amino acids (aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, and alanine) were ubiquitously present, with average enantiomeric (D/L) ratios of 0.34, 0.26, 0.21, and 0.61 for Seoul, and 0.18, 0.11, 0.09, and 0.31 for Uljin, respectively. The much higher D/L ratios observed at Seoul than at Uljin might result from more advanced diagenetic stages as well as higher contributions from bacteria inhabiting terrestrial environments. The C- and N-normalized yields of D-alanine in DOM of our samples were found to be comparable to literature values reported for aquatic systems, where a significant portion of DOM was suggested to be of bacterial origin. Our study suggests that bacteria and their remnants might constitute an important fraction of OM in the atmosphere, contributing significantly to the quality of atmospheric OM and its post-depositional bioavailability in the surface ecosystems.

  9. Complete Blood Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Formal name: Complete Blood Count Related tests: Blood Smear ; Hemoglobin ; Hematocrit ; Red Blood Cell Count ; White Blood ... HIV/AIDS ) Known as leukocytosis Infection , most commonly bacterial or viral Inflammation Leukemia , myeloproliferative disorders Allergies , asthma ...

  10. Study on the Total Coliforms Count and Coli Titter in the Waters of Kardzhali Reservoir, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Y. Todorov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine TC (total coliforms and coli titter from two sampling stations in the aquatory of Kardzhali Dam Lake and one station in River Arda, in August, 2011. The values of the TC index in the reservoir vary from 1900±674 cfu/100ml in station I, to 1293±194 cfu/100ml in station II, while the TC value of River Arda reaches 1698±134 cfu/100ml. In Reservoir Kardzhali, the smallest volume of water in which Escherichia coli cells were found, varies between 5 and 15 ml, while for the River Arda the value of coli titter is equal to 1. With highest percentage, regarding the presence of microbiological species in the reservoir waters, is the genus Klebsiella (70%, followed by Citrobacter (15%, Enterobacter (10% and Serratia (5%, respectively represented by the species Klebsiella oxytoca, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae and Serattia marcescens. In the river Arda two genuses were found - Serratia (50% and Salmonella (50%.

  11. Centroid Position as a Function of Total Counts in a Windowed CMOS Image of a Point Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurtz, R E; Olivier, S; Riot, V; Hanold, B J; Figer, D F

    2010-05-27

    We obtained 960,200 22-by-22-pixel windowed images of a pinhole spot using the Teledyne H2RG CMOS detector with un-cooled SIDECAR readout. We performed an analysis to determine the precision we might expect in the position error signals to a telescope's guider system. We find that, under non-optimized operating conditions, the error in the computed centroid is strongly dependent on the total counts in the point image only below a certain threshold, approximately 50,000 photo-electrons. The LSST guider camera specification currently requires a 0.04 arcsecond error at 10 Hertz. Given the performance measured here, this specification can be delivered with a single star at 14th to 18th magnitude, depending on the passband.

  12. Degradation and total mineralization of monohalogenated biphenyls in natural sediment and mixed bacterial culture.

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, H L; Sayler, G S

    1983-01-01

    Mixed bacterial cultures obtained from polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated river sediments are capable of degrading monohalogenated biphenyls under simulated natural conditions. Culture conditions include river water as supportive medium and mixed bacterial cultures obtained from river sediments. Degradation occurs when the substrates are supplied as the sole carbon source or when added together with glucose. The degradation rates of 2-, 3-, and 4-chlorobiphenyl, at 30 micrograms ml-1, were...

  13. Asociación entre recuento bacteriano en la bilis y desarrollo de morbilidad postoperatoria en pacientes con colangitis aguda Association between bile bacterial count and postoperative complications aniong patients with acute cholangitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HÉCTOR LOSADA M

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La colonización bacteriana de la bilis parece ser frecuente en pacientes con obstrucción de la vía biliar ya sea con o sin signos de sepsis. Objetivos: Determinar asociación entre el recuento bacteriano en la bilis de pacientes con colangitis aguda (CA y el desarrollo de complicaciones postoperatorias; y, determinar asociación entre variables fisiológicas y desarrollo de complicaciones en el mismo grupo. Material y Método: Reporte preliminar de estudio de cohorte de pacientes con CA litiásica, intervenidos quirúrgicamente en los servicios de cirugía y urgencias del Hospital Regional de Temuco en el período diciembre de 2004 a noviembre de 2006. Se realizó cultivo cuantitativo y se registraron variables clínicas y de laboratorio al ingreso. Se efectuó medición de complicaciones postoperatorias, estancia hospitalaria y evolución de los pacientes. Se aplicó estadística descriptiva y posteriormente análisis univariado y multivariado. Resultados: Se estudió un total de 54 pacientes, 34 (63% fueron de género femenino y 20 (37% de género masculino, con una mediana de edad de 68 años (25 a 95 años. El germen más frecuentemente aislado fue Escherichia coli en 32 cultivos (50%, seguido por Klebsiella pneumoniae en 6 cultivos (9%. De los gérmenes aislados 45 (82% tenían cargas bacterianas sobre 10(5 UFC/ml. De los pacientes que presentaron alguna complicación 68% tenían cargas bacterianas superiores a 10(5 UFC/ml y de los pacientes que no presentaron complicaciones 69% tenían cargas bacterianas inferiores a 10(5 UFC/ml (p = 0,513. En el análisis univariado se encontró asociación entre desarrollo de complicaciones y las variables frecuencia cardíaca, creatinina, recuento de plaquetas y tiempo de protrombina. Con el análisis multivariado se determinó asociación entre desarrollo de complicaciones y las variables recuento de plaquetas y tiempo de protrombina (OR: 4,35 y 4,58. Conclusiones: No se encontró asociación entre la carga bacteriana y el desarrollo de complicaciones en pacientes con CA. Se determinó asociación entre desarrollo de complicaciones y las variables recuento de plaquetas y tiempo de protrombina.Background: Bacterial colonization of bile is common in patients with bile duct obstruction, even in the absence of clinical signs of sepsis. Aim: To determine the association between bile bacterial count and postoperative complications in patients with bile duct obstruction. Material and Methods: A bile bacterial count was performed to patients with acute cholangitis caused by biliary stones, operated between 2004 and 2006. Post operative complications and length of hospital stay were recorded in these patients. Results: Fifty four patients aged between 25 and 95 years (34 females were studied. The most common bacteria found, were Escherichia coli in 32 cultures (50%, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae in 6 cultures (9%. In 45 cases the bacterial load was over 10(5 colony forming units (CFU/ml. Among patients with and without complications, 68 and 69% had a bacterial load over 10(5 CFU/ml, respectively (p = NS. A multivariate analysis showed an association between platelet count and prothrombin time with the incidence of complications. Conclusions: In this series of patients with acute cholangitis, no association between bile bacterial count and postoperative complications was observed.

  14. Asociación entre recuento bacteriano en la bilis y desarrollo de morbilidad postoperatoria en pacientes con colangitis aguda / Association between bile bacterial count and postoperative complications aniong patients with acute cholangitis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    HÉCTOR, LOSADA M; CARLOS, MANTEROLA D; VIVIANA, PINEDA N; MANUEL, VIAL G; LUIS, AVENDAÑO R.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La colonización bacteriana de la bilis parece ser frecuente en pacientes con obstrucción de la vía biliar ya sea con o sin signos de sepsis. Objetivos: Determinar asociación entre el recuento bacteriano en la bilis de pacientes con colangitis aguda (CA) y el desarrollo de complicacione [...] s postoperatorias; y, determinar asociación entre variables fisiológicas y desarrollo de complicaciones en el mismo grupo. Material y Método: Reporte preliminar de estudio de cohorte de pacientes con CA litiásica, intervenidos quirúrgicamente en los servicios de cirugía y urgencias del Hospital Regional de Temuco en el período diciembre de 2004 a noviembre de 2006. Se realizó cultivo cuantitativo y se registraron variables clínicas y de laboratorio al ingreso. Se efectuó medición de complicaciones postoperatorias, estancia hospitalaria y evolución de los pacientes. Se aplicó estadística descriptiva y posteriormente análisis univariado y multivariado. Resultados: Se estudió un total de 54 pacientes, 34 (63%) fueron de género femenino y 20 (37%) de género masculino, con una mediana de edad de 68 años (25 a 95 años). El germen más frecuentemente aislado fue Escherichia coli en 32 cultivos (50%), seguido por Klebsiella pneumoniae en 6 cultivos (9%). De los gérmenes aislados 45 (82%) tenían cargas bacterianas sobre 10(5) UFC/ml. De los pacientes que presentaron alguna complicación 68% tenían cargas bacterianas superiores a 10(5) UFC/ml y de los pacientes que no presentaron complicaciones 69% tenían cargas bacterianas inferiores a 10(5) UFC/ml (p = 0,513). En el análisis univariado se encontró asociación entre desarrollo de complicaciones y las variables frecuencia cardíaca, creatinina, recuento de plaquetas y tiempo de protrombina. Con el análisis multivariado se determinó asociación entre desarrollo de complicaciones y las variables recuento de plaquetas y tiempo de protrombina (OR: 4,35 y 4,58). Conclusiones: No se encontró asociación entre la carga bacteriana y el desarrollo de complicaciones en pacientes con CA. Se determinó asociación entre desarrollo de complicaciones y las variables recuento de plaquetas y tiempo de protrombina. Abstract in english Background: Bacterial colonization of bile is common in patients with bile duct obstruction, even in the absence of clinical signs of sepsis. Aim: To determine the association between bile bacterial count and postoperative complications in patients with bile duct obstruction. Material and Methods: A [...] bile bacterial count was performed to patients with acute cholangitis caused by biliary stones, operated between 2004 and 2006. Post operative complications and length of hospital stay were recorded in these patients. Results: Fifty four patients aged between 25 and 95 years (34 females) were studied. The most common bacteria found, were Escherichia coli in 32 cultures (50%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae in 6 cultures (9%). In 45 cases the bacterial load was over 10(5) colony forming units (CFU)/ml. Among patients with and without complications, 68 and 69% had a bacterial load over 10(5) CFU/ml, respectively (p = NS). A multivariate analysis showed an association between platelet count and prothrombin time with the incidence of complications. Conclusions: In this series of patients with acute cholangitis, no association between bile bacterial count and postoperative complications was observed.

  15. A PROFILE OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTED PATIENTS IN YENEPOYA MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL WITH SPECIAL REFERANCE TO CORRELATION BETWEEN CD4 COUNT AND TOTAL LYMPHOCYTE COUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES : To study the clinical presentation , spectrum of systemic involvement , opportunistic infections and the correlation between CD4 + cell count and TLC for monitoring disease progression in HIV patients. Previous studies have shown that TLC is an inexpensive and useful tool for monitoring HIV progression. METHODS: This was a 2 year prospective study in which ca ses were examined and according to theproforma , TLC and CD4+ counts were assessed in 50 HIV positive patients who attended Yenepoya Medical College Hospital , Mangalore between October 2005 and September 2007. Sensitivity and specificity of various TLC cut - off were computed for CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 and statistical indices computed. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to find out the correlation between CD4+ count and TLC at baseline. RESULTS: 45 male and 5 female patients , having mean age of 38.08± 9.01 years (range 20 – 60 years were studied. 70% were in 20 - 40 years age group. 34% were related to transport services. Heterosexual mode of transmission was seen in 64% , commonest presenting symptoms were fever and weight loss , oral candidiasis was present in 26% and lymphadenopathy in 46% of subjects. Tuberculosis was the most common opportunistic infection seen in 68% of subjects. One patient had AIDS dementia complex , one had HIV nephropathy and in 1 and a presumptive diagnosi s of Kaposi's sarcoma was made . Tubercular meningitis was the most common neurological manifestation. The mean baseline CD4+ count in study group was 175 cells/mm3. The mean baseline TLC was 1338 cells/mm3 . The scatter diagram shows , as the CD4 T cells ris es , the TLC level also rises. The sensitivity and specificity of TLC < 1200 and CD4 count <200 was 91% and 53% respectively with a positive predictive value of 70% (p = 0.0001. CONCLUSION: Occupation was the important risk factor for HIV transmission and h eterosexual contact is the commonest mode of spread. Among opportunistic infections , tuberculosis was most common. There was a definite correlation between the TLC and CD4 count in HIV positive patients before treatment. It is evident from this study that TLC can be used in place of CD4+ T cell counts in resource - limited settings to monitor the disease progression

  16. Micrometer-Sized Supported Lipid Bilayer Arrays for Bacterial Toxin Binding Studies through Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Moran-Mirabal, Jose M.; Edel , Joshua B.; Meyer, Grant D.; Throckmorton, Dan; Singh, Anup K; Craighead, Harold G.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we present the use of micron-sized lipid domains, patterned onto planar substrates and within microfluidic channels, to assay the binding of bacterial toxins via total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. The lipid domains were patterned using a polymer lift-off technique and consisted of ganglioside-populated distearoylphosphatidylcholine:cholesterol supported lipid bilayers (SLBs). Lipid patterns were formed on the substrates by vesicle fusion followed by polymer li...

  17. Correlations between total cell concentration, total adenosine tri-phosphate concentration and heterotrophic plate counts during microbial monitoring of drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hammes

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The general microbial quality of drinking water is normally monitored by heterotrophic plate counts (HPC. This method has been used for more than 100 years and is recommended in drinking water guidelines. However, the HPC method is significantly handicapped because it is time-consuming and restricted to culturable bacteria. Recently, rapid and accurate detection methods have emerged, such as adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP measurements to assess microbial activity in drinking water, and flow cytometry (FCM to determine the total cell concentration (TCC. It is necessary and important for drinking water quality control to understand the relationships among the conventional and new methods. In the current study, all three methods were applied to 200 drinking water samples obtained from two local buildings connected to the same distribution system. Samples were taken both on normal working days and weekends, and the correlations between the different microbiological parameters were determined. The results showed that the rapid determination methods (i.e., FCM and ATP correlated significantly (R2=0.69, but only a weak correlation (R2=0.31 was observed between the rapid methods and conventional HPC data. With respect to drinking water monitoring, both FCM and ATP measurements were confirmed to be useful and complimentary parameters for rapid assessing of drinking water microbial quality.

  18. Rapid, Semiautomated Quantification of Bacterial Cells in Freshwater by Using a Microfluidic Device for On-Chip Staining and Counting?

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Torii, Masashi; Uebayashi, Yuko; Nasu, Masao

    2010-01-01

    A microfluidic device-based system for the rapid and semiautomated counting of bacteria in freshwater was fabricated and examined. Bacteria in groundwater and in potable water, as well as starved Escherichia coli O157:H7 spiked in pond water, were able to be on-chip stained and enumerated within 1 h using this system.

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on shelf life extension, total counts of microbials and biochemical sensory change on luncheon meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the effect of gamma irradiation and sodium nitrate on storability and marketability of luncheon, packed luncheon was exposed to several treatments; gamma irradiation at doses 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 KGy using a 60 CO package irradiator, mixed with sodium nitrite (NaNO2) 60 mg/Kg meat, with no irradiation and a combined treatment of both NaNO2 treatment and irradiated with a dose of 2 KGy only. Half of the irradiated and unirradiated samples were stored in refrigeration (1-4 centigrade), to study storability and the second half were stored at room temperature (18-20 centigrade) to study marketability of luncheon. During storage period the population of microorganisms, biochemical changes and sensory properties were evaluated every two weeks for the refrigerated samples and weekly for the unrefrigerated samples. The results indicated that gamma irradiation and sodium nitrite reduced the counts of microorganisms and increased the shelf-life of luncheon. Both treatments (irradiation, sodium nitrite) increased total acidity, lipid oxidation, and the volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) immediately after processing and reduced all of them through out storage. Sensory evaluation (firmness, color, taste, and flavor) indicated no significant differences (P>0.05) between treated and untreated samples. (author)

  20. Assessment of the efficiency of SimPlate? total plate count color indicator (TPC CI) to quantify mesophilic aerobic microorganisms in pasteurized milk Avaliação da eficiência do SimPlate? Total Plate Count Color Indicator (TPC CI) para enumeração de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos em leite pasteurizado

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Augusto Nero; Vanerli Beloti; Márcia Aguiar Ferreira Barros; Elsa Helena Walter Santana; Mykel Steffani Pereira; Viviane Vieira Gusmão; Luciane Bilia Moraes

    2002-01-01

    The SimPlate? TPC CI system is a rapid method to count mesophilic aerobic microorganisms (MAM) in foods, based on the use of resazurine to indicate bacterial growth. Its efficiency in pasteurized milk was evaluated using 142 pasteurized milk samples (38 type A, 43 type B and 61 type C) collected in Londrina, PR. The standard plating method, using Plate Count Agar (PCA) was used for comparison. The plates of both systems were incubated at 35ºC and read after 24h and 48h. The occurrence of...

  1. Comparison of the SimPlate total plate count method with Petrifilm, Redigel, conventional pour-plate methods for enumerating aerobic microorganisms in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuchat, L R; Copeland, F; Curiale, M S; Danisavich, T; Gangar, V; King, B W; Lawlis, T L; Likin, R O; Okwusoa, J; Smith, C F; Townsend, D E

    1998-01-01

    The SimPlate Total Plate Count (TPC) method, developed by IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., is designed to determine the most probable number of aerobic microorganisms in foods. The 24-h test was compared to the conventional plate count agar (PCA) method, the Petrifilm Aerobic Count plates, and the Redigel Total Count procedure for enumerating microflora in 751 food samples. Results using the SimPlate TPC method were highly correlated (r > or = 0.96) with results from other test methods. Slopes (0.96-0.97) were not significantly different from 1, and y intercepts (-0.03-0.08) were not different from O. The SimPlate has a high counting range (> 1600 most probable number per single dilution), thus requiring fewer dilutions of samples compared to other methods evaluated. Some foods, e.g., raw liver, wheat flour, and nuts, contain enzymes that gave false-positive reactions on SimPlates. Overall, however, the SimPlate TPC method is a suitable alternative to conventional PCA, Petrifilm, and Redigel methods for estimating populations of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms in a wide range of foods. PMID:9708246

  2. Leukocyte-subset counts in idiopathic parkinsonism provide clues to a pathogenic pathway involving small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. A surveillance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobbs R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following Helicobacter pylori eradication in idiopathic parkinsonism (IP, hypokinesia improved but flexor-rigidity increased. Small intestinal bacterial-overgrowth (SIBO is a candidate driver of the rigidity: hydrogen-breath-test-positivity is common in IP and case histories suggest that Helicobacter keeps SIBO at bay. Methods In a surveillance study, we explore relationships of IP-facets to peripheral immune/inflammatory-activation, in light of presence/absence of Helicobacter infection (urea-breath- and/or stool-antigen-test: positivity confirmed by gastric-biopsy and hydrogen-breath-test status for SIBO (positivity: >20 ppm increment, 2 consecutive 15-min readings, within 2h of 25G lactulose. We question whether any relationships found between facets and blood leukocyte subset counts stand in patients free from anti-parkinsonian drugs, and are robust enough to defy fluctuations in performance consequent on short t½ therapy. Results Of 51 IP-probands, 36 had current or past Helicobacter infection on entry, 25 having undergone successful eradication (median 3.4 years before. Thirty-four were hydrogen-breath-test-positive initially, 42 at sometime (343 tests during surveillance (2.8 years. Hydrogen-breath-test-positivity was associated inversely with Helicobacter-positivity (OR 0.20 (95% CI 0.04, 0.99, p In 38 patients (untreated (17 or on stable long-t½ IP-medication, the higher the natural-killer count, the shorter stride, slower gait and greater flexor-rigidity (by mean 49 (14, 85 mm, 54 (3, 104 mm.s-1, 89 (2, 177 Nm.10-3, per 100 cells.?l-1 increment, p=0.007, 0.04 & 0.04 respectively, adjusted for patient characteristics. T-helper count was inversely associated with flexor-rigidity before (p=0.01 and after adjustment for natural-killer count (-36(-63, -10 Nm.10-3 per 100 cells.?l-1, p=0.007. Neutrophil count was inversely associated with tremor (visual analogue scale, p=0.01. Effect-sizes were independent of IP-medication, and not masked by including 13 patients receiving levodopa (except natural-killer count on flexor-rigidity. Cellular associations held after allowing for potentially confounding effect of hydrogen-breath-test or Helicobacter status. Moreover, additional reduction in stride and speed (68 (24, 112 mm & 103 (38, 168 mm.s-1, each p=0.002 was seen with Helicobacter-positivity. Hydrogen-breath-test-positivity, itself, was associated with higher natural-killer and T-helper counts, lower neutrophils (p=0.005, 0.02 & 0.008. Conclusion We propose a rigidity-associated subordinate pathway, flagged by a higher natural-killer count, tempered by a higher T-helper, against which Helicobacter protects by keeping SIBO at bay.

  3. Rapid Staining and Enumeration of Small Numbers of Total Bacteria in Water by Solid-Phase Laser Cytometry

    OpenAIRE

    Broadaway, Susan C.; Barton, Stephanie A.; Pyle, Barry H.

    2003-01-01

    The nucleic acid stain SYBR Green I was evaluated for use with solid-phase laser cytometry to obtain total bacterial cell counts from several water sources with small bacterial numbers. Results were obtained within 30 min and exceeded or equaled counts on R2A agar plates incubated for 14 days at room temperature.

  4. Rapid staining and enumeration of small numbers of total bacteria in water by solid-phase laser cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadaway, Susan C.; Barton, Stephanie A.; Pyle, Barry H.

    2003-01-01

    The nucleic acid stain SYBR Green I was evaluated for use with solid-phase laser cytometry to obtain total bacterial cell counts from several water sources with small bacterial numbers. Results were obtained within 30 min and exceeded or equaled counts on R2A agar plates incubated for 14 days at room temperature.

  5. Comparison of Fluorescence Microscopy and Solid-Phase Cytometry Methods for Counting Bacteria in Water

    OpenAIRE

    Lisle, John T.; Hamilton, Martin A.; Willse, Alan R.; McFeters, Gordon A.

    2004-01-01

    Total direct counts of bacterial abundance are central in assessing the biomass and bacteriological quality of water in ecological and industrial applications. Several factors have been identified that contribute to the variability in bacterial abundance counts when using fluorescent microscopy, the most significant of which is retaining an adequate number of cells per filter to ensure an acceptable level of statistical confidence in the resulting data. Previous studies that have assessed the...

  6. Determination of Total Protein Content of Bacterial Cells by SYPRO Staining and Flow Cytometry

    OpenAIRE

    Zubkov, Mikhail V.; Fuchs, Bernhard M.; Eilers, Heike; Burkill, Peter H; Amann, Rudolf

    1999-01-01

    An assay has been developed for measuring protein biomass of marine planktonic bacteria by flow cytometry. The method was calibrated by using five species of Bacteria (an Arcobacter sp., a Cytophaga sp., an Oceanospirillum sp., a Pseudoalteromonas sp., and a Vibrio sp.) recently isolated from seawater samples and grown in culture at different temperatures. The intensity of SYPRO-protein fluorescence of these bacteria strongly correlated with their total protein content, measured by the bicinc...

  7. Effect of feeding a direct-fed microbial on total and antimicrobial-resistant fecal coliform counts in preweaned dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Erik M; Norby, Bo; Halbert, Lisa W; Henderson, Scott T; Grooms, Daniel L; Manning, Shannon D; Kaneene, John B

    2015-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether feeding a direct-fed microbial (DFM) to dairy calves would reduce total and antimicrobial-resistant coliform counts in feces and affect average daily gain (ADG). ANIMALS 21 preweaned Holstein heifer calves. PROCEDURES The study had a randomized complete block design. Within each block, 3 consecutively born calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups within 24 hours after birth (day 0). Calves were fed the DFM at 1.0 g (DFM1; n = 7) or 0.5 g (DFM2; 7) twice daily or no DFM (control; 7) from days 0 through 29. A fecal sample was collected from each calf daily on days 0 through 3 and then every other day through day 29. Fecal samples were cultured, and mean numbers of total coliforms and coliforms resistant to ampicillin, ceftiofur, and tetracycline were compared among the 3 treatment groups. Calves were weighed on days 0 and 29 to calculate ADG. RESULTS Mean total fecal coliform counts did not differ significantly among the 3 treatment groups. Mean ceftiofur-resistant and tetracycline-resistant coliform counts for the control group were significantly lower, compared with those for the DFM1 and DFM2 groups. Mean ADG did not differ significantly between the DFM1 and DFM2 groups; however, the mean ADG for all calves fed the DFM was 0.15 kg less than that for control calves. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that the DFM fed to the preweaned calves of this study did not reduce total or antimicrobial-resistant coliform counts in feces. PMID:26309106

  8. Filtration effects of zebra mussels on pathogens and total bacterial burden in the Odra Lagoon (South Baltic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daeschlein, G; Fenske, C; Scholz, S; Dahlke, S; Jünger, M; Kramer, A

    2015-01-01

    As a result of their mode of filter feeding, zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha Pall.) have been observed to purify natural water bodies and in vitro. Therefore, the possibility of using zebra mussels for water purification was investigated in a slightly brackish water body of a large lagoon. In this study, water samples were taken above, near and at distance from zebra mussel beds (MB) in the Odra Lagoon in North East Germany. Near typical bacterial species like Aeromonas spp. pathogenic bacteria with potential relation to hospital wastewater pollution (Burkholderia cepacia, Staphylococcus aureus, Weeksella spp.) were detected. There were no correlations found between either total bacteria or pathogens and distance to MB and no antimicrobial effect of the mussels could be deduced. For bioremediation in larger water bodies like lagoons, natural zebra MB do not seem to play a major antimicrobial role and the effect of artificial mussel grids especially against hospital pathogens should be investigated. PMID:25945852

  9. Effects of temperature and fertilization on the structure of total versus active bacterial communities from sub-Antarctic seawater exposed to crude oil and diesel fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Rodríguez-Blanco

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Polar environments are exposed to the risk of oil pollution. However, there is limited knowledge regarding how the variation of physicochemical factors influencing biodegradation may affect bacterial community structure. The effects of temperature (4, 10 and 20°C and organic fertilization (Inipol EAP 22 on community structure and diversity of bacteria inhabiting Kerguelen sub-Antarctic waters were studied in crude- and diesel-amended microcosms. Dynamics of total (i.e., 16S rDNA-based and metabolically active (i.e., 16S rRNA-based bacterial community structure and diversity were monitored using capillary-electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism. Results showed that total and active community structures were differently influenced by temperature and fertilization in the presence of hydrocarbons. Both fertilization and temperature induced changes in total community structure in the presence of crude oil and diesel. However, temperature showed a limited influence on active community structure, and fertilization induced changes in the presence of crude oil only. Simpson's index decreased for total bacterial communities at all temperatures in the presence of crude oil and diesel, whereas a lower reduction was observed for active bacterial populations. In the presence of fertilizer, the diversity of the whole community approached control values after seven incubation weeks; this was not observed for the active bacterial community. This study evidenced qualitative differences in total and active bacterial community structures of Kerguelen seawaters in the presence of hydrocarbons and different responses relative to variation in temperature and fertilization. These factors and hydrocarbons composition have to be taken into account to understand bacterial community dynamics after an oil spill.

  10. Model of sepsis (Caecal Ligation and Puncture in rats caused by mixed and pure bacterial cultures and changes in white blood cell counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanovi? Dragica

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of leucocytes and immunocompetent cells, was investigated during a clinical form of sepsis in rats. The experiments were carried out on 104 male rats, Wistar strain, of body weight 190 to 240 g. The rats were divided into four groups: three with 28 animals and one control group with 20 animals. The animals were killed 12, 24, 72 or 120 hours after surgical intervention. This consisted of caecal ligation and puncture (CLP, with inoculation of mixed bacteria or pure cultures of Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus. They induced similar changes in the total leukocyte counts and percentages of different white blood cells. The significant leucopenia in the first half (early sepsis of the examined period preceded significant leukosis in the rats with sepsis in the second half of the experiment (late sepsis. Also there were significant alterations in the numbers of granulocytes and agranulocytes. Neutrophilia and lymphopenia dominated during the whole period.

  11. Evaluation of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate test in conjunction with a gram negative bacterial plate count for detecting irradiation of chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study to evaluate the potential of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) test in conjunction with a Gram negative bacterial (GNB) plate count for detecting the irradiation of chicken is described. Preliminary studies demonstrated that chickens irradiated at an absorbed dose of 2.5 kGy could be differentiated from unirradiated birds by measuring levels of endotoxin and of numbers of GNB on chicken skin. Irradiated birds were found to have endotoxin levels similar to those found in unirradiated birds but significantly lower numbers of GNB. In a limited study the test was found to be applicable to birds from different processors. The effect of temperature abuse on the microbiological profile, and thus the efficacy of the test, was also investigated. After temperature abuse, the irradiated birds were identifiable at worst up to 3 days after irradiation treatment at the 2.5 kGy level and at best some 13 days after irradiation. Temperature abuse at 150C resulted in rapid recovery of surviving micro-organisms which made differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds using this test unreliable. The microbiological quality of the bird prior to irradiation treatment also affected the test as large numbers of GNB present on the bird prior to irradiation treatment resulted in larger numbers of survivors. In addition, monitoring the developing flora after irradiation treatment amd during subsequent chilled storage also aided differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds. Large numbers of yeast and Gram positive cocci were isolated from irradiated carcasses whereas Gram negative oxidative rods were the predominant spoilage flora on unirradiated birds. (author)

  12. Correction of counting rate drop at the end of blood pool ROI curves on the bases of the total visual field curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A correction method based on the constant total counting rate in the final diastolic phase is described. The method should be applied in cases without time standardisation. If Fourier techniques are used for curve smoothing and for the calculation of phase and amplitude images, also users who do not have list mode, hybrid mode or frame mode with direct correction will be able to apply the method of gated blood pool scanning. In fact, time correction at a later stage may even have some advantages. (orig.)

  13. The Effect Of 8 Day Storage At 4?C On Total Nucleated Cell Count, Cell Viability, And Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Forming Unit Of Mobilized Peripheral Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohyeddin Bonab M

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC transplantation has brought the possibility of the use of high dose chemotherapy in the treatment of malignant hematopoietic diseases. Short-term HSC preservation at 4?C is the most common method for autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT. Materials and Methods: Thirty-seven mobilized PBSC samples from thirteen hematological patients (4 AML, 4 MM and 5 Lymphoma cases who were selected for autologous PBSCT and 24 normal candidates for allogenic PBSCT were preserved in five separate sterile 2 ml tubes in 4?C. Each sample was evaluated for total nucleated cell (TNC count, dye exclusion cell viability and Granulocyte-Macrophage colony forming unit (GM-CFU; in semisolid medium after 16 days in days 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8. The results were converted to percentages of day 0 measures. The data were analyzed by SPSS 10.0 using Paired Samples T test, Independent Samples T test and Regression. Results: The mean percentages (and standard deviations of TNC count, cell viability and GM-CFU for days 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 are shown below: No significant correlation was found between age, sex, weight and the kind of donor with TNC, viability and GM-CFU. Conclusion: In this study, we have found that during storage of mobilized PBSC in 4?C, TNC count and cell viability still remains higher than 70% after eight days, while GM-CFU decreases more rapidly and falls to less than 50% after day 4.Therefore, TNC count and cell viability do not decrease as fast as GM-CFU.

  14. Bioprospecting from Marine Sediments of New Brunswick, Canada: Exploring the Relationship between Total Bacterial Diversity and Actinobacteria Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine Duncan; Bradley Haltli; Krista A. Gill; Kerr, Russell G.

    2014-01-01

    Actinomycetes are an important resource for the discovery of natural products with therapeutic properties. Bioprospecting for actinomycetes typically proceeds without a priori knowledge of the bacterial diversity present in sampled habitats. In this study, we endeavored to determine if overall bacterial diversity in marine sediments, as determined by 16S rDNA amplicon pyrosequencing, could be correlated with culturable actinomycete diversity, and thus serve as a powerful tool in guiding futu...

  15. Total alpha and beta determination by liquid scintillation counting in water samples from a Brazilian intercomparison exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes CNEN/LAPOC's participation in the Brazilian Intercomparison Exercise (PNI) for simultaneous determination of total radioactivity in water samples, which took place in August and December 2008. The Proficiency Test (PT) also involved a short description of the nuclear analytical technique employed, emphasizing sources of uncertainty. A Liquid Scintillation System (Packard TRICARB 2700) was used with appropriate corrections applied to final results, expressed as Bq L-1. Participation and PT data provide independent information on performance of a Laboratory and have an important role in method validation; especially because it allows the assessment of method performance over an entire range of concentrations and matrices. PT is also an important tool to demonstrate equivalence of measurements, if not their metrological comparability, and to promote education and improvement of Lab practices. (author)

  16. The influence of etofenprox on narrow clawed crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz, 1823): Acute toxicity and sublethal effects on histology, hemolymph parameters, and total hemocyte counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benli, Aysel Caglan Karasu

    2015-07-01

    The acute and sublethal effects of etofenprox, a nonester pyrethroid, was determined in narrow-clawed crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz, 1823). Semistatic bioassay procedures were followed in both experiments, and the 24, 48, 72, and 96 h LC50 values (with 95% confidence limits) of technical etofenprox for crayfish were calculated as 0.68, 0.61, 0.45, and 0.41 µg/L, respectively based on Finney's probit analysis. Two concentrations of etofenprox (0.04 and 0.1 µg/L) were tested to determine sublethal effects due to 96 hours exposure. After exposure to sublethal etofenprox, hemolymph glucose, and lactate levels increased while total hemocyte counts and sodium levels decreased (p?hemocytes and hemolymph stress parameters via histological response, to compansate for the adverse effects of etofenprox. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 30: 887-894, 2015. PMID:24510384

  17. Bioprospecting from Marine Sediments of New Brunswick, Canada: Exploring the Relationship between Total Bacterial Diversity and Actinobacteria Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Katherine; Haltli, Bradley; Gill, Krista A.; Kerr, Russell G.

    2014-01-01

    Actinomycetes are an important resource for the discovery of natural products with therapeutic properties. Bioprospecting for actinomycetes typically proceeds without a priori knowledge of the bacterial diversity present in sampled habitats. In this study, we endeavored to determine if overall bacterial diversity in marine sediments, as determined by 16S rDNA amplicon pyrosequencing, could be correlated with culturable actinomycete diversity, and thus serve as a powerful tool in guiding future bioprospecting efforts. Overall bacterial diversity was investigated in eight marine sediments from four sites in New Brunswick, Canada, resulting in over 44,000 high quality sequences (x = 5610 per sample). Analysis revealed all sites exhibited significant diversity (H’ = 5.4 to 6.7). Furthermore, statistical analysis of species level bacterial communities (D = 0.03) indicated community composition varied according to site and was strongly influenced by sediment physiochemical composition. In contrast, cultured actinomycetes (n = 466, 98.3% Streptomyces) were ubiquitously distributed among all sites and distribution was not influenced by sediment composition, suggesting that the biogeography of culturable actinomycetes does not correlate with overall bacterial diversity in the samples examined. These actinomycetes provide a resource for future secondary metabolite discovery, as exemplified by the antimicrobial activity observed from preliminary investigation. PMID:24531187

  18. Bioprospecting from Marine Sediments of New Brunswick, Canada: Exploring the Relationship between Total Bacterial Diversity and Actinobacteria Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Duncan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycetes are an important resource for the discovery of natural products with therapeutic properties. Bioprospecting for actinomycetes typically proceeds without a priori knowledge of the bacterial diversity present in sampled habitats. In this study, we endeavored to determine if overall bacterial diversity in marine sediments, as determined by 16S rDNA amplicon pyrosequencing, could be correlated with culturable actinomycete diversity, and thus serve as a powerful tool in guiding future bioprospecting efforts. Overall bacterial diversity was investigated in eight marine sediments from four sites in New Brunswick, Canada, resulting in over 44,000 high quality sequences (x? = 5610 per sample. Analysis revealed all sites exhibited significant diversity (H’ = 5.4 to 6.7. Furthermore, statistical analysis of species level bacterial communities (D = 0.03 indicated community composition varied according to site and was strongly influenced by sediment physiochemical composition. In contrast, cultured actinomycetes (n = 466, 98.3% Streptomyces were ubiquitously distributed among all sites and distribution was not influenced by sediment composition, suggesting that the biogeography of culturable actinomycetes does not correlate with overall bacterial diversity in the samples examined. These actinomycetes provide a resource for future secondary metabolite discovery, as exemplified by the antimicrobial activity observed from preliminary investigation.

  19. Bacterial Contamination of Tsire-Suya, a Nigerian Meat Product

    OpenAIRE

    R.E. Uzeh; R.E. Ohenhen; O.O. Adeniji

    2006-01-01

    Samples of raw meat prior to roasting, and tsire-suya were analyzed bacteriologically for total viable, coliform, staphylococcal counts and the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The sensitivity of the bacterial isolates to some antibiotics and spices was evaluated. The total viable count varied from 20x102 to 289x102 cfu/g for the raw meat and 7x102 to 171x102 cfu/g for the tsire-suya. The coliform count was 4x102 to 71x10...

  20. Effects of temperature and fertilization on the structure of total versus active bacterial communities from sub-Antarctic seawater exposed to crude oil and diesel fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Arturo Rodríguez-Blanco; Audrey Duval; Emilien Pelletier; Daniel Delille; Jean-François Ghiglione

    2013-01-01

    Polar environments are exposed to the risk of oil pollution. However, there is limited knowledge regarding how the variation of physicochemical factors influencing biodegradation may affect bacterial community structure. The effects of temperature (4, 10 and 20°C) and organic fertilization (Inipol EAP 22) on community structure and diversity of bacteria inhabiting Kerguelen sub-Antarctic waters were studied in crude- and diesel-amended microcosms. Dynamics of total (i.e., 16S rDNA-base...

  1. Hemocyte types and total and differential counts in unparasitized and parasitized Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera, Tephritidae) larvae / Tipos de hemócitos e contagem total e diferencial em larvas parasitadas e não parasitadas de Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. E. B., SILVA; I. C., BOLELI; Z. L. P., SIMÕES.

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Os tipos de hemócitos e as contagens total e diferencial foram estudados em larvas parasitadas e não parasitadas de Anastrepha obliqua pertencentes ao início e ao final da terceira fase. Em ambas as fases do desenvolvimento, tanto em larvas parasitadas quanto nas não parasitadas, foram observados pr [...] ó-hemócitos, plasmatócitos, granulócitos, adipo-hemócitos, esferulócitos e oenocitóides. A presença de divisões mitóticas indica os pró-hemócitos como células-tronco. Pró-hemócitos, plasmatócitos e granulócitos são as células mais numerosas na hemolinfa de A. obliqua. Foi observada diferença no número total de hemócitos entre larvas parasitadas e não parasitadas apenas no final da terceira fase. Abstract in english The hemocyte types, in addition to total and differential hemocyte counts were studied in parasitized and unparasitized Anastrepha obliqua larvae at the beginning and at the end of the third instar. In both developmental phases, in parasitized and unparasitized larvae, prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, g [...] ranulocytes, adipohemocytes, spherulocytes and oenocytoids cells were observed. Mitotic figures indicate prohemocytes as stem cells. Prohemocytes, plasmatocytes and granulocytes are the most numerous cells in the hemolymph of A. obliqua. Difference in the total number of hemocytes was observed between unparasitized and parasitized larvae at the end of the third instar, but not at the beginning.

  2. New method for estimating bacterial cell abundances in natural samples by use of sublimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Cleaves, H. James; Schubert, Michael; Aubrey, Andrew; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a new method based on the sublimation of adenine from Escherichia coli to estimate bacterial cell counts in natural samples. To demonstrate this technique, several types of natural samples, including beach sand, seawater, deep-sea sediment, and two soil samples from the Atacama Desert, were heated to a temperature of 500 degrees C for several seconds under reduced pressure. The sublimate was collected on a cold finger, and the amount of adenine released from the samples was then determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV absorbance detection. Based on the total amount of adenine recovered from DNA and RNA in these samples, we estimated bacterial cell counts ranging from approximately 10(5) to 10(9) E. coli cell equivalents per gram. For most of these samples, the sublimation-based cell counts were in agreement with total bacterial counts obtained by traditional DAPI (4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining.

  3. Blood count and C-reactive protein evolution in gastric cancer patients with total gastrectomy surgery / Evolução do hemograma e proteína C-reativa em pacientes com câncer gástrico operados por gastrectomia total

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Attila CSENDES, J.; Andrea MUÑOZ, Ch.; Ana María BURGOS, L..

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: O hemograma completo (CBC) e a proteína C-reativa (PCR) são úteis para excluir parâmetros inflamatórios e complicações inflamatórias agudas pós-operatórias. OBJETIVO: Determinar muda [...] nças nesses parâmetros em pacientes com câncer gástrico submetidos à gastrectomia total. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo com 36 pacientes com câncer gástrico submetidos todos à gastrectomia eletiva. No primeiro, terceiro e quinto dias pós-operatórios (PO), alterações do hemograma e as mudanças de PCR foram avaliadas. Os pacientes com complicações pós-operatórias foram excluídos. RESULTADOS: Vinte e um (58%) eram homens e 15 (42%) mulheres. A média de idade era de 65 anos. Os leucócitos atingiram o pico no primeiro PO com média de 13.826 u/mm³??, e decresceram para 8.266 u/mm³ no quinto. Os bastonetes atingiram o pico no primeiro PO com valor máximo de 1,48%. O nível máximo da PCR foi no 3º PO, com média de 144,64 mg/l±44,84. O hematócrito pré-operatório (HCT) foi de 35% e de 33,67% até o 5o PO. A hemoglobina não apresentou alterações. CONCLUSÕES: Houve aumento de leucócitos no 1o PO mas atingiram valores normais até o 5o PO. PCR atingiu o pico no 3º PO, mas não atingiu os valores normais até o quinto. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: The complete blood count (CBC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are useful inflammatory parameters for ruling out acute postoperative inflammatory complications. AIM: [...] To determine their changes in gastric cancer patients submitted to total gastrectomy. METHODS: This is a prospective study, with 36 patients with gastric cancer who were submitted to elective total gastrectomy. On the first, third and fifth postoperative day (POD), blood count and CRP changes were assessed. Patients with postoperative complications were excluded. RESULTS: Twenty-one (58%) were men and 15 (42%) women. The mean age was 65 years. The leukocytes peaked on the 1st POD with a mean of 13,826 u/mm³, and decreased to 8,266 u/mm³ by the 5th POD. The bacilliforms peaked on the 1st POD with a maximum value of 1.48%. CRP reached its maximum level on the 3rd POD with a mean of 144.64 mg/l±44.84. Preoperative hematocrit (HCT) was 35% and 33.67% by the 5th POD. Hemoglobin, showed similar values. CONCLUSIONS: Leukocytes increased during the 1st POD but reached normal values by the 5th POD. CRP peaked on the 3rd POD but did not reach normal values by the 5th POD.

  4. Relationship between lactic acid concentration and bacterial spoilage in ground beef.

    OpenAIRE

    Nassos, P S; King, A. D.; Stafford, A E

    1983-01-01

    Lactic acid concentration correlated with organoleptic spoilage of refrigerated, coarsely ground beef stored in casings with low oxygen permeability. The samples were assayed over time for lactic acid concentration, total aerobic plate count, percentage of gram-positive organisms, and pH. Lactic acid increased in all samples, as did the bacterial counts and percentage of gram-positive organisms in the total microflora, the latter representing an increase in the lactic acid-producing bacteria....

  5. Bacterial Contamination of Iranian Paper Currency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir-Hassan Moosavy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transmission of human pathogens can be occurred via inert objects. Paper currency is a further common contact surface whereby pathogens can be transferred within a population although the significance remains unknown. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate microbial populations associated with Iranian paper currency.Methods: This study was carried out by getting 108 samples of the Iranian currency notes (1000, 2000, 5000, 10000, 20000 and 50000 RIALS from food-related shops that included food service outlets, greengrocery, supermarket, bakery, confectionary and poultry meat retail outlets. All currency notes were examined for total bacterial count and identification of pathogenic bacteria.Results: The average total bacterial count that was recovered from currency notes was found to be 3.27±0.31 colony forming unites. 2000R had the highest total bacterial count, followed by 5000R, 10000R and the lowest in 50000R. In this study, the isolated bacteria recovered were Bacillus cereus (8.33%, E. coli (48.14%, Staphylococcus aureus (28.7%, Salmonella (0.92%, Listeria monocytogenes (0.92%, Yersinia entrocolitica (6.48%. It was revealed that all the pathogens screened for where encountered on currency notes were recovered from one sample. There were no significant (P>0.05 correlations between the carriage of pathogens/fecal indicator bacteria and currency note condition.Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that Iranian currency notes represent a significant vehicle for human pathogens.

  6. Total volatile fatty acids and bacterial production rates as affected by rations containing untreated or ammonia (urea) treated rice straw in croos-bred cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding ammoniated rice straw on ruminal total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) and bacterial production rates. Twelve karan swiss, male, rumen fistulated calves (2-2.5 yrs) were divided in three equal groups. Animals were offered rice straw either untreated (A) or 4 per cent urea+40 per cent moisture treated and ensiled for 30 days (B) or 5 per cent urea+30 per cent moisture treated and ensiled for 30 days (C). Protein requirements were met through concentrate mixture. Levels of NH3-N and TCA-precipitable-N in strained rumen liquor (SRL) were significantly higher (20.34±0.022, 63.26±0.81 (B), 20.78±0.41, 64.98±0.87 (C) (mg/100 ml SRL) in groups fed ammoniated ±0.31, 45.94±1.91 mg/100 ml S RL), respectively. The bacterial production rates in the rumen (g/day) were significantly higher in groups B and C as compared to group A. TVFA concentrations (mmole/100 ml SRL ) and TVFA production rates (mmole/d) were also significantly higher in groups B and C as compared to group A. The bacterial production rates were significantly co-related with TVFA, NH3-N, TCA precipitable-N concentration in the rumen and ATP production. Multiple regression equations relating bacterial production rates with (i)NH3-N and TVFA concentration in the rumen, (ii)NH3-N and TVFA production rates and (iii)NH3-N and ATP produced were also developed. (author). 18 refs., 2 tabs

  7. Leukocyte-subset counts in idiopathic parkinsonism provide clues to a pathogenic pathway involving small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. A surveillance study

    OpenAIRE

    Dobbs R; Charlett André; Dobbs Sylvia M; Weller Clive; A Ibrahim Mohammad A; Iguodala Owens; Smee Cori; Plant J van der; Lawson Andrew J; Taylor David; Bjarnason Ingvar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Following Helicobacter pylori eradication in idiopathic parkinsonism (IP), hypokinesia improved but flexor-rigidity increased. Small intestinal bacterial-overgrowth (SIBO) is a candidate driver of the rigidity: hydrogen-breath-test-positivity is common in IP and case histories suggest that Helicobacter keeps SIBO at bay. Methods In a surveillance study, we explore relationships of IP-facets to peripheral immune/inflammatory-activation, in light of presence/absence of Helic...

  8. Behavior of Salmonella heidelberg and Salmonella enteritidis strains following broiler chick inoculation: evaluation of cecal morphometry, liver and cecum bacterial counts and fecal excretion patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderlise Borsoi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, Salmonella Heidelberg (SH has gained prominence in North America poultry production and in the poultry production of other countries. Salmonella Heidelberg has been isolated and reported from poultry and poultry products in Brazil since 1962, whereas Salmonella Enteritidis (SE has only emerged as a serious problem in poultry and public health since 1993. These strains of Salmonella can cause intestinal problems in newly hatched chicks, and infection may persist until adulthood. Upon slaughter of chickens, Salmonella can contaminate carcasses, a condition that poses a threat to human health. The aim of this study was to compare the fecal excretion of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Heidelberg in newly hatched chicks (orally inoculated with 10(5ufc/mL each until 20 days of age. In addition, the ratio of cecal villus height:crypt depth (morphometry and liver and cecum cell counts was analyzed in chicks ranging from 0 to 3 days of age and infected with these two Salmonella strains. One hundred seventeen chicks were separated into one of three experimental groups: a control group, an SE-infected group and an SH-infected group. Eight chicks per group were euthanized at 6, 12 and 72 hours post-inoculation (pi to allow for Salmonella isolation from the liver and cecum and for the collection of the cecum for villi and crypt analysis. Other birds were allowed to mature to 20 days of age and cloacal swabs were taken at 2, 6, 13 and 20 days pi to compare the fecal excretion of inoculated strains. The Salmonella Enteritidis group had a higher number of cells excreted during the trial. Both strains were isolated from the liver and cecum by 6h pi. At 12h pi the Salmonella Heidelberg group had high cell counts in the cecum. No difference was found in liver cell counts. Both strains showed lower villus height:crypt depth ratio than the control group post-infection.

  9. Behavior of Salmonella heidelberg and Salmonella enteritidis strains following broiler chick inoculation: evaluation of cecal morphometry, liver and cecum bacterial counts and fecal excretion patterns

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anderlise, Borsoi; Luciana Ruschel do, Santos; Laura Beatriz, Rodrigues; Hamilton Luiz de Souza, Moraes; Carlos Tadeu Pippi, Salle; Vladimir Pinheiro do, Nascimento.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) has gained prominence in North America poultry production and in the poultry production of other countries. Salmonella Heidelberg has been isolated and reported from poultry and poultry products in Brazil since 1962, whereas Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) has [...] only emerged as a serious problem in poultry and public health since 1993. These strains of Salmonella can cause intestinal problems in newly hatched chicks, and infection may persist until adulthood. Upon slaughter of chickens, Salmonella can contaminate carcasses, a condition that poses a threat to human health. The aim of this study was to compare the fecal excretion of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Heidelberg in newly hatched chicks (orally inoculated with 10(5)ufc/mL each) until 20 days of age. In addition, the ratio of cecal villus height:crypt depth (morphometry) and liver and cecum cell counts was analyzed in chicks ranging from 0 to 3 days of age and infected with these two Salmonella strains. One hundred seventeen chicks were separated into one of three experimental groups: a control group, an SE-infected group and an SH-infected group. Eight chicks per group were euthanized at 6, 12 and 72 hours post-inoculation (pi) to allow for Salmonella isolation from the liver and cecum and for the collection of the cecum for villi and crypt analysis. Other birds were allowed to mature to 20 days of age and cloacal swabs were taken at 2, 6, 13 and 20 days pi to compare the fecal excretion of inoculated strains. The Salmonella Enteritidis group had a higher number of cells excreted during the trial. Both strains were isolated from the liver and cecum by 6h pi. At 12h pi the Salmonella Heidelberg group had high cell counts in the cecum. No difference was found in liver cell counts. Both strains showed lower villus height:crypt depth ratio than the control group post-infection.

  10. Effects of Ensiling Total Mixed Potato Hash Ration with or without Bacterial Inoculation on Silage Fermentation and Nutritive Value for Growing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Total Mixed Rations (TMR that contained 795 g kg-1 (as is basis of Potato Hash (PH were formulated and ensiled in 210 L drums (10 drums treatment-1 with or without lalsil fresh (heterofermentative lactic acid bacterial inoculant. After 3 months of ensiling, drums were opened and analysed for fermentation characteristics and nutritive value. This was followed by an 8 weeks growth study using forty crossbred pigs (Large white X landrace, twenty males and twenty females weighing 203 kg. Inoculating the TMR with lalsil fresh reduced (p-1 which could be attributed to the lower dietary protein (-1 DM and higher fibre contents. Further research is needed to evaluate effects of enzyme addition on the ensiling of potato hash and supplementation of energy and protein on feed intake and growth performance of pigs consuming the silage.

  11. Comparison of the TEMPO® System, Petrifilm® , and Cultural MPN Procedure for Enumeration of E. coli, Coliforms and Total Aerobic Plate Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Recent innovations in microbiological methods for analysis of food products have been in methods for detection of bacterial pathogens. Petrifilm dehydrated plates are the only significant addition to cultural procedures for indicator organisms in the last 20 years. An automated most...

  12. Leaf microbiota in an agroecosystem: spatiotemporal variation in bacterial community composition on field-grown lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Rastogi, Gurdeep; Sbodio, Adrian; Tech, Jan J; Suslow, Trevor V; Coaker, Gitta L; Leveau, Johan H J

    2012-01-01

    The presence, size and importance of bacterial communities on plant leaf surfaces are widely appreciated. However, information is scarce regarding their composition and how it changes along geographical and seasonal scales. We collected 106 samples of field-grown Romaine lettuce from commercial production regions in California and Arizona during the 2009–2010 crop cycle. Total bacterial populations averaged between 105 and 106 per gram of tissue, whereas counts of culturable bacteria were on ...

  13. Determination of main phylogenetic bacterial groups in hyporheic sediments of a small lowland stream (Sitka, Czech Republic) using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Community structure of biofilm microbial communities of hyporheic sediments in the small lowland Sitka Stream (Czech Republic) was analysed using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH provided detection of about 91 % of total DAPI-stained bacterial cells. In general, most of the EUB338-detectable cells (domain Eubacteria) could be related to the four major phylogenetic groups used in this study (?-, ?-, ?-Proteobacteria and Cytophaga-Flavobacterium). The microbial community structure of biofilm analysed was dominated by ?-Proteobacteria (36,3 % of the total counts). In addition to the domain Eubacteria, members of the domain Archaebacteria were detected in hyporheic sediments (approximately 6 % of total bacterial counts). (authors)

  14. Assessment of the efficiency of SimPlate? total plate count color indicator (TPC CI to quantify mesophilic aerobic microorganisms in pasteurized milk Avaliação da eficiência do SimPlate? Total Plate Count Color Indicator (TPC CI para enumeração de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos em leite pasteurizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Augusto Nero

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The SimPlate? TPC CI system is a rapid method to count mesophilic aerobic microorganisms (MAM in foods, based on the use of resazurine to indicate bacterial growth. Its efficiency in pasteurized milk was evaluated using 142 pasteurized milk samples (38 type A, 43 type B and 61 type C collected in Londrina, PR. The standard plating method, using Plate Count Agar (PCA was used for comparison. The plates of both systems were incubated at 35ºC and read after 24h and 48h. The occurrence of false-positive and false-negative wells and the predominant microorganisms in them were also evaluated. The results were compared by simple correlation and mean variance analyses. The correlation (r and mean variance values were 0.6811 and 0.7583 for the results obtained after 24h, respectively, and 0.9126 and 0.0842 for the results obtained after 48h, respectively. These results indicate that the performance of the system increases when the plates are incubated for 48h. When the three types of milk were evaluated separately, these values were 0.9285 and 0.0817 for type A milk, 0.9231 and 0.0466 for type B milk and 0.7209 and 0.1082 for type C milk. These results indicate that the better the quality of the milk the better the performance of SimPlate? TPC CI. False-negative wells, found more frequently in samples with high MAM counts, were caused by Gram positive microorganisms, poorly detected by the SimPlate? TPC CI system because they grew slowly and had low reduction capacity. The results indicated a higher efficiency of the SimPlate? TPC CI system in the reading at 48h.O sistema SimPlate? TPC CI é um método rápido para enumeração de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos (MAM em alimentos que utiliza a resazurina como substância indicadora de crescimento bacteriano. Para avaliar sua eficiência em leite pasteurizado, 142 amostras (38 de leite tipo A, 43 de leite tipo B e 61 de leite tipo C foram colhidas em Londrina, PR, e analisadas pelo SimPlate? TPC CI e pelo método de contagem em placas com ágar padrão de contagem (PCA. As placas de ambos os sistemas foram incubadas a 35ºC e as leituras realizadas em 24 e 48h. Também foi verificada a presença de resultados falso-positivos e falso-negativos bem como a microbiota láctea predominante nas cavidades do SimPlate? TPC CI e a capacidade redutora dos diversos grupos de microrganismos. Os resultados foram comparados através de correlação simples e variância média. Considerando a leitura em 24h do SimPlate? TPC CI, os resultados obtidos apresentaram uma correlação (r de 0,6811 (var. média: 0,7583 com os resultados do método padrão; na leitura em 48h, a correlação encontrada entre os dois métodos foi de 0,9126 (var. média: 0,0842. Considerando os diferentes tipos de leite, as leituras em 48h do SimPlate? TPC CI apresentaram as seguintes correlações com o método padrão: leite tipo A, r: 0,9285 (var. média: 0,0817; leite tipo B, r: 0,9231 (var. média: 0,0466; leite C, r: 0,7209 (var. média: 0,1082. Nas amostras com altas contagens de MAM, verificou-se uma maior freqüência de cavidades falso-negativas e uma grande participação de microrganismos Gram positivos, que são pobremente detectados pelo sistema SimPlate™ TPC CI por crescerem lentamente e possuírem baixa capacidade redutora. Os resultados indicaram um melhor eficiência do sistema SimPlate? TPC CI na leitura em 48h, além da influência direta da qualidade do leite analisado, ou seja, quanto melhor a qualidade microbiológica do leite, melhor o desempenho do sistema. A alta correlação entre os métodos indica que o SimPlate? TPC CI pode ser utilizado como uma alternativa viável ao método padrão de contagem de MAM em leite pasteurizado tipos A e B, desde que a leitura seja realizada em 48h.

  15. Heterotrophic plate count vs. in situ bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicon profiles from drinking water reveal completely different communities with distinct spatial and temporal allocations in a distribution net

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MM, Burtscher; F, Zibuschka; RL, Mach; G, Lindner; AH, Farnleitner.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Heterotrophic plate count using ISO 6222 agar (HPC) vs. in situ bacterial (DF) community structure from corresponding samples of a drinking water distribution system were investigated by 16S rRNA gene-based polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR DGGE) profiling. The i [...] nvestigation regime covered 10 different sampling locations and 2 points in time (t1, t2). In order to ensure accurate and reproducible 16S rRNA gene profile analysis, rigorous methodical evaluation and standardisation procedures were undertaken (DGGE optimisation, replication of PCR, multiple-lane standardisation, representative sampling volume determination, application of multiple similarity coefficients). The reproducibility level of the profile analysis was determined to be > 90% similarity. Two completely different communities were revealed from HPC vs. DF as indicated by DGGE analysis and sequencing. HPC populations could be identified as ubiquitously occurring cultivable copiotrophic microbes, whilst most DF sequences could be allocated to sequences from microorganisms found in oligotrophic aquatic environments. Spatial- and temporal-based 16S rRNA gene amplicon profile analysis from recovered communities further revealed contrasting results. As proven by Jackknife simulations, DF profiles remarkably corresponded to sampling time, whereas HPC profiles revealed spatial associations within the distribution system. Recovered data demonstrate that cultivation based HPC vs. direct cell-based investigations can result in completely different results if used for monitoring purposes in distribution systems.

  16. Socioeconomic and technical assistance factors related to total bacteria count and somatic cell count of milk from bulk tanks in southern Minas Gerais State, Brazil / Fatores socioeconômicos e de assistência técnica relacionados a contagem bacteriana total e células somáticas do leite de tanques no sul do estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcel Gomes, Paixão; Guilherme Nunes de, Souza; Marcos Aurélio, Lopes; Geraldo Márcio da, Costa; Luiz Ronaldo de, Abreu; Sandra Maria, Pinto.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o perfil socioeconômico e de assistência técnica de produtores de leite provenientes de seis cidades no sul do estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, e identificar os possíveis fatores de risco associados com a contagem bacteriana total (CBT) do leite acima de 43.000 U [...] FC mL-1 e contagem de células somáticas do leite do tanque (CCST) acima 595.000 células mL-1. A maioria dos produtores possuía entre 41 e 60 anos de idade (48,9%), 74,2% não alcançaram o ensino médio e, 72,3% dos entrevistados estavam satisfeitos com a sua profissão, embora 63% não recomendaria a pecuária leiteira para os seus filhos. Apenas 34,7% utilizaram assistência técnica periodicamente, mas 59,1% a consultava em caso de dúvidas. Os fatores de risco encontrados nos modelos finais de regressão multivariada foram: CBT (Não consulta a assistência técnica em caso de dúvidas, OR 3,97 e P=0,030; Aposentadoria, OR 9,32 e P=0,041) e CCST (Produtor não reside na fazenda, OR 4,06 e P=0,046; Presença de assistência técnica OR 3,29 e P=0,041). Pode-se concluir que a busca por assistência técnica de forma emergencial, conforme relatado pelos agricultores, foi eficaz contra os problemas de CBT; no entanto, ineficaz para o controle de mastite no rebanho e na redução dos níveis de CCST. O programa de controle de mastite de 10 pontos do National Mastitis Council precisa ser incluído nas fazendas pesquisadas, especialmente em relação à assessoria técnica permanente por veterinários, visando o estabelecimento de metas para o status de saúde do úbere, revisões e registros. Abstract in english The purpose of this survey was to evaluate the socioeconomic and technical assistance profiles of dairy farmers from six districts in the south of Minas Gerais state, Brazil, and to identify the possible risk factors associated with total milk bacteria count (TBC) above 43,000 CFU mL-1 and bulk milk [...] somatic cell count (BMSCC) above 595,000 cells mL-1. Most of the producers were between 41 and 60 years of age (48.9%), 74.2% did not reach high school, and 72.3% of the respondents were satisfied with their profession, although 63% would not recommend dairy farming to their children. Only 34.7% used periodic technical assistance, but 59.1% consulted it in cases of doubt. The risk factors found in the final multivariable regression models were: TBC (Did not consult technical assistance in case of doubt, OR 3.97, P=0.030; Retirement, OR 9.32, P=0.041) and BMSCC (Producer does not reside on farm, OR 4.06, P=0.046; Presence of technical assistance OR 3.29, P=0.041). It can be concluded that the search for emergency technical assistance, as reported by farmers, was effective against the TBC problems; however, it was ineffective for controlling mastitis in the herd and reducing BMSCC levels. The 10 step mastitis control program from the National Mastitis Council needs to be included on the surveyed farms, especially the permanent advisory technical assistance from veterinarians, aiming towards the establishment of goals for udder health status, reviews and records.

  17. Bacterial contamination of street vending food in Kumasi, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Feglo, P.; Sakyi, K.

    2012-01-01

    Street vending foods are readily available sources of meals for many people but the biological safe-ty of such food is always in doubt. The aim of this study is to ascertain bacterial isolate and deter-mine total counts of bacterial species responsible for the contamination of the street vending food in Kumasi so as to determine the microbiological safety of such a food. This prospective study was conducted among street vending food at four bus terminals in Kumasi. From November, 2008 to Febr...

  18. Diversity of the total bacterial community associated with Ghanaian and Brazilian cocoa bean fermentation samples as revealed by a 16 S rRNA gene clone library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Armisen, Tamara; Papalexandratou, Zoi; Hendryckx, Hugo; Camu, Nicholas; Vrancken, Gino; De Vuyst, Luc; Cornelis, Pierre

    2010-08-01

    Cocoa bean fermentation is a spontaneous process involving a succession of microbial activities, starting with yeasts, followed by lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. So far, all microbiological studies about cocoa bean fermentation were based on culture-dependent (isolation, cultivation, and identification), or, more recently, culture-independent (PCR-DGGE, or polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) methods. Using a metagenomic approach, total DNA was extracted from heap and box fermentations at different time points and from different locations (Ghana and Brazil, respectively) to generate a 16 S rDNA clone library that was sequenced. The sequencing data revealed a low bacterial diversity in the fermentation samples and were in accordance with the results obtained through culture-dependent and a second, culture-independent analysis (PCR-DGGE), suggesting that almost all bacteria involved in the fermentation process are cultivable. One exception was the identification by 16 S rDNA library sequencing of Gluconacetobacter species of acetic acid bacteria that were not detected by the two other approaches. The presence of Enterobacteriaceae related to Erwinia/Pantoea/Tatumella, as revealed by 16 S rDNA library sequencing, suggests an impact of these bacteria on fermentation. PMID:20559826

  19. Comparative microbial sampling from eutrophic caves in Slovenia and Slovakia using RIDA®COUNT test kits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulec Janez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available RIDA®COUNT test plates were used as an easy-to-handle and rapid indicator of microbial counts in karst ecosystems of several caves in Slovakia and Slovenia. All of the caves had a high organic input from water streams, tourists, roosting bat colonies or terrestrial surroundings. We sampled swabs, water and air samples to test robustness and universality of the RIDA®COUNT test kit (R-Biopharm AG, Germany, http://www.r-biopharm.com/ for quantification of total bacteria, coliforms, yeast and mold. Using data from swabs (colony-forming units CFU per cm2 we proposed a scale for description of biocontamination level or superficial microbial load of cave niches. Based on this scale, surfaces of Ardovská Cave, Drienovská Cave and Stará Brzotínská Cave (Slovakia were moderately colonized by microbes, with total microbial counts (sum of total bacterial count and total yeast and molds count in the range of 1,001-10,000 CFU/100 cm2, while some surfaces from the show cave Postojna Cave (Slovenia can be considered highly colonized by microbes (total microbial counts ? 10,001 CFU/100 cm2. Ardovská Cave also had a high concentration of airborne microbes, which can be explained by restricted air circulation and regular bat activity. The ratio of coliform to total counts of bacteria in the 9 km of underground Pivka River flow in Postojna Cave dropped approximately 4-fold from the entrance, indicating the high anthropogenic pollution in the most exposed site in the show cave. The RIDA®COUNT test kit was proven to be applicable for regular monitoring of eutrophication and human influence in eutrophic karst caves.

  20. Preliminary Study on Efficacy of Leaves, Seeds and Bark Extracts of Moringa oleifera in Reducing Bacterial load in Water

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed S. Osman; Arafat M. Goja

    2013-01-01

    Water quality and treatment are the most important issue in everywhere, especially in the developing countries, where safe and clean water is not continuously provided. Moringa oleifera is one of the best natural coagulants that has effectively used in water treatments. The aqueous extract of seeds, leaves and bark of Moringa oleifera was evaluated for their efficacy in reducing total bacterial load, coliform count and faecal coliform counts in the treatment of drinking water. The standard po...

  1. Irradiation of sangari (Prosopis cineraria): Effect on composition and microbial counts during storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Priyanka [S. K. Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner 334 006 (India); Nathawat, N.S. [Central Arid Zone Research Institute, RRS, Bikaner 334 006 (India); Chhipa, B.G. [S. K. Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner 334 006 (India); Hajare, Sachin N. [Food Technology Divisions, BARC, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Goyal, Madhu; Sahu, M.P. [S. K. Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner 334 006 (India); Singh, Govind, E-mail: govindsingh10@rediffmail.com [S. K. Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner 334 006 (India)

    2011-11-15

    Fresh dried and old dried sangari (Prosopis cineraria) were treated with 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 7.0 kGy of irradiation and subsequently stored at ambient temperatures. Proximate values and total bacterial counts were evaluated immediately after irradiation and at regular intervals of 1 month during 3 months of storage. No significant changes were found in moisture, fat, protein, ash and fiber contents. Total sugar content was increased in both control and irradiated samples possibly due to conversion of starch into sugars. Irradiation treatment reduces total bacterial counts of dried samples of both fresh and old dried sangari. However, a dose of 5.0 kGy completely decontaminated both sangari and there was no microbial growth in 5.0 kGy irradiated samples during the storage period. Irradiation at 5.0 kGy was enough to extend the shelf-life of dried sangari up to 3 months without any significant change in the nutritional qualities. - Highlights: > Sangari (Prosopis cineraria) was irradiated and stored at ambient temperature. > No significant changes were observed in proximate analysis during storage. > Starch content was decreased during storage at all irradiation doses. > A dose of 5 kGy was found appropriate to eliminate total bacterial counts.

  2. Irradiation of sangari (Prosopis cineraria): Effect on composition and microbial counts during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresh dried and old dried sangari (Prosopis cineraria) were treated with 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 7.0 kGy of irradiation and subsequently stored at ambient temperatures. Proximate values and total bacterial counts were evaluated immediately after irradiation and at regular intervals of 1 month during 3 months of storage. No significant changes were found in moisture, fat, protein, ash and fiber contents. Total sugar content was increased in both control and irradiated samples possibly due to conversion of starch into sugars. Irradiation treatment reduces total bacterial counts of dried samples of both fresh and old dried sangari. However, a dose of 5.0 kGy completely decontaminated both sangari and there was no microbial growth in 5.0 kGy irradiated samples during the storage period. Irradiation at 5.0 kGy was enough to extend the shelf-life of dried sangari up to 3 months without any significant change in the nutritional qualities. - Highlights: ? Sangari (Prosopis cineraria) was irradiated and stored at ambient temperature. ? No significant changes were observed in proximate analysis during storage. ? Starch content was decreased during storage at all irradiation doses. ? A dose of 5 kGy was found appropriate to eliminate total bacterial counts.

  3. Radio-resistance of some bacterial pathogens in soft-shell clams (Mya arenaria) and mussels (Mytilus edulis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-irradiation decimal reduction doses were determined for E. coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, Strept. faecalis, Staph, aureus, and the Total Plate Count in a soft-shell clam or mussel substrate. Factors to be considered for designing and irradiation bacterial-decontamination process for shellfish are discussed

  4. Platelet Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as immune thrombocytopenic purpura, is the result of antibody production against platelets. Viral infections such as mononucleosis , hepatitis , HIV or ... counts. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) results in low platelets ... heparin therapy develops an antibody. (For more on this, see the article on ...

  5. The use of sources emitting coincident gamma-rays for the determination of photopeak and total efficiencies in non-point-source counting geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The validity of a previously published method for determination of full-energy peak as well as total efficiency curves and source activity from a 82Br spectrum is experimentally tested for the case of a thin slab mounted on the end cap of a 20% relative efficiency HpGe detector, as well as for a Marinelli beaker geometry. It is concluded that, even though a full-energy and total efficiency curve can be found that reproduce the measured 82Br spectrum, the corresponding source activity is an underestimation of the true value, apparently depending on the degree of variation of the efficiencies over the source volume. The applicability of the curves found to other radionuclides is as yet unclear. (orig.)

  6. A New Method for Estimating Bacterial Abundances in Natural Samples using Sublimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Cleaves, H. James; Schubert, Michael; Aubrey, Andrew; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a new method based on the sublimation of adenine from Escherichia coli to estimate bacterial cell counts in natural samples. To demonstrate this technique, several types of natural samples including beach sand, seawater, deep-sea sediment, and two soil samples from the Atacama Desert were heated to a temperature of 500 C for several seconds under reduced pressure. The sublimate was collected on a cold finger and the amount of adenine released from the samples then determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV absorbance detection. Based on the total amount of adenine recovered from DNA and RNA in these samples, we estimated bacterial cell counts ranging from approx. l0(exp 5) to l0(exp 9) E. coli cell equivalents per gram. For most of these samples, the sublimation based cell counts were in agreement with total bacterial counts obtained by traditional DAPI staining. The simplicity and robustness of the sublimation technique compared to the DAPI staining method makes this approach particularly attractive for use by spacecraft instrumentation. NASA is currently planning to send a lander to Mars in 2009 in order to assess whether or not organic compounds, especially those that might be associated with life, are present in Martian surface samples. Based on our analyses of the Atacama Desert soil samples, several million bacterial cells per gam of Martian soil should be detectable using this sublimation technique.

  7. Evaluation of the Bacterial Contamination of the Iranian Currency Notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Khajeh Ali

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackground and Objectives: In many countries, there is a popular belief that the simultaneous "nhandling of food and money contributes to the incidence of food-related public health incidents. "nThe objective of this study was to determine the total bacterial count and the presence of food borne "nbacterial pathogens on Iranian currency notes, collected from food-related shops. "n "nMaterials and Methods: A total of 120 Iranian currency notes, comprising notes in four  denomination (2000, 5000, 10000 and 20000 R were collected from various food-related shops including, butchery, bakery, confectionary, fast food, ice cream and poultry meat shop. The currency notes were categorized into three groups according to their physical conditions. All currency notes were examined for total bacterial count, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella and Listeria according to the standard techniques."nResults: The average number of total bacterial count in four denomination of currency notes (2000,  5000, 10000 and 20000 R were 118.49, 106.32, 69.44 and 220.81 CFU/cm2, respectively. The association between total bacterial count and denomination of the currency was not statistically significant. Of the 120 currency notes on which bacteriological analysis was conducted 13.3 %, 32.5% and 10.8 % were contaminated with E. coli, S. aureus and B. cereus, respectively. Salmonella and Listeria were not isolated from samples. Currency notes collected from butchery, bakery, confectionary, fast food, ice cream and poultry meat shop were contaminated with E. coli at the rate of 60, 0, 5, 5, 0 and 10 %; with S. aureus at the rate of 55, 30, 10, 25, 40 and 35 %; with B. cereus at the rate of 0, 10, 20, 5, 20 and 10 %, respectively. There was not a statistically significant association between physical condition and bacterial contamination of the currency notes. The effect of presence or absence of cashier in food-related shops on bacterial contamination of the currency notes was also evaluated."nConclusion: Money has got the potential to change through many different hands and could be  exposed to many different environments at a relatively high frequency. Since there is very little information regarding the hygienic history of any forms of currency, great care should be taken when the same person facilitates the handling of money and the preparation and handling of food to avoid cross contamination.

  8. Methodological limitations of counting total leukocytes and thrombocytes in reptiles (Amazon turtle, Podocnemis expansa: an analysis and discussion Limitações metodológicas de contagens de leucócitos e trombócitos totais em répteis (tartaruga da Amazônia, Podocnemis expansa: uma análise e discussão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Tavares-Dias

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare three different methods for counting white blood cells [WBC] (Natt and Herrick method, estimation with 1,000 and 2,000 erythrocytes and three methods for counting total thrombocytes [TT] (Wojtaszek method, estimation with 1,000 and 2,000 erythrocytes in a South American freshwater turtle species, Podocnemis expansa, Schweigger 1812 (Reptilia, Pelomedusidae. Direct WBC counts using the Natt and Herrick method showed limitations, which are discussed here. The WBC and TT counts using 1,000 erythrocytes from blood smears are not recommended for Amazon turtles nor other reptilian species, since wide variation in counts can be observed. Estimation methods for determining WBC and TT based on 2,000 erythrocytes of blood smears were most acceptable because they allow a differentiation between leukocytes and thrombocytes and also had a smaller variation. The methods investigated here for the Amazon turtle, which have been widely used in other reptile species, provided evidence that the most acceptable method is not that of using diluted stains and a hemocytometer.O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar três diferentes métodos para contar leucócitos totais [LT] (método de Natt & Herrick, de estimação em 1000 e 2000 eritrócitos e três métodos para contar trombócitos totais [TT] ( método de Wojtaszek, de estimação em 1000 e 2000 eritrócitos em uma espécie de tartaruga de água doce da América do Sul, Podocnemis expansa, Schweigger 1812 (Reptilia, Pelomedusidae. As contagens diretas de LT usando o método de Natt & Herrick mostraram limitações que são aqui discutidas. As contagens de LT e TT usando estimativa em 1000 eritrócitos na extensão sanguínea não são recomendadas para tartaruga-da-Amazônia nem para outras espécies de répteis, pois houve ampla variação nestas contagens. Os métodos para determinar LT e TT baseados em 2000 eritrócitos nas extensões sanguíneas foram mais aceitáveis porque eles permitem uma diferenciação entre leucócitos e trombócitos, além disso, teve uma variação menor. Os métodos aqui investigados para tartaruga-da-Amazônia, os quais são amplamente usados em outras espécies de répteis, proveram evidências de que o método mais aceitável não é o que usa corantes diluentes e um hemocitômetro.

  9. Use of a total traffic count metric to investigate the impact of roadways on asthma severity: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    deVos Annemarie JBM

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study had two principal objectives: (i to investigate the relationship between asthma severity and proximity to major roadways in Perth, Western Australia; (ii to demonstrate a more accurate method of exposure assessment for traffic pollutants using an innovative GIS-based measure that fully integrates all traffic densities around subject residences. Methods We conducted a spatial case-control study, in which 'cases' were defined as individuals aged under 19 years of age with more severe asthma (defined here as two or more emergency department contacts with asthma in a defined 5-year period versus age- and gender-matched 'controls' with less severe asthma (defined here as one emergency department contact for asthma. Traffic exposures were measured using a GIS-based approach to determine the lengths of the roads falling within a buffer area, and then multiplying them by their respective traffic counts. Results We examined the spatial relationship between emergency department contacts for asthma at three different buffer sizes: 50 metres, 100 metres and 150 metres. No effect was noted for the 50 metre buffer (OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 0.91-1.26, but elevated odds ratios were observed with for crude (unadjusted estimates OR = 1.21 (95% CI: 1.00-1.46 for 100 metre buffers and OR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.02-1.54 for 150 metre buffers. For adjusted risk estimates, only the 150 metre buffer yielded a statistically significant finding (OR = 1.24; 95% CI:1.00-1.52. Conclusions Our study revealed a significant 24% increase in the risk of experiencing multiple emergency department contacts for asthma for every log-unit of traffic exposure. This study provides support for the hypothesis that traffic related air pollution increases the frequency of health service contacts for asthma. This study used advanced GIS techniques to establish traffic-weighted buffer zones around the geocoded residential location of subjects to provide an accurate assessment of exposure to traffic emissions, thereby providing a quantification of the ranges over which pollutants may exert a health effect.

  10. Profile counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In ''profile counting'', a counter is moved progressively along the whole length of the body, and is so collimated that, at each position, it records the radioisotope content of the whole width of the body, but of only a short section of its length. If the counting rate at each position is plotted against the distance of the counter from the vertex of the head, the ''profile'' so obtained gives a rapid and quantitative measure of the radioisotope distribution throughout the body. When a suitable isotope is selectively concentrated in certain organs or tissues of the body, the profile will show peaks indicative of the sites and extent of such concentration, the organs concerned being identified by two-dimensional mapping, and profile counts continued to follow the turnover or changes of concentration in these organs. This technique has been used in the study of I131 concentration and metabolism in thyroid carcinomata, and its value in the management of the radioiodine treatment of such tumours will be discussed. It has also been used in examining the distribution of labelled thyroxine and triiodothyronine after intravenous administration, and of yttrium-90 oxide particles after intrapulmonary artery injection; and of other isotopes by gamma radiation or bremsstrahlung. The method gives a clinically convenient simplification of whole body mapping which lends itself particularly to the quantitative comparison of isotope distribution at different intervals after a radioisotope dose, or after successive doses. (author)

  11. Bacterial Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bacteria usually responsible for this type of keratitis infection are Staphylococcus Aureus and, for contact lens wearers, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa . What Is Bacterial Keratitis? Bacterial Keratitis Symptoms ...

  12. A simple technique to assess bacterial attachment to metal surfaces

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sonak, S.; Bhosle, N.B.

    count of the attached bacterial cells was also measured using coventional plating technique. Relationship between the absorbance of crystal violet stained attached cells and the viable cell count of the attached bacteria was assessed using linear...

  13. Experimental infection of commercial layers with wild or attenuated Salmonella Gallinarum mutant strains: anatomic pathology, total blood cell count and serum protein levels

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    KO, Garcia; A, Berchieri Jr.; AM, Santana; MFF, Alarcon; OC, Freitas Neto; JJ, Fagliari.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate hemogram, blood serum components and anatomopathologic alterations in commercial layers experimentally challenged with an attenuated vaccine candidate strain (SG?cobS?cbiA) and other two pathogenic strains (SGDcobS and SGNalr) of Gallinarum [...] (SG). In total, 280 commercial layers were randomly divided into 4 groups (G1, G2, G3 and G4). At five days of age, birds from groups G1 received approximately 107 colony forming units (CFU) of SGDcobS; meanwhile birds from group G2 and G3 received the same dose of SGNalr and SG?cobS?cbiA, respectively. Birds from G4 were not infected. At 24 hours before (DBI) and 24 hours after (1 DAI), and three (3 DAI), five (5 DAI), seven (7 DAI) ten (10 DAI), and fifteen (15 DAI) days after the infection, 10 birds of each group were humanely killed and blood samples collected to hematological and serum tests. Samples of liver, spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, kidney and heart were also collected for the histological examination. Birds inoculated with SGDcobS and SGNalr showed similar alterations in hemogram, blood serum components and anatomopathologic exams. On the other hand, the exams of birds inoculated with SG?cobS?cbiA strain were similar to those of the uninfected birds. However, changes could be noticed in levels of uric acid and cholesterol during the course of the infection of birds from G3. Decrease in levels of light IgG 3 DAI was also observed in birds from this group. Pyknosis in kidney cells was a microscopic alteration found in birds from G3. Further studies must be done to verify if these alterations will not interfere in the performance of the vaccinate birds with SG?cobS?cbiA strain.

  14. Uso de aditivos promotores de crescimento sobre o desempenho, características de carcaça e bactérias totais do intestino de frangos de corte Use of growth promoters additives on performance, carcass yield and total intestinalbacteria counts in broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder Clementino dos Santos

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de aditivos promotores de crescimento em substituição ao antibiótico sobre o desempenho, características de carcaça (partes e gordura abdominal e bactérias totais do intestino delgado e cecos de frangos de corte de 1 a 42 dias de idade, criados em cama reutilizada e alimentados com rações à base de milho moído e farelo de soja. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com um arranjo fatorial 7 x 2, correspondendo a 7 fontes de aditivos (antibiótico, basal, mananoligossacarídeo (MOS, frutoligossacarídeo (FOS, ácido fumárico, cogumelo desidratado e probiótico e dois sexos (macho e fêmea. Foram utilizados um total de 1680 pintos, sexados, da linhagem Hybro, distribuídos em 14 tratamentos com 04 repetições e 30 aves por parcela experimental. Foi observado efeito significativo (PThe objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of growth promoters additives on performance, carcass yield (parts and abdominal fat, total intestinal bacteria counts in broilers from 1 at 42 days old fed with corn and soybean meal based diets, compared to antibiotics supplementation diets. In this study were urilized a 7 x 2 factorial design, with seven differents additives (antibiotic, basal, MOS, FOS, fumaric acid, mutshroom extract and probiotic and two sex (males and females. A total of1680 sexed broilers chickens from Hybro line were distributed in 14 treatments, with 4 replicates and 30 chickens per experimental unit. Effects of growth promotant additives on feed intake , feed conversion and production efficiency factor were measured. Male chickens shown better performance results than females in all parameters evaluated, except for viability. Additives shown positive effects on carcars yield, parts yield, and abdominal fat. Male chickens were heavier at slaughter and shown higher leg yields than females. Additives also influenced total bacteria counts in duodenum and caecum altering the microbiota of the intestinal chickens. These changes in intestinal microbiota might have contributed for a higher stability and better survival of good microorganisms in the intestinal ecosystem, resulting in benefits for the host. The results of this study shown that the use the addictive as a growth promoters should be used in the feeding for broilers chickens, in substitution to the antibiotic, without affecting the performance and carcass yield , in the period from 1 to 42 days of age.

  15. Uso de aditivos promotores de crescimento sobre o desempenho, características de carcaça e bactérias totais do intestino de frangos de corte / Use of growth promoters additives on performance, carcass yield and total intestinalbacteria counts in broiler

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Éder Clementino dos, Santos; Antônio Soares, Teixeira; Rilke Tadeu Fonseca de, Freitas; Paulo Borges, Rodrigues; Eustáquio Souza, Dias; Luis David Solis, Murgas.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de aditivos promotores de crescimento em substituição ao antibiótico sobre o desempenho, características de carcaça (partes e gordura abdominal) e bactérias totais do intestino delgado e cecos de frangos de corte de 1 a 42 dias de idade, criados em [...] cama reutilizada e alimentados com rações à base de milho moído e farelo de soja. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com um arranjo fatorial 7 x 2, correspondendo a 7 fontes de aditivos (antibiótico, basal, mananoligossacarídeo (MOS), frutoligossacarídeo (FOS), ácido fumárico, cogumelo desidratado e probiótico) e dois sexos (macho e fêmea). Foram utilizados um total de 1680 pintos, sexados, da linhagem Hybro, distribuídos em 14 tratamentos com 04 repetições e 30 aves por parcela experimental. Foi observado efeito significativo (P Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of growth promoters additives on performance, carcass yield (parts and abdominal fat), total intestinal bacteria counts in broilers from 1 at 42 days old fed with corn and soybean meal based diets, compared to antibiotics supplementation diets. [...] In this study were urilized a 7 x 2 factorial design, with seven differents additives (antibiotic, basal, MOS, FOS, fumaric acid, mutshroom extract and probiotic) and two sex (males and females). A total of1680 sexed broilers chickens from Hybro line were distributed in 14 treatments, with 4 replicates and 30 chickens per experimental unit. Effects of growth promotant additives on feed intake , feed conversion and production efficiency factor were measured. Male chickens shown better performance results than females in all parameters evaluated, except for viability. Additives shown positive effects on carcars yield, parts yield, and abdominal fat. Male chickens were heavier at slaughter and shown higher leg yields than females. Additives also influenced total bacteria counts in duodenum and caecum altering the microbiota of the intestinal chickens. These changes in intestinal microbiota might have contributed for a higher stability and better survival of good microorganisms in the intestinal ecosystem, resulting in benefits for the host. The results of this study shown that the use the addictive as a growth promoters should be used in the feeding for broilers chickens, in substitution to the antibiotic, without affecting the performance and carcass yield , in the period from 1 to 42 days of age.

  16. Frequency of Bacterial Frequency of Bacterial Contamination in Traditional Ice Cream Produced in Arak, Iran (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaei, M. (MSc

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Ice cream is a suitable environment for microbial growth due to its chemical structure, ingredients, and its increased supply and demand. In the absence of hygienic considerations, it can cause poisoning. This study aimed to determine bacterial contamination in traditional ice cream produced in Arak city in 2011. Material and Methods: The samples (n= 30 were randomly obtained from different parts of Arak in, 2011. The Samples were shipped in cold conditions and total count of microorganisms test was performed according to Iranian national standards. Results: In 16.66%, the microbial contamination was below the limit of microbial load (5×104, and in 83.3% the contamination was more than allowed level. Conclusion: This study highlights the dire situation for bacterial contamination of traditional ice cream in Arak city. Keywords: Arak, Ice Cream, Microbial Contamination

  17. REACTIVE THROMBOCYTOSIS IN FEBRILE CHILDREN WITH SERIOUS BACTERIAL INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Jane D

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fever is a common presenting symptom in paediatric outpatient practices and emergency rooms, particularly in children 99°F. Neonates with a clinical suspicion of sepsis were included in the study. A thorough history and physical examination and laboratory investigations – complete blood count, urine routine, C-reactive protein were retrieved from records. Cultures were obtained where indicated. OBSERVATIONS: A total of 44 children (18.3% were diagnosed to have serious bacterial infection (SBI out of the 240 febrile children studied during the 6 month period from Jan-June 2014. The incidence of reactive thrombocytosis was 20.7% and of these 28.6% was due to serious bacterial infection. The sensitivity and specificity of CRP in predicting SBI was 68.2% and 60.4% respectively considering a cut off value of >7mg/dl. Thrombocytosis i.e. platelet count >4lakh was more specific in diagnosing SBI with a sensitivity and specificity of 31.8% and 82.9% respectively. Leucocytosis ie total count >15000/mm3 also showed a higher specificity i.e., 63.9% than sensitivity i.e., 45.5%. Duration of pyrexia (>7days had the maximum specificity of 91.7% thus having the best diagnostic accuracy among the variables studied i.e. 76.6%. Among the investigative methods platelet count had the best diagnostic accuracy i.e., 72.57%. CONCLUSION: Thrombocytosis was found to have the best diagnostic accuracy, among the investigative methods studied, in predicting serious bacterial infection (SBI.

  18. Uji kadar formalin, kadar garam dan total bakteri ikan asin tenggiri asal Kabupaten Sarmi Provinsi Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenni Y. Salosa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Food safety is depending on the accurence of a dangerous fisical, chemical and microbiology components. Quality of food with healty and a complete safe nutrient is the most important things in the food material. Because of food that consume influencing people brain and health. The aim of this research was to determine the content of formaldehyde, salt and Total Plate Count of bacteria in the tenggiri salty fish from Sarmi Papua. Formsaldehyde was indentificated by using cromatofat acid method as qualitative and spectrophotometer as quantitative method. Choman method was used to analize salt content. Total Plate Count (TPC was used for bacterial content analysis. The result showed that Tenggiri salty fish from Sarmi is not contain formaldehyde. About 9.76 % to 16.31 % of salt contant and approximately 24.5 x 10- 5- 49.5 x 10 5 colony/gram of bacterial in total. This conclude that Tenggiri salty fish have already

  19. Characterisation of the gastrointestinal bacterial community in pigs fed fermented liquid feed and dry feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Ole; Knudsen, B.; Canibe, N.; Jensen, Bent Borg

    2001-01-01

    Feeding pigs with fermented liquid feed (FLF) has been shown to reduce the number of enteropathogens such as Salmonella and Brachyospira hyodysenteriae as well as coliform bacteria in general in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Also the commensal bacterial populations have been shown to respond to the use of FLF, e.g. the total counts of anaerobes, including lactic acid bacteria are reduced. In the present work we demonstrate that the capacity to ferment a series of substrates (mainly low-molec...

  20. Urine microscopy on a counting chamber for diagnosis of urinary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, M; Hida, Y; Hori, C; Tsuchida, S; Kuroda, M; Sudo, M

    1995-02-01

    Several quantitative methods of urine microscopic examination for bacteriuria and pyuria on a blood cell counting-chamber have been found reliable for the diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI). However, no one technique has become popular or widely used because of laborious procedures associated with the method. We investigated the usefulness of microscopic examination of uncentrifuged urine on disposable counting-chambers. A total of 89 urine samples were obtained from 53 children (24 male and 29 female). Urine samples were examined for bacteriuria and pyuria using a disposable counting chamber and its reliability was analyzed in predicting significant bacteriuria defined by routine urine culture. Significant bacteriuria was diagnosed in 23 of 89 urine samples by urine culture. Microscopic urine examination on disposable counting-chambers was very easy without the need to set up or wash chambers and provided immediate information. Urine bacterial concentration determined by the counting-chamber method was closely correlated to that determined by bacterial culture. The counting-chamber method identified bacteriuria correctly in 21 of 23 urine samples diagnosed as significant bacteriuria (sensitivity = 91%) and also gave a correct diagnosis of 64 of 66 urine samples with non-significant bacteriuria (specificity = 98%). Nineteen of the 23 urine samples with significant bacteriuria also had pyuria. The positive predictive value of concomitant bacteriuria and pyuria was 100%. When neither bacteriuria nor pyuria was found, the negative predictive value was 100%. It was concluded that urine microscopy using disposable counting chambers was very easy, inexpensive, quick and reliable and thus an extremely useful method for diagnosing UTI. PMID:7754761

  1. Bacterial contamination of street vending food in Kumasi, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feglo, P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Street vending foods are readily available sources of meals for many people but the biological safe-ty of such food is always in doubt. The aim of this study is to ascertain bacterial isolate and deter-mine total counts of bacterial species responsible for the contamination of the street vending food in Kumasi so as to determine the microbiological safety of such a food. This prospective study was conducted among street vending food at four bus terminals in Kumasi. From November, 2008 to February, 2009, 60 food samples comprising ice-kenkey (15, cocoa drink (15, fufu (5, ready-to-eat red pepper (normally eaten with kenkey (5, salad (10 and macaroni (10 were purchased and ana-lyzed. The food samples were purchased and transported to the laboratory in sterile plastic bags and analyzed for bacterial contamination. Serial dilution of each food was prepared in buffered peptone water and inoculated onto plate count agar (PCA, MacConkey and blood agar plates. Growths on PCA were counted; those on other agar plates were identified by their colonial mor-phology, Gram stain, biochemical and sugar fermentation methods. The mean bacterial counts in these foods expressed to log10 CFU/ml were: fufu 6.36±0.47, cocoa drink 6.16±0.5, red pepper 5.92±0.64, ice-kenkey 5.58 ±0.52, macaroni 5.58±0.97 and salad 5.13±0.77. Most of these foods con-tained higher than acceptable contamination level of <5.0 log10 CFU/ml. The isolates obtained were Coagulate negative staphylococci (23.7%, Bacillus species (21.5%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (18%, Aeromonas pneumophila (17.7%, Enterobacter cloacae (6.7%, Staphylococcus aureus (3.7%, Escherichia coli (2.2% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.2%. Most ready-to-eat foods in Kumasi were contaminated with enteric bacteria and other potential food poisoning organisms with bacterial counts higher than the acceptable levels. Food vendors therefore need education on food hygiene.

  2. Understanding Blood Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 50 $100 $500 $1000 Other Amount Donate Today Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts SHARE: Print Glossary Blood cell counts ... Guides Things to Tell Your Doctor Before Treatment Understanding Blood, Marrow and the Lymphatic System Normal Blood ...

  3. Bacterial biomass and activity in the marginal ice zone of the northern Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammert, Helen; Olli, Kalle; Sturluson, Maria; Hodal, Helene

    2008-10-01

    Bacteria in the Arctic Waters are well adapted to low temperatures and play a key role in the transformation of organic matter. However, the activity of planktonic bacteria at cellular level remains poorly understood. In this study, we use fluorescent markers (4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC), Live/Dead BacLight viability kit) to discriminate between bacterial cells with a variety of physiological activities in the 0-200 m water column and sinking particles. During two field studies (July 2003 and 2004), we covered nine stations in the northern Barents Sea. The median bacterial abundance (DAPI staining) in the upper 50 m layer was 0.9×10 6 cells ml -1 (range 0.2-3.2×10 6 cells ml -1) in 2003 and 0.5×10 6 cells ml -1 (range 0.2-1.0×10 6 cells ml -1) in 2004. Bacteria with sufficient electron transport activity to be stained with CTC were on average 10% of the total count and ca. 20% of the total cells had intact cell membranes. In the water column, proxies of substrate availability (POC, PON, chlorophyll a, primary production) and bacterial production (thymidine and leucine uptake) correlated strongly with total bacterial count, CTC-stained cells and cells with 'leaky' membrane (stained with propidium iodine), but not with the concentration of cells with intact cell membrane. Contrary to expectations, the proportion of CTC-stained bacteria was not higher in the sinking particles (captured with sediment traps) compared to the ambient water. However, out of the bacteria with intact cell membranes, a higher proportion scored as CTC positive in the aggregates compared to the ambient water. Bacterial cells with 'leaky' cell membranes formed the largest part of total cell count in all samples, and accumulated in sites with high microbial activity (sinking aggregates, chlorophyll maxima, layers of high primary and bacterial production). We hypothesize that the source of the bacterial cells with 'leaky' cell membranes was metabolically the most active fraction of the bacterial assemblage (stained with CTC).

  4. Bacterial Proteasomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrab, Jordan B; Darwin, K Heran

    2015-10-15

    Interest in bacterial proteasomes was sparked by the discovery that proteasomal degradation is required for the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, one of the world's deadliest pathogens. Although bacterial proteasomes are structurally similar to their eukaryotic and archaeal homologs, there are key differences in their mechanisms of assembly, activation, and substrate targeting for degradation. In this article, we compare and contrast bacterial proteasomes with their archaeal and eukaryotic counterparts, and we discuss recent advances in our understanding of how bacterial proteasomes function to influence microbial physiology. PMID:26488274

  5. Effect of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zylenicum supplementation on the intestinal selected bacterial population in Japanese quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baraa Mohamed,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of adding graded levels (0, 1.0 and 1.5% of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zylenicum in the basal diet on the intestinal bacterial population of the Japanese quail. Sixty Japanese quail were randomly distributed into 3 groups. Each treatment contained four replicates (5 birds/replicate. The results showed significant (P<0.05 improvement in lactobacillus of birds fed 1.5% cinnamon. Total bacterial count, coli form and fungi count was significantly (P<0.05 lower compared to the control. In conclusion, 1.5% level of cinnamon may be used for antimicrobial balance in gut for Japanese quail.

  6. Use of fluorochromes for direct enumeration of total bacteria in environmental samples: past and present.

    OpenAIRE

    Kepner, R L; Pratt, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    Understanding the role of bacteria in microbial food webs is intimately connected to the methods applied in the direct enumeration of bacteria. We have examined over 220 papers describing studies in which fluorochrome staining followed by epifluorescent microscopic direct counts was used to estimate total bacterial abundances. In this review, we summarize patterns in the use of 3,6-bis[dimethylamino]acridinium chloride (acridine orange) and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), the two stains...

  7. Uncertainty of nuclear counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommé, S.; Fitzgerald, R.; Keightley, J.

    2015-06-01

    Nuclear counting is affected by pulse pileup and system dead time, which induce rate-related count loss and alter the statistical properties of the counting process. Fundamental equations are presented to predict deviations from Poisson statistics due to non-random count loss in nuclear counters and spectrometers. Throughput and dispersion of counts are studied for systems with pileup, extending and non-extending dead time, before and also after compensation for count loss. Equations are provided for random fractions of the output events, applicable to spectrometry applications. Methods for loss compensation are discussed, including inversion of the throughput equation, live-time counting and loss-free counting. Secondary effects in live-time counting are addressed: residual interference from pileup in systems with imposed dead times and errors due to varying count rate when measuring short-lived radionuclides.

  8. 90th Christmas Bird Count : Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These are the results of the 1989 Christmas Bird Count on Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge. A total of 14 species and 1,126 individual birds were counted.

  9. Metal ion levels and lymphocyte counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Ø; Varmarken, Jens-Erik; Ovesen, Ole; Nielsen, Christian; Overgaard, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Wear particles from metal-on-metal arthroplasties are under suspicion for adverse effects both locally and systemically, and the DePuy ASR Hip Resurfacing System (RHA) has above-average failure rates. We compared lymphocyte counts in RHA and total hip arthroplasty (THA) and investigated whether cobalt and chromium ions affected the lymphocyte counts.

  10. Determining random counts in liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During measurements involving coincidence counting techniques, errors can arise due to the detection of chance or random coincidences in the multiple detectors used. A method and the electronic circuits necessary are here described for eliminating this source of error in liquid scintillation detectors used in coincidence counting. (UK)

  11. Fetal leucocyte count in rhesus disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, N. P.; Buggins, A G; Snijders, R J; Noble, P N; Layton, D. M.; Nicolaides, K. H.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of fetal anaemia on the total and differential leucocyte counts was studied by examining blood samples obtained by cordocentesis from 177 previously untransfused rhesus affected fetuses at 17-36 weeks' gestation. The mean fetal total leucocyte, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts were significantly lower than the corresponding values in normal controls and there were significant associations between the decrease in these cells and the degree of fetal anaemia. Possible mechanisms for le...

  12. Bacterial and parasitic etiological agents in HIV seropositive diarrhoea cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana Namdeorao Thate

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies in India indicated that diarrhoea has been the third common clinical presentation in AIDS patients. It is a second leading cause of hospital visit in developing nations and makes its place top ten worldwide. A diagnostic spectrum of enteric pathogen causing diarrhoea includes bacteria, parasites, fungi & viruses. Some pathogen tend to occur more frequently to cause more severe disease in person infected with HIV than in HIV uninfected persons with diarrhoea. These include Salmonella spp., Isospora spp., Crytptosporidium spp., Microsporidia spp., Cytomegalovirus.Aims & Objectives: Present study was undertaken to find out which etiological agents are most commonly responsible for causing diarrhoea in HIV seropositive patients.Material Methods: Total 181 cases were included in study out which 150 were HIV seropositive and 31 were HIV seronegative. Diagnosis of HIV infection was done as per NACO guidelines and CD4 count estimation was done.  Isolation of bacterial pathogen was done using standard bacteriological procedures and parasite detection was done by direct examination after formal ether concentration technique, using staining as: modified Kinyoun’s acid fast staining and modified acid fast trichrome staining.Results: In this study, most common bacterial pathogen detected was Escherichia coli (57.6%, followed by Proteus spp (9.4%, % klebsiella spp( 7.7%. Most common protozoal parasite was Cryptosporidium (53.6%, & Microsporidium (2.9%  and most common helminthic parasite was S. stercoralis (1.6%.  All the enteric pathogens were predominantly detected with CD4+ count < 200 cells/ul.Conclusion: Cryptosporidium was the most common 53.6% parasitic enteropathogen detected while diarrheogenic E. coli 18.2% was the most common bacterial enteropathogens isolated.  Majority of cases were with <200  CD4+ count had more than one pathogen.

  13. Bacterial adhesion.

    OpenAIRE

    van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    1988-01-01

    As mentioned in the introduction of this thesis bacterial adhesion has been studied from a variety of (mostly practice oriented) starting points. This has resulted in a range of widely divergent approaches. In order to elucidate general principles in bacterial adhesion phenomena, we felt it was necessary to start from a fundamental level i.e. using welldefined model systems. In our study colloid chemical principles are applied to microbial systems. Although both colloid chemists and microbiol...

  14. Radiation counting statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is intended to describe the statistical methods necessary to design and conduct radiation counting experiments and evaluate the data from the experiment. The methods are described for the evaluation of the stability of a counting system and the estimation of the precision of counting data by application of probability distribution models. The methods for the determination of the uncertainty of the results calculated from the number of counts, as well as various statistical methods for the reduction of counting error are also described. (Author). 11 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs

  15. Bacterial adenosine triphosphate as a measure of urinary tract infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L.

    1971-01-01

    Procedure detects and counts bacteria present in urine samples. Method also determines bacterial levels in other aqueous body fluids including lymph fluid, plasma, blood, spinal fluid, saliva and mucous.

  16. Effect of preputial washing on bacterial load and preservability of semen in Murrah buffalo bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Meena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of preputial washing on bacterial load, preservability and semen quality in Murrah buffalo bulls Materials and Methods: A total of 36 collections of three Murrah buffalo bulls maintained at Artificial Breeding Research Centre, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, were collected at weekly intervals from each bull without preputial washing and latter ejaculates from same bull with preputial washing by infusing normal saline (0.85%, KMnO4 (0.02% and savlon (2.0% to first, second and third bull, respectively. The microbial load and semen quality were evaluated during different hours of storage at refrigerated temperature (0, 24 and 48 h and after thrawing of cryopreserved (at ?196°C semen. Results: The results of preservation of semen at refrigerated temperature showed that bacterial load was markedly lower in ejaculates of bulls subjected to preputial washing. Semen preserved at refrigerator temperature and cryopreserved, the effect of washing solution was significant for individual motility (IM, non-eosiniphilic count, hypo-osmotic swelling reactivity (HOST, total plate count (TPC and acrosome integrity. KMnO4 was found to be the best in lowering bacterial load, sperm abnormalities and in improving semen quality such as motility, non-eosinophilic count, HOST and acrosome integrity even up to 48 h of preservation and cryopreserved semen. Effect of duration of preservation and stage of cryopreservation was also significant for IM, non-eosiniphilic count, HOST, sperm abnormalities and acrosome integrity. Conclusion: Overall the results suggested that preputial washing with KMnO4 solution improved the semen quality and reduced microbial load of Murrah buffalo bull’s semen preserved at refrigerated temperature and cryopreservation.

  17. Bacterial Adhesion & Blocking Bacterial Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

    2008-01-01

    Microorganisms are an integral part of all natural ecosystems, and as such are ubiquitous in nature. They often live adhered to or in association with surfaces of either organic or inorganic nature, and all surfaces will almost inevitably be colonized by microorganisms. This often results in the formation of highly complex sessile communities, referred to as biofilms. Such microbial communities are often highly dynamic and heterogeneous in nature. Microbial biofilms are of great importance in a wide range of natural processes and industrial settings, from the commensal flora of the gastrointestinal tract to the microbial flocs in waste water treatment facilities. Microbial biofilms may however also cause a wide range of industrial and medical problems, and have been implicated in a wide range of persistent infectious diseases, including implantassociated microbial infections. Bacterial adhesion is the first committing step in biofilm formation, and has therefore been intensely scrutinized. Much however, stillremains elusive. Bacterial adhesion is a highly complex process, which is influenced by a variety of factors. In this thesis, a range of physico-chemical, molecular and environmental parameters, which influence the transition from a planktonic lifestyle to a sessile lifestyle, have been studied. Protein conditioning film formation was found to influence bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation considerable, and an aqueous extract of fish muscle tissue was shown to significantly reduce or delay bacterial biofilm formation of a range of urinary tract infectious E.coli and Klebsiella isolates. Several other proteinaceous coatings were also found to display anti-adhesive properties, possibly providing a measure for controlling the colonization of implant materials. Several other parameters controlling bacterial adhesion were also studied. Subinhibitory concentrations of certain antimicrobial compounds and several surfactants were found to significantly affect bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, most likely by affecting the production of biofilm extracellular polymeric matrix components. These substances may both mediate and stabilize the bacterial biofilm. Finally, several adhesive structures were examined, and a novel physiological biofilm phenotype in E.coli biofilms was characterized, namely cell chain formation. The autotransporter protein, antigen 43, was implicated in this structural biofilm phenotype, at least in some bacterial strains. Understanding the fundamental requirements of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation may aid in the development of effective preventive measures.

  18. Bacterial clearance in the intact and regenerating liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kupffer cells in the liver play an important role in reticuloendothelial system (RES) function by clearing particulate matter and bacteria from the blood stream. While hepatocyte regeneration and function have been extensively studied following partial hepatectomy, little information is available concerning RES function in the regenerating liver. This study investigates hepatic RES function by evaluating bacterial clearance (live E. coli) in the intact and regenerating liver. Thirty-four young male Sprague Dawley rats were studied. Twenty-two animals underwent a standard 70% partial hepatectomy using ligature technique and 12 had a sham operation. Both groups of rats received 10(9) organism of 35S labeled E coli, intravenously at 24 hours, 72 hours, 2 1/2 weeks, and 6 weeks postoperatively. Rats were killed 10 minutes following injection and liver, lung, spleen, and kidney harvested, fixed, and radioactivity was determined using a scintillation spectrometer interfaced with a micro-computer counting the 35S radiolabel. The total organ count of trapped bacteria in liver in partially hepatectomized rats was lower than intact controls at 24 hours, but was similar at 72 hours, 2 1/2 weeks, and 6 weeks. Partial hepatectomy increased the amount of bacterial trapping in the lung at 24 hours and 72 hours and returned to normal at 2 1/2 weeks and 6 weeks. Splenic activity was increased following hepatectomy at 2 1/2 weeks. Renal clearance was increased at 72 hours and 2 1/2 weeks

  19. Isolation of new bacterial species from drinking water biofilms and proof of their in situ dominance with highly specific 16S rRNA probes.

    OpenAIRE

    Kalmbach, S; Manz, W; Szewzyk, U.

    1997-01-01

    A polyphasic approach involving cultivation, direct viable counts, rRNA-based phylogenetic classification, and in situ probing was applied for the characterization of the dominant microbial population in a municipal drinking water distribution system. A total of 234 bacterial strains cultivated on R2A medium were screened for bacteria affiliated with the in situ dominating beta subclass of Proteobacteria. The isolates were grouped according to common features of their cell and colony morpholo...

  20. Counts of faint galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical results on the counts of galaxies to msub(B)=24sup(m) have been presented by Karachentsev and Kopylov (1977). In the present work data published by different authors and also counts of galaxies on plates obtained at the prime focus of the 6-metre telescope are used. The photometric accuracy of the counts is about a quarter of a magnitude. (Auth.)

  1. Total lymphoid irradiation of intractable rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleven patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis were treated with fractionated total lymphoid irradiation, (total dose 20 Gy). Lasting improvement in clinical symptoms was found in four patients during treatment and the remaining patients experienced similar benefit within 2 months of irradiation. There was marked reduction in exacerbations and number of joints involved. Morning stiffness, joint swelling and tenderness decreased. Complications included severe fatigue during treatment and acute bacterial arthritis in multiple joints in one patient. Four patients have since died, one of renal failure, another of cardiogenic shock following surgery 3 and 24 months after total lymphoid irradiation. Both had generalised amyloidosis. The third patient developed joint empyema and died of toxic cardiac failure. The fourth died 3 months after resection of a Kaposi's sarcoma complicated by wound infection which responded to treatment. Immunologically, total lymphoid irradiation resulted in suppression of the absolute lymphocyte count and reduction in T-helper cells, the number of T-suppressor cells remaining unchanged. These data provide evidence of T-cell involvement in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Total lymphoid irradiation can induce sustained improvement in clinical disease activity, but severe, possibly fatal, side-effects cannot be ignored. (author)

  2. Health Physics counting room

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    The Health Physics counting room, where the quantity of induced radioactivity in materials is determined. This information is used to evaluate possible radiation hazards from the material investigated.

  3. Effectiveness of Polyvalent Bacterial Lysate and Autovaccines Against Upper Respiratory Tract Bacterial Colonization by Potential Pathogens: A Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagólski, Olaf; Str?k, Pawe?; Kasprowicz, Andrzej; Bia?ecka, Anna

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Polyvalent bacterial lysate (PBL) is an oral immunostimulating vaccine consisting of bacterial standardized lysates obtained by lysis of different strains of bacteria. Autovaccines are individually prepared based on the results of smears obtained from the patient. Both types of vaccine can be used to treat an ongoing chronic infection. This study sought to determine which method is more effective against nasal colonization by potential respiratory tract pathogens. MATERIAL AND METHODS We enrolled 150 patients with aerobic Gram stain culture and count results indicating bacterial colonization of the nose and/or throat by potential pathogens. The participants were randomly assigned to each of the following groups: 1. administration of PBL, 2. administration of autovaccine, and 3. no intervention (controls). RESULTS Reduction of the bacterial count in Streptococcus pneumoniae-colonized participants was significant after the autovaccine (p<0.001) and PBL (p<0.01). Reduction of the bacterial count of other ?-hemolytic streptococcal strains after treatment with the autovaccine was significant (p<0.01) and was non-significant after PBL. In Haemophilus influenzae colonization, significant reduction in the bacterial count was noted in the PBL group (p<0.01). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization did not respond to either treatment. CONCLUSIONS The autovaccine is more effective than PBL for reducing bacterial count of Streptococcus pneumoniae and ?-hemolytic streptococci, while PBL was more effective against Haemophilus influenzae colonization. PMID:26434686

  4. Metal ion levels and lymphocyte counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Ø; Varmarken, Jens-Erik; Ovesen, Ole; Nielsen, Christian; Overgaard, Søren

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Wear particles from metal-on-metal arthroplasties are under suspicion for adverse effects both locally and systemically, and the DePuy ASR Hip Resurfacing System (RHA) has above-average failure rates. We compared lymphocyte counts in RHA and total hip arthroplasty (THA) and investigated whether cobalt and chromium ions affected the lymphocyte counts. METHOD: In a randomized controlled trial, we followed 19 RHA patients and 19 THA patients. Lymphocyte subsets and chromium ...

  5. Measurement of calprotectin in ascitic fluid to identify elevated polymorphonuclear cell count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Beglinger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the diagnostic capability of calprotectin in ascitic fluid for detecting a polymorphonuclear (PMN cell count > 250/?L ascites. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, a total of 130 ascites samples were analysed from 71 consecutive patients referred for paracentesis. Total and differential leukocyte cell counts were determined manually with a Neubauer chamber and gentian-violet stain. Calprotectin was measured in 1 mL ascetic fluid by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and a point-of-care (POC lateral flow assay with the Quantum Blue® Reader (Bühlmann Laboratories. All measurements were carried out in a central laboratory by senior personnel blinded to patient history. A PMN count > 250/?L was the primary endpoint of the study. The diagnostic value of ascitic calprotectin measurement was assessed by comparing to the final diagnosis of each patient that had been adjudicated by investigators blinded to calprotectin values. RESULTS: The PMN count was > 250/?L in 19 samples (14.6% from 15 patients (21.1% and varied widely among the study population (range 10-19?800/mL and 1-17?820/mL, respectively. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP was the final diagnosis in four patients (5.6%. All patients with PMN ? 250/?L had negative bacterial culture. PMN count was elevated in five patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis, three with lymphoma, one with neuroendocrine carcinoma, and two with secondary peritonitis due to abdominal perforation. PMN cell counts correlated with ascitic calprotectin values (Spearman’s rho; r = 0.457 for ELISA, r = 0.473 for POC. A considerable range of ascitic calprotectin concentrations was detected by ELISA [median 0.43 ?g/mL, interquartile range (IQR 0.23-1.23 (range 0.10-14.93] and POC [median 0.38 ?g/mL, IQR 0.38-0.56 (range 0.38-13.31]. Ascitic calprotectin levels were higher in samples with PMN > 250/?L, by both ELISA [median (IQR 2.48 ?g/mL (1.61-3.65 vs 0.10 ?g/mL (0.10-0.36, P 250/?L, which may prove useful in the diagnosis of SBP, especially with a readily available bedside testing device.

  6. Bacterial sensitivity to fosfomycin in pregnant women with urinary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Rodrigo Batista; Trevisol, Daisson José; Schuelter-Trevisol, Fabiana

    2015-01-01

    The aim this study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility to fosfomycin of bacteria isolated from urine samples of pregnant women with urinary tract infection. Samples of urine culture with bacterial growth of pregnant women were collected from clinical laboratories in Tubarão, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, between September 2012 and May 2013. In the experimental stage, the colonies were tested for sensitivity to fosfomycin by using the Kirby-Bauer method. The following information relating to the samples was also collected: patients' age, colony count, type(s) of identified bacterial(s) and result of the antimicrobial sensitivity test. Student's t-test was used for mean comparison. A total of 134 samples were selected for the study. The age of the subjects ranged from 15 to 40 years (mean 26.7). Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) were the most commonly identified species. In 89% of cases, the microorganisms were sensitive to fosfomycin. E. coli and S. aureus were the main species of bacteria responsible for urinary tract infections in women in the study area. The most prevalent microorganisms in pregnant women with urinary tract infection were susceptible to fosfomycin. PMID:25626961

  7. Complexities of Counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stake, Bernadine Evans

    This document focuses on one child's skip counting methods. The pupil, a second grade student at Steuben School, in Kankakee, Illinois, was interviewed as she made several attempts at counting twenty-five poker chips on a circular piece of paper. The interview was part of a larger study of "Children's Conceptions of Number and Numeral," funded by…

  8. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial ecology is concerned with the interactions between bacteria and their biological and nonbiological environments and with the role of bacteria in biogeochemical element cycling. Many fundamental properties of bacteria are consequences of their small size. Thus, they can efficiently exploit very dilute solutions of organic matter and their potential growth rates are very high. Bacteria do not have a cytoskeleton and they are covered by a rigid cells wall. Therefore they can only take up ...

  9. Bacterial and toxic pollutants in lakes of river Indus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indus river water gets polluted through three sources viz., municipal wastewater, industrial wastewater and agricultural runoff through drainage structure. The lakes in Sindh (fed by the river Indus), constitute the important source of drinking water, recreation and fish, etc. and offer employment for many. A large number of chemicals that either exist naturally in the land dissolve in the water, or human excreta added due to human activity thereby, contaminating and leading to various diseases. In order to assess the microbial contamination, detection of pollutant indicator organisms (coliform group), using Coliform test was performed by Most Probable Number technique and total bacterial count by Pour Plate method. The level of various heavy metals (arsenic, calcium, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, mercury, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium, selenium and zinc) and electrolytes (Cl/sup -1/, HCO/sub 3/sup -1/) was monitored in water and fish meat samples collected from Haleji and Keenjhar lakes to assess the impact of toxic pollutants. Metal concentrations in water and fish samples were estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Total coliform organisms were found in both the lake water samples, exceeded in 38% samples than the acceptable limits, while total average aerobic bacterial count analyzed in both the lakes was 102 CFU/ml - 1010 CFU/ml. Toxic chemical contaminants were estimated below the detection limit, while other several (essential) metal ions were found within the range set by WHO, except arsenic, cadmium and iron that exceeded slightly in 12.5% water samples. This study was designed to ensure the access of safe and potable water to urban and rural areas of Sindh. Further, the findings will help public/private enterprises and public health institutions to work for the people health friendly policies. (author)

  10. Gamma radiation effects on bacterial contamination and organoleptic characteristics of frozen Ponaeus Monodon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was the application of irradiation process to decrease bacterial contamination of the penaeus monodon. The shrimp samples were obtained from Hormozgan and were sent to the microbiological laboratory. Bacterial contamination of shrimp were determined by counting the aerobic mesophil bacteria, Staphylococcus areus, Coliforms, Vibrio. parahaemolyticus and Salmonella. The shrimp samples were irradiated at different doses of gamma ray. Finally, the optimum dose of the gamma ray for bacterial decontamination of shrimp, especially of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus, was obtained to be 2 kGy. Also, the chemical factors of irradiated and non-irradiated samples such as Protein, Fat, total volatile Nitrogen, Non Protein Nitrogen, Peroxide Value and Amino Acids were measured. There were not any important difference among them. Also, there were not any significant difference between total volatile Nitrogen and Peroxide Value (P>0.05) for the irradiated and non-irradiated shrimp samples. Study of bacterial contaminations of the irradiated and non irradiated samples after 12 months showed that irradiation by 2 kGy can control the microbial contaminations. Four types of films for packaging: Pet.pe, Pp.pe, Bopp, and Pe.20 were used for storage of the irradiated and non irradiated shrimp samples in-18degreeC during 12 months. All of the packages were studied on the aspects of color, odor, tissue and taste of shrimp samples and elasticity and pressing of packages. For the irradiated and non irradiated shrimp Pet.pe and Pp.pe were preferred, respectively.

  11. Bacterial contamination in Saeng-go-gi, a ready-to-eat fresh raw beef dish sold in restaurants in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung Su; Moon, Jin San; Todd, Ewen C D; Bahk, Gyung Jin

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the bacterial contamination levels in ready-to-eat fresh raw beef, Saeng-go-gi in Korean, sold in restaurants. A total of 462 samples were analyzed by performing an aerobic bacterial plate count, a coliform count, and an Escherichia coli O157:H7 count. Aerobic bacterial plate counts of fresh raw beef obtained from Seoul, Cheonan, Daegu, Gunsan, and Gwangju retail store restaurants were 6.46, 6.89, 6.39, 6.58, and 6.67 log CFU/g, respectively, and coliforms were 4.05, 4.97, 4.76, 3.62, and 3.32 log CFU/g, respectively. Among the 462 assessed samples, suspected E. coli O157:H7 colonies were found in 32, 24, 20, 22, and 16 samples obtained from Seoul, Cheonan, Daegu, Gunsan, and Gwangju, respectively. The identity of these isolated colonies was further assessed by using a latex agglutination kit. The agglutination assay data showed that the isolates were not E. coli O157:H7. The data from this study could be used to design better food handling practices for reducing foodborne illnesses linked to fresh raw beef consumption. PMID:25719891

  12. [Bacterial diseases of rape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, O M; Mel'nychuk, M D; Dankevych, L A; Patyka, V P

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial destruction of the culture was described and its agents identified in the spring and winter rape crops. Typical symptoms are the following: browning of stem tissue and its mucilagization, chlorosis of leaves, yellowing and beginning of soft rot in the place of leaf stalks affixion to stems, loss of pigmentation (violet). Pathogenic properties of the collection strains and morphological, cultural, physiological, and biochemical properties of the agents of rape's bacterial diseases isolated by the authors have been investigated. It was found that all the isolates selected by the authors are highly or moderately aggressive towards different varieties of rape. According to the complex of phenotypic properties 44% of the total number of isolates selected by the authors are related to representatives of the genus Pseudomonas, 37% - to Xanthomonas and 19% - to Pectobacterium. PMID:23293826

  13. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the bacterial microbiota of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) cultured in earthen ponds in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakingking, Rolando; Palma, Peter; Usero, Roselyn

    2015-02-01

    The quantity and composition of the bacterial microbiota in the rearing water, sediment, gills and intestines of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus collected every 2 weeks from Day 30 to Day 120 after stocking for grow-out culture in 6 earthen brackish water ponds in the Philippines were examined. The total heterotrophic aerobic bacterial counts obtained in the water, sediment, gills and intestines of tilapia ranged from 10(3) to 10(4) c.f.u. ml(-1), 10(3)-10(5), 10(5)-10(7) and 10(4)-10(7) c.f.u. g(-1), respectively. In terms of composition, a total of 20 bacterial genera and 31 species were identified with the preponderance of gram-negative bacteria constituting 84 % of all bacterial isolates examined. Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus spp., Plesiomonas shigelloides, Shewanella putrefaciens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Staphylococcus spp. and Vibrio cholerae were the dominant bacteria identified in the gills and intestine of tilapia. These bacteria also dominated in the pond sediment and rearing water, except for the nil isolation of S. putrefaciens and V. cholerae in the water samples examined, indicating that resident bacteria in the pond water and sediment congruently typify the composition of bacterial microbiota in the gills and intestine of tilapia which under stressful conditions may propel the ascendance of disease epizootics. PMID:25555375

  14. Optimal Staining and Sample Storage Time for Direct Microscopic Enumeration of Total and Active Bacteria in Soil with Two Fluorescent Dyes

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, W (Wenci); Dodds, W. K.; Banks, M K; Skalsky, J.; Strauss, E. A.

    1995-01-01

    Direct counting techniques, first developed for aquatic samples, can be used to enumerate bacteria in soil and groundwater sediments. Two fluorescent dyes, 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) for actively respiring bacteria and 4(prm1),6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) for total bacteria, were tested for their usefulness in epifluorescent direct bacterial enumeration in soil. Both dyes can be used for the same soil sample without affecting enumeration results. Staining for 8 h with...

  15. Sublattice counting and orbifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanany, Amihay; Orlando, Domenico; Reffert, Susanne

    2010-06-01

    Abelian orbifolds of mathbb{C}3 are known to be encoded by hexagonal brane tilings. To date it is not known how to count all such orbifolds. We fill this gap by employing number theoretic techniques from crystallography, and by making use of Polya's Enumeration Theorem. The results turn out to be beautifully encoded in terms of partition functions and Dirichlet series. The same methods apply to counting orbifolds of any toric non-compact Calabi-Yau singularity. As additional examples, we count the orbifolds of the conifold, of the L aba theories, and of mathbb{C}4.

  16. Bacterial response to siderophore and quorum-sensing chemical signals in the seawater microbial community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamino Kei

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oceans are iron-deficient and nutrient-poor environments. These conditions impart limitations on our understanding of and our ability to identify microorganisms from the marine environment. However, less of knowledge on the influence of siderophores and N-acyl homoserinelactone as interspecies communication signals on the bacterial diversity of seawater has been understood. Results In the presence of 0.1 nM of the commercial siderophore desferroixamine and the known quorum-sensing chemical signals, synthetic N-(3-oxo-hexanoylhomoserine lactone (0.1 nM or N-octanoylhomoserine lactone (0.1 nM, the total numbers of bacteria in S9905 seawater increased nearly three-fold, and nearly eight-fold in S0011 seawater as determined by DAPI staining and counting, and increased three-fold by counting colony forming units in S9905 seawater after 7 days of incubation. Similar bacterial changes in bacterial abundance were observed when high concentration of desferroixamine (1 ?M and each of homoserine lactone compounds (1 ?M were presented in seawater samples. The number of cultivable bacterial species observed was also found to increase from 3 (without addition to 8 (with additions including three unknown species which were identified by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences. The growth of unknown species was found to be related to their siderophore production with response to the addition of desferroixamine and N-acyl homoserine lactones under iron-limited conditions. Conclusion Artificial addition of siderophores and HSLs may be a possible method to aid in the identification and isolation of marine bacterial species which are thought to be unknown.

  17. Housing Inventory Count

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the data communities reported to HUD about the nature of their dedicated homeless inventory, referred to as their Housing Inventory Count...

  18. Analog multivariate counting analyzers

    CERN Document Server

    Nikitin, A V; Armstrong, T P

    2003-01-01

    Characterizing rates of occurrence of various features of a signal is of great importance in numerous types of physical measurements. Such signal features can be defined as certain discrete coincidence events, e.g. crossings of a signal with a given threshold, or occurrence of extrema of a certain amplitude. We describe measuring rates of such events by means of analog multivariate counting analyzers. Given a continuous scalar or multicomponent (vector) input signal, an analog counting analyzer outputs a continuous signal with the instantaneous magnitude equal to the rate of occurrence of certain coincidence events. The analog nature of the proposed analyzers allows us to reformulate many problems of the traditional counting measurements, and cast them in a form which is readily addressed by methods of differential calculus rather than by algebraic or logical means of digital signal processing. Analog counting analyzers can be easily implemented in discrete or integrated electronic circuits, do not suffer fro...

  19. 1996 : Track Count Protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuges Track Count Protocol is to provide an index to the population size of game animals inhabiting St. Vincent Island.

  20. Effect of a high-beef diet on the fecal bacterial flora of humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentges, D J; Maier, B R; Burton, G C; Flynn, M A; Tsutakawa, R K

    1977-02-01

    Ten human volunteers completed a 4-month diet series consisting of 1 month each of a control diet, a meatless diet, a high-beef diet, and the same control diet. Fat and fiber contents were essentially the same in all four diets, but protein content was doubled during the high-beef diet. During the 4th week on each diet, three stool specimens collected from each volunteer were analyzed for chemical composition and content of facultative, aerobic, and anaerobic bacteria. The bacteriological data are presented in this paper. High beef protein consumption had little effect on the composition of the intestinal flora. There were no significant differences in total counts of facultative and aerobic or anaerobic organisms in the feces when volunteers were on meatless or high-beef diets. At the species level, when counts during the two control diets were comparable, in only three instances did the change from the meatless to a high-beef diet significantly influence the bacterial numbers. The ratio of mean counts of anaerobic to facultative and aerobic organisms was approximately 15:1 during the meatless diet and 34:1 during the high-meat diet. The data indicate that animal protein consumption has little effect on the fecal bacterial profile in humans. PMID:832279

  1. Structured count data regression

    OpenAIRE

    Fahrmeir, Ludwig; Osuna, Leyre

    2003-01-01

    Overdispersion in count data regression is often caused by neglection or inappropriate modelling of individual heterogeneity, temporal or spatial correlation, and nonlinear covariate effects. In this paper, we develop and study semiparametric count data models which can deal with these issues by incorporating corresponding components in structured additive form into the predictor. The models are fully Bayesian and inference is carried out by computationally efficient MCMC techniques. In a sim...

  2. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial ecology is concerned with the interactions between bacteria and their biological and nonbiological environments and with the role of bacteria in biogeochemical element cycling. Many fundamental properties of bacteria are consequences of their small size. Thus, they can efficiently exploit very dilute solutions of organic matter and their potential growth rates are very high. Bacteria do not have a cytoskeleton and they are covered by a rigid cells wall. Therefore they can only take up dissolved low-molecular-weight compounds from their surroundings; when bacteria exploit polymeric compounds these must first be undergo extracellular hydrolysis. Bacteria have a great diversity with respect to types of metabolism that far exceeds the metabolic repertoire of eukaryotic organisms. Bacteria play a fundamental role in the biosphere and certain key processes such as, for example, the production and oxidation of methane, nitrate reduction and fixation of atmospheric nitrogen are exclusively carried out by different groups of bacteria. Some bacterial species – ‘extremophiles’ – thrive in extreme environments in which no eukaryotic organisms can survive with respect to temperature, salinity or pH. Key Concepts:Key Concepts: * Fundamental properties of bacteria are related to their small size and lack of cytoskeleton. * Bacteria display a great diversity in types of metabolism. * Bacteria play a key role in the biosphere in terms of transfer of matter and energy. * A number of fundamental biogeochemical processes are carried exclusively by bacteria. * Bacteria play an important role in all types of habitats including some that cannot support eukaryotic life.

  3. Bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S Y

    1996-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are polyesters of hydroxyalkanoates (HAs) synthesized by numerous bacteria as intracellular carbon and energy storage compounds and accumulated as granules in the cytoplasm of cells. More than 80 HAs have been detected as constituents of PHAs, which allows these thermoplastic materials to have various mechanical properties resembling hard crystalline polymer or elastic rubber depending on the incorporated monomer units. Even though PHAs have been recognized as good candidates for biodegradable plastics, their high price compared with conventional plastics has limited their use in a wide range of applications. A number of bacteria including Alcaligenes eutrophus, Alcaligenes latus, Azotobacter vinelandii, methylotrophs, pseudomonads, and recombinant Escherichia coli have been employed for the production of PHAs, and the productivity of greater than 2 g PHA/L/h has been achieved. Recent advances in understanding metabolism, molecular biology, and genetics of the PHA-synthesizing bacteria and cloning of more than 20 different PHA biosynthesis genes allowed construction of various recombinant strains that were able to synthesize polyesters having different monomer units and/or to accumulate much more polymers. Also, genetically engineered plants harboring the bacterial PHA biosynthesis genes are being developed for the economical production of PHAs. Improvements in fermentation/separation technology and the development of bacterial strains or plants that more efficiently synthesize PHAs will bring the costs down to make PHAs competitive with the conventional plastics. PMID:18623547

  4. Biogeochemical controls on the bacterial population in the eastern Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Neogi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about bacterial dynamics in the oligotrophic ocean, particularly about its cultivable population. We examined the abundance of total and cultivable bacteria in relation to changes in biogeochemical conditions in the eastern Atlantic Ocean with special regard to Vibrio spp., a group of bacteria that can cause diseases in human and aquatic organisms. Surface, deep water and plankton samples (<20 ?m, 20–55 ?m and >55 ?m were collected between 50° N and 24° S. Chlorophyll-a was very low (<0.3 ?g l?1 in most areas of the nutrient-poor Atlantic, except at a few locations near upwelling regions. In surface water, dissolved organic carbon (DOC and nitrogen (DON concentrations were 64–95 ?M C and 2–10 ?M N accounting for ?90 % and ?76 % of total organic C and N, respectively. DOC and DON gradually decreased to ~45 ?M C and <5 ?M N in the bottom water while dissolved inorganic nutrients (Si, P, N increased with depth. In the surface layer, culture independent total bacteria, represented by 4´-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI counts, ranged mostly between 107 and 108 cells l?1, while cultivable bacterial counts (CBC and Vibrio spp. were found at concentrations of 104–107 and 102–105 colony forming units (CFU l?1, respectively. Most bacteria (>99 % were found in the nanoplankton fraction (<20 ?m, however, bacterial abundance did not correlate with suspended particulates (chlorophyll-a, particulate organic C and N. Instead, we found a highly significant correlation between bacterial abundance and temperature (p < 0.001 and a significant correlation with DOC and DON. Among the cultivable bacteria, the abundance of Vibrio was also highly significantly correlated with DOC and DON (p < 0.0005 and p < 0.005, respectively. In cold waters of the mid-pelagic and abyssal zones, CBC was 50 to 100-times lower than in the surface layer; however, cultivable Vibrio spp. could be isolated from the bathypelagic zone and even near the seafloor (average ~10 CFU l?1. In contrast, DAPI counts revealed a homogenous distribution of the non-cultivable bacterial population throughout the oceanic depths. Our study indicates that Vibrio and other bacteria may largely depend on dissolved organic matter to survive in nutrient-poor oceanic habitats, without being associated with plankton or particles.

  5. Surface Bacterial-Spore Assay Using Tb3+/DPA Luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    Equipment and a method for rapidly assaying solid surfaces for contamination by bacterial spores are undergoing development. The method would yield a total (nonviable plus viable) spore count of a surface within minutes and a viable-spore count in about one hour. In this method, spores would be collected from a surface by use of a transparent polymeric tape coated on one side with a polymeric adhesive that would be permeated with one or more reagent(s) for detection of spores by use of visible luminescence. The sticky side of the tape would be pressed against a surface to be assayed, then the tape with captured spores would be placed in a reader that illuminates the sample with ultraviolet light and counts the green luminescence spots under a microscope to quantify the number of bacterial spores per unit area. The visible luminescence spots seen through the microscope would be counted to determine the concentration of spores on the surface. This method is based on the chemical and physical principles of methods described in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, including Live/Dead Spore Assay Using DPA-Triggered Tb Luminescence (NPO-30444), Vol. 27, No. 3 (March 2003), page 7a. To recapitulate: The basic idea is to exploit the observations that (1) dipicolinic acid (DPA) is present naturally only in bacterial spores; and (2) when bound to Tb3+ ions, DPA triggers intense green luminescence of the ions under ultraviolet excitation; (3) DPA can be released from the viable spores by using L-alanine to make them germinate; and (4) by autoclaving, microwaving, or sonicating the sample, one can cause all the spores (non-viable as well as viable) to release their DPA. One candidate material for use as the adhesive in the present method is polydimethysiloxane (PDMS). In one variant of the method for obtaining counts of all (viable and nonviable) spores the PDMS would be doped with TbCl3. After collection of a sample, the spores immobilized on the sticky tape surface would be lysed by heating or microwaving to release their DPA. Tb3+ ions from the TbCl3 would become bound to the released DPA. The tape would then be irradiated with ultraviolet and examined as described above. In another variant of the method - for obtaining counts of viable spores only - the PDMS would be doped with L-alanine in addition to TbCl3. As now envisioned, a fully developed apparatus for implementing this method would include a pulsed source of ultraviolet light and a time-gated electronic camera to record the images seen through the microscope during a prescribed exposure interval at a prescribed short time after an ultraviolet pulse. As in the method of the second-mentioned prior article, the pulsing and time-gating would be used to discriminate between the longer-lived Tb3+/DPA luminescence and the shorter-lived background luminescence in the same wavelength range. In a time-gated image, the bright luminescence from bacterial spores could easily be seen against a dark background.

  6. Desulfovibrio bacterial species are increased in ulcerative colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rowan, Fiachra

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Debate persists regarding the role of Desulfovibrio subspecies in ulcerative colitis. Combined microscopic and molecular techniques enable this issue to be investigated by allowing precise enumeration of specific bacterial species within the colonic mucous gel. The aim of this study was to combine laser capture microdissection and quantitative polymerase chain reaction to determine Desulfovibrio copy number in crypt-associated mucous gel in health and in acute and chronic ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Colonic mucosal biopsies were harvested from healthy controls (n = 19) and patients with acute (n = 10) or chronic (n = 10) ulcerative colitis. Crypt-associated mucous gel was obtained by laser capture microdissection throughout the colon. Pan-bacterial 16S rRNA and Desulfovibrio copy number\\/mm were obtained by polymerase chain reaction at each locus. Bacterial copy numbers were interrogated for correlation with location and disease activity. Data were evaluated using a combination of ordinary linear methods and linear mixed-effects models to cater for multiple interactions. RESULTS: Desulfovibrio positivity was significantly increased in acute and chronic ulcerative colitis at multiple levels within the colon, and after normalization with total bacterial signal, the relative Desulfovibrio load was increased in acute colitis compared with controls. Desulfovibrio counts did not significantly correlate with age, disease duration, or disease activity but interlevel correlations were found in adjacent colonic segments in the healthy control and chronic ulcerative colitis groups. CONCLUSION: The presence of Desulfovibrio subspecies is increased in ulcerative colitis and the data presented suggest that these bacteria represent an increased percentage of the colonic microbiome in acute ulcerative colitis.

  7. Isolation, Characterization and Application of Bacterial Population From Agricultural Soil at Sohag Province, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahig, A. E.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty soil samples of agriculture soil were collected from two different sites in Sohag province, Egypt, during hot and cold seasons. Twenty samples were from soil irrigated with canal water (site A and twenty samples were from soil irrigated with wastewater (site B. This study aimed to compare the incidence of plasmids in bacteria isolated from soil and to investigate the occurrence of metal and antibiotic resistance bacteria, and consequently to select the potential application of these bacteria in bioremediation. The total bacterial count (CFU/gm in site (B was higher than that in site (A. Moreover, the CFU values in summer were higher than those values in winter at both sites. A total of 771 bacterial isolates were characterized as Bacillus, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Eschershia, Shigella, Xanthomonas, Acetobacter, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Moraxella and Methylococcus. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of Pb+2, Cu+2, Zn+2, Hg+2, Co+2, Cd+2, Cr+3, Te+2, As+2 and Ni+2 for plasmid-possessed bacteria were determined and the highest MICs were 1200 µg/mL for lead, 800 µg/mL for both Cobalt and Arsenate, 1200 µg/mL for Nickel, 1000 µg/ml for Copper and less than 600 µg/mL for other metals. Bacterial isolates from both sites A and B showed multiple heavy metal resistance. A total of 337 bacterial isolates contained plasmids and the incidence of plasmids was approximately 25-50% higher in bacteria isolated from site (B than that from site (A. These isolates were resistance to different antibiotics. Approximately, 61% of the bacterial isolates were able to assimilate insecticide, carbaryl, as a sole source of carbon and energy. However, the Citrobacter AA101 showed the best growth on carbaryl.

  8. Clinical, Laboratory and Bacterial Profile of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Chronic Liver Disease Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the clinical and laboratory features, bacterial profile and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis (SBP) in Chronic Liver Disease (CLD) patients presenting at a tertiary care hospital of Karachi. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: PMRC Centre for Gastroenterology and Hepatology and Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from April 2010 to March 2012. Methodology: CLD patients with ascites were recruited from PMRC Centre for Gastroenterology and Hepatology and Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi. Basic demographics, symptoms and clinical signs of patients were recorded. Patients with the history of antibiotic use within last 3 days or any intra-abdominal source of infection were excluded. Diagnostic paracentesis was done for ascitic fluid detailed report (D/R) and culture. Blood sample was collected for total leukocyte count, serum proteins and billirubin levels. Results: Out of a total 152 CLD patients, 38 (25%) were diagnosed with SBP. Eight (24.2%) patients presented with classical SBP, 20 (52.6%) had culture negative neutrocytic ascites and 10 (26%) had bacterascites. Fever, abdominal tenderness and constipation were common in SBP patients. Ascitic fluid culture was positive in 19 (50%) patients. E. coli (65%) was the predominant pathogen followed by Enterococcus species (15%). Resistance was high against cephalosporins (78%) and fluoroquinolones (69.6%) and least against amikacin (13%) and meropenem (12%). Conclusion: Ascitic fluid D/R and culture together can lead to the accurate diagnosis of SBP and can guide for the right antibiotic choice as resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotic is common in such patients. (author)

  9. Breast carcinoma vascularity, A comparison of manual microvessel count and Chalkley count

    OpenAIRE

    Dhakal, Hari Prasad; Bassarova, Assia; Naume, Bjørn; Synnestvedt, Marit; Borgen, Elin; Kaaresen, Rolf; Schlichting, Ellen; Wiedswang, Gro; Giercksky, Karl- Erik; Nesland, Jahn M.

    2009-01-01

    . Manual counting of microvessels as intratumoral microvessel density (MVD) and Chalkley counting have been used in several studies to assess the prognostic impact of vascularity in invasive breast carcinomas. In our present study, the aim was to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis in invasive breast carcinoma assessed by MVD and Chalkley techniques in the same series of patients. A total of 498 breast carcinoma patients with median follow up time 85 month...

  10. Bacterial hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lauga, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria predate plants and animals by billions of years. Today, they are the world's smallest cells yet they represent the bulk of the world's biomass, and the main reservoir of nutrients for higher organisms. Most bacteria can move on their own, and the majority of motile bacteria are able to swim in viscous fluids using slender helical appendages called flagella. Low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamics is at the heart of the ability of flagella to generate propulsion at the micron scale. In fact, fluid dynamic forces impact many aspects of bacteriology, ranging from the ability of cells to reorient and search their surroundings to their interactions within mechanically and chemically-complex environments. Using hydrodynamics as an organizing framework, we review the biomechanics of bacterial motility and look ahead to future challenges.

  11. Detection of bacterial concentration variations based on dielectric magnetic flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingyao; Cai, Jie; Huang, Xingjian; Yi, Tian; Wang, Kexing; Pan, Siyi

    2016-02-01

    This study is based on the development of bacterial count quantification generated by medium dielectric variations and consequent polarization material release. The proposed approach is an action method for the fast detection of bacterial concentration in orange juice. The sensing method relies on bacterial attachment up to biofilm formation. Furthermore, different media provide more oxygen group content to enhance capacitance and self-discharge. The test took only 30 min and it provided the means for rapid bacterial detection in the juice industry. PMID:26304394

  12. KANDUNGAN BAKTERI TOTAL Coli DAN Escherechia coli / FECAL Coli AIR MINUM DARI DEPOT AIR MINUM ISI ULANG DI JAKARTA, TANGERANG, DAN BEKASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena Athena

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A study on drinking water quality produced by drinking water refill depots (AMIU was done in Jakarta, Tangerang and Bekasi. Analysis unit of the study was drinking water refill depots with the sample number of 38 depots. For every selected depot, laboratory analysis were done for natural water (clean water and drinking water produced by the depots. The total number of sample were 76 water samples. One of the parameters analyzed was microbiological contents, namey total coli bacterial count and Escherechia coli / fecal coli. For collecting information about the sources and storage of natural waters, drinking water treatment processes, treatment equipment, and so on, the depots operators and drinking water refill association personnel were interviewed as well as the water treatment equipment distributors. Based on the interview, it can be stated that the main principles of the water treatment processes from natural water to become drinking water in the AMIU depots were only filtration and disinfections processes. Natural water sources mostly was mountain spring water (89.5%, originated from Bogor (60.5%. and Sukabumi (26.3%. According to the results of laboratory analysis, it can be stated that the percentages of the natural water samples which were not complying with the standards of total coli bacterial count was 31.6% and that of fecal coli was 28.9%. Whereas for drinking water produced by the depots, the percentages of water samples which were not complying with the total coli bacterial count and fecal coli standards were 28.9% and 18.4% respectively. Additionally, the drinking water treatment processes were not sufficient for natural water with the high contents (around 1.600 MPN/100 ml of total coli and fecal coli bacterial.

  13. Fitting a distribution to miccrobial counts: making sense of zeros

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro Duarte, Ana Sofia; Stockmarr, Anders; Nauta, Maarten

    2013-01-01

    Non-detects or left-censored results are inherent to the traditional methods of microbial enumeration in foods. Typically, a low concentration of microorganisms in a food unit goes undetected in plate counts or most probable number (MPN) counts, and produces “artificial zeros”. However, these “artificial zeros” are only a share of the total number of zero counts resulting from a sample, as their number adds up to the number of “true zeros” resulting from uncontaminated units. In the process of f...

  14. Rainflow counting revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeker, H. [Deutsches Windenergie-Institut (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    As state of the art method the rainflow counting technique is presently applied everywhere in fatigue analysis. However, the author feels that the potential of the technique is not fully recognized in wind energy industries as it is used, most of the times, as a mere data reduction technique disregarding some of the inherent information of the rainflow counting results. The ideas described in the following aim at exploitation of this information and making it available for use in the design and verification process. (au)

  15. Evolution of bacterial community during bioremediation of PAHs in a coal tar contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lors, C.; Ryngaert, A.; Perie, F.; Diels, L.; Damidot, D. [University of Lille, Lille (France)

    2010-11-15

    The monitoring of a windrow treatment applied to soil contaminated by mostly 2, 3- and 4-ring PAHs produced by coal tar distillation was performed by following the evolution of both PAH concentration and the bacterial community. Total and PAH-degrading bacterial community structures were followed by 165 rRNA PCR-DGGE in parallel with quantification by bacterial counts and 16 PAH measurements. Six months of biological treatment led to a strong decrease in 2-, 3- and 4-ring PAH concentrations (98, 97 and 82%, respectively). This result was associated with the activity of bacterial PAH-degraders belonging mainly to the Gamma proteobacteria, in particular the Enterobacteria and Pseudomonas genera which were detected over the course of the treatment. This group was considered to be a good bioindicator to determine the potential PAH biodegradation of contaminated soil. Conversely other species like the Beta proteobacteria were detected after 3 months when 2-, 3- and 4-ring PAHs were almost completely degraded. Thus presence of the Beta proteobacteria group could be considered a good candidate indicator to estimate the endpoint of biotreatment of this type of PAH contaminated soil.

  16. How to count elephants in West African savannahs? Synthesis and comparison of main gamecount methods

    OpenAIRE

    Bouché, P.; Lejeune, P.; VERMEULEN, C

    2012-01-01

    The comparison of some elephants count methods – aerial sampling count, aerial total count and direct foot count – has been presented through surveys’ study cases implemented in Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger. We compare them in terms of effort and cost to survey an area (sampling efficiency), efficiency in data collection (detection efficiency) as well as accuracy and precision. Aerial sampling count returns low sampling and detection efficiency and very low precision and accuracy figures whe...

  17. Fragments of approximate counting.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buss, S.R.; Kolodziejczyk, L.. A.; Thapen, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 79, ?. 2 (2014), s. 496-525. ISSN 0022-4812 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA100190902 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : approximate counting * bounded arithmetic * ordering principle Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.541, year: 2014 http:// journals .cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=9287274&fileId=S0022481213000376

  18. Counting Higgs bundles

    OpenAIRE

    Mozgovoy, Sergey; Schiffmann, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    We prove a closed formula counting semistable twisted Higgs bundles of fixed rank and degree over a smooth projective curve defined over a finite field. We also prove a formula for the Donaldson-Thomas invariants of the moduli spaces of twisted Higgs bundles over a curve.

  19. Single count monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single count monitor is made to detect a variation of a counter with a photomultiplier. One hundred counters at maximum are monitored one by one in some sampling times. The result of the monitor is printed out automatically using the digital printer at the end of monitoring. (author)

  20. BACTERIAL PLASMIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Dinic

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasmids, extrachromosomal DNA, were identified in bacteria pertaining to family of Enterobacteriacae for the very first time. After that, they were discovered in almost every single observed strain. The structure of plasmids is made of circular double chain DNA molecules which are replicated autonomously in a host cell. Their length may vary from few up to several hundred kilobase (kb. Among the bacteria, plasmids are mostly transferred horizontally by conjugation process. Plasmid replication process can be divided into three stages: initiation, elongation, and termination. The process involves DNA helicase I, DNA gyrase, DNA polymerase III, endonuclease, and ligase.Plasmids contain genes essential for plasmid function and their preservation in a host cell (the beginning and the control of replication. Some of them possess genes whichcontrol plasmid stability. There is a common opinion that plasmids are unnecessary fora growth of bacterial population and their vital functions; thus, in many cases they can be taken up or kicked out with no lethal effects to a plasmid host cell. However,there are numerous biological functions of bacteria related to plasmids. Plasmids identification and classification are based upon their genetic features which are presented permanently in all of them, and these are: abilities to preserve themselves in a host cell and to control a replication process. In this way, plasmids classification among incompatibility groups is performed. The method of replicon typing, which is based on genotype and not on phenotype characteristics, has the same results as in compatibility grouping.

  1. Bacterial community of cushion plant Thylacospermum ceaspitosum on elevational gradient in the Himalayan cold desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ?eháková, Klára; Chro?áková, Alica; Krišt?fek, Václav; Kuchtová, Barbora; ?apková, Kate?ina; Scharfen, Josef; ?apek, Petr; Doležal, Ji?í

    2015-01-01

    Although bacterial assemblages are important components of soils in arid ecosystems, the knowledge about composition, life-strategies, and environmental drivers is still fragmentary, especially in remote high-elevation mountains. We compared the quality and quantity of heterotrophic bacterial assemblages between the rhizosphere of the dominant cushion-forming plant Thylacospermum ceaspitosum and its surrounding bulk soil in two mountain ranges (East Karakoram: 4850-5250 m and Little Tibet: 5350-5850 m), in communities from cold steppes to the subnival zone in Ladakh, arid Trans-Himalaya, northwest India. Bacterial communities were characterized by molecular fingerprinting in combination with culture-dependent methods. The effects of environmental factors (elevation, mountain range, and soil physico-chemical parameters) on the bacterial community composition and structure were tested by multivariate redundancy analysis and conditional inference trees. Actinobacteria dominate the cultivable part of community and represent a major bacterial lineage of cold desert soils. The most abundant genera were Streptomyces, Arthrobacter, and Paenibacillus, representing both r- and K-strategists. The soil texture is the most important factor for the community structure and the total bacteria counts. Less abundant and diverse assemblages are found in East Karakoram with coarser soils derived from leucogranite bedrock, while more diverse assemblages in Little Tibet are associated with finer soils derived from easily weathering gneisses. Cushion rhizosphere is in general less diverse than bulk soil, and contains more r-strategists. K-strategists are more associated with the extremes of the gradient, with drought at lowest elevations (4850-5000 m) and frost at the highest elevations (5750-5850 m). The present study illuminates the composition of soil bacterial assemblages in relation to the cushion plant T. ceaspitosum in a xeric environment and brings important information about heterotrophic bacteria in Himalayan soil. PMID:25932023

  2. Petrifilm plates for enumeration of bacteria counts in goat milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    PetrifilmTM Aerobic Count (AC) and Coliform Count (CC) plates were validated against standard methods for enumeration of coliforms, total bacteria, and psychrotrophic bacteria in raw (n = 39) and pasteurized goat milk (n = 17) samples. All microbiological data were transformed into log form and sta...

  3. Prevention of bacterial adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria

    2010-01-01

    Management of bacterial infections is becoming increasingly difficult due to the emergence and increasing prevalence of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to available antibiotics. Conventional antibiotics generally kill bacteria by interfering with vital cellular functions, an approach that imposes selection pressure for resistant bacteria. New approaches are urgently needed. Targeting bacterial virulence functions directly is an attractive alternative. An obvious target is bacterial adhesi...

  4. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a high speed circuit for accurate neutron coincidence counting comprising: neutron detecting means for providing an above-threshold signal upon neutron detection; amplifying means inputted by the neutron detecting means for providing a pulse output having a pulse width of about 0.5 microseconds upon the input of each above threshold signal; digital processing means inputted by the pulse output of the amplifying means for generating a pulse responsive to each input pulse from the amplifying means and having a pulse width of about 50 nanoseconds effective for processing an expected neutron event rate of about 1 Mpps: pulse stretching means inputted by the digital processing means for producing a pulse having a pulse width of several milliseconds for each pulse received form the digital processing means; visual indicating means inputted by the pulse stretching means for producing a visual output for each pulse received from the digital processing means; and derandomizing means effective to receive the 50 ns neutron event pulses from the digital processing means for storage at a rate up to the neutron event rate of 1 Mpps and having first counter means for storing the input neutron event pulses

  5. PROCALCITONIN AS A BIOMARKER OF BACTERIAL INFECTION IN SICKLE CELL VASO-OCCLUSIVE CRISIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Kumar Patel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infection is an important trigger of vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC in sickle cell anaemia (SCA. SCA Patients with VOC have signs of inflammation and it is difficult to diagnose bacterial infection in them. This study was undertaken to evaluate serum procalcitonin (PCT as a biomarker of bacterial infection in acute sickle cell vaso-occlusive crisis. Hundred SCA patients were studied at Sickle Cell Clinic and Molecular Biology Laboratory, V.S.S. Medical College, Burla, Odisha, India. SCA was diagnosed by haemoglobin electrophoresis, HPLC and molecular analysis. Patients were divided into 3categories namely Category-A (VOC/ACS with fever but without evidence of bacterial infection-66 patients; Category-B (VOC with fever and documentedbacterial infection-24 patients; and Category-C (Patients in steady statewithout VOC/ACS or fever-10 patients. Investigations like complete blood count, C-reactive protein estimation and PCT measurement was done in all the cases. There was no significant difference in total leucocytes count and C-reactiveprotein values between category A and B. In category A the PCT level was <0.5ng/mL in 83.3% and 0.5-2ng/mL in 16.7% of cases. In category B all the cases had PCT value >0.5ng/mL with 87.5% of cases having >2ng/mL. In category C, PCT value was <0.5ng/mL.  The PCTvalue differed significantly (p<0.0001 in three categories. PCT had a highsensitivity (100% and negative predictive value (100% for bacterial infection at a cut-off value of 0.5ng/mL; whereas the specificity is excellent at a cutoff value of 2ng/mL. SCA patients with VOC/ACS with fever presenting with a PCT level of <0.5ng/mL do not have bacterial infection. In patients with VOC/ACS and fever, PCT value of >2ng/mL is indicative of bacterial infection necessitating antimicrobial therapy. Patients with indeterminate PCT value of0.5-2ng/mL, need a repeat PCT estimation or an empirical antibiotic therapyawaiting the availability of microbiological report as deemed necessary.

  6. Bacterial infection of mudfish Clarias gariepinus (Siluriformes: Clariidae fingerlings in tropical nursery ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Ikpi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infection among the most common cultured mudfish Clarias gariepinus in Africa, has become a cause of concern, because it constitutes the largest economic loss in fish farms. In order to provide useful biological data of the pathogens for good management practices, samples were collected monthly between January 2008 and December 2009 in three monoculture nursery ponds, located in three different positions: upriver (A, grassland, mid-river (B, mixed forest and grassland and downriver (C, rainforest along 200km length of Cross River floodplains, Nigeria. A total of 720 fingerlings between 15.1 and 20.7g were analyzed to determine the degree of infection. The bacterial pathogens were taken from their external surfaces, and were isolated and identified by standard methods. The caudal fins of fingerlings from pond A had the highest bacterial load (5.8x10³cfu/g, while the least counts (1.2x103cfu/g were identified on the head of fish from pond C, with Flexibacter columnaris as the major etiological agent. Pseudomonas fluorescens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus were identified as co-isolates with P. fluorescens as dominant (0.7x10²cfu/mL co-isolates in pond water. Clinical signs of five white spots with red periphery appeared on the external surface of infected fish. All the fish sampled, died after 4 to 9 days. There was no significant difference in the bacterial counts between different ponds, but the difference between fish organs/parts examined was significant. Fish from these ponds are therefore potentially dangerous to consumers and highly devalued, with the economic impact to producers. Preventive methods to avoid these infections are recommended. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (2: 751-759. Epub 2011 June 01.

  7. The effectiveness of peppermint and thyme essential oil mist in reducing bacterial contamination in broiler houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska, D; Sowinska, J

    2013-11-01

    The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been demonstrated by various in vitro studies, whereas their effect on poultry farm hygiene has not been thoroughly investigated, in particular with reference to aerial treatment. The present study aims to assess the antibacterial effects of natural essential oils in broiler houses. Two experimental rooms were fogged with aqueous solutions of peppermint and thyme oils. The control room was sprayed with pure water. The experiment was conducted on broilers aged 1 to 42 d. The rooms were fogged every 3 d. One day after fogging, the total counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, and mannitol-positive staphylococci were determined. Samples were collected from the air, litter, walls, and drinkers. The results of the study demonstrate that essential oil mist may improve hygiene standards in broiler farms. During broiler growth, the mean total counts of mesophilic bacteria in the rooms treated with essential oils were lower (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) in comparison with the control. Enterobacteriaceae and staphylococci counts were also higher in the control group. A single exception was noted in a litter sample where the mean count of Enterobacteriaceae in the room fogged with peppermint oil was higher than in the control. Both oils reduced bacterial counts, but thyme oil was more effective in reducing coliform bacteria, whereas peppermint oil had a higher inhibitory effect on the proliferation of staphylococci. These promising results encourage further research to determine the optimal doses and the effects of essential oils and their combinations on the living conditions and health status of broiler chickens. PMID:24135585

  8. Counting Migrant Buddhists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, JØrn

    2015-01-01

    Religious demography is generally a challenging endeavor, and counting and defining religions and religious identities in an Asian context is notoriously difficult. Buddhists in both Asia and the West have a long tradition of grey zone religiosity, which means that membership and mono-identity is less common than syncretic engagement and hybrid identity. The immigrant Buddhists in the West are far more numerous than the convert and new age Buddhists. Their numbers are, however, extremely difficult to obtain. This article discusses the methodological and theoretical problems in quantifying immigrant religion and the challenges of operationalizing such constraints into concrete methods. The empirical data derive from the author’s engagement in several research projects on Buddhism in Denmark in which traditions from both Theravada and Mahayana groups are represented. While concrete figures are suggested, it is also concluded that further empirical research as well as comparison with more contexts is necessary for the continued refinement of usable methods in counting immigrant religion.

  9. Do All Fragments Count?

    CERN Document Server

    Bod, R

    2000-01-01

    We aim at finding the minimal set of fragments which achieves maximal parse accuracy in Data Oriented Parsing. Experiments with the Penn Wall Street Journal treebank show that counts of almost arbitrary fragments within parse trees are important, leading to improved parse accuracy over previous models tested on this treebank. We isolate a number of dependency relations which previous models neglect but which contribute to higher parse accuracy.

  10. Counting Flux Vacua

    CERN Document Server

    Ashok, S; Ashok, Sujay; Douglas, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    We develop a technique for computing expected numbers of vacua in Gaussian ensembles of supergravity theories, and apply it to derive an estimate for the index counting all flux supersymmetric vacua with signs in Calabi-Yau compactification of type IIb string theory, which becomes exact in the limit of a large number of fluxes. This should give a reasonable estimate for actual numbers of vacua in string theory, for CY's with small b_3.

  11. The right to count does not always count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The best prescription against illness is learning to read and to count. People who are unable to count have a harder time learning to read. People who have difficulty counting make poorer decisions, are less able to combine information and are less likely to have a strategy for life

  12. Enhanced counting efficiency of Cerenkov radiation from bismuth-210

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the measurement of 210Bi by Cerenkov counting in a commercial liquid scintillation counter. The counting efficiency in water is 0.17 counts per second per Becquerel (17%). When the enhancers Triton X-100 (15% v/v) and sodium salicylate (1% m/v) are added to the solution the counting efficiency for 210Bi increases from 17% to 75%. The 210Po daughter of 210Bi causes interference of 0.85 counts per second per Becquerel in the presence of the enhancers but not in water. When 210Bi and 210Po are present in secular equilibrium the total counting efficiency is 160%. When 210Bi and 210Po are not in secular equilibrium the 210Po can be removed immediately before counting by plating onto silver foil. The use of the enhancers gives a substantial increase in counting efficiency compared to counting in water. Compared with solutions used in liquid scintillation counting the enhancer solution is inexpensive and can be disposed of without environmental hazard. (author)

  13. Liquid scintillation and Cerenkov counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following aspects of liquid scintillation were discussed: instrumentation, sources of background activity, efficiency determination, multi-isotope counting, absolute standardization, sample preparation, and data processing. Cherenkov radiation and the practical aspects of Cherenkov counting were also considered

  14. Determination of Contamination Profiles of Human Bacterial Pathogens in Shrimp Obtained from Java, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrimp continues to be an important export commodity for Indonesia and contributed significantly to the country’s revenue. However, shrimp exports have been frequently rejected by importing countries due to filth, Salmonella and insanitary conditions. This study was conducted to evaluate the profiles of bacterial contamination of ocean and aquaculture shrimp obtained from the area of West, Central and East Java; frozen shrimp and shrimp during industry production of frozen shrimp. The study indicated that both ocean and aquaculture shrimp obtained from the study area were heavily contaminated. On the average, shrimp obtained from West Java were more contaminated than those obtained from East and Central Java. The total bacterial counts were generally higher in ocean shrimp than those of aquaculture ones. Salmonella was present in two of 32 samples of ocean shrimp and in four of 32 samples of aquaculture shrimp obtained from the study area. Vibrio cholerae was not detected in shrimp from West Java, but was found in three out of 16 samples obtained from East and Central Java. V. parahaemolyticus was frequently identified in aquaculture shrimp but absent in fresh ocean shrimp. Studies on shrimp collected from six sampling points during frozen shrimp production revealed that processing will reduce the number of total bacterial, E. coli, and Staphylococal counts. However, the processing did not effectively reduce the incidence of Salmonella or V. parahaemolyticus when the raw material has been contaminated with the pathogens. Sizing and grading as well as arrangement of shrimp before freezing were considered as the critical points where bacteria should be controlled to inhibit growth and cross contamination with bacteria such as Listeria. Implementation of Good Agricultural Practices in production of raw shrimp as well as Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point at the line processing are expected to improve the quality of fresh and frozen shrimp. (author)

  15. Total-Count Calibration Blocks for use in uranium Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif

    1983-01-01

    Transportable calibration blocks for field scintillometers and borehole probes were manufactured from concrete and installed at calibration sites in Denmark and Greece. The concrete mixes were prepared from aggregates of quartz sand and crushed uranium-thorium ore. Hater-reducing agents and silica dust added to the cement paste produced concretes of acceptable porosity and pore structure. The content of ore was adjusted to provide block grades of approximately 2, 140, and 540 units of radioeleme...

  16. Total-count calibration blocks for use in uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transportable calibration blocks for field scintillometers and borehole probes were manufactured from concrete and installed at calibration sites in Denmark and Greece. The concrete mixes were prepared from aggregates of quartz sand and crushed uranium-thorium ore. Water-reducing agents and silica dust added to the cement paste produced concretes of acceptable porosity and pore structure. The content of ore was adjusted to provide block grades of approximately 2, 140, and 540 units of radioelement concentration (Ur). Thorium was estimated to contribute 0.39 +- 0.02 Ur per ppm Th. The adopted reference grades include concrete pore moisture and are normalized to an effective atomic number of 13. Grade instability due to radon emanation was not detected. (author)

  17. Total-Count Calibration Blocks for use in uranium Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LØvborg, Leif

    1983-01-01

    Transportable calibration blocks for field scintillometers and borehole probes were manufactured from concrete and installed at calibration sites in Denmark and Greece. The concrete mixes were prepared from aggregates of quartz sand and crushed uranium-thorium ore. Hater-reducing agents and silica dust added to the cement paste produced concretes of acceptable porosity and pore structure. The content of ore was adjusted to provide block grades of approximately 2, 140, and 540 units of radioelement concentration (Ur). Thorium was estimated to contribute 0.39 ± 0.02 Ur per ppm Th. The adopted reference grades include concrete pore moisture and are normalized to an effective atomic number of 13. Grade instability due to radon emanation was not detected.

  18. New Method for Counting Bacteria Associated with Coral Mucus ? †

    OpenAIRE

    Garren, Melissa; Azam, Farooq

    2010-01-01

    The ability to count bacteria associated with reef-building corals in a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective manner has been hindered by the viscous and highly autofluorescent nature of the coral mucus layer (CML) in which they live. We present a new method that disperses bacterial cells by trypsinization prior to 4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and quantification by epifluorescence microscopy. We sampled seawater and coral mucus from Porites lobata from 6 reef sites influenced b...

  19. Biogeochemical controls on the bacterial populations in the eastern Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neogi, S. B.; Koch, B. P.; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.; Pohl, C.; Kattner, G.; Yamasaki, S.; Lara, R. J.

    2011-12-01

    Little is known about bacterial dynamics in the oligotrophic ocean, particularly about cultivable bacteria. We examined the abundance of total and cultivable bacteria in relation to changes in biogeochemical conditions in the eastern Atlantic Ocean with special regard to Vibrio spp., a group of bacteria that can cause diseases in human and aquatic organisms. Surface, deep water and plankton (55 ?m) samples were collected between 50° N and 24° S. Chlorophyll-a was very low (bacteria and other prokaryotes represented by 4´-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) counts, ranged mostly between 107 and 108 cells l-1, while cultivable bacterial counts (CBC) and Vibrio spp. were found at concentrations of 104-107 and 102-105 colony forming units (CFU) l-1, respectively. Most bacteria (>99 %) were found in the nanoplankton fraction (stained prokaryotes, cultivable Vibrio showed a stronger and highly significant correlation with DOC and DON (p bacteria may largely depend on dissolved organic matter to survive in nutrient-poor oceanic habitats.

  20. Intestinal Bacterial Flora that Compete on the Haem Precursor Iron Fumarate in Iron Deficiency Anemia Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim, S. A. H.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The study focused on finding if there is any possible relation between the intestinal bacterial population quantitative and qualitative and the deficiency of the most important iron compounds as haem precursors. Methodology and Results: Blood complete picture and stool analyses were done to 750 volunteer cases whom were asked for these analyses by their physicians. Analyses proved that 560 cases representing 75.2 % were anemic as the RBC(s based on counts of the total studied cases of less than 263 x 104 and the haemoglobin amount ranged between 7.2 and 11.3 g/dl, while the remainder 24.8 % of the volunteer sample was not anemic. A high male/female ratio ofanemic cases, 1:27 was also documented. Considering that all the studied stool samples should be completely free from any parasites or any other anemia-related diseases was a priority. Bacteriological analysis of stool samples of the anemic cases resulted in the detection of high counts of total viable bacteria, exceeded 42 x 109 cfu/g, while it was never more than 26 x 106 cfu/g and decreased to 4 x 106 cfu/g in many cases in this study. Identifying of the 361 bacterial isolates, were found to belong to 12 genera and 19 species, 6 of them; Pseudomonas putrefaciens, Micrococcus luteus, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus coagulans , were found and in high counts in the stool samples of only anemic cases. The ability of these isolates to compete for iron compounds such as ferrous fumarate alone or with glucose and phytate as activators or inhibitors to these abilities was investigated. Results proved 11 species out of the 19 identified species are capable to use and compete on ferrous fumarate as a haemprecursor. Sensitivity test for the representatives of the 19 species and 6 of the most commonly used antibiotics in the Egyptian pharmacy, using standard disc method, revealed variable susceptibilities of almost all of them to more than one of the studied antibiotics, except Corynebacterium equatium, which was found very resistant to two antibiotics; colistin sulfate and erythrocin. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The study finally concluded the strong role of intestinal bacterial counts and types as competitors on the haem precursor iron-containing compounds like ferrous fumarate.

  1. Pregnancy Complications: Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... complications > Bacterial vaginosis and pregnancy Bacterial vaginosis and pregnancy Now playing: E-mail to a friend Please ...

  2. Do your syringes count?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This study was designed to investigate anecdotal evidence that residual Sestamibi (MIBI) activity vaned in certain situations. For rest studies different brands of syringes were tested to see if the residuals varied. The period of time MIBI doses remained in the syringe between dispensing and injection was also considered as a possible source of increased residual counts. Stress Mibi syringe residual activities were measured to assess if the method of stress test affected residual activity. MIBI was reconstituted using 13 Gbq of Technetium in 3mls of normal saline then boiled for 10 minutes. Doses were dispensed according to department protocol and injected via cannula. Residual syringes were collected for three syringe types. In each case the barrel and plunger were measured separately. As the syringe is flushed during the exercise stress test and not the pharmacological stress test the chosen method was recorded. No relationship was demonstrated between the time MIBI remained in a syringe prior to injection and residual activity. Residual activity was not affected by method of stress test used. Actual injected activity can be calculated if the amount of activity remaining in the syringe post injection is known. Imaging time can be adjusted for residual activity to optimise count statistics. Preliminary results in this study indicate there is no difference in residual activity between syringe brands.Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  3. Microbial Air Quality and Bacterial Surface Contamination in Ambulances During Patient Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pipat Luksamijarulkul

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We sought to assess microbial air quality and bacterial surface contamination on medical instruments and the surrounding areas among 30 ambulance runs during service. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of 106 air samples collected from 30 ambulances before patient services and 212 air samples collected during patient services to assess the bacterial and fungal counts at the two time points. Additionally, 226 surface swab samples were collected from medical instrument surfaces and the surrounding areas before and after ambulance runs. Groups or genus of isolated bacteria and fungi were preliminarily identified by Gram’s stain and lactophenol cotton blue. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient with a p-value of less than 0.050 considered significant. Results: The mean and standard deviation of bacterial and fungal counts at the start of ambulance runs were 318±485cfu/m3 and 522±581cfu/m3, respectively. Bacterial counts during patient services were 468±607cfu/m3 and fungal counts were 656±612cfu/m3. Mean bacterial and fungal counts during patient services were significantly higher than those at the start of ambulance runs, p=0.005 and p=0.030, respectively. For surface contamination, the overall bacterial counts before and after patient services were 0.8±0.7cfu/cm2 and 1.3±1.1cfu/cm2, respectively (p<0.001. The predominant isolated bacteria and fungi were Staphylococcus spp. and Aspergillus spp., respectively. Additionally, there was a significantly positive correlation between bacterial (r=0.3, p<0.010 and fungal counts (r=0.2, p=0.020 in air samples and bacterial counts on medical instruments and allocated areas. Conclusions: This study revealed high microbial contamination (bacterial and fungal in ambulance air during services and higher bacterial contamination on medical instrument surfaces and allocated areas after ambulance services compared to the start of ambulance runs. Additionally, bacterial and fungal counts in ambulance air showed a significantly positive correlation with the bacterial surface contamination on medical instruments and allocated areas. Further studies should be conducted to determine the optimal intervention to reduce microbial contamination in the ambulance environment.

  4. Kynetic resazurin assay (KRA) for bacterial quantification of foodborne pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Yaxal; Mandel, Arkady; Lilge, Lothar

    2012-03-01

    Fast detection of bacterial concentrations is important for the food industry and for healthcare. Early detection of infections and appropriate treatment is essential since, the delay of treatments for bacterial infections tends to be associated with higher mortality rates. In the food industry and in healthcare, standard procedures require the count of colony-forming units in order to quantify bacterial concentrations, however, this method is time consuming and reports require three days to be completed. An alternative is metabolic-colorimetric assays which provide time efficient in vitro bacterial concentrations. A colorimetric assay based on Resazurin was developed as a time kinetic assay (KRA) suitable for bacterial concentration measurements. An optimization was performed by finding excitation and emission wavelengths for fluorescent acquisition. A comparison of two non-related bacteria, foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes, was performed in 96 well plates. A metabolic and clonogenic dependence was established for fluorescent kinetic signals.

  5. 100-Mc counting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complete 100-Mc counting system is described for use in experiments with accelerators. Current-switching logic, using both transistors and germanium tunnel diodes, is used for all high-speed logic. All critical circuits have a rise-time and time-jitter of 2 ns or less. The logical elements are a pulse-height limiter, a discriminator, a multichannel coincidence circuit, a four-fold fanout, and a scale of 8. The fanout enables a limiter or discriminator output to drive any combination of four elements. Each element is a separate plug-in module. Elements are interconnected by a 50-? cable with at least one termination. Most module inputs and outputs are compatible so that, for example, a discriminator can either drive or be driven from a coincidence circuit by switching cables. To insure reliable high-speed operation and good time and temperature stability the transistors were operated at unity change-gain either in a current-switching mode or in a linear mode as a distributed amplifier. Each tunnel diode provided an additional switching charge-gain of from 2 to 5 with the same stability and bandpass as the transistors. Each module was designed for operation up to a continuous counting rate of 100 megapulses per second. High system duty cycles were made possible by DC interconnections and by double-delay-line clipping for recovery between pulses. No loss in system performance is anticipated for counting rates to 50 Mc. The basic discriminator has a sensitivity adjustable from 2 to 10 mA with a DC-Coupled output of 10 mA at ground potential. Output rise and fall times are 1 ns; pulse width is set by delay cable; maximum output duty cycle is 50% for 95% input recovery. Time jitter from threshold firing to three times that level is 2 ns or less. A more sophisticated version has 10 times the sensitivity. It has a distributed amplifier and a switching chain of two tunnel diodes. Output specifications are the same. Other logic systems for discriminators will also be discussed. The scale of 8 has tunnel diode binaries. These are (unconventionally) steered with ordinary diodes. (author)

  6. Bacterial community and proteome analysis of fresh-cut lettuce as affected by packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Carli, Mariasole; De Rossi, Patrizia; Paganin, Patrizia; Del Fiore, Antonella; Lecce, Francesca; Capodicasa, Cristina; Bianco, Linda; Perrotta, Gaetano; Mengoni, Alessio; Bacci, Giovanni; Daroda, Lorenza; Dalmastri, Claudia; Donini, Marcello; Bevivino, Annamaria

    2016-01-01

    With the growing demand of fresh-cut vegetables, a variety of packaging films are produced specifically to improve safety and quality of the fresh vegetables over the storage period. The aim of our work was to evaluate the influence of different packaging films on the quality of fresh-cut lettuce analyzing changes in bacterial community composition and modifications at the proteome level, by means of culture-dependent/culture-independent methods and differential gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry analysis. Total viable counts indicated the presence of a highly variable and complex microbial flora, around a mean value of 6.26 log10 CFU g(-1). Analysis of terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism data indicated that bacterial communities changed with packaging films and time, showing differences in community composition and diversity indices between the commercially available package (F) and the new packages (A and C), in the first days after packaging. Also proteomic analysis revealed significant changes, involving proteins related to energy metabolism, photosynthesis, plant defense and oxidative stress processes, between F and A/C packages. In conclusion, microbiological and proteomic analysis have proved to be powerful tools to provide new insights into both the composition of leaf-associated bacterial communities and protein content of fresh-cut lettuce during the shelf-life storage process. PMID:26511951

  7. Relationship of information density to pre-set counts obtained in brain, lung and liver scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total number of counts required per view for brain and lung scintigraphy to achieve information or count density (CD) of 1000 counts/cm2 and 2000 counts/cm2 for liver scans was examined. To achieve these CDs, 600,000 counts per view are required for brain scans. For the lung, 500,000 counts in anterior and posterior views are required; 400,000 counts in the lateral view are sufficient. For 2000 CD in the liver scan, 600,000 counts should be obtained in the anterior view and 500,000 in the right lateral. This number of counts assures the desired CD in 97% of cases

  8. Oral bacterial DNA findings in pericardial fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Mari Louhelainen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: We recently reported that large amounts of oral bacterial DNA can be found in thrombus aspirates of myocardial infarction patients. Some case reports describe bacterial findings in pericardial fluid, mostly done with conventional culturing and a few with PCR; in purulent pericarditis, nevertheless, bacterial PCR has not been used as a diagnostic method before. Objective: To find out whether bacterial DNA can be measured in the pericardial fluid and if it correlates with pathologic–anatomic findings linked to cardiovascular diseases. Methods: Twenty-two pericardial aspirates were collected aseptically prior to forensic autopsy at Tampere University Hospital during 2009–2010. Of the autopsies, 10 (45.5% were free of coronary artery disease (CAD, 7 (31.8% had mild and 5 (22.7% had severe CAD. Bacterial DNA amounts were determined using real-time quantitative PCR with specific primers and probes for all bacterial strains associated with endodontic disease (Streptococcus mitis group, Streptococcus anginosus group, Staphylococcus aureus/Staphylococcus epidermidis, Prevotella intermedia, Parvimonas micra and periodontal disease (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatus, and Dialister pneumosintes. Results: Of 22 cases, 14 (63.6% were positive for endodontic and 8 (36.4% for periodontal-disease-associated bacteria. Only one case was positive for bacterial culturing. There was a statistically significant association between the relative amount of bacterial DNA in the pericardial fluid and the severity of CAD (p=0.035. Conclusions: Oral bacterial DNA was detectable in pericardial fluid and an association between the severity of CAD and the total amount of bacterial DNA in pericardial fluid was found, suggesting that this kind of measurement might be useful for clinical purposes.

  9. SUMS Counts-Related Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Staging Instance for all SUMs Counts related projects including: Redeterminations/Limited Issue, Continuing Disability Resolution, CDR Performance Measures, Initial...

  10. Ascitic fluid analysis for diagnosis and monitoring of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

    OpenAIRE

    Oliviero Riggio, Stefania Angeloni, Antonella Parente, Cinzia Leboffe, Giorgio Pinto, Teresa Aronne, Manuela Merli

    2009-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell count in the ascitic fluid is essential for the diagnosis and management of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). To date, PMN cell count is routinely performed by traditional manual counting. However, this method is time-consuming, costly, and not always timely available. Therefore, considerable efforts have been made in recent years to develop an alternative test for a more rapid diagnosis and monitoring of SBP. The use of urinary reagent strips was proposed ...

  11. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes of proteins found in the fluid portion of your blood. These are albumin and globulin. Proteins are important parts of all cells and tissues. ...

  12. Growth of Microorganisms in Total Parenteral Nutrition Solutions Without Lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kuwahara, Shinya Kaneda, Kazuyuki Shimono, Yoshifumi Inoue

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To identify the microorganisms that can grow rapidly in total parenteral nutrition (TPN solutions, we investigated the growth of the major causes of catheter-related blood stream infection (Staphylococcus aureus, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus cereus, and Candida albicans in TPN solutions without lipid. Methods: Experiment 1: A commercial TPN solution without lipid containing multivitamins (pH5.6 was used. A specific number of each test microorganism was added to each 10 mL of the TPN solution and incubated at room temperature. An aliquot of test solution was sampled and inoculated to SCD agar plates at 0, 24, and 48 hrs after the addition of the microorganisms. The number of microorganisms was counted as colony forming units. Experiment 2: The other 2 commercial TPN solutions without lipid (pH5.5 were supplemented with multivitamins. The pH values of the solutions were adjusted to about 6.0, 6.5, or 7.0 using 0.5 mol/L NaOH. The addition of microorganisms, incubation, and counting were performed in the same manner. Results: Experiment 1: S. aureus, S. marcescens, and B. cereus did not increase in the TPN solution without lipid containing multivitamins (pH5.6, but C. albicans increased rapidly. Experiment 2: The 3 bacterial species did not increase even at pH6.0, but increased at pH6.5 and increased rapidly at pH7.0 in both TPN solutions. C. albicans increased similarly at any pH. Conclusion: These results suggest that bacterial species cannot grow in TPN solutions without lipid due to the acidity (pH5.6 or lower, but Candida species can grow regardless of the acidity.

  13. Radiometric assay of bacterial growth: analysis of factors determining system performance and optimization of assay technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantitative technique for the measurement of 14CO2 released from a bacterial culture was evaluated. The technique uses liquid scintillation counting to record 14CO2 accumulation on a fluor-impregnated filter paper within a double-chambered scintillation vial that also houses the bacterial growth medium. We have successfully identified and corrected the major causes for a variably low detection efficiency, and also established the optimum mixture of reagents for the detection system. Incorporation of Triton X-100 into the scintillation fluid used for the detector reduced the variability between identical assays in a single batch from 50% to 5%, and, in conjunction with an increase in the scintillator concentration, raised the counting efficiency from 30% to 70-88%. The response of the improved detector is linear over a wide range of count-rates. Another significant modification was the interchange of growth and detector chambers. Overall, a 40-fold increase in count-rate during the exponential phase of bacterial growth was obtained by improving 14CO2 detection efficiency, increasing the rate of 14CO2 transfer from liquid to gas phases and enlarging the growth supporting capacity of the detector system. The minimum detection time for bacterial growth was shortened and the exponential phase of bacterial proliferation was lengthened by at least 2 hr. High counting efficiency, precision, and linearity make the improved detector a sensitive and reliable tool for radiometry of bacterial growth and metabolism

  14. Endophytic bacterial community of a Mediterranean marine angiosperm (Posidonia oceanica)

    OpenAIRE

    NeusGarcias-Bonet; CarlosMDuarte

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial endophytes are crucial for the survival of many terrestrial plants, but little is known about the presence and importance of bacterial endophytes of marine plants. We conducted a survey of the endophytic bacterial community of the long-living Mediterranean marine angiosperm Posidonia oceanica in surface-sterilized tissues (roots, rhizomes and leaves) by DGGE. A total of 26 Posidonia oceanica meadows around the Balearic Islands were sampled, and the band patterns obtained for each m...

  15. Counting Points on Elliptic Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Birkedal, Ole Andre Blom

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the first efficient point counting algorithm due to Schoof, before giving a significant improvement due to Elkies. In the final section I give Satoh's algorithm which is even faster and has paved the way for the field of $p$-adic point counting.

  16. Hanford whole body counting manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, H.E.; Brim, C.P.; Rieksts, G.A.; Rhoads, M.C.

    1987-05-01

    This document, a reprint of the Whole Body Counting Manual, was compiled to train personnel, document operation procedures, and outline quality assurance procedures. The current manual contains information on: the location, availability, and scope of services of Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the administrative aspect of the whole body counting operation; Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the step-by-step procedure involved in the different types of in vivo measurements; the detectors, preamplifiers and amplifiers, and spectroscopy equipment; the quality assurance aspect of equipment calibration and recordkeeping; data processing, record storage, results verification, report preparation, count summaries, and unit cost accounting; and the topics of minimum detectable amount and measurement accuracy and precision. 12 refs., 13 tabs.

  17. Hanford whole body counting manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document, a reprint of the Whole Body Counting Manual, was compiled to train personnel, document operation procedures, and outline quality assurance procedures. The current manual contains information on: the location, availability, and scope of services of Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the administrative aspect of the whole body counting operation; Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the step-by-step procedure involved in the different types of in vivo measurements; the detectors, preamplifiers and amplifiers, and spectroscopy equipment; the quality assurance aspect of equipment calibration and recordkeeping; data processing, record storage, results verification, report preparation, count summaries, and unit cost accounting; and the topics of minimum detectable amount and measurement accuracy and precision. 12 refs., 13 tabs

  18. Characterisation of the gastrointestinal bacterial community in pigs fed fermented liquid feed and dry feed : composition and fermentation capacity (phenotypic fingerprint).

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HØjberg, Ole; Knudsen, B.

    2001-01-01

    Feeding pigs with fermented liquid feed (FLF) has been shown to reduce the number of enteropathogens such as Salmonella and Brachyospira hyodysenteriae as well as coliform bacteria in general in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Also the commensal bacterial populations have been shown to respond to the use of FLF, e.g. the total counts of anaerobes, including lactic acid bacteria are reduced. In the present work we demonstrate that the capacity to ferment a series of substrates (mainly low-molecular weight carbohydrates) is reduced in caecum, colon and faeces of pigs fed FLF compared to pigs fed dry feed. This reduction could be due to the fact that these substrates are partially depleted by fermentation in the liquid feed prior to entering the animal. Therefore nutrient availability may be limited in the large intestine of pigs fed FLF, which may again affect bacterial enzyme synthesis and growth and thus the possibility for pathogenic and zoonotic bacteria to establish.

  19. Quantification of bioavailable chlortetracycline in pig feces using a bacterial whole-cell biosensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L. H.; Aarestrup, Frank MØller

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial whole-cell biosensors were used to measure the concentration of chlortetracycline (CTC) in the feces of pigs. In this study, the Escherichia coli biosensor used has a detection limit of 0.03 mg/kg CTC in pig feces. The tetracycline concentration was correlated with the appearance and maintenance of fecal coliform bacteria resistant to tetracycline. Initially, large quantities of water-extractable CTC were excreted from the pigs and measurable amounts were detected even at 30 days after treatment cessation. This led to a sharp rise in the number of tetracycline resistant coliform bacteria in the feces, to within the same order of magnitude as the total coliform count. The high level of tetracycline resistance was maintained in spite of the declining concentration of tetracycline. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship between Somatic Cell Counts, Mastitis and Milk Quality in Ettawah Grade and PESA Goats

    OpenAIRE

    Molefe PETLANE; Ronny Rachman NOOR; Rarah Ratih Adjie MAHESWARI

    2013-01-01

    Mastitis is a bacterial disease that leads to increased somatic cell counts and reduced milk quality in dairy goats. Reduction in quality is manifested through a reduction in fat, protein, lactose content and an increase in milk somatic cell counts and salts content. Thus mastitis affects productivity of animals and hence their economic value. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of somatic cell counts (SCC) and mastitis on milk quality in PE and PESA. On-Farm mastitis tests were ...

  1. The rare bacterial biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    All communities are dominated by a few species that account for most of the biomass and carbon cycling. On the other hand, a large number of species are represented by only a few individuals. In the case of bacteria, these rare species were until recently invisible. Owing to their low numbers, conventional molecular techniques could not retrieve them. Isolation in pure culture was the only way to identify some of them, but current culturing techniques are unable to isolate most of the bacteria in nature. The recent development of fast and cheap high-throughput sequencing has begun to allow access to the rare species. In the case of bacteria, the exploration of this rare biosphere has several points of interest. First, it will eventually produce a reasonable estimate of the total number of bacterial taxa in the oceans; right now, we do not even know the right order of magnitude. Second, it will answer the question of whether "everything is everywhere." Third, it will require hypothesizing and testing the ecological mechanisms that allow subsistence of many species in low numbers. And fourth, it will open an avenue of research into the immense reserve of genes with potential applications hidden in the rare biosphere. PMID:22457983

  2. A tutorial on count regression and zero-altered count models for longitudinal substance use data

    OpenAIRE

    David C. Atkins; Baldwin, Scott A.; Zheng, Cheng; Gallop, Robert J; Neighbors, Clayton

    2012-01-01

    Critical research questions in the study of addictive behaviors concern how these behaviors change over time - either as the result of intervention or in naturalistic settings. The combination of count outcomes that are often strongly skewed with many zeroes (e.g., days using, number of total drinks, number of drinking consequences) with repeated assessments (e.g., longitudinal follow-up after intervention or daily diary data) present challenges for data analyses. The current article provides...

  3. A mind you can count on: validating breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness

    OpenAIRE

    Levinson, Daniel B.; Stoll, Eli L.; Kindy, Sonam D.; Merry, Hillary L.; Davidson, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness practice of present moment awareness promises many benefits, but has eluded rigorous behavioral measurement. To date, research has relied on self-reported mindfulness or heterogeneous mindfulness trainings to infer skillful mindfulness practice and its effects. In four independent studies with over 400 total participants, we present the first construct validation of a behavioral measure of mindfulness, breath counting. We found it was reliable, correlated with self-reported mindfu...

  4. Procalcitonin in sepsis and bacterial infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Chaudhury

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The differentiation of sepsis and systemic bacterial infections from other causes of systemic inflammatory response is crucial from the therapeutic point of view. The clinical signs and symptoms are non-specific and traditional biomarkers like white cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein are not sufficiently sensitive or specific to guide therapeutic decisions. Procalcitonin (PCT is considered a reliable marker for the diagnosis and prognosis of moderate to severe bacterial infections, and it has also been evaluated to guide the clinicians in the rational usage of antibiotics. This review describes the diagnostic and prognostic role of PCT as a biomarker in various clinical settings along with the laboratory aspects and its usefulness in risk stratification and antibiotic stewardship.

  5. High Count Rate Single Photon Counting Detector Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An optical communications receiver requires efficient and high-rate photon-counting capability so that the information from every photon, received at the aperture,...

  6. Totally James

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  7. CCCP: A CCD Controller for Counting Photons

    OpenAIRE

    Daigle, Olivier; Gach, Jean-Luc; Guillaume, Christian; Lessard, Simon; Carignan, Claude; Blais-Ouellette, Sebastien

    2008-01-01

    CCCP, a CCD Controller for Counting Photons, is presented. This new controller uses a totally new clocking architecture and allows to drive the CCD in a novel way. Its design is optimized for the driving of EMCCDs at up to 20MHz of pixel rate and fast vertical transfer. Using this controller, the dominant source of noise of EMCCDs at low flux level and high frame rate, the Clock Induced Charges, were reduced to 0.001 - 0.0018 electron/pixel/frame (depending of the electron m...

  8. Statistical treatment of nuclear counting results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doli?anin ?emal B.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the exact time a specific nucleus undergoes radioactive decay cannot be specified, nor can showers caused by secondary cosmic rays be predicted, statistical laws play an important role in almost all cases of experimental nuclear physics. This paper describes the method for the statistical treatment of nuclear counting results obtained experimentally by taking into account random variables pertaining to both frequent and infrequent phenomena. When processing counting measurement data, it is recommended to first discard spurious random variables that spoil the statistics by using Chauvenet’s criterion, as well as to test if the results in the statistical sample follow a unique statistical distribution by using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test (U-test. The verification of the suggested statistical method was performed on counting statistics obtained both from the radioactive source Cs-137 and background radiation, expected to follow the normal distribution and the Poisson distribution, respectively. Results show that the application of the proposed statistical method excludes random fluctuations of the radioactive source or of the background radiation from the total statistical sample, as well as possible inadequacies in the experimental set-up and show an extremely effective agreement of the theoretical distribution of random variables with the corresponding experimentally obtained random variables.

  9. Far-Ultraviolet Number Counts of Field Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyer, Elysse N.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Teplitz, Harry I.; Siana, Brian D.; deMello, Duilia F.

    2010-01-01

    The Number counts of far-ultraviolet (FUV) galaxies as a function of magnitude provide a direct statistical measure of the density and evolution of star-forming galaxies. We report on the results of measurements of the rest-frame FUV number counts computed from data of several fields including the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, the Hubble Deep Field North, and the GOODS-North and -South fields. These data were obtained from the Hubble Space Telescope Solar Blind Channel of the Advance Camera for Surveys. The number counts cover an AB magnitude range from 20-29 magnitudes, covering a total area of 15.9 arcmin'. We show that the number counts are lower than those in previous studies using smaller areas. The differences in the counts are likely the result of cosmic variance; our new data cover more area and more lines of sight than the previous studies. The slope of our number counts connects well with local FUV counts and they show good agreement with recent semi-analytical models based on dark matter "merger trees".

  10. Counting Triangles to Sum Squares

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMaio, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Counting complete subgraphs of three vertices in complete graphs, yields combinatorial arguments for identities for sums of squares of integers, odd integers, even integers and sums of the triangular numbers.

  11. Link invariants via counting surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenbursky, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A Gauss diagram is a simple, combinatorial way to present a knot. It is known that any Vassiliev invariant may be obtained from a Gauss diagram formula that involves counting (with signs and multiplicities) subdiagrams of certain combinatorial types. These formulas generalize the calculation of a linking number by counting signs of crossings in a link diagram. Until recently, explicit formulas of this type were known only for few invariants of low degrees. In this paper we p...

  12. Vote Counting as Mathematical Proof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Pattinson, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Trust in the correctness of an election outcome requires proof of the correctness of vote counting. By formalising particular voting protocols as rules, correctness of vote counting amounts to verifying that all rules have been applied correctly. A proof of the outcome of any particular election then consists of a sequence (or tree) of rule applications and provides an independently checkable certificate of the validity of the result. This reduces the need to trust, or otherwise verify, the corr...

  13. The nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers on Meloidogyne incognita in sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hadad, M E; Mustafa, M I; Selim, Sh M; El-Tayeb, T S; Mahgoob, A E A; Abdel Aziz, Norhan H

    2011-01-01

    In a greenhouse experiment, the nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers including the nitrogen fixing bacteria (NFB) Paenibacillus polymyxa (four strains), the phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) Bacillus megaterium (three strains) and the potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB) B. circulans (three strains) were evaluated individually on tomato plants infested with the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in potted sandy soil. Comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2, increased the counts of total bacteria and total bacterial spores in plants potted soil from 1.2 to 2.6 folds estimated 60 days post-inoculation. Consequently, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7 increased significantly the shoot length (cm), number of leaves / plant, shoot dry weight (g) / plant and root dry weight (g) / plant by 32.6 %, 30.8 %, 70.3 % and 14.2 %, respectively. Generally, the majority treatments significantly reduced the nematode multiplication which was more obvious after 60 days of inoculation. Among the applied strains, P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2 inoculations resulted in the highest reduction in nematode population comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control. They recorded the highest reduction in numbers of hatched juveniles/root by 95.8 %, females/root by 63.75 % and juveniles/1kg soil by 57.8 %. These results indicated that these bacterial biofertilizers are promising double purpose microorganisms for mobilizing of soil nutrients (nitrogen, phosphate and potassium) and for the biological control of M. incognita. PMID:24031611

  14. The nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers on Meloidogyne incognita in sandy soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E El-Hadad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In a greenhouse experiment, the nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers including the nitrogen fixing bacteria (NFB Paenibacillus polymyxa (four strains, the phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB Bacillus megaterium (three strains and the potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB B. circulans (three strains were evaluated individually on tomato plants infested with the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in potted sandy soil. Comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2, increased the counts of total bacteria and total bacterial spores in plants potted soil from 1.2 to 2.6 folds estimated 60 days post-inoculation. Consequently, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7 increased significantly the shoot length (cm, number of leaves / plant, shoot dry weight (g / plant and root dry weight (g / plant by 32.6 %, 30.8 %, 70.3 % and 14.2 %, respectively. Generally, the majority treatments significantly reduced the nematode multiplication which was more obvious after 60 days of inoculation. Among the applied strains, P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2 inoculations resulted in the highest reduction in nematode population comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control. They recorded the highest reduction in numbers of hatched juveniles/root by 95.8 %, females/root by 63.75 % and juveniles/1kg soil by 57.8 %. These results indicated that these bacterial biofertilizers are promising double purpose microorganisms for mobilizing of soil nutrients (nitrogen, phosphate and potassium and for the biological control of M. incognita.

  15. The nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers on Meloidogyne incognita in sandy soil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.E, El-Hadad; M.I, Mustafa; Sh.M, Selim; T.S, El-Tayeb; A.E.A, Mahgoob; Norhan H. Abdel, Aziz.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In a greenhouse experiment, the nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers including the nitrogen fixing bacteria (NFB) Paenibacillus polymyxa (four strains), the phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) Bacillus megaterium (three strains) and the potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB) B. circu [...] lans (three strains) were evaluated individually on tomato plants infested with the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in potted sandy soil. Comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2, increased the counts of total bacteria and total bacterial spores in plants potted soil from 1.2 to 2.6 folds estimated 60 days post-inoculation. Consequently, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7 increased significantly the shoot length (cm), number of leaves / plant, shoot dry weight (g) / plant and root dry weight (g) / plant by 32.6 %, 30.8 %, 70.3 % and 14.2 %, respectively. Generally, the majority treatments significantly reduced the nematode multiplication which was more obvious after 60 days of inoculation. Among the applied strains, P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2 inoculations resulted in the highest reduction in nematode population comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control. They recorded the highest reduction in numbers of hatched juveniles/root by 95.8 %, females/root by 63.75 % and juveniles/1kg soil by 57.8 %. These results indicated that these bacterial biofertilizers are promising double purpose microorganisms for mobilizing of soil nutrients (nitrogen, phosphate and potassium) and for the biological control of M. incognita.

  16. How to count elephants in West African savannahs? Synthesis and comparison of main gamecount methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouché, P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparison of some elephants count methods – aerial sampling count, aerial total count and direct foot count – has been presented through surveys' study cases implemented in Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger. We compare them in terms of effort and cost to survey an area (sampling efficiency, efficiency in data collection (detection efficiency as well as accuracy and precision. Aerial sampling count returns low sampling and detection efficiency and very low precision and accuracy figures when counting elephants populations below 0.5 elephant·km-2. Precision can partly be improved by stratification. Direct foot count returns the best sampling and detection efficiency but insufficient data number to produce reliable estimates. Therefore some authors often produced no results for elephants. Aerial total count is a costly method in absolute value. It requires important logistic and no measure of error is possible. However it provides relatively good sampling and detection efficiency as well as relatively accurate figures appreciated by wildlife managers if technical requirements are respected. Aerial total count could be recommended to survey small population of West African elephants each 3 to 5 years to minimize yearly count costs.

  17. Standardization of 241Am by digital coincidence counting, liquid scintillation counting and defined solid angle counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclide 241Am decays by alpha emission to 237Np. Most of the decays (84.6%) populate the excited level of 237Np with energy of 59.54 keV. Digital coincidence counting was applied to standardize a solution of 241Am by alpha-gamma coincidence counting with efficiency extrapolation. Electronic discrimination was implemented with a pressurized proportional counter and the results were compared with two other independent techniques: Liquid scintillation counting using the logical sum of double coincidences in a TDCR array and defined solid angle counting taking into account activity inhomogeneity in the active deposit. The results show consistency between the three methods within a limit of a 0.3%. An ampoule of this solution will be sent to the International Reference System (SIR) during 2009. Uncertainties were analysed and compared in detail for the three applied methods.

  18. Evaluation of environmental bacterial contamination and procedures to control cross infection in a sample of Italian dental surgeries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monarca, S.; Grottolo, M.; Renzi, D.; Paganelli, C.; Sapelli, P.; Zerbini, I.; Nardi, G.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To perform a pilot study on bacterial contamination in some dental surgeries (n=51) in a local health unit in Brescia (Lombardy Region, Italy) and to evaluate the procedures to control cross infection used by the personnel to reduce the risk of infection in dental practice.?METHODS—A survey was carried out by interviewing 133 dental personnel with a questionnaire on the procedures used to control infection. The autoclaves, chemical baths (chemiclaves), and ovens present in the surgeries were tested for sterilisation efficiency with a spore test, and already packed and sterilised instruments were randomly sampled and tested for sterility. Microbial contamination of air, surface, and dental unit water samples were also studied.?RESULTS—The dental personnel did not generally follow the principal procedures for infection control: 30% of personnel were not vaccinated against hepatitis B virus, infected instruments were often not decontaminated, periodic checks of autoclave efficiency were lacking, and the knowledge of disinfection mechanisms and procedures was incomplete. High bacteriological contamination of water at dental surgeries was often found and total bacteriological counts in air samples were high. Surface studies showed widespread bacterial contamination.?CONCLUSIONS—On the basis of these results, an educational programme for the prevention of infective hazards has been prepared and carried out. The results of this pilot study will be used for planning a national survey.???Keywords: dental surgeries; bacterial contamination; cross infection control procedures PMID:11024194

  19. Evaluation of free-stall mattress bedding treatments to reduce mastitis bacterial growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristula, M.A.; Dou, Z.; Toth, J.D.; Smith, B.I.; Harvey, N.; Sabo, M. [University of Penn, Kennett Square, PA (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Bacterial counts were compared in free-stall mattresses and teat ends exposed to 5 treatments in a factorial study design on 1 dairy farm. Mattresses in five 30-cow groups were subjected to 1 of 5 bedding treatments every other day: 0.5 kg of hydrated limestone, 120 mL of commercial acidic conditioner, 1 kg of coal fly ash, 1 kg of kiln-dried wood shavings, and control (no bedding). Counts of coliforms, Klebsiella spp., Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus spp. were lowest on mattresses bedded with lime. Mattresses bedded with the commercial acidic conditioner had the next lowest counts for coliforms, Klebsiella spp., and Streptococcus spp. Wood shavings and the no-bedding control had the highest counts for coliform and Klebsiella spp. Compared with wood shavings or control, fly ash reduced the counts of coliforms, whereas for the other 3 bacterial groups, the reduction was not always significant. Streptococcus spp. counts were greatest in the control group and did not differ among the shavings and fly ash groups. Teat swab results indicated that hydrated lime was the only bedding treatment that significantly decreased the counts of both coliforms and Klebsiella spp. There were no differences in Streptococcus spp. numbers on the teats between any of the bedding treatments. Bacterial populations grew steadily on mattresses and were generally higher at 36 to 48 h than at 12 to 24 h, whereas bacterial populations on teats grew rapidly by 12 h and then remained constant. Hydrated lime was the only treatment that significantly reduced bacterial counts on both mattresses and teat ends, but it caused some skin irritation.

  20. Bacterial biomass distribution in the global ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Buitenhuis, E. T.; Li, W. K. W.; M. W. Lomas; Karl, D.M.; Landry, M. R.; Jacquet, S.

    2012-01-01

    We compiled a database of bacterial abundance of 39 766 data points. After gridding with 1° spacing, the database covers 1.3% of the ocean surface. There is data covering all ocean basins and depth except the Southern Hemisphere below 350 m or from April until June. The average bacterial biomass is 3.9 ± 3.6 ?g l?1 with a 20-fold decrease between the surface and the deep sea. We estimate a total ocean inventory of about 1.3 × 1029 bacteria. Using ...

  1. Bacterial populations colonizing and degrading rice straw in anoxic paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, S; Stubner, S; Conrad, R

    2001-03-01

    Rice straw is a major substrate for the production of methane, a greenhouse gas, in flooded rice fields. The bacterial community degrading rice straw under anoxic conditions was investigated with molecular methods. Rice straw was incubated in paddy soil anaerobically for 71 days. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the amplified bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed that the composition of the bacterial community changed during the first 15 days but then was stable until the end of incubation. Fifteen DGGE bands with different signal intensities were excised, cloned, and sequenced. In addition, DNA was extracted from straw incubated for 1 and 29 days and the bacterial 16S rRNA genes were amplified and cloned. From these clone libraries 16 clones with different electrophoretic mobilities on a DGGE gel were sequenced. From a total of 31 clones, 20 belonged to different phylogenetic clusters of the clostridia, i.e., clostridial clusters I (14 clones), III (1 clone), IV (1 clone), and XIVa (4 clones). One clone fell also within the clostridia but could not be affiliated to one of the clostridial clusters. Ten clones grouped closely with the genera Bacillus (3 clones), Nitrosospira (1 clone), Fluoribacter (1 clones), and Acidobacterium (2 clones) and with clone sequences previously obtained from rice field soil (3 clones). The relative abundances of various phylogenetic groups in the rice straw-colonizing community were determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Bacteria were detached from the incubated rice straw with an efficiency of about 80 to 90%, as determined by dot blot hybridization of 16S rRNA in extract and residue. The number of active (i.e., a sufficient number of ribosomes) Bacteria detected with a general eubacterial probe (Eub338) after 8 days of incubation was 61% of the total cell counts. This percentage decreased to 17% after 29 days of incubation. Most (55%) of the active cells on day 8 belonged to the genus Clostridium, mainly to clostridial clusters I (24%), III (6%), and XIVa (24%). An additional 5% belonged to the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium cluster of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides phylum, 4% belonged to the alpha, beta, and gamma Proteobacteria, and 1.3% belonged to the Bacillus subbranch of the gram-positive bacteria with a low G+C content. The results show that the bacterial community colonizing and decomposing rice straw developed during the first 15 days of incubation and was dominated by members of different clostridial clusters, especially clusters I, III, and XIVa. PMID:11229927

  2. Cerenkov counting as a complement to liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A commercially available spectrometer was calibrated for liquid scintillation (LS) and Cerenkov counting efficiency (CCE) using National Institute of Standards and Technology traceable solutions. The CCE increased linearly over a 3 order of magnitude range in 40K ? activity, and by 42% per MeV as ?-energies increased from 0.300 to 3.54 MeV, achieving a maximum value of 80% for 106Ru/106Rh The CCE can be enhanced by 10-15% when a wavelength shifter is used. A comparison of the data showed that the CCE was typically 20-50% less than the LS counting efficiency for ?-particles with maximum energies >1 MeV. Applications that utilize sequential CCE and LS counting to quantitate activity concentrations are discussed for samples containing two ?-emitting nuclides of differing energies. (Author)

  3. Assessment of the uncertainty budget associated with 4?? counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiam, C.; Bobin, C.; Maringer, F. J.; Peyres, V.; Pommé, S.

    2015-06-01

    The 4??-counting technique is recognized as a powerful primary method for the standardization of radionuclides decaying with abundant gamma emissions. Based on the use of a gamma detector in quasi 4?-geometry, a detection efficiency close to 100% and a low uncertainty can be achieved thanks to the summing effect of subsequent gamma transitions. Uncertainties have to be assigned to the realistic modelling of the source-detector geometry with respect to dimensions, density and material composition, the calculation of the total counting efficiency of the detector for the various emitted radiation, and the effect of possible flaws in the decay scheme of a radionuclide on the calculated total efficiency. Other uncertainty factors pertain to typical metrological sources of uncertainty, such as weighing, nuclear counting with pulse pile-up and system dead-time effects, impurity corrections, decay corrections, timing and frequency, etc. In order to ensure good metrological practices at NMIs, the uncertainties particular to the method are discussed.

  4. Application of neutron multiplicity counting to waste assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickrell, M.M.; Ensslin, N. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Sharpe, T.J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This paper describes the use of a new figure of merit code that calculates both bias and precision for coincidence and multiplicity counting, and determines the optimum regions for each in waste assay applications. A {open_quotes}tunable multiplicity{close_quotes} approach is developed that uses a combination of coincidence and multiplicity counting to minimize the total assay error. An example is shown where multiplicity analysis is used to solve for mass, alpha, and multiplication and tunable multiplicity is shown to work well. The approach provides a method for selecting coincidence, multiplicity, or tunable multiplicity counting to give the best assay with the lowest total error over a broad spectrum of assay conditions. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Application of neutron multiplicity counting to waste assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the use of a new figure of merit code that calculates both bias and precision for coincidence and multiplicity counting, and determines the optimum regions for each in waste assay applications. A open-quotes tunable multiplicityclose quotes approach is developed that uses a combination of coincidence and multiplicity counting to minimize the total assay error. An example is shown where multiplicity analysis is used to solve for mass, alpha, and multiplication and tunable multiplicity is shown to work well. The approach provides a method for selecting coincidence, multiplicity, or tunable multiplicity counting to give the best assay with the lowest total error over a broad spectrum of assay conditions. 9 refs., 6 figs

  6. Differentiation of bacterial and viral pneumonia in children

    OpenAIRE

    Virkki, R; Juven, T; Rikalainen, H; Svedstrom, E; Mertsola, J; Ruuskanen, O.

    2002-01-01

    Background: A study was undertaken to investigate the differential diagnostic role of chest radiographic findings, total white blood cell count (WBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and serum C reactive protein (CRP) in children with community acquired pneumonia of varying aetiology.

  7. Evaluation of procalcitonin and neopterin level in serum of patients with acute bacterial infection

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Babak, Pourakbari; Setareh, Mamishi; Javid, Zafari; Hanieh, Khairkhah; Mohammad H, Ashtiani; Masomeh, Abedini; Shahla, Afsharpaiman; Soroush Seifi, Rad.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fever as a common presenting complaint in pediatric patients can be due to various causes. Differentiating bacterial infection from other causes is important because the prompt use of antibiotics is critical in bacterial infection. Traditional markers of infection such as BT and WBC coun [...] t may be unspecific and culture may be late or absent. CRP and Procalcitonin (PCT) have been considered to evaluate the evolution of infections and sepsis in patients presenting with SIRS. Neopterin has also been proposed to aid in the diagnosis of bacterial infection. In this study, we compared the value of the serum PCT, neopterin level, and WBC count for predicting bacterial infection and outcome in children with fever. METHODS: 158 pediatric (2-120-month-old) patients suspected to have acute bacterial infection, based on clinical judgment in which other causes of SIRS were ruled out were included in the study. WBC count with differential was determined and PCT and neopterin levels were measured. RESULTS: PCT level was higher in bacterial infection and patients who were complicated or expired. CONCLUSION: Rapid PCT test is superior to neopterin and WBC count for anticipating bacterial infection, especially in ED where prompt decision making is critical. ABBREVIATIONS: BT, body temperature; WBC, white blood cell; PCT, procalcitonin; CRP, C-reactive protein; SIRS, systemic inflammatory response syndrome; ED, emergency department.

  8. Effect of alternative antibiotics in treatment of cefotaxime resistant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abouelkhair Badawy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate effective alternative antibiotics in treatment of cefotaxime-resistant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. METHODS: One hundred cirrhotic patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis [ascitic fluid polymorphonuclear cell count (PMNLs ? 250 cells/mm3 at admission] were empirically treated with cefotaxime sodium 2 g/12 h and volume expansion by intravenous human albumin. All patients were subjected to history taking, complete examination, laboratory tests (including a complete blood cell count, prothrombin time, biochemical tests of liver and kidney function, and fresh urine sediment, chest X-ray, a diagnostic abdominal paracentesis, and the sample subjected to total and differential cell count, chemical examination, aerobic and anaerobic cultures. Patients were divided after 2 d by a second ascitic PMNL count into group?I; patients sensitive to cefotaxime (n = 81, group II (n = 19; cases resistant to cefotaxime (less than 25% decrease in ascitic PMNL count. Patients of group II were randomly assigned into meropenem (n = 11 or levofloxacin (n = 8 subgroups. All patients performed an end of treatment ascitic PMNL count. Patients were considered improved when: PMNLs decreased to < 250 cells/mm3, no growth in previously positive culture cases, and improved clinical manifestations with at least 5 d of antibiotic therapy. RESULTS: Age, sex, and Child classes showed no significant difference between group?I?and group II. Fever and abdominal pain were the most frequent manifestations and were reported in 82.7% and 80.2% of patients in group?I?and in 94.7% and 84.2% of patients in group II, respectively. Patients in group II had a more severe ascitic inflammatory response than group?I?and this was demonstrated by more ascitic lactate dehydrogenase (LDH [median: 540 IU/L (range: 150-1200 IU/L vs median: 240 IU/L (range: 180-500 IU/L, P = 0.000] and PMNL [median: 15??000 cell/mm3 (range: 957-23??822 cell/mm3 vs 3400 cell/mm3 (range: 695-26??400 cell/mm3, P = 0.000] counts. Ascitic fluid culture was positive in 32% of cases. Cefotaxime failed in 19% of patients; of these patients, 11 (100% responded to meropenem and 6 (75% responded to levofloxacin. Two patients with failed levofloxacin therapy were treated according to the in vitro culture and sensitivity (one case was treated with vancomycin and one case was treated with ampicillin/sulbactam. In group II the meropenem subgroup had higher LDH (range: 108-860 IU/L vs 120-491 IU/L, P = 0.042 and PMNL counts (range: 957-23??822 cell/mm3 vs 957-15??222 cell/mm3, P = 0.000 at initiation of the alternative antibiotic therapy; there was no significant difference in the studied parameters between patients responsive to meropenem and patients responsive to levofloxacin at the end of therapy (mean ± SD: 316.01 ± 104.03 PMNLs/mm3 vs 265.63 ± 69.61 PMNLs/mm3, P = 0.307. The isolated organisms found in group II were; enterococci, acinetobacter, expanded-spectrum ?-lactamase producing Escherichia coli, ?-lactamase producing Enterobacter and Staphylococcus aureus. CONCLUSION: Empirical treatment with cefotaxime is effective in 81% of cases; meropenem is effective in cefotaxime-resistant cases.

  9. Bacterial surface adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utada, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Biofilms are structured multi-cellular communities that are fundamental to the biology and ecology of bacteria. Parasitic bacterial biofilms can cause lethal infections and biofouling, but commensal bacterial biofilms, such as those found in the gut, can break down otherwise indigestible plant polysaccharides and allow us to enjoy vegetables. The first step in biofilm formation, adaptation to life on a surface, requires a working knowledge of low Reynolds number fluid physics, and the coordination of biochemical signaling, polysaccharide production, and molecular motility motors. These crucial early stages of biofilm formation are at present poorly understood. By adapting methods from soft matter physics, we dissect bacterial social behavior at the single cell level for several prototypical bacterial species, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae.

  10. Bacterial Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quiz) Structure and Function of the Skin (Video) Skin Cancer (News) Health Tip: Recognizing Signs of Nail Fungus (News) Health Tip: Easing Hives Additional Content Medical News Overview of Bacterial Skin Infections by A. Damian Dhar, MD, JD NOTE: ...

  11. Bacterial Wound Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Bacterial Wound Culture Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Aerobic Wound Culture; Anaerobic Wound Culture Formal name: Culture, wound Related ...

  12. Hanford whole body counting manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs

  13. Role of lipids in bacterial radioresistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioresistance of three bacterial isolates was determined. S. aureus was the most sensitive one (D10 value 0.14 KGy), B. coagulans was moderate resistant (D10 value 3.3 KGy) and the most resistant one was B.megaterium (D10 value 3.7 KGy). Total lipids and lipid patterns of these bacteria were determined and the role of lipids in radioresistance was investigated. Least amount of total lipids was detected in the most sensitive organism (S. aureus). The increase in the bacterial content of total lipids was concomitant with high degrees of radioresistance. The most resistant organism (B. megaterium was characterized by high content of methyl esters of fatty acids, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, followed by appreciable amounts in the moderate resistant (B. coagulans) and the least amounts were detected in the most sensitive organism (S.aureus).6 fig., 3 tab

  14. Qualità totale e mobilità totale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Trieste

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available FIABA ONLUS (Italian Fund for Elimination of Architectural Barriers was founded in 2000 with the aim of promoting a culture of equal opportunities and, above all, it has as its main goal to involve public and private institutions to create a really accessible and usable environment for everyone. Total accessibility, Total usability and Total mobility are key indicators to define quality of life within cities. A supportive environment that is free of architectural, cultural and psychological barriers allows everyone to live with ease and universality. In fact, people who access to goods and services in the urban context can use to their advantage time and space, so they can do their activities and can maintain relationships that are deemed significant for their social life. The main aim of urban accessibility is to raise the comfort of space for citizens, eliminating all barriers that discriminate people, and prevent from an equality of opportunity. “FIABA FUND - City of ... for the removal of architectural barriers” is an idea of FIABA that has already affected many regions of Italy as Lazio, Lombardy, Campania, Abruzzi and Calabria. It is a National project which provides for opening a bank account in the cities of referring, in which for the first time, all together, individuals and private and public institutions can make a donation to fund initiatives for the removal of architectural barriers within its own territory for a real and effective total accessibility. Last February the fund was launched in Rome with the aim of achieving a Capital without barriers and a Town European model of accessibility and usability. Urban mobility is a prerequisite to access to goods and services, and to organize activities related to daily life. FIABA promotes the concept of sustainable mobility for all, supported by the European Commission’s White Paper. We need a cultural change in management and organization of public means, which might focus on individual in its totality, with all its needs. For this reason it is necessary to focus on output of public and private transports which must be totally and globally accessible. Metropolitan and suburban transports need to have modern buses, and it has been calculated that it is possible to provide a total replacement of the fleet in a period from five to ten years. Total Quality must become the goal of every Local Government. FIABA suggests that a Total Quality Manager be always present in the institutional environment, as a guarantor of quality perceived by people living in their city for tourism, work, and leisure. It is essential to establish a favorable environment for all, to ensure the comfort of 100% of the population to give some definite and reliable answers.

  15. Bacterial population dynamics in a meromictic lake.

    OpenAIRE

    Tuomi, P; Torsvik, T.; M Heldal; Bratbak, G.

    1997-01-01

    Polyclonal antibodies against nine different bacteria isolated from Lake Saelenvannet in western Norway were produced, and the population dynamics of these strains in the lake were monitored through two spring seasons by immunofluorescence staining. The total counts of bacteria varied over time and space from 1.5 x 10(6) to 1.5 x 10(7) cells ml-1. The counts of specific bacteria were in the range of 10(3) to 10(4) cells ml-1 or less; in sum, they generally made up less than 1% of the bacteria...

  16. Prevalence of plasmid mediated pesticide resistant bacterial assemblages in crop fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umamaheswari, S; Murali, M

    2010-11-01

    Three crop fields namely paddy sugarcane and tomato exposed to bavistin [Methyl (1H-benzimidazol-2-yl) carbomate], monocrotophos[Dimethyl(E)-1-methyl-2-(methyl-carbamoyl) vinyl phosphate] and kinado plus [(EZ)-2-chloro-3-dimethoxyphosphinoyloxy-X1, X1-diethylbut-2-enamide], respectively were chosen for the present investigation to know the bacterial population and degradation of pesticides. The chemical nature of the soil and water samples from the pesticide contaminated fields was analysed along with counting of the total heterotrophic bacteria (THB), Staphylococci and Enterococcci population. Mean calcium, phosphate and biological oxygen demand were maximum in tomato field water Field water recorded maximum phophate and silicate content, whereas, sugarcane field water elicited maximum dissolved oxygen content. On the other hand, available phosphate and exchangeable potassium were maximum is sugarcane field soil. Significant variations in the bacterial population were evident between the treatments in sugarcane field soil and tomato field water exposed to monocrotophos and kinado plus, respectively In addition, significant variations between THB, Staphlyococci and Enterococci population were also evinced in both the sugarcane andtomato fields. The dominant pesticide resistant bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeuroginosa harboured plasmids and the resistant trait observed were found to be plasmid borne. PMID:21506482

  17. A method for counting monosodium urate crystals in synovial fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Montagna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to standardize the technique for counting monosodium urate (MSU crystals in the synovial fluid (SF of patients with gout. A total of 52 SF specimens were examined under a polarized light microscope. The amount of SF ranged between 0.1 and 45 mL (median 3 mL. MSU crystals were counted in four areas with the same size at 400x magnification. Cytological examination of the same specimens was also performed. Median leukocyte count was 400 cells/mm3 (range 50-14,000 cells/mm3, with a median percentage of polymorphonuclear leukocytes of 9% (range 0%-98%. Median crystal count was 179.5 (range 3-1600. Inter- reader and intra-reader agreement in crystal counting were good with a weighed k of 0.89 [95% confidence interval (CI 0.85-0.94] and 0.89 (95% CI 0.84-0.93, respectively. Our data indicate that the SF MSU crystal count is a feasible and highly reliable technique.

  18. Evaluation of a routine antiseptic and two disinfectants for reducing bacterial population of cow hoof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosa Javdani,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A routine antiseptic and two disinfectant agents were used separately for reducing bacterial population of cow hoof: 1 7.5% povidone–iodine scrub mixed with 10% povidone–iodine solution, 2 10% copper sulfate, and 3 8% formaldehyde. Swabbing for microbial colony counts were used to evaluate pre and post–scrub of hooves of eight cows. The results revealed no significant differences in reduction of bacterial colony count between post–scrubs of povidone–iodine and formaldehyde. Bacterial colony counts after the povidone–iodine scrub solution and formaldehyde scrub were significantly different from those obtained after the copper sulfate scrub. Significant reduction in number of microbial colony in post–scrub by povidone–iodine, formaldehyde, and copper sulfate were observed which were different from the control (warm tap water.

  19. Efficient counting with optimal resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Lenzen, Christoph; Rybicki, Joel

    2015-01-01

    In the synchronous $c$-counting problem, we are given a synchronous system of $n$ nodes, where up to $f$ of the nodes may be Byzantine, that is, have arbitrary faulty behaviour. The task is to have all of the correct nodes count modulo $c$ in unison in a self-stabilising manner: regardless of the initial state of the system and the faulty nodes' behavior, eventually rounds are consistently labelled by a counter modulo $c$ at all correct nodes. We provide a deterministic so...

  20. Basic principles of scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the energy of radiation, the crystal size, the collimation of the beam and scattering on the pulse-height distribution produced by monoenergetic radiation will be discussed. These aspects will be related to scintillation scanning. The effects of voltage on the operation of photomultiplier s and so-called plateaus will be dealt with. Glow-transfer tubes for counting will be dealt with and a useful substraction circuit for comparing the counting rate from two separate scintillation counters will be presented. (author)

  1. / Endogenous bacterial strains utilization in the bioremediation of oil contaminated water

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ismenia, Araujo; Gustavo, Romero; Carmen, Cárdenas; Nancy, Angulo; Gustavo, Morillo; Judith, Navarro; María, Méndez.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue la utilización de cepas bacterianas autóctonas en la biorremediación de agua contaminada con aceite lubricante. Se tomaron muestras de agua del Lago de Maracaibo, sector Capitán Chico, Edo. Zulia. Se aislaron 16 cepas bacterianas, las cuales fueron sometidas a un ensa [...] yo de factibilidad, utilizando gasoil como única fuente de carbono. Se seleccionaron e identificaron las siete cepas más eficientes en la degradación de los hidrocarburos. Se preparó un cultivo mixto con dichas cepas, el cual se utilizó en un estudio de biotratabilidad. En tanques plásticos de 25 L se dispensaron: cultivo mixto (10%), aceite lubricante (7000 mg/L), nitrógeno y fósforo (0,5; 0,75; 1 g/L), en un volumen de 20 L. En cuatro de los tratamientos, se aplicó aireación. Mensualmente, se registró el contaje bacteriano, el contenido de aceite y el contenido de nitrógeno y fósforo totales. Se aplicó un análisis de varianza con tres repeticiones, utilizando un modelo lineal estadístico. El efecto de la aplicación de cultivo mixto, fertilización y aireación sobre la degradación de aceite resultó significativo (P Abstract in english The objective of this work was the bioremediation of contaminated water with lubricant oil by using endogenous bacterial strains. Samples of water were taken from the Lake of Maracaibo, sector Capitan Chico, Edo. Zulia. From the water samples, 16 bacterial strains were isolated, which were subjected [...] to a essay of feasibility using gasoil as carbon source. The seven bacterial strains more efficient during the essay of feasibility were identified and utilized as a mixed culture in a biotratabilidad study. The essay were prepared in plastic tanks of 25 L with mixed culture (10%), oil lubricant (7000 mg/L), nitrogen and phosphorus (0,5; 0,75; 1 g/L), in a total volume of 20 L. In four of the treatments aeration was applied. Monthly the bacterial count, the oil content, the nitrogen and total phosphorus content were registered. In the inoculated, fertilized and aired tanks the highest removals were achieved, until 95% of the oil was present.

  2. Molecular Analysis of Bacterial Microbiota on Brazilian Currency Note Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tairacan Augusto Pereira da Fonseca

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Currency notes have been implicated as a vehicle for transmitting community-acquired bacterial infections. However, the overall diversity of the bacterial population residing on banknotes is still unknown in Brazil. In this study, we aimed to investigate the overall bacterial population from 150 different Brazilian Rial (R$ notes in circulation using a culture-independent Illumina massively parallel sequencing approach of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were randomly collected from three different street markets or “feiras” in the metropolitan region of São Paulo. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Proteobacteria phyla, followed by Firmicutes and Streptophyta, with a total of 1193 bacterial families and 3310 bacterial genera. Most of these bacterial genera are of human, animal, and environmental origins. Also, our analysis revealed the presence of some potential pathogenic bacterial genera including Salmonella, Staphylococcus, and Klebsiella. The results demonstrate that there is a tremendous diversity of bacterial contamination on currency notes, including organisms known to be opportunistic pathogens. One of the factors that may contribute to the richness of bacterial diversity in currency notes is personal hygiene. Thus, our results underscore the need to increase public awareness of the importance of personal hygiene of money handlers who also handle food.

  3. Molecular Analysis of Bacterial Microbiota on Brazilian Currency Note Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira da Fonseca, Tairacan Augusto; Pessôa, Rodrigo; Sanabani, Sabri Saeed

    2015-10-01

    Currency notes have been implicated as a vehicle for transmitting community-acquired bacterial infections. However, the overall diversity of the bacterial population residing on banknotes is still unknown in Brazil. In this study, we aimed to investigate the overall bacterial population from 150 different Brazilian Rial (R$) notes in circulation using a culture-independent Illumina massively parallel sequencing approach of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were randomly collected from three different street markets or "feiras" in the metropolitan region of São Paulo. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Proteobacteria phyla, followed by Firmicutes and Streptophyta, with a total of 1193 bacterial families and 3310 bacterial genera. Most of these bacterial genera are of human, animal, and environmental origins. Also, our analysis revealed the presence of some potential pathogenic bacterial genera including Salmonella, Staphylococcus, and Klebsiella. The results demonstrate that there is a tremendous diversity of bacterial contamination on currency notes, including organisms known to be opportunistic pathogens. One of the factors that may contribute to the richness of bacterial diversity in currency notes is personal hygiene. Thus, our results underscore the need to increase public awareness of the importance of personal hygiene of money handlers who also handle food. PMID:26506368

  4. Molecular Analysis of Bacterial Microbiota on Brazilian Currency Note Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira da Fonseca, Tairacan Augusto; Pessôa, Rodrigo; Sanabani, Sabri Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Currency notes have been implicated as a vehicle for transmitting community-acquired bacterial infections. However, the overall diversity of the bacterial population residing on banknotes is still unknown in Brazil. In this study, we aimed to investigate the overall bacterial population from 150 different Brazilian Rial (R$) notes in circulation using a culture-independent Illumina massively parallel sequencing approach of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were randomly collected from three different street markets or “feiras” in the metropolitan region of São Paulo. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Proteobacteria phyla, followed by Firmicutes and Streptophyta, with a total of 1193 bacterial families and 3310 bacterial genera. Most of these bacterial genera are of human, animal, and environmental origins. Also, our analysis revealed the presence of some potential pathogenic bacterial genera including Salmonella, Staphylococcus, and Klebsiella. The results demonstrate that there is a tremendous diversity of bacterial contamination on currency notes, including organisms known to be opportunistic pathogens. One of the factors that may contribute to the richness of bacterial diversity in currency notes is personal hygiene. Thus, our results underscore the need to increase public awareness of the importance of personal hygiene of money handlers who also handle food. PMID:26506368

  5. Fitting a distribution to miccrobial counts: making sense of zeros

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro Duarte, Ana Sofia; Stockmarr, Anders

    Non-detects or left-censored results are inherent to the traditional methods of microbial enumeration in foods. Typically, a low concentration of microorganisms in a food unit goes undetected in plate counts or most probable number (MPN) counts, and produces “artificial zeros”. However, these “artificial zeros” are only a share of the total number of zero counts resulting from a sample, as their number adds up to the number of “true zeros” resulting from uncontaminated units. In the process of fitting a probability distribution to microbial counts, “artificial” and “true” zeros are usually undifferentiated. This practice may lead to errors in the estimation of the parameters for the distribution of microbial concentrations, most specifically to the underestimation of the mean and overestimation of the variance. Distributions of microbial counts are often used as input in quantitative microbial risk assessment; therefore it is possible that errors related to these distributions have an impact in terms of food safety, if an influence on the estimated risk is observed. In this study, we developed a method to estimate both the parameters of a lognormal distribution of microbial concentrations (mean and standard deviation) and the prevalence of contaminated food units (one minus the proportion of “true zeros”) from a set of microbial counts. By running the model with in silico generated concentration and count data, we could evaluate the performance of this method in terms of estimation of the three different parameters. In principle, the higher the proportion of zeros in a dataset, the higher the error in the estimation will be, and a lower prevalence contributes to a higher proportion of “true zeros” in microbial counts. Therefore, we also investigated the effect of the prevalence on the estimation of the distribution parameters mean and standard deviation by running the same model for different prevalence scenarios.

  6. Characterization of bacterial communities and functions of two submerged soils from San Vitale park (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocali, Stefano; Chiellini, Carolina; Lagomarsino, Alessandra; Ferronato, Chiara; Vittori Antisari, Livia; Vianello, Gilmo

    2015-04-01

    Subaqueous soils has been introduced in the last edition of the Keys to Soil Taxonomy (Soil surveystaff, 2014), to describe soils covered by a water column of up to 2.5 m where different pedogenetic processes can be recognized. However, the role of bacterial community structure and function in such environments and its potential use as pedogenetic indicator is still largely unknown. Two submerged soils (WAS-2 and WAS-4) were collected from San Vitale park (Italy), a site where the evolution of the landscape from subaqueous wetland to interdunal and dunal system, and the interfacing of freshwater with saltwater, made this site particularly suitable for examining the pedogenetic indicators which can characterize and predict the soil hydromorphism in trasitional ecosystems. The two soils were classified and their physicochemical and morphological features were investigated. Selective media were used to isolate both culturable aerobic and anaerobic (microaerophilic) bacteria associated with each horizon. In WAS-2 seven horizons were identified (depths 4-0, 0-6, 6-13, 13-20, 20-36, 36-59/60, and 59/60-83 cm) while in WAS-4, five horizons were identified (depths 0-14, 14-20, 20-40, 40-45, 45-100 cm) for a total of 12 horizons (samples). For each sample, aerobic bacterial plate count was performed on solid LB medium, coupled with microaerophilic bacterial plate count either on SA500 minimal medium and AYE medium (0.5% soft agar each). Molecular identification (16S rRNA gene sequencing) of ~100 strains isolated from each of the three used medium was performed, for a total of ~300 strains for each sample. To complete the characterization of the microbial communities in all horizons, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) analysis was carried out with 454 platform on each of the 12 samples. Moreover, the N2O and CH4 emissions were determined from each pedon. All the parameters were used to highlight the similarities and the differences between and within the pedons. The results will potentially help to highlight some features related to the origin and morphogenesis of submerged soils, and also to clarify the process of differentiation of soil horizons from a biological point of view.

  7. Bacterial contamination of automotive fuels in a tropical region: the case of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Rodríguez-Cavallini, Evelyn; Blanco, Rigoberto

    2009-09-01

    Microbial contamination of fuel has been the cause of several problems in transportation and storage of these products. Due to the lack of previous studies related to these problems in Costa Rica, bacterial quality was evaluated biannually in automotive fuels stored in the four oil distribution facilities of the Costa Rican Petroleum Refinery (RECOPE). In 12 oil storage tanks, for a total of 96 samples, mesophilic, heterotrophic aerobic/facultative counts (ASTM D6974-04) and identification of bacteria presented in regular gas, premium gas and diesel from the bottom and superior part of the tanks were done; in the samples containing an aqueous phase, sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) were also quantified by the most probable number technique (MPN), according to the ASTM D4412-84 standard. The higher contamination was shown at the bottom of the tanks (populations up to 10(4) UFC/l), especially if there was accumulated water, in which case populations reached 10(8) UFC/l. The most contaminated fuel was diesel (counts up to 10(4) UFC/l), whereas the less contaminated was premium gas. The less contaminated fuels were from the facilities of La Garita and Barranca, whereas the most contaminated were from Ochomogo. Nevertheless, the quantified populations did not cause significant alteration in quality physicochemical parameters in the samples analyzed. A total of 149 bacterial strains were isolated, 136 (91.3%) Gram positive and 13 (8.7%) Gram negative. The most frequent genera were Staphylococcus (24.0%), Micrococcus (21.9%), Bacillus (18.8%) and Kocuria (11.5%) among Gram positive bacteria and Pseudomonas (7.3%) among Gram negative bacteria. The majority of these genera have been found as fuel contaminants or even as degraders of this kind of products; nevertheless, some species for which their appearance or growth in hydrocarbons have not been described were found with low frequencies. SRB were present in counts up to 10(5) MPN/l in 42.9% of water containing samples (including all from diesel tanks), indicating biocorrosion processes risk in fuel transport and storage systems. From the findings in this study it is recommended to give a frequent maintenance to fuel containers, based on continuous drainage and removal of accumulated water, antimicrobial agent addition and microbial quality monitoring in country's fuels. PMID:19928449

  8. Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingraham, Sandy

    This Kids Count Factbook details county and statewide trends in the well-being of children in Oklahoma. The statistical portrait is based on seven indicators or benchmarks of child well-being: (1) low birthweight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to young teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child and teen death; (6) high school…

  9. New interactions and neutrino counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anomalous events in p-barp collisions suggest the possibility of a new interaction. We calculate the contribution of such a new interaction to the neutrino-counting process e+e-???nu-bar and show how to eliminate this contribution if the new interaction is not completely known

  10. Approximate counting of regular hypergraphs

    OpenAIRE

    Dudek, Andrzej; Frieze, Alan; Ruci?ski, Andrzej; Šileikis, Matas

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we asymptotically count $d$-regular $k$-uniform hypergraphs on $n$ vertices, provided $k$ is fixed and $d=d(n)=o(n^{1/2})$. In doing so, we extend to hypergraphs a switching technique of McKay and Wormald.

  11. Kids Count Data Sheet, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD.

    Data from the 50 United States are listed for 1997 from Kids Count in an effort to track state-by-state the status of children in the United States and to secure better futures for all children. Data include percent low birth weight babies; infant mortality rate; child death rate; rate of teen deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; teen birth…

  12. Maryland Kids Count Factbook, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advocates for Children and Youth, Baltimore, MD.

    This 7th annual Kids Count Factbook provides information on trends in the well-being of children in Maryland and its 24 jurisdictions. The statistical portrait is based on 18 indicators of well-being: (1) low birth-weight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) early prenatal care; (4) binge drinking; (5) child deaths; (6) child injury rate; (7) grade…

  13. Shakespeare Live! and Character Counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    This paper discusses a live production of Shakespeare's "Macbeth" (in full costume but with no sets) for all public middle school and high school students in Harrisonburg and Rockingham, Virginia. The paper states that the "Character Counts" issues that are covered in the play are: decision making, responsibility and citizenship, trustworthiness,…

  14. Comparison of plate counts, Petrifilm, dipslides, and adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence for monitoring bacteria in cooling-tower waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sherry A; Anderson, James E; Kim, Byung R; Ball, James C

    2009-04-01

    Effective bacterial control in cooling-tower systems requires accurate and timely methods to count bacteria. Plate-count methods are difficult to implement on-site, because they are time- and labor-intensive and require sterile techniques. Several field-applicable methods (dipslides, Petrifilm, and adenosine triphosphate [ATP] bioluminescence) were compared with the plate count for two sample matrices--phosphate-buffered saline solution containing a pure culture of Pseudomonas fluorescens and cooling-tower water containing an undefined mixed bacterial culture. For the pure culture, (1) counts determined on nutrient agar and plate-count agar (PCA) media and expressed as colony-forming units (CFU) per milliliter were equivalent to those on R2A medium (p = 1.0 and p = 1.0, respectively); (2) Petrifilm counts were not significantly different from R2A plate counts (p = 0.99); (3) the dipslide counts were up to 2 log units higher than R2A plate counts, but this discrepancy was not statistically significant (p = 0.06); and (4) a discernable correlation (r2 = 0.67) existed between ATP readings and plate counts. For cooling-tower water samples (n = 62), (1) bacterial counts using R2A medium were higher (but not significant; p = 0.63) than nutrient agar and significantly higher than tryptone-glucose yeast extract (TGE; p = 0.03) and PCA (p < 0.001); (2) Petrifilm counts were significantly lower than nutrient agar or R2A (p = 0.02 and p < 0.001, respectively), but not statistically different from TGE, PCA, and dipslides (p = 0.55, p = 0.69, and p = 0.91, respectively); (3) the dipslide method yielded bacteria counts 1 to 3 log units lower than nutrient agar and R2A (p < 0.001), but was not significantly different from Petrifilm (p = 0.91), PCA (p = 1.00) or TGE (p = 0.07); (4) the differences between dipslides and the other methods became greater with a 6-day incubation time; and (5) the correlation between ATP readings and plate counts varied from system to system, was poor (r2 values ranged from < 0.01 to 0.47), and the ATP method was not sufficiently sensitive to measure counts below approximately 10(4) CFU/mL. PMID:19445329

  15. The liquid scintillation counting efficiency for 137 Cs137m Ba and 129 I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compute the liquid scintillation counting efficiency for ''137 Cs+ ''137m Ba and ''129 I taking into account the scintillator chemical composition. We consider the beta transition shape factors for the forbidden beta transitions of these nuclides, and the effects of ''137m Ba and ''129m Xe half-lives on the total counting efficiency

  16. Bacterial flora of spices and its control by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bacterial contamination was tested in 26 samples of spices. Chili, allspice and paprika were the most contaminated spices by bacteria. Five bacterial genera were isolated, namely bacillus, staphylococcus, streptococcus, micrococcus, and coccobacillus, all being gram-positive. Most isolates have been related to the genus bacillus. The bacterial isolates were identified as B. alvei, B. circulans, B. megaterium, B. pasteurii, B. pumilus, B. thuringiensis, B. sphaericus, B. incertaesedis, Micrococcus luteus, staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus sp. and coccobacillus sp. Irradiation of spices led to a significant decrease in the bacterial count of all samples. The dose required to inhibit completely the natural bacterial flora was 25 KGY. The most radioresistant isolates were staphylococcus aureus and micrococcus luteus which were subjected to sublethal doses of 15 and 20 KGY respectively. The dose response curves of the 2 most radioresistant isolates showed simple exponential relationship. The D 10-value of S. aureus and M. luteus were 0.9 and 1.1 KGY, respectively. The effect of storage period on the bacterial load of, as well as, the antibacterial activity of the tested spices were investigated. (author)

  17. Bacterial cell wall preservation during organic matter diagenesis in sediments off Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomstein, Bente Aagaard; Niggemann, Jutta; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Langerhuus, Alice Thoft

    2009-01-01

    BACTERIAL CELL WALL PRESERVATION DURING ORGANIC MATTER DIAGENESIS IN SEDIMENTS OFF PERU The spatial distribution of total hydrolysable amino acids, total hydrolysable amino sugars and amino acid enantiomers (D- and L-forms) were investigated in surface sediments at 20 stations in the Peru margin: 9°45 S - 13º32 S. The objective of this study was to assess the preservation of bacterial cell walls during diagenesis of organic matter. Bacterial cell walls were traced by analysis of biomarkers uniqu...

  18. Standardisation of 64Cu using a software coincidence counting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity of the radionuclide 64Cu was determined by the efficiency extrapolation method applied to 4?(PC)?? coincidence counting. The standardisation was performed by software coincidence counting—a digital method for primary activity measurement that simplifies the setting of optimal coincidence parameters. The ?-ray-energy window, characterised by identical gamma detection efficiency related to the sum of EC and to the sum of beta decay branches, was found. This setting ensured a linear and zero slope extrapolation curve. - Highlights: • Standardisation realised by extrapolation method applied to 4?(PC)?? coincidence. • Digital method for optimal setting of coincidence parameters was used. • Result with total standard uncertainty of 0.74% was obtained

  19. SAWdoubler: a program for counting self-avoiding walks

    OpenAIRE

    Schram, Raoul D.; Barkema, Gerard T.; Bisseling, Rob H.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents SAWdoubler, a package for counting the total number Z(N) of self-avoiding walks (SAWs) on a regular lattice by the length-doubling method, of which the basic concept has been published previously by us. We discuss an algorithm for the creation of all SAWs of length N, efficient storage of these SAWs in a tree data structure, and an algorithm for the computation of correction terms to the count Z(2N) for SAWs of double length, removing all combinations o...

  20. EFFECT OF REFINED PETROLEUM PRODUCTS CONTAMINATION ON BACTERIAL POPULATION AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTIVATED AGRICULTURAL SOIL

    OpenAIRE

    Adewale Sogo Olalemi; Daniel Juwon Arotupin

    2012-01-01

    An investigation into the effect of refined petroleum products contamination on bacterial population and physicochemical characteristics of cultivated agricultural soil was carried out. The soil samples obtained from the Teaching and Research Farm, Obakekere, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State were contaminated with varying volumes of petrol, diesel and kerosene. The results revealed higher bacterial populations in uncontaminated soils than contaminated soils. The counts of b...

  1. Optimisation of the high level neutron well coincidence counting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A High Level Neutron Coincidence Counter (HLNCC) system has been developed and standardised for total and time-correlated neutron count rate measurements. The HLNCC unit is useful for both assay of plutonium in various configurations such as sealed containments, finished products and in operational waste samples as well as for neutron multiplicity distribution studies. The term, High-Level refers to high neutron count rate capability of the unit that enables assay of high plutonium content (? 1.5 Kg). High counting efficiency also enables high sensitivity, upto ? 1 gm in oxide matrix. The unit is equipped with a shift register based time coincidence logic to sort out the time-correlated neutrons from spontaneous fission of even-even plutonium isotopes in the background of random (?, n) neutrons. From the knowledge of even-even isotopes (especially sup(240)Pu) thus obtained and the isotopic composition, total plutonium content is deduced. The system has been optimised with respect to various operational conditions and characteristics of the electronic units used, as described in this report. It has been calibrated for total and coincidence counting efficiencies. Specific examples of applications of the unit for assay of plutonium content in the range 0.1 to 1.8 gram and for neutron multiplicity studies have also been presented in this report. (author). 10 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

  2. Dynamics of bacterial communities before and after distribution in a full-scale drinking water network

    KAUST Repository

    El-Chakhtoura, Joline

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the biological stability of drinking water distribution systems is imperative in the framework of process control and risk management. The objective of this research was to examine the dynamics of the bacterial community during drinking water distribution at high temporal resolution. Water samples (156 in total) were collected over short time-scales (minutes/hours/days) from the outlet of a treatment plant and a location in its corresponding distribution network. The drinking water is treated by biofiltration and disinfectant residuals are absent during distribution. The community was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and flow cytometry as well as conventional, culture-based methods. Despite a random dramatic event (detected with pyrosequencing and flow cytometry but not with plate counts), the bacterial community profile at the two locations did not vary significantly over time. A diverse core microbiome was shared between the two locations (58-65% of the taxa and 86-91% of the sequences) and found to be dependent on the treatment strategy. The bacterial community structure changed during distribution, with greater richness detected in the network and phyla such as Acidobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes becoming abundant. The rare taxa displayed the highest dynamicity, causing the major change during water distribution. This change did not have hygienic implications and is contingent on the sensitivity of the applied methods. The concept of biological stability therefore needs to be revised. Biostability is generally desired in drinking water guidelines but may be difficult to achieve in large-scale complex distribution systems that are inherently dynamic.

  3. Physiological Studies and Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Bacterial Pathogen Isolated from Some Nigerian Fast Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.O. Fajemilo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most food handlers in fast food centers have no knowledge of food safety practices and of prevention of food-borne diseases which has resulted in the transmission of food-borne pathogens to the people consuming such food. Therefore, this study was aimed at evaluating the level of bacterial contamination in some fast food in Ogbomoso, Nigeria and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility and physiological profile of the bacterial contaminants. Bacterial pathogens were isolated from fast food vended in Ogbomoso, Oyo state, Nigeria. The isolates were characterized and identified as Enterobacter aerogenes, Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas putida, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas chlororaphis and Bacillus subtilis. The total bacteria colony count ranged from 2.4x104-4.2x106. The antibiotic susceptibility profile of the isolates was determined and 75% sensitivity to the clinically relevant antibiotic disc was noted while 25% resistance was found. The effect of physiological parameters including temperature, pH and sodium chloride concentration on the growth rate of isolates was evaluated. As temperature of incubation increased from 50-80°C, the rate of growth of all the isolate decreased and as the pH of the growth medium increased from 3-9, the rate of growth of all the isolates also increased. As the concentration of sodium chloride increased from 2-5%, the rate of growth of isolates also reduced. The results of this study showed that most of the fast food samples examined did not meet bacteriological quality standards. Hence, it is recommended that a regular monitoring of fast food should be carried out by putting in place appropriate agency.

  4. Bacterial meningitis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To demonstrate the epidemiology, clinical manifestations and bacteriological profile of bacterial meningitis in children beyond the neonatal period in our hospital. This was a retrospective descriptive study conducted at Prince Rashid Hospital in Irbid, Jordan. The medical records of 50 children with the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis during 4 years period, were reviewed. The main cause of infection was streptococcus pneumoniae, followed by Haemophilus influenza and Niesseria meningitides. Mortality was higher in infants and meningococcal infection, while complications were more encountered in cases of streptococcus pneumoniae. Cerebrospinal fluid culture was positive in 11 cases and Latex agglutination test in 39. There is a significant reduction of the numbers of bacterial meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenza type B species. (author)

  5. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?uki? Slobodanka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis is a common, complex clinical syndrome characterized by alterations in the normal vaginal flora. When symptomatic, it is associated with a malodorous vaginal discharge and on occasion vaginal burning or itching. Under normal conditions, lactobacilli constitute 95% of the bacteria in the vagina. Bacterial vaginosis is associated with severe reduction or absence of the normal H2O2­producing lactobacilli and overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria and Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Mycoplasma hominis and Mobiluncus species. Most types of infectious disease are diagnosed by culture, by isolating an antigen or RNA/DNA from the microbe, or by serodiagnosis to determine the presence of antibodies to the microbe. Therefore, demonstration of the presence of an infectious agent is often a necessary criterion for the diagnosis of the disease. This is not the case for bacterial vaginosis, since the ultimate cause of the disease is not yet known. There are a variety of methods for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis but no method can at present be regarded as the best. Diagnosing bacterial vaginosis has long been based on the clinical criteria of Amsel, whereby three of four defined criteria must be satisfied. Nugent’s scoring system has been further developed and includes validation of the categories of observable bacteria structures. Up­to­date molecular tests are introduced, and better understanding of vaginal microbiome, a clear definition for bacterial vaginosis, and short­term and long­term fluctuations in vaginal microflora will help to better define molecular tests within the broader clinical context.

  6. A precise, efficient radiometric assay for bacterial growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two-compartment radiometric assay for bacterial growth promised major advantages over systems in clinical use, but poor reproducibility and counting efficiency limited its application. In this method, 14-CO/sub 2/ produced by bacterial metabolism of C-14-glucose is trapped and counted on filter paper impregnated with NaOH and fluors. The authors sought to improve assay efficiency and precision through a systematic study of relevant physical and chemical factors. Improvements in efficiency (88% vs. 10%) and in precision (relative S.D. 5% vs. 40%) were produced by a) reversing growth medium and scintillator chambers to permit vigorous agitation, b) increasing NaOH quantity and using a supersaturated PPO solution and c) adding detergent to improve uniformity of NaOH-PPO mixture. Inoculum size, substrate concentration and O/sub 2/ transfer rate affected assay sensitivity but not bacterial growth rate. The authors' assay reliably detects bacterial growth for inocula of 10,000 organisms in 1 hour and for 25 organisms within 4 1/2 hours, thus surpassing other existing clinical and research methods

  7. Leukocyte nucleus segmentation and nucleus lobe counting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zong-Han

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leukocytes play an important role in the human immune system. The family of leukocytes is comprised of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, and neutrophils. Any infection or acute stress may increase or decrease the number of leukocytes. An increased percentage of neutrophils may be caused by an acute infection, while an increased percentage of lymphocytes can be caused by a chronic bacterial infection. It is important to realize an abnormal variation in the leukocytes. The five types of leukocytes can be distinguished by their cytoplasmic granules, staining properties of the granules, size of cell, the proportion of the nuclear to the cytoplasmic material, and the type of nucleolar lobes. The number of lobes increased when leukemia, chronic nephritis, liver disease, cancer, sepsis, and vitamin B12 or folate deficiency occurred. Clinical neutrophil hypersegmentation has been widely used as an indicator of B12 or folate deficiency.Biomedical technologists can currently recognize abnormal leukocytes using human eyes. However, the quality and efficiency of diagnosis may be compromised due to the limitations of the biomedical technologists' eyesight, strength, and medical knowledge. Therefore, the development of an automatic leukocyte recognition system is feasible and necessary. It is essential to extract the leukocyte region from a blood smear image in order to develop an automatic leukocyte recognition system. The number of lobes increased when leukemia, chronic nephritis, liver disease, cancer, sepsis, and vitamin B12 or folate deficiency occurred. Clinical neutrophil hypersegmentation has been widely used as an indicator of B12 or folate deficiency. Results The purpose of this paper is to contribute an automatic leukocyte nuclei image segmentation method for such recognition technology. The other goal of this paper is to develop the method of counting the number of lobes in a cell nucleus. The experimental results demonstrated impressive segmentation accuracy. Conclusions Insensitive to the variance of images, the LNS (Leukocyte Nuclei Segmentation method functioned well to isolate the leukocyte nuclei from a blood smear image with much better UR (Under Segmentation Rate, ER (Overall Error Rate, and RDE (Relative Distance Error. The presented LC (Lobe Counting method is capable of splitting leukocyte nuclei into lobes. The experimental results illuminated that both methods can give expressive performances. In addition, three advanced image processing techniques were proposed as weighted Sobel operator, GDW (Gradient Direction Weight, and GBPD (Genetic-based Parameter Detector.

  8. Blood platelet counts, morphology and morphometry in lions, Panthera leo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L., du Plessis.

    Full Text Available Due to logistical problems in obtaining sufficient blood samples from apparently healthy animals in the wild in order to establish normal haematological reference values, only limited information regarding the blood platelet count and morphology of free-living lions (Panthera leo) is available. This [...] study provides information on platelet counts and describes their morphology with particular reference to size in two normal, healthy and free-ranging lion populations. Blood samples were collected from a total of 16 lions. Platelet counts, determined manually, ranged between 218 and 358 x 10(9)/l. Light microscopy showed mostly activated platelets of various sizes with prominent granules. At the ultrastructural level the platelets revealed typical mammalian platelet morphology. However, morphometric analysis revealed a significant difference (P

  9. Optimization and modeling of bacterial processes

    OpenAIRE

    Kiviharju, Kristiina

    2006-01-01

    Bifidobacterium longum and Streptomyces peucetius are two totally different bacterial species with respect to environmental conditions and process objective. These were used as model organisms in this study. The objective of the B. longum process was to produce viable biomass suitable for use as food additive. The objective of the S. peucetius process was to produce a medically significant compound toxic to the organism. This study presents the process optimization for both model organisms by...

  10. Bacterial Community Development in Experimental Gingivitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kistler, James O; Booth, Veronica; Bradshaw, David J; Wade, William G.

    2013-01-01

    Current knowledge of the microbial composition of dental plaque in early gingivitis is based largely on microscopy and cultural methods, which do not provide a comprehensive description of oral microbial communities. This study used 454-pyrosequencing of the V1–V3 region of 16S rRNA genes (approximately 500 bp), and bacterial culture, to characterize the composition of plaque during the transition from periodontal health to gingivitis. A total of 20 healthy volunteers abstained from oral hygi...

  11. Bacterial Diversity in Suspected Prosthetic Joint Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yijuan; Rudkjøbing, Vibeke Børsholt; Simonsen, O.; Pedersen, C.; Lorenzen, J.; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Thomsen, Trine Rolighed

    2012-01-01

    Formation of biofilm is a prominent feature of prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) and constitutes a challenge to current sampling procedures and culture practices. Molecular techniques have a potential for improving diagnosis of biofilm-adapted, slow-growing and non-culturable bacteria. In this exploratory study we investigated the bacterial diversity in specimens from 22 patients clinically suspected of PJI. Bacteriological cultures were performed according to standard practice. A total of 55 s...

  12. Evaluation of Visitor Counting Technologies and Their Energy Saving Potential through Demand-Controlled Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Kuutti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Direction-sensitive visitor counting sensors can be used in demand-controlled ventilation (DCV. The counting performance of two light beam sensors and three camera sensors, all direction sensitive, was simultaneously evaluated at an indoor location. Direction insensitive sensors (two mat sensors and one light beam sensor were additionally tested as a reference. Bidirectional counting data of free people flow was collected for 36 days in one-hour resolution, including five hours of manual counting. Compared to the manual results, one of the light beam sensors had the most equally balanced directional overall counting errors (4.6% and 5.2%. The collected data of this sensor was used to model the air transportation energy consumption of visitor counting sensor-based DCV and constant air volume ventilation (CAV. The results suggest that potential savings in air transportation energy consumption could be gained with the modeled DCV as its total daily airflow during the test period was 54% of the total daily airflow of the modeled CAV on average. A virtually real-time control of ventilation could be realized with minute-level counting resolution. Site-specific calibration of the visitor counting sensors is advisable and they could be complemented with presence detectors to avoid unnecessary ventilation during unoccupied periods of the room. A combination of CO2 and visitor counting sensors could be exploited in DCV to always guarantee sufficient ventilation with a short response time.

  13. Radioactivity determination by coincidence counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 4 ? ?-? coincidence counting equipment used in the Lucas Heights radioisotope standards laboratory for international comparisons is described in detail. A radioactivity standard is a method rather than a material object; as such it can be specified clearly only by discussing fully the setting-up and operation of one particular set of equipment. This manual is written for persons who are setting up such equipment for the first time

  14. Two-Photon Counting interferometry

    OpenAIRE

    Boitier, Fabien; Godard, Antoine; Dubreuil, Nicolas; Delaye, Philippe; Fabre, Claude; Rosencher, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Two-photon counting (TPC) interferometry has been realized by measuring the electrical current due to two-photon absorption in the space charge layer of a semiconductor detector located at the output port of an interferometer. We apply this technique to study the correlation properties of twin beams issued from parametric fluorescence. We describe in details how the different second-order correlation functions (interbeam, intrabeam) can be extracted at the femtosecond timescale from raw data....

  15. Semiparametric Bayesian Count Data Models

    OpenAIRE

    Osuna Echavarría, Leyre Estíbaliz

    2004-01-01

    Count data models have a large number of pratical applications. However there can be several problems which prevent the use of the standard Poisson regression. We may detect individual unobserved heterogeneity, caused by missing covariates, and/or excess of zero observations in our data. Both distributional issues results in deviations of the response distribution from the classical Poisson assumption. We may in addition want to extend our predictor to model temporal...

  16. Regulation of bacterial sulfate reduction and hydrogen sulfide fluxes in the central Namibian coastal upwelling zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruchert, V.; JØrgensen, BB

    2003-01-01

    The coastal upwelling system off central Namibia is one of the most productive regions of the oceans and is characterized by frequently occurring shelf anoxia with severe effects for the benthic life and fisheries. We present data on water column dissolved oxygen, sulfide, nitrate and nitrite, pore water profiles for dissolved,sulfide and sulfate, S-35-sulfate reduction rates, as well as bacterial counts of large sulfur bacteria from 20 stations across the continental shelf and slope. The stations covered two transects and included the inner shelf with its anoxic and extremely oxygen-depleted bottom waters, the oxygen minimum zone on the continental slope, and the lower continental slope below the oxygen minimum zone. High concentrations of dissolved sulfide, up to 22 mM, in the near-surface sediments of the inner shelf result from extremely high rates of bacterial sulfate reduction and the low capacity to oxidize and trap sulfide. The inner shelf break marks the seaward border of sulfidic bottom waters, and separates two different regimes of bacterial sulfate reduction. In the sulfidic bottom waters on the shelf, up to 55% of sulfide oxidation is mediated by the large nitrate-storing sulfur bacteria, Thiomargarita spp. The filamentous relatives Beggiatoa spp. OCCUPY low-O-2 bottom waters on the outer shelf. Sulfide oxidation on the slope is apparently not mediated by the large sulfur bacteria. The data demonstrate the importance of large sulfur bacteria, which live close to the sediment-water interface and reduce the hydrogen sulfide flux to the water column. Modeling of pore water sulfide concentration profiles indicates that sulfide produced by bacterial sulfate reduction in the uppermost 16 cm of sediment is sufficient to account for the total flux of hydrogen sulfide to the water column. However, the total pool of hydrogen sulfide in the water column is too large to be explained by steady state diffusion across the sediment-water interface. Episodic advection of hydrogen sulfide, possibly triggered by methane eruptions, may contribute to hydrogen sulfide in the water column. Copyright (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Endophytic bacterial community of a Mediterranean marine angiosperm (Posidonia oceanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NeusGarcias-Bonet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial endophytes are crucial for the survival of many terrestrial plants, but little is known about the presence and importance of bacterial endophytes of marine plants. We conducted a survey of the endophytic bacterial community of the long-living Mediterranean marine angiosperm Posidonia oceanica in surface-sterilized tissues (roots, rhizomes and leaves by DGGE. A total of 26 Posidonia oceanica meadows around the Balearic Islands were sampled, and the band patterns obtained for each meadow were compared for the three sampled tissues. Endophytic bacterial sequences were detected in most of the samples analyzed. A total of 34 OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units were detected. The main OTUs of endophytic bacteria present in P. oceanica tissues belonged primarily to Proteobacteria (?, ? and ? subclasses and Bacteroidetes. The OTUs found in roots significantly differed from those of rhizomes and leaves. Moreover, some OTUs were found to be associated to each type of tissue. Bipartite network analysis revealed differences in the bacterial endophyte communities present on different islands. The results of this study provide a pioneering step toward the characterization of the endophytic bacterial community associated with tissues of a marine angiosperm and reveal the presence of bacterial endophytes that differed among locations and tissue types.

  18. Monitoring Milk Somatic Cell Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe ?te?ca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of somatic cells in milk is a widely disputed issue in milk production sector. The somatic cell counts in raw milk are a marker for the specific cow diseases such as mastitis or swollen udder. The high level of somatic cells causes physical and chemical changes to milk composition and nutritional value, and as well to milk products. Also, the mastitic milk is not proper for human consumption due to its contribution to spreading of certain diseases and food poisoning. According to these effects, EU Regulations established the maximum threshold of admitted somatic cells in raw milk to 400000 cells / mL starting with 2014. The purpose of this study was carried out in order to examine the raw milk samples provided from small farms, industrial type farms and milk processing units. There are several ways to count somatic cells in milk but the reference accepted method is the microscopic method described by the SR EN ISO 13366-1/2008. Generally samples registered values in accordance with the admissible limit. By periodical monitoring of the somatic cell count, certain technological process issues are being avoided and consumer’s health ensured.

  19. Staining bacterial flagella easily.

    OpenAIRE

    Heimbrook, M E; Wang, W. L.; Campbell, G.

    1989-01-01

    A wet-mount technique for staining bacterial flagella is highly successful when a stable stain and regular slides and cover slips are used. Although not producing a permanent mount, the technique is simple for routine use when the number and arrangement of flagella are critical in identifying species of motile bacteria.

  20. Bacterial microflora of nectarines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microflora of fruit surfaces has been the best source of antagonists against fungi causing postharvest decays of fruit. However, there is little information on microflora colonizing surfaces of fruits other than grapes, apples, and citrus fruit. We characterized bacterial microflora on nectarine f...

  1. Antibiotic therapy for bacterial meningitis in children in developing countries.

    OpenAIRE

    KUMAR, P; Verma, I. C.

    1993-01-01

    We carried out a study to investigate the effectiveness of chloramphenicol alone as a treatment for bacterial meningitis. A total of 70 consecutive children aged > 3 months with bacterial meningitis, who had been admitted to the paediatric hospital of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, were randomized to receive chloramphenicol alone or chloramphenicol + penicillin. The two groups were matched with each other. Treatment failure occurred with three (9%) patients in the chloramphenico...

  2. Bacterial colonization of phyllosphere of Mediterranean aromatic plants.

    OpenAIRE

    Karamanoli, K.; ??????????, ?.; Vokou, D.; Menkissoglu, U.; Constantinidou, H.-I.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of secondary metabolites on the bacterial colonization of the phyllosphere of four aromatic species of the Mediterranean region was studied for the determination of total bacterial populations (TBP) and populations of ice nucleation active bacteria (INA). The aromatic plants used were lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), Greek sage (Salvia fruticosa), and Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum), all growing in neighboring sites. Lavender w...

  3. Tallahatchie NWR - Landbird Point Counts in 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Avian point counts were done in selected areas of mature forest on Tallahatchie Refuge in 2009. Report contains summary of avain point counts done in mature...

  4. Understanding and Reducing Crater Counting Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tar, P. D.; Thacker, N. A.

    2015-05-01

    We propose a crater counting model which incorporates uncertainties from false positive and false negative crater detections. We show how binomial statistics and Linear Poisson Models can be used to better understand and to reduce counting errors.

  5. Alaska Steller Sea Lion Pup Count Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains counts of Steller sea lion pups on rookeries in Alaska made between 1961 and 2014. Pup counts are conducted in late June-July. Pups are...

  6. Radiometric detection of bacterial metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of 14CO2 produced by the bacterial oxidation of labelled compounds is discussed as a means of evaluating the bacterial metabolism. The following items are discussed:automated radiometric detection, types of graphs, clinical applications of the radiometric system and influential factors. Complementary studies on bacterial assimilation of substances are presented. (M.A.)

  7. Simultaneous determination of strontium-90 and strontium-89 by Cerenkov-radiation and liquid-scintillation counting: a re-evaluation for low-level counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three methods for the simultaneous determination of 89Sr and 90Sr are compared under the aspect of low 90Sr activities and high 89Sr/90Sr ratios as expected in nuclear emergency situations: (i) Liquid-scintillation counting with two pulse height windows, (ii) a combination of Cerenkov-radiation and liquid-scintillation counting with open windows, and (iii) the combination of Cerenkov-light and scintillation counting with two windows set during liquid-scintillation counting, the higher one adjusted to 90Y only. The third method is accurate to ±20% for 89Sr/90Sr ratios up to 15 and at 90Sr disintegration rates down to 0.15 Bq applying a total counting time of about six hours. (orig.)

  8. Counting the homeless in Los Angeles County

    OpenAIRE

    Berk, Richard; Kriegler, Brian; Ylvisaker, Donald

    2008-01-01

    Over the past two decades, a variety of methods have been used to count the homeless in large metropolitan areas. In this paper, we report on an effort to count the homeless in Los Angeles County, one that employed the sampling of census tracts. A number of complications are discussed, including\\^{E} the need to impute homeless counts to areas of \\^{E}the County\\^{E} not sampled. We conclude that, despite their imperfections, estimated counts provided useful and credible inf...

  9. Evaluation of a radiometric method for studying bacterial activity in the presence of antimicrobial agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, R.R.; Wilson, P.; Clarke, F.V. (Newham District Microbiology Labs., St. Andrews Hospital, London (UK))

    1989-06-01

    In a study involving 2760 tests, the BACTEC semi-automatic radiometric method which measures bacterial metabolic activity and produces a BACTEC growth index, was compared with two conventional methods commonly used for determining growth, absorbance and viable counts. In 92% of radiometry tests the suppression of growth was inversely related to the antibiotic concentration. This compared with 83% for absorbance and 63% for viable counts. The radiometric method was found to be more rapid, easier to use and more reproducible in determining the effect of antibiotics on the activity of bacteria than viable counting or absorbance methods. (author).

  10. DC KIDS COUNT e-Databook Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    DC Action for Children, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report presents indicators that are included in DC Action for Children's 2012 KIDS COUNT e-databook, their definitions and sources and the rationale for their selection. The indicators for DC KIDS COUNT represent a mix of traditional KIDS COUNT indicators of child well-being, such as the number of children living in poverty, and indicators of…

  11. Field determination of bacterial disappearance in seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul

    1970-01-01

    The article presents two approaches to field determination of disappearance of viable, fecal bacteria after discharge with sewage into a marine environment. The first approach is based on simultaneous sampling for bacterial counting and monitoring of dilution using a conservative tracer, which is released continuously with the sewage. The second approach uses an abrupt release of tracer for determination of both dilution and residence time in the sewage field. In both cases, the disappearance rate is best determined by comparison of fluxes of two bacteria and of tracer through cross-sections of the field. The approaches are exemplified with two case reports, which show that the disappearance rate can be determined to less than 10 per cent inaccuracy.

  12. Photodynamic therapy on bacterial reduction in dental caries: in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Alessandra; Araujo Prates, Renato; Kato, Ilka Tiemy; Amaral, Marcello Magri; Zanardi de Freitas, Anderson; Simões Ribeiro, Martha

    2010-04-01

    The reduction of pathogenic microorganisms in supragingival plaque is one of the principal factors in caries prevention and control. A large number of microorganisms have been reported to be inactivated in vitro by photodynamic therapy (PDT). The purpose of this study was to develop a rat model to investigate the effects of PDT on bacterial reduction in induced dental caries. Twenty four rats were orally inoculated with Streptococcus mutans cells (ATCC 25175) for three consecutive days. The animals were fed with a cariogenic diet and water with 10% of sucrose ad libitum, during all experimental period. Caries lesion formation was confirmed by Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) 5 days after the beginning of the experiment. Then, the animals were randomly divided into two groups: Control Group: twelve animals were untreated by either light or photosensitizer; and PDT Group: twelve animals were treated with 100?M of methylene blue for 5min and irradiated by a Light Emitting Diode (LED) at ? = 640+/-30nm, fluence of 172J/cm2, output power of 240mW, and exposure time of 3min. Microbiological samples were collected before, immediately after, 3, 7 and 10 days after treatment and the number of total microaerophiles was counted. OCT images showed areas of enamel demineralization on rat molars. Microbiological analysis showed a significant bacterial reduction after PDT. Furthermore, the number of total microaerophiles in PDT group remained lower than control group until 10 days posttreatment. These findings suggest that PDT could be an alternative approach to reduce bacteria in dental caries.

  13. Bacterial diversity in faeces from polar bear (Ursus maritimus in Arctic Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brusetti Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polar bears (Ursus maritimus are major predators in the Arctic marine ecosystem, feeding mainly on seals, and living closely associated with sea ice. Little is known of their gut microbial ecology and the main purpose of this study was to investigate the microbial diversity in faeces of polar bears in Svalbard, Norway (74-81°N, 10-33°E. In addition the level of blaTEM alleles, encoding ampicillin resistance (ampr were determined. In total, ten samples were collected from ten individual bears, rectum swabs from five individuals in 2004 and faeces samples from five individuals in 2006. Results A 16S rRNA gene clone library was constructed, and all sequences obtained from 161 clones showed affiliation with the phylum Firmicutes, with 160 sequences identified as Clostridiales and one sequence identified as unclassified Firmicutes. The majority of the sequences (70% were affiliated with the genus Clostridium. Aerobic heterotrophic cell counts on chocolate agar ranged between 5.0 × 104 to 1.6 × 106 colony forming units (cfu/ml for the rectum swabs and 4.0 × 103 to 1.0 × 105 cfu/g for the faeces samples. The proportion of ampr bacteria ranged from 0% to 44%. All of 144 randomly selected ampr isolates tested positive for enzymatic ?-lactamase activity. Three % of the ampr isolates from the rectal samples yielded positive results when screened for the presence of blaTEM genes by PCR. BlaTEM alleles were also detected by PCR in two out of three total faecal DNA samples from polar bears. Conclusion The bacterial diversity in faeces from polar bears in their natural environment in Svalbard is low compared to other animal species, with all obtained clones affiliating to Firmicutes. Furthermore, only low levels of blaTEM alleles were detected in contrast to their increasing prevalence in some clinical and commensal bacterial populations.

  14. 16S rRNA gene-based metagenomic analysis identifies a novel bacterial co-prevalence pattern in dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagathrakshakan, Sri Nisha; Sethumadhava, Raghavendra Jayesh; Mehta, Dhaval Tushar; Ramanathan, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the prevalence of acidogenic and nonacidogenic bacteria in patients with polycaries lesions, and to ascertain caries specific bacterial prevalence in relation to noncaries controls. Materials and Methods: Total genomic DNA extracted from saliva of three adults and four children from the same family were subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis on a next generation sequencer, the PGS-Ion Torrent. Those bacterial genera with read counts > 1000 were considered as significant in each of the subject and used to associate the occurrence with caries. Results and Conclusion: Sequencing analysis indicated a higher prevalence of Streptococcus, Rothia, Granulicatella, Gemella, Actinomyces, Selenomonas, Haemophilus and Veillonella in the caries group relative to controls. While higher prevalence of Streptococcus, Rothia and Granulicatella were observed in all caries samples, the prevalence of others was observable in 29–57% of samples. Interestingly, Rothia and Selenomonas, which are known to occur within anaerobic environments of dentinal caries and subgingival plaque biofilms, were seen in the saliva of these caries patients. Taken together, the study has identified for the first time a unique co-prevalence pattern of bacteria in caries patients that may be explored as distinct caries specific bacterial signature to predict cariogenesis in high-risk primary and mixed dentition age groups. PMID:25713496

  15. The dispersion of adhered marine bacteria by pyrophosphate and ultrasound prior to direct counting.

    OpenAIRE

    Velji, M; Albright, L

    1984-01-01

    A technique has been investigated for dispersing adhered marine bacteria from various surfaces prior to direct counting. The bacterial cells were initially preserved and strengthened by use of 3.7% formaldehyde (v/v final concentration). Seawater samples were then treated with 0.001 M of tetrasodium pyrophosphate (final concentration), a sequestering and deflocculating agent. Surface sediment and kelp disc samples were treated with 0.01 M tetrasodium pyrophosphate (final concentration) after ...

  16. Bacterial community survey of sediments at Naracoorte Caves, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ball Andrew S.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial diversity in sediments at UNESCO World Heritage listed Naracoorte Caves was surveyed as part of an investigation carried out in a larger study on assessing microbial communities in caves. Cave selection was based on tourist accessibility; Stick Tomato and Alexandra Cave (> 15000 annual visits and Strawhaven Cave was used as control (no tourist access. Microbial analysis showed that Bacillus was the most commonly detected microbial genus by culture dependent and independent survey of tourist accessible and inaccessible areas of show (tourist accessible and control caves. Other detected sediment bacterial groups were assigned to the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. The survey also showed differences in bacterial diversity in caves with human access compared to the control cave with the control cave having unique microbial sequences (Acinetobacter, Agromyces, Micrococcus and Streptomyces. The show caves had higher bacterial counts, different 16S rDNA based DGGE cluster patterns and principal component groupings compared to Strawhaven. Different factors such as human access, cave use and configurations could have been responsible for the differences observed in the bacterial community cluster patterns (tourist accessible and inaccessible areas of these caves. Cave sediments can therefore act as reservoirs of microorganisms. This might have some implications on cave conservation activities especially if these sediments harbor rock art degrading microorganisms in caves with rock art.

  17. Pyrosequencing analysis of bacterial diversity in dental unit waterlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Damien; Mercier, Anne; Gravouil, Kevin; Lesobre, Jérôme; Delafont, Vincent; Bousseau, Anne; Verdon, Julien; Imbert, Christine

    2015-09-15

    Some infections cases due to exposure to output water from dental unit waterlines (DUWL) have been reported in the literature. However, this type of healthcare-associated risk has remained unclear and up until now the overall bacterial composition of DUWL has been poorly documented. In this study, 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing was used to investigate the bacterial community in seven dental offices (N = 7) and to identify potential bacterial pathogenic sequences. Dental unit waters (DUW) were collected from the tap water supplying units (Incoming Water; IW) to the output exposure point of the turbine handpiece (Output water; OW) following a stagnation period (OWS), and immediately after the last patient of the sampling day (OWA). A high bacterial diversity was revealed in DUW with 394 operational taxonomic units detected at the genus level. In addition to the inter-unit variability observed, results showed increased total bacterial cell concentration and shifts in bacterial community composition and abundance at the genus level, mainly within the Gamma- and Alpha-Proteobacteria class, as water circulated in the dental unit (DU). Results showed that 96.7%, 96.8% and 97.4% of the total sequences from IW, OWS and OWA respectively were common to the 3 defined water groups, thereby highlighting a common core microbiome. Results also suggested that stagnation and DU maintenance practices were critical to composition of the bacterial community. The presence of potentially pathogenic genera was detected, including Pseudomonas and Legionella spp. Emerging and opportunistic pathogenic genera such as Mycobacterium, Propionibacterium and Stenotrophomonas were likewise recovered in DUW. For the first time, an exhaustive evaluation of the bacterial communities present in DUW was performed taking into account the circulation of water within the DU. This study highlights an ignored diversity of the DUWL bacterial community. Our findings also contribute to a better appreciation of the potential infectious risk associated with dental care and suggest the importance of better managing microbial quality in DUW. PMID:26072020

  18. Bacterial dynamics during yearlong spontaneous fermentation for production of ngari, a dry fermented fish product of Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Khunjamayum Romapati; Deka, Manab; Jeyaram, Kumaraswamy

    2015-04-16

    Ngari is the most popular traditionally processed non-salted fish product, prepared from sun-dried small cyprinid fish Puntius sophore (Ham.) in Manipur state of Northeast India. The microbial involvement in ngari production remained uncertain due to its low moisture content and yearlong incubation in anaerobically sealed earthen pots without any significant change in total microbial count. The culture-independent PCR-DGGE analysis used during this study confirmed a drastic bacterial community structural change in comparison to its raw material. To understand the bacterial dynamics during this dry fermentation, time series samples collected over a period of nine months through destructive sampling from two indigenous ngari production centres were analysed by using both culture-dependent and culture-independent molecular methods. A total of 210 bacteria isolated from the samples were identified by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) based grouping and 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity analysis. The dominant bacteria were Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. cohnii (38.0%), Tetragenococcus halophilus subsp. flandriensis (16.8%), a novel phylotype related to Lactobacillus pobuzihii (7.2%), Enterococcus faecium (7.2%), Bacillus indicus (6.3%) and Staphylococcus carnosus (3.8%). Distinct bacterial dynamics with the emergence of T. halophilus at third month (10(6)CFU/g), L. pobuzihii at sixth month (10(6)CFU/g), S. carnosus at three to six months (10(4)CFU/g) and B. indicus at six to nine months (10(5)CFU/g) in both the production centres was observed during ngari fermentation. However, the other two dominant bacteria S. cohnii and E. faecium were isolated throughout the fermentation with the population of 10(6)CFU/g and 10(4)CFU/g respectively. Culture-independent PCR-DGGE analysis further showed the presence of additional species, in which Kocuria halotolerans and Macrococcus caseolyticus disappeared during fermentation while Clostridium irregulare and Azorhizobium caulinodans were detected throughout the fermentation. Principal component analysis showed a drastic bacterial community structural change at the sixth month of fermentation. These identified dominant bacterial cultures of T. halophilus, L. pobuzihii, S. carnosus and B. indicus could be effectively utilised for designing starter culture and optimizing fermentation technology for industrialisation of ngari production. PMID:25637876

  19. Counting and Computing by $e$

    OpenAIRE

    Hassani, Mehdi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we count the number of paths and cycles in complete graphs by using the number $e$. Also, we compute the number of derangements in same way. Connection by $e$ yields some nice formulas for the number of derangements, such as $D_n=\\lfloor\\frac{n!+1}{e}\\rfloor$ and $D_n=\\lfloor(e+e^{-1})n!\\rfloor-\\lfloor en!\\rfloor$, and using these relations allow us to compute some incomplete gamma functions and hypergeometric summations; these connections are hidden in the hea...

  20. Counting closed geodesics in strata

    OpenAIRE

    Eskin, Alex; Mirzakhani, Maryam; Rafi, Kasra

    2012-01-01

    We compute the asymptotic growth rate of the number N(C, R) of closed geodesics of length less than R in a connected component C of a stratum of quadratic differentials. We prove that for any 0 < \\theta < 1, the number of closed geodesics of length at most R that spend at least \\theta-fraction of time outside of a compact subset of C is exponentially smaller than N(C, R). The theorem follows from a lattice counting statement. For points x, y in the moduli space M of Riemann ...

  1. Formation of bacterial nanocells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainshtein, Mikhail; Kudryashova, Ekaterina; Suzina, Natalia; Ariskina, Elena; Voronkov, Vadim

    1998-07-01

    Existence of nanobacteria received increasing attention both in environmental microbiology/geomicro-biology and in medical microbiology. In order to study a production of nanoforms by typical bacterial cells. Effects of different physical factors were investigated. Treatment of bacterial cultures with microwave radiation, or culturing in field of electric current resulted in formation a few types of nanocells. The number and type of nanoforms were determined with type and dose of the treatment. The produced nanoforms were: i) globules, ii) clusters of the globules--probably produced by liaison, iii) nanocells coated with membrane. The viability of the globules is an object opened for doubts. The nanocells discovered multiplication and growth on solidified nutrient media. The authors suggest that formation of nanocells is a common response of bacteria to stress-actions produced by different agents.

  2. Modelling bacterial flagellar growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, M.; Stark, H.

    2011-10-01

    The growth of bacterial flagellar filaments is a self-assembly process where flagellin molecules are transported through the narrow core of the flagellum and are added at the distal end. To model this situation, we generalize a growth process based on the TASEP model by allowing particles to move both forward and backward on the lattice. The bias in the forward and backward jump rates determines the lattice tip speed, which we analyze and also compare to simulations. For positive bias, the system is in a non-equilibrium steady state and exhibits boundary-induced phase transitions. The tip speed is constant. In the no-bias case we find that the length of the lattice grows as N(t)\\propto\\sqrt{t} , whereas for negative drift N(t)~ln t. The latter result agrees with experimental data of bacterial flagellar growth.

  3. Modelling bacterial flagellar growth

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Maximilian; 10.1209/0295-5075/96/28001

    2012-01-01

    The growth of bacterial flagellar filaments is a self-assembly process where flagellin molecules are transported through the narrow core of the flagellum and are added at the distal end. To model this situation, we generalize a growth process based on the TASEP model by allowing particles to move both forward and backward on the lattice. The bias in the forward and backward jump rates determines the lattice tip speed, which we analyze and also compare to simulations. For positive bias, the system is in a non-equilibrium steady state and exhibits boundary-induced phase transitions. The tip speed is constant. In the no-bias case we find that the length of the lattice grows as $N(t)\\propto\\sqrt{t}$, whereas for negative drift $N(t)\\propto\\ln{t}$. The latter result agrees with experimental data of bacterial flagellar growth.

  4. Effect of species, breed, and age on bacterial load in bovine and bubaline semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrahas Sannat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of species, breed and age on bacterial load in fresh and frozen semen of Cattle and Buffalo bull. Materials and Methods: Present study covered 56 cow and 10 buffalo bulls stationed at Central Semen Station Anjora, Durg (Chhattisgarh. Impact of breeds on bacterial load in semen was assessed using six breeds of cattle viz. Sahiwal, Gir, Red Sindhi, Tharparkar, Jersey and Holstein Friesian (HF cross. Cow bulls were categorized into four different groups based on their age ( 6 years to study variation among age groups. Bacterial load was measured in fresh and frozen semen samples from these bulls using the standard plate count (SPC method and count was expressed as colony forming unit (CFU per ml of semen. Results: Higher bacterial load was reported in fresh (2.36 × 104 ± 1943 CFU/ml and frozen (1.00 × 10 ± 90 CFU/ml semen of cow bulls as compared to buffalo bulls (1.95 × 104 ± 2882 and 7.75 × 102 ± 160 CFU/ml in fresh and frozen semen, respectively. Jersey bull showed significantly higher bacterial count (p < 0.05 both in fresh (4.07 × 104 ± 13927 CFU/ ml and frozen (1.92 × 103 ± 178 CFU/ml semen followed by HF cross, Sahiwal, Gir, Red Sindhi and Tharparkar bull. Bulls aged < 4 years and more than 6 years yielded increased bacterial load in their semen. Although a minor variation was reported between species and among age groups, no significant differences were measured. Conclusion: Bacterial load in semen did not differ significantly between species and age groups; however significant variation was reported among different breeds. Bulls of Jersey breed showed significantly higher bacterial load in semen as compared to the crossbred and indigenous bull.

  5. Minimal count level required for quantification of left ventricular function with gated myocardial perfusion tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the minimal count density required for accurate quantification of global and regional function using gated myocardial perfusion tomography and the QGS algorithm. Material and Methods: Ten patients with low likelihood of coronary artery disease were injected with 925MBq of Tc99m labelled tetrofosmin. Imaging was started 60min after tracer administration on a 3-head gamma camera equipped with LEHR collimators. Parameters of acquisition were as follows: 360-degree rotation, 96 projections, 64x64 matrix, 5.79mm pixel size, step-and-shoot, 40s per step and 8 time bins. In order to create test data sets with lower count densities, the original data were redistributed using binomial deviates. For each patient, five different noise realizations were generated for six different noise levels corresponding to 1/2, 1/4, 1/6, 1/8, 1/10 and 1/16 of the original count density. Transverse slices were reconstructed using filtered backprojection (Butterworth filter: cut-off frequency 0.44 cycle/cm, order 5) and reoriented according to the left ventricular long axis using exactly the same angles for each individual patient. End-diastolic volume (EDV), ejection fraction (EF) and regional wall thickening (WT) were automatically calculated with the QGS algorithm. The root-mean-square difference (RMSD) between the five low-count realizations and the original high-count study were calculated for every noise level and evaluated in function of the total myocardial count density measured on the non-gated projections. Results: The total myocardial count density averaged 5.0+/-0.9 million counts in the original high-count studies. Using these original data, EDV, EF and WT averaged 117+/-15ml, 55+/-4% and 34+/-4%, respectively. The RMSD of the EDV, EF and WT increased slightly with decreasing count levels until a total myocardial count density of 1.5 million counts. At that very low count level, RMSD was still below 6 ml for EDV and below 5% for EF and WT, respectively. Lower count levels generated unacceptable RMSD. Conclusion: QGS provides accurate and highly reproducible quantitative measurements of global and regional left ventricular function with gated myocardial perfusion tomographic studies containing as low as 1.5 million counts

  6. Bacterial complement escape.

    OpenAIRE

    Jongerius, I; Ram, S; Rooijakkers, S.

    2009-01-01

    Complement activation is a crucial step in our innate immune defense against invading bacteria. Complement proteins can quickly recognize invading bacteria and subsequently label them for phagocytosis or kill them by direct lysis. In order to survive in the human host, bacterial pathogens have evolved a number of excreted and membrane-bound proteins that interfere with several steps of the complement cascade. In this chapter we summarize the most successful complement-modulating strategies by...

  7. Bacterial proteases and virulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frees, Dorte; Brøndsted, Lone; Ingmer, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens rely on proteolysis for variety of purposes during the infection process. In the cytosol, the main proteolytic players are the conserved Clp and Lon proteases that directly contribute to virulence through the timely degradation of virulence regulators and indirectly by providing tolerance to adverse conditions such as those experienced in the host. In the membrane, HtrA performs similar functions whereas the extracellular proteases, in close contact with host components, pave...

  8. Bacterial degradation of emulsan.

    OpenAIRE

    Shoham, Y.; Rosenberg, M.; Rosenberg, E.

    1983-01-01

    Emulsan is a polyanionic heteropolysaccharide bioemulsifier produced by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1. A mixed bacterial population was obtained by enrichment culture that was capable of degrading emulsan and using it as a carbon source. From this mixed culture, an emulsan-degrading bacterium, termed YUV-1, was isolated. Strain YUV-1 is an aerobic, gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium which grows best in media containing yeast extract. When placed on preformed lawns of A...

  9. Bacterial ratchet motors

    OpenAIRE

    Di Leonardo, R.; L. Angelani; Dell’Arciprete, D.; Ruocco, G.; Iebba, V; Schippa, S.; Conte, M P; Mecarini, F.; F. De Angelis; Di Fabrizio, E.

    2010-01-01

    Self-propelling bacteria are a nanotechnology dream. These unicellular organisms are not just capable of living and reproducing, but they can swim very efficiently, sense the environment, and look for food, all packaged in a body measuring a few microns. Before such perfect machines can be artificially assembled, researchers are beginning to explore new ways to harness bacteria as propelling units for microdevices. Proposed strategies require the careful task of aligning and binding bacterial...

  10. The Rare Bacterial Biosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    All communities are dominated by a few species that account for most of the biomass and carbon cycling. On the other hand, a large number of species are represented by only a few individuals. In the case of bacteria, these rare species were until recently invisible. Owing to their low numbers, conventional molecular techniques could not retrieve them. Isolation in pure culture was the only way to identify some of them, but current culturing techniques are unable to isolate most of the bacteri...

  11. Bacterial intermediate filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbon, Godefroid; Cabeen, M.; Jacobs-Wagner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Crescentin, which is the founding member of a rapidly growing family of bacterial cytoskeletal proteins, was previously proposed to resemble eukaryotic intermediate filament (IF) proteins based on structural prediction and in vitro polymerization properties. Here, we demonstrate that crescentin also shares in vivo properties of assembly and dynamics with IF proteins by forming stable filamentous structures that continuously incorporate subunits along their length and that grow in a nonpolar fash...

  12. Photon Counting 3-D Object Recognition Using Digital Holography

    OpenAIRE

    Latorre Carmona, Pedro; Javidi, Bahram; Pla Bañón, Filiberto; Tajahuerce, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of the recognition performance of 3-D objects reconstructed from digital holograms recorded under photon counting conditions. The digital holograms are computed by applying four-step phase-shifting techniques to interferograms recorded with weak coherent light. Recognition capability is analyzed as a function of the total number of photons by using a maximum-likelihood approach adapted to one-class classification problems. The likelihood is modeled assumi...

  13. Counting people from above: Airborne video based crowd analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Perko, Roland; Schnabel, Thomas; Fritz, Gerald; Almer, Alexander; Paletta, Lucas

    2013-01-01

    Crowd monitoring and analysis in mass events are highly important technologies to support the security of attending persons. Proposed methods based on terrestrial or airborne image/video data often fail in achieving sufficiently accurate results to guarantee a robust service. We present a novel framework for estimating human count, density and motion from video data based on custom tailored object detection techniques, a regression based density estimate and a total variatio...

  14. Whales from Space: Counting Southern Right Whales by Satellite

    OpenAIRE

    Fretwell, Peter T; Staniland, Iain J.; Forcada, Jaume

    2014-01-01

    We describe a method of identifying and counting whales using very high resolution satellite imagery through the example of southern right whales breeding in part of the Golfo Nuevo, Península Valdés in Argentina. Southern right whales have been extensively hunted over the last 300 years and although numbers have recovered from near extinction in the early 20th century, current populations are fragmented and are estimated at only a small fraction of pre-hunting total. Recent extreme right wha...

  15. Somatic cell and factors which affect their count in milk

    OpenAIRE

    Zrinka ?a?i?; Samir Kalit; Neven Antunac; Mato ?a?i?

    2003-01-01

    Milk quality is determined by chemical composition, physical characteristics and hygienic parameters. The main indicators of hygienic quality of milk are total number of microorganisms and somatic cell count (SCC.) Environmental factors have the greatest influence on increasing SCC. The most important environmental parameters are status of udder infection, age of cow, stage of lactation, number of lactation, breed, housing, geographicalarea and seasons, herd size, stress, heavy physical activ...

  16. Coincidence counting of radioactive sodium in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in electrolyte distribution between extracellular and intracellular compartments are difficult to measure since only human blood cells are easily sampled for measurement of intracellular constituents. The human ear cartilage, which is easily accessible, lends itself to the study of such phenomena in vivo. Cartilage has been shown to have high concentrations of cations. The total cation concentration per litre of cartilage water amounts to some 450 mequiv./litre. A dose of 10 ?Ci of 22Na, a positron emitter (physical half-life 2.6 years) was injected intravenously as sterile sodium chloride. Two detectors in coincidence fitted over one ear measured repeatedly the amount of radioactivity passing through the ear for the first few hours and several times daily thereafter. Radioactivity of venous blood samples taken during this time was plotted against the buildup of radioactivity in the ear. Exchangeable sodium was also determined. With this method, we have studied subjects who had no evidence of disturbances of sodium or other electrolytes, patients with compensated and decompensated congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction in normal sodium balance, and patients with hypertension. Patients with a previous myocardial infarction who are now fully compensated clinically, even in the presence of normal cardiac output, have a prolonged effective half-life by coincidence counting over the ear as do patients with hypertension. We believe that coincidence counting of the ear cartilage for positron-emitting radioisotopes has great potential for the study of extracellular and intracellular ion exchange in vivo, particularly in disturbances of sodium metabolism. (author)

  17. Interfering with bacterial gossip.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Biofilm resilience poses major challenges to the development of novel antimicrobial agents. Biofilm bacteria can be considered small groups of “Special Forces” capable of infiltrating the host and destroying important components of the cellular defense system with the aim of crippling the host defense. Antibiotics exhibit a rather limited effect on biofilms. Furthermore, antibiotics have an ‘inherent obsolescence’ because they select for development of resistance. Bacterial infections with origin in bacterial biofilms have become a serious threat in developed countries. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms are thought to be the dominant agent in many chronic infections including those in cystic fibrosis lungs and chronic wounds. With the present day’s awareness of biofilms, the future task is to exploit this knowledge for development and application of antimicrobial intervention strategies that appropriately target bacteria in their relevant habitat with the aim of mitigating their destructive impact on patients. In this review we describe molecular mechanisms involved in “bacterial gossip” (more scientifically referred to as quorum sensing (QS) and c-di-GMP signaling), virulence, biofilm formation, resistance and QS inhibition as future antimicrobial targets, in particular those that would work to minimize selection pressures for the development of resistant bacteria.

  18. The absolute lymphocyte count accurately estimates CD4 counts in HIV-infected adults with virologic suppression and immune reconstitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnaby Young

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The clinical value of monitoring CD4 counts in immune reconstituted, virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients is limited. We investigated if absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC from an automated blood counting machine could accurately estimate CD4 counts. Materials and Methods: CD4 counts, ALC and HIV viral load (VL were extracted from an electronic laboratory database for all patients in HIV care at the Communicable Diseases Centre, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore (2008–13. Virologic suppression was defined as consecutive HIV VLs 300 cells/mm3. CD4 counts were estimated using the CD4% from the first value >300 and an ALC 181–540 days later. Results: A total of 1215 periods of virologic suppression were identified from 1183 patients, with 2227 paired CD4-ALCs available for analysis. 98.3% of CD4 estimates were within 50% of the actual value. 83.3% within 25% and 40.5% within 10%. The error pattern was approximately symmetrically distributed around a mean of ?6.5%, but significant peaked and with mild positive skew (kurtosis 4.45, skewness 1.07. Causes for these errors were explored. Variability between lymphocyte counts measured by ALC and flow cytometry did not follow an apparent pattern, and contributed to 32% of the total error (median absolute error 5.5%, IQR 2.6–9.3. The CD4% estimate was significantly lower than the actual value (t-test, p<0.0001. The magnitude of this difference was greater for lower values, and above 25%, there was no significant difference. Precision of the CD4 estimate was similar as baseline CD4% increased, however accuracy improved significantly: from a median 16% underestimation to 0% as baseline CD4% increased from 12 to 30. Above a CD4% baseline of 25, estimates of CD4 were within 25% of the actual value 90.2% of the time with a median 2% underestimation. A robust (bisqaure linear regression model was developed to correct for the rise in CD4% with time, when baseline was 14–24 (coefficients: intercept=3.30, CD4=0.939. This improved accuracy from 82.0% to 85.4%, and median error from 11% underestimation to 1% (p<0.0001. Adding time since baseline CD4% into the model increased complexity without significantly improving accuracy. Conclusion: In virologically suppressed hosts with CD4 ?300 cells/mm3 and percentage ?14, CD4 counts can be predicted with 85–90% confidence to within 25% of the actual value using the ALC.

  19. Counting efficiency of scintillating gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scintillating gels that are suitable for the counting of insoluble radioact+ve samples, sometimes exhibit in addition a higher scintillation yield than the corresponding liquid scintillators. This property, observable when silica is added into dioxane liquid scintillators, is inherent in some primary solutes (PPO, PBD, butyl-PBD) while not obvious for others (CPO, PFD, BPO, ?NPO). Quenching properties of chlorinated compounds (CHCl3, CCl4) and energy transfer mechanisms are not changed by silica addition. On the other hand, PPO, PBD and butyl-PBD fluorescence quantum yields are markedly increased under these conditions, probably because of the higher viscosity of the samples. Another scintillating gel was prepared by the addition of HP55 (hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose phthalate) into PPO-dioxane liquid scintillator; its scintillation yield is reduced without any change of transfer mechanisms and at the same time PPO fluorescence quantum yield is diminished. A static quenching process by HP55 is likely to occur, which screens the viscosity effect noticed in the presence of Cab-O-Sil. Thus, PPO, PBD and butyl-PBD seem to be the most efficient primary solutes among those studied since they provide gel scintillator giving improved counting efficiency compared to that of liquid scintillator. (author)

  20. Counting efficiencies by liquid scintillation counting. Single isomeric transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we present liquid scintillation counting efficiency tables for several radionuclides with single isomeric transitions, in which electron conversion and gamma emission processes are competitive. We study the radionuclides: 58mCo, 77mSe, 79mBr, 87mSr, S9mY, 93mNb, 103mRh, 107mAg, 109mAg, 113mIn, 131mXe, I33mXe, 135raBa, 137mBa, 167raEr, for two different scintillators, Ultima-Gold and Insta-Gel. We consider volumes of 10 and 15 mL for Ultima Gold, and 15 mL for Insta-Gel. (Author) 18 refs

  1. Polyphasic approach for assessing changes in an autochthonous marine bacterial community in the presence of Prestige fuel oil and its biodegradation potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Nuria [Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Microbiology; IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Vinas, Marc [GIRO Technological Centre, Mollet del Valles (Spain); Guiu-Aragones, Celia; Solanas, Anna M. [Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Microbiology; Bayona, Josep M.; Albaiges, Joan [IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry

    2011-08-15

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to identify key hydrocarbon degraders from a marine oil spill sample (Prestige fuel oil), to ascertain their role in the degradation of different hydrocarbons, and to assess their biodegradation potential for this complex heavy oil. After a 17-month enrichment in weathered fuel, the bacterial community, initially consisting mainly of Methylophaga species, underwent a major selective pressure in favor of obligate hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms, such as Alcanivorax and Marinobacter spp. and other hydrocarbon-degrading taxa (Thalassospira and Alcaligenes), and showed strong biodegradation potential. This ranged from >99% for all low- and medium-molecular-weight alkanes (C{sub 15}-C{sub 27}) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (C{sub 0-} to C{sub 2-} naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene, and carbazole), to 75-98% for higher molecular-weight alkanes (C{sub 28}-C{sub 40}) and to 55-80% for the C{sub 3} derivatives of tricyclic and tetracyclic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (e.g., C{sub 3}-chrysenes), in 60 days. The numbers of total heterotrophs and of n-alkane-, aliphatic-, and PAH degraders, as well as the structures of these populations, were monitored throughout the biodegradation process. The salinity of the counting medium affects the counts of PAH degraders, while the carbon source (n-hexadecane vs. a mixture of aliphatic hydrocarbons) is a key factor when counting aliphatic degraders. These limitations notwithstanding, some bacterial genera associated with hydrocarbon degradation (mainly belonging to {alpha}- and {gamma}-Proteobacteria, including the hydrocarbonoclastic Alcanivorax and Marinobacter) were identified. We conclude that Thalassospira and Roseobacter contribute to the degradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons, whereas Mesorhizobium and Muricauda participate in the degradation of PAHs. (orig.)

  2. Relationship between Somatic Cell Counts, Mastitis and Milk Quality in Ettawah Grade and PESA Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molefe PETLANE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is a bacterial disease that leads to increased somatic cell counts and reduced milk quality in dairy goats. Reduction in quality is manifested through a reduction in fat, protein, lactose content and an increase in milk somatic cell counts and salts content. Thus mastitis affects productivity of animals and hence their economic value. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of somatic cell counts (SCC and mastitis on milk quality in PE and PESA. On-Farm mastitis tests were performed on 38 lactating dairy goats and milk samples were collected from both mastitis positive and healthy animals from which quality parameters were measured using a milko tester while bacterial isolation and enumeration were done following standard protocols. Data was analyzed descriptively and the results showed that somatic cell counts and somatic cell score correlate positively with mastitis (P < 0.05. Lactose and fat content decreased with severity of mastitis in both breeds whereas in PESA protein content increased with mastitis. Salt content increases with mastitis in both breeds. S. aureus was the most isolated bacteria and associated with high SCC whereas E. coli was poorly isolated. The study concludes that mastitis leads to increased SCC and reduced milk quality in dairy goats.

  3. Incidence and Predictors of Bacterial infection in Febrile Children with Sickle Cell Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Benita J; Bycroft, Thomas P; Almossawi, Ofran; Wilkey, Olufunke B; Daniels, Justin G

    2015-10-01

    Children with sickle cell disease are at increased risk of developing bacteremia and other serious bacterial infections. Fever is a common symptom in sickle cell disease and can also occur with sickle cell crises and viral infections. We aimed to evaluate the incidence and predictors of bacteremia and bacterial infection in children with sickle cell disease presenting with fever to a district hospital and sickle cell center in London. A retrospective analysis was performed on all attendances of children (aged under 16 years) with sickle cell disease presenting with a fever of 38.5?°C or higher over a 1-year period. Confirmed bacterial infection was defined as bacteremia, bacterial meningitis, urinary tract infection (UTI), pneumonia, osteomyelitis or other bacterial infection with positive identification of organism. Children were defined as having a suspected bacterial infection if a bacterial infection was suspected clinically, but no organism was identified. Over a 1-year period there were 88 episodes analyzed in 59 children. Bacteremia occurred in 3.4% of episodes and confirmed bacterial infection in 7.0%. Suspected bacterial infection occurred in 33.0%. One death occurred from Salmonella typhirium septicemia. C-reactive protein (CRP) level and white blood cell (WBC) count were both significantly associated with bacterial infection (p?=?0.004 and 0.02, respectively.) In conclusion, bacterial infections continue to be a significant problem in children with sickle cell disease. C-reactive protein was significantly associated with bacterial infections, and could be included in clinical risk criteria for febrile children with sickle cell disease. PMID:26207314

  4. Detection of irradiated chicken and fish meats by the determination of Gram negative bacterial count and bacterial endotoxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this investigation was to study the possibility of detecting irradiated chicken and fish meats by the determination of Gram negative bacteria combined with the determination of endotoxin concentrations. Samples of chicken breast with skin, skinless chicken breast and eviscerated Bolti fish (Tilabia nilotica) were irradiated at room temperature at doses of 0, 1.5 and 3 kGy followed by storage at refrigeration temperature (4 ± 1 degree C) for 12 days or frozen storage at -18 degree C for 60 days. Furthermore, other samples of chicken and Bolti fish were irradiated in the frozen sate at doses of 0, 3, and 7 kGy followed by frozen storage at - 18 degree C for 60 days. Then the enumeration of Gram negative bacteria in conjunction with the determination of endotoxin concentrations were carried out for both irradiated and non-irradiated samples post treatments and during storage in addition to the discovery of Pseudomonas spp. The obtained results showed that chicken and fish samples irradiated at dose of 1.5 kGy could be identified during refrigerated storage for 6 and 9 days, respectively, while all samples irradiated at dose of 3 kGy were identifiable during 12 days of refrigerated storage. Moreover, all irradiated and frozen stored samples were identifiable during their frozen storage (- 18 degree C). The absence of Pseudomonads in all irradiated samples may aid in the differentiation of irradiated and non-irradiated samples especially during refrigerated storage. This method can be applied as a general screening method to predict the possible treatment of chicken and fish meats by ionizing radiation

  5. Putative radioresistant bacterial isolate from sewage water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewage water was collected from a stagnant body of water in Balara, Quezon City. approximately 150 ml was aseptically transferred into eight Erlenmeyer flasks. Seven flasks were then subjected to different doses of radiation at the 60Co irradiation facility, PNRI (Philippine Nuclear Research Institute) which are as follows: 0.01 kGy, 0.1 kGy, 0.5 kGy, 1 kGy, 5 kGy, 10 kGy, and 15 kGy. The remaining flask was used as the control. After irradiation, all the different treatments were subjected to colony count at the culture collection laboratory, NSRI. Results showed that the colonies from sewage water treatments irradiated at 0.01 kGy (treatment A), 0.10 kGy (treatment B), and 0.50 kGy (treatment C) exhibited a decreasing trend with colony counts 4.60 x 103 CFU/ml, and 1.30 x 103 CFU/ml, and 26 CFU/ml, respectively. Contrastingly, at 1 kGy (treatment D), high colony count of 2.95 x 103 CFU/ml was observed which is even higher compared to the control (1.02 x 103 CFU/ml). Treatment E that was irradiated at 5 kGy manifested low survival rate (25 CFU/ml) indicating the presence of few putative intermediate radioresistant bacteria. Radiation dose treatments higher than 5 kGy (i.e., 10 kGy and 15 kGy) exhibited no bacterial survival. (Author)

  6. Photon counting compressive depth mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Gregory A; Lum, Daniel J; Ware, Matthew R; Howell, John C

    2013-10-01

    We demonstrate a compressed sensing, photon counting lidar system based on the single-pixel camera. Our technique recovers both depth and intensity maps from a single under-sampled set of incoherent, linear projections of a scene of interest at ultra-low light levels around 0.5 picowatts. Only two-dimensional reconstructions are required to image a three-dimensional scene. We demonstrate intensity imaging and depth mapping at 256 × 256 pixel transverse resolution with acquisition times as short as 3 seconds. We also show novelty filtering, reconstructing only the difference between two instances of a scene. Finally, we acquire 32 × 32 pixel real-time video for three-dimensional object tracking at 14 frames-per-second. PMID:24104293

  7. Photon counting compressive depth mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Howland, Gregory A; Ware, Matthew R; Howell, John C

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a compressed sensing, photon counting lidar system based on the single-pixel camera. Our technique recovers both depth and intensity maps from a single under-sampled set of incoherent, linear projections of a scene of interest at ultra-low light levels around 0.5 picowatts. Only two-dimensional reconstructions are required to image a three-dimensional scene. We demonstrate intensity imaging and depth mapping at 256 x 256 pixel transverse resolution with acquisition times as short as 3 seconds. We also show novelty filtering, reconstructing only the difference between two instances of a scene. Finally, we acquire 32 x 32 pixel real-time video for three-dimensional object tracking at 14 frames-per-second.

  8. Yoctocalorimetry phonon counting in nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Roukes, M L

    1998-01-01

    It appears feasible with nanostructures to perform calorimetry at the level of individual thermal phonons. Here I outline an approach employing monocrystalline mesoscopic insulators, which can now be patterned from semiconductor heterostructures into complex geometries with full, three- dimensional relief. Successive application of these techniques also enables definition of integrated nanoscale thermal transducers; coupling these to a dc SQUID readout yields the requisite energy sensitivity and temporal resolution with minimal back action. The prospect of phonon counting opens intriguing experimental possibilities with analogies in quantum optics. These include fluctuation-based phonon spectroscopy, phonon shot noise in the energy relaxation of nanoscale systems, and quantum statistical phenomena such as phonon bunching and anticorrelated electron-phonon exchange.

  9. Counting Homomorphisms and Partition Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Grohe, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Homomorphisms between relational structures are not only fundamental mathematical objects, but are also of great importance in an applied computational context. Indeed, constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs), a wide class of algorithmic problems that occur in many different areas of computer science such as artificial intelligence or database theory, may be viewed as asking for homomorphisms between two relational structures [FedVar98]. In a logical setting, homomorphisms may be viewed as witnesses for positive primitive formulae in a relational language. As we shall see, homomorphisms, or more precisely the numbers of homomorphisms between two structures, are also related to a fundamental computational problem of statistical physics. In this article, we are concerned with the complexity of counting homomorphisms from a given structure A to a fixed structure B. Actually, we are mainly interested in a generalisation of this problem to weighted homomorphisms (or partition functions). We almost exclusively focu...

  10. Mass counting of radioactivity samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method and apparatus for concurrently counting a plurality of radioactive samples is claimed. The position sensitive circuitry of a scintillation camera is employed to sort electrical pulses resulting from scintillations according to the geometrical locations of scintillations causing those pulses. A scintillation means, in the form of a scintillating crystal material or a liquid scintillator, is positioned proximate to an array of radioactive samples. Improvement in the accuracy of pulse classification may be obtained by employing collimating means. If a plurality of scintillation crystals are employed to measure the iodine-125 content of samples, a method and means are provided for correcting for variations in crystal light transmission properties, sample volume, and sample container radiation absorption. 2 claims, 7 drawing figures

  11. Radiology of bacterial pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilar, Jose E-mail: vilar_jlu@gva.es; Domingo, Maria Luisa; Soto, Cristina; Cogollos, Jonathan

    2004-08-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is commonly encountered in clinical practice. Radiology plays a prominent role in the evaluation of pneumonia. Chest radiography is the most commonly used imaging tool in pneumonias due to its availability and excellent cost benefit ratio. CT should be used in unresolved cases or when complications of pneumonia are suspected. The main applications of radiology in pneumonia are oriented to detection, characterisation and follow-up, especially regarding complications. The classical classification of pneumonias into lobar and bronchial pneumonia has been abandoned for a more clinical classification. Thus, bacterial pneumonias are typified into three main groups: Community acquired pneumonia (CAD), Aspiration pneumonia and Nosocomial pneumonia (NP).The usual pattern of CAD is that of the previously called lobar pneumonia; an air-space consolidation limited to one lobe or segment. Nevertheless, the radiographic patterns of CAD may be variable and are often related to the causative agent. Aspiration pneumonia generally involves the lower lobes with bilateral multicentric opacities. Nosocomial Pneumonia (NP) occurs in hospitalised patients. The importance of NP is related to its high mortality and, thus, the need to obtain a prompt diagnosis. The role of imaging in NP is limited but decisive. The most valuable information is when the chest radiographs are negative and rule out pneumonia. The radiographic patterns of NP are very variable, most commonly showing diffuse multifocal involvement and pleural effusion. Imaging plays also an important role in the detection and evaluation of complications of bacterial pneumonias. In many of these cases, especially in hospitalised patients, chest CT must be obtained in order to better depict these associate findings.

  12. Radiology of bacterial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacterial pneumonia is commonly encountered in clinical practice. Radiology plays a prominent role in the evaluation of pneumonia. Chest radiography is the most commonly used imaging tool in pneumonias due to its availability and excellent cost benefit ratio. CT should be used in unresolved cases or when complications of pneumonia are suspected. The main applications of radiology in pneumonia are oriented to detection, characterisation and follow-up, especially regarding complications. The classical classification of pneumonias into lobar and bronchial pneumonia has been abandoned for a more clinical classification. Thus, bacterial pneumonias are typified into three main groups: Community acquired pneumonia (CAD), Aspiration pneumonia and Nosocomial pneumonia (NP).The usual pattern of CAD is that of the previously called lobar pneumonia; an air-space consolidation limited to one lobe or segment. Nevertheless, the radiographic patterns of CAD may be variable and are often related to the causative agent. Aspiration pneumonia generally involves the lower lobes with bilateral multicentric opacities. Nosocomial Pneumonia (NP) occurs in hospitalised patients. The importance of NP is related to its high mortality and, thus, the need to obtain a prompt diagnosis. The role of imaging in NP is limited but decisive. The most valuable information is when the chest radiographs are negative and rule out pneumonia. The radiographic patterns of NP are very variable, most commonly showing diffuse multifocal involvement and pleural effusion. Imaging plays also an important role in the detection and evaluation of complications of bacterial pneumonias. In many of these cases, especially in hospitalised patients, chest CT must be obtained in order to better depict these associate findings

  13. Soil Bacterial and Viral Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Edward Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Viruses have been shown to be responsible for considerable bacterial mortality and nutrient cycling in aquatic systems. As yet no detailed studies have been published on the role of viruses in natural soil bacterial communities despite common knowledge that viruses exist in the soil. This thesis sought to address some key questions on the ecology of soil bacterial viruses and their hosts. Disturbance through soil desiccation, nutrient inputs, rhizosphere effects and protozoan predation pressu...

  14. Bacterial mitotic machineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Kenn; MØller-Jensen, Jakob

    2004-01-01

    Here, we review recent progress that yields fundamental new insight into the molecular mechanisms behind plasmid and chromosome segregation in prokaryotic cells. In particular, we describe how prokaryotic actin homologs form mitotic machineries that segregate DNA before cell division. Thus, the ParM protein of plasmid R1 forms F actin-like filaments that separate and move plasmid DNA from mid-cell to the cell poles. Evidence from three different laboratories indicate that the morphogenetic MreB protein may be involved in segregation of the bacterial chromosome.

  15. Epidemiology of bacterial meningitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Fortnum, H M; Davis, A.C.

    1993-01-01

    This 10 year retrospective study of all causes of bacterial meningitis for children resident in Nottingham District Health Authority area reports an annual incidence rate per 100,000 children aged 0-16 years of 16.0 (95% confidence interval 14.0 to 18.1). There was a steady increase in incidence from 9.6/100,000 in 1980 to 24.3/100,000 in 1989. This was mainly due to an increase in the incidence of meningococcal infections in the age group 1 month to 5 years. Incidence rates varied with age b...

  16. [Relationships between atmospheric Sugi (Japanese cedar)-pollen counts and indices of climatic conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenda, Y; Teranishi, H; Kasuya, M; Katoh, T; Taira, H

    1995-08-01

    Atmospheric pollen surveys have been conducted using Durham's standard sampler for 12 years in Toyama Prefecture. The relationships between Sugi (Japanese cedar, Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) pollen and some indices of climatic conditions were analyzed. The results were as follows: 1. Total pollen counts showed a tendency to increase for 12 years, although the variation of the count was relatively large. 2. Significant correlations were found between pollen counts and some indices of the climatic conditions in July of the previous year, such as duration of sunshine, mean daily temperature and daily maximum, as well as minimum temperature. 3. Significant correlation was found between pollen count and duration of sunshine in January and March, and the amount of snowfall in March of the observed year using multiple regression analysis. Pollen counts were shown to be relatively high in years with short sunshine in January and long sunshine and heavy snow in March. PMID:8520050

  17. Very high count rate gamma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent improvements in the electronics that amplify and analyze gamma photon-induced pulses have made it possible for HPGe coaxial detectors to accept input rates of one-million, one-MeV gamma photons-per-second and still provide the spectroscopist with spectra that can be analyzed. Data are presented that illustrate peak area variances and changes in counting uncertainty statistics due to the greatly extended count rate range. Software algorithms are presented that allow gain shift and peak resolution to be adjusted automatically on a sample-by-sample basis. Relationships are developed between integrated count rate and the variances of full energy photon peak area and counting uncertainty when using the real time correction mode of pulse processing. Finally, the results of integrating hardware and software into a system are used to illustrate that quantitative gamma spectroscopy over counting rates of one- to one-million counts-per-second are achievable

  18. A tutorial on count regression and zero-altered count models for longitudinal substance use data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, David C; Baldwin, Scott A; Zheng, Cheng; Gallop, Robert J; Neighbors, Clayton

    2013-03-01

    Critical research questions in the study of addictive behaviors concern how these behaviors change over time: either as the result of intervention or in naturalistic settings. The combination of count outcomes that are often strongly skewed with many zeroes (e.g., days using, number of total drinks, number of drinking consequences) with repeated assessments (e.g., longitudinal follow-up after intervention or daily diary data) present challenges for data analyses. The current article provides a tutorial on methods for analyzing longitudinal substance use data, focusing on Poisson, zero-inflated, and hurdle mixed models, which are types of hierarchical or multilevel models. Two example datasets are used throughout, focusing on drinking-related consequences following an intervention and daily drinking over the past 30 days, respectively. Both datasets as well as R, SAS, Mplus, Stata, and SPSS code showing how to fit the models are available on a supplemental website. PMID:22905895

  19. Heterogeneous counting on filter support media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many investigators in the biomedical research area have used filter paper as the support for radioactive samples. This means that a heterogeneous counting of sample sometimes results. The count rate of a sample on a filter will be affected by positioning, degree of dryness, sample application procedure, the type of filter, and the type of cocktail used. Positioning of the filter (up or down) in the counting vial can cause a variation of 35% or more when counting tritiated samples on filter paper. Samples of varying degrees of dryness when added to the counting cocktail can cause nonreproducible counts if handled improperly. Count rates starting at 2400 CPM initially can become 10,000 CPM in 24 hours for 3H-DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) samples dried on standard cellulose acetate membrane filters. Data on cellulose nitrate filters show a similar trend. Sample application procedures in which the sample is applied to the filter in a small spot or on a large amount of the surface area can cause nonreproducible or very low counting rates. A tritiated DNA sample, when applied topically, gives a count rate of 4,000 CPM. When the sample is spread over the whole filter, 13,400 CPM are obtained with a much better coefficient of variation (5% versus 20%). Adding protein carrier (bovine serum albumin-BSA) to the sample to trap more of the tritiated DNA on the filter during the filtration process causes a serious beta absorption problem. Count rates which are one-fourth the count rate applied to the filter are obtained on calibrated runs. Many of the problems encountered can be alleviated by a proper choice of filter and the use of a liquid scintillation cocktail which dissolves the filter. Filter-Solv has been used to dissolve cellulose nitrate filters and filters which are a combination of cellulose nitrate and cellulose acetate. Count rates obtained for these dissolved samples are very reproducible and highly efficient

  20. The use of the full blood count and differential parameters to assess immune activation levels in asymptomatic, untreated HIV infection

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N, Vanker; H, Ipp.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A feature of HIV/AIDS is chronic immune activation, which results in a number of complications including inflammation-related disorders and blood cytopaenias. Immune activation status is not routinely tested in HIV infection. However, the full blood count (FBC) is a commonly performed te [...] st. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesised that FBC parameters would be significantly different in HIV-infected v. -uninfected individuals, and that some of these parameters would correlate with markers of immune activation (i.e. percentage CD38 expression on CD8+ T cells (%CD38onCD8)) and disease progression (i.e. CD4+ counts) in HIV infection. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study with 83 HIV-infected adults who were antiretroviral therapy-naive and clinically well, and 51 HIV-uninfected adults. The %CD38onCD8 and CD4+ counts were determined by flow cytometry and the FBC was performed on a Siemens ADVIA 2120 system. FBC parameters investigated were total white cell count (WCC), haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, platelet count, absolute neutrophil count, absolute lymphocyte count, and percentage of large unstained cells (%LUCs). RESULTS: Significant differences were found between the HIV-infected and -uninfected groups for total WCC, Hb, neutrophil count, lymphocyte count and %LUCs. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) for the total WCC (5.3±1.3 v. 6.9±2.2; p

  1. Radiation Counting System Software Using Visual Basic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been created a Gamma Radiation Counting System using interface card, which paired with Personal Computer (PC) and operated by the Visual Basic program. The program was set through varied menu selections such as ”Multi Counting” , ”Counting and Record” and ”View Data”. An interface card for data acquisition was formed by using AMD9513 components as a counter and timer which can be programmed. This counting system was tested and used in waste facility in PTNBR and the result is quite good. (author)

  2. Resonance ionization spectroscopy: Counting noble gas atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to describe new work on the counting of noble gas atoms, using lasers for the selective ionization and detectors for counting individual particles (electrons or positive ions). When positive ions are counted, various kinds of mass analyzers (magnetic, quadrupole, or time-of-flight) can be incorporated to provide A selectivity. We show that a variety of interesting and important applications can be made with atom-counting techniques which are both atomic number (Z) and mass number (A) selective. (orig./FKS)

  3. Bacterial and organic matter distribution in the sediments of the Thracian Sea (NE Aegean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymenakou, Paraskevi N.; Fragkioudaki, Glykeria; Tselepides, Anastasios

    2007-10-01

    Recently, black carbon has been introduced as the form of carbon that may be separated from the biologically mediated carbon cycle thereby representing the non-bioavailable fraction of the estimated organic carbon. It has been speculated that the bioavailability of organic matter may be a limiting factor for the presence of active bacteria within the sediments. In order to address this question, marine sediments were collected from the Thracian Sea (Eastern Mediterranean), a complex system impacted by riverine inputs and Black Sea water masses. In addition to counts of total bacteria, we estimated the fraction of active bacteria by using a destaining step to the DAPI staining method. Black carbon was also estimated following the thermal oxidation method in order to determine the fraction of the refractory organic matter. The fraction of black carbon to total organic carbon varied from 16% to 53% indicating that black carbon constitutes a significant pool of sedimentary organic carbon in the Thracian sea. A fraction ranging from 18% to 97% was scored as nucleoid containing cells. We did not record any significant differences in the fraction of nucleoid-containing bacteria among sediment depths ( P<0.05) indicating that there was no accumulation of dead bacterial cells with depth. The same was observed for the fraction of black carbon and bioavailable organic carbon with sediment depth ( P<0.05) indicating that benthic consumers are not the key regulators of the organic matter pool in these sediments but have a minor effect. A possible reason for these observations and for the uncoupling between the active bacterial fraction and the bioavailability of organic matter could be (i) the presence of refractory components in the estimated bioavailable organic matter and (ii) the hydrological and geological complexity of the study area. The North Aegean marginal slopes are highly unstable experiencing frequent seismic events. These events are capable of inducing sediment transport from the upper slopes thus altering the entire sediment profile. On the other hand, the significant correlations that were recorded between nucleoid-containing cells and phytopigments (chlorophyll a, phaeopigments, chloroplastic pigment equivalents) at all sediment depths indicate that bacterial communities respond immediately to the deposited phytodetritus, using it as a primary source of carbon and energy. Our data suggests that the Thracian Sea sediments are by no means homogeneous and can best be described as a mosaic controlled by numerous local and regional environmental factors.

  4. Bacterial proteases and virulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frees, Dorte; BrØndsted, Lone

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens rely on proteolysis for variety of purposes during the infection process. In the cytosol, the main proteolytic players are the conserved Clp and Lon proteases that directly contribute to virulence through the timely degradation of virulence regulators and indirectly by providing tolerance to adverse conditions such as those experienced in the host. In the membrane, HtrA performs similar functions whereas the extracellular proteases, in close contact with host components, pave the way for spreading infections by degrading host matrix components or interfering with host cell signalling to short-circuit host cell processes. Common to both intra- and extracellular proteases is the tight control of their proteolytic activities. In general, substrate recognition by the intracellular proteases is highly selective which is, in part, attributed to the chaperone activity associated with the proteases either encoded within the same polypeptide or on separate subunits. In contrast, substrate recognition by extracellular proteases is less selective and therefore these enzymes are generally expressed as zymogens to prevent premature proteolytic activity that would be detrimental to the cell. These extracellular proteases are activated in complex cascades involving auto-processing and proteolytic maturation. Thus, proteolysis has been adopted by bacterial pathogens at multiple levels to ensure the success of the pathogen in contact with the human host.

  5. Diagnosis of bacterial infection

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    T H, Boyles; S, Wasserman.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate diagnosis of bacterial infection is crucial to avoid unnecessary antibiotic use and to focus appropriate therapy. Bacterial infection is the combination of the presence of bacteria and inflammation or systemic dysfunction; therefore, more than one diagnostic modality is usually required for [...] confirmation. History and examination to determine if a patient fits a clinical case definition is sometimes adequate to confirm or exclude a diagnosis. The second stage is bedside tests - some are used widely, such as urine dipstick tests, but others, such as skin scrapings of petechial rashes, are underutilised. The third stage is laboratory tests - indirect non-culture-based tests, including C-reactive protein and procalcitonin tests, when negative, can be used to prevent the unnecessary use of antibiotics. Direct non-culture-based tests detect antigens or specific antibodies, e.g. group A streptococcal antigen testing can be employed to reduce antibiotic use. Culture-based tests are often considered the reference standard in modern microbiology. Because of slow turnaround times, these tests are frequently used to focus or stop antibiotic therapy after empiric initiation. Nucleic acid amplification tests raise the possibility of detecting organisms with high sensitivity, specificity and reduced turnaround time, and novel diagnostic modalities relying on nanotechnology and mass spectrometry may dramatically alter the practice of microbiology in future.

  6. Bacterial trapping in shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Roberto; Guasto, Jeffrey S.; Stocker, Roman

    2012-11-01

    Bacteria are ubiquitously exposed to flow, both in natural environments and artificial devices (e.g., catheters), where confining surfaces create non-uniform shear. While the effects of shear on passive particles are well understood, little is known about the consequences of shear on motile bacteria. We exposed bacteria having different motility strategies (e.g., run-and-tumble, run-and-reverse) to microfluidic Poiseuille flows and quantified the swimming kinematics and cell distribution in the channel using video-microscopy. We discovered that the coupling of motility and a spatially varying shear results in a dramatic trapping of motile cells in high-shear regions, and conversely a strong depletion in the low-shear portion of the channel. We demonstrate experimentally that this trapping process is robust across species such as Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and can have far-reaching consequences on bacterial transport, by (i) counteracting bacterial chemotactic responses; and (ii) enhancing surface attachment and thus biofilm formation by trapping cells near walls. More generally, this work shows that-despite the low Reynolds number-the coupling of flow and self-propulsion can be nonlinear and not simply a superposition of the two effects.

  7. Intermittent fasting promotes bacterial clearance and intestinal IgA production in Salmonella typhimurium-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godínez-Victoria, M; Campos-Rodriguez, R; Rivera-Aguilar, V; Lara-Padilla, E; Pacheco-Yepez, J; Jarillo-Luna, R A; Drago-Serrano, M E

    2014-05-01

    The impact of intermittent fasting versus ad libitum feeding during Salmonella typhimurium infection was evaluated in terms of duodenum IgA levels, bacterial clearance and intestinal and extra-intestinal infection susceptibility. Mice that were intermittently fasted for 12 weeks or fed ad libitum were infected with S. typhimurium and assessed at 7 and 14 days post-infection. Next, we evaluated bacterial load in the faeces, Peyer's patches, spleen and liver by plate counting, as well as total and specific intestinal IgA and plasmatic corticosterone levels (by immunoenzymatic assay) and lamina propria IgA levels in plasma cells (by cytofluorometry). Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, ?- and J-chains, Pax-5 factor, pro-inflammatory cytokine (tumour necrosis factor-? and interferon-?) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (transforming growth factor-?) mRNA levels were assessed in mucosal and liver samples (by real-time PCR). Compared with the infected ad libitum mice, the intermittently fasted infected animals had (1) lower intestinal and systemic bacterial loads; (2) higher SIgA and IgA plasma cell levels; (3) higher mRNA expression of most intestinal parameters; and (4) increased or decreased corticosterone levels on day 7 and 14 post-infection, respectively. No contribution of liver IgA was observed at the intestinal level. Apparently, the changes following metabolic stress induced by intermittent fasting during food deprivation days increased the resistance to S. typhimurium infection by triggering intestinal IgA production and presumably, pathogen elimination by phagocytic inflammatory cells. PMID:24612255

  8. Constituent rearrangement diagrams, quark counting and duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, some basic problems of two body hadron reactions are discussed. Many features of hadron reactions can be attributed to the patterns of constituent rearrangement diagram (CRD). A simple explanation of the ratio of the total cross sections of meson-baryon and baryon-baryon collision by the quark counting can be considered as indication that a meson and a baryon are composite systems of the quark = antiquark and three quark, respectively. The countable nature of constituents is described in terms of CRD. CRD manifests not only flavor symmetry but also the dynamical aspects of hadron reactions. A two-body hadron reaction is described by the amplitude which is given by a sum of the constituent (quark) rearrangement amplitude, each of which corresponds to a CRD. Each CRD can be specified by either of rearranged quark numbers or pair quark numbers. Each quark line of CRD corresponds to a contraction of superscripts and subscript of two different tensors with flavor indices. An assumption, spectator assumption, was introduced to study a spin or helicity in hadron reactions. From this assumption, many relationships are obtained. The most of relationships are satisfied by experimental data, and the S- channel helicities are conserved well in the diffraction process. The concept of duality which is one of the important characteristics of hadron reactions is conceived in the CRD. Discussions of this problem is given at the last part of this paper. (Kato, T

  9. Association of weight and breed type with adjusted 40K count and certain indices of carcass composition in beef steers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four phantoms weighing 500, 700, 900 and 1100 pounds were developed to determine the influence of body mass on whole-body counting efficiency. Counting efficiency was observed to decrease as phantom weight increased from 500 to 1100 pounds. Standard source counting efficiency accounted for greater than 98 percent of the variation in phantom counting efficiency. Two counts, obtained on the same animal on the same day were determined to be highly repeatable. Significant breed type and weight group differences were found for adjusted count. Linear like trends were observed for the relationships between count data and weight. Adjusted count was more strongly associated with composition than was weight, on a within slaughter weight basis. Within weight group standard errors for fat-free lean and total body fat were generally less when using adjusted count as the independent variable than when using weight, regardless of breed type. A combination of both variables generally provided the most precise estimates of composition. Across weight regression resulted in empty body weight accounting for a larger proportion of the variation in composition than accounted for by adjusted count. A significant reduction in the across weight standard errors of estimate was noted when both adjusted count and weight were fitted to the model. Significant breed type and weight group effects were noted for carcass measurements and carcass composition

  10. Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein cannot differentiate bacterial or viral infection in COPD exacerbation requiring emergency department visits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang CH

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chih-Hao Chang,1 Kuo-Chien Tsao,2,3 Han-Chung Hu,1,4 Chung-Chi Huang,1,4 Kuo-Chin Kao,1,4 Ning-Hung Chen,1,4 Cheng-Ta Yang,1,4 Ying-Huang Tsai,4,5 Meng-Jer Hsieh4,51Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Linkou Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang-Gung Medical Foundation, Chang-Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 2Department of Laboratory Medicine, Linkou Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang-Gung Medical Foundation; 3Department of Medical Biotechnology and Laboratory Science, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 4Department of Respiratory Therapy, Chang-Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 5Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Chiayi Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang-Gung Medical Foundation, Puzi City, TaiwanBackground: Viral and bacterial infections are the most common causes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD exacerbations. Whether serum inflammatory markers can differentiate bacterial from virus infection in patients with COPD exacerbation requiring emergency department (ED visits remains controversial.Methods: Viral culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were used to identify the viruses in the oropharynx of patients with COPD exacerbations. The bacteria were identified by the semiquantitative culture of the expectorated sputum. The peripheral blood white blood cell (WBC counts, serum C-reactive protein (CRP, procalcitonin (PCT, and clinical symptoms were compared among patients with different types of infections.Results: Viruses were isolated from 16 (22.2% of the 72 patients enrolled. The most commonly identified viruses were parainfluenza type 3, influenza A, and rhinovirus. A total of 30 (41.7% patients had positive bacterial cultures, with the most commonly found bacteria being Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae. Five patients (6.9% had both positive sputum cultures and virus identification. The WBC, CRP, and PCT levels of the bacteria-positive and bacteria-negative groups were not statistically different. Multivariate analysis showed that patients with increased sputum volumes during the COPD exacerbations had higher risks of recurrent exacerbations in the 1-year period following the first exacerbation.Conclusion: WBC, CRP, or PCT could not differentiate between bacterial and viral infections in patients with COPD exacerbation requiring ED visits. Those with increased sputum during a COPD exacerbation had higher risks for recurrent exacerbations.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bacterial infection, virus, CRP

  11. Microbial counts of food contact surfaces at schools depending on a feeding scheme

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nthabiseng, Nhlapo; Ryk J.F., Lues; Willem H., Groenewald.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The prominence of disease transmission between individuals in confined environments is a concern, particularly in the educational environment. With respect to school feeding schemes, food contact surfaces have been shown to be potential vehicles of foodborne pathogens. The aim of this study was to a [...] ssess the cleanliness of the surfaces that come into contact with food that is provided to children through the National School Nutrition Programme in central South Africa. In each school under study, microbiological samples were collected from the preparation surface and the dominant hand and apron of the food handler. The samples were analysed for total viable counts, coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and yeasts and moulds. The criteria specified in the British Columbia Guide for Environmental Health Officers were used to evaluate the results. Total viable counts were high for all surfaces, with the majority of colonies being too numerous to count (over 100 colonies per plate). Counts of organisms were relatively low, with 20% of the surfaces producing unsatisfactory enumeration of S. aureus and E. coli and 30% unsatisfactory for coliforms. Yeast and mould produced 50% and 60% unsatisfactory counts from preparation surfaces and aprons, respectively. Statistically significant differences could not be established amongst microbial counts of the surfaces, which suggests cross-contamination may have occurred. Contamination may be attributed to foodstuffs and animals in the vicinity of the preparation area rather than to the food handlers, because hands had the lowest counts of enumerated organisms amongst the analysed surfaces.

  12. Contagem bacteriana da superfície de tetas de vacas submetidas a diferentes processos de higienização, incluindo a ordenha manual com participação do bezerro para estimular a descida do leite / Bacterial counts on the surface of the teats of cows milked under different methods of udder preparation, including cows milked by hand and stimulated by suckling a calf

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Renaldi Feitosa, Brito; Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva e, Brito; Rui da Silva, Verneque.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available A pele da teta é uma das principais fontes de contaminação microbiana do leite cru, além de ser uma fonte de infecção da glândula mamária. Este estudo comparou diferentes métodos de preparação do úbere, incluindo a participação do bezerro para estimular a descida do leite, em relação à contaminação [...] microbiana da pele da teta. Um experimento com 36 vacas ordenhadas mecanicamente foi conduzido para comparar três procedimentos (A, B, C) de preparação do úbere. Duas tetas de cada vaca foram amostradas para contagem total de bactérias (CTB) e de coliformes, antes e após lavagem com água e secagem com papel toalha descartável (A); procedimento A, mais imersão das tetas em solução de iodo (4.000ppm) e secagem com papel toalha descartável (B); higienização com toalha de papel embebida em solução desinfetante contendo clorexidina (C). O segundo experimento incluiu 16 vacas ordenhadas manualmente, na presença do bezerro. Permitiu-se a cada bezerro mamar as quatro tetas por alguns segundos, de acordo com o manejo do rebanho. Amostras para bacteriologia de duas tetas de cada vaca foram coletadas, antes, após a mamada do bezerro, e após higienização semelhante ao procedimento C, citado acima. Os tratamentos foram analisados usando-se o teste não- paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis, considerando-se os dados de tCTB após o uso de um dos métodos de preparação do úbere ou da mamada do bezerro. Usou-se a transformação das contagens bacterianas para a escala logarítmica em base 10, com a fórmula tCTB=log10(CTB+0,5). Para os grupos A, B e C (primeiro experimento), os valores médios de diminuição de tCTB foram 1,8, 2,2 e 2,4, respectivamente. No segundo experimento, as CTB's aumentaram significativamente (P Abstract in english The teat skin is one of the main sources of microbial contamination of raw milk as well as a source of mastitis infection. This study assessed the microbial load of the teat skin following the application of the different practices for preparing the udder, including the use of calf suckling to stimu [...] late the letdown of milk. Thirty-six cows milked by machine were included in one experiment. Two teats of each cow were sampled for bacteriology before and after using one of three methods of udder preparation, as follows: rinsing with water and drying with single paper towels (A); method A plus pre-dipping with an iodine teat dip (4,000ppm) and drying with single paper towels (B); wiping teats using a commercial wet non-woven wipe pre-soaked with a solution containing chlorexidine (C). The second experiment included 16 cows milked by hand. The calf of each cow was allowed to suck the four teats for a few seconds, and then two teats per cow were sampled for bacteriology. Samples were collected before, after calf sucking and following teat pre-milking treatment (as for group C, above). Statistical analysis was conducted on transformed (log10) data with tTBC=log10(TBC+0.5) using a Kruskal-Wallis test. Each treatment was analysed considering the difference in tTBC after the use of either method of preparation of the udder or calf sucking. For groups A, B and C (first experiment), tTBC values were reduced 1.8, 2.2 and 2.4, respectively. In the second experiment, tTBC increased significantly (P

  13. Metal ion levels and lymphocyte counts : ASR hip resurfacing prosthesis vs. standard THA: 2-year results from a randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Ø; Varmarken, Jens-Erik

    2013-01-01

    Wear particles from metal-on-metal arthroplasties are under suspicion for adverse effects both locally and systemically, and the DePuy ASR Hip Resurfacing System (RHA) has above-average failure rates. We compared lymphocyte counts in RHA and total hip arthroplasty (THA) and investigated whether cobalt and chromium ions affected the lymphocyte counts.

  14. Pseudoalteromonas spp. Serve as Initial Bacterial Attractants in Mesocosms of Coastal Waters but Have Subsequent Antifouling Capacity in Mesocosms and when Embedded in Paint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine if the monoculture antifouling effect of several pigmented pseudoalteromonads was retained in in vitro mesocosm systems using natural coastal seawater and when the bacteria were embedded in paint used on surfaces submerged in coastal waters. Pseudoalteromonas piscicida survived on a steel surface and retained antifouling activity for at least 53 days in sterile seawater, whereas P. tunicata survived and had antifouling activity for only 1 week. However, during the first week, all Pseudoalteromonas strains facilitated rather than prevented bacterial attachment when used to coat stainless steel surfaces and submerged in mesocosms with natural seawater. The bacterial density on surfaces coated with sterile growth medium was 105 cells/cm2 after 7 days, whereas counts on surfaces precoated with Pseudoalteromonas were significantly higher, at 106 to 108 cells/cm2. However, after 53 days, seven of eight Pseudoalteromonas strains had reduced total bacterial adhesion compared to the control. P. piscicida, P. antarctica, and P. ulvae remained on the surface, at levels similar to those in the initial coating, whereas P. tunicata could not be detected. Larger fouling organisms were observed on all plates precoated with Pseudoalteromonas; however, plates coated only with sterile growth medium were dominated by a bacterial biofilm. Suspensions of a P. piscicida strain and a P. tunicata strain were incorporated into ship paints (Hempasil x3 87500 and Hempasil 77500) used on plates that were placed at the Hempel A/S test site in Jyllinge Harbor. For the first 4 months, no differences were observed between control plates and treated plates, but after 5 to 6 months, the control plates were more fouled than the plates with pseudoalteromonad-based paint. Our study demonstrates that no single laboratory assay can predict antifouling effects and that a combination of laboratory and real-life methods must be used to determine the potential antifouling capability of new agents or organisms.

  15. Comparative microbial sampling from eutrophic caves in Slovenia and Slovakia using RIDA®COUNT test kits

    OpenAIRE

    Mulec Janez; Krišt?fek Václav; Chro?áková Alica

    2012-01-01

    RIDA®COUNT test plates were used as an easy-to-handle and rapid indicator of microbial counts in karst ecosystems of several caves in Slovakia and Slovenia. All of the caves had a high organic input from water streams, tourists, roosting bat colonies or terrestrial surroundings. We sampled swabs, water and air samples to test robustness and universality of the RIDA®COUNT test kit (R-Biopharm AG, Germany, http://www.r-biopharm.com/) for quantification of total bacteria, coliforms, yeast and mo...

  16. The Calar Alto Deep Imaging Survey: K-band Galaxy Number Counts

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, J.-S.; Thompson, D.; Kümmel, M. W.; Meisenheimer, K; de Wolf, C.; S. V. W. Beckwith; Fockenbrock, J. W. Fried R.; Hippelein, H.; von Kuhlmann, B; Phleps, S.; Röser, H. -J.; Thommes, E.

    2001-01-01

    We present K-band number counts for the faint galaxies in the Calar Alto Deep Imaging Survey (CADIS). We covered 4 CADIS fields, a total area of 0.2deg^2, in the broad band filters B, R and K. We detect about 4000 galaxies in the K-band images, with a completeness limit of K=19.75mag, and derive the K-band galaxy number counts in the range of 14.25 < K < 19.75mag. This is the largest medium deep K-band survey to date in this magnitude range. The B- and R-band number counts a...

  17. Combined effect of ?-irradiation and bacterial-fermented dextrose on microbiological quality of refrigerated pork sausages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a concentrated fermented dextrose (FD), a natural antimicrobial product, combined with low dose ?-irradiation (1.5 kGy) on the microbiological quality of fresh pork sausages. Fresh pork sausages containing the FD (0.25%, 0.5% and 0.75%) were prepared in a meat pilot plant and were irradiated using a UC-15A irradiator equipped with a 60Cobalt source. The ?-irradiation treatment alone was able to reduce the initial psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria by more than 2 log CFU/g and kept the lactobacillus population under the detection limit (100 CFU/g). Results also showed that the FD alone was able to extend the shelf life of the sausages from 5 days up to 13 days. At day 13, the FD or irradiation alone showed 2 log CFU/g less mesophilic bacteria than the control. After combining FD and irradiation another reduction of the microbial count of 1 log CFU/g was observed. When combining the irradiation treatment with the FD results it showed a reduced growth rate of the psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria compared to both treatments alone. This study demonstrated that FD with low dose gamma irradiation act in synergy to reduce the multiplication of the total bacterial flora in fresh sausages. - Highlights: ? A fermented dextrose (FD) with ?-irradiation in pork sausages was investigated. ? Pork sausages containing the FD were prepared and then irradiated. ? Combined treatment reduced the bacterial growth compared to the treatments alone. ? Combined treatment increased the shelf-life compared to both treatments alone.

  18. Evaluation of the ultrasonic method for solubilizing Daphnia magna before liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adult Daphnia magna were exposed to 14C-labeled phenol and tissues analyzed for 14C uptake by three methods: (1) tissue solubilizer, (2) tissue solubilizer plus sonication, and (3) sonication alone. Analysis by liquid scintillation counting revealed that measurements of total activity among treatments were not significantly different (? ? 0.10) at two count levels. Sonicated samples showed less variation than tissue samples that were solubilized. 5 references, 1 table

  19. Use of a LaserCyte® for the complete blood count in dogs with oncohematological disorders

    OpenAIRE

    A. Gavazza; G. Lubas; D. Maccari; M. Bizzeti; B. Gugliucci; Giorgi, M.

    2013-01-01

    The reliability of complete blood counts (CBC) obtained by LaserCyte® were evaluated in 41 dogs affected by malignant lymphoma (29 cases), leukemia (8 cases) and miscellaneous blood disorders (4 cases). A total of 89 CBCs were performed. Different degrees of anemia, leukocytosis, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia or thrombocytosis were detected. Results provided from LaserCyte® were compared with those from HeCo VET C® impedance cell counter, manual leukocyte differential counts and reticulocyt...

  20. Management Factors Influencing Milk Somatic Cell Count and Udder Infection Rate in Smallholder Dairy Cow Herds in Southern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Wredle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate management factors influencing milk Somatic Cell Count (SCC and udder infection rate in lactating cows housed at smallholder farms in Southern Vietnam. In total 115 lactating cows at 20 farms were included in the study. Management and milking routines were registered and quarter milk samples were taken for analysis of SCC and bacterial species. Watering routine was found to significantly influence herd milk SCC (p = 0.008 and the method of teat cup cleaning showed a tendency to influence herd milk SCC (p = 0.078. Streptococcus agalactiae was the most common bacteria species in all management groups. Cleaning teat cups with detergent at every milking was a routine observed to be associated with lower infection rate of Streptococcus agalactiae. The results of this study show the presence of several in-adequate management and hygienic practices associated with high SCC which if improved could lead to improved udder health and subsequently higher milk yield.

  1. Systematic effects in neutron coincidence and multiplicity counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Louise G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Favorite, Jeffrey A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Correlated neutron counting, including neutron coincidence and multiplicity counting, is an important tool in nuclear material accountancy verification. The accuracy of such measurements is of interest to the safeguards community because as the accuracy of NDA improves, the number of samples that are required to undergo destructive analysis (DA) decreases. The accuracy of a neutron mUltiplicity measurement can be affected by a number of variables. Monte Carlo neutron transport simulations with MCNPX have been performed to understand how the properties of the sample affect the count rate. These resultant count rates have been analyzed with the 'point model' in order to determine the effect on the deduced plutonium mass. The sample properties that have been investigated are density, sample position within the detector cavity, moisture content, isotopic composition, plutonium to total actinide ratio and heavy metal fraction. These parameters affect the Singles, Doubles and Triples count rates in different ways. In addition, different analysis methods use these measured quantities in different combinations, so that the final sensitivity of the {sup 240}Pu mass to each parameter also depends on the analysis method used. For example, the passive calibration curve method only used the Doubles rate to produce the {sup 240}Pu mass and so is not sensitive to changes in the Singles rate (to first order). The analysis methods considered here were passive calibration curve (non-multiplication corrected), known alpha (multiplication corrected) and multiplicity with known efficiency. The effects were studied on both a small mass MOX sample (1 g Pu) and a large MOX sample (6000 g Pu) both measured in high efficiency neutron multiplicity counters. In order to determine the final effect of each parameter it is necessary to know not only the sensitivity of the plutonium mass to that parameter, but also the range over which the parameter can realistically vary. Some estimates are given.

  2. Uncertainties in 4??–? coincidence counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, R.; Bailat, C.; Bobin, C.; Keightley, J. D.

    2015-06-01

    The 4??–? coincidence counting method and its close relatives are widely used for the primary standardization of radioactivity. Both the general formalism and specific implementation of these methods have been well-documented. In particular, previous papers contain the extrapolation equations used for various decay schemes, methods for determining model parameters and, in some cases, tabulated uncertainty budgets. Two things often lacking from experimental reports are both the rationale for estimating uncertainties in a specific way and the details of exactly how a specific component of uncertainty was estimated. Furthermore, correlations among the components of uncertainty are rarely mentioned. To fill in these gaps, the present article shares the best-practices from a few practitioners of this craft. We explain and demonstrate with examples of how these approaches can be used to estimate the uncertainty of the reported massic activity. We describe uncertainties due to measurement variability, extrapolation functions, dead-time and resolving-time effects, gravimetric links, and nuclear and atomic data. Most importantly, a thorough understanding of the measurement system and its response to the decay under study can be used to derive a robust estimate of the measurement uncertainty.

  3. Counting pairs of faint galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Woods, D; Richer, H B; Woods, David; Fahlman, Gregory G; Richer, Harvey B

    1995-01-01

    The number of close pairs of galaxies observed to faint magnitude limits, when compared to nearby samples, determines the interaction or merger rate as a function of redshift. The prevalence of mergers at intermediate redshifts is fundamental to understanding how galaxies evolve and the relative population of galaxy types. Mergers have been used to explain the excess of galaxies in faint blue counts above the numbers expected from no-evolution models. Using deep CFHT (I\\leq24) imaging of a ``blank'' field we find a pair fraction which is consistent with the galaxies in our sample being randomly distributed with no significant excess of ``physical'' close pairs. This is contrary to the pair fraction of 34\\%\\pm9\\% found by Burkey {\\it et al.} for similar magnitude limits and using an identical approach to the pair analysis. Various reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. Colors and morphologies of our close pairs are consistent with the bulk of them being random superpositions although, as indicators of int...

  4. Two-photon-counting interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitier, Fabien; Godard, Antoine; Dubreuil, Nicolas; Delaye, Philippe; Fabre, Claude; Rosencher, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Two-photon-counting interferometry has been realized by measuring the electrical current due to two-photon absorption in the space-charge layer of a semiconductor detector located at the output port of an interferometer. We apply this technique to study the correlation properties of twin beams issued from parametric fluorescence. We describe in detail how the different second-order correlation functions (interbeam, intrabeam) can be extracted at the femtosecond time scale from raw data. The values of these correlation functions determined by our experiments are in excellent agreement with theory. More precisely, extrabunching in twin beams is unambiguously demonstrated and theoretically described using two models: a comprehensive multimode quantum optics model and a simpler classical stochastic approach. Given the high brightness of our twin-beam source, both theories yield similar results. Finally, convenient analytical expressions of the correlation functions were derived from both theories, expressions in which we have been able to relate specific terms to accidental and exact coincidences between photons. Two-photon interferometry thus determines to which extent twin photons are twin. This technique should become a useful tool for future quantum optics developments.

  5. Diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in infants and children with chronic liver disease: A cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Latif Zainab

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP is a serious complication in infants and children with chronic liver disease (CLD; however its diagnosis might be difficult. We aimed to study the feasibility of diagnosing SBP by routine ascitic fluid tapping in infants and children with CLD. Methods We enrolled thirty infants and children with biopsy-proven CLD and ascites. Ascitic fluid was examined for biochemical indices, cytology and cell count. Aerobic and anaerobic bacteriological cultures of ascitic fluid were preformed. Direct smears were prepared from ascitic fluid deposit for Gram and Zheil-Nelson staining. Results Patients were divided into three groups: Group I included five patients with SBP in which the cell count was ? 250/mm3 and culture was positive (16.7%, Group II, eight patients with culture negative neutrocytic ascites (CNNA with cells ? 250/mm3 and negative culture (26.7% and Group III, seventeen negative patients (56.6% in which cells were 3 and culture was negative. None of our patients had bacteriascites (i.e. culture positive with cells 3. Presence of fever was significantly higher in SBP and CNNA. The mean lactate dehydrogenase (LDH level was significantly higher in ascitic fluid in the infected versus sterile cases (p Conclusions SBP is a rather common complication in children with CLD. Culture of the ascitic fluid is not always diagnostic of infection. Biochemical parameters of the ascitic fluid definitely add to the diagnostic accuracy. LDH ascitic/serum ratio ? 0.5, an arterial-ascitic pH gradient ? 0.1 and total ascitic fluid protein ? 1 gm/dl are the most significant parameters suggesting infection.

  6. Total body water and total body potassium in anorexia nervosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the ill hospitalized patient with clinically relevant malnutrition, there is a measurable decrease in the ratio of the total body potassium to total body water (TBK/TBW) and a detectable increase in the ratio of total exchangeable sodium to total exchangeable potassium (Nae/Ke). To evaluate body composition analyses in anorexia nervosa patients with chronic uncomplicated semistarvation, TBK and TBW were measured by whole body K40 counting and deuterium oxide dilution in 10 females with stable anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched female controls. The ratio of TBK/TBW was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in anorexia nervosa patients than controls. The close inverse correlation found in published studies between TBK/TBW and Nae/Ke together with our results suggest that in anorexia nervosa, Nae/Ke may be low or normal. A decreased TBK/TBW is not a good indicator of malnutrition in the anorexia nervosa patient. The use of a decreased TBK/TBW ratio or an elevated Nae/Ke ratio as a definition of malnutrition may result in inappropriate nutritional management in the patient with severe nonstressed chronic semistarvation

  7. Total body water and total body potassium in anorexia nervosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dempsey, D.T.; Crosby, L.O.; Lusk, E.; Oberlander, J.L.; Pertschuk, M.J.; Mullen, J.L.

    1984-08-01

    In the ill hospitalized patient with clinically relevant malnutrition, there is a measurable decrease in the ratio of the total body potassium to total body water (TBK/TBW) and a detectable increase in the ratio of total exchangeable sodium to total exchangeable potassium (Nae/Ke). To evaluate body composition analyses in anorexia nervosa patients with chronic uncomplicated semistarvation, TBK and TBW were measured by whole body K40 counting and deuterium oxide dilution in 10 females with stable anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched female controls. The ratio of TBK/TBW was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in anorexia nervosa patients than controls. The close inverse correlation found in published studies between TBK/TBW and Nae/Ke together with our results suggest that in anorexia nervosa, Nae/Ke may be low or normal. A decreased TBK/TBW is not a good indicator of malnutrition in the anorexia nervosa patient. The use of a decreased TBK/TBW ratio or an elevated Nae/Ke ratio as a definition of malnutrition may result in inappropriate nutritional management in the patient with severe nonstressed chronic semistarvation.

  8. Contagem bacteriana da superfície de tetas de vacas submetidas a diferentes processos de higienização, incluindo a ordenha manual com participação do bezerro para estimular a descida do leite Bacterial counts on the surface of the teats of cows milked under different methods of udder preparation, including cows milked by hand and stimulated by suckling a calf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renaldi Feitosa Brito

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available A pele da teta é uma das principais fontes de contaminação microbiana do leite cru, além de ser uma fonte de infecção da glândula mamária. Este estudo comparou diferentes métodos de preparação do úbere, incluindo a participação do bezerro para estimular a descida do leite, em relação à contaminação microbiana da pele da teta. Um experimento com 36 vacas ordenhadas mecanicamente foi conduzido para comparar três procedimentos (A, B, C de preparação do úbere. Duas tetas de cada vaca foram amostradas para contagem total de bactérias (CTB e de coliformes, antes e após lavagem com água e secagem com papel toalha descartável (A; procedimento A, mais imersão das tetas em solução de iodo (4.000ppm e secagem com papel toalha descartável (B; higienização com toalha de papel embebida em solução desinfetante contendo clorexidina (C. O segundo experimento incluiu 16 vacas ordenhadas manualmente, na presença do bezerro. Permitiu-se a cada bezerro mamar as quatro tetas por alguns segundos, de acordo com o manejo do rebanho. Amostras para bacteriologia de duas tetas de cada vaca foram coletadas, antes, após a mamada do bezerro, e após higienização semelhante ao procedimento C, citado acima. Os tratamentos foram analisados usando-se o teste não- paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis, considerando-se os dados de tCTB após o uso de um dos métodos de preparação do úbere ou da mamada do bezerro. Usou-se a transformação das contagens bacterianas para a escala logarítmica em base 10, com a fórmula tCTB=log10(CTB+0,5. Para os grupos A, B e C (primeiro experimento, os valores médios de diminuição de tCTB foram 1,8, 2,2 e 2,4, respectivamente. No segundo experimento, as CTB's aumentaram significativamente (PThe teat skin is one of the main sources of microbial contamination of raw milk as well as a source of mastitis infection. This study assessed the microbial load of the teat skin following the application of the different practices for preparing the udder, including the use of calf suckling to stimulate the letdown of milk. Thirty-six cows milked by machine were included in one experiment. Two teats of each cow were sampled for bacteriology before and after using one of three methods of udder preparation, as follows: rinsing with water and drying with single paper towels (A; method A plus pre-dipping with an iodine teat dip (4,000ppm and drying with single paper towels (B; wiping teats using a commercial wet non-woven wipe pre-soaked with a solution containing chlorexidine (C. The second experiment included 16 cows milked by hand. The calf of each cow was allowed to suck the four teats for a few seconds, and then two teats per cow were sampled for bacteriology. Samples were collected before, after calf sucking and following teat pre-milking treatment (as for group C, above. Statistical analysis was conducted on transformed (log10 data with tTBC=log10(TBC+0.5 using a Kruskal-Wallis test. Each treatment was analysed considering the difference in tTBC after the use of either method of preparation of the udder or calf sucking. For groups A, B and C (first experiment, tTBC values were reduced 1.8, 2.2 and 2.4, respectively. In the second experiment, tTBC increased significantly (P<0,05 after calf sucking (from 3.2 to 4.3. After disinfection the tTBC was significantly reduced to 2.0. These results show that: (a teat rinsing with water and wiping dry reduces the number of microorganisms on the teat skin, but the reduction is significantly higher when teats are disinfected; (b calf sucking before milking increases significantly the number of microorganisms on teat skin; (c the number of microorganisms on teat skin can be reduced more than 10 times after calf sucking if teats are disinfected. Very low numbers or no growth of coliforms were observed in all cases.

  9. 2013 Kids Count in Colorado! Community Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Kids Count in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Children's Campaign, providing state and county level data on child well-being factors including child health, education, and economic status. Since its first release 20 years ago, "Kids Count in Colorado!" has become the most trusted source for data and information on…

  10. 2008 KidsCount in Colorado!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "KidsCount in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. KidsCount in Colorado! informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as a valuable resource for…

  11. Energetics of bacterial adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the description of bacterial adhesion phenomena two different physico-chemical approaches are available. The first one, based on a surface Gibbs energy balance, assumes intimate contact between the interacting surfaces. The second approach, based on colloid chemical theories (DLVO theory), allows for two types of adhesion: 1) secondary minimum adhesion, which is often weak and reversible, and 2) irreversible primary minimum adhesion. In the secondary minimum adhesion a thin water film remains present between the interacting surface. The merits of both approaches are discussed in this paper. In addition, the methods available to measure the physico-chemical surface characteristics of bacteria and the influence of adsorbing (in)organic compounds, extracellular polymers and cell surface appendages on adhesion are summarized. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 50 refs

  12. Evolution of Bacterial Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchernookov, Martin; Nemenman, Ilya

    2013-03-01

    While active, controlled cellular suicide (autolysis) in bacteria is commonly observed, it has been hard to argue that autolysis can be beneficial to an individual who commits it. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that bacterial autolysis is evolutionarily advantageous to an individualand would fixate in physically structured environments for stationary phase colonies. We perform spatially resolved agent-based simulations of the model, which predict that lower mixing in the environment results in fixation of a higher autolysis rate from a single mutated cell, regardless of the colony's genetic diversity. We argue that quorum sensing will fixate as well, even if initially rare, if it is coupled to controlling the autolysis rate. The model does not predict a strong additional competitive advantage for cells where autolysis is controlled by quorum sensing systems that distinguish self from nonself. These predictions are broadly supported by recent experimental results in B. subtilisand S. pneumoniae. While active, controlled cellular suicide (autolysis) in bacteria is commonly observed, it has been hard to argue that autolysis can be beneficial to an individual who commits it. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that bacterial autolysis is evolutionarily advantageous to an individualand would fixate in physically structured environments for stationary phase colonies. We perform spatially resolved agent-based simulations of the model, which predict that lower mixing in the environment results in fixation of a higher autolysis rate from a single mutated cell, regardless of the colony's genetic diversity. We argue that quorum sensing will fixate as well, even if initially rare, if it is coupled to controlling the autolysis rate. The model does not predict a strong additional competitive advantage for cells where autolysis is controlled by quorum sensing systems that distinguish self from nonself. These predictions are broadly supported by recent experimental results in B. subtilisand S. pneumoniae. Research partially supported by the James S McDonnell Foundation grant No. 220020321 and by HFSP grant No. RGY0084/2011.

  13. Dying dyons don't count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Miranda C. N.; Verlinde, Erik P.

    2007-09-01

    The dyonic 1/4-BPS states in 4D string theory with Script N = 4 spacetime supersymmetry are counted by a Siegel modular form. The pole structure of the modular form leads to a contour dependence in the counting formula obscuring its duality invariance. We exhibit the relation between this ambiguity and the (dis-)appearance of bound states of 1/2-BPS configurations. Using this insight we propose a precise moduli-dependent contour prescription for the counting formula. We then show that the degeneracies are duality-invariant and are correctly adjusted at the walls of marginal stability to account for the (dis-)appearance of the two-centered bound states. Especially, for large black holes none of these bound states exists at the attractor point and none of these ambiguous poles contributes to the counting formula. Using this fact we also propose a second, moduli-independent contour which counts the ``immortal dyons" that are stable everywhere.

  14. Dying Dyons Don't Count

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Miranda C N

    2007-01-01

    The dyonic 1/4-BPS states in 4D string theory with N=4 spacetime supersymmetry are counted by a Siegel modular form. The pole structure of the modular form leads to a contour dependence in the counting formula obscuring its duality invariance. We exhibit the relation between this ambiguity and the (dis-)appearance of bound states of 1/2-BPS configurations. Using this insight we propose a precise moduli-dependent contour prescription for the counting formula. We then show that the degeneracies are duality-invariant and are correctly adjusted at the walls of marginal stability to account for the (dis-)appearance of the two-centered bound states. Especially, for large black holes none of these bound states exists at the attractor point and none of these ambiguous poles contributes to the counting formula. Using this fact we also propose a second, moduli-independent contour which counts the "immortal dyons" that are stable everywhere.

  15. Dying dyons don't count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dyonic 1/4-BPS states in 4D string theory with N = 4 spacetime supersymmetry are counted by a Siegel modular form. The pole structure of the modular form leads to a contour dependence in the counting formula obscuring its duality invariance. We exhibit the relation between this ambiguity and the (dis-)appearance of bound states of 1/2-BPS configurations. Using this insight we propose a precise moduli-dependent contour prescription for the counting formula. We then show that the degeneracies are duality-invariant and are correctly adjusted at the walls of marginal stability to account for the (dis-)appearance of the two-centered bound states. Especially, for large black holes none of these bound states exists at the attractor point and none of these ambiguous poles contributes to the counting formula. Using this fact we also propose a second, moduli-independent contour which counts the 'immortal dyons' that are stable everywhere

  16. A survey on bacterial involvement in neonatal mortality in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Meloni

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections represent the second cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality in dogs, so the present study aimed to investigate the bacterial involvement in canine neonatal mortality and to evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility of the isolated bacteria. Fifty-one newborn purebred puppies, born dead or dead within 28 days of age, belonging to 36 different litters, were enrolled and the following procedures were performed on their fresh dead bodies: necropsy, collection of swabs by liver, kidney, lung, small bowel, and possible thoracic and/or abdominal effusion, for both bacteriological examination and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and collection of samples by the same organs for histology. About 47% of total swabs were positive at bacteriology (pure bacterial culture or bacterial association. In 65% of the newborn puppies the mortality could be attributed to a bacterial infection. Although the high multidrug resistance, the most effective antimicrobials were third generation cephalosporins and fluorquinolones. In case of neonatal mortality, bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing become essential for a targeted therapy in surviving littermates and for the management of following pregnancies in bitches with recurrent neonatal loss.

  17. Absence of association between total heterotrophic and total coliform bacteria from a public water supply.

    OpenAIRE

    Edberg, S; Smith, D B

    1989-01-01

    Heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) and total coliforms (TC) are two major microbial indicators that are used to monitor the potability of water. Although the presence of heterotrophs has been hypothesized to predict the presence of TC, there have been few documented reports. Intensive sampling of raw, treated effluent and distribution water from a public water supply serving 400,000 people provided an opportunity to study the relationship between these two indicator groups of bacteria. A total ...

  18. C-Reactive Protein and Serum Procalcitonin Levels as Markers of Bacterial Upper Respiratory Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diamantis P. Kofteridis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Upper Respiratory Tract Infections (URTIs are the most frequent of the community with major social and financial impact. Hence, early and proper diagnosis is of utmost importance. Biomarkers such as the circulating levels of Procalcitonin (PCT have been shown to be elevated in systemic bacterial infections, but remain relatively low in viral infections and inflammatory diseases and have been suggested as signals for the initiation of antimicrobial therapy. Experience evaluating the value of PCT as a marker of URTIs is limited. Approach: Forty patients with bacterial URTIs were studied in order to assess the role of PCT, measured by using the semi-quantitative test, as bacterial inflammation marker and to compare with other markers, such as C-Reactive Protein (CRP, White Blood Cell (WBC counts and Polymorphonuclear (PMN cell counts. Results: In all cases, 22 with tonsillopharyngitis, 10 with peritonsillar abscess and 8 with rhinosinusitis, PCT levels remained below detection limits. On the other hand, serum CRP levels strongly correlated with body temperature, WBC and PMN cell counts. Patients with rhinosinusitis were older than those with peritonsillar abscess, had lower body temperature than those with tonsillopharyngitis and had lower serum CRP levels than patients with either peritonsillar abscess or tonsillopharyngitis. Conclusion: Therefore CRP could be used as a marker to predict the severity of URTIs while PCT, although promising in cases of other severe bacterial infections, did not prove to be suitable for patients with less severe or localized infections, such as URTIs.

  19. Bacterial flora associated with larval rearing of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Phatarpekar, P.V.; Kenkre, V.D.; Sreepada, R.A.; Desai, U.M.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    Quantitative and qualitative analyses of bacterial flora associated with larval rearing of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, along with important water quality parameters, were carried out over a larval cycle. Total viable...

  20. Bacterial communities in the fruit bodies of ground basidiomycetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagryadskaya, Yu. A.; Lysak, L. V.; Chernov, I. Yu.

    2015-06-01

    Fruit bodies of basidiomycetes at different stages of decomposition serve as specific habitats in forest biocenoses for bacteria and differ significantly with respect to the total bacterial population and abundance of particular bacterial genera. A significant increase in the total bacterial population estimated by the direct microscopic method with acridine orange staining and in the population of saprotrophic bacteria (inoculation of glucose peptone yeast agar) in fruit bodies of basidiomycetes Armillaria mellea and Coprinus comatus was recorded at the final stage of their decomposition in comparison with the initial stage. Gramnegative bacteria predominated in the tissues of fruit bodies at all the stages of decomposition and were represented at the final stage by the Aeromonas, Vibrio, and Pseudomonas genera (for fruit bodies of A. mellea) the Pseudomonas genus (for fruit bodies of C. comatus). The potential influence of bacterial communities in the fruit bodies of soil basidiomycetes on the formation of bacterial communities in the upper soil horizons in forest biocenoses is discussed. The loci connected with the development and decomposition of fruit bodies of basidiomycetes on the soil surface are promising for targeted search of Gram-negative bacteria, the important objects of biotechnology.

  1. Bacterial diversity at different stages of the composting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulin Lars

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Composting is an aerobic microbiological process that is facilitated by bacteria and fungi. Composting is also a method to produce fertilizer or soil conditioner. Tightened EU legislation now requires treatment of the continuously growing quantities of organic municipal waste before final disposal. However, some full-scale composting plants experience difficulties with the efficiency of biowaste degradation and with the emission of noxious odours. In this study we examine the bacterial species richness and community structure of an optimally working pilot-scale compost plant, as well as a full-scale composting plant experiencing typical problems. Bacterial species composition was determined by isolating total DNA followed by amplifying and sequencing the gene encoding the 16S ribosomal RNA. Results Over 1500 almost full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences were analysed and of these, over 500 were present only as singletons. Most of the sequences observed in either one or both of the composting processes studied here were similar to the bacterial species reported earlier in composts, including bacteria from the phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Deinococcus-Thermus. In addition, a number of previously undetected bacterial phylotypes were observed. Statistical calculations estimated a total bacterial diversity of over 2000 different phylotypes in the studied composts. Conclusions Interestingly, locally enriched or evolved bacterial variants of familiar compost species were observed in both composts. A detailed comparison of the bacterial diversity revealed a large difference in composts at the species and strain level from the different composting plants. However, at the genus level, the difference was much smaller and illustrated a delay of the composting process in the full-scale, sub-optimally performing plants.

  2. Whole-body counting 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to determine the doses from radiocesium in foods after the Chernobyl accident, four groups were chosen in 1987. Two groups, presumed to have a large consumption of food items with a high radiocesium content, were selected. These were Lapp reindeer breeders from central parts of Norway, and hunters a.o. from the municipality of Oeystre Slidre. Two other groups were randomly selected, one from the municipality of Sel, and one from Oslo. The persons in these two groups were presumed to have an average diet. The fall-out in Sel was fairly large (100 kBq/m2), whereas in Oslo the fall-out level was low (2 kBq/m2). The persons in each group were monitored once a year with whole-body counters, and in connection with these countings dietary surveys were preformed. In 1990 the Sel-group and the Lapps in central parts of Norway were followed. Average whole-body activity in each group is compared to earlier years's results, and an average yearly effective dose equivalent is computed. The Sel-group has an average whole-body activity of 2800 Bq for men, and 690 Bq for women. Compared to earlier years, there is a steady but slow decrease in whole-body activities. Yearly dose is calculated to 0.06 mSv for 1990. The Lapps in central parts of Norway have an average whole-body content of 23800 Bq for men and 13600 Bq for women. This results in an average yearly dose of 0.9 mSv for the individuals in the group. Compared to earlier years, the Lapp group show a decrease in whole-body contents since 1988. This decrease is larger among men than women. 5 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs

  3. Bacterial diversity and ecological function in lake water bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Ren

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The healthy development of lake ecosystems is a global issue. Bacteria are not only an integral component of food webs, but also play a key role in controlling and regulating water quality in lake ecosystems. Hence, in order to provide some suggestions for maintaining the long-term and healthy development of lake ecosystems, this review discusses and analyses concepts and assessment of bacterial diversity, the distribution of bacteria communities, mechanisms of formation, and the ecological functions of such communities in lake water bodies. In total, there are 21 freshwater bacterial phyla typically found in lake waters at present. Among them, Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia are the most important. The Beijerinck and Baas-Becking perspective and the meta- community hypothesis suggest that bacterial community diversity and species distributions in lake water bodies are caused by the combinedaction of stochastic and determinate processes. Research on the function of lake bacteria has mainly focused on processes that bacteria are involved in, for example water quality and elemental biogeochemical cycles. Despite efforts over the past 10 years, knowledge on lake bacterial community diversity and function is still very limited. Lake bacterial ecology is still a young science, which restricts people further understanding of microbial communities in lake bodies. Future research is required on: (1 integrating bacterialphenotype, genotype, phylogeny and ecological features to define the concept of bacterial “species”; (2 the dispersal of bacteria between different locations at a regional scale; (3 bacterial community diversity and functional characteristics at the micro scale; (4 ecological theories and hypotheses of bacterial community diversity in lake ecosystems to improve the theoretical framework of microbial ecology.

  4. Combined effect of ?-irradiation and bacterial-fermented dextrose on microbiological quality of refrigerated pork sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussault, D.; Benoit, C.; Lacroix, M.

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a concentrated fermented dextrose (FD), a natural antimicrobial product, combined with low dose ?-irradiation (1.5 kGy) on the microbiological quality of fresh pork sausages. Fresh pork sausages containing the FD (0.25%, 0.5% and 0.75%) were prepared in a meat pilot plant and were irradiated using a UC-15A irradiator equipped with a 60Cobalt source. The ?-irradiation treatment alone was able to reduce the initial psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria by more than 2 log CFU/g and kept the lactobacillus population under the detection limit (100 CFU/g). Results also showed that the FD alone was able to extend the shelf life of the sausages from 5 days up to 13 days. At day 13, the FD or irradiation alone showed 2 log CFU/g less mesophilic bacteria than the control. After combining FD and irradiation another reduction of the microbial count of 1 log CFU/g was observed. When combining the irradiation treatment with the FD results it showed a reduced growth rate of the psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria compared to both treatments alone. This study demonstrated that FD with low dose gamma irradiation act in synergy to reduce the multiplication of the total bacterial flora in fresh sausages.

  5. The Acquisition of Counting Skill in Preschooler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Çak?r

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract- The aim of this study was to find out more information on the acquisition of counting skill in preschool children. For this purpose, children’s judgment of acceptability of a counting activity was used to investigate whether children’s counting skills are governed by their implicit knowledge of a number of counting principles. Data showed that children easily recognized the violation of one or more counting principles in a one’s application of counting principles in sequences of English and Turkish count words, implying that children have the understanding of counting principles. The sessions on counting in Turkish make it very likely that the children were responding to violations of rules rather than merely violation of well-learning of count words. These results give additional support to the assumption that there are innate counting principles that rule young children’s counting. Keywords: counting principles, error-detection task, mathematical development. Özet- Okul Öncesi Çocuklarda Sayma ?lkeleri. Bu çal??mada çocuklar?n bir sayma etkinli?inin geçerli olup olmad??? hakk?ndaki yarg?lar? kullan?larak, sayma becerisinin do?u?tan sahip olunan bir dizi örtük ilkeler taraf?ndan yönlendirilip yönlendirilmedi?i incelenmi?tir. Bu amaç do?rultusunda, bir grup okul öncesi çocuklardan videodan izledikleri bir aktör çocu?un hem anadilinde (?ngilizce hem de bilmedikleri bir yabanc? dilde (Türkçe yapt??? farkl? hatalar içeren sayma serilerinin do?ru veya yanl?? olup olmad??? belirtmesi istenmi?tir. Elde edilen sonuçlar çocuklar?n sayma etkinliklerine rehberlik eden do?u?tan getirdikleri örtük “sayma ilkelerine” sahip olduklar?na ili?kin görü?leri destekler yönündedir. Örne?in, gerek ?ngilizce gerekse Türkçe sayma serilerinde, “standart (do?ru sayma” serisi di?er tüm serilere göre anlaml? ölçüde “do?ru” bir sayma olarak de?erlendirilirken, Türkçe sayma serilerinde say?lan serideki son nesne için söylenilen sayma sözcü?ünün do?ru miktar? belirtenden farkl? olmas? çocuklar taraf?ndan ba?ar?l? bir ?ekilde tespit edilememi?tir. Bu bulgular bize çocuklar?n büyük bir olas?l?kla ezberledikleri say? sözcük dizilerindeki hatalardan çok, sayma etkinli?i s?ras?nda yap?lan kural ihlallerine tepki verdi?ini göstermektedir. Anahtar Kelimeler: sayma ilkeleri, hata-bulma görevi, matematiksel geli?im

  6. Rapid Detection of Viable Microorganisms Based on a Plate Count Technique Using Arrayed Microelectrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behraad Bahreyni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Development of a miniaturized biosensor system that can be used for rapid detection and counting of microorganisms in food or water samples is described. The developed microsystem employs a highly sensitive impedimetric array of biosensors to monitor the growth of bacterial colonies that are dispersed across an agar growth medium. To use the system, a sample containing the bacteria is cultured above the agar layer. Using a multiplexing network, the electrical properties of the medium at different locations are continuously measured, recorded, and compared against a baseline signal. Variations of signals from different biosensors are used to reveal the presence of bacteria in the sample, as well as the locations of bacterial colonies across the biochip. This technique forms the basis for a label-free bacterial detection for rapid analysis of food samples, reducing the detection time by at least a factor of four compared to the current required incubation times of 24 to 72 hours for plate count techniques. The developed microsystem has the potential for miniaturization to a stage where it could be deployed for rapid analysis of food samples at commercial scale at laboratories, food processing facilities, and retailers.

  7. Differences in Bacterial Community Structure in Two Color Morphs of the Hawaiian Reef Coral Montipora capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore-Maggio, Amanda; Runyon, Christina M; Ushijima, Blake; Aeby, Greta S; Callahan, Sean M

    2015-10-15

    Corals harbor diverse bacterial associations that contribute to the health of the host. Using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing, we compared the bacterial communities of red and orange morphs of the Hawaiian coral Montipora capitata. Although both color morphs shared dominant bacterial genera, weighted and unweighted UniFrac analyses showed distinct bacterial communities. A single operational taxonomic unit (OTU), classified as Vibrio, represented the largest driver of differences between the color morphs. This OTU comprised 35.4% (±5.5%) of the orange morph bacterial community yet comprised 1.1% (±0.6%) of the red morph bacterial community. Cultivable bacteria from the two color morphs were also compared and tested for antibacterial activity. Cultured isolates represented 14 genera (7% of the total genera identified from sequencing data), and all but two cultured isolates had a matching OTU from the sequencing data. Half of the isolates tested (8 out of 16) displayed antibacterial activity against other cultured isolates but not against two known bacterial pathogens of M. capitata. The results from this study demonstrate that the specificity of coral-bacterial associations extends beyond the level of coral species. In addition, culture-dependent methods captured bacterial diversity that was representative of both rare and abundant members of the associated bacterial community, as characterized by culture-independent methods. PMID:26253663

  8. Bioorganic fertilizer enhances soil suppressive capacity against bacterial wilt of tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lijuan; Sun, Chengliang; Liu, Shuangri; Chai, Rushan; Huang, Weiqing; Liu, Xingxing; Tang, Caixian; Zhang, Yongsong

    2015-01-01

    Tomato bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most destructive soil-borne diseases. Many strategies have been taken to improve soil suppressiveness against this destructive disease, but limited success has been achieved. In this study, a novel bioorganic fertilizer revealed a higher suppressive ability against bacterial wilt compared with several soil management methods in the field over four growing seasons from March 2011 to July 2013. The application of the bioorganic fertilizer significantly (PK content, microbial activities and microbial biomass carbon content, which were positively related with soil suppressiveness. Bacterial and actinomycete populations assessed using classical plate counts were highest, whereas R. solanacearum and fungal populations were lowest in soil applied with the bioorganic fertilizer. Microbial community diversity and richness were assessed using denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis profile analysis. The soil treated with the bioorganic fertilizer exhibited higher bacterial community diversity but lower fungal community diversity. Redundancy analysis showed that bacterial community diversity and richness negatively related with bacterial wilt suppressiveness, while fungal community richness positively correlated with R. solanacearum population. We concluded that the alteration of soil physicochemical and biological properties in soil treated with the bioorganic fertilizer induced the soil suppressiveness against tomato bacterial wilt. PMID:25830639

  9. Prediction of bacterial meningitis based on cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis in children

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sofia, Águeda; Teresa, Campos; Ana, Maia.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Children with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis are frequently treated with parenteral antibiotics, but only a few have bacterial meningitis. Although some clinical prediction rules, such as bacterial meningitis score, are of well-known value, the cerebrospinal fluid white blood cells count can be the [...] initial available information. Our aim was to establish a cutoff point of cerebrospinal fluid white blood cell count that could distinguish bacterial from viral and aseptic meningitis. A retrospective study of children aged 29 days to 17 years who were admitted between January 1st and December 31th, 2009, with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis (white blood cell > 7 µL-1) was conducted. The cases of traumatic lumbar puncture and of antibiotic treatment before lumbar puncture were excluded. There were 295 patients with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis, 60.3% females, medium age 5.0 ± 4.3 years distributed as: 12.2% 1-3 months; 10.5% 3-12 months; 29.8% 12 months to 5 years; 47.5% >5 years. Thirty one children (10.5%) were diagnosed with bacterial meningitis, 156 (52.9%) viral meningitis and 108 (36.6%) aseptic meningitis. Bacterial meningitis was caused by Neisseria meningi tidis (48.4%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (32.3%), other Streptococcus species (9.7%), and other agents (9.7%). cerebrospinal fluid white blood cell count was significantly higher in patients with bacterial meningitis (mean, 4839 cells/µL) compared to patients with aseptic meningitis (mean, 159 cells/µL, p

  10. Meningitis bacteriana / Bacterial meningitis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Teresa, Alvarado Guevara; Lizzie Marie, Castillo Solano.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available En Costa Rica la meningitis bacteriana se ha convertido en un tema prioritario en lo que a vigilancia epidemiológica se refiere, en los últimos meses se ha dado un aumento en la atención pública de este tema, debido a este fenómeno se hace necesario realizar una revisión del tema. La meningitis es u [...] na inflamación de las leptomeninges y colonización del líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) debido a diferentes agentes, lo cual produce síntomas meníngeos (Ej., cefalea, rigidez nucal, fotofobia) y pleocitosis a nivel de LCR. Dependiendo de las variables se pueden agrupar en diferentes clasificaciones, tomando en cuenta el tiempo de evolución se pueden dividir en agudas o crónicas, a las primeras con pocas horas o días de inicio de la sintomatología, mientras que la crónica presenta un curso mas larvado de la enfermedad de aproximadamente 4 semanas de instauración. Existe también diferencia según su etiología, pueden ser infecciosas y no infecciosas. Causas no infecciosas incluyen: drogas antiinflamatorias, antibióticos y carcinomatosis. A su vez existe una clasificación según el agente causal. La meningitis bacteriana aguda remarca el origen bacteriano de este síndrome, el cual se caracteriza por el inicio agudo de sus síntomas y pleocitosis de predominio neutrofílico. Cada uno de los agentes bacterianos, parasíticos o fúngicos terminan por categorizar las diferentes presentaciones de este cuadro clínico (Ej., meningitis meningocóccica, meningitis criptocóccica). Es en este grupo en específico de etiología en el cual se basara el siguiente artículo. Por último pero no menos importante tenemos la meningitis aséptica, denominada de esta forma debido a una respuesta celular no pirógena causada por muchos tipos de agentes. Los pacientes muestran un inicio agudo de síntomas meníngeos, fiebre y pleocitosis pero de predominio linfocítico. Después de análisis especializados, se da pro concluido que la mayoría de los agentes causales son virales lo cual conlleva a las diferentes sub-clasificaciones. También en ciertos casos puede ser ocasionada por hongos, bacterias atípicas, micobacterias y parásitos. Abstract in english In Costa Rica the bacterial meningitis had turn into a high-priority subject in which to monitoring epidemiologist. It had been talked about in the last months, to dice an increase in the attention is published of this subject, due to this phenomenon it becomes necessary to make a revision of topic. [...] Meningitis is an inflammation of leptomeninges and colonization of the subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid (LCR) due to different agents, which produces meningeal symptoms (ex. migraine, neck rigidity, and photophobia) and pleocytosis in LCR. De pending on the variables to take into account is possible to group it in different classifications, taking into account the time of evolution are possible to be divided in acute or chronic, to first with few hours or days of beginning of the symptoms, whereas the chronicle also presents a silence course but of the disease of approximately 4 weeks of instauration. There is a difference according to its etiologic agent; they can be infectious and non-infectious. Examples of common non-infectious causes include medications (ex, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and antibiotics) and carcinomatosis. A classification exists as well according to the causal agent. The acute bacterial meningitis remarks a bacterial origin of the syndrome, which characterizes by the by an acute onset of meningeal symptoms and neutrophilic pleocytosis. Each one of the bacteriological agents, parasitic or fungus finishes by characterizing the different presentations of the clinical features (ex, meningocóccica meningitis, Cryptococcus meningitis). Finally, there is also the aseptic meningitis, denominated in this form because it’s nonpyogenic cellular response caused by many types of agents. The patients show an acute beginning of symptoms, fever and lymphocytic pleocytosis. After specialized analyses, concluded that majority cause

  11. Meningitis bacteriana Bacterial meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teresa Alvarado Guevara

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available En Costa Rica la meningitis bacteriana se ha convertido en un tema prioritario en lo que a vigilancia epidemiológica se refiere, en los últimos meses se ha dado un aumento en la atención pública de este tema, debido a este fenómeno se hace necesario realizar una revisión del tema. La meningitis es una inflamación de las leptomeninges y colonización del líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR debido a diferentes agentes, lo cual produce síntomas meníngeos (Ej., cefalea, rigidez nucal, fotofobia y pleocitosis a nivel de LCR. Dependiendo de las variables se pueden agrupar en diferentes clasificaciones, tomando en cuenta el tiempo de evolución se pueden dividir en agudas o crónicas, a las primeras con pocas horas o días de inicio de la sintomatología, mientras que la crónica presenta un curso mas larvado de la enfermedad de aproximadamente 4 semanas de instauración. Existe también diferencia según su etiología, pueden ser infecciosas y no infecciosas. Causas no infecciosas incluyen: drogas antiinflamatorias, antibióticos y carcinomatosis. A su vez existe una clasificación según el agente causal. La meningitis bacteriana aguda remarca el origen bacteriano de este síndrome, el cual se caracteriza por el inicio agudo de sus síntomas y pleocitosis de predominio neutrofílico. Cada uno de los agentes bacterianos, parasíticos o fúngicos terminan por categorizar las diferentes presentaciones de este cuadro clínico (Ej., meningitis meningocóccica, meningitis criptocóccica. Es en este grupo en específico de etiología en el cual se basara el siguiente artículo. Por último pero no menos importante tenemos la meningitis aséptica, denominada de esta forma debido a una respuesta celular no pirógena causada por muchos tipos de agentes. Los pacientes muestran un inicio agudo de síntomas meníngeos, fiebre y pleocitosis pero de predominio linfocítico. Después de análisis especializados, se da pro concluido que la mayoría de los agentes causales son virales lo cual conlleva a las diferentes sub-clasificaciones. También en ciertos casos puede ser ocasionada por hongos, bacterias atípicas, micobacterias y parásitos.In Costa Rica the bacterial meningitis had turn into a high-priority subject in which to monitoring epidemiologist. It had been talked about in the last months, to dice an increase in the attention is published of this subject, due to this phenomenon it becomes necessary to make a revision of topic. Meningitis is an inflammation of leptomeninges and colonization of the subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid (LCR due to different agents, which produces meningeal symptoms (ex. migraine, neck rigidity, and photophobia and pleocytosis in LCR. De pending on the variables to take into account is possible to group it in different classifications, taking into account the time of evolution are possible to be divided in acute or chronic, to first with few hours or days of beginning of the symptoms, whereas the chronicle also presents a silence course but of the disease of approximately 4 weeks of instauration. There is a difference according to its etiologic agent; they can be infectious and non-infectious. Examples of common non-infectious causes include medications (ex, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and antibiotics and carcinomatosis. A classification exists as well according to the causal agent. The acute bacterial meningitis remarks a bacterial origin of the syndrome, which characterizes by the by an acute onset of meningeal symptoms and neutrophilic pleocytosis. Each one of the bacteriological agents, parasitic or fungus finishes by characterizing the different presentations of the clinical features (ex, meningocóccica meningitis, Cryptococcus meningitis. Finally, there is also the aseptic meningitis, denominated in this form because it’s nonpyogenic cellular response caused by many types of agents. The patients show an acute beginning of symptoms, fever and lymphocytic pleocytosis. After specialized analyses, concluded that majority cause is different viral agents. Also in certai

  12. Novel bacterial ratio for predicting fecal age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents an extension of ongoing research into the utility of the ratio of bacterial colonies isolated on membrane filters during the total coliform test using m-Endo broth media for the prediction of fecal age. Analysis of the relative shifts in concentrations of indicator bacterial populations in Kentucky River water quality data collected from the inlet of a local water treatment plant showed a correlation between raw concentrations of atypical colonies (AC) and total coliform colonies (TC) formed on m-Endo membrane filter tests, and fecal age. Visual analysis of plant treatment records showed that low values of the AC/TC ratio were related to periods of high flow, when runoff added fresh fecal material to the river. A more detailed analysis of 2 years of Kentucky River water quality data showed the average AC/TC ratio during months with high river flow (rain) to be 3.4, rising to an average of 27.6 during months with low flow. The average AC/TC ratio during high flow months compared to that found in other studies for raw human sewage (3.9) and the ratio increased to values associated with animal impacted urban runoff (18.9) during low flow months. (author)

  13. An Adaptive Smoother for Counting Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Counting measurements associated with nuclear instruments are tricky to carry out due to the stochastic process of the radioactivity. Indeed events counting have to be processed and filtered in order to display a stable count rate value and to allow variations monitoring in the measured activity. Smoothers (as the moving average) are adjusted by a time constant defined as a compromise between stability and response time. A new approach has been developed and consists in improving the response time while maintaining count rate stability. It uses the combination of a smoother together with a detection filter. A memory of counting data is processed to calculate several count rate estimates using several integration times. These estimates are then sorted into the memory from short to long integration times. A measurement position, in terms of integration time, is then chosen into this memory after a detection test. An inhomogeneity into the Poisson counting process is detected by comparison between current position estimate and the other estimates contained into the memory in respect with the associated statistical variance calculated with homogeneous assumption. The measurement position (historical time) and the ability to forget an obsolete data or to keep in memory a useful data are managed using the detection test result. The proposed smoother is then an adaptive and a learning algorithm allowing an optimization of the response time while maintaining measurement counting stability and converging efficiently to the best counting estimate after an effective change in activity. This algorithm has also the specificity to be low recursive and thus easily embedded into DSP electronics based on FPGA or micro-controllers meeting 'real life' time requirements. (authors)

  14. Sperm counts and sperm sex ratio in male infertility patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Michael L; Murthy, Lata; Hwang, Kathleen; Lamb, Dolores J; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2012-09-01

    In recent years, investigators have noted a trend toward a declining proportion of male births in many industrialized nations. While men bear the sex-determining chromosome, the role of the female partner as it pertains to fertilization or miscarriage may also alter the gender ratio. We attempted to determine a man's secondary sex ratio (F1 generation) by directly examining the sex chromosomes of his sperm. We examined our male infertility clinic database for all men who had undergone a semen fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Patient demographic and semen parameters were recorded. Chi-squared analysis was used to compare gender ratios (Y chromosomes/total chromosomes). Multivariable logistic regression was used to predict the odds of possessing a Y-bearing sperm after accounting for demographic and semen parameters. A total of 185 men underwent sperm FISH. For the entire cohort, the proportion of Y chromosome-bearing sperm was 51.5%. Men with less than five million motile sperm had a significantly lower proportion of Y chromosome-bearing sperm (50.8%) compared to men with higher sperm counts (51.6%; P=0.02). After multivariable adjustment, a higher sperm concentration, total motile sperm count and semen volume significantly increased the odds of having a Y chromosome-bearing sperm (P<0.01). As a man's sperm production declines, so does the proportion of Y chromosome-bearing sperm. Thus, a man's reproductive potential may predict his ability to sire male offspring. PMID:22842703

  15. [Spore rec-assay by dry sheet medium culture plate for bacterial counts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Seiichi; Aoki, Kazuko; Ishizaki, Mutsuo

    2002-02-01

    A simple and rapid method for spore rec-assay by utilizing dry sheet medium culture (Compactdry TC, CTC) for determining numbers of bacteria, instead of the spore agar plate, was developed. One mL of spore suspension (2 x 10(6)/mL) of Bacillus subtilis strain M45 Rec- or H17 Rec+ was inoculated in the center of the CTC plate. In the case of metabolic activation, 1 mL of mixed solution (spore suspension of M45 or H17: 9,000 x g supernatant of rat-liver homogenate treated with Aroclor 1254 = 19:1) was used. The spore suspension spreads over the whole sheet in seconds and gels. A paper disk impregnated with 20-40 microL of the sample solution and 20 microL of the cofactor solution was placed on the surface of CTC plate. For the assay of samples that do not require metabolic activation, use of the cofactor solution can be omitted. After 48 hr incubation at 37 degrees C, 0.01% MTT [3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide] aqueous solution (0.5 mL) was dropped uniformly on the plate. The plate was left for 5 min, and the diameter of the inhibition circle was measured with slide calipers. The samples for which the difference in inhibition zone between M45 and H17 was more than 2 mm were judged positive. Under these conditions, the DNA damaging activities of sodium sulfite, sodium benzoate and citric acid, used as food additives, were investigated by the proposed method. Sodium sulfite and sodium benzoate gave positive results and citric acid gave a negative result with or without metabolic activation, in agreement with the results obtained by the conventional method. PMID:11998319

  16. Bacterial adherence to different inert surfaces evaluated by epifluorescence microscopy and plate count method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvânia Quintão Fontes Parizzi

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The adherence of Listeria inoccua L6a and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6538 was evaluated on stainless steel (SS, polycarbonate (PC and polypropylene (PP chips. The EP results showed a significant difference (pA adesão de Listeria innocua L6a e de Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 foi avaliada em cupons de prova de aço inoxidável AISI 304, de policarbonato, ambos com dimensões de 10x10x1mm, e de polipropileno com dimensões de 10x10x4mm. Os cupons limpos e esterilizados foram imersos em 100mL de caldo TSB ou de BHI, contendo cerca de 1,0x10³ UFC/ml de L. innocua ou de S. aureus, respectivamente, e incubados a 30ºC. Após 0,2,4,6,8,10 e 12horas, os cupons foram retirados e imersos em tampão fosfato (0,31M e pH=7,2, durante 1 minuto, para remoção de células planctônicas; em seguida, submetidos à determinação do número de células aderidas pelas técnicas da microscopia de epifluorescência (MEP e da contagem-padrão em placas após vórtex (CPP. Para MEP, os cupons foram imersos em solução de Kirkpatrick durante 3 minutos para fixar as células às superfícies. Posteriormente, as células foram coradas com alaranjado de acridina durante 5 minutos, e enumeradas pela MEP, em objetiva de imersão com área de 0,0226mm². Para CPP, os cupons foram imersos em 2mL de tampão fosfato, submetidos ao vórtex, durante 1 minuto, para remoção das células sésseis, e, em seguida, foram efetuadas as contagens, usando-se ágar BHI ou TSB e incubação a 30ºC por 48horas. Os resultados, tanto para MEP quanto para CPP, foram expressos em UFC/cm². Para a técnica de MEP, constatou-se diferença significativa (p<0,05 quando se avaliaram as interações entre os microrganismos, as superfícies e os tempos de contato. Verificou-se que o número de células aderidas aumentou com o tempo de contato, para todas as superfícies, independente do microorganismo. A CPP mostrou-se mais sensível para detectar números baixos de células aderidas às superfícies. No entanto, de forma geral, as contagens bacterianas obtidas pela CPP eram menores do que aquelas obtidas pela MEP. Pode-se afirmar que a MEP foi a técnica mais adequada para quantificar a adesão bacteriana, principalmente, quando o número de células aderidas às superfícies, observadas nos campos microscópicos, encontrava-se entre 10 e 100.

  17. Bacterial adherence to different inert surfaces evaluated by epifluorescence microscopy and plate count method

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvânia Quintão Fontes, Parizzi; Nélio José de, Andrade; Cleuber Antonio de Sá, Silva; Nilda de Fátima Ferreira, Soares; Eldo Antônio Monteiro da, Silva.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A adesão de Listeria innocua L6a e de Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 foi avaliada em cupons de prova de aço inoxidável AISI 304, de policarbonato, ambos com dimensões de 10x10x1mm, e de polipropileno com dimensões de 10x10x4mm. Os cupons limpos e esterilizados foram imersos em 100mL de caldo TSB ou [...] de BHI, contendo cerca de 1,0x10³ UFC/ml de L. innocua ou de S. aureus, respectivamente, e incubados a 30ºC. Após 0,2,4,6,8,10 e 12horas, os cupons foram retirados e imersos em tampão fosfato (0,31M e pH=7,2), durante 1 minuto, para remoção de células planctônicas; em seguida, submetidos à determinação do número de células aderidas pelas técnicas da microscopia de epifluorescência (MEP) e da contagem-padrão em placas após vórtex (CPP). Para MEP, os cupons foram imersos em solução de Kirkpatrick durante 3 minutos para fixar as células às superfícies. Posteriormente, as células foram coradas com alaranjado de acridina durante 5 minutos, e enumeradas pela MEP, em objetiva de imersão com área de 0,0226mm². Para CPP, os cupons foram imersos em 2mL de tampão fosfato, submetidos ao vórtex, durante 1 minuto, para remoção das células sésseis, e, em seguida, foram efetuadas as contagens, usando-se ágar BHI ou TSB e incubação a 30ºC por 48horas. Os resultados, tanto para MEP quanto para CPP, foram expressos em UFC/cm². Para a técnica de MEP, constatou-se diferença significativa (p Abstract in english The adherence of Listeria inoccua L6a and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6538 was evaluated on stainless steel (SS), polycarbonate (PC) and polypropylene (PP) chips. The EP results showed a significant difference (p[...] e number of adhered cells on the chip surfaces increased as contact time increased and the number of L. innocua or S. aureus on the surface of SS, PC and PP chips reached 1.0x10(5) CFU/cm² after 12 h of contact, in both methods. The CP method showed a better sensitivity to detect low number of adhered cells. The EP was better when the average number of adhered cells was between 10 and 100 per microscopy field.

  18. Standardization of {sup 241}Am by digital coincidence counting, liquid scintillation counting and defined solid angle counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balpardo, C., E-mail: balpardo@cae.cnea.gov.a [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radioisotopos, CNEA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Capoulat, M.E.; Rodrigues, D.; Arenillas, P. [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radioisotopos, CNEA, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-07-15

    The nuclide {sup 241}Am decays by alpha emission to {sup 237}Np. Most of the decays (84.6%) populate the excited level of {sup 237}Np with energy of 59.54 keV. Digital coincidence counting was applied to standardize a solution of {sup 241}Am by alpha-gamma coincidence counting with efficiency extrapolation. Electronic discrimination was implemented with a pressurized proportional counter and the results were compared with two other independent techniques: Liquid scintillation counting using the logical sum of double coincidences in a TDCR array and defined solid angle counting taking into account activity inhomogeneity in the active deposit. The results show consistency between the three methods within a limit of a 0.3%. An ampoule of this solution will be sent to the International Reference System (SIR) during 2009. Uncertainties were analysed and compared in detail for the three applied methods.

  19. Sample preparation procedures for liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is reviewed in sections, entitled: introduction, basic design of instrumentation and scintillation vials, solvents and solutes in the scintillator system, homogeneity and heterogeneity, preprocessing for homogeneous liquid scintillation counting, inorganic ions, combustion methods, solubilization methods, cerenkov light measurement, preprocessing for heterogeneous liquid scintillation counting, monitoring of continuous-flow systems, scintillant in the liquid phase, colloidal scintillation counting, correction procedures, artefacts, and data processing, chemiluminescence and phosphorescence, biochemical applications, radioimmunoassay and related techniques, archaeological and hydrological applications, miscellaneous applications. (U.K.)

  20. Counting Lattice Paths By Gessel Pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Xin, G

    2004-01-01

    We count a large class of lattice paths by using factorizations of free monoids. Besides the classical lattice paths counting problems related to Catalan numbers, we give a new approach to the problem of counting walks on the slit plane (walks avoid a half line) that was first solved by Bousquet-M\\'{e}lou and Schaeffer. We also solve a problem about walks in the half plane avoiding a half line by subsequently applying the factorizations of two different Gessel pairs, giving a generalization of a result of Bousquet-M\\'{e}lou.

  1. Genetic Regulatory Networks that count to 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Martin; Sneppen, K.

    2013-01-01

    Sensing a graded input and differentiating between its different levels is at the core of many developmental decisions. Here, we want to examine how this can be realized for a simple system. We model gene regulatory circuits that reach distinct states when setting the underlying gene copy number to 1, 2 and 3. This distinction can be considered as counting the copy number. We explore different circuits that allow for counting and keeping memory of the count after resetting the copy number to 1. ...

  2. Quantum Abacus for counting and factorizing numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Suslov, M. V.; Lesovik, G. B.; Blatter, G.

    2010-01-01

    We generalize the binary quantum counting algorithm of Lesovik, Suslov, and Blatter [Phys. Rev. A 82, 012316 (2010)] to higher counting bases. The algorithm makes use of qubits, qutrits, and qudits to count numbers in a base 2, base 3, or base d representation. In operating the algorithm, the number n < N = d^K is read into a K-qudit register through its interaction with a stream of n particles passing in a nearby wire; this step corresponds to a quantum Fourier transformati...

  3. Dying Dyons Don't Count

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Miranda C. N.; Verlinde, Erik

    2007-01-01

    The dyonic 1/4-BPS states in 4D string theory with N=4 spacetime supersymmetry are counted by a Siegel modular form. The pole structure of the modular form leads to a contour dependence in the counting formula obscuring its duality invariance. We exhibit the relation between this ambiguity and the (dis-)appearance of bound states of 1/2-BPS configurations. Using this insight we propose a precise moduli-dependent contour prescription for the counting formula. We then show tha...

  4. Algorithm for counting large directed loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We derive a Belief-Propagation algorithm for counting large loops in a directed network. We evaluate the distribution of the number of small loops in a directed random network with given degree sequence. We apply the algorithm to a few characteristic directed networks of various network sizes and loop structures and compare the algorithm with exhaustive counting results when possible. The algorithm is adequate in estimating loop counts for large directed networks and can be used to compare the loop structure of directed networks and their randomized counterparts

  5. Counting, Measuring And The Semantics Of Classifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Rothstein

    2010-01-01

    This paper makes two central claims. The first is that there is an intimate and non-trivial relation between the mass/count distinction on the one hand and the measure/individuation distinction on the other: a (if not the) defining property of mass nouns is that they denote sets of entities which can be measured, while count nouns denote sets of entities which can be counted. Crucially, this is a difference in grammatical perspective and not in ontological status. The second claim is that the...

  6. B Counting at BaBar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis we examine the method of counting B(bar B) events produced in the BABAR experiment. The original method was proposed in 2000, but improvements to track reconstruction and our understanding of the detector since that date make it appropriate to revisit the B Counting method. We propose a new set of cuts designed to minimize the sensitivity to time-varying backgrounds. We find the new method counts B(bar B) events with an associated systematic uncertainty of ± 0.6%

  7. The AAEC total body nitrogen facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neutron interogation facility has been established at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories for the in vivo determination of total body nitrogen in malnourished patients. Design parameters of the TBN facility are discussed, with respect to optimisation of nitrogen count rates and reduction of backgrounds. Operational features are described. The facility is used in collaborative studies of cystic fibrosis with the Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, and of chronic haemodialysis with Royal Prince Alfred Hospital

  8. Quantum circuits for -multiplication with subquadratic gate count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepley, Shane; Steinwandt, Rainer

    2015-07-01

    One of the most cost-critical operations when applying Shor's algorithm to binary elliptic curves is the underlying field arithmetic. Here, we consider binary fields in polynomial basis representation, targeting especially field sizes as used in elliptic curve cryptography. Building on Karatsuba's algorithm, our software implementation automatically synthesizes a multiplication circuit with the number of -gates being bounded by for any given reduction polynomial of degree . If an irreducible trinomial of degree exists, then a multiplication circuit with a total gate count of is available.

  9. Treedy: A Heuristic for Counting and Sampling Subsets

    OpenAIRE

    Niinimaki, Teppo; Koivisto, Mikko

    2013-01-01

    Consider a collection of weighted subsets of a ground set N. Given a query subset Q of N, how fast can one (1) find the weighted sum over all subsets of Q, and (2) sample a subset of Q proportionally to the weights? We present a tree-based greedy heuristic, Treedy, that for a given positive tolerance d answers such counting and sampling queries to within a guaranteed relative error d and total variation distance d, respectively. Experimental results on artificial instances a...

  10. Effects of open drainage ditch design on bacterial and fungal communities of cold waterlogged paddy soils

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Shanlian, Qiu; MK, Wang; Fei, Wang; Jichen, Chen; Xiaoyan, Li; Qinghua, Li; Cheng, Lin; Xinjian, Lin.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment established in 1980 was conducted to evaluate the effects of open drainage ditch applied for water removal on bacterial and fungal communities of cold waterlogged paddy soils in 2011. In this experiment, traditional plate counting and temperature gradient gel electrophoresis were [...] employed to characterize the abundance and diversity of soil bacterial and fungal communities. Four different distances from the open drainage ditch, 5, 15, 25 and 75 m with different degrees of drainage were designed for this study. Maximum populations of culturable aerobic bacteria and fungi were at 15-m distance while minimum populations were at 75-m distance. Significant differences (p

  11. Comparison of a new inorganic membrane filter (Anopore) with a track-etched polycarbonate membrane filter (Nuclepore) for direct counting of bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, S.E.; Ditner, S A; Freeman, C; Whitaker, C. J.; Lock, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Bacterial counts obtained by using a new Anopore inorganic membrane filter were 21 to 33% higher than those obtained by using a Nuclepore polycarbonate membrane filter. In addition, the inorganic filter had higher flow rates, permitting lower vacuum pressures to be used, while the intrinsically flat, rigid surface resulted in easier focusing and sharp definition of bacteria across the whole field of view.

  12. A counting pixel readout chip for imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pixel readout chip for imaging applications has been designed and tested. It consists of an array of 12 x 63 pixels with an active pixel cell area of 50 ?m x 350 ?m. Every pixel contains a low-noise charge sensitive amplifier, a CMOS comparator including individually adjustable thresholds, and a 15 bit counter realized using a linear feedback shift register. During data accumulation, every pixel independently counts the number of signal hits above threshold. After accumulation all counters in a column are sequentially read out, all columns in parallel. Thresholds can be set globally with the possibility of an individual threshold adjust in every cell. The chip can be operated with threshold settings in every cell well below equivalent noise charges (ENC) of 1000 electrons. The dead time of a pixel after being hit is ?500 ns. The chip is alive for data accumulation in >99.9% of the total data acquisition time. For photon counting in biomedical or material science applications, a suitable sensor with high Z material can be bump bonded to the counting chip. (orig.)

  13. Strontium-85 profile counting in fractures of the tibial shaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 203 profile countings were performed on 68 fractures of the tibial shaft, which included 25 normally healing cases, 37 cases of delayed union, and six cases of non-union. The measurements were performed on the 1st and the 7th day after the injection of strontium. In 27 cases the fracture received 2-3 strontium injections with associated profile counting at different stages of the healing process. The cases of normally healing fractures and delayed union showed differences in the average strontium uptake. However, these differences were not distinct enough to enable classification of individual fractures into groups. In cases requiring bone grafting, the transplant was found to accelerate metabolism and increase the accretion of strontium at the site of the fracture. The investigation shows that the real value of strontium profile counting lies in its ability to give information about the osteogenetic activity of the bone, which is a necessary prerequisite for the healing of the fracture. (author)

  14. Measuring Total and Germinable Spore Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noell, A.C.; Yung, P.T.; Yang, W.; Lee, C.; Ponce, A.

    2011-01-01

    It has been shown that bacterial endospores can be enumerated using a microscopy based assay that images the luminescent halos from terbium ions bound to dipicolinic acid, a spore specific chemical marker released upon spore germination. Further development of the instrument has simplified it towards automation while at the same time improving image quality. Enumeration of total spore populations has also been developed allowing measurement of the percentage of viable spores in any population by comparing the germinable/culturable spores to the total. Percentage viability will allow a more quantitative comparison of the ability of spores to survive across a wide range of extreme environments.

  15. Electromagnetism of Bacterial Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainiwaer, Ailiyasi

    2011-10-01

    There has been increasing concern from the public about personal health due to the significant rise in the daily use of electrical devices such as cell phones, radios, computers, GPS, video games and television. All of these devices create electromagnetic (EM) fields, which are simply magnetic and electric fields surrounding the appliances that simultaneously affect the human bio-system. Although these can affect the human system, obstacles can easily shield or weaken the electrical fields; however, magnetic fields cannot be weakened and can pass through walls, human bodies and most other objects. The present study was conducted to examine the possible effects of bacteria when exposed to magnetic fields. The results indicate that a strong causal relationship is not clear, since different magnetic fields affect the bacteria differently, with some causing an increase in bacterial cells, and others causing a decrease in the same cells. This phenomenon has yet to be explained, but the current study attempts to offer a mathematical explanation for this occurrence. The researchers added cultures to the magnetic fields to examine any effects to ion transportation. Researchers discovered ions such as potassium and sodium are affected by the magnetic field. A formula is presented in the analysis section to explain this effect.

  16. Ascitic fluid analysis for diagnosis and monitoring of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliviero Riggio, Stefania Angeloni

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphonuclear (PMN cell count in the ascitic fluid is essential for the diagnosis and management of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP. To date, PMN cell count is routinely performed by traditional manual counting. However, this method is time-consuming, costly, and not always timely available. Therefore, considerable efforts have been made in recent years to develop an alternative test for a more rapid diagnosis and monitoring of SBP. The use of urinary reagent strips was proposed to achieve an “instant” bedside diagnosis of SBP. A series of reports evaluated the urine strip test for SBP diagnosis and reported promising results. However, a recent large multicenter study revealed a surprising lack of diagnostic efficacy of the urine screening test for SBP diagnosis. Another method, more recently proposed as an alternative to the manual PMN count, is the measurement of lactoferrin in ascitic fluid, but the data available on the diagnostic value of this test are limited to a single study. However, both urinary reagent strips and ascitic lactoferrin tests are qualitative methods and need, therefore, to be further confirmed by standard cytology of the ascitic fluid. To date, the only quantitative method proposed as a valid alternative to manual PMN counting is automated blood cell counters, commonly used in all laboratories for blood cell counting. Data available in the literature on the diagnostic performance of this method are limited but very promising, and this tool seems to have the potential to replace the manual counting method.

  17. Radionuclide stroke count ratios for assessment of right and left ventricular volume overload in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrish, M.D.; Graham, T.P. Jr.; Born, M.L.; Jones, J.P.; Boucek, R.J. Jr.; Artman, M.; Partain, C.L.

    1983-01-15

    The ratio of left ventricular to right ventricular stroke counts measured by radionuclide angiography has been used in adults to estimate the severity of left-sided valvular regurgitation. The validation of this technique in children for assessment of right and left ventricular volume overload is reported herein. Radionuclide stroke count ratios in 60 children aged 0.5 to 19 years (mean 11) were determined. Based on their diagnoses, the patients were divided into 3 groups: (1) normal--40 patients with no shunts or valvular regurgitation, (2) left ventricular volume overload--13 patients with mitral or aortic regurgitation, or both, and (3) right ventricular volume overload--7 patients, 2 with severe tricuspid regurgitation, 3 with atrial septal defects, and 2 with total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage. The radionuclide stroke count ratio clearly differentiated these groups (p less than 0.05): normal patients had a stroke count ratio of 1.04 +/- 0.17 (mean +/- 1 standard deviation), the left ventricular volume overload group had a stroke count ratio of 2.43 +/- 0.86, and the right ventricular volume overload group had a stroke count ratio of 0.44 +/- 0.17. In 22 of our 60 patients, radionuclide stroke count ratios were compared with cineangiographic stroke volume ratios, resulting in a correlation coefficient of 0.88. It is concluded that radionuclide ventriculography is an excellent tool for qualitative and quantitative assessment of valvular regurgitation in children.

  18. Evaluation of petrifilm series 2000 as a possible rapid method to count coliforms in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priego, R; Medina, L M; Jordano, R

    2000-08-01

    This research note is a preliminary comparison between the Petrifilm 2000 method and a widely used traditional enumeration method (on violet red bile agar); six batches of different foods (egg, frozen green beans, fresh sausage, a bakery product, raw minced meat, and raw milk) were studied. The reliability of the presumptive counts taken at 10, 12, and 14 h of incubation using this method was also verified by comparing the counts with the total confirmed counts at 24 h. In all the batches studied, results obtained with Petrifilm 2000 presented a close correlation to those obtained using violet red bile agar (r = 0.860) and greater sensitivity (93.33% of the samples displayed higher counts on Petrifilm 2000), showing that this method is a reliable and efficient alternative. The count taken at 10-h incubation is of clear interest as an early indicator of results in microbiological food control, since it accounted for 90% of the final count in all the batches analyzed. Counts taken at 12 and 14 h bore a greater similarity to those taken at 24 h. The Petrifilm 2000 method provides results in less than 12 h of incubation, making it a possible rapid method that adapts perfectly to hazard analysis critical control point system by enabling the microbiological quality control of the processing. PMID:10945593

  19. Bacterial tracheitis in Down's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Cant, A J; Gibson, P.J.; West, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Four children with Down's syndrome and bacterial tracheitis are described. In three the infection was due to Haemophilus influenza. In patients with Down's syndrome presenting with stridor tracheitis should be considered and appropriate treatment started.

  20. Bacterial flora of sturgeon fingerling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study on microbial populations is a suitable tool to understand and apply control methods to improve the sanitary level of production in fish breeding and rearing centers, ensure health of sturgeon fingerlings at the time of their release into the rivers and also in the conversation and restoration of these valuable stocks in the Caspian Sea, Iran. A laboratory research based on Austin methods (Austin, B., Austin, D.A. 1993) was conducted for bacterial study on 3 sturgeon species naming A. persicus, A. stellatus and A. nudiventris during different growth stages. Bacterial flora of Acinetobacter, Moraxella, Aeromonas, Vibrio, Edwardsiella, Staphylococcus, Proteus, Yersinia, Pseudomonas and Plesiomonas were determined. The factors which may induce changes in bacterial populations during different stages of fife are the followings: quality of water in rearing ponds, different conditions for growth stages, suitable time for colonization of bacterial flora in rearing pond, water temperature increase in fingerlings size and feeding condition. (author)

  1. Bacterial Leaching of Manganese Ores

    International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

    Bacterial Leaching of Manganese, Phosphorus, silica and Iron from Manganese Ores, Nonstandard Concentrates and Enrichment Wastes (Slimes) for the Purpose of Receiving Manganese Sulphate, Dioxide and Elictrolitic Manganese Metall

  2. CoC Housing Inventory Count Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Continuum of Care (CoC) Homeless Assistance Programs Housing Inventory Count Reports are a snapshot of a CoC’s housing inventory, available at the national and...

  3. Complexity of Counting CSP with Complex Weights

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Jin-Yi

    2011-01-01

    We give a complexity dichotomy theorem for the counting Constraint Satisfaction Problem (#CSP in short) with complex weights. To this end, we give three conditions for its tractability. Let F be any finite set of complex-valued functions, then we prove that #CSP(F) is solvable in polynomial time if all three conditions are satisfied; and is #P-hard otherwise. Our complexity dichotomy generalizes a long series of important results on counting problems: (a) the problem of counting graph homomorphisms is the special case when there is a single symmetric binary function in F; (b) the problem of counting directed graph homomorphisms is the special case when there is a single not-necessarily-symmetric binary function in F; and (c) the standard form of #CSP is when all functions in F take values in {0,1}.

  4. Acute bacterial meningitis in Qatar.

    OpenAIRE

    Elsaid, Mahmoud F.; Amina A. Flamerzi; Mohammed S. Bessisso; Sittana S. Elshafie

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To study the changes in the epidemiology, clinical and bacteriological profiles of bacterial meningitis in the era of the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)vaccine and pneumococcus resistance. METHODS This is a retrospective study of children aged <12 years admitted to the Hamad Medical Corporation, Qatar between January 1998 through December 2002 with positive cerebrospinal fluid culture. RESULTS We described 64 patients with culture proven bacterial meningitis....

  5. Bacterial infections complicating tongue piercing

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Catherine HY; Minnema, Brian J.; Gold, Wayne L

    2010-01-01

    Tongue piercing has become an increasingly popular form of body art. However, this procedure can occasionally be complicated by serious bacterial infections. The present article reports a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by a Gemella species in a patient with a pierced tongue, and reviews 18 additional cases of local and systemic bacterial infections associated with tongue piercing. Infections localized to the oral cavity and head and neck region included molar abscess, glossal ab...

  6. Hydrogeochemical controls on the organic matter and bacterial ecology of a small freshwater wetland in the New Jersey Pine Barrens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, Patricia A; Leff, Laura G

    2002-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of variable ground-water/surface-water exchange and photoinduced processes on longitudinal patterns in dissolved organic matter (DOM) and bacterial communities in a small first-order stream in the New Jersey Pine Barrens. DOM concentration, along with DOM weight average molecular weight (Mw) and absorptivity (epsilon280, an estimator of aromaticity), and bacterial cell counts all decreased from the stream and hyporheic zone into the shallow aquifer in a ground-water recharge zone. Further downstream, influx of ground water into the stream resulted in a lower Mw DOM pool and was accompanied by decreased cell counts. The observed effect of this ground-water discharge on bacterial numbers may be direct, if discharge temporarily dilutes cell counts, or indirect, if changes in DOM concentration and properties control the bacterial community. In either case, this study suggested the importance of considering ground-water-surface-water exchange in studies of longitudinal changes in the bacterial communities of streams. PMID:12153023

  7. Collborative Augmented Reality Based People Counting System

    OpenAIRE

    Akhil Khare,; Kanchan Warke, Dr. Akhilesh Upadhayay

    2011-01-01

    People counting system have wide potential application including video surveillance and public resources management. Also with rapid development of economic society, crowd flowing in varies public places and facility is more and more frequent. Effectively managing and controlling crowd in public places become an important issue. People counting system based on this kind of demand arises, which can be used in commercial domain such as market survey, traffic management as well as architectural ...

  8. Proteinuria and malaria parasite counts in children

    OpenAIRE

    Mahrani Lubis; Rusdidjas; Rafita Ramayati; Oke Rina Ramayani; Rosmayanti S Siregar; Supriatmo

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria-induced proteinuria has been observed in severe cases of malaria. Few studies have been done to assess for an association between proteinuria and malaria parasite counts before the disease becomes severe. Objective To investigate a possible association between proteinuria and malaria parasite counts in children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on school-aged children in Panyabungan, Natal, between September to November 2010. Malaria was diagnosed by mi...

  9. How to count an introduction to combinatorics

    CERN Document Server

    Allenby, RBJT

    2010-01-01

    What's It All About? What Is Combinatorics? Classic Problems What You Need to Know Are You Sitting Comfortably? Permutations and Combinations The Combinatorial Approach Permutations CombinationsApplications to Probability Problems The Multinomial Theorem Permutations and Cycles Occupancy Problems Counting the Solutions of Equations New Problems from Old A ""Reduction"" Theorem for the Stirling Numbers The Inclusion-Exclusion Principle Double Counting Derangements A Formula for the Stirling NumbersStirling and Catalan Numbers Stirling Numbers Permutations and Stirling Numbers Catalan Numbers Pa

  10. Statistical treatment of nuclear counting results

    OpenAIRE

    Doli?anin ?emal B.; Stankovi? Koviljka ?.; Doli?anin Diana ?.; Lon?ar Boris B.

    2011-01-01

    Since the exact time a specific nucleus undergoes radioactive decay cannot be specified, nor can showers caused by secondary cosmic rays be predicted, statistical laws play an important role in almost all cases of experimental nuclear physics. This paper describes the method for the statistical treatment of nuclear counting results obtained experimentally by taking into account random variables pertaining to both frequent and infrequent phenomena. When processing counting measurement da...

  11. Colors, Luminosity Function and Counts of Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Saracco, P.; Chincarini, G.; Iovino, A.

    1995-01-01

    Standard models for deep galaxy counts are based on luminosity functions (LF) with relatively flat faint end ($\\alpha\\sim-1.0$). Galaxy counts in the B--band exceed the prediction of such models by a factor of 2 to more than 5, forcing the introduction of strong luminosity and/or density evolution. Recently Marzke et al. (1994a) using the CfA redshift survey sample find that the number of galaxies in the range $-16

  12. Fixation, Counting, and Manipulation of Heterotrophic Nanoflagellates

    OpenAIRE

    Bloem, Jaap; Bär-Gilissen, Marie-José B.; Cappenberg, Thomas E.

    1986-01-01

    Quantitative effects of several fixatives on heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNAN) and phototrophic nanoflagellates (PNAN) were investigated by hemacytometer and epifluorescence counting techniques. Counts of Monas sp. cultures before and after fixation with unbuffered 0.3% glutaraldehyde and 5% formaldehyde showed no loss of cells during fixation, and cell concentrations remained constant for several weeks after fixation. Buffering of fixatives with borax caused severe losses, up to 100% with...

  13. Power Counting in Dimensionally Regularized NRQCD

    OpenAIRE

    Luke, Michael; Savage, Martin J.

    1997-01-01

    We present a scheme for calculating in NRQCD with consistent power counting in the heavy quark velocity v. As an example, we perform the systematic matching of an external current onto NRQCD at subleading order in v, a calculation relevant for the process e^+e^- -> hadrons near threshold. Consistent velocity power counting in dimensional regularization is achieved by including two distinct gluon fields, one corresponding to gluon radiation and one corresponding to an instant...

  14. Remote system for counting of nuclear pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, it is describe technically the remote system for counting of nuclear pulses, an integral system of the project radiological monitoring in a petroleum distillation tower. The system acquires the counting of incident nuclear particles in a nuclear detector which process this information and send it in serial form, using the RS-485 toward a remote receiver, which can be a Personal computer or any other device capable to interpret the communication protocol. (Author)

  15. Automated Blood Cells Extraction and counting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Mohammad Zahran

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Automated blood cells extraction and counting in medical images is an important and sometimes necessary procedure in medical diagnostics and treatment. In this paper an automated blood cells extraction and counting method from microscopic images was proposed. The method is based on morphological filtering. The proposed method was tested using different background noises, resolutions and different colored images. The results are encouraging and the method gave an excellent performance for white blood cells and acceptable performance for red blood cells.

  16. Improving cycle counting with buffer time management

    OpenAIRE

    Broodryk, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a view of how inventory accuracy can be improved when Buffer Time Management principals is applied to Cycle Counting procedures. With no base module from which customer specific solutions can be designed from leads to brand new Cycle Counting modules being developed for each and every customer, this results in waste of time, money and other resources. The need to develop a module that would act as base module for future developments was identified and addressed. Different...

  17. Count data modelling and tourism demand

    OpenAIRE

    Hellström, Jörgen

    2002-01-01

    This thesis consists of four papers concerning modelling of count data and tourism demand. For three of the papers the focus is on the integer-valued autoregressive moving average model class (INARMA), and especially on the ENAR(l) model. The fourth paper studies the interaction between households' choice of number of leisure trips and number of overnight stays within a bivariate count data modelling framework. Paper [I] extends the basic INAR(1) model to enable more flexible and realistic em...

  18. Influence of water chlorination on the counting of bacteria with DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole).

    OpenAIRE

    Saby, S.; Sibille, I.; Mathieu, L.; Paquin, J L; Block, J C

    1997-01-01

    Counting bacteria in drinking water samples by the epifluorescence technique after 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining is complicated by the fact that bacterial fluorescence varies with exposure of the cells to sodium hypochlorite. An Escherichia coli laboratory-grown suspension treated with sodium hypochlorite (5 to 15 mg of chlorine liter-1) for 90 min was highly fluorescent after DAPI staining probably due to cell membrane permeation and better and DAPI diffusion. At chlorine con...

  19. Quantificação de bactérias totais e esporuladas no solo / Quantification of total and sporulating bacteria in soils

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco Cleber Sousa, Vieira; Ely, Nahas.

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisou o efeito da temperatura e período de incubação e da diluição do inóculo, em dois meios de cultura, sobre a quantificação de bactérias totais e esporuladas. O crescimento quantitativo e qualitativo de bactérias totais e esporuladas depende tanto do meio de cultura, temperatura, [...] diluição e tempo utilizados como da interação desses fatores. O meio de TSA apresentou maior contagem que o meio de Thorton de unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC) de bactérias totais mas não de Bacillus spp. As colônias crescidas no meio de TSA apresentaram maior tamanho e forma mais nítida. O cultivo à temperatura de 30°C propiciou maior número de UFC que a 25°C, sobretudo nos primeiros dias de incubação. O crescimento bacteriano correspondeu a uma equação de 3° grau. Dependendo do meio de cultura, da temperatura de incubação e da diluição, os períodos de máximo crescimento foram de 4,9 a 6,9 dias para as bactérias totais e de 4,4 a 7,2 dias para Bacillus spp. Embora tenham sido utilizadas diluições decimais dos inóculos, as proporções entre as contagens variaram de 6,3 a 10,0 vezes para as bactérias totais e de 2,0 a 7,0 para as esporuladas. Abstract in english This work studied the effect of the temperature and incubation time and of the inoculum dilution, in two culture media, on the quantification of total and sporulating bacteria. The quantitative and qualitative growth of total and sporulating bacteria depended on the growth medium, temperature, dilut [...] ion and incubation time, as well as on the interaction of these factors. Tryptic Soil Agar medium presented a greater number of colony forming units (CFU) for total bacteria. However, for Bacillus spp. there were higher counts on Thorton medium. Colonies grown on Tryptic Soy Agar medium were of larger size and had a more clearly defined shape. An incubation temperature of 30°C yielded more CFU than incubation at 25°C, especially during the first days of incubation. Bacterial growth was fit to a mathematical model and corresponded to a third degree equation. Depending on the growth culture medium, incubation temperature and dilution, periods of maximum growth were between 4.9 and 6.9 days for total bacteria and between 4.4 and 7.2 days for Bacillus spp. Although decimal inoculum dilutions were used, proportions between counts based on different conditions ranged from 6.3 to 10.0 times for total bacteria and from 2.0 to 7.0 times for sporulating bacteria.

  20. Current knowledge of bacterial vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?uki? Slobodanka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis, earlier termed nonspecific vaginitis (anaerobic vaginosis because of the absence of recognized pathogens, is most common vaginal syndrome of women of childbearing age affecting 15-30%. This syndrome, whose aetiology and pathogenesis remains unknown, is characterized by significant changes in the vaginal ecosystem. These changes consist of a decrease in the number of lactobacilli and a large increase in the number of anaerobic organisms. The bacteria adhere to desquamated epithelial cells with a distinctive appearance of clue cells The main complaints of women with symptomatic bacterial vaginosis include vaginal discharge and odour. However, a significant number of all women who have bacterial vaginosis deny symptoms. Bacterial vaginosis is associated with a number of gynaecologic and obstetric complications including cervicitis, cervical neoplasia, pelvic inflammatory disease, postoperative infections, and preterm labour. The diagnosis is most frequently made based on vaginal smear stained according to Gram (Nugent scoring method. Metronidazole and clindamycin are the drugs of choice for treatment of women with bacterial vaginosis. Which women should undergo treatment? According to the prevailing attitude, it should include women with symptoms. Symptomatic women with frequent relapses of bacterial vaginosisas, as a rule, have poor response to the applied therapy. To achieve better efficiency in the treatment of such women, it is necessary to have more extensive understanding of all factors in the pathogenesis of the syndrome.

  1. Factors affecting somatic cell count in dairy goats: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Granda, R.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, M.; Arce, C.; Rodriguez-Estevez, V.

    2014-06-01

    Somatic cell count (SCC) in monitoring udder health has been described in numerous studies as a useful method for the diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI), and it is considered in standards of quality and hygiene of cows milk in many countries. However, several authors have questioned the validity of SCC as a reliable IMI diagnosis tool in dairy goats. This review attempts to reflect the importance of different infectious and non-infectious factors that can modify SCC values in goat milk, and must, therefore, be taken into account when using the SCC as a tool in the improvement of udder health and the quality of milk in this species. In dairy goats, some investigations have shown that mammary bacterial infections are a major cause of increased SCC and loss of production. In goats however, the relationship between bacterial infections and SCC values is not as simple as in dairy cattle, since non-infectious factors also have a big impact on SCC. Intrinsic factors are those that depend directly on the animal: time and number of lactation (higher SCC late in lactation and in aged goats), prolificity (higher SCC in multiple births), milking time (higher SCC in evening compared to morning milking) and number of milkings per day, among others. Extrinsic factors include: milking routine (lower SCC in machine than in manual milking), seasonality and food. In addition, milk secretion in goats is mostly apocrine and therefore characterized by the presence of epithelial debris or cytoplasmic particles, which makes the use of DNA specific counters mandatory. All this information is of interest in order to correctly interpret the SCC in goat milk and to establish differential SCC standards. (Author)

  2. Optimal Private Halfspace Counting via Discrepancy

    CERN Document Server

    Muthukrishnan, S

    2012-01-01

    A range counting problem is specified by a set $P$ of size $|P| = n$ of points in $\\mathbb{R}^d$, an integer weight $x_p$ associated to each point $p \\in P$, and a range space ${\\cal R} \\subseteq 2^{P}$. Given a query range $R \\in {\\cal R}$, the target output is $R(\\vec{x}) = \\sum_{p \\in R}{x_p}$. Range counting for different range spaces is a central problem in Computational Geometry. We study $(\\epsilon, \\delta)$-differentially private algorithms for range counting. Our main results are for the range space given by hyperplanes, that is, the halfspace counting problem. We present an $(\\epsilon, \\delta)$-differentially private algorithm for halfspace counting in $d$ dimensions which achieves $O(n^{1-1/d})$ average squared error. This contrasts with the $\\Omega(n)$ lower bound established by the classical result of Dinur and Nissim [PODS 2003] for arbitrary subset counting queries. We also show a matching lower bound on average squared error for any $(\\epsilon, \\delta)$-differentially private algorithm for hal...

  3. Power counting to better jet observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Moult, Ian; Neill, Duff

    2014-12-01

    Optimized jet substructure observables for identifying boosted topologies will play an essential role in maximizing the physics reach of the Large Hadron Collider. Ideally, the design of discriminating variables would be informed by analytic calculations in perturbative QCD. Unfortunately, explicit calculations are often not feasible due to the complexity of the observables used for discrimination, and so many validation studies rely heavily, and solely, on Monte Carlo. In this paper we show how methods based on the parametric power counting of the dynamics of QCD, familiar from effective theory analyses, can be used to design, understand, and make robust predictions for the behavior of jet substructure variables. As a concrete example, we apply power counting for discriminating boosted Z bosons from massive QCD jets using observables formed from the n-point energy correlation functions. We show that power counting alone gives a definite prediction for the observable that optimally separates the background-rich from the signal-rich regions of phase space. Power counting can also be used to understand effects of phase space cuts and the effect of contamination from pile-up, which we discuss. As these arguments rely only on the parametric scaling of QCD, the predictions from power counting must be reproduced by any Monte Carlo, which we verify using Pythia 8 and Herwig++. We also use the example of quark versus gluon discrimination to demonstrate the limits of the power counting technique.

  4. Role of intestinal bacterial overgrowth and intestinal motility in bacterial translocation in experimental cirrhosis / Papel del sobrecrecimiento bacteriano intestinal y de la motilidad intestinal en la traslocación bacteriana en un modelo experimental de cirrosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E., Sánchez; F., Casafont; A., Guerra; I. de, Benito; F., Pons-Romero.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el sobrecrecimiento bacteriano intestinal (SBI) está relacionado con la motilidad del intestino delgado y diferentes trabajos con modelos experimentales han sugerido su relación con el desarrollo de traslocación bacteriana (TB). Tanto el sobrecrecimiento bacteriano intestinal como la t [...] raslocación bacteriana son eventos frecuentes en la cirrosis hepática. Objetivos: los objetivos de este estudio han sido analizar la población cecal de bacterias aerobias y el tránsito intestinal en un modelo de ratas cirróticas y su relación con la TB. Material y métodos: el estudio se ha realizado en un modelo experimental de cirrosis inducida por tetracloruro de carbono por vía oral en ratas Sprague-Dawley. Se llevaron a cabo cultivos microbiológicos convencionales a partir de ganglios linfáticos mesentéricos (GLM), sangre portal y periférica, hígado, bazo, y muestras cecales de todos los animales. Además se determinó el tiempo de tránsito intestinal en 10 ratas cirróticas y en 10 controles. Resultados: la prevalencia de la traslocación bacteriana en los animales cirróticos fue de un 56%. La población de gérmenes aerobios en el ciego en las ratas cirróticas fue significativamente mayor (p Abstract in english Background: intestinal bacterial overgrowth (IBO) is related to small bowel motility and has been involved in the pathogenesis of bacterial translocation (BT) in experimental models, and both overgrowing gut flora and translocating bacteria to mesenteric lymph nodes are common features in cirrhosis. [...] Objectives: the aims of this study were to analyze cecal aerobic bacteria and intestinal transit in cirrhotic rats, and their relationship with BT, evaluating the role of intestinal bacterial overgrowth and small bowel dismotility in the development of BT in experimental cirrhosis. Material and methods: we included twenty-seven male Sprague-Dawley rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis without ascites and ten controls. Cultures of mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), peripheral and portal blood, liver, spleen and cecal samples were carried out. Small intestinal transit was determined in ten cirrhotic rats and in ten control rats. Results: the prevalence of bacterial translocation was 56%. Total cecal aerobic bacteria count was significantly higher in cirrhotic rats than in control rats (p

  5. CLINICAL PROFILE OF ACUTE BACTERIAL MENINIGITS AND OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadevi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To study the clinical profile of ABM and analyse the differences in clinical presentation among young infant , toddler, compared to school going children. A nd to find out the bacteriological profile and sensitivity pattern of ABM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study is a prospective non - randomized single arm study . Children with the diagnosis of ABM admitted to the department of Pediatrics Govt. General Hospital , Kurnool from January 2013 to October 2013 are included in the study. Clinical details of all patients were recorded CSF was analysed by routine biochemical methods, and microbiological studies on special media. The children were managed as per the standard protocols . RESULTS: In a study period of 1 year During the study period 74 children (1.5% of all admissions satisfied the criteria of ABM in early childhood; . The incidence of Acute Bacterial Meningitis was 1.45% of total Pediatric admissions. Of the 74 cases 25 died. Mortality rate was 33.79%.mortality observed was more in less than one year of age. Chief presentation was high fever, refusal of feeds, altered sensorium and seizures. T he final etiological diagnosis (as per LAT and/or cultures were 32 cases are positive for culture and sensitivity of ABM and Biochemically and Cell count wise 74 cases are positive for ABM . CSF has grown pneumococci in 8 (25% cases , Coagulase positive Staph. A ureus in 3 (9.38% cases, Coagulase negative Staph. A ureus in 3(15.63% cases, Nesseria Meningitides in 3 (9.38%, Klebsiella in 4 (12.50% cases, E coli , Enterococci and Pseudomonous in 9 (28.13% The outcome in the present study with respect to death is 33.78% and 45.95% of patients Survived with complications , 20.27% of patients survived without complications . CONCLUSION: The incidence and Mortality were significantly high in low socio economic group. The incidence and mortality was high in lesser age group. Mortality is very high with high CSF protein and low sugar levels. Pneumococci and coagulase negative staphylococci are predominant causes of morbidity and mortality associated with ABM.

  6. Insights from twenty years of bacterial genome sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Jun, Se Ran [ORNL; Nookaew, Intawat [ORNL; Leuze, Michael Rex [ORNL; Ahn, Tae-Hyuk [ORNL; Karpinets, Tatiana V [ORNL; Lund, Ole [Technical University of Denmark; Kora, Guruprasad H [ORNL; Wassenaar, Trudy [Molecular Microbiology & Genomics Consultants, Zotzenheim, Germany; Poudel, Suresh [ORNL; Ussery, David W [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Since the first two complete bacterial genome sequences were published in 1995, the science of bacteria has dramatically changed. Using third-generation DNA sequencing, it is possible to completely sequence a bacterial genome in a few hours and identify some types of methylation sites along the genome as well. Sequencing of bacterial genome sequences is now a standard procedure, and the information from tens of thousands of bacterial genomes has had a major impact on our views of the bacterial world. In this review, we explore a series of questions to highlight some insights that comparative genomics has produced. To date, there are genome sequences available from 50 different bacterial phyla and 11 different archaeal phyla. However, the distribution is quite skewed towards a few phyla that contain model organisms. But the breadth is continuing to improve, with projects dedicated to filling in less characterized taxonomic groups. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas system provides bacteria with immunity against viruses, which outnumber bacteria by tenfold. How fast can we go? Second-generation sequencing has produced a large number of draft genomes (close to 90 % of bacterial genomes in GenBank are currently not complete); third-generation sequencing can potentially produce a finished genome in a few hours, and at the same time provide methlylation sites along the entire chromosome. The diversity of bacterial communities is extensive as is evident from the genome sequences available from 50 different bacterial phyla and 11 different archaeal phyla. Genome sequencing can help in classifying an organism, and in the case where multiple genomes of the same species are available, it is possible to calculate the pan- and core genomes; comparison of more than 2000 Escherichia coli genomes finds an E. coli core genome of about 3100 gene families and a total of about 89,000 different gene families. Why do we care about bacterial genome sequencing? There are many practical applications, such as genome-scale metabolic modeling, biosurveillance, bioforensics, and infectious disease epidemiology. In the near future, high-throughput sequencing of patient metagenomic samples could revolutionize medicine in terms of speed and accuracy of finding pathogens and knowing how to treat them.

  7. Insights from 20 years of bacterial genome sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren

    2015-01-01

    Since the first two complete bacterial genome sequences were published in 1995, the science of bacteria has dramatically changed. Using third-generation DNA sequencing, it is possible to completely sequence a bacterial genome in a few hours and identify some types of methylation sites along the genome as well. Sequencing of bacterial genome sequences is now a standard procedure, and the information from tens of thousands of bacterial genomes has had a major impact on our views of the bacterial world. In this review, we explore a series of questions to highlight some insights that comparative genomics has produced. To date, there are genome sequences available from 50 different bacterial phyla and 11 different archaeal phyla. However, the distribution is quite skewed towards a few phyla that contain model organisms. But the breadth is continuing to improve, with projects dedicated to filling in less characterized taxonomic groups. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas system provides bacteria with immunity against viruses, which outnumber bacteria by tenfold. How fast can we go? Second-generation sequencing has produced a large number of draft genomes (close to 90 % of bacterial genomes in GenBank are currently not complete); third-generation sequencing can potentially produce a finished genome in a few hours, and at the same time provide methlylation sites along the entire chromosome. The diversity of bacterial communities is extensive as is evident from the genome sequences available from 50 different bacterial phyla and 11 different archaeal phyla. Genome sequencing can help in classifying an organism, and in the case where multiple genomes of the same species are available, it is possible to calculate the pan- and core genomes; comparison of more than 2000 Escherichia coli genomes finds an E. coli core genome of about 3100 gene families and a total of about 89,000 different gene families. Why do we care about bacterial genome sequencing? There are many practical applications, such as genome-scale metabolic modeling, biosurveillance, bioforensics, and infectious disease epidemiology. In the near future, high-throughput sequencing of patient metagenomic samples could revolutionize medicine in terms of speed and accuracy of finding pathogens and knowing how to treat them.

  8. Changes of Bacterial Diversity Depend on the Spoilage of Fresh Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hwan Lee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Almost 10~30% of vegetables were discarded by the spoilage from farms to tables. After harvest, vegetables are often spoiled by a wide variety of microorganisms including many bacterial and fungal species. This investigation was conducted to extent the knowledge of relationship the spoilage of vegetables and the diversity of microbes. The total aerobic bacterial numbers in fresh lettuce, perilla leaf, and chicory were 2.6~2.7×106, 4.6×105, 1.2×106 CFU/g of fresh weight, respectively. The most common bacterial species were Pseudomonas spp., Alysiella spp., and Burkholderia spp., and other 18 more genera were involved in. After one week of incubation of those vegetables at 28?, the microbial diversity had been changed. The total aerobic bacterial numbers increased to 1.1~4.6×108, 4.9×107, and 7.6×108 CFU/g of fresh weight for lettuce, perilla leaf, and chicory that is about 102 times increased bacterial numbers than that before spoilage. However, the diversity of microbes isolated had been simplified and fewer bacterial species had been isolated. The most bacterial population (~48% was taken up by Pseudomonas spp., and followed by Arthrobacter spp. and Bacillus spp. The spoilage activity of individual bacterial isolates had been tested using axenic lettuce plants. Among tested isolates, Pseudomonas fluorescence and Pantoea agglomerans caused severe spoilage on lettuce.

  9. Bacterial community diversity in municipal waste landfill sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Liyan; Wang, Yangqing; Tang, Wei; Lei, Yu

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the bacterial diversity of landfills and how environmental factors impact the diversity. In this study, PCR-based 454 pyrosequencing was used to investigate the bacterial communities of ten landfill leachate samples from five landfill sites in China. A total of 137 K useable sequences from the V3-V6 regions of the 16S rRNA gene were retrieved from 205 K reads. These sequences revealed the presence of a large number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the landfills (709-1599 OTUs per sample). The most predominant bacterial representatives in the landfills investigated, regardless of geographic area, included Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. The phyla Fusobacteria and Tenericutes were also found for the first time to be predominant in the landfills. The phylum Fusobacteria predominated (51.5 and 48.8%) in two semi-arid landfills, and the phylum Tenericutes dominated (30.6%) at one humid, subtropical landfill. Further, a large number of Pseudomonas was detected in most samples, comprising the dominant group and accounting for 40.9 to 92.4% of the total abundance. Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis based on OTU abundance showed that the abundant taxa separated the bacterial community. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) suggested that precipitation and landfilling age significantly impact on the bacterial community structure. The bacterial community function (e.g., cellulolytic bacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), sulfate-oxidizing bacteria, and xenobiotic organic compound (XOC)-degrading bacteria) was also diverse, but the pattern is unclear. PMID:25981996

  10. Factors influencing bacterial eggshell contamination in conventional cages, furnished cages and free-range systems for laying hens under commercial conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huneau-Salaün, A; Michel, V; Huonnic, D; Balaine, L; Le Bouquin, S

    2010-04-01

    1. The aim was to assess eggshell contamination in various laying hen-housing systems and to identify factors influencing this contamination. 2. Fifty-eight laying hen farms in France were studied, including 21 flocks housed in conventional cages, 7 in furnished cages and 30 kept on-floor. 3. Sixty eggs per flock were analysed to obtain counts of the total mesophilic flora. Data on equipment and hen management were collected. 4. Mean bacterial count on eggshells tended to be higher in on-floor systems (4.82 +/- 0.51 log CFU/eggshell) than in cage systems (4.57 +/- 0.58 log CFU/eggshell, P = 0.09). 5. Contamination increased with age of the hens, airborne dust concentration, manual packing of the eggs, and packing in plastic rather than in recycled-pulp egg-flats. 6. The effect of the housing system on eggshell contamination, previously described in experimental assays, was confirmed under production conditions. PMID:20461576

  11. Some special problems in the determination of viable counts of groundwater microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, P; Rades-Rohkohl, E

    1988-07-01

    Factors affecting viable cell counts in groundwater or sediments were studied with samples from the Segeberg Forest test area in northern Germany. There was very little variation in results with the season (April, August, November) or depth of sampling; generally there were 10(3)-10(4) aerobic cells per ml or g sediment. Long incubation times resulted in higher cell counts; groundwater samples required 4-5 weeks, and sediment extracts had to be cultured for 7 weeks. Total cell counts in sediment were 10(2)-10(4) cell/g higher than viable cell counts of aerobes. This was explained partly by the additional presence of anaerobes and partly by the observation that some morphotypes may not have grown under our conditions. Viable cell counts were not influenced by cell extraction from the sediment with either Na-pyrophosphate or groundwater extracts. However, iron-precipitating or manganese-oxidizing bacteria were better extracted with sterile groundwater. The microflora of wells was more numerous than that of the free aquifer; consequently it was better to pump off all well water before aquifer water was sampled. The diameter of the well was also important; thinner tubes had higher cell counts than those with wider diameter. For sampling, wells should be at least 1 year old, since young wells contain higher numbers of microorganisms due to underground disturbances from the drilling. Turbid water samples could be clarified by filtration, but this reduced the viable counts by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Two different media inoculated with a sample dilution resulted in the same cell counts, but their microbial diversity was different. Storage of groundwater samples before processing resulted in up to 17-fold increases in cell counts and loss of diversity in the first 24 hours. Cell numbers decreased slowly during longer storage. PMID:24201536

  12. The relationship between skin manifestations and CD4 counts among hiv positive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skin manifestations are common clinical features among HIV positive patients. The aim of this study was to document skin manifestations and their relationships with CD4 cell counts among HIV positive patients in Sanandaj. This was a descriptive study. The patients were examined for skin disorders by a dermatologist and CD4 counts were obtained from the patient's medical records. Independent samples T test were used for data analysis. In this study 66 (94.3%) patients had at least one skin problem. Fungal infections were the most common cause. The eight most common types of mucocutaneous problems were gingivitis, pallor, itching, photosensitivity, seborrheic dermatitis, candidiasis, folliculitis and tinea versicolor. The most common manifestation was gingivitis. Mean CD4 cell counts were lower in individuals with viral and bacterial skin diseases (P <0.05). The results of this study indicated that skin problems were common among HIV positive patients. Patients with advanced stages of skin disorders had relatively lower CD4 counts. Therefore examination of skin is recommended for all HIV positive patients for early detection of skin disorders, as early diagnosis and management of dermatologic problems will improve the quality of life in HIV positive patients. (author)

  13. Bacterial Growth in Mixed Cultures on Dissolved Organic Carbon from Humic and Clear Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranvik, Lars J.; Höfle, Manfred G.

    1987-01-01

    Interactions between bacterial assemblages and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from different sources were investigated. Mixed batch cultures were set up with water from a humic and a clear-water lake by a 1:20 dilution of the bacterial assemblage (1.0 ?m of prefiltered lake water) with natural medium (sterile filtered lake water) in all four possible combinations of the two waters and their bacterial assemblages. Bacterial numbers and biomass, DOC, thymidine incorporation, ATP, and uptake of glucose and phenol were followed in these cultures. Growth curves and exponential growth rates were similar in all cultures, regardless of inoculum or medium. However, bacterial biomass produced was double in cultures based on water from the humic lake. The fraction of DOC consumed by heterotrophic bacteria during growth was in the same range, 15 to 22% of the total DOC pool, in all cultures. Bacterial growth efficiency, calculated from bacterial biomass produced and DOC consumed, was in the order of 20%. Glucose uptake reached a peak during exponential growth in all cultures. Phenol uptake was insignificant in the cultures based on the clear-water medium, but occurred in humic medium cultures after exponential growth. The similarity in the carbon budgets of all cultures indicated that the source of the bacterial assemblage did not have a significant effect on the overall carbon flux. However, fluxes of specific organic compounds differed, as reflected by glucose and phenol uptake, depending on the nature of the DOC and the bacterial assemblage. PMID:16347296

  14. Comparative pyrosequencing analysis of bacterial community change in biofilm formed on seawater reverse osmosis membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In S; Lee, Jinwook; Kima, Sung-Jo; Yu, Hye-Weon; Jang, Am

    2014-01-01

    The change in bacterial community structure induced by bacterial competition and succession was investigated during seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) in order to elucidate a possible link between the bacterial consortium on SWRO membranes and biofouling. To date, there has been no definitive characterization of the microbial diversity in SWRO in terms of distinguishing time-dependent changes in the richness or abundance of bacterial species. For bacterial succession within biofilms on the membrane surface, SWRO using a cross-flow filtration membrane test unit was operated for 5 and 100h, respectively. As results of the pyrosequencing analysis, bacterial communities differed considerably among seawater and the 5 and 100 h samples. From a total of 33,876 pyrosequences (using a 95% sequence similarity), there were less than 1% of shared species, confirming the influence of the operational time factor and lack of similarity of these communities. During SWRO operation, the abundance of Pseudomonas stutzeri BBSPN3 (GU594474) belonging to gamma-Proteobacteria suggest that biofouling of SWRO membrane might be driven by the dominant influence of a specific species. In addition, among the bacterial competition of five bacterial species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus sp., Rhodobacter sp., Flavobacterium sp., and Mycobacterium sp.) competing for bacterial colonization on the SWRO membrane surfaces, it was exhibited that Bacillus sp. was the most dominant. The dominant influences ofPseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. on biofouling during actual SWRO is decisive depending on higher removal efficiency of the seawater pretreatment. PMID:24600849

  15. Bacterial diversity in a deep-subsurface clay environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin-Jahns, V; Ruimy, R; Bianchi, A; Daumas, S; Christen, R

    1996-09-01

    The presence of bacteria in a deep clay sediment was analyzed in a 20-m-long core horizontally drilled from a mine gallery at a depth of 224 m in the Boom clay formation (Mol, Belgium). This clay deposit is the result of a marine sedimentary process that occurred 35 million years ago. Bacterial activities were estimated by measuring respiration on [14C]glucose. Using the same samples, universal primers for the genes coding for eubacterial 16S rRNA were used to amplify extracted DNA. PCR products were then cloned, sequenced, and analyzed by molecular phylogeny. Our data showed a decrease in bacterial densities as a function of distance from the gallery, with few bacteria detectable by culture at more than 80 cm from the gallery wall. PCR experiments showed the presence of bacteria in all samples, and phylogenetic analyses were then used to tentatively identify these organisms. Because of low bacterial densities in deep clay samples, direct counts and enumeration of viable bacteria on diverse culture media remained negative. All experiments, both cultures and PCR, demonstrated the difficulty of analyzing samples that contain only a few poorly active bacteria as it is difficult to avoid a small contamination by active bacteria during sampling. Since the porosity of the Boom clay formation is less than the expected size of bacteria, it is possible that some of the bacteria present in this 35-million-year-old deep clay deposit derive from cells initially trapped during the sedimentation process. PMID:8795233

  16. Total Artificial Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Total Artificial Heart? A total artificial heart (TAH) is a ... outside power source. Normal Heart and CardioWest Total Artificial Heart Figure A shows the normal structure and ...

  17. Biodegradation of crude oil by individual bacterial strains and a mixed bacterial consortium

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Santina, Santisi; Simone, Cappello; Maurizio, Catalfamo; Giuseppe, Mancini; Mehdi, Hassanshahian; Lucrezia, Genovese; Laura, Giuliano; Michail M., Yakimov.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Three bacterial isolates identified as Alcanivorax borkumensis SK2, Rhodococcus erythropolis HS4 and Pseudomonas stutzeri SDM, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, were isolated from crude oil enrichments of natural seawater. Single strains and four bacterial consortia designed by mixing the single bac [...] terial cultures respectively in the following ratios: (Alcanivorax: Pseudomonas, 1:1), (Alcanivorax: Rhodococcus, 1:1), (Pseudomonas: Rhodococcus, 1:1), and (Alcanivorax: Pseudomonas: Rhodococcus, 1:1:1), were analyzed in order to evaluate their oil degrading capability. All experiments were carried out in microcosms systems containing seawater (with and without addition of inorganic nutrients) and crude oil (unique carbon source). Measures of total and live bacterial abundance, Card-FISH and quali-, quantitative analysis of hydrocarbons (GC-FID) were carried out in order to elucidate the co-operative action of mixed microbial populations in the process of biodegradation of crude oil. All data obtained confirmed the fundamental role of bacteria belonging to Alcanivorax genus in the degradation of linear hydrocarbons in oil polluted environments.

  18. High prevalence of biofilm synergy among bacterial soil isolates in cocultures indicates bacterial interspecific cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Dawei; Madsen, Jonas StenlØkke

    2015-01-01

    97% of total biofilm cell number). Despite low relative abundance of all the remaining strains, all were indispensable for the strong synergistic effect to occur within the four-species biofilm. Moreover, absolute individual strain cell numbers were significantly enhanced when compared with those of single-species biofilms, indicating that all the individual strains benefit from inclusion in the multispecies community. Our results show a high prevalence of synergy in biofilm formation in multispecies consortia isolated from a natural bacterial habitat and suggest that interspecific cooperation occurs.

  19. Experimental Evaluation of Conversion Factors for the [3H]Thymidine Incorporation Assay of Bacterial Secondary Productivity †

    OpenAIRE

    Coveney, Michael F.; Wetzel, Robert G.

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between bacterial growth and incorporation of [methyl-3H]thymidine in oligotrophic lake water cultures was investigated. Prescreening, dilution, and addition of organic and inorganic nutrients were treatments used to prevent bacterivory and stimulate bacterial growth. Growth in unmanipulated samples was estimated through separate measurements of grazing losses. Both bacterial number and biovolume growth responses were measured, and incorporation of [3H]thymidine in both total...

  20. Count of eigenvalues in the generalized eigenvalue problem

    CERN Document Server

    Chugunova, M

    2006-01-01

    We address the count of isolated and embedded eigenvalues in a generalized eigenvalue problem defined by two self-adjoint operators with a positive essential spectrum and a finite number of isolated eigenvalues. The generalized eigenvalue problem determines spectral stability of nonlinear waves in a Hamiltonian dynamical system. The theory is based on the Pontryagin's Invariant Subspace theorem in an indefinite inner product space but it extends beyond the scope of earlier papers of Pontryagin, Krein, Grillakis, and others. Our main results are (i) the number of unstable and potentially unstable eigenvalues {\\em equals} the number of negative eigenvalues of the self-adjoint operators, (ii) the total number of isolated eigenvalues of the generalized eigenvalue problem is {\\em bounded from above} by the total number of isolated eigenvalues of the self-adjoint operators, and (iii) the quadratic form defined by the indefinite inner product is strictly positive on the subspace related to the absolutely continuous ...