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Sampling strategies for total bacterial count of unpasteurized bulk milk.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to assess bulk tank milk sampling strategies for estimating total bacterial count (TBC). Nine large dairies in Wisconsin that produced and shipped at least 1 milk load per day were selected for this study. Total bacteria count was performed for each milk load produced during a 13-mo period. The milk shipment frequency was once (n=3), twice (n=4), or 3 times daily (n=2 farms). A threshold of 8,000 cfu/mL was used to define increased TBC. The proportion of increased TBC (TBCref) during the study period was defined as the reference probability of an increased TBC for each farm. The number of milk loads that would need to be tested to estimate TBCref precisely (TBCref ± 0.05) in selected time periods (month, quarter, 6 mo, or a year) was calculated assuming independence among TBC measurements. Sampling simulations (systematic or simple random sampling) were used to assess the validity of the independence assumption and compare different sampling schedules (every second, every third, or every seventh milk load) used for estimating TBCref in a 13-mo or 30-d TBC series. The number of milk loads tested to estimate TBCref depended on the time period of interest. For farms with daily milk shipments, at least 94% of all milk loads produced would need to be tested to estimate TBCref during a 30-d period. In contrast, when the period of interest was a year, reductions of up to 88% in the number of milk loads tested could be achieved. As the probability of an increased TBC departed from 0.50 toward 1 or 0, fewer samples were needed to estimate TBCref. A sampling schedule based on TBC performed on every second milk load resulted in 100% of 5,000 random samples (taken from the 13-mo TBC series) within the range of TBCref ± 0.05, indicating that sampling half of the milk loads would precisely estimate TBCref. Results of this study suggest that dairy consultants and processors can adjust the frequency of testing of milk loads depending on the goal of the milk quality monitoring program.

Pantoja JC; Rosa GJ; Reinemann DJ; Ruegg PL

2012-05-01

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Total viable bacterial count using a real time all-fibre spectroscopic system.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rapid, accurate and sensitive enumeration of bacterial populations in the natural environment is an essential task for many research fields. Widely used standard methods for counting bacteria such as heterotrophic plate count require 1 to 8 days of incubation time for limited accuracy, while more accurate and rapid techniques are often expensive and may require bulky equipment. In the present study, we have developed a computerized optical prototype for bacterial detection. The goal of this research was to estimate the potential of this optical system for Total Viable Bacterial Count in water. For this purpose, we tested water batches with different microbiological content. Bacterial detection was based on fluorescence enhanced by nucleic acid staining. High sensitivity was achieved by a stable diode pumped solid state laser, sensitive CCD spectrometer and in situ excitation and signal collection. The results have shown that the bacterial count from different water origins using our optical setup along with multivariate analysis presents a higher accuracy and a shorter detection time compared to standard methods. For example, in a case where the fluorescence signal is calibrated to the water batch regression line, the relative standard deviation of the optical system enumeration varies between 21 and 36%, while that of the heterotropic plate count counterpart varies between 41 and 59%. In summary, we conclude that the all-fibre optical system may offer the following advantages over conventional methods: near real time examinations, portability, sensitivity, accuracy and ability to detect 10(2) to 10(8) CFU per ml bacterial concentrations.

Bogomolny E; Swift S; Vanholsbeeck F

2013-07-01

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Validation parameters of instrumental method for determination of total bacterial count in milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The method of flow citometry as rapid, instrumental and routine microbiological method is used for determination of total bacterial count in milk. The results of flow citometry are expressed as individual bacterial cells count. Problems regarding the interpretation of the results of total bacterial count can be avoided by transformation of the results of flow citometry method onto the scale of reference method (HRN ISO 6610:2001.). The method of flow citometry, like any analitycal method, according to the HRN EN ISO/IEC 17025:2000 standard, requires validation and verification. This paper describes parameters of validation: accuracy, precision, specificity, range, robustness and measuring uncertainty for the method of flow citometry.

Nataša Mikulec; Dubravka Samaržija; Neven Antunac; Šimun Zamberlin; Zrinka Kuliš; Iva Horvat

2004-01-01

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M1 AFLATOXIN, TOTAL BACTERIAL COUNT AND SOMATIC CELL COUNT IN ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL MILK  

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Full Text Available Comparative quality evaluation of organic and conventional milk produced in similar environmental condition was performed. Bulk-tank milk was sampled once a week during 30 weeks from 10 organic and 10 conventional dairy farms where aflatoxin M1 level was previous tested during 11 months on bulk-tank milk from tanker at the processing plant. Somatic Cells and Total Microbial Counts did not show differences that can be related to the organic production system, suggesting an effect induced by farm size and technical factors. Higher level of Aflatoxin M1 was found in organic than conventional milk.

A. Coccollone; A. Canever; M. Trevisani; A. Borsari; F. Giacometti; A. Serraino

2009-01-01

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M1 AFLATOXIN, TOTAL BACTERIAL COUNT AND SOMATIC CELL COUNT IN ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL MILK  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Comparative quality evaluation of organic and conventional milk produced in similar environmental condition was performed. Bulk-tank milk was sampled once a week during 30 weeks from 10 organic and 10 conventional dairy farms where aflatoxin M1 level was previous tested during 11 months on bulk-tank milk from tanker at the processing plant. Somatic Cells and Total Microbial Counts did not show differences that can be related to the organic production system, suggesting an effect induced by farm size and technical factors. Higher level of Aflatoxin M1 was found in organic than conventional milk.

A. Coccollone; A. Canever; M. Trevisani; A. Borsari; F. Giacometti; A. Serraino

2013-01-01

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Short communication: Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms, 3 bulk milk samples were collected at intervals of 2 wk. The samples were cultured for SPC, coliform count, and staphylococcal count and for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, SCC (Fossomatic 5000, Foss, Hillerød, Denmark) and TBC (BactoScan FC 150, Foss) were measured. Staphylococcal count was correlated to SCC (r=0.40), TBC (r=0.51), and SPC (r=0.53). Coliform count was correlated to TBC (r=0.33), but not to any of the other variables. Staphylococcus aureus did not correlate to SCC. The contribution of the staphylococcal count to the SPC was 31%, whereas the coliform count comprised only 1% of the SPC. The agreement of the repeated measurements was low. This study indicates that staphylococci in goat bulk milk are related to SCC and make a significant contribution to SPC. Because of the high variation in bacterial counts, repeated sampling is necessary to draw valid conclusions from bulk milk culturing.

Koop G; Dik N; Nielen M; Lipman LJ

2010-06-01

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Relationship among specific bacterial counts and total bacterial and somatic cell counts and factors influencing their variation in ovine bulk tank milk.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To analyze the relationship among the counts of different organisms and total bacterial count (BTTBC) and somatic cell count (BTSCC) as determined in dairy laboratories in ovine bulk tank milk, 751 bulk tank milk samples from 205 dairy sheep flocks belonging to Consortium for Ovine Promotion (CPO) were collected between January and December 2011. Four samplings were carried out in each flock, once per season, throughout 1 yr. Variables analyzed were bulk tank counts of thermoduric, psychrotrophic, coliform, and gram-positive catalase-negative cocci (GPCNC) bacterial groups. Thermoduric, psychrotrophic, and coliform species were significantly related to BTTBC, whereas GPCNC were correlated with both BTTBC and BTSCC variables. Highest counts were for psychrotroph and coliform groups, and a moderate to high correlation (r=0.51) was found between both variables, indicating that poor cleaning practices in the flocks tend to select for less-resistant organisms, such as gram-negative rods. In addition, BTTBC correlated with BTSCC (r=0.42). Some variation factors for specific bacterial counts, such as breed, season, milking type, dry therapy, and milk yield, were also analyzed. Flock information was collected from flock books, annual audits, and the CPO traceability system. Psychrotrophs and coliforms had elevated counts in winter, whereas GPCNC were higher in summer and in hand-milked flocks. Dry therapy contributed to the reduction in psychrotrophic bacteria; therefore, some strains of mammary pathogens could also be psychrotrophic bacteria. Results of this study would be helpful for troubleshooting milk quality problems and developing premium payment systems in dairy sheep.

de Garnica ML; Linage B; Carriedo JA; De La Fuente LF; García-Jimeno MC; Santos JA; Gonzalo C

2013-02-01

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Relationship among specific bacterial counts and total bacterial and somatic cell counts and factors influencing their variation in ovine bulk tank milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

To analyze the relationship among the counts of different organisms and total bacterial count (BTTBC) and somatic cell count (BTSCC) as determined in dairy laboratories in ovine bulk tank milk, 751 bulk tank milk samples from 205 dairy sheep flocks belonging to Consortium for Ovine Promotion (CPO) were collected between January and December 2011. Four samplings were carried out in each flock, once per season, throughout 1 yr. Variables analyzed were bulk tank counts of thermoduric, psychrotrophic, coliform, and gram-positive catalase-negative cocci (GPCNC) bacterial groups. Thermoduric, psychrotrophic, and coliform species were significantly related to BTTBC, whereas GPCNC were correlated with both BTTBC and BTSCC variables. Highest counts were for psychrotroph and coliform groups, and a moderate to high correlation (r=0.51) was found between both variables, indicating that poor cleaning practices in the flocks tend to select for less-resistant organisms, such as gram-negative rods. In addition, BTTBC correlated with BTSCC (r=0.42). Some variation factors for specific bacterial counts, such as breed, season, milking type, dry therapy, and milk yield, were also analyzed. Flock information was collected from flock books, annual audits, and the CPO traceability system. Psychrotrophs and coliforms had elevated counts in winter, whereas GPCNC were higher in summer and in hand-milked flocks. Dry therapy contributed to the reduction in psychrotrophic bacteria; therefore, some strains of mammary pathogens could also be psychrotrophic bacteria. Results of this study would be helpful for troubleshooting milk quality problems and developing premium payment systems in dairy sheep. PMID:23200475

de Garnica, M L; Linage, B; Carriedo, J A; De La Fuente, L F; García-Jimeno, M C; Santos, J A; Gonzalo, C

2012-11-29

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Determination of total bacterial count in raw milk by flow cytometry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The automatic flow cytometry as routine method for total bacterial count determination of raw ex-farm milk has recently been accepted in Croatia. This method significantly differs from the reference method (Standard Plate Count) mostly in the presentation of the results obtained. Therefore, this paper summarized experiences in the application of flow cytometry in the dairy laboratories practice. The principle and the practice of the method, methodological details and factors influencing the results were described. In order to avoid problems regarding the interpretation of the results, which aregeneral problems of the quantitative microbiology, this article try to explain an appropriate conversion of the results with regards to SPC/ml, as an official method for the bacteriological quality proposal by the national legislation.

Dubravka Samaržija; Neven Antunac; Tomislav Poga?i?; Sanja Sikora

2004-01-01

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Evaluation of Vit. B12+Fe and Cu Administration on the Somatic Cell Count, Total Bacterial Count and Compounds Milk of Dairy Cattle  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was studying the effect of vit. B12+Fe and Cu on the somatic cell count, total bacterial count and compounds milk of Holstein cows. In this study, 4 groups contain 10 dairy Holstein cows were selected with same parity and milk production as control, vit. B12+Fe injectable (10 mL day-1), Cu injectable (2 mL day-1) and vit. B12+Fe along with Cu treatment groups. These were injected from 1 week precalving probably to 1 week after parturition. Milk samples were collected as twice weekly from the calving time to 1 week. Total Bacterial Count (TBC), Somatic Cell Count (SCC), fat, protein, Solid Non Fat (SNF) and lactose of milk were evaluated. Results showed the increasing rate of fat and lactose in vit. B12+Fe along with Cu treatment group compared to other groups. All groups were lower than control group in protein level. On the other hand, vit. B12+Fe treatment group was high in milk production, low in SNF and so, it had high effect on reducing bacterial total count compared to other groups. Furthermore, Cu treatment group was better than other groups in SCC. It was concluded that vit. B12+Fe and Cu have beneficial effects on udder immune system and compounds milk of Holstein cows.

A. Pirestani; S.A. Saheb Fosoul

2012-01-01

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Farm management factors associated with bulk tank total bacterial count in irish dairy herds during 2006/07  

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Full Text Available Abstract Research has shown that total bacterial count (TBC), which is the bacterial growth per ml of milk over a fixed period of time, can be decreased by good hygiene and farm management practices. The objective of the current study was to quantify the associations between herd management factors and bulk tank TBC in Irish spring calving, grass-based dairy herds. The relationship between bulk tank TBC and farm management and infrastructure was examined using data from 400 randomly selected Irish dairy farms where the basal diet was grazed grass. Herd management factors associated with bulk tank TBC were identified using linear models with herd annual total bacterial score (i.e., arithmetic mean of the natural logarithm of bulk tank TBC) included as the dependent variable. All herd management factors were individually analysed in a separate regression model, that included an adjustment for geographical location of the farm. A multiple stepwise regression model was subsequently developed. Median bulk tank TBC for the sample herds was 18,483 cells/ml ranging from 10,441 to 130,458 cells/ml. Results from the multivariate analysis indicated that the following management practices were associated with low TBC; use of heated water in the milking parlour; participation in a milk recording scheme; and tail clipping of cows at a frequency greater than once per year. Increased level of hygiene of the parlour and cubicles were also associated with lower TBC. Herd management factors associated with bulk tank TBC in Irish grazing herds were generally in agreement with most previous studies from confinement systems of milk production.

Kelly PT; O'Sullivan K; Berry DP; More SJ; Meaney WJ; O'Callaghan EJ; O'Brien B

2009-01-01

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Total leukocyte counts and neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratios among Helicobacter pylori-infected patients with peptic ulcers: independent of bacterial CagA status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Elevated leukocyte counts can be a marker of inflammation and infection. The aim of this study was to determine the total leukocyte count and neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) among Helicobacter pylori-infected patients with peptic ulcer disease (PU) and among asymptomatic subjects (AS) and to evaluate if there is an association between these lab values and the presence of the H. pylori virulence factor cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA). Sixty H. pylori-infected PU patients, 63 AS carriers and 32 healthy H. pylori-negative subjects (controls) were included in the study. The total white blood cell (WBC) counts and differentials were determined using standard hematological methods. The mean total WBC count, mean neutrophil count and NLCR were significantly higher among PU patients than in controls (p < 0.001, p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Similarly, the mean WBC count, mean neutrophil count and NLCR were significantly higher among AS patients than in controls (p < 0.005, p < 0.001 and p < 0.02, respectively). The differences of mean WBC counts mean neutrophil counts and NLCR were also significantly different (p < 0.005, p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively) between the PU and AS patients. There were no differences in the PU and AS patients in regard to anti-CagA positivity. These results show the CagA factor was not associated with the presence or absence of symptoms in H. pylori infected patients.

Jafarzadeh A; Akbarpoor V; Nabizadeh M; Nemati M; Rezayati MT

2013-01-01

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Total leukocyte counts and neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratios among Helicobacter pylori-infected patients with peptic ulcers: independent of bacterial CagA status.  

Science.gov (United States)

Elevated leukocyte counts can be a marker of inflammation and infection. The aim of this study was to determine the total leukocyte count and neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) among Helicobacter pylori-infected patients with peptic ulcer disease (PU) and among asymptomatic subjects (AS) and to evaluate if there is an association between these lab values and the presence of the H. pylori virulence factor cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA). Sixty H. pylori-infected PU patients, 63 AS carriers and 32 healthy H. pylori-negative subjects (controls) were included in the study. The total white blood cell (WBC) counts and differentials were determined using standard hematological methods. The mean total WBC count, mean neutrophil count and NLCR were significantly higher among PU patients than in controls (p < 0.001, p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Similarly, the mean WBC count, mean neutrophil count and NLCR were significantly higher among AS patients than in controls (p < 0.005, p < 0.001 and p < 0.02, respectively). The differences of mean WBC counts mean neutrophil counts and NLCR were also significantly different (p < 0.005, p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively) between the PU and AS patients. There were no differences in the PU and AS patients in regard to anti-CagA positivity. These results show the CagA factor was not associated with the presence or absence of symptoms in H. pylori infected patients. PMID:23682441

Jafarzadeh, A; Akbarpoor, V; Nabizadeh, M; Nemati, M; Rezayati, M T

2013-01-01

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Contagem bacteriana total do leite em diferentes sistemas de ordenha e de resfriamento/ Total bacterial count of milk in different systems of milking and cooling  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito dos sistemas de ordenha e de resfriamento na contagem bacteriana total (CBT) e na quantidade de leite com CBT (more) de CBT foram classificados por sistema de ordenha, tipo de resfriador e intervalos da CBT, segundo critério da Instrução Normativa 62, e submetidos à análise de independência de Qui-Quadrado. As proporções de CBT do leite entre tipos de resfriadores, em cada sistema de ordenha, foram comparadas utilizando-se a estatística calculada Z. Observou-se menor (p Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the effect of milking systems and cooling on total bacterial count (TBC), and the amount of milk samples with TBC (more) ssified by milking system, type of coolers and intervals of the TBC, in accordance with Normative Instruction 62, and submitted to the chi-square test for independence. The proportions of milk TBC among types of coolers at each milking system were compared using the calculated statistic Z. A lower TBC value (p

Taffarel, L.E.; Costa, P.B.; Oliveira, N.T.E. de; Braga, G.C.; Zonin, W.J.

2013-03-01

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Preliminary stochastic model for managing Vibrio parahaemolyticus and total viable bacterial counts in a Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) supply chain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vibrio parahaemolyticus can accumulate and grow in oysters stored without refrigeration, representing a potential food safety risk. High temperatures during oyster storage can lead to an increase in total viable bacteria counts, decreasing product shelf life. Therefore, a predictive tool that allows the estimation of both V. parahaemolyticus populations and total viable bacteria counts in parallel is needed. A stochastic model was developed to quantitatively assess the populations of V. parahaemolyticus and total viable bacteria in Pacific oysters for six different supply chain scenarios. The stochastic model encompassed operations from oyster farms through consumers and was built using risk analysis software. Probabilistic distributions and predictions for the percentage of Pacific oysters containing V. parahaemolyticus and high levels of viable bacteria at the point of consumption were generated for each simulated scenario. This tool can provide valuable information about V. parahaemolyticus exposure and potential control measures and can help oyster companies and regulatory agencies evaluate the impact of product quality and safety during cold chain management. If coupled with suitable monitoring systems, such models could enable preemptive action to be taken to counteract unfavorable supply chain conditions. PMID:23834791

Fernandez-Piquer, Judith; Bowman, John P; Ross, Tom; Estrada-Flores, Silvia; Tamplin, Mark L

2013-07-01

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Preliminary stochastic model for managing Vibrio parahaemolyticus and total viable bacterial counts in a Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) supply chain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vibrio parahaemolyticus can accumulate and grow in oysters stored without refrigeration, representing a potential food safety risk. High temperatures during oyster storage can lead to an increase in total viable bacteria counts, decreasing product shelf life. Therefore, a predictive tool that allows the estimation of both V. parahaemolyticus populations and total viable bacteria counts in parallel is needed. A stochastic model was developed to quantitatively assess the populations of V. parahaemolyticus and total viable bacteria in Pacific oysters for six different supply chain scenarios. The stochastic model encompassed operations from oyster farms through consumers and was built using risk analysis software. Probabilistic distributions and predictions for the percentage of Pacific oysters containing V. parahaemolyticus and high levels of viable bacteria at the point of consumption were generated for each simulated scenario. This tool can provide valuable information about V. parahaemolyticus exposure and potential control measures and can help oyster companies and regulatory agencies evaluate the impact of product quality and safety during cold chain management. If coupled with suitable monitoring systems, such models could enable preemptive action to be taken to counteract unfavorable supply chain conditions.

Fernandez-Piquer J; Bowman JP; Ross T; Estrada-Flores S; Tamplin ML

2013-07-01

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Adequação da contagem de células somáticas e da contagem bacteriana total em leite cru refrigerado aos parâmetros da legislação/ Suitability of somatic cell count and total bacterial count in raw refrigerated milk to legislation standards  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi adequar a qualidade do leite cru refrigerado de cinco propriedades leiteiras aos parâmetros microbiológicos e de contagem de células somáticas (CCS) estabelecidos pela legislação estadual do Paraná. As propriedades leiteiras estudadas foram monitoradas durante sete meses após a implantação de boas práticas de ordenha e de recomendações quanto ao tratamento de mastites e à manutenção e higienização de equipamentos de ordenha. (more) Antes da adoção das recomendações, a contagem bacteriana total (CBT) média era de 1,36 x 10(6)UFC/mL e a CCS média, de 1,87 x 10(6)/mL. Todas as propriedades atingiram os padrões estabelecidos para CBT, com redução média de 93,4%. A redução de CCS foi, em média, 74,3%. Apenas três propriedades atingiram os valores estabelecidos para CCS. As demais atingiram valores muito próximos ao limite. A adequação aos padrões de CBT e CCS gerou aumento na renda mensal, em razão do pagamento por qualidade do produto, entre R$120,00 e R$828,00, de acordo com a produção de cada propriedade. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to adequate raw refrigerated milk quality of five dairy farms to microbiological and somatic cell count (SCC) standards established by Paraná state legislation. The dairy farms were monitored during seven months after the implementation of good milking practices and recommendations regarding mastitis treatment, and milking equipment maintenance and hygiene. Before the adoption of recommendations, the average total bacterial count (TBC) was 1.36 x (more) 10(6)CFU/mL and average SCC was 1.87 x 10(6)/mL. All farms reached established standards for TBC, originating an average reduction of 93.4%. Average SCC reduction was 74.3%. Only three farms reached established values for SCC. The remaining reached values near the limits. The suitability of TBC and SCC produced an increase in the monthly income due to payment quality reward of the dairy product, between R$120.00 and R$828.00, according to each farm production.

Bozo, G.A.; Alegro, L.C.A.; Silva, L.C.; Santana, E.H.W.; Okano, W.; Silva, L.C.C.

2013-04-01

18

Short communication: effect of storage and preservation on total bacterial counts determined by automated flow cytometry in bulk tank goat milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to evaluate the effects of different storage conditions on total bacterial count (TBC) determinations made in goat bulk tank milk using an automated flow cytometry method. The storage conditions tested were storage temperature (refrigeration at 4 and 10 degrees C or freezing at -20 degrees C), the use of a preservative (no preservative, NP; azidiol, AZ; or bronopol, BR), and the age of the milk samples for each analytical condition (storage times at 4 degrees C: from 0 h to 5 d for NP; and from 0 h to 22 d for AZ and BR; storage times at 10 degrees C: from 24 h to 2 d for NP and from 24 h to 22 for AZ and BR; storage times at -20 degrees C: from 24 h to 22 d for NP, AZ, and BR). Significant effects on individual bacterial count (IBC) variation were shown by the bulk tank milk sample, preservative, storage temperature, interaction preservative x storage temperature, and milk age within the interaction preservative x storage temperature. In preserved samples, the highest IBC were obtained for AZ and the lowest counts were obtained in samples preserved with BR. Because of the variation in IBC recorded in BR-preserved samples, we recommend that BR should not be used for TBC determinations using the automated flow cytometry method. The NP samples stored at 4 and 10 degrees C showed significantly higher IBC at 24 h postcollection, also invalidating these analytical conditions for TBC analyses. The practical implications of our findings are that goat milk samples preserved with AZ and stored at 10 or 4 degrees C are appropriate for TBC by the BactoScan flow cytometry method for up to 24 h and 11 d postcollection, respectively. PMID:19762799

Sierra, D; Sánchez, A; Contreras, A; Luengo, C; Corrales, J C; de la Fe, C; Guirao, I; Morales, C T; Gonzalo, C

2009-10-01

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Short communication: effect of storage and preservation on total bacterial counts determined by automated flow cytometry in bulk tank goat milk.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was designed to evaluate the effects of different storage conditions on total bacterial count (TBC) determinations made in goat bulk tank milk using an automated flow cytometry method. The storage conditions tested were storage temperature (refrigeration at 4 and 10 degrees C or freezing at -20 degrees C), the use of a preservative (no preservative, NP; azidiol, AZ; or bronopol, BR), and the age of the milk samples for each analytical condition (storage times at 4 degrees C: from 0 h to 5 d for NP; and from 0 h to 22 d for AZ and BR; storage times at 10 degrees C: from 24 h to 2 d for NP and from 24 h to 22 for AZ and BR; storage times at -20 degrees C: from 24 h to 22 d for NP, AZ, and BR). Significant effects on individual bacterial count (IBC) variation were shown by the bulk tank milk sample, preservative, storage temperature, interaction preservative x storage temperature, and milk age within the interaction preservative x storage temperature. In preserved samples, the highest IBC were obtained for AZ and the lowest counts were obtained in samples preserved with BR. Because of the variation in IBC recorded in BR-preserved samples, we recommend that BR should not be used for TBC determinations using the automated flow cytometry method. The NP samples stored at 4 and 10 degrees C showed significantly higher IBC at 24 h postcollection, also invalidating these analytical conditions for TBC analyses. The practical implications of our findings are that goat milk samples preserved with AZ and stored at 10 or 4 degrees C are appropriate for TBC by the BactoScan flow cytometry method for up to 24 h and 11 d postcollection, respectively.

Sierra D; Sánchez A; Contreras A; Luengo C; Corrales JC; de la Fe C; Guirao I; Morales CT; Gonzalo C

2009-10-01

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Study of autoabsorption for total ? and ? counting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The RaMsEs Group (Radioprotection et Mesures Environnementales) of the IPHC performs research and offers services mainly in the field of radioactivity measurements and sample analysis. This report will describe some of our recent experience using a semiautomatic evaporation system to prepare large area thin deposits for total ? and ? counting and gives experimental and simulated results for the autoabsorption coefficients.

2008-06-01

 
 
 
 
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BRONOPOL AND AZIDIOL CHEMICALS: TIME AND TEMPERATURE INFLUENCE IN THE TOTAL BACTERIAL COUNT OF RAW MILK CONSERVANTES BRONOPOL E AZIDIOL: INFLUÊNCIA DO BINÔMIO TEMPO/TEMPERATURA NA CONTAGEM BACTERIANA TOTAL DO LEITE CRU  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bronopol chemical in contrast to azidiol in the total bacterial counting (TBC) in raw milk samples submitted the different temperatures of storage. Four bands of samples storage temperature had been evaluated: T1 – 1.8 the 4.2 ºC; T2 – 6.4 the 8.3ºC; T3 – 12.1 the 14.5ºC; and T4 – 24 the 25.5ºC in three groups: Group 1 – control without chemical; Group 2 – liquid azidiol added of bromofenol blue; Group 3 – Bronopol®. The samples were analyzed during ten consecutive days, starting 24h after sampling. After analyzes by the flow citometry, have been considered raw milk samples of 14 expansion tanks that were divided in two levels of milk contamination: 106 CFU/mL. The bronopol effect was influenced by the raw milk contamination level. The Bronopol has bacteriostatic effect in milk samples with TBC below of 105 CFU/mL and bactericidal in samples with TBC above of 106 CFU/mL. The TBC gotten in raw milk samples conserved with bronopol was lower to that one gotten in the samples with azidiol. The bronopol effect on the TBC was influenced by the temperature and by the storage time of the sample. The Bronopol® bactericidal effect becomes impracticable its use in raw milk samples destined the TBC. The azidiol efficiency in the raw milk sample destined the CBT as bacteriostatic agent was dependent of the lesser storage temperature of the sample, independent of the initial contamination level. The raw milk sample destined the CBT can be analyzed in up to one week after harvested if the same one will be added of azidiol and kept under refrigeration in temperature between 1ºC and 4 ºC.   KEY WORDS: Azidiol, bronopol,  bacterial counting, raw milk, time, temperature. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito do conservante bronopol em contraste ao azidiol na contagem bacteriana total (CBT) em amostras de leite cru submetidas a diferentes temperaturas de armazenamento. Avaliaram-se quatro faixas de temperatura de armazenamento de amostras: T1 – 1,8 a 4,2 ºC; T2 – 6,4 a 8,3ºC; T3 – 12,1 a 14,5ºC; e T4 – 24 a 25,5ºC, em três grupos: Grupo 1 – controle sem conservante; Grupo 2 – azidiol líquido + corante azul de bromofenol; Grupo 3 – bronopol®. As amostras foram analisadas durante dez dias consecutivos, iniciando 24 horas após colhidas. Após análise por citometria de fluxo pelo equipamento BactoScan FC, consideraram-se amostras de leite cru de quatorze tanques de expansão divididas em dois níveis de contaminação do leite: 106 UFC/mL. Houve efeito do conservante bronopol pelo nível de contaminação do leite cru. O bronopol possui efeito bacteriostático em amostras de leite com CBT abaixo de 105 UFC/mL e bactericida em amostras com CBT superiores a 106 UFC/mL. A CBT obtida nas amostras de leite cru conservadas com bronopol foi inferior àquela obtida nas amostras com azidiol. Ocorreu efeito do bronopol sobre a CBT pela temperatura e pelo tempo de estocagem da amostra. O efeito bactericida do bronopol® torna inviável sua utilização em amostras de leite cru destinadas à CBT.  A eficiência do azidiol na amostra de leite cru destinada à CBT como agente bacteriostático foi dependente da menor temperatura de armazenamento da amostra, independente do nível de contaminação inicial. A amostra de leite cru destinada à CBT pode ser analisada em até uma semana depois de colhida, se for adicionada de azidiol e mantida sob refrigeração em temperatura entre 1ºC e 4 ºC.PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Azidiol, bronopol, contagem bacteriana, leite cru, tempo, temperatura.

Márcio Eduardo Pereira Martins; EDMAR SOARES NICOLAU; ALBENONES JOSÉ MESQUITA; RODRIGO BALDUINO SOARES NEVES; JAISON PEREIRA OLIVEIRA

2009-01-01

22

Method of quantitative bacterial count in burn wound  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To describe a technique for conducting Quantitative bacteriology in burn wounds, which is a very important tool in the management of burn wound sepsis. Technique was used in 21 patients with burn wound injury. Biopsy for the bacteriology was taken with the help of punch forceps. Then it was directly put into sterilized pre weighed homogenizer bag containing 1ml normal saline. This bag was re-weighed. Weight of the tissue was obtained and bag was homogenized in homogenizer (Stomacher Lab Blender-80). Four fold dilutions were made of homogenate specimen. From each dilution tube, 0.01 ml was then inoculated on blood agar plates, incubated for 24 hours and number of colonies counted by formula. Four specimens were taken each day and repeated on alternate days for up to 6 days. Out of twenty one patients there were 10 male and 11 female with mean age of 25.95 years. Total body surface area burnt was from 9-41%. Bacterial counts obtained varied from 1.45-8.89. Quantitative bacteriology is simple by the above method and should be employed in every public and private sector burn center. (author)

2007-01-01

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Mastitis-causing streptococci are important contributors to bacterial counts in raw bulk tank milk.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to probe the contribution of streptococci to the microbial quality of raw milk. Over a 5-month period, bulk tank milk samples from 48 New York State dairy farms were analyzed qualitatively for bacterial ecology and quantitatively for total bacterial, streptococcal, staphylococcal, and gram-negative bacterial counts. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the contribution of differential counts to total bacterial counts. Streptococci, staphylococci, and gram-negative bacteria accounted for 69, 3, and 3% of total bacterial count variability, respectively. Randomly selected Streptococcus isolates from each bulk tank milk sample were identified to species by means of the API 20 STREP identification system. The most commonly identified streptococcal species were Streptococcus uberis, Aerococcus viridans, and Streptococcus agalactiae, which were detected in 81, 50, and 31% of 48 bulk tank samples, respectively. For five herds, S. uberis isolates from bulk tank milk and individual cows were characterized by PvuII ribotyping. A farm-specific dominant ribotype was found in each bulk tank sample, and that ribotype was isolated from at least one cow within each herd of origin. Bacteriological and strain typing data indicate that control of streptococci, specifically mastitis-causing species, is important for improvement of the microbial quality of raw milk in New York State.

Zadoks RN; González RN; Boor KJ; Schukken YH

2004-12-01

24

Mastitis-causing streptococci are important contributors to bacterial counts in raw bulk tank milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to probe the contribution of streptococci to the microbial quality of raw milk. Over a 5-month period, bulk tank milk samples from 48 New York State dairy farms were analyzed qualitatively for bacterial ecology and quantitatively for total bacterial, streptococcal, staphylococcal, and gram-negative bacterial counts. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the contribution of differential counts to total bacterial counts. Streptococci, staphylococci, and gram-negative bacteria accounted for 69, 3, and 3% of total bacterial count variability, respectively. Randomly selected Streptococcus isolates from each bulk tank milk sample were identified to species by means of the API 20 STREP identification system. The most commonly identified streptococcal species were Streptococcus uberis, Aerococcus viridans, and Streptococcus agalactiae, which were detected in 81, 50, and 31% of 48 bulk tank samples, respectively. For five herds, S. uberis isolates from bulk tank milk and individual cows were characterized by PvuII ribotyping. A farm-specific dominant ribotype was found in each bulk tank sample, and that ribotype was isolated from at least one cow within each herd of origin. Bacteriological and strain typing data indicate that control of streptococci, specifically mastitis-causing species, is important for improvement of the microbial quality of raw milk in New York State. PMID:15633665

Zadoks, R N; González, R N; Boor, K J; Schukken, Y H

2004-12-01

25

Robotic milking and milk quality: effects on bacterial counts, somatic cell counts, freezing point and free fatty acids  

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Full Text Available Changes in milk quality after the introduction of automatic milking systems (AM-systems) on dairy farms in TheNetherlands, Germany and Denmark were examined and the data were compared with milk quality results of farms withconventional milking technology. After introduction, a small, but significant increase in total bacterial count, somatic cellcount, freezing point and free fatty acids was observed. The highest levels for total plate count and cell count are foundin the first six months after introduction. After this period the milk quality slightly improves to a more stable level.Risk factors related with milk quality concern general farm characteristics, animal health, AM-system, cleaning and cooling,housing, management skills of the farmer and the hygiene on the farm. Total plate count was significantly relatedto milk yield of the herd, cleaning of the area around the AM-system and the overall hygiene on the farm. Bulk milksomatic cell count appeared to be significantly related to milk yield of the herd and the number of milkings before replacementof the liners. An increased milking frequency is not the only explanation of increased free fatty acid levels. Technicalfactors related to free fatty acids mainly concerned the air inlet in the teat cups, bubbling (excessive air inlet) and a toolong post run time of the milk pump. However, several questions regarding the causes of increased free fatty acid levelsremained unclear.

Kees de Koning; Betsie Slaghuis; Yvonne van der Vorst

2010-01-01

26

Commercial bacterial colony counter for semiautomatic track counting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bacterial colony counters have not been widely used for track counting. However, they do provide an economical alternative to sophisticated optical analyzers for applications that require reproducible track density measurements for large numbers of samples. Simple measurements of size characteristics can be made when there is little need for high resolutions. Such systems are particularly well suited for neutron and alpha dosimetry work, particularly if electrochemical etching or some other track enhancement method has been used. 5 refs., 3 figs.

Griffith, R.V.; McMahon, T.A.; Espinosa, G.

1983-08-30

27

Commercial bacterial colony counter for semiautomatic track counting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bacterial colony counters have not been widely used for track counting. However, they do provide an economical alternative to sophisticated optical analyzers for applications that require reproducible track density measurements for large numbers of samples. Simple measurements of size characteristics can be made when there is little need for high resolutions. Such systems are particularly well suited for neutron and alpha dosimetry work, particularly if electrochemical etching or some other track enhancement method has been used. 5 refs., 3 figs

1983-09-02

28

Correlation between Total Lymphocyte Count, Hemoglobin, Hematocrit and CD4 Count in HIV/AIDS Patients  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lymphocyte CD4+count, a standard laboratory test for staging of HIV infection, is expensive and unavailable in resource-restricted countries. Total lymphocyte count (TLC) and hemoglobin (Hb) are recommended as simple & inexpensive surrogates. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation, ...

Alavi S.M; Ahmadi F.; Farhadi M.

29

Low bacterial counts in infants with urinary tract infection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We analyzed the number of colony-forming units in urine cultures obtained by suprapubic aspiration in a group of 366 unselected infants with symptomatic urinary tract infection to relate these findings to factors such as pyuria and vesicoureteric reflux. Seventy-three (20%) of 366 infants had fewer than 100,000 colony-forming units per milliliter. Such low counts were significantly related to low numbers of leukocytes in the urine. Vesicoureteric reflux was equally distributed among children, irrespective of the number of bacteria in quantitative culture. The findings emphasize the importance of sampling technique; in infants, the method of choice is suprapubic aspiration, or catheterization, which eliminates the risk that urinary tract infection is overlooked because of low bacterial counts.

Hansson S; Brandström P; Jodal U; Larsson P

1998-01-01

30

Low bacterial counts in infants with urinary tract infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyzed the number of colony-forming units in urine cultures obtained by suprapubic aspiration in a group of 366 unselected infants with symptomatic urinary tract infection to relate these findings to factors such as pyuria and vesicoureteric reflux. Seventy-three (20%) of 366 infants had fewer than 100,000 colony-forming units per milliliter. Such low counts were significantly related to low numbers of leukocytes in the urine. Vesicoureteric reflux was equally distributed among children, irrespective of the number of bacteria in quantitative culture. The findings emphasize the importance of sampling technique; in infants, the method of choice is suprapubic aspiration, or catheterization, which eliminates the risk that urinary tract infection is overlooked because of low bacterial counts. PMID:9470028

Hansson, S; Brandström, P; Jodal, U; Larsson, P

1998-01-01

31

Total lymphocyte count as a surrogate marker for CD4 count in resource-limited settings  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background CD4 testing is the recognized gold standard used to stage HIV/AIDS, guide treatment decisions for HIV-infected persons and evaluate effectiveness of therapy. The need for a less expensive surrogate marker that can be used in resource-limited setting is however necessary. The study sought to assess the suitability of Total lymphocyte count (TLC) as a surrogate marker for CD4 count in resource-limited localities in Ghana. Methods This observational study was conducted at the Central Regional Hospital, which has one of the established antiretroviral therapy centres in Ghana. A total of one hundred and eighty-four (184) confirmed HIV I seropositive subjects were included in the study. Blood samples were taken from all the subjects for estimation of CD4 and total lymphocyte counts. The study subjects were further categorised into three (3) groups according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) classification criteria as follows: CD4 counts (1)???500 cells/mm3 (2) 200–499 cells/mm3 and (3) 3. Positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), sensitivity and specificity of various TLC cut-offs were computed for three groups. Correlation and Receiver Operator Characteristic analysis was performed for the various CD4 counts and their corresponding Total Lymphocyte count obtained. Results The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of TLC 1200 cells/ mm3 to predict CD4 count were 3 72.2%, 100%, 100% and 95.7% respectively. A TLC of 1500 cells/ mm3 was found to have maximal sensitivity (96.67%), specificity (100%), PPV (100%) and NPV (75.0%) for predicting a CD4 cell count of 200–499 cell/mm3. A TLC of 1900 cells/mm3 was also found to have a maximal sensitivity (98.45%), specificity (100%), PPV (100%) and NPV (100%) for predicting CD4 count ?500 cells/mm3. A positive correlation was noted between 184 paired CD4 and TLC counts (r?=?0.5728). Conclusion Total Lymphocyte count can therefore adequately serve as a surrogate marker for CD4 count in HIV patients who are naïve for antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited areas.

Obirikorang Christian; Quaye Lawrence; Acheampong Isaac

2012-01-01

32

Factors that influence high bacterial count in raw cow milk  

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Full Text Available This paper had two aims. The first one was to evaluate the current situation with the bacterial count in the raw cow milk in R. of Macedonia, which is one of the elements that define the raw milk quality. The second aim was to describe several factors that influence the most the bacterial count in the raw cow milk. For the purposes of this study 3470 milk samples, taken from milk cooling tanks in several regions in R. Of Macedonia were taken in the period from January - March in 2009 year. After the tests were finished it was identified that 56.20% of the samples fulfill the criteria given in the national legislative. Compared with the EU legilsative it was noted that only 18.0% of the samples meet the given criteria. The results obtained clearly indicate at the insufficient hygiene in the breeding of the milk cows and incorrect milk handling after the milking as a result of the unsatisfactory farmers knowledge for the hygiene procedures in the primary milk production.

Angelovski Ljupco; Sekulovski Pavle; Jankuloski Dean; Ratkova Marija; Kostova Sandra; Prodanov Mirko

2009-01-01

33

Association between milking practices and psychrotrophic bacterial counts in bulk tank milk.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this work was to determine on-farm risk factors for psychrotrophic bacterial counts in bulk tank milk from dairy farms in Argentina. Raw milk samples from bulk tanks of 27 dairy farms were examined for total psychrotrophic counts (TPC), proteolytic psychrotrophic counts (PPC) and lipolytic psychrotrophic counts (LPC) (dependent or outcome variables). A survey recording infrastructure conditions, milking equipment and milking management (independent variables) was performed. Bivariate association proofs and logistic regression analyses were used to determine association between independent variables and psychrotrophic bacterial counts. Milk cooled in plate heat exchangers or barrel tanks were 16.39 and 10.52 times more likely to yield TPC and PPC above the standard established for high quality milk compared with milk cooled in bulk tanks, respectively. Periodic cleaning of cooling tanks (3 times a week or daily) was associated with lower TPC (approximately 1.5 log CFU/ml) than weekly cleaning frequency and farms where milkers did not wash their hands during milking time were 7.81 times more likely to have higher PPC. No association was found between LPC and any of the independent variables. The only variable associated with TPC and PPC in a logistic regression model was the refrigeration system used on the farm. Dairy farms that possessed bulk milk cooling tanks yielded the lowest bacterial counts. Results of this study highlight the importance of both the type of cooling system used on the farm and its adequate hygienic maintenance for obtaining low pshychrotrophic counts at dairy farm.

Molineri AI; Signorini ML; Cuatrín AL; Canavesio VR; Neder VE; Russi NB; Bonazza JC; Calvinho LF

2012-07-01

34

Novel bacterial immobilization compound effectively decreases bacterial counts in healthy volunteers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Skin flora immobilization technology is similar in efficacy to Iodine-Povidone in healthy volunteers. We did a prospective study in a university clinic with 60 healthy volunteers. Right inguinal skin area on healthy volunteers was used to compare the antimicrobial properties of cyanoacrylate sealant (FloraSeal, Adhesion Biomedical, Wyomissing, PA) versus standard surgical preparation Povidone-iodine (Betadine, Purdue Productions, Stamford, CT). Bacterial counts were measured at different time intervals: 15 minutes, 4 hours, and 24 hours. Bacterial colony forming units were compared between Povidone-iodine and cyanoacrylate sealant. The absolute log reduction was 5.568 for Povidone-iodine (7 absolute CFU); 5.028 for cyanoacrylate (59 absolute CFU); and 5.568 for Povidone-iodine and cyanoacrylate combined (21 absolute CFU). Cyanoacrylate was able to sustain a reduction on bacterial counts at 4 hours and 24 hours of more than 99.8 per cent as compared with the control group. Cyanoacrylate microbial sealant successfully reduces bacterial counts on normal healthy skin. The results were similar to Povidone-iodine alone. We believe this technology may be an excellent means of mitigating incisional surgical site infection by reducing the risk of contamination by skin flora and warrants further testing.

Pabon DF; Yost MJ; Melendez GC; Durand TM; Brock TZ; Felice PA; Campbell K; Bynoe RP; Fann SA

2010-01-01

35

Study of autoabsorption for total {alpha} and {beta} counting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The RaMsEs Group (Radioprotection et Mesures Environnementales) of the IPHC performs research and offers services mainly in the field of radioactivity measurements and sample analysis. This report will describe some of our recent experience using a semiautomatic evaporation system to prepare large area thin deposits for total {alpha} and {beta} counting and gives experimental and simulated results for the autoabsorption coefficients.

Saettel, M.A. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert-Curien (IPHC) UMR 7178 CNRS, et Universite Louis Pasteur Strasbourg I, 23, rue du Loess, BP28, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)], E-mail: marie-antoinette.saettel@ires.in2p3.fr; Sellam, A.; Nourreddine, A.; Pape, A. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert-Curien (IPHC) UMR 7178 CNRS, et Universite Louis Pasteur Strasbourg I, 23, rue du Loess, BP28, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)

2008-06-01

36

Metabolic activity of bacterial cell enumerated by direct viable count  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The direct viable count (DVC) method was modified by incorporation radiolabeled substrates in microautoradiographic analyses to assess bacterial survival in controlled laboratory microcosms. The DVC method, which permits enumeration of culturable and nonculturable cells, discriminates those cells that are responsive to added nutrients but in which division is inhibited by the addition of nalidixic acid. The resulting elongated cells represent all viable cells; this includes those that are culturable on routine media and those that are not. Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis were employed in the microcosm studies, and radiolabeled substrates included [methyl-3H] thymidine or [U-14C] glutamic acid. Samples taken at selected intervals during the survival experiments were examined by epifluorescence microscopy to enumerate cells by the DVC and acridine orange direct count methods, as well as by culture methods. Good correlation was obtained for cell-associated metabolic activity, measured by microautoradiography and substrate responsiveness (by the DVC method) at various stages of survival. Of the cells responsive to nutrients by the DVC method, ca. 90% were metabolically active by the microautoradiographic method. No significant difference was observed between DVC enumerations with or without added radiolabeled substrate.

1987-01-01

37

Metabolic activity of bacterial cells enumerated by direct viable count  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The direct viable count (DVC) method was modified by incorporating radiolabeled substrates in microautoradiographic analyses to assess bacterial survival in controlled laboratory microcosms. The DVC method, which permits enumeration of culturable and nonculturable cells, discriminates those cells that are responsive to added nutrients but in which division is inhibited by the addition of nalidixic acid. The resulting elongated cells represent all viable cells; this includes those that are culturable on routine media and those that are not. Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis were employed in the microcosm studies, and radiolabeled substrates included (methyl-tritium thymidine or (Uranium-Carbon 14) glutamic acid. Samples taken at selected intervals during the survival experiments were examined by epifluorescence microscopy to enumerate cells by the DVC and acridine orange direct count methods, as well as by culture methods. Good correlation was obtained for cell-associated metabolic activity, measured by microautoradiography and substrate responsiveness (by the DVC method) at various stages of survival. Of the cells responsive to nutrients by the DVC method, ca 90% were metabolically active by the microautoradiographic method. No significant difference was observed between DVC enumerations with or without added radiolabeled substrate.

Roszak, D.B.; Colwell, R.R.

1987-12-01

38

Short communication: appropriate and alternative methods to determine viable bacterial counts in cow milk samples.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Farm milk consumption is reported to be inversely related to the development of asthma and atopy in children and it has been hypothesized that microorganisms in milk might contribute to this protective effect. The GABRIEL study was designed to investigate this hypothesis in a large population of European children, calling for a rapid alternative to classical culture techniques to determine bacteriological properties of milk samples. One objective was to evaluate 2 different rapid methods to determine bacteriological properties in a large number of cow milk samples collected under field conditions. BactoScan (Foss Analytical, Hillerød, Denmark), an automated standard flow cytometric method utilized for routine testing of milk quality, and TEMPO (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France), an automated most-probable-number method, were used to assess the total viable bacterial count in farm and commercial milk samples. Both methods were compared with standard plate count method and each other. Measurements based on the TEMPO method were in good agreement with the standard plate count method and showed reliable results, whereas BactoScan results did not correlate with standard plate count measurements and yielded higher bacteria counts in heat-treated milk samples compared with raw milk samples. Most likely, these discrepant results were due to inferences with staining reactions and detection of bacteria in heat-treated milk samples. We conclude that, in contrast to the routinely used BactoScan method, the TEMPO method is an inexpensive and rapid alternative to standard culture methods suitable to assess total bacterial counts in processed and raw milk samples.

Loss G; Apprich S; Kneifel W; von Mutius E; Genuneit J; Braun-Fahrländer C

2012-06-01

39

Wound fluid bacterial levels exceed tissue bacterial counts in controlled porcine partial-thickness burn infections.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, an established controlled burn wound model was used to test the hypothesis that controlled surface contamination with is capable of generating a noninvasive method for the creation of a reproducible deep tissue burn wound infection. Using a liquid tight-wound chamber in Yorkshire pigs, partial-thickness burns were inoculated with saline-immersed for 24 hours. Noninoculated burns and unwounded skin immersed in normal saline served as controls. Bacterial cultures of wound fluid were performed daily, and tissue biopsies for bacteriological and histological evaluations were performed on days 1, 3, and 5. was only recovered from -inoculated wounds (tissue and fluid), whereas all controls contained endogenous only. The number of colony-forming units per gram of wound tissue did not correlate with the bacterial counts found in the overlying wound fluid for any wounds. Fluid counts were consistently higher than tissue counts by two logs. -inoculated wounds showed three times deeper tissue destruction than control wounds. Obtaining consistently deep tissue colonization without cross-contamination among wounds, this study introduces a noninvasive model for controlled burn wound infection suitable for future investigations regarding the efficacy of topical antibiotic wound treatment in experimental burns. PMID:12560699

Breuing, Karl; Kaplan, Stuart; Liu, Paul; Onderdonk, Andrew B; Eriksson, Elof

2003-02-01

40

Wound fluid bacterial levels exceed tissue bacterial counts in controlled porcine partial-thickness burn infections.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present study, an established controlled burn wound model was used to test the hypothesis that controlled surface contamination with is capable of generating a noninvasive method for the creation of a reproducible deep tissue burn wound infection. Using a liquid tight-wound chamber in Yorkshire pigs, partial-thickness burns were inoculated with saline-immersed for 24 hours. Noninoculated burns and unwounded skin immersed in normal saline served as controls. Bacterial cultures of wound fluid were performed daily, and tissue biopsies for bacteriological and histological evaluations were performed on days 1, 3, and 5. was only recovered from -inoculated wounds (tissue and fluid), whereas all controls contained endogenous only. The number of colony-forming units per gram of wound tissue did not correlate with the bacterial counts found in the overlying wound fluid for any wounds. Fluid counts were consistently higher than tissue counts by two logs. -inoculated wounds showed three times deeper tissue destruction than control wounds. Obtaining consistently deep tissue colonization without cross-contamination among wounds, this study introduces a noninvasive model for controlled burn wound infection suitable for future investigations regarding the efficacy of topical antibiotic wound treatment in experimental burns.

Breuing K; Kaplan S; Liu P; Onderdonk AB; Eriksson E

2003-02-01

 
 
 
 
41

Path analysis of total palmar pattern ridge counts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recently a new dermatoglyphic measure was defined called the Total Palmar Pattern Ridge Count (TPPRC), which is the sum of the ten single counts (Malhotra et al., 1981). Malhotra and associates presented estimates of five familial correlations, including twins, which are analyzed here using the models and methods of path analysis. It is concluded that about one-third of the variation in the TPPRC is accounted for by additive genetic factors (h2 = .37 +/- .06). However, the observed MZ twin correlation (.8) cannot be explained in terms of h2 alone, requiring either intrauterine environment specific to MZ twins or dominance deviations. This second source of family resemblance cannot be resolved in this material.

Malhotra KC; Rao DC

1982-06-01

42

Rapid radiorespirometric method for the estimation of bacterial counts of cellulomonas cultures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The determination of bacterial counts in cultures of Cellulomonas species C-72-4 by a radiorespirometric technique was twenty times faster than the conventional method. A linear correlation was found between the bacterial counts and the 14CO2 metabolized from labelled glucose added to the cellulose medium. (orig.).

1975-01-01

43

Influence of somatic cell count and total bacterial counts of raw milk in cheese yield using small-scale methodology/ Influência da contagem de células somáticas e da contagem bacteriana total do leite cru no rendimento da produção de queijos, utilizando metodologia em escala reduzida  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar a influência da CCS e CBT do leite cru no rendimento de queijos, utilizando método em escala reduzida, e avaliar a predição teórica do rendimento de queijos. Foram utilizadas 270 amostras de leite cru com três níveis de CCS (abaixo de 200.000; 200.000-750.000; acima de 750.000 CS/mL) e três níveis de CBT (abaixo de 100.000; 100.000-750.000; acima de 750.000 UFC/mL). As amostras de leite cru foram submetidas a análises (more) de composição (gordura, proteína, lactose, EST e ESD), CCS, CBT, crioscopia e pH. A produção dos queijos em escala reduzida foi feita segundo o método desenvolvido na Universidade de Cornell, EUA (Melilli et al., 2002). As amostras de soro de queijo foram submetidas a análises de composição (gordura, proteína total, proteína verdadeira, lactose, EST e ESD) e CCS. O aumento da CCS no leite cru refletiu na maior perda de proteína no soro. CCS elevada (acima de 200.000 CS/mL) foi correlacionada ao menor rendimento de massa seca. Foi encontrada uma correlação alta entre os valores teóricos de rendimento e os valores de rendimento preditos pela metodologia em escala reduzida, indicando que esta metodologia pode ser utilizada para a predição do rendimento de queijos. Abstract in english The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of SCC and TBC of raw milk in cheese yield, using a reduced scale method, and to evaluate theoretical prediction of cheese yield. 270 samples of raw milk were split into three SCC levels (below 200,000; 200,000-750,000; above 750,000 SC/mL) and three TBC levels (below 100,000; 100,000-750,000; above 750,000 CFU/mL). Raw milk samples were submitted to compositional analysis (fat, protein, lactose, total solids and (more) SNF content), SCC, TBC, freezing point and pH. The production of the small-scale cheese was conducted according to the method developed at Cornell University (Melilli et al., 2002). Cheese whey samples were submitted to compositional analysis (fat, total protein, true protein, lactose, total solids and SNF content) and SCC. The increase in the SCC of raw milk resulted in increased protein loss in cheese whey. High SCC (above 200,000 SC/mL) in milk samples was correlated to reduced dry matter yield. There was no effect of TBC in cheese yield in the experimental conditions used. There was a high correlation between the theoretical yield values and the yield values predicted by the small-scale method, indicating that this method is appropriate for cheese yield prediction.

Silva, N.M.A.; Bastos, L.P.F.; Oliveira, D.L.S.; Oliveira, M.C.P.P.; Fonseca, L.M.

2012-10-01

44

Influence of somatic cell count and total bacterial counts of raw milk in cheese yield using small-scale methodology Influência da contagem de células somáticas e da contagem bacteriana total do leite cru no rendimento da produção de queijos, utilizando metodologia em escala reduzida  

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Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of SCC and TBC of raw milk in cheese yield, using a reduced scale method, and to evaluate theoretical prediction of cheese yield. 270 samples of raw milk were split into three SCC levels (below 200,000; 200,000-750,000; above 750,000 SC/mL) and three TBC levels (below 100,000; 100,000-750,000; above 750,000 CFU/mL). Raw milk samples were submitted to compositional analysis (fat, protein, lactose, total solids and SNF content), SCC, TBC, freezing point and pH. The production of the small-scale cheese was conducted according to the method developed at Cornell University (Melilli et al., 2002). Cheese whey samples were submitted to compositional analysis (fat, total protein, true protein, lactose, total solids and SNF content) and SCC. The increase in the SCC of raw milk resulted in increased protein loss in cheese whey. High SCC (above 200,000 SC/mL) in milk samples was correlated to reduced dry matter yield. There was no effect of TBC in cheese yield in the experimental conditions used. There was a high correlation between the theoretical yield values and the yield values predicted by the small-scale method, indicating that this method is appropriate for cheese yield prediction.Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar a influência da CCS e CBT do leite cru no rendimento de queijos, utilizando método em escala reduzida, e avaliar a predição teórica do rendimento de queijos. Foram utilizadas 270 amostras de leite cru com três níveis de CCS (abaixo de 200.000; 200.000-750.000; acima de 750.000 CS/mL) e três níveis de CBT (abaixo de 100.000; 100.000-750.000; acima de 750.000 UFC/mL). As amostras de leite cru foram submetidas a análises de composição (gordura, proteína, lactose, EST e ESD), CCS, CBT, crioscopia e pH. A produção dos queijos em escala reduzida foi feita segundo o método desenvolvido na Universidade de Cornell, EUA (Melilli et al., 2002). As amostras de soro de queijo foram submetidas a análises de composição (gordura, proteína total, proteína verdadeira, lactose, EST e ESD) e CCS. O aumento da CCS no leite cru refletiu na maior perda de proteína no soro. CCS elevada (acima de 200.000 CS/mL) foi correlacionada ao menor rendimento de massa seca. Foi encontrada uma correlação alta entre os valores teóricos de rendimento e os valores de rendimento preditos pela metodologia em escala reduzida, indicando que esta metodologia pode ser utilizada para a predição do rendimento de queijos.

N.M.A. Silva; L.P.F. Bastos; D.L.S. Oliveira; M.C.P.P. Oliveira; L.M. Fonseca

2012-01-01

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Total leucocyte count, C-reactive protein and neutrophil count: Diagnostic Aid in acute appendicitis  

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Full Text Available Background/Aim: Acute appendicitis is one of the most common acute intraabdominal affections seen in surgical departments, which can be treated easily if an accurate diagnosis is made in time. Otherwise, delay in diagnosis and treatment can lead to diffuse peritonitis. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted on 110 patients who were operated for acute appendicitis to determine the role and predictive value of the total leucocyte count (TLC), C-reactive protein (CRP) and percentage of neutrophil count in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Preoperative TLC, CRP and percentage of neutrophil count were determined and were compared with the results of the histopathology of the removed appendix. Results: Of all the patients studied, 92 had histopathologically positive appendicitis. The TLC was found to be significantly high in 90 patients who proved to have acute appendicitis, whereas CRP was high in only 88 patients and neutrophil percentage was raised in 91; four had a normal CRP level. Thus, TLC had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 97.82%, 55.55% and 91.8%, respectively. CRP had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 95.6%, 77.77% and 95.6% respectively. Percentage of neutrophil count had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 98.9%, 38.88% and 89.21%, respectively. When used in combination, there was a marked improvement in the specificity and the positive predictive value to 88.04% and 98.7%, respectively. Conclusion: The inflammatory markers, i.e., TLC, CRP and neutrophil count can be helpful in the diagnosis when measured together as this increases their specificity and positive predictive value.

Shafi Sheikh; Afsheen Misbha; Reshi Farooq

2009-01-01

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The relationship between total ridge-count, absolute ridge-count and pattern intensity index revisited.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although several exhaustive studies are available for qualitative finger dermatoglyphics, our knowledge on quantitative aspects of finger dermatoglyphics is far from complete. In this paper, we have tried to explore the relationship between total ridge-count (TRC) and pattern intensity index (PII), and between absolute ridge-count (ARC) and PII in 1809 Koli males--a scheduled tribe of district Panchmahals, Gujarat. It has been observed that the linear regression between ARC and PII accounts for a larger part of variation than between TRC and PII. These results further strengthen the observations made by Basu and Namboodiri and Malhotra et al. that the relationship between ARC and PII might be different in different population groups.

Kshatriya GK; Bhasin MK; Singh IP

1980-01-01

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The relationship between total lymphocyte count and CD4 count in patients infected with HIV  

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Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: CD4 T-Lymphocyte counts have proven to be a standard laboratory marker of disease progression and severity of immunodeficiency in adults infected with HIV is used to initiate and monitor highly active antiretroviral therapy; however, its application may not be feasible for its expensive equipments and reagent in resource-limited setting. There is a need to have another marker of immunodeficiency that is less resource-demanding. In April 2002, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended that, when CD4 cell count is not available, a TLC of 1200cell/mm3 or less in individuals with stage 2 or 3 of the disease may be used as an indication to initiate ART."n"nMethods: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between total lymphocyte count and CD4 count in HIV-infected adults. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study. Subject characteristics were patients who had positive serologic HIV test results, confirmed via western blot. Analysis unit was the results of CBC and CD4 measurements on the same blood sample each time. Data of 100 patients were collected. In this study, TLC accounts for the main predictor of CD4 count. The amounts of TLC which can predict CD4 less than 200cell/mm3 were considered eligible."n"nResults: Our data revealed high sensitivity and specificity of TLC as a surrogate measure of CD4 count. In this study, TLC cutoff of 1300cell/mm3 indicated the optimal combined sensitivity and specificity altogether."n"nConclusion: Total lymphocyte count and its changes can be used as alternative to CD4 count and its changes in the management of HIV-infected individuals.

Jafari S; Rasoolinejad M; Emadi Kouchak H; Mokarami F

2009-01-01

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Effect of cleaning procedure and hygienic condition of milking equipment on bacterial count of bulk tank milk.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics of cleaning procedures for milking equipment applied in intensive dairy farms in Lombardy (Italy) and to study their relationships with bacterial count of bulk milk and hygienic condition of milking machine components. A group of 22 dairy farms was visited twice (winter and summer) in order to collect bulk tank milk and post-rinse water samples and swabs from liners and milk receiver. Samples were analysed to determine: standard plate count (SPC), laboratory pasteurization count (LPC), psychrotrophic bacteria count (PBC), coliform count (CC) and Escherichia coli. Cleaning procedures were monitored using electronic milk flow meters with specific software for the measurement of the duration of each cleaning phase, circulating solution temperature and electrical conductivity, turbulence and water filling percentage of pipelines. The results showed that farms classified as high and low milk total bacteria count significantly differed both in terms of liners and receiver bacterial contamination and in terms of water temperature reached during the detergent phase of cleaning milking equipment. Significant positive correlations were found among total bacteria count in milk and bacterial contamination of the liners. Maximum water temperature reached during the cleaning cycle of milking equipment was very low (34·4±8·9°C on average); most of the observations (88·6%) corresponded to water temperatures <45°C. Cleaning temperature was related to psychrotrophic bacteria count of milk and post-rinse water and coliform count in liners. Routine check and regulation of water temperature during the washing phase of the milking machine can be a simple and effective way to control one of the main risk factors for bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk.

Bava L; Zucali M; Sandrucci A; Brasca M; Vanoni L; Zanini L; Tamburini A

2011-03-01

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AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC BACTERIAL COUNTS OF NASAL WASHINGS: PRESENCE OF ORGANISMS RESEMBLING CORYNEBACTERIUM ACNES  

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Watson, Elinor D. (Washington University, St. Louis, Mo.), Nanci J. Hoffman, Richard W. Simmers, and Theodor Rosebury. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial counts of nasal washings: Presence of organisms resembling Corynebacterium acnes. J. Bacteriol. 83:144–148. 1962.—Aerobic and anaerobic colony counts...

Watson, Elinor D.; Hoffman, Nanci J.; Simmers, Richard W.; Rosebury, Theodor

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Antimicrobial susceptibility testing in 90 min by bacterial cell count monitoring.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The rise in antimicrobial resistance has become a serious global health problem. Restrictive use of antibiotics seems the only option to temper this accession since research in new antibiotics has halted. Antimicrobial stewardship programmes rely on quick access to susceptibility data. This study evaluated the concept of bacterial cell count monitoring as a fast method to determine susceptibility. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus strains were tested for amoxicillin/piperacillin and gentamicin by three conventional methods (VITEK2(®) , Etest(®) and broth-macrodilution). Bacterial cell count monitoring reliably predicted susceptibility after 90 min for Escherichia coli and after 120 min for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus without any minor, major or very major discrepancies. Time-to-result was reduced by 74%, 83% and 76%, respectively. Bacterial cell count monitoring shows great potential for rapid susceptibility testing.

Broeren MA; Maas Y; Retera E; Arents NL

2013-03-01

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A randomised prospective comparison of Rotecno versus new Gore occlusive surgical gowns using bacterial air counts in ultraclean air.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ultraclean air (UCA) in operating theatres is defined as <10 colony-forming units (cfu)/m(3). The current European standards for surgical gowns are contained in EN13795 but these do not include containment of bacterial dispersal as a standard test. A trial in 2003 found that there were bacterial air counts of 1 cfu/m(3) with Rotecno gowns and 0.5 cfu/m(3) with body exhaust suits in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). This study compared bacterial air counts using Rotecno gowns with a new type of occlusive gown made from Gore liquid-proof fabric, which were superior to the Rotecno gowns on standard EN13795 laboratory testing. Fifty-six joint replacements were allocated randomly either to Rotecno or to Gore gowns with stratification into TKA, total hip arthroplasty (THA) or revision THA. Airborne bacteria were collected from within 30 cm of the wound for the first 10 min of surgery using a Casella slit sampler. The new gowns were associated with higher air counts (3.7 cfu/m(3)) than the Rotecno gowns (1.2 cfu/m(3)) (P<0.001). Three of the Gore samples exceeded the clean air standard of 10 cfu/m(3). In TKA patients, the existing Rotecno gowns, now many years old, had higher air counts (2.0 cfu/m(3)) than in the 2003 trial (0.8 cfu/m(3)) (P<0.001). The new gowns were superior in standard laboratory tests but not superior at preventing airborne bacterial dispersal. Rotecno gowns, although many years old, were still effective. This study highlights the importance of testing new materials in a clinical environment with UCA; in-vitro testing alone is probably not an adequate assessment.

Gulihar A; Taub NA; Taylor GJ

2009-09-01

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The effect of surgical theatre head-gear on air bacterial counts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The wearing of disposable head-gear in operating theatres is currently recommended for scrubbed and non-scrubbed staff. However, there is little evidence of its effectiveness as an infection control measure in casual or non-scrubbed theatre staff. The effect of head-gear on bacterial air counts was studied, using six volunteers, in a sealed room, with and without ventilation. Using a Casella slit sampler and a SAS Air Sampler, air counts ranged from 0.08 to greater than 2.9 colony forming units (cfu) m-3. The wearing of head-gear was not associated with a reduction in air counts but counts were lower with ventilation. We recommend that non-scrubbed staff no longer wear head-gear as effective ventilation probably counteracts any possible increased bacterial shedding. Scrubbed staff should continue to wear disposable head-gear because of their proximity to the operative field.

Humphreys H; Russell AJ; Marshall RJ; Ricketts VE; Reeves DS

1991-11-01

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Prediction of total viable counts on chilled pork using an electronic nose combined with support vector machine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to predict the total viable counts (TVC) in chilled pork using an electronic nose (EN) together with support vector machine (SVM). EN and bacteriological measurements were performed on pork samples stored at 4 °C for up to 10 days. Bacterial numbers on pork were determined by plate counts on agar. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to cluster EN measurements. The model for the correlation between EN signal responses and bacterial numbers was constructed by using the SVM, combined with partial least squares (PLS). Correlation coefficients for training and validation were 0.94 and 0.88, respectively, which suggested that the EN system could be used as a simple and rapid technique for the prediction of bacteria numbers in pork.

Wang D; Wang X; Liu T; Liu Y

2012-02-01

54

Evaluating total lymphocyte counts as a substitute for CD4 counts in the follow up of AIDS patients  

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Full Text Available This study evaluated total lymphocyte count (TLC) as a substitute marker for CD4+ cell counts to identify patients who need prophylaxis against opportunistic infection (CD4 < 200 cells/mm³) and patients with CD4 < 350 cells/mm³ (Brazilian threshold value of CD4 count to define AIDS). We evaluated TLC and CD4+ cells count of 1,174 HIV-infected patients, in Salvador, Brazil, from May 2003 to September 2004. CD4+ cell counts were performed by flow cytometry, and TLC was measured with an automated hematological counter. The mean CD4 count was 430 cells/mm³ (range: 4 to 2,531 cells/mm³). Mean TLC was 1,900 cells/mm³ (range: 300 to 6,200 cells/mm³). Using a threshold value of 1,000 cells/mm³ for TLC, the positive predictive value (PPV) was 77% for CD4 < 200 cells/mm³, but the sensitivity was only 29%, while the negative predictive value (NPV) was 88%, with 98% specificity. Similar findings were observed for CD4 count < 350. Using the same threshold value of 1,000 cells/mm³ for TLC, sensitivity was 14%, and specificity 99% (PPV= 94%; NPV=62%). In 70/1,510 (5%) of the samples the sum of CD4 and CD8 cell counts was greater than the TLC and in 27% (419/1,510) this sum was below 65% of the TLC. TLC has a high specificity to identify patients for prophylaxis, but a quite low sensitivity. It is not useful as an alternative to CD4+ T-cell counts as a marker in HIV-infected patients.

Ana Luiza Dias Angelo; Camila Dias Angelo; Alex José Leite Torres; André Maurício Costa Ramos; Márcia Lima; Eduardo Martins Netto; Carlos Brites

2007-01-01

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Bacterial and yeast counts in Brazilian commodities and spices  

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Full Text Available A total of thirteen genera of bacteria and two genera of yeasts were detected in surface sterilized and unsterilized Brazilian commodities and spices such as cashew kernels, Brazil nut kernels, black and white pepper. The genus Bacillus with eight species was by far the most common. The yeasts isolated were Pichia sp., P. guillermondii and Rhodotorula sp. Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in cashew and Brazil nut kernels.

Freire Francisco das Chagas Oliveira; Offord Lisa

2002-01-01

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Utility of total lymphocyte count as a surrogate marker for CD4 counts in HIV-1 infected children in Kenya  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In resource-limited settings, such as Kenya, access to CD4 testing is limited. Therefore, evaluation of less expensive laboratory diagnostics is urgently needed to diagnose immuno-suppression in children. Objectives To evaluate utility of total lymphocyte count (TLC) as surrogate marker for CD4 count in HIV-infected children. Methods This was a hospital based retrospective study conducted in three HIV clinics in Kisumu and Nairobi in Kenya. TLC, CD4 count and CD4 percent data were abstracted from hospital records of 487 antiretroviral-naïve HIV-infected children aged 1 month - 12 years. Results TLC and CD4 count were positively correlated (r = 0.66, p 59 months of age (r = 0.68, p 3), age 12-35 months (CD4 count 3, and age above 59 months (CD4 count 3). WHO recommended TLC threshold values for severe immuno-suppression of 4000, 3000, 2500 and 2000 cells/mm3 for age categories 59 months had low sensitivity of 25%, 23%, 33% and 62% respectively in predicting severe immuno-suppression using CD4 count as gold standard. Raising TLC thresholds to 7000, 6000, 4500 and 3000 cells/mm3 for each of the stated age categories increased sensitivity to 71%, 64%, 56% and 86%, with positive predictive values of 85%, 61%, 37%, 68% respectively but reduced specificity to 73%, 62%, 54% and 68% with negative predictive values of 54%, 65%, 71% and 87% respectively. Conclusion TLC is positively correlated with absolute CD4 count in children but current WHO age-specific thresholds had low sensitivity to identify severely immunosuppressed Kenyan children. Sensitivity and therefore utility of TLC to identify immuno-suppressed children may be improved by raising the TLC cut off levels across the various age categories.

Githinji Nyawira; Maleche-Obimbo Elizabeth; Nderitu Moses; Wamalwa Dalton C; Mbori-Ngacha Dorothy

2011-01-01

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Serum total IgE levels and total eosinophil counts: relationship with treatment response in patients with acute asthma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether serum total IgE levels and total eosinophil counts have any relationship with the response to routine pharmacological treatment in patients with acute asthma. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 162 patients with acute asthma. Serum total IgE levels, peripheral blood cell counts and eosinophil counts were determined. The treatment was adjusted for each patient according to the severity of asthma. Spirometry was performed at baseline and two weeks after the treatment. The patients were divided into two groups: high IgE (>100 IU/mL) and low IgE (<100 IU/mL). We compared the two groups in terms of the relationships between baseline values and final values (percentage change) for the following parameters: FEV1, FVC, FEF25-75%, peripheral white blood cell counts and eosinophil counts. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the groups regarding the percentage changes of the studied parameters. Nor were there significant differences between the groups regarding FEV1, FVC, and FEF25-75% (% of the predicted values) at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of these findings, we conclude that serum total IgE levels, peripheral white blood cell counts and eosinophil counts cannot predict the response to the pharmacological treatment of patients with acute asthma.

Razi E; Moosavi GA

2010-01-01

58

Effect of alginate chemical disinfection on bacterial count over gypsum cast.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of sodium hypochlorite (1 : 10) and iodophor disinfectants on alginate impressions along with their effect on the survived bacterium count on the gypsum cast. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four alginate impression on each dentate patients were made, of which Group I were not washed or disinfected, Group II impressions were merely washed with water, Group III were disinfected by spraying with sodium hypochlorite (1 : 10), Group IV were disinfected with iodophor (1 : 213). Gypsum cast (type III) were made from all the impression. Impressions and gypsum cast were swabbed in mid palatal region for bacterial culture. Bacterial colony counting done after 3 days of incubation at 37? in blood agar media. The data obtained was analyzed by one way ANOVA test at a significant difference level of 0.05. RESULTS: Group I and Group II showed significantly more bacteria compared to Group III and Group IV. Bacterial colonies on the alginate impression and gypsum cast in group disinfected with Sodium hypochlorite (1 : 10) were 0.18, 0.82 respectively compared to group treated with iodophor (1 : 213). There was an increase in bacterial count on dental cast compared to source alginate impressions. CONCLUSION: Sodium hypochlorite (1 : 10) was found to be better disinfectant for alginate impression. There was an indication of increase in number of bacteria from alginate impression to making of dental cast. Additional gypsum cast disinfectant procedures need to be encouraged to completely eliminate cross infection to dental laboratory.

Haralur SB; Al-Dowah OS; Gana NS; Al-Hytham A

2012-05-01

59

Effect of Bacterial Content and Somatic Cell Count on Sheep Milk Quality in Kosovo  

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Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyze the effect of bacterial content (CFU) and somatic cell count (SCC) in milk quality in sheep (Ovis aries) farms according to the existing standards for fresh milk quality in Kosovo. A total of 2256 milk test day records from 379 Bardhoka (BAR), Sharri sheep (SHA), Kosovo sheep (KOS) and Balusha (BAL) ewes in eight herds across the country were collected and analyzed through a period April-October 2010. The general linear model and Duncan’s test were used to analyze the effect of different variables on presence of CFU and SCC in fresh milk. The effect of all variables was considered as a fixed. The overall results show that farm (P 0422), respectively, had a significant effect on presence of SCC. For CFU farm (P 0422) and breed (P 1211.17 to 6425.76 CFU/mL and 846.07 to 2043.15 SCC/mL milk, respectively. Although the rate of fresh milk contamination with SCC tends to be relatively low compare with CFU, by all means both variables should not be underestimated bearing in mind that a high rate of them on fresh milk are negatively correlated with farmer’s profit, consumer food safety and overall animal health.

Hysen Bytyqi; Hajrip Mehmeti; Idriz Vehapi; Fillojeta Rrustemaj; Ibrahim Mehmeti

2013-01-01

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In vivo comparison of reduction in bacterial count after caries excavation with 3 different techniques.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vivo study was to evaluate and compare the reduction in bacterial count in dentin after caries excavation with a spoon excavator, carbide bur, and polymer bur. METHODS: Forty-five primary molar teeth from 36 children with occlusal dentinal carious lesions without pulpal involvement were chosen and divided into 3 groups: (1) caries was excavated using a brand new round bur with a slow-speed handpiece at 800 rpm from the occlusal aspect; (2) new polymer burs were used with slow-speed handpiece at 800 rpm, according to the lesion's size; (3) caries was excavated using a sterile spoon excavator. RESULTS: The mean difference in colony forming units of Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli before and after caries excavation was found to be significant (P<.01) in all 3 groups. Further intergroup comparison of percentage reduction in bacterial counts between different groups was statistically significant, except when the percentage reduction in S mutans of group 2 was compared to that of group 3 (P=.26). Reduction in S mutans count was highly significant (P<.001) for group 1 vs group 3. CONCLUSIONS: Caries removal with a carbide bur, polymer bur, and spoon excavator produced significant reduction in viable count of both Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli. Carbide burs, however, produced greater reduction in the viable count of bacteria followed by polymer bur and spoon excavator.

Zakirulla M; Uloopi KS; Subba Reddy VV

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
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A comparison of diagnostic efficacies among different reagent strips and automated cell count in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Currently, decision to give antibiotics in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) suspected patient depends mainly on the result of manual cell count, which requires significant waiting period. Recently, many reports on the efficacies of reagent strips and a few reports of automated cell count are available but there has been no direct comparison study. AIMS: This prospective study was to assess the diagnostic efficacies of different reagent strips (Aution, Multistix, Combur) and automated cell count. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 250 paracenteses were performed. There were 40 specimens obtained from patients with clinical suspicion for SBP, the rest were obtained from non SBP suspected patients. Thirty specimens from 250 samples (12%) were diagnosed as SBP by manual cell count. Automated system provided higher value for SBP diagnosis in all parameters (sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy; 87.5-99.1%) whereas the strip tests provided lower number in all parameters (80-98.6%). Multistix provided the lowest sensitivity (80%). The false negative rates by Aution, Multistix, Combur tests and automated cell count were 10%, 20%, 10% and 3.3%, respectively. By lowering the cut off for SBP diagnosis with the automated system to 200 cells/mm(3), there was no false negative. CONCLUSIONS: Comparing to reagent strips, automated cell count is a better screening tool for SBP diagnosis because it provides higher validity scores and a lower false negative rate. However, the discrepancy of cell count reading may occur, we suggest using a lower cut off for SBP diagnosis by the automated system.

Rerknimitr R; Limmathurotsakul D; Bhokaisawan N; Kongkam P; Treeprasertsuk S; Kullavanijaya P

2010-05-01

62

Influence of addition of different antibiotics in semen diluent on viable bacterial count and spermatozoal viability of Awassi ram semen  

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Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of six different antibiotics in controlling the growth of semen contaminating bacteria and if these antibiotics have any adverse effect on Awassi ram spermatozoa. Semen samples from six mature Awassi rams were used in this study. A total number of 120 ejaculates were collected from the rams using an artificial vagina once a week. Semen ejaculates were evaluated for volume, sperm concentration, mass motility, individual motility, percentage live sperm, sperm abnormalities, and viable bacterial count. Semen samples were diluted by sodium citrate-fructose-egg yolk. The diluted semen sample was divided into 7 parts. Six types of antibiotics were added to the semen diluent parts including; penicillin G 1000 IU ml-1 with streptomycin 1 mg ml-1, gentamicin sulphate 250 mg ml-1, tetracycline 0.5 mg ml-1, lincomycin 1 mg ml-1, cefoperazone sodium 1mg ml-1, cefdinir 1 mg ml-1 and the seventh part considered as a control group without antibiotic addition. The diluted semen samples were cooled and preserved at 5 Co for 5 days. Cooled diluted semen samples were examined for individual motility, percent of live sperm, sperm abnormalities, acrosomal defects and bacterial count every 24 h until 5 days. Comparing with the control, all the antibiotics examined were effective in controlling bacterial growth (P<0.05) from 24 h to 96 h of preservation at 5 Co. Cefdinir and cefoperazone sodium proved to be significantly (P<0.05) effective than other antibiotics in controlling bacterial growth at 96 h of preservation as the bacterial count were 23.3 ± 3.7 x 103 / ml and 25.4 ± 6.2 x 103 / ml, respectively. Lincomycin, gentamicin sulphate and tetracycline proved ineffective in controlling bacterial growth at 96 h of preservation as the bacterial count were 57.1 ± 20.1 x 103 / ml, 52.5 ± 29.4 x 103 / ml and 46.5 ± 8.8 x 103 / ml, respectively. The addition of tetracycline to diluted ram semen significantly reduced (P<0.05) sperm individual motility and percent live sperm and a significant increase (P<0.05) acrosomal defects was observed at 96 h of preservation in comparison to control and other antibiotics. Sperm viability was highly correlated with bacterial count in the control part of diluted semen (r = 0.794; P < 0.01). It could be concluded from the results of the present study that additions of cephalosporins (cefdinir or Cefoperazone sodium) at the dose of 1 mg ml-1 were most effective amongst the antibiotics used in checking the bacterial growth and improving semen quality of Awassi ram. [Vet. World 2012; 5(2.000): 75-79

O I Azawi; M A Ismaeel

2012-01-01

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Total airborne mold particle sampling: evaluation of sample collection, preparation and counting procedures, and collection devices.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted to evaluate (i) procedures used to collect, prepare, and count total airborne mold spore/particle concentrations, and (ii) the relative field performance of three commercially available total airborne mold spore/particle sampling devices. Differences between factory and laboratory airflow calibration values of axial fan-driven sampling instruments (used in the study) indicated a need for laboratory calibration using a mass flow meter to ensure that sample results were accurately calculated. An aniline blue-amended Calberla's solution adjusted to a pH of 4.2-4.4 provided good sample mounting/counting results using Dow Corning high vacuum grease, Dow Corning 280A adhesive, and Dow Corning 316 silicone release spray for samples collected using mini-Burkard and Allergenco samplers. Count variability among analysts was most pronounced in 5% counts of relatively low mold particle deposition density samples and trended downward with increased count percentage and particle deposition density. No significant differences were observed among means of 5, 10, and 20% counts and among analysts; a significant interaction effect was observed between analysts' counts and particle deposition densities. Significantly higher mini-Burkard and Air-O-Cell total mold spore/particle counts for 600x vs. 400x (1.9 and 2.3 x higher, respectively), 1000x vs. 600x (1.9 and 2.2 x higher, respectively) and 1000x vs. 400x (3.6 and 4.6 x higher, respectively) comparisons indicated that 1000x magnification counts best quantified total airborne mold spore/particles using light microscopy, and that lower magnification counts may result in unacceptable underreporting of airborne mold spore/particle concentrations. Modest but significantly higher (1.2x) total mold spore concentrations were observed with Allergenco vs. mini-Burkard samples collected in co-located, concurrently operated sampler studies; moderate but significantly higher mini-Burkard count values (1.4x) were observed in similar studies with Air-O-Cell samplers. These count differences were relatively small compared with the large differences observed among three count magnifications. PMID:18085480

Godish, Diana; Godish, Thad

2008-02-01

64

Total airborne mold particle sampling: evaluation of sample collection, preparation and counting procedures, and collection devices.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was conducted to evaluate (i) procedures used to collect, prepare, and count total airborne mold spore/particle concentrations, and (ii) the relative field performance of three commercially available total airborne mold spore/particle sampling devices. Differences between factory and laboratory airflow calibration values of axial fan-driven sampling instruments (used in the study) indicated a need for laboratory calibration using a mass flow meter to ensure that sample results were accurately calculated. An aniline blue-amended Calberla's solution adjusted to a pH of 4.2-4.4 provided good sample mounting/counting results using Dow Corning high vacuum grease, Dow Corning 280A adhesive, and Dow Corning 316 silicone release spray for samples collected using mini-Burkard and Allergenco samplers. Count variability among analysts was most pronounced in 5% counts of relatively low mold particle deposition density samples and trended downward with increased count percentage and particle deposition density. No significant differences were observed among means of 5, 10, and 20% counts and among analysts; a significant interaction effect was observed between analysts' counts and particle deposition densities. Significantly higher mini-Burkard and Air-O-Cell total mold spore/particle counts for 600x vs. 400x (1.9 and 2.3 x higher, respectively), 1000x vs. 600x (1.9 and 2.2 x higher, respectively) and 1000x vs. 400x (3.6 and 4.6 x higher, respectively) comparisons indicated that 1000x magnification counts best quantified total airborne mold spore/particles using light microscopy, and that lower magnification counts may result in unacceptable underreporting of airborne mold spore/particle concentrations. Modest but significantly higher (1.2x) total mold spore concentrations were observed with Allergenco vs. mini-Burkard samples collected in co-located, concurrently operated sampler studies; moderate but significantly higher mini-Burkard count values (1.4x) were observed in similar studies with Air-O-Cell samplers. These count differences were relatively small compared with the large differences observed among three count magnifications.

Godish D; Godish T

2008-02-01

65

Bacterial counts associated with sawdust and recycled manure bedding treated with commercial conditioners.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bacteria counts associated with untreated organic bedding materials were compared with those of bedding treated with either an alkaline commercial bedding conditioner, acidic commercial bedding conditioner, or hydrated lime. Bedding materials were recycled manure and kiln-dried sawdust. The effects of bedding treatments on bacteria counts differed between bedding types. Each of the bedding treatments significantly reduced bacteria in recycled manure prior to use. The alkaline conditioner and hydrated lime effectively inhibited bacteria in recycled manure for 1 d. Bedding counts and teat swabs of cows housed on recycled manure treated with the alkaline conditioner were reduced on d 2. The use of the acid conditioner in recycled manure had little effect on bacteria in bedding. Sawdust differed from recycled manure in that bacteria in untreated sawdust prior to use were minimal, and populations increased rapidly during the first 2 d after use as bedding. The acid conditioner had a bacteriostatic effect in sawdust, evident by the reduction of bacteria on d 2. The alkaline conditioner and hydrated lime did not alter bacteria counts in sawdust compared with untreated sawdust. Antibacterial activity of each conditioner deteriorated between d 2 and d 6 in both beddings. The antibacterial activities of conditioners were related to the pH of bedding materials. The use of commercial bedding conditioners initially reduced bacterial counts; however, the antibacterial effects had diminished between d 2 and 6 after use in bedding.

Hogan JS; Bogacz VL; Thompson LM; Romig S; Schoenberger PS; Weiss WP; Smith KL

1999-08-01

66

Gingival fluid cytokine expression and subgingival bacterial counts during pregnancy and postpartum: a case series.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess gingival fluid (GCF) cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA) levels, subgingival bacteria, and clinical periodontal conditions during a normal pregnancy to postpartum. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subgingival bacterial samples were analyzed with the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method. GCF samples were assessed with real-time PCR including five proinflammatory cytokines and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor. RESULTS: Nineteen pregnant women with a mean age of 32 years (S.D. ± 4 years, range 26-42) participated in the study. Full-mouth bleeding scores (BOP) decreased from an average of 41.2% (S.D. ± 18.6%) at the 12th week of pregnancy to 26.6% (S.D. ± 14.4%) at the 4-6 weeks postpartum (p?counts of Eubacterium saburreum, Parvimonas micra, Selenomonas noxia, and Staphylococcus aureus were found at week 12 of pregnancy than at the 4-6 weeks postpartum examinations (p?bacterial counts were observed. BOP scores and GCF levels of selected cytokines were not related to each other and no differences in GCF levels of the cytokines were observed between samples from the 12th week of pregnancy to 4-6 weeks postpartum. Decreasing postpartum counts of Porphyromonas endodontalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were associated with decreasing levels of Il-8 and Il-1?. CONCLUSIONS: BOP decreased after pregnancy without any active periodontal therapy. Associations between bacterial counts and cytokine levels varied greatly in pregnant women with gingivitis and a normal pregnancy outcome. Postpartum associations between GCF cytokines and bacterial counts were more consistent. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Combined assessments of gingival fluid cytokines and subgingival bacteria may provide important information on host response.

Bieri RA; Adriaens L; Spörri S; Lang NP; Persson GR

2013-01-01

67

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis with a very high leukocyte count in ascitic fluid caused by Haemophilus influenzae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report on a case of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) due to Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) in an elderly patient with alcoholic cirrhosis. The patient presented with a 5 day history of fever, cough, and fatigue. Abdominal paracentesis revealed a very high neutrophil count (134,800 cells/?L). Secondary peritonitis and abdominal abscess were ruled out. Peritoneal fluid culture displayed the growth of H. influenzae. The patient was treated with ceftriaxone and showed signs of improvement. Eventually, the patient died due to septic shock caused by other organisms. H. influenzae is a very rare cause of SBP. This case report demonstrates that (1) H. influenzae should be considered a potential cause of SBP, and (2) a very high leukocyte count in ascitic fluid can be found in patients with SBP.

Saadi T; Khoury S; Veitsman E; Baruch Y; Raz-Pasteur A

2013-01-01

68

Comparative seric TGF(?1, ?2) levels and platelets count response in total body irradiated baboons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total body irradiation associated or not with r-hIL-6 treatment a relation between TGF-?1 and TGF-?2 blood levels and platelets count. During radio-induced thrombocytopenia, by decreasing its ability to inhibit proliferation of stem cells and megakaryocytopoiesis, the TGF-? falling induced a favorable condition for hematopoietic recovery. (author).

1994-01-01

69

Development of radiation sterilized dip slides for enumerating lactic acid bacteria and total count in foodstuffs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

APT agar (APT) used for enumeration of lactic acid bacteria and Plate Count agar (PCA) applied for total count were sterilized by gamma radiation using radiation dose of 10-15 kGy. Radiosterilized PCA and APT modified by adding catalase prior to irradiation, or APT with increased content of yeast extract performed, as well as, the heat sterilized commercial media. Growth performance was evaluated on several strains of microorganisms, as well as, by enumeration of bacteria in food products. Radiosterilization of culture media in final packaging, can be applied to produce dip slide kits containing PCA or APT.

Eisenberg, E.; Padova, R.; Kirsch, E.; Weissman, Sh.; Hirshfeld, T.; Shenfeld, A.

1988-01-01

70

Development of radiation sterilized dip slides for enumerating lactic acid bacteria and total count in foodstuffs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

APT agar (APT) used for enumeration of lactic acid bacteria and Plate Count agar (PCA) applied for total count were sterilized by gamma radiation using radiation dose of 10-15 kGy. Radiosterilized PCA and APT modified by adding catalase prior to irradiation, or APT with increased content of yeast extract performed, as well as, the heat sterilized commercial media. Growth performance was evaluated on several strains of microorganisms, as well as, by enumeration of bacteria in food products. Radiosterilization of culture media in final packaging, can be applied to produce dip slide kits containing PCA or APT. (author)

1987-06-05

71

Evaluation of propane flaming for reducing bacterial counts in sand bedding.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An experiment was conducted on a commercial dairy farm to determine the effects of propane flaming on bacterial populations of common environmental mastitis pathogens in recycled sand bedding. One row of freestalls was flamed within 12 h after recycled bedding was added to stalls and then daily for the next 6 d. Bedding in a control row of freestalls was untreated. Stalls received the same treatment for 3 consecutive weeks. After 3 wk, bedding treatments were changed between rows in a switchback design. The daily movement of the 760°C propane-fueled flame at 3.2 km/h over the surface of recycled sand bedding in stalls had a positive effect by reducing mastitis pathogen loads at different depths of bedding in a pathogen-specific manner. The greatest reduction of mastitis pathogen populations by flaming was on the surface 25 mm of recycled sand. Reductions in bacterial counts in deeper layers were less consistent. Bacterial populations in both flamed and control sand bedding were lower on the surface 25 mm compared with sand at a depth of 50 to 75 mm. The effects of subsequent flaming of sand over a week also differed among pathogens. In general, mastitis pathogens were reduced the most on the day that recycled sand was added to stalls, and flaming was less effective as sand bedding was in stalls over a 6-d period. The use of propane flaming of recycled sand was shown to have potential as a practice to control mastitis pathogen populations in bedding. The greatest advantage afforded by flaming was on the surface of bedding, with inconsistent effects deeper in the stalls. Flaming was more effective in controlling bacterial populations in fresh recycled sand than in sand after several days use

Hogan J; Raubenolt L; McCormick J; Weiss W

2012-10-01

72

ATP bioluminescence rapid detection of total viable count in soy sauce.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence rapid determination method may be useful for enumerating the total viable count (TVC) in soy sauce, as it has been previously used in food and beverages for sanitation with good precision. However, many factors interfere with the correlation between total aerobic plate counts and ATP bioluminescence. This study investigated these interfering factors, including ingredients of soy sauce and bacteria at different physiological stages. Using the ATP bioluminescence method, TVC was obtained within 4 h, compared to 48 h required for the conventional aerobic plate count (APC) method. Our results also indicated a high correlation coefficient (r?=?0.90) between total aerobic plate counts and ATP bioluminescence after filtration and resuscitation with special medium. The limit of quantification of the novel detection method is 100 CFU/mL; there is a good linear correlation between the bioluminescence intensity and TVC in soy sauce in the range 1?×?10(2) -3?×?10(4) CFU/mL and even wider. The method employed a luminescence recorder (Tristar LB-941) and 96-well plates and could analyse 50-100 samples simultaneously at low cost. In this study, we evaluated and eliminated the interfering factors and made the ATP bioluminescence rapid method available for enumerating TVC in soy sauce.

Yan SL; Miao SN; Deng SY; Zou MJ; Zhong FS; Huang WB; Pan SY; Wang QZ

2012-01-01

73

Metabolic activity of bacterial cell enumerated by direct viable count. [Escherichia coli; Salmonella enteritidis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The direct viable count (DVC) method was modified by incorporation radiolabeled substrates in microautoradiographic analyses to assess bacterial survival in controlled laboratory microcosms. The DVC method, which permits enumeration of culturable and nonculturable cells, discriminates those cells that are responsive to added nutrients but in which division is inhibited by the addition of nalidixic acid. The resulting elongated cells represent all viable cells; this includes those that are culturable on routine media and those that are not. Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis were employed in the microcosm studies, and radiolabeled substrates included (methyl-/sup 3/H) thymidine or (U-/sup 14/C) glutamic acid. Samples taken at selected intervals during the survival experiments were examined by epifluorescence microscopy to enumerate cells by the DVC and acridine orange direct count methods, as well as by culture methods. Good correlation was obtained for cell-associated metabolic activity, measured by microautoradiography and substrate responsiveness (by the DVC method) at various stages of survival. Of the cells responsive to nutrients by the DVC method, ca. 90% were metabolically active by the microautoradiographic method. No significant difference was observed between DVC enumerations with or without added radiolabeled substrate.

Roszak, D.B.; Colwell, R.R.

1987-12-01

74

Lessons from the organization of a proficiency testing program in food microbiology by interlaboratory comparison: analytical methods in use, impact of methods on bacterial counts and measurement uncertainty of bacterial counts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The proficiency testing program in food microbiology RAEMA (Réseau d'Analyses et d'Echanges en Microbiologie des Aliments), created in 1988, currently includes 450 participating laboratories. This interlaboratory comparison establishes proficiency in detection of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes, as well as enumeration of aerobic micro-organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, beta-glucuronidase-positive Escherichia coli, anaerobic sulfito-reducing bacteria, Clostridium perfringens, coagulase-positive staphylococci, and L. monocytogenes. Twice a year, five units samples are sent to participants to assess their precision and trueness for enumeration and detection of micro-organisms. Most of participating laboratories use standard or validated alternative methods, they were 50-70% in 1994 and, for 5 years, they are 95%. An increasing use of alternative methods was also observed. This phenomenon is all the more significant as standard methods are laborious and time consuming; thus, 50% of the laboratories use alternative methods for the detection of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes. More and more laboratories use ready-to-use media and although the percentage is variable according to the microflora, we can consider that, today, 50-60% of the laboratories participating to the proficiency program only use ready-to-use media. The internal quality assurance programs lead also to an increasing use of media quality controls. The impact of analytical methods on bacterial counts was assessed by grouping together the results obtained by participating laboratories during the 10 last testing schemes from 1999 to 2003. The identified significant factors influencing enumeration results are variable from one microflora to another. Some of them significantly influence many microflora: the plating method (spiral plating or not) is influential for aerobic micro-organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, and staphylococci, the type of culture medium and the medium manufacturer is influential for aerobic micro-organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, E. coli, anaerobic sulfito-reducing bacteria, staphylococci, and L. monocytogenes. Others are specific of some micro-organisms: the resuscitation broth for L. monocytogenes, the mode of medium preparation for staphylococci and the incubation temperature for C. perfringens. These effects lead generally to small differences of about 0.1 log10 cfu g(-1), except for the enumeration of anaerobic sulfito-reducing bacteria, where the difference reaches 0.7 log10 cfu g(-1). These results, although difficult to extrapolate to all actual situations, which associate numerous food constituents and physiological states of bacteria to detect or numerate, allow nevertheless the quantification of interlaboratory variations linked to the methods in use. The analysis of bacterial counts obtained by the laboratories participating to the RAEMA proficiency testing program allowed also to validate a formula to calculate the repeatability of bacterial counts and to estimate the between-laboratory uncertainties for the majority of micro-organisms enumerated in food microbiology. The repeatability uncertainty is only indirectly affected by the method in use but depends essentially on the number of counted colonies. On the other hand, the between-laboratory uncertainty varies with the enumeration method in use, this variability is relatively small for the enumerations calling for methods without colony confirmation, i.e. for the enumeration of aerobic micro-organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, 'total' and thermotolerant coliforms, beta-glucuronidase-positive E. coli and coagulase-positive staphylococci with the technique using the rabbit-plasma fibrinogen agar. For these methods, the average between-laboratory standard deviation is 0.17 log10 cfu g(-1). The between-laboratory uncertainty is, on the contrary, larger for more complex techniques. For the enumeration of coagulase-positive staphylococci with the Baird-Parker agar, the between-laboratory standard deviation is equal to 0.23 log10 cfu g(-1), it is equal to 0.28 lo

Augustin, Jean-Christophe; Carlier, Vincent

2006-02-01

75

Monte Carlo simulation of gamma-ray total counting efficiency for a Phoswich detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The LB 1000-PW detector is mainly used for determining total alpha, beta and gamma activity of low activity natural sources such as water, soil, air filters and any other environmental sources. Detector efficiency needs to be known in order to measure the absolute activity of such samples. This paper presents results on the total gamma counting efficiency of a Phoswich detector from point and disk sources. The directions of photons emitted from the source were determined by Monte Carlo techniques and the true path lengths in the detector were determined by analytical equations depending on photon directions. Results are tabulated for various gamma energies.

Yalcin, S. [Education Faculty, Kastamonu University, 37200 Kastamonu (Turkey)], E-mail: syalcin@kastamonu.edu.tr; Gurler, O. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Uludag University, Gorukle Campus, 16059 Bursa (Turkey); Gundogdu, O. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); NCCPM, Medical Physics, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, GU2 7XX (United Kingdom); Kaynak, G. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Uludag University, Gorukle Campus, 16059 Bursa (Turkey)

2009-01-15

76

Monte Carlo simulation of gamma-ray total counting efficiency for a Phoswich detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The LB 1000-PW detector is mainly used for determining total alpha, beta and gamma activity of low activity natural sources such as water, soil, air filters and any other environmental sources. Detector efficiency needs to be known in order to measure the absolute activity of such samples. This paper presents results on the total gamma counting efficiency of a Phoswich detector from point and disk sources. The directions of photons emitted from the source were determined by Monte Carlo techniques and the true path lengths in the detector were determined by analytical equations depending on photon directions. Results are tabulated for various gamma energies

2009-01-01

77

Association between milk production, somatic cell count and bacterial dermatoses in three dairy cattle herds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the correlations between three bacterial dermatoses in cattle, milk production and bulk-milk somatic cell count (BMSCC). DESIGN: Field observations in three dairy cattle herds. METHODS: Milk production, BMSCC, fertility and all herd diseases were recorded by computerised dairy management systems. Each herd was visited twice weekly and the clinical signs, course of diseases and morbidity and culling rates were noted. Bulk-tank milk was sampled twice monthly and analysed for somatic cell count. Bacteriological and histological examinations were carried out from samples collected from affected animals in the respective herds. RESULTS: The acute exudative form of dermatophilosis was diagnosed only in first-calving cows. The morbidity rate was 53% and the culling rate was 16% of the affected animals. The BMSCC increased by a factor of 2.4 times, and there was an average loss of milk production of 30%/cow/day in affected animals. Ulcerative lymphangitis was diagnosed in first-calving cows (22%) and older cows (15%). The culling rate was 28%. The BMSCC increased by a factor of 17.3 times, and the average loss of milk production was 5.5%/affected animal/day. Papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD) was diagnosed in first-calving cows (25%) and in older cows (18%). The culling rate was 8%. The BMSCC increased by a factor of two times, and the average loss of milk production was 1.7%/affected animal/day. CONCLUSIONS: The correlations between three skin diseases (ulcerative lymphangitis, dermatophilosis, papillomatous digital dermatitis), milk production and BMSCC have been found to be unfavourable.

Yeruham I; Friedman S; Elad D; Perl S

2000-04-01

78

Aerobic bacterial, coliform, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus counts of raw and processed milk from selected smallholder dairy farms of Zimbabwe.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cross sectional study was conducted to enumerate total viable bacteria (TBC), coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in raw (n=120) and processed (n=20) milk from individual farms from three smallholder dairy schemes of Zimbabwe between October, 2009 and February, 2010. Data on management factors were collected using a structured questionnaire. A standard pour plate technique was used to enumerate total viable bacteria, while for coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus, counts were assessed by the spread plate technique. The association of total viable bacterial counts and management factors was assessed using univariable and a linear regression model. The log?? TBC for raw milk differed significantly (P0.05). The coliform, E. coli and S. aureus counts for raw milk significantly differed (P<0.05) amongst the study areas. The variation in TBC, coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus counts amongst the schemes could be attributed to differences in milking hygiene where farms with more access to training and monitoring of microbiological quality of milk had lower counts. Linear regression analysis revealed dairy scheme, delivery time and season of milking as independently associated with increased TBC of raw milk. The high TBC of raw and processed milk generally indicated low levels of milking hygienic practices, and high level of post-processing contamination, respectively. The high TBC, coliform, E. coli and S. aureus counts of both raw and processed milk may present a public health hazard. Thus, educating the farmers on general hygienic practices, quickening the delivery of milk to collection centres, or availing cooling facilities on-farm will improve the microbiological quality and safety of milk. PMID:21944662

Mhone, Tryness A; Matope, Gift; Saidi, Petronella T

2011-09-10

79

Bacterial air counts obtained with a centrifugal (RCS) sampler and a slit sampler--the influence of aerosols.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Samples of air collected from an air-conditioned hospital room with a 'Biotest RCS' centrifugal air sampler yielded (assuming a sampling rate of 40 l/min) air counts that were approximately twice those obtained with a modified conventional ' Casella ' slit sampler. However, for samples taken during the generation of an aerosol of spores of Bacillus globigii, the slit sampler gave counts that were apparently three- to tenfold higher than those with the centrifugal sampler. For a few minutes after switching off the nebulizer, higher counts were still obtained with the slit sampler, but then the centrifugal sampler again gave consistently higher counts. Our results illustrate that attempts to measure the number of bacteria in air are influenced by the size of the bacterial particles and the sampler that is used.

Casewell MW; Fermie PG; Thomas C; Simmons NA

1984-03-01

80

Influence of prior infection on the dynamics of bacterial counts in calves experimentally infected with Salmonella dublin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this investigation was to obtain information on the influence of immunity gained from a previous infection in calves on the dynamics of a subsequent salmonella infection. Immune and non-immune animals were orally infected with virulent S. dublin. After infection clinical symptoms and the development of bacterial counts in intestinal contents and intestinal mucosa, as well as in intestinal lymph nodes, spleen and liver were compared. The protection of the immune animals became evident as milder courses of infection and in lower bacterial counts in all examined organs. The greatest absolute and relative difference between the counts of immune animals and controls was in the intestinal mucosa. While absolute counts were lower, the proportion of bacteria was higher in the lymph nodes of immune animals. This apparently more intensive penetration in immune animals was feigned by a general and immunity independent negative correlation between concentration of salmonella in the mucosa and of salmonella found in the intestinal lymph nodes. This time course of counts provided evidence that enhanced defence of immune calves was particularly pronounced 3 and 4 days after the onset of infection. PMID:9054117

Steinbach, G; Koch, H; Meyer, H; Klaus, C

1996-02-01

 
 
 
 
81

Bronchoalveolar lavage total cell count in interstitial lung diseases--does it matter?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a useful technique for differential diagnosis of various interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) and is usually realized by analysis of the differential cell count. This study was conducted to estimate the value of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) total cell count (TCC) in the diagnosis of ILD. We analyzed 237 BAL samples from patients with ILD: sarcoidosis (SA), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP), and smoking-related ILD (sr-ILD). The control group consisted of 30 healthy volunteers. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences in the BALF TCC between healthy controls and patients with SA, IPF, HP, COP, sr-ILD, and eosinophilic disorders (mean values 6.9 vs. 14.5, 22.5, 22.8, 20.7, 64.5, and 27.3?×?10(6), respectively). Logistic regression revealed a significant relation between the TCC and ILD diagnosis. We conclude that the TCC, as well as the value of total number of inflammatory cells, should be reported in the description of BAL.

Domaga?a-Kulawik J; Skirecki T; Maskey-Warzechowska M; Grubek-Jaworska H; Chazan R

2012-06-01

82

Validation of the Micro Biological Survey Method for Total Viable Count and E. coli in Food Samples  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was the validation of the Micro Biological Survey (MBS) method for microbiological analysis of food for Total Viable Count (TVC) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). The MBS method is a rapid quantitative alternative method for the detection and selective counting of b...

Giorgia Bottini; Francesca Losito; Alessio De Ascenti; Francesca Romana Priolisi; Alberto Mari; Giovanni Antonini

83

Correlations between total cell concentration, total adenosine tri-phosphate concentration and heterotrophic plate counts during microbial monitoring of drinking water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The general microbial quality of drinking water is normally monitored by heterotrophic plate counts (HPC). This method has been used for more than 100 years and is recommended in drinking water guidelines. However, the HPC method is handicapped because it is time-consuming and restricted to culturable bacteria. Recently, rapid and accurate detection methods have emerged, such as adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) measurements to assess microbial activity in drinking water, and flow cytometry (FCM) to determine the total cell concentration (TCC). It is necessary and important for drinking water quality control to understand the relationships among the conventional and new methods. In the current study, all three methods were applied to 200 drinking water samples obtained from two local buildings connected to the same distribution system. Samples were taken both on normal working days and weekends, and the correlations between the different microbiological parameters were determined. TCC in the samples ranged from 0.37–5.61×105 cells/ml, and two clusters, the so-called high (HNA) and low (LNA) nucleic acid bacterial groups, were clearly distinguished. The results showed that the rapid determination methods (i.e., FCM and ATP) correlated well (R2=0.69), but only a weak correlation (R2=0.31) was observed between the rapid methods and conventional HPC data. With respect to drinking water monitoring, both FCM and ATP measurements were confirmed to be useful and complimentary parameters for rapid assessing of drinking water microbial quality.

E. Siebel; Y. Wang; T. Egli; F. Hammes

2008-01-01

84

Determination of total viable count (TVC) in chicken breast fillets by near-infrared hyperspectral imaging and spectroscopic transforms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Near infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging (HSI) and different spectroscopic transforms were investigated for their potential in detecting total viable counts in raw chicken fillets. A laboratory-based pushbroom hyperspectral imaging system was utilized to acquire images of raw chicken breast fillets and the resulting reflectance images were corrected and transformed into hypercubes in absorbance and Kubelka-Munck (K-M) units. Full wavelength partial least regression models were established to correlate the three spectral profiles with measured bacterial counts, and the best calibration model was based on absorbance spectra, where the correlation coefficients (R) were 0.97 and 0.93, and the root mean squared errors (RMSEs) were 0.37 and 0.57 log10 colony forming units (CFU) per gram for calibration and cross validation, respectively. To simplify the models, several wavelengths were selected by stepwise regression. More robustness was found in the resulting simplified models and the model based on K-M spectra was found to be excellent with an indicative high ratio of performance to deviation (RPD) value of 3.02. The correlation coefficients and RMSEs for this model were 0.96 and 0.40 log10 CFU per gram as well as 0.94 and 0.50 log10 CFU per gram for calibration and cross validation, respectively. Visualization maps produced by applying the developed models to the images could be an alternative to test the adaptability of a calibration model. Moreover, multi-spectral imaging systems were suggested to be developed for online applications.

Feng YZ; Sun DW

2013-02-01

85

Comparison of effects of suture and cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive on bacterial counts in contaminated lacerations.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We studied the effects of closing lacerations with suture or cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive on staphylococcal counts in inoculated guinea pig lacerations. Wounds closed with adhesive alone had lower counts than wounds containing suture material (P < 0.05). The results of a time-kill study were consis...

Howell, J M; Bresnahan, K A; Stair, T O; Dhindsa, H S; Edwards, B A

86

Relationship between Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index and total lymphocyte count and mortality of hemodialysis patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We examined the relationships between Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI), total lymphocyte count (TLC), and mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. We examined GNRI and TLC in 120 maintenance HD patients and followed these patients for 120 months. Predictors of all-cause death were examined using life table analysis and the Cox proportional hazards model. TLC marginally correlated with GNRI (r?=?0.176; p?=?0.090) and significantly with phosphorus levels (r?=?0.206; p?=?0.026). Life table analysis revealed that subjects with a GNRI?

Jung YS; You G; Shin HS; Rim H

2013-08-01

87

Comparison of Fecal Indicator Bacterial Counts in Shellfish Harvested from Kedah, Penang and Perak Pre and Post-Tsunami  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objectives of this paper are to examine the level of fecal indicator bacterial counts (Fecal Coliform (FC) and Escherichia coli (EC)) in shellfish harvested from Penang, Perak and Kedah after the tsunami and to compare the mean FC and EC in shellfish from the three states pre and post-tsunami. The data used in this paper were obtained from the Department of Fisheries’ Sanitary and Photosanitary (SPS) Program which monitored the shellfish culture areas around the Peninsular Malaysia regularly. Data were analysed using SPSS (Version 11.5). Generally more than 50% of the samples collected from each states after the tsunami complied to the microbiological safety guidelines (0.05) between the mean FC and EC counts in Penang, Perak and Kedah pre and post-tsunami.

Wan Norhana, N.; Mohd Nor Azman, A.; Ramlah, A. M.

2006-01-01

88

Drug-induced hypochlorhydria causes high duodenal bacterial counts in the elderly.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Small bowel bacterial overgrowth secondary to drug-induced hypochlorhydria may be of particular importance in the elderly, in whom anti-ulcer drugs are commonly prescribed and the consequences of malabsorption may be severe.

Pereira, SP; Gainsborough, N; Dowling, RH

89

Aerobic bacterial, coliform, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus counts of raw and processed milk from selected smallholder dairy farms of Zimbabwe.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A cross sectional study was conducted to enumerate total viable bacteria (TBC), coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in raw (n=120) and processed (n=20) milk from individual farms from three smallholder dairy schemes of Zimbabwe between October, 2009 and February, 2010. Data on management factors were collected using a structured questionnaire. A standard pour plate technique was used to enumerate total viable bacteria, while for coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus, counts were assessed by the spread plate technique. The association of total viable bacterial counts and management factors was assessed using univariable and a linear regression model. The log?? TBC for raw milk differed significantly (P<0.05) amongst the schemes with the lowest (5.6±4.7 log?? cfu/ml) and highest (6.7±5.8 log?? cfu/ml) recorded from Marirangwe and Nharira respectively. The mean log?? of TBC of processed milk (6.6±6.0 log?? cfu/ml) were marginally higher than those of raw milk (6.4±5.6 log?? cfu/ml) but not significant (P>0.05). The coliform, E. coli and S. aureus counts for raw milk significantly differed (P<0.05) amongst the study areas. The variation in TBC, coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus counts amongst the schemes could be attributed to differences in milking hygiene where farms with more access to training and monitoring of microbiological quality of milk had lower counts. Linear regression analysis revealed dairy scheme, delivery time and season of milking as independently associated with increased TBC of raw milk. The high TBC of raw and processed milk generally indicated low levels of milking hygienic practices, and high level of post-processing contamination, respectively. The high TBC, coliform, E. coli and S. aureus counts of both raw and processed milk may present a public health hazard. Thus, educating the farmers on general hygienic practices, quickening the delivery of milk to collection centres, or availing cooling facilities on-farm will improve the microbiological quality and safety of milk.

Mhone TA; Matope G; Saidi PT

2011-12-01

90

Correlation between total blood lead values and peripheral blood counts in workers occupationally exposed to urban stressors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between occupational exposure to airborne lead (Pb) and alterations in peripheral blood counts in workers of the Municipal Police assigned to different types of outdoor tasks. Then, 337 both male and female subjects were enrolled and divided on the basis of sex, cigarette smoking habit and kind of task. Exposure to airborne Pb, dosage of total blood Pb and peripheral blood count were carried out. A significant positive correlation was detected between the values of total blood Pb and values of plasma reticulocytes (%RET) both in the total sample and for all the classes of the subdivision except for police drivers. Some statistically significant correlations were present but discontinuous for other variables of peripheral blood counts. Results suggest that occupational exposure to low doses of airborne Pb is able to influence lines of the hematopoietic system in exposed workers, with special reference to %RET.

Caciari T; Casale T; Ciarrocca M; Capozzella A; Gioffrè PA; Corbosiero P; Tomei G; Scala B; Andreozzi G; Nardone N; Tomei F; Rosati MV

2013-01-01

91

Effects of gastric irrigation on bacterial counts before endoscopic submucosal dissection: a randomized case control prospective study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The antiseptic effect of gastric irrigation before endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has not yet been reported. The aim of the randomized prospective study is to evaluate the antiseptic effects of gastric irrigation of saline solution before ESD by evaluating bacterial count. METHODS: This prospective randomized controlled trial included 50 patients diagnosed with early gastric cancer who were randomly divided into 2 groups (25 patients in each group) by using the opaque envelope method: the clean group (irrigation with 2 L saline solution before ESD) and the regular group (no irrigation). The gastric juice was collected and cultured before ESD. The entire stomach was irrigated using a water jet attached to an endoscope. After ESD with resection and removal of the tumor specimen, a postoperative culture of the gastric juice was obtained using the same method as the preoperative culture. RESULTS: The mean log bacterial count of the post-gastric irrigation gastric juice was 5.08±0.75 in the regular group and 1.86±0.86 in the clean group. The difference in the bacterial counts was significant between the groups (P?=?0.0004). The difference in the white blood cells (WBC) count on POD 1 was significant (P?=?0.044). WBC count on POD 2 did not significantly differ between the groups (P?=?0.3). The difference in the body temperature (BT) on POD 1 was significant (P?=?0.017), On POD 2 the BT was not significant between the groups (P?=?0.5). On POD 1, 88% of the patients in the regular group and 16% of the patients in the clean group had mild to moderate spontaneous pain (P?=?0.0026). On POD 2 the proportion with mild to moderate spontaneous pain was 36% and 24% in the regular group and the clean group, respectively (P?=?0.1). CONCLUSION: Pre-ESD gastric irrigation with saline solution is effective and feasible for suppressing infection during the ESD procedure with favorable clinical outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION INFORMATION: The university hospital medical information network (UMIN) #000008691.

Mori H; Kobara H; Rafiq K; Nishiyama N; Fujihara S; Oryu M; Masaki T

2013-01-01

92

Longitudinal trends of total white blood cell and differential white blood cell counts of atomic bomb survivors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In studying the late health effects of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, earlier findings were that white blood cell (WBC) count increased with radiation dose in cross-sectional studies. However, a persistent effect of radiation on WBC count and other risk factors has yet to be confirmed. The objectives of the present study were to examine the longitudinal relationship between A-bomb radiation dose and WBC and differential WBC counts among A-bomb survivors and to investigate the potential confounding risk factors (such as age at exposure and smoking status) as well as modification of the radiation dose-response. A total of 7,562 A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were included in this study from 1964-2004. A linear mixed model was applied using the repeated WBC measurements. During the study period, a secular downward trend of WBC count was observed. Radiation exposure was a significant risk factor for elevated WBC and differential WBC counts over time. A significant increase of WBC counts among survivors with high radiation dose (>2 Gy) was detected in men exposed below the age of 20 and in women regardless of age at exposure. Effects on WBC of low dose radiation remain unclear, however. Cigarette smoking produced the most pronounced effect on WBC counts and its impact was much larger than that of radiation exposure. (author)

2010-01-01

93

Longitudinal trends of total white blood cell and differential white blood cell counts of atomic bomb survivors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In studying the late health effects of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, earlier findings were that white blood cell (WBC) count increased with radiation dose in cross-sectional studies. However, a persistent effect of radiation on WBC count and other risk factors has yet to be confirmed. The objectives of the present study were 1) to examine the longitudinal relationship between A-bomb radiation dose and WBC and differential WBC counts among A-bomb survivors and 2) to investigate the potential confounding risk factors (such as age at exposure and smoking status) as well as modification of the radiation dose-response. A total of 7,562 A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were included in this study from 1964-2004. A linear mixed model was applied using the repeated WBC measurements. During the study period, a secular downward trend of WBC count was observed. Radiation exposure was a significant risk factor for elevated WBC and differential WBC counts over time. A significant increase of WBC counts among survivors with high radiation dose (> 2 Gy) was detected in men exposed below the age of 20 and in women regardless of age at exposure. Effects on WBC of low dose radiation remain unclear, however. Cigarette smoking produced the most pronounced effect on WBC counts and its impact was much larger than that of radiation exposure.

Hsu WL; Tatsukawa Y; Neriishi K; Yamada M; Cologne J; Fujiwara S

2010-01-01

94

Longitudinal trends of total white blood cell and differential white blood cell counts of atomic bomb survivors.  

Science.gov (United States)

In studying the late health effects of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, earlier findings were that white blood cell (WBC) count increased with radiation dose in cross-sectional studies. However, a persistent effect of radiation on WBC count and other risk factors has yet to be confirmed. The objectives of the present study were 1) to examine the longitudinal relationship between A-bomb radiation dose and WBC and differential WBC counts among A-bomb survivors and 2) to investigate the potential confounding risk factors (such as age at exposure and smoking status) as well as modification of the radiation dose-response. A total of 7,562 A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were included in this study from 1964-2004. A linear mixed model was applied using the repeated WBC measurements. During the study period, a secular downward trend of WBC count was observed. Radiation exposure was a significant risk factor for elevated WBC and differential WBC counts over time. A significant increase of WBC counts among survivors with high radiation dose (> 2 Gy) was detected in men exposed below the age of 20 and in women regardless of age at exposure. Effects on WBC of low dose radiation remain unclear, however. Cigarette smoking produced the most pronounced effect on WBC counts and its impact was much larger than that of radiation exposure. PMID:20543527

Hsu, Wan-Ling; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Cologne, John; Fujiwara, Saeko

2010-06-11

95

Association between milking practices and psychrotrophic bacterial counts in bulk tank milk/ Asociación entre prácticas de ordeño y recuento de organismos psicrótrofos en leche de tanque de frío  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar los factores de riesgo para altos recuentos de organismos psicrótrofos en leche de tanques de tambos de la Argentina. Se examinaron muestras de leche cruda de tanques de frío de 27 tambos, y se realizó el recuento de organismos psicrótrofos totales (PT), de psicrótrofos proteolíticos (PP) y de psicrótrofos lipolíticos (PL) (variables dependientes). Se realizó una encuesta para registrar las condiciones de infraestructura, el (more) equipo de ordeño y las prácticas de ordeño (variables independientes). Se utilizaron pruebas bivariadas de asociación y regresión logística para determinar la asociación entre las variables independientes y los recuentos de organismos psicrótrofos. La leche enfriada en sistemas de placas de intercambio o tanques tipo cuba tuvo una probabilidad mayor de dar recuentos elevados de PT y PP (16,39 y 10,52) comparada con la enfriada en tanques tipo "panza fría". La limpieza periódica del equipo de frío (3 veces por semana o diariamente) se asoció con bajos recuentos de PT (aproximadamente 1,5 log de UFC/ml). Los tambos cuyos ordeñadores no se higienizaban las manos durante el ordeño tuvieron una probabilidad 7,81 veces mayor de tener recuentos elevados de PP. No se encontró asociación entre el recuento de PL y las variables independientes. La única variable asociada con los recuentos de PT y PP en el modelo de regresión logística fue el sistema de enfriamiento utilizado en el tambo. El tipo de sistema de refrigeración usado y su adecuado mantenimiento higiénico son importantes para la obtención de leche con baja carga de organismos psicrótrofos en el tambo. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine on-farm risk factors for psychrotrophic bacterial counts in bulk tank milk from dairy farms in Argentina. Raw milk samples from bulk tanks of 27 dairy farms were examined for total psychrotrophic counts (TPC), proteolytic psychrotrophic counts (PPC) and lipolytic psychrotrophic counts (LPC) (dependent or outcome variables). A survey recording infrastructure conditions, milking equipment and milking management (independent variab (more) les) was performed. Bivariate association proofs and logistic regression analyses were used to determine association between independent variables and psychrotrophic bacterial counts. Milk cooled in plate heat exchangers or barrel tanks were 16.39 and 10.52 times more likely to yield TPC and PPC above the standard established for high quality milk compared with milk cooled in bulk tanks, respectively. Periodic cleaning of cooling tanks (3 times a week or daily) was associated with lower TPC (approximately 1.5 log CFU/ml) than weekly cleaning frequency and farms where milkers did not wash their hands during milking time were 7.81 times more likely to have higher PPC. No association was found between LPC and any of the independent variables. The only variable associated with TPC and PPC in a logistic regression model was the refrigeration system used on the farm. Dairy farms that possessed bulk milk cooling tanks yielded the lowest bacterial counts. Results of this study highlight the importance of both the type of cooling system used on the farm and its adequate hygienic maintenance for obtaining low pshychrotrophic counts at dairy farm.

Molineri, Ana I.; Signorini, Marcelo L.; Cuatrín, Alejandra L.; Canavesio, Vilma R.; Neder, Verónica E.; Russi, Norma B.; Bonazza, Julio C.; Calvinho, Luis F.

2012-09-01

96

Association between milking practices and psychrotrophic bacterial counts in bulk tank milk Asociación entre prácticas de ordeño y recuento de organismos psicrótrofos en leche de tanque de frío  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine on-farm risk factors for psychrotrophic bacterial counts in bulk tank milk from dairy farms in Argentina. Raw milk samples from bulk tanks of 27 dairy farms were examined for total psychrotrophic counts (TPC), proteolytic psychrotrophic counts (PPC) and lipolytic psychrotrophic counts (LPC) (dependent or outcome variables). A survey recording infrastructure conditions, milking equipment and milking management (independent variables) was performed. Bivariate association proofs and logistic regression analyses were used to determine association between independent variables and psychrotrophic bacterial counts. Milk cooled in plate heat exchangers or barrel tanks were 16.39 and 10.52 times more likely to yield TPC and PPC above the standard established for high quality milk compared with milk cooled in bulk tanks, respectively. Periodic cleaning of cooling tanks (3 times a week or daily) was associated with lower TPC (approximately 1.5 log CFU/ml) than weekly cleaning frequency and farms where milkers did not wash their hands during milking time were 7.81 times more likely to have higher PPC. No association was found between LPC and any of the independent variables. The only variable associated with TPC and PPC in a logistic regression model was the refrigeration system used on the farm. Dairy farms that possessed bulk milk cooling tanks yielded the lowest bacterial counts. Results of this study highlight the importance of both the type of cooling system used on the farm and its adequate hygienic maintenance for obtaining low pshychrotrophic counts at dairy farm.El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar los factores de riesgo para altos recuentos de organismos psicrótrofos en leche de tanques de tambos de la Argentina. Se examinaron muestras de leche cruda de tanques de frío de 27 tambos, y se realizó el recuento de organismos psicrótrofos totales (PT), de psicrótrofos proteolíticos (PP) y de psicrótrofos lipolíticos (PL) (variables dependientes). Se realizó una encuesta para registrar las condiciones de infraestructura, el equipo de ordeño y las prácticas de ordeño (variables independientes). Se utilizaron pruebas bivariadas de asociación y regresión logística para determinar la asociación entre las variables independientes y los recuentos de organismos psicrótrofos. La leche enfriada en sistemas de placas de intercambio o tanques tipo cuba tuvo una probabilidad mayor de dar recuentos elevados de PT y PP (16,39 y 10,52) comparada con la enfriada en tanques tipo "panza fría". La limpieza periódica del equipo de frío (3 veces por semana o diariamente) se asoció con bajos recuentos de PT (aproximadamente 1,5 log de UFC/ml). Los tambos cuyos ordeñadores no se higienizaban las manos durante el ordeño tuvieron una probabilidad 7,81 veces mayor de tener recuentos elevados de PP. No se encontró asociación entre el recuento de PL y las variables independientes. La única variable asociada con los recuentos de PT y PP en el modelo de regresión logística fue el sistema de enfriamiento utilizado en el tambo. El tipo de sistema de refrigeración usado y su adecuado mantenimiento higiénico son importantes para la obtención de leche con baja carga de organismos psicrótrofos en el tambo.

Ana I. Molineri; Marcelo L. Signorini; Alejandra L. Cuatrín; Vilma R. Canavesio; Verónica E. Neder; Norma B. Russi; Julio C. Bonazza; Luis F. Calvinho

2012-01-01

97

STEFFY-software to calculate nuclide-specific total counting efficiency in well-type ?-ray detectors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A software package is presented to calculate the total counting efficiency for the decay of radionuclides in a well-type ?-ray detector. It is specifically applied to primary standardisation of activity by means of 4??-counting with a NaI(Tl) well-type scintillation detector. As an alternative to Monte Carlo simulations, the software combines good accuracy with superior speed and ease-of-use. It is also well suited to investigate uncertainties associated with the 4??-counting method for a variety of radionuclides and detector dimensions. In this paper, the underlying analytical models for the radioactive decay and subsequent counting efficiency of the emitted radiation in the detector are summarised.

Pommé S

2012-09-01

98

Quality of raw cow milk in Republic of Macedonia determined through the testing of somatic cell count and total viable count  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Somatic cells count and total viable count are criteria used to estimate the compliance of raw cow milk with the Book of rules for demands for safety and hygiene and procedures for official controls of milk and milk products, Official Gazette of RM 157/2007. According to the given demands, raw milk operators are obliged to conduct all procedures and to guarantee that milk is in compliance with the criteria laid down in Book of rules. At the same time, Republic of Macedonia have to fulfill EU criteria laid down in Directive 92/46 (Council directive 92/46/EEC laying down the health rules for the production and placing on the market of raw milk, heat-treated milk and milkbased products) for quality of raw milk as part of implementation of community legislation and milk production. The independent laboratory for milk quality control at FVM-Skopje, in frame of its activities in the period February- August 2008 has conducted a study for obtaining preliminary results for the situation with raw milk quality produced in R. of Macedonia for somatic cells counts and total viable count. In the study we analyzed 2065 samples for TVC and 1625 samples for SCC of raw milk samples produced in different parts of the country. From the tested samples only 41,8% fulfill criteria for SCC and 41,45% criteria for TVC lay down in Book of rules for 2008. Assessment of the results in light of Council Directive it is obvious that only 42,7% of the samples for SCC and 10,7% for TVC fulfill the criteria of Council Directive having in mind different requirements vs. Book of rules.

Angelovski Ljupco; Jankuloski Dean; Kostova Sandra; Ratkova Marija; Erakovic Tokalic Irena; Sekulovski Pavle

2008-01-01

99

Determination of bacterial counts in treated effluents by flow cytometry; Determinazione mediante citometria di flusso della carica batterica residua in reflui trattati  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The work is based on a 6 months sampling period. Samples were collected along the polishing treatment sequence at the wastewater treatment plant Alto Seveso at Fino Mornasco (Como, Italy), at the inlet and at the outlet of ozonization and activated carbon filter. Samples were analyzed for COD and suspended solids and for bacterial counts. Microbiological analyses were performed both by traditional plate count methods and by flow cytometry. COD was already low at the inlet and was only slightly removed by ozonization and activated carbon. Bacterial removal by ozonization was, on average, 98% if evaluated on plate count data while it was only 87% if evaluated on flow cytometry analyses. The difference is probably due to the fact that damaged bacteria are not able to form colonies in a short time after ozonization but are still viable. The difference between the amount of viable bacteria estimated by plate count and by flow cytometry is about one order of magnitude and is very important if referred to the regrowth potential of treated effluents. Activated carbon increases total bacterial counts: the biomass growing on carbon bed is partly released and final bacterial counts are comparable to the inlet ones even if the present species are probably different. [Italian] Per 6 mesi sono stati effettuati campionamenti bisettimanali istantanei in ingresso e in uscita dall'onizzazione e in ingresso e in uscita dal filtro a carbone attivo dell'impianto di depurazione Alto Seveso di Fino Mornasco (Como, Italia). Su questi sono stati misurati il COD ed i solidi sospesi ed e' stata determinata la carica batterica mediante il metodo tradizionale di conta in piastra e mediante citometria di flusso. Il valore del COD, gia' basso in ingresso all'ozonizzazione, diminuisce lievemente a valle di questa e viene ancora lievemente rimosso dal carbone attivo. La rimozione della carica batterica dovuta all'ozonizzazione calcolata in base ai dati delle conte in piastra risulta in media pari al 98%, mentre e' dell'87% se calcolata in base ai dati della citometria di flusso. Le due metodologie mostrano dunque una differente efficienza dell'ozono, probabilmente attribuibile alla difficolta' dei batteri a riprendersi dal trattamento con ozono e quindi a formare colonie in pochi giorni. Inoltre la quantita' di batteri che risulta rimanere vitale in seguito al trattamento e' molto differente (circa un ordine di grandezza superiore quando stimata con la citometria di flusso) e questo assume una notevole importanza in relazione alla valutazione del potenziale di ricrescita dopo la disinfezione. L'effetto del carbone attivo sulla carica batterica, misurata sia con metodi tradizionali che in modo molto piu' efficiente con tecniche citometriche, e' risultato negativo: il rilascio della biomassa che colonizza il letto di carbone e' notevole e tale da comportare la presenza nell'effluente di cariche confrontabili con quelle in uscita dal trattemento secondario anche se si puo' ritenere che le specie presenti siano diverse.

Mezzanotte, V.; Citterio, S.; Ghiani, A.; Labra, M.; Sgorbati, S. [Milan Univ. Bicocca, Milan (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze dell' ambientee del Territorio

2000-08-01

100

Starch Gelatinization, Total Bacterial Counts and Sensory Evaluation of Deep Fried Cassava Balls (Akara-Akpu)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two frying variables (Oil temperature and frying time) at three levels each, were studied to determine effects on degree of starch gelatinization, consumer response and microbial quality of fried cassava balls (Akara-akpu). Results showed that the degree of starch gelatinization of Akara-akpu increased with increasing oil temperature ( °C), time and moisture content of Akara-akpu paste. Optimum starch gelatinization value of 29.62-34.41% was established for Akara-akpu samples. Based on consumer panel results, oil temperature of 160 °C at 5 min and 180 °C at 4 min should be used to produce acceptable Akara-akpu. It was evident that higher sensory scores in terms of crunchiness, overall quality and willingness to purchase were obtained at the established optimum gelatinization range.

C.E. Chinma; M.A. Igyor

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Evaluation of total IgE, CRP and blood count parameters in children with asthma and allergic rhinitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to research retrospectivelywhether asthma and allergic rhinitis are related to totalIgE, C-reactive protein (CRP) and complete blood countparameters.Materials and methods: Files of 443 children who appliedto pediatric outpatient clinics of our hospital,aged2-18 were retrospectively investigated. Patients weregrouped into three as asthma (n=179), allergic rhinitis (n=171) and control group (n= 93). Patients’ ages, genders,total IgE, CRP and hemogram values were recorded.Results: While eosinophil count, MCHC and total IgElevels were significantly higher in asthma group, MCVlevels were significantly lower. Lymphocyte count, CRPand total IgE levels were significantly higher in allergicrhinitis group compared with control group whereas neutrophilcount were significantly lower and eosinophil countdid not change significantly. Total IgE levels were higherin asthma and allergic rhinitis compared with controls.However, CRP levels were higher only in allergic rhinitisgroup. MCV levels were significantly lower in asthmagroup compared with controls. MCHC levels were significantlyhigher in asthma group compared with allergicrhinitis and control groups. Neutrophil count decreasedwhile lymphocyte count increased significantly. Eosinophilcount significantly increased compared with controlgroup whereas a significant difference was not observedbetween allergic rhinitis and controls.Conclusions: Our findings suggest factors effective inasthma pathogenesis might be effective also in erythrocytemorphology. There are remarkable changes in bloodeosinophil levels in asthma and in neuthrophil and lymphocytelevels in allergic rhinitis. Serum total IgE level increasesin asthma group whereas it decreases in allergicrhinitis group.Key words: Asthma, allergic rhinitis, total IgE, CRP, MCV

Feti Tülüba?; Ahmet Gürel; Mustafa Metin Donma; Burçin Nalbanto?lu; Birol Topçu; Zeynep Deniz Mut

2013-01-01

102

Métodos de conservação de amostras de leite para determinação da contagem bacteriana total por citometria de fluxo Milk sample conservation methods to determine the total bacteria count by flow cytometry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da temperatura de armazenamento e da idade da amostra sobre a contagem bacteriana total de amostras de leite conservadas com azidiol para verificar a possibilidade de utilização de uma única amostra nas análises previstas na Instrução Normativa 51 (IN-51). Utilizaram-se 320 alíquotas de leite coletado de um tanque de expansão para avaliação de três temperaturas de armazenamento - a 0 ºC (congelada), 7 ºC (refrigerada) e 24 ºC (à temperatura ambiente) -, três tipos de conservação (bronopol, azidiol e sem conservante) e quatro idades da amostra (1, 3, 5 e 7 dias). Para contagem bacteriana total, foram consideradas controle amostras refrigeradas, com azidiol e amostras de um dia e, para composição e contagem de células somáticas (CCS), os controles foram amostras refrigeradas, com bronopol e de um dia. Nas amostras conservadas com bronopol, a contagem bacteriana total foi menor que na controle, independentemente da idade e da temperatura. O mesmo foi observado nas amostras com azidiol e congeladas. Amostras com azidiol apresentaram aumento da contagem bacteriana total, independentemente da idade, enquanto, naquelas que não receberam azidiol, a contagem bacteriana total foi superior à das amostras refrigeradas, conservadas com azidiol e de um dia. As amostras conservadas com azidiol e refrigeradas tiveram aumento linear na contagem bacteriana total de 0,0058 log por dia, o que pode ser considerado sem importância prática. Amostras conservadas com azidiol e refrigeradas apresentaram CCS menor, em todas as idades, em relação a amostras refrigeradas e conservadas com bronopol. Os teores de gordura e lactose reduziram após o quinto dia. Foi necessária a coleta de duas amostras: uma destinada à determinação de CCS e da composição contendo bronopol e outra para contagem bacteriana total contendo azidiol. Amostras para contagem bacteriana total podem ser analisadas em até sete dias, se mantidas a 7 ºC e adicionadas de azidiol.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of storage temperature and sample age on the total bacterial count (TBC) of milk samples preserved with azidiol to verify whether a single sample could be used to perform regulatory milk analysis under the Normative Instruction 51 (IN-51). Three hundred and twenty milk aliquots were used collected from an expansion tank to assess three storage temperatures (0 ºC - frozen: 7 ºC - refrigerated, and 24 ºC - room temperature), three types of conservation (bronopol, azidiol and no preservative) and four sample ages (1, 3, 5, and 7 days). For the total bacteria count, refrigerated control samples, with azidiol and one day old samples, and for composition and somatic cell count (SCC), the controls were defined as one day old refrigerated samples containing bronopol. Samples conserved with bronopol presented lower total bacteria count than the control regardless of storage temperature and sample age. Milk samples conserved with azidiol and stored refrigerated presented lower SCC, regardless of age, compared to refrigerated samples conserved with bronopol. The fat and lactose contents decreased after the fifth day. Two samples had to be collected: one for SCC determination and composition containing bronopol and another for the total bacteria count containing azidiol. Milk samples used for total bacteria count can be tested up to 7 days if they are kept at 7 ºC with the addition of azidiol.

Laerte Dagher Cassoli; Paulo Fernando Machado; Arlei Coldebella

2010-01-01

103

Métodos de conservação de amostras de leite para determinação da contagem bacteriana total por citometria de fluxo/ Milk sample conservation methods to determine the total bacteria count by flow cytometry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se o efeito da temperatura de armazenamento e da idade da amostra sobre a contagem bacteriana total de amostras de leite conservadas com azidiol para verificar a possibilidade de utilização de uma única amostra nas análises previstas na Instrução Normativa 51 (IN-51). Utilizaram-se 320 alíquotas de leite coletado de um tanque de expansão para avaliação de três temperaturas de armazenamento - a 0 ºC (congelada), 7 ºC (refrigerada) e 24 ºC (à temperat (more) ura ambiente) -, três tipos de conservação (bronopol, azidiol e sem conservante) e quatro idades da amostra (1, 3, 5 e 7 dias). Para contagem bacteriana total, foram consideradas controle amostras refrigeradas, com azidiol e amostras de um dia e, para composição e contagem de células somáticas (CCS), os controles foram amostras refrigeradas, com bronopol e de um dia. Nas amostras conservadas com bronopol, a contagem bacteriana total foi menor que na controle, independentemente da idade e da temperatura. O mesmo foi observado nas amostras com azidiol e congeladas. Amostras com azidiol apresentaram aumento da contagem bacteriana total, independentemente da idade, enquanto, naquelas que não receberam azidiol, a contagem bacteriana total foi superior à das amostras refrigeradas, conservadas com azidiol e de um dia. As amostras conservadas com azidiol e refrigeradas tiveram aumento linear na contagem bacteriana total de 0,0058 log por dia, o que pode ser considerado sem importância prática. Amostras conservadas com azidiol e refrigeradas apresentaram CCS menor, em todas as idades, em relação a amostras refrigeradas e conservadas com bronopol. Os teores de gordura e lactose reduziram após o quinto dia. Foi necessária a coleta de duas amostras: uma destinada à determinação de CCS e da composição contendo bronopol e outra para contagem bacteriana total contendo azidiol. Amostras para contagem bacteriana total podem ser analisadas em até sete dias, se mantidas a 7 ºC e adicionadas de azidiol. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of storage temperature and sample age on the total bacterial count (TBC) of milk samples preserved with azidiol to verify whether a single sample could be used to perform regulatory milk analysis under the Normative Instruction 51 (IN-51). Three hundred and twenty milk aliquots were used collected from an expansion tank to assess three storage temperatures (0 ºC - frozen: 7 ºC - refrigerated, and 24 ºC - room tempe (more) rature), three types of conservation (bronopol, azidiol and no preservative) and four sample ages (1, 3, 5, and 7 days). For the total bacteria count, refrigerated control samples, with azidiol and one day old samples, and for composition and somatic cell count (SCC), the controls were defined as one day old refrigerated samples containing bronopol. Samples conserved with bronopol presented lower total bacteria count than the control regardless of storage temperature and sample age. Milk samples conserved with azidiol and stored refrigerated presented lower SCC, regardless of age, compared to refrigerated samples conserved with bronopol. The fat and lactose contents decreased after the fifth day. Two samples had to be collected: one for SCC determination and composition containing bronopol and another for the total bacteria count containing azidiol. Milk samples used for total bacteria count can be tested up to 7 days if they are kept at 7 ºC with the addition of azidiol.

Cassoli, Laerte Dagher; Machado, Paulo Fernando; Coldebella, Arlei

2010-02-01

104

Total Counts of Marine Bacteria Include a Large Fraction of Non-Nucleoid-Containing Bacteria (Ghosts)  

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Counts of heterotrophic bacteria in marine waters are usually in the order of 5 x 10(sup5) to 3 x 10(sup6) bacteria ml(sup-1). These numbers are derived from unspecific fluorescent staining techniques (J. E. Hobbie, R. J. Daley, and S. Jasper, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 33:1225-1228, 1977; K. G. Port...

Zweifel, U. L.; Hagstrom, A.

105

Determining eligibility for antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings using total lymphocyte counts, hemoglobin and body mass index  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background CD4+ T lymphocyte (CD4) cell count testing is the standard method for determining eligibility for antiretroviral therapy (ART), but is not widely available in sub-Saharan Africa. Total lymphocyte counts (TLCs) have not proven sufficiently accurate in identifying subjects with low CD4 counts. We developed clinical algorithms using TLCs, hemoglobin (Hb), and body mass index (BMI) to identify patients who require ART. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of HIV-infected adults in Uganda, who presented for assessment for ART-eligibility with WHO clinical stages I, II or III. Two by two tables were constructed to examine TLC thresholds, which maximized sensitivity for CD4 cell counts ? 200 cells ?L, while minimizing the number offered ART with counts > 350 cells ?L. Hb and BMI values were then examined to try to improve model performance. Results 1787 subjects were available for analysis. Median CD4 cell counts and TLCs, were 239 cells/?L and 1830 cells/?L, respectively. Offering ART to all subjects with a TLCs ? 2250 cells/?L produced a sensitivity of 0.88 and a false positive ratio of 0.21. Algorithms that treated all patients with a TLC 3000 cells/?L, and used Hb and/or BMI values to determine eligibility for those with TLC values between 2000 and 3000 cells/?L, marginally improved accuracy. Conclusion TLCs appear useful in predicting who would be eligible for ART based on CD4 cell count criteria. Hb and BMI values may be useful in prioritizing patients for ART, but did not improve model accuracy.

Moore David M; Awor Anna; Downing Robert S; Were Willy; Solberg Peter; Tu David; Chan Keith; Hogg Robert S; Mermin Jonathan

2007-01-01

106

Effects of microwaving human milk: Changes in IgA content and bacterial count  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On the basis of this study, IgA was best preserved in frozen human milk by thawing either overnight in the refrigerator or under warm running water. If either of those procedures are to be used, it is suggested that bacterial monitoring should be performed. Because current technology does not allow for accurate low internal temperature monitoring of liquids, it is concluded that use of the microwave oven for the treatment of human milk is inappropriate. However, because microwaving is as effective as holder pasteurization in killing bacteria, and because it would be less expensive and is faster, this process should be further investigated.

Sigman, M.; Burke, K.I.; Swarner, O.W.; Shavlik, G.W.

1989-05-01

107

BACTERIAL TOC (TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON) REMOVAL ON SAND AND GAC (GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON)  

Science.gov (United States)

A method is developed to separate the effects of adsorption and biodegradation in long term total organic carbon (TOC) removal observed on GAC contactors. TOC removal is compared on parallel sand and GAC contactors. Temperature control is used to manipulate bacterial TOC removal ...

108

A Case Control Study of Bacterial Species and Colony Count in Milk of Breastfeeding Women with Chronic Pain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Background: An infectious etiology for chronic breast pain in breastfeeding women continues to be debated. Although recent data suggest that Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) may cause chronic breast pain, no studies have used quantitative cultures to address this question. In this study we compared bacterial species and colony counts between breastfeeding women with (cases) and without (controls) chronic pain. Subjects and Methods: We enrolled 114 breastfeeding women in a prospective cohort study. Cases (n=61), breastfeeding women with breast pain for >1 week and no signs of acute infection, were matched with controls (n=53) by weeks postpartum and parity. Results: More cases had a history of mastitis (14% vs. 2%, p=0.036), cracked nipples (64% vs. 17%, p=0.001), and other breastfeeding difficulties. Enterobacter species growth was less likely in cases (0% vs. 7.5%, p=0.029). Cases had a significantly higher growth of S. aureus (19.7% vs. 1.9%, p=0.003). CNS frequency was similar between groups (75% vs. 79%, p=0.626), but median colony count growth was significantly lower in cases (900 colony-forming units/mL vs. 5,000 colony-forming units/ml, p=0.003). Growth of CNS and S. aureus was negatively correlated (r=-0.265, p=0.004). Conclusions: Higher S. aureus growth in cases supports a pathogenic role for S. aureus and reinforces the need for future antibiotic treatment studies in breastfeeding women with chronic pain. In contrast, similar CNS frequency between groups, lower CNS colony counts in cases, and a negative correlation between S. aureus and CNS growth suggest that neither CNS, nor its overgrowth, causes chronic breast pain.

Witt A; Mason MJ; Burgess K; Flocke S; Zyzanski S

2013-06-01

109

A simple method to count total faecal Capillaria worm eggs in racing pigeons (Columba livia).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Capillaria columbae and C. longicollis are fine threadworms found in racing pigeons' small intestines that produce a characteristic lemon shaped bipolar egg. Clinically, capillariasis in racing pigeons can present as severe illness and it has been suggested that worms may affect race performance. A major aim of this study was to validate a cheap, simple to perform flotation technique for counting Capillaria worm eggs in racing pigeon droppings. Trials using reference samples of pigeon droppings laced with 348, 275 and 129 Capillaria eggs per gram, found a typical flotation method based on the modified Wisconsin technique to be inaccurate at counting worm eggs. The main sources of error were due to the loss of eggs in the faecal discard and insufficient flotation time. A new technique, using 0.15 g sample size and 8h flotation time resulted in significantly improved test accuracy. On average the new technique recovered 93% of eggs from reference samples with 129-348 epg concentration, recovering 197 times more eggs than the modified Wisconsin technique. Typical percentage error, as a measure of absolute reliablility, was 10% for the new technique and 50% for the modified Wisconsin technique. The regression line on a test-retest series of samples over a range of egg counts from 0 to 573 epg had a gradient of 0.96 (y=0.96x+6.28; r(2)=0.8408) for the new technique and 0.54 (y=0.54x+0.06; r(2)=0.4249) for the modified Wisconsin technique. The Pearson product moment correlations of the new technique and the modified Wisconsin technique were 0.92 and 0.65 respectively. As measures of relative reliability both the gradient of the regression line and the Pearson product moment correlation further suggested better repeatability of the new technique. It was concluded that the new technique would be an appropriate quantitative method of assessing worm egg burdens in racing pigeons.

Scullion F

2013-10-01

110

A simple method to count total faecal Capillaria worm eggs in racing pigeons (Columba livia).  

Science.gov (United States)

Capillaria columbae and C. longicollis are fine threadworms found in racing pigeons' small intestines that produce a characteristic lemon shaped bipolar egg. Clinically, capillariasis in racing pigeons can present as severe illness and it has been suggested that worms may affect race performance. A major aim of this study was to validate a cheap, simple to perform flotation technique for counting Capillaria worm eggs in racing pigeon droppings. Trials using reference samples of pigeon droppings laced with 348, 275 and 129 Capillaria eggs per gram, found a typical flotation method based on the modified Wisconsin technique to be inaccurate at counting worm eggs. The main sources of error were due to the loss of eggs in the faecal discard and insufficient flotation time. A new technique, using 0.15g sample size and 8h flotation time resulted in significantly improved test accuracy. On average the new technique recovered 93% of eggs from reference samples with 129-348 epg concentration, recovering 197 times more eggs than the modified Wisconsin technique. Typical percentage error, as a measure of absolute reliablility, was 10% for the new technique and 50% for the modified Wisconsin technique. The regression line on a test-retest series of samples over a range of egg counts from 0 to 573 epg had a gradient of 0.96 (y=0.96x+6.28; r(2)=0.8408) for the new technique and 0.54 (y=0.54x+0.06; r(2)=0.4249) for the modified Wisconsin technique. The Pearson product moment correlations of the new technique and the modified Wisconsin technique were 0.92 and 0.65 respectively. As measures of relative reliability both the gradient of the regression line and the Pearson product moment correlation further suggested better repeatability of the new technique. It was concluded that the new technique would be an appropriate quantitative method of assessing worm egg burdens in racing pigeons. PMID:23830686

Scullion, Francis

2013-06-10

111

Multilevel analysis of bacterial counts from chronic periodontitis after root planing/scaling, surgery, and systemic and local antibiotics: 2-year results  

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Aim: To follow changes (over 2 years) in subgingival bacterial counts of five microbial complexes including health-related Actinomyces spp. in deeper pockets (?5 mm) after periodontal treatments. Methods: Eight different treatments were studied: (1) scaling+root planing (SRP); (2) periodontal...

Ibrahimu Mdala; Ingar Olsen; Anne D. Haffajee; Sigmund S. Socransky; Birgitte Freiesleben de Blasio; Magne Thoresen

112

Seasonal changes in bacterial counts and radiation-disinfection of sewage sludge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of radiation on sewage sludge was investigated to disinfect it. The results obtained were as follows: 1. In either activated sludge or digested sludge dewatered by centrifugation, total bacteria and coliforms were up to 3.0 x 109/g and 3.5 x 108/g, respectively. In the activated sludge which was dewatered by a filter-press with calcium oxide and iron chloride, total bacteria were up to 3.0 x 105/g, while coliforms were hardly detected. 2. The fraction of coliforms was somewhat more in centrifuged sludge than in raw sludge. 3. The radiosensitivity of coliforms in raw sludge differed between samples. Namely, some sludge was sterilized with 0.5 Mrad while others were not sterilized even with 1.0 Mrad. On the other hand, coliforms in dewatered sludge were sterilized with 0.5 Mrad without seasonal change, but total bacteria were more radioresistant and more than 13 Mrad was required to reduce it to an undetectable level. From these results it is concluded that the dewatered sludge should be irradiated at 0.5 Mrad to eliminate the coliforms in it. (author)

1981-01-01

113

Total and differential cell count by direct microscopic method on ewe milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

On 700 milk samples from single half udders of Comisana ewes, somatic cell count (SCC) and differential cell count (DCC) were determined, using a Fossomatic 90 cell counter (Foss Electric, Denmark) (SCCF) and milk smears stained with May Grünwald-Giemsa (DCCS). SCC and DCC were also determined with modified KOVAH SYSTEM (Hicor Biomedical Inc. Irvine, CA, USA) (SCCK and DCCK, respectively). Out of 665 milk samples from half udders without clinical signs of mastitis, 640 (Class I) were sterile, while 25 (Class II) were bacteriologically positive. Out of 35 milk samples (Class III) from half udders with clinical signs of mastitis, 25 were bacteriologically positive. Mean results (after logarithmic transformation of cells/ml/10(3)) of SCCF and SCCK for all the 700 milk samples were 1.89 +/- 0.58 and 1.86 +/- 0.60 with linear correlation coefficient (r) of 0.960, while least squares means for Class I, II and III were 1.78, 2.23 and 3.73 respectively and 1.75, 2.19 and 3.74 with r of 0.894, 0.979 and 0.987. Mean results of DCCS and DCCK were 38.1 +/- 23.3, 34.9, 52.1, and 82.2 PMNL% and 41.8 +/- 21.7, 38.6, 60.2, and 87.3 PMNL% with r of 0.855, 0.812, 0.697 and 0.805. The results showed high correlation coefficients and a good reliability between SCCK and SCCF and high correlation coefficients for DCC methods. In conclusion, it could be suggested that the possibility of routine use of the KOVAH SYSTEM method is particularly useful in detecting if an abnormal SCC is due to a polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes increase. PMID:8940890

Morgante, M; Ranucci, S; Pauselli, M; Beghelli, D; Mencaroni, G

1996-10-01

114

Total and differential cell count by direct microscopic method on ewe milk.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

On 700 milk samples from single half udders of Comisana ewes, somatic cell count (SCC) and differential cell count (DCC) were determined, using a Fossomatic 90 cell counter (Foss Electric, Denmark) (SCCF) and milk smears stained with May Grünwald-Giemsa (DCCS). SCC and DCC were also determined with modified KOVAH SYSTEM (Hicor Biomedical Inc. Irvine, CA, USA) (SCCK and DCCK, respectively). Out of 665 milk samples from half udders without clinical signs of mastitis, 640 (Class I) were sterile, while 25 (Class II) were bacteriologically positive. Out of 35 milk samples (Class III) from half udders with clinical signs of mastitis, 25 were bacteriologically positive. Mean results (after logarithmic transformation of cells/ml/10(3)) of SCCF and SCCK for all the 700 milk samples were 1.89 +/- 0.58 and 1.86 +/- 0.60 with linear correlation coefficient (r) of 0.960, while least squares means for Class I, II and III were 1.78, 2.23 and 3.73 respectively and 1.75, 2.19 and 3.74 with r of 0.894, 0.979 and 0.987. Mean results of DCCS and DCCK were 38.1 +/- 23.3, 34.9, 52.1, and 82.2 PMNL% and 41.8 +/- 21.7, 38.6, 60.2, and 87.3 PMNL% with r of 0.855, 0.812, 0.697 and 0.805. The results showed high correlation coefficients and a good reliability between SCCK and SCCF and high correlation coefficients for DCC methods. In conclusion, it could be suggested that the possibility of routine use of the KOVAH SYSTEM method is particularly useful in detecting if an abnormal SCC is due to a polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes increase.

Morgante M; Ranucci S; Pauselli M; Beghelli D; Mencaroni G

1996-10-01

115

Validation of the Soleris NF-TVC method for determination of total viable count in a variety of foods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of the Soleris Non-fermenting-Total Viable Count (NF-TVC) automated growth-based method for semiquantitative detection of mesophilic, aerobic microorganisms in a variety of food products. A probability of detection (POD) statistical model was used to compare Soleris results at multiple test thresholds (dilutions) with aerobic plate counts determined using reference dilution plating procedures. Nine naturally contaminated food products were tested, with Soleris testing performed at three or four threshold levels for each food. Using the POD model, all Soleris test results were in statistical agreement with the reference plating procedures with the exception of a single threshold level in two trials with black pepper, and a single threshold level in the independent laboratory trial with cheesecake. Results of ruggedness testing showed that the Soleris method produced accurate results even when minor variances in operating parameters, including sample volume and incubation temperature, were introduced. Results of the internal and independent laboratory validation studies showed that the Soleris NF-TVC method can be used as an accurate alternative to conventional dilution plating procedures for evaluation of microbial counts at threshold levels, while saving 24 h or more in analysis time.

Mozola M; Gray RL; Feldpausch J; Alles S; McDougal S; Montei C; Sarver R; Steiner B; Cooper C; Rice J

2013-03-01

116

How much locomotive activity is needed for an active physical activity level: analysis of total step counts  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Although physical activity recommendations for public health have focused on locomotive activity such as walking and running, it is uncertain how much these activities contribute to overall physical activity level (PAL). The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of locomotive activity to PAL using total step counts measured in a calorimeter study. Methods PAL, calculated as total energy expenditure divided by basal metabolic rate, was evaluated in 11 adult men using three different conditions for 24-hour human calorimeter measurements: a low-activity day (L-day) targeted at a low active level of PAL (1.45), and a high-frequency moderate activity day (M-day) or a high-frequency vigorous activity day (V-day) targeted at an active level of PAL (1.75). These subjects were permitted only light activities except prescribed activities. In a separate group of 41 adults, free-living PAL was evaluated using doubly-labeled water (DLW). In both experiments, step counts per day were also measured using an accelerometer. Results In the human calorimeter study, PAL and step counts were 1.42 ± 0.10 and 8,973 ± 543 steps/d (L-day), 1.82 ± 0.14 and 29,588 ± 1,126 steps/d (M-day), and 1.74 ± 0.15 and 23,755 ± 1,038 steps/d (V-day), respectively. In the DLW study, PAL and step counts were 1.73 ± 0.15 and 10,022 ± 2,605 steps/d, and there was no significant relationship between PAL and daily step counts. Conclusions These results indicate that an enormous number of steps are needed for an active level of PAL if individuals extend physical activity-induced energy expenditure by only locomotive activity. Therefore, non-locomotive activity such as household activity should also play a significant role in increasing PAL under free-living conditions.

Ohkawara Kazunori; Ishikawa-Takata Kazuko; Park Jong; Tabata Izumi; Tanaka Shigeho

2011-01-01

117

Globulinas totales y recuento linfocitario como marcadores de mortalidad en sepsis y shock séptico/ Total globulins and lymphocyte count as markers of mortality in sepsis and septic shock  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Introducción: No existen estudios que demuestren si pacientes en sepsis o shock séptico que presentan globulinas plasmáticas totales y/o recuento linfocitario plasmático disminuidos, tendrían mayor mortalidad. Pacientes y Método: Estudio de cohorte prospectivo de 103 pacientes ingresados a la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, que cumplían criterios de sepsis o shock séptico, seguidos diariamente en el Hospital Dr. Gustavo Fricke entre junio y noviembre de 2009. Resul (more) tados: Hubo asociación entre mortalidad y recuento linfocitario medido a partir del tercer día (valor p Abstract in english Background: There are no studies probing if patients in sepsis or septic shock with lower levels of total plas-matic globulins and/or lymphocyte count have higher mortality. Patients and Method: Prospective cohort study of 103 patients admitted in Intensive Care Unit followed daily at the Dr. Gustavo Fricke Hospital between June and November of 2009, with sepsis or septic shock criteria. Results: There was association between mortality and lymphocytic count measured from (more) the third day of their hospitalization (P

Conlledo, Rodrigo; Rodríguez, Álvaro; Godoy, Javiera; Merino, Carlos; Martínez, Felipe

2012-04-01

118

Globulinas totales y recuento linfocitario como marcadores de mortalidad en sepsis y shock séptico Total globulins and lymphocyte count as markers of mortality in sepsis and septic shock  

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Full Text Available Introducción: No existen estudios que demuestren si pacientes en sepsis o shock séptico que presentan globulinas plasmáticas totales y/o recuento linfocitario plasmático disminuidos, tendrían mayor mortalidad. Pacientes y Método: Estudio de cohorte prospectivo de 103 pacientes ingresados a la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, que cumplían criterios de sepsis o shock séptico, seguidos diariamente en el Hospital Dr. Gustavo Fricke entre junio y noviembre de 2009. Resultados: Hubo asociación entre mortalidad y recuento linfocitario medido a partir del tercer día (valor p 0,05). El área bajo la curva ROC del recuento linfocitario medido al tercer día fue 0,68 (IC 95% 0,530,82), con una sensibilidad de 75%, especificidad 52%, LR(+) 1,57 y LR(-) 0,48 para un punto de corte de 510 linfocitos/mm³, comportándose además como factor de riesgo independiente de mortalidad (OR 3,67, IC 95% 1,03-13,1). Discusión: El recuento linfocitario se asocia precozmente y en forma independiente al pronóstico de mayor mortalidad en estos pacientes.Background: There are no studies probing if patients in sepsis or septic shock with lower levels of total plas-matic globulins and/or lymphocyte count have higher mortality. Patients and Method: Prospective cohort study of 103 patients admitted in Intensive Care Unit followed daily at the Dr. Gustavo Fricke Hospital between June and November of 2009, with sepsis or septic shock criteria. Results: There was association between mortality and lymphocytic count measured from the third day of their hospitalization (P 0.05). The area under ROC curve for the mean lymphocyte count at the third day was 0.68 (95% CI 0.53-0.82), with a sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 52%, LR(+) 1.57 and LR(-) 0.48 for a cut-off at 510 lymphocytes/mm³, behaving also as an independent risk factor of mortality (OR 3.67, 95% CI 1.03-13.1). Discussion: Lymphocyte count is early and independently associated with increased mortality in patients with sepsis or septic shock.

Rodrigo Conlledo; Álvaro Rodríguez; Javiera Godoy; Carlos Merino; Felipe Martínez

2012-01-01

119

Suitability of total coliform ?-D-galactosidase activity and CFU counts in monitoring faecal contamination of environmental water samples  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Total coliforms are a group of bacteria found in high numbers in mammalian intestines; hence their presence in water indicates the possible contamination with faecal material. Total and faecal coliform counts were monitored over a period of 18 months using mFC, m-Endo and CM1046 media together with enzymatic assays on 215 environmental water samples obtained from the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. A positive correlation, with an R² value of 0.9393 was observed be (more) tween faecal and total coliform colony units employing mFc and m-Endo media, and 0.8818 using CM1046 media. Also, a positive correlation was observed between Escherichia coli colony-forming units and ?-d-galactosidase (B-GAL) activity (R²=0.8542). Overall, this study indicated that faecal contamination of environmental water samples could be monitored by measuring total coliform ?-galactosidase activity and total coliform colony-forming units.

Wutor, VC; Togo, CA; Pletschke, BI

2009-01-01

120

Mesoscale Distribution and Bacterial Cycling of Total Organic Carbon In North Atlantic Ocean (pomme Area)  

Science.gov (United States)

Seawater samples were collected during September-October 2000 and January- February 2001 in North Eastern Atlantic Ocean in the framework of the French pro- gram SPommeS. They were studied for total organic carbon (TOC) and semi-labile ´ (sl-TOC) by using high combustion technique (HTC). Over 0-600 m, integrated TOC averaged 379.4 s´ 14.6 g C m-2, in September-October and 381.9 s´ 20.1 g C m-2 in January. These results showed that there is little variation of TOC stock in the water column despite we observed different vertical variations of TOC concentrations be- tween the two seasons. For the winter period, we also estimated labile-TOC (l-TOC), as well as bacterial carbon demand and bacterial growth efficiencies through bacterial production measurements and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) biodegradation exper- iments. Here, we discuss about the lability of TOC in relation to the bacterioplankton utilization.

Sempere, R.; van Wambeke, F.; Sohrin, R.; Guigue, C.; Vernet, M.; Lefevre, D.; Bianchi, M.

 
 
 
 
121

Toxicological effects of leather dyes on total leukocyte count of fresh water teleost, Cirrhinus mrigala (Ham)  

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Full Text Available The experiment were conducted on fresh water fish Cirrhinus mrigala (Ham.) in the Dept. of zoology Agra collegeAgra to check out the effect of two leather dyes Bismarck brown and Acid leather brown on Total leucocyte countwith three conc. From both the dyes as 0.6 mg/l, 0.7 mg/l and 0.7 mg/l for Bismarck brown and 8 mg/l, 9 mg/l and 10mg/l for Acid leather brown at different time intervals (24 hrs, 48 hrs, 96 hrs and 1 week), however the effect wasmore with Acid leather brown exposure than Bismarck brown. The increasing trend in TLC on exposure to Bismarckbrown and acid leather brown at different time intervals and at all three concentrations has been observed. The sublethalexposure of Bismarck brown and Acid leather brown results into significant increase in the TLC. Intoxication ofBismarck brown and acid leather brown induces leukocytosis in which TLC increases. Leukocytosis in some casesmay be due to protective reaction in which leukocyte protects the body when foreign substances (in present studyfungicide invade the body. The increase in number of leukocyte may also be found in leukemia. The aim of the studyis to aware the people to protect the fish fauna from leather dye effect. The study is to aware people to check thepollution related to leather industries.

Sheikh Afaq

2009-01-01

122

Evaluating total lymphocyte count as a surrogate marker for CD4 cell count in the management of HIV-infected patients in resource-limited settings: a study from China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation of total lymphocyte count (TLC) and CD4 cell count and the suitability of TLC as a surrogate marker for CD4 cell count of HIV-infected patients in China. METHODS: Usefulness of TLC as a surrogate marker for a CD4 cell count <350 cells/mm(3) for HIV-positive patients in China was evaluated by 977 pairs of TLC and CD4 cell count from 977 outpatients. The result was then validated by a literature review which was conducted on 9 relevant articles. Further investigation using the 977 pairs of TLC and CD4 cell count data was done to determine a TLC threshold for predicting a CD4 cell count <500 cells/mm(3). Correlation and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were performed for both CD4 cell counts, and the sensitivity and specificity were computed. RESULTS: Good correlation was noted between TLC and CD4 count (r?=?0.60, 95% CI, 0.56-0.64). TLC obtained a relatively high diagnostic performance (area under ROC curve, 0.80) for predicting a CD4 cell count <350 cells/mm(3), with a sensitivity of 0.65 (95% CI, 0.61-0.68) and a specificity of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.75-0.85) at the TLC threshold of 1570 cells/mm(3). The literature review suggested that for a CD4 cell count <350 cells/mm(3), the optimal TLC threshold was 1500 cells/mm(3), which was similar to the figure presented in this observational study. As for predicting a CD4 cell count <500 cells/mm(3), TLC obtained a high diagnostic performance (area under ROC curve, 0.82) as well with a sensitivity of 0.70 (95% CI, 0.67-0.73) and a specificity of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.73-0.87). CONCLUSIONS: When considering the antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected Chinese individuals, total lymphocyte count can be considered as an inexpensive and easily available surrogate marker for predicting two clinically important thresholds of CD4 count of 350 cells/mm(3) and 500 cells/mm(3).

Chen J; Li W; Huang X; Guo C; Zou R; Yang Q; Zhang H; Zhang T; Chen H; Wu H

2013-01-01

123

The association between bedding material and the bacterial counts of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis and coliform bacteria on teat skin and in teat canals in lactating dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Several mastitis-causing pathogens are able to colonize the bovine teat canal. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the treatment of sawdust bedding with a commercial alkaline conditioner and the bacterial counts on teat skin and in the teat canal. The study used a crossover design. Ten lactating Holstein cows that were free of udder infections and mastitis were included in the study. The animals were bedded on either untreated sawdust or sawdust that had been treated with a hydrated lime-based conditioner. Once a day, fresh bedding material was added. After 3 weeks, the bedding material was removed from the cubicles, fresh bedding material was provided, and the cows were rotated between the two bedding material groups. Teat skin and teat canals were sampled using the wet and dry swab technique after weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Escherichia coli and other coliform bacteria were detected in the resulting agar plate cultures. The treatment of the bedding material was associated with the teat skin bacterial counts of Str. uberis, Esch. coli and other coliform bacteria. An association was also found between the bedding material and the teat canal bacterial counts of coliform bacteria other than Esch. coli. For Staph. aureus, no associations with the bedding material were found. In general, the addition of a hydrated lime-based conditioner to sawdust reduces the population sizes of environmental pathogens on teat skin and in teat canals.

Paduch JH; Mohr E; Krömker V

2013-05-01

124

Quantification of protein based on single-molecule counting by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy with adsorption equilibrium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We developed a sensitive single-molecule imaging method for quantification of protein by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy with adsorption equilibrium. In this method, the adsorption equilibrium of protein was achieved between solution and glass substrate. Then, fluorescence images of protein molecules in a evanescent wave field were taken by a highly sensitive electron multiplying charge coupled device. Finally, the number of fluorescent spots corresponding to the protein molecules in the images was counted. Alexa Fluor 488-labeled goat anti-rat IgG(H + L) was chosen as the model protein. The spot number showed an excellent linear relationship with protein concentration. The concentration linear range was 5.4 x 10-11 to 8.1 x 10-10 mol L-1.

2007-05-02

125

Some Precautions in Preparation of Blood Plasma Samples Labelled with 3HOH in Liquid Scintillation Counting to Estimate Total Body Water in Farm Animals Using Nuclear Methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accuracy of counting the tritiated water radioactivity in Liquid Scintillation is dependent on the careful control of several experimental variables. Obtaining the data necessary to evaluate the precision of nuclear techniques is the objective of this study. The effect of mixing the suspended precipitate, precipitate of sedimentation, light exposure and temperature on liquid scintillation counting are studied. The results showed that unmixed suspended precipitation decreased the counting of liquid scintillation by 38.2%. In addition, sedimentation of the precipitate of plasma proteins in the liquid scintillation counter is important because the average of the samples count was lower about 3.5% in case plasma samples were counted before the precipitate sedimentation. Plasma samples exposure to either day or florescent light caused over counting by 7.1 and 7.6% respectively. Frozen plasma samples labelled with TOH caused a decrease in normal counting by 9.5%. In addition, it was compared between internal standard and dioxane precipitation techniques to estimate total body water in farm animals with taking the precaution mentioned previously in considerations. The internal standard method and precipitation method gave comparable counting (4599 vs 4317 cpm, respectively) and total body water values (209.3 vs 211.9L, respectively).

2007-01-01

126

Correlations between total cell concentration, total adenosine tri-phosphate concentration and heterotrophic plate counts during microbial monitoring of drinking water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The general microbial quality of drinking water is normally monitored by heterotrophic plate counts (HPC). This method has been used for more than 100 years and is recommended in drinking water guidelines. However, the HPC method is significantly handicapped because it is time-consuming and restricted to culturable bacteria. Recently, rapid and accurate detection methods have emerged, such as adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) measurements to assess microbial activity in drinking water, and flow cytometry (FCM) to determine the total cell concentration (TCC). It is necessary and important for drinking water quality control to understand the relationships among the conventional and new methods. In the current study, all three methods were applied to 200 drinking water samples obtained from two local buildings connected to the same distribution system. Samples were taken both on normal working days and weekends, and the correlations between the different microbiological parameters were determined. The results showed that the rapid determination methods (i.e., FCM and ATP) correlated significantly (R2=0.69), but only a weak correlation (R2=0.31) was observed between the rapid methods and conventional HPC data. With respect to drinking water monitoring, both FCM and ATP measurements were confirmed to be useful and complimentary parameters for rapid assessing of drinking water microbial quality.

E. Siebel; Y. Wang; T. Egli; F. Hammes

2008-01-01

127

Incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with ascites. Diagnostic value of white blood cell count and pH measurement in ascitic fluid  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

During a 21-month period, 65 consecutive patients admitted with ascites were included in a prospective study of the incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and paracentesis was performed on admission. The ascitic fluid was cultured, ascitic leucocytes were counted and pH was measured. Bacterial growth was found in five patients with chronic liver disease, who were diagnosed as having spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), since no intra-abdominal focus could be demonstrated. Thus, the incidence of SBP in this material was 7.7% (95% confidence limits: 2.5-17%). SBP was caused by Escherichia coli (n = 3), coagulase negative staphylococcus (n = 1), and Bacteroides species (n = 1). Abdominal tenderness, abnormal intestinal sounds, fever and hepatic encephalopathy were equally frequent in the group with SBP and in patients with sterile ascites. Infection was not anticipated in any of the patients with SBP. In contrast to several previous studies, neither ascites pH nor ascites leucocyte counts were any help in obtaining a rapid diagnosis. Survival time of patients with SBP was significantly shorter than of patients without SBP.

Storgaard, J S; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup

1991-01-01

128

Effect of gamma irradiation on shelf life extension, total counts of microbials and biochemical sensory change on luncheon meat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate the effect of gamma irradiation and sodium nitrate on storability and marketability of luncheon, packed luncheon was exposed to several treatments; gamma irradiation at doses 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 KGy using a 60 CO package irradiator, mixed with sodium nitrite (NaNO2) 60 mg/Kg meat, with no irradiation and a combined treatment of both NaNO2 treatment and irradiated with a dose of 2 KGy only. Half of the irradiated and unirradiated samples were stored in refrigeration (1-4 centigrade), to study storability and the second half were stored at room temperature (18-20 centigrade) to study marketability of luncheon. During storage period the population of microorganisms, biochemical changes and sensory properties were evaluated every two weeks for the refrigerated samples and weekly for the unrefrigerated samples. The results indicated that gamma irradiation and sodium nitrite reduced the counts of microorganisms and increased the shelf-life of luncheon. Both treatments (irradiation, sodium nitrite) increased total acidity, lipid oxidation, and the volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) immediately after processing and reduced all of them through out storage. Sensory evaluation (firmness, color, taste, and flavor) indicated no significant differences (P>0.05) between treated and untreated samples. (author).

1999-01-01

129

A rapid high-precision flow cytometry based technique for total white blood cell counting in chickens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The automated analysis of total white blood cell count and white blood cell differentials is routine in research and clinical diagnosis in mammalian species. In contrast, in avian haematology these parameters are still estimated by conventional microscopic procedures due to technical difficulties associated with the morphological peculiarities of avian erythrocytes and thrombocytes. Both cell types are nucleated and fairly resistant to cell lysis, a prerequisite for automated leukocyte quantification and differentiation by commercial instruments. By using an anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody in combination with selected subset specific markers we have established a simple (no-lyse no-wash single-step one-tube) flow cytometry based technique for high precision chicken blood cell quantification. EDTA-blood samples are diluted, spiked with fluorescence beads and incubated with a mixture of fluorochrome conjugated chicken leukocyte specific antibodies. We demonstrate that total leukocyte numbers as well as thrombocyte, monocyte, T-cell, B-cell and heterophilic granulocyte numbers can be determined by flow cytometry in a single step without prior cell lysis, cell separation or cell washing steps. Importantly, we also show that blood samples can be fixed prior to cell staining which enables shipping of samples making the technology widely available. Comparison of this technique with conventional microscopy revealed superior precision. By comparing leukocyte differentials of two chicken populations and during immune system development after hatch we demonstrate that large sample numbers can be analysed within hours. This technique will help to overcome previous restrictions in immune status analysis in chickens in experimental systems, during vaccine testing and health status monitoring in chicken flocks. Advances in avian genomics should facilitate the development of appropriate tools for other avian species in the future which will make this technique broadly applicable.

Seliger C; Schaerer B; Kohn M; Pendl H; Weigend S; Kaspers B; Härtle S

2012-01-01

130

Multilevel analysis of bacterial counts from chronic periodontitis after root planing/scaling, surgery, and systemic and local antibiotics: 2-year results  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim To follow changes (over 2 years) in subgingival bacterial counts of five microbial complexes including health-related Actinomyces spp. in deeper pockets (?5 mm) after periodontal treatments. Methods Eight different treatments were studied: (1) scaling+root planing (SRP); (2) periodontal surgery (SURG)+systemic amoxicillin (AMOX)+systemic metronidazole (MET); (3) SURG+locally delivered tetracycline (TET); (4) SURG; (5) AMOX+MET+TET; (6) AMOX+MET; (7) TET; and (8) SURG+AMOX+MET+TET. Antibiotics were given immediately following SRP. Subgingival plaque was collected mesiobuccally from each tooth, except third molars, from 176 subjects, completing the study, at baseline, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months post-treatment and analysed for 40 different bacteria using checkerboard hybridization. A negative binomial (NB) generalized estimating equation (NB GEE) model was used to analyze count data and a logistic GEE was used for proportions. Results We observed short-term beneficial changes in the composition of the red complex of up to 3 months by treating subjects with AMOX+MET+TET. Similar short-term improvements with the same treatment were observed for Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola of the red complex. SURG had also short-term beneficial effect on Porphyromonas gingivalis. No periodontal treatments applied to severely affected sites promoted the growth of Actinomyces. Smoking elevated counts of both the red and orange complex while bleeding on probing (BOP) and gingival redness were also predictors of more red complex counts. Comparatively similar findings were obtained by analyzing counts and by analyzing proportions. Conclusions Although short-term reductions in the counts of the red complex were observed in sites that were treated with AMOX+MET+TET, long-term significant effects were not observed with any of the eight treatments. Poor oral hygiene in patients with severe chronic periodontitis diminished the beneficial effects of treatment.

Mdala, Ibrahimu; Olsen, Ingar; Haffajee, Anne D.; Socransky, Sigmund S.; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben; Thoresen, Magne

2013-01-01

131

Multilevel analysis of bacterial counts from chronic periodontitis after root planing/scaling, surgery, and systemic and local antibiotics: 2-year results  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: To follow changes (over 2 years) in subgingival bacterial counts of five microbial complexes including health-related Actinomyces spp. in deeper pockets (?5 mm) after periodontal treatments. Methods: Eight different treatments were studied: (1) scaling+root planing (SRP); (2) periodontal surgery (SURG)+systemic amoxicillin (AMOX)+systemic metronidazole (MET); (3) SURG+locally delivered tetracycline (TET); (4) SURG; (5) AMOX+MET+TET; (6) AMOX+MET; (7) TET; and (8) SURG+AMOX+MET+TET. Antibiotics were given immediately following SRP. Subgingival plaque was collected mesiobuccally from each tooth, except third molars, from 176 subjects, completing the study, at baseline, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months post-treatment and analysed for 40 different bacteria using checkerboard hybridization. A negative binomial (NB) generalized estimating equation (NB GEE) model was used to analyze count data and a logistic GEE was used for proportions. Results: We observed short-term beneficial changes in the composition of the red complex of up to 3 months by treating subjects with AMOX+MET+TET. Similar short-term improvements with the same treatment were observed for Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola of the red complex. SURG had also short-term beneficial effect on Porphyromonas gingivalis. No periodontal treatments applied to severely affected sites promoted the growth of Actinomyces. Smoking elevated counts of both the red and orange complex while bleeding on probing (BOP) and gingival redness were also predictors of more red complex counts. Comparatively similar findings were obtained by analyzing counts and by analyzing proportions. Conclusions: Although short-term reductions in the counts of the red complex were observed in sites that were treated with AMOX+MET+TET, long-term significant effects were not observed with any of the eight treatments. Poor oral hygiene in patients with severe chronic periodontitis diminished the beneficial effects of treatment.

Ibrahimu Mdala; Ingar Olsen; Anne D. Haffajee; Sigmund S. Socransky; Birgitte Freiesleben de Blasio; Magne Thoresen

2013-01-01

132

Assessment of bacterial growth and total organic carbon removal on granular activated carbon contactors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The overall growth rate of bacteria on granular activated carbon (GAC) contactors at the Philadelphia Torresdale Water Treatment Pilot Plant facility was found to decrease until steady state was reached. The growth rate was found to fluctuate between 6.94 X 10(-3) and 8.68 X 10(-4) doublings per h. The microbiological removal of total organic carbon (TOC) was calculated by considering the GAC contactors as semiclosed continuous culture systems and using growth yield factors determined in laboratory experiments. After ozonation, the average TOC entering the contactors was 1,488 micrograms/liter, and the average effluent TOC was 497 micrograms/liter. Microbiological TOC removal was found to average 240 micrograms/liter on GAC contactors, which was not significantly different from microbiological TOC (220 micrograms/liter) removal across a parallel sand contactor where no adsorption took place. Thus, GAC did not appear to enhance biological TOC removal. Bacterial growth and maintenance was responsible for approximately 24% of the TOC removal on GAC under the conditions of this study. PMID:6639023

Bancroft, K; Maloney, S W; McElhaney, J; Suffet, I H; Pipes, W O

1983-09-01

133

Asociación entre recuento bacteriano en la bilis y desarrollo de morbilidad postoperatoria en pacientes con colangitis aguda Association between bile bacterial count and postoperative complications aniong patients with acute cholangitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: La colonización bacteriana de la bilis parece ser frecuente en pacientes con obstrucción de la vía biliar ya sea con o sin signos de sepsis. Objetivos: Determinar asociación entre el recuento bacteriano en la bilis de pacientes con colangitis aguda (CA) y el desarrollo de complicaciones postoperatorias; y, determinar asociación entre variables fisiológicas y desarrollo de complicaciones en el mismo grupo. Material y Método: Reporte preliminar de estudio de cohorte de pacientes con CA litiásica, intervenidos quirúrgicamente en los servicios de cirugía y urgencias del Hospital Regional de Temuco en el período diciembre de 2004 a noviembre de 2006. Se realizó cultivo cuantitativo y se registraron variables clínicas y de laboratorio al ingreso. Se efectuó medición de complicaciones postoperatorias, estancia hospitalaria y evolución de los pacientes. Se aplicó estadística descriptiva y posteriormente análisis univariado y multivariado. Resultados: Se estudió un total de 54 pacientes, 34 (63%) fueron de género femenino y 20 (37%) de género masculino, con una mediana de edad de 68 años (25 a 95 años). El germen más frecuentemente aislado fue Escherichia coli en 32 cultivos (50%), seguido por Klebsiella pneumoniae en 6 cultivos (9%). De los gérmenes aislados 45 (82%) tenían cargas bacterianas sobre 10(5) UFC/ml. De los pacientes que presentaron alguna complicación 68% tenían cargas bacterianas superiores a 10(5) UFC/ml y de los pacientes que no presentaron complicaciones 69% tenían cargas bacterianas inferiores a 10(5) UFC/ml (p = 0,513). En el análisis univariado se encontró asociación entre desarrollo de complicaciones y las variables frecuencia cardíaca, creatinina, recuento de plaquetas y tiempo de protrombina. Con el análisis multivariado se determinó asociación entre desarrollo de complicaciones y las variables recuento de plaquetas y tiempo de protrombina (OR: 4,35 y 4,58). Conclusiones: No se encontró asociación entre la carga bacteriana y el desarrollo de complicaciones en pacientes con CA. Se determinó asociación entre desarrollo de complicaciones y las variables recuento de plaquetas y tiempo de protrombina.Background: Bacterial colonization of bile is common in patients with bile duct obstruction, even in the absence of clinical signs of sepsis. Aim: To determine the association between bile bacterial count and postoperative complications in patients with bile duct obstruction. Material and Methods: A bile bacterial count was performed to patients with acute cholangitis caused by biliary stones, operated between 2004 and 2006. Post operative complications and length of hospital stay were recorded in these patients. Results: Fifty four patients aged between 25 and 95 years (34 females) were studied. The most common bacteria found, were Escherichia coli in 32 cultures (50%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae in 6 cultures (9%). In 45 cases the bacterial load was over 10(5) colony forming units (CFU)/ml. Among patients with and without complications, 68 and 69% had a bacterial load over 10(5) CFU/ml, respectively (p = NS). A multivariate analysis showed an association between platelet count and prothrombin time with the incidence of complications. Conclusions: In this series of patients with acute cholangitis, no association between bile bacterial count and postoperative complications was observed.

HÉCTOR LOSADA M; CARLOS MANTEROLA D; VIVIANA PINEDA N; MANUEL VIAL G; LUIS AVENDAÑO R

2009-01-01

134

Contribution of endogenous and exogenous damage to the total radiation-induced damage in the bacterial spore  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radical scavengers such as polyethylene glycol 4000 and bovine albumin have been used to define the contribution of exogenous and endogenous damage to the total radiation-induced damage in aqueous buffered suspensions of Bacillus pumilus spores. The results indicate that this damage in the bacterial spore is predominantly endogenous.

Jacobs, G.P.; Samuni, A.; Czapski, G.

1980-01-01

135

Contribution of endogenous and exogenous damage to the total radiation-induced damage in the bacterial spore  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Radical scavengers such as polyethylene glycol 4000 and bovine albumin have been used to define the contribution of exogenous and endogenous damage to the total radiation-induced damage in aqueous buffered suspensions of Bacillus pumilus spores. The results indicate that this damage in the bacterial spore is predominantly endogenous

1980-01-01

136

Embryo quality and implantation rates are not influenced by total motile count values in an ICSI programme: a novel point of view  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Total motile count (TMC) is a useful tool for sperm evaluation, comprising both quantitative and motility parameters. Although frequently used, TMC has not yet been evaluated as a contributory variable for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. In this study we evaluate the possible role of...

Hershko-Klement, Anat; Rovner, Einav; Yekutieli, Daniel; Ghetler, Yehudith; Gonen, Ofer; Cohen, Ilan; Wiser, Amir

137

Total and differential white blood cell counts, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and the metabolic syndrome in non-affective psychoses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in patients with schizophrenia, and is associated with a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation. Schizophrenia is also associated with increased inflammation, including aberrant blood levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between total and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts, hsCRP, and the metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia and related non-affective psychoses. Fifty-nine inpatients and outpatients age 18-70 with non-affective psychotic disorders and 22 controls participated in this cross-sectional study. Subjects had a fasting blood draw between 8 and 9 am for glucose, lipids, total and differential WBC counts, and hsCRP. Vital signs and anthropometric measures were obtained. Patients with non-affective psychosis and the metabolic syndrome had significantly higher total WBC counts, monocytes, and hsCRP levels than patients without the metabolic syndrome (p?0.04 for each). In binary logistic regression analyses, after controlling for potential confounding effects of age, race, sex, age at first hospitalization for psychosis, parental history of diabetes, smoking, and psychotropic medications, total WBC count, monocytes, and hsCRP were significant predictors of metabolic syndrome in patients (p?0.04 for each). hsCRP was also a significant predictor of increased waist circumference and triglycerides in patients (p?0.05 for each). Our findings suggest that measurement of total and differential WBC counts and hsCRP blood levels may be germane to the clinical care of patients with schizophrenia and related disorders, and support an association between inflammation and metabolic disturbance in these patients.

Miller BJ; Mellor A; Buckley P

2013-07-01

138

Correlations between total cell concentration, total adenosine tri-phosphate concentration and heterotrophic plate counts during microbial monitoring of drinking water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The general microbial quality of drinking water is normally monitored by heterotrophic plate counts (HPC). This method has been used for more than 100 years and is recommended in drinking water guidelines. However, the HPC method is significantly handicapped because it is time-consuming and restrict...

E. Siebel; Y. Wang; T. Egli; F. Hammes

139

Correlations between total cell concentration, total adenosine tri-phosphate concentration and heterotrophic plate counts during microbial monitoring of drinking water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The general microbial quality of drinking water is normally monitored by heterotrophic plate counts (HPC). This method has been used for more than 100 years and is recommended in drinking water guidelines. However, the HPC method is handicapped because it is time-consuming and restricted to culturab...

E. Siebel; Y. Wang; T. Egli; F. Hammes

140

[Bacteriological aspects of holding freshly prepared spinach at warm temperatures. Relation between bacterial count and nitrate reduction  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In sterilized spinach which was inoculated with bacteria, a reduction of NO3- to NO2-, due to their metabolic activity, was detectable, depending on the holding conditions. The reaction rate was highest in the presence of thermophilic bacteria. A lower reaction rate was altogether found with mesophilic bacteria which, depending on counts and holding time, may temporarily cause high nitrite contents. The reaction rate was lowest with cold-tolerant bacteria.

Bomar MT; Wedler AM

1980-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Predictive models for the effect of storage temperature on Vibrio parahaemolyticus viability and counts of total viable bacteria in Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an indigenous bacterium of marine environments. It accumulates in oysters and may reach levels that cause human illness when postharvest temperatures are not properly controlled and oysters are consumed raw or undercooked. Predictive models were produced by injecting Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) with a cocktail of V. parahaemolyticus strains, measuring viability rates at storage temperatures from 3.6 to 30.4°C, and fitting the data to a model to obtain parameter estimates. The models were evaluated with Pacific and Sydney Rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) containing natural populations of V. parahaemolyticus. V. parahaemolyticus viability was measured by direct plating samples on thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose (TCBS) agar for injected oysters and by most probable number (MPN)-PCR for oysters containing natural populations. In parallel, total viable bacterial counts (TVC) were measured by direct plating on marine agar. Growth/inactivation rates for V. parahaemolyticus were -0.006, -0.004, -0.005, -0.003, 0.030, 0.075, 0.095, and 0.282 log?? CFU/h at 3.6, 6.2, 9.6, 12.6, 18.4, 20.0, 25.7, and 30.4°C, respectively. The growth rates for TVC were 0.015, 0.023, 0.016, 0.048, 0.055, 0.071, 0.133, and 0.135 log?? CFU/h at 3.6, 6.2, 9.3, 14.9, 18.4, 20.0, 25.7, and 30.4°C, respectively. Square root and Arrhenius-type secondary models were generated for V. parahaemolyticus growth and inactivation kinetic data, respectively. A square root model was produced for TVC growth. Evaluation studies showed that predictive growth for V. parahaemolyticus and TVC were "fail safe." The models can assist oyster companies and regulators in implementing management strategies to minimize V. parahaemolyticus risk and enhancing product quality in supply chains.

Fernandez-Piquer J; Bowman JP; Ross T; Tamplin ML

2011-12-01

142

[Totally implantable venous access ports: frequency of complications and analysis of bacterial contamination after ablation  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Totally implantable venous access ports (TIVAP) are valuable medical devices for long-term intravenous treatment such as parenteral nutrition, cancer chemotherapy or antiviral therapy. Implantation and use of these devices are each associated with infectious or mechanical complications. AIMS OF THE STUDY: To determine the frequency of complications and to analyze bacterial contamination of different parts of TIVAP (tip, septum, internal lumen of the port). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Clinical charts of patients, which TIVAP was removed between April 20th to December 31st 2003, were retrospectively reviewed. Infectious complications (local and septicemic) and non-infectious complications (i.e. obstruction, thrombosis, drug extravasation...) were defined using clinical and/or microbiological criteria. Quantitative culture from different parts of the TIVAP was performed. RESULTS: One hundred and ten patients (age 57 +/- 14-years-old, 94.3% cancers) were included, corresponding to 57,018 catheter-days: 39.1% had one or more non-infectious complications (density incidence: 0.86 for 1000 catheter-days). Among the 49 complications, obstruction, thrombosis, extravasations and malposition accounted for 30.6%, 30.6% 4.1% and 6% of cases. Twenty-one patients (19.1%) had an infectious complication: 11 were local and 14 were systemic (density incidence 0.43 for 1000 catheter-days). Bacteria responsible for TIVAP-associated bacteraemia were coagulase negative staphylococci (N = 2), Staphylococcus aureus susceptible to methicilline (N = 3), micrococci (N = 1), corynebacteria (N = 1) or Gram-negative bacilli (N = 8). Comparison of quantitative culture of the different parts of TIVAP with a threshold at 10(3) CFU/ml showed that culture of tip, septum and port has a sensitivity of 47.6% 57.1% and 61.9 %, respectively and a specificity of 100% 92.1% and 92.1%, respectively for the diagnosis of TIVAP infection. CONCLUSION: Complications associated to TIVAP are frequent but incidence that we have reported is comparable with previous studies. Analysis of internal lumen of the port is the most sensitive method for the diagnosis of TIVAP-associated infections.

Barbut F; Soukouna S; Lalande V; Garcia ML; Neyme D; de Gramont A; Petit JC

2004-12-01

143

Inconsistent correlation between aerobic bacterial surface and air counts in operating rooms with ultra clean laminar air flows: proposal of a new bacteriological standard for surface contamination.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The relationship between surface contamination (cfus/m2/h) with particles carrying aerobic bacteria and corresponding air contamination rates (cfus/m3) was evaluated in operating rooms (OR) equipped with ultra clean vertical or horizontal laminar airflow (LAF). For the evaluation we collected data during strictly standardized sham operations using non-woven disposable or cotton clothing. Air contamination in the wound and instrument areas (Casella slit sampler) was related to the surface contamination rate (settle plates) in the same areas and in addition, on the patient chest. Typically, the mean surface counts were 20-70 cfus/m2/h and the air counts 1-2 cfus/m3 in disposable clothing experiments, whilst the use of cotton clothing resulted in higher counts of 100-200 cfus/m2/h (wound P > 0.05, patient P > 0.05, instruments P < 0.01) and 4 cfus/m3 (P < 0.02-0.001). In the vertical LAF, taking both disposable and cotton clothing operations together, the surface and air contamination rates (surface/air ratio SAR) were highly correlated (P = 0.02-0.004) and the ratio varied between 18:1 and 50:1 with a mean for wound air of 36:1. Using only disposable clothing in the vertical LAF, the number of significant correlations was reduced. With cotton clothing experiments in vertical LAF and in the horizontal LAF using disposable clothing, no significant correlation between surface and air contamination was found. The wide variation of SAR values and the inconsistent relationship between surface and air counts indicates that measurement of OR air contamination represents an unhelpful method for assessment of surgical site contamination in LAF units. We propose instead that colony counts on sedimentation plates is a clinically more relevant indicator of bacterial OR contamination in LAF units. In addition to the current bacteriological standard for ultra clean OR air of (< 10 cfus/m3) we suggest a corresponding standard for the surface contamination rate of < 350 cfus/m2/h.

Friberg B; Friberg S; Burman LG

1999-08-01

144

Calculation of total counting efficiency of a NaI(Tl) detector by hybrid Monte-Carlo method for point and disk sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents results on the total gamma counting efficiency of a NaI(Tl) detector from point and disk sources. The directions of photons emitted from the source were determined by Monte-Carlo techniques and the photon path lengths in the detector were determined by analytic equations depending on photon directions. This is called the hybrid Monte-Carlo method where analytical expressions are incorporated into the Monte-Carlo simulations. A major advantage of this technique is the short computation time compared to other techniques on similar computational platforms. Another advantage is the flexibility for inputting detector-related parameters (such as source-detector distance, detector radius, source radius, detector linear attenuation coefficient) into the algorithm developed, thus making it an easy and flexible method to apply to other detector systems and configurations. The results of the total counting efficiency model put forward for point and disc sources were compared with the previous work reported in the literature.

Yalcin, S. [Education Faculty, Kastamonu University, 37200 Kastamonu (Turkey)], E-mail: yalcin@gazi.edu.tr; Gurler, O.; Kaynak, G. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Uludag University, Gorukle Campus, 16059 Bursa (Turkey); Gundogdu, O. [Department of Physics, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

2007-10-15

145

Mean cell volume of neutrophils and monocytes compared with C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and white blood cell count for prediction of sepsis and nonsystemic bacterial infections.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Clinicians are in need of better diagnostic markers for rapid diagnosis of severe infections. Therefore, we studied the diagnostic significance of mean cell volume of neutrophils (MNV) and monocytes (MMV) compared with Interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell count for predicting systemic clinical infection (sepsis). MNV and MMV were obtained by volume conductivity scatter (VCS) technique of the Coulter LH 750 hematology analyzer during automated differential counts, and blood samples from patients with sepsis (n = 37), nonsystemic bacterial infections (n = 39) and controls (n = 48) were studied. We observed a significant increase in MNV and MMV in the sepsis group compared with limited infections and controls. However, at a designated cut-off point of 250 pg/ml, IL-6 seemed to be the best predictor for sepsis with a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 76%. Compared with CRP (cut-off point 60 mg/dl), MNV at a cut-off of 150 had a comparable sensitivity and specificity and was the most predictive VCS parameter. Taken together, MNV and MMV seemed to be potential parameters to discriminate between sepsis and nonsystemic infections.

Mardi D; Fwity B; Lobmann R; Ambrosch A

2010-08-01

146

Leukocyte-subset counts in idiopathic parkinsonism provide clues to a pathogenic pathway involving small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. A surveillance study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Following Helicobacter pylori eradication in idiopathic parkinsonism (IP), hypokinesia improved but flexor-rigidity increased. Small intestinal bacterial-overgrowth (SIBO) is a candidate driver of the rigidity: hydrogen-breath-test-positivity is common in IP and case histories suggest that Helicobacter keeps SIBO at bay. Methods In a surveillance study, we explore relationships of IP-facets to peripheral immune/inflammatory-activation, in light of presence/absence of Helicobacter infection (urea-breath- and/or stool-antigen-test: positivity confirmed by gastric-biopsy) and hydrogen-breath-test status for SIBO (positivity: >20 ppm increment, 2 consecutive 15-min readings, within 2h of 25G lactulose). We question whether any relationships found between facets and blood leukocyte subset counts stand in patients free from anti-parkinsonian drugs, and are robust enough to defy fluctuations in performance consequent on short t½ therapy. Results Of 51 IP-probands, 36 had current or past Helicobacter infection on entry, 25 having undergone successful eradication (median 3.4 years before). Thirty-four were hydrogen-breath-test-positive initially, 42 at sometime (343 tests) during surveillance (2.8 years). Hydrogen-breath-test-positivity was associated inversely with Helicobacter-positivity (OR 0.20 (95% CI 0.04, 0.99), p In 38 patients (untreated (17) or on stable long-t½ IP-medication), the higher the natural-killer count, the shorter stride, slower gait and greater flexor-rigidity (by mean 49 (14, 85) mm, 54 (3, 104) mm.s-1, 89 (2, 177) Nm.10-3, per 100 cells.?l-1 increment, p=0.007, 0.04 & 0.04 respectively, adjusted for patient characteristics). T-helper count was inversely associated with flexor-rigidity before (p=0.01) and after adjustment for natural-killer count (-36(-63, -10) Nm.10-3 per 100 cells.?l-1, p=0.007). Neutrophil count was inversely associated with tremor (visual analogue scale, p=0.01). Effect-sizes were independent of IP-medication, and not masked by including 13 patients receiving levodopa (except natural-killer count on flexor-rigidity). Cellular associations held after allowing for potentially confounding effect of hydrogen-breath-test or Helicobacter status. Moreover, additional reduction in stride and speed (68 (24, 112) mm & 103 (38, 168) mm.s-1, each p=0.002) was seen with Helicobacter-positivity. Hydrogen-breath-test-positivity, itself, was associated with higher natural-killer and T-helper counts, lower neutrophils (p=0.005, 0.02 & 0.008). Conclusion We propose a rigidity-associated subordinate pathway, flagged by a higher natural-killer count, tempered by a higher T-helper, against which Helicobacter protects by keeping SIBO at bay.

Dobbs R; Charlett André; Dobbs Sylvia M; Weller Clive; A Ibrahim Mohammad A; Iguodala Owens; Smee Cori; Plant J; Lawson Andrew J; Taylor David; Bjarnason Ingvar

2012-01-01

147

Leukocyte-subset counts in idiopathic parkinsonism provide clues to a pathogenic pathway involving small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. A surveillance study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: BACKGROUND: Following Helicobacter pylori eradication in idiopathic parkinsonism (IP), hypokinesia improved but flexor-rigidity increased. Small intestinal bacterial-overgrowth (SIBO) is a candidate driver of the rigidity: hydrogen-breath-test-positivity is common in IP and case histories suggest that Helicobacter keeps SIBO at bay. METHODS: In a surveillance study, we explore relationships of IP-facets to peripheral immune/inflammatory-activation, in light of presence/absence of Helicobacter infection (urea-breath- and/or stool-antigen-test: positivity confirmed by gastric-biopsy) and hydrogen-breath-test status for SIBO (positivity: >20 ppm increment, 2 consecutive 15-min readings, within 2h of 25G lactulose). We question whether any relationships found between facets and blood leukocyte subset counts stand in patients free from anti-parkinsonian drugs, and are robust enough to defy fluctuations in performance consequent on short t½ therapy. RESULTS: Of 51 IP-probands, 36 had current or past Helicobacter infection on entry, 25 having undergone successful eradication (median 3.4 years before). Thirty-four were hydrogen-breath-test-positive initially, 42 at sometime (343 tests) during surveillance (2.8 years). Hydrogen-breath-test-positivity was associated inversely with Helicobacter-positivity (OR 0.20 (95% CI 0.04, 0.99), p<0.05).In 38 patients (untreated (17) or on stable long-t½ IP-medication), the higher the natural-killer count, the shorter stride, slower gait and greater flexor-rigidity (by mean 49 (14, 85) mm, 54 (3, 104) mm.s-1, 89 (2, 177) Nm.10-3, per 100 cells.?l-1 increment, p=0.007, 0.04 & 0.04 respectively, adjusted for patient characteristics). T-helper count was inversely associated with flexor-rigidity before (p=0.01) and after adjustment for natural-killer count (-36(-63, -10) Nm.10-3 per 100 cells.?l-1, p=0.007). Neutrophil count was inversely associated with tremor (visual analogue scale, p=0.01). Effect-sizes were independent of IP-medication, and not masked by including 13 patients receiving levodopa (except natural-killer count on flexor-rigidity). Cellular associations held after allowing for potentially confounding effect of hydrogen-breath-test or Helicobacter status. Moreover, additional reduction in stride and speed (68 (24, 112) mm & 103 (38, 168) mm.s-1, each p=0.002) was seen with Helicobacter-positivity. Hydrogen-breath-test-positivity, itself, was associated with higher natural-killer and T-helper counts, lower neutrophils (p=0.005, 0.02 & 0.008). CONCLUSION: We propose a rigidity-associated subordinate pathway, flagged by a higher natural-killer count, tempered by a higher T-helper, against which Helicobacter protects by keeping SIBO at bay.

Dobbs RJ; Charlett A; Dobbs SM; Weller C; A Ibrahim MA; Iguodala O; Smee C; Plant JM; Lawson AJ; Taylor D; Bjarnason I

2012-01-01

148

Impact of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 and, Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5-containing yoghurt, on fecal bacterial counts of healthy adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

This randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, parallel dose-response study investigated the impact of 4-week commercial yoghurt consumption supplemented with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BB-12) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA-5) on fecal bacterial counts of healthy adults. Fifty-eight volunteers were randomly assigned to three different groups: 1. placebo (no probiotic, no starter and no green tea extract); 2. Yoptimal (10(9)cfu/100g of BB-12 and LA-5 and 40mg of green tea extract) and 3. Yoptimal-10 (10(10)cfu/100g of BB-12, 10(9)cfu/100g of LA-5 and 40mg of green tea extract). These yoghurt products also contained Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (10(7)cfu/100g) and Streptococcus thermophilus (10(10)cfu/100g). The quantitative PCR (qPCR) results showed that there were significant increases (P=0.02) in bifidobacteria counts with the Yoptimal treatment as compared to baseline. The fecal numbers of B. animalis subsp. lactis and LA-5 significantly increased in the two probiotic treatments compared to the placebo treatment. Viable counts of fecal lactobacilli were significantly higher (P=0.05) and those of enterococci were significantly lower (P=0.04) after the intervention when compared to placebo. No significant difference was observed between treatments in volunteers' weight, waist girth, blood pressure, fasting plasma triglyceride and HDL-C concentrations, as well as cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio. However, a significant increase in plasma cholesterol levels was observed in the placebo group (P=0.0018) but the levels remained stable in the two probiotic yoghurt groups. These results show that probiotic strains supplemented in the form of yoghurt remain active during gut transit and are associated with an increase in beneficial bacteria and a reduction in potentially pathogenic bacteria. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00730626. PMID:21296446

Savard, Patricia; Lamarche, Benoît; Paradis, Marie-Eve; Thiboutot, Hélène; Laurin, Émilie; Roy, Denis

2011-01-15

149

Impact of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 and, Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5-containing yoghurt, on fecal bacterial counts of healthy adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, parallel dose-response study investigated the impact of 4-week commercial yoghurt consumption supplemented with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BB-12) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA-5) on fecal bacterial counts of healthy adults. Fifty-eight volunteers were randomly assigned to three different groups: 1. placebo (no probiotic, no starter and no green tea extract); 2. Yoptimal (10(9)cfu/100g of BB-12 and LA-5 and 40mg of green tea extract) and 3. Yoptimal-10 (10(10)cfu/100g of BB-12, 10(9)cfu/100g of LA-5 and 40mg of green tea extract). These yoghurt products also contained Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (10(7)cfu/100g) and Streptococcus thermophilus (10(10)cfu/100g). The quantitative PCR (qPCR) results showed that there were significant increases (P=0.02) in bifidobacteria counts with the Yoptimal treatment as compared to baseline. The fecal numbers of B. animalis subsp. lactis and LA-5 significantly increased in the two probiotic treatments compared to the placebo treatment. Viable counts of fecal lactobacilli were significantly higher (P=0.05) and those of enterococci were significantly lower (P=0.04) after the intervention when compared to placebo. No significant difference was observed between treatments in volunteers' weight, waist girth, blood pressure, fasting plasma triglyceride and HDL-C concentrations, as well as cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio. However, a significant increase in plasma cholesterol levels was observed in the placebo group (P=0.0018) but the levels remained stable in the two probiotic yoghurt groups. These results show that probiotic strains supplemented in the form of yoghurt remain active during gut transit and are associated with an increase in beneficial bacteria and a reduction in potentially pathogenic bacteria. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00730626.

Savard P; Lamarche B; Paradis ME; Thiboutot H; Laurin É; Roy D

2011-09-01

150

Low Total Lymphocyte Count Is Associated with Poor Survival in Patients with Resected Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Receiving a GM-CSF Secreting Pancreatic Tumor Vaccine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Low total lymphocyte count (TLC) and lymphocyte-to-neutrophil ratio have been found to be poor prognostic indicators in several different tumor types at various stages. Although immune-based therapies are under rapid development, it is not known whether baseline complete blood counts, particularly lymphocytes, are associated with the clinical outcomes of patients receiving immunotherapies. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of complete blood count for 59 patients enrolled onto a phase II trial evaluating the integration of an adjuvant immunotherapy-irradiated granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) secreting allogeneic pancreatic tumor vaccine (GVAX)-with standard chemoradiation. RESULTS: After adjusting for nodal status, individuals with a TLC of <1,500 cells/mm(3) (10 patients) had significantly higher risk, both in terms of overall survival (OS) [adjusted hazard ratio 2.63, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.22-5.67, p = 0.013] and progression-free survival (adjusted hazard ratio 3.07, 95 % CI 1.03-6.93, p = 0.003), compared to those with a TLC of ?1,500 cells/mm(3) (49 patients). Adjuvant chemoradiation significantly reduced lymphocyte counts from baseline values. Patients with suppression of their lymphocytes to <500 cells/mm(3) after chemoradiation also had shorter disease-free and OS. CONCLUSIONS: Immunosuppressive conditions associated with surgical procedures and chemoradiation may affect the efficacy of immunotherapy.

Schueneman AJ; Sugar EA; Uram J; Bigelow E; Herman JM; Edil BH; Jaffee EM; Zheng L; Laheru DA

2013-09-01

151

Total biodegradation of the oestrogenic mycotoxin zearalenone by a bacterial culture.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A mixed culture of bacteria, enriched from soil collected at a coal gasification site, proved capable of removing the potent oestrogenic mycotoxin zearalenone from culture media. The bacteria grew rapidly when zearalenone was provided as the sole source of carbon and energy. HPLC and ELISA analysis of culture extracts revealed no zearalenone or zearalenone-like products. Fourteen bacterial isolates from the mixed culture were identified and purified. The ability to degrade zearalenone was lost upon purification and recombination of the bacterial members of the mixed culture. A strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens capable of degrading polychlorinated biphenyls was unable to degrade zearalenone. This is the first report of the complete degradation of zearalenone by bacteria. The present study suggests the potential of mixed cultures in the biodegradation of zearalenone.

Megharaj M; Garthwaite I; Thiele JH

1997-05-01

152

The effect of aging on element plant availability and bacterial counts of mixtures of wood ash and sewage sludge  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This study investigated the chemical composition of a mixture of 70% wood ashes (a by-product of timber-industry) and 30% sewage sludge (% dry weight), immediately after preparation and after storage (42 days). The mixture had higher Mehlich 3 extractable Ca, Mg and K concentrations than either component alone, and low plant-available heavy metal concentrations, both immediately after mixing and after storage for up to 6 weeks. The results support the view that mixtures o (more) f this type may be useful for liming and fertilizing, given their neutralizing capacity and phyto nutrient concentrations. Furthermore, we compared the survival of Escherichia coli in a wood ash and sewage sludge mixture with their survival in mixtures ofsewage sludge and two levels of quicklime. The time needed to eliminate most bacteria was 29 days in the ash-sludge combination, while nine days were required for one of the quicklime-sludge mixtures, and counts were minimal for the quicklime-sludge mixture with a pH>12.

Pousada-Ferradás, Yudani; Seoane-Labandeira, Socorro; Blanco, Miguel; Núñez-Delgado, Avelino

2011-01-01

153

The effect of aging on element plant availability and bacterial counts of mixtures of wood ash and sewage sludge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated the chemical composition of a mixture of 70% wood ashes (a by-product of timber-industry) and 30% sewage sludge (% dry weight), immediately after preparation and after storage (42 days). The mixture had higher Mehlich 3 extractable Ca, Mg and K concentrations than either component alone, and low plant-available heavy metal concentrations, both immediately after mixing and after storage for up to 6 weeks. The results support the view that mixtures of this type may be useful for liming and fertilizing, given their neutralizing capacity and phyto nutrient concentrations. Furthermore, we compared the survival of Escherichia coli in a wood ash and sewage sludge mixture with their survival in mixtures ofsewage sludge and two levels of quicklime. The time needed to eliminate most bacteria was 29 days in the ash-sludge combination, while nine days were required for one of the quicklime-sludge mixtures, and counts were minimal for the quicklime-sludge mixture with a pH>12.

Yudani Pousada-Ferradás; Socorro Seoane-Labandeira; Miguel Blanco; Avelino Núñez-Delgado

2011-01-01

154

Breakdown of caseins by proteinases in bovine milks with high somatic cell counts arising from mastitis or infusion with bacterial endotoxin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Milk obtained from cows which were either infected by clinical mastitis or had been subjected to intramammary infusion of Escherichia coli endotoxin possessed high counts of somatic cells and very high levels of proteinase activity which hydrolysed the caseins almost completely in a few hours at 37 degrees C. The rate of hydrolysis of beta-casein was slightly greater than that of alpha S1-casein, but in both cases hydrolysis was enhanced by 6 cycles of freezing and thawing to disrupt somatic cell membranes. A study of the relationship between proteinase activity and cell count suggested that only some of the proteinase activity originated in the somatic cells and also that the identity of the cells making up the total cellular population was important. Maximum proteolysis occurred at 50-60 degrees C, but the temperature-activity curve was a broad peak. Likewise the pH versus activity plot was very broad and was almost flat over the pH range 6-9. Experiments with a number of inhibitors of proteinases failed to give a clear cut pattern of inhibition. All evidence obtained was consistent with the view that several different enzymes with different pH and temperature optima and different specificities contributed to the overall hydrolysis of caseins in these milks. From electrophoretic band patterns one of these enzymes was clearly plasmin, but in high cell count milks other proteinases also became significant.

Andrews AT

1983-02-01

155

Assessment of the efficiency of SimPlate[tm] total plate count color indicator (TPC CI) to quantify mesophilic aerobic microorganisms in pasteurized milk  

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Full Text Available The SimPlate[tm] TPC CI system is a rapid method to count mesophilic aerobic microorganisms (MAM) in foods, based on the use of resazurine to indicate bacterial growth. Its efficiency in pasteurized milk was evaluated using 142 pasteurized milk samples (38 type A, 43 type B and 61 type C) collected in Londrina, PR. The standard plating method, using Plate Count Agar (PCA) was used for comparison. The plates of both systems were incubated at 35ºC and read after 24h and 48h. The occurrence of false-positive and false-negative wells and the predominant microorganisms in them were also evaluated. The results were compared by simple correlation and mean variance analyses. The correlation (r) and mean variance values were 0.6811 and 0.7583 for the results obtained after 24h, respectively, and 0.9126 and 0.0842 for the results obtained after 48h, respectively. These results indicate that the performance of the system increases when the plates are incubated for 48h. When the three types of milk were evaluated separately, these values were 0.9285 and 0.0817 for type A milk, 0.9231 and 0.0466 for type B milk and 0.7209 and 0.1082 for type C milk. These results indicate that the better the quality of the milk the better the performance of SimPlate[tm] TPC CI. False-negative wells, found more frequently in samples with high MAM counts, were caused by Gram positive microorganisms, poorly detected by the SimPlate[tm] TPC CI system because they grew slowly and had low reduction capacity. The results indicated a higher efficiency of the SimPlate[tm] TPC CI system in the reading at 48h.

Nero Luís Augusto; Beloti Vanerli; Barros Márcia de Aguiar Ferreira; Santana Elsa Helena Walter de; Pereira Mykel Steffani; Gusmão Viviane Vieira; Moraes Luciane Bilia de

2002-01-01

156

Some hematological parameters and the prognostic values of CD4, CD8 and total lymphocyte counts and CD4/CD8 cell count ratio in healthy HIV sero-negative, healthy HIV sero-positive and AIDS subjects in Port Harcourt, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study attempts to determine normal values of CD4, CD8, CD4/CD8 ratio, total WBC and differential counts, hematocrit and total lymphocyte count (TLC) in healthy HIV sero-negative and sero-positive subjects, and to assess the prognostic significance of these parameters in these subjects as compared to AIDS subjects.METHODS: A total of 300 subjects (147 M, 153 F) aged between 17 and 71 years were recruited into the study. Subjects were separated according to sex and divided into three groups: Group A: healthy HIV sero-negative subjects; Group B: healthy HIV sero-positive newly diagnosed ART-naïve subjects; and Group C: AIDS subjects. CD4 and CD8 counts were determined by flow cytometry; hematocrit was determined using Hawksley micro-capillary tubes; total WBC and differential counts were determined manually with the improved Neubauer counting chamber; and TLC was obtained by multiplying the percentage of lymphocytes by the total WBC count.RESULTS: For male subjects, significant differences were found in CD4 count, CD4/CD8 count ratio, hematocrit, total WBC and TLC, whereas for female subjects, significant differences were found only in CD4 and CD4/CD8 count ratio in the three groups of subjects. In both sexes, however, these parameters were found to be highest in healthy HIV sero-negative subjects and lowest in AIDS subjects, with HIV sero-positive subjects having intermediate values. CONCLUSION: The results confirm previous reports that the CD4 count and CD4/CD8 count ratio are fairly reliable indicators of the progression of HIV infection. In addition, the results also apparently suggest that the prognostic value of CD8 count is limited and that of TLC possibly sex-dependent. The results could be of importance in our environment since previous reports have been relatively scarce.

Victor Dapper; Pedro Emem-Chioma; Blessing Didia

2008-01-01

157

Versatile assay for total cellulase activity using U-(/sup 14/C)-labelled bacterial cellulose  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A versatile and sensitive assay for total cellulase activity and not just carboxymethylcellulase activity, is described. The method is equally suitable for studying the kinetics of solubilization of cellulose by growing cells or isolated enzyme fractions. 5 references.

Du Preez, P.; Kistner, A.

1986-01-01

158

The Effect Of 8 Day Storage At 4?C On Total Nucleated Cell Count, Cell Viability, And Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Forming Unit Of Mobilized Peripheral Blood  

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Full Text Available Background: Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation has brought the possibility of the use of high dose chemotherapy in the treatment of malignant hematopoietic diseases. Short-term HSC preservation at 4?C is the most common method for autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). Materials and Methods: Thirty-seven mobilized PBSC samples from thirteen hematological patients (4 AML, 4 MM and 5 Lymphoma cases) who were selected for autologous PBSCT and 24 normal candidates for allogenic PBSCT were preserved in five separate sterile 2 ml tubes in 4?C. Each sample was evaluated for total nucleated cell (TNC) count, dye exclusion cell viability and Granulocyte-Macrophage colony forming unit (GM-CFU; in semisolid medium after 16 days) in days 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8. The results were converted to percentages of day 0 measures. The data were analyzed by SPSS 10.0 using Paired Samples T test, Independent Samples T test and Regression. Results: The mean percentages (and standard deviations) of TNC count, cell viability and GM-CFU for days 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 are shown below: No significant correlation was found between age, sex, weight and the kind of donor with TNC, viability and GM-CFU. Conclusion: In this study, we have found that during storage of mobilized PBSC in 4?C, TNC count and cell viability still remains higher than 70% after eight days, while GM-CFU decreases more rapidly and falls to less than 50% after day 4.Therefore, TNC count and cell viability do not decrease as fast as GM-CFU.

Mohyeddin Bonab M; Moghaddam K A; Pooya A P; Beshtar M; Ghavam Zadeh A

2004-01-01

159

Design and development of novel insect growth regulators: synthesis, characterization and effect of benzoyl thymyl thioureas and ureas on total haemocyte count of Dysdercus koenigii.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Insect-growth regulators (IGRs) have been receiving foremost attention as potential means of selective insect control. Benzoyl phenyl urea (BPU) is a well-known IGR having chitin synthesis inhibitor activity. Mimics of BPU have been synthesized by suitable derivatization of a naturally occurring monoterpenoid, thymol (2-isopropyl-5-methyl phenol) to form a = series of substituted benzoyl thymyl thioureas (BTTUs) [IVa-f] and benzoyl thymyl ureas (BTUs) [Va-f]. The synthesized compounds have been characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR, LC-MS and elemental analysis. These derivatives have been screened for their effect on total haemocyte count of Dysdercus koenigii. It has been observed that the introduction of substituted benzoyl thiourea and urea linkage into a thymol ring via an amino group results in higher activity than the parent compound thymol and a comparable pattern of results with the standard insect-growth regulators, Penfluron. Urea [Va-f] compounds exhibited greater effect on Total Haemocyte Count (THC) than thiourea [IVa-f]. Fluoro substitution enhanced the effect on THC more than chloro substituted compounds, while ortho-substitution resulted in a better effect than para-substitution. The results described in this paper are promising and provide new array of synthetic chemicals that may be utilized as insect growth regulators.

Zade CM; Pete UD; Patil SS; Bhosale JD; Hadole CD; Kadam MS; Bendre RS

2012-01-01

160

Design and development of novel insect growth regulators: synthesis, characterization and effect of benzoyl thymyl thioureas and ureas on total haemocyte count of Dysdercus koenigii.  

Science.gov (United States)

Insect-growth regulators (IGRs) have been receiving foremost attention as potential means of selective insect control. Benzoyl phenyl urea (BPU) is a well-known IGR having chitin synthesis inhibitor activity. Mimics of BPU have been synthesized by suitable derivatization of a naturally occurring monoterpenoid, thymol (2-isopropyl-5-methyl phenol) to form a = series of substituted benzoyl thymyl thioureas (BTTUs) [IVa-f] and benzoyl thymyl ureas (BTUs) [Va-f]. The synthesized compounds have been characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR, LC-MS and elemental analysis. These derivatives have been screened for their effect on total haemocyte count of Dysdercus koenigii. It has been observed that the introduction of substituted benzoyl thiourea and urea linkage into a thymol ring via an amino group results in higher activity than the parent compound thymol and a comparable pattern of results with the standard insect-growth regulators, Penfluron. Urea [Va-f] compounds exhibited greater effect on Total Haemocyte Count (THC) than thiourea [IVa-f]. Fluoro substitution enhanced the effect on THC more than chloro substituted compounds, while ortho-substitution resulted in a better effect than para-substitution. The results described in this paper are promising and provide new array of synthetic chemicals that may be utilized as insect growth regulators. PMID:22251213

Zade, Chetan M; Pete, Umesh D; Patil, Smita S; Bhosale, Jitendra D; Hadole, Chakradhar D; Kadam, Meghraj S; Bendre, Ratnamala S

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Embryo quality and implantation rates are not influenced by total motile count values in an ICSI programme: a novel point of view.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Total motile count (TMC) is a useful tool for sperm evaluation, comprising both quantitative and motility parameters. Although frequently used, TMC has not yet been evaluated as a contributory variable for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. In this study we evaluate the possible role of TMC as a prognostic parameter in cycles designated for ICSI. We also test the existence of a possible TMC-threshold value that might be predictive for ICSI cycle outcome in the everyday practice. This is a retrospective cohort study in which the research question is addressed by a locally weighted regression (LOESS) analysis. Primary outcome measures are fertilization rate, good quality embryos rate and implantation rate. A total of 666 patients were included, contributing 1456 cycles. The effect of TMC over the fertilization rate was significant, depicting an inverted U-shaped curve: with up to approximately 10 million motile sperm, fertilization rates increased as TMC increased, but from this point on decreased. A slight increment in the rate of good embryo formation with increasing value of TMC was noted, but this did not reach a statistical significance. TMC values demonstrated no effect in the case of implantation rates. ICSI may offer an advantage related to fertilization rates for the sub-fertile male population, with a motile sperm count up to 10 million.

Hershko-Klement A; Rovner E; Yekutieli D; Ghetler Y; Gonen O; Cohen I; Wiser A; Berkovitz A; Shulman A

2012-01-01

162

Total alpha and beta determination by liquid scintillation counting in water samples from a Brazilian intercomparison exercise  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes CNEN/LAPOC's participation in the Brazilian Intercomparison Exercise (PNI) for simultaneous determination of total radioactivity in water samples, which took place in August and December 2008. The Proficiency Test (PT) also involved a short description of the nuclear analytical technique employed, emphasizing sources of uncertainty. A Liquid Scintillation System (Packard TRICARB 2700) was used with appropriate corrections applied to final results, expressed as Bq L-1. Participation and PT data provide independent information on performance of a Laboratory and have an important role in method validation; especially because it allows the assessment of method performance over an entire range of concentrations and matrices. PT is also an important tool to demonstrate equivalence of measurements, if not their metrological comparability, and to promote education and improvement of Lab practices. (author)

2009-10-02

163

Model of sepsis (Caecal Ligation and Puncture) in rats caused by mixed and pure bacterial cultures and changes in white blood cell counts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The number of leucocytes and immunocompetent cells, was investigated during a clinical form of sepsis in rats. The experiments were carried out on 104 male rats, Wistar strain, of body weight 190 to 240 g. The rats were divided into four groups: three with 28 animals and one control group with 20 animals. The animals were killed 12, 24, 72 or 120 hours after surgical intervention. This consisted of caecal ligation and puncture (CLP), with inoculation of mixed bacteria or pure cultures of Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus. They induced similar changes in the total leukocyte counts and percentages of different white blood cells. The significant leucopenia in the first half (early sepsis) of the examined period preceded significant leukosis in the rats with sepsis in the second half of the experiment (late sepsis). Also there were significant alterations in the numbers of granulocytes and agranulocytes. Neutrophilia and lymphopenia dominated during the whole period.

Stojanovi? Dragica; Ašanin Ružica; Mali?evi? Živorad; Vidi? Branka M.

2004-01-01

164

Bacterial flora in psoriasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aerobic bacterial flora of psoriatic plaques, uninvolved skin and the anterior nares of forty psoriatic patients was studied. The incidence od Staphylococcus aureus was 30% in the anterior nares, 20% on the plaques and 13% on the uninvolved skin. S. aureus counts were 3 x 10(2)/cm2 on the plaques and 1-5 x 10/cm2 on the normal skin. The total bacterial counts were also higher on plaques (7-9 x 10(3)/cm2) than on normal skin (3-0 x 10(3)/cm2). The incidence of lipophilic diphtheroids was significantly lower on the plaques (4%) than the normal skin (30%). Eighty percent of the strains of S. aureus isolated from psoriatic patients were resistant to 10 units of penicillin. Because of increased desquamation, psoriatic skin is a public health hazard.

Aly R; Maibach HE; Mandel A

1976-12-01

165

[The significance of low levels of total proteins, albumins, globulins and complement factors in ascitic fluid and the development of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with liver cirrhosis  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is one of the most common complications of ascitic fluid in patients with liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of total protein, albumin, globulin and complement ascitic fluid concentrations in development of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with liver cirrhosis. In patients with liver cirrhosis and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (n = 8) the ascitic fluid total protein, albumin and globulin concentrations were significantly lower than in patients with sterile ascites (n = 11) (p < 0.01). The ascitic fluid complement C3 and C4 concentrations were significantly lower in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis than in patients with sterile ascites (9.1 +/- 3.1 mg/dL to 22.9 +/- 17.4 mg/dL, p < 0.01; 3.8 +/- 5.9 mg/dL to 8.2 +/- 5.9 mg/dL, p < 0.01, respectively). The ascites total protein, albumin, globulin and complement concentrations in cirrhotic patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis were significantly lower than in patients with sterile ascites demonstrating the importance of those factors in ascitic fluid defense against secondary bacterial infection.

Ljubici? N; Bili? A; Babi? Z; Roi? D; Bani? M

1992-09-01

166

Host specificity of the ruminal bacterial community in the dairy cow following near-total exchange of ruminal contents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to examine the stability and host specificity of a cow's ruminal bacterial community following massive challenge with ruminal microflora from another cow. In each of 2 experiments, 1 pair of cows was selected on the basis of differences in ruminal bacterial community composition (BCC), determined by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA), a culture-independent "community fingerprinting" technique. Each pair of cows was then subjected to a 1-time exchange of >95% of ruminal contents without changing the composition of a corn silage/alfalfa haylage-based TMR. In experiment 1, the 2 cows differed (P<0.01) in prefeed ruminal pH (mean = 6.88 vs. 6.14) and prefeed total VFA concentration (mean = 57 vs. 77 mM), averaged over 3 d. Following exchange of ruminal contents, ruminal pH and total VFA concentration in both cows returned to their preexchange values within 24h. Ruminal BCC also returned to near its original profile, but this change required 14 d for 1 cow and 61 d for the other cow. In experiment 2, the 2 other cows differed in prefeed ruminal pH (mean = 6.69 vs. 6.20) and total VFA concentration (mean = 101 vs. 136 mM). Following exchange of ruminal contents, the first cow returned to its preexchange pH and VFA values within 24h; the second cow's rumen rapidly stabilized to a higher prefeed pH (mean = 6.47) and lower prefeed VFA concentration (mean = 120 mM) that was retained over the 62-d test period. Both cows reached somewhat different BCC than before the exchange. However, the BCC of both cows remained distinct and were ultimately more similar to that of the preexchange BCC than of the donor animal BCC. The data indicate that the host animal can quickly reestablish its characteristic ruminal pH and VFA concentration despite dramatic perturbation of its ruminal microbial community. The data also suggest that ruminal BCC displays substantial host specificity that can reestablish itself with varying success when challenged with a microbial community optimally adapted to ruminal conditions of a different host animal.

Weimer PJ; Stevenson DM; Mantovani HC; Man SL

2010-12-01

167

Evaluation of most-probable-number-PCR method with internal amplification control for the counting of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in frozen shrimps.  

Science.gov (United States)

The most-probable-number (MPN) method is often time-consuming for the isolation, detection, and quantification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from natural sources. MPN counting of V. parahaemolyticus bacteria usually involves the isolation of typical V. parahaemolyticus colonies on selective medium, with subsequent confirmation by biochemical identification. In this study, we evaluated the use of a PCR on MPN enrichment cultures (MPN-PCR) for the direct detection of total and pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus cells in frozen shrimp. This reaction targeted the R72H, tdh, and trh sequences. An internal amplification control was added to the samples before R72H amplification. There was an excellent correlation between the results of the two methods for artificially inoculated and natural shrimp samples. Of 36 natural samples, 28 tested positive for the presence of V. parahaemolyticus, with an MPN value of 2 × 10(-1) to 9.2 × 10(1) per g. No pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus cells were detected. The test had a detection limit of one V. parahaemolyticus organism per g and was completed within two working days. These results support the use of the combination of PCR with MPN for the detection of total or potentially pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus cells in frozen shrimp. PMID:22221369

Copin, S; Robert-Pillot, A; Malle, P; Quilici, M L; Gay, M

2012-01-01

168

Evaluation of most-probable-number-PCR method with internal amplification control for the counting of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in frozen shrimps.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The most-probable-number (MPN) method is often time-consuming for the isolation, detection, and quantification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from natural sources. MPN counting of V. parahaemolyticus bacteria usually involves the isolation of typical V. parahaemolyticus colonies on selective medium, with subsequent confirmation by biochemical identification. In this study, we evaluated the use of a PCR on MPN enrichment cultures (MPN-PCR) for the direct detection of total and pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus cells in frozen shrimp. This reaction targeted the R72H, tdh, and trh sequences. An internal amplification control was added to the samples before R72H amplification. There was an excellent correlation between the results of the two methods for artificially inoculated and natural shrimp samples. Of 36 natural samples, 28 tested positive for the presence of V. parahaemolyticus, with an MPN value of 2 × 10(-1) to 9.2 × 10(1) per g. No pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus cells were detected. The test had a detection limit of one V. parahaemolyticus organism per g and was completed within two working days. These results support the use of the combination of PCR with MPN for the detection of total or potentially pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus cells in frozen shrimp.

Copin S; Robert-Pillot A; Malle P; Quilici ML; Gay M

2012-01-01

169

Analysis of bacterial diversity during the fermentation of inyu, a high-temperature fermented soy sauce, using nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and the plate count method.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The diversity of bacteria associated with the fermentation of inyu, also known as black soy sauce, was studied through the nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of samples collected from the fermentation stages of the inyu production process. The DGGE profiles targeted the bacterial 16S rDNA and revealed the presence of Citrobacter farmeri, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter hormaechei, Enterococcus faecium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pantoea agglomerans, Salmonella enterica, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus sciuri and Weissella confusa. The bacterial compositions of 4 fermented samples were further elucidated using the plate count method. The bacteria isolated from the koji-making stage exhibited the highest diversity; Brachybacterium rhamnosum, E. hormaechei, K. pneumoniae, Kurthia gibsonii, Pantoea dispersa, Staphylococcus gallinarum, Staphylococcus kloosii and S. sciuri were identified. Koji collected during the preincubation stage presented the largest cell counts, and E. hormaechei, K. pneumoniae, E. cloacae and Enterobacter pulveris were identified. In brine samples aged for 7 and 31 days, the majority of the bacteria isolated belonged to 4 Bacillus species, but 4 Staphylococcus species and Delftia tsuruhatensis were also detected. This study demonstrates the benefits of using a combined approach to obtain a more complete picture of microbial populations and provides useful information for the control or development of bacterial flora during inyu fermentation.

Wei CL; Chao SH; Tsai WB; Lee PS; Tsau NH; Chen JS; Lai WL; Tu JC; Tsai YC

2013-04-01

170

Analysis of bacterial diversity during the fermentation of inyu, a high-temperature fermented soy sauce, using nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and the plate count method.  

Science.gov (United States)

The diversity of bacteria associated with the fermentation of inyu, also known as black soy sauce, was studied through the nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of samples collected from the fermentation stages of the inyu production process. The DGGE profiles targeted the bacterial 16S rDNA and revealed the presence of Citrobacter farmeri, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter hormaechei, Enterococcus faecium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pantoea agglomerans, Salmonella enterica, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus sciuri and Weissella confusa. The bacterial compositions of 4 fermented samples were further elucidated using the plate count method. The bacteria isolated from the koji-making stage exhibited the highest diversity; Brachybacterium rhamnosum, E. hormaechei, K. pneumoniae, Kurthia gibsonii, Pantoea dispersa, Staphylococcus gallinarum, Staphylococcus kloosii and S. sciuri were identified. Koji collected during the preincubation stage presented the largest cell counts, and E. hormaechei, K. pneumoniae, E. cloacae and Enterobacter pulveris were identified. In brine samples aged for 7 and 31 days, the majority of the bacteria isolated belonged to 4 Bacillus species, but 4 Staphylococcus species and Delftia tsuruhatensis were also detected. This study demonstrates the benefits of using a combined approach to obtain a more complete picture of microbial populations and provides useful information for the control or development of bacterial flora during inyu fermentation. PMID:23200659

Wei, Chia-Li; Chao, Shiou-Huei; Tsai, Wen-Bin; Lee, Pei-Shan; Tsau, Nai-Hung; Chen, Jhih-Shan; Lai, Wen-Lin; Tu, James Ching-Yueh; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

2012-10-09

171

Serum total IgE levels and total eosinophil counts: relationship with treatment response in patients with acute asthma/ Relação dos níveis séricos de IgE total e das contagens de eosinófilos com a resposta ao tratamento em pacientes com asma aguda  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Determinar se há uma relação dos níveis de IgE total no soro e das contagens de eosinófilos com a resposta à farmacoterapia de rotina em pacientes com asma aguda. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 162 pacientes com asma aguda. Foram determinados os níveis séricos de IgE total, as contagens de células no sangue periférico e as contagens de eosinófilos. O tratamento foi ajustado individualmente de acordo com a gravidade da asma. Foi realizada espirometri (more) a antes do início do tratamento e duas semanas após seu término. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: alto nível de IgE (> 100 UI/mL) e baixo nível de IgE ( Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To determine whether serum total IgE levels and total eosinophil counts have any relationship with the response to routine pharmacological treatment in patients with acute asthma. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 162 patients with acute asthma. Serum total IgE levels, peripheral blood cell counts and eosinophil counts were determined. The treatment was adjusted for each patient according to the severity of asthma. Spirometry was performed at baseline (more) and two weeks after the treatment. The patients were divided into two groups: high IgE (>100 IU/mL) and low IgE (

Razi, Ebrahim; Moosavi, Gholam Abbass

2010-02-01

172

Leukocyte-subset counts in idiopathic parkinsonism provide clues to a pathogenic pathway involving small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. A surveillance study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Following Helicobacter pylori eradication in idiopathic parkinsonism (IP), hypokinesia improved but flexor-rigidity increased. Small intestinal bacterial-overgrowth (SIBO) is a candidate driver of the rigidity: hydrogen-breath-test-positivity is common i...

Dobbs R; Charlett André; Dobbs Sylvia M; Weller Clive; A Ibrahim Mohammad A; Iguodala Owens; Smee Cori; Plant J; Lawson Andrew J

173

The Influence of Sperm Morphology, Total Motile Sperm Count of Semen and the Number of Motile Sperm Inseminated in Sperm Samples on the Success of Intrauterine Insemination  

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Full Text Available Background: The present study aimed to analyze the prognostic value of sperm morphology , totalmotile sperm count (TMSC) and the number of motile sperm inseminated (NMSI) on the outcomeof intrauterine insemination (IUI).Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out 445 women undergoing 820IUI cycles. All of the patients underwent controlled ovarian hyper stimulation with clomiphencitrate and human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG) followed by intrauterine inseminationwith the husband’s sperm. Pregnancy rate (PR) per cycle in correlation to sperm morphology,TMSC and NMSI was obtained. Statistical analysis of the data was done by the SPSS version13 (Chicago,USA).Results: A total of 81 clinical pregnancies were obtained for a pregnancy rate per cycle of 9.9%.When the TMSC was 5×106 to <10×106, the PR per cycle was significantly higher than thesubgroups <1×106, 1×106 to <5×106 and ?10×106 (15%, 5.6%, 5.1%, 10.8%, respectively). Spermmorphology was in itself a significant factor that affected the likelihood of IUI success. Nonetheless,the most significant difference of the PR per cycle with sperm morphology was in the subgroup <5% (2.1% vs. 97.9%).When the NMSI was ?10×106, the PR per cycle was significantly higher thanthe subgroups<5×106 and 5×106 to< 10× 106 (11.2%, 4.1%, 5.2%, respectively).Conclusion: The study showed that TMSC 5×106 to < 10×106 and normal sperm morphology ? 5%and NMSI ? 10×106 are useful prognostic factors of IUI cycles.

Roshan Nikbakht; Nasrin Saharkhiz

2011-01-01

174

Comparative seric TGF({beta}1, {beta}2) levels and platelets count response in total body irradiated baboons; Evolution comparee des taux seriques des TGF ({beta}1, {beta}2) et de la numeration plaquettaire chez le babouin irradie globalement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Total body irradiation associated or not with r-hIL-6 treatment a relation between TGF-{beta}1 and TGF-{beta}2 blood levels and platelets count. During radio-induced thrombocytopenia, by decreasing its ability to inhibit proliferation of stem cells and megakaryocytopoiesis, the TGF-{beta} falling induced a favorable condition for hematopoietic recovery. (author). 5 refs.

Mestries, J.C.; Veyret, J.; Agay, D.; Van Uye, A.; Caterini, R.; Herodin, F.; Mathieu, J.; Chancerelle, Y.

1994-12-31

175

Behavior of Salmonella heidelberg and Salmonella enteritidis strains following broiler chick inoculation: evaluation of cecal morphometry, liver and cecum bacterial counts and fecal excretion patterns  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the years, Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) has gained prominence in North America poultry production and in the poultry production of other countries. Salmonella Heidelberg has been isolated and reported from poultry and poultry products in Brazil since 1962, whereas Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) has only emerged as a serious problem in poultry and public health since 1993. These strains of Salmonella can cause intestinal problems in newly hatched chicks, and infection may persist until adulthood. Upon slaughter of chickens, Salmonella can contaminate carcasses, a condition that poses a threat to human health. The aim of this study was to compare the fecal excretion of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Heidelberg in newly hatched chicks (orally inoculated with 10(5)ufc/mL each) until 20 days of age. In addition, the ratio of cecal villus height:crypt depth (morphometry) and liver and cecum cell counts was analyzed in chicks ranging from 0 to 3 days of age and infected with these two Salmonella strains. One hundred seventeen chicks were separated into one of three experimental groups: a control group, an SE-infected group and an SH-infected group. Eight chicks per group were euthanized at 6, 12 and 72 hours post-inoculation (pi) to allow for Salmonella isolation from the liver and cecum and for the collection of the cecum for villi and crypt analysis. Other birds were allowed to mature to 20 days of age and cloacal swabs were taken at 2, 6, 13 and 20 days pi to compare the fecal excretion of inoculated strains. The Salmonella Enteritidis group had a higher number of cells excreted during the trial. Both strains were isolated from the liver and cecum by 6h pi. At 12h pi the Salmonella Heidelberg group had high cell counts in the cecum. No difference was found in liver cell counts. Both strains showed lower villus height:crypt depth ratio than the control group post-infection.

Anderlise Borsoi; Luciana Ruschel do Santos; Laura Beatriz Rodrigues; Hamilton Luiz de Souza Moraes; Carlos Tadeu Pippi Salle; Vladimir Pinheiro do Nascimento

2011-01-01

176

Behavior of Salmonella heidelberg and Salmonella enteritidis strains following broiler chick inoculation: evaluation of cecal morphometry, liver and cecum bacterial counts and fecal excretion patterns  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Over the years, Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) has gained prominence in North America poultry production and in the poultry production of other countries. Salmonella Heidelberg has been isolated and reported from poultry and poultry products in Brazil since 1962, whereas Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) has only emerged as a serious problem in poultry and public health since 1993. These strains of Salmonella can cause intestinal problems in newly hatched chicks, and infection may (more) persist until adulthood. Upon slaughter of chickens, Salmonella can contaminate carcasses, a condition that poses a threat to human health. The aim of this study was to compare the fecal excretion of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Heidelberg in newly hatched chicks (orally inoculated with 10(5)ufc/mL each) until 20 days of age. In addition, the ratio of cecal villus height:crypt depth (morphometry) and liver and cecum cell counts was analyzed in chicks ranging from 0 to 3 days of age and infected with these two Salmonella strains. One hundred seventeen chicks were separated into one of three experimental groups: a control group, an SE-infected group and an SH-infected group. Eight chicks per group were euthanized at 6, 12 and 72 hours post-inoculation (pi) to allow for Salmonella isolation from the liver and cecum and for the collection of the cecum for villi and crypt analysis. Other birds were allowed to mature to 20 days of age and cloacal swabs were taken at 2, 6, 13 and 20 days pi to compare the fecal excretion of inoculated strains. The Salmonella Enteritidis group had a higher number of cells excreted during the trial. Both strains were isolated from the liver and cecum by 6h pi. At 12h pi the Salmonella Heidelberg group had high cell counts in the cecum. No difference was found in liver cell counts. Both strains showed lower villus height:crypt depth ratio than the control group post-infection.

Borsoi, Anderlise; Santos, Luciana Ruschel do; Rodrigues, Laura Beatriz; Moraes, Hamilton Luiz de Souza; Salle, Carlos Tadeu Pippi; Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro do

2011-03-01

177

Serum total IgE levels and total eosinophil counts: relationship with treatment response in patients with acute asthma Relação dos níveis séricos de IgE total e das contagens de eosinófilos com a resposta ao tratamento em pacientes com asma aguda  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether serum total IgE levels and total eosinophil counts have any relationship with the response to routine pharmacological treatment in patients with acute asthma. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 162 patients with acute asthma. Serum total IgE levels, peripheral blood cell counts and eosinophil counts were determined. The treatment was adjusted for each patient according to the severity of asthma. Spirometry was performed at baseline and two weeks after the treatment. The patients were divided into two groups: high IgE (>100 IU/mL) and low IgE (OBJETIVO: Determinar se há uma relação dos níveis de IgE total no soro e das contagens de eosinófilos com a resposta à farmacoterapia de rotina em pacientes com asma aguda. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 162 pacientes com asma aguda. Foram determinados os níveis séricos de IgE total, as contagens de células no sangue periférico e as contagens de eosinófilos. O tratamento foi ajustado individualmente de acordo com a gravidade da asma. Foi realizada espirometria antes do início do tratamento e duas semanas após seu término. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: alto nível de IgE (> 100 UI/mL) e baixo nível de IgE (< 100 UI/mL). Foram comparadas entre os dois grupos as relações das determinações basais e das alterações em percentual dos seguintes parâmetros: VEF, CVF, FEF25-75%, contagem de células brancas no sangue periférico e contagem de eosinófilos. RESULTADOS:Não houve diferenças significativas entre os grupos em relação às alterações em percentual dos parâmetros estudados. Tampouco houve diferenças significativas entre os grupos em relação aos valores basais de VEF, CVF e FEF25-75%, em % do predito. CONCLUSÕES: Com base nesses achados, concluímos que os níveis séricos de IgE total, as contagens de células brancas no sangue periférico e as contagens de eosinófilos não são preditores do tratamento farmacológico de pacientes com asma aguda.

Ebrahim Razi; Gholam Abbass Moosavi

2010-01-01

178

Correlations among somatic cell count, hygienic safety and quality of milk of primiparous cows  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work we examined a total of 518 milk samples on the following parameters: somatic cell count (SCC), total bacteria count (CFU and IBC), fat, protein, lactose and dry matter non fat (DMNF) contents, which were obtained from primiparous cows divided in three groups depending on the stage of lactation: the first group included the primiparous cows that were 10-100 days in lactation, the second group 101-200 days in lactation and the third group 201 and more days in lactation. The somatic cell count and the total bacterial count had highest values for the first group, intermediate for the third group, and lowest for the second group with these differences being statistically significant. Milk component contents varied among groups differently from previous two parameters but their differences were not significant in neither case. The somatic cell count of all three groups was positively and significantly correlated to the bacterial counts while these two parameters were generally in negative correlation with the milk component contents. No matter if the parameters that define the milk hygienic safety were positively or negatively correlated with the milk component contents, the correlation coefficients were not significant in neither case, which implies that significant reduction of milk components can be expected at somatic cell counts higher than the maximal obtained in this research of 236.000 SCC/ml.

Adamov Nikola; Petkov Vladimir; Atanasov Branko

2009-01-01

179

Assessment of the efficiency of SimPlate? total plate count color indicator (TPC CI) to quantify mesophilic aerobic microorganisms in pasteurized milk Avaliação da eficiência do SimPlate? Total Plate Count Color Indicator (TPC CI) para enumeração de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos em leite pasteurizado  

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Full Text Available The SimPlate? TPC CI system is a rapid method to count mesophilic aerobic microorganisms (MAM) in foods, based on the use of resazurine to indicate bacterial growth. Its efficiency in pasteurized milk was evaluated using 142 pasteurized milk samples (38 type A, 43 type B and 61 type C) collected in Londrina, PR. The standard plating method, using Plate Count Agar (PCA) was used for comparison. The plates of both systems were incubated at 35ºC and read after 24h and 48h. The occurrence of false-positive and false-negative wells and the predominant microorganisms in them were also evaluated. The results were compared by simple correlation and mean variance analyses. The correlation (r) and mean variance values were 0.6811 and 0.7583 for the results obtained after 24h, respectively, and 0.9126 and 0.0842 for the results obtained after 48h, respectively. These results indicate that the performance of the system increases when the plates are incubated for 48h. When the three types of milk were evaluated separately, these values were 0.9285 and 0.0817 for type A milk, 0.9231 and 0.0466 for type B milk and 0.7209 and 0.1082 for type C milk. These results indicate that the better the quality of the milk the better the performance of SimPlate? TPC CI. False-negative wells, found more frequently in samples with high MAM counts, were caused by Gram positive microorganisms, poorly detected by the SimPlate? TPC CI system because they grew slowly and had low reduction capacity. The results indicated a higher efficiency of the SimPlate? TPC CI system in the reading at 48h.O sistema SimPlate? TPC CI é um método rápido para enumeração de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos (MAM) em alimentos que utiliza a resazurina como substância indicadora de crescimento bacteriano. Para avaliar sua eficiência em leite pasteurizado, 142 amostras (38 de leite tipo A, 43 de leite tipo B e 61 de leite tipo C) foram colhidas em Londrina, PR, e analisadas pelo SimPlate? TPC CI e pelo método de contagem em placas com ágar padrão de contagem (PCA). As placas de ambos os sistemas foram incubadas a 35ºC e as leituras realizadas em 24 e 48h. Também foi verificada a presença de resultados falso-positivos e falso-negativos bem como a microbiota láctea predominante nas cavidades do SimPlate? TPC CI e a capacidade redutora dos diversos grupos de microrganismos. Os resultados foram comparados através de correlação simples e variância média. Considerando a leitura em 24h do SimPlate? TPC CI, os resultados obtidos apresentaram uma correlação (r) de 0,6811 (var. média: 0,7583) com os resultados do método padrão; na leitura em 48h, a correlação encontrada entre os dois métodos foi de 0,9126 (var. média: 0,0842). Considerando os diferentes tipos de leite, as leituras em 48h do SimPlate? TPC CI apresentaram as seguintes correlações com o método padrão: leite tipo A, r: 0,9285 (var. média: 0,0817); leite tipo B, r: 0,9231 (var. média: 0,0466); leite C, r: 0,7209 (var. média: 0,1082). Nas amostras com altas contagens de MAM, verificou-se uma maior freqüência de cavidades falso-negativas e uma grande participação de microrganismos Gram positivos, que são pobremente detectados pelo sistema SimPlate™ TPC CI por crescerem lentamente e possuírem baixa capacidade redutora. Os resultados indicaram um melhor eficiência do sistema SimPlate? TPC CI na leitura em 48h, além da influência direta da qualidade do leite analisado, ou seja, quanto melhor a qualidade microbiológica do leite, melhor o desempenho do sistema. A alta correlação entre os métodos indica que o SimPlate? TPC CI pode ser utilizado como uma alternativa viável ao método padrão de contagem de MAM em leite pasteurizado tipos A e B, desde que a leitura seja realizada em 48h.

Luís Augusto Nero; Vanerli Beloti; Márcia de Aguiar Ferreira Barros; Elsa Helena Walter de Santana; Mykel Steffani Pereira; Viviane Vieira Gusmão; Luciane Bilia de Moraes

2002-01-01

180

Comparison between MICRO–CARD–FISH and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries to assess the active versus total bacterial community in the coastal Arctic.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We collected surface- and deep-water samples (maximum depth 300 m) during the spring–summer transition in the coastal Arctic along a transect in the Kongsfjorden (Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen, Norway) to determine the structure of the active versus total marine bacterioplankton community using different approaches. Catalysed reporter deposition– fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with microautoradiography (MICRO–CARD–FISH) was used to determine the abundance and activity of different bacterial groups. The bacterial communities were dominated by members of Alphaproteobacteria followed by Bacteroidetes, whereas Gammaproteobacteria were present at low abundance but exhibited a high percentage of active cells taking up leucine. The clone libraries of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA) and 16S rRNA from two different depths were used to decipher the bacterial community structure. Independently of the type of clone libraries analysed (16S rDNA- or 16S rRNA-based), four major and four minor taxonomic groups were detected. The bacterioplankton community was mainly dominated at both the DNA and the RNA levels by Alphaproteobacteria followed by Gammaproteobacteria. The Rhodobacteriaceae were the most abundant members of the Alphaproteobacteria in both DNA and RNA clone libraries, followed by the SAR11 clade, which was only detectable at the 16S

De Corte D; Sintes E; Yokokawa T; Herndl GJ

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
181

New method for estimating bacterial cell abundances in natural samples by use of sublimation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have developed a new method based on the sublimation of adenine from Escherichia coli to estimate bacterial cell counts in natural samples. To demonstrate this technique, several types of natural samples, including beach sand, seawater, deep-sea sediment, and two soil samples from the Atacama Desert, were heated to a temperature of 500 degrees C for several seconds under reduced pressure. The sublimate was collected on a cold finger, and the amount of adenine released from the samples was then determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV absorbance detection. Based on the total amount of adenine recovered from DNA and RNA in these samples, we estimated bacterial cell counts ranging from approximately 10(5) to 10(9) E. coli cell equivalents per gram. For most of these samples, the sublimation-based cell counts were in agreement with total bacterial counts obtained by traditional DAPI (4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining.

Glavin DP; Cleaves HJ; Schubert M; Aubrey A; Bada JL

2004-10-01

182

Bacterial flora of comedones.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Open comedones from thirty-eight patients with acne vulgaris on the face or back were compared for microbial flora. A total of eighty-three comedones from the face and sixty-three from the upper back were individually processed for quantitative bacterial analysis. The greatest difference between the flora of comedones at these two sites was that 44.6% of comedones from the back (compared to 9.6% from the face) harboured no aerobic cocci. The decreased prevalence of staphylococci in the lesions from the back reflects the relative absence of these organisms in isolated follicles from normal uninvolved skin of the back. The geometric mean count of anaerobes in comedones from the back was in the same range as the count found in isolated follicles in normal uninvolved skin in a previous study. This work supports the concept that the bacterial flora of comedones is an extension of the follicular flora and may be unrelated to the event of comedogenesis.

Puhvel SM; Amirian DA

1979-11-01

183

Use of a total traffic count metric to investigate the impact of roadways on asthma severity: a case-control study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This study had two principal objectives: (i) to investigate the relationship between asthma severity and proximity to major roadways in Perth, Western Australia; (ii) to demonstrate a more accurate method of exposure assessment for traffic pollutants using an innovative GIS-based measure that fully integrates all traffic densities around subject residences. Methods We conducted a spatial case-control study, in which 'cases' were defined as individuals aged under 19 years of age with more severe asthma (defined here as two or more emergency department contacts with asthma in a defined 5-year period) versus age- and gender-matched 'controls' with less severe asthma (defined here as one emergency department contact for asthma). Traffic exposures were measured using a GIS-based approach to determine the lengths of the roads falling within a buffer area, and then multiplying them by their respective traffic counts. Results We examined the spatial relationship between emergency department contacts for asthma at three different buffer sizes: 50 metres, 100 metres and 150 metres. No effect was noted for the 50 metre buffer (OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 0.91-1.26), but elevated odds ratios were observed with for crude (unadjusted) estimates OR = 1.21 (95% CI: 1.00-1.46) for 100 metre buffers and OR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.02-1.54) for 150 metre buffers. For adjusted risk estimates, only the 150 metre buffer yielded a statistically significant finding (OR = 1.24; 95% CI:1.00-1.52). Conclusions Our study revealed a significant 24% increase in the risk of experiencing multiple emergency department contacts for asthma for every log-unit of traffic exposure. This study provides support for the hypothesis that traffic related air pollution increases the frequency of health service contacts for asthma. This study used advanced GIS techniques to establish traffic-weighted buffer zones around the geocoded residential location of subjects to provide an accurate assessment of exposure to traffic emissions, thereby providing a quantification of the ranges over which pollutants may exert a health effect.

Cook Angus G; deVos Annemarie JBM; Pereira Gavin; Jardine Andrew; Weinstein Philip

2011-01-01

184

Heterotrophic plate count vs. in situ bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicon profiles from drinking water reveal completely different communities with distinct spatial and temporal allocations in a distribution net  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Heterotrophic plate count using ISO 6222 agar (HPC) vs. in situ bacterial (DF) community structure from corresponding samples of a drinking water distribution system were investigated by 16S rRNA gene-based polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR DGGE) profiling. The investigation regime covered 10 different sampling locations and 2 points in time (t1, t2). In order to ensure accurate and reproducible 16S rRNA gene profile analysis, rigorous (more) methodical evaluation and standardisation procedures were undertaken (DGGE optimisation, replication of PCR, multiple-lane standardisation, representative sampling volume determination, application of multiple similarity coefficients). The reproducibility level of the profile analysis was determined to be > 90% similarity. Two completely different communities were revealed from HPC vs. DF as indicated by DGGE analysis and sequencing. HPC populations could be identified as ubiquitously occurring cultivable copiotrophic microbes, whilst most DF sequences could be allocated to sequences from microorganisms found in oligotrophic aquatic environments. Spatial- and temporal-based 16S rRNA gene amplicon profile analysis from recovered communities further revealed contrasting results. As proven by Jackknife simulations, DF profiles remarkably corresponded to sampling time, whereas HPC profiles revealed spatial associations within the distribution system. Recovered data demonstrate that cultivation based HPC vs. direct cell-based investigations can result in completely different results if used for monitoring purposes in distribution systems.

Burtscher, MM; Zibuschka, F; Mach, RL; Lindner, G; Farnleitner, AH

2009-07-01

185

Effects of Ensiling Total Mixed Potato Hash Ration with or without Bacterial Inoculation on Silage Fermentation and Nutritive Value for Growing Pigs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Total Mixed Rations (TMR) that contained 795 g kg-1 (as is basis) of Potato Hash (PH) were formulated and ensiled in 210 L drums (10 drums treatment-1) with or without lalsil fresh (heterofermentative lactic acid bacterial inoculant). After 3 months of ensiling, drums were opened and analysed for fermentation characteristics and nutritive value. This was followed by an 8 weeks growth study using forty crossbred pigs (Large white X landrace), twenty males and twenty females weighing 203 kg. Inoculating the TMR with lalsil fresh reduced (p-1 which could be attributed to the lower dietary protein (-1 DM) and higher fibre contents. Further research is needed to evaluate effects of enzyme addition on the ensiling of potato hash and supplementation of energy and protein on feed intake and growth performance of pigs consuming the silage.

B.D. Nkosi; A.T. Kanengoni; R. Thomas

2011-01-01

186

Counting tube  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The counting tube contains a flat rectangular chamber which has an electrode wire spread out in a meandering line. The cover plate has a window closed by a foil. In order to increase the sensitivity of the counter with respect to gamma radiation the inner walls of the chamber are coated with a gold layer of 2 to 3 ?m thickness. Thus the sensitivity for the gamma radiation of iodine 129 can be increased by a factor of 30. A flushing gas causes diffused in O2 to be discharged. (DG).

1979-01-01

187

Biodiversity Counts  

Science.gov (United States)

This extensive collection of activities from the American Museum of Natural History offers middle school students "an exciting and creative context for involving students in the scientific process while introducing them to the rich diversity and beauty of their local ecosystem." Lesson plans, Web-based interactive activities, useful Web links, profiles of AMNH scientists and staff, and other features help students inventory and analyze the plants and arthropods found in their own neighborhoods. All activities address national science standards, and have been "field tested" in schools around the nation. Biodiversity Counts even has students develop their own exhibitions for their findings -- a great way to build science communication skills.

1998-01-01

188

Effect of supplementing orchardgrass herbage with a total mixed ration or flaxseed on fermentation profile and bacterial protein synthesis in continuous culture.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 4-unit dual-flow continuous culture fermentor system was used to evaluate the effects of supplementing fresh herbage with a total mixed ration (TMR) or flaxseed on nutrient digestibility, fermentation profile, and bacterial N synthesis. Diets were randomly assigned to fermentors in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Each fermentor was fed a total of 70 g of dry matter/d of 1 of 4 diets: (1) 100% freeze-dried orchardgrass herbage (Dactylis glomerata L.; HERB), (2) 100% freeze-dried TMR (100TMR), (3) 50% orchardgrass herbage supplemented with 50% TMR (50TMR), or (4) 90% orchardgrass herbage supplemented with 10% ground flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.; FLAX). Preplanned, single degree of freedom orthogonal contrasts were constructed to assess the effects of feeding system (HERB vs. 100TMR), herbage supplementation (HERB vs. 50TMR + FLAX), and herbage supplemental source (50TMR vs. FLAX). Compared with the HERB diet, the 100TMR diet significantly reduced apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber. Herbage supplementation with 50TMR or FLAX significantly reduced or tended to reduce apparent digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber, suggesting that replacing high-quality, highly digestible fresh herbage with forage TMR likely caused depressions in nutrient digestibilities. Concentration of total volatile fatty acids, molar proportions of acetate, propionate, and isovalerate, as well as the acetate:propionate ratios were all significantly higher in fermentors fed 100TMR compared with HERB, likely in response to enhanced supply of fermentable energy. In general, feeding system, herbage supplementation, and type of supplementation did not affect N metabolism in the present study. The few significant changes in N metabolism (e.g., flows of total N and non-NH3-N) were primarily linked to increased fermentor N supply with feeding herbage-based diets (HERB and FLAX). Although TMR-based diets decreased nutrient digestibility slightly, TMR offered advantages in bacterial fermentation in relation to volatile fatty acid production, which could potentially translate into better animal performance. Flaxseed shows promise as an alternative supplement for herbage-based diets; however, further in vivo evaluation is needed to determine the optimal level to optimize animal production while reducing feed costs.

Soder KJ; Brito AF; Rubano MD

2013-05-01

189

Effect of supplementing orchardgrass herbage with a total mixed ration or flaxseed on fermentation profile and bacterial protein synthesis in continuous culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 4-unit dual-flow continuous culture fermentor system was used to evaluate the effects of supplementing fresh herbage with a total mixed ration (TMR) or flaxseed on nutrient digestibility, fermentation profile, and bacterial N synthesis. Diets were randomly assigned to fermentors in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Each fermentor was fed a total of 70 g of dry matter/d of 1 of 4 diets: (1) 100% freeze-dried orchardgrass herbage (Dactylis glomerata L.; HERB), (2) 100% freeze-dried TMR (100TMR), (3) 50% orchardgrass herbage supplemented with 50% TMR (50TMR), or (4) 90% orchardgrass herbage supplemented with 10% ground flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.; FLAX). Preplanned, single degree of freedom orthogonal contrasts were constructed to assess the effects of feeding system (HERB vs. 100TMR), herbage supplementation (HERB vs. 50TMR + FLAX), and herbage supplemental source (50TMR vs. FLAX). Compared with the HERB diet, the 100TMR diet significantly reduced apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber. Herbage supplementation with 50TMR or FLAX significantly reduced or tended to reduce apparent digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber, suggesting that replacing high-quality, highly digestible fresh herbage with forage TMR likely caused depressions in nutrient digestibilities. Concentration of total volatile fatty acids, molar proportions of acetate, propionate, and isovalerate, as well as the acetate:propionate ratios were all significantly higher in fermentors fed 100TMR compared with HERB, likely in response to enhanced supply of fermentable energy. In general, feeding system, herbage supplementation, and type of supplementation did not affect N metabolism in the present study. The few significant changes in N metabolism (e.g., flows of total N and non-NH3-N) were primarily linked to increased fermentor N supply with feeding herbage-based diets (HERB and FLAX). Although TMR-based diets decreased nutrient digestibility slightly, TMR offered advantages in bacterial fermentation in relation to volatile fatty acid production, which could potentially translate into better animal performance. Flaxseed shows promise as an alternative supplement for herbage-based diets; however, further in vivo evaluation is needed to determine the optimal level to optimize animal production while reducing feed costs. PMID:23522677

Soder, K J; Brito, A F; Rubano, M D

2013-03-21

190

Comparative microbial sampling from eutrophic caves in Slovenia and Slovakia using RIDA®COUNT test kits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available RIDA®COUNT test plates were used as an easy-to-handle and rapid indicator of microbial counts in karst ecosystems of several caves in Slovakia and Slovenia. All of the caves had a high organic input from water streams, tourists, roosting bat colonies or terrestrial surroundings. We sampled swabs, water and air samples to test robustness and universality of the RIDA®COUNT test kit (R-Biopharm AG, Germany, http://www.r-biopharm.com/) for quantification of total bacteria, coliforms, yeast and mold. Using data from swabs (colony-forming units CFU per cm2) we proposed a scale for description of biocontamination level or superficial microbial load of cave niches. Based on this scale, surfaces of Ardovská Cave, Drienovská Cave and Stará Brzotínská Cave (Slovakia) were moderately colonized by microbes, with total microbial counts (sum of total bacterial count and total yeast and molds count) in the range of 1,001-10,000 CFU/100 cm2, while some surfaces from the show cave Postojna Cave (Slovenia) can be considered highly colonized by microbes (total microbial counts ? 10,001 CFU/100 cm2). Ardovská Cave also had a high concentration of airborne microbes, which can be explained by restricted air circulation and regular bat activity. The ratio of coliform to total counts of bacteria in the 9 km of underground Pivka River flow in Postojna Cave dropped approximately 4-fold from the entrance, indicating the high anthropogenic pollution in the most exposed site in the show cave. The RIDA®COUNT test kit was proven to be applicable for regular monitoring of eutrophication and human influence in eutrophic karst caves.

Mulec Janez; Krišt?fek Václav; Chro?áková Alica

2012-01-01

191

Experimental infection of commercial layers with wild or attenuated Salmonella Gallinarum mutant strains: anatomic pathology, total blood cell count and serum protein levels  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate hemogram, blood serum components and anatomopathologic alterations in commercial layers experimentally challenged with an attenuated vaccine candidate strain (SG?cobS?cbiA) and other two pathogenic strains (SGDcobS and SGNalr) of Gallinarum (SG). In total, 280 commercial layers were randomly divided into 4 groups (G1, G2, G3 and G4). At five days of age, birds from groups G1 received approximately 107 (more) colony forming units (CFU) of SGDcobS; meanwhile birds from group G2 and G3 received the same dose of SGNalr and SG?cobS?cbiA, respectively. Birds from G4 were not infected. At 24 hours before (DBI) and 24 hours after (1 DAI), and three (3 DAI), five (5 DAI), seven (7 DAI) ten (10 DAI), and fifteen (15 DAI) days after the infection, 10 birds of each group were humanely killed and blood samples collected to hematological and serum tests. Samples of liver, spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, kidney and heart were also collected for the histological examination. Birds inoculated with SGDcobS and SGNalr showed similar alterations in hemogram, blood serum components and anatomopathologic exams. On the other hand, the exams of birds inoculated with SG?cobS?cbiA strain were similar to those of the uninfected birds. However, changes could be noticed in levels of uric acid and cholesterol during the course of the infection of birds from G3. Decrease in levels of light IgG 3 DAI was also observed in birds from this group. Pyknosis in kidney cells was a microscopic alteration found in birds from G3. Further studies must be done to verify if these alterations will not interfere in the performance of the vaccinate birds with SG?cobS?cbiA strain.

Garcia, KO; Berchieri Jr., A; Santana, AM; Alarcon, MFF; Freitas Neto, OC; Fagliari, JJ

2013-06-01

192

CYCLE COUNTING  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention provides a platform for a manufacturer of reusable medical apparatuses to provide timely post- sale service for replaceable parts. In one embodiment, the probe assembly of an electronic thermometer has a connector that is equipped with a memory device, e.g., EEPROM, that stores a variety of probe- specific service information including usage count of the probe, probe warranty information and error codes. The user can plug the connector, e.g., through an adapter module, to a local computer's USB port and submit the stored service information to a website maintained by the probe manufacturer to check up and get service for the specific probe in a timely fashion. Automatic alert for replacement probe orders depending on the amount of usage, automatic generation of RMA numbers when the probe warranty is determined to be in effect, and automatic service calls for malfunctioning thermometers can all be accomplished accordingly without the need for manual record-keeping. A healthcare provider can simply set aside a day at a scheduled interval to check all of its reusable medial apparatuses equipped with the invented system to keep them safe and effective.

LANE JOHN A; WHITAKER TYSON P; KINSLEY MATTHEW J; MEYERSON CRAIG M; MARTIN SCOTT A; STONE RAY D; QUINN DAVID E

193

Categorical counting.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pigeons pecked on three keys, responses to one of which could be reinforced after a few pecks, to a second key after a somewhat larger number of pecks, and to a third key after the maximum pecking requirement. The values of the pecking requirements and the proportion of trials ending with reinforcement were varied. Transits among the keys were an orderly function of peck number, and showed approximately proportional changes with changes in the pecking requirements, consistent with Weber's law. Standard deviations of the switch points between successive keys increased more slowly within a condition than across conditions. Changes in reinforcement probability produced changes in the location of the psychometric functions that were consistent with models of timing. Analyses of the number of pecks emitted and the duration of the pecking sequences demonstrated that peck number was the primary determinant of choice, but that passage of time also played some role. We capture the basic results with a standard model of counting, which we qualify to account for the secondary experiments.

Fetterman JG; Killeen PR

2010-09-01

194

Categorical counting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pigeons pecked on three keys, responses to one of which could be reinforced after a few pecks, to a second key after a somewhat larger number of pecks, and to a third key after the maximum pecking requirement. The values of the pecking requirements and the proportion of trials ending with reinforcement were varied. Transits among the keys were an orderly function of peck number, and showed approximately proportional changes with changes in the pecking requirements, consistent with Weber's law. Standard deviations of the switch points between successive keys increased more slowly within a condition than across conditions. Changes in reinforcement probability produced changes in the location of the psychometric functions that were consistent with models of timing. Analyses of the number of pecks emitted and the duration of the pecking sequences demonstrated that peck number was the primary determinant of choice, but that passage of time also played some role. We capture the basic results with a standard model of counting, which we qualify to account for the secondary experiments. PMID:20540994

Fetterman, J Gregor; Killeen, P Richard

2010-06-09

195

Influence of protein deposition on bacterial adhesion to contact lenses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The aim of the study is to determine the adhesion of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria onto conventional hydrogel (CH) and silicone hydrogel (SH) contact lens materials with and without lysozyme, lactoferrin, and albumin coating. METHODS: Four lens types (three SH-balafilcon A, lotrafilcon B, and senofilcon A; one CH-etafilcon A) were coated with lysozyme, lactoferrin, or albumin (uncoated lenses acted as controls) and then incubated in Staphylococcus aureus (Saur 31) or either of two strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Paer 6294 and 6206) for 24 h at 37 °C. The total counts of the adhered bacteria were determined using the H-thymidine method and viable counts by counting the number of colony-forming units on agar media. RESULTS: All three strains adhered significantly lower to uncoated etafilcon A lenses compared with uncoated SH lenses (p < 0.05). Lysozyme coating on all four lens types increased binding (total and viable counts) of Saur 31 (p < 0.05). However, lysozyme coating did not influence P. aeruginosa adhesion (p > 0.05). Lactoferrin coating on lenses increased binding (total and viable counts) of Saur 31 (p < 0.05). Lactoferrin-coated lenses showed significantly higher total counts (p < 0.05) but significantly lower viable counts (p < 0.05) of adhered P. aeruginosa strains. There was a significant difference between the total and viable counts (p < 0.05) that were bound to lactoferrin-coated lenses. Albumin coating of lenses increased binding (total and viable counts) of all three strains (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Lysozyme deposited on contact lenses does not possess antibacterial activity against certain bacterial strains, whereas lactoferrin possess an antibacterial effect against strains of P. aeruginosa.

Subbaraman LN; Borazjani R; Zhu H; Zhao Z; Jones L; Willcox MD

2011-08-01

196

Uso de aditivos promotores de crescimento sobre o desempenho, características de carcaça e bactérias totais do intestino de frangos de corte Use of growth promoters additives on performance, carcass yield and total intestinalbacteria counts in broiler  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de aditivos promotores de crescimento em substituição ao antibiótico sobre o desempenho, características de carcaça (partes e gordura abdominal) e bactérias totais do intestino delgado e cecos de frangos de corte de 1 a 42 dias de idade, criados em cama reutilizada e alimentados com rações à base de milho moído e farelo de soja. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com um arranjo fatorial 7 x 2, correspondendo a 7 fontes de aditivos (antibiótico, basal, mananoligossacarídeo (MOS), frutoligossacarídeo (FOS), ácido fumárico, cogumelo desidratado e probiótico) e dois sexos (macho e fêmea). Foram utilizados um total de 1680 pintos, sexados, da linhagem Hybro, distribuídos em 14 tratamentos com 04 repetições e 30 aves por parcela experimental. Foi observado efeito significativo (PThe objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of growth promoters additives on performance, carcass yield (parts and abdominal fat), total intestinal bacteria counts in broilers from 1 at 42 days old fed with corn and soybean meal based diets, compared to antibiotics supplementation diets. In this study were urilized a 7 x 2 factorial design, with seven differents additives (antibiotic, basal, MOS, FOS, fumaric acid, mutshroom extract and probiotic) and two sex (males and females). A total of1680 sexed broilers chickens from Hybro line were distributed in 14 treatments, with 4 replicates and 30 chickens per experimental unit. Effects of growth promotant additives on feed intake , feed conversion and production efficiency factor were measured. Male chickens shown better performance results than females in all parameters evaluated, except for viability. Additives shown positive effects on carcars yield, parts yield, and abdominal fat. Male chickens were heavier at slaughter and shown higher leg yields than females. Additives also influenced total bacteria counts in duodenum and caecum altering the microbiota of the intestinal chickens. These changes in intestinal microbiota might have contributed for a higher stability and better survival of good microorganisms in the intestinal ecosystem, resulting in benefits for the host. The results of this study shown that the use the addictive as a growth promoters should be used in the feeding for broilers chickens, in substitution to the antibiotic, without affecting the performance and carcass yield , in the period from 1 to 42 days of age.

Éder Clementino dos Santos; Antônio Soares Teixeira; Rilke Tadeu Fonseca de Freitas; Paulo Borges Rodrigues; Eustáquio Souza Dias; Luis David Solis Murgas

2005-01-01

197

Uso de aditivos promotores de crescimento sobre o desempenho, características de carcaça e bactérias totais do intestino de frangos de corte/ Use of growth promoters additives on performance, carcass yield and total intestinalbacteria counts in broiler  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com este trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de aditivos promotores de crescimento em substituição ao antibiótico sobre o desempenho, características de carcaça (partes e gordura abdominal) e bactérias totais do intestino delgado e cecos de frangos de corte de 1 a 42 dias de idade, criados em cama reutilizada e alimentados com rações à base de milho moído e farelo de soja. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com um arranj (more) o fatorial 7 x 2, correspondendo a 7 fontes de aditivos (antibiótico, basal, mananoligossacarídeo (MOS), frutoligossacarídeo (FOS), ácido fumárico, cogumelo desidratado e probiótico) e dois sexos (macho e fêmea). Foram utilizados um total de 1680 pintos, sexados, da linhagem Hybro, distribuídos em 14 tratamentos com 04 repetições e 30 aves por parcela experimental. Foi observado efeito significativo (P Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of growth promoters additives on performance, carcass yield (parts and abdominal fat), total intestinal bacteria counts in broilers from 1 at 42 days old fed with corn and soybean meal based diets, compared to antibiotics supplementation diets. In this study were urilized a 7 x 2 factorial design, with seven differents additives (antibiotic, basal, MOS, FOS, fumaric acid, mutshroom extract and probiotic) and two sex ( (more) males and females). A total of1680 sexed broilers chickens from Hybro line were distributed in 14 treatments, with 4 replicates and 30 chickens per experimental unit. Effects of growth promotant additives on feed intake , feed conversion and production efficiency factor were measured. Male chickens shown better performance results than females in all parameters evaluated, except for viability. Additives shown positive effects on carcars yield, parts yield, and abdominal fat. Male chickens were heavier at slaughter and shown higher leg yields than females. Additives also influenced total bacteria counts in duodenum and caecum altering the microbiota of the intestinal chickens. These changes in intestinal microbiota might have contributed for a higher stability and better survival of good microorganisms in the intestinal ecosystem, resulting in benefits for the host. The results of this study shown that the use the addictive as a growth promoters should be used in the feeding for broilers chickens, in substitution to the antibiotic, without affecting the performance and carcass yield , in the period from 1 to 42 days of age.

Santos, Éder Clementino dos; Teixeira, Antônio Soares; Freitas, Rilke Tadeu Fonseca de; Rodrigues, Paulo Borges; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Murgas, Luis David Solis

2005-02-01

198

[Factors affecting the DAPI fluorescence direct count in the tidal river sediment].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The factors affecting the DAPI (4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylidole) fluorescence direct count in the tidal river sediment were examined. Sediment samples were collected from the Guangzhou section of the Pearl River. Besides sediment texture and organic matter, an improved staining procedure and the involved parameters were analyzed. Results showed that the procedure with the sediment with 2000 fold dilution and ultrasonic water bath for 10 min, and with a final DAPI concentration of 10 microg x mL(-1) and staining time for more than 30 min produced the optimum results of DAPI direct count in the sediment. The total bacterial number was correlated to the proportion of the non-nucleoid-containing cells to the total bacterial number (r = 0.587, p = 0.004). The organic matter content also correlated to the ration. The clay content had a strong correlation with the organic matter, through which the clay content also affected the ratio. A multiple regression analysis between the ration versus the organic matter, the total bacterial number, and the clay content showed that the regression equation fit the measure values satisfactorily (r = 0.694). These results indicated that the above factors needed to be considered in the applications of the DAPI fluorescence direct counting method to the tidal river sediment.

Chen C; Huang S; Wu QH; Li RY; Zhang RD

2010-08-01

199

Effect of Chlorination Treatment on Gram Negative Bacterial Composition of Recycled Wastewater  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to assess the quality of recovered wastewater from the treatment plant of Mutah University, analysis was performed on samples collected from influent, polishing pool, chlorination tank and the ultimately disposal site at the university campus. In this assessment following parameters were used: temperature, BOD5, COD, effect of chlorination treatment, total bacterial counts (TBC), type of bacterial species isolated and the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria during the treatment. Though BOD5 and COD values of treated water were within the acceptable range of Jordanian standards, the bacterial counts suggested that the efficiency of applied chlorination treatment was inconsistent. This discrepancy was particularly noticed on the water sample collected from polishing pool. Chlorine treatment of wastewater was not an efficient disinfectant method, besides it`s potential to promote the production of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Some of the coliform species isolated from influent and effluent samples were found to be chlorine resistant. Such resistance seams to be species specific. Also an unexpected bacterial growth profile was observed where the total bacterial counts on some selective media were higher than the counts detected on enriched media. A re-evaluation for the current method of wastewater treatment is recommended.

Khaled Khleifat; Muayad Abboud; Waed Al-Shamayleh; Anwar Jiries; Khaled A Tarawneh

2006-01-01

200

AIDS-associated paracoccidioidomycosis in a patient with a CD4+ T-cell count of 4 cells/mm³/ Paracoccidioidomicose associada a Aids em paciente com a contagem total de quatro células T-CD4+  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho apresenta-se paciente com coinfecção paracoccidioidomicose/Aids. No momento do diagnóstico, a contagem de células T CD4 + era 4 células. No exame histopatológico, observou-se a presença de granulomas tuberculóides bem formados e na imunohistoquímica, ausência de células Foxp3, raros linfócitos T CD4+ e presença de células T CD8+ em moderada quantidade. Com duas semanas de uso da anfotericina B, verificou-se a regressão de grande parte das les (more) ões cutâneas. Após 14 meses, o paciente encontra-se em uso de terapia antiretroviral e sem evidências de atividade da micose Abstract in english We describe a case of a patient presenting with HIV and paracoccidioidomycosis co-infection. At the time of diagnosis total CD4+ T-cell count was 4 cells/mm3. Histopathology revealed tuberculoid granulomas, scarce CD4+ T cells, a moderate number of CD8+ cells and the absence of Foxp3+ cells. Most of the cutaneous lesions healed after two weeks of treatment with amphotericin B. After 14 months the patient is still under antiretroviral therapy and no clinical evidence of recurrence of the mycosis has been observed

Nogueira, Lisiane Machado Contente; Santos, Mônica; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Talhari, Carolina; Rodrigues, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Talhari, Sinésio

2011-08-01

 
 
 
 
201

AIDS-associated paracoccidioidomycosis in a patient with a CD4+ T-cell count of 4 cells/mm³ Paracoccidioidomicose associada a Aids em paciente com a contagem total de quatro células T-CD4+  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We describe a case of a patient presenting with HIV and paracoccidioidomycosis co-infection. At the time of diagnosis total CD4+ T-cell count was 4 cells/mm3. Histopathology revealed tuberculoid granulomas, scarce CD4+ T cells, a moderate number of CD8+ cells and the absence of Foxp3+ cells. Most of the cutaneous lesions healed after two weeks of treatment with amphotericin B. After 14 months the patient is still under antiretroviral therapy and no clinical evidence of recurrence of the mycosis has been observedNeste trabalho apresenta-se paciente com coinfecção paracoccidioidomicose/Aids. No momento do diagnóstico, a contagem de células T CD4 + era 4 células. No exame histopatológico, observou-se a presença de granulomas tuberculóides bem formados e na imunohistoquímica, ausência de células Foxp3, raros linfócitos T CD4+ e presença de células T CD8+ em moderada quantidade. Com duas semanas de uso da anfotericina B, verificou-se a regressão de grande parte das lesões cutâneas. Após 14 meses, o paciente encontra-se em uso de terapia antiretroviral e sem evidências de atividade da micose

Lisiane Machado Contente Nogueira; Mônica Santos; Luiz Carlos de Lima Ferreira; Carolina Talhari; Rodrigo Ribeiro Rodrigues; Sinésio Talhari

2011-01-01

202

Count data distributions and their zero-modified equivalents as a framework for modelling microbial data with a relatively high occurrence of zero counts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In many cases, microbial data are characterised by a relatively high proportion of zero counts, as occurs with some hygiene indicators and pathogens, which complicates the statistical treatment under the assumption of log normality. The objective of this work was to introduce an alternative Poisson-based distribution framework capable of representing this kind of data without incurring loss of information. The negative binomial, and two zero-modified parameterizations of the Poisson and negative binomial distributions (zero-inflated and hurdle) were fitted to actual zero-inflated bacterial data consisting of total coliforms (n=590) and Escherichia coli (n=677) present on beef carcasses sampled from nine Irish abattoirs. Improvement over the simple Poisson was shown by the simple negative binomial (p=0.426 for chi(2) test for the coliforms data) due to the added heterogeneity parameter, although it slightly overestimated the zero counts and underestimated the first few positive counts for both data sets. Whereas, the zero-modified Poisson could not cope with the data over-dispersion in any of its parameterizations (p<0.001 for chi(2) tests), the parameterizations of the zero-modified negative binomial presented differences in fit due to approximation errors. While the zero-inflated negative binomial parameterization was apparently reduced to a negative binomial due to a non-convergence of the logit parameter estimate, the goodness of fit of the hurdle negative binomial parameterization indicated that for the data sets under evaluation (coliforms data with approximately 13% zero counts and E.coli data with approximately 42% zero counts), the zero-modified negative binomial distribution was comparable to the simpler negative binomial distribution. Thus, bacterial data consisting of a considerable number of zero counts can be appropriately represented by using such count distributions, and this work serves as the starting point for an alternative statistical treatment of this kind of data and stochastic risk assessment modelling.

Gonzales-Barron U; Kerr M; Sheridan JJ; Butler F

2010-01-01

203

Evaluation of the Bacterial Contamination of the Iranian Currency Notes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "n "nBackground and Objectives: In many countries, there is a popular belief that the simultaneous "nhandling of food and money contributes to the incidence of food-related public health incidents. "nThe objective of this study was to determine the total bacterial count and the presence of food borne "nbacterial pathogens on Iranian currency notes, collected from food-related shops. "n "nMaterials and Methods: A total of 120 Iranian currency notes, comprising notes in four  denomination (2000, 5000, 10000 and 20000 R) were collected from various food-related shops including, butchery, bakery, confectionary, fast food, ice cream and poultry meat shop. The currency notes were categorized into three groups according to their physical conditions. All currency notes were examined for total bacterial count, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella and Listeria according to the standard techniques."nResults: The average number of total bacterial count in four denomination of currency notes (2000,  5000, 10000 and 20000 R) were 118.49, 106.32, 69.44 and 220.81 CFU/cm2, respectively. The association between total bacterial count and denomination of the currency was not statistically significant. Of the 120 currency notes on which bacteriological analysis was conducted 13.3 %, 32.5% and 10.8 % were contaminated with E. coli, S. aureus and B. cereus, respectively. Salmonella and Listeria were not isolated from samples. Currency notes collected from butchery, bakery, confectionary, fast food, ice cream and poultry meat shop were contaminated with E. coli at the rate of 60, 0, 5, 5, 0 and 10 %; with S. aureus at the rate of 55, 30, 10, 25, 40 and 35 %; with B. cereus at the rate of 0, 10, 20, 5, 20 and 10 %, respectively. There was not a statistically significant association between physical condition and bacterial contamination of the currency notes. The effect of presence or absence of cashier in food-related shops on bacterial contamination of the currency notes was also evaluated."nConclusion: Money has got the potential to change through many different hands and could be  exposed to many different environments at a relatively high frequency. Since there is very little information regarding the hygienic history of any forms of currency, great care should be taken when the same person facilitates the handling of money and the preparation and handling of food to avoid cross contamination.

S Shekarforoush; E Khajeh Ali; M Zarei

2009-01-01

204

Evaluation and determinants of airborne bacterial concentrations in school classrooms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A survey of 39 elementary schools was undertaken to determine indoor air concentrations of bioaerosols within a coastal, temperate climatic zone in British Columbia, Canada. This article reports the results for airborne bacteria. Determinants of exposure were grouped into environmental (outdoor temperature, relative humidity, season, weather), ventilation and comfort parameter (indoor relative humidity, temperature, indoor CO2 concentration, indoor fungal concentration), and occupancy (number of occupants, activity levels, occupancy patterns) variables. Regression modeling was used to evaluate the association between these factors and measured concentrations of indoor mesophilic bacteria. Naturally ventilated rooms (47% of the total rooms surveyed) had higher bacterial counts than mechanically ventilated rooms (geometric mean 325 vs. 166 CFU/m3, respectively, p < 0.001). In univariate analyses, bacterial counts were negatively correlated with supply and exhaust flow rates, air exchange rates, and the percentage of the day that occupants spent quietly sitting at their desks. Analysis of bacterial groups indicated various sources of the bacterial aerosol, with micrococci and staphylococci closely associated with occupancy variables, Bacillus with site and occupancy, and coryneform bacteria with site variables only. Approximately 60% of the variance in the outcome measurement of total bacteria was accountedfor by indoor CO2, lower air exchange rate, the age of the building, signs of current or old moisture stains, room volume, indoor relative humidity, and occupant activity level in a multiple linear regression model, with ventilation factors accounting for 40% of the variance.

Bartlett KH; Kennedy SM; Brauer M; van Netten C; Dill B

2004-10-01

205

Low Sperm Count  

Science.gov (United States)

... be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Low sperm count By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/low-sperm-count/DS01049 Definition Symptoms Causes Risk factors Complications ...

206

Measuring nasal bacterial load and its association with otitis media  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Nasal colonisation with otitis media (OM) pathogens, particularly Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis, is a precursor to the onset of OM. Many children experience asymptomatic nasal carriage of these pathogens whereas others will progress to otitis media with effusion (OME) or suppurative OM. We observed a disparity in the prevalence of suppurative OM between Aboriginal children living in remote communities and non-Aboriginal children attending child-care centres; up to 60% and Methods Quantitative measures (colony counts and real-time quantitative PCR) of the respiratory pathogens S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis, and total bacterial load were analysed in nasal swabs from Aboriginal children from remote communities, and non-Aboriginal children attending urban child-care centres. Results In both populations nearly all swabs were positive for at least one of these respiratory pathogens. Using either quantification method, positive correlations between bacterial load and ear state (no OM, OME, or suppurative OM) were observed. This relationship held for single and combined bacterial respiratory pathogens, total bacterial load, and the proportion of respiratory pathogens to total bacterial load. Comparison of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children, all with a diagnosis of OME, demonstrated significantly higher loads of S. pneumoniae and M. catarrhalis in the Aboriginal group. The increased bacterial load despite similar clinical condition may predict persistence of middle ear effusions and progression to suppurative OM in the Aboriginal population. Our data also demonstrated the presence of PCR-detectable non-cultivable respiratory pathogens in 36% of nasal swabs. This may have implications for the pathogenesis of OM including persistence of infection despite aggressive therapies. Conclusion Nasal bacterial load was significantly higher among Aboriginal children and may explain their increased risk of suppurative OM. It was also positively correlated with ear state. We believe that a reduction in bacterial load in high-risk populations may be required before dramatic reductions in OM can be achieved.

Smith-Vaughan Heidi; Byun Roy; Nadkarni Mangala; Jacques Nicholas A; Hunter Neil; Halpin Stephen; Morris Peter S; Leach Amanda J

2006-01-01

207

Radiation counting statistics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is intended to describe the statistical methods necessary to design and conduct radiation counting experiments and evaluate the data from the experiment. The methods are described for the evaluation of the stability of a counting system and the estimation of the precision of counting data by application of probability distribution models. The methods for the determination of the uncertainty of the results calculated from the number of counts, as well as various statistical methods for the reduction of counting error are also described. (Author). 11 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs.

Suh, M. Y.; Jee, K. Y.; Park, K. K.; Park, Y. J.; Kim, W. H

1999-08-01

208

Effect of human milk fortifiers on bacterial growth in human milk.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: As a component in human milk fortifiers (HMF), iron may equilibrate with human milk for as long as 24 hours, bind important bacteriostatic proteins, and potentially affect the host defense properties of human milk. OBJECTIVE: We compared bacterial growth in human milk prepared with each of two HMF differing in their content of iron. STUDY DESIGN: Samples of human milk obtained from mothers of premature infants were divided and mixed with one of two HMF and maintained at refrigerator temperature. Refrigerated milk samples were removed at 0, 24, and 72 hours for determination of total bacterial colony counts (TBCC). RESULTS: TBCC did not differ between groups but declined from 0 to 72 hours, p<0.001. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that differences in iron content, or other nutrients in HMF, do not affect bacterial growth in human milk. Storage of fortified human milk at refrigerator temperature for 72 hours results in decreased bacterial growth. As a component in human milk fortifiers (HMF), iron may equilibrate with human milk for as long as 24 hours, bind important bacteriostatic proteins, and potentially affect the host defense properties of human milk. We compared bacterial growth in human milk prepared with each of two HMF differing in their content of iron. Samples of human milk obtained from mothers of premature infants were divided and mixed with one of two HMF and maintained at refrigerator temperature. Refrigerated milk samples were removed at 0, 24, and 72 hours for determination of total bacterial colony counts (TBCC).

Santiago MS; Codipilly CN; Potak DC; Schanler RJ

2005-10-01

209

Epiphytic bacterial community composition on two common submerged macrophytes in brackish water and freshwater  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants and their heterotrophic bacterial biofilm communities possibly strongly interact, especially in aquatic systems. We aimed to ascertain whether different macrophytes or their habitats determine bacterial community composition. We compared the composition of epiphytic bacteria on two common aquatic macrophytes, the macroalga Chara aspera Willd. and the angiosperm Myriophyllum spicatum L., in two habitats, freshwater (Lake Constance) and brackish water (Schaproder Bodden), using fluorescence in situ hybridization. The bacterial community composition was analysed based on habitat, plant species, and plant part. Results The bacterial abundance was higher on plants from brackish water [5.3 × 107 cells (g dry mass)-1] than on plants from freshwater [1.3 × 107 cells (g dry mass)-1], with older shoots having a higher abundance. The organic content of freshwater plants was lower than that of brackish water plants (35 vs. 58%), and lower in C. aspera than in M. spicatum (41 vs. 52%). The content of nutrients, chlorophyll, total phenolic compounds, and anthocyanin differed in the plants and habitats. Especially the content of total phenolic compounds and anthocyanin was higher in M. spicatum, and in general higher in the freshwater than in the brackish water habitat. Members of the Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroidetes group were abundant in all samples (5–35% of the total cell counts) and were especially dominant in M. spicatum samples. Alphaproteobacteria were the second major group (3–17% of the total cell counts). Betaproteobacteria, gammaproteobacteria, and actinomycetes were present in all samples (5 or 10% of the total cell counts). Planctomycetes were almost absent on M. spicatum in freshwater, but present on C. aspera in freshwater and on both plants in brackish water. Conclusion Bacterial biofilm communities on the surface of aquatic plants might be influenced by the host plant and environmental factors. Distinct plant species, plant part and habitat specific differences in total cell counts and two bacterial groups (CFB, planctomycetes) support the combined impact of substrate (plant) and habitat on epiphytic bacterial community composition. The presence of polyphenols might explain the distinct bacterial community on freshwater M. spicatum compared to that of M. spicatum in brackish water and of C. aspera in both habitats.

Hempel Melanie; Blume Maja; Blindow Irmgard; Gross Elisabeth M

2008-01-01

210

Uji kadar formalin, kadar garam dan total bakteri ikan asin tenggiri asal Kabupaten Sarmi Provinsi Papua  

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Full Text Available Food safety is depending on the accurence of a dangerous fisical, chemical and microbiology components. Quality of food with healty and a complete safe nutrient is the most important things in the food material. Because of food that consume influencing people brain and health. The aim of this research was to determine the content of formaldehyde, salt and Total Plate Count of bacteria in the tenggiri salty fish from Sarmi Papua. Formsaldehyde was indentificated by using cromatofat acid method as qualitative and spectrophotometer as quantitative method. Choman method was used to analize salt content. Total Plate Count (TPC) was used for bacterial content analysis. The result showed that Tenggiri salty fish from Sarmi is not contain formaldehyde. About 9.76 % to 16.31 % of salt contant and approximately 24.5 x 10- 5- 49.5 x 10 5 colony/gram of bacterial in total. This conclude that Tenggiri salty fish have already

Yenni Y. Salosa

2013-01-01

211

Water-quality parameters and total aerobic bacterial and Vibrionaceae loads in Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from oyster-gardening sites.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Oyster gardening is a practice designed to restore habitat for marine life and to improve water quality. This study determined physical and chemical water-quality parameters at two oyster gardening sites in the Delaware Inland Bays and compared them with total aerobic bacteria and Vibrionaceae concentrations in Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica). One site was located at the end of a man-made canal, whereas the other was located in an open bay. Measured water parameters included temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), salinity, pH, total nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite, total phosphorus, and total suspended solids. The highest Vibrionaceae levels, as determined by the colony overlay procedure for peptidases, were at the canal site in September (3.5 × 10(5) g(-1)) and at the bay site in August (1.9 × 10(5) g(-1)). Vibrionaceae levels were significantly greater during the duration of the study at the canal site (P = 0.01). This study provides the first baseline levels for total Vibrionaceae in the Delaware Inland Bays. Minimum DO readings at the bay and canal sites were 3.0 and 2.3 mg l(-1), respectively, far less than the state-targeted minimum threshold of 5.0 mg l(-1). Total phosphorus levels exceeded recommendations of ?0.1 mg l(-1) at the bay and canal sites for all monthly samplings, with mean monthly highs at both sites ?0.68 mg l(-1) in August. Nitrogen occasionally exceeded the recommended level of 1.0 mg l(-1) at both sites. Overall, waters were highly degraded from high phosphates, nitrogen, and total suspended solids as well as low DO.

Fay JP; Richards GP; Ozbay G

2012-05-01

212

Impact of Intensive Land-Based Fish Culture in Qingdao, China, on the Bacterial Communities in Surrounding Marine Waters and Sediments  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of intensive land-based fish culture in Qingdao, China, on the bacterial communities in surrounding marine environment was analyzed. Culture-based studies showed that the highest counts of heterotrophic, ammonium-oxidizing, nitrifying, and nitrate-reducing bacteria were found in fish ponds and the effluent channel, with lower counts in the adjacent marine area and the lowest counts in the samples taken from 500?m off the effluent channel. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis was used to assess total bacterial diversity. Fewer bands were observed from the samples taken from near the effluent channel compared with more distant sediment samples, suggesting that excess nutrients from the aquaculture facility may be reducing the diversity of bacterial communities in nearby sediments. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequenced DGGE bands indicated that the bacteria community of fish-culture-associated environments was mainly composed of Flavobacteriaceae, gamma- and deltaproteobacteria, including genera Gelidibacter, Psychroserpen, Lacinutrix, and Croceimarina.

Li, Qiufen; Zhang, Yan; Juck, David; Fortin, Nathalie; Greer, Charles W.

2011-01-01

213

Enantioselective total synthesis of bioactive natural product (+)-Sch 642305: a structurally novel inhibitor of bacterial DNA primase and HIV-1 Tat transactivation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The total synthesis of the bioactive natural product (+)-Sch 642305 has been achieved from a readily available chiral building block using an RCM protocol to construct the key decalactone moiety; our approach is notable for its built-in flexibility and is diversity oriented.

Mehta G; Shinde HM

2005-08-01

214

Enantioselective total synthesis of bioactive natural product (+)-Sch 642305: a structurally novel inhibitor of bacterial DNA primase and HIV-1 Tat transactivation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The total synthesis of the bioactive natural product (+)-Sch 642305 has been achieved from a readily available chiral building block using an RCM protocol to construct the key decalactone moiety; our approach is notable for its built-in flexibility and is diversity oriented. PMID:16027917

Mehta, Goverdhan; Shinde, Harish M

2005-06-10

215

Faint galaxy number counts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors have determined galaxy number counts in the range 17' 0, and luminosity evolution are comparable. The implications of these results are discussed, with particular reference to the prospects of using the red counts to obtain constraints on q0. (Auth.).

1983-09-02

216

Celebrate 100 Days Counting  

CERN Multimedia

Are you learning how to count to 100? The students in this book are learning how, too. Their teacher is helping them by celebrating their 100th day of school. They have fun counting all kinds of things, such as seashells, marbles, and popcorn, in sets of 100. 32pp.

Barchers, Suzanne

2010-01-01

217

Structured count data regression  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Overdispersion in count data regression is often caused by neglection or inappropriate modelling of individual heterogeneity, temporal or spatial correlation, and nonlinear covariate effects. In this paper, we develop and study semiparametric count data models which can deal with these issues by inc...

Fahrmeir, Ludwig; Osuna, Leyre

218

Contagem de morfotipos de Mobiluncus sp e concentração de leucócitos em esfregaços vaginais de pacientes com vaginose bacteriana Mobiluncus sp morphotype counts and leukocyte concentrations in vaginal smears of patients with bacterial vaginosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: pesquisar em casos de vaginose bacteriana a presença de bacilos curvos, sugerindo Mobiluncus, e de leucocitose em esfregaços vaginais corados por Gram e Papanicolaou. MÉTODOS: duzentos e cinco pacientes com diagnóstico de vaginose bacteriana pelos Critérios de Amsel foram incluídas e avaliadas clinicamente por um dos autores (JEJ). Os esfregaços vaginais foram corados pelo método de Papanicolaou e avaliados pela técnica de Gram. Nos esfregaços de Gram foram estudados o escore de Nugent e a presença de bacilos curvos. Nos esfregaços de Papanicolaou foi avaliada a presença de bacilos curvos e de leucócitos. Os dados foram analisados usando Prism 3.0® com intervalo de confiança de 95%, usando teste exato de Fisher pelo método modificado de Wald. RESULTADOS: nos esfregaços de Papanicolaou, bacilos curvos estiveram presentes em 51,7% das vezes. O número de leucócitos variou, embora a presença de poucos leucócitos tenha sido mais freqüente. Nos esfregaços de Gram, bacilos curvos foram observados em 46,8% e o escore de Nugent foi 8 em 48,3% dos casos. O achado de Mobiluncus sp pelos dois métodos ocorreu em 82%. Na presença de bacilos curvos, maior número de leucócitos foi observado em 57,5% dos casos (p OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the presence of curved rods, suggesting Mobiluncus sp, and leukocytosis on Gram and Papanicolaou-stained vaginal smears in cases of bacterial vaginosis. METHODS: two hundred and five vaginal smears were studied by the Papanicolaou's method and other 205 vaginal smears, in the same patients, were evaluated by Gram staining. The diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis was made clinically by one of the authors (J.E.J.) using Amsel's criteria. In the Gram method stained smears the Nugent's score was calculated and the presence of curved rods was evaluated. In Papanicolaou's smears curved rods were searched as well the presence of leukocytes. The data were analyzed by Prism 3.0® with confidence interval of 95% using the Fisher exact test with modified Wald's method. RESULTS: on Pap smears the curved rods were present in 51.7% of the cases. The number of leukocytes varied, although the leukopenia was more frequent. In Gram-stained smears the curved rods were present in 46.8% of the cases and the Nugent's score was 8 in 48.3% of the cases. The finding of Mobiluncus sp in both methods occurred in 82%. When curved rods were observed leukocytosis occurred in 57.5% (p < 0.0001). In the same way, leukocytosis was more frequent in Nugent's scores 9 and 10. CONCLUSION: curved rods were observed in about 52% of bacterial vaginosis. Leukocytosis in Pap smears was more frequent when Mobiluncus sp were found with higher Nugent's scores.

José Eleutério Junior; Diane Isabelle Magno Cavalcante

2004-01-01

219

Contagem de morfotipos de Mobiluncus sp e concentração de leucócitos em esfregaços vaginais de pacientes com vaginose bacteriana/ Mobiluncus sp morphotype counts and leukocyte concentrations in vaginal smears of patients with bacterial vaginosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: pesquisar em casos de vaginose bacteriana a presença de bacilos curvos, sugerindo Mobiluncus, e de leucocitose em esfregaços vaginais corados por Gram e Papanicolaou. MÉTODOS: duzentos e cinco pacientes com diagnóstico de vaginose bacteriana pelos Critérios de Amsel foram incluídas e avaliadas clinicamente por um dos autores (JEJ). Os esfregaços vaginais foram corados pelo método de Papanicolaou e avaliados pela técnica de Gram. Nos esfregaços de Gram (more) foram estudados o escore de Nugent e a presença de bacilos curvos. Nos esfregaços de Papanicolaou foi avaliada a presença de bacilos curvos e de leucócitos. Os dados foram analisados usando Prism 3.0® com intervalo de confiança de 95%, usando teste exato de Fisher pelo método modificado de Wald. RESULTADOS: nos esfregaços de Papanicolaou, bacilos curvos estiveram presentes em 51,7% das vezes. O número de leucócitos variou, embora a presença de poucos leucócitos tenha sido mais freqüente. Nos esfregaços de Gram, bacilos curvos foram observados em 46,8% e o escore de Nugent foi 8 em 48,3% dos casos. O achado de Mobiluncus sp pelos dois métodos ocorreu em 82%. Na presença de bacilos curvos, maior número de leucócitos foi observado em 57,5% dos casos (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the presence of curved rods, suggesting Mobiluncus sp, and leukocytosis on Gram and Papanicolaou-stained vaginal smears in cases of bacterial vaginosis. METHODS: two hundred and five vaginal smears were studied by the Papanicolaou's method and other 205 vaginal smears, in the same patients, were evaluated by Gram staining. The diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis was made clinically by one of the authors (J.E.J.) using Amsel's criteria. In the Gram meth (more) od stained smears the Nugent's score was calculated and the presence of curved rods was evaluated. In Papanicolaou's smears curved rods were searched as well the presence of leukocytes. The data were analyzed by Prism 3.0® with confidence interval of 95% using the Fisher exact test with modified Wald's method. RESULTS: on Pap smears the curved rods were present in 51.7% of the cases. The number of leukocytes varied, although the leukopenia was more frequent. In Gram-stained smears the curved rods were present in 46.8% of the cases and the Nugent's score was 8 in 48.3% of the cases. The finding of Mobiluncus sp in both methods occurred in 82%. When curved rods were observed leukocytosis occurred in 57.5% (p

Eleutério Junior, José; Cavalcante, Diane Isabelle Magno

2004-04-01

220

BACTERIAL NUCLEOTIDASES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Kohn, J. (Queen Mary's Hospital, London, England) and J. L. Reis. Bacterial nucleotidases. J. Bacteriol. 86:713–716. 1963.—The 3- and 5- nucleotidase activity in various bacterial species was investigated. Both enzymes were found in bacterial extracts in varying proportions. The nucleotidases were f...

Kohn, J.; Reis, J. L.

 
 
 
 
221

Evaluation of bacterial adhesion on machined titanium, Osseotite® and Nanotite® discs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Bacterial adhesion and colonization play a crucial function in the pathogenesis of peri-implant tissue infection, which is considered the main cause of fixture loss. The aim of this study is to evaluate the differences in bacterial adhesion between a machined titanium surface, a double acid etched surface (Osseotite®) and an Osseotite surface with Nanometer-scale Discrete Crystalline Deposition (DCD™) of calcium phosphate (CaP)(Nanotite®). METHODS: Surface roughness properties of each sample were determined by a laser profilometer and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. Bacterial adhesion on machined, Osseotite®, and Nanotite® discs were performed using the following bacterial strains: Streptococcus mutans CCUG 35176, Streptococcus sanguis CCUG 17826, Streptococcus salivarius CCUG 11878, Actinobacillus actinomycetecomitans CCUG 37002, Porphyromonas gingivalis CCUG 2521. The assessment of bacterial adhesion was performed by comparing two methods: Total Viable Count (TVC) estimation and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopic (CSLM) studies. RESULTS: The surface roughness parameter increased as follows: machinedbacterial strains performed by both methods showed a significant reduction on Osseotite® and even higher on Nanotite® in comparison to machined surfaces (p<0.05). The reduction in bacterial attachment was more significant on Osseotite® and Nanotite® for A. actinomycetecomitans, S. mutans and S. sanguis than for P. gingivalis and S. salivarius strains. CONCLUSIONS: Nanotite® samples showed the lowest amount of bacterial contamination in comparison to the smoother machined and rougher Osseotite® surfaces.

Rodriguez y Baena R; Arciola CR; Selan L; Battaglia R; Imbriani M; Rizzo S; Visai L

2012-10-01

222

Sublattice Counting and Orbifolds  

CERN Document Server

Abelian orbifolds of C^3 are known to be encoded by hexagonal brane tilings. To date it is not known how to count all such orbifolds. We fill this gap by employing number theoretic techniques from crystallography, and by making use of Polya's Enumeration Theorem. The results turn out to be beautifully encoded in terms of partition functions and Dirichlet Series. The same methods apply to counting orbifolds of any toric non-compact Calabi-Yau singularity. As additional examples, we count the orbifolds of the conifold, of the L^{aba} theories, and of C^4.

Hanany, Amihay; Reffert, Susanne

2010-01-01

223

Office Space Bacterial Abundance and Diversity in Three Metropolitan Areas  

Science.gov (United States)

People in developed countries spend approximately 90% of their lives indoors, yet we know little about the source and diversity of microbes in built environments. In this study, we combined culture-based cell counting and multiplexed pyrosequencing of environmental ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences to investigate office space bacterial diversity in three metropolitan areas. Five surfaces common to all offices were sampled using sterile double-tipped swabs, one tip for culturing and one for DNA extraction, in 30 different offices per city (90 offices, 450 total samples). 16S rRNA gene sequences were PCR amplified using bar-coded “universal” bacterial primers from 54 of the surfaces (18 per city) and pooled for pyrosequencing. A three-factorial Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) found significant differences in viable bacterial abundance between offices inhabited by men or women, among the various surface types, and among cities. Multiplex pyrosequencing identified more than 500 bacterial genera from 20 different bacterial divisions. The most abundant of these genera tended to be common inhabitants of human skin, nasal, oral or intestinal cavities. Other commonly occurring genera appeared to have environmental origins (e.g., soils). There were no significant differences in the bacterial diversity between offices inhabited by men or women or among surfaces, but the bacterial community diversity of the Tucson samples was clearly distinguishable from that of New York and San Francisco, which were indistinguishable. Overall, our comprehensive molecular analysis of office building microbial diversity shows the potential of these methods for studying patterns and origins of indoor bacterial contamination. “[H]umans move through a sea of microbial life that is seldom perceived except in the context of potential disease and decay.” – Feazel et al. (2009).

Hewitt, Krissi M.; Gerba, Charles P.; Maxwell, Sheri L.; Kelley, Scott T.

2012-01-01

224

Sperm motility and morphology as changing parameters linked to sperm count variations.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Variations in semen analyses of 177 males over a 1 year period were assessed. The average means of total counts, motility, morphology, total motile count and non-motile % were determined for 5 classes of patients ranging from azoospermic to normospermic. Positive relationships between a falling sperm count, a decrease in motility and total motile counts were seen. Also, increasingly, abnormal forms were found with lower sperm counts.

Dua A; Vaidya S

1996-01-01

225

Bacterial contamination of street vending food in Kumasi, Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Street vending foods are readily available sources of meals for many people but the biological safe-ty of such food is always in doubt. The aim of this study is to ascertain bacterial isolate and deter-mine total counts of bacterial species responsible for the contamination of the street vending food in Kumasi so as to determine the microbiological safety of such a food. This prospective study was conducted among street vending food at four bus terminals in Kumasi. From November, 2008 to February, 2009, 60 food samples comprising ice-kenkey (15), cocoa drink (15), fufu (5), ready-to-eat red pepper (normally eaten with kenkey) (5), salad (10) and macaroni (10) were purchased and ana-lyzed. The food samples were purchased and transported to the laboratory in sterile plastic bags and analyzed for bacterial contamination. Serial dilution of each food was prepared in buffered peptone water and inoculated onto plate count agar (PCA), MacConkey and blood agar plates. Growths on PCA were counted; those on other agar plates were identified by their colonial mor-phology, Gram stain, biochemical and sugar fermentation methods. The mean bacterial counts in these foods expressed to log10 CFU/ml were: fufu 6.36±0.47, cocoa drink 6.16±0.5, red pepper 5.92±0.64, ice-kenkey 5.58 ±0.52, macaroni 5.58±0.97 and salad 5.13±0.77. Most of these foods con-tained higher than acceptable contamination level of <5.0 log10 CFU/ml. The isolates obtained were Coagulate negative staphylococci (23.7%), Bacillus species (21.5%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (18%), Aeromonas pneumophila (17.7%), Enterobacter cloacae (6.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (3.7%), Escherichia coli (2.2%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.2%). Most ready-to-eat foods in Kumasi were contaminated with enteric bacteria and other potential food poisoning organisms with bacterial counts higher than the acceptable levels. Food vendors therefore need education on food hygiene.

Feglo, P.; Sakyi, K.

2012-01-01

226

Counting glycans revisited.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We present an algorithm for counting glycan topologies of order [Formula: see text] that improves on previously described algorithms by a factor [Formula: see text] in both time and space. More generally, we provide such an algorithm for counting rooted or unrooted [Formula: see text]-ary trees with labels or masses assigned to the vertices, and we give a "recipe" to estimate the asymptotic growth of the resulting sequences. We provide constants for the asymptotic growth of [Formula: see text]-ary trees and labeled quaternary trees (glycan topologies). Finally, we show how a classical result from enumeration theory can be used to count glycan structures where edges are labeled by bond types. Our method also improves time bounds for counting alkanes.

Böcker S; Wagner S

2013-08-01

227

Counting Belief Propagation  

CERN Multimedia

A major benefit of graphical models is that most knowledge is captured in the model structure. Many models, however, produce inference problems with a lot of symmetries not reflected in the graphical structure and hence not exploitable by efficient inference techniques such as belief propagation (BP). In this paper, we present a new and simple BP algorithm, called counting BP, that exploits such additional symmetries. Starting from a given factor graph, counting BP first constructs a compressed factor graph of clusternodes and clusterfactors, corresponding to sets of nodes and factors that are indistinguishable given the evidence. Then it runs a modified BP algorithm on the compressed graph that is equivalent to running BP on the original factor graph. Our experiments show that counting BP is applicable to a variety of important AI tasks such as (dynamic) relational models and boolean model counting, and that significant efficiency gains are obtainable, often by orders of magnitude.

Kersting, Kristian; Natarajan, Sriraam

2012-01-01

228

Analog multivariate counting analyzers  

CERN Multimedia

Characterizing rates of occurrence of various features of a signal is of great importance in numerous types of physical measurements. Such signal features can be defined as certain discrete coincidence events, e.g. crossings of a signal with a given threshold, or occurrence of extrema of a certain amplitude. We describe measuring rates of such events by means of analog multivariate counting analyzers. Given a continuous scalar or multicomponent (vector) input signal, an analog counting analyzer outputs a continuous signal with the instantaneous magnitude equal to the rate of occurrence of certain coincidence events. The analog nature of the proposed analyzers allows us to reformulate many problems of the traditional counting measurements, and cast them in a form which is readily addressed by methods of differential calculus rather than by algebraic or logical means of digital signal processing. Analog counting analyzers can be easily implemented in discrete or integrated electronic circuits, do not suffer fro...

Nikitin, A V; Armstrong, T P

2003-01-01

229

Inventory count strategies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An important principle of accounting is that asset inventory needs to be correctly valued to ensure that the financial statements of the institution are accurate. Errors is recording the value of ending inventory in one fiscal year result in errors to published financial statements for that year as well as the subsequent fiscal year. Therefore, it is important that accurate physical counts be periodically taken. It is equally important that any system being used to generate inventory valuation, reordering or management reports be based on consistently accurate on-hand balances. At the foundation of conducting an accurate physical count of an inventory is a comprehensive understanding of the process coupled with a written plan. This article presents a guideline of the physical count processes involved in a traditional double-count approach.

Springer WH 3rd

1996-02-01

230

Effect of polluted and leached snow melt waters on the soil bacterial community - quantitative response  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of polluted snow melt waters on the number of soil bacteria was determined using soil cores extracted from an upland catchment in the Cairngorm Mountains, Scotland. Total numbers of viable heterotrophic bacteria and bacterial denitrifiers were determined using plate and MPN counts. Separate soil cores were treated with simulated melt waters representative of either the composition of the first melt fraction from polluted or leached snowpacks. The number of bacteria in the Ah soil horizon (Hodgson, 1974) treated with polluted snow melt (PSM) water decreased significantly by 28-fold, but increased by 11-fold in the BC horizon. Denitrifier numbers decreased by 8-fold in the Ah horizon, but increased by over 2-fold lower down the profile. Overall the bacterial community exposed to simulated leached snow melt (LSM) waters showed little change in the Ah horizon. In the BC horizon, total viable bacterial numbers decreased by 20-fold, but denitrifiers numbers were unaffected. 40 refs. (authors).

Thompson, I.P.; Blackwood, I.L.; Davies, T.D.

1987-01-01

231

Serum procalcitonin in viral and bacterial meningitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: In children with meningitis, there is a difficulty to verify the etiology as viral or bacterial. Therefore, intensive research has been carried out to find new and rapid diagnostic methods for differentiating bacterial from viral meningitis. Objectives: The aim of this work was to study the behavior of procalcitonin (PCT) and whether it can be used to differentiate children with bacterial from those with viral meningitis. We also compared PCT to C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell count. Patients and Methods: Forty children aged from 4 months to 12 years with clinically suspected meningitis were studied. Lumbar punctures were done for all cases before starting initial antibiotic treatment. According to the results of bacterial cultures and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytochemical profile, our patients were classified into two groups: bacterial meningitis group and viral meningitis group. PCT, CRP, and leukocyte count were measured at the time of admission and after 3 days. Results: PCT levels were significantly higher in patients with bacterial meningitis (mean, 24.8 ng/ml) compared to patients with viral meningitis (mean, 0.3 ng/ml) (P2 ng/ml showed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 100%, 66%, 68%, and 100%, respectively, for the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. Conclusion: Serum procalcitonin level has a better diagnostic and prognostic value than CRP or leukocyte count to distinguish between bacterial and viral meningitis. It is also a good indicator of the efficacy of treatment of bacterial meningitis.

Alkholi Usama; Abd Al-monem Nermin; Abd El-Azim Ayman; Sultan Mohamed

2011-01-01

232

Effects of ensiling totally mixed potato hash ration with or without a heterofermentative bacterial inoculant on silage fermentation, aerobic stability, growth performance and digestibility in lambs  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Totally mixed rations (TMRs) that contained 804g/kg potato hash (PH) were ensiled in 1.5 L jars with or without a heterofermentative inoculant, Lalsil Fresh Lactobacillus buchneri (LB) for 3 months. Jars were opened on days, 0, 3, 7, 10, 21, 45, 60 and 90 of ensiling and sampled for fermentation and chemical composition determinations. Aerobic stability was determined on day 90 of ensiling. Treatments were LB treated TMR (LB-TMR) and untreated TMR (U-TMR). Furthermore, three TMRs that contained 801g/kg of either maize (320g DM/kg) or PH (as fed basis) were ensiled for 90 days in 210 L drums for lamb growth and digestibility studies. The ensiled TMRs were: Maize TMR (M-TMR), U-TMR and LB-TMR and were fed to 24 South African Dorper lambs (20± 0.152kg live weight) that were randomly allocated to the three TMR treatments (8 lambs/pretreatment). Inoculation with LB decreased (P <0.05) pH, butyric acid, NH?-N, fibre fractions, CO? production and yeast population while lactic acid, acetic acid and propionic acid concentrations were increased (P <0.05) compared to U-TMR silage. The ensiled LB-TMR was aerobically more stable than U-TMR silage as indicated by lower (P <0.05) CO? production and yeast population and higher concentrations of acetic acid. Higher (P <0.05) feed intake, average daily gain (ADG), nutrient digestibility and N retention occurred in LB-TMR silage compared to the other silages. It was concluded that LB was effective in producing a better quality PHS as indicated by improved fermentation, aerobic stability, lamb growth performance and digestibility of LB-TMR silage.

Nkosi BD; Meeske R

2010-10-01

233

Total body bathing with 'Hibiscrub' (chlorhexidine) in surgical patients: a controlled trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Total body bathing with 'Hibiscrub' (chlorhexidine-detergent) solution was compared with non-medicated soap in 224 patients admitted for surgery. Some 9.6 per cent of patients were found to be nasal carriers of Staphylococcus aureus on admission but 17.3 per cent were colonized at some time during their inpatient stay. Skin colonization by Staph, aureus was only seen in four patients (2 per cent), three were cleared by 'Hibiscrub' bathing but carriage persisted in the other patient who used non-medicated soap. A greater reduction in the total bacterial count on the skin and in the perianal region was seen in patients using 'Hibiscrub'. An increase in the bacterial count was frequently seen in patients using non-medicated soap. Postoperative staphylococcal wound infection occurred in nine patients (4-0 per cent) but nasal or skin carriage was only present in two patients. Although there was no difference in the rates of infection using 'Hibiscrub' or ordinary soap, pre-operative bathing with 'Hibiscrub' may be beneficial as there is a greater reduction in the total bacterial count. The use of non-medicated soap is of dubious value and may even increase the numbers of bacteria on the skin.

Leigh DA; Stronge JL; Marriner J; Sedgwick J

1983-09-01

234

Model Counting in Product Configuration  

CERN Multimedia

We describe how to use propositional model counting for a quantitative analysis of product configuration data. Our approach computes valuable meta information such as the total number of valid configurations or the relative frequency of components. This information can be used to assess the severity of documentation errors or to measure documentation quality. As an application example we show how we apply these methods to product documentation formulas of the Mercedes-Benz line of vehicles. In order to process these large formulas we developed and implemented a new model counter for non-CNF formulas. Our model counter can process formulas, whose CNF representations could not be processed up till now.

Kübler, Andreas; Küchlin, Wolfgang; 10.4204/EPTCS.29.5

2010-01-01

235

Bacterial adhesion affinities of various implant abutment materials.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To investigate bacterial adhesion to various abutment materials. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty volunteers participated in this study. Resin splints were fabricated, and five types of disks were fabricated from pure titanium, gold-platinum alloy, zirconia, alumina, and hydroxyapatite with uniform surface roughness and attached to the buccal surface of each splint. After 4 days of use by the subjects, the plaque accumulated on the disk surfaces was analyzed. The bacterial community structure was evaluated using 16S rRNA gene profiling with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The total bacterial count on each disk was estimated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles were more similar between tested materials than between subjects, suggesting that the bacterial community structures on the abutment material were influenced more by the individuals than by the type of material. However, the total number of bacteria attached to a disk was significantly different among five materials (P < 0.001, Brunner-Langer test for longitudinal data). Fewer bacteria were attached to the gold-platinum alloy than to the other materials. CONCLUSIONS: Gold-platinum alloy appears to be useful material for abutments when considering the accumulation of plaque. However, alternative properties of the abutment material, such as effects on soft tissue healing, should also be taken into consideration when choosing an abutment material.

Yamane K; Ayukawa Y; Takeshita T; Furuhashi A; Yamashita Y; Koyano K

2012-08-01

236

Effect of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zylenicum) supplementation on the intestinal selected bacterial population in Japanese quail  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of adding graded levels (0, 1.0 and 1.5%) of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zylenicum) in the basal diet on the intestinal bacterial population of the Japanese quail. Sixty Japanese quail were randomly distributed into 3 groups. Each treatment contained four replicates (5 birds/replicate). The results showed significant (P<0.05) improvement in lactobacillus of birds fed 1.5% cinnamon. Total bacterial count, coli form and fungi count was significantly (P<0.05) lower compared to the control. In conclusion, 1.5% level of cinnamon may be used for antimicrobial balance in gut for Japanese quail.

A. Baraa Mohamed,; F. A. Huseen; O. T. Jawad

2011-01-01

237

Rainflow counting revisited  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As state of the art method the rainflow counting technique is presently applied everywhere in fatigue analysis. However, the author feels that the potential of the technique is not fully recognized in wind energy industries as it is used, most of the times, as a mere data reduction technique disregarding some of the inherent information of the rainflow counting results. The ideas described in the following aim at exploitation of this information and making it available for use in the design and verification process. (au)

Soeker, H. [Deutsches Windenergie-Institut (Germany)

1996-09-01

238

Bacterial contamination assay of Thai herbal products.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Herbal products have been globally used for health promotion. These products were frequently contaminated with various microorganisms due to raw materials and unhygienic production process. Microbiological quality of several forms is necessary to determine by microbial contamination assay in order to assure the safety of Thai herbal products. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the microbiological quality of Thai herbal products commercially distributed from different regions of Thailand and marketed in Bangkok and Pathumthani province by bacterial contamination assay. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Thai herbal products were randomly collected in Bangkok and Pathum Thani province. Total of 94 samples were in different dosage forms including liquids, pills, capsules and powders. The samples were divided into two groups as Standard Certified and Non-Certified herbal products. The products were tested as plate count method using spread plate technique. The obtained results were interpreted based on Thai Herbal Pharmacopoeia. RESULTS: The total plate counts of Standard Certified samples were ranged between less than 30 to 5.8 x 10(7) cfu/g or ml and the Non-Certified samples were ranged between less than 30 and 6.0 x 10(6) cfu/g or ml. In addition, the results showed that 7 out of 49 (14.28%) of Standard Certified sample group and 5 out of 45 (11.11%) of the Non-Certified sample group were out of the range of acceptable standard. The finding indicated that the microbiological quality of both Standard Certified and Non-Certified Thai herbal products showed no significant differences. CONCLUSION: Majority of the herbal products tested for bacterial contamination were in acceptable standard. However some products were out of acceptable range. Hence the rigorous assessment of quality control and good manufactury practice of Thai herbal production is necessary for safe consumption.

Pocaphan P; Kondo S

2011-12-01

239

Preliminary Study on Efficacy of Leaves, Seeds and Bark Extracts of Moringa oleifera in Reducing Bacterial load in Water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water quality and treatment are the most important issue in everywhere, especially in the developing countries, where safe and clean water is not continuously provided. Moringa oleifera is one of the best natural coagulants that has effectively used in water treatments. The aqueous extract of seeds, leaves and bark of Moringa oleifera was evaluated for their efficacy in reducing total bacterial load, coliform count and faecal coliform counts in the treatment of drinking water. The standard pour plate method and the most probable numbers were used in the determination of bacterial count. The seed extracts showed a great effective in the reduction of total coliform count (55.9%) and faecal coliform count (92.5 %) as compared to bark (45.0 and 90.7 %) and leaf (47.1 and 88.7 %) extracts at 3g/100ml, respectively. From the results from this study, it can be concluded that the Moringa oleifera extracts (seed extracts) can be used as safe as non-toxic natural coagulant materials in household water treatment, especially in rural areas and small communities where no adequate and safe water supply is provided.

Arafat M. Goja; Mohamed S. Osman

2013-01-01

240

Every Square Inch Counts  

Science.gov (United States)

How do scientists measure the abundance of rocky intertidal organisms? How does the subtidal zone differ from the rocky intertidal zone in organisms and abundance? Every Square Inch Counts is an activity that compares the rocky intertidal habitats of Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary to the subtidal benthic habitat in Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary.

 
 
 
 
241

Counting Hexagonal Lattice Animals  

CERN Document Server

We describe Maple packages for the automatic generation of generating functions(and series expansions) for counting lattice animals(fixed polyominoes), in the two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, of bounded but arbitrary width. Our Maple packages(complete with source code) are easy-to-use and available from my website.

Mohammed, M

2002-01-01

242

Radiation intensity counting system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method is described of excluding the natural dead time of the radiation detector (or eg Geiger-Mueller counter) in a ratemeter counting circuit, thus eliminating the need for dead time corrections. Using a pulse generator an artificial dead time is introduced which is longer than the natural dead time of the detector. (U.K.).

1982-01-01

243

Modulo-2 counting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The theory and practice of activity determination by means of a modulo-2 counting technique is discussed. The method, although statistically less precise than the coincidence method, does not suffer from the time jitter and random coincidence effects which can cause problems with the coincidence method. (orig.)

1984-07-01

244

Experimental infection with different bacterial strains in larvae and juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei reared in Santa Catarina State, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study evaluated the pathogenic characteristics of bacteria isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei during an outbreak at the Laboratory of Marine Shrimp, UFSC, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Their virulence potential in larvae and juvenile shrimp and the effects on the total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity and serum agglutinate titre were examined after experimental infection. Bacterial strains were isolated from larvae and adult shrimps, identified by the AP120E biochemical system as: two strains of Vibrio alginolyticus, three of Aeromonas salmonicida and one of Pasteurella multocida sp. and Pasteurella sp. All the bacterial strains isolated in this study caused mortality in shrimp. One strain of V. alginolyticus was responsible for 97.3 and 88.7% mortality in larvae and juvenil shrimps, respectively. The shrimp immunological system was influenced by experimental infection with V. alginolyticus. Decrease in the total haemocyte count and increase in the phenoloxidase activity and the serum agglutinate titre (p V. alginolyticus isolated from larvae and juvenile reared marine shrimp.This study evaluated the pathogenic characteristics of bacteria isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei during an outbreak at the Laboratory of Marine Shrimp, UFSC, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Their virulence potential in larvae and juvenile shrimp and the effects on the total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity and serum agglutinate titre were examined after experimental infection. Bacterial strains were isolated from larvae and adult shrimps, identified by the AP120E biochemical system as: two strains of Vibrio alginolyticus, three of Aeromonas salmonicida and one of Pasteurella multocida sp. and Pasteurella sp. All the bacterial strains isolated in this study caused mortality in shrimp. One strain of V. alginolyticus was responsible for 97.3 and 88.7% mortality in larvae and juvenil shrimps, respectively. The shrimp immunological system was influenced by experimental infection with V. alginolyticus. Decrease in the total haemocyte count and increase in the phenoloxidase activity and the serum agglutinate titre (p V. alginolyticus isolated from larvae and juvenile reared marine shrimp.

Celso Carlos Buglione; Felipe do Nascimento Vieira; José Luiz Pedreira Mouriño; Fabiola Santiago Pedrotti; Adolfo Jatoba; Maurício Laterça Martins

2010-01-01

245

(±)-catechin, a root exudate of the invasive centaurea stoebe lam. (Spotted knapweed) exhibits bacteriostatic activity against multiple soil bacterial populations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Understanding the effects of allelopathic plant chemicals on soil microorganisms is critical to understanding their ecological roles and importance in exotic plant invasion. Centaurea stoebe Lam. (spotted knapweed), an aggressive invasive weed in North America, secretes a racemic mixture of (±)-catechin as a root exudate. This enantiomeric, polyphenolic compound has been reported to have allelopathic effects on surrounding flora and microflora. To better understand how catechin affects microbial communities in the root zone of spotted knapweed, we assessed its impact on the total culturable bacterial component and numerous individual bacterial populations from Romanian (native range) and Montana (invaded range) soils. Catechin suppressed total culturable count numbers from the bacterial community and inhibited growth of some, but not all, soil bacterial populations tested. The native soil bacterial community was significantly more resistant to inhibitory effects of catechin than either the invaded or non-invaded soils. We further show that the inhibitory effect of catechin on nine different soil bacterial strains from seven genera was reversible, demonstrating that it acts via a bacteriostatic rather than bactericidal mechanism. These findings suggest that catechin might affect bacterial community composition and activity in the root zone.

Pollock JL; Kogan LA; Thorpe AS; Holben WE

2011-09-01

246

Potential of a nisin-containing bacterial cellulose film to inhibit Listeria monocytogenes on processed meats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A bacterially produced cellulose film containing nisin was developed and used in a proof-of-concept study to control Listeria monocytogenes and total aerobic bacteria on the surface of vacuum-packaged frankfurters. Bacterial cellulose pellicles were produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinus K3 in Corn Steep Liquor-Mannitol Medium and were subsequently purified before nisin was incorporated into them. Investigations into the effect of nisin concentrations and contact times on incorporation of nisin into cellulose films showed that the lowest nisin concentration and shortest time needed for production of an effective antimicrobial cellulose film were 625IUml(-1) and 6h, respectively. The active cellulose films produced under these conditions did not, however, significantly reduce L. monocytogenes populations on frankfurters (P>0.05) during refrigerated storage for 14 days as compared to the controls. Films produced using a higher concentration of nisin (2500IUml(-1)) with the same exposure time (6h) resulted in a significant (P<0.05) decrease in L. monocytogenes counts on frankfurters of approximately 2logCFUg(-1) after 14 days of storage as compared to the control. Both the above-mentioned films showed a similar effectiveness in reducing total aerobic bacterial populations as measured by total aerobic plate counts on frankfurters. For both films, total aerobic bacterial levels were significantly (P>0.05) reduced by approximately 3.3logCFUg(-1) after 14 days of storage as compared to control samples. Bacterial cellulose films were demonstrated in this study to have potential applicability as antimicrobial packaging films or inserts for processed meat products.

Nguyen VT; Gidley MJ; Dykes GA

2008-05-01

247

Counting Migrant Buddhists  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Religious demography is generally a challenging endeavor, and counting and defining religions and religious identities in an Asian context is notoriously difficult. Buddhists in both Asia and the West have a long tradition of grey zone religiosity, which means that membership and mono-identity is less common than syncretic engagement and hybrid identity. The immigrant Buddhists in the West are far more numerous than the convert and new age Buddhists. Their numbers are, however, extremely difficult to obtain. This article discusses the methodological and theoretical problems in quantifying immigrant religion and the challenges of operationalizing such constraints into concrete methods. The empirical data derive from the author’s engagement in several research projects on Buddhism in Denmark in which traditions from both Theravada and Mahayana groups are represented. While concrete figures are suggested, it is also concluded that further empirical research as well as comparison with more contexts is necessary for the continued refinement of usable methods in counting immigrant religion.

Borup, JØrn

2013-01-01

248

Let's Count to 5  

Science.gov (United States)

In this 5-lesson unit students make groups of zero through five objects and connect number words to the groups. They develop counting strategies and use numerals to record the size of a group. Lessons include familiar nursery rhymes and songs, links to interactive applets, and visual, auditory, and kinesthetic activities. Also included are student activity sheets, questions for students and teachers, assessment and extension ideas.

Burton, Grace M.

2000-01-01

249

Counting nilpotent Galois extensions  

CERN Document Server

We obtain strong information on the asymptotic behaviour of the counting function for nilpotent Galois extensions with bounded discriminant of arbitrary number fields. This extends previous investigations for the case of abelian groups. In particular, the result confirms a conjecture by the second author on this function for arbitrary groups in the nilpotent case. We further prove compatibility of the conjecture with taking wreath products with the cyclic group of order 2 and give examples in degree up to 8.

Klueners, J; Klueners, Juergen; Malle, Gunter

2001-01-01

250

Bacterial viability on surface-modified resin-based dental restorative materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the present investigation was to investigate the viability of early colonizers on the surfaces of resin-based dental restorative materials modified with low-surface tension active agents in comparison with the unmodified material. A novel polymeric sorption material, loaded with two low-surface tension ?(L) active agents (hydroxyfunctional polydimethylsiloxane and polydimethylsiloxane) or a polymerizable active agent (silicone polyether acrylate), was used to modify commonly formulated experimental dental resin composites. The non-modified resin was used as the standard (ST). The viability of Actinomyces naeslundii, Actinomyces viscosus, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus sanguinis on water-stored, polished, and human saliva pellicle-coated specimens was determined using a fluorescence microscope after 8 and 24h. Total, vital, and non-vital cells were calculated from the microscopic images by counting pixels per colour. Means, standard deviations, univariate ANOVA and multiple comparisons with post hoc Scheffé's tests were calculated. t-Test was done to compare 8-h and 24-h bacteria counts. For all tests p<0.05 was chosen. Null hypothesis: the test materials and the standard did not differ either in the total bacterial counts or in the respective bacterium's viability after 8 or 24h. The test materials modified with the silicone polyether acrylate showed lower total bacteria count after 8 or 24h than ST. But all test materials had significantly fewer vital cells after 8 or 24h compared to ST. The contact angle did not influence bacterial adhesion, but low total SFE and a low polar term of SFE resulted in fewer bacteria. The material's chemistry also affected the total and vital cell counts. Different bacteria viabilities needed to be explored to obtain relevant information regarding bacterial adhesion on dental composite resins. The novel sorption material loaded with low ?(L) active agents or with a low ?(L) polymerizable silicone polyether acrylate used to modify the chemistry of the test materials was appropriate to reduce bacterial adhesion or cell viability, respectively. PMID:22673754

Rüttermann, Stefan; Bergmann, Nora; Beikler, Thomas; Raab, Wolfgang H-M; Janda, Ralf

2012-06-04

251

Bacterial viability on surface-modified resin-based dental restorative materials.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of the present investigation was to investigate the viability of early colonizers on the surfaces of resin-based dental restorative materials modified with low-surface tension active agents in comparison with the unmodified material. A novel polymeric sorption material, loaded with two low-surface tension ?(L) active agents (hydroxyfunctional polydimethylsiloxane and polydimethylsiloxane) or a polymerizable active agent (silicone polyether acrylate), was used to modify commonly formulated experimental dental resin composites. The non-modified resin was used as the standard (ST). The viability of Actinomyces naeslundii, Actinomyces viscosus, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus sanguinis on water-stored, polished, and human saliva pellicle-coated specimens was determined using a fluorescence microscope after 8 and 24h. Total, vital, and non-vital cells were calculated from the microscopic images by counting pixels per colour. Means, standard deviations, univariate ANOVA and multiple comparisons with post hoc Scheffé's tests were calculated. t-Test was done to compare 8-h and 24-h bacteria counts. For all tests p<0.05 was chosen. Null hypothesis: the test materials and the standard did not differ either in the total bacterial counts or in the respective bacterium's viability after 8 or 24h. The test materials modified with the silicone polyether acrylate showed lower total bacteria count after 8 or 24h than ST. But all test materials had significantly fewer vital cells after 8 or 24h compared to ST. The contact angle did not influence bacterial adhesion, but low total SFE and a low polar term of SFE resulted in fewer bacteria. The material's chemistry also affected the total and vital cell counts. Different bacteria viabilities needed to be explored to obtain relevant information regarding bacterial adhesion on dental composite resins. The novel sorption material loaded with low ?(L) active agents or with a low ?(L) polymerizable silicone polyether acrylate used to modify the chemistry of the test materials was appropriate to reduce bacterial adhesion or cell viability, respectively.

Rüttermann S; Bergmann N; Beikler T; Raab WH; Janda R

2012-11-01

252

Bacterial Quality of Informally Marketed Raw Milk in Kenitra City, Morocco  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One hundred and twenty samples of raw milk were randomly collected from six dairies in different locations in Kenitra City (Morocco) from October 2010 to March 2011 and were subjected to evaluation. The study has shown that 119 samples were of poor merchantability and 24 samples of bad sanitary quality. Microbiological enumeration revealed that the counts of total mesophilic aerobic bacteria, 6.9x108 cfu mL-1; faecal coliforms, 4.2x107 cfu mL-1 and Staphylococcus aureus, 1.4x105 cfu mL-1. Salmonella sp. were below detection level in all of the samples. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from one sample. The same contamination degree between dairies and districts (p>0.05) was detected. A significant correlation was observed between total bacterial counts and faecal coliforms (r = 0.51; p<0.001) and also between total bacterial counts and temperature of storage (r = -0.37; p<0.001). The microbiological quality of raw milk sold in Kénitra city was judged marginal indicating the need for improved hygienic standards.

Fatine Hadrya; Abdelmoula Elouardi; Doha Benali; Hinde Hami; Abdelmajid Soulaymani; Samira Senouci

2012-01-01

253

An Authomated approach for Bacterial Colony Counter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Counting of bacterial colonies is complex task for microbiologist. To a large extent, accurate colony counting depends on the ability to see colonies distinctly, whether viewed by the naked eye or by an automated instrument. An increased area of focus in Microbiology is the automation of counting methods.. Further in an Industry thousands of such samples are formed per day and colonies on each sample are counted manually, then this becomes a time consuming hectic and error prone job.We proposed a method to count these colonies to save time with accurate results and fast delivery to customers. This proposed research work will count the colonies after 6 to 8 hours priori, saving a lot more time and this work will more efficient because market range for this is about 10,000 only as compare to prior systems.

Shruti Nagpal

2012-01-01

254

Bacterial Meningitis  

Science.gov (United States)

... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Bacterial Meningitis On this Page Causes Risk Factors Transmission Signs & ... severe disease. Laboratory Methods for the Diagnosis of Meningitis This manual summarizes laboratory techniques used in the ...

255

Total lymphoid irradiation of intractable rheumatoid arthritis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eleven patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis were treated with fractionated total lymphoid irradiation, (total dose 20 Gy). Lasting improvement in clinical symptoms was found in four patients during treatment and the remaining patients experienced similar benefit within 2 months of irradiation. There was marked reduction in exacerbations and number of joints involved. Morning stiffness, joint swelling and tenderness decreased. Complications included severe fatigue during treatment and acute bacterial arthritis in multiple joints in one patient. Four patients have since died, one of renal failure, another of cardiogenic shock following surgery 3 and 24 months after total lymphoid irradiation. Both had generalised amyloidosis. The third patient developed joint empyema and died of toxic cardiac failure. The fourth died 3 months after resection of a Kaposi's sarcoma complicated by wound infection which responded to treatment. Immunologically, total lymphoid irradiation resulted in suppression of the absolute lymphocyte count and reduction in T-helper cells, the number of T-suppressor cells remaining unchanged. These data provide evidence of T-cell involvement in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Total lymphoid irradiation can induce sustained improvement in clinical disease activity, but severe, possibly fatal, side-effects cannot be ignored. (author)

1986-01-01

256

Total lymphoid irradiation of intractable rheumatoid arthritis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eleven patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis were treated with fractionated total lymphoid irradiation, (total dose 20 Gy). Lasting improvement in clinical symptoms was found in four patients during treatment and the remaining patients experienced similar benefit within 2 months of irradiation. There was marked reduction in exacerbations and number of joints involved. Morning stiffness, joint swelling and tenderness decreased. Complications included severe fatigue during treatment and acute bacterial arthritis in multiple joints in one patient. Four patients have since died, one of renal failure, another of cardiogenic shock following surgery 3 and 24 months after total lymphoid irradiation. Both had generalised amyloidosis. The third patient developed joint empyema and died of toxic cardiac failure. The fourth died 3 months after resection of a Kaposi's sarcoma complicated by wound infection which responded to treatment. Immunologically, total lymphoid irradiation resulted in suppression of the absolute lymphocyte count and reduction in T-helper cells, the number of T-suppressor cells remaining unchanged. These data provide evidence of T-cell involvement in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Total lymphoid irradiation can induce sustained improvement in clinical disease activity, but severe, possibly fatal, side-effects cannot be ignored.

Herbst, M.; Fritz, H.; Sauer, R.

1986-12-01

257

Bacterial endophthalmitis after suture removal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We present 3 cases of endophthalmitis following suture removal after cataract surgery. In all cases, prophylactic antibiotics had been used. Treatment included vitreous tap and intravitreal antibiotic injection, with only 1 of the 3 patients regaining good visual acuity. Because povidone-iodine 5% is more effective at decreasing conjunctival bacterial counts than topical antibiotics, we recommend this method of conjunctival preparation before suture removal.

Culbert RB; Devenyi RG

1999-05-01

258

Bacterial endophthalmitis after suture removal.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present 3 cases of endophthalmitis following suture removal after cataract surgery. In all cases, prophylactic antibiotics had been used. Treatment included vitreous tap and intravitreal antibiotic injection, with only 1 of the 3 patients regaining good visual acuity. Because povidone-iodine 5% is more effective at decreasing conjunctival bacterial counts than topical antibiotics, we recommend this method of conjunctival preparation before suture removal. PMID:10330655

Culbert, R B; Devenyi, R G

1999-05-01

259

Bacterial growth kinetics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantitative measurement of bacterial growth may be made using a radioassay technique. This method measures, by scintillation counting, the 14CO2 derived from the bacterial metabolism of a 14C-labeled substrate. Mathematical growth models may serve as reliable tools for estimation of the generation rate constant (or slope of the growth curve) and provide a basis for evaluating assay performance. Two models, i.e., exponential and logistic, are proposed. Both models yielded an accurate fit to the data from radioactive measurement of bacterial growth. The exponential model yielded high precision values of the generation rate constant, with an average relative standard deviation of 1.2%. Under most conditions the assay demonstrated no changes in the slopes of growth curves when the number of bacteria per inoculation was changed. However, the radiometric assay by scintillation method had a growth-inhibiting effect on a few strains of bacteria. The source of this problem was thought to be hypersensitivity to trace amounts of toluene remaining on the detector.

1989-01-01

260

Bacterial ventilator-associated pneumonia: bronchoalveolar lavage results are not influenced by dilution.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to determine if bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) quantitative culture results can be used confidently for the diagnosis of bacterial ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) without taking dilution into account. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study. SETTING: A 12-bed medical ICU in a teaching hospital. PATIENTS: A total of 241 BAL (three 50-mL aliquots) were performed in 127 patients presenting a suspicion of VAP. INTERVENTIONS: All consecutive adults who were ventilated more than 48 h were included if VAP was clinically suspected. A dilution factor, k, was developed according to the formula: dilution factor k = concentration of urea in plasma/concentration of urea in lavage fluid recovered. Using this dilution factor, the quantitative bacterial counts were interpreted accordingly with a corrected positive threshold at 10(5) colony forming unit (CFU) mL(-1). MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Eighty-nine BAL with at least one micro-organism > or = 10(4) CFU mL(-1) were identified (37%). In 176 BAL (73%), k ranged from 10 to 100. Median k was 24.4 (9.7-40.2) in VAP group and 24.6 (13.1-57.8) in patients without pneumonia (NS). Among the 25 BAL with micro-organism counts of 10(4) CFU mL(-1), 3 had a dilution factor lower than 10, resulting in corrected counts below the threshold of 10(5) CFU mL(-1). Two out of 15 patients with micro-organism counts of 10(3) CFU mL(-1) had corrected micro-organism counts of 10(5) CFU mL(-1). Finally, only five BAL (2.1%) were misclassified when the dilution correction factor was applied. CONCLUSIONS: Using urea as dilution factor, we showed that BAL dilution variations did not alter the interpretation of BAL quantitative bacterial culture when administrating three aliquots of 50 mL of saline.

Baldesi O; Michel F; Guervilly C; Embriaco N; Granfond A; La Scola B; Portugal H; Papazian L

2009-07-01

 
 
 
 
261

Use of the harmonic mean: On averaging count-rate data for variable-time, fixed-count intervals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The average of count rates from measurements performed by accumulating a fixed total number of counts over a variable time interval should be obtained with harmonic mean. Use of an arithmetic mean in these cases will give intuitively incorrect results. Uncertainty estimators for this harmonically averaged counting rate, such as the standard deviation, must also be suitably transformed to correspond to that for the harmonic mean.

1996-01-01

262

Use of the harmonic mean: On averaging count-rate data for variable-time, fixed-count intervals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The average of count rates from measurements performed by accumulating a fixed total number of counts over a variable time interval should be obtained with harmonic mean. Use of an arithmetic mean in these cases will give intuitively incorrect results. Uncertainty estimators for this harmonically averaged counting rate, such as the standard deviation, must also be suitably transformed to correspond to that for the harmonic mean.

Colle, R.

1996-09-01

263

Effect of detached/re-suspended solids from sewer sediment on the sewage phase bacterial activity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was conducted to make an assessment of the effects of the detached/re-suspended solids on the bacterial activity in the sewage phase of a gravity sewer. A physical sewer-model was used to simulate two extreme conditions: sewage flow without the presence of sewer sediment, and filtered sewage flow with the sediment. The first scenario was to evaluate the effect of the settling of solids on the bacterial activity, while the second scenario was to examine the effect of purely re-suspended or detached solids. The water media were aerated to obtain an initial DO level at about 6 mg/L, and the bacterial activity was monitored at a regular time interval during each operation. Two bacterial cell staining techniques, one using 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenyl indole (DAPI), and another using 5-cyano 2, 3-ditoyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC), were employed to measure the amount of total and respiring bacteria, respectively. Both the DAPI and CTC counts decreased with time in the first case, while that increased with time in the second case. The bacterial activity in a sewer phase was observed to be contributed by smaller sized particles. Also, the solids originated from the sewer sediment through re-suspension or detachment demonstrated a higher bacterial activity than the solids originally present in the sewage.

Leung HD; Chen G; Sharma K

2005-01-01

264

Radioactive-ray counting system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pulses produced substantially in Poisson's distribution are counted and the information relating to the counted pulses is displayed. In order to correct the non-linearity of the count rate characteristic of the counter apparatus, a dead zone of time is established during which pulses are not counted. This dead zone is established by the action of at least one circuit including two retriggerable monostable multivibrators series connected.

Suzuki, K.

1980-04-22

265

Laboratory testing protocol to identify critical factors in bacterial compliance monitoring.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research focused on providing guidelines for water utilities on the collection and handling of routine bacteriological samples and in developing scientifically-based approaches in selecting the most representative sampling locations. A laboratory-scale pilot distribution system was designed comprising two parallel loops, one using unlined cast-iron pipe and one using PVC pipe. Each loop contained six sampling ports, including (1) a distribution main dead end faucet, (2) one long (5.5 m; 18 feet) and (3) one short (0.3 m; 1 foot) household copper service line with threaded hose-bibb taps, (4) one hose-bibb with welded faucet, (5) one dedicated sampling port (modeled after a manufacturer's specifications) and (6) one laboratory-style (PVC) stop-cock sampling port. Residual chlorine concentrations were maintained at 0, 0.5, 1.5 and 2.0 mg/L stages during the course of the experiment. Bacterial samples were collected from the different sampling ports and assayed by membrane filtration and/or spread plate. Nutrient and R2A agars were used for heterotrophic plate counts (HPC), m-Endo agar for total coliform (TC) counts and Chromocult agar for injured bacterial analyses. Several methods of sample collection were tested using various combinations of flushing and tap disinfection, including "first flush" (no flushing, without tap disinfection), flushing only, tap disinfection only (using alcohol or hypochlorite solution) and flushing coupled with tap disinfection. The results indicated that the bacterial counts in samples drawn from dead ends were not significantly different from counts in samples from the other sample port configurations. First flush samples consistently produced the highest bacterial count results. Bacterial counts in samples from the long household copper service line were typically three orders of magnitude higher than in samples from the other sample ports. Thus, there is evidence that long copper household service connections may be unsuitable sample tap configurations for collecting samples intended to represent microbial quality in the distribution system. PMID:12639017

Abbaszadegan, M; Ghatpande, P; Brereton, J; Alum, A; Narasimhan, R

2003-01-01

266

Characterisation of the spoilage bacterial microbiota in oyster gills during storage at different temperatures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The spoilage bacterial community in oyster gill was investigated during storage at 4, 10, and 20 °C. Aerobic plate counts (APCs) and pH values were determined. Total bacterial DNA was extracted from oyster gill and bulk cells of plate count media. The major bacterial species during fresh or different temperatures storage were determined by PCR-DGGE. RESULTS: The initial APC in oyster gill reached 6.70 log CFU g(-1) . PCR-DGGE fingerprinting analysis of the 16S rRNA gene V3 region revealed that most of the strains in fresh oyster gill belonged to genera Lactococcus and Enterobacter. The major spoilage bacteria at 20 °C storage temperature were Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, uncultured bacterium, Cytophaga fermentans, Lactococcus lactis, Pseudoalteromonas sp., Enterococcus mundtii, Clostridium difficile, and uncultured Fusobacteria; those at 10 °C were Lactococcus spp., Lactobacillus curvatus, Weissella confusa, and C. difficile; those at 4 °C were Lactococcus, Weissella, Enterobacter, and Aeromonas, the other minor species were L. curvatus, Pseudomonas sp., and E. mundtii. Lactococcus spp. were the most common main spoilage bacteria in oyster gill during chilled storage. CONCLUSION: PCR-DGGE revealed the bacterial microbiota complexity and major bacteria species in oyster gill for fresh and storage.

Chen H; Liu Z; Wang M; Chen S; Chen T

2013-05-01

267

Bacterial Contamination of Date Fruits During Postharvest Handling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Microbial contamination of date fruits may happen during the different phases of their postharvest handling. In this work, six samples of dates belonging to the varieties Succary, Rothaneh, Barhi, Sebbaka, Umm-AlKhashab and Reshodiah were randomly collected from Buraydah City date marketplace during the seasons 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 and investigated for bacterial contamination using the aliquot obtained from three successive washings with sterilized distilled water for each of fresh, cooled (4oC) and frozen (-10oC) date samples. The results revealed the presence of a high count of aerobacteria as a result of the first washing for fresh dates ranging between 56.7X103 (Sebbaka) and 101.2X103 (Umm AlKhashab) CFU/g date in season 2000/2001. The percentage reduction in the total count of bacteria as a result of the first washing ranged between 84.5 and 98% in season 2000/2001. Likewise in season 2001/2002, the total count due to the first washing of fresh dates ranged between 150X103 (Succary) and 240X103 (Reshodiah), which resulted in a percentage reduction in the total count ranging between 90.5 and 99.5%. The presumptive test indicated the presence of coliform bacteria on the surface of some date varieties after 24-48 h. However, the IMViC reactions showed the presence of Entrobacter aerogenes rather than Escherichia coli which dismissed the likelihood of fecal contamination in the examined samples. On the other hand, Salmonella enteritidis inoculated to date surface failed to survive more than 9 days

Ahmad I. Al-Turki; Hago M. Abdel Magid

2004-01-01

268

Bacterial rheotaxis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The motility of organisms is often directed in response to environmental stimuli. Rheotaxis is the directed movement resulting from fluid velocity gradients, long studied in fish, aquatic invertebrates, and spermatozoa. Using carefully controlled microfluidic flows, we show that rheotaxis also occurs in bacteria. Excellent quantitative agreement between experiments with Bacillus subtilis and a mathematical model reveals that bacterial rheotaxis is a purely physical phenomenon, in contrast to fish rheotaxis but in the same way as sperm rheotaxis. This previously unrecognized bacterial taxis results from a subtle interplay between velocity gradients and the helical shape of flagella, which together generate a torque that alters a bacterium's swimming direction. Because this torque is independent of the presence of a nearby surface, bacterial rheotaxis is not limited to the immediate neighborhood of liquid-solid interfaces, but also takes place in the bulk fluid. We predict that rheotaxis occurs in a wide range of bacterial habitats, from the natural environment to the human body, and can interfere with chemotaxis, suggesting that the fitness benefit conferred by bacterial motility may be sharply reduced in some hydrodynamic conditions.

Marcos; Fu HC; Powers TR; Stocker R

2012-03-01

269

Bacterial adhesion on the titanium and zirconia abutment surfaces.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Microorganisms harboring the oral cavity, mainly those related to periodontal diseases, are the most potential etiologic factor of failure in long-term implant treatment. The material used for abutment components may influence the adhesion and colonization of microbial species. The aim of this in vivo investigation was to evaluate the biofilm formation on machined (MPT) or cast titanium (CPT) and zirconia abutments (Zc). METHODS: Six healthy subjects were enrolled in this randomized crossover clinical investigation. The study was conducted in three phases according to abutment surface evaluated. Each subject used an individual oral splint containing four disks of the same tested substrate, two located in the anterior and two in the posterior region, totalizing 12 specimens for subject. Participants were asked to use the removable intraoral splint during 24 h. DNA checkerboard hybridization method was used to identify and quantify 38 bacterial species colonizing formed biofilm on the abutment substrates. RESULTS: Pathogens and non-pathogens species were found colonizing the three substrates surfaces. Fusobacterium nucleatum, Neisseria mucosa, Porphyromonas aeruginosa, Peptostreptococcus anaerobios, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus parasanguinis, and Tanerella forsythia were the only species with no significant differences over the tested materials (P > 0.05). All the other target species presented significant differences sought by Friedman test (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant difference in the total bacterial count between the three groups. CPT presented the higher mean counts, followed by MPT and Zc. CPT group also showed a higher mean incidence of species than MPT and Zc. The anterior or posterior region of disks placement did not show significant differences in relation to bacterial adhesion.

Nascimento CD; Pita MS; Fernandes FH; Pedrazzi V; de Albuquerque Junior RF; Ribeiro RF

2013-01-01

270

BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To determine the frequency of bacterial vaginosis inpatients presenting with vaginal discharge in Gynaecological outpatient department. Place and Duration ofStudy: From July 2001 to April 2002 in the Gynaecological clinic of Unit-II at Services Hospital. Subject andMethods: Five hundred patients with vaginal discharge were selected for study. They were evaluated usingclinical composite criteria, whiff test, pH metry and microscopy for clue cells on wet mount. Bacterial vaginosiswas diagnosed if any three of the four characters were present Results: The overall frequency of bacterialvaginosis was 27%, 70% had coital frequency of more than twice a week and 40.7% had history of abortions.Conclusion: Bacterial vaginosis was the commonest cause of vaginal discharge in women attending theGynaecological clinic.

RUBINA SOHAIL

2004-01-01

271

Total-count calibration blocks for use in uranium exploration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Transportable calibration blocks for field scintillometers and borehole probes were manufactured from concrete and installed at calibration sites in Denmark and Greece. The concrete mixes were prepared from aggregates of quartz sand and crushed uranium-thorium ore. Water-reducing agents and silica dust added to the cement paste produced concretes of acceptable porosity and pore structure. The content of ore was adjusted to provide block grades of approximately 2, 140, and 540 units of radioelement concentration (Ur). Thorium was estimated to contribute 0.39 +- 0.02 Ur per ppm Th. The adopted reference grades include concrete pore moisture and are normalized to an effective atomic number of 13. Grade instability due to radon emanation was not detected. (author)

1983-01-01

272

Total-Count Calibration Blocks for use in uranium Exploration  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Transportable calibration blocks for field scintillometers and borehole probes were manufactured from concrete and installed at calibration sites in Denmark and Greece. The concrete mixes were prepared from aggregates of quartz sand and crushed uranium-thorium ore. Hater-reducing agents and silica dust added to the cement paste produced concretes of acceptable porosity and pore structure. The content of ore was adjusted to provide block grades of approximately 2, 140, and 540 units of radioelement concentration (Ur). Thorium was estimated to contribute 0.39 ± 0.02 Ur per ppm Th. The adopted reference grades include concrete pore moisture and are normalized to an effective atomic number of 13. Grade instability due to radon emanation was not detected.

LØvborg, Leif

1983-01-01

273

Pulse loss and counting statistics with a digital spectrometer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A commercially available digital ?-ray spectrometer is tested at high count rates using a germanium detector and appropriate pulse processing parameters. Correction for pulse loss due to dead time and pileup is done by extending the live time according to the Gedcke-Hale method. The accuracy of this count-loss correction technique is tested experimentally up to saturation count rates. Also the statistical uncertainty applicable to the total number of counts in arbitrary regions of interest in ?-ray spectra is studied experimentally, for measurements at fixed real time as well as at fixed live time. The results are similar to those found with traditional spectrometers using analog technology.

2000-01-01

274

Bacterial Adhesion & Blocking Bacterial Adhesion  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Microorganisms are an integral part of all natural ecosystems, and as such are ubiquitous in nature. They often live adhered to or in association with surfaces of either organic or inorganic nature, and all surfaces will almost inevitably be colonized by microorganisms. This often results in the formation of highly complex sessile communities, referred to as biofilms. Such microbial communities are often highly dynamic and heterogeneous in nature. Microbial biofilms are of great importance in a wide range of natural processes and industrial settings, from the commensal flora of the gastrointestinal tract to the microbial flocs in waste water treatment facilities. Microbial biofilms may however also cause a wide range of industrial and medical problems, and have been implicated in a wide range of persistent infectious diseases, including implantassociated microbial infections. Bacterial adhesion is the first committing step in biofilm formation, and has therefore been intensely scrutinized. Much however, stillremains elusive. Bacterial adhesion is a highly complex process, which is influenced by a variety of factors. In this thesis, a range of physico-chemical, molecular and environmental parameters, which influence the transition from a planktonic lifestyle to a sessile lifestyle, have been studied. Protein conditioning film formation was found to influence bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation considerable, and an aqueous extract of fish muscle tissue was shown to significantly reduce or delay bacterial biofilm formation of a range of urinary tract infectious E.coli and Klebsiella isolates. Several other proteinaceous coatings were also found to display anti-adhesive properties, possibly providing a measure for controlling the colonization of implant materials. Several other parameters controlling bacterial adhesion were also studied. Subinhibitory concentrations of certain antimicrobial compounds and several surfactants were found to significantly affect bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, most likely by affecting the production of biofilm extracellular polymeric matrix components. These substances may both mediate and stabilize the bacterial biofilm. Finally, several adhesive structures were examined, and a novel physiological biofilm phenotype in E.coli biofilms was characterized, namely cell chain formation. The autotransporter protein, antigen 43, was implicated in this structural biofilm phenotype, at least in some bacterial strains. Understanding the fundamental requirements of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation may aid in the development of effective preventive measures.

Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

2008-01-01

275

The application of viable count procedures for measuring viable cells in the various marine environments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: To investigate whether the use of direct viable count (DVC), quantitative viable count (qDVC), colony-forming units and the contribution of capsule-bearing bacteria to the total number of bacteria and esterase-active bacteria could be used to clearly differentiate viable cells in various trophic status of seawater. METHODS AND RESULTS: Hundred and four marine isolates from various marine environments in Turkey (Western Black Sea, northern part of the Sea of Marmara, Northern Aegean Sea and eastern part of the Sea of Marmara) were screened. Seawater samples were taken from the surface (the upper 0-30 cm) and deeper layers (from 5 to 500 m) of the sea at different time periods between February 2002 and June 2007. For the assessment of cell elongation, minor modifications were made on DVC procedure in order to optimize the concentration of yeast extract and incubation time for enumeration of bacteria in response to nutrient addition. The best results were obtained when the yeast extract was used at a final concentration of 250 mg l(-1) (at 35 degrees C 24 h incubation) for bacteria isolated from eutrophic areas and a final concentration of 50 mg l(-1) for those selected from oligotrophic areas. A positive correlation was found between the trophic level and the level of metabolically active bacteria. Among these methods, the bacterial number obtained by qDVC is higher than those gained by other methods. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the qDVC procedure could easily differentiate between viable cells and dormant or dead cells. We suggest that this method may be applicable to detecting the level of metabolic potential of bacterial communities in marine environments. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The study resulted in increased knowledge on the applicability of the qDVC method that arranges the substrate amount and incubation time as well as on the comparison of various viable bacteria count procedures related to trophic situation of seawater samples.

Altug G; Cardak M; Ciftci PS; Gurun S

2010-01-01

276

Software coincidence counting.  

Science.gov (United States)

A system designed for absolute activity measurement is described using a digital method. The system is based on data recording from a coincidence measurement and subsequent software processing of the data records. The data acquisition device collects amplitudes of individual pulses from analogue-to-digital converters and supplies them with time information. Software processing of data records from this system offers many benefits in comparison to conventional coincidence counting, for example it enables to perform time and pulse height analysis and setting of coincidence parameters by using a wide variety of evaluation methods to one data record. The digital system was tested with a 4pi beta-gamma coincidence detectors arrangement consisting of a proportional counter and two NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors. The results obtained with a 60Co source are presented. PMID:11839026

Havelka, Miroslav; Auerbach, Pavel; Sochorová, Jana

277

Software coincidence counting.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A system designed for absolute activity measurement is described using a digital method. The system is based on data recording from a coincidence measurement and subsequent software processing of the data records. The data acquisition device collects amplitudes of individual pulses from analogue-to-digital converters and supplies them with time information. Software processing of data records from this system offers many benefits in comparison to conventional coincidence counting, for example it enables to perform time and pulse height analysis and setting of coincidence parameters by using a wide variety of evaluation methods to one data record. The digital system was tested with a 4pi beta-gamma coincidence detectors arrangement consisting of a proportional counter and two NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors. The results obtained with a 60Co source are presented.

Havelka M; Auerbach P; Sochorová J

2002-01-01

278

Counting plane Mumford curves  

CERN Multimedia

A $p$-adic version of Gromov-Witten invariants for counting plane curves of genus $g$ and degree $d$ through a given number of points is discussed. The multiloop version of $p$-adic string theory considered by Chekhov and others motivates us to ask how many of these curves are Mumford curves, i.e.\\ uniformisable by a domain at the boundary of the Bruhat-Tits tree for $\\PGL_2(\\mathbb{Q}_p)$. Generally, the number of Mumford curves depends on the position of the given points in $\\mathbb{P}^2$. With the help of tropical geometry we find configurations of points through which all curves of given degree and genus are Mumford curves. The article is preceded by an introduction to some concepts of $p$-adic geometry and their relation to string theory.

Bradley, Patrick Erik

2008-01-01

279

Heterotrophic plate count methodology in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the United States (US), the history of bacterial plate counting (BPC) methods used for water can be traced largely through Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (Standard Methods). The bacterial count method has evolved from the original Standard Methods (1st edition, 1905) plate count which used nutrient gelatin and incubation at 20 degrees C for 48 h, to the HPC method options in the latest edition of Standard Methods that provide greater flexibility of application, depending on the data needs of the water analyst. The use of agar-agar as a gelling agent, replacing gelatin, allowed the use of higher incubation temperatures and resulted in the "body temperature count" (37 degrees C) found in the 3rd through the 8th edition of Standard Methods. The change from 37 degrees C incubation to 35+/-0.5 degrees C accommodated laboratories that did both milk and water analyses. By using a single temperature, fewer incubators were needed. The term "standard plate count" (SPC) first appeared in 1960 (11th edition) along with plate count agar. Incubation at 20 degrees C for the plate count was dropped from the 13th to 15th editions and few changes were made in the SPC method from the 11th edition through the 13th editions. Plate count analysis of bottled waters was included in the 14th edition (1975), calling for incubation at 35+/-0.5 degrees C for 72+/-4 h. Perhaps the most significant changes in plate count methods occurred with the 16th edition (1985). The term heterotrophic plate count replaced the standard plate count, and the spread plate (SP) and membrane filter (MF) methods were added along with new media for pour and spread plates (R2A agar and NWRI agar, both low nutrient) and for the membrane filter method (mHPC medium). The use of low nutrient media, lower incubation temperature, and longer incubation times, results in higher plate count results for most water samples. The options currently available, including low and high nutrient media, incubation temperatures (20 degrees C, 28 degrees C or 35 degrees C), plating methods (pour plate (PP), spread plate and membrane filter) and range of incubation times (24, 48, 72 h and 5-7 days) provide great flexibility in the application of the HPC analysis to drinking water. PMID:15145589

Reasoner, Donald J

2004-05-01

280

Heterotrophic plate count methodology in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the United States (US), the history of bacterial plate counting (BPC) methods used for water can be traced largely through Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (Standard Methods). The bacterial count method has evolved from the original Standard Methods (1st edition, 1905) plate count which used nutrient gelatin and incubation at 20 degrees C for 48 h, to the HPC method options in the latest edition of Standard Methods that provide greater flexibility of application, depending on the data needs of the water analyst. The use of agar-agar as a gelling agent, replacing gelatin, allowed the use of higher incubation temperatures and resulted in the "body temperature count" (37 degrees C) found in the 3rd through the 8th edition of Standard Methods. The change from 37 degrees C incubation to 35+/-0.5 degrees C accommodated laboratories that did both milk and water analyses. By using a single temperature, fewer incubators were needed. The term "standard plate count" (SPC) first appeared in 1960 (11th edition) along with plate count agar. Incubation at 20 degrees C for the plate count was dropped from the 13th to 15th editions and few changes were made in the SPC method from the 11th edition through the 13th editions. Plate count analysis of bottled waters was included in the 14th edition (1975), calling for incubation at 35+/-0.5 degrees C for 72+/-4 h. Perhaps the most significant changes in plate count methods occurred with the 16th edition (1985). The term heterotrophic plate count replaced the standard plate count, and the spread plate (SP) and membrane filter (MF) methods were added along with new media for pour and spread plates (R2A agar and NWRI agar, both low nutrient) and for the membrane filter method (mHPC medium). The use of low nutrient media, lower incubation temperature, and longer incubation times, results in higher plate count results for most water samples. The options currently available, including low and high nutrient media, incubation temperatures (20 degrees C, 28 degrees C or 35 degrees C), plating methods (pour plate (PP), spread plate and membrane filter) and range of incubation times (24, 48, 72 h and 5-7 days) provide great flexibility in the application of the HPC analysis to drinking water.

Reasoner DJ

2004-05-01

 
 
 
 
281

Efficacy of intraoperative surgical irrigation with polihexanide and nitrofurazone in reducing bacterial load after nail removal surgery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: A common challenge of nail avulsion surgery is the associated bacterial contamination and infection that can manifest. The toe has a difficult anatomy to antiseptically prepare and properly maintain throughout the surgical procedure, lending to this widespread problem. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a controlled, prospective randomized study to examine the antiseptic efficacy of 3 intraoperative irrigation methods during nail avulsion surgery. METHODS: We compared intraoperative antiseptic irrigation using 0.9% saline solution (24 patients), 0.2% nitrofurazone (22 patients), and 0.1% polihexanide (25 patients). Swab samples were taken from each patient at 5 distinct stages throughout the surgical procedure, and bacterial culture analysis was performed (positive culture rate, total inocula count, reduction of bacterial load, and identification of specific micro-organisms). RESULTS: All 3 intraoperative irrigation methods reduced the total bacterial load, but polihexanide was significantly more effective. Furthermore, no patient from the polihexanide group developed postoperative infection. The reduction in bacterial load was lost for all 3 methods after partial nail avulsion surgery, returning to similar values as the initial presurgical bacterial load. An intraoperative irrigation step after partial nail avulsion with saline, nitrofurazone, and polihexanide was effective in reducing the bacterial load by 95.2%, 96.6%, and 99.5%, respectively. LIMITATIONS: Our patients underwent phenol-based nail avulsion, resulting in no bacterial load after complete nail removal because of the intrinsic antiseptic nature of the phenol. CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative irrigation with 0.1% polihexanide substantially reduced the bacterial load and subsequent infections, highlighting the importance of an irrigation step in nail avulsion surgery.

Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo R; Losa Iglesias ME; Cervera LA; Fernández DS; Prieto JP

2011-02-01

282

[Spatial and seasonal variation of soil culturable-bacterial functional groups in a Mexican tropical dry forest].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Microbial biomass and activity in soils are frequently studied in tropical dry forests, but scarce information is available about the relationships between functional bacterial groups and soil fertility, where relief interacts with rainfall seasonality. The culturable-bacterial groups and nutrients were studied during two consecutive years in soils from two topographic areas of different relief (hilltop vs hillslope) in a tropical dry forest from Chamela Jalisco, Mexico. We expected that seasonal and spatial variation in soil resources availability affects the abundance of functional culturable-bacterial groups. To evaluate this, fifteen soil cores (1kg), 0-5cm depth, were taken in the dry, early rainy and rainy seasons, from each of the ten replicate plots in hilltop and hillslope areas located in three microbasins. We found that hilltop soils were more organic and had higher concentration of labile C and total nutrient forms than hillslope soils, for which these soils had higher counts of colony-forming units (CFU) of total heterotrophic and P solubilizing bacteria. In both hilltop and hillslope soils, C and nutrient concentrations, as well as the counts of CFU of heterotrophic and P solubilizing bacteria generally decreased from the dry to the rainy season during the two study years. In contrast, the counts of CFU nitrifying and cellulolytic bacteria were higher at the hillslope than at the hilltop soils. The seasonal pattern of both groups was opposite to that of heterotrophic bacteria, presumably associated with a decrease in soil labile C and organic matter quality. In conclusion, our study suggests that available C appears to be the main factor that controls the structure of soil bacterial groups and soil fertility, where relief, rainfall seasonality and intra- and inter-annual variations are critical factors that interactively modify bacterial dynamics related to soil C availability in the tropical dry forest.

Montaño NM; Sandoval-Pérez AL; Nava-Mendoza M; Sánchez-Yañez JM; Garcia-Oliva F

2013-03-01

283

[Spatial and seasonal variation of soil culturable-bacterial functional groups in a Mexican tropical dry forest].  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbial biomass and activity in soils are frequently studied in tropical dry forests, but scarce information is available about the relationships between functional bacterial groups and soil fertility, where relief interacts with rainfall seasonality. The culturable-bacterial groups and nutrients were studied during two consecutive years in soils from two topographic areas of different relief (hilltop vs hillslope) in a tropical dry forest from Chamela Jalisco, Mexico. We expected that seasonal and spatial variation in soil resources availability affects the abundance of functional culturable-bacterial groups. To evaluate this, fifteen soil cores (1kg), 0-5cm depth, were taken in the dry, early rainy and rainy seasons, from each of the ten replicate plots in hilltop and hillslope areas located in three microbasins. We found that hilltop soils were more organic and had higher concentration of labile C and total nutrient forms than hillslope soils, for which these soils had higher counts of colony-forming units (CFU) of total heterotrophic and P solubilizing bacteria. In both hilltop and hillslope soils, C and nutrient concentrations, as well as the counts of CFU of heterotrophic and P solubilizing bacteria generally decreased from the dry to the rainy season during the two study years. In contrast, the counts of CFU nitrifying and cellulolytic bacteria were higher at the hillslope than at the hilltop soils. The seasonal pattern of both groups was opposite to that of heterotrophic bacteria, presumably associated with a decrease in soil labile C and organic matter quality. In conclusion, our study suggests that available C appears to be the main factor that controls the structure of soil bacterial groups and soil fertility, where relief, rainfall seasonality and intra- and inter-annual variations are critical factors that interactively modify bacterial dynamics related to soil C availability in the tropical dry forest. PMID:23894994

Montaño, Noé Manuel; Sandoval-Pérez, Ana Lidia; Nava-Mendoza, Maribel; Sánchez-Yañez, Juan Manuel; Garcia-Oliva, Felipe

2013-03-01

284

Neutral sugar composition and gravimetric yield of plant and bacterial fractions of feces.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Separating dietary fiber from other polysaccharides in digesta and feces is necessary to understand its mechanisms of action. A gravimetric method that separates fecal plant and bacterial matter based on size and density was evaluated and modified to determine the plant and bacterial mass of lyophilized whole and blended rat and human feces. Three screen mech combinations (150 and 75 microns, 150 and 35 microns, 35 microns) were used with rat feces. Filtration of a homogenized rat fecal slurry sequentially through 150- and 35-microns-mesh screens versus 150- and 75-microns-mesh screens decreased the gravimetric recovery of bacteria from congruent to 35 to congruent to 25% of fecal dry weight and increased the plant fraction weight. Neutral sugar composition, determined by gas chromatography of alditol acetates, and bacterial counts of the fractions suggested that the decreased yield of bacterial fraction represented removal of plant material and not a loss of bacteria. Rat excreta contained 29.5% (dry weight) total neutral sugar, 88% of which was recovered in the plant material. Human feces containing wheat bran, fractionated with the 150- and 35-microns-mesh screens, was 21% neutral sugar, congruent to 65% of which was in the plant fraction. The plant fractions had more xylose and arabinose and less glucose than the bacterial fractions. Processing samples in a Waring blender had no adverse effect on the rat or human fecal bacterial counts. The use of this gravimetric method in combination with the sugar analysis of the fractions provided a better measure of plant and bacteria than only gravimetric yield.

Cabotaje LM; López-Guisa JM; Shinnick FL; Marlett JA

1990-06-01

285

The effect of crowding stress on bacterial growth and sensory properties of chilled Atlantic salmon fillets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: Atlantic salmon were subjected to minimal preslaughter crowding stress (Control), short-term crowding for 20 min (SS-group), or long-term crowding for 24 h (LS-group). The fish were filleted prerigor, cut into 270 g pieces, and packaged in modified atmosphere (60% CO? and 40% N?). Fillet quality analyses were determined during 22 d of storage at 0.3 °C. Bacterial growth and unpleasant sensory properties increased earlier in the LS-group. The negative effects of long-term preslaughter stress were more pronounced for raw than cooked samples, and more pronounced for odor than flavor. Sequence analyses of bacterial DNA at the end of storage revealed that 100% of the bacteria were comprised by Photobacterium phosphoreum of the SS- and LS-group, whereas the Control group also contained 21% of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum (lactic acid bacteria, LAB). Counting of LAB, using Man-Rogosa-Sharke agar, similarly showed higher numbers of the Control group after 15 d of storage. A total bacterial count of log 6 CFU/g was observed after 15 d of storage of the LS-group, which was 3 and 7 d earlier compared with the Control and SS-group, respectively. Fillet color, texture, and liquid losses were not negatively affected by preslaughter crowding stress. From the sensory and bacterial analyses, it is concluded that long-term crowding stress accelerates bacterial growth and development of unpleasant sensory properties, hence reduces the shelf life of prerigor modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) salmon. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Stressful handling of Atlantic salmon before slaughter resulted in faster reduction of fresh taste and smell, faster bacterial growth, and hence shorter shelf life. The deteriorative effects were more pronounced of raw compared to cooked salmon. Therefore, salmon should be handled carefully in connection with slaughter to avoid impaired welfare and fillet quality, in particularly for fish that is consumed raw, such as sushi.

Hansen AÅ; Rødbotten M; Eie T; Lea P; Rudi K; Mørkøre T

2012-01-01

286

Serum procalcitonin in viral and bacterial meningitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In children with meningitis, there is a difficulty to verify the etiology as viral or bacterial. Therefore, intensive research has been carried out to find new and rapid diagnostic methods for differentiating bacterial from viral meningitis. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to study the behavior of procalcitonin (PCT) and whether it can be used to differentiate children with bacterial from those with viral meningitis. We also compared PCT to C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell count. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty children aged from 4 months to 12 years with clinically suspected meningitis were studied. Lumbar punctures were done for all cases before starting initial antibiotic treatment. According to the results of bacterial cultures and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytochemical profile, our patients were classified into two groups: bacterial meningitis group and viral meningitis group. PCT, CRP, and leukocyte count were measured at the time of admission and after 3 days. METHODS: Forty children aged from 4 months to 12 years with clinically suspected meningitis were studied. Lumbar punctures were done for all cases before starting initial antibiotic treatment. According to the results of bacterial cultures and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytochemical profile, our patients were classified into two groups: bacterial meningitis group and viral meningitis group. PCT, CRP, and leukocyte count were measured at the time of admission and after 3 days. RESULTS: PCT levels were significantly higher in patients with bacterial meningitis (mean, 24.8 ng/ml) compared to patients with viral meningitis (mean, 0.3 ng/ml) (P<0.001). PCT levels in bacterial meningitis group decreased after 3 days of starting treatment, but remained higher than viral meningitis group (mean, 10.5 ng/ml). All CSF parameters, blood leukocytes, and CRP showed overlapping values between the two groups. Serum PCT with cut off value >2 ng/ml showed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 100%, 66%, 68%, and 100%, respectively, for the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. CONCLUSION: Serum procalcitonin level has a better diagnostic and prognostic value than CRP or leukocyte count to distinguish between bacterial and viral meningitis. It is also a good indicator of the efficacy of treatment of bacterial meningitis.

Alkholi UM; Abd Al-Monem N; Abd El-Azim AA; Sultan MH

2011-01-01

287

Heavy metals effect on bacterial communities from coastal sediments.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effects of heavy metals on bacterial communities of sea sediments are studied. Samples were taken from a very polluted zone near Barcelona. Bacterial populations were estimated by the plate count method, using culture medium amended with heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Cr and Cu). The authors have also ma...

Modamio X; Mallo S

288

Effectiveness of bacterial disinfectants on surfaces of mechanical ventilator systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Pathogens in healthcare settings can be transmitted via skin contact and environmental media. This study investigates bacterial contamination rate on surfaces of mechanical ventilator systems and bedside equipment. An experimental study evaluates the effectiveness of 75% alcohol in killing bacteria on surfaces. METHODS: Surface swab sampling was conducted on ventilator systems and patient bedside equipment for detection of bacterial contamination. Surfaces of ventilator systems, such as faceplates, Y-pieces, and water traps, were swab sampled at 0.5, 8, and 24 hours after initial disinfection using a solution containing 0.5% sodium hypochlorite and pasteurization. The 75% alcohol aerosol was sprayed on the surfaces of faceplates, Y-pieces, and water traps on ventilator systems at 24 hours after initial disinfection, and then bacterial levels on the surfaces were evaluated. RESULTS: Detection rates of Staphylococcus aureus were measured on the handrails of mechanical ventilators (64.7%), Y-pieces of breathing circuits (86.7%), and resuscitators (60.0%). Pseudomonas aeruginosa was identified on the surfaces of Y-pieces (6.7%) and water traps (13.3%) of breathing circuits, and also on suction systems (6.7%) and resuscitators (13.3%). The positive rate for total bacterial count was clearly increased on the surfaces of faceplates, Y-pieces, and water traps at 8 hour following disinfection by 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution and pasteurization. Concentrations of S. aureus on surfaces decreased following treatment with 75% alcohol. However, considerable P. aeruginosa growth on water trap surfaces was observed after treatment with 75% alcohol. CONCLUSIONS: The surfaces of ventilator systems, including faceplates, Y-pieces, and water traps, must be disinfected frequently (at least every 8 h) to control bacterial growth. Disinfection using 75% alcohol spray with air drying effectively decreased S. aureus on ventilator system surfaces.

Sui YS; Wan GH; Chen YW; Ku HL; Li LP; Liu CH; Mau HS

2012-02-01

289

Haematogenous infection of a total knee arthroplasty with Klebsiella pneumoniae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This case report describes a prosthetic joint infection due to the haematogenous spread of Klebsiella pneumoniae from a genitourinary focus. Prior to the infection, the patient was diagnosed with early stage prostatic carcinoma, which had been successfully treated with surgery. However, in the time period following surgical treatment, the patient suffered recurring urinary tract infections. During the course of these recurring infections, he developed a concurrent bacterial infection of his total knee arthroplasty. Two sequential joint aspirates revealed K pneumoniae to be the cause. Therefore, two-stage revision total knee arthroplasty was performed. This case reiterates the fact that invasive therapeutic procedures can cause bacteraemia resulting in infection of a joint replacement. We would therefore like to emphasise the importance of prophylactic antibiotic treatment prior to invasive therapies, particularly in organs with potentially large counts of bacteria.

Pepke W; Lehner B; Bekeredjian-Ding I; Egermann M

2013-01-01

290

Bacterial assay for the rapid assessment of antifouling and fouling release properties of coatings and materials.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An assay has been developed to accurately quantify the growth and release behaviour of bacterial biofilms on several test reference materials and coatings, using the marine bacterium Cobetia marina as a model organism. The assay can be used to investigate the inhibition of bacterial growth and release properties of many surfaces when compared to a reference. The method is based upon the staining of attached bacterial cells with the nucleic acid-binding, green fluorescent SYTO 13 stain. A strong linear correlation exists between the fluorescence of the bacterial suspension measured (RFU) using a plate reader and the total bacterial count measured with epifluorescence microscopy. This relationship allows the fluorescent technique to be used for the quantification of bacterial cells attached to surfaces. As the bacteria proliferate on the surface over a period of time, the relative fluorescence unit (RFU) measured using the plate reader also shows an increase with time. This was observed on all three test surfaces (glass, Epikote and Silastic T2) over a period of 4 h of bacterial growth, followed by a release assay, which was carried out by the application of hydrodynamic shear forces using a custom-made rotary device. Different fixed rotor speeds were tested, and based on the release analysis, 12 knots was used to provide standard shear force. The assay developed was then applied for assessing three different antifouling coatings of different surface roughness. The novel assay allows the rapid and sensitive enumeration of attached bacteria directly on the coated surface. This is the first plate reader assay technique that allows estimation of irreversibly attached bacterial cells directly on the coated surface without their removal from the surface or extraction of a stain into solution.

D'Souza F; Bruin A; Biersteker R; Donnelly G; Klijnstra J; Rentrop C; Willemsen P

2010-04-01

291

Bacterial cellulose/boehmite composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Composites based on bacterial cellulose membranes and boehmite were obtained. SEM results indicate that the bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes are totally covered by boehmite and obtained XRD patterns suggest structural changes due to this boehmite addition. Thermal stability is accessed through TG curves and is dependent on boehmite content. Transparency is high comparing to pure BC as can be seen through UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. (author)

2011-01-01

292

Bacterial cellulose/boehmite composites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Composites based on bacterial cellulose membranes and boehmite were obtained. SEM results indicate that the bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes are totally covered by boehmite and obtained XRD patterns suggest structural changes due to this boehmite addition. Thermal stability is accessed through TG curves and is dependent on boehmite content. Transparency is high comparing to pure BC as can be seen through UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. (author)

Salvi, Denise T.B. de; Barud, Hernane S.; Messaddeq, Younes; Ribeiro, Sidney J.L. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho. UNESP. Instituto de Quimica de Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Caiut, Jose Mauricio A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo. Departamento de Quimica - FFCLRP/USP, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

2011-07-01

293

Multivariate ultrametric root counting  

CERN Multimedia

Let $K$ be a field, complete with respect to a discrete non-archimedian valuation and let $k$ be the residue field. Consider a system $F$ of $n$ polynomial equations in $K\\vars$. Our first result is a reformulation of the classical Hensel's Lemma in the language of tropical geometry: we show sufficient conditions (semiregularity at $w$) that guarantee that the first digit map $\\delta:(K^\\ast)^n\\to(k^\\ast)^n$ is a one to one correspondence between the solutions of $F$ in $(K^\\ast)^n$ with valuation $w$ and the solutions in $(k^\\ast)^n$ of the initial form system ${\\rm in}_w(F)$. Using this result, we provide an explicit formula for the number of solutions in $(K^\\ast)^n$ of a certain class of systems of polynomial equations (called regular), characterized by having finite tropical prevariety, by having initial forms consisting only of binomials, and by being semiregular at any point in the tropical prevariety. Finally, as a consequence of the root counting formula, we obtain the expected number of roots in $(K...

Avendano, Martin

2011-01-01

294

Bacterial and toxic pollutants in lakes of river Indus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Indus river water gets polluted through three sources viz., municipal wastewater, industrial wastewater and agricultural runoff through drainage structure. The lakes in Sindh (fed by the river Indus), constitute the important source of drinking water, recreation and fish, etc. and offer employment for many. A large number of chemicals that either exist naturally in the land dissolve in the water, or human excreta added due to human activity thereby, contaminating and leading to various diseases. In order to assess the microbial contamination, detection of pollutant indicator organisms (coliform group), using Coliform test was performed by Most Probable Number technique and total bacterial count by Pour Plate method. The level of various heavy metals (arsenic, calcium, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, mercury, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium, selenium and zinc) and electrolytes (Cl/sup -1/, HCO/sub 3/sup -1/) was monitored in water and fish meat samples collected from Haleji and Keenjhar lakes to assess the impact of toxic pollutants. Metal concentrations in water and fish samples were estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Total coliform organisms were found in both the lake water samples, exceeded in 38% samples than the acceptable limits, while total average aerobic bacterial count analyzed in both the lakes was 102 CFU/ml - 1010 CFU/ml. Toxic chemical contaminants were estimated below the detection limit, while other several (essential) metal ions were found within the range set by WHO, except arsenic, cadmium and iron that exceeded slightly in 12.5% water samples. This study was designed to ensure the access of safe and potable water to urban and rural areas of Sindh. Further, the findings will help public/private enterprises and public health institutions to work for the people health friendly policies. (author)

2011-01-01

295

Bacterial colonization of domestic reverse-osmosis water filtration units.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have analyzed the bacterial content of water from the reservoirs of 300 reverse-osmosis units installed in households. The heterotrophic plate counts on R2A medium (20 and 35 degrees C) ranged from 0 to 10(7) colony forming units per millilitre (cfu/mL). Most reservoirs contained water with bacterial counts between 10(4) and 10(5) cfu/mL. The bacteria identified were Pseudomonas (not aeruginosa), Alcaligenes or Moraxella, Acinetobacter, Flavobacterium, and Chromobacterium. This report emphasizes the importance of bacterial colonization by heterotrophic bacteria in water reservoirs from domestic reverse-osmosis units.

Payment P

1989-11-01

296

Counting system for nuclear medicine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The counting system model 135002 for nuclear medicine is presented, having as basic use the examination of thyroid function and 'in vivo' and 'in vitro' counting experiences of radioactive material. The system is evaluated and approved by Nuclear Medicine Service of Pedro Ernesto University Hospital. (C.G.C.)

1992-01-01

297

Detection limits for radioactivity counting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, the detection limits for radioactivity counting are determined. Several decision rules are presented and applied to calculate the critical value. The value obtained by the best approximation for the alpha particles counting was used to evaluate the minimum detectable concentration in water, soil and air.

Mani? G.; Mani? Vesna M.; Vesi? D.

2005-01-01

298

Galaxy number counts: Pt. 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the Prime Focus CCD Camera at the Isaac Newton Telescope we have determined the form of the B and R galaxy number-magnitude count relations in 12 independent fields for 21m ccd m and 19m ccd m5. The average galaxy count relations lie in the middle of the wide range previously encompassed by photographic data. The field-to-field variation of the counts is small enough to define the faint (B m5) galaxy count to ±10 per cent and this variation is consistent with that expected from galaxy clustering considerations. Our new data confirm that the B, and also the R, galaxy counts show evidence for strong galaxy luminosity evolution, and that the majority of the evolving galaxies are of moderately blue colour. (author).

1991-01-01

299

Gamma radiation effects on bacterial contamination and organoleptic characteristics of frozen Ponaeus Monodon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was the application of irradiation process to decrease bacterial contamination of the penaeus monodon. The shrimp samples were obtained from Hormozgan and were sent to the microbiological laboratory. Bacterial contamination of shrimp were determined by counting the aerobic mesophil bacteria, Staphylococcus areus, Coliforms, Vibrio. parahaemolyticus and Salmonella. The shrimp samples were irradiated at different doses of gamma ray. Finally, the optimum dose of the gamma ray for bacterial decontamination of shrimp, especially of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus, was obtained to be 2 kGy. Also, the chemical factors of irradiated and non-irradiated samples such as Protein, Fat, total volatile Nitrogen, Non Protein Nitrogen, Peroxide Value and Amino Acids were measured. There were not any important difference among them. Also, there were not any significant difference between total volatile Nitrogen and Peroxide Value (P>0.05) for the irradiated and non-irradiated shrimp samples. Study of bacterial contaminations of the irradiated and non irradiated samples after 12 months showed that irradiation by 2 kGy can control the microbial contaminations. Four types of films for packaging: Pet.pe, Pp.pe, Bopp, and Pe.20 were used for storage of the irradiated and non irradiated shrimp samples in-18degreeC during 12 months. All of the packages were studied on the aspects of color, odor, tissue and taste of shrimp samples and elasticity and pressing of packages. For the irradiated and non irradiated shrimp Pet.pe and Pp.pe were preferred, respectively.

2010-01-01

300

Efficacy of preoperative and intraoperative skin and nail surgical preparation of the foot in reducing bacterial load.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: A common problem associated with toenail removal surgery is the accompanying bacterial infection that often ensues. The foot has a particularly difficult anatomy to prepare antiseptically for surgery, which contributes to this wide-spread problem. OBJECTIVE: To compare the antiseptic efficacy of two skin pretreatment methods before toenail avulsion surgery. METHODS: Two presurgical methods were performed on 24 patients each (48 patients total). Swab samples were taken from each patient at five distinct stages (pretreatment, post-treatment, after surgery, after saline solution irrigation of the nail bed, and after phenol application) throughout the surgical procedure, and bacterial culture analysis was performed (total inocula count and identification of specific microorganisms). RESULTS: We found both methods to be effective at reducing the initial bacterial load when used at pretreatment, but the reduction in bacterial load was lost after the nail avulsion surgery, achieving values similar to the initial bacterial load before the presurgical scrub, from 5.17 and 5.04 log(10) colony-forming units (CFU)/cm(2) to 4.86 and 5.07 log(10) CFU/cm(2), respectively. An interoperative irrigation step was effective in reducing the bacterial load by 95.2% and 95.3%, respectively. STUDY LIMITATIONS: Our patients underwent phenol-based nail avulsion, resulting in no bacterial load after complete nail removal because of the intrinsic antiseptic nature of the phenol. CONCLUSIONS: Incorporation of intraoperative irrigation of sterile saline solution after nail avulsion surgery reduces potential bacterial load. Every effort should be made to lower the risk of contamination after nail plate avulsion.

Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo R; Losa Iglesias ME; Alou Cervera L; Sevillano Fernández D; Prieto Prieto J

2010-08-01

 
 
 
 
301

Bacterial Growth  

Science.gov (United States)

Dr. Brett Finlay shows how bacteria can grow rapidly to incredible numbers, and also explains what limits this explosive growth. This resource would be great preparation material for a classroom discussion or video presentation for both the students and the teacher. This visual helps further broaden the knowledge of students in both the upper high school and college undergraduate on bacterial growth. The lecture is featured on the DVD 2000 and Beyond: Confronting the Microbe Menace, available free from HHMI. The video is 54 seconds long and available on WMV (10MB) and MOV (8MB). All Infection Disease videos can be found at http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/disease/video.html .

Howard Hughes Medical Institute (;)

2007-03-27

302

Controlling of bacterial flora contaminating animal diet and its components by gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The total bacterial counts in complete diets were found to range between 103-105 cells/g, which they ranged between 102 and 106 in the main components. One hundred and sixteen bacterial colonies were isolated from the animal diet samples and found to be gram positive belonging to three genera: Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Bacillus. The most radioresistant bacteria isolated at 7.5 KGy were identified as B. megaterium, B. licheniformis, B. pumilus, B.circulans and B.laterosporus. The D10 values for the bacteria contaminated the diet samples ranged between 928 Gy and 2199 Gy. Meanwhile, the D10 values of staph.aureus and Strapt.faecalis artificially contaminated the diet were 400 Gy and 1136 Gy, respectively. It could be recommended from obtained results that dose level of 10 KGy is quite sufficient to eliminate all pathogens from animal diets or their components. In addition, it decreases the microbial count to minimum counts and hence increases the diet shelf life.1 fig.,4 tab.

1991-01-01

303

Log-supermodular functions, functional clones and counting CSPs  

CERN Multimedia

Motivated by a desire to understand the computational complexity of counting constraint satisfaction problems (counting CSPs), particularly the complexity of approximation, we study functional clones of functions on the Boolean domain, which are analogous to the familiar relational clones constituting Post's lattice. One of these clones is the collection of log-supermodular (lsm) functions, which turns out to play a significant role in classifying counting CSPs. In our study, we assume that non-negative unary functions (weights) are available. Given this, we prove that there are no functional clones lying strictly between the clone of lsm functions and the total clone (containing all functions). Thus, any counting CSP that contains a single non-lsm function is computationally as hard as any problem in #P. Furthermore, any non-trivial functional clone (in a sense that will be made precise below) contains the binary function "implies". As a consequence, all non-trivial counting CSPs (with non-negative unary wei...

Bulatov, Andrei A; Goldberg, Leslie Ann; Jerrum, Mark

2011-01-01

304

Multiple drug resistance in bacterial isolates from liquid wastes generated in central hospitals of Nepal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Healthcare liquid wastes are the reservoirs of harmful infectious agents such as the pathogens and multiple drug resistant microorganisms. Potential infectious risks include the spread of infectious diseases and microbial resistance from health-care establishments into the environment and thereby posing risks of getting infections and antibiotic resistance in the communities. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to assess the bacterial load of healthcare liquid waste generated in central hospitals and to explore the antimicrobial resistance pattern of these bacterial isolates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive study was carried out in 10 conveniently selected central hospitals of Nepal during the period of May to December 2008. Effluent specimens from each hospital were subjected to total viable count studies by spread plate method in nutrient agar plate and incubated for 24 hours at 37 °C using standard laboratory protocol. Similarly, all the specimens were cultured in Mac Conkey Agar media supplemented with 30 ?g/ml of Chloramphenicol and 20 ?g/ml of Gentamycin for the enumeration of multiple drug resistant (MDR) bacteria, which were further subjected to in-vitro antibiotic susceptibility test by modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion technique for resistance patterns. RESULTS: Total viable counts of hospital effluents significantly exceeded the standard heterotrophic plate count (p=0.000). Similarly, the numbers of multiple drug resistant bacteria were alarmingly high in three (more than 30% in 2 and 50% in 1) hospitals of this study. Drug resistant hospital effluent isolates showed simultaneous resistance for most of the antibiotics including Penicillin, Cephalosporin, Cotrimoxazole, Gentamycin and Quinolones. CONCLUSION: Healthcare liquid wastes were laden with MDR bacteria and seemed to pose a huge public health threat in the transfer of such resistance to the bacterial pathogens causing community acquired infections, thereby limiting our antibiotic pool.

Sharma DR; Pradhan B; Mishra SK

2010-01-01

305

Bacterial contamination of healthcare workers' uniforms: a randomized controlled trial of antimicrobial scrubs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers' (HCWs) uniforms become contaminated with bacteria during normal use, and this may contribute to hospital-acquired infections. Antimicrobial uniforms are currently marketed as a means of reducing this contamination. OBJECTIVE: To compare the extent of bacterial contamination of uniforms and skin when HCWs wear 1 of 2 antimicrobial scrubs or standard scrubs. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: University-affiliated, public safety net hospital PARTICIPANTS: Hospitalist physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, housestaff, and nurses (total N?=?105) working on internal medicine units. INTERVENTION: Subjects were randomized to wear standard scrubs or 1 of 2 antimicrobial scrubs. MEASUREMENTS: Bacterial colony counts in cultures taken from the HCWs' scrubs and wrists after an 8-hour workday. RESULTS: The median (interquartile range) total colony counts was 99 (66-182) for standard scrubs, 137 (84-289) for antimicrobial scrub type A, and 138 (62-274) for antimicrobial scrub type B (P?=?0.36). Colony counts from participants' wrists were 16 (5-40) when they wore standard scrubs and 23 (4-42) and 15 (6-54) when they wore antimicrobial scrubs A and B, respectively (P?=?0.92). Resistant organisms were cultured from 3 HCWs (4.3%) randomized to antimicrobial scrubs and none randomized to standard scrubs (P?=?0.55). Six participants (5.7%) reported side effects to wearing scrubs, all of whom wore antimicrobial scrubs (P?=?0.18). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that either antimicrobial scrub product decreased bacterial contamination of HCWs' uniforms or skin after an 8-hour workday.

Burden M; Keniston A; Frank MG; Brown CA; Zoucha J; Cervantes L; Weed D; Boyle K; Price C; Albert RK

2013-07-01

306

Bacterial Ecology  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bacterial ecology is concerned with the interactions between bacteria and their biological and nonbiological environments and with the role of bacteria in biogeochemical element cycling. Many fundamental properties of bacteria are consequences of their small size. Thus, they can efficiently exploit very dilute solutions of organic matter and their potential growth rates are very high. Bacteria do not have a cytoskeleton and they are covered by a rigid cells wall. Therefore they can only take up dissolved low-molecular-weight compounds from their surroundings; when bacteria exploit polymeric compounds these must first be undergo extracellular hydrolysis. Bacteria have a great diversity with respect to types of metabolism that far exceeds the metabolic repertoire of eukaryotic organisms. Bacteria play a fundamental role in the biosphere and certain key processes such as, for example, the production and oxidation of methane, nitrate reduction and fixation of atmospheric nitrogen are exclusively carried out by different groups of bacteria. Some bacterial species – ‘extremophiles’ – thrive in extreme environments in which no eukaryotic organisms can survive with respect to temperature, salinity or pH. Key Concepts:Key Concepts: * Fundamental properties of bacteria are related to their small size and lack of cytoskeleton. * Bacteria display a great diversity in types of metabolism. * Bacteria play a key role in the biosphere in terms of transfer of matter and energy. * A number of fundamental biogeochemical processes are carried exclusively by bacteria. * Bacteria play an important role in all types of habitats including some that cannot support eukaryotic life.

Fenchel, Tom

2011-01-01

307

CCCP: A CCD Controller for Counting Photons  

CERN Document Server

CCCP, a CCD Controller for Counting Photons, is presented. This new controller uses a totally new clocking architecture and allows to drive the CCD in a novel way. Its design is optimized for the driving of EMCCDs at up to 20MHz of pixel rate and fast vertical transfer. Using this controller, the dominant source of noise of EMCCDs at low flux level and high frame rate, the Clock Induced Charges, were reduced to 0.001 - 0.0018 electron/pixel/frame (depending of the electron multiplying gain), making efficient photon counting possible. CCCP will be deployed in 2009 on the ESO NTT through the 3D-NTT1 project and on the SOAR through the BTFI project.

Daigle, Olivier; Guillaume, Christian; Lessard, Simon; Carignan, Claude; Blais-Ouellette, Sebastien

2008-01-01

308

KANDUNGAN BAKTERI TOTAL Coli DAN Escherechia coli / FECAL Coli AIR MINUM DARI DEPOT AIR MINUM ISI ULANG DI JAKARTA, TANGERANG, DAN BEKASI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study on drinking water quality produced by drinking water refill depots (AMIU) was done in Jakarta, Tangerang and Bekasi. Analysis unit of the study was drinking water refill depots with the sample number of 38 depots. For every selected depot, laboratory analysis were done for natural water (clean water) and drinking water produced by the depots. The total number of sample were 76 water samples. One of the parameters analyzed was microbiological contents, namey total coli bacterial count and Escherechia coli / fecal coli. For collecting information about the sources and storage of natural waters, drinking water treatment processes, treatment equipment, and so on, the depots operators and drinking water refill association personnel were interviewed as well as the water treatment equipment distributors. Based on the interview, it can be stated that the main principles of the water treatment processes from natural water to become drinking water in the AMIU depots were only filtration and disinfections processes. Natural water sources mostly was mountain spring water (89.5%), originated from Bogor (60.5%). and Sukabumi (26.3%). According to the results of laboratory analysis, it can be stated that the percentages of the natural water samples which were not complying with the standards of total coli bacterial count was 31.6% and that of fecal coli was 28.9%. Whereas for drinking water produced by the depots, the percentages of water samples which were not complying with the total coli bacterial count and fecal coli standards were 28.9% and 18.4% respectively. Additionally, the drinking water treatment processes were not sufficient for natural water with the high contents (around 1.600 MPN/100 ml) of total coli and fecal coli bacterial.

Athena Athena; Sukar Sukar; Haryono Haryono

2012-01-01

309

Galaxy number counts: Pt. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present galaxy number-magnitude counts and colour distributions from objectively defined catalogues of faint (bjFj, rF and I pass-bands, determined from COSMOS machine measurements of Anglo-Australian Telescope photographs. We have recalibrated three further fields analysed in a similar way in earlier papers, and used all six to investigate the variation in count normalization from field-to-field. The new data define the mean faint galaxy number-magnitude relation to ±9 per cent. The aim is to determine whether the previously observed large scatter in the faint counts is due to galaxy clustering or some other systematic effect. (author).

1991-01-01

310

Integer sequences counting periodic points  

CERN Document Server

An existing dialogue between number theory and dynamical systems is advanced. A combinatorial device gives necessary and sufficient conditions for a sequence of non-negative integers to count the periodic points in a dynamical system. This is applied to study linear recurrence sequences which count periodic points. Instances where the $p$-parts of an integer sequence themselves count periodic points are studied. The Mersenne sequence provides one example, and the denominators of the Bernoulli numbers provide another. The methods give a dynamical interpretation of many classical congruences such as Euler-Fermat for matrices, and suggest the same for the classical Kummer congruences satisfied by the Bernoulli numbers.

Everest, G; Ward, T; Everest, Graham; Puri, Yash; Ward, Thomas

2002-01-01

311

The randomness of accident counts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Road accident occurrence is generally assumed to be governed by a random process. Experience analysing accident count series indicates a need for testing the randomness of such a series, and a simple statistical test is described. The test is a modified one-sample runs test, which can be used to assist the identification of three distinct patterns constituting non-randomness (namely, a trend, a discontinuity and over-correction). The test is designed for the preliminary analysis of accident count data, and its use is demonstrated, using both artificial and actual accident count series. PMID:3730092

Nicholson, A J

1986-06-01

312

The randomness of accident counts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Road accident occurrence is generally assumed to be governed by a random process. Experience analysing accident count series indicates a need for testing the randomness of such a series, and a simple statistical test is described. The test is a modified one-sample runs test, which can be used to assist the identification of three distinct patterns constituting non-randomness (namely, a trend, a discontinuity and over-correction). The test is designed for the preliminary analysis of accident count data, and its use is demonstrated, using both artificial and actual accident count series.

Nicholson AJ

1986-06-01

313

Bacterial role in the decomposition of marine-derived material (penguin guano) in the terrestrial maritime Antarctic.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bacterial decomposition of Adelie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) guano was followed during 42 days exposure in a rookery in Admiralty Bay, King George Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Bacterial abundance, both total counts (TC) determined by epifluorescence microscopy, and colony forming units (CFU) determined on nutrient media, was enhanced by an air temperature of between 7 and 11 degrees C, while temperatures above and below this negatively affected abundance. Optimal temperatures for guano decomposition ranged from 3 to 11 degrees C. Increasing wind velocity positively influenced photoautotrophic bacteria (TAC: total autotrophic bacteria count); photoautotrophs were enumerated during epifluorescence microscopy by their autofluorescence. Guano dry weight attained the lowest value of 74% of initial dry weight after 20 days in situ exposure. Changes in guano resulted from decomposition of the component fats, proteins, chitin, nitrogen and carbon, as well as of mineral recycling (Ca, P, Mg, and others). All transformations accompanied bacterial growth, with TC and CFU both attaining 10(11) cells g(-1) d wt of guano. Total bacterial biomass (TBB) increased from 594 microgram C g(-1) dry weight in fresh guano, to 9101 microgram C g(-1) dry weight after 42 days exposure in situ. Mean cell volume (MCV) also increased from 0.236 to 0.343 micrometer 3. Photoautotrophic bacteria were numerically the smallest TC fraction throughout the incubation, with TAC to TC ratio ranging from 0.01 to 0.22%. Culturable bacteria abundance in guano increased dramatically from 0.28% of TC (in fresh guano) to 26% (3-h day), and 90% (42nd day) of TC. Within the total CFU population, copiotrophic bacteria were ca. two orders of magnitude more abundant than oligotrophic bacteria. Chitinolytic bacteria in guano were detected only late in the incubation; by 42 days, >40% of the initial chitin content remained. This material may comprise a significant fraction of the soil in the penguin rookery. Bacteria cultivated from the penguin guano displayed high morphophysiological diversity.

Zdanowski MK; Zmuda MJ; Zwolska I

2005-03-01

314

Bacterial growth during the early phase of infection determines the severity of experimental Escherichia coli mastitis in dairy cows  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of bacterial growth for the severity of experimental Escherichia coli mastitis, indirectly expressed as the area under the curve of bacterial counts in milk over time. The association of pre-infusion somatic cell count and post-infusion influx ...

Kornalijnslijper, J.E.; Daemen, A.; Werven, T., van; Niewold, T.A.; Rutten, V.; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E.N.

315

Effect of storage time and temperature on the aerobic plate count and on the community structure of two water samples  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of storage at various temperatures on the bacterial community of a cooling-water sample and a tap-water sample was determined. Samples were stored at 4, 10, 20 and 30 degrees C for 24, 48, 72 and 216 h and the aerobic plate count and bacterial community structure of each were determined u...

Brözel, V.S. (Volker Siegfried), 1963-; Cloete, T.E. (Thomas Eugene), 1958-

316

Enumeration of total heterotrophic and psychrotrophic bacteria using different types of agar to evaluate the microbial quality of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) and sea scallops (Placopecten magellanicus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Microbial quality of Fortune Harbor, NL, cultured blue mussels stored at three temperatures (-12, 2 and 9 °C) for 10 days was evaluated using aerobic plate count (APC) and psychrotrophic plate count (PPC) on plate count agar (PCA) and marine agar (MA). The relationship between bacterial counts in Fortune Harbor mussels on PCA and MA was established using linear regression analysis. The accuracy of selected linear models to predict bacterial count on MA using bacterial counts on PCA of wild and cultured mussels and scallops, stored at 2 °C, was examined. The shelf life of stored mussels and scallops was estimated based on bacterial counts, agar type and storage temperature. Results showed that bacterial counts (APC and PPC) in Fortune Harbor mussels on MA were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than their corresponding counts on PCA agar at all storage temperatures. A strong correlation (r > 0.7, p < 0.01) was observed between bacterial counts in mussels stored at 2 and 9 °C on PCA and MA. The accuracy of the linear models to predict bacterial counts of bivalves on MA using the counts on PCA ranged from 60% to 93%. Both temperature and agar type influenced microbial shelf life estimation while the type of bacteria (APC or PPC) had a lesser effect. Results of this study strongly suggest the use of MA to evaluate the general microbial quality of bivalves instead of PCA or PCA + 1% NaCl.

Khan MA; Parrish CC; Shahidi F

2005-01-01

317

Resultados preliminares de la evaluación de diferentResultados diferentes concentraciones de la suspensión bacteriana empleada como inóculo en el Ensayo bactericida de Sangre Total/ Preliminary evaluation of different concentrations of bacterial suspensions used in the Whole Blood Bactericidal Assay  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El Ensayo Bactericida del Suero (EBS), está considerado como la “prueba de oro” para evaluar la eficacia serológica de vacunas antimeningocócicas, teniendo en cuenta que la presencia de anticuerpos bactericidas en el suero se relaciona con la protección frente a esta enfermedad. Los niveles de anticuerpos anticapsulares obtenidos frente a los serogrupos A y C de Neisseria meningitidis han confirmado la utilidad de esta técnica. Sin embargo, se señala una (more) pobre correlación entre los resultados de laboratorio y la protección clínica demostrada después de la aplicación de vacunas compuestas por vesículas de membrana externa del serogrupo B. Ison y colaboradores desarrollaron el Ensayo de Sangre Total (EST), que evalúa la capacidad bactericida de la sangre. Los resultados obtenidos indican que es un marcador de inmunidad más sensible que el EBS para el serogrupo B. En un estudio de evaluación de la vacuna antimeningocócica cubana VA-MENGOC-BC®, realizado en infantes y empleando el EST, se obtuvo un 50% de respondedores a la cepa homóloga (B:4:P1.19,15). La respuesta contra cepas heterólogas resultó baja. Teniendo en cuenta estos resultados y los de otros estudios realizados por los autores, se evaluó el comportamiento de la prueba utilizando concentraciones menores de la suspensión bacteriana empleada como inóculo. Para este propósito se estudió la actividad bactericida de la sangre de dos adultos sanos, mediante el EST frente a las cepas B:4:P1.19,15 (Cu 385/83) y B:15:P1.7,16 (MC58). Se evaluaron, además de la concentración recomendada originalmente (106ó107 UFC/mL), dos inferiores (105 y 104 UFC/mL). El primer donante mostró una actividad lítica del 40% frente a la cepa homóloga, a una concentración de inóculo de 107 UFC/mL. Para las concentraciones de 105 y 104 UFC/mL la lisis fue de alrededor del 80%. El comportamiento frente a la cepa heteróloga fue de un 25% de lisis a la mayor concentración del inóculo y aproximadamente de un 60% para las concentraciones inferiores. El segundo donante no mostró actividad lítica alguna frente a un inóculo de 107 UFC/mL de la cepa homóloga, mientras que empleando inóculos de 105 y 104 UFC/mL se obtuvieron respuestas de alrededor del 55% y del 65% respectivamente. El comportamiento frente a la cepa heteróloga fue de un 40% de lisis a la mayor concentración del inóculo y de un 70% y 80% a las concentraciones 105 y 104 UFC/mL respectivamente Abstract in english The Serum Bactericidal Assay (SBA) has been considered the “golden standard” to evaluate the serological efficacy of meningococcal vaccines, taking into account that the presence of serum bactericidal antibodies is related with protection. The levels of A and C capsular polysaccharide antibodies against these serogroups has confirmed the reliability of this assay. The SBA has also been used to asses the efficacy of serogroup B vaccines, but in some studies, th (more) e correlation between serological efficacy and protection has been poor. Ison et al developed the Whole Blood Assay (WBA) that measures the complete bactericidal activity in blood. The results obtained indicate that this model is a more sensitive marker of immunity than SBA for serogroup B. The results from the evaluation of the Cuban meningococcal vaccine (VA-MENGOC-BC®) in infants using WBA showed that after the immunisation around 50% of infants exhibited >50% lysis of the vaccine strain (B:4:P1.19,15). The results against heterologous strains were poor. Taking into account these and other results we evaluated the behavior of the WBA using lower concentrations of the bacterial suspension used as inoculum. Blood from two healthy adults was screened for bactericidal activity using the WBA, against B:4:P1.19,15(Cu 385/83) and B:15:P1.7,16 (MC58) strains. In addition to the recommended concentration (106 or 107 CFU/mL), two lower concentrations were used (105 and 104 CFU/mL). The first donor showed a lytic activity of 40% against the homologous strain, at

Camaraza, María Amalia; Anwar, Natasha; Leiva, Teresita; G. Arnet, Aida; Sotolongo, Franklin; Ison, Catherine

2000-06-01

318

Isolation, Characterization and Application of Bacterial Population From Agricultural Soil at Sohag Province, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Forty soil samples of agriculture soil were collected from two different sites in Sohag province, Egypt, during hot and cold seasons. Twenty samples were from soil irrigated with canal water (site A) and twenty samples were from soil irrigated with wastewater (site B). This study aimed to compare the incidence of plasmids in bacteria isolated from soil and to investigate the occurrence of metal and antibiotic resistance bacteria, and consequently to select the potential application of these bacteria in bioremediation. The total bacterial count (CFU/gm) in site (B) was higher than that in site (A). Moreover, the CFU values in summer were higher than those values in winter at both sites. A total of 771 bacterial isolates were characterized as Bacillus, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Eschershia, Shigella, Xanthomonas, Acetobacter, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Moraxella and Methylococcus. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of Pb+2, Cu+2, Zn+2, Hg+2, Co+2, Cd+2, Cr+3, Te+2, As+2 and Ni+2 for plasmid-possessed bacteria were determined and the highest MICs were 1200 µg/mL for lead, 800 µg/mL for both Cobalt and Arsenate, 1200 µg/mL for Nickel, 1000 µg/ml for Copper and less than 600 µg/mL for other metals. Bacterial isolates from both sites A and B showed multiple heavy metal resistance. A total of 337 bacterial isolates contained plasmids and the incidence of plasmids was approximately 25-50% higher in bacteria isolated from site (B) than that from site (A). These isolates were resistance to different antibiotics. Approximately, 61% of the bacterial isolates were able to assimilate insecticide, carbaryl, as a sole source of carbon and energy. However, the Citrobacter AA101 showed the best growth on carbaryl.

Bahig, A. E.; Aly, E. A.; Khaled, A. A.; Amel, K. A.

2008-01-01

319

Nanosilver Coated Bacterial Cellulose  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nanosilver coated bacterial cellulose nanofiber and a method of producing the nanosilver coated bacterial cellulose nanofiber. The nanosilver coated bacterial cellulose nanofiber is produced by preparing a suspension of bacterial cellulose fibers, oxidizing bacterial cellulose fibers; adding the thio-group to the polymer backbone; reacting the resulting product with silver proteinate and enhancing the nanosilver particle size. The nanosilver coated bacterial cellulose nanofibers exhibit antimicrobial properties.

WAN WANKEI; GUHADOS GANESH

320

NANOSILVER COATED BACTERIAL CELLULOSE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nanosilver coated bacterial cellulose nanofiber and a method of producing the nanosilver coated bacterial cellulose nanofiber. The nanosilver coated bacterial cellulose nanofiber is produced by preparing a suspension of bacterial cellulose fibers, oxidizing bacterial cellulose fibers; adding the thio- group to the polymer backbone; reacting the resulting product with silver proteinate and enhancing the nanosilver particle size. The nanosilver coated bacterial cellulose nanofibers exhibit antimicrobial properties.

WAN WANKEI; GUHADOS GANESH

 
 
 
 
321

Statistical treatment of nuclear counting results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the exact time a specific nucleus undergoes radioactive decay cannot be specified, nor can showers caused by secondary cosmic rays be predicted, statistical laws play an important role in almost all cases of experimental nuclear physics. This paper describes the method for the statistical treatment of nuclear counting results obtained experimentally by taking into account random variables pertaining to both frequent and infrequent phenomena. When processing counting measurement data, it is recommended to first discard spurious random variables that spoil the statistics by using Chauvenet's criterion, as well as to test if the results in the statistical sample follow a unique statistical distribution by using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test (U-test). The verification of the suggested statistical method was performed on counting statistics obtained both from the radioactive source Cs-137 and background radiation, expected to follow the normal distribution and the Poisson distribution, respectively. Results show that the application of the proposed statistical method excludes random fluctuations of the radioactive source or of the background radiation from the total statistical sample, as well as possible inadequacies in the experimental set-up and show an extremely effective agreement of the theoretical distribution of random variables with the corresponding experimentally obtained random variables. (author)

2011-01-01

322

Statistical treatment of nuclear counting results  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the exact time a specific nucleus undergoes radioactive decay cannot be specified, nor can showers caused by secondary cosmic rays be predicted, statistical laws play an important role in almost all cases of experimental nuclear physics. This paper describes the method for the statistical treatment of nuclear counting results obtained experimentally by taking into account random variables pertaining to both frequent and infrequent phenomena. When processing counting measurement data, it is recommended to first discard spurious random variables that spoil the statistics by using Chauvenet’s criterion, as well as to test if the results in the statistical sample follow a unique statistical distribution by using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test (U-test). The verification of the suggested statistical method was performed on counting statistics obtained both from the radioactive source Cs-137 and background radiation, expected to follow the normal distribution and the Poisson distribution, respectively. Results show that the application of the proposed statistical method excludes random fluctuations of the radioactive source or of the background radiation from the total statistical sample, as well as possible inadequacies in the experimental set-up and show an extremely effective agreement of the theoretical distribution of random variables with the corresponding experimentally obtained random variables.

Doli?anin ?emal B.; Stankovi? Koviljka ?.; Doli?anin Diana ?.; Lon?ar Boris B.

2011-01-01

323

Faint Submillimter Galaxy Counts at 450 micron  

CERN Multimedia

We present the results of SCUBA2 observations at 450 micron and 850 micron of the field lensed by the massive cluster A370. With a total survey area > 100 arcmin2 and 1 sigma sensitivities of 3.92 and 0.82 mJy/beam at 450 and 850 micron respectively, we find a secure sample of 20 sources at 450 micron and 26 sources at 850 micron with a signal-to-noise ratio > 4. Using the latest lensing model of A370 and Monte Carlo simulations, we derive the number counts at both wavelengths. The 450 micron number counts probe a factor of four deeper than the counts recently obtained from the Herschel Space Telescope at similar wavelengths, and we estimate that ~47-61% of the 450 micron extragalactic background light (EBL) resolved into individual sources with 450 micron fluxes greater than 4.5 mJy. The faint 450 micron sources in the 4 sigma sample have positional accuracies of 3 arcseconds, while brighter sources (signal-to-noise > 6 sigma) are good to 1.4 arcseconds. Using the deep radio map (1 sigma ~ 6 uJy) we find tha...

Chen, Chian-Chou; Barger, Amy J; Casey, Caitlin M; Lee, Nicholas; Sanders, David B; Wang, Wei-Hao; Williams, Jonathan P

2012-01-01

324

Dynamics of indigenous bacterial communities associated with crude oil degradation in soil microcosms during nutrient-enhanced bioremediation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bacterial population dynamics were examined during bioremediation of an African soil contaminated with Arabian light crude oil and nutrient enrichment (biostimulation). Polymerase chain reaction followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) were used to generate bacterial community fingerprints of the different treatments employing the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene as molecular marker. The DGGE patterns of the nutrient-amended soils indicated the presence of distinguishable bands corresponding to the oil-contaminated-nutrient-enriched soils, which were not present in the oil-contaminated and pristine control soils. Further characterization of the dominant DGGE bands after excision, reamplification and sequencing revealed that Corynebacterium spp., Dietzia spp., Rhodococcus erythropolis sp., Nocardioides sp., Low G+C (guanine plus cytosine) Gram positive bacterial clones and several uncultured bacterial clones were the dominant bacterial groups after biostimulation. Prominent Corynebacterium sp. IC10 sequence was detected across all nutrient-amended soils but not in oil-contaminated control soil. Total heterotrophic and hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial counts increased significantly in the nutrient-amended soils 2 weeks post contamination whereas oil-contaminated and pristine control soils remained fairly stable throughout the experimental period. Gas chromatographic analysis of residual hydrocarbons in biostimulated soils showed marked attenuation of contaminants starting from the second to the sixth week after contamination whereas no significant reduction in hydrocarbon peaks were seen in the oil-contaminated control soil throughout the 6-week experimental period. Results obtained indicated that nutrient amendment of oil-contaminated soil selected and enriched the bacterial communities mainly of the Actinobacteria phylogenetic group capable of surviving in toxic contamination with concomitant biodegradation of the hydrocarbons. The present study therefore demonstrated that the soil investigated harbours hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial populations which can be biostimulated to achieve effective bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil.

Chikere CB; Surridge K; Okpokwasili GC; Cloete TE

2012-03-01

325

Radioecological risk assessment of low selenium concentrations through genetic fingerprints and metabolic profiling of soil bacterial communities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In a context of environmental risk assessment of nuclear (79)Se radionuclide, the impact of low Se-selenite concentrations (0.008 and 8 mg kg(-1)) on bacterial communities of two soils, a silty clay loam and a sandy soil, was investigated over a 6-month incubation time. This Se-selenite was partially labelled with (75)Se. The state of the Se-impacted bacterial communities was analyzed through total bacterial counts, DNA fingerprints (ARISA profiles) and metabolic profiling (carbon substrate utilization patterns). Furthermore, the genetic diversity of bacterial populations involved in Se volatilization was evaluated by tpm (thiopurine methyltransferase gene) profiling. Emissions of (75)Se and CaCl(2)-extractable (75)Se were measured by ?-spectrometry and scintillation analysis. Se-selenite inputs changed transiently the substrate utilization patterns of bacterial communities but did not affect the other indicators. Se volatilization was at its highest level just after adding Se-selenite and for about 1 week. This volatilization was proportional to the added Se-selenite concentrations. It was 100-fold higher in silty clay loam, even though Se bioavailability was reduced in this soil. The soils were amended with crushed grass 3 months after the addition of Se-selenite. This organic amendment affected the organization of bacterial communities and increased the Se-volatilizing activities of both soils. Original soil organic carbon and bacterial diversity and activities seemed responsible for the different levels of Se emissions observed in soils. tpm lineages, encoding Se methyltransferases, were detected in both soils, confirming the broad distribution of tpm-harbouring bacteria and their probable role in the emissions of volatile Se. Five distinct groups of tpm were recorded per soil, with tpmI lineage being detected throughout the incubation period. This study demonstrates the ability of bacterial communities at volatilizing Se concentrations inferior to geochemical backgrounds and suggests that a probable transfer of nuclear Se will occur through volatilization after an environmental spill.

Colinon-Dupuich C; Février L; Ranjard L; Coppin F; Cournoyer B; Nazaret S

2011-07-01

326

Bacterial dehalogenation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Halogenated organic compounds are produced industrially in large quantities and represent an important class of environmental pollutants. However, an abundance of haloorganic compounds is also produced naturally. Bacteria have evolved several strategies for the enzyme-catalyzed dehalogenation and degradation of both haloaliphatic and haloaromatic compounds: (i) Oxidative dehalogenation is the result of mono- or dioxygenase-catalyzed, co-metabolic or metabolic reactions. (ii) In dehydrohalogenase-catalyzed dehalogenation, halide elimination leads to the formation of a double bond. (iii) Substitutive dehalogenation in most cases is a hydrolytic process, catalyzed by halidohydrolases, but there also is a `thiolytic` mechanism with glutathione as cosubstrate. Dehalogenation by halohydrin hydrogen-halide lyases is the result of an intramolecular substitution reaction. (iv) A distinct dechlorination mechanism involves methyl transfer from chloromethane onto tetrahydrofolate. (v) Reductive dehalogenations are co-metabolic processes, or they are specific reactions involved in substrate utilization (carbon metabolism), or reductive dehalogenation is coupled to energy conservation: some anaerobic bacteria use a specific haloorganic compound as electron acceptor of a respiratory process. This review discusses the mechanisms of enzyme-catalyzed dehalogenation reactions, describes some pathways of the bacterial degradation of haloorganic compounds, and indicates some trends in the biological treatment of organohalogen-polluted air, groundwater, soil, and sediments. (orig.)

Fetzner, S. [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich 7 - Biologie

1998-12-31

327

Bacterial dehalogenation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Halogenated organic compounds are produced industrially in large quantities and represent an important class of environmental pollutants. However, an abundance of haloorganic compounds is also produced naturally. Bacteria have evolved several strategies for the enzyme-catalyzed dehalogenation and degradation of both haloaliphatic and haloaromatic compounds: (i) Oxidative dehalogenation is the result of mono- or dioxygenase-catalyzed, co-metabolic or metabolic reactions. (ii) In dehydrohalogenase-catalyzed dehalogenation, halide elimination leads to the formation of a double bond. (iii) Substitutive dehalogenation in most cases is a hydrolytic process, catalyzed by halidohydrolases, but there also is a "thiolytic" mechanism with glutathione as cosubstrate. Dehalogenation by halohydrin hydrogen-halide lyases is the result of an intramolecular substitution reaction. (iv) A distinct dechlorination mechanism involves methyl transfer from chloromethane onto tetrahydrofolate. (v) Reductive dehalogenations are co-metabolic processes, or they are specific reactions involved in substrate utilization (carbon metabolism), or reductive dehalogenation is coupled to energy conservation: some anaerobic bacteria use a specific haloorganic compound as electron acceptor of a respiratory process. This review discusses the mechanisms of enzyme-catalyzed dehalogenation reactions, describes some pathways of the bacterial degradation of haloorganic compounds, and indicates some trends in the biological treatment of organohalogen-polluted air, groundwater, soil, and sediments.

Fetzner S

1998-12-01

328

Bacterial dehalogenation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Halogenated organic compounds are produced industrially in large quantities and represent an important class of environmental pollutants. However, an abundance of haloorganic compounds is also produced naturally. Bacteria have evolved several strategies for the enzyme-catalyzed dehalogenation and degradation of both haloaliphatic and haloaromatic compounds: (i) Oxidative dehalogenation is the result of mono- or dioxygenase-catalyzed, co-metabolic or metabolic reactions. (ii) In dehydrohalogenase-catalyzed dehalogenation, halide elimination leads to the formation of a double bond. (iii) Substitutive dehalogenation in most cases is a hydrolytic process, catalyzed by halidohydrolases, but there also is a "thiolytic" mechanism with glutathione as cosubstrate. Dehalogenation by halohydrin hydrogen-halide lyases is the result of an intramolecular substitution reaction. (iv) A distinct dechlorination mechanism involves methyl transfer from chloromethane onto tetrahydrofolate. (v) Reductive dehalogenations are co-metabolic processes, or they are specific reactions involved in substrate utilization (carbon metabolism), or reductive dehalogenation is coupled to energy conservation: some anaerobic bacteria use a specific haloorganic compound as electron acceptor of a respiratory process. This review discusses the mechanisms of enzyme-catalyzed dehalogenation reactions, describes some pathways of the bacterial degradation of haloorganic compounds, and indicates some trends in the biological treatment of organohalogen-polluted air, groundwater, soil, and sediments. PMID:9891928

Fetzner, S

1998-12-01

329

BACTERIAL PLASMIDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plasmids, extrachromosomal DNA, were identified in bacteria pertaining to family of Enterobacteriacae for the very first time. After that, they were discovered in almost every single observed strain. The structure of plasmids is made of circular double chain DNA molecules which are replicated autonomously in a host cell. Their length may vary from few up to several hundred kilobase (kb). Among the bacteria, plasmids are mostly transferred horizontally by conjugation process. Plasmid replication process can be divided into three stages: initiation, elongation, and termination. The process involves DNA helicase I, DNA gyrase, DNA polymerase III, endonuclease, and ligase.Plasmids contain genes essential for plasmid function and their preservation in a host cell (the beginning and the control of replication). Some of them possess genes whichcontrol plasmid stability. There is a common opinion that plasmids are unnecessary fora growth of bacterial population and their vital functions; thus, in many cases they can be taken up or kicked out with no lethal effects to a plasmid host cell. However,there are numerous biological functions of bacteria related to plasmids. Plasmids identification and classification are based upon their genetic features which are presented permanently in all of them, and these are: abilities to preserve themselves in a host cell and to control a replication process. In this way, plasmids classification among incompatibility groups is performed. The method of replicon typing, which is based on genotype and not on phenotype characteristics, has the same results as in compatibility grouping.

Biljana Miljkovic-Selimovic; Tatjana Babic; Branislava Kocic; Predrag Stojanovic; Ljiljana Ristic; Marina Dinic

2007-01-01

330

Total algorithms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of distri...

Tel, G.

331

On-farm and postharvest processing sources of bacterial contamination to melon rinds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Multistate and international foodborne illness outbreaks, particularly involving cantaloupe and often involving rare Salmonella spp., have increased dramatically over the past 13 years. This study assessed the sources and extent of melon rind contamination in production fields and at processing and packing facilities. In the spring of 1999, cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L. [reticulatus group] cv. Cruiser) sampled from two sites in the Rio Grande River Valley showed that postharvest-processed melon rinds often had greater plate counts of bacterial contaminants than field-fresh melons. Cantaloupe in the field had 2.5 to 3.5 log CFU g(-1) rind total coliforms by aerobic plate counts, whereas washed melons had 4.0 to 5.0 log CFU g(-1). In the fall of 1999, coliforms on honeydew melons (C. melo [inodorous group] cv. Honey Brew) ranged from 2.6 to 3.7 log CFU g(-1) after processing, and total and fecal coliforms and enterococci never fell below 2.5 log CFU g(-1). A hydrocooler at another site contaminated cantaloupe rinds with up to 3.4 log CFU g(-1) total and fecal enterococci; a secondary rinse with chlorinated water incompletely removed these bacteria. Sources of coliforms and enterococci were at high levels in melon production soils, especially in furrows that were flood irrigated, in standing water at one field, and in irrigation water at both sites. At one processing facility, wash water pumped from the Rio Grande River may not have been sufficiently disinfected prior to use. Because soil, irrigation water, and process water were potential sources of bacterial contamination, monitoring and management on-farm and at processing and packing facilities should focus on water quality as an important control point for growers and packers to reduce bacterial contamination on melon rinds. PMID:12540185

Gagliardi, J V; Millner, P D; Lester, G; Ingram, D

2003-01-01

332

On-farm and postharvest processing sources of bacterial contamination to melon rinds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Multistate and international foodborne illness outbreaks, particularly involving cantaloupe and often involving rare Salmonella spp., have increased dramatically over the past 13 years. This study assessed the sources and extent of melon rind contamination in production fields and at processing and packing facilities. In the spring of 1999, cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L. [reticulatus group] cv. Cruiser) sampled from two sites in the Rio Grande River Valley showed that postharvest-processed melon rinds often had greater plate counts of bacterial contaminants than field-fresh melons. Cantaloupe in the field had 2.5 to 3.5 log CFU g(-1) rind total coliforms by aerobic plate counts, whereas washed melons had 4.0 to 5.0 log CFU g(-1). In the fall of 1999, coliforms on honeydew melons (C. melo [inodorous group] cv. Honey Brew) ranged from 2.6 to 3.7 log CFU g(-1) after processing, and total and fecal coliforms and enterococci never fell below 2.5 log CFU g(-1). A hydrocooler at another site contaminated cantaloupe rinds with up to 3.4 log CFU g(-1) total and fecal enterococci; a secondary rinse with chlorinated water incompletely removed these bacteria. Sources of coliforms and enterococci were at high levels in melon production soils, especially in furrows that were flood irrigated, in standing water at one field, and in irrigation water at both sites. At one processing facility, wash water pumped from the Rio Grande River may not have been sufficiently disinfected prior to use. Because soil, irrigation water, and process water were potential sources of bacterial contamination, monitoring and management on-farm and at processing and packing facilities should focus on water quality as an important control point for growers and packers to reduce bacterial contamination on melon rinds.

Gagliardi JV; Millner PD; Lester G; Ingram D

2003-01-01

333

Monitoring of the bacterial and fungal biodiversity and dynamics during Massa Medicata Fermentata fermentation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The microbial community dynamics play an important role during Massa Medicata Fermentata (MMF) fermentation. In this study, bacterial and fungal communities were investigated based on the culture-dependent method and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis. Meanwhile the dynamic changes of digestive enzyme activities were also examined. Plating results showed that MMF fermentation comprised two stages: pre-fermentation stage (0-4 days) was dominated by bacterial community and post-fermentation stage (5-9 days) was dominated by fungal community. The amount of bacteria reached the highest copy number 1.2?×?10(10) CFU/g at day 2, but the fungi counts reached 6.3?×?10(5) CFU/g at day 9. A total of 170 isolates were closely related to genera Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Mucor, Saccharomyces, Rhodotorula, and Amylomyces. DGGE analysis showed a clear reduction of bacterial and fungal diversity during fermentation, and the dominant microbes belonged to genera Enterobacter, Pediococcus, Pseudomonas, Mucor, and Saccharomyces. Digestive enzyme assay showed filter paper activity; the activities of amylase, carboxymethyl cellulase, and lipase reached a peak at day 4; and the protease activity constantly increased until the end of the fermentation. In this study, we carried out a detailed and comprehensive analysis of microbial communities as well as four digestive enzymes' activities during MMF fermentation process. The monitoring of bacterial and fungal biodiversity and dynamics during MMF fermentation has significant potential for controlling the fermentation process.

Xu Y; Xie YB; Zhang XR; Chen C; Xiang H; Xie Q

2013-08-01

334

[Sizes of bacterial cells in soils determined by cascade filtration technique].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper studies the number of bacteria in typical chernozem and mountain-meadow soil by the traditional method and the cascade filtration technique. The total number of bacteria in these soils, which was obtained in filters of different diameters during filtering the suspension of a certain amount, is 1.5-5 times higher than that obtained by the traditional method. In the structure of the bacterial biomass in both soils, the biomass of bacterial cells with a diameter of 0.38-0.43 microm was dominating by 8-90%. In the typical chernozem, the biomass of cells with a diameter of 0.17 microm was slightly more than 1%; in the mountain-meadow soil, the percentage of the biomass of cells with a diameter of 0.17 microm increased by 5%. The average volume and diameter of the bacteria in the studied soils were calculated. In typical chernozem, the average volume of bacterial cells was equal to 0.0046 microm3 and the diameter was 0.206 microm. In the mountain-meadow soils, these values were slightly lower, 0.0038 microm3 and 0.194 microm, respectively. The biomass of the bacterial cells, which is usually calculated based on the cell volume of 0.1 microm3, is overestimated by about five times when counting the number on the filters. The percentage of the real biomass of soil bacteria is traditionally much lower than that estimated.

Polianskaia LM; Gorodnichev RB; Zviagintsev DG

2013-03-01

335

Volatilization of fluorescein mercuric acetate by marine bacterial from Minamata Bay  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some bacteria that live in a mercury-polluted environment are resistant to mercury compounds. A majority of these mercury-resistant bacterial have been found to volatilize organic as well as inorganic mercury compounds into elemental mercury vapor by means of their enzymes. One compound, fluorescein mercuric acetate (FMA) has long been in use as a disinfectant in hospitals; yet, there has been little definitive information on bacterial resistance to this compound. Minamata Bay has been heavily polluted by mercury, which has caused methylmercury poisoning in humans, called Minamata disease. Sediments from the Bay still contain high concentrations of mercury. The percentage of mercury-resistant bacteria in the total bacterial count is higher in these sediments than in those of other marine environments. FMA-pollution, however, has not been reported. Research into the mechanism of bacterial resistance to FMA will not only add to our general understanding of the ability of certain bacteria to resist mercury, but will also help in defining the role bacteria play in the mercury cycle of a mercury-polluted environment. The purpose of the present study is to determine the mechanism of resistance to FMA of the FMA-resistant bacteria living in the Bay.

Nakamura, Kunihiko (National Institute for Minamata Disease, Minamata City Kumamoto (Japan))

1989-05-01

336

Response Of Mice Tissues To Intranasal Bacterial Lysate Vaccination: Immunohistopathological Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effective protection against pathogenic bacteria requires both mucosal and systemic immune responses. Intranasal administration of antigens induces these responses. The protective effect of intranasal immunization with different formalin-inactivated bacterial lysates in albino mice was evaluated. This study used formalin inactivated lysate of each of the following Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas aeroginosa ,Salmonella typhi , Shigella flexeneri , Staphylococcus aureus , Bacillus subtilis and mixed bacterial lysates. The lysate was administered intranasally (5µl/ nostril) once daily for seven consecutive days. The results of this study recorded some changes in peripheral blood total and differential leucocytic counts , peritoneal fluid and bone marrow lymphocytic percentages . Spleen and thymus weight changes were reported under the effect of Salmonella typhi lysate, Shigella flexeneri lysate and Staph. aureus lysate. The level of immunoglobulin G (Ig G) was assessed in serum, bronchial lavage and nasal bed harvest. The levels of Ig G were significantly elevated in the three determinants, suggesting an efficient immunostimulatory effect of bacterial lysates. Some of these levels were exceeding 2-3 folds of that of the control group. Histopathological studies recorded changes in some reticuloendothelial system organs including the liver, spleen and thymus gland, besides, some changes were also observed in the lung and bronchi under the effect of intranasal vaccination. This study supports the immunoprotective effect of intranasal vaccination, using bacterial lysates.

Hanaa A. Mansour

2005-01-01

337

Growth of Microorganisms in Total Parenteral Nutrition Solutions Containing Lipid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: To identify the microorganisms that can grow rapidly in total parenteral nutrition (TPN) solutions, we investigated the growth of the major causes of catheter-related blood stream infection (Staphylococcus aureus, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus cereus, and Candida albicans) in TPN solutions containing lipid. Methods: The pH value of a TPN solution containing lipid (pH 6.0, containing 20 ppm of NaHSO3) was adjusted by the addition of HCl to 5.7, 5.4, or 4.9. The pH value of another TPN solution (pH5.5, containing 400 ppm of NaHSO3) was adjusted by the addition of NaOH to 5.9, 6.3, or 6.8. A specific number of each microorganism was added to 10 mL of each test solution and incubated at room temperature. The number of microorganisms was counted as colony forming units at 0, 24, and 48 hrs later. Results: C albicans increased similarly at any pH values in the TPN solution. The bacterial species also increased rapidly at pH6.0 in the solution containing 20 ppm of NaHSO3, but growth was suppressed as the pH value was reduced, with growth halted at pH4.9. However, these bacterial species did not increase, even at pH5.9, in the other solution containing 400 ppm of NaHSO3. Conclusions: These results suggest that Candida species can grow rapidly in almost all TPN solutions regardless of the acidity, lipid, and NaHSO3; also, some bacterial species may grow in TPN solutions containing lipid unless the pH value is 5.0 or less. Therefore, each TPN solution should be examined whether or not the bacterial species can proliferate.

Takashi Kuwahara, Kazuyuki Shimono, Shinya Kaneda, Takumi Tamura, Masao Ichihara, Yoshifumi Nakashima

2010-01-01

338

The effectiveness of peppermint and thyme essential oil mist in reducing bacterial contamination in broiler houses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been demonstrated by various in vitro studies, whereas their effect on poultry farm hygiene has not been thoroughly investigated, in particular with reference to aerial treatment. The present study aims to assess the antibacterial effects of natural essential oils in broiler houses. Two experimental rooms were fogged with aqueous solutions of peppermint and thyme oils. The control room was sprayed with pure water. The experiment was conducted on broilers aged 1 to 42 d. The rooms were fogged every 3 d. One day after fogging, the total counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, and mannitol-positive staphylococci were determined. Samples were collected from the air, litter, walls, and drinkers. The results of the study demonstrate that essential oil mist may improve hygiene standards in broiler farms. During broiler growth, the mean total counts of mesophilic bacteria in the rooms treated with essential oils were lower (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) in comparison with the control. Enterobacteriaceae and staphylococci counts were also higher in the control group. A single exception was noted in a litter sample where the mean count of Enterobacteriaceae in the room fogged with peppermint oil was higher than in the control. Both oils reduced bacterial counts, but thyme oil was more effective in reducing coliform bacteria, whereas peppermint oil had a higher inhibitory effect on the proliferation of staphylococci. These promising results encourage further research to determine the optimal doses and the effects of essential oils and their combinations on the living conditions and health status of broiler chickens.

Witkowska D; Sowinska J

2013-11-01

339

Bacterial tyrosinases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tyrosinases are nearly ubiquitously distributed in all domains of life. They are essential for pigmentation and are important factors in wound healing and primary immune response. Their active site is characterized by a pair of antiferromagnetically coupled copper ions, CuA and CuB, which are coordinated by six histidine residues. Such a "type 3 copper centre" is the common feature of tyrosinases, catecholoxidases and haemocycanins. It is also one of several other copper types found in the multi-copper oxidases (ascorbate oxidase, laccase). The copper pair of tyrosinases binds one molecule of atmospheric oxygen to catalyse two different kinds of enzymatic reactions: (1) the ortho-hydroxylation of monophenols (cresolase activity) and (2) the oxidation of o-diphenols to o-diquinones (catecholase activity). The best-known function is the formation of melanins from L-tyrosine via L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa). The complicated hydroxylation mechanism at the active centre is still not completely understood, because nothing is known about their tertiary structure. One main reason for this deficit is that hitherto tyrosinases from eukaryotic sources could not be isolated in sufficient quantities and purities for detailed structural studies. This is not the case for prokaryotic tyrosinases from different Streptomyces species, having been intensively characterized genetically and spectroscopically for decades. The Streptomyces tyrosinases are non-modified monomeric proteins with a low molecular mass of ca. 30kDa. They are secreted to the surrounding medium, where they are involved in extracellular melanin production. In the species Streptomyces, the tyrosinase gene is part of the melC operon. Next to the tyrosinase gene (melC2), this operon contains an additional ORF called melC1, which is essential for the correct expression of the enzyme. This review summarizes the present knowledge of bacterial tyrosinases, which are promising models in order to get more insights in structure, enzymatic reactions and functions of "type 3 copper" proteins in general.

Claus H; Decker H

2006-01-01

340

Limit of sensitivity of low-background counting equipment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Hazards Control Department's Radiological Measurements Laboratory (RML) analyzes many types of sample media in support of the Laboratory's health and safety program. The Department has determined that the equation for the minimum limit of sensitivity, MDC(?,?) = 2.71 + 3.29 (rbts)1/2 is also adequate for RML counting systems with very-low-background levels. This paper reviews the normal distribution case and address the special case of determining the limit of sensitivity of a counting system when the background count rate is well known and small. In the latter case, we must use an exact test procedure based on the binomial distribution. However, the error in using the normal distribution for calculating a detection system's limit of sensitivity is not significant even as the total observed number of counts approaches or equals zero. 2 refs., 4 figs

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Pulse loss and counting statistics with a digital spectrometer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A commercially available digital {gamma}-ray spectrometer is tested at high count rates using a germanium detector and appropriate pulse processing parameters. Correction for pulse loss due to dead time and pileup is done by extending the live time according to the Gedcke-Hale method. The accuracy of this count-loss correction technique is tested experimentally up to saturation count rates. Also the statistical uncertainty applicable to the total number of counts in arbitrary regions of interest in {gamma}-ray spectra is studied experimentally, for measurements at fixed real time as well as at fixed live time. The results are similar to those found with traditional spectrometers using analog technology.

Pomme, S. E-mail: spomme@sckcen.be; Kennedy, G. E-mail: greg.kennedy@meca.polymtl.ca

2000-03-01

342

Pulse loss and counting statistics with a digital spectrometer  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A commercially available digital gamma-ray spectrometer is tested at high count rates using a germanium detector and appropriate pulse processing parameters. Correction for pulse loss due to dead time and pileup is done by extending the live time according to the Gedcke-Hale method. The accuracy of this count-loss correction technique is tested experimentally up to saturation count rates. Also the statistical uncertainty applicable to the total number of counts in arbitrary regions of interest in gamma-ray spectra is studied experimentally, for measurements at fixed real time as well as at fixed live time. The results are similar to those found with traditional spectrometers using analog technology.

Pomme S; Kennedy G

2000-03-01

343

Pulse loss and counting statistics with a digital spectrometer  

Science.gov (United States)

A commercially available digital gamma-ray spectrometer is tested at high count rates using a germanium detector and appropriate pulse processing parameters. Correction for pulse loss due to dead time and pileup is done by extending the live time according to the Gedcke-Hale method. The accuracy of this count-loss correction technique is tested experimentally up to saturation count rates. Also the statistical uncertainty applicable to the total number of counts in arbitrary regions of interest in gamma-ray spectra is studied experimentally, for measurements at fixed real time as well as at fixed live time. The results are similar to those found with traditional spectrometers using analog technology. PMID:10724377

Pomme; Kennedy

2000-03-01

344

The effectiveness of peppermint and thyme essential oil mist in reducing bacterial contamination in broiler houses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been demonstrated by various in vitro studies, whereas their effect on poultry farm hygiene has not been thoroughly investigated, in particular with reference to aerial treatment. The present study aims to assess the antibacterial effects of natural essential oils in broiler houses. Two experimental rooms were fogged with aqueous solutions of peppermint and thyme oils. The control room was sprayed with pure water. The experiment was conducted on broilers aged 1 to 42 d. The rooms were fogged every 3 d. One day after fogging, the total counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, and mannitol-positive staphylococci were determined. Samples were collected from the air, litter, walls, and drinkers. The results of the study demonstrate that essential oil mist may improve hygiene standards in broiler farms. During broiler growth, the mean total counts of mesophilic bacteria in the rooms treated with essential oils were lower (P peppermint oil was higher than in the control. Both oils reduced bacterial counts, but thyme oil was more effective in reducing coliform bacteria, whereas peppermint oil had a higher inhibitory effect on the proliferation of staphylococci. These promising results encourage further research to determine the optimal doses and the effects of essential oils and their combinations on the living conditions and health status of broiler chickens. PMID:24135585

Witkowska, D; Sowinska, J

2013-11-01

345

Leaf microbiota in an agroecosystem: spatiotemporal variation in bacterial community composition on field-grown lettuce.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence, size and importance of bacterial communities on plant leaf surfaces are widely appreciated. However, information is scarce regarding their composition and how it changes along geographical and seasonal scales. We collected 106 samples of field-grown Romaine lettuce from commercial production regions in California and Arizona during the 2009-2010 crop cycle. Total bacterial populations averaged between 10(5) and 10(6) per gram of tissue, whereas counts of culturable bacteria were on average one (summer season) or two (winter season) orders of magnitude lower. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from 88 samples revealed that Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria were the most abundantly represented phyla. At the genus level, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Massilia, Arthrobacter and Pantoea were the most consistently found across samples, suggesting that they form the bacterial 'core' phyllosphere microbiota on lettuce. The foliar presence of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians, which is the causal agent of bacterial leaf spot of lettuce, correlated positively with the relative representation of bacteria from the genus Alkanindiges, but negatively with Bacillus, Erwinia and Pantoea. Summer samples showed an overrepresentation of Enterobacteriaceae sequences and culturable coliforms compared with winter samples. The distance between fields or the timing of a dust storm, but not Romaine cultivar, explained differences in bacterial community composition between several of the fields sampled. As one of the largest surveys of leaf surface microbiology, this study offers new insights into the extent and underlying causes of variability in bacterial community composition on plant leaves as a function of time, space and environment. PMID:22534606

Rastogi, Gurdeep; Sbodio, Adrian; Tech, Jan J; Suslow, Trevor V; Coaker, Gitta L; Leveau, Johan H J

2012-04-26

346

Bacterial infection of mudfish Clarias gariepinus (Siluriformes: Clariidae) fingerlings in tropical nursery ponds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bacterial infection among the most common cultured mudfish Clarias gariepinus in Africa, has become a cause of concern, because it constitutes the largest economic loss in fish farms. In order to provide useful biological data of the pathogens for good management practices, samples were collected monthly between January 2008 and December 2009 in three monoculture nursery ponds, located in three different positions: upriver (A, grassland), mid-river (B, mixed forest and grassland) and downriver (C, rainforest) along 200 km length of Cross River floodplains, Nigeria. A total of 720 fingerlings between 15.1 and 20.7 g were analyzed to determine the degree of infection. The bacterial pathogens were taken from their external surfaces, and were isolated and identified by standard methods. The caudal fins of fingerlings from pond A had the highest bacterial load (5.8 x 10(3) cfu/g), while the least counts (1.2 x 103 cfu/g) were identified on the head of fish from pond C, with Flexibacter columnaris as the major etiological agent. Pseudomonas fluorescens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus were identified as co-isolates with P. fluorescens as dominant (0.7 x 10(2) cfu/mL) co-isolates in pond water. Clinical signs of five white spots with red periphery appeared on the external surface of infected fish. All the fish sampled, died after 4 to 9 days. There was no significant difference in the bacterial counts between different ponds, but the difference between fish organs/parts examined was significant. Fish from these ponds are therefore potentially dangerous to consumers and highly devalued, with the economic impact to producers. Preventive methods to avoid these infections are recommended.

Ikpi G; Offem B

2011-06-01

347

Correlation between peripheral white blood cell counts and hyperglycemic emergencies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the correlation between differential leukocyte counts and hyperglycemic emergencies. METHODS: Fifty patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), 50 patients with diabetic ketosis (DK), 50 non-DK diabetic patients with stable glycemic control, and 50 normal controls were enrolled. Their total and differential leukocyte counts were measured and evaluated at admission and after treatment. RESULTS: The patients with DKA and DK had higher plasma glucose levels (20.84±6.73 mmol/L, 15.55±2.6 mmol/L, respectively) and more median leukocytes (13325/mm(3) and 6595/mm(3), respectively) and median neutrophils (11124 /mm(3) and 4125/mm(3), respectively) but fewer median eosinophils (28/mm(3) and 72/mm(3), respectively) compared to non-DK and control groups (all p < 0.05). Acute infection increased the elevating extent. The median leukocyte counts in DK and non-DK patients (6595/mm(3) and 6008/mm(3), respectively) were within the normal range. The counts of total leukocytes and neutrophils were significantly higher but eosinophils lower in severe DKA cases than in mild/moderate cases (p < 0.05). When the DKA and DK and infection resolved, total leukocytes and neutrophils fell, but eosinophils increased. The counts of total leukocytes, neutrophils, and monocytes were negatively correlated with arterial pH levels (r = -0.515, r = -0.510, r = -0.517, all p < 0.001, respectively) and positively correlated with plasma glucose levels (r = 0.722, r = 0.733, r = 0.632, all p < 0.05, respectively) in DKA patients. The arterial pH level was the most significant factor affecting total leukocytes in DKA (? = 0.467, p = 0.003). The diagnosis analysis showed that higher total leukocyte and neutrophil counts and lower eosinophil counts had a significant ability to reflect the presence of hyperglycemic emergencies. CONCLUSION: More total leukocytes and neutrophils but fewer eosinophils was significantly correlated with DKA and DK. Leukocyte counts can add valuable information to reflect the presence of hyperglycemic crisis and acute infection.

Xu W; Wu HF; Ma SG; Bai F; Hu W; Jin Y; Liu H

2013-01-01

348

A practical counting-card circuit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A practical counting-card circuit we developed recently used for advanced personal computer will be introduced in this paper briefly. The maximum count capacity of this counting-card is 106-1, ranging from 0 to 999 999, the maximum counting rate is 20 MHz for positive input

2003-01-01

349

NANOSILVER COATED BACTERIAL CELLULOSE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nanosilver coated bacterial cellulose nanofiber and a method of producing the nanosilver coated bacterial cellulose nanofiber. The nanosilver coated bacterial cellulose nanofiber is produced by preparing a suspension of bacte rial cellulose fibers, oxidizing bacterial cellulose fibers adding the thio - group to the polymer backbone reacting the resulting product with silver proteinate and enhancing the nanosilver particle size. The nanosilver coated bacterial cellulose nanofibers exhibit antimicrobial properties.

WAN WANKEI; GUHADOS GANESH

350

Phase space quark counting rule  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A simple quark counting rule based on phase space consideration suggested before is used to fit all 39 recent experimental data points on inclusive reactions. Parameter free relations are found to agree with experiments. Excellent detail fits are obtained for 11 inclusive reactions

1980-01-01

351

Are we counting mitoses correctly?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The number of mitotic figures in a predefined area is essential in pathologic evaluation for most tumors. This information sometimes provides clues in differentiating neoplastic lesions from nonneoplastic ones and sometimes in defining and grading of the tumors as well as prognosticating expected lifetime of the patient. As a generally accepted concept, scanning a certain number of consecutive nonoverlapping areas that are rich in viable tumor cells is required. Invasion fronts or the periphery of the tumors is preferred for counting mitosis. The target area to be counted for mitotic activity for various tumors is standardized as the number of mitosis in an established number of high-power fields. However, suggested mitotic counts, which constitute the basis of these studies, were obtained via the old microscopes, which usually had narrower visual fields than the state-of-the-art microscopes. Because the visual fields of the present microscopes provide larger areas compared with the older ones, corrections in mitosis counting are needed to make them compatible with the criteria, which had been put forward in the original reference studies.

Yigit N; Gunal A; Kucukodaci Z; Karslioglu Y; Onguru O; Ozcan A

2013-06-01

352

Totally James  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

Owens, Tom

2006-01-01

353

GFR's - do they really count?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text: High dose Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been routinely counted in our department 24 hours after the patient study due to concerns