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Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count  

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The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms, 3 bulk milk samples were collected at intervals of 2 wk. The samples were cultured for SPC, coliform count, and staphylococcal count and for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, SCC ...

Koop, G.; Dik, N.; Nielen, M.; Lipman, L. J. A.

2010-01-01

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Validation parameters of instrumental method for determination of total bacterial count in milk  

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The method of flow citometry as rapid, instrumental and routine microbiological method is used for determination of total bacterial count in milk. The results of flow citometry are expressed as individual bacterial cells count. Problems regarding the interpretation of the results of total bacterial count can be avoided by transformation of the results of flow citometry method onto the scale of reference method (HRN ISO 6610:2001.). The method of flow citometry, like any analitycal method, acc...

Nataša Mikulec; Dubravka Samaržija; Neven Antunac; Šimun Zamberlin; Zrinka Kuliš; Iva Horvat

2004-01-01

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Validation parameters of instrumental method for determination of total bacterial count in milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The method of flow citometry as rapid, instrumental and routine microbiological method is used for determination of total bacterial count in milk. The results of flow citometry are expressed as individual bacterial cells count. Problems regarding the interpretation of the results of total bacterial count can be avoided by transformation of the results of flow citometry method onto the scale of reference method (HRN ISO 6610:2001.. The method of flow citometry, like any analitycal method, according to the HRN EN ISO/IEC 17025:2000 standard, requires validation and verification. This paper describes parameters of validation: accuracy, precision, specificity, range, robustness and measuring uncertainty for the method of flow citometry.

Nataša Mikulec

2004-10-01

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Determination of total bacterial count in raw milk by flow cytometry  

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The automatic flow cytometry as routine method for total bacterial count determination of raw ex-farm milk has recently been accepted in Croatia. This method significantly differs from the reference method (Standard Plate Count) mostly in the presentation of the results obtained. Therefore, this paper summarized experiences in the application of flow cytometry in the dairy laboratories practice. The principle and the practice of the method, methodological details and factors influencing the r...

Dubravka Samaržija; Neven Antunac; Tomislav Poga?i?; Sanja Sikora

2004-01-01

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M1 AFLATOXIN, TOTAL BACTERIAL COUNT AND SOMATIC CELL COUNT IN ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL MILK  

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Comparative quality evaluation of organic and conventional milk produced in similar environmental condition was performed. Bulk-tank milk was sampled once a week during 30 weeks from 10 organic and 10 conventional dairy farms where aflatoxin M1 level was previous tested during 11 months on bulk-tank milk from tanker at the processing plant. Somatic Cells and Total Microbial Counts did not show differences that can be related to the organic production system, suggesting an effect induced by fa...

Serraino, A.; Borsari, A.; Giacometti, F.; Canever, A.; Trevisani, M.; Coccollone, A.

2009-01-01

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M1 AFLATOXIN, TOTAL BACTERIAL COUNT AND SOMATIC CELL COUNT IN ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL MILK  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Comparative quality evaluation of organic and conventional milk produced in similar environmental condition was performed. Bulk-tank milk was sampled once a week during 30 weeks from 10 organic and 10 conventional dairy farms where aflatoxin M1 level was previous tested during 11 months on bulk-tank milk from tanker at the processing plant. Somatic Cells and Total Microbial Counts did not show differences that can be related to the organic production system, suggesting an effect induced by fa...

Serraino, A.; Borsari, A.; Giacometti, F.; Canever, A.; Trevisani, M.; Coccollone, A.

2013-01-01

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M1 AFLATOXIN, TOTAL BACTERIAL COUNT AND SOMATIC CELL COUNT IN ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL MILK  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Comparative quality evaluation of organic and conventional milk produced in similar environmental condition was performed. Bulk-tank milk was sampled once a week during 30 weeks from 10 organic and 10 conventional dairy farms where aflatoxin M1 level was previous tested during 11 months on bulk-tank milk from tanker at the processing plant. Somatic Cells and Total Microbial Counts did not show differences that can be related to the organic production system, suggesting an effect induced by farm size and technical factors. Higher level of Aflatoxin M1 was found in organic than conventional milk.

A. Serraino

2013-02-01

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Relationship among specific bacterial counts and total bacterial and somatic cell counts and factors influencing their variation in ovine bulk tank milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

To analyze the relationship among the counts of different organisms and total bacterial count (BTTBC) and somatic cell count (BTSCC) as determined in dairy laboratories in ovine bulk tank milk, 751 bulk tank milk samples from 205 dairy sheep flocks belonging to Consortium for Ovine Promotion (CPO) were collected between January and December 2011. Four samplings were carried out in each flock, once per season, throughout 1 yr. Variables analyzed were bulk tank counts of thermoduric, psychrotrophic, coliform, and gram-positive catalase-negative cocci (GPCNC) bacterial groups. Thermoduric, psychrotrophic, and coliform species were significantly related to BTTBC, whereas GPCNC were correlated with both BTTBC and BTSCC variables. Highest counts were for psychrotroph and coliform groups, and a moderate to high correlation (r=0.51) was found between both variables, indicating that poor cleaning practices in the flocks tend to select for less-resistant organisms, such as gram-negative rods. In addition, BTTBC correlated with BTSCC (r=0.42). Some variation factors for specific bacterial counts, such as breed, season, milking type, dry therapy, and milk yield, were also analyzed. Flock information was collected from flock books, annual audits, and the CPO traceability system. Psychrotrophs and coliforms had elevated counts in winter, whereas GPCNC were higher in summer and in hand-milked flocks. Dry therapy contributed to the reduction in psychrotrophic bacteria; therefore, some strains of mammary pathogens could also be psychrotrophic bacteria. Results of this study would be helpful for troubleshooting milk quality problems and developing premium payment systems in dairy sheep. PMID:23200475

de Garnica, M L; Linage, B; Carriedo, J A; De La Fuente, L F; García-Jimeno, M C; Santos, J A; Gonzalo, C

2013-02-01

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Determination of total bacterial count in raw milk by flow cytometry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The automatic flow cytometry as routine method for total bacterial count determination of raw ex-farm milk has recently been accepted in Croatia. This method significantly differs from the reference method (Standard Plate Count mostly in the presentation of the results obtained. Therefore, this paper summarized experiences in the application of flow cytometry in the dairy laboratories practice. The principle and the practice of the method, methodological details and factors influencing the results were described. In order to avoid problems regarding the interpretation of the results, which aregeneral problems of the quantitative microbiology, this article try to explain an appropriate conversion of the results with regards to SPC/ml, as an official method for the bacteriological quality proposal by the national legislation.

Dubravka Samaržija

2004-01-01

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Factors influencing variation of bulk milk antibiotic residue occurrence, somatic cell count, and total bacterial count in dairy sheep flocks.  

Science.gov (United States)

To study the variations of bulk tank milk variables in dairy ewe flocks and to identify the main target practices and flock groups to improve milk quality and safety, a total of 71,228 records of antibiotic residue (AR) and milk yield and 68,781 records of somatic cell count (SCC) and total bacterial count (TBC) were obtained over 5 yr from the same 209 dairy ewe flocks of the Assaf breed belonging to the Consortium for Ovine Promotion of Castilla-León (Spain). Based on a logistic regression model, year, month, semester, SCC, TBC, dry therapy, and milk yield significantly contributed to AR variation. High SCC was associated with increased AR violations. When antibiotic dry therapy was implemented, AR occurrence was higher than when this practice was not used. A polynomial monthly distribution throughout the year was observed for AR occurrence; the highest values were in autumn, coinciding with low milk yields per flock. Yearly occurrences drastically diminished from 2004 (1.36%) to 2008 (0.30%), probably as a result of effective educational programs. The mixed-model ANOVA of factors influencing variation in SCC and TBC indicated that year, month, AR, dry therapy group, milking type, and year interactions were significant variation factors for SCC and TBC; mathematical model accounted for 74.1 and 35.4% of total variance for each variable, respectively. Differences in management and hygiene practice caused significant SCC and TBC variations among flocks and within flocks throughout the 5-yr study. Over time, continuously dry treated flocks showed lower logSCC (5.80) and logTBC (4.92) than untreated (6.10 and 5.18, respectively) or discontinuously dry treated (6.01 and 5.05, respectively) flocks. Continuously dry treated flocks had lower AR occurrences than did discontinuously dry treated flocks. As a whole, AR occurrence and SCC and TBC bulk tank milk variables can be used for monitoring mammary health and milk hygiene and safety in dairy sheep throughout time. PMID:20338436

Gonzalo, C; Carriedo, J A; García-Jimeno, M C; Pérez-Bilbao, M; de la Fuente, L F

2010-04-01

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Farm management factors associated with bulk tank total bacterial count in irish dairy herds during 2006/07  

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Abstract Research has shown that total bacterial count (TBC), which is the bacterial growth per ml of milk over a fixed period of time, can be decreased by good hygiene and farm management practices. The objective of the current study was to quantify the associations between herd management factors and bulk tank TBC in Irish spring calving, grass-based dairy herds. The relationship between bulk tank TBC and farm management and infrastructure was examined using data from 400 randomly...

Pt, Kelly; O'Sullivan K; Dp, Berry; Sj, More; Wj, Meaney; Callaghan Ej, O.; O'Brien B

2009-01-01

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Microbiologia da carne moida: 1. contagem total de bactérias / Microbiology of ground beef: I. total bacterial count  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Como primeira etapa de um programa de estudos microbiológicos da carne moida comercializada em Piracicaba, quarenta amostras de carne bovina, provenientes de dois tipos de estabelecimento de venda a varejo (açougue e supermercado), correspondendo a dois sistemas de distribuição de carne (um antigo e [...] outro recente), foram analisados quanto ao número total de bactérias, segundo as recomendações da "American Public Health Association". As amostras foram obtidas semanalmente pela manhã e à tarde, durante aproximadamente dois meses. A incubação das placas de Petri foi feita a 21º C (72 horas) e a 32º (48 horas). Os resultados podem ser resumidos como segue: 1) Contagens totais elevadas foram, em geral, observadas, com diversas amostras na faixa de 10(7) a 10(9) bactérias/grama; as médias obtidas foram 6,9 x 10(7) (21ºC) e 2,5 x 10(7) (32ºC) bactérias por grama. 2) A incubação feita a 21ºC resultou, em geral, em contagens mais elevadas que as correspondentes à temperatura de incubação de 32ºC; todavia, a diferença observada não foi estatìsticamente significativa. 3) As contagens obtidas para as amostras correspondentes ao sistema antigo de distribuição de carne foram significativamente mais elevadas que as correspondentes ao sistema recente, o que se relacionou com contagens mais elevadas obtidas para as amostras coletadas pela manhã no estabelecimento menor. Abstract in english As a first step in a program of evaluation of ground beef microbiological quality in the city of Piracicaba, SP, forty samples of ground beef were taken at two kinds of retail markets (meat shop and supermarket), related to an old and a new system of meat merchandising. The samples were taken weekly [...] in the morning and in the afternoon, during a two month period. Total bacterial counts were determined by a procedure recommended by the American Public Health Association and plates were incubated at 21ºC (72 hours) and at 32ºC (48 hours). The results can be summarized as follows = 1) Total counts were generally high, with several samples in the range 10(7) to 10(9) cells/gram; average counts were 6.9x 10(7) cells/gram (21ºC) and 2.5xl0(7) cell/gram (32ºC). 2) Incubation at 21ºC resulted in total counts generally higher than those found at 32ºC, although there was no statistically significant difference between the two incubation temperatures. 3) Total counts were found to be higher in samples from the small shop (old system) than in samples from the supermarket (new system); the difference was related to higher counts in the morning samples taken at the former retail market.

Murilo, Graner; Alcides, Martinelli Filho; Vivaldo F. da, Cruz.

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Evaluation of Vit. B12+Fe and Cu Administration on the Somatic Cell Count, Total Bacterial Count and Compounds Milk of Dairy Cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was studying the effect of vit. B12+Fe and Cu on the somatic cell count, total bacterial count and compounds milk of Holstein cows. In this study, 4 groups contain 10 dairy Holstein cows were selected with same parity and milk production as control, vit. B12+Fe injectable (10 mL day-1, Cu injectable (2 mL day-1 and vit. B12+Fe along with Cu treatment groups. These were injected from 1 week precalving probably to 1 week after parturition. Milk samples were collected as twice weekly from the calving time to 1 week. Total Bacterial Count (TBC, Somatic Cell Count (SCC, fat, protein, Solid Non Fat (SNF and lactose of milk were evaluated. Results showed the increasing rate of fat and lactose in vit. B12+Fe along with Cu treatment group compared to other groups. All groups were lower than control group in protein level. On the other hand, vit. B12+Fe treatment group was high in milk production, low in SNF and so, it had high effect on reducing bacterial total count compared to other groups. Furthermore, Cu treatment group was better than other groups in SCC. It was concluded that vit. B12+Fe and Cu have beneficial effects on udder immune system and compounds milk of Holstein cows.

S.A. Saheb Fosoul

2012-01-01

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Farm management factors associated with bulk tank total bacterial count in irish dairy herds during 2006/07  

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Full Text Available Abstract Research has shown that total bacterial count (TBC, which is the bacterial growth per ml of milk over a fixed period of time, can be decreased by good hygiene and farm management practices. The objective of the current study was to quantify the associations between herd management factors and bulk tank TBC in Irish spring calving, grass-based dairy herds. The relationship between bulk tank TBC and farm management and infrastructure was examined using data from 400 randomly selected Irish dairy farms where the basal diet was grazed grass. Herd management factors associated with bulk tank TBC were identified using linear models with herd annual total bacterial score (i.e., arithmetic mean of the natural logarithm of bulk tank TBC included as the dependent variable. All herd management factors were individually analysed in a separate regression model, that included an adjustment for geographical location of the farm. A multiple stepwise regression model was subsequently developed. Median bulk tank TBC for the sample herds was 18,483 cells/ml ranging from 10,441 to 130,458 cells/ml. Results from the multivariate analysis indicated that the following management practices were associated with low TBC; use of heated water in the milking parlour; participation in a milk recording scheme; and tail clipping of cows at a frequency greater than once per year. Increased level of hygiene of the parlour and cubicles were also associated with lower TBC. Herd management factors associated with bulk tank TBC in Irish grazing herds were generally in agreement with most previous studies from confinement systems of milk production.

Kelly PT

2009-01-01

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Contagem bacteriana total do leite em diferentes sistemas de ordenha e de resfriamento / Total bacterial count of milk in different systems of milking and cooling  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito dos sistemas de ordenha e de resfriamento na contagem bacteriana total (CBT) e na quantidade de leite com CBT [...] ste do Paraná, no período de janeiro a outubro de 2006. Após as coletas, a qualidade do leite foi analisada em laboratório pelo método de citometria de fluxo. Os dados de CBT foram classificados por sistema de ordenha, tipo de resfriador e intervalos da CBT, segundo critério da Instrução Normativa 62, e submetidos à análise de independência de Qui-Quadrado. As proporções de CBT do leite entre tipos de resfriadores, em cada sistema de ordenha, foram comparadas utilizando-se a estatística calculada Z. Observou-se menor (p Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the effect of milking systems and cooling on total bacterial count (TBC), and the amount of milk samples with TBC [...] Brazil, from January to October 2006. After the sampling was conducted, the milk quality was analyzed in the laboratory by the method of flow cytometry. The TBC data were classified by milking system, type of coolers and intervals of the TBC, in accordance with Normative Instruction 62, and submitted to the chi-square test for independence. The proportions of milk TBC among types of coolers at each milking system were compared using the calculated statistic Z. A lower TBC value (p

L.E., Taffarel; P.B., Costa; N.T.E. de, Oliveira; G.C., Braga; W.J., Zonin.

2013-03-01

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Total bacterial count and somatic cell count in refrigerated raw milk stored in communal tanks / Contagem bacteriana total e contagem de células somáticas em leite cru refrigerado armazenado em tanques comunitários  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A atual demanda da indústria por produtos lácteos com shelf life prolongado tem resultado em novos desafios para a manutenção da qualidade microbiológica do leite, pois o processamento da matéria-prima com altas contagens microbianas compromete a qualidade e o rendimento industrial de seus derivados [...] . O estudo objetivou avaliar a contagem bacteriana total (CBT) e a contagem de células somáticas (CSS) de 768 amostras de leite cru refrigerado provenientes de 32 tanques comunitários. As amostras foram coletadas no primeiro trimestre dos anos de 2010, 2011, 2012 e 2013 e analisadas pelo Laboratório de Qualidade do Leite. Os resultados apontaram que 62,5%, 37,5%, 15,6% e 28,1% das médias para a CBT em 2010, 2011, 2012 e 2013, respectivamente, estavam acima dos valores preconizados pela legislação. Entretanto observou-se uma redução significativa nos níveis de contagem bacteriana total (CBT) nos períodos analisados. Para a contagem de células somáticas, 100% das médias apontaram valores abaixo de 600 mil células/mL, estando essa contagem de acordo com as legislações vigentes no Brasil. Portanto, os valores encontrados para a contagem de células somáticas sugerem a adoção de medidas efetivas de controle sanitário do rebanho. Porém, os resultados obtidos para a contagem bacteriana total devem ser considerados com cautela, uma vez que eles indicam a necessidade de melhoria da qualidade da matéria-prima, até que se atinjam resultados efetivamente confiáveis. Abstract in english The current industry demand for dairy products with extended shelf life has resulted in new challenges for milk quality maintenance. The processing of milk with high bacterial counts compromises the quality and performance of industrial products. The study aimed to evaluate the total bacteria counts [...] (TBC) and somatic cell count (SCC) in 768 samples of refrigerated raw milk, from 32 communal tanks. Samples were collected in the first quarter of 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 and analyzed by the Laboratory of Milk Quality - LQL. Results showed that 62.5%, 37.5%, 15.6% and 27.1% of the means for TBC in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively, were above the values established by legislation. However, we observed a significant reduction in the levels of total bacterial count (TBC) in the studied periods. For somatic cell count, 100% of the means indicated values below 600.000 cells/mL, complying with the actual Brazilian legislation. The values found for the somatic cell count suggests the adoption of effective measures for the sanitary control of the herd. However, the results must be considered with caution as it highlights the need for quality improvements of the raw material until it achieves reliable results effectively.

Edmar da Costa, Alves; Alice Maria, Dahmer; Aurélio Ferreira, Borges.

2014-09-01

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Preliminary stochastic model for managing Vibrio parahaemolyticus and total viable bacterial counts in a Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) supply chain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vibrio parahaemolyticus can accumulate and grow in oysters stored without refrigeration, representing a potential food safety risk. High temperatures during oyster storage can lead to an increase in total viable bacteria counts, decreasing product shelf life. Therefore, a predictive tool that allows the estimation of both V. parahaemolyticus populations and total viable bacteria counts in parallel is needed. A stochastic model was developed to quantitatively assess the populations of V. parahaemolyticus and total viable bacteria in Pacific oysters for six different supply chain scenarios. The stochastic model encompassed operations from oyster farms through consumers and was built using risk analysis software. Probabilistic distributions and predictions for the percentage of Pacific oysters containing V. parahaemolyticus and high levels of viable bacteria at the point of consumption were generated for each simulated scenario. This tool can provide valuable information about V. parahaemolyticus exposure and potential control measures and can help oyster companies and regulatory agencies evaluate the impact of product quality and safety during cold chain management. If coupled with suitable monitoring systems, such models could enable preemptive action to be taken to counteract unfavorable supply chain conditions. PMID:23834791

Fernandez-Piquer, Judith; Bowman, John P; Ross, Tom; Estrada-Flores, Silvia; Tamplin, Mark L

2013-07-01

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Adequação da contagem de células somáticas e da contagem bacteriana total em leite cru refrigerado aos parâmetros da legislação Suitability of somatic cell count and total bacterial count in raw refrigerated milk to legislation standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi adequar a qualidade do leite cru refrigerado de cinco propriedades leiteiras aos parâmetros microbiológicos e de contagem de células somáticas (CCS estabelecidos pela legislação estadual do Paraná. As propriedades leiteiras estudadas foram monitoradas durante sete meses após a implantação de boas práticas de ordenha e de recomendações quanto ao tratamento de mastites e à manutenção e higienização de equipamentos de ordenha. Antes da adoção das recomendações, a contagem bacteriana total (CBT média era de 1,36 x 10(6UFC/mL e a CCS média, de 1,87 x 10(6/mL. Todas as propriedades atingiram os padrões estabelecidos para CBT, com redução média de 93,4%. A redução de CCS foi, em média, 74,3%. Apenas três propriedades atingiram os valores estabelecidos para CCS. As demais atingiram valores muito próximos ao limite. A adequação aos padrões de CBT e CCS gerou aumento na renda mensal, em razão do pagamento por qualidade do produto, entre R$120,00 e R$828,00, de acordo com a produção de cada propriedade.The aim of this work was to adequate raw refrigerated milk quality of five dairy farms to microbiological and somatic cell count (SCC standards established by Paraná state legislation. The dairy farms were monitored during seven months after the implementation of good milking practices and recommendations regarding mastitis treatment, and milking equipment maintenance and hygiene. Before the adoption of recommendations, the average total bacterial count (TBC was 1.36 x 10(6CFU/mL and average SCC was 1.87 x 10(6/mL. All farms reached established standards for TBC, originating an average reduction of 93.4%. Average SCC reduction was 74.3%. Only three farms reached established values for SCC. The remaining reached values near the limits. The suitability of TBC and SCC produced an increase in the monthly income due to payment quality reward of the dairy product, between R$120.00 and R$828.00, according to each farm production.

G.A. Bozo

2013-04-01

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Adequação da contagem de células somáticas e da contagem bacteriana total em leite cru refrigerado aos parâmetros da legislação / Suitability of somatic cell count and total bacterial count in raw refrigerated milk to legislation standards  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi adequar a qualidade do leite cru refrigerado de cinco propriedades leiteiras aos parâmetros microbiológicos e de contagem de células somáticas (CCS) estabelecidos pela legislação estadual do Paraná. As propriedades leiteiras estudadas foram monitoradas durante sete mese [...] s após a implantação de boas práticas de ordenha e de recomendações quanto ao tratamento de mastites e à manutenção e higienização de equipamentos de ordenha. Antes da adoção das recomendações, a contagem bacteriana total (CBT) média era de 1,36 x 10(6)UFC/mL e a CCS média, de 1,87 x 10(6)/mL. Todas as propriedades atingiram os padrões estabelecidos para CBT, com redução média de 93,4%. A redução de CCS foi, em média, 74,3%. Apenas três propriedades atingiram os valores estabelecidos para CCS. As demais atingiram valores muito próximos ao limite. A adequação aos padrões de CBT e CCS gerou aumento na renda mensal, em razão do pagamento por qualidade do produto, entre R$120,00 e R$828,00, de acordo com a produção de cada propriedade. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to adequate raw refrigerated milk quality of five dairy farms to microbiological and somatic cell count (SCC) standards established by Paraná state legislation. The dairy farms were monitored during seven months after the implementation of good milking practices and recommen [...] dations regarding mastitis treatment, and milking equipment maintenance and hygiene. Before the adoption of recommendations, the average total bacterial count (TBC) was 1.36 x 10(6)CFU/mL and average SCC was 1.87 x 10(6)/mL. All farms reached established standards for TBC, originating an average reduction of 93.4%. Average SCC reduction was 74.3%. Only three farms reached established values for SCC. The remaining reached values near the limits. The suitability of TBC and SCC produced an increase in the monthly income due to payment quality reward of the dairy product, between R$120.00 and R$828.00, according to each farm production.

G.A., Bozo; L.C.A., Alegro; L.C., Silva; E.H.W., Santana; W., Okano; L.C.C., Silva.

2013-04-01

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Automated Counting of Bacterial Colony Forming Units on Agar Plates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Manual counting of bacterial colony forming units (CFUs) on agar plates is laborious and error-prone. We therefore implemented a colony counting system with a novel segmentation algorithm to discriminate bacterial colonies from blood and other agar plates.

Brugger, Silvio D.; Baumberger, Christian; Jost, Marcel; Jenni, Werner; Brugger, Urs; Mu?hlemann, Kathrin

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Total count gamma ray detection and spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is recommended that all radiometric surveys, whether ground or airborne, should have a total count channel with the bottom of the energy acceptance range as low as possible with consideration of noise and cosmic rays

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Recuento de bacterias totales en leche cruda de tambos que caracterizan la zona noroeste de Santa Fe y sur de Santiago del Estero Total bacterial count in raw milk of dairy farms that characterize the northwest zone of Santa Fe and south of Santiago del Estero  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Un total de 6.998 muestras de leche cruda de pool de tanque, correspondientes a 55 establecimientos lecheros asociados a la Cooperativa Tambera Nueva Alpina Ltda., fueron recolectadas entre los años 1993 y 2002. Se realizó el Recuento de Microorganismos Aerobios Mesófilos Totales, obteniéndose como resultado un valor medio de 1,2 x 105± 2,4 x 105UFC/ml que caracteriza la zona. El año de finalización de la experiencia, se observó un 97% de los tambos evaluados con promedios £ 1,0 x 105UFC/ml. Solamente un 3% sobrepasa este límite, no encontrándose establecimientos con niveles superiores a 1,5 x 105UFC/ml. Al relacionar este indicador con parámetros composicionales, las correlaciones más significativas resultaron para: Recuento de Bacterias Totales vs Acidez (r = 0,292; P A total of 6.998 raw milk samples of bulk tank, belonging to 55 dairy farms associated to the Cooperativa Tambera Nueva Alpina Ltda., were collected between the years 1993 and 2002. The Total Mesophilic Aerobic Microorganisms Count was analyzed, obtaining a medium value of 1.2 x 105± 2.4 x 105CFU/ml that characterizes the zone. The final year of experience, observed a 97% of dairy farms evaluated with averages £ 1,0 x 105CFU/ml. Only a 3% it surpasses this limit, not being found establishments with levels over 1.5 x 105CFU/ml. Relating this indicators with compositionals parameters, the most significant correlation resulted for: Total Bacterial Count vs Acidity (r = 0.292; P < 0.001 and Total Bacterial Count vs Freezing Point (r = 0.157; P < 0.001. The microbiological quality in raw milk of dairy farms belonging to the northwest zone of Santa Fe and south of Santiago del Estero showed a significant improvement during this time.

G.R. Revelli

2004-09-01

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Method of quantitative bacterial count in burn wound  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To describe a technique for conducting Quantitative bacteriology in burn wounds, which is a very important tool in the management of burn wound sepsis. Technique was used in 21 patients with burn wound injury. Biopsy for the bacteriology was taken with the help of punch forceps. Then it was directly put into sterilized pre weighed homogenizer bag containing 1ml normal saline. This bag was re-weighed. Weight of the tissue was obtained and bag was homogenized in homogenizer (Stomacher Lab Blender-80). Four fold dilutions were made of homogenate specimen. From each dilution tube, 0.01 ml was then inoculated on blood agar plates, incubated for 24 hours and number of colonies counted by formula. Four specimens were taken each day and repeated on alternate days for up to 6 days. Out of twenty one patients there were 10 male and 11 female with mean age of 25.95 years. Total body surface area burnt was from 9-41%. Bacterial counts obtained varied from 1.45-8.89. Quantitative bacteriology is simple by the above method and should be employed in every public and private sector burn center. (author)

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Recuento de bacterias totales en leche cruda de tambos que caracterizan la zona noroeste de Santa Fe y sur de Santiago del Estero / Total bacterial count in raw milk of dairy farms that characterize the northwest zone of Santa Fe and south of Santiago del Estero  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Un total de 6.998 muestras de leche cruda de pool de tanque, correspondientes a 55 establecimientos lecheros asociados a la Cooperativa Tambera Nueva Alpina Ltda., fueron recolectadas entre los años 1993 y 2002. Se realizó el Recuento de Microorganismos Aerobios Mesófilos Totales, obteniéndose como [...] resultado un valor medio de 1,2 x 105± 2,4 x 105UFC/ml que caracteriza la zona. El año de finalización de la experiencia, se observó un 97% de los tambos evaluados con promedios £ 1,0 x 105UFC/ml. Solamente un 3% sobrepasa este límite, no encontrándose establecimientos con niveles superiores a 1,5 x 105UFC/ml. Al relacionar este indicador con parámetros composicionales, las correlaciones más significativas resultaron para: Recuento de Bacterias Totales vs Acidez (r = 0,292; P Abstract in english A total of 6.998 raw milk samples of bulk tank, belonging to 55 dairy farms associated to the Cooperativa Tambera Nueva Alpina Ltda., were collected between the years 1993 and 2002. The Total Mesophilic Aerobic Microorganisms Count was analyzed, obtaining a medium value of 1.2 x 105± 2.4 x 105CFU/ml [...] that characterizes the zone. The final year of experience, observed a 97% of dairy farms evaluated with averages £ 1,0 x 105CFU/ml. Only a 3% it surpasses this limit, not being found establishments with levels over 1.5 x 105CFU/ml. Relating this indicators with compositionals parameters, the most significant correlation resulted for: Total Bacterial Count vs Acidity (r = 0.292; P

G.R., Revelli; O. A., Sbodio; E.J., Tercero.

2004-09-01

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Ethnic and sex differences in the total and differential white cell count and platelet count.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIM/BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that healthy subjects of African ancestry have lower total white cell counts, neutrophil counts and platelet counts than Caucasian subjects and that, at least among Caucasians, women have higher neutrophil and platelet counts than men. The primary aim of this study was to confirm and quantify the ethnic differences, confirm the sex difference in Caucasians and determine whether there was a similar sex difference in non-Caucasians. A secondary ai...

Bain, B. J.

1996-01-01

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Comparison of SimPlate Total Plate Count test with plate count agar method for detection and quantitation of bacteria in food.  

Science.gov (United States)

The SimPlate Total Plate Count (TPC) test, developed by IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., detects and quantitates total bacterial concentration in food after 24 h of incubation. The performance of SimPlate TPC was compared with that of the plate count agar (PCA) method for enumerating total bacterial concentration of 255 food samples representing 15 different food matrixes. Total bacterial counts on SimPlate TPC were measured after 24 h of incubation and plotted against values obtained from PCA after 48 h. Simple regression analysis of the data showed strong correlation between the methods (r = 0.95); the sensitivity of SimPlate TPC for foodborne bacteria was 96% relative to PCA (slope = 0.96). It was concluded that SimPlate TPC is a suitable alternative for the detection and quantitation of foodborne bacteria. The method has been granted Performance Tested Certification by the AOAC Research Institute. PMID:9606922

Townsend, D E; Naqui, A

1998-01-01

27

Automated counting of bacterial colonies by image analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on microorganisms often involves culturing as a means to determine the survival and proliferation of bacteria. The number of colonies in a culture is counted to calculate the concentration of bacteria in the original broth; however, manual counting can be time-consuming and imprecise. To save time and prevent inconsistencies, this study proposes a fully automated counting system using image processing methods. To accurately estimate the number of viable bacteria in a known volume of suspension, colonies distributing over the whole surface area of a plate, including the central and rim areas of a Petri dish are taken into account. The performance of the proposed system is compared with verified manual counts, as well as with two freely available counting software programs. Comparisons show that the proposed system is an effective method with excellent accuracy with mean value of absolute percentage error of 3.37%. A user-friendly graphical user interface is also developed and freely available for download, providing researchers in biomedicine with a more convenient instrument for the enumeration of bacterial colonies. PMID:25451456

Chiang, Pei-Ju; Tseng, Min-Jen; He, Zong-Sian; Li, Chia-Hsun

2015-01-01

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Factors that influence high bacterial count in raw cow milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper had two aims. The first one was to evaluate the current situation with the bacterial count in the raw cow milk in R. of Macedonia, which is one of the elements that define the raw milk quality. The second aim was to describe several factors that influence the most the bacterial count in the raw cow milk. For the purposes of this study 3470 milk samples, taken from milk cooling tanks in several regions in R. Of Macedonia were taken in the period from January - March in 2009 year. After the tests were finished it was identified that 56.20% of the samples fulfill the criteria given in the national legislative. Compared with the EU legilsative it was noted that only 18.0% of the samples meet the given criteria. The results obtained clearly indicate at the insufficient hygiene in the breeding of the milk cows and incorrect milk handling after the milking as a result of the unsatisfactory farmers knowledge for the hygiene procedures in the primary milk production.

Angelovski Ljupco

2009-05-01

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Caracterización de sistemas productivos lecheros en el Sur de Chile con distintos sistemas de manejo y su relación con el recuento total bacteriano de la leche producida: un análisis multivariable / Characterisation of milk production systems of Southern Chile under different farm management systems and their relationship with total bacterial count of milk: a multivariate analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este estudio determinó y caracterizó tipos de sistemas productivos lecheros para obtención de leche (SP) en el Sur de Chile, asociando las variables de manejo con recuentos bacterianos de las partidas de leche de éstos. Se utilizó información cualitativa referente a diversas variables de manejo para [...] producir leche. Se analizaron 108 productores, mediante análisis de correspondencias múltiples y análisis de conglomerados. Se identificó 4 formas de obtener leche. El grupo SP1 (43% de la muestra) aportó el 87% de la leche a la industria y presentó adecuadas formas de manejo, clasificando todos, el 100% de sus partidas de leche en el mejor rango de calidad (? 20.000 ufc/mL). El SP2 (20% de la muestra) aportó un 10% del total de leche aunque mayoritariamente presentó inadecuadas formas de manejo, y clasificó un 77% de las partidas de leche en el mejor rango de calidad (? 20.000 ufc/mL), esta inconsistencia sugiere la necesidad de analizar en mayor profundidad este grupo. Finalmente, los grupos SP3 y SP4, que en conjunto entregaron sólo un 3% de la leche de la muestra total a la industria pero que representaron un 37% de la muestra, presentaron inadecuadas formas de manejo y se consideraron "grupos problema", predominando en ambos partidas de leche de mala calidad con recuentos > 200.000 ufc/mL en un 76 y 72%, respectivamente, en especial en SP3 con un 61% de las partidas de leche clasificadas en el peor rango establecido (> 800.000 ufc/mL). Consecuentemente se deben realizar acciones correctivas, relacionadas fundamentalmente con la temperatura de almacenamiento de la leche y con el correcto lavado de equipos, estanques y utensilios en SP3 y SP4. Abstract in english In this study, different types of dairy management systems for milk production (SP) in Southern Chile were determined and characterised, relating management variables to bacterial count in raw milk. Qualitative information on several management variables was utilised for evaluation. A survey was con [...] ducted on 108 dairy farmers and the management systems were evaluated using both multiple correspondence and conglomerate analysis. Four milk production systems were identified. The SP1 group (43% of the surveyed farmers) that delivered 87% of the industry milk had an adequate production management, with 100% of the produced milk being classified as best quality (? 20.000 cfu/mL). The SP2 group (20% of surveyed farmers) that produced 10% of the total milk delivered, mainly showed inadequate ways of milk production, however, 77% of the milk was classified as best quality. The uneven results suggest that further in-depth analysis of the group is required. Finally, the SP3 and SP4 groups that produced only 3% of the milk delivered but represented 37% of the surveyed farmers, had inadequate production management and were classified as "problem groups" with low milk quality with bacterial counts > 200.000 cfu/mL for 76% and 72% of the produced milk, respectively; specially the SP3 group with 61% of the milk in the worst quality category (> 800.000 cfu/mL). Therefore, corrective actions, mainly related to milk storage temperature and milking equipment cleaning, are required for the SP3 and SP4 groups.

BL, Carrillo; C, Pinargote; C, Brito; J, González; VH, Moreira; A, Báez.

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Total lymphocyte count as a surrogate marker for CD4 count in resource-limited settings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background CD4 testing is the recognized gold standard used to stage HIV/AIDS, guide treatment decisions for HIV-infected persons and evaluate effectiveness of therapy. The need for a less expensive surrogate marker that can be used in resource-limited setting is however necessary. The study sought to assess the suitability of Total lymphocyte count (TLC as a surrogate marker for CD4 count in resource-limited localities in Ghana. Methods This observational study was conducted at the Central Regional Hospital, which has one of the established antiretroviral therapy centres in Ghana. A total of one hundred and eighty-four (184 confirmed HIV I seropositive subjects were included in the study. Blood samples were taken from all the subjects for estimation of CD4 and total lymphocyte counts. The study subjects were further categorised into three (3 groups according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC classification criteria as follows: CD4 counts (1???500 cells/mm3 (2 200–499 cells/mm3 and (3 3. Positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV, sensitivity and specificity of various TLC cut-offs were computed for three groups. Correlation and Receiver Operator Characteristic analysis was performed for the various CD4 counts and their corresponding Total Lymphocyte count obtained. Results The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of TLC 1200 cells/ mm3 to predict CD4 count were 3 72.2%, 100%, 100% and 95.7% respectively. A TLC of 1500 cells/ mm3 was found to have maximal sensitivity (96.67%, specificity (100%, PPV (100% and NPV (75.0% for predicting a CD4 cell count of 200–499 cell/mm3. A TLC of 1900 cells/mm3 was also found to have a maximal sensitivity (98.45%, specificity (100%, PPV (100% and NPV (100% for predicting CD4 count ?500 cells/mm3. A positive correlation was noted between 184 paired CD4 and TLC counts (r?=?0.5728. Conclusion Total Lymphocyte count can therefore adequately serve as a surrogate marker for CD4 count in HIV patients who are naïve for antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited areas.

Obirikorang Christian

2012-06-01

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Agreement, Precision, and Accuracy of Epifluorescence Microscopy Methods for Enumeration of Total Bacterial Numbers ? †  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To assess interchangeability of estimates of bacterial abundance by different epifluorescence microscopy methods, total bacterial numbers (TBNs) determined by most widely accepted protocols were statistically compared. Bacteria in a set of distinctive samples were stained with acridine orange (AO), 4?-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), and BacLight and enumerated by visual counting (VC) and supervised image analysis (IA). Model II regression and Bland-Altman analysis proved general agreemen...

Seo, Eun-young; Ahn, Tae-seok; Zo, Young-gun

2010-01-01

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Correlation Between Total Lymphocyte Count, Hemoglobin, Hematocrit and CD4 Count in HIV Patients in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The expensive and technology limited setting of CD4 count testing is a major setback to the initiation of HAART in a resource limited country like Nigeria. Simple and inexpensive tools such as Hemoglobin (Hb measurement and Total Lymphocyte Count (TLC are recommended as substitute marker. In order to assess the correlations of these parameters with CD4 count, 100 “apparently healthy” male volunteers tested HIV positive aged ?20 years but ?40 years were recruited and from whom Hb, Hct, TLC and CD4 count were obtained. The correlation coefficients, R, the Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient of Efficiency (CoE and the p-values of the ANOVA model of Hb, Hct and TLC with CD4 count were assessed. The assessments show that there is no significant relationship of any of these parameters with CD4 count and the correlation coefficients are very weak. This study shows that Hb, Hct and TLC cannot be substitute for CD4 count as this might lead to certain individuals’ deprivation of required treatment.

Shemaiah Olufemi Okeniyi

2014-01-01

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Rapid radiorespirometric method for the estimation of bacterial counts of cellulomonas cultures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The determination of bacterial counts in cultures of Cellulomonas species C-72-4 by a radiorespirometric technique was twenty times faster than the conventional method. A linear correlation was found between the bacterial counts and the 14CO2 metabolized from labelled glucose added to the cellulose medium. (orig.)

34

Low-Cost, High-Throughput, Automated Counting of Bacterial Colonies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research involving bacterial pathogens often requires enumeration of bacteria colonies. Here we present a low-cost, high-throughput colony counting system consisting of colony counting software and a consumer-grade digital camera or document scanner. We demonstrate that this software, called “NICE” (NIST's Integrated Colony Enumerator), can count bacterial colonies as part of a high-throughput multiplexed opsonophagocytic killing assay (MOPA) used to characterize pneumococcal vaccine effi...

Clarke, Matthew L.; Burton, Robert L.; Hill, A. Nayo; Litorja, Maritoni; Nahm, Moon H.; Hwang, Jeeseong

2010-01-01

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Validity of total leucocytes count and neutrophil count (differential leucocytes) in diagnosing suspected acute appendicitis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of Total Leucocytes Count (TLC) with Neutrophil count; Differential Leucocytes Count (DLC) in diagnosing cases of suspected acute appendicitis. Study design: Validation study. Place and duration of the study: Department of Surgery, Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Rawalpindi, from April 2008 to October 2008. Method: A total of 100 patients of Pain right iliac fossae who underwent appendicectomy were included. Detailed history of all the patients was taken for pain in right lower abdomen, its severity, its nature, relieving or provoking factors. Clinical examination was done in detail. Total and Differential Leucocytes Count was done. Every patient's appendix was examined grossly after appendicectomy for evidence of appendicitis. Diagnostic measures of TLC and DLC were calculated by standard formulas. Results: Sensitivity and specificity of TLC is 86.9% and 81.25% respectively and that of DLC is 82% and 68.75% respectively. Accuracy was 86% for TLC and 80% for DLC. Conclusion: TLC is more sensitive, specific and accurate test as compared to DLC and it should be used as diagnostic aid for suspected acute appendicitis cases. (author)

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Influence of somatic cell count and total bacterial counts of raw milk in cheese yield using small-scale methodology Influência da contagem de células somáticas e da contagem bacteriana total do leite cru no rendimento da produção de queijos, utilizando metodologia em escala reduzida  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of SCC and TBC of raw milk in cheese yield, using a reduced scale method, and to evaluate theoretical prediction of cheese yield. 270 samples of raw milk were split into three SCC levels (below 200,000; 200,000-750,000; above 750,000 SC/mL) and three TBC levels (below 100,000; 100,000-750,000; above 750,000 CFU/mL). Raw milk samples were submitted to compositional analysis (fat, protein, lactose, total solids and SNF content), SCC, T...

Silva, N. M. A.; Bastos, L. P. F.; Oliveira, D. L. S.; Oliveira, M. C. P. P.; Fonseca, L. M.

2012-01-01

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The Influence of Pumping on Observed Bacterial Counts in Groundwater Samples: Implications for Sampling Protocol and Water Quality Interpretation  

Science.gov (United States)

Drinking water quality has become an important issue in Ontario following the events in Walkerton in 2000. Many rural communities are reliant on private groundwater wells for drinking water, and it is the responsibility of the owner to have the water tested to make sure it is safe for human consumption. Homeowners can usually take a sample to the local health unit for total coliform and E. Coli analysis at no charge to determine if the water supply is being tainted by surface water or fecal matter, both of which could indicate the potential for negative impacts on human health. However, is the sample coming out of the tap representative of what is going on the aquifer? The goal of this study is to observe how bacterial counts may vary during the course of well pumping, and how those changing results influence the assessment of water quality. Multiple tests were conducted in bedrock monitoring wells to examine the influence of pumping rate and pumped volume on observed counts of total coliform, E. Coli, fecal streptococcus, fecal coliform and heterotrophic plate count. Bacterial samples were collected frequently during the course of continuous purging events lasting up to 8 hours. Typical field parameters (temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen and ORP) were also continuously monitored during the course of each test. Common practice in groundwater studies is to wait until these parameters have stabilized or three well volumes have been removed prior to sampling, to ensure the sample is taken from new water entering the well from the aquifer, rather than the original water stored in the borehole prior to the test. In general, most bacterial counts were low, but did go above the drinking water standard of 0 counts/100mL (total coliform and E. Coli) at times during the tests. Results show the greatest variability in the observed bacterial counts at the onset of pumping prior to the removal of three well volumes. Samples taken after the removal of three well volumes are more likely to show stabilized bacterial counts, however, this sort of pumping event is not common during daily household water use or when a sample is being collected for a bacterial test by the homeowner. The stabilization of bacterial counts was delayed compared to the field parameters. Bacterial counts were influenced on the short-term by changes in pumping rate, however, similar long-term stability of the counts was observed. The trends of tests conducted in multi-level piezometers (sand pack between the screen and the wellbore wall) were similar to tests conducted in open boreholes. The results imply that bacterial counts and the subsequent water quality interpretations are influenced by the pumping rate and when the sample was taken during the pumping event. Early time results are more likely to reflect the bacterial response to the perturbations caused by the pump itself, while later samples reflect the adjustment of the bacterial colonies, in and adjacent to the well, to the new conditions. Further consideration needs to be given to these parameters when designing a bacterial sampling protocol in groundwater and when assessing the quality of drinking water using bacteria as indicators.

Kozuskanich, J.; Novakowski, K.; Anderson, B.

2008-12-01

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Influence of somatic cell count and total bacterial counts of raw milk in cheese yield using small-scale methodology / Influência da contagem de células somáticas e da contagem bacteriana total do leite cru no rendimento da produção de queijos, utilizando metodologia em escala reduzida  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar a influência da CCS e CBT do leite cru no rendimento de queijos, utilizando método em escala reduzida, e avaliar a predição teórica do rendimento de queijos. Foram utilizadas 270 amostras de leite cru com três níveis de CCS (abaixo de 200.000; 200.000-750. [...] 000; acima de 750.000 CS/mL) e três níveis de CBT (abaixo de 100.000; 100.000-750.000; acima de 750.000 UFC/mL). As amostras de leite cru foram submetidas a análises de composição (gordura, proteína, lactose, EST e ESD), CCS, CBT, crioscopia e pH. A produção dos queijos em escala reduzida foi feita segundo o método desenvolvido na Universidade de Cornell, EUA (Melilli et al., 2002). As amostras de soro de queijo foram submetidas a análises de composição (gordura, proteína total, proteína verdadeira, lactose, EST e ESD) e CCS. O aumento da CCS no leite cru refletiu na maior perda de proteína no soro. CCS elevada (acima de 200.000 CS/mL) foi correlacionada ao menor rendimento de massa seca. Foi encontrada uma correlação alta entre os valores teóricos de rendimento e os valores de rendimento preditos pela metodologia em escala reduzida, indicando que esta metodologia pode ser utilizada para a predição do rendimento de queijos. Abstract in english The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of SCC and TBC of raw milk in cheese yield, using a reduced scale method, and to evaluate theoretical prediction of cheese yield. 270 samples of raw milk were split into three SCC levels (below 200,000; 200,000-750,000; above 750,000 SC/mL) [...] and three TBC levels (below 100,000; 100,000-750,000; above 750,000 CFU/mL). Raw milk samples were submitted to compositional analysis (fat, protein, lactose, total solids and SNF content), SCC, TBC, freezing point and pH. The production of the small-scale cheese was conducted according to the method developed at Cornell University (Melilli et al., 2002). Cheese whey samples were submitted to compositional analysis (fat, total protein, true protein, lactose, total solids and SNF content) and SCC. The increase in the SCC of raw milk resulted in increased protein loss in cheese whey. High SCC (above 200,000 SC/mL) in milk samples was correlated to reduced dry matter yield. There was no effect of TBC in cheese yield in the experimental conditions used. There was a high correlation between the theoretical yield values and the yield values predicted by the small-scale method, indicating that this method is appropriate for cheese yield prediction.

N.M.A., Silva; L.P.F., Bastos; D.L.S., Oliveira; M.C.P.P., Oliveira; L.M., Fonseca.

1367-13-01

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Influence of somatic cell count and total bacterial counts of raw milk in cheese yield using small-scale methodology Influência da contagem de células somáticas e da contagem bacteriana total do leite cru no rendimento da produção de queijos, utilizando metodologia em escala reduzida  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of SCC and TBC of raw milk in cheese yield, using a reduced scale method, and to evaluate theoretical prediction of cheese yield. 270 samples of raw milk were split into three SCC levels (below 200,000; 200,000-750,000; above 750,000 SC/mL and three TBC levels (below 100,000; 100,000-750,000; above 750,000 CFU/mL. Raw milk samples were submitted to compositional analysis (fat, protein, lactose, total solids and SNF content, SCC, TBC, freezing point and pH. The production of the small-scale cheese was conducted according to the method developed at Cornell University (Melilli et al., 2002. Cheese whey samples were submitted to compositional analysis (fat, total protein, true protein, lactose, total solids and SNF content and SCC. The increase in the SCC of raw milk resulted in increased protein loss in cheese whey. High SCC (above 200,000 SC/mL in milk samples was correlated to reduced dry matter yield. There was no effect of TBC in cheese yield in the experimental conditions used. There was a high correlation between the theoretical yield values and the yield values predicted by the small-scale method, indicating that this method is appropriate for cheese yield prediction.Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar a influência da CCS e CBT do leite cru no rendimento de queijos, utilizando método em escala reduzida, e avaliar a predição teórica do rendimento de queijos. Foram utilizadas 270 amostras de leite cru com três níveis de CCS (abaixo de 200.000; 200.000-750.000; acima de 750.000 CS/mL e três níveis de CBT (abaixo de 100.000; 100.000-750.000; acima de 750.000 UFC/mL. As amostras de leite cru foram submetidas a análises de composição (gordura, proteína, lactose, EST e ESD, CCS, CBT, crioscopia e pH. A produção dos queijos em escala reduzida foi feita segundo o método desenvolvido na Universidade de Cornell, EUA (Melilli et al., 2002. As amostras de soro de queijo foram submetidas a análises de composição (gordura, proteína total, proteína verdadeira, lactose, EST e ESD e CCS. O aumento da CCS no leite cru refletiu na maior perda de proteína no soro. CCS elevada (acima de 200.000 CS/mL foi correlacionada ao menor rendimento de massa seca. Foi encontrada uma correlação alta entre os valores teóricos de rendimento e os valores de rendimento preditos pela metodologia em escala reduzida, indicando que esta metodologia pode ser utilizada para a predição do rendimento de queijos.

N.M.A. Silva

2012-10-01

40

Total leucocyte count, C-reactive protein and neutrophil count: Diagnostic Aid in acute appendicitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background/Aim: Acute appendicitis is one of the most common acute intraabdominal affections seen in surgical departments, which can be treated easily if an accurate diagnosis is made in time. Otherwise, delay in diagnosis and treatment can lead to diffuse peritonitis. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted on 110 patients who were operated for acute appendicitis to determine the role and predictive value of the total leucocyte count (TLC, C-reactive protein (CRP and percentage of neutrophil count in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Preoperative TLC, CRP and percentage of neutrophil count were determined and were compared with the results of the histopathology of the removed appendix. Results: Of all the patients studied, 92 had histopathologically positive appendicitis. The TLC was found to be significantly high in 90 patients who proved to have acute appendicitis, whereas CRP was high in only 88 patients and neutrophil percentage was raised in 91; four had a normal CRP level. Thus, TLC had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 97.82%, 55.55% and 91.8%, respectively. CRP had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 95.6%, 77.77% and 95.6% respectively. Percentage of neutrophil count had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 98.9%, 38.88% and 89.21%, respectively. When used in combination, there was a marked improvement in the specificity and the positive predictive value to 88.04% and 98.7%, respectively. Conclusion: The inflammatory markers, i.e., TLC, CRP and neutrophil count can be helpful in the diagnosis when measured together as this increases their specificity and positive predictive value.

Shafi Sheikh

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

INTERRELATIONSHIP OF BACTERIAL COUNTS WITH OTHER FINISHED WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS WITHIN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this research program was to obtain realistic information concerning the interrelationships between temperature, chlorine, turbidity, coliforms, and Standard Plate Count (SPC) densities present in finished water after treatment and distribution. Bacterial identif...

42

Removal of hair surrounding the teat and associated bacterial counts on teat skin surface, in milk, and intramammary infections.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effectiveness of monthly removal of hair surrounding teats on the reduction of teat skin surface bacteria, and the incidence of intramammary infection (IMI), was studied for 10 months in a dairy farm. A split udder design was used where hair was removed on one side, left or right, with the other side serving as a control. Controls and treatment sides were randomly applied in a systematic fashion to 218 cows. Standard milking time pre- and post-milking hygiene practices were applied to all udders during the trial. Collection of teat skin swab solutions preceded aseptic collection of milk samples, performed at monthly intervals, immediately prior to milking. Teat skin bacterial counts did not differ between control and treated teats. Incidences of IMI were similar for treatment when compared with control mammary quarters, as measured by total or by pathogen type. In a second study, the effect of hair removal on the bacterial content of milk was determined using 40 cows. Treatments and allocations were as described. Udder half milk, milk from both mammary quarters of each udder half, was combined and diverted into separate buckets. Buckets were thoroughly cleaned and sanitized between milkings. A portion of bucket milk was collected 24 h after removal of udder hair. The total milk bacterial counts, and counts of psychrotrophs and thermoduric organisms were not reduced by udder hair removal. Results do not suggest that removal of udder hair leads to an improvement in milk quality as determined by milk bacterial content in the herd studied. PMID:14633199

Silk, A S; Fox, L K; Hancock, D D

2003-11-01

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Antimicrobial susceptibility testing in 90 min by bacterial cell count monitoring.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rise in antimicrobial resistance has become a serious global health problem. Restrictive use of antibiotics seems the only option to temper this accession since research in new antibiotics has halted. Antimicrobial stewardship programmes rely on quick access to susceptibility data. This study evaluated the concept of bacterial cell count monitoring as a fast method to determine susceptibility. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus strains were tested for amoxicillin/piperacillin and gentamicin by three conventional methods (VITEK2(®) , Etest(®) and broth-macrodilution). Bacterial cell count monitoring reliably predicted susceptibility after 90 min for Escherichia coli and after 120 min for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus without any minor, major or very major discrepancies. Time-to-result was reduced by 74%, 83% and 76%, respectively. Bacterial cell count monitoring shows great potential for rapid susceptibility testing. PMID:22390723

Broeren, M A C; Maas, Y; Retera, E; Arents, N L A

2013-03-01

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Evaluating total lymphocyte counts as a substitute for CD4 counts in the follow up of AIDS patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study evaluated total lymphocyte count (TLC) as a substitute marker for CD4+ cell counts to identify patients who need prophylaxis against opportunistic infection (CD4 [...] C and CD4+ cells count of 1,174 HIV-infected patients, in Salvador, Brazil, from May 2003 to September 2004. CD4+ cell counts were performed by flow cytometry, and TLC was measured with an automated hematological counter. The mean CD4 count was 430 cells/mm³ (range: 4 to 2,531 cells/mm³). Mean TLC was 1,900 cells/mm³ (range: 300 to 6,200 cells/mm³). Using a threshold value of 1,000 cells/mm³ for TLC, the positive predictive value (PPV) was 77% for CD4

Ana Luiza Dias, Angelo; Camila Dias, Angelo; Alex José Leite, Torres; André Maurício Costa, Ramos; Márcia, Lima; Eduardo Martins, Netto; Carlos, Brites.

2007-10-01

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Bacterial clearance after total splenectomy and splenic autotransplantation in rats  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wistar rats submitted to isolated total splenectomy or total splenectomy combined with splenic autotransplantation were inoculated with {sup 99m}technetium-labeled Escherichia coli. Measurement of isotope uptake in the organs of the mononuclear phagocytic system showed a greater bacterial bloodstream clearance in rats with splenic autotransplantation. Although uptake of bacteria in the spleen was higher in the control group, the number of bacteria remaining in the bloodstream did not differ between groups. These results indicate that splenic autotransplantation preserves the phagocytic function of the spleen.

Marques, R.G. E-mail: rmarques@uerj.br; Petroianu, Andy; Oliveira, M.B.N. de; Bernardo-Filho, M.; Boasquevisque, E.M.; Portela, M.C

2002-12-01

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Bacterial and yeast counts in Brazilian commodities and spices  

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A total of thirteen genera of bacteria and two genera of yeasts were detected in surface sterilized and unsterilized Brazilian commodities and spices such as cashew kernels, Brazil nut kernels, black and white pepper. The genus Bacillus with eight species was by far the most common. The yeasts isolated were Pichia sp., P. guillermondii and Rhodotorula sp. Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in cashew and Brazil nut kernels.

Freire Francisco das Chagas Oliveira; Offord Lisa

2002-01-01

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Effect of Bacterial Content and Somatic Cell Count on Sheep Milk Quality in Kosovo  

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Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyze the effect of bacterial content (CFU and somatic cell count (SCC in milk quality in sheep (Ovis aries farms according to the existing standards for fresh milk quality in Kosovo. A total of 2256 milk test day records from 379 Bardhoka (BAR, Sharri sheep (SHA, Kosovo sheep (KOS and Balusha (BAL ewes in eight herds across the country were collected and analyzed through a period April-October 2010. The general linear model and Duncan’s test were used to analyze the effect of different variables on presence of CFU and SCC in fresh milk. The effect of all variables was considered as a fixed. The overall results show that farm (P 0422, respectively, had a significant effect on presence of SCC. For CFU farm (P 0422 and breed (P 1211.17 to 6425.76 CFU/mL and 846.07 to 2043.15 SCC/mL milk, respectively. Although the rate of fresh milk contamination with SCC tends to be relatively low compare with CFU, by all means both variables should not be underestimated bearing in mind that a high rate of them on fresh milk are negatively correlated with farmer’s profit, consumer food safety and overall animal health.

Hysen Bytyqi

2013-04-01

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Influence of addition of different antibiotics in semen diluent on viable bacterial count and spermatozoal viability of Awassi ram semen  

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Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of six different antibiotics in controlling the growth of semen contaminating bacteria and if these antibiotics have any adverse effect on Awassi ram spermatozoa. Semen samples from six mature Awassi rams were used in this study. A total number of 120 ejaculates were collected from the rams using an artificial vagina once a week. Semen ejaculates were evaluated for volume, sperm concentration, mass motility, individual motility, percentage live sperm, sperm abnormalities, and viable bacterial count. Semen samples were diluted by sodium citrate-fructose-egg yolk. The diluted semen sample was divided into 7 parts. Six types of antibiotics were added to the semen diluent parts including; penicillin G 1000 IU ml-1 with streptomycin 1 mg ml-1, gentamicin sulphate 250 mg ml-1, tetracycline 0.5 mg ml-1, lincomycin 1 mg ml-1, cefoperazone sodium 1mg ml-1, cefdinir 1 mg ml-1 and the seventh part considered as a control group without antibiotic addition. The diluted semen samples were cooled and preserved at 5 Co for 5 days. Cooled diluted semen samples were examined for individual motility, percent of live sperm, sperm abnormalities, acrosomal defects and bacterial count every 24 h until 5 days. Comparing with the control, all the antibiotics examined were effective in controlling bacterial growth (P<0.05 from 24 h to 96 h of preservation at 5 Co. Cefdinir and cefoperazone sodium proved to be significantly (P<0.05 effective than other antibiotics in controlling bacterial growth at 96 h of preservation as the bacterial count were 23.3 ± 3.7 x 103 / ml and 25.4 ± 6.2 x 103 / ml, respectively. Lincomycin, gentamicin sulphate and tetracycline proved ineffective in controlling bacterial growth at 96 h of preservation as the bacterial count were 57.1 ± 20.1 x 103 / ml, 52.5 ± 29.4 x 103 / ml and 46.5 ± 8.8 x 103 / ml, respectively. The addition of tetracycline to diluted ram semen significantly reduced (P<0.05 sperm individual motility and percent live sperm and a significant increase (P<0.05 acrosomal defects was observed at 96 h of preservation in comparison to control and other antibiotics. Sperm viability was highly correlated with bacterial count in the control part of diluted semen (r = 0.794; P < 0.01. It could be concluded from the results of the present study that additions of cephalosporins (cefdinir or Cefoperazone sodium at the dose of 1 mg ml-1 were most effective amongst the antibiotics used in checking the bacterial growth and improving semen quality of Awassi ram. [Vet. World 2012; 5(2.000: 75-79

O I Azawi

2012-04-01

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Agreement, precision, and accuracy of epifluorescence microscopy methods for enumeration of total bacterial numbers.  

Science.gov (United States)

To assess interchangeability of estimates of bacterial abundance by different epifluorescence microscopy methods, total bacterial numbers (TBNs) determined by most widely accepted protocols were statistically compared. Bacteria in a set of distinctive samples were stained with acridine orange (AO), 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), and BacLight and enumerated by visual counting (VC) and supervised image analysis (IA). Model II regression and Bland-Altman analysis proved general agreements between IA and VC methods, although IA counts tended to be lower than VC counts by 7% on a logarithmic scale. Distributions of cells and latex beads on polycarbonate filters were best fitted to negative binomial models rather than to Poisson or log-normal models. The fitted models revealed higher precisions of TBNs by the IA method than those by the VC method. In pairwise comparisons of the staining methods, TBNs by AO and BacLight staining showed good agreement with each other, but DAPI staining had tendencies of underestimation. Although precisions of the three staining methods were comparable to one another (intraclass correlation coefficients, 0.97 to 0.98), accuracy of the DAPI staining method was rebutted by disproportionateness of TBNs between pairs of samples that carried 2-fold different volumes of identical cell suspensions. It was concluded that the TBN values estimated by AO and BacLight staining are relatively accurate and interchangeable for quantitative interpretation and that IA provides better precision than does VC. As a prudent measure, it is suggested to avoid use of DAPI staining for comparative studies investigating accuracy of novel cell-counting methods. PMID:20097826

Seo, Eun-Young; Ahn, Tae-Seok; Zo, Young-Gun

2010-03-01

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Utility of total lymphocyte count as a surrogate marker for CD4 counts in HIV-1 infected children in Kenya  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In resource-limited settings, such as Kenya, access to CD4 testing is limited. Therefore, evaluation of less expensive laboratory diagnostics is urgently needed to diagnose immuno-suppression in children. Objectives To evaluate utility of total lymphocyte count (TLC as surrogate marker for CD4 count in HIV-infected children. Methods This was a hospital based retrospective study conducted in three HIV clinics in Kisumu and Nairobi in Kenya. TLC, CD4 count and CD4 percent data were abstracted from hospital records of 487 antiretroviral-naïve HIV-infected children aged 1 month - 12 years. Results TLC and CD4 count were positively correlated (r = 0.66, p 59 months of age (r = 0.68, p 3, age 12-35 months (CD4 count 3, and age above 59 months (CD4 count 3. WHO recommended TLC threshold values for severe immuno-suppression of 4000, 3000, 2500 and 2000 cells/mm3 for age categories 59 months had low sensitivity of 25%, 23%, 33% and 62% respectively in predicting severe immuno-suppression using CD4 count as gold standard. Raising TLC thresholds to 7000, 6000, 4500 and 3000 cells/mm3 for each of the stated age categories increased sensitivity to 71%, 64%, 56% and 86%, with positive predictive values of 85%, 61%, 37%, 68% respectively but reduced specificity to 73%, 62%, 54% and 68% with negative predictive values of 54%, 65%, 71% and 87% respectively. Conclusion TLC is positively correlated with absolute CD4 count in children but current WHO age-specific thresholds had low sensitivity to identify severely immunosuppressed Kenyan children. Sensitivity and therefore utility of TLC to identify immuno-suppressed children may be improved by raising the TLC cut off levels across the various age categories.

Wamalwa Dalton C

2011-09-01

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How many is enough? Determining optimal count totals for ecological and palaeoecological studies of testate amoebae  

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Testate amoebae are increasingly used in ecological and palaeoecological studies of wetlands. To characterise the amoeba community a certain number of individuals need to be counted under the microscope. To date, most studies have aimed for 150 individuals, but that sample size is not based on adequate evidence. When testate amoeba concentrations are low, it can be difficult or impossible to reach this total. The impacts of lower count totals have never been seriously scrutinised. We investig...

Payne, Richard J.; Mitchell, Edward A. D.

2010-01-01

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Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis with a very high leukocyte count in ascitic fluid caused by Haemophilus influenzae  

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Full Text Available Tarek Saadi,1,2 Safie Khoury,3 Ella Veitsman,1 Yaacov Baruch,1,4 Ayelet Raz-Pasteur3,41Liver Unit, 2Department of Gastroenterology, 3Department of Internal Medicine A, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel; 4The Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, IsraelAbstract: We report on a case of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP due to Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae in an elderly patient with alcoholic cirrhosis. The patient presented with a 5 day history of fever, cough, and fatigue. Abdominal paracentesis revealed a very high neutrophil count (134,800 cells/µL. Secondary peritonitis and abdominal abscess were ruled out. Peritoneal fluid culture displayed the growth of H. influenzae. The patient was treated with ceftriaxone and showed signs of improvement. Eventually, the patient died due to septic shock caused by other organisms. H. influenzae is a very rare cause of SBP. This case report demonstrates that (1 H. influenzae should be considered a potential cause of SBP, and (2 a very high leukocyte count in ascitic fluid can be found in patients with SBP.Keywords: cirrhosis, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, Haemophilus influenzae

Saadi T

2013-08-01

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Flow cytometry analysis using Sysmex UF1000i characterize uropathogens based on bacterial-, leukocyte- and erythrocyte counts in urine specimen among patients with urinary tract infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the second most common bacterial infection. Urine culture is gold standard for diagnosis but new techniques such as flow cytometry analysis (FCA) have been introduced. The aim of the present study was to evaluate FCA characteristics regarding bacteriuria, leukocyteuria and erythrocyturia in relation to cultured uropathogens in specimens among patients with suspected UTI We also wanted to evaluate whether the FCA characteristics can identify uropathogens prior to culture. From a prospective study, 1,587 consecutive urine specimens underwent FCA prior to culture during January and February 2012. In- and outpatients (79.6% and 19.4%, respectively) were included of whom women represented 67.5%. In total 620 specimens yielded growth of which Escherichia coli represented 65%, Enterococci 8%, Klebsiella 7% and Staphylococci 5%. For uropathogens the outcome of FCA was compared against the results for specimens with E. coli and those with negative culture. E. coli had high bacterial- (median 17,914/?L), leukocyte- (348/?L) and erythrocyte counts (23/?L). With the exception of Klebsiella spp., the majorities of uropathogens had considerable or significantly lower bacterial counts than E. coli. High leukocyte counts were found in specimens with Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and streptococci. For the three latter species and also Staphylococcus saprophyticus elevated erythrocyte counts were found. In essence, FCA adds new information of the bacterial-, leukocyte- and erythrocyte counts in urine specimens for different uropathogens. Based on FCA characteristics, uropathogen can be classified and identified prior to culture. E. coli and Klebsiella spp. have similar FCA characteristics. PMID:25472486

Monsen, Tor; Ryden, Patrik

2014-12-01

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Bacterial and fungal growth in total parenteral nutrition solutions,.  

Science.gov (United States)

The most serious complication of prolonged intravenous infusion of hypertonic dextrose and amino acids is infection. Frequently, the etiology is fungal rather than bacterial. Previous authors have suggested that bacterial survival and growth in the solutions is suppressed by (a) high dextrose concentration, (b) high osmolality, or (c) low pH. This paper presents evidence that proposals (a) and (b) are untenable and (c) is only partly responsible. We call attention to the presence of a factor that is antibacterial but not antifungal; namely, a high concentration of glycine. PMID:2102

Failla, M L; Benedict, C D; Weinberg, E D

1975-01-01

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Monte Carlo simulation of uncertainties in three-count total alpha radon progeny measurement techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent studies of three-count total alpha sequential sampling and counting methods using a law of propagation of erros (LPE) model has shown that small variations in pump flow rate and airborne radon progeny concentrations present from measurement to measurement can result in much larger variations in the overall precision of measurement than can be predicted on the basis of counting statistics alone. In contrast, results predicted by a Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) model developed in this work show that these variations have only a small effect on the overall precision of measurement for radon progeny concentrations typically found in uranium mines (1000-3700 Bq m-3) and in buildings with potential alpha energy concentrations equal to or exceeding 4x10-7 J m-3(0.02 WL). The discrepancy observed between results predicted by the MCS model and the LPE model is attributed mainly to the LPE model assumption of independence of variations in alpha count totals and independence of variations in estimated airborne radon progeny concentrations. For the case where radioactive decay is the only source of random error, the LPE model assumption of independence in estimated airborne radon progeny concentrations results in an overestimation of the relative standard deviation of the potential alpha energy concentration by from 80 to 105%. Monte Carlo precision estimates evaluated for sequential three-count total-alpha measurement techniques show that pl-alpha measurement techniques show that precision estimates based on counting statistics alone are reliable when measurement to measurement pump flow rate variations are less than 3% and litre to litre concentration variations are less than 10%. (orig.)

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A new medium for determining the total plate count in food.  

Science.gov (United States)

SimPlate for Total Plate Count-Color Indicator (TPC-CI, IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., Westbrook, Me.) is a new medium that incorporates the redox dye resazurin to detect and quantify bacteria in food. Enumeration is achieved by the most probable number method using a SimPlate device. Viable bacteria are detected in each well of the SimPlate device by the biochemical reduction of resazurin, which is blue, to the pink resorufin or the clear dihydroresorufin indicators. Results after 24 h of incubation for TPC-CI are highly correlated with standard plate count agar after 48 h of incubation. Correlation coefficients from studies conducted at five laboratories ranged from 0.94 to 0.98 in side-by-side comparisons against standard plate count agar. Four additional test sites, using alternative methods for determining the aerobic plate count in food, reported similar results in comparison studies (r = 0.91 to 0.97). The slopes from linear regression analysis at all sites ranged from 0.91 to 0.98, with y intercepts ranging from 0.11 to 0.84. Samples used for the validation of TPC-CI included raw food products (i.e., liver and grains), which may contain natural enzymes that interfere with enzyme-based detection methods. No interference was seen from the foods tested. These results suggest that TPC-CI is a suitable alternative to existing plate count methods and has reduced incubation time. PMID:10606144

Smith, C F; Townsend, D E

1999-12-01

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Monte Carlo simulation of gamma-ray total counting efficiency for a Phoswich detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The LB 1000-PW detector is mainly used for determining total alpha, beta and gamma activity of low activity natural sources such as water, soil, air filters and any other environmental sources. Detector efficiency needs to be known in order to measure the absolute activity of such samples. This paper presents results on the total gamma counting efficiency of a Phoswich detector from point and disk sources. The directions of photons emitted from the source were determined by Monte Carlo techniques and the true path lengths in the detector were determined by analytical equations depending on photon directions. Results are tabulated for various gamma energies

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Monte Carlo simulation of gamma-ray total counting efficiency for a Phoswich detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The LB 1000-PW detector is mainly used for determining total alpha, beta and gamma activity of low activity natural sources such as water, soil, air filters and any other environmental sources. Detector efficiency needs to be known in order to measure the absolute activity of such samples. This paper presents results on the total gamma counting efficiency of a Phoswich detector from point and disk sources. The directions of photons emitted from the source were determined by Monte Carlo techniques and the true path lengths in the detector were determined by analytical equations depending on photon directions. Results are tabulated for various gamma energies.

Yalcin, S. [Education Faculty, Kastamonu University, 37200 Kastamonu (Turkey)], E-mail: syalcin@kastamonu.edu.tr; Gurler, O. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Uludag University, Gorukle Campus, 16059 Bursa (Turkey); Gundogdu, O. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); NCCPM, Medical Physics, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, GU2 7XX (United Kingdom); Kaynak, G. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Uludag University, Gorukle Campus, 16059 Bursa (Turkey)

2009-01-15

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Relationship of Total Motile Sperm Count and Percentage Motile Sperm to Successful Pregnancy Rates Following Intrauterine Insemination  

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Purpose:This study sought (i) to investigate the relationship between postwash total motile sperm count and postwash percentage motile sperm in predicting successful intrauterine insemination and (ii) to determine the minimal postwash total motile sperm count required to achieve pregnancy with intrauterine insemination.

Pasqualotto, Eleonora B.; Daitch, James A.; Hendin, Benjamin N.; Falcone, Tommaso; Thomas, Anthony J.; Nelson, David R.; Agarwal, Ashok

1999-01-01

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Total Lymphocyte Count as surrogate marker for CD4 Cell Count in HIV-Infected Individuals in Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The high cost of CD4 count estimation in resource-limited countries is a major challenge in initiating patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Therefore, assessment of inexpensive and simple laboratory diagnostic marker is mandatory to diagnose immuno-suppression. Objective To evaluate utility of total lymphocyte count (TLC as surrogate marker for CD4 count in HIV-infected patients. Materials and Methods In this cross sectional study, 400 ART-naive HIV-positive patients enrolled in Gondar University Hospital, from March 2011 to May 2011, were tested for CD4 count & TLC. The cutoffs were determined as: 200 cells/?L for CD4 count and 1200 cells/?L for TLC by using BD FACS count and CELL DYN 1800 Flow Cytometrys respectively. Spearman correlation between TLC and CD4 cell count were assessed. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for different age a group, TLC ?1200 was computed for CD4 count ?200 cells/cu.mm. Results Among 400 ART naive HIV infected patients, 278 (69.5% were females. The mean age of the study participants was 33.7. TLC and CD4 count were positively correlated (r?=?0.33, p?=?0.001. A TLC of ?1200 cells/m?m3 was found to have a sensitivity (32.86%, specificity (95.33%, PPV (79.7%, and NPV (71.9% for predicting a CD4 count of Conclusion This study showed that low sensitivity and specificity of TLC as a surrogate measure for CD4 count. Moreover, CD4 cell counts of?

Wondimeneh Yitayih

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
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Comparison of Fecal Indicator Bacterial Counts in Shellfish Harvested from Kedah, Penang and Perak Pre and Post-Tsunami  

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The objectives of this paper are to examine the level of fecal indicator bacterial counts (Fecal Coliform (FC) and Escherichia coli (EC)) in shellfish harvested from Penang, Perak and Kedah after the tsunami and to compare the mean FC and EC in shellfish from the three states pre and post-tsunami. The data used in this paper were obtained from the Department of Fisheries’ Sanitary and Photosanitary (SPS) Program which monitored the shellfish culture areas around the Peninsular Malaysia regu...

Wan Norhana, N.; Mohd Nor Azman, A.; Ramlah, A. M.

2006-01-01

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Precision of helicopter-based total-area counts of large ungulates in bushveld  

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Full Text Available Precision in helicopter total-area counts in bushveld for a range of common species are evaluated. Counts were conducted on properties ranging in size from 250 ha to 10 000 ha as part of experiments on precision and power. Counts were conducted in three vegetation types: mopane veld, sourish mixed bushveld and arid bushveld. Scant regard is given to precision as a factor in large herbivore monitoring, with more effort often devoted to accuracy. Coefficients of variation varied from 3.2 % to 70.9 %. Median values are generally acceptable for the establishment of trends for long-term monitoring, but might be inadequate for annual population size monitoring and evaluation. A regression of all species and vegetation types by the standard error showed a significant correlation. Similar regressions were also developed for impala, kudu, warthog, and zebra. Regressions by vegetation type for mopane veld, sourish mixed bushveld, and northwest arid bushveld were also significant. However, the high correlation for some vegetation types might be an artifact of the small sample sizes.

B.K. Reilly

2002-12-01

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Extraction of Total Nucleic Acids From Ticks for the Detection of Bacterial and Viral Pathogens  

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Ticks harbor numerous bacterial, protozoal, and viral pathogens that can cause serious infections in humans and domestic animals. Active surveillance of the tick vector can provide insight into the frequency and distribution of important pathogens in the environment. Nucleic-acid based detection of tick-borne bacterial, protozoan, and viral pathogens requires the extraction of both DNA and RNA (total nucleic acids) from ticks. Traditional methods for nucleic acid extraction are limited to ext...

Crowder, Chris D.; Rounds, Megan A.; Phillipson, Curtis A.; Picuri, John M.; Matthews, Heather E.; Halverson, Justina; Schutzer, Steven E.; Ecker, David J.; Eshoo, Mark W.

2010-01-01

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Determining eligibility for antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings using total lymphocyte counts, hemoglobin and body mass index  

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Abstract Background CD4+ T lymphocyte (CD4) cell count testing is the standard method for determining eligibility for antiretroviral therapy (ART), but is not widely available in sub-Saharan Africa. Total lymphocyte counts (TLCs) have not proven sufficiently accurate in identifying subjects with low CD4 counts. We developed clinical algorithms using TLCs, hemoglobin (Hb), and body mass index (BMI) to identify patients who require ART. Methods We conducted a cros...

Solberg Peter; Were Willy; Downing Robert S; Awor Anna; Moore David M; Tu David; Chan Keith; Hogg Robert S; Mermin Jonathan

2007-01-01

65

Effects of temperature and fertilization on total vs. active bacterial communities exposed to crude and diesel oil pollution in NW Mediterranean Sea.  

Science.gov (United States)

The dynamics of total and active microbial communities were studied in seawater microcosms amended with crude or diesel oil at different temperatures (25, 10 and 4 degrees C) in the presence/absence of organic fertilization (Inipol EAP 22). Total and hydrocarbon-degrading microbes were enumerated by fluorescence microscopy and Most Probable Number (MPN) method, respectively. Total (16S rDNA-based) vs. active (16S rRNA) bacterial community structure was monitored by Capillary-Electrophoresis Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (CE-SSCP) fingerprinting. Hydrocarbons were analyzed after 12 weeks of incubation by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total and hydrocarbon-degrading microbial counts were highly influenced by fertilization while no important differences were observed between temperatures. Higher biodegradation levels were observed in fertilized microcosms. Temperature and fertilization induced changes in structure of total bacterial communities. However, fertilization showed a more important effect on active bacterial structure. The calculation of Simpson's diversity index showed similar trends among temperatures whereas fertilization reduced diversity index of both total and active bacterial communities. PMID:19906475

Rodríguez-Blanco, Arturo; Antoine, Virginie; Pelletier, Emilien; Delille, Daniel; Ghiglione, Jean-François

2010-03-01

66

Effects of temperature and fertilization on total vs. active bacterial communities exposed to crude and diesel oil pollution in NW Mediterranean Sea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dynamics of total and active microbial communities were studied in seawater microcosms amended with crude or diesel oil at different temperatures (25, 10 and 4 deg. C) in the presence/absence of organic fertilization (Inipol EAP 22). Total and hydrocarbon-degrading microbes were enumerated by fluorescence microscopy and Most Probable Number (MPN) method, respectively. Total (16S rDNA-based) vs. active (16S rRNA) bacterial community structure was monitored by Capillary-Electrophoresis Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (CE-SSCP) fingerprinting. Hydrocarbons were analyzed after 12 weeks of incubation by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total and hydrocarbon-degrading microbial counts were highly influenced by fertilization while no important differences were observed between temperatures. Higher biodegradation levels were observed in fertilized microcosms. Temperature and fertilization induced changes in structure of total bacterial communities. However, fertilization showed a more important effect on active bacterial structure. The calculation of Simpson's diversity index showed similar trends among temperatures whereas fertilization reduced diversity index of both total and active bacterial communities. - Nutrient availability was the most important factor influencing microbial oil biodegradation in coastal waters of the North-western Mediterranean Sea.

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Effects of temperature and fertilization on total vs. active bacterial communities exposed to crude and diesel oil pollution in NW Mediterranean Sea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dynamics of total and active microbial communities were studied in seawater microcosms amended with crude or diesel oil at different temperatures (25, 10 and 4 deg. C) in the presence/absence of organic fertilization (Inipol EAP 22). Total and hydrocarbon-degrading microbes were enumerated by fluorescence microscopy and Most Probable Number (MPN) method, respectively. Total (16S rDNA-based) vs. active (16S rRNA) bacterial community structure was monitored by Capillary-Electrophoresis Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (CE-SSCP) fingerprinting. Hydrocarbons were analyzed after 12 weeks of incubation by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total and hydrocarbon-degrading microbial counts were highly influenced by fertilization while no important differences were observed between temperatures. Higher biodegradation levels were observed in fertilized microcosms. Temperature and fertilization induced changes in structure of total bacterial communities. However, fertilization showed a more important effect on active bacterial structure. The calculation of Simpson's diversity index showed similar trends among temperatures whereas fertilization reduced diversity index of both total and active bacterial communities. - Nutrient availability was the most important factor influencing microbial oil biodegradation in coastal waters of the North-western Mediterranean Sea.

Rodriguez-Blanco, Arturo; Antoine, Virginie [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7621, Laboratoire ARAGO, Avenue Fontaule, BP44, F-66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer (France); CNRS, UMR 7621, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie Biologique de Banyuls, Avenue Fontaule, BP44, F-66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer (France); Pelletier, Emilien [Institut des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski (ISMER), Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, 310 allee des Ursulines, Rimouski, Canada G5L 3A1 (Canada); Delille, Daniel [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7621, Laboratoire ARAGO, Avenue Fontaule, BP44, F-66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer (France); CNRS, UMR 7621, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie Biologique de Banyuls, Avenue Fontaule, BP44, F-66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer (France); Ghiglione, Jean-Francois, E-mail: ghiglione@obs-banyuls.f [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7621, Laboratoire ARAGO, Avenue Fontaule, BP44, F-66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer (France); CNRS, UMR 7621, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie Biologique de Banyuls, Avenue Fontaule, BP44, F-66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer (France)

2010-03-15

68

Quality of raw cow milk in Republic of Macedonia determined through the testing of somatic cell count and total viable count  

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Somatic cells count and total viable count are criteria used to estimate the compliance of raw cow milk with the Book of rules for demands for safety and hygiene and procedures for official controls of milk and milk products, Official Gazette of RM 157/2007. According to the given demands, raw milk operators are obliged to conduct all procedures and to guarantee that milk is in compliance with the criteria laid down in Book of rules. At the same time, Republic of Macedonia have to fulfill EU ...

Angelovski Ljupco; Jankuloski Dean; Kostova Sandra; Ratkova Marija; Erakovic Tokalic Irena; Sekulovski Pavle

2008-01-01

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Relationship between total bacteria counts and somatic cell counts from mammary quarters infected by mastitis pathogens / Relação entre contagem total de bactérias e contagem de células somáticas de quartos mamários infectados por patógenos da mastite  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo foi realizado com objetivo de estabelecer a relação entre contagem de células somáticas (CCS) e a liberação de bactérias de quartos mamários de acordo com os patógenos da mastite. Amostras de leite de 638 quartos mamários foram examinadas para identificação dos patógenos da mastite, CCS [...] e contagem total de bactérias (CTB). Estatísticas descritivas foram utilizadas para avaliar os dados brutos de CCS e CTB. A diferença entre médias para CCS e CTB de acordo com os resultados dos exames bacteriológicos foi avaliada pelo teste T para amostras independentes. Foram realizadas a correlação de Pearson, de Spearman e regressão linear com os dados transformados. As médias geométricas de acordo com os resultados dos exames bacteriológicos foram (células mL-1; UFC mL-1): sem crescimento (52.000; 12.000), estafilococos coagulase negativo (85.000; 17.000), Staphylococcus aureus (587.000; 77000); outros estreptococus (432.000; 108.000) e Streptococcus agalactiae (1.572.000; 333.000). A correlação de Pearson e Spearman entre CCS e CTB foi maior que 0,60 para todos os patógenos da mastite. O coeficiente angular das regressões lineares mostrou diferentes aumentos da CTB como o mesmo aumento da CCS de acordo com os patógenos da mastite. O coeficiente angular para o S. agalactiae (0.542) foi maior em relação aos outros patógenos da mastite. Os resultados sugerem que a intensidade do processo inflamatório foi associada com a quantidade de bactérias da mastite liberada pela glândula mamária. Abstract in english This study was conducted to establish the relationship between somatic cell count (SCC) and bacterial shedding from mammary quarters according to mastitis pathogens. Milk samples from 638 mammary quarters were examined for mastitis pathogens, SCC and total bacterial count (TBC). The raw data of SCC [...] and TBC were used to perform descriptive statistics. The significance of the arithmetic mean differences between SCC and TBC according to bacteriological examination results was determined by a two-tailed unpaired t-test. Pearson and Spearman´s correlations were done with logarithmic data and linear regression analyses. The geometric means of the bacteriological examination results were (cells mL-1; CFU mL-1): no growth (52,000; 12,000), coagulase-negative staphylococci (85,000; 17,000), Staphylococcus aureus (587,000; 77,000); other streptococci (432,000; 108,000) and Streptococcus agalactiae (1,572,000; 333,000). The Pearson and Spearman's correlations between SCC and TBC were higher than 0.60 for all mastitis pathogens. The regression analyses slopes showed different increase in TBC with the same increase in SCC according to mastitis pathogens. The slope for S. agalactiae (0.542) was higher than that for other mastitis pathogens. The results suggest that the intensity of inflammatory process was associated with number of mastitis pathogens shedding from the mammary gland.

João Emídio Ferreira, Lopes Júnior; Carla Cristine, Lange; Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva, Brito; Fabiana Ribeiro, Santos; Marco Aurélio Souto, Silva; Luciano Castro Dutra de, Moraes; Guilherme Nunes de, Souza.

2012-04-01

70

Relationship between total bacteria counts and somatic cell counts from mammary quarters infected by mastitis pathogens Relação entre contagem total de bactérias e contagem de células somáticas de quartos mamários infectados por patógenos da mastite  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to establish the relationship between somatic cell count (SCC and bacterial shedding from mammary quarters according to mastitis pathogens. Milk samples from 638 mammary quarters were examined for mastitis pathogens, SCC and total bacterial count (TBC. The raw data of SCC and TBC were used to perform descriptive statistics. The significance of the arithmetic mean differences between SCC and TBC according to bacteriological examination results was determined by a two-tailed unpaired t-test. Pearson and Spearman´s correlations were done with logarithmic data and linear regression analyses. The geometric means of the bacteriological examination results were (cells mL-1; CFU mL-1: no growth (52,000; 12,000, coagulase-negative staphylococci (85,000; 17,000, Staphylococcus aureus (587,000; 77,000; other streptococci (432,000; 108,000 and Streptococcus agalactiae (1,572,000; 333,000. The Pearson and Spearman's correlations between SCC and TBC were higher than 0.60 for all mastitis pathogens. The regression analyses slopes showed different increase in TBC with the same increase in SCC according to mastitis pathogens. The slope for S. agalactiae (0.542 was higher than that for other mastitis pathogens. The results suggest that the intensity of inflammatory process was associated with number of mastitis pathogens shedding from the mammary gland.Este estudo foi realizado com objetivo de estabelecer a relação entre contagem de células somáticas (CCS e a liberação de bactérias de quartos mamários de acordo com os patógenos da mastite. Amostras de leite de 638 quartos mamários foram examinadas para identificação dos patógenos da mastite, CCS e contagem total de bactérias (CTB. Estatísticas descritivas foram utilizadas para avaliar os dados brutos de CCS e CTB. A diferença entre médias para CCS e CTB de acordo com os resultados dos exames bacteriológicos foi avaliada pelo teste T para amostras independentes. Foram realizadas a correlação de Pearson, de Spearman e regressão linear com os dados transformados. As médias geométricas de acordo com os resultados dos exames bacteriológicos foram (células mL-1; UFC mL-1: sem crescimento (52.000; 12.000, estafilococos coagulase negativo (85.000; 17.000, Staphylococcus aureus (587.000; 77000; outros estreptococus (432.000; 108.000 e Streptococcus agalactiae (1.572.000; 333.000. A correlação de Pearson e Spearman entre CCS e CTB foi maior que 0,60 para todos os patógenos da mastite. O coeficiente angular das regressões lineares mostrou diferentes aumentos da CTB como o mesmo aumento da CCS de acordo com os patógenos da mastite. O coeficiente angular para o S. agalactiae (0.542 foi maior em relação aos outros patógenos da mastite. Os resultados sugerem que a intensidade do processo inflamatório foi associada com a quantidade de bactérias da mastite liberada pela glândula mamária.

João Emídio Ferreira Lopes Júnior

2012-04-01

71

Importance of the sampled milk fraction for the prediction of total quarter somatic cell count.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the changes in somatic cell counts (SCC) in different fractions of milk, with special emphasis on the foremilk and cisternal milk fractions. Therefore, in Experiment 1, quarter milk samples were defined as strict foremilk (F), cisternal milk (C), first 400 g of alveolar milk (A1), and the remaining alveolar milk (A2). Experiment 2 included 6 foremilk fractions (F1 to F6), consisting of one hand-stripped milk jet each, and the remaining cisternal milk plus the entire alveolar milk (RM). In Experiment 1, changes during milking indicated the importance of the sampled milk fraction for measuring SCC because the decrease in the first 3 fractions (F, C, and A1) was enormous in milk with high total quarter SCC. The decline in SCC from F to C was 50% and was 80% from C to A1. Total quarter SCC presented a value of approximately 20% of SCC in F or 35% of SCC in C. Changes in milk with low or very low SCC were marginal during milking. Fractions F and C showed significant differences in SCC among different total SCC concentrations. These differences disappeared with the alveolar fractions A1 and A2. In Experiment 2, a more detailed investigation of foremilk fractions supported the findings of Experiment 1. A significant decline in the foremilk fractions even of F1 to F6 was observed in high-SCC milk at concentrations >350 x 10(3) cells/mL. Although one of these foremilk fractions presented only 0.1 to 0.2% of the total milk, the SCC was 2- to 3-fold greater than the total quarter milk SCC. Because the trait of interest (SCC) was measured directly by using the DeLaval cell counter (DCC), the quality of measurement was tested. Statistically interesting factors (repeatability, recovery rate, and potential matrix effects of milk) proved that the DCC is a useful tool for identifying the SCC of milk samples, and thus of grading udder health status. Generally, the DCC provides reliable results, but one must consider that SCC even in strict foremilk can differ dramatically from SCC in the total cisternal fraction, and thus also from SCC in the alveolar fraction. PMID:17033011

Sarikaya, H; Bruckmaier, R M

2006-11-01

72

Total Counting and Spectroscopy in the Assessment of Alpha Radioactivity in Human Tissues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A seven-year programme of measurements of alpha radioactivity is briefly reviewed. The programme which was based initially on a sensitive and simple counting technique, using thin zinc cadmium sulphide screens, now employs in addition techniques of alpha spectroscopy developed for work with very large area low-specific-activity sources. These techniques are capable of measuring specific activities down to 10-13 c/g and can in certain cases provide energy resolution of the order of 40 keV together with independent identification based on half-life measurements. Two alpha spectrometers are described which have been used on a wide variety of human and environmental materials. Particular attention has been given to the study of Po210, now known to be present in a variety of foods and human tissues. Techniques are also described for the study of Pu239 in the atmosphere and examples given of .the results of measurements of low-level air contamination with this material. Techniques for the measurement of Pu239 in normal human tissues are described and some results given. Consideration is given to the contribution made by Po210 to the natural background radiation dose-rate in human bone and reproductive organs. It is shown that this contribution may be a significant fraction of the total dose received. (author)

73

Oil flow rate measurements using 198Au and total count technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In industrial plants, oil and oil compounds are usually transported by closed pipelines with circular cross-section. The use of radiotracers in oil transport and processing industrial facilities allows calibrating flowmeters, measuring mean residence time in cracking columns, locate points of obstruction or leak in underground ducts, as well as investigating flow behavior or industrial processes such as in distillation towers. Inspection techniques using radiotracers are non-destructive, simple, economic and highly accurate. Among them, Total Count, which uses a small amount of radiotracer with known activity, is acknowledged as an absolute technique for flow rate measurement. A viscous fluid transport system, composed by four PVC pipelines with 13m length (12m horizontal and 1m vertical) and 1/2, 3/4, 1 and 2-inch gauges, respectively, interconnected by maneuvering valves was designed and assembled in order to conduct the research. This system was used to simulate different flow conditions of petroleum compounds and for experimental studies of flow profile in the horizontal and upward directions. As 198Au presents a single photopeak (411,8 keV), it was the radioisotope chosen for oil labeling, in small amounts (6 ml) or around 200 kBq activity, and it was injected in the oil transport lines. A NaI scintillation detector 2'x 2', with well-defined geometry, was used to measure total activity, determine the calibration factor F and, positioned after a homogenization distance and interconnected to a standardized electronic set of nuclear instrumentation modules (NIM), to detect the radioactive cloud. (author)

74

Extraction of total nucleic acids from ticks for the detection of bacterial and viral pathogens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ticks harbor numerous bacterial, protozoal, and viral pathogens that can cause serious infections in humans and domestic animals. Active surveillance of the tick vector can provide insight into the frequency and distribution of important pathogens in the environment. Nucleic-acid based detection of tick-borne bacterial, protozoan, and viral pathogens requires the extraction of both DNA and RNA (total nucleic acids) from ticks. Traditional methods for nucleic acid extraction are limited to extraction of either DNA or the RNA from a sample. Here we present a simple bead-beating based protocol for extraction of DNA and RNA from a single tick and show detection of Borrelia burgdorferi and Powassan virus from individual, infected Ixodes scapularis ticks. We determined expected yields for total nucleic acids by this protocol for a variety of adult tick species. The method is applicable to a variety of arthropod vectors, including fleas and mosquitoes, and was partially automated on a liquid handling robot. PMID:20180313

Crowder, Chris D; Rounds, Megan A; Phillipson, Curtis A; Picuri, John M; Matthews, Heather E; Halverson, Justina; Schutzer, Steven E; Ecker, David J; Eshoo, Mark W

2010-01-01

75

A THUMBNAIL HISTORY OF HETEROTROPHIC PLATE COUNT (HPC) METHODOLOGY IN THE UNITED STATES  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past 100 years, the method of determining the number of bacteria in water, foods or other materials has been termed variously as: bacterial plate count, total plate count, total viable plate count, aerobic plate count, standard plate cound and more recently, heterotrophi...

76

Métodos de conservação de amostras de leite para determinação da contagem bacteriana total por citometria de fluxo / Milk sample conservation methods to determine the total bacteria count by flow cytometry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se o efeito da temperatura de armazenamento e da idade da amostra sobre a contagem bacteriana total de amostras de leite conservadas com azidiol para verificar a possibilidade de utilização de uma única amostra nas análises previstas na Instrução Normativa 51 (IN-51). Utilizaram-se 320 alíqu [...] otas de leite coletado de um tanque de expansão para avaliação de três temperaturas de armazenamento - a 0 ºC (congelada), 7 ºC (refrigerada) e 24 ºC (à temperatura ambiente) -, três tipos de conservação (bronopol, azidiol e sem conservante) e quatro idades da amostra (1, 3, 5 e 7 dias). Para contagem bacteriana total, foram consideradas controle amostras refrigeradas, com azidiol e amostras de um dia e, para composição e contagem de células somáticas (CCS), os controles foram amostras refrigeradas, com bronopol e de um dia. Nas amostras conservadas com bronopol, a contagem bacteriana total foi menor que na controle, independentemente da idade e da temperatura. O mesmo foi observado nas amostras com azidiol e congeladas. Amostras com azidiol apresentaram aumento da contagem bacteriana total, independentemente da idade, enquanto, naquelas que não receberam azidiol, a contagem bacteriana total foi superior à das amostras refrigeradas, conservadas com azidiol e de um dia. As amostras conservadas com azidiol e refrigeradas tiveram aumento linear na contagem bacteriana total de 0,0058 log por dia, o que pode ser considerado sem importância prática. Amostras conservadas com azidiol e refrigeradas apresentaram CCS menor, em todas as idades, em relação a amostras refrigeradas e conservadas com bronopol. Os teores de gordura e lactose reduziram após o quinto dia. Foi necessária a coleta de duas amostras: uma destinada à determinação de CCS e da composição contendo bronopol e outra para contagem bacteriana total contendo azidiol. Amostras para contagem bacteriana total podem ser analisadas em até sete dias, se mantidas a 7 ºC e adicionadas de azidiol. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of storage temperature and sample age on the total bacterial count (TBC) of milk samples preserved with azidiol to verify whether a single sample could be used to perform regulatory milk analysis under the Normative Instruction 51 (IN-51). Three [...] hundred and twenty milk aliquots were used collected from an expansion tank to assess three storage temperatures (0 ºC - frozen: 7 ºC - refrigerated, and 24 ºC - room temperature), three types of conservation (bronopol, azidiol and no preservative) and four sample ages (1, 3, 5, and 7 days). For the total bacteria count, refrigerated control samples, with azidiol and one day old samples, and for composition and somatic cell count (SCC), the controls were defined as one day old refrigerated samples containing bronopol. Samples conserved with bronopol presented lower total bacteria count than the control regardless of storage temperature and sample age. Milk samples conserved with azidiol and stored refrigerated presented lower SCC, regardless of age, compared to refrigerated samples conserved with bronopol. The fat and lactose contents decreased after the fifth day. Two samples had to be collected: one for SCC determination and composition containing bronopol and another for the total bacteria count containing azidiol. Milk samples used for total bacteria count can be tested up to 7 days if they are kept at 7 ºC with the addition of azidiol.

Laerte Dagher, Cassoli; Paulo Fernando, Machado; Arlei, Coldebella.

2010-02-01

77

Métodos de conservação de amostras de leite para determinação da contagem bacteriana total por citometria de fluxo Milk sample conservation methods to determine the total bacteria count by flow cytometry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da temperatura de armazenamento e da idade da amostra sobre a contagem bacteriana total de amostras de leite conservadas com azidiol para verificar a possibilidade de utilização de uma única amostra nas análises previstas na Instrução Normativa 51 (IN-51. Utilizaram-se 320 alíquotas de leite coletado de um tanque de expansão para avaliação de três temperaturas de armazenamento - a 0 ºC (congelada, 7 ºC (refrigerada e 24 ºC (à temperatura ambiente -, três tipos de conservação (bronopol, azidiol e sem conservante e quatro idades da amostra (1, 3, 5 e 7 dias. Para contagem bacteriana total, foram consideradas controle amostras refrigeradas, com azidiol e amostras de um dia e, para composição e contagem de células somáticas (CCS, os controles foram amostras refrigeradas, com bronopol e de um dia. Nas amostras conservadas com bronopol, a contagem bacteriana total foi menor que na controle, independentemente da idade e da temperatura. O mesmo foi observado nas amostras com azidiol e congeladas. Amostras com azidiol apresentaram aumento da contagem bacteriana total, independentemente da idade, enquanto, naquelas que não receberam azidiol, a contagem bacteriana total foi superior à das amostras refrigeradas, conservadas com azidiol e de um dia. As amostras conservadas com azidiol e refrigeradas tiveram aumento linear na contagem bacteriana total de 0,0058 log por dia, o que pode ser considerado sem importância prática. Amostras conservadas com azidiol e refrigeradas apresentaram CCS menor, em todas as idades, em relação a amostras refrigeradas e conservadas com bronopol. Os teores de gordura e lactose reduziram após o quinto dia. Foi necessária a coleta de duas amostras: uma destinada à determinação de CCS e da composição contendo bronopol e outra para contagem bacteriana total contendo azidiol. Amostras para contagem bacteriana total podem ser analisadas em até sete dias, se mantidas a 7 ºC e adicionadas de azidiol.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of storage temperature and sample age on the total bacterial count (TBC of milk samples preserved with azidiol to verify whether a single sample could be used to perform regulatory milk analysis under the Normative Instruction 51 (IN-51. Three hundred and twenty milk aliquots were used collected from an expansion tank to assess three storage temperatures (0 ºC - frozen: 7 ºC - refrigerated, and 24 ºC - room temperature, three types of conservation (bronopol, azidiol and no preservative and four sample ages (1, 3, 5, and 7 days. For the total bacteria count, refrigerated control samples, with azidiol and one day old samples, and for composition and somatic cell count (SCC, the controls were defined as one day old refrigerated samples containing bronopol. Samples conserved with bronopol presented lower total bacteria count than the control regardless of storage temperature and sample age. Milk samples conserved with azidiol and stored refrigerated presented lower SCC, regardless of age, compared to refrigerated samples conserved with bronopol. The fat and lactose contents decreased after the fifth day. Two samples had to be collected: one for SCC determination and composition containing bronopol and another for the total bacteria count containing azidiol. Milk samples used for total bacteria count can be tested up to 7 days if they are kept at 7 ºC with the addition of azidiol.

Laerte Dagher Cassoli

2010-02-01

78

Quality of raw cow milk in Republic of Macedonia determined through the testing of somatic cell count and total viable count  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Somatic cells count and total viable count are criteria used to estimate the compliance of raw cow milk with the Book of rules for demands for safety and hygiene and procedures for official controls of milk and milk products, Official Gazette of RM 157/2007. According to the given demands, raw milk operators are obliged to conduct all procedures and to guarantee that milk is in compliance with the criteria laid down in Book of rules. At the same time, Republic of Macedonia have to fulfill EU criteria laid down in Directive 92/46 (Council directive 92/46/EEC laying down the health rules for the production and placing on the market of raw milk, heat-treated milk and milkbased products for quality of raw milk as part of implementation of community legislation and milk production. The independent laboratory for milk quality control at FVM-Skopje, in frame of its activities in the period February- August 2008 has conducted a study for obtaining preliminary results for the situation with raw milk quality produced in R. of Macedonia for somatic cells counts and total viable count. In the study we analyzed 2065 samples for TVC and 1625 samples for SCC of raw milk samples produced in different parts of the country. From the tested samples only 41,8% fulfill criteria for SCC and 41,45% criteria for TVC lay down in Book of rules for 2008. Assessment of the results in light of Council Directive it is obvious that only 42,7% of the samples for SCC and 10,7% for TVC fulfill the criteria of Council Directive having in mind different requirements vs. Book of rules.

Angelovski Ljupco

2008-11-01

79

Drivers shaping the diversity and biogeography of total and active bacterial communities in the South China Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

To test the hypothesis that different drivers shape the diversity and biogeography of the total and active bacterial community, we examined the bacterial community composition along two transects, one from the inner Pearl River estuary to the open waters of the South China Sea (SCS) and the other from the Luzon Strait to the SCS basin, using 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA and 16S rRNA gene (V1-3 regions) and thereby characterizing the active and total bacterial community, respectively. The diversity and biogeographic patterns differed substantially between the active and total bacterial communities. Although the composition of both the total and active bacterial community was strongly correlated with environmental factors and weakly correlated with geographic distance, the active bacterial community displayed higher environmental sensitivity than the total community and particularly a greater distance effect largely caused by the active assemblage from deep waters. The 16S rRNA vs. rDNA relationships indicated that the active bacteria were low in relative abundance in the SCS. This might be due to a high competition between active bacterial taxa as indicated by our community network models. Based on these analyses, we speculate that high competition could cause some dispersal limitation of the active bacterial community resulting in a distinct distance-decay relationship. Altogether, our results indicated that the biogeographic distribution of bacteria in the SCS is the result of both environmental control and distance decay. PMID:24684298

Zhang, Yao; Zhao, Zihao; Dai, Minhan; Jiao, Nianzhi; Herndl, Gerhard J

2014-01-01

80

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis with a very high leukocyte count in ascitic fluid caused by Haemophilus influenzae  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tarek Saadi,1,2 Safie Khoury,3 Ella Veitsman,1 Yaacov Baruch,1,4 Ayelet Raz-Pasteur3,41Liver Unit, 2Department of Gastroenterology, 3Department of Internal Medicine A, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel; 4The Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, IsraelAbstract: We report on a case of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) due to Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) in an elderly patient with alcoholic cirrhosis. The patient presented wi...

Saadi T; Khoury S; Veitsman E; Baruch Y; Raz-Pasteur A

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Evaluation of total IgE, CRP and blood count parameters in children with asthma and allergic rhinitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to research retrospectivelywhether asthma and allergic rhinitis are related to totalIgE, C-reactive protein (CRP and complete blood countparameters.Materials and methods: Files of 443 children who appliedto pediatric outpatient clinics of our hospital,aged2-18 were retrospectively investigated. Patients weregrouped into three as asthma (n=179, allergic rhinitis (n=171 and control group (n= 93. Patients’ ages, genders,total IgE, CRP and hemogram values were recorded.Results: While eosinophil count, MCHC and total IgElevels were significantly higher in asthma group, MCVlevels were significantly lower. Lymphocyte count, CRPand total IgE levels were significantly higher in allergicrhinitis group compared with control group whereas neutrophilcount were significantly lower and eosinophil countdid not change significantly. Total IgE levels were higherin asthma and allergic rhinitis compared with controls.However, CRP levels were higher only in allergic rhinitisgroup. MCV levels were significantly lower in asthmagroup compared with controls. MCHC levels were significantlyhigher in asthma group compared with allergicrhinitis and control groups. Neutrophil count decreasedwhile lymphocyte count increased significantly. Eosinophilcount significantly increased compared with controlgroup whereas a significant difference was not observedbetween allergic rhinitis and controls.Conclusions: Our findings suggest factors effective inasthma pathogenesis might be effective also in erythrocytemorphology. There are remarkable changes in bloodeosinophil levels in asthma and in neuthrophil and lymphocytelevels in allergic rhinitis. Serum total IgE level increasesin asthma group whereas it decreases in allergicrhinitis group.Key words: Asthma, allergic rhinitis, total IgE, CRP, MCV

Feti Tülüba?

2013-03-01

82

Enhancing Fecal Coliform Total Maximum Daily Load Models Through Bacterial Source Tracking  

Science.gov (United States)

Surface water impairment by fecal coliform bacteria is a water quality issue of national scope and importance. In Virginia, more than 400 stream and river segments are on the Commonwealth's 2002 303(d) list because of fecal coliform impairment. Total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) will be developed for most of these listed streams and rivers. Information regarding the major fecal coliform sources that impair surface water quality would enhance the development of effective watershed models and improve TMDLs. Bacterial source tracking (BST) is a recently developed technology for identifying the sources of fecal coliform bacteria and it may be helpful in generating improved TMDLs. Bacterial source tracking was performed, watershed models were developed, and TMDLs were prepared for three streams (Accotink Creek, Christians Creek, and Blacks Run) on Virginia's 303(d) list of impaired waters. Quality assurance of the BST work suggests that these data adequately describe the bacteria sources that are impairing these streams. Initial comparison of simulated bacterial sources with the observed BST data indicated that the fecal coliform sources were represented inaccurately in the initial model simulation. Revised model simulations (based on BST data) appeared to provide a better representation of the sources of fecal coliform bacteria in these three streams. The coupled approach of incorporating BST data into the fecal coliform transport model appears to reduce model uncertainty and should result in an improved TMDL.

Hyer, Kenneth E.; Moyer, Douglas L.

2004-12-01

83

Determining eligibility for antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings using total lymphocyte counts, hemoglobin and body mass index  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background CD4+ T lymphocyte (CD4 cell count testing is the standard method for determining eligibility for antiretroviral therapy (ART, but is not widely available in sub-Saharan Africa. Total lymphocyte counts (TLCs have not proven sufficiently accurate in identifying subjects with low CD4 counts. We developed clinical algorithms using TLCs, hemoglobin (Hb, and body mass index (BMI to identify patients who require ART. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of HIV-infected adults in Uganda, who presented for assessment for ART-eligibility with WHO clinical stages I, II or III. Two by two tables were constructed to examine TLC thresholds, which maximized sensitivity for CD4 cell counts ? 200 cells ?L, while minimizing the number offered ART with counts > 350 cells ?L. Hb and BMI values were then examined to try to improve model performance. Results 1787 subjects were available for analysis. Median CD4 cell counts and TLCs, were 239 cells/?L and 1830 cells/?L, respectively. Offering ART to all subjects with a TLCs ? 2250 cells/?L produced a sensitivity of 0.88 and a false positive ratio of 0.21. Algorithms that treated all patients with a TLC 3000 cells/?L, and used Hb and/or BMI values to determine eligibility for those with TLC values between 2000 and 3000 cells/?L, marginally improved accuracy. Conclusion TLCs appear useful in predicting who would be eligible for ART based on CD4 cell count criteria. Hb and BMI values may be useful in prioritizing patients for ART, but did not improve model accuracy.

Solberg Peter

2007-01-01

84

The use of flow cytometry to accurately ascertain total and viable counts of Lactobacillus rhamnosus in chocolate.  

Science.gov (United States)

The goals of this study were to evaluate the precision and accuracy of flow cytometry (FC) methodologies in the evaluation of populations of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011) in two commercial dried forms, and ascertain the challenges in enumerating them in a chocolate matrix. FC analyses of total (FCT) and viable (FCV) counts in liquid or dried cultures were almost two times more precise (reproducible) than traditional direct microscopic counts (DCM) or colony forming units (CFU). With FC, it was possible to ascertain low levels of dead cells (FCD) in fresh cultures, which is not possible with traditional CFU and DMC methodologies. There was no interference of chocolate solids on FC counts of probiotics when inoculation was above 10(7) bacteria per g. Addition of probiotics in chocolate at 40 °C resulted in a 37% loss in viable cells. Blending of the probiotic powder into chocolate was not uniform which raised a concern that the precision of viable counts could suffer. FCT data can serve to identify the correct inoculation level of a sample, and viable counts (FCV or CFU) can subsequently be better interpreted. PMID:25475282

Raymond, Yves; Champagne, Claude P

2015-04-01

85

Flow Cytometry Total Cell Counts: A Field Study Assessing Microbiological Water Quality and Growth in Unchlorinated Drinking Water Distribution Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

e objective of this study was to evaluate the application of flow cytometry total cell counts (TCCs) as a parameter to assess microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems and to determine the relationships between different parameters describing the biostability of treated water. A one-year sampling program was carried out in two distribution systems in The Netherlands. Results demonstrated that, in both systems, the biomass differences measured by ATP were not significant. TCC dif...

Dijk, J. C.; Liu, G.; Mark, E. J.; Verberk, J. Q. J. C.

2013-01-01

86

Seasonal changes in bacterial counts and radiation-disinfection of sewage sludge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of radiation on sewage sludge was investigated to disinfect it. The results obtained were as follows: 1. In either activated sludge or digested sludge dewatered by centrifugation, total bacteria and coliforms were up to 3.0 x 109/g and 3.5 x 108/g, respectively. In the activated sludge which was dewatered by a filter-press with calcium oxide and iron chloride, total bacteria were up to 3.0 x 105/g, while coliforms were hardly detected. 2. The fraction of coliforms was somewhat more in centrifuged sludge than in raw sludge. 3. The radiosensitivity of coliforms in raw sludge differed between samples. Namely, some sludge was sterilized with 0.5 Mrad while others were not sterilized even with 1.0 Mrad. On the other hand, coliforms in dewatered sludge were sterilized with 0.5 Mrad without seasonal change, but total bacteria were more radioresistant and more than 13 Mrad was required to reduce it to an undetectable level. From these results it is concluded that the dewatered sludge should be irradiated at 0.5 Mrad to eliminate the coliforms in it. (author)

87

Enumeration of total aerobic microorganisms in foods by SimPlate Total Plate Count-Color Indicator methods and conventional culture methods: collaborative study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relative efficacy of the SimPlate Total Plate Count-Color Indicator (TPC-CI) method (SimPlate 35 degrees C) was compared with the AOAC Official Method 966.23 (AOAC 35 degrees C) for enumeration of total aerobic microorganisms in foods. The SimPlate TPC-CI method, incubated at 30 degrees C (SimPlate 30 degrees C), was also compared with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 4833 method (ISO 30 degrees C). Six food types were analyzed: ground black pepper, flour, nut meats, frozen hamburger patties, frozen fruits, and fresh vegetables. All foods tested were naturally contaminated. Nineteen laboratories throughout North America and Europe participated in the study. Three method comparisons were conducted. In general, there was SimPlate methods and their corresponding reference methods. Mean log counts between the 2 reference methods were also very similar. Repeatability (Sr) and reproducibility (SR) standard deviations were similar among the 3 method comparisons. The SimPlate method (35 degrees C) and the AOAC method were comparable for enumerating total aerobic microorganisms in foods. Similarly, the SimPlate method (30 degrees C) was comparable to the ISO method when samples were prepared and incubated according to the ISO method. PMID:12723914

Feldsine, Philip T; Leung, Stephanie C; Lienau, Andrew H; Mui, Linda A; Townsend, David E

2003-01-01

88

Total count gamma-ray logging: correction factors and logging model grade assignments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A unified approach is developed to the inter-related problems of calibration, grade assignment, and log reduction. Factors common to all three problems are dead time, water-filled or mud-filled hole size, casing thickness, Z-effect (or photoelectric absorption-effect), and formation moisture. Dead time for most logging systems is a function of count rate rather than a constant as usually assumed, and a better method can be used to correct for dead time. Z-effect is significant for some tools in zones having concentrations as low as 0.1 percent eU3O8, and a method is developed to measure the magnitude of the Z-effect. The method used to compute area under a log is significant in some calibration models because corrections must be made for count-rate contributions from the barren zones. A calibration procedure is developed for simultaneously determining calibration factors needed for dead-time corrections, Z-effect corrections, and grade computation (K-factor). The procedure is based on a least-squares solution and can be implemented on programmable calculators. Field measurements are referenced to calibrations commonly done in logging models having assigned grades; and the assigned grades of logging models are referenced to radiometric assays, made in the laboratory, on physical samples from the models. Conditions which differ from field to logging model, and logging model to laboratory (especially moisture) must be taken into accounte) must be taken into account

89

Gamma-spectrometric and total alpha-beta counting methods for radioactivity analysis of deuterium depleted water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to national regulations, as well as to the EU directive on the quality of drinking water, the radionuclide concentrations represent some of the drinking water quality parameters. Among the most important radioactivity content parameters are: the total alpha and total beta concentration (Bq/l); K-40 content, and the gamma-nuclides volume activities. The paper presents the measuring methods for low-level total alpha and/or beta counting of volume samples, as well as the high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometric method used to measure the volume activity of nuclides in drinking water. These methods are applied to monitor the radioactivity content and quality of the QLARIVIA brand of Deuterium depleted water (DDW). There are discussed the performances of these applied methods as well as some preliminary results. (authors)

90

How much locomotive activity is needed for an active physical activity level: analysis of total step counts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Although physical activity recommendations for public health have focused on locomotive activity such as walking and running, it is uncertain how much these activities contribute to overall physical activity level (PAL. The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of locomotive activity to PAL using total step counts measured in a calorimeter study. Methods PAL, calculated as total energy expenditure divided by basal metabolic rate, was evaluated in 11 adult men using three different conditions for 24-hour human calorimeter measurements: a low-activity day (L-day targeted at a low active level of PAL (1.45, and a high-frequency moderate activity day (M-day or a high-frequency vigorous activity day (V-day targeted at an active level of PAL (1.75. These subjects were permitted only light activities except prescribed activities. In a separate group of 41 adults, free-living PAL was evaluated using doubly-labeled water (DLW. In both experiments, step counts per day were also measured using an accelerometer. Results In the human calorimeter study, PAL and step counts were 1.42 ± 0.10 and 8,973 ± 543 steps/d (L-day, 1.82 ± 0.14 and 29,588 ± 1,126 steps/d (M-day, and 1.74 ± 0.15 and 23,755 ± 1,038 steps/d (V-day, respectively. In the DLW study, PAL and step counts were 1.73 ± 0.15 and 10,022 ± 2,605 steps/d, and there was no significant relationship between PAL and daily step counts. Conclusions These results indicate that an enormous number of steps are needed for an active level of PAL if individuals extend physical activity-induced energy expenditure by only locomotive activity. Therefore, non-locomotive activity such as household activity should also play a significant role in increasing PAL under free-living conditions.

Ohkawara Kazunori

2011-11-01

91

Globulinas totales y recuento linfocitario como marcadores de mortalidad en sepsis y shock séptico / Total globulins and lymphocyte count as markers of mortality in sepsis and septic shock  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: No existen estudios que demuestren si pacientes en sepsis o shock séptico que presentan globulinas plasmáticas totales y/o recuento linfocitario plasmático disminuidos, tendrían mayor mortalidad. Pacientes y Método: Estudio de cohorte prospectivo de 103 pacientes ingresados a la Unidad [...] de Cuidados Intensivos, que cumplían criterios de sepsis o shock séptico, seguidos diariamente en el Hospital Dr. Gustavo Fricke entre junio y noviembre de 2009. Resultados: Hubo asociación entre mortalidad y recuento linfocitario medido a partir del tercer día (valor p 0,05). El área bajo la curva ROC del recuento linfocitario medido al tercer día fue 0,68 (IC 95% 0,530,82), con una sensibilidad de 75%, especificidad 52%, LR(+) 1,57 y LR(-) 0,48 para un punto de corte de 510 linfocitos/mm³, comportándose además como factor de riesgo independiente de mortalidad (OR 3,67, IC 95% 1,03-13,1). Discusión: El recuento linfocitario se asocia precozmente y en forma independiente al pronóstico de mayor mortalidad en estos pacientes. Abstract in english Background: There are no studies probing if patients in sepsis or septic shock with lower levels of total plas-matic globulins and/or lymphocyte count have higher mortality. Patients and Method: Prospective cohort study of 103 patients admitted in Intensive Care Unit followed daily at the Dr. Gustav [...] o Fricke Hospital between June and November of 2009, with sepsis or septic shock criteria. Results: There was association between mortality and lymphocytic count measured from the third day of their hospitalization (P 0.05). The area under ROC curve for the mean lymphocyte count at the third day was 0.68 (95% CI 0.53-0.82), with a sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 52%, LR(+) 1.57 and LR(-) 0.48 for a cut-off at 510 lymphocytes/mm³, behaving also as an independent risk factor of mortality (OR 3.67, 95% CI 1.03-13.1). Discussion: Lymphocyte count is early and independently associated with increased mortality in patients with sepsis or septic shock.

Rodrigo, Conlledo; Álvaro, Rodríguez; Javiera, Godoy; Carlos, Merino; Felipe, Martínez.

2012-04-01

92

Detection of false-positives among total and fecal coliform counts by factorial analysis of correspondence.  

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Application of an analysis of correspondence to the biochemical characteristics of total and fecal coliforms isolated in the Ivory Coast permitted us to separate two small clusters of isolates different from the main clusters, which included isolates from human and animal feces. The isolates grouped in the small clusters were from water samples. An analysis of the biochemical characteristics which permitted the segregation of the "water-specific" isolates from the main clusters indicates that...

Joncas, M.; Michaud, S.; Carmichael, J. P.; Lavoie, M. C.

1985-01-01

93

Assessment of the efficiency of SimPlate[tm] total plate count color indicator (TPC CI) to quantify mesophilic aerobic microorganisms in pasteurized milk  

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The SimPlate[tm] TPC CI system is a rapid method to count mesophilic aerobic microorganisms (MAM) in foods, based on the use of resazurine to indicate bacterial growth. Its efficiency in pasteurized milk was evaluated using 142 pasteurized milk samples (38 type A, 43 type B and 61 type C) collected in Londrina, PR. The standard plating method, using Plate Count Agar (PCA) was used for comparison. The plates of both systems were incubated at 35ºC and read after 24h and 48h. The occurrence of ...

Nero Luís Augusto; Beloti Vanerli; Barros Márcia de Aguiar Ferreira; Santana Elsa Helena Walter de; Pereira Mykel Steffani; Gusmão Viviane Vieira; Moraes Luciane Bilia de

2002-01-01

94

Contribution of endogenous and exogenous damage to the total radiation-induced damage in the bacterial spore  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radical scavengers such as polyethylene glycol 4000 and bovine albumin have been used to define the contribution of exogenous and endogenous damage to the total radiation-induced damage in aqueous buffered suspensions of Bacillus pumilus spores. The results indicate that this damage in the bacterial spore is predominantly endogenous

95

Distribution, fluxes and bacterial consumption of total organic carbon in a populated Mediterranean Gulf  

Science.gov (United States)

Saronikos Gulf (Greece) practically constitutes the sea border of the metropolitan city of Athens and the alongshore outskirts, and it receives the treated wastes of ˜4 million people from a point source that discharges on the sea bottom at ˜65 m water depth. Total organic carbon (TOC) was measured in 477 seawater samples collected in the Saronikos Gulf, during 10 cruises, from August 2001 to May 2004 and analyzed with the High Temperature Catalytic Oxidation method (HTCO). TOC concentrations ranged from 49 to 198 ?mol C L -1 in agreement with other Mediterranean coastal waters. The highest TOC concentrations were found in the upper waters (0-75 m), whereas in the deeper parts of the Gulf (between 100 and 400 m) TOC concentrations were kept constantly low (49-70 ?mol C L -1). A general pattern towards higher TOC concentrations during summer was also observed. Calculations of non-refractory (labile+semi-labile) organic material based on a one-dimensional (1D) conceptual model showed that it corresponds to 33% of the bulk TOC during summer and to 27% during winter. Bacterial production (BP) was measured at selected stations of ˜70-80 m depth using the [ 3H] leucine method. Depth integrated BP values varied from 2.8 to 10.9 mmol m -2 d -1, whereas extraordinary high integrated BP values (126 and 140 mmol m -2 d -1) were observed at the station over the treated sewage outflow. From the turnover time, ?, of the non-refractory TOC by bacteria it was implied that organic matter in the effluents is extremely labile (2-58 days). Moreover, ? values at the other sites showed that during summer non-refractory organic material resisted bacterial degradation (1-8 months), whereas during early spring it was easily degradable (20-50 days). The balance of TOC fluxes for the Inner Gulf for June and September 2003 showed that the Inner Gulf acts as a net producer of TOC during summer. Our results suggest that the presence of the Athens treated sewage outfall does not contribute to the observed summer accumulation of TOC in the Inner Gulf and other causes such as increased bacteria predation and/or nutrient limitation must be responsible.

Zeri, C.; Kontoyiannis, H.; Giannakourou, A.

2009-04-01

96

Incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with ascites. Diagnostic value of white blood cell count and pH measurement in ascitic fluid  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

During a 21-month period, 65 consecutive patients admitted with ascites were included in a prospective study of the incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and paracentesis was performed on admission. The ascitic fluid was cultured, ascitic leucocytes were counted and pH was measured. Bacterial growth was found in five patients with chronic liver disease, who were diagnosed as having spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), since no intra-abdominal focus could be demonstrated. Thus, the incidence of SBP in this material was 7.7% (95% confidence limits: 2.5-17%). SBP was caused by Escherichia coli (n = 3), coagulase negative staphylococcus (n = 1), and Bacteroides species (n = 1). Abdominal tenderness, abnormal intestinal sounds, fever and hepatic encephalopathy were equally frequent in the group with SBP and in patients with sterile ascites. Infection was not anticipated in any of the patients with SBP. In contrast to several previous studies, neither ascites pH nor ascites leucocyte counts were any help in obtaining a rapid diagnosis. Survival time of patients with SBP was significantly shorter than of patients without SBP.

Storgaard, J S; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup

1991-01-01

97

Canine cerebrospinal fluid total nucleated cell counts and cytology associations with the prevalence of magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities  

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Full Text Available Timothy B Hugo, Kathryn L Heading, Robert H Labuc Melbourne Veterinary Specialist Centre, Glen Waverley, Vic, Australia Introduction: The combination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI are often used to investigate intracranial disease in dogs. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine if the total nucleated cell count (TNCC or cytology findings in abnormal CSF are associated with the prevalence of MRI abnormalities. Materials and methods: For each case, the TNCC was categorized into one of three groups: A (<25×106/L; B (25–100×106/L; and C (>100×106/L. Cytology findings were categorized by the predominant cell type as lymphocytic, monocytoid, neutrophilic, or eosinopilic. MRI descriptions were classified as either normal or abnormal, and abnormal studies were further evaluated for the presence of specific characteristics (multifocal or diffuse disease versus focal disease, positive T2-weighted hyperintensity, positive FLAIR hyperintensity, contrast enhancement, mass effect, and the presence of poorly or well-defined lesion margins. Results: Forty-five dogs met the inclusion criteria and MRI abnormalities were found in 29/45 (64% dogs. TNCCs were not associated with the prevalence of MRI abnormalities or specific characteristics. Cytology categories were significantly associated with the prevalence of MRI abnormalities (P<0.001. Specifically, monocytoid cytology was 22.8 times more likely to have an abnormal MRI than lymphocytic cytology. CSF cytology was not significantly associated with specific abnormal MRI characteristics. Conclusion: There are minimal associations between CSF abnormalities and the prevalence of MRI abnormalities. These results support the continued importance of utilizing both tests when investigating intracranial disease. When CSF analysis must be performed initially, this study has demonstrated that an abnormal CSF with a monocytoid cytology supports the value of performing a brain MRI in dogs with evidence of intracranial neurological disease. Keywords: cerebrospinal fluid, magnetic resonance imaging, canine, total nucleated cell counts, cytology

Hugo TB

2014-08-01

98

The effect of gamma radiation and certain insecticides on the total hemocyte counts and its different types in larvae of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis (boisd.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Treatment of the cotton leaf worm larvae Spodoptera Littoralis with gamma radiation gradually decreased the total haemocyte count as the dose increased. While in larvae treated with fenvalerate the total haemocyte count significantly decreased and a further decrease occurred when larvae were treated with gamma rays. Larvae which were treated with sumithion showed insignificant increase of total haemocyte count from control, but when sumithion was applied before gamma irradiation a gradual decrease of the total haemocyte occurred. In case of larvae treated with L c30 level of fenvalerate or sumithion an insignificant increase in the total haemocyte count occurred, while irradiation of larvae after insecticide treatment lead to a gradual decrease in the total haemocyte count as the dose of gamma radiation was increased. The haemocytes of fourth instar larvae were found to consist of eight kinds which are pro haemocytes, plasmatocytes, spindle cells, granulated cells, oenocytoids, adipohaemocytes, cytocytes and sphrule cells. Treatment of larvae with gamma radiation, insecticides (fenvalerate or sumithion) only or with the insecticide combined with gamma radiation significantly affected the percentage of haemocytes. Also significant differences were found between the different types p f haemocytes. Prohaemocytes were the predominant type.5 tab

99

Multilevel analysis of bacterial counts from chronic periodontitis after root planing/scaling, surgery, and systemic and local antibiotics: 2-year results  

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Full Text Available Aim: To follow changes (over 2 years in subgingival bacterial counts of five microbial complexes including health-related Actinomyces spp. in deeper pockets (?5 mm after periodontal treatments. Methods: Eight different treatments were studied: (1 scaling+root planing (SRP; (2 periodontal surgery (SURG+systemic amoxicillin (AMOX+systemic metronidazole (MET; (3 SURG+locally delivered tetracycline (TET; (4 SURG; (5 AMOX+MET+TET; (6 AMOX+MET; (7 TET; and (8 SURG+AMOX+MET+TET. Antibiotics were given immediately following SRP. Subgingival plaque was collected mesiobuccally from each tooth, except third molars, from 176 subjects, completing the study, at baseline, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months post-treatment and analysed for 40 different bacteria using checkerboard hybridization. A negative binomial (NB generalized estimating equation (NB GEE model was used to analyze count data and a logistic GEE was used for proportions. Results: We observed short-term beneficial changes in the composition of the red complex of up to 3 months by treating subjects with AMOX+MET+TET. Similar short-term improvements with the same treatment were observed for Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola of the red complex. SURG had also short-term beneficial effect on Porphyromonas gingivalis. No periodontal treatments applied to severely affected sites promoted the growth of Actinomyces. Smoking elevated counts of both the red and orange complex while bleeding on probing (BOP and gingival redness were also predictors of more red complex counts. Comparatively similar findings were obtained by analyzing counts and by analyzing proportions. Conclusions: Although short-term reductions in the counts of the red complex were observed in sites that were treated with AMOX+MET+TET, long-term significant effects were not observed with any of the eight treatments. Poor oral hygiene in patients with severe chronic periodontitis diminished the beneficial effects of treatment.

Ibrahimu Mdala

2013-07-01

100

Validation of the Micro Biological Survey Method for Total Viable Count and E. coli in Food Samples  

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The aim of this study was the validation of the Micro Biological Survey (MBS) method for microbiological analysis of food for Total Viable Count (TVC) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). The MBS method is a rapid quantitative alternative method for the detection and selective counting of bacteria in agro-food, in water and in environmental samples. It is based on colorimetric survey in mono-use disposable reaction vials that must be filled with the samples without any preliminary tr...

Francesca Romana Priolisi; Alessio De Ascenti; Francesca Losito; Giorgia Bottini; Alberto Mari; Giovanni Antonini

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Ecophysiology of the developing total bacterial and lactobacillus communities in the terminal small intestine of weaning piglets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Weaning of the pig is generally regarded as a stressful event which could lead to clinical implications because of the changes in the intestinal ecosystem. The functional properties of microbiota inhabiting the pig's small intestine (SI), including lactobacilli which are assumed to exert health-promoting properties, are yet poorly described. Thus, we determined the ecophysiology of bacterial groups and within genus Lactobacillus in the SI of weaning piglets and the impact of dietary changes. The SI contents of 20 piglets, 4 killed at weaning (only sow milk and no creep feed) and 4 killed at 1, 2, 5, and 11 days post weaning (pw; cereal-based diet) were examined for bacterial cell count and bacterial metabolites by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Lactobacilli were the predominant group in the SI except at 1 day pw because of a marked reduction in their number. On day 11 pw, bifidobacteria and E. coli were not detected, and Enterobacteriaceae and members of the Clostridium coccoides/Eubacterium rectale cluster were only found occasionally. L. sobrius/L. amylovorus became dominant species whereas the abundance of L. salivarius and L. gasseri/johnsonii declined. Concentration of lactic acid increased pw whereas pH, volatile fatty acids, and ammonia decreased. Carbohydrate utilization of 76 Lactobacillus spp. isolates was studied revealing a shift from lactose and galactose to starch, cellobiose, and xylose, suggesting that the bacteria colonizing the SI of piglets adapt to the newly introduced nutrients during the early weaning period. Identification of isolates based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequence data and comparison with fermentation data furthermore suggested adaptation processes below the species level. The results of our study will help to understand intestinal bacterial ecophysiology and to develop nutritional regimes to prevent or counteract complications during the weaning transition. PMID:18311472

Pieper, Robert; Janczyk, Pawel; Zeyner, Annette; Smidt, Hauke; Guiard, Volker; Souffrant, Wolfgang Bernhard

2008-10-01

102

Effect of gamma irradiation on shelf life extension, total counts of microbials and biochemical sensory change on luncheon meat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate the effect of gamma irradiation and sodium nitrate on storability and marketability of luncheon, packed luncheon was exposed to several treatments; gamma irradiation at doses 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 KGy using a 60 CO package irradiator, mixed with sodium nitrite (NaNO2) 60 mg/Kg meat, with no irradiation and a combined treatment of both NaNO2 treatment and irradiated with a dose of 2 KGy only. Half of the irradiated and unirradiated samples were stored in refrigeration (1-4 centigrade), to study storability and the second half were stored at room temperature (18-20 centigrade) to study marketability of luncheon. During storage period the population of microorganisms, biochemical changes and sensory properties were evaluated every two weeks for the refrigerated samples and weekly for the unrefrigerated samples. The results indicated that gamma irradiation and sodium nitrite reduced the counts of microorganisms and increased the shelf-life of luncheon. Both treatments (irradiation, sodium nitrite) increased total acidity, lipid oxidation, and the volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) immediately after processing and reduced all of them through out storage. Sensory evaluation (firmness, color, taste, and flavor) indicated no significant differences (P>0.05) between treated and untreated samples. (author)

103

A rapid high-precision flow cytometry based technique for total white blood cell counting in chickens.  

Science.gov (United States)

The automated analysis of total white blood cell count and white blood cell differentials is routine in research and clinical diagnosis in mammalian species. In contrast, in avian haematology these parameters are still estimated by conventional microscopic procedures due to technical difficulties associated with the morphological peculiarities of avian erythrocytes and thrombocytes. Both cell types are nucleated and fairly resistant to cell lysis, a prerequisite for automated leukocyte quantification and differentiation by commercial instruments. By using an anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody in combination with selected subset specific markers we have established a simple (no-lyse no-wash single-step one-tube) flow cytometry based technique for high precision chicken blood cell quantification. EDTA-blood samples are diluted, spiked with fluorescence beads and incubated with a mixture of fluorochrome conjugated chicken leukocyte specific antibodies. We demonstrate that total leukocyte numbers as well as thrombocyte, monocyte, T-cell, B-cell and heterophilic granulocyte numbers can be determined by flow cytometry in a single step without prior cell lysis, cell separation or cell washing steps. Importantly, we also show that blood samples can be fixed prior to cell staining which enables shipping of samples making the technology widely available. Comparison of this technique with conventional microscopy revealed superior precision. By comparing leukocyte differentials of two chicken populations and during immune system development after hatch we demonstrate that large sample numbers can be analysed within hours. This technique will help to overcome previous restrictions in immune status analysis in chickens in experimental systems, during vaccine testing and health status monitoring in chicken flocks. Advances in avian genomics should facilitate the development of appropriate tools for other avian species in the future which will make this technique broadly applicable. PMID:22088676

Seliger, Christian; Schaerer, Beatrice; Kohn, Marina; Pendl, Helene; Weigend, Steffen; Kaspers, Bernd; Härtle, Sonja

2012-01-15

104

Assessment of the efficiency of SimPlate? total plate count color indicator (TPC CI) to quantify mesophilic aerobic microorganisms in pasteurized milk Avaliação da eficiência do SimPlate? Total Plate Count Color Indicator (TPC CI) para enumeração de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos em leite pasteurizado  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The SimPlate? TPC CI system is a rapid method to count mesophilic aerobic microorganisms (MAM) in foods, based on the use of resazurine to indicate bacterial growth. Its efficiency in pasteurized milk was evaluated using 142 pasteurized milk samples (38 type A, 43 type B and 61 type C) collected in Londrina, PR. The standard plating method, using Plate Count Agar (PCA) was used for comparison. The plates of both systems were incubated at 35ºC and read after 24h and 48h. The occurrence o...

Luís Augusto Nero; Vanerli Beloti,; Márcia Aguiar Ferreira Barros; Elsa Helena Walter Santana; Mykel Steffani Pereira; Viviane Vieira Gusmão; Luciane Bilia de Moraes

2002-01-01

105

Comparison of the SimPlate total plate count method with Petrifilm, Redigel, conventional pour-plate methods for enumerating aerobic microorganisms in foods.  

Science.gov (United States)

The SimPlate Total Plate Count (TPC) method, developed by IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., is designed to determine the most probable number of aerobic microorganisms in foods. The 24-h test was compared to the conventional plate count agar (PCA) method, the Petrifilm Aerobic Count plates, and the Redigel Total Count procedure for enumerating microflora in 751 food samples. Results using the SimPlate TPC method were highly correlated (r > or = 0.96) with results from other test methods. Slopes (0.96-0.97) were not significantly different from 1, and y intercepts (-0.03-0.08) were not different from O. The SimPlate has a high counting range (> 1600 most probable number per single dilution), thus requiring fewer dilutions of samples compared to other methods evaluated. Some foods, e.g., raw liver, wheat flour, and nuts, contain enzymes that gave false-positive reactions on SimPlates. Overall, however, the SimPlate TPC method is a suitable alternative to conventional PCA, Petrifilm, and Redigel methods for estimating populations of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms in a wide range of foods. PMID:9708246

Beuchat, L R; Copeland, F; Curiale, M S; Danisavich, T; Gangar, V; King, B W; Lawlis, T L; Likin, R O; Okwusoa, J; Smith, C F; Townsend, D E

1998-01-01

106

Total blood lymphocyte counts in hemochromatosis probands with HFE C282Y homozygosity: relationship to severity of iron overload and HLA-A and -B alleles and haplotypes  

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Abstract Background It has been reported that some persons with hemochromatosis have low total blood lymphocyte counts, but the reason for this is unknown. Methods We measured total blood lymphocyte counts using an automated blood cell counter in 146 hemochromatosis probands (88 men, 58 women) with HFE C282Y homozygosity who were diagnosed in medical care. Univariate and multivariate analyses of total blood lymphocyte counts were evaluated using these v...

Acton Ronald T; Wiener Howard W; Barton James C; Cp, Go Rodney

2005-01-01

107

Leukocyte-subset counts in idiopathic parkinsonism provide clues to a pathogenic pathway involving small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. A surveillance study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Following Helicobacter pylori eradication in idiopathic parkinsonism (IP, hypokinesia improved but flexor-rigidity increased. Small intestinal bacterial-overgrowth (SIBO is a candidate driver of the rigidity: hydrogen-breath-test-positivity is common in IP and case histories suggest that Helicobacter keeps SIBO at bay. Methods In a surveillance study, we explore relationships of IP-facets to peripheral immune/inflammatory-activation, in light of presence/absence of Helicobacter infection (urea-breath- and/or stool-antigen-test: positivity confirmed by gastric-biopsy and hydrogen-breath-test status for SIBO (positivity: >20 ppm increment, 2 consecutive 15-min readings, within 2h of 25G lactulose. We question whether any relationships found between facets and blood leukocyte subset counts stand in patients free from anti-parkinsonian drugs, and are robust enough to defy fluctuations in performance consequent on short t½ therapy. Results Of 51 IP-probands, 36 had current or past Helicobacter infection on entry, 25 having undergone successful eradication (median 3.4 years before. Thirty-four were hydrogen-breath-test-positive initially, 42 at sometime (343 tests during surveillance (2.8 years. Hydrogen-breath-test-positivity was associated inversely with Helicobacter-positivity (OR 0.20 (95% CI 0.04, 0.99, p In 38 patients (untreated (17 or on stable long-t½ IP-medication, the higher the natural-killer count, the shorter stride, slower gait and greater flexor-rigidity (by mean 49 (14, 85 mm, 54 (3, 104 mm.s-1, 89 (2, 177 Nm.10-3, per 100 cells.?l-1 increment, p=0.007, 0.04 & 0.04 respectively, adjusted for patient characteristics. T-helper count was inversely associated with flexor-rigidity before (p=0.01 and after adjustment for natural-killer count (-36(-63, -10 Nm.10-3 per 100 cells.?l-1, p=0.007. Neutrophil count was inversely associated with tremor (visual analogue scale, p=0.01. Effect-sizes were independent of IP-medication, and not masked by including 13 patients receiving levodopa (except natural-killer count on flexor-rigidity. Cellular associations held after allowing for potentially confounding effect of hydrogen-breath-test or Helicobacter status. Moreover, additional reduction in stride and speed (68 (24, 112 mm & 103 (38, 168 mm.s-1, each p=0.002 was seen with Helicobacter-positivity. Hydrogen-breath-test-positivity, itself, was associated with higher natural-killer and T-helper counts, lower neutrophils (p=0.005, 0.02 & 0.008. Conclusion We propose a rigidity-associated subordinate pathway, flagged by a higher natural-killer count, tempered by a higher T-helper, against which Helicobacter protects by keeping SIBO at bay.

Dobbs R

2012-10-01

108

Population-Referenced Percentiles for Waist-Worn Accelerometer-Derived Total Activity Counts in U.S. Youth: 2003 – 2006 NHANES  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The total activity volume performed is an overall measure that takes into account the frequency, intensity, and duration of activities performed. The importance of considering total activity volume is shown by recent studies indicating that light physical activity (LPA) and intermittent moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) have health benefits. Accelerometer-derived total activity counts (TAC) per day from a waist-worn accelerometer can serve as a proxy for an individual's total activity volume. The purpose of this study was to develop age- and gender-specific percentiles for daily TAC, minutes of MVPA, and minutes of LPA in U.S. youth ages 6 – 19 y. Methods Data from the 2003 – 2006 NHANES waist-worn accelerometer component were used in this analysis. The sample was composed of youth aged 6 – 19 years with at least 4 d of ? 10 hours of accelerometer wear time (N?=?3698). MVPA was defined using age specific cutpoints as the total number of minutes at ?4 metabolic equivalents (METs) for youth 6 – 17 y or minutes with ?2020 counts for youth 18 – 19 y. LPA was defined as the total number of minutes between 100 counts and the MVPA threshold. TAC/d, MVPA, and LPA were averaged across all valid days. Results For males in the 50th percentile, the median activity level was 441,431 TAC/d, with 53 min/d of MVPA and 368 min/d of LPA. The median level of activity for females was 234,322 TAC/d, with 32 min/d of MVPA and 355 min/d of LPA. Conclusion Population referenced TAC/d percentiles for U.S. youth ages 6-19 y provide a novel means of characterizing the total activity volume performed by children and adolescents. PMID:25531290

Wolff-Hughes, Dana L.; Bassett, David R.; Fitzhugh, Eugene C.

2014-01-01

109

Calculation of total counting efficiency of a NaI(Tl) detector by hybrid Monte-Carlo method for point and disk sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents results on the total gamma counting efficiency of a NaI(Tl) detector from point and disk sources. The directions of photons emitted from the source were determined by Monte-Carlo techniques and the photon path lengths in the detector were determined by analytic equations depending on photon directions. This is called the hybrid Monte-Carlo method where analytical expressions are incorporated into the Monte-Carlo simulations. A major advantage of this technique is the short computation time compared to other techniques on similar computational platforms. Another advantage is the flexibility for inputting detector-related parameters (such as source-detector distance, detector radius, source radius, detector linear attenuation coefficient) into the algorithm developed, thus making it an easy and flexible method to apply to other detector systems and configurations. The results of the total counting efficiency model put forward for point and disc sources were compared with the previous work reported in the literature.

Yalcin, S. [Education Faculty, Kastamonu University, 37200 Kastamonu (Turkey)], E-mail: yalcin@gazi.edu.tr; Gurler, O.; Kaynak, G. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Uludag University, Gorukle Campus, 16059 Bursa (Turkey); Gundogdu, O. [Department of Physics, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

2007-10-15

110

Calculation of total counting efficiency of a NaI(Tl) detector by hybrid Monte-Carlo method for point and disk sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents results on the total gamma counting efficiency of a NaI(Tl) detector from point and disk sources. The directions of photons emitted from the source were determined by Monte-Carlo techniques and the photon path lengths in the detector were determined by analytic equations depending on photon directions. This is called the hybrid Monte-Carlo method where analytical expressions are incorporated into the Monte-Carlo simulations. A major advantage of this technique is the short computation time compared to other techniques on similar computational platforms. Another advantage is the flexibility for inputting detector-related parameters (such as source-detector distance, detector radius, source radius, detector linear attenuation coefficient) into the algorithm developed, thus making it an easy and flexible method to apply to other detector systems and configurations. The results of the total counting efficiency model put forward for point and disc sources were compared with the previous work reported in the literature

111

Testate amoeba analysis of lake sediments: impact of filter size and total count on estimates of density, species richness and assemblage structure  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Testate amoebae are informative about palaeoecological conditions, but the methods generally used for their analyses in lake sediments differ from those used for their analyses in peats, making comparisons difficult. This study examines how filter mesh size and total number of individuals counted affect species richness, Shannon diversity, equitability, density and assemblage structure. We analysed the complete testate amoeba contents of six sediment samples from Lake Lautrey, France. The abu...

Wall, Adeline A. J.; Gilbert, Daniel; Magny, Michel; Mitchell, Edward A. D.

2010-01-01

112

Embryo quality and implantation rates are not influenced by total motile count values in an ICSI programme: a novel point of view  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Total motile count (TMC) is a useful tool for sperm evaluation, comprising both quantitative and motility parameters. Although frequently used, TMC has not yet been evaluated as a contributory variable for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. In this study we evaluate the possible role of TMC as a prognostic parameter in cycles designated for ICSI. We also test the existence of a possible TMC-threshold value that might be predictive for ICSI cycle outcome in the everyday practice. ...

Hershko-klement, Anat; Rovner, Einav; Yekutieli, Daniel; Ghetler, Yehudith; Gonen, Ofer; Cohen, Ilan; Wiser, Amir; Berkovitz, Arie; Shulman, Adrian

2012-01-01

113

The effect of aging on element plant availability and bacterial counts of mixtures of wood ash and sewage sludge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated the chemical composition of a mixture of 70% wood ashes (a by-product of timber-industry and 30% sewage sludge (% dry weight, immediately after preparation and after storage (42 days. The mixture had higher Mehlich 3 extractable Ca, Mg and K concentrations than either component alone, and low plant-available heavy metal concentrations, both immediately after mixing and after storage for up to 6 weeks. The results support the view that mixtures of this type may be useful for liming and fertilizing, given their neutralizing capacity and phyto nutrient concentrations. Furthermore, we compared the survival of Escherichia coli in a wood ash and sewage sludge mixture with their survival in mixtures ofsewage sludge and two levels of quicklime. The time needed to eliminate most bacteria was 29 days in the ash-sludge combination, while nine days were required for one of the quicklime-sludge mixtures, and counts were minimal for the quicklime-sludge mixture with a pH>12.

Yudani Pousada-Ferradás

2011-01-01

114

The effect of aging on element plant availability and bacterial counts of mixtures of wood ash and sewage sludge  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english This study investigated the chemical composition of a mixture of 70% wood ashes (a by-product of timber-industry) and 30% sewage sludge (% dry weight), immediately after preparation and after storage (42 days). The mixture had higher Mehlich 3 extractable Ca, Mg and K concentrations than either comp [...] onent alone, and low plant-available heavy metal concentrations, both immediately after mixing and after storage for up to 6 weeks. The results support the view that mixtures of this type may be useful for liming and fertilizing, given their neutralizing capacity and phyto nutrient concentrations. Furthermore, we compared the survival of Escherichia coli in a wood ash and sewage sludge mixture with their survival in mixtures ofsewage sludge and two levels of quicklime. The time needed to eliminate most bacteria was 29 days in the ash-sludge combination, while nine days were required for one of the quicklime-sludge mixtures, and counts were minimal for the quicklime-sludge mixture with a pH>12.

Yudani, Pousada-Ferradás; Socorro, Seoane-Labandeira; Miguel, Blanco; Avelino, Núñez-Delgado.

115

Low Total Lymphocyte Count Is Associated with Poor Survival in Patients with Resected Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Receiving a GM-CSF Secreting Pancreatic Tumor Vaccine  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Low total lymphocyte count (TLC) and lymphocyte-to-neutrophil ratio have been found to be poor prognostic indicators in several different tumor types at various stages. Although immune-based therapies are under rapid development, it is not known whether baseline complete blood counts, particularly lymphocytes, are associated with the clinical outcomes of patients receiving immunotherapies. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of complete blood count for 59 patients enrolled onto a phase II trial evaluating the integration of an adjuvant immunotherapy—irradiated granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) secreting allogeneic pancreatic tumor vaccine (GVAX)—with standard chemoradiation. Results After adjusting for nodal status, individuals with a TLC of <1,500 cells/mm3 (10 patients) had significantly higher risk, both in terms of overall survival (OS) [adjusted hazard ratio 2.63, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.22–5.67, p = 0.013] and progression-free survival (adjusted hazard ratio 3.07, 95 % CI 1.03–6.93, p = 0.003), compared to those with a TLC of ?1,500 cells/mm3 (49 patients). Adjuvant chemoradiation significantly reduced lymphocyte counts from baseline values. Patients with suppression of their lymphocytes to <500 cells/mm3 after chemoradiation also had shorter disease-free and OS. Conclusions Immunosuppressive conditions associated with surgical procedures and chemoradiation may affect the efficacy of immunotherapy. PMID:24046118

Schueneman, Aaron J.; Sugar, Elizabeth A.; Uram, Jennifer; Bigelow, Elaine; Herman, Joseph M.; Edil, Barish H.; Jaffee, Elizabeth M.; Zheng, Lei; Laheru, Daniel A.

2014-01-01

116

Influence of addition of different antibiotics in semen diluent on viable bacterial count and spermatozoal viability of Awassi ram semen  

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The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of six different antibiotics in controlling the growth of semen contaminating bacteria and if these antibiotics have any adverse effect on Awassi ram spermatozoa. Semen samples from six mature Awassi rams were used in this study. A total number of 120 ejaculates were collected from the rams using an artificial vagina once a week. Semen ejaculates were evaluated for volume, sperm concentration, mass motility, individual motility...

Azawi, O. I.; Ismaeel, M. A.

2012-01-01

117

Hemocyte types and total and differential counts in unparasitized and parasitized Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera, Tephritidae) larvae Tipos de hemócitos e contagem total e diferencial em larvas parasitadas e não parasitadas de Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera, Tephritidae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The hemocyte types, in addition to total and differential hemocyte counts were studied in parasitized and unparasitized Anastrepha obliqua larvae at the beginning and at the end of the third instar. In both developmental phases, in parasitized and unparasitized larvae, prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, adipohemocytes, spherulocytes and oenocytoids cells were observed. Mitotic figures indicate prohemocytes as stem cells. Prohemocytes, plasmatocytes and granulocytes are the most numero...

Silva, J. E. B.; Boleli, I. C.; Simo?es, Z. L. P.

2002-01-01

118

Effects of temperature and fertilization on the structure of total versus active bacterial communities from sub-Antarctic seawater exposed to crude oil and diesel fuel  

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Full Text Available Polar environments are exposed to the risk of oil pollution. However, there is limited knowledge regarding how the variation of physicochemical factors influencing biodegradation may affect bacterial community structure. The effects of temperature (4, 10 and 20°C and organic fertilization (Inipol EAP 22 on community structure and diversity of bacteria inhabiting Kerguelen sub-Antarctic waters were studied in crude- and diesel-amended microcosms. Dynamics of total (i.e., 16S rDNA-based and metabolically active (i.e., 16S rRNA-based bacterial community structure and diversity were monitored using capillary-electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism. Results showed that total and active community structures were differently influenced by temperature and fertilization in the presence of hydrocarbons. Both fertilization and temperature induced changes in total community structure in the presence of crude oil and diesel. However, temperature showed a limited influence on active community structure, and fertilization induced changes in the presence of crude oil only. Simpson's index decreased for total bacterial communities at all temperatures in the presence of crude oil and diesel, whereas a lower reduction was observed for active bacterial populations. In the presence of fertilizer, the diversity of the whole community approached control values after seven incubation weeks; this was not observed for the active bacterial community. This study evidenced qualitative differences in total and active bacterial community structures of Kerguelen seawaters in the presence of hydrocarbons and different responses relative to variation in temperature and fertilization. These factors and hydrocarbons composition have to be taken into account to understand bacterial community dynamics after an oil spill.

Arturo Rodríguez-Blanco

2013-05-01

119

Correction of counting rate drop at the end of blood pool ROI curves on the bases of the total visual field curve  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A correction method based on the constant total counting rate in the final diastolic phase is described. The method should be applied in cases without time standardisation. If Fourier techniques are used for curve smoothing and for the calculation of phase and amplitude images, also users who do not have list mode, hybrid mode or frame mode with direct correction will be able to apply the method of gated blood pool scanning. In fact, time correction at a later stage may even have some advantages. (orig.)

120

The application of Monte Carlo modelling to downhole total-count logging of uranium: part I - low grade mineralisation  

Science.gov (United States)

Gamma-ray logging probes are used extensively within the uranium industry to assist with in situ ore-grade estimates by relating count rates to those obtained from model pits. Correction factors are required to accommodate for the differences between field conditions and the model pits, which are often difficult or even impractical to derive empirically. Gamma-ray transport modelling provides the means to better understand how gamma rays are affected by different logging situations. Corrections for casing, water presence and borehole diameter can be calculated for the relevant probe characteristics such as crystal size and composition, low-energy threshold and probe housing (including shielding). An integral part of correcting gamma probe data is the dead-time and Z-effect correction which can be obtained from logging model pits. Modelling has identified the significance of the low-energy threshold of the detector and the effect of the U grades itself on the correction factors. The proposed method for conversion to equivalent uranium is demonstrated by application to data collected at the Angela deposit in the Northern Territory, Australia.

Dickson, Bruce

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

All about Carbohydrate Counting  

Science.gov (United States)

All About Carbohydrate Counting American Diabetes Association? ? 1–800–DIABETES (342–2383)? ? www.diabetes.org ©2009 by ... Diabetes Association, Inc. 2/14 Toolkit No. 14: All About Carbohydrate Counting continued • If the total carbohydrate ...

122

Evaluation of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate test in conjunction with a gram negative bacterial plate count for detecting irradiation of chicken  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study to evaluate the potential of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) test in conjunction with a Gram negative bacterial (GNB) plate count for detecting the irradiation of chicken is described. Preliminary studies demonstrated that chickens irradiated at an absorbed dose of 2.5 kGy could be differentiated from unirradiated birds by measuring levels of endotoxin and of numbers of GNB on chicken skin. Irradiated birds were found to have endotoxin levels similar to those found in unirradiated birds but significantly lower numbers of GNB. In a limited study the test was found to be applicable to birds from different processors. The effect of temperature abuse on the microbiological profile, and thus the efficacy of the test, was also investigated. After temperature abuse, the irradiated birds were identifiable at worst up to 3 days after irradiation treatment at the 2.5 kGy level and at best some 13 days after irradiation. Temperature abuse at 150C resulted in rapid recovery of surviving micro-organisms which made differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds using this test unreliable. The microbiological quality of the bird prior to irradiation treatment also affected the test as large numbers of GNB present on the bird prior to irradiation treatment resulted in larger numbers of survivors. In addition, monitoring the developing flora after irradiation treatment amd during subsequent chilled storage also aided differentiation of irradiated and unirred differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds. Large numbers of yeast and Gram positive cocci were isolated from irradiated carcasses whereas Gram negative oxidative rods were the predominant spoilage flora on unirradiated birds. (author)

123

The Effects of Fumigation of Hatching Eggs in Nest box on Total Bacteria, Coliforms and E. coli Counts on Egg shell surface with Hatching Results  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effect of Alphagen Standart Prill (ASP which was used in pellet form by mixing with litter in nest box on microorganism counts of egg shell surface and hatching results. In the experiment, hatching eggs of broiler parent stocks Cobb-500 from 40-43 week old were used. The total bacteria, coliform bacteria and E.Coli counts were significantly different between experimental groups ( 0 (control, 5 g, and 8 ASP/nest box (P0.05. The hatchability of total eggs was 88.54 % in 8 g ASP/nest box treatment which was higher than those of control ( % 87.80 and 5 g ASP/nest box groups (% 86.79 without statistical significance (P>0.05. According to the results, embryonic mortality at early (0-7. day, middle (8-18. day and late (19-21. day period of incubation was not changed by treatments (P>0.05. However, the rate of early, middle and late mortalities was 3.62, 3.50 and 3.57 % for 5 g ASP treatment, 0.02, 0.10 and 0.9 % for 8 g ASP treatment and 2.63, 2.27 and 3.01 % in control, respectively.

Lale Ataseven

2004-01-01

124

Comparison of AgNOR Count and AgNOR Surface Area/Total Nuclear Surface Area Proportions to Sex and Age in Cases with Cystic Nodular Goitre  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: Different proteins have different roles in various diseases. Argyrophilic nucleolar organising region associated proteins (AgNORs are synthesized from secondary constriction of acrocentric chromosome interested in a variety of diseases including thyroid disorders.Our aim was the comparison of the AgNOR count and AgNOR surface area/total nuclear surface area (NORa/TNa proportions to different sex and age in cases with cystic nodular goitre.Materials and Methods: Twenty female (age range 26-78 and male (age range 26-79 whose fine needle aspiration (FNA materials were compatible with cystic nodular goitre were included in the study. Those biopsy materials were stained for AgNOR detection according to a specific protocol. 100 nuclei per individual have been evaluated, and both AgNOR count and NORa/TNa values of individual cells were detected for each group.Results: Female patients with cystic nodular goitre had not significantly (p=0.131 higher AgNOR count (2.05±0.46% and NORa/TNa (6.53±1.21% than in males (2.35±0.66% and 7.03±1.12% (p=0.211, respectively. Additionally, there is not any correlation between age and AgNOR number (r=0.085 p=0.627 and NORa/TÇa ratio (r=0.286; p=0.096 in both of male and female.Conclusion: There is not any relationship between AgNOR protein synthesis and both of age and sex in cases with cystic nodular goitre.

Eröz R et al.

2012-05-01

125

Determination of total Pu content in a Spent Fuel Assembly by Measuring Passive Neutron Count rate and Multiplication with the Differential Die-Away Instrument  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A key objective of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) is to evaluate and develop non-destructive assay (NDA) techniques to determine the elemental plutonium content in a commercial-grade nuclear spent fuel assembly (SFA) [1]. Within this framework, we investigate by simulation a novel analytical approach based on combined information from passive measurement of the total neutron count rate of a SFA and its multiplication determined by the active interrogation using an instrument based on a Differential Die-Away technique (DDA). We use detailed MCNPX simulations across an extensive set of SFA characteristics to establish the approach and demonstrate its robustness. It is predicted that Pu content can be determined by the proposed method to a few %.

Henzl, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Croft, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-18

126

Determination of total Pu content in a Spent Fuel Assembly by Measuring Passive Neutron Count rate and Multiplication with the Differential Die-Away Instrument  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A key objective of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) is to evaluate and develop non-destructive assay (NDA) techniques to determine the elemental plutonium content in a commercial-grade nuclear spent fuel assembly (SFA) (1). Within this framework, we investigate by simulation a novel analytical approach based on combined information from passive measurement of the total neutron count rate of a SFA and its multiplication determined by the active interrogation using an instrument based on a Differential Die-Away technique (DDA). We use detailed MCNPX simulations across an extensive set of SFA characteristics to establish the approach and demonstrate its robustness. It is predicted that Pu content can be determined by the proposed method to a few %.

127

Hemocyte types and total and differential counts in unparasitized and parasitized Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera, Tephritidae larvae Tipos de hemócitos e contagem total e diferencial em larvas parasitadas e não parasitadas de Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera, Tephritidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The hemocyte types, in addition to total and differential hemocyte counts were studied in parasitized and unparasitized Anastrepha obliqua larvae at the beginning and at the end of the third instar. In both developmental phases, in parasitized and unparasitized larvae, prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, adipohemocytes, spherulocytes and oenocytoids cells were observed. Mitotic figures indicate prohemocytes as stem cells. Prohemocytes, plasmatocytes and granulocytes are the most numerous cells in the hemolymph of A. obliqua. Difference in the total number of hemocytes was observed between unparasitized and parasitized larvae at the end of the third instar, but not at the beginning.Os tipos de hemócitos e as contagens total e diferencial foram estudados em larvas parasitadas e não parasitadas de Anastrepha obliqua pertencentes ao início e ao final da terceira fase. Em ambas as fases do desenvolvimento, tanto em larvas parasitadas quanto nas não parasitadas, foram observados pró-hemócitos, plasmatócitos, granulócitos, adipo-hemócitos, esferulócitos e oenocitóides. A presença de divisões mitóticas indica os pró-hemócitos como células-tronco. Pró-hemócitos, plasmatócitos e granulócitos são as células mais numerosas na hemolinfa de A. obliqua. Foi observada diferença no número total de hemócitos entre larvas parasitadas e não parasitadas apenas no final da terceira fase.

J. E. B. SILVA

2002-11-01

128

Analysis of bacterial diversity during the fermentation of inyu, a high-temperature fermented soy sauce, using nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and the plate count method.  

Science.gov (United States)

The diversity of bacteria associated with the fermentation of inyu, also known as black soy sauce, was studied through the nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of samples collected from the fermentation stages of the inyu production process. The DGGE profiles targeted the bacterial 16S rDNA and revealed the presence of Citrobacter farmeri, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter hormaechei, Enterococcus faecium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pantoea agglomerans, Salmonella enterica, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus sciuri and Weissella confusa. The bacterial compositions of 4 fermented samples were further elucidated using the plate count method. The bacteria isolated from the koji-making stage exhibited the highest diversity; Brachybacterium rhamnosum, E. hormaechei, K. pneumoniae, Kurthia gibsonii, Pantoea dispersa, Staphylococcus gallinarum, Staphylococcus kloosii and S. sciuri were identified. Koji collected during the preincubation stage presented the largest cell counts, and E. hormaechei, K. pneumoniae, E. cloacae and Enterobacter pulveris were identified. In brine samples aged for 7 and 31 days, the majority of the bacteria isolated belonged to 4 Bacillus species, but 4 Staphylococcus species and Delftia tsuruhatensis were also detected. This study demonstrates the benefits of using a combined approach to obtain a more complete picture of microbial populations and provides useful information for the control or development of bacterial flora during inyu fermentation. PMID:23200659

Wei, Chia-Li; Chao, Shiou-Huei; Tsai, Wen-Bin; Lee, Pei-Shan; Tsau, Nai-Hung; Chen, Jhih-Shan; Lai, Wen-Lin; Tu, James Ching-Yueh; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

2013-04-01

129

Effects of Ensiling Total Mixed Potato Hash Ration with or without Bacterial Inoculation on Silage Fermentation and Nutritive Value for Growing Pigs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Total Mixed Rations (TMR) that contained 795 g kg-1 (as is basis) of Potato Hash (PH) were formulated and ensiled in 210 L drums (10 drums treatment-1) with or without lalsil fresh (heterofermentative lactic acid bacterial inoculant). After 3 months of ensiling, drums were opened and analysed for fermentation characteristics and nutritive value. This was followed by an 8 weeks growth study using forty crossbred pigs (Large white X landrace), twenty males and twenty femal...

Thomas, R.; Kanengoni, A. T.; Nkosi, B. D.

2011-01-01

130

Quality assurance study of bacterial antigen testing of cerebrospinal fluid.  

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Bacterial antigen testing (BAT) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by latex agglutination is a low-yield procedure in patients whose CSF specimens have normal laboratory parameters. Between August 1992 and August 1994, we evaluated 287 bacterial antigen (BA) test requests to determine whether yields could be improved and whether patient costs could be reduced by cancelling BAT for those patients with normal CSF parameters (cell count, protein, glucose) after consultation with physicians. A total of...

Kiska, D. L.; Jones, M. C.; Mangum, M. E.; Orkiszewski, D.; Gilligan, P. H.

1995-01-01

131

Evaluation of the limulus amoebocyte lysate test in conjunction with a gram negative bacterial plate count for detecting irradiation of chicken  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study to evaluate the potential of the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate (LAL) test in conjunction with a Gram negative bacteria (GNB) plate count for detecting the irradiation of chicken is described in this paper

132

Ecophysiology of the developing total bacterial and Lactobacillus communities in the terminal small intestine of weaning piglets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Weaning of the pig is generally regarded as a stressful event which could lead to clinical implications because of the changes in the intestinal ecosystem. The functional properties of microbiota inhabiting the pig's small intestine (SI), including lactobacilli which are assumed to exert health-promoting properties, are yet poorly described. Thus, we determined the ecophysiology of bacterial groups and within genus Lactobacillus in the SI of weaning piglets and the impact of dietary changes. ...

Pieper, R.; Janzcyk, P.; Zeyner, A.; Smidt, H.; Guiard, V.; Souffrant, W. B.

2008-01-01

133

The Influence of Sperm Morphology, Total Motile Sperm Count of Semen and the Number of Motile Sperm Inseminated in Sperm Samples on the Success of Intrauterine Insemination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The present study aimed to analyze the prognostic value of sperm morphology , totalmotile sperm count (TMSC and the number of motile sperm inseminated (NMSI on the outcomeof intrauterine insemination (IUI.Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out 445 women undergoing 820IUI cycles. All of the patients underwent controlled ovarian hyper stimulation with clomiphencitrate and human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG followed by intrauterine inseminationwith the husband’s sperm. Pregnancy rate (PR per cycle in correlation to sperm morphology,TMSC and NMSI was obtained. Statistical analysis of the data was done by the SPSS version13 (Chicago,USA.Results: A total of 81 clinical pregnancies were obtained for a pregnancy rate per cycle of 9.9%.When the TMSC was 5×106 to <10×106, the PR per cycle was significantly higher than thesubgroups <1×106, 1×106 to <5×106 and ?10×106 (15%, 5.6%, 5.1%, 10.8%, respectively. Spermmorphology was in itself a significant factor that affected the likelihood of IUI success. Nonetheless,the most significant difference of the PR per cycle with sperm morphology was in the subgroup <5% (2.1% vs. 97.9%.When the NMSI was ?10×106, the PR per cycle was significantly higher thanthe subgroups<5×106 and 5×106 to< 10× 106 (11.2%, 4.1%, 5.2%, respectively.Conclusion: The study showed that TMSC 5×106 to < 10×106 and normal sperm morphology ? 5%and NMSI ? 10×106 are useful prognostic factors of IUI cycles.

Nasrin Saharkhiz

2011-01-01

134

Microbial counts, fermentation products, and aerobic stability of whole crop corn and a total mixed ration ensiled with and without inoculation of Lactobacillus casei or Lactobacillus buchneri.  

Science.gov (United States)

Whole crop corn (DM 29.2%) and a total mixed ration (TMR, DM 56.8%) containing wet brewers grains, alfalfa hay, dried beet pulp, cracked corn, soybean meal, and molasses at a ratio of 5:1:1:1:1:1 on fresh weight basis, were ensiled with and without Lactobacillus casei or Lactobacillus buchneri in laboratory silos. The effects of inoculation on microbial counts, fermentation products, and aerobic stability were determined after 10 and 60 d. Untreated corn silage was well preserved with high lactic acid content, whereas large numbers of remaining yeasts resulted in low stability on exposure to air. Inoculation with L. casei suppressed heterolactic fermentation, but no improvements were found in aerobic stability. The addition of L. buchneri markedly enhanced the aerobic stability, while not affecting the DM loss and NH3-N production. Large amounts of ethanol were found when the TMR was ensiled, and the content of ethanol overwhelmed that of lactic acid in untreated silage. This fermentation was related to high yeast populations and accounted for a large loss of DM found in the initial 10 d. The ethanol production decreased when inoculated with L. casei and L. buchneri, but the effects diminished at 60 d of ensiling. Inoculation with L. buchneri lowered the yeasts in TMR silage from the beginning of storage; however, the populations decreased to undetectable levels when stored for 60 d, regardless of inoculation. No heating was observed in TMR silage during aerobic deterioration test for 7 d. This stability was achieved even when a high population of yeasts remained and was not affected by either inoculation or ensiling period. The results indicate that inoculation with L. buchneri can inhibit yeast growth and improve aerobic stability of corn and TMR silage; however, high stability of TMR silage can be obtained even when no treatments were made and high population (>10(5) cfu/g) of yeasts were detected. PMID:15328280

Nishino, N; Wada, H; Yoshida, M; Shiota, H

2004-08-01

135

The effect of bactericide treatment on planktonic bacterial communities in water cooling systems  

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Bactericides were applied to experimental open recirculating cooling-water systems at concentrations found to be effective under laboratory pure-culture conditions. Total aerobic plate counts and bacterial population structures were determined over a period of 48h. In all cases the total aerobic count increased one day after the bactericide addition, and decreased rapidly after ca. 36 to 40h. Population shifts occurred during the course of all four treatments. In all cases different species b...

Bro?zel, V. S.; Cloete, T. E.

1992-01-01

136

Relationship between lactic acid concentration and bacterial spoilage in ground beef.  

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Lactic acid concentration correlated with organoleptic spoilage of refrigerated, coarsely ground beef stored in casings with low oxygen permeability. The samples were assayed over time for lactic acid concentration, total aerobic plate count, percentage of gram-positive organisms, and pH. Lactic acid increased in all samples, as did the bacterial counts and percentage of gram-positive organisms in the total microflora, the latter representing an increase in the lactic acid-producing bacteria....

Nassos, P. S.; King, A. D.; Stafford, A. E.

1983-01-01

137

Blood count and C-reactive protein evolution in gastric cancer patients with total gastrectomy surgery / Evolução do hemograma e proteína C-reativa em pacientes com câncer gástrico operados por gastrectomia total  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese RACIONAL: O hemograma completo (CBC) e a proteína C-reativa (PCR) são úteis para excluir parâmetros inflamatórios e complicações inflamatórias agudas pós-operatórias. OBJETIVO: Determinar muda [...] nças nesses parâmetros em pacientes com câncer gástrico submetidos à gastrectomia total. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo com 36 pacientes com câncer gástrico submetidos todos à gastrectomia eletiva. No primeiro, terceiro e quinto dias pós-operatórios (PO), alterações do hemograma e as mudanças de PCR foram avaliadas. Os pacientes com complicações pós-operatórias foram excluídos. RESULTADOS: Vinte e um (58%) eram homens e 15 (42%) mulheres. A média de idade era de 65 anos. Os leucócitos atingiram o pico no primeiro PO com média de 13.826 u/mm³??, e decresceram para 8.266 u/mm³ no quinto. Os bastonetes atingiram o pico no primeiro PO com valor máximo de 1,48%. O nível máximo da PCR foi no 3º PO, com média de 144,64 mg/l±44,84. O hematócrito pré-operatório (HCT) foi de 35% e de 33,67% até o 5o PO. A hemoglobina não apresentou alterações. CONCLUSÕES: Houve aumento de leucócitos no 1o PO mas atingiram valores normais até o 5o PO. PCR atingiu o pico no 3º PO, mas não atingiu os valores normais até o quinto. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: The complete blood count (CBC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are useful inflammatory parameters for ruling out acute postoperative inflammatory complications. AIM: [...] To determine their changes in gastric cancer patients submitted to total gastrectomy. METHODS: This is a prospective study, with 36 patients with gastric cancer who were submitted to elective total gastrectomy. On the first, third and fifth postoperative day (POD), blood count and CRP changes were assessed. Patients with postoperative complications were excluded. RESULTS: Twenty-one (58%) were men and 15 (42%) women. The mean age was 65 years. The leukocytes peaked on the 1st POD with a mean of 13,826 u/mm³, and decreased to 8,266 u/mm³ by the 5th POD. The bacilliforms peaked on the 1st POD with a maximum value of 1.48%. CRP reached its maximum level on the 3rd POD with a mean of 144.64 mg/l±44.84. Preoperative hematocrit (HCT) was 35% and 33.67% by the 5th POD. Hemoglobin, showed similar values. CONCLUSIONS: Leukocytes increased during the 1st POD but reached normal values by the 5th POD. CRP peaked on the 3rd POD but did not reach normal values by the 5th POD.

Attila CSENDES, J.; Andrea MUÑOZ, Ch.; Ana María BURGOS, L..

2014-12-01

138

Bacterial Contamination of Iranian Paper Currency  

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Full Text Available Background: Transmission of human pathogens can be occurred via inert objects. Paper currency is a further common contact surface whereby pathogens can be transferred within a population although the significance remains unknown. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate microbial populations associated with Iranian paper currency.Methods: This study was carried out by getting 108 samples of the Iranian currency notes (1000, 2000, 5000, 10000, 20000 and 50000 RIALS from food-related shops that included food service outlets, greengrocery, supermarket, bakery, confectionary and poultry meat retail outlets. All currency notes were examined for total bacterial count and identification of pathogenic bacteria.Results: The average total bacterial count that was recovered from currency notes was found to be 3.27±0.31 colony forming unites. 2000R had the highest total bacterial count, followed by 5000R, 10000R and the lowest in 50000R. In this study, the isolated bacteria recovered were Bacillus cereus (8.33%, E. coli (48.14%, Staphylococcus aureus (28.7%, Salmonella (0.92%, Listeria monocytogenes (0.92%, Yersinia entrocolitica (6.48%. It was revealed that all the pathogens screened for where encountered on currency notes were recovered from one sample. There were no significant (P>0.05 correlations between the carriage of pathogens/fecal indicator bacteria and currency note condition.Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that Iranian currency notes represent a significant vehicle for human pathogens.

Mir-Hassan Moosavy

2013-09-01

139

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis  

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Full Text Available Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is defined as an ascitic ?uid infection associated with a positive bacterial culture and polymorphonuclear leukocyte cell count of ? 250/mm3 in the absence of a surgically treatable intraabdominal source of infection. This infection almost universally exists in the background of severe liver disease. In this article, the clinical, pathophysiological, diagnostic and therapeutic features of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis are reviewed.

Sebati Özdemir

2012-01-01

140

Behavior of Salmonella heidelberg and Salmonella enteritidis strains following broiler chick inoculation: evaluation of cecal morphometry, liver and cecum bacterial counts and fecal excretion patterns  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the years, Salmonella Heidelberg (SH has gained prominence in North America poultry production and in the poultry production of other countries. Salmonella Heidelberg has been isolated and reported from poultry and poultry products in Brazil since 1962, whereas Salmonella Enteritidis (SE has only emerged as a serious problem in poultry and public health since 1993. These strains of Salmonella can cause intestinal problems in newly hatched chicks, and infection may persist until adulthood. Upon slaughter of chickens, Salmonella can contaminate carcasses, a condition that poses a threat to human health. The aim of this study was to compare the fecal excretion of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Heidelberg in newly hatched chicks (orally inoculated with 10(5ufc/mL each until 20 days of age. In addition, the ratio of cecal villus height:crypt depth (morphometry and liver and cecum cell counts was analyzed in chicks ranging from 0 to 3 days of age and infected with these two Salmonella strains. One hundred seventeen chicks were separated into one of three experimental groups: a control group, an SE-infected group and an SH-infected group. Eight chicks per group were euthanized at 6, 12 and 72 hours post-inoculation (pi to allow for Salmonella isolation from the liver and cecum and for the collection of the cecum for villi and crypt analysis. Other birds were allowed to mature to 20 days of age and cloacal swabs were taken at 2, 6, 13 and 20 days pi to compare the fecal excretion of inoculated strains. The Salmonella Enteritidis group had a higher number of cells excreted during the trial. Both strains were isolated from the liver and cecum by 6h pi. At 12h pi the Salmonella Heidelberg group had high cell counts in the cecum. No difference was found in liver cell counts. Both strains showed lower villus height:crypt depth ratio than the control group post-infection.

Anderlise Borsoi

2011-03-01

 
 
 
 
141

Correlations among somatic cell count, hygienic safety and quality of milk of primiparous cows  

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Full Text Available In this work we examined a total of 518 milk samples on the following parameters: somatic cell count (SCC, total bacteria count (CFU and IBC, fat, protein, lactose and dry matter non fat (DMNF contents, which were obtained from primiparous cows divided in three groups depending on the stage of lactation: the first group included the primiparous cows that were 10-100 days in lactation, the second group 101-200 days in lactation and the third group 201 and more days in lactation. The somatic cell count and the total bacterial count had highest values for the first group, intermediate for the third group, and lowest for the second group with these differences being statistically significant. Milk component contents varied among groups differently from previous two parameters but their differences were not significant in neither case. The somatic cell count of all three groups was positively and significantly correlated to the bacterial counts while these two parameters were generally in negative correlation with the milk component contents. No matter if the parameters that define the milk hygienic safety were positively or negatively correlated with the milk component contents, the correlation coefficients were not significant in neither case, which implies that significant reduction of milk components can be expected at somatic cell counts higher than the maximal obtained in this research of 236.000 SCC/ml.

Adamov Nikola

2009-11-01

142

Effects of Ensiling Total Mixed Potato Hash Ration with or without Bacterial Inoculation on Silage Fermentation and Nutritive Value for Growing Pigs  

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Full Text Available Total Mixed Rations (TMR that contained 795 g kg-1 (as is basis of Potato Hash (PH were formulated and ensiled in 210 L drums (10 drums treatment-1 with or without lalsil fresh (heterofermentative lactic acid bacterial inoculant. After 3 months of ensiling, drums were opened and analysed for fermentation characteristics and nutritive value. This was followed by an 8 weeks growth study using forty crossbred pigs (Large white X landrace, twenty males and twenty females weighing 203 kg. Inoculating the TMR with lalsil fresh reduced (p-1 which could be attributed to the lower dietary protein (-1 DM and higher fibre contents. Further research is needed to evaluate effects of enzyme addition on the ensiling of potato hash and supplementation of energy and protein on feed intake and growth performance of pigs consuming the silage.

R. Thomas

2011-01-01

143

33 CFR 159.319 - Fecal coliform and total suspended solids standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fecal coliform and total suspended solids standards...Vessel Operations § 159.319 Fecal coliform and total suspended solids standards...waters of Alaska shall not have a fecal coliform bacterial count of greater than...

2010-07-01

144

Behavior of Salmonella heidelberg and Salmonella enteritidis strains following broiler chick inoculation: evaluation of cecal morphometry, liver and cecum bacterial counts and fecal excretion patterns  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Over the years, Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) has gained prominence in North America poultry production and in the poultry production of other countries. Salmonella Heidelberg has been isolated and reported from poultry and poultry products in Brazil since 1962, whereas Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) has [...] only emerged as a serious problem in poultry and public health since 1993. These strains of Salmonella can cause intestinal problems in newly hatched chicks, and infection may persist until adulthood. Upon slaughter of chickens, Salmonella can contaminate carcasses, a condition that poses a threat to human health. The aim of this study was to compare the fecal excretion of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Heidelberg in newly hatched chicks (orally inoculated with 10(5)ufc/mL each) until 20 days of age. In addition, the ratio of cecal villus height:crypt depth (morphometry) and liver and cecum cell counts was analyzed in chicks ranging from 0 to 3 days of age and infected with these two Salmonella strains. One hundred seventeen chicks were separated into one of three experimental groups: a control group, an SE-infected group and an SH-infected group. Eight chicks per group were euthanized at 6, 12 and 72 hours post-inoculation (pi) to allow for Salmonella isolation from the liver and cecum and for the collection of the cecum for villi and crypt analysis. Other birds were allowed to mature to 20 days of age and cloacal swabs were taken at 2, 6, 13 and 20 days pi to compare the fecal excretion of inoculated strains. The Salmonella Enteritidis group had a higher number of cells excreted during the trial. Both strains were isolated from the liver and cecum by 6h pi. At 12h pi the Salmonella Heidelberg group had high cell counts in the cecum. No difference was found in liver cell counts. Both strains showed lower villus height:crypt depth ratio than the control group post-infection.

Anderlise, Borsoi; Luciana Ruschel do, Santos; Laura Beatriz, Rodrigues; Hamilton Luiz de Souza, Moraes; Carlos Tadeu Pippi, Salle; Vladimir Pinheiro do, Nascimento.

2011-03-01

145

Effect of supplementing orchardgrass herbage with a total mixed ration or flaxseed on fermentation profile and bacterial protein synthesis in continuous culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 4-unit dual-flow continuous culture fermentor system was used to evaluate the effects of supplementing fresh herbage with a total mixed ration (TMR) or flaxseed on nutrient digestibility, fermentation profile, and bacterial N synthesis. Diets were randomly assigned to fermentors in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Each fermentor was fed a total of 70 g of dry matter/d of 1 of 4 diets: (1) 100% freeze-dried orchardgrass herbage (Dactylis glomerata L.; HERB), (2) 100% freeze-dried TMR (100TMR), (3) 50% orchardgrass herbage supplemented with 50% TMR (50TMR), or (4) 90% orchardgrass herbage supplemented with 10% ground flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.; FLAX). Preplanned, single degree of freedom orthogonal contrasts were constructed to assess the effects of feeding system (HERB vs. 100TMR), herbage supplementation (HERB vs. 50TMR + FLAX), and herbage supplemental source (50TMR vs. FLAX). Compared with the HERB diet, the 100TMR diet significantly reduced apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber. Herbage supplementation with 50TMR or FLAX significantly reduced or tended to reduce apparent digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber, suggesting that replacing high-quality, highly digestible fresh herbage with forage TMR likely caused depressions in nutrient digestibilities. Concentration of total volatile fatty acids, molar proportions of acetate, propionate, and isovalerate, as well as the acetate:propionate ratios were all significantly higher in fermentors fed 100TMR compared with HERB, likely in response to enhanced supply of fermentable energy. In general, feeding system, herbage supplementation, and type of supplementation did not affect N metabolism in the present study. The few significant changes in N metabolism (e.g., flows of total N and non-NH3-N) were primarily linked to increased fermentor N supply with feeding herbage-based diets (HERB and FLAX). Although TMR-based diets decreased nutrient digestibility slightly, TMR offered advantages in bacterial fermentation in relation to volatile fatty acid production, which could potentially translate into better animal performance. Flaxseed shows promise as an alternative supplement for herbage-based diets; however, further in vivo evaluation is needed to determine the optimal level to optimize animal production while reducing feed costs. PMID:23522677

Soder, K J; Brito, A F; Rubano, M D

2013-05-01

146

The Influence of Sperm Morphology, Total Motile Sperm Count of Semen and the Number of Motile Sperm Inseminated in Sperm Samples on the Success of Intrauterine Insemination  

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Background: The present study aimed to analyze the prognostic value of sperm morphology , totalmotile sperm count (TMSC) and the number of motile sperm inseminated (NMSI) on the outcomeof intrauterine insemination (IUI).Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out 445 women undergoing 820IUI cycles. All of the patients underwent controlled ovarian hyper stimulation with clomiphencitrate and human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG) followed by intrauterine inseminationwith the ...

Nasrin Saharkhiz; Roshan Nikbakht

2011-01-01

147

Assessment of the efficiency of SimPlate? total plate count color indicator (TPC CI) to quantify mesophilic aerobic microorganisms in pasteurized milk / Avaliação da eficiência do SimPlate? Total Plate Count Color Indicator (TPC CI) para enumeração de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos em leite pasteurizado  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O sistema SimPlate? TPC CI é um método rápido para enumeração de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos (MAM) em alimentos que utiliza a resazurina como substância indicadora de crescimento bacteriano. Para avaliar sua eficiência em leite pasteurizado, 142 amostras (38 de leite tipo A, 43 de leite tipo B [...] e 61 de leite tipo C) foram colhidas em Londrina, PR, e analisadas pelo SimPlate? TPC CI e pelo método de contagem em placas com ágar padrão de contagem (PCA). As placas de ambos os sistemas foram incubadas a 35ºC e as leituras realizadas em 24 e 48h. Também foi verificada a presença de resultados falso-positivos e falso-negativos bem como a microbiota láctea predominante nas cavidades do SimPlate? TPC CI e a capacidade redutora dos diversos grupos de microrganismos. Os resultados foram comparados através de correlação simples e variância média. Considerando a leitura em 24h do SimPlate? TPC CI, os resultados obtidos apresentaram uma correlação (r) de 0,6811 (var. média: 0,7583) com os resultados do método padrão; na leitura em 48h, a correlação encontrada entre os dois métodos foi de 0,9126 (var. média: 0,0842). Considerando os diferentes tipos de leite, as leituras em 48h do SimPlate? TPC CI apresentaram as seguintes correlações com o método padrão: leite tipo A, r: 0,9285 (var. média: 0,0817); leite tipo B, r: 0,9231 (var. média: 0,0466); leite C, r: 0,7209 (var. média: 0,1082). Nas amostras com altas contagens de MAM, verificou-se uma maior freqüência de cavidades falso-negativas e uma grande participação de microrganismos Gram positivos, que são pobremente detectados pelo sistema SimPlate™ TPC CI por crescerem lentamente e possuírem baixa capacidade redutora. Os resultados indicaram um melhor eficiência do sistema SimPlate? TPC CI na leitura em 48h, além da influência direta da qualidade do leite analisado, ou seja, quanto melhor a qualidade microbiológica do leite, melhor o desempenho do sistema. A alta correlação entre os métodos indica que o SimPlate? TPC CI pode ser utilizado como uma alternativa viável ao método padrão de contagem de MAM em leite pasteurizado tipos A e B, desde que a leitura seja realizada em 48h. Abstract in english The SimPlate? TPC CI system is a rapid method to count mesophilic aerobic microorganisms (MAM) in foods, based on the use of resazurine to indicate bacterial growth. Its efficiency in pasteurized milk was evaluated using 142 pasteurized milk samples (38 type A, 43 type B and 61 type C) collected in [...] Londrina, PR. The standard plating method, using Plate Count Agar (PCA) was used for comparison. The plates of both systems were incubated at 35ºC and read after 24h and 48h. The occurrence of false-positive and false-negative wells and the predominant microorganisms in them were also evaluated. The results were compared by simple correlation and mean variance analyses. The correlation (r) and mean variance values were 0.6811 and 0.7583 for the results obtained after 24h, respectively, and 0.9126 and 0.0842 for the results obtained after 48h, respectively. These results indicate that the performance of the system increases when the plates are incubated for 48h. When the three types of milk were evaluated separately, these values were 0.9285 and 0.0817 for type A milk, 0.9231 and 0.0466 for type B milk and 0.7209 and 0.1082 for type C milk. These results indicate that the better the quality of the milk the better the performance of SimPlate? TPC CI. False-negative wells, found more frequently in samples with high MAM counts, were caused by Gram positive microorganisms, poorly detected by the SimPlate? TPC CI system because they grew slowly and had low reduction capacity. The results indicated a higher efficiency of the SimPlate? TPC CI system in the reading at 48h.

Luís Augusto, Nero; Vanerli, Beloti; Márcia de Aguiar Ferreira, Barros; Elsa Helena Walter de, Santana; Mykel Steffani, Pereira; Viviane Vieira, Gusmão; Luciane Bilia de, Moraes.

2002-01-01

148

Assessment of the efficiency of SimPlate? total plate count color indicator (TPC CI to quantify mesophilic aerobic microorganisms in pasteurized milk Avaliação da eficiência do SimPlate? Total Plate Count Color Indicator (TPC CI para enumeração de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos em leite pasteurizado  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The SimPlate? TPC CI system is a rapid method to count mesophilic aerobic microorganisms (MAM in foods, based on the use of resazurine to indicate bacterial growth. Its efficiency in pasteurized milk was evaluated using 142 pasteurized milk samples (38 type A, 43 type B and 61 type C collected in Londrina, PR. The standard plating method, using Plate Count Agar (PCA was used for comparison. The plates of both systems were incubated at 35ºC and read after 24h and 48h. The occurrence of false-positive and false-negative wells and the predominant microorganisms in them were also evaluated. The results were compared by simple correlation and mean variance analyses. The correlation (r and mean variance values were 0.6811 and 0.7583 for the results obtained after 24h, respectively, and 0.9126 and 0.0842 for the results obtained after 48h, respectively. These results indicate that the performance of the system increases when the plates are incubated for 48h. When the three types of milk were evaluated separately, these values were 0.9285 and 0.0817 for type A milk, 0.9231 and 0.0466 for type B milk and 0.7209 and 0.1082 for type C milk. These results indicate that the better the quality of the milk the better the performance of SimPlate? TPC CI. False-negative wells, found more frequently in samples with high MAM counts, were caused by Gram positive microorganisms, poorly detected by the SimPlate? TPC CI system because they grew slowly and had low reduction capacity. The results indicated a higher efficiency of the SimPlate? TPC CI system in the reading at 48h.O sistema SimPlate? TPC CI é um método rápido para enumeração de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos (MAM em alimentos que utiliza a resazurina como substância indicadora de crescimento bacteriano. Para avaliar sua eficiência em leite pasteurizado, 142 amostras (38 de leite tipo A, 43 de leite tipo B e 61 de leite tipo C foram colhidas em Londrina, PR, e analisadas pelo SimPlate? TPC CI e pelo método de contagem em placas com ágar padrão de contagem (PCA. As placas de ambos os sistemas foram incubadas a 35ºC e as leituras realizadas em 24 e 48h. Também foi verificada a presença de resultados falso-positivos e falso-negativos bem como a microbiota láctea predominante nas cavidades do SimPlate? TPC CI e a capacidade redutora dos diversos grupos de microrganismos. Os resultados foram comparados através de correlação simples e variância média. Considerando a leitura em 24h do SimPlate? TPC CI, os resultados obtidos apresentaram uma correlação (r de 0,6811 (var. média: 0,7583 com os resultados do método padrão; na leitura em 48h, a correlação encontrada entre os dois métodos foi de 0,9126 (var. média: 0,0842. Considerando os diferentes tipos de leite, as leituras em 48h do SimPlate? TPC CI apresentaram as seguintes correlações com o método padrão: leite tipo A, r: 0,9285 (var. média: 0,0817; leite tipo B, r: 0,9231 (var. média: 0,0466; leite C, r: 0,7209 (var. média: 0,1082. Nas amostras com altas contagens de MAM, verificou-se uma maior freqüência de cavidades falso-negativas e uma grande participação de microrganismos Gram positivos, que são pobremente detectados pelo sistema SimPlate™ TPC CI por crescerem lentamente e possuírem baixa capacidade redutora. Os resultados indicaram um melhor eficiência do sistema SimPlate? TPC CI na leitura em 48h, além da influência direta da qualidade do leite analisado, ou seja, quanto melhor a qualidade microbiológica do leite, melhor o desempenho do sistema. A alta correlação entre os métodos indica que o SimPlate? TPC CI pode ser utilizado como uma alternativa viável ao método padrão de contagem de MAM em leite pasteurizado tipos A e B, desde que a leitura seja realizada em 48h.

Luís Augusto Nero

2002-01-01

149

Leaf microbiota in an agroecosystem: spatiotemporal variation in bacterial community composition on field-grown lettuce  

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The presence, size and importance of bacterial communities on plant leaf surfaces are widely appreciated. However, information is scarce regarding their composition and how it changes along geographical and seasonal scales. We collected 106 samples of field-grown Romaine lettuce from commercial production regions in California and Arizona during the 2009–2010 crop cycle. Total bacterial populations averaged between 105 and 106 per gram of tissue, whereas counts of culturable bacteria were o...

Rastogi, Gurdeep; Sbodio, Adrian; Tech, Jan J.; Suslow, Trevor V.; Coaker, Gitta L.; Leveau, Johan H. J.

2012-01-01

150

Effect of Chlorination Treatment on Gram Negative Bacterial Composition of Recycled Wastewater  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to assess the quality of recovered wastewater from the treatment plant of Mutah University, analysis was performed on samples collected from influent, polishing pool, chlorination tank and the ultimately disposal site at the university campus. In this assessment following parameters were used: temperature, BOD5, COD, effect of chlorination treatment, total bacterial counts (TBC), type of bacterial species isolated and the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria during the treatm...

Khaled Khleifat; Muayad Abboud; Waed Al-Shamayleh; Anwar Jiries; Tarawneh, Khaled A.

2006-01-01

151

Predictive Value of Decoy Receptor 3 in Postoperative Nosocomial Bacterial Meningitis  

Science.gov (United States)

Nosocomial bacterial meningitis requires timely treatment, but what is difficult is the prompt and accurate diagnosis of this disease. The aim of this study was to assess the potential role of decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) levels in the differentiation of bacterial meningitis from non-bacterial meningitis. A total of 123 patients were recruited in this study, among them 80 patients being with bacterial meningitis and 43 patients with non-bacterial meningitis. Bacterial meningitis was confirmed by bacterial culture of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the level of DcR3 in CSF. CSF levels of DcR3 were statistically significant between patients with bacterial meningitis and those with non-bacterial meningitis (p 24 h before CSF sampling, which was much higher than that of non-bacterial meningitis. CSF leucocyte count yielded the highest diagnostic value, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) of 0.928, followed by DcR3. At a critical value of 0.201 ng/mL for DcR3, the sensitivity and specificity were 78.75% and 81.40% respectively. DcR3 in CSF may be a valuable predictor for differentiating patients with bacterial meningitis from those with non-bacterial meningitis. Further studies are needed for the validation of this study. PMID:25372942

Liu, Yong-Juan; Shao, Li-Hua; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Jian; Ma, Rui-Ping; Liu, Hai-Hong; Dong, Xiao-Meng; Ma, Li-Xian

2014-01-01

152

Bacterial production rates and concentrations of organic carbon at the end of the growing season in the Greenland Sea  

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Profiles from the euphotic zone at the end of July in the Greenland Sea showed that bacterial production rates were highest in surface Arctic domain water, and generally lower in locations from the warmer North Atlantic domain. Bacterial production from all locations investigated averaged 0.26 mu M C d super(-1) in the upper 50 m water column, and the 0 to 50 m integrated bacterial production averaged 67% of the 0 to 500 m integrated production. Both bacterial total counts and growth rates we...

Børsheim, Knut Yngve

2000-01-01

153

The variation of total bacteria count and other quality parameters in raw milk and the dynamics of central Lithuania's milk recast companies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction. Milk is one of the most important economies of the country. In 2002, milk contained 20% of the total value of agricultural economy products, and more than 30% of the total value of export of agricultural economy and alimentary products. Milk is going to stay the underlying branch of agricultural economy in the future. Today, 95.5 % of all Lithuanian farms have 1-4 cows. These farms contain 74.7% of the total number of cows. This producer group is the biggest and most proble...

Mockaitis, Jonas

2005-01-01

154

Diversity of the total bacterial community associated with Ghanaian and Brazilian cocoa bean fermentation samples as revealed by a 16 S rRNA gene clone library.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cocoa bean fermentation is a spontaneous process involving a succession of microbial activities, starting with yeasts, followed by lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. So far, all microbiological studies about cocoa bean fermentation were based on culture-dependent (isolation, cultivation, and identification), or, more recently, culture-independent (PCR-DGGE, or polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) methods. Using a metagenomic approach, total DNA was extracted from heap and box fermentations at different time points and from different locations (Ghana and Brazil, respectively) to generate a 16 S rDNA clone library that was sequenced. The sequencing data revealed a low bacterial diversity in the fermentation samples and were in accordance with the results obtained through culture-dependent and a second, culture-independent analysis (PCR-DGGE), suggesting that almost all bacteria involved in the fermentation process are cultivable. One exception was the identification by 16 S rDNA library sequencing of Gluconacetobacter species of acetic acid bacteria that were not detected by the two other approaches. The presence of Enterobacteriaceae related to Erwinia/Pantoea/Tatumella, as revealed by 16 S rDNA library sequencing, suggests an impact of these bacteria on fermentation. PMID:20559826

Garcia-Armisen, Tamara; Papalexandratou, Zoi; Hendryckx, Hugo; Camu, Nicholas; Vrancken, Gino; De Vuyst, Luc; Cornelis, Pierre

2010-08-01

155

Determination of main phylogenetic bacterial groups in hyporheic sediments of a small lowland stream (Sitka, Czech Republic) using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Community structure of biofilm microbial communities of hyporheic sediments in the small lowland Sitka Stream (Czech Republic) was analysed using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH provided detection of about 91 % of total DAPI-stained bacterial cells. In general, most of the EUB338-detectable cells (domain Eubacteria) could be related to the four major phylogenetic groups used in this study (?-, ?-, ?-Proteobacteria and Cytophaga-Flavobacterium). The microbial community structure of biofilm analysed was dominated by ?-Proteobacteria (36,3 % of the total counts). In addition to the domain Eubacteria, members of the domain Archaebacteria were detected in hyporheic sediments (approximately 6 % of total bacterial counts). (authors)

156

Counting carbohydrates  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbohydrates are found in fruit, cereal, bread, pasta, and rice. They are quickly turned into a sugar ... sugar better if they can count how many carbohydrates they eat. Your dietitian will teach you a ...

157

The interplay of dietary nutrient level and varying calcium to phosphorus ratios on efficacy of a bacterial phytase: 2. Ileal and total tract nutrient utilization.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 14-d broiler experiment was conducted to assess the effects of 2 dietary variables on efficacy of a bacterial 6-phytase from Citobacter braakii on nutrient and phytate P (PP) utilization. Diets were formulated with or without nutrient matrix values (matrix) for phytase as negative control (NC) or positive control (PC), respectively, and with 2 Ca:total P (tP) levels (2:1 or 2.5:1). The diets were supplemented with 0, 1,000, or 2,000 phytase units (FYT)/kg of diet, thus producing a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. Excreta were collected on d 19 to 21 and ileal digesta on d 21. There was no 3-way interaction on digestibility of any nutrient. There was matrix × phytase (P < 0.01) interaction for Ca and DM digestibility and Ca:tP × phytase interaction (P < 0.05) for acid hydrolyzed fat and Ca and P digestibility. Prececal flow of Mn, Zn, and Na was greater (P < 0.05) in NC diets, whereas phytase increased (P < 0.05) prececal flow of Mg, Fe, Mn, and Zn but decreased (P < 0.05) prececal Na flow. Total tract PP disappearance and total tract Ca retention increased (P < 0.05) with phytase supplementation in diets with 2:1 Ca:tP, whereas there was no effect of phytase supplementation on PP disappearance or Ca retention in diets with 2.5:1 Ca:tP. Total P and Ca retention were reduced (P < 0.05) in PC and NC diets when Ca:tP increased to 2.5:1, but the depression was more pronounced in the NC diet. In addition, PP disappearance decreased (P < 0.05) with increasing Ca:tP in the PC diets, but there was no effect of widening Ca:tP on PP disappearance in NC diets. It was concluded from the current study that the effect of phytase supplementation on P utilization is reduced when diets contain adequate P as exemplified in the PC diets and that the negative impact of wide Ca:tP is more pronounced in diets with phytase matrix allowance as exemplified in the NC diets. PMID:25332137

Olukosi, O A; Fru-Nji, F

2014-12-01

158

Effects of Bac-D on Total Aerobic Bacteria Naturally Found on Broiler Breeder Eggs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hatchery sanitation is of the utmost importance in the poultry industry and may have drastic economic effects within a company. It has been shown that eggs with increased total aerobic bacterial counts may cause a decrease in hatchability, performance and growth, as well as a decrease in overall chick quality. Several methods have been utilized to decrease bacterial load on the exterior surface of the egg such as the use of: hydrogen peroxide, quaternary ammonium compounds, antibiotics and UV...

Lowman, Z. S.; Parkhurst, C. R.

2013-01-01

159

Effect of Chlorination Treatment on Gram Negative Bacterial Composition of Recycled Wastewater  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to assess the quality of recovered wastewater from the treatment plant of Mutah University, analysis was performed on samples collected from influent, polishing pool, chlorination tank and the ultimately disposal site at the university campus. In this assessment following parameters were used: temperature, BOD5, COD, effect of chlorination treatment, total bacterial counts (TBC, type of bacterial species isolated and the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria during the treatment. Though BOD5 and COD values of treated water were within the acceptable range of Jordanian standards, the bacterial counts suggested that the efficiency of applied chlorination treatment was inconsistent. This discrepancy was particularly noticed on the water sample collected from polishing pool. Chlorine treatment of wastewater was not an efficient disinfectant method, besides it`s potential to promote the production of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Some of the coliform species isolated from influent and effluent samples were found to be chlorine resistant. Such resistance seams to be species specific. Also an unexpected bacterial growth profile was observed where the total bacterial counts on some selective media were higher than the counts detected on enriched media. A re-evaluation for the current method of wastewater treatment is recommended.

Khaled Khleifat

2006-01-01

160

Bacterial community structure in tree hole habitats of Ochlerotatus triseriatus: influences of larval feeding.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the bacterial community composition of tree holes in relation to the presence and absence of larvae of the mosquito Ochlerotatus triseriatus. Larvae were eliminated from a subset of natural tree holes with Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis, and total bacterial numbers, slow- and fast-growing colony-forming units on minimal media, and 16S rRNA gene sequence data from water column and leaf material were obtained. Total bacterial counts did not change significantly with treatment; however, the number of slow-growing cultivable bacteria significantly increased in the absence of larvae. Sequence classifications and comparisons of sequence libraries using LIBSHUFF indicated that the elimination of larvae significantly altered bacterial community composition. Major groups apparently affected by larvae were Flavobacteriaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, Comamonadaceae, and Sphingomonadaceae. A clear dominance of Flavobacteriaceae in the water column after larval removal suggests members of this group are a major bacterial food source. PMID:18666529

Xu, Y; Chen, S; Kaufman, M G; Maknojia, S; Bagdasarian, M; Walker, E D

2008-06-01

 
 
 
 
161

A comparative study on the physicochemical and bacterial analysis of drinking, borewell and sewage water in the three different places of Sivakasi.  

Science.gov (United States)

The drinking, borewell and sewage water in the Sanmugasikamani Nadar (S.N) street, Naivatti Nadar (N.N) street and Thiruthangal area of Sivakasi has been studied. The various constituents monitored include the physicochemical characters like pH, total solids, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids; chemical parameters like total alkalinity acidity free CO2, dissolved oxygen, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, chloride, salinity and bacterial parameters like standard plate count (SPC), total coliform count (TCC), faecal coliform count (FCC), faecal streptococcal count (FSC). Most of the physicochemical characters of drinking and borewell water were within the ISI permissible level. However in water samples from all the sites, bacterial count exceeded the recommended permissible level of WHO. Introduction of sewage into the drinking and borewell water was the main reason for the bacterial contamination. The boiling of water is therefore advisable before consumption. The physicochemical and bacterial characters of the sewage water were unworthy. The sewage water recycling was necessary to minimize the water born diseases. PMID:17717994

Krishnan, R Radha; Dharmaraj, K; Kumari, B D Ranjitha

2007-01-01

162

Bacterial contamination of street vending food in Kumasi, Ghana  

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Street vending foods are readily available sources of meals for many people but the biological safe-ty of such food is always in doubt. The aim of this study is to ascertain bacterial isolate and deter-mine total counts of bacterial species responsible for the contamination of the street vending food in Kumasi so as to determine the microbiological safety of such a food. This prospective study was conducted among street vending food at four bus terminals in Kumasi. From November, 2008 to Febr...

Feglo, P.; Sakyi, K.

2012-01-01

163

The use of sources emitting coincident gamma-rays for the determination of photopeak and total efficiencies in non-point-source counting geometries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The validity of a previously published method for determination of full-energy peak as well as total efficiency curves and source activity from a 82Br spectrum is experimentally tested for the case of a thin slab mounted on the end cap of a 20% relative efficiency HpGe detector, as well as for a Marinelli beaker geometry. It is concluded that, even though a full-energy and total efficiency curve can be found that reproduce the measured 82Br spectrum, the corresponding source activity is an underestimation of the true value, apparently depending on the degree of variation of the efficiencies over the source volume. The applicability of the curves found to other radionuclides is as yet unclear. (orig.)

164

Bacterial Contamination of Tsire-Suya, a Nigerian Meat Product  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Samples of raw meat prior to roasting, and tsire-suya were analyzed bacteriologically for total viable, coliform, staphylococcal counts and the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The sensitivity of the bacterial isolates to some antibiotics and spices was evaluated. The total viable count varied from 20x102 to 289x102 cfu/g for the raw meat and 7x102 to 171x102 cfu/g for the tsire-suya. The coliform count was 4x102 to 71x102 cfu/g for the raw meat and 1x102 to 42x102 for the tsire-suya while the staphylococcal count ranged from 1x102 to 60x102 cfu/g for the raw meat and 1x102 to 12x102 cfu/g for tsire-suya. From results obtained, bacterial count was higher in raw meat than in tsire-suya. P. aeruginosa, B. cereus, S. aureus, and E. coli, were isolated from the raw meat and tsire-suya. The isolates were sensitive to some of the antibiotics and spices tested. However, E. coli was only sensitive to gentamicin. While P. aeruginosa on the other hand was resistant to Afromomum melegueta, Piper quinense and Capsicum fructescens, the three spices tested for this study. The incidence of the isolated bacteria in tsire-suya, a ready-to-eat meat product in Nigeria is of health significance.

R.E. Uzeh

2006-01-01

165

Irradiation of sangari (Prosopis cineraria): Effect on composition and microbial counts during storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fresh dried and old dried sangari (Prosopis cineraria) were treated with 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 7.0 kGy of irradiation and subsequently stored at ambient temperatures. Proximate values and total bacterial counts were evaluated immediately after irradiation and at regular intervals of 1 month during 3 months of storage. No significant changes were found in moisture, fat, protein, ash and fiber contents. Total sugar content was increased in both control and irradiated samples possibly due to conversion of starch into sugars. Irradiation treatment reduces total bacterial counts of dried samples of both fresh and old dried sangari. However, a dose of 5.0 kGy completely decontaminated both sangari and there was no microbial growth in 5.0 kGy irradiated samples during the storage period. Irradiation at 5.0 kGy was enough to extend the shelf-life of dried sangari up to 3 months without any significant change in the nutritional qualities. - Highlights: ? Sangari (Prosopis cineraria) was irradiated and stored at ambient temperature. ? No significant changes were observed in proximate analysis during storage. ? Starch content was decreased during storage at all irradiation doses. ? A dose of 5 kGy was found appropriate to eliminate total bacterial counts.

166

Use of a total traffic count metric to investigate the impact of roadways on asthma severity: a case-control study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This study had two principal objectives: (i to investigate the relationship between asthma severity and proximity to major roadways in Perth, Western Australia; (ii to demonstrate a more accurate method of exposure assessment for traffic pollutants using an innovative GIS-based measure that fully integrates all traffic densities around subject residences. Methods We conducted a spatial case-control study, in which 'cases' were defined as individuals aged under 19 years of age with more severe asthma (defined here as two or more emergency department contacts with asthma in a defined 5-year period versus age- and gender-matched 'controls' with less severe asthma (defined here as one emergency department contact for asthma. Traffic exposures were measured using a GIS-based approach to determine the lengths of the roads falling within a buffer area, and then multiplying them by their respective traffic counts. Results We examined the spatial relationship between emergency department contacts for asthma at three different buffer sizes: 50 metres, 100 metres and 150 metres. No effect was noted for the 50 metre buffer (OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 0.91-1.26, but elevated odds ratios were observed with for crude (unadjusted estimates OR = 1.21 (95% CI: 1.00-1.46 for 100 metre buffers and OR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.02-1.54 for 150 metre buffers. For adjusted risk estimates, only the 150 metre buffer yielded a statistically significant finding (OR = 1.24; 95% CI:1.00-1.52. Conclusions Our study revealed a significant 24% increase in the risk of experiencing multiple emergency department contacts for asthma for every log-unit of traffic exposure. This study provides support for the hypothesis that traffic related air pollution increases the frequency of health service contacts for asthma. This study used advanced GIS techniques to establish traffic-weighted buffer zones around the geocoded residential location of subjects to provide an accurate assessment of exposure to traffic emissions, thereby providing a quantification of the ranges over which pollutants may exert a health effect.

deVos Annemarie JBM

2011-06-01

167

Preliminary Study on Efficacy of Leaves, Seeds and Bark Extracts of Moringa oleifera in Reducing Bacterial load in Water  

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Water quality and treatment are the most important issue in everywhere, especially in the developing countries, where safe and clean water is not continuously provided. Moringa oleifera is one of the best natural coagulants that has effectively used in water treatments. The aqueous extract of seeds, leaves and bark of Moringa oleifera was evaluated for their efficacy in reducing total bacterial load, coliform count and faecal coliform counts in the treatment of drinking water. The standard po...

Osman, Mohamed S.; Goja, Arafat M.

2013-01-01

168

Women Count  

Science.gov (United States)

I am a counter by nature. I count things as an effective way to occupy my mind. How many people are in this room? How many are women? How many are wearing glasses? How many people are using a Mac versus a PC?

Hurley, Dana M.

2014-11-01

169

White blood cell count - series (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

The White Blood Cell (WBC) Count measures two components: the total number of WBC's (leukocytes), and the differential count. ... and basophils) and non-granulocytes (lymphocytes and monocytes). White blood cells are a major component of the ...

170

Counting Money  

Science.gov (United States)

Today you are going to practice counting money. We will be reviewing the penny, nickel, and dime, and quarter. The coin with the lowest value is the penny. Here is a picture of a penny. A penny is worth one cent or $0.01picture of a penny The next coin of the lowest value is the nickel. Here is a picture of a nickel. picture of a nickel A nickel is worth five cents or $0.05 The next coin ...

Areese

2008-09-25

171

Counting “exotics”  

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An introduced or exotic species is commonly defined as an organism accidentally or intentionally introduced to a new location by human activity (Williamson 1996; Richardson et al. 2000; Guo and Ricklefs 2010). However, the counting of exotics is often inconsistent. For example, in the US, previously published plant richness data for each state are only those either native or exotic to the US (USDA and NRCS 2004), not actually to the state. Yet, within-country (e.g., among states, counties) sp...

Qinfeng Guo

2011-01-01

172

Experimental infection of commercial layers with wild or attenuated Salmonella Gallinarum mutant strains: anatomic pathology, total blood cell count and serum protein levels  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate hemogram, blood serum components and anatomopathologic alterations in commercial layers experimentally challenged with an attenuated vaccine candidate strain (SG?cobS?cbiA) and other two pathogenic strains (SGDcobS and SGNalr) of Gallinarum [...] (SG). In total, 280 commercial layers were randomly divided into 4 groups (G1, G2, G3 and G4). At five days of age, birds from groups G1 received approximately 107 colony forming units (CFU) of SGDcobS; meanwhile birds from group G2 and G3 received the same dose of SGNalr and SG?cobS?cbiA, respectively. Birds from G4 were not infected. At 24 hours before (DBI) and 24 hours after (1 DAI), and three (3 DAI), five (5 DAI), seven (7 DAI) ten (10 DAI), and fifteen (15 DAI) days after the infection, 10 birds of each group were humanely killed and blood samples collected to hematological and serum tests. Samples of liver, spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, kidney and heart were also collected for the histological examination. Birds inoculated with SGDcobS and SGNalr showed similar alterations in hemogram, blood serum components and anatomopathologic exams. On the other hand, the exams of birds inoculated with SG?cobS?cbiA strain were similar to those of the uninfected birds. However, changes could be noticed in levels of uric acid and cholesterol during the course of the infection of birds from G3. Decrease in levels of light IgG 3 DAI was also observed in birds from this group. Pyknosis in kidney cells was a microscopic alteration found in birds from G3. Further studies must be done to verify if these alterations will not interfere in the performance of the vaccinate birds with SG?cobS?cbiA strain.

KO, Garcia; A, Berchieri Jr.; AM, Santana; MFF, Alarcon; OC, Freitas Neto; JJ, Fagliari.

2013-06-01

173

Profile counting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In ''profile counting'', a counter is moved progressively along the whole length of the body, and is so collimated that, at each position, it records the radioisotope content of the whole width of the body, but of only a short section of its length. If the counting rate at each position is plotted against the distance of the counter from the vertex of the head, the ''profile'' so obtained gives a rapid and quantitative measure of the radioisotope distribution throughout the body. When a suitable isotope is selectively concentrated in certain organs or tissues of the body, the profile will show peaks indicative of the sites and extent of such concentration, the organs concerned being identified by two-dimensional mapping, and profile counts continued to follow the turnover or changes of concentration in these organs. This technique has been used in the study of I131 concentration and metabolism in thyroid carcinomata, and its value in the management of the radioiodine treatment of such tumours will be discussed. It has also been used in examining the distribution of labelled thyroxine and triiodothyronine after intravenous administration, and of yttrium-90 oxide particles after intrapulmonary artery injection; and of other isotopes by gamma radiation or bremsstrahlung. The method gives a clinically convenient simplification of whole body mapping which lends itself particularly to the quantitative comparison of isotope distribution at different intervals aftee distribution at different intervals after a radioisotope dose, or after successive doses. (author)

174

Bacterial Hazards Especially Pathogenic to Human in Consumable Marine Fishes of Noakhali Sadar, Bangladesh  

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The present study was conducted for microbiological assessment of ten available marine fish species of three different feeding habits collected from three different markets of Noakhali district from July, 2012 to April, 2013. For this, Total Bacterial Counts (TBC), Total Coliform (TC), Fecal Coliform (FC) and the occurrence of Salmonella and Vibrio spp., were determined by using serial dilution and spread plate technique. Among three feeding hab...

Priyanka Rani Majumdar; Bhakta Supratim Sarker; Swapan Chandra Dey; Debasish Saha; Ripon Kumar Adhikary; Shuvagato Mondal

2014-01-01

175

Uso de aditivos promotores de crescimento sobre o desempenho, características de carcaça e bactérias totais do intestino de frangos de corte / Use of growth promoters additives on performance, carcass yield and total intestinalbacteria counts in broiler  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com este trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de aditivos promotores de crescimento em substituição ao antibiótico sobre o desempenho, características de carcaça (partes e gordura abdominal) e bactérias totais do intestino delgado e cecos de frangos de corte de 1 a 42 dias de idade, criados em [...] cama reutilizada e alimentados com rações à base de milho moído e farelo de soja. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com um arranjo fatorial 7 x 2, correspondendo a 7 fontes de aditivos (antibiótico, basal, mananoligossacarídeo (MOS), frutoligossacarídeo (FOS), ácido fumárico, cogumelo desidratado e probiótico) e dois sexos (macho e fêmea). Foram utilizados um total de 1680 pintos, sexados, da linhagem Hybro, distribuídos em 14 tratamentos com 04 repetições e 30 aves por parcela experimental. Foi observado efeito significativo (P Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of growth promoters additives on performance, carcass yield (parts and abdominal fat), total intestinal bacteria counts in broilers from 1 at 42 days old fed with corn and soybean meal based diets, compared to antibiotics supplementation diets. [...] In this study were urilized a 7 x 2 factorial design, with seven differents additives (antibiotic, basal, MOS, FOS, fumaric acid, mutshroom extract and probiotic) and two sex (males and females). A total of1680 sexed broilers chickens from Hybro line were distributed in 14 treatments, with 4 replicates and 30 chickens per experimental unit. Effects of growth promotant additives on feed intake , feed conversion and production efficiency factor were measured. Male chickens shown better performance results than females in all parameters evaluated, except for viability. Additives shown positive effects on carcars yield, parts yield, and abdominal fat. Male chickens were heavier at slaughter and shown higher leg yields than females. Additives also influenced total bacteria counts in duodenum and caecum altering the microbiota of the intestinal chickens. These changes in intestinal microbiota might have contributed for a higher stability and better survival of good microorganisms in the intestinal ecosystem, resulting in benefits for the host. The results of this study shown that the use the addictive as a growth promoters should be used in the feeding for broilers chickens, in substitution to the antibiotic, without affecting the performance and carcass yield , in the period from 1 to 42 days of age.

Éder Clementino dos, Santos; Antônio Soares, Teixeira; Rilke Tadeu Fonseca de, Freitas; Paulo Borges, Rodrigues; Eustáquio Souza, Dias; Luis David Solis, Murgas.

2005-02-01

176

Measuring nasal bacterial load and its association with otitis media  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Nasal colonisation with otitis media (OM pathogens, particularly Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis, is a precursor to the onset of OM. Many children experience asymptomatic nasal carriage of these pathogens whereas others will progress to otitis media with effusion (OME or suppurative OM. We observed a disparity in the prevalence of suppurative OM between Aboriginal children living in remote communities and non-Aboriginal children attending child-care centres; up to 60% and Methods Quantitative measures (colony counts and real-time quantitative PCR of the respiratory pathogens S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis, and total bacterial load were analysed in nasal swabs from Aboriginal children from remote communities, and non-Aboriginal children attending urban child-care centres. Results In both populations nearly all swabs were positive for at least one of these respiratory pathogens. Using either quantification method, positive correlations between bacterial load and ear state (no OM, OME, or suppurative OM were observed. This relationship held for single and combined bacterial respiratory pathogens, total bacterial load, and the proportion of respiratory pathogens to total bacterial load. Comparison of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children, all with a diagnosis of OME, demonstrated significantly higher loads of S. pneumoniae and M. catarrhalis in the Aboriginal group. The increased bacterial load despite similar clinical condition may predict persistence of middle ear effusions and progression to suppurative OM in the Aboriginal population. Our data also demonstrated the presence of PCR-detectable non-cultivable respiratory pathogens in 36% of nasal swabs. This may have implications for the pathogenesis of OM including persistence of infection despite aggressive therapies. Conclusion Nasal bacterial load was significantly higher among Aboriginal children and may explain their increased risk of suppurative OM. It was also positively correlated with ear state. We believe that a reduction in bacterial load in high-risk populations may be required before dramatic reductions in OM can be achieved.

Hunter Neil

2006-05-01

177

Bacterial activity in a reservoir determined by autoradiography and its relationships to phyto- and zooplankton  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the drinking water reservoir Rimov (Southern Bohemia) bacterioplankton was studied during 1983. Special attention was given to the relationships between parameters of bacterial abundance, total and individual activity. Bacterial counts and biomass was assessed and autoradiographic determinations of the proportion of active bacteria incorporating thymidine (Th) and a mixture of amino acids (AA) and total uptake rate of AA were made over a year in the surface layer and during summer stratification from the thermocline and 15 m depth. Specific activity of metabolically active bacteria and specific activity per unit of biomass were negatively correlated with counts of metabolizing cells and with bacterial biomass, respectively. Total and individual heterotrophic activity and counts of bacteria coincided with the changes of phytoplankton biomass, whereas bacteria incorporating Th were more tightly correlated with primary production. The most significant relation of metabolically active bacteria was found to cladoceran biomass. Thus, this part of heterotrophic bacterial activity seems to be stimulated by leakage of dissolved organic matter from phytoplankton being disrupted and incompletely digested by cladocerans rather than from healthy photosynthetizing cells. (author)

178

The impact of shrimp farming effluent on bacterial communities in mangrove waters, Ceará, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of shrimp farm effluents on bacterial communities in mangroves have been infrequently reported. Classic and molecular biology methods were used to survey bacterial communities from four mangroves systems. Water temperature, salinity, pH, total heterotrophic bacteria and maximum probable numbers of Vibrio spp. were investigated. Genetic profiles of bacterial communities were also characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of eubacterial and Vibrio 16S rDNA using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Highest heterotrophic counts were registered in the mangrove not directly polluted by shrimp farming. The Enterobacteriaceae and Chryseomonas luteola dominated the heterotrophic isolates. Vibrio spp. pathogenic to humans and shrimps were identified. Eubacterial genetic profiles suggest a shared community structure independent of mangrove system. Vibrio genetic profiles were mangrove specific. Neither microbial counts nor genetic profiling revealed a significant decrease in species richness associated with shrimp farm effluent. The complex nature of mangrove ecosystems and their microbial communities is discussed. PMID:17010386

Sousa, O V; Macrae, A; Menezes, F G R; Gomes, N C M; Vieira, R H S F; Mendonça-Hagler, L C S

2006-12-01

179

Money Counts  

Science.gov (United States)

In this math lesson, learners count and compare amounts of money less than or equal to one dollar. Learners begin by finding all of the possible combinations of coins that can be used to equal a specified amount of money. They then compare two amounts of money and use number sense skills and problem solving strategies to move coins from one group to another so that both groups are equal in value. Learners play the Money Exchange Game as they roll a die with money amounts and try to be the first person to obtain exactly $1.00. Learners must make monetary exchanges in the game such as trading ten pennies for a dime. Finally, learners shop in a puppet supply store where they are given one dollar to buy items to make a paper bag puppet.

Pbs

2012-01-01

180

Epiphytic bacterial community composition on two common submerged macrophytes in brackish water and freshwater  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants and their heterotrophic bacterial biofilm communities possibly strongly interact, especially in aquatic systems. We aimed to ascertain whether different macrophytes or their habitats determine bacterial community composition. We compared the composition of epiphytic bacteria on two common aquatic macrophytes, the macroalga Chara aspera Willd. and the angiosperm Myriophyllum spicatum L., in two habitats, freshwater (Lake Constance and brackish water (Schaproder Bodden, using fluorescence in situ hybridization. The bacterial community composition was analysed based on habitat, plant species, and plant part. Results The bacterial abundance was higher on plants from brackish water [5.3 × 107 cells (g dry mass-1] than on plants from freshwater [1.3 × 107 cells (g dry mass-1], with older shoots having a higher abundance. The organic content of freshwater plants was lower than that of brackish water plants (35 vs. 58%, and lower in C. aspera than in M. spicatum (41 vs. 52%. The content of nutrients, chlorophyll, total phenolic compounds, and anthocyanin differed in the plants and habitats. Especially the content of total phenolic compounds and anthocyanin was higher in M. spicatum, and in general higher in the freshwater than in the brackish water habitat. Members of the Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroidetes group were abundant in all samples (5–35% of the total cell counts and were especially dominant in M. spicatum samples. Alphaproteobacteria were the second major group (3–17% of the total cell counts. Betaproteobacteria, gammaproteobacteria, and actinomycetes were present in all samples (5 or 10% of the total cell counts. Planctomycetes were almost absent on M. spicatum in freshwater, but present on C. aspera in freshwater and on both plants in brackish water. Conclusion Bacterial biofilm communities on the surface of aquatic plants might be influenced by the host plant and environmental factors. Distinct plant species, plant part and habitat specific differences in total cell counts and two bacterial groups (CFB, planctomycetes support the combined impact of substrate (plant and habitat on epiphytic bacterial community composition. The presence of polyphenols might explain the distinct bacterial community on freshwater M. spicatum compared to that of M. spicatum in brackish water and of C. aspera in both habitats.

Blindow Irmgard

2008-04-01

 
 
 
 
181

Count data distributions and their zero-modified equivalents as a framework for modelling microbial data with a relatively high occurrence of zero counts.  

Science.gov (United States)

In many cases, microbial data are characterised by a relatively high proportion of zero counts, as occurs with some hygiene indicators and pathogens, which complicates the statistical treatment under the assumption of log normality. The objective of this work was to introduce an alternative Poisson-based distribution framework capable of representing this kind of data without incurring loss of information. The negative binomial, and two zero-modified parameterizations of the Poisson and negative binomial distributions (zero-inflated and hurdle) were fitted to actual zero-inflated bacterial data consisting of total coliforms (n=590) and Escherichia coli (n=677) present on beef carcasses sampled from nine Irish abattoirs. Improvement over the simple Poisson was shown by the simple negative binomial (p=0.426 for chi(2) test for the coliforms data) due to the added heterogeneity parameter, although it slightly overestimated the zero counts and underestimated the first few positive counts for both data sets. Whereas, the zero-modified Poisson could not cope with the data over-dispersion in any of its parameterizations (pnegative binomial presented differences in fit due to approximation errors. While the zero-inflated negative binomial parameterization was apparently reduced to a negative binomial due to a non-convergence of the logit parameter estimate, the goodness of fit of the hurdle negative binomial parameterization indicated that for the data sets under evaluation (coliforms data with approximately 13% zero counts and E.coli data with approximately 42% zero counts), the zero-modified negative binomial distribution was comparable to the simpler negative binomial distribution. Thus, bacterial data consisting of a considerable number of zero counts can be appropriately represented by using such count distributions, and this work serves as the starting point for an alternative statistical treatment of this kind of data and stochastic risk assessment modelling. PMID:19913934

Gonzales-Barron, Ursula; Kerr, Marie; Sheridan, James J; Butler, Francis

2010-01-01

182

Frequency of Bacterial Frequency of Bacterial Contamination in Traditional Ice Cream Produced in Arak, Iran (2011  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objective: Ice cream is a suitable environment for microbial growth due to its chemical structure, ingredients, and its increased supply and demand. In the absence of hygienic considerations, it can cause poisoning. This study aimed to determine bacterial contamination in traditional ice cream produced in Arak city in 2011. Material and Methods: The samples (n= 30 were randomly obtained from different parts of Arak in, 2011. The Samples were shipped in cold conditions and total count of microorganisms test was performed according to Iranian national standards. Results: In 16.66%, the microbial contamination was below the limit of microbial load (5×104, and in 83.3% the contamination was more than allowed level. Conclusion: This study highlights the dire situation for bacterial contamination of traditional ice cream in Arak city. Keywords: Arak, Ice Cream, Microbial Contamination

Rezaei, M. (MSc

2014-05-01

183

AIDS-associated paracoccidioidomycosis in a patient with a CD4+ T-cell count of 4 cells/mm³ / Paracoccidioidomicose associada a Aids em paciente com a contagem total de quatro células T-CD4+  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho apresenta-se paciente com coinfecção paracoccidioidomicose/Aids. No momento do diagnóstico, a contagem de células T CD4 + era 4 células. No exame histopatológico, observou-se a presença de granulomas tuberculóides bem formados e na imunohistoquímica, ausência de células Foxp3, raros l [...] infócitos T CD4+ e presença de células T CD8+ em moderada quantidade. Com duas semanas de uso da anfotericina B, verificou-se a regressão de grande parte das lesões cutâneas. Após 14 meses, o paciente encontra-se em uso de terapia antiretroviral e sem evidências de atividade da micose Abstract in english We describe a case of a patient presenting with HIV and paracoccidioidomycosis co-infection. At the time of diagnosis total CD4+ T-cell count was 4 cells/mm3. Histopathology revealed tuberculoid granulomas, scarce CD4+ T cells, a moderate number of CD8+ cells and the absence of Foxp3+ cells. Most of [...] the cutaneous lesions healed after two weeks of treatment with amphotericin B. After 14 months the patient is still under antiretroviral therapy and no clinical evidence of recurrence of the mycosis has been observed

Lisiane Machado Contente, Nogueira; Mônica, Santos; Luiz Carlos de Lima, Ferreira; Carolina, Talhari; Rodrigo Ribeiro, Rodrigues; Sinésio, Talhari.

2011-08-01

184

Preterm blood counts vary with sampling site.  

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In preterm babies both haemoglobin and total neutrophil count values from capillary sites are significantly and variably higher than those from simultaneous arterial samples. Comparing simultaneous venous and arterial samples, the mean haemoglobin was slightly higher but the total neutrophil counts were similar.

Thurlbeck, S. M.; Mcintosh, N.

1987-01-01

185

Count rate characteristics and count loss correction of POSITOLOGICA II  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes evaluation and correction of count rate characteristics of POSITOLOGICA II, a multi-slice whole body positron emission tomography system. The present study was performed using three phantoms; 1) a 5 cm inner diameter, water-filled lucite cylinder, 2) a 20 cm inner diameter, water-filled lucite cylinder and 3) a chest phantom. After injection of high activity (about 1.85 GBq (50 mCi)) of 13N ammonia into each phantom, rates of true coincidence, random coincidence and single photon detections were measured during decay of the isotope through more than two orders of magnitude of activity. At very high levels of activity, count rate characteristics of the system were saturated and limited to 660 kcps of total coincidence rate, which was the sum of rates in on-time and off-time windows, by the FIFO (first-in first-out) output frequency. Below those levels of activity the relationship between count loss and true coincidence rate was not unique but depended on the phantom configurations, suggesting that count loss correction using the above relationship was inadequate for quantitative study. However, the relationship between count loss and single rate was almost independent of the phantom configurations. Thus in conclusion count loss could be corrected using single rate for POSITOLOGICA II. A practical method of count loss correction was also proposed. (author)

186

Intestinal Bacterial Flora that Compete on the Haem Precursor Iron Fumarate in Iron Deficiency Anemia Cases  

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Aims: The study focused on finding if there is any possible relation between the intestinal bacterial population quantitative and qualitative and the deficiency of the most important iron compounds as haem precursors. Methodology and Results: Blood complete picture and stool analyses were done to 750 volunteer cases whom were asked for these analyses by their physicians. Analyses proved that 560 cases representing 75.2 % were anemic as the RBC(s) based on counts of the total studied cases of ...

Selim, S. A. H.; Alfy, S. M. E.; Diab, A. M.; Abdel Aziz, M. H.; Warrad, M. F.

2012-01-01

187

Bacterial contamination of automotive fuels in a tropical region: the case of Costa Rica  

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Microbial contamination of fuel has been the cause of several problems in transportation and storage of these products. Due to the lack of previous studies related to these problems in Costa Rica, bacterial quality was evaluated biannually in automotive fuels stored in the four oil distribution facilities of the Costa Rican Petroleum Refinery (RECOPE). In 12 oil storage tanks, for a total of 96 samples, mesophilic, heterotrophic aerobic/facultative counts (ASTM D6974-04) and identification of...

Rodri?guez-rodri?guez, Carlos E.; Evelyn Rodríguez-Cavallini; Rigoberto Blanco

2009-01-01

188

Office space bacterial abundance and diversity in three metropolitan areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

People in developed countries spend approximately 90% of their lives indoors, yet we know little about the source and diversity of microbes in built environments. In this study, we combined culture-based cell counting and multiplexed pyrosequencing of environmental ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences to investigate office space bacterial diversity in three metropolitan areas. Five surfaces common to all offices were sampled using sterile double-tipped swabs, one tip for culturing and one for DNA extraction, in 30 different offices per city (90 offices, 450 total samples). 16S rRNA gene sequences were PCR amplified using bar-coded "universal" bacterial primers from 54 of the surfaces (18 per city) and pooled for pyrosequencing. A three-factorial Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) found significant differences in viable bacterial abundance between offices inhabited by men or women, among the various surface types, and among cities. Multiplex pyrosequencing identified more than 500 bacterial genera from 20 different bacterial divisions. The most abundant of these genera tended to be common inhabitants of human skin, nasal, oral or intestinal cavities. Other commonly occurring genera appeared to have environmental origins (e.g., soils). There were no significant differences in the bacterial diversity between offices inhabited by men or women or among surfaces, but the bacterial community diversity of the Tucson samples was clearly distinguishable from that of New York and San Francisco, which were indistinguishable. Overall, our comprehensive molecular analysis of office building microbial diversity shows the potential of these methods for studying patterns and origins of indoor bacterial contamination. "[H]umans move through a sea of microbial life that is seldom perceived except in the context of potential disease and decay." - Feazel et al. (2009). PMID:22666400

Hewitt, Krissi M; Gerba, Charles P; Maxwell, Sheri L; Kelley, Scott T

2012-01-01

189

The impact of zero-valent iron nanoparticles on a river water bacterial community.  

Science.gov (United States)

Zero-valent iron (ZVI) nanoparticles are of interest because of their many potential biomedical and environmental applications. However, these particles have recently been reported to be cytotoxic to bacterial cells. The overall objective of this study was to determine the impact of 100mg/L ZVI nanoparticles on the diversity and structure of an indigenous river water bacterial community. Response during exposure for 36 days was determined by denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes, amplified from extracted DNA, and viable and total cell abundances were determined by plate counting and fluorescent microscopy of DAPI-stained cells. Changes in river water chemistry were also monitored. Addition of ZVI nanoparticles led to a rapid decrease in oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) (+196 to -281 mV) and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration (8.2-0.6 mg/L), both of which stabilized during the experiment. Interestingly, both viable and total bacterial cell abundances increased and pH decreased, characteristic of an active microbial community. Total community structure was visualized using rank-abundance plots fitted with linear regression models. The slopes of the regression models were used as a descriptive statistic of changes in evenness over time. Importantly, despite bacterial growth, addition of ZVI nanoparticles did not influence bacterial community structure. PMID:20810211

Barnes, Robert J; van der Gast, Christopher J; Riba, Olga; Lehtovirta, Laura E; Prosser, James I; Dobson, Peter J; Thompson, Ian P

2010-12-15

190

Influence of surface characteristics and microstructure on adhesion of bacterial cells onto a type 304 stainless steel.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was carried out to understand the influence of the surface characteristics/microstructure of a type 304 stainless steel on bacterial adhesion by exposing solution-annealed, sensitized and air-oxidized stainless steel specimens in a culture of Pseudomonas sp. in dilute nutrient broth. Epifluorescence microscopy of the exposed surfaces revealed that the pattern of adhesion as well as number density of bacterial cells was different depending on the metallurgical condition of the substratum. Among the specimens with different microstructures, the sensitized specimens had the highest bacterial density, followed by the solution annealed and the oxidized specimens. The same trend was shown by the total viable counts on the various surfaces, estimated by a plate count technique. The study assumes significance in the context of the widely reported observation of preferential attack of the welded region during microbiologically influenced corrosion of fabricated components. PMID:14618684

George, R P; Muraleedharan, P; Sreekumari, K R; Khatak, H S

2003-02-01

191

Radon counting statistics - a Monte Carlo investigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive decay is a Poisson process, and so the Coefficient of Variation (COV) of open-quotes nclose quotes counts of a single nuclide is usually estimated as 1/?n. This is only true if the count duration is much shorter than the half-life of the nuclide. At longer count durations, the COV is smaller than the Poisson estimate. Most radon measurement methods count the alpha decays of 222Rn, plus the progeny 218Po and 214Po, and estimate the 222Rn activity from the sum of the counts. At long count durations, the chain decay of these nuclides means that every 222Rn decay must be followed by two other alpha decays. The total number of decays is open-quotes 3Nclose quotes, where N is the number of radon decays, and the true COV of the radon concentration estimate is 1/?(N), ?3 larger than the Poisson total count estimate of 1/?3N. Most count periods are comparable to the half lives of the progeny, so the relationship between COV and count time is complex. A Monte-Carlo estimate of the ratio of true COV to Poisson estimate was carried out for a range of count periods from 1 min to 16 h and three common radon measurement methods: liquid scintillation, scintillation cell, and electrostatic precipitation of progeny. The Poisson approximation underestimates COV by less than 20% for count durations of less than 60 min

192

Bacterial contamination of street vending food in Kumasi, Ghana  

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Full Text Available Street vending foods are readily available sources of meals for many people but the biological safe-ty of such food is always in doubt. The aim of this study is to ascertain bacterial isolate and deter-mine total counts of bacterial species responsible for the contamination of the street vending food in Kumasi so as to determine the microbiological safety of such a food. This prospective study was conducted among street vending food at four bus terminals in Kumasi. From November, 2008 to February, 2009, 60 food samples comprising ice-kenkey (15, cocoa drink (15, fufu (5, ready-to-eat red pepper (normally eaten with kenkey (5, salad (10 and macaroni (10 were purchased and ana-lyzed. The food samples were purchased and transported to the laboratory in sterile plastic bags and analyzed for bacterial contamination. Serial dilution of each food was prepared in buffered peptone water and inoculated onto plate count agar (PCA, MacConkey and blood agar plates. Growths on PCA were counted; those on other agar plates were identified by their colonial mor-phology, Gram stain, biochemical and sugar fermentation methods. The mean bacterial counts in these foods expressed to log10 CFU/ml were: fufu 6.36±0.47, cocoa drink 6.16±0.5, red pepper 5.92±0.64, ice-kenkey 5.58 ±0.52, macaroni 5.58±0.97 and salad 5.13±0.77. Most of these foods con-tained higher than acceptable contamination level of <5.0 log10 CFU/ml. The isolates obtained were Coagulate negative staphylococci (23.7%, Bacillus species (21.5%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (18%, Aeromonas pneumophila (17.7%, Enterobacter cloacae (6.7%, Staphylococcus aureus (3.7%, Escherichia coli (2.2% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.2%. Most ready-to-eat foods in Kumasi were contaminated with enteric bacteria and other potential food poisoning organisms with bacterial counts higher than the acceptable levels. Food vendors therefore need education on food hygiene.

Feglo, P.

2012-01-01

193

Bacterial conjunctivitis  

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Conjunctivitis causes irritation, itching, foreign body sensation, and watering or discharge of the eye. Most cases in adults are probably due to viral infection, but children are more likely to develop bacterial conjunctivitis than viral forms. The main bacterial pathogens are Staphylococcus species in adults, and Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Moraxella catarrhalis in children.A bacterial cause is more likely if there is glueing of the eyelids and no itch.Contact l...

Epling, John

2010-01-01

194

Bacterial Keratitis  

Science.gov (United States)

... Eye) Astigmatism Bacterial Keratitis Bell's Palsy Blepharitis Cataracts Contact Lens-Related Infections Detached & Torn Retina Diabetic Retinopathy Dry Eye Floaters & Flashes Glaucoma Hyperopia (Farsightedness) Low Vision ...

195

Effect of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zylenicum supplementation on the intestinal selected bacterial population in Japanese quail  

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Full Text Available The present experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of adding graded levels (0, 1.0 and 1.5% of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zylenicum in the basal diet on the intestinal bacterial population of the Japanese quail. Sixty Japanese quail were randomly distributed into 3 groups. Each treatment contained four replicates (5 birds/replicate. The results showed significant (P<0.05 improvement in lactobacillus of birds fed 1.5% cinnamon. Total bacterial count, coli form and fungi count was significantly (P<0.05 lower compared to the control. In conclusion, 1.5% level of cinnamon may be used for antimicrobial balance in gut for Japanese quail.

A. Baraa Mohamed,

2011-05-01

196

The interplay of dietary nutrient specification and varying calcium to total phosphorus ratio on efficacy of a bacterial phytase: 1. Growth performance and tibia mineralization.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 14-d experiment was conducted to study the effects of 2 dietary variables on efficacy of a 6-phytase from Citrobacter braakii on broiler growth performance and tibia mineralization. Diets were formulated with or without nutrient matrix values for phytase as negative or positive control (NC or PC, respectively) and with 2 Ca:total P (tP; 2:1 or 2.5:1). The diets were supplemented with 0, 1,000, or 2,000 phytase units (FYT)/kg, thus producing a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. Birds and feed were weighed on d 7 and 21, and tibia bones were collected from all the birds on d 21. The main effects of nutrient matrix, Ca:tP, and phytase supplementation were significant (P growth performance responses (except for G:F for which there was no effect of matrix). The Ca:tP × phytase and matrix × phytase interactions were significant (P narrow Ca:tP, whereas the best response to higher level of phytase supplementation (2,000 FYT/kg) was achieved in diets in PC diets with wide Ca:tP. PMID:25332135

Olukosi, O A; Fru-Nji, F

2014-12-01

197

Determining random counts in liquid scintillation counting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During measurements involving coincidence counting techniques, errors can arise due to the detection of chance or random coincidences in the multiple detectors used. A method and the electronic circuits necessary are here described for eliminating this source of error in liquid scintillation detectors used in coincidence counting. (UK)

198

Analysis of Bacterial Community Structure in Sulfurous-Oil-Containing Soils and Detection of Species Carrying Dibenzothiophene Desulfurization (dsz) Genes  

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The selective effects of sulfur-containing hydrocarbons, with respect to changes in bacterial community structure and selection of desulfurizing organisms and genes, were studied in soil. Samples taken from a polluted field soil (A) along a concentration gradient of sulfurous oil and from soil microcosms treated with dibenzothiophene (DBT)-containing petroleum (FSL soil) were analyzed. Analyses included plate counts of total bacteria and of DBT utilizers, molecular community profiling via soi...

Duarte, Gabriela Frois; Rosado, Alexandre Soares; Seldin, Lucy; Araujo, Welington; Elsas, Jan Dirk

2001-01-01

199

Spatial Heterogeneity of Bacterial Populations along an Environmental Gradient at a Shallow Submarine Hydrothermal Vent near Milos Island (Greece)  

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The spatial heterogeneity of bacterial populations at a shallow-water hydrothermal vent in the Aegean Sea close to the island of Milos (Greece) was examined at two different times by using acridine orange staining for total cell counts, cultivation-based techniques, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments. Concurrent with measurements of geochemical parameters, samples were taken along a transect from the center of the vent to the s...

Sievert, Stefan M.; Brinkhoff, Thorsten; Muyzer, Gerard; Ziebis, Wiebke; Kuever, Jan

1999-01-01

200

KANDUNGAN BAKTERI TOTAL Coli DAN Escherechia coli / FECAL Coli AIR MINUM DARI DEPOT AIR MINUM ISI ULANG DI JAKARTA, TANGERANG, DAN BEKASI  

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A study on drinking water quality produced by drinking water refill depots (AMIU) was done in Jakarta, Tangerang and Bekasi. Analysis unit of the study was drinking water refill depots with the sample number of 38 depots. For every selected depot, laboratory analysis were done for natural water (clean water) and drinking water produced by the depots. The total number of sample were 76 water samples. One of the parameters analyzed was microbiological contents, namey total coli bacterial count ...

Athena Athena; Sukar Sukar; Haryono Haryono

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Preliminary Study on Efficacy of Leaves, Seeds and Bark Extracts of Moringa oleifera in Reducing Bacterial load in Water  

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Full Text Available Water quality and treatment are the most important issue in everywhere, especially in the developing countries, where safe and clean water is not continuously provided. Moringa oleifera is one of the best natural coagulants that has effectively used in water treatments. The aqueous extract of seeds, leaves and bark of Moringa oleifera was evaluated for their efficacy in reducing total bacterial load, coliform count and faecal coliform counts in the treatment of drinking water. The standard pour plate method and the most probable numbers were used in the determination of bacterial count. The seed extracts showed a great effective in the reduction of total coliform count (55.9% and faecal coliform count (92.5 % as compared to bark (45.0 and 90.7 % and leaf (47.1 and 88.7 % extracts at 3g/100ml, respectively. From the results from this study, it can be concluded that the Moringa oleifera extracts (seed extracts can be used as safe as non-toxic natural coagulant materials in household water treatment, especially in rural areas and small communities where no adequate and safe water supply is provided.

Mohamed S. Osman

2013-06-01

202

Liquid scintillation counting [videorecording].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Describes the use of a liquid scintillator for counting low-energy beta emitters commonly used in biological and medical tracer experiments. Also describes counting techniques and shows how the counters work and how samples are prepared.

203

Bacterial and yeast counts in Brazilian commodities and spices Bactérias e leveduras associadas a amêndoas de cajueiro, de castanha-do-Brasil e à pimenta-do-reino preta e branca  

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A total of thirteen genera of bacteria and two genera of yeasts were detected in surface sterilized and unsterilized Brazilian commodities and spices such as cashew kernels, Brazil nut kernels, black and white pepper. The genus Bacillus with eight species was by far the most common. The yeasts isolated were Pichia sp., P. guillermondii and Rhodotorula sp. Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in cashew and Brazil nut kernels.Um total de 13 gênero...

Francisco das Chagas Oliveira Freire; Lisa Offord

2002-01-01

204

Use of the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN and Bacterial Source Tracking for Development of the fecal coliform Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for Accotink Creek, Fairfax County, Virginia  

Science.gov (United States)

Impairment of surface waters by fecal coliform bacteria is a water-quality issue of national scope and importance. Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires that each State identify surface waters that do not meet applicable water-quality standards. In Virginia, more than 175 stream segments are on the 1998 Section 303(d) list of impaired waters because of violations of the water-quality standard for fecal coliform bacteria. A total maximum daily load (TMDL) will need to be developed by 2006 for each of these impaired streams and rivers by the Virginia Departments of Environmental Quality and Conservation and Recreation. A TMDL is a quantitative representation of the maximum load of a given water-quality constituent, from all point and nonpoint sources, that a stream can assimilate without violating the designated water-quality standard. Accotink Creek, in Fairfax County, Virginia, is one of the stream segments listed by the State of Virginia as impaired by fecal coliform bacteria. Watershed modeling and bacterial source tracking were used to develop the technical components of the fecal coliform bacteria TMDL for Accotink Creek. The Hydrological Simulation Program?FORTRAN (HSPF) was used to simulate streamflow, fecal coliform concentrations, and source-specific fecal coliform loading in Accotink Creek. Ribotyping, a bacterial source tracking technique, was used to identify the dominant sources of fecal coliform bacteria in the Accotink Creek watershed. Ribotyping also was used to determine the relative contributions of specific sources to the observed fecal coliform load in Accotink Creek. Data from the ribotyping analysis were incorporated into the calibration of the fecal coliform model. Study results provide information regarding the calibration of the streamflow and fecal coliform bacteria models and also identify the reductions in fecal coliform loads required to meet the TMDL for Accotink Creek. The calibrated streamflow model simulated observed streamflow characteristics with respect to total annual runoff, seasonal runoff, average daily streamflow, and hourly stormflow. The calibrated fecal coliform model simulated the patterns and range of observed fecal coliform bacteria concentrations. Observed fecal coliform bacteria concentrations during low-flow periods ranged from 25 to 800 colonies per 100 milliliters, and peak concentrations during storm-flow periods ranged from 19,000 to 340,000 colonies per 100 milliliters. Simulated source-specific contributions of fecal coliform bacteria to instream load were matched to the observed contributions from the dominant sources, which were cats, deer, dogs, ducks, geese, humans, muskrats, and raccoons. According to model results, an 89-percent reduction in the current fecal coliform load delivered from the watershed to Accotink Creek would result in compliance with the designated water-quality goals and associated TMDL.

Moyer, Douglas L.; Hyer, Kenneth E.

2003-01-01

205

Spatial heterogeneity of bacterial populations along an environmental gradient at a shallow submarine hydrothermal vent near Milos Island (Greece).  

Science.gov (United States)

The spatial heterogeneity of bacterial populations at a shallow-water hydrothermal vent in the Aegean Sea close to the island of Milos (Greece) was examined at two different times by using acridine orange staining for total cell counts, cultivation-based techniques, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments. Concurrent with measurements of geochemical parameters, samples were taken along a transect from the center of the vent to the surrounding area. Most-probable-number (MPN) counts of metabolically defined subpopulations generally constituted a minor fraction of the total cell counts; both counting procedures revealed the highest cell numbers in a transition zone from the strongly hydrothermally influenced sediments to normal sedimentary conditions. Total cell counts ranged from 3.2 x 10(5) cells ml(-1) in the water overlying the sediments to 6.4 x 10(8) cells g (wet weight) of sediment(-1). MPN counts of chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria varied between undetectable and 1.4 x 10(6) cells g(-1). MPN counts for sulfate-reducing bacteria and dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria ranged from 8 to 1.4 x 10(5) cells g(-1) and from undetectable to 1.4 x 10(6) cells g(-1), respectively. DGGE revealed a trend from a diverse range of bacterial populations which were present in approximately equal abundance in the transition zone to a community dominated by few populations close to the center of the vent. Temperature was found to be an important parameter in determining this trend. However, at one sampling time this trend was not discernible, possibly due to storm-induced disturbance of the upper sediment layers. PMID:10473383

Sievert, S M; Brinkhoff, T; Muyzer, G; Ziebis, W; Kuever, J

1999-09-01

206

Contagem de morfotipos de Mobiluncus sp e concentração de leucócitos em esfregaços vaginais de pacientes com vaginose bacteriana Mobiluncus sp morphotype counts and leukocyte concentrations in vaginal smears of patients with bacterial vaginosis  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: pesquisar em casos de vaginose bacteriana a presença de bacilos curvos, sugerindo Mobiluncus, e de leucocitose em esfregaços vaginais corados por Gram e Papanicolaou. MÉTODOS: duzentos e cinco pacientes com diagnóstico de vaginose bacteriana pelos Critérios de Amsel foram incluídas e avaliadas clinicamente por um dos autores (JEJ. Os esfregaços vaginais foram corados pelo método de Papanicolaou e avaliados pela técnica de Gram. Nos esfregaços de Gram foram estudados o escore de Nugent e a presença de bacilos curvos. Nos esfregaços de Papanicolaou foi avaliada a presença de bacilos curvos e de leucócitos. Os dados foram analisados usando Prism 3.0® com intervalo de confiança de 95%, usando teste exato de Fisher pelo método modificado de Wald. RESULTADOS: nos esfregaços de Papanicolaou, bacilos curvos estiveram presentes em 51,7% das vezes. O número de leucócitos variou, embora a presença de poucos leucócitos tenha sido mais freqüente. Nos esfregaços de Gram, bacilos curvos foram observados em 46,8% e o escore de Nugent foi 8 em 48,3% dos casos. O achado de Mobiluncus sp pelos dois métodos ocorreu em 82%. Na presença de bacilos curvos, maior número de leucócitos foi observado em 57,5% dos casos (p OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the presence of curved rods, suggesting Mobiluncus sp, and leukocytosis on Gram and Papanicolaou-stained vaginal smears in cases of bacterial vaginosis. METHODS: two hundred and five vaginal smears were studied by the Papanicolaou's method and other 205 vaginal smears, in the same patients, were evaluated by Gram staining. The diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis was made clinically by one of the authors (J.E.J. using Amsel's criteria. In the Gram method stained smears the Nugent's score was calculated and the presence of curved rods was evaluated. In Papanicolaou's smears curved rods were searched as well the presence of leukocytes. The data were analyzed by Prism 3.0® with confidence interval of 95% using the Fisher exact test with modified Wald's method. RESULTS: on Pap smears the curved rods were present in 51.7% of the cases. The number of leukocytes varied, although the leukopenia was more frequent. In Gram-stained smears the curved rods were present in 46.8% of the cases and the Nugent's score was 8 in 48.3% of the cases. The finding of Mobiluncus sp in both methods occurred in 82%. When curved rods were observed leukocytosis occurred in 57.5% (p < 0.0001. In the same way, leukocytosis was more frequent in Nugent's scores 9 and 10. CONCLUSION: curved rods were observed in about 52% of bacterial vaginosis. Leukocytosis in Pap smears was more frequent when Mobiluncus sp were found with higher Nugent's scores.

José Eleutério Junior

2004-04-01

207

Contagem de morfotipos de Mobiluncus sp e concentração de leucócitos em esfregaços vaginais de pacientes com vaginose bacteriana / Mobiluncus sp morphotype counts and leukocyte concentrations in vaginal smears of patients with bacterial vaginosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: pesquisar em casos de vaginose bacteriana a presença de bacilos curvos, sugerindo Mobiluncus, e de leucocitose em esfregaços vaginais corados por Gram e Papanicolaou. MÉTODOS: duzentos e cinco pacientes com diagnóstico de vaginose bacteriana pelos Critérios de Amsel foram incluídas e aval [...] iadas clinicamente por um dos autores (JEJ). Os esfregaços vaginais foram corados pelo método de Papanicolaou e avaliados pela técnica de Gram. Nos esfregaços de Gram foram estudados o escore de Nugent e a presença de bacilos curvos. Nos esfregaços de Papanicolaou foi avaliada a presença de bacilos curvos e de leucócitos. Os dados foram analisados usando Prism 3.0® com intervalo de confiança de 95%, usando teste exato de Fisher pelo método modificado de Wald. RESULTADOS: nos esfregaços de Papanicolaou, bacilos curvos estiveram presentes em 51,7% das vezes. O número de leucócitos variou, embora a presença de poucos leucócitos tenha sido mais freqüente. Nos esfregaços de Gram, bacilos curvos foram observados em 46,8% e o escore de Nugent foi 8 em 48,3% dos casos. O achado de Mobiluncus sp pelos dois métodos ocorreu em 82%. Na presença de bacilos curvos, maior número de leucócitos foi observado em 57,5% dos casos (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the presence of curved rods, suggesting Mobiluncus sp, and leukocytosis on Gram and Papanicolaou-stained vaginal smears in cases of bacterial vaginosis. METHODS: two hundred and five vaginal smears were studied by the Papanicolaou's method and other 205 vaginal smears, in the [...] same patients, were evaluated by Gram staining. The diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis was made clinically by one of the authors (J.E.J.) using Amsel's criteria. In the Gram method stained smears the Nugent's score was calculated and the presence of curved rods was evaluated. In Papanicolaou's smears curved rods were searched as well the presence of leukocytes. The data were analyzed by Prism 3.0® with confidence interval of 95% using the Fisher exact test with modified Wald's method. RESULTS: on Pap smears the curved rods were present in 51.7% of the cases. The number of leukocytes varied, although the leukopenia was more frequent. In Gram-stained smears the curved rods were present in 46.8% of the cases and the Nugent's score was 8 in 48.3% of the cases. The finding of Mobiluncus sp in both methods occurred in 82%. When curved rods were observed leukocytosis occurred in 57.5% (p

José, Eleutério Junior; Diane Isabelle Magno, Cavalcante.

2004-04-01

208

Bacterial adhesion.  

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As mentioned in the introduction of this thesis bacterial adhesion has been studied from a variety of (mostly practice oriented) starting points. This has resulted in a range of widely divergent approaches. In order to elucidate general principles in bacterial adhesion phenomena, we felt it was necessary to start from a fundamental level i.e. using welldefined model systems. In our study colloid chemical principles are applied to microbial systems. Although both colloid chemists and microbiol...

Loosdrecht, M. C. M.

1988-01-01

209

Bacterial Quality of Informally Marketed Raw Milk in Kenitra City, Morocco  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One hundred and twenty samples of raw milk were randomly collected from six dairies in different locations in Kenitra City (Morocco from October 2010 to March 2011 and were subjected to evaluation. The study has shown that 119 samples were of poor merchantability and 24 samples of bad sanitary quality. Microbiological enumeration revealed that the counts of total mesophilic aerobic bacteria, 6.9x108 cfu mL-1; faecal coliforms, 4.2x107 cfu mL-1 and Staphylococcus aureus, 1.4x105 cfu mL-1. Salmonella sp. were below detection level in all of the samples. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from one sample. The same contamination degree between dairies and districts (p>0.05 was detected. A significant correlation was observed between total bacterial counts and faecal coliforms (r = 0.51; p<0.001 and also between total bacterial counts and temperature of storage (r = -0.37; p<0.001. The microbiological quality of raw milk sold in Kénitra city was judged marginal indicating the need for improved hygienic standards.

Abdelmajid Soulaymani

2012-01-01

210

Counting Squares in a Square  

Science.gov (United States)

This Java applet displays one way of counting the smaller grid squares nested inside a larger grid square, such as a checkerboard or chessboard. The applet allows the user to select the size of the smaller grid square and drag it to other positions, tracking the upper left corner of each new square. The explanation reveals the formula for total number of grid squares within a N x N grid square: the sum of the first N squares.

Interactive Math Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny

2011-01-01

211

Counting derangements and Nash equilibria  

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The maximal number of totally mixed Nash equilibria in games of several players equals the number of block derangements, as proved by McKelvey and McLennan.On the other hand, counting the derangements is a well studied problem. The numbers are identified as linearization coefficients for Laguerre polynomials. MacMahon derived a generating function for them as an application of his master theorem. This article relates the algebraic, combinatorial and game-theoretic problems t...

Vidunas, Raimundas

2014-01-01

212

Bacterial dispersion in relation to operating room clothing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of operating clothing on the dispersal of bacterial particles from the wearers was studied in a dispersal chamber. A comparison was made of six gowns as well as four types of trousers. The gowns were of three basic types, namely a conventional cotton type, disposable types made of non-woven fabric and those of the total-body exhaust system (Charnley type). The dispersal chamber could simulate conditions as expected both in down-flow unidirectional ultra-clean systems and in a conventional turbulent plenum-ventilated system. It was found that the disposable gowns would reduce the dispersal rate by about 30% in the simulated conventionally ventilated system and about 65% in the laminar flow system. The total-body exhaust system (Charnley) would reduce the count by 10-fold in the conventional ventilated system and by 66-fold in the laminar-flow system. The poor performance of the gowns in conventionally ventilated systems was caused by the dispersal of bacterial particles from underneath the gown (about 80%). This was not reduced by the disposable gown and only partially by the Charnley type. This small drop would be further decreased in a conventionally ventilated operating-room as only scrubbed staff would wear the gown. In order to overcome this poor performance in conventionally ventilated operating-rooms impervious trousers would be required. Four types were studied and it was demonstrated that those made either from Ventile or non-woven fabric would reduce the bacterial dispersion fourfold. As these tests had been carried out in an artificial environment checks were carried out in the unidirectional-flow operating-room during total-hip arthroplasty. This was done by comparing conventional cotton gowns with non-woven gowns and total-body exhaust gowns. The results showed good correlation between the operating room and the chamber with the non-woven fabric gown but the total-body exhaust system did not perform as well in the operating room (12-fold compared to 66-fold) the difference being possibly due to the contribution from the patient. However, as this comparison was that which would be most open to influence from other variables confidence could be placed on the chamber test results. Values were also obtained for the total number of bacterial particles dispersed by persons during a standard exercise wearing different clothing. This count was dependent on the clothing worn but a median count of between 1000 and 1500 bacterial particles/min. would be expected when conventional clothing was worn, with a range of between 300 and 19,000. This count could be reduced to about 100/min. if a total-body exhaust suit was worn (range 30-400). PMID:778258

Whyte, W; Vesley, D; Hodgson, R

1976-06-01

213

Sperm motility and morphology as changing parameters linked to sperm count variations.  

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Variations in semen analyses of 177 males over a 1 year period were assessed. The average means of total counts, motility, morphology, total motile count and non-motile % were determined for 5 classes of patients ranging from azoospermic to normospermic. Positive relationships between a falling sperm count, a decrease in motility and total motile counts were seen. Also, increasingly, abnormal forms were found with lower sperm counts.

Dua A; Vaidya S

1996-01-01

214

Sperm motility and morphology as changing parameters linked to sperm count variations.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Variations in semen analyses of 177 males over a 1 year period were assessed. The average means of total counts, motility, morphology, total motile count and non-motile % were determined for 5 classes of patients ranging from azoospermic to normospermic. Positive relationships between a falling sperm count, a decrease in motility and total motile counts were seen. Also, increasingly, abnormal forms were found with lower sperm counts.

Dua A

1996-10-01

215

Reticulocyte counting in thalassaemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The thalassaemias are a heterogeneous group of genetic haemoglobin disorders. The use of the Sysmex R- 1000 instrument in their study during the last 5 years has proved valuable. 1 Reticulocyte percentage and absolute counts were estimated in heterozygous beta-thalassaemia, in beta thalassaemia intermedia and in sickle beta thalassaemia and were compared with normal controls. Reticulocyte maturation subpopulations (high, middle and low fluorescence ratio) were assessed and compared with those of other haematological disorders. Red cell size and non-specific auramine-O binding were shown to be factors affecting mature red cell autofluorescence. 2 Nucleated red blood cells (NRBC) interfere with leucocyte counts in most haematology analysers. The upper particle count (UPP), provided by the R-1000 with modified fluorescence amplification voltage, appeared to produce a direct NRBC count in beta-thalassaemia intermedia when compared to NRBC counts assessed indirectly. 3 Erroneous platelet counts are reported by most haematology analysers in thalassaemia intermedia (especially in haemoglobin H disease) due to extensive microcyte-platelet interference and cause problems in diagnosis and management. Platelet counts provided by the R-1000 instrument in such patients were comparable to counts assessed by microscopy. Flow cytometric analysis by the Sysmex R-1000 instrument is useful in thalassaemia syndromes not only for providing precise reticulocyte counts and reticulocyte maturation data, but for direct NRBC counting and accurate platelet enumeration in cases of thalassaemia intermedia. PMID:9054715

Paterakis, G S

1996-12-01

216

Bacteria killing nanotechnology Bio-Kil effectively reduces bacterial burden in intensive care units.  

Science.gov (United States)

A contaminated hospital environment has been identified as an important reservoir of pathogens causing healthcare-associated infections. This study is to evaluate the efficacy of bacteria killing nanotechnology Bio-Kil on reducing bacterial counts in an intensive care unit (ICU). Two single-bed rooms (S-19 and S-20) in the ICU were selected from 7 April to 27 May 2011. Ten sets of new textiles (pillow cases, bed sheets, duvet cover, and patient clothing) used by patients in the two single-bed rooms were provided by the sponsors. In the room S-20, the 10 sets of new textiles were washed with Bio-Kil; the room walls, ceiling, and air-conditioning filters were treated with Bio-Kil; and the surfaces of instruments (respirator, telephone, and computer) were covered with Bio-Kil-embedded silicon pads. Room S-19 served as the control. We compared the bacterial count on textiles and environment surfaces as well as air samples between the two rooms. A total of 1,364 samples from 22 different sites in each room were collected. The mean bacterial count on textiles and environmental surfaces in room S-20 was significantly lower than that in room S-19 (10.4 vs 49.6 colony-forming units [CFU]/100 cm(2); P counts in air samples than room S-19 (33.4-37.6 vs 21.6-25.7 CFU/hour/plate; P < 0.001). The density of microbial isolations was significantly greater among patients admitted to room S-19 than those to room S-20 (9.15 vs 5.88 isolates per 100 patient-days, P < 0.05). Bio-Kil can significantly reduce bacterial burden in the environment of the ICU. PMID:24136062

Hsueh, P-R; Huang, H-C; Young, T-G; Su, C-Y; Liu, C-S; Yen, M-Y

2014-04-01

217

Bacterial rheotaxis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The motility of organisms is often directed in response to environmental stimuli. Rheotaxis is the directed movement resulting from fluid velocity gradients, long studied in fish, aquatic invertebrates, and spermatozoa. Using carefully controlled microfluidic flows, we show that rheotaxis also occurs in bacteria. Excellent quantitative agreement between experiments with Bacillus subtilis and a mathematical model reveals that bacterial rheotaxis is a purely physical phenomenon, in contrast to fish rheotaxis but in the same way as sperm rheotaxis. This previously unrecognized bacterial taxis results from a subtle interplay between velocity gradients and the helical shape of flagella, which together generate a torque that alters a bacterium's swimming direction. Because this torque is independent of the presence of a nearby surface, bacterial rheotaxis is not limited to the immediate neighborhood of liquid-solid interfaces, but also takes place in the bulk fluid. We predict that rheotaxis occurs in a wide range of bacterial habitats, from the natural environment to the human body, and can interfere with chemotaxis, suggesting that the fitness benefit conferred by bacterial motility may be sharply reduced in some hydrodynamic conditions. PMID:22411815

Marcos; Fu, Henry C; Powers, Thomas R; Stocker, Roman

2012-03-27

218

Approximate Triangle Counting  

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Triangle counting is an important problem in graph mining. Clustering coefficients of vertices and the transitivity ratio of the graph are two metrics often used in complex network analysis. Furthermore, triangles have been used successfully in several real-world applications. However, exact triangle counting is an expensive computation. In this paper we present the analysis of a practical sampling algorithm for counting triangles in graphs. Our analysis yields optimal value...

Tsourakakis, Charalampos E.; Kolountzakis, Mihail N.; Miller, Gary L.

2009-01-01

219

Bacterial colonization and beta defensins in the female genital tract in HIV infection.  

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Beta defensins are antimicrobial peptides that serve to protect the host from microbial invasion at skin and mucosal surfaces. Here we explore the relationships among beta defensin levels, total bacterial colonization, and colonization by bacterial vaginosis (BV)-related bacteria and lactobacilli in the female genital tract in HIV infected women and healthy controls. Cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) samples were obtained from 30 HIV-infected women and 36 uninfected controls. Quantitative PCR assays were used to measure DNA levels of bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA (reflective of total bacterial load), and levels of three BV-related bacteria, three Lactobacillus species (L. crispatus, L. iners and L. jensenii), and total Lactobacillus levels in CVL. Levels of human beta defensins (hBD-2 and hBD-3) were quantified by ELISA. In viremic HIV+ donors, we found that CVL levels of bacterial 16S rDNA were significantly increased, and inversely correlated with peripheral CD4+ T cell counts in HIV+ women, and inversely correlated with age in both HIV+ women and controls. Although CVL DNA levels of BV-associated bacteria tended to be increased, and CVL levels of Lactobacillus DNAs tended to be decreased in HIV+ donors, none of these differences was significant. CVL levels of hBD-2 and hBD-3 were correlated and were not different in HIV+ women and controls. However, significant positive correlations between hBD-3 levels and total bacterial DNA levels in controls were not demonstrable in HIV+ women; the significant positive correlations of hBD2 or hBD-3 and three Lactobacillus species in controls were also not demonstrable in HIV+ women. These results suggest that HIV infection is associated with impaired regulation of innate defenses at mucosal sites. PMID:22716110

Jiang, Wei; Ghosh, Santosh K; Flyckt, Rebecca; Kalinowska, Magdalena; Starks, David; Jurevic, Richard; Weinberg, Aaron; Lederman, Michael M; Rodriguez, Benigno

2012-09-01

220

Bacterial Contamination of Date Fruits During Postharvest Handling  

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Full Text Available Microbial contamination of date fruits may happen during the different phases of their postharvest handling. In this work, six samples of dates belonging to the varieties Succary, Rothaneh, Barhi, Sebbaka, Umm-AlKhashab and Reshodiah were randomly collected from Buraydah City date marketplace during the seasons 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 and investigated for bacterial contamination using the aliquot obtained from three successive washings with sterilized distilled water for each of fresh, cooled (4oC and frozen (-10oC date samples. The results revealed the presence of a high count of aerobacteria as a result of the first washing for fresh dates ranging between 56.7X103 (Sebbaka and 101.2X103 (Umm AlKhashab CFU/g date in season 2000/2001. The percentage reduction in the total count of bacteria as a result of the first washing ranged between 84.5 and 98% in season 2000/2001. Likewise in season 2001/2002, the total count due to the first washing of fresh dates ranged between 150X103 (Succary and 240X103 (Reshodiah, which resulted in a percentage reduction in the total count ranging between 90.5 and 99.5%. The presumptive test indicated the presence of coliform bacteria on the surface of some date varieties after 24-48 h. However, the IMViC reactions showed the presence of Entrobacter aerogenes rather than Escherichia coli which dismissed the likelihood of fecal contamination in the examined samples. On the other hand, Salmonella enteritidis inoculated to date surface failed to survive more than 9 days

Ahmad I. Al-Turki

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Bacterial Adhesion & Blocking Bacterial Adhesion  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Microorganisms are an integral part of all natural ecosystems, and as such are ubiquitous in nature. They often live adhered to or in association with surfaces of either organic or inorganic nature, and all surfaces will almost inevitably be colonized by microorganisms. This often results in the formation of highly complex sessile communities, referred to as biofilms. Such microbial communities are often highly dynamic and heterogeneous in nature. Microbial biofilms are of great importance in a wide range of natural processes and industrial settings, from the commensal flora of the gastrointestinal tract to the microbial flocs in waste water treatment facilities. Microbial biofilms may however also cause a wide range of industrial and medical problems, and have been implicated in a wide range of persistent infectious diseases, including implantassociated microbial infections. Bacterial adhesion is the first committing step in biofilm formation, and has therefore been intensely scrutinized. Much however, stillremains elusive. Bacterial adhesion is a highly complex process, which is influenced by a variety of factors. In this thesis, a range of physico-chemical, molecular and environmental parameters, which influence the transition from a planktonic lifestyle to a sessile lifestyle, have been studied. Protein conditioning film formation was found to influence bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation considerable, and an aqueous extract of fish muscle tissue was shown to significantly reduce or delay bacterial biofilm formation of a range of urinary tract infectious E.coli and Klebsiella isolates. Several other proteinaceous coatings were also found to display anti-adhesive properties, possibly providing a measure for controlling the colonization of implant materials. Several other parameters controlling bacterial adhesion were also studied. Subinhibitory concentrations of certain antimicrobial compounds and several surfactants were found to significantly affect bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, most likely by affecting the production of biofilm extracellular polymeric matrix components. These substances may both mediate and stabilize the bacterial biofilm. Finally, several adhesive structures were examined, and a novel physiological biofilm phenotype in E.coli biofilms was characterized, namely cell chain formation. The autotransporter protein, antigen 43, was implicated in this structural biofilm phenotype, at least in some bacterial strains. Understanding the fundamental requirements of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation may aid in the development of effective preventive measures.

Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

2008-01-01

222

Analysis of clinical course and prognosis of culture-positive spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and neutrocytic ascites. Evidence of the same disease.  

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The clinical significance and prognosis of culture-negative neutrocytic ascites in cirrhotic patients is a controversial topic. In the present study, the clinical and humoral presentation and the short- and long-term prognosis were analyzed in 36 patients with cirrhosis and culture-positive spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and in 28 patients with cirrhosis and ascitic fluid polymorphonuclear count greater than 250/mm3, a negative ascitic fluid culture, and without previous antibiotic therapy. On admission there were no significant differences between groups related to age, sex, alcoholism, fever, abdominal pain, serum albumin, serum urea, serum creatinine, Child-Pugh score, polymorphonuclear count, and total protein concentration in ascitic fluid. A greater frequency of positive blood culture was found in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (15/21 vs 2/18) (P < 0.001). Mortality during the first episode was 36% in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and 46% in patients with culture-negative neutrocytic ascites (NS). Mortality during follow-up was high and survival probability at 12 months was 32% in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and 31% in culture-negative neutrocytic ascites. The probability of recurrence at 12 months was 33% in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and 34% in culture-negative neutrocytic ascites. Our results show that spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and culture-negative neutrocytic ascites are variants of the same disease with a high mortality and poor prognosis. PMID:1395994

Terg, R; Levi, D; Lopez, P; Rafaelli, C; Rojter, S; Abecasis, R; Villamil, F; Aziz, H; Podesta, A

1992-10-01

223

Role of Clinical Presentations and Routine CSF Analysis in the Rapid Diagnosis of Acute Bacterial Meningitis in Cases of Negative Gram Stained Smears.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and Aim. Bacterial meningitis is a lethal, disabling endemic disease needing prompt antibiotic management. Gram stained smears is rapid accurate method for diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. In cases of negative gram stained smears diagnosis is delayed till culture results. We aim to assess the role of clinical presentations and routine CSF analysis in the cost-effective rapid diagnosis of negative gram stained smears bacterial meningitis. Methods. Cross sectional study including 623 acute meningitis patients divided into two groups: bacterial meningitis and nonbacterial meningitis groups. The clinical presentations, systemic inflammatory parameters, and CSF analysis were evaluated and compared in both groups. Results. Altered conscious level, localizing neurological signs, Kernig's and Brudzinski's signs together with peripheral leucocytosis (>10.000/mm(3)), high CRP (>6) together with high CSF protein (>50?gl/dL), CSF neutrophilic count (?50% of total CSF leucocytic count), and low CSF glucose level (bacterial meningitis patients. From the significant CSF analysis variables CSF protein carried the higher accuracy of diagnosis 78% with sensitivity 88% and specificity 72%. Conclusions. High CSF protein (>50?mg/dL) together with plasma inflammatory markers and CSF cytochemical parameters can diagnose bacterial meningitis in gram stain negative smear till culture results. PMID:24803939

Fouad, Rabab; Khairy, Marwa; Fathalah, Waleed; Gad, Taha; El-Kholy, Badawy; Yosry, Ayman

2014-01-01

224

Automated counting of mammalian cell colonies  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigating the effect of low-dose radiation exposure on cells using assays of colony-forming ability requires large cell samples to maintain statistical accuracy. Manually counting the resulting colonies is a laborious task in which consistent objectivity is hard to achieve. This is true especially with some mammalian cell lines which form poorly defined or `fuzzy' colonies, typified by glioma or fibroblast cell lines. A computer-vision-based automated colony counter is presented in this paper. It utilizes novel imaging and image-processing methods involving a modified form of the Hough transform. The automated counter is able to identify less-discrete cell colonies typical of these cell lines. The results of automated colony counting are compared with those from four manual (human) colony counts for the cell lines HT29, A172, U118 and IN1265. The results from the automated counts fall well within the distribution of the manual counts for all four cell lines with respect to surviving fraction (SF) versus dose curves, SF values at 2 Gy (SF2) and total area under the SF curve (Dbar). From the variation in the counts, it is shown that the automated counts are generally more consistent than the manual counts.

Barber, Paul R.; Vojnovic, Borivoj; Kelly, Jane; Mayes, Catherine R.; Boulton, Peter; Woodcock, Michael; Joiner, Michael C.

2001-01-01

225

Bacterial cellulose/boehmite composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Composites based on bacterial cellulose membranes and boehmite were obtained. SEM results indicate that the bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes are totally covered by boehmite and obtained XRD patterns suggest structural changes due to this boehmite addition. Thermal stability is accessed through TG curves and is dependent on boehmite content. Transparency is high comparing to pure BC as can be seen through UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. (author)

226

The influence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus LC705 together with Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS on potentially carcinogenic bacterial activity in human colon.  

Science.gov (United States)

The bacterial enzymes beta-glucosidase, beta-glucuronidase, and urease may contribute to the development of colon cancer by generating carcinogens. A reduction in the activity of these enzymes by certain lactic acid bacteria is considered to be beneficial. This study examined fecal beta-glucosidase, beta-glucuronidase, and urease activities during administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus LC705 (LC705) together with Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp shermanii JS (PJS). Thirty-eight healthy men participated in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover study with treatment periods of 4 weeks. Subjects consumed daily bacterial or placebo capsules. Bacterial capsules contained viable LC705 and PJS (2x10(10) CFU of each strain daily). The activities of beta-glucosidase, beta-glucuronidase and urease, recovery of LC705 and PJS, and counts of total lactobacilli and propionibacteria were determined from feces. The mean fecal counts of total lactobacilli and propionibacteria as well as strains LC705 and PJS were significantly increased during the administration of bacteria (3.5-, 13-, 80- and 11-fold, respectively). beta-glucosidase activity decreased by 10% (P=0.18) and urease activity by 13% (P=0.16) during bacterial supplementation versus placebo. The change in beta-glucosidase activity was negatively correlated with the change in propionibacteria counts (R=-0.350, P=0.039), being -2.68 versus 0.94 nmol/min/mg protein in subjects with increased and unchanged/decreased propionibacteria, respectively (P=0.003). To conclude, the administration of LC705 and PJS was followed by an increase in the fecal counts of lactobacilli and propionibacteria and a decrease in the activity of beta-glucosidase with increasing counts of propionibacteria. PMID:18945506

Hatakka, Katja; Holma, Reetta; El-Nezami, Hani; Suomalainen, Tarja; Kuisma, Minna; Saxelin, Maija; Poussa, Tuija; Mykkänen, Hannu; Korpela, Riitta

2008-12-10

227

Antimicrobial resistance in bacterial infections in urban and rural Tanzania  

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Infectious diseases cause one in every six deaths worldwide. Antimicrobial drugs have helped dramatically in curing patients suffering from bacterial infections. However, emerging antimicrobial resistance in bacteria threatens to undermine the management of bacterial infections. Developing countries have greater burden of infectious diseases. A number of factors, which may promote antimicrobial resistance such as availability of antimicrobials without prescription, use of count...

Blomberg, Bjørn

2007-01-01

228

Bacterial tracheitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

During a 14-month period, eight infants and children were observed with an acute, infectious, upper airway obstructive disease with features common to both croup and epiglottitis. We have termed this distinct entity "bacterial tracheitis." All patients failed to respond to treatment for croup, including racemic epinephrine delivered by intermittent positive-pressure breathing. Direct laryngoscopy consistently revealed a normal epiglottis and aryepiglottic folds but marked subglottic mucosal edema. Tracheal suctioning yielded copius mucopus below the subglottic swelling. Gram stain of this material corroborated subsequent cultures: Staphylococcus aureus, six; group A Streptococcus, one; and Haemophilus influenzae (not typed), one. All patients required periodic tracheal suctioning for relief of upper airway obstruction. Six patients required endotracheal intubation; one required a tracheostomy. Bacterial tracheitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a young child with a croup-like illness that is refractory to conventional therapy. PMID:379379

Jones, R; Santos, J I; Overall, J C

229

Experimental infection with different bacterial strains in larvae and juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei reared in Santa Catarina State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.5471 Experimental infection with different bacterial strains in larvae and juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei reared in Santa Catarina State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.5471  

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Full Text Available This study evaluated the pathogenic characteristics of bacteria isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei during an outbreak at the Laboratory of Marine Shrimp, UFSC, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Their virulence potential in larvae and juvenile shrimp and the effects on the total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity and serum agglutinate titre were examined after experimental infection. Bacterial strains were isolated from larvae and adult shrimps, identified by the AP120E biochemical system as: two strains of Vibrio alginolyticus, three of Aeromonas salmonicida and one of Pasteurella multocida sp. and Pasteurella sp. All the bacterial strains isolated in this study caused mortality in shrimp. One strain of V. alginolyticus was responsible for 97.3 and 88.7% mortality in larvae and juvenil shrimps, respectively. The shrimp immunological system was influenced by experimental infection with V. alginolyticus. Decrease in the total haemocyte count and increase in the phenoloxidase activity and the serum agglutinate titre (p V. alginolyticus isolated from larvae and juvenile reared marine shrimp.This study evaluated the pathogenic characteristics of bacteria isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei during an outbreak at the Laboratory of Marine Shrimp, UFSC, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Their virulence potential in larvae and juvenile shrimp and the effects on the total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity and serum agglutinate titre were examined after experimental infection. Bacterial strains were isolated from larvae and adult shrimps, identified by the AP120E biochemical system as: two strains of Vibrio alginolyticus, three of Aeromonas salmonicida and one of Pasteurella multocida sp. and Pasteurella sp. All the bacterial strains isolated in this study caused mortality in shrimp. One strain of V. alginolyticus was responsible for 97.3 and 88.7% mortality in larvae and juvenil shrimps, respectively. The shrimp immunological system was influenced by experimental infection with V. alginolyticus. Decrease in the total haemocyte count and increase in the phenoloxidase activity and the serum agglutinate titre (p V. alginolyticus isolated from larvae and juvenile reared marine shrimp.

Adolfo Jatoba

2010-09-01

230

Liquid Scintillation Counting  

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In liquid scintillation counting (LSC) we use the process of luminescense to detect ionising radiation emit$ed from a radionuclide. Luminescense is emission of visible light of nonthermal origin. 1t was early found that certain organic molecules have luminescent properties and such molecules are used in LSC. Today LSC is the mostwidespread method to detect pure beta-ernitters like tritium and carbon-14. 1t has unique properties in its efficient counting geometry, deteetability and the lack of...

Carlsson, Sten

1993-01-01

231

A Counting Function  

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We define a counting function that is related to the binomial coefficients. An explicit formula for this function is proved. In some particular cases, simpler explicit formuls are derived. We also derive a formula for the number of (0,1)-matrices, having a fixed number of 1's, and having no zero rows and zero columns. Further, we show that our function satisfies several recurrence relations. The relationship of our counting function with different classes of integers...

Janjic, Milan; Petkovic, Boris

2013-01-01

232

Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the bacterial microbiota of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) cultured in earthen ponds in the Philippines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The quantity and composition of the bacterial microbiota in the rearing water, sediment, gills and intestines of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus collected every 2 weeks from Day 30 to Day 120 after stocking for grow-out culture in 6 earthen brackish water ponds in the Philippines were examined. The total heterotrophic aerobic bacterial counts obtained in the water, sediment, gills and intestines of tilapia ranged from 10(3) to 10(4) c.f.u. ml(-1), 10(3)-10(5), 10(5)-10(7) and 10(4)-10(7) c.f.u. g(-1), respectively. In terms of composition, a total of 20 bacterial genera and 31 species were identified with the preponderance of gram-negative bacteria constituting 84 % of all bacterial isolates examined. Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus spp., Plesiomonas shigelloides, Shewanella putrefaciens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Staphylococcus spp. and Vibrio cholerae were the dominant bacteria identified in the gills and intestine of tilapia. These bacteria also dominated in the pond sediment and rearing water, except for the nil isolation of S. putrefaciens and V. cholerae in the water samples examined, indicating that resident bacteria in the pond water and sediment congruently typify the composition of bacterial microbiota in the gills and intestine of tilapia which under stressful conditions may propel the ascendance of disease epizootics. PMID:25555375

Pakingking, Rolando; Palma, Peter; Usero, Roselyn

2015-02-01

233

White blood count in patients on regular haemodialysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Total white cell, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts were compared in patients with chronic renal failure treated successively by conservative means (low-protein diet), regular haemodialysis, and renal allotransplantation. The lowest total white cell and neutrophil counts and the highest lymphocyte counts were found in patients on regular haemodialysis. A rapid fall in neutrophil count during the first half-hour of dialysis and a more gradual fall between the first and sixth hours were observed. Adherence of neutrophils and mononuclear cells to the cuprophane (PT 150) dialysis membrane has been shown. PMID:4898562

Papadimitriou, M; Baker, L R; Seitanidis, B; Sevitt, L H; Kulatilake, A E

1969-10-11

234

Bacterial response to siderophore and quorum-sensing chemical signals in the seawater microbial community  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Oceans are iron-deficient and nutrient-poor environments. These conditions impart limitations on our understanding of and our ability to identify microorganisms from the marine environment. However, less of knowledge on the influence of siderophores and N-acyl homoserinelactone as interspecies communication signals on the bacterial diversity of seawater has been understood. Results In the presence of 0.1 nM of the commercial siderophore desferroixamine and the known quorum-sensing chemical signals, synthetic N-(3-oxo-hexanoylhomoserine lactone (0.1 nM or N-octanoylhomoserine lactone (0.1 nM, the total numbers of bacteria in S9905 seawater increased nearly three-fold, and nearly eight-fold in S0011 seawater as determined by DAPI staining and counting, and increased three-fold by counting colony forming units in S9905 seawater after 7 days of incubation. Similar bacterial changes in bacterial abundance were observed when high concentration of desferroixamine (1 ?M and each of homoserine lactone compounds (1 ?M were presented in seawater samples. The number of cultivable bacterial species observed was also found to increase from 3 (without addition to 8 (with additions including three unknown species which were identified by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences. The growth of unknown species was found to be related to their siderophore production with response to the addition of desferroixamine and N-acyl homoserine lactones under iron-limited conditions. Conclusion Artificial addition of siderophores and HSLs may be a possible method to aid in the identification and isolation of marine bacterial species which are thought to be unknown.

Kamino Kei

2001-10-01

235

Dynamics of bacterial microbiota during lignocellulosic waste composting: Studies upon its structure, functionality and biodiversity.  

Science.gov (United States)

An intensive isolation program carried out in three replicated composting piles allowed the identification of the resident and transient components of the composting microbiome. More than 4000 bacterial strains were isolated, enzymatically characterized and identified by partial sequencing of their 16S rRNA gene. While microorganisms isolated under mesophilic conditions were prominent throughout the process, thermophilic stages gathered the highest total counts and spore-forming bacteria prevailed at the bio-oxidative phase of composting. Enzymatic capabilities related to the degradation of polymeric materials were exhibited by most of the isolates and as a result of these activities, more soluble compounds could be made available to the entire composting microbiota. A high proportion of isolates showed to be thermotolerant as they were detected at mesophilic and thermophilic phases. Isolated strains belonged to 187 bacterial species. Biodiversity was greater at the central stages of composting and mesophilic, thermophilic and cooling phases shared 50% of species. PMID:25459849

López-González, J A; Suárez-Estrella, F; Vargas-García, M C; López, M J; Jurado, M M; Moreno, J

2014-10-31

236

Bacterial Ecology  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bacterial ecology is concerned with the interactions between bacteria and their biological and nonbiological environments and with the role of bacteria in biogeochemical element cycling. Many fundamental properties of bacteria are consequences of their small size. Thus, they can efficiently exploit very dilute solutions of organic matter and their potential growth rates are very high. Bacteria do not have a cytoskeleton and they are covered by a rigid cells wall. Therefore they can only take up dissolved low-molecular-weight compounds from their surroundings; when bacteria exploit polymeric compounds these must first be undergo extracellular hydrolysis. Bacteria have a great diversity with respect to types of metabolism that far exceeds the metabolic repertoire of eukaryotic organisms. Bacteria play a fundamental role in the biosphere and certain key processes such as, for example, the production and oxidation of methane, nitrate reduction and fixation of atmospheric nitrogen are exclusively carried out by different groups of bacteria. Some bacterial species – ‘extremophiles’ – thrive in extreme environments in which no eukaryotic organisms can survive with respect to temperature, salinity or pH. Key Concepts:Key Concepts: * Fundamental properties of bacteria are related to their small size and lack of cytoskeleton. * Bacteria display a great diversity in types of metabolism. * Bacteria play a key role in the biosphere in terms of transfer of matter and energy. * A number of fundamental biogeochemical processes are carried exclusively by bacteria. * Bacteria play an important role in all types of habitats including some that cannot support eukaryotic life.

Fenchel, Tom

2011-01-01

237

Biogeochemical controls on the bacterial population in the eastern Atlantic Ocean  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Little is known about bacterial dynamics in the oligotrophic ocean, particularly about its cultivable population. We examined the abundance of total and cultivable bacteria in relation to changes in biogeochemical conditions in the eastern Atlantic Ocean with special regard to Vibrio spp., a group of bacteria that can cause diseases in human and aquatic organisms. Surface, deep water and plankton samples (<20 ?m, 20–55 ?m and >55 ?m were collected between 50° N and 24° S. Chlorophyll-a was very low (<0.3 ?g l?1 in most areas of the nutrient-poor Atlantic, except at a few locations near upwelling regions. In surface water, dissolved organic carbon (DOC and nitrogen (DON concentrations were 64–95 ?M C and 2–10 ?M N accounting for ?90 % and ?76 % of total organic C and N, respectively. DOC and DON gradually decreased to ~45 ?M C and <5 ?M N in the bottom water while dissolved inorganic nutrients (Si, P, N increased with depth. In the surface layer, culture independent total bacteria, represented by 4´-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI counts, ranged mostly between 107 and 108 cells l?1, while cultivable bacterial counts (CBC and Vibrio spp. were found at concentrations of 104–107 and 102–105 colony forming units (CFU l?1, respectively. Most bacteria (>99 % were found in the nanoplankton fraction (<20 ?m, however, bacterial abundance did not correlate with suspended particulates (chlorophyll-a, particulate organic C and N. Instead, we found a highly significant correlation between bacterial abundance and temperature (p < 0.001 and a significant correlation with DOC and DON. Among the cultivable bacteria, the abundance of Vibrio was also highly significantly correlated with DOC and DON (p < 0.0005 and p < 0.005, respectively. In cold waters of the mid-pelagic and abyssal zones, CBC was 50 to 100-times lower than in the surface layer; however, cultivable Vibrio spp. could be isolated from the bathypelagic zone and even near the seafloor (average ~10 CFU l?1. In contrast, DAPI counts revealed a homogenous distribution of the non-cultivable bacterial population throughout the oceanic depths. Our study indicates that Vibrio and other bacteria may largely depend on dissolved organic matter to survive in nutrient-poor oceanic habitats, without being associated with plankton or particles.

S. B. Neogi

2011-08-01

238

Surface Bacterial-Spore Assay Using Tb3+/DPA Luminescence  

Science.gov (United States)

Equipment and a method for rapidly assaying solid surfaces for contamination by bacterial spores are undergoing development. The method would yield a total (nonviable plus viable) spore count of a surface within minutes and a viable-spore count in about one hour. In this method, spores would be collected from a surface by use of a transparent polymeric tape coated on one side with a polymeric adhesive that would be permeated with one or more reagent(s) for detection of spores by use of visible luminescence. The sticky side of the tape would be pressed against a surface to be assayed, then the tape with captured spores would be placed in a reader that illuminates the sample with ultraviolet light and counts the green luminescence spots under a microscope to quantify the number of bacterial spores per unit area. The visible luminescence spots seen through the microscope would be counted to determine the concentration of spores on the surface. This method is based on the chemical and physical principles of methods described in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, including Live/Dead Spore Assay Using DPA-Triggered Tb Luminescence (NPO-30444), Vol. 27, No. 3 (March 2003), page 7a. To recapitulate: The basic idea is to exploit the observations that (1) dipicolinic acid (DPA) is present naturally only in bacterial spores; and (2) when bound to Tb3+ ions, DPA triggers intense green luminescence of the ions under ultraviolet excitation; (3) DPA can be released from the viable spores by using L-alanine to make them germinate; and (4) by autoclaving, microwaving, or sonicating the sample, one can cause all the spores (non-viable as well as viable) to release their DPA. One candidate material for use as the adhesive in the present method is polydimethysiloxane (PDMS). In one variant of the method for obtaining counts of all (viable and nonviable) spores the PDMS would be doped with TbCl3. After collection of a sample, the spores immobilized on the sticky tape surface would be lysed by heating or microwaving to release their DPA. Tb3+ ions from the TbCl3 would become bound to the released DPA. The tape would then be irradiated with ultraviolet and examined as described above. In another variant of the method - for obtaining counts of viable spores only - the PDMS would be doped with L-alanine in addition to TbCl3. As now envisioned, a fully developed apparatus for implementing this method would include a pulsed source of ultraviolet light and a time-gated electronic camera to record the images seen through the microscope during a prescribed exposure interval at a prescribed short time after an ultraviolet pulse. As in the method of the second-mentioned prior article, the pulsing and time-gating would be used to discriminate between the longer-lived Tb3+/DPA luminescence and the shorter-lived background luminescence in the same wavelength range. In a time-gated image, the bright luminescence from bacterial spores could easily be seen against a dark background.

Ponce, Adrian

2007-01-01

239

Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting  

Science.gov (United States)

An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a .sup.3 He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output ) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

Swansen, James E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01

240

Principles of correlation counting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review is given of the various applications which have been made of correlation techniques in the field of nuclear physics, in particular for absolute counting. Whereas in most cases the usual coincidence method will be preferable for its simplicity, correlation counting may be the only possible approach in such cases where the two radiations of the cascade cannot be well separated or when there is a longliving intermediate state. The measurement of half-lives and of count rates of spurious pulses is also briefly discussed. The various experimental situations lead to different ways the correlation method is best applied (covariance technique with one or with two detectors, application of correlation functions, etc.). Formulae are given for some simple model cases, neglecting dead-time corrections

 
 
 
 
241

The Kruskal Count  

CERN Document Server

The Kruskal Count is a card trick invented by Martin J. Kruskal in which a magician "guesses" a card selected by a subject according to a certain counting procedure. With high probability the magician can correctly "guess" the card. The success of the trick is based on a mathematical principle related to coupling methods for Markov chains. This paper analyzes in detail two simplified variants of the trick and estimates the probability of success. The model predictions are compared with simulation data for several variants of the actual trick.

Lagarias, J C; Vanderbei, R J; Lagarias, Jeffrey C.; Rains, Eric; Vanderbei, Robert J.

2001-01-01

242

Desulfovibrio bacterial species are increased in ulcerative colitis.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

BACKGROUND: Debate persists regarding the role of Desulfovibrio subspecies in ulcerative colitis. Combined microscopic and molecular techniques enable this issue to be investigated by allowing precise enumeration of specific bacterial species within the colonic mucous gel. The aim of this study was to combine laser capture microdissection and quantitative polymerase chain reaction to determine Desulfovibrio copy number in crypt-associated mucous gel in health and in acute and chronic ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Colonic mucosal biopsies were harvested from healthy controls (n = 19) and patients with acute (n = 10) or chronic (n = 10) ulcerative colitis. Crypt-associated mucous gel was obtained by laser capture microdissection throughout the colon. Pan-bacterial 16S rRNA and Desulfovibrio copy number\\/mm were obtained by polymerase chain reaction at each locus. Bacterial copy numbers were interrogated for correlation with location and disease activity. Data were evaluated using a combination of ordinary linear methods and linear mixed-effects models to cater for multiple interactions. RESULTS: Desulfovibrio positivity was significantly increased in acute and chronic ulcerative colitis at multiple levels within the colon, and after normalization with total bacterial signal, the relative Desulfovibrio load was increased in acute colitis compared with controls. Desulfovibrio counts did not significantly correlate with age, disease duration, or disease activity but interlevel correlations were found in adjacent colonic segments in the healthy control and chronic ulcerative colitis groups. CONCLUSION: The presence of Desulfovibrio subspecies is increased in ulcerative colitis and the data presented suggest that these bacteria represent an increased percentage of the colonic microbiome in acute ulcerative colitis.

Rowan, Fiachra

2012-02-01

243

KANDUNGAN BAKTERI TOTAL Coli DAN Escherechia coli / FECAL Coli AIR MINUM DARI DEPOT AIR MINUM ISI ULANG DI JAKARTA, TANGERANG, DAN BEKASI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study on drinking water quality produced by drinking water refill depots (AMIU was done in Jakarta, Tangerang and Bekasi. Analysis unit of the study was drinking water refill depots with the sample number of 38 depots. For every selected depot, laboratory analysis were done for natural water (clean water and drinking water produced by the depots. The total number of sample were 76 water samples. One of the parameters analyzed was microbiological contents, namey total coli bacterial count and Escherechia coli / fecal coli. For collecting information about the sources and storage of natural waters, drinking water treatment processes, treatment equipment, and so on, the depots operators and drinking water refill association personnel were interviewed as well as the water treatment equipment distributors. Based on the interview, it can be stated that the main principles of the water treatment processes from natural water to become drinking water in the AMIU depots were only filtration and disinfections processes. Natural water sources mostly was mountain spring water (89.5%, originated from Bogor (60.5%. and Sukabumi (26.3%. According to the results of laboratory analysis, it can be stated that the percentages of the natural water samples which were not complying with the standards of total coli bacterial count was 31.6% and that of fecal coli was 28.9%. Whereas for drinking water produced by the depots, the percentages of water samples which were not complying with the total coli bacterial count and fecal coli standards were 28.9% and 18.4% respectively. Additionally, the drinking water treatment processes were not sufficient for natural water with the high contents (around 1.600 MPN/100 ml of total coli and fecal coli bacterial.

Athena Athena

2012-10-01

244

Isolation, Characterization and Application of Bacterial Population From Agricultural Soil at Sohag Province, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Forty soil samples of agriculture soil were collected from two different sites in Sohag province, Egypt, during hot and cold seasons. Twenty samples were from soil irrigated with canal water (site A and twenty samples were from soil irrigated with wastewater (site B. This study aimed to compare the incidence of plasmids in bacteria isolated from soil and to investigate the occurrence of metal and antibiotic resistance bacteria, and consequently to select the potential application of these bacteria in bioremediation. The total bacterial count (CFU/gm in site (B was higher than that in site (A. Moreover, the CFU values in summer were higher than those values in winter at both sites. A total of 771 bacterial isolates were characterized as Bacillus, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Eschershia, Shigella, Xanthomonas, Acetobacter, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Moraxella and Methylococcus. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of Pb+2, Cu+2, Zn+2, Hg+2, Co+2, Cd+2, Cr+3, Te+2, As+2 and Ni+2 for plasmid-possessed bacteria were determined and the highest MICs were 1200 µg/mL for lead, 800 µg/mL for both Cobalt and Arsenate, 1200 µg/mL for Nickel, 1000 µg/ml for Copper and less than 600 µg/mL for other metals. Bacterial isolates from both sites A and B showed multiple heavy metal resistance. A total of 337 bacterial isolates contained plasmids and the incidence of plasmids was approximately 25-50% higher in bacteria isolated from site (B than that from site (A. These isolates were resistance to different antibiotics. Approximately, 61% of the bacterial isolates were able to assimilate insecticide, carbaryl, as a sole source of carbon and energy. However, the Citrobacter AA101 showed the best growth on carbaryl.

Bahig, A. E.

2008-01-01

245

Effect of storage time and temperature on the aerobic plate count and on the community structure of two water samples  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of storage at various temperatures on the bacterial community of a cooling-water sample and a tap-water sample was determined. Samples were stored at 4, 10, 20 and 30 degrees C for 24, 48, 72 and 216 h and the aerobic plate count and bacterial community structure of each were determined using R2A and R3A agars. The culturable count (aerobic plate count on R2A/R3A agar) in both samples varied over time, even after 24 h storage at 4 degrees C, showing that bacterial communities in wa...

Bro?zel, V. S.; Cloete, T. E.

1991-01-01

246

Effect of storage and separation of milk at udder quarter level on milk composition, proteolysis, and coagulation properties in relation to somatic cell count.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coagulation properties of milk are altered by elevated somatic cell count (SCC), partly due to increased proteolytic and lipolytic activity in the milk and, thereby, degradation of protein and fat during storage. Milk is commonly stored on the farm at cooling conditions for up to 2 d before transport to the dairy for processing. This study evaluated the effects of storage on milk with altered composition due to high SCC and the effects of exclusion of milk from individual udder quarters with high SCC on milk composition, proteolysis, and coagulation properties. Udder-quarter milk and cow-composite milk samples from 13 cows having at least 1 quarter with SCC above 100,000 cells/mL were collected on 1 occasion. In addition, commingled milk from only healthy quarters (milk with elevated SCC was excluded. The milk samples were analyzed for total protein content; protein content in the whey fraction; casein, fat, and lactose contents; SCC; proteolysis; curd yield; coagulation time; and total bacterial count, on the day of sampling and after 2 and 5 d of storage at +4°C. In addition to SCC, duration of storage and total bacterial count had an effect on milk quality. The content of total protein, fat and protein contents in the whey fraction, and curd yield were found to have different storage characteristics depending on the level of SCC at udder-quarter level. The exclusion of milk from udder quarters with elevated SCC decreased the content of total protein and protein content in the whey fraction and increased the content of lactose at cow level. However, the effect of separating milk at udder-quarter level needs to be further studied at bulk tank level to evaluate the effect on overall total milk quality. PMID:22032356

Forsbäck, L; Lindmark-Månsson, H; Svennersten-Sjaunja, K; Bach Larsen, L; Andrén, A

2011-11-01

247

Platelet count as a prognostic indicator in burn septicemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evaluation of platelet count and its significance in early detection of post burn septicemia for commencement of timely vigorous treatment against it. Studies investigating the role of platelets and platelet count in burn patients are rare, rather old and mostly presenting case reports. Septicemia is the most important cause of mortality in burns. Burn patients can only be saved if septicemia is detected early which requires very sensitive prognostic indicator. Total 594 adult burn patients were studied, by observing them for septicemia and studying their subsequent platelet counts using visual method. In non-survivors (256) gradual decline in platelet count was observed and minimal platelet count was observed before death of the patient, while in survivors (338) gradual rise in platelet count was observed. No significant variation observed in other laboratory parameters such as total neutrophil count and serum creatinine. In significant number of non survivor (62.11%) platelet count was low before their death and in significant number of survivor (86.09%) platelet count was normal before their discharge. Thus it is conclude that serial declining platelet count is a very sensitive prognostic factor in early detection of post burn septicemia. PMID:24465100

Gajbhiye, Ashok Surybhanji; Meshram, M M; Kathod, Amrish P

2013-12-01

248

Radiation intensity counting system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method is described of excluding the natural dead time of the radiation detector (or eg Geiger-Mueller counter) in a ratemeter counting circuit, thus eliminating the need for dead time corrections. Using a pulse generator an artificial dead time is introduced which is longer than the natural dead time of the detector. (U.K.)

249

Counting Abelian Squares  

CERN Document Server

An abelian square is a string of length 2n where the last n symbols form a permutation of the first n symbols. In this note we count the number of abelian squares and give an asymptotic estimate of this quantity.

Richmond, L B

2008-01-01

250

Complete Blood Count  

Science.gov (United States)

... Back to top 2. If I have an abnormal result on my CBC, what other tests might my doctor order as follow up? It ... inflammation is suspected, then a CRP or ESR test may be done. • Abnormal RBC results may prompt a reticulocyte count , iron studies , tests ...

251

Neutron coincidence counting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutron coincidence counting is an established technique for the assay of plutonium waste from nuclear reactors and reprocessing plants. There are, however, basic limitations on existing instrumentation. This paper presents an outline of an original method of Pu assay based on a high efficiency liquid scintillation counter. Progress made using a recently constructed liquid scintillator is also included

252

Shane-Wirtanen counts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that the 2.5 break in the galaxy correlation function derived from the Shane-Wirtanen counts is indistinguishable from an artifact introduced by residual system variations in the effective magnitude limit from plate to plate. In order to avoid introduction of a break, the systematic errors from plate to plate must be < or approx. =0.05 mag

253

Counting on rectangular areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the first section of this paper we prove a theorem for the number of columns of a rectangular area that are identical to the given one. In the next section we apply this theorem to derive several combinatorial identities by counting specified subsets of a finite set.

Janjic, Milan

2007-01-01

254

What Counts as Evidence?  

Science.gov (United States)

Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…

Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

2014-01-01

255

Counting the Homeless.  

Science.gov (United States)

These seven articles focus on Shelter and Street Night, a recent Census Bureau effort to include components of the nation's homeless population in the 1990 census count. The success of investigators in Chicago (Illinois), New York City, Los Angeles (California), Phoenix (Arizona), and New Orleans (Louisiana) is analyzed. (SLD)

Wright, James D., Ed.

1992-01-01

256

Laboratory diagnostics of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The term peritonitis indicates an inflammatory process involving the peritoneum that is most frequently infectious in nature. Primary or spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) typically occurs when a bacterial infection spreads to the peritoneum across the gut wall or mesenteric lymphatics or, less frequently, from hematogenous transmission in combination with impaired immune system and in absence of an identified intra-abdominal source of infection or malignancy. The clinical presentation of SBP is variable. The condition may manifest as a relatively insidious colonization, without signs and symptoms, or may suddenly occur as a septic syndrome. Laboratory diagnostics play a pivotal role for timely and appropriate management of patients with bacterial peritonitis. It is now clearly established that polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) in peritoneal fluid is the mainstay for the diagnosis, whereas the role of additional biochemical tests is rather controversial. Recent evidence also suggests that automatic cell counting in peritoneal fluid may be a reliable approach for early screening of patients. According to available clinical and laboratory data, we have developed a tentative algorithm for efficient diagnosis of SBP, which is based on a reasonable integration between optimization of human/economical resources and gradually increasing use of invasive and expensive testing. The proposed strategy entails, in sequential steps, serum procalcitonin testing, automated cell count in peritoneal fluid, manual cell count in peritoneal fluid, peritoneal fluid culture and bacterial DNA testing in peritoneal fluid. PMID:24508989

Lippi, Giuseppe; Danese, Elisa; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Montagnana, Martina

2014-03-20

257

Morphological and compositional shifts in an experimental bacterial community influenced by protists with contrasting feeding modes.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a two-stage continuous-flow system, we studied the impacts of different protozoan feeding modes on the morphology and taxonomic structure of mixed bacterial consortia, which were utilizing organic carbon released by a pure culture of a Rhodomonas sp. grown on inorganic medium in the first stage of the system. Two of three second stages operated in parallel were inoculated by a bacterivorous flagellate, Bodo saltans, and an algivorous ciliate, Urotricha furcata, respectively. The third vessel served as a control. In two experiments, where algal and bacterial populations grew at rates and densities typical for eutrophic waters, we compared community changes of bacteria, algae, and protozoa under quasi-steady-state conditions and during the transient stage after the protozoan inoculation. In situ hybridization with fluorescent oligonucleotide probes and cultivation-based approaches were used to tentatively analyze the bacterial community composition. Initially the cell size distribution and community structure of all cultivation vessels showed similar patterns, with a dominance of 1- to 2.5-(mu)m-long rods from the beta subdivision of the phylum Proteobacteria ((beta)-Proteobacteria). Inoculation with the ciliate increased bacterial growth in this substrate-controlled variant, seemingly via a recycling of nutrients and substrate released by grazing on algae, but without any detectable effect on the composition of bacterial assemblage. In contrast, an inoculation with the bacterivore, B. saltans, resulted in a decreased proportion of the (beta)-Proteobacteria. One part of the assemblage (saltans ingested only cells of <3 (mu)m, this strategy yielded a refuge for (symbl)70% of total bacterial biomass from being grazed. Another consequence of the heavy predation in this variant was a shift to the numerical dominance of the (alpha)-Proteobacteria. The enhanced physiological status of the heavily grazed-upon segment of bacterial community resulted in a much higher proportion of CFU (mean, 88% of total bacterial counts) than with other variants, where CFU accounted for (symbl)30%. However, significant cultivation-dependent shifts of the bacterial community were observed toward (gamma)-Proteobacteria and members of the Cytophaga/Flavobacterium group, which demonstrated the rather poor agreement between cultivation-based approaches and oligonucleotide probing. PMID:16535515

Simek, K; Vrba, J; Pernthaler, J; Posch, T; Hartman, P; Nedoma, J; Psenner, R

1997-02-01

258

Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This patent describes a high speed circuit for accurate neutron coincidence counting comprising: neutron detecting means for providing an above-threshold signal upon neutron detection; amplifying means inputted by the neutron detecting means for providing a pulse output having a pulse width of about 0.5 microseconds upon the input of each above threshold signal; digital processing means inputted by the pulse output of the amplifying means for generating a pulse responsive to each input pulse from the amplifying means and having a pulse width of about 50 nanoseconds effective for processing an expected neutron event rate of about 1 Mpps: pulse stretching means inputted by the digital processing means for producing a pulse having a pulse width of several milliseconds for each pulse received form the digital processing means; visual indicating means inputted by the pulse stretching means for producing a visual output for each pulse received from the digital processing means; and derandomizing means effective to receive the 50 ns neutron event pulses from the digital processing means for storage at a rate up to the neutron event rate of 1 Mpps and having first counter means for storing the input neutron event pulses

259

Measurement variances in thermal neutron coincidence counting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Methods are presented for reliably estimating the uncertainties in quantities of plutonium as measured using neutron coincidence counting for nuclear safeguards purposes. For the conventional two-parameter assay technique, semi-empirical equations are obtained that satisfactorily describe the observed measurement variances in the total and coincidence counts for multiplying plutonium oxide and metal. For the three-parameter assay method using neutron multiplicity analysis, covariance matrix methods are developed that describe, to an accuracy of approximately 10%, the uncertainty in the calculated plutonium mass, multiplication, and alpha-n reaction rate, for samples with small multiplication. (orig.)

260

Study of the bacterial ecosystem in tropical cooked and peeled shrimps using a polyphasic approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

The characterization of the microbial ecosystem of cooked tropical shrimps was carried out using a polyphasic approach. First, culture-dependent methods were used for bacterial enumeration and the phenotypic and molecular identification of bacterial isolates. Then, culture-independent methods, including PCR-TTGE (V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene), provided a fingerprinting of bacterial DNA directly extracted from shrimps. Two batches of cooked and peeled tropical shrimps were stored at 5 and 15 degrees C for 5 and 3 weeks, respectively. Trained panelists carried out a sensory evaluation and microbiological enumerations were performed. When spoilage of samples was perceived, several colonies were isolated from the total viable count media. Thus, 137 bacterial strains were identified by phenotypic and molecular tests. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) constituted the major group with the most represented genera being Carnobacterium (C. divergens, C. maltaromaticum and indiscernible C. alterfunditum/pleistocenium), Vagococcus (indiscernible V. carniphilus/fluvialis) and Enterococcus (E. faecalis and E. faecium). The other groups corresponded to Brochothrix thermosphacta and Enterobacteriaceae (Serratia liquefaciens). In PCR-TTGE profiles some of DNA fragments were assigned to those of standard strains (S. liquefaciens, B. thermosphacta, E. faecalis, C. divergens and C. maltaromaticum) or identified isolates from culture-dependent analysis (E. faecium). Other additional informations were provided by fragment cloning (Psychrobacter sp, Citrobacter gillenii and Firmicute). In conclusion, TTGE is an excellent tool to monitor the evolution of the microbial ecosystem in seafood products. PMID:18573557

Jaffrès, E; Sohier, D; Leroi, F; Pilet, M F; Prévost, H; Joffraud, J J; Dousset, X

2009-04-30

 
 
 
 
261

Biogeochemical controls on the bacterial population in the eastern Atlantic Ocean  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about bacterial dynamics in the oligotrophic ocean, particularly about its cultivable population. We examined the abundance of total and cultivable bacteria in relation to changes in biogeochemical conditions in the eastern Atlantic Ocean with special regard to Vibrio spp., a group of bacteria that can cause diseases in human and aquatic organisms. Surface, deep water and plankton samples (55 ?m) were collected between 50° N and 24° S. Chlorophyll-a was very low (99 %) were found in the nanoplankton fraction (<20 ?m), however, bacterial abundance did not correlate with suspended particulates (chlorophyll-a, particulate organic C and N). Instead, we found a highly significant correlation between bacterial abundance and temperature (p < 0.001) and a significant correlation with DOC and DON. Among the cultivable bacteria, the abundance of Vibrio was also highly significantly correlated with DOC and DON (p < 0.0005 and p < 0.005, respectively). In cold waters of the mid-pelagic and abyssal zones, CBC was 50 to 100-times lower than in the surface layer; however, cultivable Vibrio spp. could be isolated from the bathypelagic zone and even near the seafloor (average ~10 CFU l-1). In contrast, DAPI counts revealed a homogenous distribution of the non-cultivable bacterial population throughout the oceanic depths. Our study indicates that Vibrio and other bacteria may largely depend on dissolved organic matter to survive in nutrient-poor oceanic habitats, without being associated with plankton or particles.

Neogi, S. B.; Koch, B. P.; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.; Pohl, C.; Kattner, G.; Yamasaki, S.; Lara, R. J.

2011-08-01

262

Counting Migrant Buddhists  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Religious demography is generally a challenging endeavor, and counting and defining religions and religious identities in an Asian context is notoriously difficult. Buddhists in both Asia and the West have a long tradition of grey zone religiosity, which means that membership and mono-identity is less common than syncretic engagement and hybrid identity. The immigrant Buddhists in the West are far more numerous than the convert and new age Buddhists. Their numbers are, however, extremely difficult to obtain. This article discusses the methodological and theoretical problems in quantifying immigrant religion and the challenges of operationalizing such constraints into concrete methods. The empirical data derive from the author’s engagement in several research projects on Buddhism in Denmark in which traditions from both Theravada and Mahayana groups are represented. While concrete figures are suggested, it is also concluded that further empirical research as well as comparison with more contexts is necessary for the continued refinement of usable methods in counting immigrant religion.

Borup, JØrn

2014-01-01

263

Counting Flux Vacua  

CERN Document Server

We develop a technique for computing expected numbers of vacua in Gaussian ensembles of supergravity theories, and apply it to derive an estimate for the index counting all flux supersymmetric vacua with signs in Calabi-Yau compactification of type IIb string theory, which becomes exact in the limit of a large number of fluxes. This should give a reasonable estimate for actual numbers of vacua in string theory, for CY's with small b_3.

Ashok, S; Ashok, Sujay; Douglas, Michael R.

2004-01-01

264

Bacterial flora and antimicrobial resistance in raw frozen cultured seafood imported to Denmark.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intensified aquaculture includes the use of antimicrobials for disease control. In contrast to the situation in livestock, Escherichia coli and enterococci are not part of the normal gastrointestinal flora of fish and shrimp and therefore not suitable indicators of antimicrobial resistance in seafood. In this study, the diversity and phenotypic characteristics of the bacterial flora in raw frozen cultured and wild-caught shrimp and fish were evaluated to identify potential indicators of antimicrobial resistance. The bacterial flora cultured on various agar media at different temperatures yielded total viable counts of 4.0 × 10(4) to 3.0 × 10(5) CFU g(-1). Bacterial diversity was indicated by 16S rRNA sequence analysis of 84 isolates representing different colony types; 24 genera and 51 species were identified. Pseudomonas spp. (23% of isolates), Psychrobacter spp. (17%), Serratia spp. (13%), Exiguobacterium spp. (7%), Staphylococcus spp. (6%), and Micrococcus spp. (6%) dominated. Disk susceptibility testing of 39 bacterial isolates to 11 antimicrobials revealed resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, erythromycin, and third generation cephalosporins. Resistance to third generation cephalosporins was found in Pseudomonas, a genus naturally resistant to most ?-lactam antibiotics, and in Staphylococcus hominis. Half of the isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested. Results indicate that identification of a single bacterial resistance indicator naturally present in seafood at point of harvest is unlikely. The bacterial flora found likely represents a processing rather than a raw fish flora because of repeated exposure of raw material to water during processing. Methods and appropriate indicators, such as quantitative PCR of resistance genes, are needed to determine how antimicrobials used in aquaculture affect resistance of bacteria in retailed products. PMID:23462087

Noor Uddin, Gazi M; Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Guardabassi, Luca; Dalsgaard, Anders

2013-03-01

265

Leaf microbiota in an agroecosystem: spatiotemporal variation in bacterial community composition on field-grown lettuce.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence, size and importance of bacterial communities on plant leaf surfaces are widely appreciated. However, information is scarce regarding their composition and how it changes along geographical and seasonal scales. We collected 106 samples of field-grown Romaine lettuce from commercial production regions in California and Arizona during the 2009-2010 crop cycle. Total bacterial populations averaged between 10(5) and 10(6) per gram of tissue, whereas counts of culturable bacteria were on average one (summer season) or two (winter season) orders of magnitude lower. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from 88 samples revealed that Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria were the most abundantly represented phyla. At the genus level, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Massilia, Arthrobacter and Pantoea were the most consistently found across samples, suggesting that they form the bacterial 'core' phyllosphere microbiota on lettuce. The foliar presence of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians, which is the causal agent of bacterial leaf spot of lettuce, correlated positively with the relative representation of bacteria from the genus Alkanindiges, but negatively with Bacillus, Erwinia and Pantoea. Summer samples showed an overrepresentation of Enterobacteriaceae sequences and culturable coliforms compared with winter samples. The distance between fields or the timing of a dust storm, but not Romaine cultivar, explained differences in bacterial community composition between several of the fields sampled. As one of the largest surveys of leaf surface microbiology, this study offers new insights into the extent and underlying causes of variability in bacterial community composition on plant leaves as a function of time, space and environment. PMID:22534606

Rastogi, Gurdeep; Sbodio, Adrian; Tech, Jan J; Suslow, Trevor V; Coaker, Gitta L; Leveau, Johan H J

2012-10-01

266

Total-Count Calibration Blocks for use in uranium Exploration  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Transportable calibration blocks for field scintillometers and borehole probes were manufactured from concrete and installed at calibration sites in Denmark and Greece. The concrete mixes were prepared from aggregates of quartz sand and crushed uranium-thorium ore. Hater-reducing agents and silica dust added to the cement paste produced concretes of acceptable porosity and pore structure. The content of ore was adjusted to provide block grades of approximately 2, 140, and 540 units of radioelement concentration (Ur). Thorium was estimated to contribute 0.39 ± 0.02 Ur per ppm Th. The adopted reference grades include concrete pore moisture and are normalized to an effective atomic number of 13. Grade instability due to radon emanation was not detected.

LØvborg, Leif

1983-01-01

267

The right to count does not always count  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The best prescription against illness is learning to read and to count. People who are unable to count have a harder time learning to read. People who have difficulty counting make poorer decisions, are less able to combine information and are less likely to have a strategy for life

Sodemann, Morten

268

Calprotectin and lactoferrin in the cerebrospinal fluid; biomarkers utilisable for differential diagnostics of bacterial and aseptic meningitis?  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Background: The aim of our work was to assess the diagnostic contribution of calprotectin and lactoferrin determinations in the cerebrospinal fluid when distinguishing between bacterial and aseptic meningitides. Methods: In 23 patients with bacterial meningitis (BM) and in 50 patients with aseptic meningitis (AM), we determined the concentrations of calprotectin, lactoferrin and the conventional biomarkers like glucose, total protein, lactate and polynuclear count in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The discriminative power of the various parameters studied was determined by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves: the area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, the positive likelihood ratio (+LR), and the negative likelihood ratio (-LR). Results: The diagnostic efficiency of calprotectin, lactoferrin, lactate, and polynuclear count when distinguishing between bacterial and aseptic meningitides, expressed by ROC curve parameters, was as follows: AUC (0.736, 0.946, 0.932, 0.932), sensitivity (86.2, 96.6, 90.0, 89.7), specificity (58.5, 92.4, 87.0, 90.6), +LR (2.08, 12.8, 6.9, 9.50), -LR (0.24, 0.04, 0.11, 0.11), respectively. The optimal cut point for calprotectin and lactoferrin was 191 ng/mL and 17.8 ng/mL, respectively. Conclusions: Our findings show, that the determination of lactoferrin in the CSF was diagnostically the most efficient marker in distinguishing between bacterial and viral meningitides. Calprotectin was far less efficient diagnostic marker. The polynuclear count and lactate concentration showed a very good diagnostic efficiency as well. The determination of protein and glucose was diagnostically less beneficial. PMID:25405719

Dastych, Milan; Gottwaldová, Jana; Cermáková, Zdenka

2014-11-18

269

Bacterial concrete  

Science.gov (United States)

Cracks in concrete are inevitable and are one of the inherent weaknesses of concrete. Water and other salts seep through these cracks, corrosion initiates, and thus reduces the life of concrete. So there was a need to develop an inherent biomaterial, a self-repairing material which can remediate the cracks and fissures in concrete. Bacterial concrete is a material, which can successfully remediate cracks in concrete. This technique is highly desirable because the mineral precipitation induced as a result of microbial activities is pollution free and natural. As the cell wall of bacteria is anionic, metal accumulation (calcite) on the surface of the wall is substantial, thus the entire cell becomes crystalline and they eventually plug the pores and cracks in concrete. This paper discusses the plugging of artificially cracked cement mortar using Bacillus Pasteurii and Sporosarcina bacteria combined with sand as a filling material in artificially made cuts in cement mortar which was cured in urea and CaCl2 medium. The effect on the compressive strength and stiffness of the cement mortar cubes due to the mixing of bacteria is also discussed in this paper. It was found that use of bacteria improves the stiffness and compressive strength of concrete. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to document the role of bacteria in microbiologically induced mineral precipitation. Rod like impressions were found on the face of calcite crystals indicating the presence of bacteria in those places. Energy- dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra of the microbial precipitation on the surface of the crack indicated the abundance of calcium and the precipitation was inferred to be calcite (CaCO3).

Ramakrishnan, Venkataswamy; Ramesh, K. P.; Bang, S. S.

2001-04-01

270

Mixed infection in adult post-neurosurgical bacterial meningitis: A hospital-based study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Post-neurosurgical (post-NS adult bacterial meningitis (ABM with mixed infection is rarely examined solely in the literature. Methods: The clinical features and laboratory data of post-NS ABM patients with mixed infection were included for analysis. Results: Totally 170 post-NS ABM cases were identified and 18 (11 men and 7 women, aged 20-77 years, median = 57.5 of them had a mixed infection. A total of 45 bacterial strains including 34 Gram-negative [Gm(-] strains and 11 Gram-positive [Gm(+] strains were isolated. Of the implicated pathogens, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, and Klebsiella spp. were the common Gm(- strains, while staphylococcal, streptococcal, and enterococcal strains were the common Gm(+ strains. Compared with the post-NS ABM cases with monomicrobial infection, those with mixed infection had a lower cerebrospinal fluid (CSF white blood cell count. The mortality rate of post-NS ABM cases was 33.3% (6/18 without significant clinical and laboratory difference between the fatal and non-fatal groups. Conclusion: Mixed infection is not uncommon in post-NS ABM (10.6%, 18/170, and its mortality rate is high. Seventy-six percent of the implicated bacterial pathogens belonged to Gm(- strains, while the other 24% were Gm(+ strains. The clinical and laboratory features of ABM with mixed infection are not unique; its diagnosis can only be confirmed by a positive CSF culture.

Wei-An Lai

2013-12-01

271

Bacterial clearance in the intact and regenerating liver  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Kupffer cells in the liver play an important role in reticuloendothelial system (RES) function by clearing particulate matter and bacteria from the blood stream. While hepatocyte regeneration and function have been extensively studied following partial hepatectomy, little information is available concerning RES function in the regenerating liver. This study investigates hepatic RES function by evaluating bacterial clearance (live E. coli) in the intact and regenerating liver. Thirty-four young male Sprague Dawley rats were studied. Twenty-two animals underwent a standard 70% partial hepatectomy using ligature technique and 12 had a sham operation. Both groups of rats received 10(9) organism of 35S labeled E coli, intravenously at 24 hours, 72 hours, 2 1/2 weeks, and 6 weeks postoperatively. Rats were killed 10 minutes following injection and liver, lung, spleen, and kidney harvested, fixed, and radioactivity was determined using a scintillation spectrometer interfaced with a micro-computer counting the 35S radiolabel. The total organ count of trapped bacteria in liver in partially hepatectomized rats was lower than intact controls at 24 hours, but was similar at 72 hours, 2 1/2 weeks, and 6 weeks. Partial hepatectomy increased the amount of bacterial trapping in the lung at 24 hours and 72 hours and returned to normal at 2 1/2 weeks and 6 weeks. Splenic activity was increased following hepatectomy at 2 1/2 weeks. Renal clearance was increased2 1/2 weeks. Renal clearance was increased at 72 hours and 2 1/2 weeks

272

The effectiveness of peppermint and thyme essential oil mist in reducing bacterial contamination in broiler houses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been demonstrated by various in vitro studies, whereas their effect on poultry farm hygiene has not been thoroughly investigated, in particular with reference to aerial treatment. The present study aims to assess the antibacterial effects of natural essential oils in broiler houses. Two experimental rooms were fogged with aqueous solutions of peppermint and thyme oils. The control room was sprayed with pure water. The experiment was conducted on broilers aged 1 to 42 d. The rooms were fogged every 3 d. One day after fogging, the total counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, and mannitol-positive staphylococci were determined. Samples were collected from the air, litter, walls, and drinkers. The results of the study demonstrate that essential oil mist may improve hygiene standards in broiler farms. During broiler growth, the mean total counts of mesophilic bacteria in the rooms treated with essential oils were lower (P peppermint oil was higher than in the control. Both oils reduced bacterial counts, but thyme oil was more effective in reducing coliform bacteria, whereas peppermint oil had a higher inhibitory effect on the proliferation of staphylococci. These promising results encourage further research to determine the optimal doses and the effects of essential oils and their combinations on the living conditions and health status of broiler chickens. PMID:24135585

Witkowska, D; Sowinska, J

2013-11-01

273

Improving Compressed Counting  

CERN Document Server

Compressed Counting (CC) [22] was recently proposed for estimating the ath frequency moments of data streams, where 0 1. Monitoring Shannon entropy for anomaly detection (e.g., DDoS attacks) in large networks is an important task. This paper presents a new algorithm for improving CC. The improvement is most substantial when a -> 1--. For example, when a = 0:99, the new algorithm reduces the estimation variance roughly by 100-fold. This new algorithm would make CC considerably more practical for estimating Shannon entropy. Furthermore, the new algorithm is statistically optimal when a = 0.5.

Li, Ping

2012-01-01

274

Counting Coordination Categorially  

CERN Document Server

This paper presents a way of reducing the complexity of parsing free coordination. It lives on the Coordinative Count Invariant, a property of derivable sequences in occurrence-sensitive categorial grammar. This invariant can be exploited to cut down deterministically the search space for coordinated sentences to minimal fractions. The invariant is based on inequalities, which is shown to be the best one can get in the presence of coordination without proper parsing. It is implemented in a categorial parser for Dutch. Some results of applying the invariant to the parsing of coordination in this parser are presented.

Cremers, C; Cremers, Crit; Hijzelendoorn, Maarten

1996-01-01

275

Evaluation of Bacterial Contamination of Water Supply in Dental Unit Water Lines at Zahedan Dental School 2008  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Assessment of microbial contamination in dental unit waterlines has been focused on because of high risk of dangerous infections in immunocompromised patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bacterial contamination of water supply in dental unit water lines at Zahedan Dental School.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive analytical study we investigated 400 water samples collected from four parts of each unit including air/water syringe, turbine handpiece (before & after flushing, cup filler and 1 water sample collected from city water reservoir in Zahedan faculty of dentistry during 2008. Water samples were taken on Saturdays (the first working day in a week and Wednesdays (the last working day in a week, before and after treatment on the same unit. Samples were transported in closed sterile containers to microbiology laboratory. All samples were incubated on blood agar and McCankey plates for 72 hours at 37°C. Bacterial contamination were then evaluted. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and t-test.Results: Total mean bacterial count was 6914 cfu/ml. Mean bacterial contamination on Saturdays (8859 cfu/ml were higher than Wednesdays (4969 cfu/ml. Mean bacterial contamination before treatment was (5155 cfu/ml less than the end of treatment (8673 cfu/ml on the same unit. Mean bacterial contaminations of prosthetics clinic (13439cfu/ml was higher than other clinics. The mean of periodentology clinic bacterial contaminations (3012 cfu/ml was the least.Conclusion: The result of this study demonstrated that microbiological level of dental unit water lines is high. The dentists must be aware of the high level of microorganisms in the dental unit's water and thus minimize the risk of infection in both staff and patients.

Mollashahi Leila

2010-03-01

276

Distribution of bacterial contamination in a teaching hospital in Tehran - a special focus on Staphylococcus aureus.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are documents that confirm the cycle of bacterial transmission between patients, staff, and the inanimate environment. The environment may have more effect on intensive care units (ICUs), because the patients who require intensive care have unstable clinical conditions and are more sensitive to infections. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of bacteria in air and inanimate surface in the ICUs and to compare the microbial levels to standard levels.Air and inanimate surface in the four ICUs of a teaching hospital underwent weekly surveillance by means of air sampler and swabs for a period of six-month. Total bacterial counts were evaluated onto trypticase soy agar and mannitol salt agar (MSA).A total of 725 samples [air (168) and inanimate surfaces (557)] were collected. The total mean ± SD CFU/m3 of airborne bacteria in all of the ICUs were 115.93 ± 48.04. The most common bacteria in air of the ICUs were Gram-positive cocci (84.2%). The total mean ± SD airborne of Staphylococcus aureus was 12.10±8.11 CFU/m3. The highest levels of S. aureus contamination were found in ventilators and bed ledges. More suitable disinfection of hospital environments and monthly rotation in utilization of the various disinfectant agents are needed for the prevention of airborne and inanimate transmission of S. aureus. PMID:22510282

Mirzaii, Mehdi; Emaneini, Mohammad; Maleknejad, Parviz; Jonaidi, Nematollah; Fooladi, Abbas Ali Imani; Aligholi, Marzieh; Jabalameli, Fereshteh; Halimi, Shahnaz; Taherikalani, Morovat; Kasaeian, Amir

2012-03-01

277

Reduced background scintillation counting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A liquid scintillation system is described for counting sample optical events resulting from the radioactive decay of a constituent of a sample to be measured in a liquid scintillator while reducing the counting of background events which are all optical events other than sample optical events and which are electrical pulses other than electrical pulses representing a sample optical event. The system comprises: detection means located adjacent the sample for detecting optical events and for converting optical events into electrical pulses; coincidence sensing means for receiving the electrical pulses from the plurality of detection means and producing a coincidence signal when the electrical pulses from the plurality of detection means coincide with each other; burst detection means for receiving the coincidence signals from the coincidence sensing means and the electrical pulses from the plurality of detection means for determining the number of electrical pulses present in a selected interval following each of the coincidence signals; and evaluation means connected to the burst detection means for determining, in response to the number of electrical pulses detected in the selected interval, the extent to which the optical event represented by the corresponding coincidence signal should be treated as a sample optical event or a background event

278

Determination of Contamination Profiles of Human Bacterial Pathogens in Shrimp Obtained from Java, Indonesia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shrimp continues to be an important export commodity for Indonesia and contributed significantly to the country’s revenue. However, shrimp exports have been frequently rejected by importing countries due to filth, Salmonella and insanitary conditions. This study was conducted to evaluate the profiles of bacterial contamination of ocean and aquaculture shrimp obtained from the area of West, Central and East Java; frozen shrimp and shrimp during industry production of frozen shrimp. The study indicated that both ocean and aquaculture shrimp obtained from the study area were heavily contaminated. On the average, shrimp obtained from West Java were more contaminated than those obtained from East and Central Java. The total bacterial counts were generally higher in ocean shrimp than those of aquaculture ones. Salmonella was present in two of 32 samples of ocean shrimp and in four of 32 samples of aquaculture shrimp obtained from the study area. Vibrio cholerae was not detected in shrimp from West Java, but was found in three out of 16 samples obtained from East and Central Java. V. parahaemolyticus was frequently identified in aquaculture shrimp but absent in fresh ocean shrimp. Studies on shrimp collected from six sampling points during frozen shrimp production revealed that processing will reduce the number of total bacterial, E. coli, and Staphylococal counts. However, the processing did not effectively reduce the incidence of Salmonella or V. parahaemolyticus when the raw material has been contaminated with the pathogens. Sizing and grading as well as arrangement of shrimp before freezing were considered as the critical points where bacteria should be controlled to inhibit growth and cross contamination with bacteria such as Listeria. Implementation of Good Agricultural Practices in production of raw shrimp as well as Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point at the line processing are expected to improve the quality of fresh and frozen shrimp. (author)

279

Basophil count in neonates is not suitable for atopy predictivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Basophil granulocytes and their mediators are involved in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation. We evaluated basophil count, blood histamine content, eosinophil count and serum total IgE levels in one hundred-thirteen healthy newborns at birth. 102 children were prospectively studied with a follow up to 18 months of age for development of atopic disorders. No difference was found in newborns with biparental family history of atopy (FHA) in comparison with newborns with monoparental FHA and with newborns without FHA. Children who developed atopic disorders had neonatal basophil counts higher than those who did not develop atopic symptoms (p = 0.03). No significant correlation was found between basophil and eosinophil counts (rs = 0.013), between basophil count and serum total IgE levels (rs = 0.012) and between basophil count and blood histamine content. Positive predictive value and sensitivity of basophil count for allergy up to 18 months of age was only 33% and 27%, respectively. Our data indicate that an increased basophil count at birth is not associated with FHA and is not a good predictive marker of atopy. PMID:9015783

Calbi, M; Giacchetti, L; Coppola, A; Triggiani, M

1996-01-01

280

100-Mc counting system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A complete 100-Mc counting system is described for use in experiments with accelerators. Current-switching logic, using both transistors and germanium tunnel diodes, is used for all high-speed logic. All critical circuits have a rise-time and time-jitter of 2 ns or less. The logical elements are a pulse-height limiter, a discriminator, a multichannel coincidence circuit, a four-fold fanout, and a scale of 8. The fanout enables a limiter or discriminator output to drive any combination of four elements. Each element is a separate plug-in module. Elements are interconnected by a 50-? cable with at least one termination. Most module inputs and outputs are compatible so that, for example, a discriminator can either drive or be driven from a coincidence circuit by switching cables. To insure reliable high-speed operation and good time and temperature stability the transistors were operated at unity change-gain either in a current-switching mode or in a linear mode as a distributed amplifier. Each tunnel diode provided an additional switching charge-gain of from 2 to 5 with the same stability and bandpass as the transistors. Each module was designed for operation up to a continuous counting rate of 100 megapulses per second. High system duty cycles were made possible by DC interconnections and by double-delay-line clipping for recovery between pulses. No loss in system performance is anticipated for counting rates to 50 Mc. The basic discriminator has a sensitivity adjustac discriminator has a sensitivity adjustable from 2 to 10 mA with a DC-Coupled output of 10 mA at ground potential. Output rise and fall times are 1 ns; pulse width is set by delay cable; maximum output duty cycle is 50% for 95% input recovery. Time jitter from threshold firing to three times that level is 2 ns or less. A more sophisticated version has 10 times the sensitivity. It has a distributed amplifier and a switching chain of two tunnel diodes. Output specifications are the same. Other logic systems for discriminators will also be discussed. The scale of 8 has tunnel diode binaries. These are (unconventionally) steered with ordinary diodes. (author)

 
 
 
 
281

Inactivation of Selected Bacterial Pathogens in Dairy Cattle Manure by Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion (Balloon Type Digester  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion of animal manure in biogas digesters has shown promise as a technology in reducing the microbial load to safe and recommended levels. We sought to treat dairy manure obtained from the Fort Hare Dairy Farm by investigating the survival rates of bacterial pathogens, through a total viable plate count method, before, during and after mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Different microbiological media were inoculated with different serial dilutions of manure samples that were withdrawn from the biogas digester at 3, 7 and 14 day intervals to determine the viable cells. Data obtained indicated that the pathogens of public health importance were 90%–99% reduced in the order: Campylobacter sp. (18 days < Escherichia coli sp. (62 days < Salmonella sp. (133 days from a viable count of 10.1 × 103, 3.6 × 105, 7.4 × 103 to concentrations below the detection limit (DL = 102 cfu/g manure, respectively. This disparity in survival rates may be influenced by the inherent characteristics of these bacteria, available nutrients as well as the stages of the anaerobic digestion process. In addition, the highest p-value i.e., 0.957 for E. coli showed the statistical significance of its model and the strongest correlation between its reductions with days of digestion. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the specific bacterial pathogens in manure can be considerably reduced through anaerobic digestion after 133 days.

Christy E. Manyi-Loh

2014-07-01

282

Inactivation of selected bacterial pathogens in dairy cattle manure by mesophilic anaerobic digestion (balloon type digester).  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaerobic digestion of animal manure in biogas digesters has shown promise as a technology in reducing the microbial load to safe and recommended levels. We sought to treat dairy manure obtained from the Fort Hare Dairy Farm by investigating the survival rates of bacterial pathogens, through a total viable plate count method, before, during and after mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Different microbiological media were inoculated with different serial dilutions of manure samples that were withdrawn from the biogas digester at 3, 7 and 14 day intervals to determine the viable cells. Data obtained indicated that the pathogens of public health importance were 90%-99% reduced in the order: Campylobacter sp. (18 days) sp. (62 days) Salmonella sp. (133 days) from a viable count of 10.1 × 103, 3.6 × 105, 7.4 × 103 to concentrations below the detection limit (DL = 102 cfu/g manure), respectively. This disparity in survival rates may be influenced by the inherent characteristics of these bacteria, available nutrients as well as the stages of the anaerobic digestion process. In addition, the highest p-value i.e., 0.957 for E. coli showed the statistical significance of its model and the strongest correlation between its reductions with days of digestion. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the specific bacterial pathogens in manure can be considerably reduced through anaerobic digestion after 133 days. PMID:25026086

Manyi-Loh, Christy E; Mamphweli, Sampson N; Meyer, Edson L; Okoh, Anthony I; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael

2014-07-01

283

Characterization of the bacterial flora of Sudanese sorghum flour and sorghum sourdough.  

Science.gov (United States)

The microflora of a Sudanese sorghum flour, a spontaneously fermented sourdough and a long-term sourdough produced in a Sudanese household by consecutive re-inoculations, was studied. The dominant contaminants of sorghum flour were Gram-negative, catalase-positive, rod-shaped bacteria with counts of about 10(5) cfu g-1. The spontaneously fermented sorghum sourdough showed a bacterial succession from Gram-negative, catalase-positive contaminants to Enterococcus faecalis, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lact. reuteri. The total bacterial count reached about 10(10) cfu g-1 and the pH dropped from 6.4 to 3.35 in about 42 h. In this phase, only the Latter two species remained dominant in a ratio of 1:1. From the Sudanese long-term dough, seven strains of Lactobacillus were isolated, representing the dominant flora. Sequence comparison of partial 16S rRNA gene sequences were used to clarify their phylogenetic positions. Five strains were classified as Lact. vaginalis and could be regarded as heterogeneous biovars of this species. The other two strains could be assigned to Lact. helveticus. RAPD-PCR and sugar fermentation patterns were useful in differentiation of these strains. PMID:9449814

Hamad, S H; Dieng, M C; Ehrmann, M A; Vogel, R F

1997-12-01

284

Evaluation of a routine antiseptic and two disinfectants for reducing bacterial population of cow hoof  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A routine antiseptic and two disinfectant agents were used separately for reducing bacterial population of cow hoof: 1) 7.5% povidone–iodine scrub mixed with 10% povidone–iodine solution, 2) 10% copper sulfate, and 3) 8% formaldehyde. Swabbing for microbial colony counts were used to evaluate pre and post–scrub of hooves of eight cows. The results revealed no significant differences in reduction of bacterial colony count between post–scrubs of povidone–iodine and formaldehy...

Moosa Javdani,; Seifollah Dehghani,; Ali Ghashghaii,; Zahra Nikousefat

2011-01-01

285

Counting plane Mumford curves  

CERN Document Server

A $p$-adic version of Gromov-Witten invariants for counting plane curves of genus $g$ and degree $d$ through a given number of points is discussed. The multiloop version of $p$-adic string theory considered by Chekhov and others motivates us to ask how many of these curves are Mumford curves, i.e.\\ uniformisable by a domain at the boundary of the Bruhat-Tits tree for $\\PGL_2(\\mathbb{Q}_p)$. Generally, the number of Mumford curves depends on the position of the given points in $\\mathbb{P}^2$. With the help of tropical geometry we find configurations of points through which all curves of given degree and genus are Mumford curves. The article is preceded by an introduction to some concepts of $p$-adic geometry and their relation to string theory.

Bradley, Patrick Erik

2008-01-01

286

Bacterial Gene Transfer  

Science.gov (United States)

This resource provides detailed instructions for carrying out several laboratory exercises relating to bacterial transformation and conjugation. In this multi-session experiment, students are exposed to various techniques in microbiology, including bacterial transformation and assay and sterile techniques.

Roberta Ellington (Northwestern University; )

1991-01-01

287

General bacterial contamination of edible acid casein  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Casein – the main albumen constituent of milk. Food casein is used in the production of caseinat. Caseinats are used in the production of food concentrates, medicines, and cheese products. In addition, they may be used as casein glue. Goals of thesis. To determinate total bacterial contamination of acid casein edible, isolate and identify pathological microorganisms. 1. To determine the general bacterial contamination of edible acid casein samples. 2. To determine the influence of ...

S?inku?niene?, Neringa

2005-01-01

288

Radiometric assay of bacterial growth: analysis of factors determining system performance and optimization of assay technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A quantitative technique for the measurement of 14CO2 released from a bacterial culture was evaluated. The technique uses liquid scintillation counting to record 14CO2 accumulation on a fluor-impregnated filter paper within a double-chambered scintillation vial that also houses the bacterial growth medium. We have successfully identified and corrected the major causes for a variably low detection efficiency, and also established the optimum mixture of reagents for the detection system. Incorporation of Triton X-100 into the scintillation fluid used for the detector reduced the variability between identical assays in a single batch from 50% to 5%, and, in conjunction with an increase in the scintillator concentration, raised the counting efficiency from 30% to 70-88%. The response of the improved detector is linear over a wide range of count-rates. Another significant modification was the interchange of growth and detector chambers. Overall, a 40-fold increase in count-rate during the exponential phase of bacterial growth was obtained by improving 14CO2 detection efficiency, increasing the rate of 14CO2 transfer from liquid to gas phases and enlarging the growth supporting capacity of the detector system. The minimum detection time for bacterial growth was shortened and the exponential phase of bacterial proliferation was lengthened by at least 2 hr. High counting efficiency, precisast 2 hr. High counting efficiency, precision, and linearity make the improved detector a sensitive and reliable tool for radiometry of bacterial growth and metabolism

289

LAWRENCE RADIATION LABORATORY COUNTING HANDBOOK  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Counting Handbook is a compilation of operational techniques and performance specifications on counting equipment in use at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Berkeley. Counting notes have been written from the viewpoint of the user rather than that of the designer or maintenance man. The only maintenance instructions that have been included are those that can easily be performed by the experimenter to assure that the equipment is operating properly.

Group, Nuclear Instrumentation

1966-10-01

290

Log-supermodular functions, functional clones and counting CSPs  

CERN Document Server

Motivated by a desire to understand the computational complexity of counting constraint satisfaction problems (counting CSPs), particularly the complexity of approximation, we study functional clones of functions on the Boolean domain, which are analogous to the familiar relational clones constituting Post's lattice. One of these clones is the collection of log-supermodular (lsm) functions, which turns out to play a significant role in classifying counting CSPs. In our study, we assume that non-negative unary functions (weights) are available. Given this, we prove that there are no functional clones lying strictly between the clone of lsm functions and the total clone (containing all functions). Thus, any counting CSP that contains a single non-lsm function is computationally as hard as any problem in #P. Furthermore, any non-trivial functional clone (in a sense that will be made precise below) contains the binary function "implies". As a consequence, all non-trivial counting CSPs (with non-negative unary wei...

Bulatov, Andrei A; Goldberg, Leslie Ann; Jerrum, Mark

2011-01-01

291

Low incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in asymptomatic cirrhotic outpatients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To compare the incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic outpatients and inpatients undergoing therapeutic paracentesis METHODS: From January 1 to May 31, 2004, 1041 patients from 70 different hospitals underwent 2123 therapeutic abdominal paracentesis (AP performed as a outpatient procedure in 355 and as inpatient procedure in 686 cases respectively. The following parameters were compared prospectively between outpatients and inpatients: spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP prevalence, age, gender, cause of cirrhosis, symptoms, score and grade according to Child-Pugh classification, cirrhosis complications, antibiotics treatment, serum creatinine, platelet count and ascitic protein concentration. RESULTS: SBP was observed in 91 patients. In the whole population the SBP prevalence was 8.7% (95%CI: 7.2-10.6 it was 11.7% (95%CI: 9.5-14.3 in inpatients and 3.1% (95%CI: 1.7-5.5 in outpatients (P < 0.00001. SBP prevalence was 8.3% (95%CI: 4.3-15.6 in symptomatic outpatients vs 1.2% (95%CI: 0.4-3.4 in asymptomatic outpatients (P < 0.002. Patients undergoing outpatient AP were significantly different from those undergoing inpatient AP; they were older (61.1 ± 11.1 years vs 59.4 ± 11.7 years; P = 0.028, cause of cirrhosis was less often alcohol (83 .7 vs 88.2%; P < 0.001, Child-Pugh score was lower (8.9 vs 10.1; P < 0.001 and more often B than C (63.7% vs 38%; P < 0.001. In addition, in outpatients the platelet count was higher (161 ± 93 Giga/L vs 143 ± 89 Giga/L; P = 0.003, serum total bilirubin concentration was lower (38.2 ± 60.7 ?mol/L vs 96.3 ± 143.3 ?mol/L; P < 0.0001, and ascitic protein concentration higher (17.9 ± 10.7 g/L vs 14.5 ± 10.9 g/L; P < 0.001 than in inpatients. CONCLUSION: In asymptomatic cirrhotic outpatients, the incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is low thus exploratory paracentesis could be avoided in these patients without significant risk.

Jean-François Cadranel

2013-01-01

292

Bacterial pathogen indicators regrowth and reduced sulphur compounds' emissions during storage of electro-dewatered biosolids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electro-dewatering (ED) increases biosolids dryness from 10-15 to 30-50%, which helps wastewater treatment facilities control disposal costs. Previous work showed that high temperatures due to Joule heating during ED inactivate total coliforms to meet USEPA Class A biosolids requirements. This allows biosolids land application if the requirements are still met after the storage period between production and application. In this study, we examined bacterial regrowth and odour emissions during the storage of ED biosolids. No regrowth of total coliforms was observed in ED biosolids over 7d under aerobic or anaerobic incubations. To mimic on-site contamination during storage or transport, ED samples were seeded with untreated sludge. Total coliform counts decreased to detection limits after 4d in inoculated samples. Olfactometric analysis of ED biosolids odours showed that odour concentrations were lower compared to the untreated and heat-treated control biosolids. Furthermore, under anaerobic conditions, odorous reduced sulphur compounds (methanethiol, dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl disulphide) were produced by untreated and heat-treated biosolids, but were not detected in the headspaces above ED samples. The data demonstrate that ED provides advantages not only as a dewatering technique, but also for producing biosolids with lower microbial counts and odour levels. PMID:25065797

Navab-Daneshmand, Tala; Enayet, Samia; Gehr, Ronald; Frigon, Dominic

2014-10-01

293

Liquid Scintillation Counting of Alpha-Ray Emitters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method of internal liquid scintillation counting is of great advantage for counting alpha-ray emitters in general, and especially in low specific activity samples, because this method can avoid the difficulties of sample self-absorption. But in many cases special measures to prevent counting losses caused by precipitation or wall absorption of the radionuclides dissolved in the liquid scintillator are necessary and the following ways to obtain accurate and consistent counting results are described: (a) formation of organic complexes with the radionuclide; (b) dissolving the nuclide as radiocolloid; (c) use of sample containers with scintillating walls; and (d) transforming the liquid scintillator loaded with the sample into a gel. Complexing the radionuclides with the practically non-quenching complexing agent tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in a liquid scintillator based on dioxane as solvent was found to be one of the best methods for counting uranium, plutonium, transplutonium elements and lanthanides even in samples with high content of inactive salts or organic materials. The other methods described have the advantage of not being limited in applicability by the chemical properties of a complexing agent; these methods can for instance also be applied to counting polonium. Data for the following factors influencing reproducibility and accuracy of the counting results are given for different counting conditions, namely: width of the alpha-peak, peak-to-total y: width of the alpha-peak, peak-to-total ratio, quenching, gamma- and noise-background and interference by other radionuclides. The application of the method for standardizing alpha-active solutions, the limits of sensitivity for counting low-level samples, and the possibilities of counting more than one radionuclide in one sample are discussed. The methods described are applicable with advantage for the evaluation of biological samples, for instance from metabolism or decorporation studies involving alpha ray emitters. (author)

294

Standardization of 241Am by digital coincidence counting, liquid scintillation counting and defined solid angle counting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The nuclide 241Am decays by alpha emission to 237Np. Most of the decays (84.6 %) populate the excited level of 237Np with energy of 59.54 keV. Digital Coincidence Counting was applied to standardize a solution of 241Am by alpha-gamma coincidence counting with efficiency extrapolation. Electronic discrimination was implemented with a pressurized proportional counter and the results were compared with two other independent techniques: Liquid Scintillation Counting using the lo...

Balpardo, C.; Capoulat, M. E.; Rodrigues, D.; Arenillas, P.

2010-01-01

295

The Platelet Count in Cerebral Malaria, Is It Useful to the Clinician?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We conducted this study to determine the prognostic significance of the platelet count in children with cerebral malaria. We studied children with cerebral malaria admitted to the pediatric research ward at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Malawi. We analyzed 1,811 children with cerebral malaria and compared them with 521 children with bacterial meningitis. There was a significant difference in platelet counts between children with cerebral malaria and those with meningitis. Among children w...

Chimalizeni, Yamikani; Kawaza, Kondwani; Taylor, Terrie; Molyneux, Malcolm

2010-01-01

296

Multivariate ultrametric root counting  

CERN Document Server

Let $K$ be a field, complete with respect to a discrete non-archimedian valuation and let $k$ be the residue field. Consider a system $F$ of $n$ polynomial equations in $K\\vars$. Our first result is a reformulation of the classical Hensel's Lemma in the language of tropical geometry: we show sufficient conditions (semiregularity at $w$) that guarantee that the first digit map $\\delta:(K^\\ast)^n\\to(k^\\ast)^n$ is a one to one correspondence between the solutions of $F$ in $(K^\\ast)^n$ with valuation $w$ and the solutions in $(k^\\ast)^n$ of the initial form system ${\\rm in}_w(F)$. Using this result, we provide an explicit formula for the number of solutions in $(K^\\ast)^n$ of a certain class of systems of polynomial equations (called regular), characterized by having finite tropical prevariety, by having initial forms consisting only of binomials, and by being semiregular at any point in the tropical prevariety. Finally, as a consequence of the root counting formula, we obtain the expected number of roots in $(K...

Avendano, Martin

2011-01-01

297

Oral bacterial DNA findings in pericardial fluid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: We recently reported that large amounts of oral bacterial DNA can be found in thrombus aspirates of myocardial infarction patients. Some case reports describe bacterial findings in pericardial fluid, mostly done with conventional culturing and a few with PCR; in purulent pericarditis, nevertheless, bacterial PCR has not been used as a diagnostic method before. Objective: To find out whether bacterial DNA can be measured in the pericardial fluid and if it correlates with pathologic–anatomic findings linked to cardiovascular diseases. Methods: Twenty-two pericardial aspirates were collected aseptically prior to forensic autopsy at Tampere University Hospital during 2009–2010. Of the autopsies, 10 (45.5% were free of coronary artery disease (CAD, 7 (31.8% had mild and 5 (22.7% had severe CAD. Bacterial DNA amounts were determined using real-time quantitative PCR with specific primers and probes for all bacterial strains associated with endodontic disease (Streptococcus mitis group, Streptococcus anginosus group, Staphylococcus aureus/Staphylococcus epidermidis, Prevotella intermedia, Parvimonas micra and periodontal disease (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatus, and Dialister pneumosintes. Results: Of 22 cases, 14 (63.6% were positive for endodontic and 8 (36.4% for periodontal-disease-associated bacteria. Only one case was positive for bacterial culturing. There was a statistically significant association between the relative amount of bacterial DNA in the pericardial fluid and the severity of CAD (p=0.035. Conclusions: Oral bacterial DNA was detectable in pericardial fluid and an association between the severity of CAD and the total amount of bacterial DNA in pericardial fluid was found, suggesting that this kind of measurement might be useful for clinical purposes.

Anne-Mari Louhelainen

2014-11-01

298

Repeat tourism in Uruguay: modelling truncated distributions of count data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper studies the determinants of repeat visiting in Uruguay, where loyal visitors are a relevant part of the total. From a statistical point of view the number of times a visitor has been to a place constitutes count data. In this regard available information on Uruguay present relevant limitations. Count data is in fact reported only for those who visited the country up to five times, whereas records about the most frequent visitors are collapsed into one residual category. This implie...

Brida, Juan Gabriel; Pereira, Juan Sebastia?n; Scuderi, Raffaele

2012-01-01

299

Platelet Counts and Platelet Activation Markers in Obese Subjects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective. In this work we studied the correlation between platelet count, platelet activation, and systemic inflammation in overweight, obese, and morbidly obese individuals. Methods and subjects. A total of 6319 individuals participated in the study. Complete blood counts, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) serum levels, and body mass index (BMI) were measured during routine checkups. Platelet activation markers were studied among 30 obese (BMI = 41 ± 8 kg/m2...

Aaron Tomer; Shlomo Berliner; Itzhak Shapira; Galina Shenkerman; Subchi Abu-Abeid; Nili Saar; Ori Rogowski; Dan Justo; Dorit Samocha-Bonet

2008-01-01

300

Integrated counting system - user guide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The facilities of a nucleonic counting system in one module in the standard 6000 series and its use in applications is described. Details are given of ways of employing the module for the rapid and low cost development of computer-based systems in nucleonic counting applications. (author)

 
 
 
 
301

Ascitic fluid analysis for diagnosis and monitoring of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell count in the ascitic fluid is essential for the diagnosis and management of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). To date, PMN cell count is routinely performed by traditional manual counting. However, this method is time-consuming, costly, and not always timely available. Therefore, considerable efforts have been made in recent years to develop an alternative test for a more rapid diagnosis and monitoring of SBP. The use of urinary reagent strips was proposed ...

Oliviero Riggio, Stefania Angeloni

2009-01-01

302

Live/Dead Bacterial Spore Assay Using DPA-Triggered Tb Luminescence  

Science.gov (United States)

A method of measuring the fraction of bacterial spores in a sample that remain viable exploits DPA-triggered luminescence of Tb(3+) and is based partly on the same principles as those described earlier. Unlike prior methods for performing such live/dead assays of bacterial spores, this method does not involve counting colonies formed by cultivation (which can take days), or counting of spores under a microscope, and works whether or not bacterial spores are attached to other small particles (i.e., dust), and can be implemented on a time scale of about 20 minutes.

Ponce, Adrian

2003-01-01

303

Hydrodebridement of wounds: effectiveness in reducing wound bacterial contamination and potential for air bacterial contamination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to assess the level of air contamination with bacteria after surgical hydrodebridement and to determine the effectiveness of hydro surgery on bacterial reduction of a simulated infected wound. Methods Four porcine samples were scored then infected with a broth culture containing a variety of organisms and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. The infected samples were then debrided with the hydro surgery tool (Versajet, Smith and Nephew, Largo, Florida, USA. Samples were taken for microbiology, histology and scanning electron microscopy pre-infection, post infection and post debridement. Air bacterial contamination was evaluated before, during and after debridement by using active and passive methods; for active sampling the SAS-Super 90 air sampler was used, for passive sampling settle plates were located at set distances around the clinic room. Results There was no statistically significant reduction in bacterial contamination of the porcine samples post hydrodebridement. Analysis of the passive sampling showed a significant (p 3 to 16780 CFUs/m3 were observed with active sampling of the air whilst using hydro surgery equipment compared with a basal count of 582 CFUs/m3. During removal of the wound dressing, a significant increase was observed relative to basal counts (p Conclusion The results suggest a significant increase in bacterial air contamination both by active sampling and passive sampling. We believe that action might be taken to mitigate fallout in the settings in which this technique is used.

Armstrong David G

2009-05-01

304

Efficient quantification and characterization of bacterial outer membrane derived nano-particles with flow cytometric analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

There currently exists no efficient and easy method for size profiling and counting of membranous nano-scale particles, such as bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). We present here a cost-effective and fast method capable of profiling and counting small sample volumes of nano-scale membranous vesicles with standard laboratory equipment without the need for any washing steps. OMV populations of different bacterial species are compared and even subpopulations of OMVs can be identified after a simple labelling procedure. Counting is possible over three orders of magnitude without any changes to the protocol. Protein contaminations do not alter the described measurements. PMID:25139826

Wieser, Andreas; Storz, Enno; Liegl, Gabriele; Peter, Annabell; Pritsch, Michael; Shock, Jonathan; Wai, Sun Nyunt; Schubert, Sören

2014-11-01

305

Quantitation of Major Human Cutaneous Bacterial and Fungal Populations?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Because the human skin microbiota may play roles in the causation or modification of skin diseases, we sought to provide initial quantitative analysis from different cutaneous locations. We developed quantitative PCRs to enumerate the total bacterial and fungal populations, as well as the most common bacterial and fungal genera present in six locales, in eight healthy subjects. We used a set of primers and TaqMan MGB probes based on the bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal internally transcribed spa...

Gao, Zhan; Perez-perez, Guillermo I.; Chen, Yu; Blaser, Martin J.

2010-01-01

306

Relationship between Somatic Cell Counts, Mastitis and Milk Quality in Ettawah Grade and PESA Goats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mastitis is a bacterial disease that leads to increased somatic cell counts and reduced milk quality in dairy goats. Reduction in quality is manifested through a reduction in fat, protein, lactose content and an increase in milk somatic cell counts and salts content. Thus mastitis affects productivity of animals and hence their economic value. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of somatic cell counts (SCC) and mastitis on milk quality in PE and PESA. On-Farm mastitis tests were ...

Petlane, Molefe; Noor, Ronny Rachman; Maheswari, Rarah Ratih Adjie

2013-01-01

307

Quantification of bioavailable chlortetracycline in pig feces using a bacterial whole-cell biosensor  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bacterial whole-cell biosensors were used to measure the concentration of chlortetracycline (CTC) in the feces of pigs. In this study, the Escherichia coli biosensor used has a detection limit of 0.03 mg/kg CTC in pig feces. The tetracycline concentration was correlated with the appearance and maintenance of fecal coliform bacteria resistant to tetracycline. Initially, large quantities of water-extractable CTC were excreted from the pigs and measurable amounts were detected even at 30 days after treatment cessation. This led to a sharp rise in the number of tetracycline resistant coliform bacteria in the feces, to within the same order of magnitude as the total coliform count. The high level of tetracycline resistance was maintained in spite of the declining concentration of tetracycline. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Hansen, L. H.; Aarestrup, Frank MØller

2002-01-01

308

Statistical treatment of nuclear counting results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the exact time a specific nucleus undergoes radioactive decay cannot be specified, nor can showers caused by secondary cosmic rays be predicted, statistical laws play an important role in almost all cases of experimental nuclear physics. This paper describes the method for the statistical treatment of nuclear counting results obtained experimentally by taking into account random variables pertaining to both frequent and infrequent phenomena. When processing counting measurement data, it is recommended to first discard spurious random variables that spoil the statistics by using Chauvenet's criterion, as well as to test if the results in the statistical sample follow a unique statistical distribution by using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test (U-test). The verification of the suggested statistical method was performed on counting statistics obtained both from the radioactive source Cs-137 and background radiation, expected to follow the normal distribution and the Poisson distribution, respectively. Results show that the application of the proposed statistical method excludes random fluctuations of the radioactive source or of the background radiation from the total statistical sample, as well as possible inadequacies in the experimental set-up and show an extremely effective agreement of the theoretical distribution of random variables with the corresponding experimentally obtained random variables. (author)

309

Bacterial community characterization of a sequencing batch reactor treating pre-ozonized sulfamethoxazole in water.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antibiotics are pharmaceutical compounds widely used to treat a broad range of infections. These chemicals appear to be recalcitrant compounds when released to water systems, and their presence at the effluent of wastewater treatment plants and surface waters has been widely documented. Sulfamethoxazole (SMX), a sulfonamide commonly used to treat urinary infections, is one of them. Ozonation was proved to be a suitable method to remove SMX antibiotic in water. However, it is stated that a high ozone dosage would be necessary to achieve the complete mineralization of the intermediates. In this work, ozonation is coupled with a Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor (SBBR) in order to completely degrade SMX and its metabolites from water solutions. Moreover, a precise description of the microbial community in the bioreactor is provided by means of traditional microscopy and molecular biology techniques. The results obtained showed high Total Organic Carbon removals at the end of the biological treatment (89% removal). Furthermore, nitrates produced during the aerobic SBBR's performance were monitored and eliminated by adding an anoxic stage, achieving an overall nitrogen removal of 86%. A bacterial community analysis of the SBBR during aerobic and aerobic-anoxic conditions was performed, targeting the bacterial 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene. These results revealed a dominant contribution of bacteria from the Proteobacteria class, with a major contribution from the Rhizobiales and Burkholderiales orders during the bioreactor performance, counting 52% of the total population. PMID:24191493

Esplugas, Marc; González, Oscar; Sans, Carme

2013-01-01

310

Effects of nitrate and phosphate concentration on natural aquatic bacterial populations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Natural aquatic bacterial populations in three streams located at the Savannah River Project, Aiken, S.C. have been studied in relation to the effects of ambient temperatures, dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrate and phosphate concentrations. Samples collected at monthly intervals for a period of one year from each system, were plated in duplicate at each of two dilutions on 1/4 strength Standard Plate Count Agar (Difco). After incubation at 25 +- 1/sup 0/C for four days, total colony forming units, percent chromagens, and number of colony types (diversity) were determined and colonies were picked for identification. Temperatures were generally equal in two of the streams throughout the year, being lowest in Upper Three Runs (U3R) and Tims Branch (TB), and highest in the Ash Basin System (ABS). DO content did not vary appreciably between the streams. Nitrates and phosphates were lowest in U3R, next lowest in TB, higher in the last station in ABS, and highest in the ash basin per se. Total colony forming units were highest in the ash basin, whereas chromagen percentage and diversity were highest in the last station in ABS. Results of these studies indicate that high nitrates and phosphates, in the absence of high organic carbon concentrations, have little, if any detrimental effect on the stability of natural aquatic bacterial populations. (auth)

Guthrie, R.K. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, Houston); Cherry, D.S.; Singleton, F.L.

1975-12-01

311

Counting Triangles to Sum Squares  

Science.gov (United States)

Counting complete subgraphs of three vertices in complete graphs, yields combinatorial arguments for identities for sums of squares of integers, odd integers, even integers and sums of the triangular numbers.

DeMaio, Joe

2012-01-01

312

The Rare Bacterial Biosphere  

Science.gov (United States)

All communities are dominated by a few species that account for most of the biomass and carbon cycling. On the other hand, a large number of species are represented by only a few individuals. In the case of bacteria, these rare species were until recently invisible. Owing to their low numbers, conventional molecular techniques could not retrieve them. Isolation in pure culture was the only way to identify some of them, but current culturing techniques are unable to isolate most of the bacteria in nature. The recent development of fast and cheap high-throughput sequencing has begun to allow access to the rare species. In the case of bacteria, the exploration of this rare biosphere has several points of interest. First, it will eventually produce a reasonable estimate of the total number of bacterial taxa in the oceans; right now, we do not even know the right order of magnitude. Second, it will answer the question of whether "everything is everywhere." Third, it will require hypothesizing and testing the ecological mechanisms that allow subsistence of many species in low numbers. And fourth, it will open an avenue of research into the immense reserve of genes with potential applications hidden in the rare biosphere.

Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

2012-01-01

313

Flow cytometric reticulocyte counting: a comparison between two methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

The peripheral reticulocyte count is commonly used as an indicator of the erythropoietic activity of the bone marrow. Manual counting provides results with a high degree of inaccuracy and imprecision. Automation of counting is therefore needed. The increase in the number of methods available requires however that the results from the various methods agree with one another. The aim of our study was to evaluate the analytic performance of two automated hematology analyzers by a parallel study. We compared the analyzers between them and with manual counting. We enrolled in our study a total of 100 healthy subjects and an additional 80 patients affected by various hematological diseases. Difference between methods is statistically significant: the reference intervals of ADVIA2120 are higher than the Sysmex XE-2100. The correlation between methods and correlation with the microscopic method are excellent and statistically significant. In conclusion, we can affirm that total automation of reticulocyte counts represents a definite improvement over microscopic counts. This study confirms the diversity of the reference intervals still exists in the new automated hematology analyzers. PMID:20626028

Maconi, M; Danise, P; Cavalca, L; Formisano, D

2010-01-01

314

Bacterial farming by the fungus Morchella crassipes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The interactions between bacteria and fungi, the main actors of the soil microbiome, remain poorly studied. Here, we show that the saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal soil fungus Morchella crassipes acts as a bacterial farmer of Pseudomonas putida, which serves as a model soil bacterium. Farming by M. crassipes consists of bacterial dispersal, bacterial rearing with fungal exudates, as well as harvesting and translocation of bacterial carbon. The different phases were confirmed experimentally using cell counting and (13)C probing. Common criteria met by other non-human farming systems are also valid for M. crassipes farming, including habitual planting, cultivation and harvesting. Specific traits include delocalization of food production and consumption and separation of roles in the colony (source versus sink areas), which are also found in human agriculture. Our study evidences a hitherto unknown mutualistic association in which bacteria gain through dispersal and rearing, while the fungus gains through the harvesting of an additional carbon source and increased stress resistance of the mycelium. This type of interaction between fungi and bacteria may play a key role in soils. PMID:24174111

Pion, Martin; Spangenberg, Jorge E; Simon, Anaele; Bindschedler, Saskia; Flury, Coralie; Chatelain, Auriel; Bshary, Redouan; Job, Daniel; Junier, Pilar

2013-12-22

315

Total Quality and Total Mobility Qualità totale e mobilità totale  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available FIABA ONLUS (Italian Fund for Elimination of Architectural Barriers was founded in 2000 with the aim of promoting a culture of equal opportunities and, above all, it has as its main goal to involve public and private institutions to create a really accessible and usable environment for everyone. Total accessibility, Total usability and Total mobility are key indicators to define quality of life within cities. A supportive environment that is free of architectural, cultural and psychological barriers allows everyone to live with ease and universality. In fact, people who access to goods and services in the urban context can use to their advantage time and space, so they can do their activities and can maintain relationships that are deemed significant for their social life. The main aim of urban accessibility is to raise the comfort of space for citizens, eliminating all barriers that discriminate people, and prevent from an equality of opportunity. “FIABA FUND - City of ... for the removal of architectural barriers” is an idea of FIABA that has already affected many regions of Italy as Lazio, Lombardy, Campania, Abruzzi and Calabria. It is a National project which provides for opening a bank account in the cities of referring, in which for the first time, all together, individuals and private and public institutions can make a donation to fund initiatives for the removal of architectural barriers within its own territory for a real and effective total accessibility. Last February the fund was launched in Rome with the aim of achieving a Capital without barriers and a Town European model of accessibility and usability. Urban mobility is a prerequisite to access to goods and services, and to organize activities related to daily life. FIABA promotes the concept of sustainable mobility for all, supported by the European Commission’s White Paper. We need a cultural change in management and organization of public means, which might focus on individual in its totality, with all its needs. For this reason it is necessary to focus on output of public and private transports which must be totally and globally accessible. Metropolitan and suburban transports need to have modern buses, and it has been calculated that it is possible to provide a total replacement of the fleet in a period from five to ten years. Total Quality must become the goal of every Local Government. FIABA suggests that a Total Quality Manager be always present in the institutional environment, as a guarantor of quality perceived by people living in their city for tourism, work, and leisure. It is essential to establish a favorable environment for all, to ensure the comfort of 100% of the population to give some definite and reliable answers.FIABA ONLUS (Italian Fund for Elimination of Architectural Barriers was founded in 2000 with the aim of promoting a culture of equal opportunities and, above all, it has as its main goal to involve public and private institutions to create a really accessible and usable environment for everyone. Total accessibility, Total usability and Total mobility are key indicators to define quality of life within cities. A supportive environment that is free of architectural, cultural and psychological barriers allows everyone to live with ease and universality. In fact, people who access to goods and services in the urban context can use to their advantage time and space, so they can do their activities and can maintain relationships that are deemed significant for their social life. The main aim of urban accessibility is to raise the comfort of space for citizens, eliminating all barriers that discriminate people, and prevent from an equality of opportunity. “FIABA FUND - City of ... for the removal of architectural barriers” is an idea of FIABA that has already affected many regions of Italy as Lazio, Lombardy, Campania, Abruzzi and Calabria. It is a National project which provides for opening a bank account in the cities of referring, in which for the first time, all together, individ

Giuseppe Trieste

2010-05-01

316

Limit of sensitivity of low-background counting equipment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Hazards Control Department's Radiological Measurements Laboratory (RML) analyzes many types of sample media in support of the Laboratory's health and safety program. The Department has determined that the equation for the minimum limit of sensitivity, MDC(?,?) = 2.71 + 3.29 (rbts)1/2 is also adequate for RML counting systems with very-low-background levels. This paper reviews the normal distribution case and address the special case of determining the limit of sensitivity of a counting system when the background count rate is well known and small. In the latter case, we must use an exact test procedure based on the binomial distribution. However, the error in using the normal distribution for calculating a detection system's limit of sensitivity is not significant even as the total observed number of counts approaches or equals zero. 2 refs., 4 figs

317

Approximate Counting for Complex-Weighted Boolean Constraint Satisfaction Problems  

CERN Document Server

Constraint satisfaction problems (or CSPs) have been extensively studied in AI, database theory, graph theory, etc. From an approximation viewpoint, it has been important to approximate the total number of assignments that satisfy all given Boolean constraints. There is a trichotomy theorem for such approximate counting for (non-weighted) Boolean CSPs; namely, all such counting problems are neatly classified into three categories under polynomial-time approximation-preserving reductions [Dyer, Goldberg, and Jerrum, 2010]. We extend this result to approximate counting for complex-weighted Boolean CSPs, provided that all arity-1 constraints are freely available to use. This makes a significant progress in the quest for the approximation classification of all counting Boolean CSPs in the most general form. To deal with complex weights, we employ proof techniques along the line of solving Holant problems [Valiant, 2002, 2008]. Our result also gives an approximation version of the dichotomy theorem of the complexi...

Yamakami, Tomoyuki

2010-01-01

318

Bacterial Profiles and Physico-chemical Parameters of Water Samples from Different Sites of the New Calabar River, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water samples were collected from three sites (Ogbakiri, Choba and Iwofe of the New Calabar River and were evaluated for microbiological and physico-chemical characteristics. Bacterial isolates consisting mainly of gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Acinetobacter spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella spp., Vibrio sp. and Nocardia asteroides were isolated from the samples. The highest total coliform counts log10 2.9 were encountered in water samples from Iwofe but the lowest counts log101.9 occurred in the water samples from Ogbakiri. Ecological parameters varied among the sites with the highest pH value of 7.87 occurring at Iwofe and lowest of 6.12 at Choba. Maximum salinity level of 150/00 was observed at Iwofe and lowest at Choba. In contrast, maximum dissolved oxygen of 10.1ppm was observed at Choba and the minimum at Iwofe. The different bacterial profiles are probably attributable to the anthropogenic and industrial activities of the sites.

Edun O. M.

2012-06-01

319

Jellyfish modulate bacterial dynamic and community structure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Jellyfish blooms have increased in coastal areas around the world and the outbreaks have become longer and more frequent over the past few decades. The Mediterranean Sea is among the heavily affected regions and the common bloom-forming taxa are scyphozoans Aurelia aurita s.l., Pelagia noctiluca, and Rhizostoma pulmo. Jellyfish have few natural predators, therefore their carcasses at the termination of a bloom represent an organic-rich substrate that supports rapid bacterial growth, and may have a large impact on the surrounding environment. The focus of this study was to explore whether jellyfish substrate have an impact on bacterial community phylotype selection. We conducted in situ jellyfish-enrichment experiment with three different jellyfish species. Bacterial dynamic together with nutrients were monitored to assess decaying jellyfish-bacteria dynamics. Our results show that jellyfish biomass is characterized by protein rich organic matter, which is highly bioavailable to 'jellyfish-associated' and 'free-living' bacteria, and triggers rapid shifts in bacterial population dynamics and composition. Based on 16S rRNA clone libraries and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, we observed a rapid shift in community composition from unculturable Alphaproteobacteria to culturable species of Gammaproteobacteria and Flavobacteria. The results of sequence analyses of bacterial isolates and of total bacterial community determined by culture independent genetic analysis showed the dominance of the Pseudoalteromonadaceae and the Vibrionaceae families. Elevated levels of dissolved proteins, dissolved organic and inorganic nutrient release, bacterial abundance and carbon production as well as ammonium concentrations characterized the degradation process. The biochemical composition of jellyfish species may influence changes in the amount of accumulated dissolved organic and inorganic nutrients. Our results can contribute insights into possible changes in bacterial population dynamics and nutrient pathways following jellyfish blooms which have important implications for ecology of coastal waters. PMID:22745726

Tinta, Tinkara; Kogovšek, Tjaša; Malej, Alenka; Turk, Valentina

2012-01-01

320

Counting Strings, Wound and Bound  

CERN Document Server

We analyze zero mode counting problems for Dirac operators that find their origin in string theory backgrounds. A first class of quantum mechanical models for which we compute the number of ground states arises from a string winding an isometric direction in a geometry, taking into account its energy due to tension. Alternatively, the models arise from deforming marginal bound states of a string winding a circle, and moving in an orthogonal geometry. After deformation, the number of bound states is again counted by the zero modes of a Dirac operator. We count these bound states in even dimensional asymptotically linear dilaton backgrounds as well as in Euclidean Taub-NUT. We show multiple pole behavior in the fugacities keeping track of a U(1) charge. We also discuss a second class of counting problems that arises when these backgrounds are deformed via the application of a heterotic duality transformation. We discuss applications of our results to Appell-Lerch sums and the counting of domain wall bound state...

Ashok, Sujay K; Troost, Jan

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

The nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers on Meloidogyne incognita in sandy soil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a greenhouse experiment, the nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers including the nitrogen fixing bacteria (NFB Paenibacillus polymyxa (four strains, the phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB Bacillus megaterium (three strains and the potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB B. circulans (three strains were evaluated individually on tomato plants infested with the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in potted sandy soil. Comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2, increased the counts of total bacteria and total bacterial spores in plants potted soil from 1.2 to 2.6 folds estimated 60 days post-inoculation. Consequently, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7 increased significantly the shoot length (cm, number of leaves / plant, shoot dry weight (g / plant and root dry weight (g / plant by 32.6 %, 30.8 %, 70.3 % and 14.2 %, respectively. Generally, the majority treatments significantly reduced the nematode multiplication which was more obvious after 60 days of inoculation. Among the applied strains, P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2 inoculations resulted in the highest reduction in nematode population comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control. They recorded the highest reduction in numbers of hatched juveniles/root by 95.8 %, females/root by 63.75 % and juveniles/1kg soil by 57.8 %. These results indicated that these bacterial biofertilizers are promising double purpose microorganisms for mobilizing of soil nutrients (nitrogen, phosphate and potassium and for the biological control of M. incognita.

M.E El-Hadad

2011-03-01

322

The nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers on Meloidogyne incognita in sandy soil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In a greenhouse experiment, the nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers including the nitrogen fixing bacteria (NFB) Paenibacillus polymyxa (four strains), the phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) Bacillus megaterium (three strains) and the potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB) B. circu [...] lans (three strains) were evaluated individually on tomato plants infested with the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in potted sandy soil. Comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2, increased the counts of total bacteria and total bacterial spores in plants potted soil from 1.2 to 2.6 folds estimated 60 days post-inoculation. Consequently, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7 increased significantly the shoot length (cm), number of leaves / plant, shoot dry weight (g) / plant and root dry weight (g) / plant by 32.6 %, 30.8 %, 70.3 % and 14.2 %, respectively. Generally, the majority treatments significantly reduced the nematode multiplication which was more obvious after 60 days of inoculation. Among the applied strains, P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2 inoculations resulted in the highest reduction in nematode population comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control. They recorded the highest reduction in numbers of hatched juveniles/root by 95.8 %, females/root by 63.75 % and juveniles/1kg soil by 57.8 %. These results indicated that these bacterial biofertilizers are promising double purpose microorganisms for mobilizing of soil nutrients (nitrogen, phosphate and potassium) and for the biological control of M. incognita.

M.E, El-Hadad; M.I, Mustafa; Sh.M, Selim; T.S, El-Tayeb; A.E.A, Mahgoob; Norhan H. Abdel, Aziz.

2011-03-01

323

Reticulocyte counting using flow cytometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

A flow cytometric method for the quantitation of reticulocytes was refined for routine laboratory use. Blood (2 microliters) is added to 2 ml of 0.4 microM thiazole orange in phosphate buffered saline, incubated at room temperature for 90 minutes, and analysed on a Coulter EPICS Profile flow cytometer, with gating for red cells on the basis of forward and right angled light scatter. Blood (2 microliters) is also incubated with phosphate buffered saline alone as an unstained control. The adult reference range (mean +/- 2 SD), established from 30 laboratory personnel, is 19.4-59.2 x 10(9)/l (0.2-1.6%). Comparison of this technique was made on 39 selected patient samples with visual counting of cells stained with brilliant cresyl blue. The correlation between the two methods was 0.99 with slope 0.96 and intercept 0.02. The precision of the automated technique in three subjects with reticulocyte counts of 0.12%, 1.84%, and 14.3% was 33.3%, 7.3%, and 1.4%, respectively (coefficient of variations). In three patients studied serially after intensive chemotherapy, in whom the reticulocyte count quantitated by routine visual methods approached zero (0-0.1%) for eight to 18 days, the automated counts varied between 0 and 0.5%. Flow cytometric reticulocyte counting is thus a simple and highly reliable methodology for the quantitation of normal and raised reticulocyte counts but cannot be reliably used to quantitate a subnormal level. PMID:2401736

Nobes, P R; Carter, A B

1990-08-01

324

City & Rural KIDS COUNT Data Book. KIDS COUNT Special Report  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication provides the objective data needed to track and monitor the well-being of children in different types of American communities. It is part of the ongoing work of the Casey Foundation -- advanced primarily through our KIDS COUNT initiative -- designed to give policymakers data that can help them better understand how conditions of…

Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2004

2004-01-01

325

Bacterial communities in the collection and chlorinated distribution sections of a drinking water system in Budapest, Hungary.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial communities of a bank-filtered drinking water system were investigated by aerobic cultivation and clone library analysis. Moreover, bacterial communities were compared using sequence-aided terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) fingerprinting at ten characteristic points located at both the collecting and the distributing part of the water supply system. Chemical characteristics of the samples were similar, except for the presence of chlorine residuals in the distribution system and increased total iron concentration in two of the samples. Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) concentration increased within the collection system, it was reduced by chlorination and it increased again in the distribution system. Neither fecal indicators nor pathogens were detected by standard cultivation techniques. Chlorination reduced bacterial diversity and heterotrophic plate counts. Community structures were found to be significantly different before and after chlorination: the diverse communities in wells and the collection system were dominated by chemolithotrophic (e.g., Gallionella and Nitrospira) and oligocarbophilic-heterotrophic bacteria (e.g., Sphingomonas, Sphingopyxis, and Bradyrhizobium). After chlorination in the distribution system, the most characteristic bacterium was related to the facultative methylotrophic Methylocella spp. Communities changed within the distribution system too, Mycobacterium spp. or Sphingopyxis spp. became predominant in certain samples. PMID:24810748

Homonnay, Zalán G; Török, György; Makk, Judit; Brumbauer, Anikó; Major, Eva; Márialigeti, Károly; Tóth, Erika

2014-07-01

326

Analysis of the intestinal bacterial microbiota in maize- or sorghum-fed broiler chickens using real-time PCR.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract 1. An experiment was conducted to study the effect of two different diets on zootechnical performance and the major bacterial groups in association with the host mucosa and dispersed in the lumen contents of the small intestine of broiler chickens. 2. The two experimental diets were maize or sorghum-based. In addition to the total bacteria, bacterial groups belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae (Enterococcus and Lactobacillus) were quantified by real-time PCR. 3. There were no differences in body weight gain and feed intake, but feed conversion ratio increased for sorghum-fed broilers at 21 and 42 d of age. 4. The Enterococcus group decreased in all gut segments from 7 to 42 d, while the Lactobacillus group increased in both ecosystems. In the ileal mucosa, the enterobacterial counts decreased from 7 to 42 d in the maize-based diet, but remained stable in the sorghum-based diet. 5. The results shed light on the spatial and temporal distribution of bacterial groups that play important physiological roles in the small intestine of chickens. Specifically, the increased Enterobacteria population in the ileum is consistent with the relatively poor feed conversion in sorghum-fed broilers. PMID:25358544

Lunedo, R; Fernandez-Alarcon, M F; Carvalho, F M S; Furlan, L R; Macari, M

2014-12-01

327

Basic principles of scintillation counting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of the energy of radiation, the crystal size, the collimation of the beam and scattering on the pulse-height distribution produced by monoenergetic radiation will be discussed. These aspects will be related to scintillation scanning. The effects of voltage on the operation of photomultiplier s and so-called plateaus will be dealt with. Glow-transfer tubes for counting will be dealt with and a useful substraction circuit for comparing the counting rate from two separate scintillation counters will be presented. (author)

328

Clinical experience summary of bacterial conjunctivitis treatment in 124 cases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To discuss the clinical treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis, and summarize the treatment experiences. METHODS: Totally, 124 cases with bacterial conjunctivitis in the department of ophthalmology from October 2012 to April 2014 were selected as the research objects. According to the diagnosis points, they were classified. After symptomatic drug treatment, the efficacy and adverse reactions were observed. RESULTS: The total effective rate of 124 cases after treatment was 96.8%, after treatment, patients with tears, conjunctival congestion, secretions and pain scores were significantly lower than those before treatment(PCONCLUSION: The efficacy of classification symptomatic treatment for bacterial conjunctivitis is significant and worthy of clinical reference.

Lun-Zhan Zhang

2014-10-01

329

Evaluation of free-stall mattress bedding treatments to reduce mastitis bacterial growth  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bacterial counts were compared in free-stall mattresses and teat ends exposed to 5 treatments in a factorial study design on 1 dairy farm. Mattresses in five 30-cow groups were subjected to 1 of 5 bedding treatments every other day: 0.5 kg of hydrated limestone, 120 mL of commercial acidic conditioner, 1 kg of coal fly ash, 1 kg of kiln-dried wood shavings, and control (no bedding). Counts of coliforms, Klebsiella spp., Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus spp. were lowest on mattresses bedded with lime. Mattresses bedded with the commercial acidic conditioner had the next lowest counts for coliforms, Klebsiella spp., and Streptococcus spp. Wood shavings and the no-bedding control had the highest counts for coliform and Klebsiella spp. Compared with wood shavings or control, fly ash reduced the counts of coliforms, whereas for the other 3 bacterial groups, the reduction was not always significant. Streptococcus spp. counts were greatest in the control group and did not differ among the shavings and fly ash groups. Teat swab results indicated that hydrated lime was the only bedding treatment that significantly decreased the counts of both coliforms and Klebsiella spp. There were no differences in Streptococcus spp. numbers on the teats between any of the bedding treatments. Bacterial populations grew steadily on mattresses and were generally higher at 36 to 48 h than at 12 to 24 h, whereas bacterial populations on teats grew rapidly by 12 h and then remained constant. Hydrated lime was the only treatment that significantly reduced bacterial counts on both mattresses and teat ends, but it caused some skin irritation.

Kristula, M.A.; Dou, Z.; Toth, J.D.; Smith, B.I.; Harvey, N.; Sabo, M. [University of Penn, Kennett Square, PA (United States)

2008-05-15

330

Spitzer 70-micron Source Counts in GOODS-North  

CERN Document Server

We present ultra-deep Spitzer 70-micron observations of GOODS-North. For the first time, the turn-over in the 70-micron Euclidean-normalized differential source counts is observed. We derive source counts down to a flux density of 1.2mJy. From the measured source counts and fluctuation analysis, we estimate a power-law approximation of the faint 70-micron source counts of dN/dS proportional to S^{-1.6}, consistent with that observed for the faint 24-micron sources. An extrapolation of the 70-micron source counts to zero flux density implies a total extragalactic background light (EBL) of 7.4+/-1.9 nW m^{-2} sr^{-1}. The source counts above 1.2mJy account for about 60% of the estimated EBL. From fluctuation analysis, we derive a photometric confusion level of sigma_c = 0.30+/-0.15 mJy (q=5) for the Spitzer 70-micron band.

Frayer, D T; Chary, R; Dickinson, M; Elbaz, D; Fadda, D; Surace, J A; Teplitz, H I; Yan, L; Mobasher, B

2006-01-01

331

Spitzer 70 Micron Source Counts in GOODS-North  

Science.gov (United States)

We present ultradeep Spitzer 70 ?m observations of GOODS-North (Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey). For the first time, the turnover in the 70 ?m Euclidean-normalized differential source counts is observed. We derive source counts down to a flux density of 1.2 mJy. From the measured source counts and fluctuation analysis, we estimate a power-law approximation of the faint 70 ?m source counts of dN/dS~S-1.6, consistent with that observed for the faint 24 ?m sources. An extrapolation of the 70 ?m source counts to zero flux density implies a total extragalactic background light (EBL) of 7.4+/-1.9 nW m-2 sr-1. The source counts above 1.2 mJy account for about 60% of the estimated EBL. From fluctuation analysis, we derive a photometric confusion level of ?c=0.30+/-0.15 mJy (q=5) for the Spitzer 70 ?m band.

Frayer, D. T.; Huynh, M. T.; Chary, R.; Dickinson, M.; Elbaz, D.; Fadda, D.; Surace, J. A.; Teplitz, H. I.; Yan, L.; Mobasher, B.

2006-08-01

332

Platelet count predicts prognosis in operable non-small cell lung cancer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Platelets play a significant role in cancer cell growth, progression and metastasis. However, in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the association between a patient’s platelet count and prognosis has not previously been fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between platelet count, patients’ characteristics and prognosis in patients with NSCLC. A total of 510 NSCLC patients were enrolled in the present study. The median platelet count in the NS...

Yu, Dangfan; Liu, Bingjiang; Zhang, Lizhen; Du, Kaiqi

2013-01-01

333

Effect of alternative antibiotics in treatment of cefotaxime resistant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate effective alternative antibiotics in treatment of cefotaxime-resistant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. METHODS: One hundred cirrhotic patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis [ascitic fluid polymorphonuclear cell count (PMNLs ? 250 cells/mm3 at admission] were empirically treated with cefotaxime sodium 2 g/12 h and volume expansion by intravenous human albumin. All patients were subjected to history taking, complete examination, laboratory tests (including a complete blood cell count, prothrombin time, biochemical tests of liver and kidney function, and fresh urine sediment, chest X-ray, a diagnostic abdominal paracentesis, and the sample subjected to total and differential cell count, chemical examination, aerobic and anaerobic cultures. Patients were divided after 2 d by a second ascitic PMNL count into group?I; patients sensitive to cefotaxime (n = 81, group II (n = 19; cases resistant to cefotaxime (less than 25% decrease in ascitic PMNL count. Patients of group II were randomly assigned into meropenem (n = 11 or levofloxacin (n = 8 subgroups. All patients performed an end of treatment ascitic PMNL count. Patients were considered improved when: PMNLs decreased to < 250 cells/mm3, no growth in previously positive culture cases, and improved clinical manifestations with at least 5 d of antibiotic therapy. RESULTS: Age, sex, and Child classes showed no significant difference between group?I?and group II. Fever and abdominal pain were the most frequent manifestations and were reported in 82.7% and 80.2% of patients in group?I?and in 94.7% and 84.2% of patients in group II, respectively. Patients in group II had a more severe ascitic inflammatory response than group?I?and this was demonstrated by more ascitic lactate dehydrogenase (LDH [median: 540 IU/L (range: 150-1200 IU/L vs median: 240 IU/L (range: 180-500 IU/L, P = 0.000] and PMNL [median: 15??000 cell/mm3 (range: 957-23??822 cell/mm3 vs 3400 cell/mm3 (range: 695-26??400 cell/mm3, P = 0.000] counts. Ascitic fluid culture was positive in 32% of cases. Cefotaxime failed in 19% of patients; of these patients, 11 (100% responded to meropenem and 6 (75% responded to levofloxacin. Two patients with failed levofloxacin therapy were treated according to the in vitro culture and sensitivity (one case was treated with vancomycin and one case was treated with ampicillin/sulbactam. In group II the meropenem subgroup had higher LDH (range: 108-860 IU/L vs 120-491 IU/L, P = 0.042 and PMNL counts (range: 957-23??822 cell/mm3 vs 957-15??222 cell/mm3, P = 0.000 at initiation of the alternative antibiotic therapy; there was no significant difference in the studied parameters between patients responsive to meropenem and patients responsive to levofloxacin at the end of therapy (mean ± SD: 316.01 ± 104.03 PMNLs/mm3 vs 265.63 ± 69.61 PMNLs/mm3, P = 0.307. The isolated organisms found in group II were; enterococci, acinetobacter, expanded-spectrum ?-lactamase producing Escherichia coli, ?-lactamase producing Enterobacter and Staphylococcus aureus. CONCLUSION: Empirical treatment with cefotaxime is effective in 81% of cases; meropenem is effective in cefotaxime-resistant cases.

Ahmed Abouelkhair Badawy

2013-01-01

334

Bacterial Skin Infections  

Science.gov (United States)

... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals ... Lymphangitis Necrotizing Skin Infections Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Skin Disorders > Bacterial Skin Infections ...

335

Evaluation of procalcitonin and neopterin level in serum of patients with acute bacterial infection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Fever as a common presenting complaint in pediatric patients can be due to various causes. Differentiating bacterial infection from other causes is important because the prompt use of antibiotics is critical in bacterial infection. Traditional markers of infection such as BT and WBC coun [...] t may be unspecific and culture may be late or absent. CRP and Procalcitonin (PCT) have been considered to evaluate the evolution of infections and sepsis in patients presenting with SIRS. Neopterin has also been proposed to aid in the diagnosis of bacterial infection. In this study, we compared the value of the serum PCT, neopterin level, and WBC count for predicting bacterial infection and outcome in children with fever. METHODS: 158 pediatric (2-120-month-old) patients suspected to have acute bacterial infection, based on clinical judgment in which other causes of SIRS were ruled out were included in the study. WBC count with differential was determined and PCT and neopterin levels were measured. RESULTS: PCT level was higher in bacterial infection and patients who were complicated or expired. CONCLUSION: Rapid PCT test is superior to neopterin and WBC count for anticipating bacterial infection, especially in ED where prompt decision making is critical. ABBREVIATIONS: BT, body temperature; WBC, white blood cell; PCT, procalcitonin; CRP, C-reactive protein; SIRS, systemic inflammatory response syndrome; ED, emergency department.

Babak, Pourakbari; Setareh, Mamishi; Javid, Zafari; Hanieh, Khairkhah; Mohammad H, Ashtiani; Masomeh, Abedini; Shahla, Afsharpaiman; Soroush Seifi, Rad.

2010-06-01

336

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since its initial description in 1964, research has transformed spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) from a feared disease (with reported mortality of 90%) to a treatable complication of decompensated cirrhosis, albeit with steady prevalence and a high recurrence rate. Bacterial translocation, the key mechanism in the pathogenesis of SBP, is only possible because of the concurrent failure of defensive mechanisms in cirrhosis. Variants of SBP should be treated. Leucocyte esterase reagent st...

Al Amri Saleh

1985-01-01

337

Role of lipids in bacterial radioresistance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioresistance of three bacterial isolates was determined. S. aureus was the most sensitive one (D10 value 0.14 KGy), B. coagulans was moderate resistant (D10 value 3.3 KGy) and the most resistant one was B.megaterium (D10 value 3.7 KGy). Total lipids and lipid patterns of these bacteria were determined and the role of lipids in radioresistance was investigated. Least amount of total lipids was detected in the most sensitive organism (S. aureus). The increase in the bacterial content of total lipids was concomitant with high degrees of radioresistance. The most resistant organism (B. megaterium was characterized by high content of methyl esters of fatty acids, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, followed by appreciable amounts in the moderate resistant (B. coagulans) and the least amounts were detected in the most sensitive organism (S.aureus).6 fig., 3 tab

338

Liquid scintillation, counting, and compositions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The emissions of radioactive isotopes in both aqueous and organic samples can be measured by liquid scintillation counting in micellar systems. The micellar systems are made up of scintillation solvent, scintillation solute and a mixture of surfactants, preferably at least one of which is relatively oil-soluble water-insoluble and another which is relatively water-soluble oil-insoluble

339

On Counting the Rational Numbers  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…

Almada, Carlos

2010-01-01

340

Maryland Kids Count Factbook, 2001.  

Science.gov (United States)

This 7th annual Kids Count Factbook provides information on trends in the well-being of children in Maryland and its 24 jurisdictions. The statistical portrait is based on 18 indicators of well-being: (1) low birth-weight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) early prenatal care; (4) binge drinking; (5) child deaths; (6) child injury rate; (7) grade…

Advocates for Children and Youth, Baltimore, MD.

 
 
 
 
341

Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 1995.  

Science.gov (United States)

This Kids Count report details county and statewide trends in the well-being of Oklahoma's children. The statistical report is based on eight indicators of child well being: (1) percent low birthweight infants; (2) infant mortality rate; (3) births to unmarried teens; (4) child abuse and neglect rates; (5) child death rate; (6) children living in…

Oklahoma Inst. for Child Advocacy, Inc., Oklahoma City. Oklahoma Kids Count.

342

Kids Count Data Sheet, 2000.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data from the 50 United States are listed for 1997 from Kids Count in an effort to track state-by-state the status of children in the United States and to secure better futures for all children. Data include percent low birth weight babies; infant mortality rate; child death rate; rate of teen deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; teen birth…

Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD.

343

Phase space quark counting rule  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple quark counting rule based on phase space consideration suggested before is used to fit all 39 recent experimental data points on inclusive reactions. Parameter free relations are found to agree with experiments. Excellent detail fits are obtained for 11 inclusive reactions

344

The automatic recognition and counting of cough  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cough recordings have been undertaken for many years but the analysis of cough frequency and the temporal relation to trigger factors have proven problematic. Because cough is episodic, data collection over many hours is required, along with real-time aural analysis which is equally time-consuming. A method has been developed for the automatic recognition and counting of coughs in sound recordings. Methods The Hull Automatic Cough Counter (HACC is a program developed for the analysis of digital audio recordings. HACC uses digital signal processing (DSP to calculate characteristic spectral coefficients of sound events, which are then classified into cough and non-cough events by the use of a probabilistic neural network (PNN. Parameters such as the total number of coughs and cough frequency as a function of time can be calculated from the results of the audio processing. Thirty three smoking subjects, 20 male and 13 female aged between 20 and 54 with a chronic troublesome cough were studied in the hour after rising using audio recordings. Results Using the graphical user interface (GUI, counting the number of coughs identified by HACC in an hour long recording, took an average of 1 minute 35 seconds, a 97.5% reduction in counting time. HACC achieved a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 96%. Reproducibility of repeated HACC analysis is 100%. Conclusion An automated system for the analysis of sound files containing coughs and other non-cough events has been developed, with a high robustness and good degree of accuracy towards the number of actual coughs in the audio recording.

Morice Alyn H

2006-09-01

345

GFR's - do they really count?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: High dose Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been routinely counted in our department 24 hours after the patient study due to concerns that the activity, especially in patients with poor renal function, would lead to large dead time errors in the well counter. The aim of our study was therefore to evaluate the reliability of counting GFR blood samples on the same day versus the next day using a modern Wallac 1480 well counter. We studied 76 patients who underwent renal scans for imaging as well as GFR measurement with 400 to 600MBq 99mTc DTPA. After injection with a known activity of DTPA, we sampled patients' blood at 2 and 3 hours post injection. After centrifuging the blood samples, duplicate 1 ml aliquot's of the patients' serum were pipetted into test tubes and each sample counted for 100 seconds on the same day of injection and again the following day. GFR was calculated using our routine program and the results of the 2 separate analyses compared. GFR's varied from 9 to 134 ml/min/1.73m2 and no statistically significant difference was demonstrated between the same day and 24hr delayed GFR measurements for both normal and reduced renal function. Based on these results we have shown that counting high dose 99mTc DTPA samples on the same day is reliable, using a well counter that allows high-count statistics and optimal dead time characteristics. This allows greater departmental flexibility while maintaining clinical reliabilityity while maintaining clinical reliability. Copyright (2003) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

346

The importance of the viable but non-culturable state in human bacterial pathogens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many bacterial species have been found to exist in a viable but non-culturable (VBNC state since its discovery in 1982. VBNC cells are characterized by a loss of culturability on routine agar, which impairs their detection by conventional plate count techniques. This leads to an underestimation of total viable cells in environmental or clinical samples, and thus poses a risk to public health. In this review, we present recent findings on the VBNC state of human bacterial pathogens. The characteristics of VBNC cells, including the similarities and differences to viable, culturable cells and dead cells, and different detection methods are discussed. Exposure to various stresses can induce the VBNC state, and VBNC cells may be resuscitated back to culturable cells under suitable stimuli. The conditions that trigger the induction of the VBNC state and resuscitation from it are summarized and the mechanisms underlying these two processes are discussed. Last but not least, the significance of VBNC cells and their potential influence on human health are also reviewed.

LaamLi

2014-06-01

347

Molecular Methods for Assessement the Bacterial Communities from Different Type of Soils in Romania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rhizobia are soil bacteria that are capable to form nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with leguminous plants. This ability, as well as the diversity of microbial populations in the soil, and in the rhizosphere of host plants and non-host plants is influenced by several factors, including crop management. The aim of this work was the examination of the influence of some factors on indigenous populations of rhizobia in soils under different crop managements. The genetic diversity of rhizobial strains isolated directly from soil (free-living state or from root nodules of three herbaceous perennial legumes was examined. The study was conducted in the experimental fields located in Moara Domneasc? area (South of Romania and in the Bra?ov County. The characteristics of brown reddish soil were determined (nitrogen content, organic carbon content and pH. Counting of the rhizobia populations was done by most probable number estimation and by viable plate counts. Bacterial strains were isolated directly from soil samples or from root nodules of different plant species (Trifolium repens, T. pratense and Lotus corniculatus. The characterization of rhizobia was performed by DNA fingerprinting (ERIC PCR and BOX PCR and the bacterial diversity of soils was examined by DGGE technique. The results revealed that the rhizobial diversity was significantly lower in soils under increased fertilization with N. A reduced intraspecific polymorphism was observed in the strains recovered from the same plant species (Trifolium spp., whatever the origin of the plant (Moara Domneasc? or Bra?ov but clear differences appeared to be related to the origin of nodules (red or white clover as revealed by DNA fingerprints. However, various amplicon profiles were observed by DGGE when total DNA isolated from soils was examined, the differences being associated with the fertilization level.

Mirela DU?A

2011-05-01

348

Diagnostic Value of Fetal Movement Counting by Mother and the Optimal Recording Duration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Fetal movement counting is a method used by mother to quantify her baby's movements. However, the optimal number of movements and the ideal duration of counting them have not been recognized. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of the two common fetal movements counting methods by mother including "ten fetal movements counting in two hours" and "three fetal movements counting in one hour" and to compare the required mean time for counting fetal movements in the two methods. Methods: 300 subjects were selected by random sampling among clients with complains of decreased fetal movements referring to AL-Zahra educational curative center in Tabriz, Iran. Full training about how to perform the two methods of fetal movements counting and how to record in related tables was instructed by researcher. Immediately after counting movements, biophysical profile test was performed. Results: Among a total of 291 mothers in the two groups, 99.7% had active fetuses based on both methods of fetal movement counting. 96.9% of these active fetuses obtained score of 10 in biophysical profile. There was a statistically significant relation between the results of both two methods of fetal movement counting and the biophysical profile as the gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of both methods were equally 100%, 96%, 10% and 100%, respectively. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that fetal movement counting test can be used as an initial screening method in predicting fetal health.

Mahin Kamalifard

2013-06-01

349

Rapid quantification of planktonic ciliates: comparison of improved live counting with other methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

THE FOLLOWING EFFICIENT AND QUANTITATIVELY VALID METHOD TO FILTER CONCENTRATE AND COUNT LIVE PLANKTONIC CILIATES WAS DEVELOPED AND COMPARED WITH OTHER TREATMENTS: unconcentrated (raw) samples and centrifuged samples were counted live, and the effects of five different fixatives (HgCl(2), Lugol's iodine, formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, and Champy-DaFano) on the counts were monitored. Samples originated from a eutrophic mountain lake (Lake Aydat, near Clermont-Ferrand, France). Overall, live filtered counts were similar to counts of raw samples, but they were significantly higher (2 to 2.3 fold, P Halteria and Loxodes spp., were sensitive to filtration. The live filtered counts were also comparable to counts of raw HgCl(2)-fixed and settled samples. HgCl(2) and Lugol fixation consistently gave the highest total counts, while significantly lower counts were always obtained with Champy-DaFano-fixed samples. Losses due to fixation were insignificant for raw samples but were substantial and statistically significant in concentrated samples (15% after filtration and 71% after centrifugation, compared with counts from the corresponding live samples). Live counting of passively filter-concentrated ciliates has many advantages over other methods. It is two to four times quicker and more efficient. Ciliates are recognized with certainty, more species are identified, and enumeration of dead organisms (e.g., tintinnid loricas) is avoided. It should be recommended as a quantitatively valid alternative to classical methods for assessing planktonic ciliate populations. PMID:16348242

Sime-Ngando, T; Hartmann, H J; Groliere, C A

1990-07-01

350

Evaluation of a routine antiseptic and two disinfectants for reducing bacterial population of cow hoof  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A routine antiseptic and two disinfectant agents were used separately for reducing bacterial population of cow hoof: 1 7.5% povidone–iodine scrub mixed with 10% povidone–iodine solution, 2 10% copper sulfate, and 3 8% formaldehyde. Swabbing for microbial colony counts were used to evaluate pre and post–scrub of hooves of eight cows. The results revealed no significant differences in reduction of bacterial colony count between post–scrubs of povidone–iodine and formaldehyde. Bacterial colony counts after the povidone–iodine scrub solution and formaldehyde scrub were significantly different from those obtained after the copper sulfate scrub. Significant reduction in number of microbial colony in post–scrub by povidone–iodine, formaldehyde, and copper sulfate were observed which were different from the control (warm tap water.

Moosa Javdani,

2011-03-01

351

A quantitative measure of nitrifying bacterial growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitrifying bacteria convert ammonia (NH3) to nitrate (NO3-) in a nitrification reaction. Methods to quantitatively separate the growth rate of these important bacterial populations from that of the dominant heterotrophic bacteria are important to our understanding of the nitrification process. The changing concentration of ammonia is often used as an indirect measure of nitrification but ammonification processes generate ammonia and confound this approach while heterotrophs remove nitrate via denitrification. Molecular probe methods can tell us what proportion of the microbial community is nitrifying bacteria but not their growth rate. The technique proposed here was able to quantify the growth rate of the nitrifying bacterial populations amidst complex ecological processes. The method incubates [methyl-3H] thymidine with water samples in the presence and absence of an inhibitor of nitrification-thiourea. The radioactively labeled DNA in the growing bacteria was extracted. The rate of incorporation of the label into the dividing bacterial DNA was used to determine bacterial growth rate. Total bacterial community growth rates in full-scale and pilot-scale fixed-film nitrifying reactors and an activated sludge reactor were 2.1 x 10(8), 4.1 x 10(8) and 0.4 x 10(8)cell ml(-1)d(-1), respectively; the growth rate of autotrophic-nitrifying bacteria was 0.7 x 10(8), 2.6 x 10(8) and 0.01 x 10(8)cell ml(-1)d(-1), respectively. Autotrophic-nitrifying bacteria contributed 30% and 60% of the total bacterial community growth rate in the nitrifying reactors whereas only 2% was observed in the activated sludge reactor that was not designed to nitrify. The rates of ammonia loss from the nitrifying reactors corresponded to the rate of growth of the nitrifying bacteria. This method has the potential to more often identify factors that enhance or limit nitrifying processes in both engineered and natural aquatic environments. PMID:16603221

Pollard, Peter C

2006-05-01

352

The liquid scintillation counting efficiency for 137 Cs137m Ba and 129 I  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We compute the liquid scintillation counting efficiency for ''137 Cs+ ''137m Ba and ''129 I taking into account the scintillator chemical composition. We consider the beta transition shape factors for the forbidden beta transitions of these nuclides, and the effects of ''137m Ba and ''129m Xe half-lives on the total counting efficiency

353

It's not the pixel count, you fool  

Science.gov (United States)

The first thing a "marketing guy" asks the digital camera engineer is "how many pixels does it have, for we need as many mega pixels as possible since the other guys are killing us with their "umpteen" mega pixel pocket sized digital cameras. And so it goes until the pixels get smaller and smaller in order to inflate the pixel count in the never-ending pixel-wars. These small pixels just are not very good. The truth of the matter is that the most important feature of digital cameras in the last five years is the automatic motion control to stabilize the image on the sensor along with some very sophisticated image processing. All the rest has been hype and some "cool" design. What is the future for digital imaging and what will drive growth of camera sales (not counting the cell phone cameras which totally dominate the market in terms of camera sales) and more importantly after sales profits? Well sit in on the Dark Side of Color and find out what is being done to increase the after sales profits and don't be surprised if has been done long ago in some basement lab of a photographic company and of course, before its time.

Kriss, Michael A.

2012-01-01

354

[Specific count of cerebrospinal fluid cells in the counting chamber using supravital staining].  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors adapted to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) the staining technic developed by Anguiano and Ancira to perform differential leucocyte counts in the counting chamber. The formula they used is the following: methyl alcohol 1 ml, distilled water 2 ml. To this mixture are added: 6 drops of Leishman stain filtered in Whatman paper number 42; toluidine blue 0.25% aqueous solution (filtered in the same manner), 1 drop; acetate buffer 0.1 M, pH 5.4, 1 drop. The technic varies according to the intensity of pleocytosis. If the CSF is turbid or contains more than 100 cells per c.m. 1 drop is dripped in the bottom of a 10X75 test tube and then 2 drops of the staining fluid are added; the mixture is then shaken; after one or two minutes 1 drop is placed in the Fuchs-Rosenthal counting chamber. If the number of total cells is less than 100 per c.m. different CSF volumes are centrifuged at the rate of 2000 r.p.m., during 6 minutes; the supernatant fluid is poured off and the sedimented cells are suspended in 2 drops of the staining fluid. The morphology of the cells as they appear after they are stained by the supravital staining technic (SVST) is described and illustrated in photomicrographies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1702286

de Moraes-Rêgo, S F; Rodrigues, A L; De Moraes-Rêgo, K G

1990-09-01

355

/ Endogenous bacterial strains utilization in the bioremediation of oil contaminated water  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue la utilización de cepas bacterianas autóctonas en la biorremediación de agua contaminada con aceite lubricante. Se tomaron muestras de agua del Lago de Maracaibo, sector Capitán Chico, Edo. Zulia. Se aislaron 16 cepas bacterianas, las cuales fueron sometidas a un ensa [...] yo de factibilidad, utilizando gasoil como única fuente de carbono. Se seleccionaron e identificaron las siete cepas más eficientes en la degradación de los hidrocarburos. Se preparó un cultivo mixto con dichas cepas, el cual se utilizó en un estudio de biotratabilidad. En tanques plásticos de 25 L se dispensaron: cultivo mixto (10%), aceite lubricante (7000 mg/L), nitrógeno y fósforo (0,5; 0,75; 1 g/L), en un volumen de 20 L. En cuatro de los tratamientos, se aplicó aireación. Mensualmente, se registró el contaje bacteriano, el contenido de aceite y el contenido de nitrógeno y fósforo totales. Se aplicó un análisis de varianza con tres repeticiones, utilizando un modelo lineal estadístico. El efecto de la aplicación de cultivo mixto, fertilización y aireación sobre la degradación de aceite resultó significativo (P Abstract in english The objective of this work was the bioremediation of contaminated water with lubricant oil by using endogenous bacterial strains. Samples of water were taken from the Lake of Maracaibo, sector Capitan Chico, Edo. Zulia. From the water samples, 16 bacterial strains were isolated, which were subjected [...] to a essay of feasibility using gasoil as carbon source. The seven bacterial strains more efficient during the essay of feasibility were identified and utilized as a mixed culture in a biotratabilidad study. The essay were prepared in plastic tanks of 25 L with mixed culture (10%), oil lubricant (7000 mg/L), nitrogen and phosphorus (0,5; 0,75; 1 g/L), in a total volume of 20 L. In four of the treatments aeration was applied. Monthly the bacterial count, the oil content, the nitrogen and total phosphorus content were registered. In the inoculated, fertilized and aired tanks the highest removals were achieved, until 95% of the oil was present.

Ismenia, Araujo; Gustavo, Romero; Carmen, Cárdenas; Nancy, Angulo; Gustavo, Morillo; Judith, Navarro; María, Méndez.

2004-12-01

356

Optimisation of the high level neutron well coincidence counting system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A High Level Neutron Coincidence Counter (HLNCC) system has been developed and standardised for total and time-correlated neutron count rate measurements. The HLNCC unit is useful for both assay of plutonium in various configurations such as sealed containments, finished products and in operational waste samples as well as for neutron multiplicity distribution studies. The term, High-Level refers to high neutron count rate capability of the unit that enables assay of high plutonium content (? 1.5 Kg). High counting efficiency also enables high sensitivity, upto ? 1 gm in oxide matrix. The unit is equipped with a shift register based time coincidence logic to sort out the time-correlated neutrons from spontaneous fission of even-even plutonium isotopes in the background of random (?, n) neutrons. From the knowledge of even-even isotopes (especially sup(240)Pu) thus obtained and the isotopic composition, total plutonium content is deduced. The system has been optimised with respect to various operational conditions and characteristics of the electronic units used, as described in this report. It has been calibrated for total and coincidence counting efficiencies. Specific examples of applications of the unit for assay of plutonium content in the range 0.1 to 1.8 gram and for neutron multiplicity studies have also been presented in this report. (author). 10 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

357

Comparison of plate counts, Petrifilm, dipslides, and adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence for monitoring bacteria in cooling-tower waters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effective bacterial control in cooling-tower systems requires accurate and timely methods to count bacteria. Plate-count methods are difficult to implement on-site, because they are time- and labor-intensive and require sterile techniques. Several field-applicable methods (dipslides, Petrifilm, and adenosine triphosphate [ATP] bioluminescence) were compared with the plate count for two sample matrices--phosphate-buffered saline solution containing a pure culture of Pseudomonas fluorescens and cooling-tower water containing an undefined mixed bacterial culture. For the pure culture, (1) counts determined on nutrient agar and plate-count agar (PCA) media and expressed as colony-forming units (CFU) per milliliter were equivalent to those on R2A medium (p = 1.0 and p = 1.0, respectively); (2) Petrifilm counts were not significantly different from R2A plate counts (p = 0.99); (3) the dipslide counts were up to 2 log units higher than R2A plate counts, but this discrepancy was not statistically significant (p = 0.06); and (4) a discernable correlation (r2 = 0.67) existed between ATP readings and plate counts. For cooling-tower water samples (n = 62), (1) bacterial counts using R2A medium were higher (but not significant; p = 0.63) than nutrient agar and significantly higher than tryptone-glucose yeast extract (TGE; p = 0.03) and PCA (p < 0.001); (2) Petrifilm counts were significantly lower than nutrient agar or R2A (p = 0.02 and p < 0.001, respectively), but not statistically different from TGE, PCA, and dipslides (p = 0.55, p = 0.69, and p = 0.91, respectively); (3) the dipslide method yielded bacteria counts 1 to 3 log units lower than nutrient agar and R2A (p < 0.001), but was not significantly different from Petrifilm (p = 0.91), PCA (p = 1.00) or TGE (p = 0.07); (4) the differences between dipslides and the other methods became greater with a 6-day incubation time; and (5) the correlation between ATP readings and plate counts varied from system to system, was poor (r2 values ranged from < 0.01 to 0.47), and the ATP method was not sufficiently sensitive to measure counts below approximately 10(4) CFU/mL. PMID:19445329

Mueller, Sherry A; Anderson, James E; Kim, Byung R; Ball, James C

2009-04-01

358

Total viable bacteria removal by means of an electrostatic air cleaner; Abbattimento della carica batterica totale aerodispersa mediante barriera filtrante di tipo elettrostatico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper presents the methodology followed in order to define the relationship between the removal of inorganic and/or viable particulates and a commercial electrostatic precipitator, FEMEC like configured. Inorganic aerosols needed to control the efficiency removal were generated through an ultrasonic home humidifier, while a bacterial characterised air flow was obtained directly from the duet work of the central heating and cooling system serving the environmental analyses laboratory of the University of Ancona. Microbiological analyses were performed by a traditional plate count method. The difference between the amount of viable bacteria evaluated on plate count data, in the presence of electrostatic filtration, results statistically significative. Bacterial removal by electrostatic filtration resulted on an average of 79% of the samples analysed. [Italian] Il presente lavoro riassume la metodologia seguita per la definizione del rapporto esistente fra il funzionamento di un filtro elettrostatico commerciale a piastre doppio stadio tipo FEMEC e l'abbattimento sia di particolato inorganico sia di particolato di tipo biologico vivo, provenienti da impianti di termoventilazione. La generazione di particolato inorganico e' stata realizzata tramite generatore ultrasonico alimentato con soluzione salina di solfato di ammonio. La carica batterica in ingresso al filtro e' stata ottenuta direttamente dall'impianto di climatizzazione di tipo misto al servizio del laboratorio chimico ambientale dell'Universita' di Ancona. Nelle condizioni operative impiegate e' stata verificata una differenza statisticamente significativa dell'abbattimento della carica batterica totale ottenuta tramite filtrazione elettrostatica dell'aria. Il risultato dei conteggi nei campioni di aria filtrati evidenzia un conteggio nullo nel 79%, contro un 37% nei prelievi eseguiti in assenza di filtrazione.

Bontempi, L. [Tecnica Bontempi snc, Calvisano BS (Italy); D' Errico, M. [Ancona Univ., Ancona (Italy). Facolta' di Medicina; Fava, G. [Ancona Univ., Ancona (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze dei Materiali e della Terra

2001-01-01

359

Eubacterial 16S-rDNA amplicon profiling: a rapid technique for comparison and differentiation of heterotrophic plate count communities from drinking water.  

Science.gov (United States)

Determination of the heterotrophic plate count (HPC) is commonly used as a surrogate to assess the general microbial water quality in drinking water. For routine monitoring applications, the HPC is investigated in a quantitative way. However, qualitative data about the HPC bacterial community composition and/or population dynamics are required for particular situations. In order to provide fast and efficient qualitative approaches, molecular biological DNA profiling techniques seem to be suitable tools for the analysis of the total HPC community composition. In this work a DNA profiling technique is presented, which was recently demonstrated by our group to have potential for the rapid qualitative comparison and differentiation of HPC communities from raw and drinking water. The presented approach consists of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) for the generation of 16S-rDNA amplicon fingerprints from whole HPC community DNA extracts. In the context of this proceeding, the methodical background is presented and possible scientific merits as well as potential water management applications are discussed. Selected examples of (i) the demonstration of selective growth of HPC populations on different media and the comparison to the total in situ drinking water eubacterial community, (ii) the screening for HPC community variations at different locations of a drinking water distribution system, and (iii) the influence assessment on groundwater HPC communities by an infiltrating treated sewage effluent (bacterial source tracking) are given. PMID:15145592

Farnleitner, Andreas H; Zibuschka, Franziska; Burtscher, Martina M; Lindner, Gerhard; Reischer, Georg; Mach, Robert L

2004-05-01

360

Bacterial contamination of automotive fuels in a tropical region: the case of Costa Rica.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbial contamination of fuel has been the cause of several problems in transportation and storage of these products. Due to the lack of previous studies related to these problems in Costa Rica, bacterial quality was evaluated biannually in automotive fuels stored in the four oil distribution facilities of the Costa Rican Petroleum Refinery (RECOPE). In 12 oil storage tanks, for a total of 96 samples, mesophilic, heterotrophic aerobic/facultative counts (ASTM D6974-04) and identification of bacteria presented in regular gas, premium gas and diesel from the bottom and superior part of the tanks were done; in the samples containing an aqueous phase, sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) were also quantified by the most probable number technique (MPN), according to the ASTM D4412-84 standard. The higher contamination was shown at the bottom of the tanks (populations up to 10(4) UFC/l), especially if there was accumulated water, in which case populations reached 10(8) UFC/l. The most contaminated fuel was diesel (counts up to 10(4) UFC/l), whereas the less contaminated was premium gas. The less contaminated fuels were from the facilities of La Garita and Barranca, whereas the most contaminated were from Ochomogo. Nevertheless, the quantified populations did not cause significant alteration in quality physicochemical parameters in the samples analyzed. A total of 149 bacterial strains were isolated, 136 (91.3%) Gram positive and 13 (8.7%) Gram negative. The most frequent genera were Staphylococcus (24.0%), Micrococcus (21.9%), Bacillus (18.8%) and Kocuria (11.5%) among Gram positive bacteria and Pseudomonas (7.3%) among Gram negative bacteria. The majority of these genera have been found as fuel contaminants or even as degraders of this kind of products; nevertheless, some species for which their appearance or growth in hydrocarbons have not been described were found with low frequencies. SRB were present in counts up to 10(5) MPN/l in 42.9% of water containing samples (including all from diesel tanks), indicating biocorrosion processes risk in fuel transport and storage systems. From the findings in this study it is recommended to give a frequent maintenance to fuel containers, based on continuous drainage and removal of accumulated water, antimicrobial agent addition and microbial quality monitoring in country's fuels. PMID:19928449

Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Rodríguez-Cavallini, Evelyn; Blanco, Rigoberto

2009-09-01

 
 
 
 
361

Office Space Bacterial Abundance and Diversity in Three Metropolitan Areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

People in developed countries spend approximately 90% of their lives indoors, yet we know little about the source and diversity of microbes in built environments. In this study, we combined culture-based cell counting and multiplexed pyrosequencing of environmental ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences to investigate office space bacterial diversity in three metropolitan areas. Five surfaces common to all offices were sampled using sterile double-tipped swabs, one tip for culturing and one for ...

Hewitt, Krissi M.; Gerba, Charles P.; Maxwell, Sheri L.; Kelley, Scott T.

2012-01-01

362

Rifaximin for the prevention of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

According to a review article by Biecker et al published in a previous issue of World Journal of Gastroenterology in March 2011, intestinal decontamination with norfloxacin remains the mainstay of primary prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) at the expense of development of quinolone-resistant bacteria after long-term use. In our research, the administration of a 4-wk regimen with rifaximin 1200 mg/d reduced significantly the ascitic neutrophil count in cirrhotic patients wi...

Kalambokis, Georgios N.; Athanasia Mouzaki; Maria Rodi; Tsianos, Epameinondas V.

2012-01-01

363

Number Systems: Finger Counting (Session 1)  

Science.gov (United States)

In this project you will examine number systems from various cultures around the world. Session 1: First let's begin by examining how other cultures finger count. First examine Image of Ancient Chinese finger counting system. 1.What do you notice about this counting system? 2.How are the fingers used in this system? Now watch the Youtube video finger counting to 10 in Chinese. Now Learn how to finger count to 10 in Chinese. What numbers are similar to our own finger counting system? At what point ...

Nunes-Bufford, Mrs.

2008-12-01

364

Leukocyte nucleus segmentation and nucleus lobe counting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Leukocytes play an important role in the human immune system. The family of leukocytes is comprised of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, and neutrophils. Any infection or acute stress may increase or decrease the number of leukocytes. An increased percentage of neutrophils may be caused by an acute infection, while an increased percentage of lymphocytes can be caused by a chronic bacterial infection. It is important to realize an abnormal variation in the leukocytes. The five types of leukocytes can be distinguished by their cytoplasmic granules, staining properties of the granules, size of cell, the proportion of the nuclear to the cytoplasmic material, and the type of nucleolar lobes. The number of lobes increased when leukemia, chronic nephritis, liver disease, cancer, sepsis, and vitamin B12 or folate deficiency occurred. Clinical neutrophil hypersegmentation has been widely used as an indicator of B12 or folate deficiency.Biomedical technologists can currently recognize abnormal leukocytes using human eyes. However, the quality and efficiency of diagnosis may be compromised due to the limitations of the biomedical technologists' eyesight, strength, and medical knowledge. Therefore, the development of an automatic leukocyte recognition system is feasible and necessary. It is essential to extract the leukocyte region from a blood smear image in order to develop an automatic leukocyte recognition system. The number of lobes increased when leukemia, chronic nephritis, liver disease, cancer, sepsis, and vitamin B12 or folate deficiency occurred. Clinical neutrophil hypersegmentation has been widely used as an indicator of B12 or folate deficiency. Results The purpose of this paper is to contribute an automatic leukocyte nuclei image segmentation method for such recognition technology. The other goal of this paper is to develop the method of counting the number of lobes in a cell nucleus. The experimental results demonstrated impressive segmentation accuracy. Conclusions Insensitive to the variance of images, the LNS (Leukocyte Nuclei Segmentation method functioned well to isolate the leukocyte nuclei from a blood smear image with much better UR (Under Segmentation Rate, ER (Overall Error Rate, and RDE (Relative Distance Error. The presented LC (Lobe Counting method is capable of splitting leukocyte nuclei into lobes. The experimental results illuminated that both methods can give expressive performances. In addition, three advanced image processing techniques were proposed as weighted Sobel operator, GDW (Gradient Direction Weight, and GBPD (Genetic-based Parameter Detector.

Zheng Zong-Han

2010-11-01

365

Biodegradability of bacterial surfactants.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work aimed at evaluating the biodegradability of different bacterial surfactants in liquid medium and in soil microcosms. The biodegradability of biosurfactants by pure and mixed bacterial cultures was evaluated through CO(2) evolution. Three bacterial strains, Acinetobacter baumanni LBBMA ES11, Acinetobacter haemolyticus LBBMA 53 and Pseudomonas sp. LBBMA 101B, used the biosurfactants produced by Bacillus sp. LBBMA 111A (mixed lipopeptide), Bacillus subtilis LBBMA 155 (lipopeptide), Flavobacterium sp. LBBMA 168 (mixture of flavolipids), Dietzia Maris LBBMA 191(glycolipid) and Arthrobacter oxydans LBBMA 201(lipopeptide) as carbon sources in minimal medium. The synthetic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was also mineralized by these microorganisms, but at a lower rate. CO(2) emitted by a mixed bacterial culture in soil microcosms with biosurfactants was higher than in the microcosm containing SDS. Biosurfactant mineralization in soil was confirmed by the increase in surface tension of the soil aqueous extracts after incubation with the mixed bacterial culture. It can be concluded that, in terms of biodegradability and environmental security, these compounds are more suitable for applications in remediation technologies in comparison to synthetic surfactants. However, more information is needed on structure of biosurfactants, their interaction with soil and contaminants and scale up and cost for biosurfactant production. PMID:21053055

Lima, Tânia M S; Procópio, Lorena C; Brandão, Felipe D; Carvalho, André M X; Tótola, Marcos R; Borges, Arnaldo C

2011-06-01

366

Urticaria and bacterial infections.  

Science.gov (United States)

The association between urticaria and infectious diseases has been discussed for >100 years. However, a causal relationship with underlying or precipitating infection is difficult to establish. The purpose of this work was to perform a systematic analysis of the published cases of urticaria associated with bacterial infections. We give an umbrella breakdown of up-to-date systematic reviews and other important publications on the complex association of urticaria and bacterial infections. We did a Medline search, for English language articles published until January 2014, using the key words "urticaria" and "bacteria/bacterial disease"; a second analysis was performed in groups of bacteria and using each germ name as a key word. Many bacterial infections have been associated with urticaria manifestation, such as Helicobacter pylori, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Mycoplasma pneumonia, Salmonella, Brucella, Mycobacterium leprae, Borrelia, Chlamydia pneumonia, and Yersinia enterocolitica. In some cases the skin manifestations, described as urticaria, could be caused by the presence of the microorganism in the skin, or for the action of their toxins, or to the complement activation mediated by circulating immune complexes. Although only a weak association with urticaria of unclear pathogenesis exists, clinicians should consider these bacterial agents in the workup of the patients with urticaria. The eradication of the infection could, in fact, lead to the resolution of urticaria. Prospective studies and well-structured research are obviously needed to better clarify the real role of bacteria in the pathogenesis of urticaria and their relative prevalence. PMID:24857191

Minciullo, Paola L; Cascio, Antonio; Barberi, Giuseppina; Gangemi, Sebastiano

2014-01-01

367

Countdown: Counting with a Calendar  

Science.gov (United States)

Learners will count down the days to a special event. How much longer? Calendars, dates, and units of time mean much more when youâre anticipating a special event. Locate the date youâre waiting for on the calendar. Younger learners can keep track of how many days. Older learners can count down the hours, minutes, and even seconds as the time draws near. Or, challenge a multi-age group to find as many ways as they can to express the amount of time left (32 days, 4 weeks and 4 days, 1 month and 1 day..). Make this a routine: Each time you gather the group, check the countdown. Available as a web page and downloadable pdf.

Terc

2010-01-01

368

Bacterial flora of spices and its control by gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The bacterial contamination was tested in 26 samples of spices. Chili, allspice and paprika were the most contaminated spices by bacteria. Five bacterial genera were isolated, namely bacillus, staphylococcus, streptococcus, micrococcus, and coccobacillus, all being gram-positive. Most isolates have been related to the genus bacillus. The bacterial isolates were identified as B. alvei, B. circulans, B. megaterium, B. pasteurii, B. pumilus, B. thuringiensis, B. sphaericus, B. incertaesedis, Micrococcus luteus, staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus sp. and coccobacillus sp. Irradiation of spices led to a significant decrease in the bacterial count of all samples. The dose required to inhibit completely the natural bacterial flora was 25 KGY. The most radioresistant isolates were staphylococcus aureus and micrococcus luteus which were subjected to sublethal doses of 15 and 20 KGY respectively. The dose response curves of the 2 most radioresistant isolates showed simple exponential relationship. The D 10-value of S. aureus and M. luteus were 0.9 and 1.1 KGY, respectively. The effect of storage period on the bacterial load of, as well as, the antibacterial activity of the tested spices were investigated. (author)

369

Bacterial Strain Diversity Within Wounds  

Science.gov (United States)

Significance: Rare bacterial taxa (taxa of low relative frequency) are numerous and ubiquitous in virtually any sample—including wound samples. In addition, even the high-frequency genera and species contain multiple strains. These strains, individually, are each only a small fraction of the total bacterial population. Against the view that wounds contain relatively few kinds of bacteria, this newly recognized diversity implies a relatively high rate of migration into the wound and the potential for diversification during infection. Understanding the biological and medical importance of these numerous taxa is an important new element of wound microbiology. Recent Advances: Only recently have these numerous strains been discovered; the technology to detect, identify, and characterize them is still in its infancy. Multiple strains of both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria have been found in a single wound. In the few cases studied, the distribution of the bacteria suggests microhabitats and biological interactions. Critical Issues: The distribution of the strains, their phenotypic diversity, and their interactions are still largely uncharacterized. The technologies to investigate this level of genomic detail are still developing and have not been largely deployed to investigate wounds. Future Directions: As advanced metagenomics, single-cell genomics, and advanced microscopy develop, the study of wound microbiology will better address the complex interplay of numerous individually rare strains with both the host and each other.

Kirkup, Benjamin C.

2015-01-01

370

Semiparametric regression for count data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We introduce a class of Bayesian semiparametric models for regression problems in which the response variable is a count.Our goal is to provide a flexible, easy-to-implement and robust extension of generalised linear models, for datasets of moderate or large size. Our approach is based on modelling the distribution of the response variable using a Dirichlet process, whose mean distribution function is itself random and is given a parametric form, such as a generalised linear model. The effect...

Carota, Cinzia

2002-01-01

371

The Making Cases Count intiative.  

Science.gov (United States)

Given the challenges faced, how can homeopaths communicate the power and scope of the therapeutic system of homeopathy? Homeopaths need to communicate to patients, the public and media, other healthcare professionals, healthcare researchers, and funders of healthcare (healthcare insurers, those who commission healthcare services either in publicly funded healthcare systems such as the NHS or charities). Effective communication with these stakeholders requires information that is: (a) easily understood, (b) credible, and (c) relevant. The patient's voice is the trusted, indisputable and easily understood common ground in homeopathy. Yet, the experiences of patients are rarely heard outside the profession of homeopathy. Homeopaths are in a unique position to make these voices heard by disseminating the results of their routine practice cases incorporating their patients' voices. The 'Making Cases Count' initiative has been created in order to bring about a culture where easily understood, trusted and salient information is regularly made available to all stakeholders in homeopathy. The Making Cases Count initiative supports, guides and incentives homeopaths to collect routine data with the aim of bringing about a culture where a significant proportion of homeopaths collect routine data from their patients in a format which will then be able to be transformed (i.e. anonymised, summarised and counted). This routine data requires numbers and categories to report the behavior and the perspective of patients receiving homeopathic treatment. This can be strengthened through the use of validated outcome measures in hearing patients' voices. When transformed, this routine data will then be able to inform homeopaths and more importantly other key stakeholders. It is now time to make patient cases count. PMID:25146064

Relton, C; Viksveen, P; Kessler, U

2014-08-01

372

Counting and enumerating aggregate classifiers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We propose a generic model for the "weighted voting" aggregation step performed by several methods in supervised classification. Further, we construct an algorithm to count the number of distinct aggregate classifiers that arise in this model. When there are only two classes in the classification problem, we show that a class of functions that arises from aggregate classifiers coincides with the class of self-dual positive threshold Boolean functions.

Adem, Jan; Crama, Yves; Gochet, Willy; Spieksma, Frits C. R.

2008-01-01

373

Monitoring Milk Somatic Cell Counts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The presence of somatic cells in milk is a widely disputed issue in milk production sector. The somatic cell counts in raw milk are a marker for the specific cow diseases such as mastitis or swollen udder. The high level of somatic cells causes physical and chemical changes to milk composition and nutritional value, and as well to milk products. Also, the mastitic milk is not proper for human consumption due to its contribution to spreading of certain diseases and food poisoning. According to these effects, EU Regulations established the maximum threshold of admitted somatic cells in raw milk to 400000 cells / mL starting with 2014. The purpose of this study was carried out in order to examine the raw milk samples provided from small farms, industrial type farms and milk processing units. There are several ways to count somatic cells in milk but the reference accepted method is the microscopic method described by the SR EN ISO 13366-1/2008. Generally samples registered values in accordance with the admissible limit. By periodical monitoring of the somatic cell count, certain technological process issues are being avoided and consumer’s health ensured.

Gheorghe ?te?ca

2014-11-01

374

Constraint Satisfaction with Counting Quantifiers  

CERN Document Server

We initiate the study of constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) in the presence of counting quantifiers, which may be seen as variants of CSPs in the mould of quantified CSPs (QCSPs). We show that a single counting quantifier strictly between exists^1:=exists and exists^n:=forall (the domain being of size n) already affords the maximal possible complexity of QCSPs (which have both exists and forall), being Pspace-complete for a suitably chosen template. Next, we focus on the complexity of subsets of counting quantifiers on clique and cycle templates. For cycles we give a full trichotomy -- all such problems are in L, NP-complete or Pspace-complete. For cliques we come close to a similar trichotomy, but one case remains outstanding. Afterwards, we consider the generalisation of CSPs in which we augment the extant quantifier exists^1:=exists with the quantifier exists^j (j not 1). Such a CSP is already NP-hard on non-bipartite graph templates. We explore the situation of this generalised CSP on bipartite templ...

Madelaine, Florent; Stacho, Juraj

2011-01-01

375

Effect of alternative antibiotics in treatment of cefotaxime resistant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIM: To evaluate effective alternative antibiotics in treatment of cefotaxime-resistant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. METHODS: One hundred cirrhotic patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis [ascitic fluid polymorphonuclear cell count (PMNLs) ? 250 cells/mm3 at admission] were empirically treated with cefotaxime sodium 2 g/12 h and volume expansion by intravenous human albumin. All patients were subjected to history taking, complete examination, laboratory tests (including a...

Ahmed Abouelkhair Badawy; Tarik Ibrahim Zaher; Samar Mahmoud Sharaf; Mohamed Hassan Emara; Noha Elsaid Shaheen; Talaat Fathy Aly

2013-01-01

376

Suitability of Optical, Physical and Chemical Measurements for Detection of Changes in Bacterial Drinking Water Quality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, different optical, physical and chemical measurements were tested for their capacity to detect changes in water quality. The tests included UV-absorbance at 254 nm, absorbance at 420 nm, turbidity, particle counting, temperature, pH, electric conductivity (EC), free chlorine concentration and ATP concentration measurements. Special emphasis was given to investigating the potential for measurement tools to detect changes in bacterial concentrations in drinking water. Bacterial c...

Ikonen, Jenni; Pitka?nen, Tarja; Miettinen, Ilkka T.

2013-01-01

377

Comparison of coliphage and bacterial aerosols at a wastewater spray irrigation site.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Microbiological aerosols were measured on a spray irrigation site at Fort Huachuca, Ariz. Indigenous bacteria and tracer bacteriophage were sampled from sprays of chlorinated and unchlorinated secondary-treatment wastewaters during day and night periods. Aerosol dispersal and downwind migration were determined. Bacterial and coliphage f2 aerosols were sampled by using Andersen viable type stacked-sieve and high-volume electrostatic precipitator samplers. Bacterial standard plate counts averag...

Bausum, H. T.; Schaub, S. A.; Kenyon, K. F.; Small, M. J.

1982-01-01

378

Bacterial Enrichment at the Gas-Water Interface of a Laboratory Apparatus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The gas-water interface (GWI) is likely to have important effects on bacterial adsorption and transport in unsaturated porous media. A glass apparatus that isolated GWIs in ports above a flowthrough suspension of a groundwater bacterial isolate was used to represent unsaturated porous media. The surface microlayer was collected by placing a polycarbonate filter on the GWI. The filter was stained, and the bacteria were enumerated by direct count. The significance of five independent variables ...

Powelson, D. K.; Mills, A. L.

1996-01-01

379

Bacterial meningitis in children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To demonstrate the epidemiology, clinical manifestations and bacteriological profile of bacterial meningitis in children beyond the neonatal period in our hospital. This was a retrospective descriptive study conducted at Prince Rashid Hospital in Irbid, Jordan. The medical records of 50 children with the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis during 4 years period, were reviewed. The main cause of infection was streptococcus pneumoniae, followed by Haemophilus influenza and Niesseria meningitides. Mortality was higher in infants and meningococcal infection, while complications were more encountered in cases of streptococcus pneumoniae. Cerebrospinal fluid culture was positive in 11 cases and Latex agglutination test in 39. There is a significant reduction of the numbers of bacterial meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenza type B species. (author)

380

Evaluation of Visitor Counting Technologies and Their Energy Saving Potential through Demand-Controlled Ventilation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Direction-sensitive visitor counting sensors can be used in demand-controlled ventilation (DCV. The counting performance of two light beam sensors and three camera sensors, all direction sensitive, was simultaneously evaluated at an indoor location. Direction insensitive sensors (two mat sensors and one light beam sensor were additionally tested as a reference. Bidirectional counting data of free people flow was collected for 36 days in one-hour resolution, including five hours of manual counting. Compared to the manual results, one of the light beam sensors had the most equally balanced directional overall counting errors (4.6% and 5.2%. The collected data of this sensor was used to model the air transportation energy consumption of visitor counting sensor-based DCV and constant air volume ventilation (CAV. The results suggest that potential savings in air transportation energy consumption could be gained with the modeled DCV as its total daily airflow during the test period was 54% of the total daily airflow of the modeled CAV on average. A virtually real-time control of ventilation could be realized with minute-level counting resolution. Site-specific calibration of the visitor counting sensors is advisable and they could be complemented with presence detectors to avoid unnecessary ventilation during unoccupied periods of the room. A combination of CO2 and visitor counting sensors could be exploited in DCV to always guarantee sufficient ventilation with a short response time.

Jussi Kuutti

2014-03-01