WorldWideScience
1

Determination of total bacterial count in raw milk by flow cytometry  

OpenAIRE

The automatic flow cytometry as routine method for total bacterial count determination of raw ex-farm milk has recently been accepted in Croatia. This method significantly differs from the reference method (Standard Plate Count) mostly in the presentation of the results obtained. Therefore, this paper summarized experiences in the application of flow cytometry in the dairy laboratories practice. The principle and the practice of the method, methodological details and factors influencing the r...

Dubravka Samaržija; Neven Antunac; Tomislav Poga?i?; Sanja Sikora

2004-01-01

2

M1 AFLATOXIN, TOTAL BACTERIAL COUNT AND SOMATIC CELL COUNT IN ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL MILK  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Comparative quality evaluation of organic and conventional milk produced in similar environmental condition was performed. Bulk-tank milk was sampled once a week during 30 weeks from 10 organic and 10 conventional dairy farms where aflatoxin M1 level was previous tested during 11 months on bulk-tank milk from tanker at the processing plant. Somatic Cells and Total Microbial Counts did not show differences that can be related to the organic production system, suggesting an effect induced by farm size and technical factors. Higher level of Aflatoxin M1 was found in organic than conventional milk.

M. Trevisani

2009-09-01

3

Relationship among specific bacterial counts and total bacterial and somatic cell counts and factors influencing their variation in ovine bulk tank milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

To analyze the relationship among the counts of different organisms and total bacterial count (BTTBC) and somatic cell count (BTSCC) as determined in dairy laboratories in ovine bulk tank milk, 751 bulk tank milk samples from 205 dairy sheep flocks belonging to Consortium for Ovine Promotion (CPO) were collected between January and December 2011. Four samplings were carried out in each flock, once per season, throughout 1 yr. Variables analyzed were bulk tank counts of thermoduric, psychrotrophic, coliform, and gram-positive catalase-negative cocci (GPCNC) bacterial groups. Thermoduric, psychrotrophic, and coliform species were significantly related to BTTBC, whereas GPCNC were correlated with both BTTBC and BTSCC variables. Highest counts were for psychrotroph and coliform groups, and a moderate to high correlation (r=0.51) was found between both variables, indicating that poor cleaning practices in the flocks tend to select for less-resistant organisms, such as gram-negative rods. In addition, BTTBC correlated with BTSCC (r=0.42). Some variation factors for specific bacterial counts, such as breed, season, milking type, dry therapy, and milk yield, were also analyzed. Flock information was collected from flock books, annual audits, and the CPO traceability system. Psychrotrophs and coliforms had elevated counts in winter, whereas GPCNC were higher in summer and in hand-milked flocks. Dry therapy contributed to the reduction in psychrotrophic bacteria; therefore, some strains of mammary pathogens could also be psychrotrophic bacteria. Results of this study would be helpful for troubleshooting milk quality problems and developing premium payment systems in dairy sheep. PMID:23200475

de Garnica, M L; Linage, B; Carriedo, J A; De La Fuente, L F; García-Jimeno, M C; Santos, J A; Gonzalo, C

2013-02-01

4

Determination of total bacterial count in raw milk by flow cytometry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The automatic flow cytometry as routine method for total bacterial count determination of raw ex-farm milk has recently been accepted in Croatia. This method significantly differs from the reference method (Standard Plate Count mostly in the presentation of the results obtained. Therefore, this paper summarized experiences in the application of flow cytometry in the dairy laboratories practice. The principle and the practice of the method, methodological details and factors influencing the results were described. In order to avoid problems regarding the interpretation of the results, which aregeneral problems of the quantitative microbiology, this article try to explain an appropriate conversion of the results with regards to SPC/ml, as an official method for the bacteriological quality proposal by the national legislation.

Dubravka Samaržija

2004-01-01

5

Effect of milk temperature during irradiation on total bacterial count and keeping quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cows' and buffaloes' milk samples were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation (100, 200 and 300 Kr) at 10 and 30°C. Irradiation of milk at 10°C caused more reduction in total bacterial count than that occurred at 30°C. The rate of microbial destruction due to irradiation at 10°C was higher than that occurred at 30°C. The keeping quality was determined daily for 15 days by clot-on-boiling test for samples kept at room temperature and in a refrigerator. The keeping quality recorded for cows' and buffaloes' milk samples in the refrigerator was 4 days, while it was only 1 day at room temperature. Irradiation of milk at 10°C was more effective than irradiation at 30°C, to increase the keeping quality of irradiated milk kept at refrigeration. Irradiation of milk samples at 10°C by 200 Kr increased the keeping quality for two weeks in the refrigerator, i.e. such a treatment increased the keeping quality by 4 folds

6

Microbiologia da carne moida: 1. contagem total de bactérias / Microbiology of ground beef: I. total bacterial count  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Como primeira etapa de um programa de estudos microbiológicos da carne moida comercializada em Piracicaba, quarenta amostras de carne bovina, provenientes de dois tipos de estabelecimento de venda a varejo (açougue e supermercado), correspondendo a dois sistemas de distribuição de carne (um antigo e [...] outro recente), foram analisados quanto ao número total de bactérias, segundo as recomendações da "American Public Health Association". As amostras foram obtidas semanalmente pela manhã e à tarde, durante aproximadamente dois meses. A incubação das placas de Petri foi feita a 21º C (72 horas) e a 32º (48 horas). Os resultados podem ser resumidos como segue: 1) Contagens totais elevadas foram, em geral, observadas, com diversas amostras na faixa de 10(7) a 10(9) bactérias/grama; as médias obtidas foram 6,9 x 10(7) (21ºC) e 2,5 x 10(7) (32ºC) bactérias por grama. 2) A incubação feita a 21ºC resultou, em geral, em contagens mais elevadas que as correspondentes à temperatura de incubação de 32ºC; todavia, a diferença observada não foi estatìsticamente significativa. 3) As contagens obtidas para as amostras correspondentes ao sistema antigo de distribuição de carne foram significativamente mais elevadas que as correspondentes ao sistema recente, o que se relacionou com contagens mais elevadas obtidas para as amostras coletadas pela manhã no estabelecimento menor. Abstract in english As a first step in a program of evaluation of ground beef microbiological quality in the city of Piracicaba, SP, forty samples of ground beef were taken at two kinds of retail markets (meat shop and supermarket), related to an old and a new system of meat merchandising. The samples were taken weekly [...] in the morning and in the afternoon, during a two month period. Total bacterial counts were determined by a procedure recommended by the American Public Health Association and plates were incubated at 21ºC (72 hours) and at 32ºC (48 hours). The results can be summarized as follows = 1) Total counts were generally high, with several samples in the range 10(7) to 10(9) cells/gram; average counts were 6.9x 10(7) cells/gram (21ºC) and 2.5xl0(7) cell/gram (32ºC). 2) Incubation at 21ºC resulted in total counts generally higher than those found at 32ºC, although there was no statistically significant difference between the two incubation temperatures. 3) Total counts were found to be higher in samples from the small shop (old system) than in samples from the supermarket (new system); the difference was related to higher counts in the morning samples taken at the former retail market.

Murilo, Graner; Alcides, Martinelli Filho; Vivaldo F. da, Cruz.

7

Total bacterial count and somatic cell count in refrigerated raw milk stored in communal tanks / Contagem bacteriana total e contagem de células somáticas em leite cru refrigerado armazenado em tanques comunitários  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A atual demanda da indústria por produtos lácteos com shelf life prolongado tem resultado em novos desafios para a manutenção da qualidade microbiológica do leite, pois o processamento da matéria-prima com altas contagens microbianas compromete a qualidade e o rendimento industrial de seus derivados [...] . O estudo objetivou avaliar a contagem bacteriana total (CBT) e a contagem de células somáticas (CSS) de 768 amostras de leite cru refrigerado provenientes de 32 tanques comunitários. As amostras foram coletadas no primeiro trimestre dos anos de 2010, 2011, 2012 e 2013 e analisadas pelo Laboratório de Qualidade do Leite. Os resultados apontaram que 62,5%, 37,5%, 15,6% e 28,1% das médias para a CBT em 2010, 2011, 2012 e 2013, respectivamente, estavam acima dos valores preconizados pela legislação. Entretanto observou-se uma redução significativa nos níveis de contagem bacteriana total (CBT) nos períodos analisados. Para a contagem de células somáticas, 100% das médias apontaram valores abaixo de 600 mil células/mL, estando essa contagem de acordo com as legislações vigentes no Brasil. Portanto, os valores encontrados para a contagem de células somáticas sugerem a adoção de medidas efetivas de controle sanitário do rebanho. Porém, os resultados obtidos para a contagem bacteriana total devem ser considerados com cautela, uma vez que eles indicam a necessidade de melhoria da qualidade da matéria-prima, até que se atinjam resultados efetivamente confiáveis. Abstract in english The current industry demand for dairy products with extended shelf life has resulted in new challenges for milk quality maintenance. The processing of milk with high bacterial counts compromises the quality and performance of industrial products. The study aimed to evaluate the total bacteria counts [...] (TBC) and somatic cell count (SCC) in 768 samples of refrigerated raw milk, from 32 communal tanks. Samples were collected in the first quarter of 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 and analyzed by the Laboratory of Milk Quality - LQL. Results showed that 62.5%, 37.5%, 15.6% and 27.1% of the means for TBC in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively, were above the values established by legislation. However, we observed a significant reduction in the levels of total bacterial count (TBC) in the studied periods. For somatic cell count, 100% of the means indicated values below 600.000 cells/mL, complying with the actual Brazilian legislation. The values found for the somatic cell count suggests the adoption of effective measures for the sanitary control of the herd. However, the results must be considered with caution as it highlights the need for quality improvements of the raw material until it achieves reliable results effectively.

Edmar da Costa, Alves; Alice Maria, Dahmer; Aurélio Ferreira, Borges.

2014-09-01

8

Adequação da contagem de células somáticas e da contagem bacteriana total em leite cru refrigerado aos parâmetros da legislação / Suitability of somatic cell count and total bacterial count in raw refrigerated milk to legislation standards  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi adequar a qualidade do leite cru refrigerado de cinco propriedades leiteiras aos parâmetros microbiológicos e de contagem de células somáticas (CCS) estabelecidos pela legislação estadual do Paraná. As propriedades leiteiras estudadas foram monitoradas durante sete mese [...] s após a implantação de boas práticas de ordenha e de recomendações quanto ao tratamento de mastites e à manutenção e higienização de equipamentos de ordenha. Antes da adoção das recomendações, a contagem bacteriana total (CBT) média era de 1,36 x 10(6)UFC/mL e a CCS média, de 1,87 x 10(6)/mL. Todas as propriedades atingiram os padrões estabelecidos para CBT, com redução média de 93,4%. A redução de CCS foi, em média, 74,3%. Apenas três propriedades atingiram os valores estabelecidos para CCS. As demais atingiram valores muito próximos ao limite. A adequação aos padrões de CBT e CCS gerou aumento na renda mensal, em razão do pagamento por qualidade do produto, entre R$120,00 e R$828,00, de acordo com a produção de cada propriedade. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to adequate raw refrigerated milk quality of five dairy farms to microbiological and somatic cell count (SCC) standards established by Paraná state legislation. The dairy farms were monitored during seven months after the implementation of good milking practices and recommen [...] dations regarding mastitis treatment, and milking equipment maintenance and hygiene. Before the adoption of recommendations, the average total bacterial count (TBC) was 1.36 x 10(6)CFU/mL and average SCC was 1.87 x 10(6)/mL. All farms reached established standards for TBC, originating an average reduction of 93.4%. Average SCC reduction was 74.3%. Only three farms reached established values for SCC. The remaining reached values near the limits. The suitability of TBC and SCC produced an increase in the monthly income due to payment quality reward of the dairy product, between R$120.00 and R$828.00, according to each farm production.

G.A., Bozo; L.C.A., Alegro; L.C., Silva; E.H.W., Santana; W., Okano; L.C.C., Silva.

2013-04-01

9

Adequação da contagem de células somáticas e da contagem bacteriana total em leite cru refrigerado aos parâmetros da legislação Suitability of somatic cell count and total bacterial count in raw refrigerated milk to legislation standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi adequar a qualidade do leite cru refrigerado de cinco propriedades leiteiras aos parâmetros microbiológicos e de contagem de células somáticas (CCS estabelecidos pela legislação estadual do Paraná. As propriedades leiteiras estudadas foram monitoradas durante sete meses após a implantação de boas práticas de ordenha e de recomendações quanto ao tratamento de mastites e à manutenção e higienização de equipamentos de ordenha. Antes da adoção das recomendações, a contagem bacteriana total (CBT média era de 1,36 x 10(6UFC/mL e a CCS média, de 1,87 x 10(6/mL. Todas as propriedades atingiram os padrões estabelecidos para CBT, com redução média de 93,4%. A redução de CCS foi, em média, 74,3%. Apenas três propriedades atingiram os valores estabelecidos para CCS. As demais atingiram valores muito próximos ao limite. A adequação aos padrões de CBT e CCS gerou aumento na renda mensal, em razão do pagamento por qualidade do produto, entre R$120,00 e R$828,00, de acordo com a produção de cada propriedade.The aim of this work was to adequate raw refrigerated milk quality of five dairy farms to microbiological and somatic cell count (SCC standards established by Paraná state legislation. The dairy farms were monitored during seven months after the implementation of good milking practices and recommendations regarding mastitis treatment, and milking equipment maintenance and hygiene. Before the adoption of recommendations, the average total bacterial count (TBC was 1.36 x 10(6CFU/mL and average SCC was 1.87 x 10(6/mL. All farms reached established standards for TBC, originating an average reduction of 93.4%. Average SCC reduction was 74.3%. Only three farms reached established values for SCC. The remaining reached values near the limits. The suitability of TBC and SCC produced an increase in the monthly income due to payment quality reward of the dairy product, between R$120.00 and R$828.00, according to each farm production.

G.A. Bozo

2013-04-01

10

Automated counting of bacterial colony forming units on agar plates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Manual counting of bacterial colony forming units (CFUs) on agar plates is laborious and error-prone. We therefore implemented a colony counting system with a novel segmentation algorithm to discriminate bacterial colonies from blood and other agar plates.A colony counter hardware was designed and a novel segmentation algorithm was written in MATLAB. In brief, pre-processing with Top-Hat-filtering to obtain a uniform background was followed by the segmentation step, during which the colony images were extracted from the blood agar and individual colonies were separated. A Bayes classifier was then applied to count the final number of bacterial colonies as some of the colonies could still be concatenated to form larger groups. To assess accuracy and performance of the colony counter, we tested automated colony counting of different agar plates with known CFU numbers of S. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and M. catarrhalis and showed excellent performance. PMID:22448267

Brugger, Silvio D; Baumberger, Christian; Jost, Marcel; Jenni, Werner; Brugger, Urs; Mühlemann, Kathrin

2012-01-01

11

Testing for bacterial resistance to arsenic in monitoring well water by the direct viable counting method.  

OpenAIRE

Direct viable counting of metal-resistant bacteria (DVCMR) has been found to be useful in both enumerating and differentiating metal-resistant and metal-sensitive strains of bacteria. The DVCMR bioassay was used to detect effects of low and high concentrations of arsenic and arsenicals on bacterial populations in groundwater. The level of resistance of the bacterial populations to arsenate was determined by the DVCMR bioassay, and the results showed a linear correlation with the total arsenic...

Zelibor, J. L.; Doughten, M. W.; Grimes, D. J.; Colwell, R. R.

1987-01-01

12

Fertility of semen used in commercial production and the impact of sperm numbers and bacterial counts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective was to monitor sperm counts and bacterial presence on randomly pooled semen doses over 3y and to determine effects on the farrowing rate and total born in two large farm systems, each serviced by their own boar stud. Sperm counts were divided into increments of 0.5x10(9) for data analysis. There was no effect of sperm count or the presence of bacteria on farrowing rate (n=9502 observations). Furthermore, based on 7311 observations, there was no effect of the mere presence of bacteria on total born, but sperm count had a significant effect on total born; in particular, total born decreased with pooled semen doses <2.5x10(9) sperm. PMID:18768216

Reicks, D L; Levis, D G

2008-11-01

13

Robotic milking and milk quality: effects on bacterial counts, somatic cell counts, freezing point and free fatty acids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Changes in milk quality after the introduction of automatic milking systems (AM-systems on dairy farms in TheNetherlands, Germany and Denmark were examined and the data were compared with milk quality results of farms withconventional milking technology. After introduction, a small, but significant increase in total bacterial count, somatic cellcount, freezing point and free fatty acids was observed. The highest levels for total plate count and cell count are foundin the first six months after introduction. After this period the milk quality slightly improves to a more stable level.Risk factors related with milk quality concern general farm characteristics, animal health, AM-system, cleaning and cooling,housing, management skills of the farmer and the hygiene on the farm. Total plate count was significantly relatedto milk yield of the herd, cleaning of the area around the AM-system and the overall hygiene on the farm. Bulk milksomatic cell count appeared to be significantly related to milk yield of the herd and the number of milkings before replacementof the liners. An increased milking frequency is not the only explanation of increased free fatty acid levels. Technicalfactors related to free fatty acids mainly concerned the air inlet in the teat cups, bubbling (excessive air inlet and a toolong post run time of the milk pump. However, several questions regarding the causes of increased free fatty acid levelsremained unclear.

Yvonne van der Vorst

2010-01-01

14

Caracterización de sistemas productivos lecheros en el Sur de Chile con distintos sistemas de manejo y su relación con el recuento total bacteriano de la leche producida: un análisis multivariable / Characterisation of milk production systems of Southern Chile under different farm management systems and their relationship with total bacterial count of milk: a multivariate analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Este estudio determinó y caracterizó tipos de sistemas productivos lecheros para obtención de leche (SP) en el Sur de Chile, asociando las variables de manejo con recuentos bacterianos de las partidas de leche de éstos. Se utilizó información cualitativa referente a diversas variables de manejo para [...] producir leche. Se analizaron 108 productores, mediante análisis de correspondencias múltiples y análisis de conglomerados. Se identificó 4 formas de obtener leche. El grupo SP1 (43% de la muestra) aportó el 87% de la leche a la industria y presentó adecuadas formas de manejo, clasificando todos, el 100% de sus partidas de leche en el mejor rango de calidad (? 20.000 ufc/mL). El SP2 (20% de la muestra) aportó un 10% del total de leche aunque mayoritariamente presentó inadecuadas formas de manejo, y clasificó un 77% de las partidas de leche en el mejor rango de calidad (? 20.000 ufc/mL), esta inconsistencia sugiere la necesidad de analizar en mayor profundidad este grupo. Finalmente, los grupos SP3 y SP4, que en conjunto entregaron sólo un 3% de la leche de la muestra total a la industria pero que representaron un 37% de la muestra, presentaron inadecuadas formas de manejo y se consideraron "grupos problema", predominando en ambos partidas de leche de mala calidad con recuentos > 200.000 ufc/mL en un 76 y 72%, respectivamente, en especial en SP3 con un 61% de las partidas de leche clasificadas en el peor rango establecido (> 800.000 ufc/mL). Consecuentemente se deben realizar acciones correctivas, relacionadas fundamentalmente con la temperatura de almacenamiento de la leche y con el correcto lavado de equipos, estanques y utensilios en SP3 y SP4. Abstract in english In this study, different types of dairy management systems for milk production (SP) in Southern Chile were determined and characterised, relating management variables to bacterial count in raw milk. Qualitative information on several management variables was utilised for evaluation. A survey was con [...] ducted on 108 dairy farmers and the management systems were evaluated using both multiple correspondence and conglomerate analysis. Four milk production systems were identified. The SP1 group (43% of the surveyed farmers) that delivered 87% of the industry milk had an adequate production management, with 100% of the produced milk being classified as best quality (? 20.000 cfu/mL). The SP2 group (20% of surveyed farmers) that produced 10% of the total milk delivered, mainly showed inadequate ways of milk production, however, 77% of the milk was classified as best quality. The uneven results suggest that further in-depth analysis of the group is required. Finally, the SP3 and SP4 groups that produced only 3% of the milk delivered but represented 37% of the surveyed farmers, had inadequate production management and were classified as "problem groups" with low milk quality with bacterial counts > 200.000 cfu/mL for 76% and 72% of the produced milk, respectively; specially the SP3 group with 61% of the milk in the worst quality category (> 800.000 cfu/mL). Therefore, corrective actions, mainly related to milk storage temperature and milking equipment cleaning, are required for the SP3 and SP4 groups.

BL, Carrillo; C, Pinargote; C, Brito; J, González; VH, Moreira; A, Báez.

15

Metabolic activity of bacterial cells enumerated by direct viable count  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The direct viable count (DVC) method was modified by incorporating radiolabeled substrates in microautoradiographic analyses to assess bacterial survival in controlled laboratory microcosms. The DVC method, which permits enumeration of culturable and nonculturable cells, discriminates those cells that are responsive to added nutrients but in which division is inhibited by the addition of nalidixic acid. The resulting elongated cells represent all viable cells; this includes those that are culturable on routine media and those that are not. Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis were employed in the microcosm studies, and radiolabeled substrates included (methyl-tritium thymidine or (Uranium-Carbon 14) glutamic acid. Samples taken at selected intervals during the survival experiments were examined by epifluorescence microscopy to enumerate cells by the DVC and acridine orange direct count methods, as well as by culture methods. Good correlation was obtained for cell-associated metabolic activity, measured by microautoradiography and substrate responsiveness (by the DVC method) at various stages of survival. Of the cells responsive to nutrients by the DVC method, ca 90% were metabolically active by the microautoradiographic method. No significant difference was observed between DVC enumerations with or without added radiolabeled substrate.

Roszak, D.B.; Colwell, R.R.

1987-12-01

16

Metabolic activity of bacterial cell enumerated by direct viable count  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The direct viable count (DVC) method was modified by incorporation radiolabeled substrates in microautoradiographic analyses to assess bacterial survival in controlled laboratory microcosms. The DVC method, which permits enumeration of culturable and nonculturable cells, discriminates those cells that are responsive to added nutrients but in which division is inhibited by the addition of nalidixic acid. The resulting elongated cells represent all viable cells; this includes those that are culturable on routine media and those that are not. Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis were employed in the microcosm studies, and radiolabeled substrates included [methyl-3H] thymidine or [U-14C] glutamic acid. Samples taken at selected intervals during the survival experiments were examined by epifluorescence microscopy to enumerate cells by the DVC and acridine orange direct count methods, as well as by culture methods. Good correlation was obtained for cell-associated metabolic activity, measured by microautoradiography and substrate responsiveness (by the DVC method) at various stages of survival. Of the cells responsive to nutrients by the DVC method, ca. 90% were metabolically active by the microautoradiographic method. No significant difference was observed between DVC enumerations with or without added radiolabeled substrate

17

Effects of season, milking routine and cow cleanliness on bacterial and somatic cell counts of bulk tank milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of season, cow cleanliness and milking routine on bacterial and somatic cell counts of bulk tank milk. A total of 22 dairy farms in Lombardy (Italy) were visited three times in a year in different seasons. During each visit, samples of bulk tank milk were taken for bacterial and somatic cell counts; swabs from the teat surface of a group of cows were collected after teat cleaning and before milking. Cow cleanliness was assessed by scoring udder, flanks and legs of all milking cows using a 4-point scale system. Season affected cow cleanliness with a significantly higher percentage of non-clean (NC) cows during Cold compared with Mild season. Standard plate count (SPC), laboratory pasteurization count (LPC), coliform count (CC) and somatic cell count, expressed as linear score (LS), in milk significantly increased in Hot compared with Cold season. Coagulase-positive staphylococci on teat swabs showed higher counts in Cold season in comparison with the other ones. The effect of cow cleanliness was significant for SPC, psychrotrophic bacterial count (PBC), CC and Escherichia coli in bulk tank milk. Somatic cell count showed a relationship with udder hygiene score. Milking operation routine strongly affected bacterial counts and LS of bulk tank milk: farms that accomplished a comprehensive milking scheme including two or more operations among forestripping, pre-dipping and post-dipping had lower teat contamination and lower milk SPC, PBC, LPC, CC and LS than farms that did not carry out any operation. PMID:21843397

Zucali, Maddalena; Bava, Luciana; Tamburini, Alberto; Brasca, Milena; Vanoni, Laura; Sandrucci, Anna

2011-11-01

18

The Influence of Pumping on Observed Bacterial Counts in Groundwater Samples: Implications for Sampling Protocol and Water Quality Interpretation  

Science.gov (United States)

Drinking water quality has become an important issue in Ontario following the events in Walkerton in 2000. Many rural communities are reliant on private groundwater wells for drinking water, and it is the responsibility of the owner to have the water tested to make sure it is safe for human consumption. Homeowners can usually take a sample to the local health unit for total coliform and E. Coli analysis at no charge to determine if the water supply is being tainted by surface water or fecal matter, both of which could indicate the potential for negative impacts on human health. However, is the sample coming out of the tap representative of what is going on the aquifer? The goal of this study is to observe how bacterial counts may vary during the course of well pumping, and how those changing results influence the assessment of water quality. Multiple tests were conducted in bedrock monitoring wells to examine the influence of pumping rate and pumped volume on observed counts of total coliform, E. Coli, fecal streptococcus, fecal coliform and heterotrophic plate count. Bacterial samples were collected frequently during the course of continuous purging events lasting up to 8 hours. Typical field parameters (temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen and ORP) were also continuously monitored during the course of each test. Common practice in groundwater studies is to wait until these parameters have stabilized or three well volumes have been removed prior to sampling, to ensure the sample is taken from new water entering the well from the aquifer, rather than the original water stored in the borehole prior to the test. In general, most bacterial counts were low, but did go above the drinking water standard of 0 counts/100mL (total coliform and E. Coli) at times during the tests. Results show the greatest variability in the observed bacterial counts at the onset of pumping prior to the removal of three well volumes. Samples taken after the removal of three well volumes are more likely to show stabilized bacterial counts, however, this sort of pumping event is not common during daily household water use or when a sample is being collected for a bacterial test by the homeowner. The stabilization of bacterial counts was delayed compared to the field parameters. Bacterial counts were influenced on the short-term by changes in pumping rate, however, similar long-term stability of the counts was observed. The trends of tests conducted in multi-level piezometers (sand pack between the screen and the wellbore wall) were similar to tests conducted in open boreholes. The results imply that bacterial counts and the subsequent water quality interpretations are influenced by the pumping rate and when the sample was taken during the pumping event. Early time results are more likely to reflect the bacterial response to the perturbations caused by the pump itself, while later samples reflect the adjustment of the bacterial colonies, in and adjacent to the well, to the new conditions. Further consideration needs to be given to these parameters when designing a bacterial sampling protocol in groundwater and when assessing the quality of drinking water using bacteria as indicators.

Kozuskanich, J.; Novakowski, K.; Anderson, B.

2008-12-01

19

Effect of cleaning procedure and hygienic condition of milking equipment on bacterial count of bulk tank milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics of cleaning procedures for milking equipment applied in intensive dairy farms in Lombardy (Italy) and to study their relationships with bacterial count of bulk milk and hygienic condition of milking machine components. A group of 22 dairy farms was visited twice (winter and summer) in order to collect bulk tank milk and post-rinse water samples and swabs from liners and milk receiver. Samples were analysed to determine: standard plate count (SPC), laboratory pasteurization count (LPC), psychrotrophic bacteria count (PBC), coliform count (CC) and Escherichia coli. Cleaning procedures were monitored using electronic milk flow meters with specific software for the measurement of the duration of each cleaning phase, circulating solution temperature and electrical conductivity, turbulence and water filling percentage of pipelines. The results showed that farms classified as high and low milk total bacteria count significantly differed both in terms of liners and receiver bacterial contamination and in terms of water temperature reached during the detergent phase of cleaning milking equipment. Significant positive correlations were found among total bacteria count in milk and bacterial contamination of the liners. Maximum water temperature reached during the cleaning cycle of milking equipment was very low (34.4±8.9°C on average); most of the observations (88.6%) corresponded to water temperatures Cleaning temperature was related to psychrotrophic bacteria count of milk and post-rinse water and coliform count in liners. Routine check and regulation of water temperature during the washing phase of the milking machine can be a simple and effective way to control one of the main risk factors for bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk. PMID:21371358

Bava, Luciana; Zucali, Maddalena; Sandrucci, Anna; Brasca, Milena; Vanoni, Laura; Zanini, Lucio; Tamburini, Alberto

2011-05-01

20

Influence of somatic cell count and total bacterial counts of raw milk in cheese yield using small-scale methodology / Influência da contagem de células somáticas e da contagem bacteriana total do leite cru no rendimento da produção de queijos, utilizando metodologia em escala reduzida  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar a influência da CCS e CBT do leite cru no rendimento de queijos, utilizando método em escala reduzida, e avaliar a predição teórica do rendimento de queijos. Foram utilizadas 270 amostras de leite cru com três níveis de CCS (abaixo de 200.000; 200.000-750. [...] 000; acima de 750.000 CS/mL) e três níveis de CBT (abaixo de 100.000; 100.000-750.000; acima de 750.000 UFC/mL). As amostras de leite cru foram submetidas a análises de composição (gordura, proteína, lactose, EST e ESD), CCS, CBT, crioscopia e pH. A produção dos queijos em escala reduzida foi feita segundo o método desenvolvido na Universidade de Cornell, EUA (Melilli et al., 2002). As amostras de soro de queijo foram submetidas a análises de composição (gordura, proteína total, proteína verdadeira, lactose, EST e ESD) e CCS. O aumento da CCS no leite cru refletiu na maior perda de proteína no soro. CCS elevada (acima de 200.000 CS/mL) foi correlacionada ao menor rendimento de massa seca. Foi encontrada uma correlação alta entre os valores teóricos de rendimento e os valores de rendimento preditos pela metodologia em escala reduzida, indicando que esta metodologia pode ser utilizada para a predição do rendimento de queijos. Abstract in english The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of SCC and TBC of raw milk in cheese yield, using a reduced scale method, and to evaluate theoretical prediction of cheese yield. 270 samples of raw milk were split into three SCC levels (below 200,000; 200,000-750,000; above 750,000 SC/mL) [...] and three TBC levels (below 100,000; 100,000-750,000; above 750,000 CFU/mL). Raw milk samples were submitted to compositional analysis (fat, protein, lactose, total solids and SNF content), SCC, TBC, freezing point and pH. The production of the small-scale cheese was conducted according to the method developed at Cornell University (Melilli et al., 2002). Cheese whey samples were submitted to compositional analysis (fat, total protein, true protein, lactose, total solids and SNF content) and SCC. The increase in the SCC of raw milk resulted in increased protein loss in cheese whey. High SCC (above 200,000 SC/mL) in milk samples was correlated to reduced dry matter yield. There was no effect of TBC in cheese yield in the experimental conditions used. There was a high correlation between the theoretical yield values and the yield values predicted by the small-scale method, indicating that this method is appropriate for cheese yield prediction.

N.M.A., Silva; L.P.F., Bastos; D.L.S., Oliveira; M.C.P.P., Oliveira; L.M., Fonseca.

1367-13-01

21

Total Leucocyte Count, C-reactive Protein and Neutrophil Count: Diagnostic Aid in Acute Appendicitis  

OpenAIRE

Background/Aim: Acute appendicitis is one of the most common acute intraabdominal affections seen in surgical departments, which can be treated easily if an accurate diagnosis is made in time. Otherwise, delay in diagnosis and treatment can lead to diffuse peritonitis. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted on 110 patients who were operated for acute appendicitis to determine the role and predictive value of the total leucocyte count (TLC), C-reactive protein (CRP) and percentage of ...

Shafi Sheikh; Afsheen Misbha; Reshi Farooq

2009-01-01

22

Bacterial and Archaeal direct counts: a faster method of enumeration, for enrichment cultures and aqueous environmental samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new presence/absence method has been developed to count fluorochrome-stained bacterial and archaeal cells on membrane filters using epifluorescence microscopy. This approach was derived from the random distribution of cells on membranes that allowed the use of the Poisson distribution to estimate total cell densities. Comparison with the standard Acridine Orange Direct Count (AODC) technique shows no significant difference in the estimation of total cell populations, or any reduction in the precision of these estimations. The new method offers advantages over the standard AODC in considerably faster counting, as there is no need to discriminate between every potential cell visible on a field and fluorescent detritus, it is only necessary to confirm the presence of one cell. Additionally, the new method requires less skill, so has less reliance on expert counters, and that should reduce inter-counter variability. Although this work used the fluorochrome Acridine Orange, clearly the results are applicable to any fluorochrome used to count bacterial and archaeal cells. This method was developed using enrichment cultures for use with enrichment cultures and aqueous environmental samples where interfering detrital and mineral particles are minimal e.g., freshwater/seawater, therefore, it is not suitable for estimating total cells from sediment samples. This method has the potential for use in any situation where counts of randomly distributed items are made using a grid or quadrat system. PMID:24361191

Cragg, Barry A; Parkes, R John

2014-03-01

23

Total leucocyte count, C-reactive protein and neutrophil count: Diagnostic Aid in acute appendicitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background/Aim: Acute appendicitis is one of the most common acute intraabdominal affections seen in surgical departments, which can be treated easily if an accurate diagnosis is made in time. Otherwise, delay in diagnosis and treatment can lead to diffuse peritonitis. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted on 110 patients who were operated for acute appendicitis to determine the role and predictive value of the total leucocyte count (TLC, C-reactive protein (CRP and percentage of neutrophil count in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Preoperative TLC, CRP and percentage of neutrophil count were determined and were compared with the results of the histopathology of the removed appendix. Results: Of all the patients studied, 92 had histopathologically positive appendicitis. The TLC was found to be significantly high in 90 patients who proved to have acute appendicitis, whereas CRP was high in only 88 patients and neutrophil percentage was raised in 91; four had a normal CRP level. Thus, TLC had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 97.82%, 55.55% and 91.8%, respectively. CRP had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 95.6%, 77.77% and 95.6% respectively. Percentage of neutrophil count had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 98.9%, 38.88% and 89.21%, respectively. When used in combination, there was a marked improvement in the specificity and the positive predictive value to 88.04% and 98.7%, respectively. Conclusion: The inflammatory markers, i.e., TLC, CRP and neutrophil count can be helpful in the diagnosis when measured together as this increases their specificity and positive predictive value.

Shafi Sheikh

2009-01-01

24

The relationship between total lymphocyte count and CD4 count in patients infected with HIV  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: CD4 T-Lymphocyte counts have proven to be a standard laboratory marker of disease progression and severity of immunodeficiency in adults infected with HIV is used to initiate and monitor highly active antiretroviral therapy; however, its application may not be feasible for its expensive equipments and reagent in resource-limited setting. There is a need to have another marker of immunodeficiency that is less resource-demanding. In April 2002, the World Health Organization (WHO recommended that, when CD4 cell count is not available, a TLC of 1200cell/mm3 or less in individuals with stage 2 or 3 of the disease may be used as an indication to initiate ART."n"nMethods: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between total lymphocyte count and CD4 count in HIV-infected adults. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study. Subject characteristics were patients who had positive serologic HIV test results, confirmed via western blot. Analysis unit was the results of CBC and CD4 measurements on the same blood sample each time. Data of 100 patients were collected. In this study, TLC accounts for the main predictor of CD4 count. The amounts of TLC which can predict CD4 less than 200cell/mm3 were considered eligible."n"nResults: Our data revealed high sensitivity and specificity of TLC as a surrogate measure of CD4 count. In this study, TLC cutoff of 1300cell/mm3 indicated the optimal combined sensitivity and specificity altogether."n"nConclusion: Total lymphocyte count and its changes can be used as alternative to CD4 count and its changes in the management of HIV-infected individuals.

Mokarami F

2009-10-01

25

Design of a new universal real-time PCR system targeting the tuf gene for the enumeration of bacterial counts in food.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel universal real-time PCR, consisting of newly designed oligonucleotide subsets, was designed for a bacterial housekeeping gene encoding the peptide elongation factor Tu. Specificity and universality were confirmed in 66 bacterial strains, including 51 genera and 63 species. The amplification kinetics of tuf gene-targeted real-time quantitative PCR were consistent in a wide range of bacterial species tested. A calibration curve (r(2) = 0.97) was produced for the estimation of bacterial counts, based on measurements of representative inoculations with 10-fold serial dilutions of the cells of representative bacterial species. Linear regression analysis of the real-time PCR-derived bacterial counts and aerobic plate counts, in a total 149 samples consisting of 25 minced meat, 34 fresh-cut vegetables, and 90 fish, exhibited a high correlation (r(2) = 0.84, 0.87, and 0.95, respectively) over the range of 3.0 to 9.0 log CFU/g. In total, the difference between the two methods was less than 0.5 log in 75 of these samples, and in the remaining 74 samples, the difference was 0.5 to 1.0 log. Presently, our tuf gene-targeted real-time quantitative PCR assay achieves a rapid (within 2 h) estimation of bacterial counts of 3.0 to 9.0 log CFU/g, in a practical manner. PMID:20377955

Tanaka, Yuichiro; Takahashi, Hajime; Simidu, Usio; Kimura, Bon

2010-04-01

26

EFFECT OF GRADE -III EXERCISE ON TOTAL LEUCOCYTE COUNT AND DIFFERENTIAL LEUCOCYTE COUNT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Exercise is a type of physical activity and is defined as a planned. Structured and repetitive bodily movement done to improve and to maintain physical fitness .exercise stress releases some amount of adrenaline from adrenal medulla. Adrenaline brings about a beta receptor mediated vasodilatation in skeletal muscles which may contribute to the anticipatory vasodilatation in the blood vassals, and increased blood flow is seen during and for a short while after the exercise. Due to the stimulation of bone marrow more number of white blood cells (WBC produced from marginal pool and released into circulation. Materials & Methods: Thirty subjects both male and female were randomly selected as control and study groups. Control group sample was collected after taking rest for 1 hour and study group sample was collected immediately after grade III exercise. Conclusion: After exercise total leukocyte count (TLC increased significantly p. value being ?0.0001 and differential leukocyte count(DLC increased significantly p. value being ?0.01.

Amrutha.K,

2014-08-01

27

Evaluating total lymphocyte counts as a substitute for CD4 counts in the follow up of AIDS patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study evaluated total lymphocyte count (TLC) as a substitute marker for CD4+ cell counts to identify patients who need prophylaxis against opportunistic infection (CD4 [...] C and CD4+ cells count of 1,174 HIV-infected patients, in Salvador, Brazil, from May 2003 to September 2004. CD4+ cell counts were performed by flow cytometry, and TLC was measured with an automated hematological counter. The mean CD4 count was 430 cells/mm³ (range: 4 to 2,531 cells/mm³). Mean TLC was 1,900 cells/mm³ (range: 300 to 6,200 cells/mm³). Using a threshold value of 1,000 cells/mm³ for TLC, the positive predictive value (PPV) was 77% for CD4

Ana Luiza Dias, Angelo; Camila Dias, Angelo; Alex José Leite, Torres; André Maurício Costa, Ramos; Márcia, Lima; Eduardo Martins, Netto; Carlos, Brites.

2007-10-01

28

Bacterial clearance after total splenectomy and splenic autotransplantation in rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wistar rats submitted to isolated total splenectomy or total splenectomy combined with splenic autotransplantation were inoculated with 99mtechnetium-labeled Escherichia coli. Measurement of isotope uptake in the organs of the mononuclear phagocytic system showed a greater bacterial bloodstream clearance in rats with splenic autotransplantation. Although uptake of bacteria in the spleen was higher in the control group, the number of bacteria remaining in the bloodstream did not differ between groups. These results indicate that splenic autotransplantation preserves the phagocytic function of the spleen

29

Bacterial clearance after total splenectomy and splenic autotransplantation in rats  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wistar rats submitted to isolated total splenectomy or total splenectomy combined with splenic autotransplantation were inoculated with {sup 99m}technetium-labeled Escherichia coli. Measurement of isotope uptake in the organs of the mononuclear phagocytic system showed a greater bacterial bloodstream clearance in rats with splenic autotransplantation. Although uptake of bacteria in the spleen was higher in the control group, the number of bacteria remaining in the bloodstream did not differ between groups. These results indicate that splenic autotransplantation preserves the phagocytic function of the spleen.

Marques, R.G. E-mail: rmarques@uerj.br; Petroianu, Andy; Oliveira, M.B.N. de; Bernardo-Filho, M.; Boasquevisque, E.M.; Portela, M.C

2002-12-01

30

Bacterial and yeast counts in Brazilian commodities and spices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A total of thirteen genera of bacteria and two genera of yeasts were detected in surface sterilized and unsterilized Brazilian commodities and spices such as cashew kernels, Brazil nut kernels, black and white pepper. The genus Bacillus with eight species was by far the most common. The yeasts isolated were Pichia sp., P. guillermondii and Rhodotorula sp. Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in cashew and Brazil nut kernels.

Freire Francisco das Chagas Oliveira

2002-01-01

31

Influence of addition of different antibiotics in semen diluent on viable bacterial count and spermatozoal viability of Awassi ram semen  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of six different antibiotics in controlling the growth of semen contaminating bacteria and if these antibiotics have any adverse effect on Awassi ram spermatozoa. Semen samples from six mature Awassi rams were used in this study. A total number of 120 ejaculates were collected from the rams using an artificial vagina once a week. Semen ejaculates were evaluated for volume, sperm concentration, mass motility, individual motility, percentage live sperm, sperm abnormalities, and viable bacterial count. Semen samples were diluted by sodium citrate-fructose-egg yolk. The diluted semen sample was divided into 7 parts. Six types of antibiotics were added to the semen diluent parts including; penicillin G 1000 IU ml-1 with streptomycin 1 mg ml-1, gentamicin sulphate 250 mg ml-1, tetracycline 0.5 mg ml-1, lincomycin 1 mg ml-1, cefoperazone sodium 1mg ml-1, cefdinir 1 mg ml-1 and the seventh part considered as a control group without antibiotic addition. The diluted semen samples were cooled and preserved at 5 Co for 5 days. Cooled diluted semen samples were examined for individual motility, percent of live sperm, sperm abnormalities, acrosomal defects and bacterial count every 24 h until 5 days. Comparing with the control, all the antibiotics examined were effective in controlling bacterial growth (P<0.05 from 24 h to 96 h of preservation at 5 Co. Cefdinir and cefoperazone sodium proved to be significantly (P<0.05 effective than other antibiotics in controlling bacterial growth at 96 h of preservation as the bacterial count were 23.3 ± 3.7 x 103 / ml and 25.4 ± 6.2 x 103 / ml, respectively. Lincomycin, gentamicin sulphate and tetracycline proved ineffective in controlling bacterial growth at 96 h of preservation as the bacterial count were 57.1 ± 20.1 x 103 / ml, 52.5 ± 29.4 x 103 / ml and 46.5 ± 8.8 x 103 / ml, respectively. The addition of tetracycline to diluted ram semen significantly reduced (P<0.05 sperm individual motility and percent live sperm and a significant increase (P<0.05 acrosomal defects was observed at 96 h of preservation in comparison to control and other antibiotics. Sperm viability was highly correlated with bacterial count in the control part of diluted semen (r = 0.794; P < 0.01. It could be concluded from the results of the present study that additions of cephalosporins (cefdinir or Cefoperazone sodium at the dose of 1 mg ml-1 were most effective amongst the antibiotics used in checking the bacterial growth and improving semen quality of Awassi ram. [Vet. World 2012; 5(2.000: 75-79

O I Azawi

2012-04-01

32

Salivary biomass assessed by bioluminescence ATP assay related to (bacterial and somatic) cell counts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work aimed (1) to evaluate ATP content in saliva by the bioluminescent luciferin-luciferase method, (2) to evaluate the relationships between ATP content, bacterial count and epithelial cell numbers in saliva, (3) to study the effect of two different antiseptics (peroxidase system producing hypothiocyanite and chlorhexidine) on the salivary biomass. In 45 young adults, the salivary ATP content ranged from 8 to 1515 nM. Salivary ATP content was significantly and directly correlated to bacterial count and epithelial cell numbers (Spearman-Rank correlation, POSCN(-)). Chlorhexidine (CHX) reduced salivary ATP content to 52.0+/-16.7 per cent. OSCN(-) did not affect the transformed logarithm of bacterial count but CHX reduced it from 7. 02+/-0.26 to 0.52+/-0.33. No effect of OSCN(-) was seen on the ratio of epithelial cell viability while CHX reduced it from 46.7+/-5.1 to 3.9+/-1.1 per cent. It is concluded that the combination of the evaluations of the ATP content and cell numbers in saliva can provide reliable data about the effects of oral antiseptics on salivary biomass. PMID:10814968

Gallez, F; Fadel, M; Scruel, O; Cantraine, F; Courtois, P

2000-06-01

33

Manageable risk factors associated with bacterial and coliform counts in unpasteurized bulk milk in Flemish dairy herds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Associations between herd management practices and both bacterial counts (BC) and coliform counts (CC) from 254 and 242 dairy herds in Flanders (Belgium), respectively, were studied. Data were analyzed using multivariable, multilevel linear regression analysis, allowing variance components analyses. Both BC and CC fluctuated throughout the year, although the milk quality parameters followed an opposite pattern. Bacterial count values decreased with each increase of the cleaning frequency of the cubicles (once per week, once per day, twice per day, or more than twice per day) between January and March. Herds with a conventional milking parlor had substantially lower BC than herds where the cows were milked using an automatic milking system. Lower BC were observed when the milking parlor was equipped with an automatic cluster removal system, when premilking teat disinfection was applied, when the dry cows were supplemented with a mix of minerals and vitamins, and when the teats were prepared either first wet and dried or via an automatic milking system. Milking cows with a high-pipeline milking parlor setup or with an automatic milking system was associated with substantially higher CC values. Herds where prepartum heifers were often treated with antimicrobials before calving had a lower CC than farms where heifers were either not or only rarely treated. Most variation in BC and CC resided at the herd level rather than at the observation level, indicating that management is important in the control of both BC and CC. Still, only a small proportion of the total variance was explained by factors capturing information related to the milking, herd health, and dry cow management, which suggests that the bacteriological milk quality and, in particular, CC is primarily driven by other factors than the ones included in this study. PMID:24704236

Piepers, S; Zrimšek, P; Passchyn, P; De Vliegher, S

2014-06-01

34

Bacterial counts from five over-the-counter probiotics: are you getting what you paid for?  

Science.gov (United States)

There is concern that the bacterial colony counts present at the time of manufacture and listed on the probiotic package may not be reflective of the numbers viable colonies at the time of purchase and patient consumption thereby diminishing efficacy. We performed a colony count study of three separate samples of five different probiotics purchased from three different stores: Bifidobacterium infantis (Align(®)); Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285(®) and Lactobacillus casei LBC80R(®) (Bio-K+(®)); Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (Culturelle(®)); Saccharomyces boulardii (Florastor(®)) and "L. acidophilus" and "Lactobacillus helveticus" (Lactinex(®)). Approximately 1 g of powder of each (Lactinex(®) tablets were crushed before testing) was reconstituted in sterile distilled water, serial 10-fold dilutions were prepared and plated in duplicate onto blood agar plates, with incubation for 48 h in an anaerobic chamber (except the Saccharomyces which was incubated aerobically) after which colony counts were performed. The Florastor(®) packaging did not state an expected concentration and was found to have 9.2 × 10(9)-1.3 × 10(10) CFU/g. Lactinex(®), Align(®), Bio-K+(®), and Culturelle(®) had viable colony counts that were similar to those stated on the package. PMID:24184290

Goldstein, Ellie J C; Citron, Diane M; Claros, Marina C; Tyrrell, Kerin L

2014-02-01

35

EFFECT OF AN ENZYMATIC COMPLEX ON EGG PRODUCTION AND QUALITY, TOTAL PLASMA PROTEIN LEVELS AND CECAL BACTERIAL COUNT OF LAYERS EFEITO DE UM COMPLEXO ENZIMÁTICO NA PRODUÇÃO E NA QUALIDADE DE OVOS, NOS NÍVEIS DE PROTEÍNAS PLASMÁTICAS E NA POPULAÇÃO BACTERIANA CECAL EM POEDEIRAS SEMIPESADAS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to relate the egg production with health status, expressed as cecal bacteria contamination, as well as to investigate the effect of total plasma proteins with egg quality of layers fed different diets reformulated to different metabolizable energy levels using an enzyme complex, obtained by solid state fermentation.  A total of  384 26-week old Hisex Brown layers were fed experimental diets during 280 days (10 periods of 28 days each. A total of 4 birds were allocated per cage, in a total of 64 birds/treatment. Treatments consisted in reformulating diets to different metablizable energy levels using an enzyme complex (EC obtained by  solid state fermentation:   T1 – basal diet (control; T2 –  basal diet  + EC (reformulated to  120 kcal ME/kg; T3 – basal diet + EC (reformulated to 90 kcal ME/kg; T4 – basal diet + EC (reformulated to 60 kcal ME/kg; T5 – basal diet + EC (reformulated to 30 kcal ME/kg and T6 – basal diet + EC ( on top. Egg production, egg weight, Haugh units, albumen weight, total plasma proteins and cecal bacteria count were evaluated.  Egg weight and albumen weight and cecal bacteria count, but not egg production, Haugh units and total plasma proteins,   were adversely affected when the EC was added on top of a diet containing a regular commercial premix. This study indicates that the health status of the gut can be improved by adding the SSF enzyme complex on top of a regular diet.

KEY WORDS: Exogenous enzymes, Haugh units, sanitary status.
Objetivou-se relacionar a produção de ovos com o status sanitário das aves, expresso pelo nível de contaminação bacteriana cecal, bem como os níveis plasmáticos de proteínas totais com a qualidade dos ovos de aves que receberam dietas com complexo enzimático (CE com diferentes níveis de valorização da energia metabolizável. Utilizaram-se 384 poedeiras Hisex Brown por um período de 280 dias, divididos em dez ciclos de 28 dias cada, iniciando-se o experimento quando as aves alcançaram a 26ª semana de idade. Cada gaiola com quatro aves representou uma unidade experimental totalizando 64 aves/tratamento. Os tratamentos consistiram em dietas reformuladas para valorização da energia metabolizável pelo CE: T1 – dieta basal (controle; T2 – dieta basal + CE (valorizado em 120 kcal EM/kg; T3 – dieta basal + CE (valorizado em 90 kcal EM/kg; T4 – dieta basal + CE (valorizado em 60 kcal EM/kg; T5 – dieta basal + CE (valorizado em 30 kcal EM/kg e T6 – dieta basal + CE (sem valorização energética – on top. Avaliaram-se produção de ovos (PDOV, peso dos ovos (POV, unidades Haugh (UH, peso da clara (PC, níveis de proteína plasmática totais (PPTs e contagem do conteúdo cecal. Observou-se que, quando o CE foi adicionado on top, o POV e o PCL foram menores, assim como houve uma diminuição na carga bacteriana cecal desses animais. Entretanto, a PDOV, UH e as PPTs não sofreram influência dos tratamentos. Esses dados indicam que o estado sanitário do intestino pode ser melhorado ao ser adicionado o complexo enzimático on top da dieta.  

PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Enzimas exógenas, status sanitário, unidade Haugh.

Fabiane Pereira Gentilini

2009-07-01

36

A urine preservative system to maintain bacterial counts. A laboratory and clinical evaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The urinary tract is a common site of infection in the hospitalized, institutionalized, or ambulatory patient population. Ideally, urine should be cultured immediately or refrigerated up to 24 hours for quantitative examination for microorganisms. In the evaluation of patients at their homes or in long-term care facilities, rapid plating or refrigeration may not be practical. This is also true when evaluating small children in whom external collection devices are required to obtain a specimen. Because of these limitations, we evaluated a urine preservative and transport system, the Sage Products Urine Culture Tube, in a study of 1469 clinical specimens. This tube utilizes boric acid (1.1% final concentration) as a preservative. The Urine Culture Tube was easy to use and was as effective as refrigeration in maintaining bacterial counts. This system may be particularly useful where rapid transport or refrigeration is limited. PMID:3924460

Goodman, L J; Kaplan, R L; Landau, W; Jung, E; Barrett, J E; Levin, S; Harris, A A

1985-07-01

37

Metabolic activity of bacterial cell enumerated by direct viable count. [Escherichia coli; Salmonella enteritidis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The direct viable count (DVC) method was modified by incorporation radiolabeled substrates in microautoradiographic analyses to assess bacterial survival in controlled laboratory microcosms. The DVC method, which permits enumeration of culturable and nonculturable cells, discriminates those cells that are responsive to added nutrients but in which division is inhibited by the addition of nalidixic acid. The resulting elongated cells represent all viable cells; this includes those that are culturable on routine media and those that are not. Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis were employed in the microcosm studies, and radiolabeled substrates included (methyl-/sup 3/H) thymidine or (U-/sup 14/C) glutamic acid. Samples taken at selected intervals during the survival experiments were examined by epifluorescence microscopy to enumerate cells by the DVC and acridine orange direct count methods, as well as by culture methods. Good correlation was obtained for cell-associated metabolic activity, measured by microautoradiography and substrate responsiveness (by the DVC method) at various stages of survival. Of the cells responsive to nutrients by the DVC method, ca. 90% were metabolically active by the microautoradiographic method. No significant difference was observed between DVC enumerations with or without added radiolabeled substrate.

Roszak, D.B.; Colwell, R.R.

1987-12-01

38

Aerobic bacterial, coliform, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus counts of raw and processed milk from selected smallholder dairy farms of Zimbabwe.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cross sectional study was conducted to enumerate total viable bacteria (TBC), coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in raw (n=120) and processed (n=20) milk from individual farms from three smallholder dairy schemes of Zimbabwe between October, 2009 and February, 2010. Data on management factors were collected using a structured questionnaire. A standard pour plate technique was used to enumerate total viable bacteria, while for coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus, counts were assessed by the spread plate technique. The association of total viable bacterial counts and management factors was assessed using univariable and a linear regression model. The log?? TBC for raw milk differed significantly (P0.05). The coliform, E. coli and S. aureus counts for raw milk significantly differed (Pdairy scheme, delivery time and season of milking as independently associated with increased TBC of raw milk. The high TBC of raw and processed milk generally indicated low levels of milking hygienic practices, and high level of post-processing contamination, respectively. The high TBC, coliform, E. coli and S. aureus counts of both raw and processed milk may present a public health hazard. Thus, educating the farmers on general hygienic practices, quickening the delivery of milk to collection centres, or availing cooling facilities on-farm will improve the microbiological quality and safety of milk. PMID:21944662

Mhone, Tryness A; Matope, Gift; Saidi, Petronella T

2011-12-01

39

White blood cell count, absolute neutrophil count, as predictors of hidden bacterial infections in febrile children 1-18 months of age without focus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objectives: To study the relationship between White Blood Cell (WBC), Absolute Neutrophil Count (ANC) in febrile children 1-18 months of age as predictor of bacterial infection, so as to improve our predictability of bacterial infections in emergency room to decrease unnecessary admissions and antibiotic use. Methods: Retrospective review was performed on febrile patients 1-18 months of age that were admitted to hospital between August 2002 and March 2003 on the presumptive diagnosis of fever without focus, Complete septic work up was done for all patients according to local hospital protocol including Complete blood count (CBC), blood culture, urine culture, Chest X-Ray (CXR) and lumbar puncture, Patients who had history of antibiotics use within 48 hours of admission were excluded from the study, History, physical examination, laboratory and radiology data were reviewed. Data about the age, sex, temperature, presence or absence of focal bacterial infection, WBC, ANC, CXR report and body fluid culture results were collected and analyzed. Results: Thirty-four patients were reviewed in this study, Eight patients (23.5%) had bacterial infection: classified as group (2 patchy pneumonia, 3 Urinary tract infection (UTI), 2 meningitis, 1 Occult bacteremia (OB) and 26 patients (76.5%) had no evidence of bacterial infection, classified as group 2, No significant difference was found between the two groups in respect to age, sex, temperature and WBC P>0.05, while there was a srature and WBC P>0.05, while there was a significant difference between the two groups in respect to the ANC P = 0.02, also ANC had better sensitivity (78%) and specificity (89%) than WBC (sensitivity 77%, specificity 62%). Conclusion: ANC is a good predictive test for determining bacterial infection in young febrile children without focus, However there is need for other more reliable rapid cost effective measures in dealing with young febrile children at emergency department. (author)

40

Total count radioactive-tracer technique for determining stream flow rate, Pesanggrahan River, Indonesia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

River and stream flow measurements using radioactive-tracer technique have been widely used in many parts of the world. Radioisotopes in aqueous solution of KBr/sup 82/ and Cr/sup 51/ complexed with EDTA were used in our investigations. Flow-rate measurement of Pesanggrahan River, Indonesia using 'The Total Count Method' developed by hull is described. It is concluded that at different water levels the low flow of Pesanggrahan River can be accurately gauged using both radioisotope-tracers.

Wan Zakaria Wan Muhamad Tahir; Johari Mohammad Yusuf (PUSPATI, Selangor (Malaysia))

1984-12-01

41

Precision of helicopter-based total-area counts of large ungulates in bushveld  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Precision in helicopter total-area counts in bushveld for a range of common species are evaluated. Counts were conducted on properties ranging in size from 250 ha to 10 000 ha as part of experiments on precision and power. Counts were conducted in three vegetation types: mopane veld, sourish mixed bushveld and arid bushveld. Scant regard is given to precision as a factor in large herbivore monitoring, with more effort often devoted to accuracy. Coefficients of variation varied from 3.2 % to 70.9 %. Median values are generally acceptable for the establishment of trends for long-term monitoring, but might be inadequate for annual population size monitoring and evaluation. A regression of all species and vegetation types by the standard error showed a significant correlation. Similar regressions were also developed for impala, kudu, warthog, and zebra. Regressions by vegetation type for mopane veld, sourish mixed bushveld, and northwest arid bushveld were also significant. However, the high correlation for some vegetation types might be an artifact of the small sample sizes.

B.K. Reilly

2002-12-01

42

Determination of total viable count (TVC) in chicken breast fillets by near-infrared hyperspectral imaging and spectroscopic transforms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Near infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging (HSI) and different spectroscopic transforms were investigated for their potential in detecting total viable counts in raw chicken fillets. A laboratory-based pushbroom hyperspectral imaging system was utilized to acquire images of raw chicken breast fillets and the resulting reflectance images were corrected and transformed into hypercubes in absorbance and Kubelka-Munck (K-M) units. Full wavelength partial least regression models were established to correlate the three spectral profiles with measured bacterial counts, and the best calibration model was based on absorbance spectra, where the correlation coefficients (R) were 0.97 and 0.93, and the root mean squared errors (RMSEs) were 0.37 and 0.57 log10 colony forming units (CFU) per gram for calibration and cross validation, respectively. To simplify the models, several wavelengths were selected by stepwise regression. More robustness was found in the resulting simplified models and the model based on K-M spectra was found to be excellent with an indicative high ratio of performance to deviation (RPD) value of 3.02. The correlation coefficients and RMSEs for this model were 0.96 and 0.40 log10 CFU per gram as well as 0.94 and 0.50 log10 CFU per gram for calibration and cross validation, respectively. Visualization maps produced by applying the developed models to the images could be an alternative to test the adaptability of a calibration model. Moreover, multi-spectral imaging systems were suggested to be developed for online applications. PMID:23598014

Feng, Yao-Ze; Sun, Da-Wen

2013-02-15

43

An investigation of total bacterial communities, culturable antibiotic-resistant bacterial communities and integrons in the river water environments of Taipei city.  

Science.gov (United States)

The intensive use of antibiotics may accelerate the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB). The global geographical distribution of environmental ARB has been indicated by many studies. However, the ARB in the water environments of Taiwan has not been extensively investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate the communities of ARB in Huanghsi Stream, which presents a natural acidic (pH 4) water environment. Waishuanghsi Stream provides a neutral (pH 7) water environment and was thus also monitored to allow comparison. The plate counts of culturable bacteria in eight antibiotics indicate that the numbers of culturable carbenicillin- and vancomycin-resistant bacteria in both Huanghsi and Waishuanghsi Streams are greater than the numbers of culturable bacteria resistant to the other antibiotics tested. Using a 16S rDNA sequencing approach, both the antibiotic-resistant bacterial communities (culture-based) and the total bacterial communities (metagenome-based) in Waishuanghsi Stream exhibit a higher diversity than those in Huanghsi Stream were observed. Of the three classes of integron, only class I integrons were identified in Waishuanghsi Stream. Our results suggest that an acidic (pH 4) water environment may not only affect the community composition of antibiotic-resistant bacteria but also the horizontal gene transfer mediated by integrons. PMID:24411460

Yang, Chu-Wen; Chang, Yi-Tang; Chao, Wei-Liang; Shiung, Iau-Iun; Lin, Han-Sheng; Chen, Hsuan; Ho, Szu-Han; Lu, Min-Jheng; Lee, Pin-Hsuan; Fan, Shao-Ning

2014-07-30

44

Effects of temperature and fertilization on total vs. active bacterial communities exposed to crude and diesel oil pollution in NW Mediterranean Sea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dynamics of total and active microbial communities were studied in seawater microcosms amended with crude or diesel oil at different temperatures (25, 10 and 4 deg. C) in the presence/absence of organic fertilization (Inipol EAP 22). Total and hydrocarbon-degrading microbes were enumerated by fluorescence microscopy and Most Probable Number (MPN) method, respectively. Total (16S rDNA-based) vs. active (16S rRNA) bacterial community structure was monitored by Capillary-Electrophoresis Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (CE-SSCP) fingerprinting. Hydrocarbons were analyzed after 12 weeks of incubation by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total and hydrocarbon-degrading microbial counts were highly influenced by fertilization while no important differences were observed between temperatures. Higher biodegradation levels were observed in fertilized microcosms. Temperature and fertilization induced changes in structure of total bacterial communities. However, fertilization showed a more important effect on active bacterial structure. The calculation of Simpson's diversity index showed similar trends among temperatures whereas fertilization reduced diversity index of both total and active bacterial communities. - Nutrient availability was the most important factor influencing microbial oil biodegradation in coastal waters of the North-western Mediterranean Sea.

45

Effects of temperature and fertilization on total vs. active bacterial communities exposed to crude and diesel oil pollution in NW Mediterranean Sea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dynamics of total and active microbial communities were studied in seawater microcosms amended with crude or diesel oil at different temperatures (25, 10 and 4 deg. C) in the presence/absence of organic fertilization (Inipol EAP 22). Total and hydrocarbon-degrading microbes were enumerated by fluorescence microscopy and Most Probable Number (MPN) method, respectively. Total (16S rDNA-based) vs. active (16S rRNA) bacterial community structure was monitored by Capillary-Electrophoresis Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (CE-SSCP) fingerprinting. Hydrocarbons were analyzed after 12 weeks of incubation by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total and hydrocarbon-degrading microbial counts were highly influenced by fertilization while no important differences were observed between temperatures. Higher biodegradation levels were observed in fertilized microcosms. Temperature and fertilization induced changes in structure of total bacterial communities. However, fertilization showed a more important effect on active bacterial structure. The calculation of Simpson's diversity index showed similar trends among temperatures whereas fertilization reduced diversity index of both total and active bacterial communities. - Nutrient availability was the most important factor influencing microbial oil biodegradation in coastal waters of the North-western Mediterranean Sea.

Rodriguez-Blanco, Arturo; Antoine, Virginie [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7621, Laboratoire ARAGO, Avenue Fontaule, BP44, F-66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer (France); CNRS, UMR 7621, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie Biologique de Banyuls, Avenue Fontaule, BP44, F-66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer (France); Pelletier, Emilien [Institut des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski (ISMER), Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, 310 allee des Ursulines, Rimouski, Canada G5L 3A1 (Canada); Delille, Daniel [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7621, Laboratoire ARAGO, Avenue Fontaule, BP44, F-66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer (France); CNRS, UMR 7621, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie Biologique de Banyuls, Avenue Fontaule, BP44, F-66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer (France); Ghiglione, Jean-Francois, E-mail: ghiglione@obs-banyuls.f [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7621, Laboratoire ARAGO, Avenue Fontaule, BP44, F-66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer (France); CNRS, UMR 7621, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie Biologique de Banyuls, Avenue Fontaule, BP44, F-66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer (France)

2010-03-15

46

Association between milking practices and psychrotrophic bacterial counts in bulk tank milk Asociación entre prácticas de ordeño y recuento de organismos psicrótrofos en leche de tanque de frío  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine on-farm risk factors for psychrotrophic bacterial counts in bulk tank milk from dairy farms in Argentina. Raw milk samples from bulk tanks of 27 dairy farms were examined for total psychrotrophic counts (TPC, proteolytic psychrotrophic counts (PPC and lipolytic psychrotrophic counts (LPC (dependent or outcome variables. A survey recording infrastructure conditions, milking equipment and milking management (independent variables was performed. Bivariate association proofs and logistic regression analyses were used to determine association between independent variables and psychrotrophic bacterial counts. Milk cooled in plate heat exchangers or barrel tanks were 16.39 and 10.52 times more likely to yield TPC and PPC above the standard established for high quality milk compared with milk cooled in bulk tanks, respectively. Periodic cleaning of cooling tanks (3 times a week or daily was associated with lower TPC (approximately 1.5 log CFU/ml than weekly cleaning frequency and farms where milkers did not wash their hands during milking time were 7.81 times more likely to have higher PPC. No association was found between LPC and any of the independent variables. The only variable associated with TPC and PPC in a logistic regression model was the refrigeration system used on the farm. Dairy farms that possessed bulk milk cooling tanks yielded the lowest bacterial counts. Results of this study highlight the importance of both the type of cooling system used on the farm and its adequate hygienic maintenance for obtaining low pshychrotrophic counts at dairy farm.El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar los factores de riesgo para altos recuentos de organismos psicrótrofos en leche de tanques de tambos de la Argentina. Se examinaron muestras de leche cruda de tanques de frío de 27 tambos, y se realizó el recuento de organismos psicrótrofos totales (PT, de psicrótrofos proteolíticos (PP y de psicrótrofos lipolíticos (PL (variables dependientes. Se realizó una encuesta para registrar las condiciones de infraestructura, el equipo de ordeño y las prácticas de ordeño (variables independientes. Se utilizaron pruebas bivariadas de asociación y regresión logística para determinar la asociación entre las variables independientes y los recuentos de organismos psicrótrofos. La leche enfriada en sistemas de placas de intercambio o tanques tipo cuba tuvo una probabilidad mayor de dar recuentos elevados de PT y PP (16,39 y 10,52 comparada con la enfriada en tanques tipo "panza fría". La limpieza periódica del equipo de frío (3 veces por semana o diariamente se asoció con bajos recuentos de PT (aproximadamente 1,5 log de UFC/ml. Los tambos cuyos ordeñadores no se higienizaban las manos durante el ordeño tuvieron una probabilidad 7,81 veces mayor de tener recuentos elevados de PP. No se encontró asociación entre el recuento de PL y las variables independientes. La única variable asociada con los recuentos de PT y PP en el modelo de regresión logística fue el sistema de enfriamiento utilizado en el tambo. El tipo de sistema de refrigeración usado y su adecuado mantenimiento higiénico son importantes para la obtención de leche con baja carga de organismos psicrótrofos en el tambo.

Ana I. Molineri

2012-09-01

47

Association between milking practices and psychrotrophic bacterial counts in bulk tank milk / Asociación entre prácticas de ordeño y recuento de organismos psicrótrofos en leche de tanque de frío  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar los factores de riesgo para altos recuentos de organismos psicrótrofos en leche de tanques de tambos de la Argentina. Se examinaron muestras de leche cruda de tanques de frío de 27 tambos, y se realizó el recuento de organismos psicrótrofos totales (PT), de psi [...] crótrofos proteolíticos (PP) y de psicrótrofos lipolíticos (PL) (variables dependientes). Se realizó una encuesta para registrar las condiciones de infraestructura, el equipo de ordeño y las prácticas de ordeño (variables independientes). Se utilizaron pruebas bivariadas de asociación y regresión logística para determinar la asociación entre las variables independientes y los recuentos de organismos psicrótrofos. La leche enfriada en sistemas de placas de intercambio o tanques tipo cuba tuvo una probabilidad mayor de dar recuentos elevados de PT y PP (16,39 y 10,52) comparada con la enfriada en tanques tipo "panza fría". La limpieza periódica del equipo de frío (3 veces por semana o diariamente) se asoció con bajos recuentos de PT (aproximadamente 1,5 log de UFC/ml). Los tambos cuyos ordeñadores no se higienizaban las manos durante el ordeño tuvieron una probabilidad 7,81 veces mayor de tener recuentos elevados de PP. No se encontró asociación entre el recuento de PL y las variables independientes. La única variable asociada con los recuentos de PT y PP en el modelo de regresión logística fue el sistema de enfriamiento utilizado en el tambo. El tipo de sistema de refrigeración usado y su adecuado mantenimiento higiénico son importantes para la obtención de leche con baja carga de organismos psicrótrofos en el tambo. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine on-farm risk factors for psychrotrophic bacterial counts in bulk tank milk from dairy farms in Argentina. Raw milk samples from bulk tanks of 27 dairy farms were examined for total psychrotrophic counts (TPC), proteolytic psychrotrophic counts (PPC) and li [...] polytic psychrotrophic counts (LPC) (dependent or outcome variables). A survey recording infrastructure conditions, milking equipment and milking management (independent variables) was performed. Bivariate association proofs and logistic regression analyses were used to determine association between independent variables and psychrotrophic bacterial counts. Milk cooled in plate heat exchangers or barrel tanks were 16.39 and 10.52 times more likely to yield TPC and PPC above the standard established for high quality milk compared with milk cooled in bulk tanks, respectively. Periodic cleaning of cooling tanks (3 times a week or daily) was associated with lower TPC (approximately 1.5 log CFU/ml) than weekly cleaning frequency and farms where milkers did not wash their hands during milking time were 7.81 times more likely to have higher PPC. No association was found between LPC and any of the independent variables. The only variable associated with TPC and PPC in a logistic regression model was the refrigeration system used on the farm. Dairy farms that possessed bulk milk cooling tanks yielded the lowest bacterial counts. Results of this study highlight the importance of both the type of cooling system used on the farm and its adequate hygienic maintenance for obtaining low pshychrotrophic counts at dairy farm.

Ana I., Molineri; Marcelo L., Signorini; Alejandra L., Cuatrín; Vilma R., Canavesio; Verónica E., Neder; Norma B., Russi; Julio C., Bonazza; Luis F., Calvinho.

2012-09-01

48

BACTERIAL TOC (TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON) REMOVAL ON SAND AND GAC (GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON)  

Science.gov (United States)

A method is developed to separate the effects of adsorption and biodegradation in long term total organic carbon (TOC) removal observed on GAC contactors. TOC removal is compared on parallel sand and GAC contactors. Temperature control is used to manipulate bacterial TOC removal ...

49

Relationship between total bacteria counts and somatic cell counts from mammary quarters infected by mastitis pathogens Relação entre contagem total de bactérias e contagem de células somáticas de quartos mamários infectados por patógenos da mastite  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to establish the relationship between somatic cell count (SCC and bacterial shedding from mammary quarters according to mastitis pathogens. Milk samples from 638 mammary quarters were examined for mastitis pathogens, SCC and total bacterial count (TBC. The raw data of SCC and TBC were used to perform descriptive statistics. The significance of the arithmetic mean differences between SCC and TBC according to bacteriological examination results was determined by a two-tailed unpaired t-test. Pearson and Spearman´s correlations were done with logarithmic data and linear regression analyses. The geometric means of the bacteriological examination results were (cells mL-1; CFU mL-1: no growth (52,000; 12,000, coagulase-negative staphylococci (85,000; 17,000, Staphylococcus aureus (587,000; 77,000; other streptococci (432,000; 108,000 and Streptococcus agalactiae (1,572,000; 333,000. The Pearson and Spearman's correlations between SCC and TBC were higher than 0.60 for all mastitis pathogens. The regression analyses slopes showed different increase in TBC with the same increase in SCC according to mastitis pathogens. The slope for S. agalactiae (0.542 was higher than that for other mastitis pathogens. The results suggest that the intensity of inflammatory process was associated with number of mastitis pathogens shedding from the mammary gland.Este estudo foi realizado com objetivo de estabelecer a relação entre contagem de células somáticas (CCS e a liberação de bactérias de quartos mamários de acordo com os patógenos da mastite. Amostras de leite de 638 quartos mamários foram examinadas para identificação dos patógenos da mastite, CCS e contagem total de bactérias (CTB. Estatísticas descritivas foram utilizadas para avaliar os dados brutos de CCS e CTB. A diferença entre médias para CCS e CTB de acordo com os resultados dos exames bacteriológicos foi avaliada pelo teste T para amostras independentes. Foram realizadas a correlação de Pearson, de Spearman e regressão linear com os dados transformados. As médias geométricas de acordo com os resultados dos exames bacteriológicos foram (células mL-1; UFC mL-1: sem crescimento (52.000; 12.000, estafilococos coagulase negativo (85.000; 17.000, Staphylococcus aureus (587.000; 77000; outros estreptococus (432.000; 108.000 e Streptococcus agalactiae (1.572.000; 333.000. A correlação de Pearson e Spearman entre CCS e CTB foi maior que 0,60 para todos os patógenos da mastite. O coeficiente angular das regressões lineares mostrou diferentes aumentos da CTB como o mesmo aumento da CCS de acordo com os patógenos da mastite. O coeficiente angular para o S. agalactiae (0.542 foi maior em relação aos outros patógenos da mastite. Os resultados sugerem que a intensidade do processo inflamatório foi associada com a quantidade de bactérias da mastite liberada pela glândula mamária.

João Emídio Ferreira Lopes Júnior

2012-04-01

50

Relationship between total bacteria counts and somatic cell counts from mammary quarters infected by mastitis pathogens / Relação entre contagem total de bactérias e contagem de células somáticas de quartos mamários infectados por patógenos da mastite  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com objetivo de estabelecer a relação entre contagem de células somáticas (CCS) e a liberação de bactérias de quartos mamários de acordo com os patógenos da mastite. Amostras de leite de 638 quartos mamários foram examinadas para identificação dos patógenos da mastite, CCS [...] e contagem total de bactérias (CTB). Estatísticas descritivas foram utilizadas para avaliar os dados brutos de CCS e CTB. A diferença entre médias para CCS e CTB de acordo com os resultados dos exames bacteriológicos foi avaliada pelo teste T para amostras independentes. Foram realizadas a correlação de Pearson, de Spearman e regressão linear com os dados transformados. As médias geométricas de acordo com os resultados dos exames bacteriológicos foram (células mL-1; UFC mL-1): sem crescimento (52.000; 12.000), estafilococos coagulase negativo (85.000; 17.000), Staphylococcus aureus (587.000; 77000); outros estreptococus (432.000; 108.000) e Streptococcus agalactiae (1.572.000; 333.000). A correlação de Pearson e Spearman entre CCS e CTB foi maior que 0,60 para todos os patógenos da mastite. O coeficiente angular das regressões lineares mostrou diferentes aumentos da CTB como o mesmo aumento da CCS de acordo com os patógenos da mastite. O coeficiente angular para o S. agalactiae (0.542) foi maior em relação aos outros patógenos da mastite. Os resultados sugerem que a intensidade do processo inflamatório foi associada com a quantidade de bactérias da mastite liberada pela glândula mamária. Abstract in english This study was conducted to establish the relationship between somatic cell count (SCC) and bacterial shedding from mammary quarters according to mastitis pathogens. Milk samples from 638 mammary quarters were examined for mastitis pathogens, SCC and total bacterial count (TBC). The raw data of SCC [...] and TBC were used to perform descriptive statistics. The significance of the arithmetic mean differences between SCC and TBC according to bacteriological examination results was determined by a two-tailed unpaired t-test. Pearson and Spearman´s correlations were done with logarithmic data and linear regression analyses. The geometric means of the bacteriological examination results were (cells mL-1; CFU mL-1): no growth (52,000; 12,000), coagulase-negative staphylococci (85,000; 17,000), Staphylococcus aureus (587,000; 77,000); other streptococci (432,000; 108,000) and Streptococcus agalactiae (1,572,000; 333,000). The Pearson and Spearman's correlations between SCC and TBC were higher than 0.60 for all mastitis pathogens. The regression analyses slopes showed different increase in TBC with the same increase in SCC according to mastitis pathogens. The slope for S. agalactiae (0.542) was higher than that for other mastitis pathogens. The results suggest that the intensity of inflammatory process was associated with number of mastitis pathogens shedding from the mammary gland.

João Emídio Ferreira, Lopes Júnior; Carla Cristine, Lange; Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva, Brito; Fabiana Ribeiro, Santos; Marco Aurélio Souto, Silva; Luciano Castro Dutra de, Moraes; Guilherme Nunes de, Souza.

2012-04-01

51

Correlations between total cell concentration, total adenosine tri-phosphate concentration and heterotrophic plate counts during microbial monitoring of drinking water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The general microbial quality of drinking water is normally monitored by heterotrophic plate counts (HPC. This method has been used for more than 100 years and is recommended in drinking water guidelines. However, the HPC method is handicapped because it is time-consuming and restricted to culturable bacteria. Recently, rapid and accurate detection methods have emerged, such as adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP measurements to assess microbial activity in drinking water, and flow cytometry (FCM to determine the total cell concentration (TCC. It is necessary and important for drinking water quality control to understand the relationships among the conventional and new methods. In the current study, all three methods were applied to 200 drinking water samples obtained from two local buildings connected to the same distribution system. Samples were taken both on normal working days and weekends, and the correlations between the different microbiological parameters were determined. TCC in the samples ranged from 0.37–5.61×105 cells/ml, and two clusters, the so-called high (HNA and low (LNA nucleic acid bacterial groups, were clearly distinguished. The results showed that the rapid determination methods (i.e., FCM and ATP correlated well (R2=0.69, but only a weak correlation (R2=0.31 was observed between the rapid methods and conventional HPC data. With respect to drinking water monitoring, both FCM and ATP measurements were confirmed to be useful and complimentary parameters for rapid assessing of drinking water microbial quality.

F. Hammes

2008-06-01

52

Longitudinal trends of total white blood cell and differential white blood cell counts of atomic bomb survivors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In studying the late health effects of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, earlier findings were that white blood cell (WBC) count increased with radiation dose in cross-sectional studies. However, a persistent effect of radiation on WBC count and other risk factors has yet to be confirmed. The objectives of the present study were to examine the longitudinal relationship between A-bomb radiation dose and WBC and differential WBC counts among A-bomb survivors and to investigate the potential confounding risk factors (such as age at exposure and smoking status) as well as modification of the radiation dose-response. A total of 7,562 A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were included in this study from 1964-2004. A linear mixed model was applied using the repeated WBC measurements. During the study period, a secular downward trend of WBC count was observed. Radiation exposure was a significant risk factor for elevated WBC and differential WBC counts over time. A significant increase of WBC counts among survivors with high radiation dose (>2 Gy) was detected in men exposed below the age of 20 and in women regardless of age at exposure. Effects on WBC of low dose radiation remain unclear, however. Cigarette smoking produced the most pronounced effect on WBC counts and its impact was much larger than that of radiation exposure. (author)

53

Quality of raw cow milk in Republic of Macedonia determined through the testing of somatic cell count and total viable count  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Somatic cells count and total viable count are criteria used to estimate the compliance of raw cow milk with the Book of rules for demands for safety and hygiene and procedures for official controls of milk and milk products, Official Gazette of RM 157/2007. According to the given demands, raw milk operators are obliged to conduct all procedures and to guarantee that milk is in compliance with the criteria laid down in Book of rules. At the same time, Republic of Macedonia have to fulfill EU criteria laid down in Directive 92/46 (Council directive 92/46/EEC laying down the health rules for the production and placing on the market of raw milk, heat-treated milk and milkbased products for quality of raw milk as part of implementation of community legislation and milk production. The independent laboratory for milk quality control at FVM-Skopje, in frame of its activities in the period February- August 2008 has conducted a study for obtaining preliminary results for the situation with raw milk quality produced in R. of Macedonia for somatic cells counts and total viable count. In the study we analyzed 2065 samples for TVC and 1625 samples for SCC of raw milk samples produced in different parts of the country. From the tested samples only 41,8% fulfill criteria for SCC and 41,45% criteria for TVC lay down in Book of rules for 2008. Assessment of the results in light of Council Directive it is obvious that only 42,7% of the samples for SCC and 10,7% for TVC fulfill the criteria of Council Directive having in mind different requirements vs. Book of rules.

Angelovski Ljupco

2008-11-01

54

Serum albumin and total lymphocyte count as predictors of outcome in hip fractures.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hip fractures are a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in the elderly. Malnutrition is a significant contributor to this, however no consensus exists as to the detection or management of this condition. We hypothesise that results of admission serum albumin and total lymphocyte count (TLC), as markers of Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) can help predict clinical outcome in hip fracture patients aged over 60 years. METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated the nutritional status of patients with hip fractures using albumin and TLC assays and analysed their prognostic relevance. Clinical outcome parameters studied were delay to operation, duration of in-patient stay, re-admission and in-patient, 3- and 12-month mortality. RESULTS: Four hundred and fifteen hip fracture patients were evaluated. Survival data were available for 377 patients at 12 months. In-hospital mortality for PEM patients was 9.8%, compared with 0% for patients without. Patients with PEM had a higher 12-month mortality compared to patients who had normal values of both laboratory parameters (Odds Ratio 4.6; 95% CI: 1.0-21.3). Serum albumin (Hazard Ratio 0.932, 95% CI: 0.9-1.0) and age (Hazard Ratio 1.04, 95% CI: 1.0-1.1) were found to be significant independent prognostic factors of mortality by Cox regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight the relevance of assessing the nutritional status of patients with hip fractures at the time of admission and emphasises the correlation between PEM and outcome in these patients.

O'Daly, Brendan J

2012-02-01

55

Effects of microwaving human milk: Changes in IgA content and bacterial count  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On the basis of this study, IgA was best preserved in frozen human milk by thawing either overnight in the refrigerator or under warm running water. If either of those procedures are to be used, it is suggested that bacterial monitoring should be performed. Because current technology does not allow for accurate low internal temperature monitoring of liquids, it is concluded that use of the microwave oven for the treatment of human milk is inappropriate. However, because microwaving is as effective as holder pasteurization in killing bacteria, and because it would be less expensive and is faster, this process should be further investigated.

Sigman, M.; Burke, K.I.; Swarner, O.W.; Shavlik, G.W.

1989-05-01

56

Drivers shaping the diversity and biogeography of total and active bacterial communities in the South China Sea.  

Science.gov (United States)

To test the hypothesis that different drivers shape the diversity and biogeography of the total and active bacterial community, we examined the bacterial community composition along two transects, one from the inner Pearl River estuary to the open waters of the South China Sea (SCS) and the other from the Luzon Strait to the SCS basin, using 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA and 16S rRNA gene (V1-3 regions) and thereby characterizing the active and total bacterial community, respectively. The diversity and biogeographic patterns differed substantially between the active and total bacterial communities. Although the composition of both the total and active bacterial community was strongly correlated with environmental factors and weakly correlated with geographic distance, the active bacterial community displayed higher environmental sensitivity than the total community and particularly a greater distance effect largely caused by the active assemblage from deep waters. The 16S rRNA vs. rDNA relationships indicated that the active bacteria were low in relative abundance in the SCS. This might be due to a high competition between active bacterial taxa as indicated by our community network models. Based on these analyses, we speculate that high competition could cause some dispersal limitation of the active bacterial community resulting in a distinct distance-decay relationship. Altogether, our results indicated that the biogeographic distribution of bacteria in the SCS is the result of both environmental control and distance decay. PMID:24684298

Zhang, Yao; Zhao, Zihao; Dai, Minhan; Jiao, Nianzhi; Herndl, Gerhard J

2014-05-01

57

Determining eligibility for antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings using total lymphocyte counts, hemoglobin and body mass index  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background CD4+ T lymphocyte (CD4 cell count testing is the standard method for determining eligibility for antiretroviral therapy (ART, but is not widely available in sub-Saharan Africa. Total lymphocyte counts (TLCs have not proven sufficiently accurate in identifying subjects with low CD4 counts. We developed clinical algorithms using TLCs, hemoglobin (Hb, and body mass index (BMI to identify patients who require ART. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of HIV-infected adults in Uganda, who presented for assessment for ART-eligibility with WHO clinical stages I, II or III. Two by two tables were constructed to examine TLC thresholds, which maximized sensitivity for CD4 cell counts ? 200 cells ?L, while minimizing the number offered ART with counts > 350 cells ?L. Hb and BMI values were then examined to try to improve model performance. Results 1787 subjects were available for analysis. Median CD4 cell counts and TLCs, were 239 cells/?L and 1830 cells/?L, respectively. Offering ART to all subjects with a TLCs ? 2250 cells/?L produced a sensitivity of 0.88 and a false positive ratio of 0.21. Algorithms that treated all patients with a TLC 3000 cells/?L, and used Hb and/or BMI values to determine eligibility for those with TLC values between 2000 and 3000 cells/?L, marginally improved accuracy. Conclusion TLCs appear useful in predicting who would be eligible for ART based on CD4 cell count criteria. Hb and BMI values may be useful in prioritizing patients for ART, but did not improve model accuracy.

Solberg Peter

2007-01-01

58

The use of flow cytometry to accurately ascertain total and viable counts of Lactobacillus rhamnosus in chocolate.  

Science.gov (United States)

The goals of this study were to evaluate the precision and accuracy of flow cytometry (FC) methodologies in the evaluation of populations of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011) in two commercial dried forms, and ascertain the challenges in enumerating them in a chocolate matrix. FC analyses of total (FC(T)) and viable (FC(V)) counts in liquid or dried cultures were almost two times more precise (reproducible) than traditional direct microscopic counts (DCM) or colony forming units (CFU). With FC, it was possible to ascertain low levels of dead cells (FC(D)) in fresh cultures, which is not possible with traditional CFU and DMC methodologies. There was no interference of chocolate solids on FC counts of probiotics when inoculation was above 10(7) bacteria per g. Addition of probiotics in chocolate at 40 °C resulted in a 37% loss in viable cells. Blending of the probiotic powder into chocolate was not uniform which raised a concern that the precision of viable counts could suffer. FCT data can serve to identify the correct inoculation level of a sample, and viable counts (FCV or CFU) can subsequently be better interpreted. PMID:25475282

Raymond, Yves; Champagne, Claude P

2015-04-01

59

Flow Cytometry Total Cell Counts: A Field Study Assessing Microbiological Water Quality and Growth in Unchlorinated Drinking Water Distribution Systems  

OpenAIRE

e objective of this study was to evaluate the application of flow cytometry total cell counts (TCCs) as a parameter to assess microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems and to determine the relationships between different parameters describing the biostability of treated water. A one-year sampling program was carried out in two distribution systems in The Netherlands. Results demonstrated that, in both systems, the biomass differences measured by ATP were not significant. TCC dif...

Dijk, J. C.; Liu, G.; Mark, E. J.; Verberk, J. Q. J. C.

2013-01-01

60

Suitability of total coliform ?-D-galactosidase activity and CFU counts in monitoring faecal contamination of environmental water samples  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Total coliforms are a group of bacteria found in high numbers in mammalian intestines; hence their presence in water indicates the possible contamination with faecal material. Total and faecal coliform counts were monitored over a period of 18 months using mFC, m-Endo and CM1046 media together with [...] enzymatic assays on 215 environmental water samples obtained from the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. A positive correlation, with an R² value of 0.9393 was observed between faecal and total coliform colony units employing mFc and m-Endo media, and 0.8818 using CM1046 media. Also, a positive correlation was observed between Escherichia coli colony-forming units and ?-d-galactosidase (B-GAL) activity (R²=0.8542). Overall, this study indicated that faecal contamination of environmental water samples could be monitored by measuring total coliform ?-galactosidase activity and total coliform colony-forming units.

VC, Wutor; CA, Togo; BI, Pletschke.

2009-01-01

61

Seasonal changes in bacterial counts and radiation-disinfection of sewage sludge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of radiation on sewage sludge was investigated to disinfect it. The results obtained were as follows: 1. In either activated sludge or digested sludge dewatered by centrifugation, total bacteria and coliforms were up to 3.0 x 109/g and 3.5 x 108/g, respectively. In the activated sludge which was dewatered by a filter-press with calcium oxide and iron chloride, total bacteria were up to 3.0 x 105/g, while coliforms were hardly detected. 2. The fraction of coliforms was somewhat more in centrifuged sludge than in raw sludge. 3. The radiosensitivity of coliforms in raw sludge differed between samples. Namely, some sludge was sterilized with 0.5 Mrad while others were not sterilized even with 1.0 Mrad. On the other hand, coliforms in dewatered sludge were sterilized with 0.5 Mrad without seasonal change, but total bacteria were more radioresistant and more than 13 Mrad was required to reduce it to an undetectable level. From these results it is concluded that the dewatered sludge should be irradiated at 0.5 Mrad to eliminate the coliforms in it. (author)

62

Solubilization and bio-conjugation of quantum dots and bacterial toxicity assays by growth curve and plate count.  

Science.gov (United States)

Quantum dots (QDs) are fluorescent semiconductor nanoparticles with size-dependent emission spectra that can be excited by a broad choice of wavelengths. QDs have attracted a lot of interest for imaging, diagnostics, and therapy due to their bright, stable fluorescence. QDs can be conjugated to a variety of bio-active molecules for binding to bacteria and mammalian cells. QDs are also being widely investigated as cytotoxic agents for targeted killing of bacteria. The emergence of multiply-resistant bacterial strains is rapidly becoming a public health crisis, particularly in the case of Gram negative pathogens. Because of the well-known antimicrobial effect of certain nanomaterials, especially Ag, there are hundreds of studies examining the toxicity of nanoparticles to bacteria. Bacterial studies have been performed with other types of semiconductor nanoparticles as well, especially TiO(2), but also ZnO and others including CuO. Some comparisons of bacterial strains have been performed in these studies, usually comparing a Gram negative strain with a Gram positive. With all of these particles, mechanisms of toxicity are attributed to oxidation: either the photogeneration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the particles or the direct release of metal ions that can cause oxidative toxicity. Even with these materials, results of different studies vary greatly. In some studies the Gram positive test strain is reportedly more sensitive than the Gram negative; in others it is the opposite. These studies have been well reviewed. In all nanoparticle studies, particle composition, size, surface chemistry, sample aging/breakdown, and wavelength, power, and duration of light exposure can all dramatically affect the results. In addition, synthesis byproducts and solvents must be considered. High-throughput screening techniques are needed to be able to develop effective new nanomedicine agents. CdTe QDs have anti-microbial effects alone or in combination with antibiotics. In a previous study, we showed that coupling of antibiotics to CdTe can increase toxicity to bacteria but decrease toxicity to mammalian cells, due to decreased production of reactive oxygen species from the conjugates. Although it is unlikely that cadmium-containing compounds will be approved for use in humans, such preparations could be used for disinfection of surfaces or sterilization of water. In this protocol, we give a straightforward approach to solubilizing CdTe QDs with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA). The QDs are ready to use within an hour. We then demonstrate coupling to an antimicrobial agent. The second part of the protocol demonstrates a 96-well bacterial inhibition assay using the conjugated and unconjugated QDs. The optical density is read over many hours, permitting the effects of QD addition and light exposure to be evaluated immediately as well as after a recovery period. We also illustrate a colony count for quantifying bacterial survival. PMID:22824953

Park, Soonhyang; Chibli, Hicham; Nadeau, Jay

2012-01-01

63

A simple method to count total faecal Capillaria worm eggs in racing pigeons (Columba livia).  

Science.gov (United States)

Capillaria columbae and C. longicollis are fine threadworms found in racing pigeons' small intestines that produce a characteristic lemon shaped bipolar egg. Clinically, capillariasis in racing pigeons can present as severe illness and it has been suggested that worms may affect race performance. A major aim of this study was to validate a cheap, simple to perform flotation technique for counting Capillaria worm eggs in racing pigeon droppings. Trials using reference samples of pigeon droppings laced with 348, 275 and 129 Capillaria eggs per gram, found a typical flotation method based on the modified Wisconsin technique to be inaccurate at counting worm eggs. The main sources of error were due to the loss of eggs in the faecal discard and insufficient flotation time. A new technique, using 0.15 g sample size and 8h flotation time resulted in significantly improved test accuracy. On average the new technique recovered 93% of eggs from reference samples with 129-348 epg concentration, recovering 197 times more eggs than the modified Wisconsin technique. Typical percentage error, as a measure of absolute reliablility, was 10% for the new technique and 50% for the modified Wisconsin technique. The regression line on a test-retest series of samples over a range of egg counts from 0 to 573 epg had a gradient of 0.96 (y=0.96x+6.28; r(2)=0.8408) for the new technique and 0.54 (y=0.54x+0.06; r(2)=0.4249) for the modified Wisconsin technique. The Pearson product moment correlations of the new technique and the modified Wisconsin technique were 0.92 and 0.65 respectively. As measures of relative reliability both the gradient of the regression line and the Pearson product moment correlation further suggested better repeatability of the new technique. It was concluded that the new technique would be an appropriate quantitative method of assessing worm egg burdens in racing pigeons. PMID:23830686

Scullion, Francis

2013-10-18

64

Total count gamma-ray logging: correction factors and logging model grade assignments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A unified approach is developed to the inter-related problems of calibration, grade assignment, and log reduction. Factors common to all three problems are dead time, water-filled or mud-filled hole size, casing thickness, Z-effect (or photoelectric absorption-effect), and formation moisture. Dead time for most logging systems is a function of count rate rather than a constant as usually assumed, and a better method can be used to correct for dead time. Z-effect is significant for some tools in zones having concentrations as low as 0.1 percent eU3O8, and a method is developed to measure the magnitude of the Z-effect. The method used to compute area under a log is significant in some calibration models because corrections must be made for count-rate contributions from the barren zones. A calibration procedure is developed for simultaneously determining calibration factors needed for dead-time corrections, Z-effect corrections, and grade computation (K-factor). The procedure is based on a least-squares solution and can be implemented on programmable calculators. Field measurements are referenced to calibrations commonly done in logging models having assigned grades; and the assigned grades of logging models are referenced to radiometric assays, made in the laboratory, on physical samples from the models. Conditions which differ from field to logging model, and logging model to laboratory (especially moisture) must be taken into accounte) must be taken into account

65

Quantitative detection of antibody based on single-molecule counting by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy with quantum dot labeling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We presented a sensitive method to quantify antibody based on single-molecule counting by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy with quantum dot labeling. In this method, the biotinylated monoclonal anti-human IgG molecules were immobilized on the silanized glass substrate surface. By the strong biotin-streptavidin affinity, streptavidin-coated quantum dots were labeled to the target molecules as fluorescent probe. Then, images of fluorescent spots in the evanescent wave field were obtained by a high-sensitivity electron multiplying charge-coupled device. Finally, the number of fluorescent spots corresponding to single molecules in the subframe images was counted, one by one. The linear range of 8.0 x 10-14 to 5.0 x 10-12 mol L-1 was obtained between the number of single molecules and the sample concentration

66

Quantitative detection of antibody based on single-molecule counting by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy with quantum dot labeling.  

Science.gov (United States)

We presented a sensitive method to quantify antibody based on single-molecule counting by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy with quantum dot labeling. In this method, the biotinylated monoclonal anti-human IgG molecules were immobilized on the silanized glass substrate surface. By the strong biotin-streptavidin affinity, streptavidin-coated quantum dots were labeled to the target molecules as fluorescent probe. Then, images of fluorescent spots in the evanescent wave field were obtained by a high-sensitivity electron multiplying charge-coupled device. Finally, the number of fluorescent spots corresponding to single molecules in the subframe images was counted, one by one. The linear range of 8.0 x 10(-14) to 5.0 x 10(-12)molL(-1) was obtained between the number of single molecules and the sample concentration. PMID:19154814

Jiang, Dafeng; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Wei

2009-02-16

67

An optimised four-count total-alpha measurement scheme for the detection of radon progeny and lead-212 in air  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sequential and overlapped five-count total-alpha measurement schemes are slow and have inadequate sensitivity to obtain precise estimates of 212Bi(ThC) concentrations in the air of uranium mines. For quicker estimates of individual 218Po(RaA), 214Pb(RaB), 214Bi(RaC) and 212Pb(ThB) concentrations (within 3 h) two four-count total-alpha measurement schemes were developed. Inherent in the derivation of these measurement techniques is the assumption that the airborne ThC concentration is zero. The bias error due to this assumption was less than 2% for radon progeny estimates and less than 10% for 212pb(ThB) estimates. The optimal 140 min four-count method developed requires a 20 min sampling period accompanied by total-alpha counts at (0,20) (21,41) (45,95) and (115,140) min during and after sampling. The optimal 180 min four-count method also requires a 20 min sampling period with total alpha counts taken at (0,20) (21,41) (45,115) and (140,180) min during and after sampling. A comparison of the 180 min four-count method with commonly used optimised sequential and overlapped five-count techniques shows that the minimum measurable concentration obtainable using the 180 min count technique is lower than that obtainable using either five-count technique for radon progeny. For radon and thoron progeny concentrations in uranium mines, Monte Carlo precision estimates evaluated for the four-count measurement techluated for the four-count measurement techniques show that precision estimates based on counting statistics alone are reliable when measurement to measurement pump flow rate variations are less than 2%, and litre to litre concentration variations are less than 5%. (author)

68

Coxiella burnetii total immunoglobulin G, phase I and phase II immunoglobulin G antibodies, and bacterial shedding in young dams in persistently infected dairy herds.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study examines Coxiella burnetii infection patterns in young dairy dams around the calving period in persistently infected high-producing dairy herds. Infection patterns were determined in terms of total immunoglobulin G (IgG) and phase-specific IgG antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and bacterial shedding by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). On days 171-177 of gestation, at parturition, and on days 15-21 and 91-97 postpartum, 7 first-parity cows and 7 second-parity cows were sampled for serology and qPCR. Total phase-specific I (PhI) and II (PhII) IgG antibodies were detected in 2 animals at days 171-177 of gestation. Four additional animals underwent seroconversion on days 91-97 postpartum. Three of 6 seropositive dams according to total IgG, showed a PhI+/PhII+ profile, whereas dams that seroconverted exhibited a PhI-/PhII+ (2/6) or PhI+/PhII- (1/6) profile. An indirect fluorescent antibody test for PhI and PhII immunoglobulin M (IgM) was performed on plasma samples from the shedding dams, confirming seropositivity in a first-parity dam that seroconverted, and detecting a sudden spike of PhI-IgM antibodies in 1 further dam. No relationship was detected in young C. burnetii-infected animals between total IgG, PhI and/or PhII antibodies, and bacterial shedding throughout the study period. The highest bacterial load measured by qPCR was recorded in a second-parity dam. This animal presented abnormal peripheral blood counts, which would be an indication of severe peripheral blood alterations in some infected cattle. This study suggests that young shedder cows are mostly seronegative in early stages of infection. PMID:25691508

Serrano-Pérez, Beatriz; Almería, Sonia; Tutusaus, Joan; Jado, Isabel; Anda, Pedro; Monleón, Eva; Badiola, Juan; Garcia-Ispierto, Irina; López-Gatius, Fernando

2015-03-01

69

How much locomotive activity is needed for an active physical activity level: analysis of total step counts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Although physical activity recommendations for public health have focused on locomotive activity such as walking and running, it is uncertain how much these activities contribute to overall physical activity level (PAL. The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of locomotive activity to PAL using total step counts measured in a calorimeter study. Methods PAL, calculated as total energy expenditure divided by basal metabolic rate, was evaluated in 11 adult men using three different conditions for 24-hour human calorimeter measurements: a low-activity day (L-day targeted at a low active level of PAL (1.45, and a high-frequency moderate activity day (M-day or a high-frequency vigorous activity day (V-day targeted at an active level of PAL (1.75. These subjects were permitted only light activities except prescribed activities. In a separate group of 41 adults, free-living PAL was evaluated using doubly-labeled water (DLW. In both experiments, step counts per day were also measured using an accelerometer. Results In the human calorimeter study, PAL and step counts were 1.42 ± 0.10 and 8,973 ± 543 steps/d (L-day, 1.82 ± 0.14 and 29,588 ± 1,126 steps/d (M-day, and 1.74 ± 0.15 and 23,755 ± 1,038 steps/d (V-day, respectively. In the DLW study, PAL and step counts were 1.73 ± 0.15 and 10,022 ± 2,605 steps/d, and there was no significant relationship between PAL and daily step counts. Conclusions These results indicate that an enormous number of steps are needed for an active level of PAL if individuals extend physical activity-induced energy expenditure by only locomotive activity. Therefore, non-locomotive activity such as household activity should also play a significant role in increasing PAL under free-living conditions.

Ohkawara Kazunori

2011-11-01

70

Detection of false-positives among total and fecal coliform counts by factorial analysis of correspondence.  

OpenAIRE

Application of an analysis of correspondence to the biochemical characteristics of total and fecal coliforms isolated in the Ivory Coast permitted us to separate two small clusters of isolates different from the main clusters, which included isolates from human and animal feces. The isolates grouped in the small clusters were from water samples. An analysis of the biochemical characteristics which permitted the segregation of the "water-specific" isolates from the main clusters indicates that...

Joncas, M.; Michaud, S.; Carmichael, J. P.; Lavoie, M. C.

1985-01-01

71

Quantification of protein based on single-molecule counting by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy with adsorption equilibrium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We developed a sensitive single-molecule imaging method for quantification of protein by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy with adsorption equilibrium. In this method, the adsorption equilibrium of protein was achieved between solution and glass substrate. Then, fluorescence images of protein molecules in a evanescent wave field were taken by a highly sensitive electron multiplying charge coupled device. Finally, the number of fluorescent spots corresponding to the protein molecules in the images was counted. Alexa Fluor 488-labeled goat anti-rat IgG(H + L) was chosen as the model protein. The spot number showed an excellent linear relationship with protein concentration. The concentration linear range was 5.4 x 10-11 to 8.1 x 10-10 mol L-1

72

Quantification of protein based on single-molecule counting by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy with adsorption equilibrium.  

Science.gov (United States)

We developed a sensitive single-molecule imaging method for quantification of protein by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy with adsorption equilibrium. In this method, the adsorption equilibrium of protein was achieved between solution and glass substrate. Then, fluorescence images of protein molecules in a evanescent wave field were taken by a highly sensitive electron multiplying charge coupled device. Finally, the number of fluorescent spots corresponding to the protein molecules in the images was counted. Alexa Fluor 488-labeled goat anti-rat IgG(H+L) was chosen as the model protein. The spot number showed an excellent linear relationship with protein concentration. The concentration linear range was 5.4 x 10(-11) to 8.1 x 10(-10) mol L(-1). PMID:17416229

Wang, Lei; Xu, Guang; Shi, Zhikun; Jiang, Wei; Jin, Wenrui

2007-05-01

73

Some Precautions in Preparation of Blood Plasma Samples Labelled with 3HOH in Liquid Scintillation Counting to Estimate Total Body Water in Farm Animals Using Nuclear Methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accuracy of counting the tritiated water radioactivity in Liquid Scintillation is dependent on the careful control of several experimental variables. Obtaining the data necessary to evaluate the precision of nuclear techniques is the objective of this study. The effect of mixing the suspended precipitate, precipitate of sedimentation, light exposure and temperature on liquid scintillation counting are studied. The results showed that unmixed suspended precipitation decreased the counting of liquid scintillation by 38.2%. In addition, sedimentation of the precipitate of plasma proteins in the liquid scintillation counter is important because the average of the samples count was lower about 3.5% in case plasma samples were counted before the precipitate sedimentation. Plasma samples exposure to either day or florescent light caused over counting by 7.1 and 7.6% respectively. Frozen plasma samples labelled with TOH caused a decrease in normal counting by 9.5%. In addition, it was compared between internal standard and dioxane precipitation techniques to estimate total body water in farm animals with taking the precaution mentioned previously in considerations. The internal standard method and precipitation method gave comparable counting (4599 vs 4317 cpm, respectively) and total body water values (209.3 vs 211.9L, respectively).

74

Multilevel analysis of bacterial counts from chronic periodontitis after root planing/scaling, surgery, and systemic and local antibiotics: 2-year results  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: To follow changes (over 2 years in subgingival bacterial counts of five microbial complexes including health-related Actinomyces spp. in deeper pockets (?5 mm after periodontal treatments. Methods: Eight different treatments were studied: (1 scaling+root planing (SRP; (2 periodontal surgery (SURG+systemic amoxicillin (AMOX+systemic metronidazole (MET; (3 SURG+locally delivered tetracycline (TET; (4 SURG; (5 AMOX+MET+TET; (6 AMOX+MET; (7 TET; and (8 SURG+AMOX+MET+TET. Antibiotics were given immediately following SRP. Subgingival plaque was collected mesiobuccally from each tooth, except third molars, from 176 subjects, completing the study, at baseline, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months post-treatment and analysed for 40 different bacteria using checkerboard hybridization. A negative binomial (NB generalized estimating equation (NB GEE model was used to analyze count data and a logistic GEE was used for proportions. Results: We observed short-term beneficial changes in the composition of the red complex of up to 3 months by treating subjects with AMOX+MET+TET. Similar short-term improvements with the same treatment were observed for Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola of the red complex. SURG had also short-term beneficial effect on Porphyromonas gingivalis. No periodontal treatments applied to severely affected sites promoted the growth of Actinomyces. Smoking elevated counts of both the red and orange complex while bleeding on probing (BOP and gingival redness were also predictors of more red complex counts. Comparatively similar findings were obtained by analyzing counts and by analyzing proportions. Conclusions: Although short-term reductions in the counts of the red complex were observed in sites that were treated with AMOX+MET+TET, long-term significant effects were not observed with any of the eight treatments. Poor oral hygiene in patients with severe chronic periodontitis diminished the beneficial effects of treatment.

Ibrahimu Mdala

2013-07-01

75

Degradation and total mineralization of monohalogenated biphenyls in natural sediment and mixed bacterial culture.  

OpenAIRE

Mixed bacterial cultures obtained from polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated river sediments are capable of degrading monohalogenated biphenyls under simulated natural conditions. Culture conditions include river water as supportive medium and mixed bacterial cultures obtained from river sediments. Degradation occurs when the substrates are supplied as the sole carbon source or when added together with glucose. The degradation rates of 2-, 3-, and 4-chlorobiphenyl, at 30 micrograms ml-1, were...

Kong, H. L.; Sayler, G. S.

1983-01-01

76

Analytical performance issues: comparison of ATP bioluminescence and aerobic bacterial count for evaluating surface cleanliness in an Italian hospital.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contaminated hospital surfaces have been demonstrated to be an important environmental reservoir of microorganisms that can increase the risk of nosocomial infection in exposed patients. As a consequence, cleaning and disinfecting hospital environments play an important role among strategies for preventing healthcare-associated colonization and infections. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether adenosine triphosphate (ATP) presence, measured by bioluminescence methods, can predict microbiological contamination of hospital surfaces. The study was carried out between September and December 2012 at the University Hospital "P. Giaccone" of Palermo. A total of 193 randomly selected surfaces (tables, lockers, furnishings) were sampled and analyzed in order to assess ATP levels (expressed as relative light units or RLU) and aerobic colony count (ACC) or presence of S. aureus. ACC had median values of 1.85 cfu/cm(2)(interquartile range = 4.16) whereas ATP median was 44.6 RLU/cm(2)(interquartile range = 92.3). Overall, 85 (44.0%) surfaces exceeded the established microbial benchmark: 73 (37.8%) exceeded the 2.5 cfu/cm(2)ACC standard, 5 (2.6%) surfaces were positive for S. aureus and 7 (3.6%) showed both the presence of S. aureus and an ACC of more than 2.5 cfu/cm(2). ACC and bioluminescence showed significant differences in the different surface sites (p RLU values (p-value RLU values were significantly associated with a higher risk of failing the benchmark (p < 0.001). Our data suggest that bioluminescence could help in measuring hygienic quality of hospital surfaces using a quick and sensitive test that can be an useful proxy of microbial contamination; however, further analysis will be necessary to assess the cost-efficacy of this methodology before requiring incorporation in hospital procedures. PMID:24369935

Amodio, Emanuele; Cannova, Lucia; Villafrate, Maria Rosaria; Merendino, Anna Maria; Aprea, Luigi; Calamusa, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

77

Drivers shaping the diversity and biogeography of total and active bacterial communities in the South China Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

Very few studies have been devoted to understanding microbial biogeography from the viewpoint of active versus total bacterial communities. Here, we examined the bacterial community along two transects, one from the inner Pearl River estuary to the open water of the South China Sea (SCS) and the other from the Luzon Strait to the SCS basin, using 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA and rDNA. Bacterial community composition was strongly correlated with environmental factors and weakly correlated with geographical distance between sites, although the diversity and biogeographic patterns differed substantially between the total and active communities. Compared to the total community, the active heterotrophic bacterial community displayed higher environmental sensitivity and a greater distance effect that was in fact mainly contributed by the active assemblage from deep waters. Taken together, the 16S rRNA versus rDNA relationships and community network models implied that the active heterotrophic bacteria, in high competition with each other, have high growth rates and high loss rates from predation, and hence are less-abundant in the SCS. Thereinto, most of the taxa act as specialists in the ecosystem and the others as generalists, which could cause some dispersal limitations such that some species could not become successfully established in the new location as they were moved through drift and, therefore, the active bacterial community could be determined to have a distinct distance-decay relationship. Altogether, our results supported the proposal that the current distributions of bacteria in the SCS were actually the result of both contemporary selection and historical drift processes.

Zhang, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Dai, M.; Jiao, N.

2013-12-01

78

Effect of partial substitution of NaCl with KCl on Halloumi cheese during storage: chemical composition, lactic bacterial count, and organic acids production.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of partial substitution of NaCl with KCl on chemical composition, lactic bacterial count, and organic acids profile of Halloumi cheese was investigated. Halloumi cheeses were made and kept in 4 different brine solutions at 18% including NaCl only (HA), 3NaCl : 1KCl (HB), 1NaCl : 1KCl (HC), and 1NaCl : 3KCl (HD) and then stored at 4 degrees C for 56 d. No significant effect was observed between control and experimental cheeses in terms of moisture, fat, protein, lactic bacterial count, and pH values at the same storage period. There was a significant difference in ash, sodium, and potassium contents among experimental cheeses at the same storage period. Ash, sodium, and potassium contents increased significantly during storage at same salt treatment. There was no significant difference in lactic and citric acid contents among experimental cheeses and that of the control. In contrary, there was a significant difference in acetic acid among experimental cheeses. A strong positive correlation was observed between ash, Na, and K contents. An inverse correlation between organic acids and both Na and K contents was also observed. PMID:20722906

Ayyash, Mutamed M; Shah, Nagendra P

2010-08-01

79

Total and differential white blood cell counts, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and cardiovascular risk in non-affective psychoses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Schizophrenia is associated with increased cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Schizophrenia is also associated with immune and inflammatory abnormalities, including aberrant blood levels of lymphocytes, cytokines and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between total and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts, hsCRP, and indices of cardiovascular disease risk in patients with schizophrenia and related non-affective psychoses. 108 inpatients and outpatients age 18-70 with non-affective psychoses and 44 controls participated in this cross-sectional study. Subjects had a fasting blood draw between 8 and 9am for glucose, lipids, total and differential WBC counts, and hsCRP. Vital signs and medical history were obtained. Patients with non-affective psychosis had significantly higher hsCRP levels than controls (p=0.04). In linear regression analyses, lymphocyte and monocyte counts were a significant predictor of the total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio in subjects with non-affective psychosis (p?0.02 for each). In binary logistic regression analyses, total WBC count was a significant predictor of an elevated 10-year estimated risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular disease in subjects with non-affective psychosis (p?0.03 for each). Associations between total and differential WBC counts and cardiovascular disease risk indices were stronger in males than females with non-affective psychosis. Our findings provide further evidence that measurement of total and differential WBC counts may be germane to the clinical care of patients with schizophrenia and related disorders, and support an association between inflammation and cardiovascular disease risk in these patients. PMID:25542737

Miller, Brian J; Kandhal, Prianka; Rapaport, Mark Hyman; Mellor, Andrew; Buckley, Peter

2015-03-01

80

Effect of gamma irradiation on shelf life extension, total counts of microbials and biochemical sensory change on luncheon meat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate the effect of gamma irradiation and sodium nitrate on storability and marketability of luncheon, packed luncheon was exposed to several treatments; gamma irradiation at doses 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 KGy using a 60 CO package irradiator, mixed with sodium nitrite (NaNO2) 60 mg/Kg meat, with no irradiation and a combined treatment of both NaNO2 treatment and irradiated with a dose of 2 KGy only. Half of the irradiated and unirradiated samples were stored in refrigeration (1-4 centigrade), to study storability and the second half were stored at room temperature (18-20 centigrade) to study marketability of luncheon. During storage period the population of microorganisms, biochemical changes and sensory properties were evaluated every two weeks for the refrigerated samples and weekly for the unrefrigerated samples. The results indicated that gamma irradiation and sodium nitrite reduced the counts of microorganisms and increased the shelf-life of luncheon. Both treatments (irradiation, sodium nitrite) increased total acidity, lipid oxidation, and the volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) immediately after processing and reduced all of them through out storage. Sensory evaluation (firmness, color, taste, and flavor) indicated no significant differences (P>0.05) between treated and untreated samples. (author)

81

Assessment of the efficiency of SimPlate? total plate count color indicator (TPC CI) to quantify mesophilic aerobic microorganisms in pasteurized milk Avaliação da eficiência do SimPlate? Total Plate Count Color Indicator (TPC CI) para enumeração de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos em leite pasteurizado  

OpenAIRE

The SimPlate? TPC CI system is a rapid method to count mesophilic aerobic microorganisms (MAM) in foods, based on the use of resazurine to indicate bacterial growth. Its efficiency in pasteurized milk was evaluated using 142 pasteurized milk samples (38 type A, 43 type B and 61 type C) collected in Londrina, PR. The standard plating method, using Plate Count Agar (PCA) was used for comparison. The plates of both systems were incubated at 35ºC and read after 24h and 48h. The occurrence o...

Luís Augusto Nero; Vanerli Beloti,; Márcia Aguiar Ferreira Barros; Elsa Helena Walter Santana; Mykel Steffani Pereira; Viviane Vieira Gusmão; Luciane Bilia de Moraes

2002-01-01

82

Evaluation of White Cell Count and Differential in Synovial Fluid for Diagnosing Infections after Total Hip or Knee Arthroplasty  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The accuracy of synovial fluid (SF) white cell count (WCC) and polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell evaluation for predicting prosthetic joint infection (PJI) at the total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) site is unknown. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to summarize the diagnostic validity of SF-WCC and SF-PMN for diagnosing PJI. Methods The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and OVID databases were searched for studies that had evaluated the diagnostic validity of SF-WCC and SF-PMN between January 1990 and May 2013. Meta-analysis methods were used to pool sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odd ratios (DORs), the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC), positive likelihood ratios (PLR), negative likelihood ratios (NLR), and post-test probability. We also conducted heterogeneity, publication bias, subgroup, and meta-regression analyses. Results Fifteen articles (15 SF-WCC and 14 SF-PMN) that included a total of 2787 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were considered for analysis. The pooled sensitivity and specificity for PJI detection was 0.88 (95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.81–0.93) and 0.93 (95% CI, 0.88–0.96) for SF-WCC and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.84–0.93) and 0.88 (95% CI, 0.83–0.92) for SF-PMN, respectively. The AUC was 0.96 for SF-WCC and 0.95 for SF-PMN. PLR and NLR were 13.3 and 0.13 for SF-WCC, and 7.6 and 0.12 for SF-PMN, respectively. There was no evidence of publication bias. Low-clinical-scenario (pre-test probability, 20%) post-test probabilities were 3% for both negative SF-WCC and SF-PMN results. The subgroup analyses indicated that the sensitivity/specificity of THA were 0.73/0.96 for SF-WCC and 0.85/0.83 for SF-PMN, whereas those of TKA were 0.90/0.91 for SF-WCC and 0.90/0.88 for SF-PMN. We also found that collection of SF-WCC preoperatively had a higher sensitivity than that obtained intraoperatively (0.91 vs. 0.77). Conclusions SF-WCC and SF-PMN have an adequate and clinically acceptable diagnostic value for detecting PJI, particularly after TKA. PMID:24416276

Li, Haowei; Wu, Chuanlong; Li, Yang; Li, Huiwu; Zhu, Zhenan; Qin, An; Dai, Kerong

2014-01-01

83

Calibration standard energy influence on the efficiency of a proportional detector for alpha and beta total counting on water samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper the efficiency calibration curves were determined for a thin-window, low-background and gas-flow proportional counter using calibration standards with different energies and different absorber thicknesses. For the gross alpha counting we used 241 Am standard and natural uranium and for the gross beta counting we used 90 Sr/90 Y and 137 Cs in residue thickness ranging from 0 to approximately 18 mg/cm2. Counting efficiency for alpha emitters ranged from 0,266± 0,032 for a weightless residue to 0,023± 0,003 in a planchet containing 15 mg/cm2 of residue for 241 Am standard calibration planchets. Counting efficiency values obtained for natural uranium standard calibration planchets ranged from 0,322± 0,030 for a weightless residue to 0,023± 0,003 in a planchet containing 14,5 mg/cm2 of residue. Counting efficiency for beta emitters ranged from 0,430± 0,036 for a weightless residue to 0,247± 0,020 in a planchet containing 17 mg/cm2 of residue for 137 Cs standard. Counting efficiency values obtained for 90 Sr/90 Y standard calibration planchets ranged from 0,489± 0,041 for a weightless residue to 0,323± 0,026 for a residue thickness of 18 mg/cm2. (author)

84

Leukocyte-subset counts in idiopathic parkinsonism provide clues to a pathogenic pathway involving small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. A surveillance study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Following Helicobacter pylori eradication in idiopathic parkinsonism (IP, hypokinesia improved but flexor-rigidity increased. Small intestinal bacterial-overgrowth (SIBO is a candidate driver of the rigidity: hydrogen-breath-test-positivity is common in IP and case histories suggest that Helicobacter keeps SIBO at bay. Methods In a surveillance study, we explore relationships of IP-facets to peripheral immune/inflammatory-activation, in light of presence/absence of Helicobacter infection (urea-breath- and/or stool-antigen-test: positivity confirmed by gastric-biopsy and hydrogen-breath-test status for SIBO (positivity: >20 ppm increment, 2 consecutive 15-min readings, within 2h of 25G lactulose. We question whether any relationships found between facets and blood leukocyte subset counts stand in patients free from anti-parkinsonian drugs, and are robust enough to defy fluctuations in performance consequent on short t½ therapy. Results Of 51 IP-probands, 36 had current or past Helicobacter infection on entry, 25 having undergone successful eradication (median 3.4 years before. Thirty-four were hydrogen-breath-test-positive initially, 42 at sometime (343 tests during surveillance (2.8 years. Hydrogen-breath-test-positivity was associated inversely with Helicobacter-positivity (OR 0.20 (95% CI 0.04, 0.99, p In 38 patients (untreated (17 or on stable long-t½ IP-medication, the higher the natural-killer count, the shorter stride, slower gait and greater flexor-rigidity (by mean 49 (14, 85 mm, 54 (3, 104 mm.s-1, 89 (2, 177 Nm.10-3, per 100 cells.?l-1 increment, p=0.007, 0.04 & 0.04 respectively, adjusted for patient characteristics. T-helper count was inversely associated with flexor-rigidity before (p=0.01 and after adjustment for natural-killer count (-36(-63, -10 Nm.10-3 per 100 cells.?l-1, p=0.007. Neutrophil count was inversely associated with tremor (visual analogue scale, p=0.01. Effect-sizes were independent of IP-medication, and not masked by including 13 patients receiving levodopa (except natural-killer count on flexor-rigidity. Cellular associations held after allowing for potentially confounding effect of hydrogen-breath-test or Helicobacter status. Moreover, additional reduction in stride and speed (68 (24, 112 mm & 103 (38, 168 mm.s-1, each p=0.002 was seen with Helicobacter-positivity. Hydrogen-breath-test-positivity, itself, was associated with higher natural-killer and T-helper counts, lower neutrophils (p=0.005, 0.02 & 0.008. Conclusion We propose a rigidity-associated subordinate pathway, flagged by a higher natural-killer count, tempered by a higher T-helper, against which Helicobacter protects by keeping SIBO at bay.

Dobbs R

2012-10-01

85

Total bacterial load within Echinacea purpurea, determined using a new PCR-based quantification method, is correlated with LPS levels and in vitro macrophage activity  

OpenAIRE

Our previous studies indicate that the majority of in vitro monocyte/macrophage activation exhibited by extracts of Echinacea depends on bacterial components. In the present study total bacterial load was determined within E. purpurea samples and ranged from 6.4×106 to 3.3×108 bacteria/g of dry plant material. To estimate total bacterial load we developed a PCR-based quantification method that circumvents the problems associated with non-viable/non-culturable cells (which precludes using pl...

Pugh, Nirmal D.; Jackson, Colin R.; Pasco, David S.

2012-01-01

86

Bacterial load in tissues and its predictive value for infection in open fractures.  

OpenAIRE

The role of quantitative bacteriology is considered controversial for the prediction of infection in open fractures. A study was done in 20 patients with open fractures. Post debridement pieces of skin, muscle and periosteal tissue were obtained for quantitative bacterial counts. Among a total of 50 samples from all of the tissues, 29 showed positive bacterial counts (16 of 20 skin, 11 of 20 muscle and 2 of 10 periosteum samples). By quantitative estimation, the bacterial load was >10(5) p...

Rk, Sen; Murthy N; Ss, Gill; On, Nagi

2000-01-01

87

Embryo quality and implantation rates are not influenced by total motile count values in an ICSI programme: a novel point of view  

OpenAIRE

Total motile count (TMC) is a useful tool for sperm evaluation, comprising both quantitative and motility parameters. Although frequently used, TMC has not yet been evaluated as a contributory variable for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. In this study we evaluate the possible role of TMC as a prognostic parameter in cycles designated for ICSI. We also test the existence of a possible TMC-threshold value that might be predictive for ICSI cycle outcome in the everyday practice. ...

Hershko-klement, Anat; Rovner, Einav; Yekutieli, Daniel; Ghetler, Yehudith; Gonen, Ofer; Cohen, Ilan; Wiser, Amir; Berkovitz, Arie; Shulman, Adrian

2012-01-01

88

The effect of aging on element plant availability and bacterial counts of mixtures of wood ash and sewage sludge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated the chemical composition of a mixture of 70% wood ashes (a by-product of timber-industry and 30% sewage sludge (% dry weight, immediately after preparation and after storage (42 days. The mixture had higher Mehlich 3 extractable Ca, Mg and K concentrations than either component alone, and low plant-available heavy metal concentrations, both immediately after mixing and after storage for up to 6 weeks. The results support the view that mixtures of this type may be useful for liming and fertilizing, given their neutralizing capacity and phyto nutrient concentrations. Furthermore, we compared the survival of Escherichia coli in a wood ash and sewage sludge mixture with their survival in mixtures ofsewage sludge and two levels of quicklime. The time needed to eliminate most bacteria was 29 days in the ash-sludge combination, while nine days were required for one of the quicklime-sludge mixtures, and counts were minimal for the quicklime-sludge mixture with a pH>12.

Yudani Pousada-Ferradás

2011-01-01

89

The effect of aging on element plant availability and bacterial counts of mixtures of wood ash and sewage sludge  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english This study investigated the chemical composition of a mixture of 70% wood ashes (a by-product of timber-industry) and 30% sewage sludge (% dry weight), immediately after preparation and after storage (42 days). The mixture had higher Mehlich 3 extractable Ca, Mg and K concentrations than either comp [...] onent alone, and low plant-available heavy metal concentrations, both immediately after mixing and after storage for up to 6 weeks. The results support the view that mixtures of this type may be useful for liming and fertilizing, given their neutralizing capacity and phyto nutrient concentrations. Furthermore, we compared the survival of Escherichia coli in a wood ash and sewage sludge mixture with their survival in mixtures ofsewage sludge and two levels of quicklime. The time needed to eliminate most bacteria was 29 days in the ash-sludge combination, while nine days were required for one of the quicklime-sludge mixtures, and counts were minimal for the quicklime-sludge mixture with a pH>12.

Yudani, Pousada-Ferradás; Socorro, Seoane-Labandeira; Miguel, Blanco; Avelino, Núñez-Delgado.

90

An Increased Total Resected Lymph Node Count Benefits Survival following Pancreas Invasive Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms Resection: An Analysis Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result Registry Database  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The therapeutic effect of lymph node dissection for pancreas invasive intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) remains unclear. The study investigated whether cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) rates among invasive IPMN patients improve when more lymph nodes are harvested during surgery. Study Design The study cohort was retrieved from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. The lymph node count was categorized into quartiles. The relationship between lymph node count and survival was analyzed using Kaplan–Meier curves and a Cox proportional-hazards model. The stage migration was assessed by Chi-square tests. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to minimize confounding variables between groups. Results In total, 1,080 patients with resected invasive IPMNs from 1992 to 2011 were included. Univariate and multivariate Cox models indicated that an increased lymph node count independently improves survival. The Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests identified 16 nodes as an optimal cut-off value that yielded a significant survival benefit for all invasive IPMN patients. The stage migration effect existed in this cohort. After PSM, the 5-year CSS increased from 36% to 47%, and the median survival rate increased from 30 months to 40 months by increasing the lymph node count to over 16, alone. The 5-year OS rate also provided additional support for this result. Conclusion Increased lymph node counts were associated with improved survival in invasive IPMN patients. One cut-off value of lymph node count was 16 for this improvement. PMID:25264746

Tian, Rui; You, Lei; Dai, Menghua; Liao, Quan; Zhang, Taiping; Zhao, Yupei

2014-01-01

91

Influence of addition of different antibiotics in semen diluent on viable bacterial count and spermatozoal viability of Awassi ram semen  

OpenAIRE

The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of six different antibiotics in controlling the growth of semen contaminating bacteria and if these antibiotics have any adverse effect on Awassi ram spermatozoa. Semen samples from six mature Awassi rams were used in this study. A total number of 120 ejaculates were collected from the rams using an artificial vagina once a week. Semen ejaculates were evaluated for volume, sperm concentration, mass motility, individual motility...

Azawi, O. I.; Ismaeel, M. A.

2012-01-01

92

Effects of temperature and fertilization on the structure of total versus active bacterial communities from sub-Antarctic seawater exposed to crude oil and diesel fuel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Polar environments are exposed to the risk of oil pollution. However, there is limited knowledge regarding how the variation of physicochemical factors influencing biodegradation may affect bacterial community structure. The effects of temperature (4, 10 and 20°C and organic fertilization (Inipol EAP 22 on community structure and diversity of bacteria inhabiting Kerguelen sub-Antarctic waters were studied in crude- and diesel-amended microcosms. Dynamics of total (i.e., 16S rDNA-based and metabolically active (i.e., 16S rRNA-based bacterial community structure and diversity were monitored using capillary-electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism. Results showed that total and active community structures were differently influenced by temperature and fertilization in the presence of hydrocarbons. Both fertilization and temperature induced changes in total community structure in the presence of crude oil and diesel. However, temperature showed a limited influence on active community structure, and fertilization induced changes in the presence of crude oil only. Simpson's index decreased for total bacterial communities at all temperatures in the presence of crude oil and diesel, whereas a lower reduction was observed for active bacterial populations. In the presence of fertilizer, the diversity of the whole community approached control values after seven incubation weeks; this was not observed for the active bacterial community. This study evidenced qualitative differences in total and active bacterial community structures of Kerguelen seawaters in the presence of hydrocarbons and different responses relative to variation in temperature and fertilization. These factors and hydrocarbons composition have to be taken into account to understand bacterial community dynamics after an oil spill.

Arturo Rodríguez-Blanco

2013-05-01

93

Acidity/Rancidity Levels, Chemical Studies, Bacterial Count/Flora of Fermented and Unfermented Silver Catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The keeping quality and shelf life of fermented and unfermented Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus were monitored in this study. Four kilograms of fresh Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus was minced into fine particles (with an initial pH of 7.2 before distribution into 8 samples. Samples 1-4 are unfermented cooked while Samples 5-8 were fermented, not cooked. All the 8 prepared samples barely lasted for two weeks, while samples 1, 3 and 7 lasted for six weeks. Total Volatile Base (TVB ranged higher (24.12 - 29.43 mg/100gm in Samples 1-4 than (14.23 - 18.09 mg/100gm recorded in Samples 5-8. In Samples 1-4, FFA values were not significantly (P > 0.05 different; also followed a narrow range of (6.14 - 6.45% while higher range of (6.42 - 12.27% recorded in samples (5-8. Peroxide values (PV increased in all the 8 samples in the second, fourth and sixth week, however higher values were recorded in Samples 5-8. Acidity generally increased with length (weeks of fermentation with a gradual drop in pH from 7.2 (in the fresh fish to pH 4.5 (sample 7, the worst sample at six weeks. Sample 4 with bacteria load of 5.05 × 105 at second week and sample 7 (8.2 × 105 at sixth week became unfit for consumption having exceeded the 5.0 × 105 ICMSF standard for safe fish product. Five bacteria species (Lactobacillus sp, Proteus spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermis, Bacillus sp with the exception of Proteus spwere not represented in sample 1 (due to salt content. Strong positive correlation (r = 0.97, P

O. A. Oyelese

2013-10-01

94

All about Carbohydrate Counting  

Science.gov (United States)

All About Carbohydrate Counting American Diabetes Association? ? 1–800–DIABETES (342–2383)? ? www.diabetes.org ©2009 by ... Diabetes Association, Inc. 2/14 Toolkit No. 14: All About Carbohydrate Counting continued • If the total carbohydrate ...

95

Subchronic exposure to nitrite, potassium and their combination on survival, growth, total haemocyte count and gill structure of juvenile blue swimmer crabs, Portunus pelagicus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among anthropogenic discharges, nitrite and potassium can simultaneously enter aquatic ecosystems at high loading rates which can threaten marine animals. The sensitivity of early juvenile blue swimmer crabs, Portunus pelagicus, to the subchronic exposure to nitrite, potassium and their combination was evaluated by measuring the survival, growth, total haemocyte count (THC) and gill histopathological changes. In all NaNO(2)-N and KNO(2)-N treatments the survival substantially decreased, many due to "molt death syndrome", along with significantly lower (ppelagicus juveniles are highly sensitive to elevated NO(2)-N levels. PMID:19285345

Romano, Nicholas; Zeng, Chaoshu

2009-05-01

96

ASSESSMENT AND IMPLICATIONS OF BACTERIAL REGROWTH IN WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

Two water distribution systems were studied over a 1-year period. Temporal fluctuations in a number of physical, chemical and biological parameters were examined. Total and pigmented bacterial counts, total coliforms, and fecal coliforms were determined at four locations within e...

97

Total mesophilic counts underestimate in many cases the contamination levels of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in chilled-stored food products at the end of their shelf-life.  

Science.gov (United States)

The major objective of this study was to determine the role of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in spoilage-associated phenomena at the end of the shelf-life of 86 various packaged (air, vacuum, modified-atmosphere) chilled-stored retail food products. The current microbiological standards, which are largely based on the total viable mesophilic counts lack discriminatory capacity to detect psychrotrophic LAB. A comparison between the total viable counts on plates incubated at 30 °C (representing the mesophiles) and at 22 °C (indicating the psychrotrophs) for 86 food samples covering a wide range - ready-to-eat vegetable salads, fresh raw meat, cooked meat products and composite food - showed that a consistent underestimation of the microbial load occurs when the total aerobic mesophilic counts are used as a shelf-life parameter. In 38% of the samples, the psychrotrophic counts had significantly higher values (+0.5-3 log CFU/g) than the corresponding total aerobic mesophilic counts. A total of 154 lactic acid bacteria, which were unable to proliferate at 30 °C were isolated. In addition, a further 43 with a poor recovery at this temperature were also isolated. This study highlights the potential fallacy of the total aerobic mesophilic count as a reference shelf-life parameter for chilled food products as it can often underestimate the contamination levels at the end of the shelf-life. PMID:22986212

Pothakos, Vasileios; Samapundo, Simbarashe; Devlieghere, Frank

2012-12-01

98

Hemocyte types and total and differential counts in unparasitized and parasitized Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera, Tephritidae larvae Tipos de hemócitos e contagem total e diferencial em larvas parasitadas e não parasitadas de Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera, Tephritidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The hemocyte types, in addition to total and differential hemocyte counts were studied in parasitized and unparasitized Anastrepha obliqua larvae at the beginning and at the end of the third instar. In both developmental phases, in parasitized and unparasitized larvae, prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, adipohemocytes, spherulocytes and oenocytoids cells were observed. Mitotic figures indicate prohemocytes as stem cells. Prohemocytes, plasmatocytes and granulocytes are the most numerous cells in the hemolymph of A. obliqua. Difference in the total number of hemocytes was observed between unparasitized and parasitized larvae at the end of the third instar, but not at the beginning.Os tipos de hemócitos e as contagens total e diferencial foram estudados em larvas parasitadas e não parasitadas de Anastrepha obliqua pertencentes ao início e ao final da terceira fase. Em ambas as fases do desenvolvimento, tanto em larvas parasitadas quanto nas não parasitadas, foram observados pró-hemócitos, plasmatócitos, granulócitos, adipo-hemócitos, esferulócitos e oenocitóides. A presença de divisões mitóticas indica os pró-hemócitos como células-tronco. Pró-hemócitos, plasmatócitos e granulócitos são as células mais numerosas na hemolinfa de A. obliqua. Foi observada diferença no número total de hemócitos entre larvas parasitadas e não parasitadas apenas no final da terceira fase.

J. E. B. SILVA

2002-11-01

99

Bioprospecting from Marine Sediments of New Brunswick, Canada: Exploring the Relationship between Total Bacterial Diversity and Actinobacteria Diversity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Actinomycetes are an important resource for the discovery of natural products with therapeutic properties. Bioprospecting for actinomycetes typically proceeds without a priori knowledge of the bacterial diversity present in sampled habitats. In this study, we endeavored to determine if overall bacterial diversity in marine sediments, as determined by 16S rDNA amplicon pyrosequencing, could be correlated with culturable actinomycete diversity, and thus serve as a powerful tool in guiding future bioprospecting efforts. Overall bacterial diversity was investigated in eight marine sediments from four sites in New Brunswick, Canada, resulting in over 44,000 high quality sequences (x? = 5610 per sample. Analysis revealed all sites exhibited significant diversity (H’ = 5.4 to 6.7. Furthermore, statistical analysis of species level bacterial communities (D = 0.03 indicated community composition varied according to site and was strongly influenced by sediment physiochemical composition. In contrast, cultured actinomycetes (n = 466, 98.3% Streptomyces were ubiquitously distributed among all sites and distribution was not influenced by sediment composition, suggesting that the biogeography of culturable actinomycetes does not correlate with overall bacterial diversity in the samples examined. These actinomycetes provide a resource for future secondary metabolite discovery, as exemplified by the antimicrobial activity observed from preliminary investigation.

Katherine Duncan

2014-02-01

100

Influence of total rotation angle and arm positions on the reconstructed count distribution in cardiac SPECT studies performed without attenuation correction: simulations based on CT images  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: In gated blood pool SPECT studies, the volume of the heart ventricles may be determined by a method based on counts. The present work was carried out to determine how the attenuation of photons modifies the reconstructed counts in different regions of a SPECT image of the heart, and how the calculated volumes are influenced by the total acquisition angle. Thoracic CT slices through the central part of the heart, obtained from three patients, were used to simulate the effects of attenuation on SPECT imaging of the heart. Each of three images were converted to arrays containing the linear attenuation coefficients (?-maps) by the use of a look-up table. The table provided the linear attenuation coefficient (?) of 140 KeV photons corresponding to a CT number (HU) entry. Based on these ?-maps, the attenuation along a path from any given point to an imaginary detector could be calculated for any direction of view. For each point in the image, the attenuation values for all actual directions of view were summed and averaged. Subsequently, an array of correction factors (chang coefficients, CC) was built. The specially designed computer program allowed us to add or removed the arms from the image before simulations. The angular SPECT acquisition interval simulated was either 360o or 180o, and the angular spacing was 1o. In the case of a 180o rotation, the acquisition spanned from the 45o RAO to the 45o LPO view. Regions of interest were drawn that covered the entire heart cross section, and the left and right ventricles, respectively. Mean values as well as standard deviations of the CC were calculated for each of there regions. The mean CC in the heart region was 10-20 % higher for a rotation of 360o than for a 180o rotation. As an average for the there patients, the ratio between the mean CC of the left and right ventricle regions, were 1.27 and 1.14 for the 180o and the 360o acquisitions, respectively. The presence of arms in the image lead to increase in both CC and their corresponding standard deviations. Unless a proper attenuation correction method is used, 360o orbit seems to be preferable over 180o for cardiac gated blood pool SPECT, at least when count based methods are applied. (author)

101

Comparison between MICRO–CARD–FISH and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries to assess the active versus total bacterial community in the coastal Arctic.  

Science.gov (United States)

We collected surface- and deep-water samples (maximum depth 300 m) during the spring–summer transition in the coastal Arctic along a transect in the Kongsfjorden (Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen, Norway) to determine the structure of the active versus total marine bacterioplankton community using different approaches. Catalysed reporter deposition– fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with microautoradiography (MICRO–CARD–FISH) was used to determine the abundance and activity of different bacterial groups. The bacterial communities were dominated by members of Alphaproteobacteria followed by Bacteroidetes, whereas Gammaproteobacteria were present at low abundance but exhibited a high percentage of active cells taking up leucine. The clone libraries of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA) and 16S rRNA from two different depths were used to decipher the bacterial community structure. Independently of the type of clone libraries analysed (16S rDNA- or 16S rRNA-based), four major and four minor taxonomic groups were detected. The bacterioplankton community was mainly dominated at both the DNA and the RNA levels by Alphaproteobacteria followed by Gammaproteobacteria. The Rhodobacteriaceae were the most abundant members of the Alphaproteobacteria in both DNA and RNA clone libraries, followed by the SAR11 clade, which was only detectable at the 16S PMID:23565124

De Corte, Daniele; Sintes, Eva; Yokokawa, Taichi; Herndl, Gerhard J

2013-04-01

102

Total bacterial and ammonia-oxidizer community structure in moving bed biofilm reactors treating municipal wastewater and inorganic synthetic wastewater.  

Science.gov (United States)

Industrial-scale bioreactors treat wastewater of temporally variable composition under different weather conditions, while the microbial populations of wastewater treatment plants are often studied in controlled laboratory-scale systems with defined influent at a constant temperature. 16S rRNA- and ammonia oxidising amoA-gene-defined bacterial community structure was investigated in industrial and laboratory-scale moving bed biofilm bioreactors (MBBRs) treating municipal wastewater (WW) or synthetic ammonium solution (AS). Nitrification activity, 16S rRNA and amoA gene T-RFLP profiles were comparable between industrial and laboratory scale WW bioreactors. AS bioreactors exhibited higher nitrification and higher relative abundances of Nitrosomonadaceae and Nitrospiraceae families but only small changes in the general bacterial community structure was detected compared to WW MBBRs. Nitrosomonas europaea lineage dominated WW, while uncultivated Nitrosomonas-like sequences prevailed in AS bioreactors. These results suggest that influent type has a stronger influence on community structure than operational conditions, such as temperature or bioreactor size. PMID:22342033

Pal, Levin; Kraigher, Barbara; Brajer-Humar, Barbara; Levstek, Marjetka; Mandic-Mulec, Ines

2012-04-01

103

Total volatile fatty acids and bacterial production rates as affected by rations containing untreated or ammonia (urea) treated rice straw in croos-bred cattle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding ammoniated rice straw on ruminal total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) and bacterial production rates. Twelve karan swiss, male, rumen fistulated calves (2-2.5 yrs) were divided in three equal groups. Animals were offered rice straw either untreated (A) or 4 per cent urea+40 per cent moisture treated and ensiled for 30 days (B) or 5 per cent urea+30 per cent moisture treated and ensiled for 30 days (C). Protein requirements were met through concentrate mixture. Levels of NH3-N and TCA-precipitable-N in strained rumen liquor (SRL) were significantly higher (20.34±0.022, 63.26±0.81 (B), 20.78±0.41, 64.98±0.87 (C) (mg/100 ml SRL) in groups fed ammoniated ±0.31, 45.94±1.91 mg/100 ml S RL), respectively. The bacterial production rates in the rumen (g/day) were significantly higher in groups B and C as compared to group A. TVFA concentrations (mmole/100 ml SRL ) and TVFA production rates (mmole/d) were also significantly higher in groups B and C as compared to group A. The bacterial production rates were significantly co-related with TVFA, NH3-N, TCA precipitable-N concentration in the rumen and ATP production. Multiple regression equations relating bacterial production rates with (i)NH3-N and TVFA concentration in the rumen, (ii)NH3-N and TVFA production rates and (iii)NH3-N and ATP produced were also developed. (author). 18 refs., 2 tabs refs., 2 tabs

104

Comparative seric TGF({beta}1, {beta}2) levels and platelets count response in total body irradiated baboons; Evolution comparee des taux seriques des TGF ({beta}1, {beta}2) et de la numeration plaquettaire chez le babouin irradie globalement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Total body irradiation associated or not with r-hIL-6 treatment a relation between TGF-{beta}1 and TGF-{beta}2 blood levels and platelets count. During radio-induced thrombocytopenia, by decreasing its ability to inhibit proliferation of stem cells and megakaryocytopoiesis, the TGF-{beta} falling induced a favorable condition for hematopoietic recovery. (author). 5 refs.

Mestries, J.C.; Veyret, J.; Agay, D.; Van Uye, A.; Caterini, R.; Herodin, F.; Mathieu, J.; Chancerelle, Y.

1994-12-31

105

Blood count and C-reactive protein evolution in gastric cancer patients with total gastrectomy surgery / Evolução do hemograma e proteína C-reativa em pacientes com câncer gástrico operados por gastrectomia total  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese RACIONAL: O hemograma completo (CBC) e a proteína C-reativa (PCR) são úteis para excluir parâmetros inflamatórios e complicações inflamatórias agudas pós-operatórias. OBJETIVO: Determinar muda [...] nças nesses parâmetros em pacientes com câncer gástrico submetidos à gastrectomia total. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo com 36 pacientes com câncer gástrico submetidos todos à gastrectomia eletiva. No primeiro, terceiro e quinto dias pós-operatórios (PO), alterações do hemograma e as mudanças de PCR foram avaliadas. Os pacientes com complicações pós-operatórias foram excluídos. RESULTADOS: Vinte e um (58%) eram homens e 15 (42%) mulheres. A média de idade era de 65 anos. Os leucócitos atingiram o pico no primeiro PO com média de 13.826 u/mm³??, e decresceram para 8.266 u/mm³ no quinto. Os bastonetes atingiram o pico no primeiro PO com valor máximo de 1,48%. O nível máximo da PCR foi no 3º PO, com média de 144,64 mg/l±44,84. O hematócrito pré-operatório (HCT) foi de 35% e de 33,67% até o 5o PO. A hemoglobina não apresentou alterações. CONCLUSÕES: Houve aumento de leucócitos no 1o PO mas atingiram valores normais até o 5o PO. PCR atingiu o pico no 3º PO, mas não atingiu os valores normais até o quinto. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: The complete blood count (CBC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are useful inflammatory parameters for ruling out acute postoperative inflammatory complications. AIM: [...] To determine their changes in gastric cancer patients submitted to total gastrectomy. METHODS: This is a prospective study, with 36 patients with gastric cancer who were submitted to elective total gastrectomy. On the first, third and fifth postoperative day (POD), blood count and CRP changes were assessed. Patients with postoperative complications were excluded. RESULTS: Twenty-one (58%) were men and 15 (42%) women. The mean age was 65 years. The leukocytes peaked on the 1st POD with a mean of 13,826 u/mm³, and decreased to 8,266 u/mm³ by the 5th POD. The bacilliforms peaked on the 1st POD with a maximum value of 1.48%. CRP reached its maximum level on the 3rd POD with a mean of 144.64 mg/l±44.84. Preoperative hematocrit (HCT) was 35% and 33.67% by the 5th POD. Hemoglobin, showed similar values. CONCLUSIONS: Leukocytes increased during the 1st POD but reached normal values by the 5th POD. CRP peaked on the 3rd POD but did not reach normal values by the 5th POD.

Attila CSENDES, J.; Andrea MUÑOZ, Ch.; Ana María BURGOS, L..

2014-12-01

106

Identification of Concurrent Bacterial Infection in Adult Patients with Dengue  

OpenAIRE

We aim to construct a diagnostic model for bacterial coinfection in dengue patients (Dengue Dual Infection Score [DDIS]); 2,065 adult dengue patients (mean age = 41.9 ± 17.2 years, 58.4% male, 83 patients with bacterial coinfection) seen at a university hospital from January of 2005 to February of 2010 were studied. The DDIS was created by assigning one point to each of five risk factors for bacterial coinfection: pulse rate ? 90 beats/minute, total white cell count ? 6 × 109/L, hematoc...

See, Kay C.; Phua, Jason; Yip, Hwee S.; Yeo, Leong L.; Lim, Tow K.

2013-01-01

107

Bacterial Contamination of Iranian Paper Currency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Transmission of human pathogens can be occurred via inert objects. Paper currency is a further common contact surface whereby pathogens can be transferred within a population although the significance remains unknown. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate microbial populations associated with Iranian paper currency.Methods: This study was carried out by getting 108 samples of the Iranian currency notes (1000, 2000, 5000, 10000, 20000 and 50000 RIALS from food-related shops that included food service outlets, greengrocery, supermarket, bakery, confectionary and poultry meat retail outlets. All currency notes were examined for total bacterial count and identification of pathogenic bacteria.Results: The average total bacterial count that was recovered from currency notes was found to be 3.27±0.31 colony forming unites. 2000R had the highest total bacterial count, followed by 5000R, 10000R and the lowest in 50000R. In this study, the isolated bacteria recovered were Bacillus cereus (8.33%, E. coli (48.14%, Staphylococcus aureus (28.7%, Salmonella (0.92%, Listeria monocytogenes (0.92%, Yersinia entrocolitica (6.48%. It was revealed that all the pathogens screened for where encountered on currency notes were recovered from one sample. There were no significant (P>0.05 correlations between the carriage of pathogens/fecal indicator bacteria and currency note condition.Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that Iranian currency notes represent a significant vehicle for human pathogens.

Mir-Hassan Moosavy

2013-09-01

108

WBC count  

Science.gov (United States)

... COUNT A low number of WBCs is called leukopenia. A WBC count below 4500 is below normal ... Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 160. Berliner N. Leukopenia and leukocytosis. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. ...

109

Behavior of Salmonella heidelberg and Salmonella enteritidis strains following broiler chick inoculation: evaluation of cecal morphometry, liver and cecum bacterial counts and fecal excretion patterns  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the years, Salmonella Heidelberg (SH has gained prominence in North America poultry production and in the poultry production of other countries. Salmonella Heidelberg has been isolated and reported from poultry and poultry products in Brazil since 1962, whereas Salmonella Enteritidis (SE has only emerged as a serious problem in poultry and public health since 1993. These strains of Salmonella can cause intestinal problems in newly hatched chicks, and infection may persist until adulthood. Upon slaughter of chickens, Salmonella can contaminate carcasses, a condition that poses a threat to human health. The aim of this study was to compare the fecal excretion of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Heidelberg in newly hatched chicks (orally inoculated with 10(5ufc/mL each until 20 days of age. In addition, the ratio of cecal villus height:crypt depth (morphometry and liver and cecum cell counts was analyzed in chicks ranging from 0 to 3 days of age and infected with these two Salmonella strains. One hundred seventeen chicks were separated into one of three experimental groups: a control group, an SE-infected group and an SH-infected group. Eight chicks per group were euthanized at 6, 12 and 72 hours post-inoculation (pi to allow for Salmonella isolation from the liver and cecum and for the collection of the cecum for villi and crypt analysis. Other birds were allowed to mature to 20 days of age and cloacal swabs were taken at 2, 6, 13 and 20 days pi to compare the fecal excretion of inoculated strains. The Salmonella Enteritidis group had a higher number of cells excreted during the trial. Both strains were isolated from the liver and cecum by 6h pi. At 12h pi the Salmonella Heidelberg group had high cell counts in the cecum. No difference was found in liver cell counts. Both strains showed lower villus height:crypt depth ratio than the control group post-infection.

Anderlise Borsoi

2011-03-01

110

Water quality parameters and total aerobic bacterial and vibrionaceae loads in eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from oyster gardening sites  

Science.gov (United States)

Oyster gardening is a practice designed to restore habitat for marine life and to improve water quality. This study determined physical and chemical water quality parameters at two oyster gardening sites in the Delaware Inland Bays and compared them with total aerobic bacteria and Vibrionaceae conc...

111

Comparison of the TEMPO® System, Petrifilm® , and Cultural MPN Procedure for Enumeration of E. coli, Coliforms and Total Aerobic Plate Counts  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: Recent innovations in microbiological methods for analysis of food products have been in methods for detection of bacterial pathogens. Petrifilm dehydrated plates are the only significant addition to cultural procedures for indicator organisms in the last 20 years. An automated most...

112

Behavior of Salmonella heidelberg and Salmonella enteritidis strains following broiler chick inoculation: evaluation of cecal morphometry, liver and cecum bacterial counts and fecal excretion patterns  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Over the years, Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) has gained prominence in North America poultry production and in the poultry production of other countries. Salmonella Heidelberg has been isolated and reported from poultry and poultry products in Brazil since 1962, whereas Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) has [...] only emerged as a serious problem in poultry and public health since 1993. These strains of Salmonella can cause intestinal problems in newly hatched chicks, and infection may persist until adulthood. Upon slaughter of chickens, Salmonella can contaminate carcasses, a condition that poses a threat to human health. The aim of this study was to compare the fecal excretion of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Heidelberg in newly hatched chicks (orally inoculated with 10(5)ufc/mL each) until 20 days of age. In addition, the ratio of cecal villus height:crypt depth (morphometry) and liver and cecum cell counts was analyzed in chicks ranging from 0 to 3 days of age and infected with these two Salmonella strains. One hundred seventeen chicks were separated into one of three experimental groups: a control group, an SE-infected group and an SH-infected group. Eight chicks per group were euthanized at 6, 12 and 72 hours post-inoculation (pi) to allow for Salmonella isolation from the liver and cecum and for the collection of the cecum for villi and crypt analysis. Other birds were allowed to mature to 20 days of age and cloacal swabs were taken at 2, 6, 13 and 20 days pi to compare the fecal excretion of inoculated strains. The Salmonella Enteritidis group had a higher number of cells excreted during the trial. Both strains were isolated from the liver and cecum by 6h pi. At 12h pi the Salmonella Heidelberg group had high cell counts in the cecum. No difference was found in liver cell counts. Both strains showed lower villus height:crypt depth ratio than the control group post-infection.

Anderlise, Borsoi; Luciana Ruschel do, Santos; Laura Beatriz, Rodrigues; Hamilton Luiz de Souza, Moraes; Carlos Tadeu Pippi, Salle; Vladimir Pinheiro do, Nascimento.

2011-03-01

113

Effects of Ensiling Total Mixed Potato Hash Ration with or without Bacterial Inoculation on Silage Fermentation and Nutritive Value for Growing Pigs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Total Mixed Rations (TMR that contained 795 g kg-1 (as is basis of Potato Hash (PH were formulated and ensiled in 210 L drums (10 drums treatment-1 with or without lalsil fresh (heterofermentative lactic acid bacterial inoculant. After 3 months of ensiling, drums were opened and analysed for fermentation characteristics and nutritive value. This was followed by an 8 weeks growth study using forty crossbred pigs (Large white X landrace, twenty males and twenty females weighing 203 kg. Inoculating the TMR with lalsil fresh reduced (p-1 which could be attributed to the lower dietary protein (-1 DM and higher fibre contents. Further research is needed to evaluate effects of enzyme addition on the ensiling of potato hash and supplementation of energy and protein on feed intake and growth performance of pigs consuming the silage.

R. Thomas

2011-01-01

114

Bacterial clearance rate and a new differential hemocyte staining method to assess immunostimulant activity in shrimp.  

Science.gov (United States)

New methods were developed to assess immunostimulant efficacy in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Test shrimp were fed with 2 or 4 % yeast extract (YE)-coated feed while controls were fed non-coated feed. After 4 wk of feeding, individual shrimp were assessed for total hemocyte counts (THC), the number of granular hemocytes (GH) and rate of bacterial clearance. For hemocyte counts, formalin-fixed hemolymph was stained with 1.2 % Rose Bengal in 50 % ethanol for 20 min at room temperature. Some of this mixture was used for THC with a hemocytometer while some was smeared on a microscope slide and left to dry before counterstaining with hematoxylin for GH counts. By this technique, high quality smears were obtained for accurate differential counts. Bacterial clearance assays were used to assess the sum effect of humoral and cellular defense mechanisms. Vibrio harveyi was injected intramuscularly at 1 x 10(8) cells per shrimp and hemolymph was collected in anticoagulant at 0, 15, 30 and 60 min post-injection for quadruplicate drop counts (20 microl) on TCBS agar. Total hemocyte counts for shrimp fed with 4 % YE were significantly higher (p shrimp fed with non-coated feed. The percentage of granular cells and the rates of bacterial clearance for the YE-fed shrimp were higher than those for shrimp fed the control diet. These 2 methods provide a simple and rapid comparison of shrimp groups for differences in anti-bacterial defense capacity. PMID:15759805

Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya; Gangnonngiw, Warachin; Archakunakorn, Somwit; Fegan, Daniel; Flegel, Timothy W

2005-01-25

115

Effect of supplementing orchardgrass herbage with a total mixed ration or flaxseed on fermentation profile and bacterial protein synthesis in continuous culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 4-unit dual-flow continuous culture fermentor system was used to evaluate the effects of supplementing fresh herbage with a total mixed ration (TMR) or flaxseed on nutrient digestibility, fermentation profile, and bacterial N synthesis. Diets were randomly assigned to fermentors in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Each fermentor was fed a total of 70 g of dry matter/d of 1 of 4 diets: (1) 100% freeze-dried orchardgrass herbage (Dactylis glomerata L.; HERB), (2) 100% freeze-dried TMR (100TMR), (3) 50% orchardgrass herbage supplemented with 50% TMR (50TMR), or (4) 90% orchardgrass herbage supplemented with 10% ground flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.; FLAX). Preplanned, single degree of freedom orthogonal contrasts were constructed to assess the effects of feeding system (HERB vs. 100TMR), herbage supplementation (HERB vs. 50TMR + FLAX), and herbage supplemental source (50TMR vs. FLAX). Compared with the HERB diet, the 100TMR diet significantly reduced apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber. Herbage supplementation with 50TMR or FLAX significantly reduced or tended to reduce apparent digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber, suggesting that replacing high-quality, highly digestible fresh herbage with forage TMR likely caused depressions in nutrient digestibilities. Concentration of total volatile fatty acids, molar proportions of acetate, propionate, and isovalerate, as well as the acetate:propionate ratios were all significantly higher in fermentors fed 100TMR compared with HERB, likely in response to enhanced supply of fermentable energy. In general, feeding system, herbage supplementation, and type of supplementation did not affect N metabolism in the present study. The few significant changes in N metabolism (e.g., flows of total N and non-NH3-N) were primarily linked to increased fermentor N supply with feeding herbage-based diets (HERB and FLAX). Although TMR-based diets decreased nutrient digestibility slightly, TMR offered advantages in bacterial fermentation in relation to volatile fatty acid production, which could potentially translate into better animal performance. Flaxseed shows promise as an alternative supplement for herbage-based diets; however, further in vivo evaluation is needed to determine the optimal level to optimize animal production while reducing feed costs. PMID:23522677

Soder, K J; Brito, A F; Rubano, M D

2013-05-01

116

Effect of Chlorination Treatment on Gram Negative Bacterial Composition of Recycled Wastewater  

OpenAIRE

In order to assess the quality of recovered wastewater from the treatment plant of Mutah University, analysis was performed on samples collected from influent, polishing pool, chlorination tank and the ultimately disposal site at the university campus. In this assessment following parameters were used: temperature, BOD5, COD, effect of chlorination treatment, total bacterial counts (TBC), type of bacterial species isolated and the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria during the treatm...

Khaled Khleifat; Muayad Abboud; Waed Al-Shamayleh; Anwar Jiries; Tarawneh, Khaled A.

2006-01-01

117

Counting cormorants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This chapter focuses on Cormorant population counts for both summer (i.e. breeding) and winter (i.e. migration, winter roosts) seasons. It also explains differences in the data collected from undertaking ‘day’ versus ‘roost’ counts, gives some definitions of the term ‘numbers’, and presents two examples of how numerical data can be used to calculate ‘Cormorant days’ and breeding success.

Bregnballe, Thomas; Carss, David N

2013-01-01

118

Assessment of the efficiency of SimPlate? total plate count color indicator (TPC CI to quantify mesophilic aerobic microorganisms in pasteurized milk Avaliação da eficiência do SimPlate? Total Plate Count Color Indicator (TPC CI para enumeração de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos em leite pasteurizado  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The SimPlate? TPC CI system is a rapid method to count mesophilic aerobic microorganisms (MAM in foods, based on the use of resazurine to indicate bacterial growth. Its efficiency in pasteurized milk was evaluated using 142 pasteurized milk samples (38 type A, 43 type B and 61 type C collected in Londrina, PR. The standard plating method, using Plate Count Agar (PCA was used for comparison. The plates of both systems were incubated at 35ºC and read after 24h and 48h. The occurrence of false-positive and false-negative wells and the predominant microorganisms in them were also evaluated. The results were compared by simple correlation and mean variance analyses. The correlation (r and mean variance values were 0.6811 and 0.7583 for the results obtained after 24h, respectively, and 0.9126 and 0.0842 for the results obtained after 48h, respectively. These results indicate that the performance of the system increases when the plates are incubated for 48h. When the three types of milk were evaluated separately, these values were 0.9285 and 0.0817 for type A milk, 0.9231 and 0.0466 for type B milk and 0.7209 and 0.1082 for type C milk. These results indicate that the better the quality of the milk the better the performance of SimPlate? TPC CI. False-negative wells, found more frequently in samples with high MAM counts, were caused by Gram positive microorganisms, poorly detected by the SimPlate? TPC CI system because they grew slowly and had low reduction capacity. The results indicated a higher efficiency of the SimPlate? TPC CI system in the reading at 48h.O sistema SimPlate? TPC CI é um método rápido para enumeração de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos (MAM em alimentos que utiliza a resazurina como substância indicadora de crescimento bacteriano. Para avaliar sua eficiência em leite pasteurizado, 142 amostras (38 de leite tipo A, 43 de leite tipo B e 61 de leite tipo C foram colhidas em Londrina, PR, e analisadas pelo SimPlate? TPC CI e pelo método de contagem em placas com ágar padrão de contagem (PCA. As placas de ambos os sistemas foram incubadas a 35ºC e as leituras realizadas em 24 e 48h. Também foi verificada a presença de resultados falso-positivos e falso-negativos bem como a microbiota láctea predominante nas cavidades do SimPlate? TPC CI e a capacidade redutora dos diversos grupos de microrganismos. Os resultados foram comparados através de correlação simples e variância média. Considerando a leitura em 24h do SimPlate? TPC CI, os resultados obtidos apresentaram uma correlação (r de 0,6811 (var. média: 0,7583 com os resultados do método padrão; na leitura em 48h, a correlação encontrada entre os dois métodos foi de 0,9126 (var. média: 0,0842. Considerando os diferentes tipos de leite, as leituras em 48h do SimPlate? TPC CI apresentaram as seguintes correlações com o método padrão: leite tipo A, r: 0,9285 (var. média: 0,0817; leite tipo B, r: 0,9231 (var. média: 0,0466; leite C, r: 0,7209 (var. média: 0,1082. Nas amostras com altas contagens de MAM, verificou-se uma maior freqüência de cavidades falso-negativas e uma grande participação de microrganismos Gram positivos, que são pobremente detectados pelo sistema SimPlate™ TPC CI por crescerem lentamente e possuírem baixa capacidade redutora. Os resultados indicaram um melhor eficiência do sistema SimPlate? TPC CI na leitura em 48h, além da influência direta da qualidade do leite analisado, ou seja, quanto melhor a qualidade microbiológica do leite, melhor o desempenho do sistema. A alta correlação entre os métodos indica que o SimPlate? TPC CI pode ser utilizado como uma alternativa viável ao método padrão de contagem de MAM em leite pasteurizado tipos A e B, desde que a leitura seja realizada em 48h.

Luís Augusto Nero

2002-01-01

119

Assessment of the efficiency of SimPlate? total plate count color indicator (TPC CI) to quantify mesophilic aerobic microorganisms in pasteurized milk / Avaliação da eficiência do SimPlate? Total Plate Count Color Indicator (TPC CI) para enumeração de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos em leite pasteurizado  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O sistema SimPlate? TPC CI é um método rápido para enumeração de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos (MAM) em alimentos que utiliza a resazurina como substância indicadora de crescimento bacteriano. Para avaliar sua eficiência em leite pasteurizado, 142 amostras (38 de leite tipo A, 43 de leite tipo B [...] e 61 de leite tipo C) foram colhidas em Londrina, PR, e analisadas pelo SimPlate? TPC CI e pelo método de contagem em placas com ágar padrão de contagem (PCA). As placas de ambos os sistemas foram incubadas a 35ºC e as leituras realizadas em 24 e 48h. Também foi verificada a presença de resultados falso-positivos e falso-negativos bem como a microbiota láctea predominante nas cavidades do SimPlate? TPC CI e a capacidade redutora dos diversos grupos de microrganismos. Os resultados foram comparados através de correlação simples e variância média. Considerando a leitura em 24h do SimPlate? TPC CI, os resultados obtidos apresentaram uma correlação (r) de 0,6811 (var. média: 0,7583) com os resultados do método padrão; na leitura em 48h, a correlação encontrada entre os dois métodos foi de 0,9126 (var. média: 0,0842). Considerando os diferentes tipos de leite, as leituras em 48h do SimPlate? TPC CI apresentaram as seguintes correlações com o método padrão: leite tipo A, r: 0,9285 (var. média: 0,0817); leite tipo B, r: 0,9231 (var. média: 0,0466); leite C, r: 0,7209 (var. média: 0,1082). Nas amostras com altas contagens de MAM, verificou-se uma maior freqüência de cavidades falso-negativas e uma grande participação de microrganismos Gram positivos, que são pobremente detectados pelo sistema SimPlate™ TPC CI por crescerem lentamente e possuírem baixa capacidade redutora. Os resultados indicaram um melhor eficiência do sistema SimPlate? TPC CI na leitura em 48h, além da influência direta da qualidade do leite analisado, ou seja, quanto melhor a qualidade microbiológica do leite, melhor o desempenho do sistema. A alta correlação entre os métodos indica que o SimPlate? TPC CI pode ser utilizado como uma alternativa viável ao método padrão de contagem de MAM em leite pasteurizado tipos A e B, desde que a leitura seja realizada em 48h. Abstract in english The SimPlate? TPC CI system is a rapid method to count mesophilic aerobic microorganisms (MAM) in foods, based on the use of resazurine to indicate bacterial growth. Its efficiency in pasteurized milk was evaluated using 142 pasteurized milk samples (38 type A, 43 type B and 61 type C) collected in [...] Londrina, PR. The standard plating method, using Plate Count Agar (PCA) was used for comparison. The plates of both systems were incubated at 35ºC and read after 24h and 48h. The occurrence of false-positive and false-negative wells and the predominant microorganisms in them were also evaluated. The results were compared by simple correlation and mean variance analyses. The correlation (r) and mean variance values were 0.6811 and 0.7583 for the results obtained after 24h, respectively, and 0.9126 and 0.0842 for the results obtained after 48h, respectively. These results indicate that the performance of the system increases when the plates are incubated for 48h. When the three types of milk were evaluated separately, these values were 0.9285 and 0.0817 for type A milk, 0.9231 and 0.0466 for type B milk and 0.7209 and 0.1082 for type C milk. These results indicate that the better the quality of the milk the better the performance of SimPlate? TPC CI. False-negative wells, found more frequently in samples with high MAM counts, were caused by Gram positive microorganisms, poorly detected by the SimPlate? TPC CI system because they grew slowly and had low reduction capacity. The results indicated a higher efficiency of the SimPlate? TPC CI system in the reading at 48h.

Luís Augusto, Nero; Vanerli, Beloti; Márcia de Aguiar Ferreira, Barros; Elsa Helena Walter de, Santana; Mykel Steffani, Pereira; Viviane Vieira, Gusmão; Luciane Bilia de, Moraes.

2002-01-01

120

The interplay of dietary nutrient level and varying calcium to phosphorus ratios on efficacy of a bacterial phytase: 2. Ileal and total tract nutrient utilization.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 14-d broiler experiment was conducted to assess the effects of 2 dietary variables on efficacy of a bacterial 6-phytase from Citobacter braakii on nutrient and phytate P (PP) utilization. Diets were formulated with or without nutrient matrix values (matrix) for phytase as negative control (NC) or positive control (PC), respectively, and with 2 Ca:total P (tP) levels (2:1 or 2.5:1). The diets were supplemented with 0, 1,000, or 2,000 phytase units (FYT)/kg of diet, thus producing a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. Excreta were collected on d 19 to 21 and ileal digesta on d 21. There was no 3-way interaction on digestibility of any nutrient. There was matrix × phytase (P phytase interaction (P phytase increased (P phytase supplementation in diets with 2:1 Ca:tP, whereas there was no effect of phytase supplementation on PP disappearance or Ca retention in diets with 2.5:1 Ca:tP. Total P and Ca retention were reduced (P phytase supplementation on P utilization is reduced when diets contain adequate P as exemplified in the PC diets and that the negative impact of wide Ca:tP is more pronounced in diets with phytase matrix allowance as exemplified in the NC diets. PMID:25332137

Olukosi, O A; Fru-Nji, F

2014-12-01

121

Acidity/Rancidity Levels, Chemical Studies, Bacterial Count/Flora of Fermented and Unfermented Silver Catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus)  

OpenAIRE

The keeping quality and shelf life of fermented and unfermented Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus were monitored in this study. Four kilograms of fresh Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus was minced into fine particles (with an initial pH of 7.2 before distribution into 8 samples). Samples 1-4 are unfermented cooked while Samples 5-8 were fermented, not cooked. All the 8 prepared samples barely lasted for two weeks, while samples 1, 3 and 7 lasted for six weeks. Total Volatile Base (TVB) ranged higher...

Oyelese, O. A.; Sao, O. M.; Adeuya, M. A.; Oyedokun, J. O.

2013-01-01

122

Heterotrophic plate count vs. in situ bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicon profiles from drinking water reveal completely different communities with distinct spatial and temporal allocations in a distribution net  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Heterotrophic plate count using ISO 6222 agar (HPC) vs. in situ bacterial (DF) community structure from corresponding samples of a drinking water distribution system were investigated by 16S rRNA gene-based polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR DGGE) profiling. The i [...] nvestigation regime covered 10 different sampling locations and 2 points in time (t1, t2). In order to ensure accurate and reproducible 16S rRNA gene profile analysis, rigorous methodical evaluation and standardisation procedures were undertaken (DGGE optimisation, replication of PCR, multiple-lane standardisation, representative sampling volume determination, application of multiple similarity coefficients). The reproducibility level of the profile analysis was determined to be > 90% similarity. Two completely different communities were revealed from HPC vs. DF as indicated by DGGE analysis and sequencing. HPC populations could be identified as ubiquitously occurring cultivable copiotrophic microbes, whilst most DF sequences could be allocated to sequences from microorganisms found in oligotrophic aquatic environments. Spatial- and temporal-based 16S rRNA gene amplicon profile analysis from recovered communities further revealed contrasting results. As proven by Jackknife simulations, DF profiles remarkably corresponded to sampling time, whereas HPC profiles revealed spatial associations within the distribution system. Recovered data demonstrate that cultivation based HPC vs. direct cell-based investigations can result in completely different results if used for monitoring purposes in distribution systems.

MM, Burtscher; F, Zibuschka; RL, Mach; G, Lindner; AH, Farnleitner.

2009-07-01

123

Determination of main phylogenetic bacterial groups in hyporheic sediments of a small lowland stream (Sitka, Czech Republic) using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Community structure of biofilm microbial communities of hyporheic sediments in the small lowland Sitka Stream (Czech Republic) was analysed using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH provided detection of about 91 % of total DAPI-stained bacterial cells. In general, most of the EUB338-detectable cells (domain Eubacteria) could be related to the four major phylogenetic groups used in this study (?-, ?-, ?-Proteobacteria and Cytophaga-Flavobacterium). The microbial community structure of biofilm analysed was dominated by ?-Proteobacteria (36,3 % of the total counts). In addition to the domain Eubacteria, members of the domain Archaebacteria were detected in hyporheic sediments (approximately 6 % of total bacterial counts). (authors)

124

Platelet Count  

Science.gov (United States)

... on Blood and Blood Components in the Blood Banking section for more details. A high platelet count ... as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board . This article is periodically reviewed ...

125

Counting carbohydrates  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbohydrates are found in fruit, cereal, bread, pasta, and rice. They are quickly turned into a sugar ... sugar better if they can count how many carbohydrates they eat. Your dietitian will teach you a ...

126

Volatile and biogenic amines, microbiological counts, and bacterial amino acid decarboxylase activity throughout the salt-ripening process of anchovies (Engraulis encrasicholus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical and microbiological parameters were studied during the industrial production of salt-ripened anchovies (Engraulis encrasicholus). Gradual acidification and increases in the proteolysis index and in total volatile basic nitrogen were observed. At the end of the maturing process, the values reached pH 5.55 +/- 0.03, 21.33 +/- 5.82%, and 44.06 +/- 12.47 mg/ 100 g, respectively. In the three studied anchovy batches, the biogenic amines tyramine, histamine, putrescine, cadaverine, and agmatine increased during ripening. The highest values were found in the batch where initial microbial load was highest (batch 1), especially for enterobacteria and enterococci. Tyramine was the most abundant amine, reaching values from nondetectable to 90 mg/kg, whereas histamine did not surpass 20 mg/kg. Among the microorganisms isolated, Enterobacter cloacae, Aerococcus viridans, Kocuria varians, and Staphylococcus chromogenes were able to decarboxylate amino acids and produce biogenic amines in vitro. Most (70.59%) of the microorganisms identified were able to produce histamine, 23.53% were able to produce the diamines putrescine and cadaverine, and only 11.76% were able to produce tyramine, although this substance was the major biogenic amine found in anchovy samples. PMID:21132979

Pons-Sánchez-Cascado, S; Veciana-Nogués, M T; Bover-Cid, S; Mariné-Font, A; Vidal-Carou, M C

2005-08-01

127

Diversity of the total bacterial community associated with Ghanaian and Brazilian cocoa bean fermentation samples as revealed by a 16 S rRNA gene clone library.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cocoa bean fermentation is a spontaneous process involving a succession of microbial activities, starting with yeasts, followed by lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. So far, all microbiological studies about cocoa bean fermentation were based on culture-dependent (isolation, cultivation, and identification), or, more recently, culture-independent (PCR-DGGE, or polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) methods. Using a metagenomic approach, total DNA was extracted from heap and box fermentations at different time points and from different locations (Ghana and Brazil, respectively) to generate a 16 S rDNA clone library that was sequenced. The sequencing data revealed a low bacterial diversity in the fermentation samples and were in accordance with the results obtained through culture-dependent and a second, culture-independent analysis (PCR-DGGE), suggesting that almost all bacteria involved in the fermentation process are cultivable. One exception was the identification by 16 S rDNA library sequencing of Gluconacetobacter species of acetic acid bacteria that were not detected by the two other approaches. The presence of Enterobacteriaceae related to Erwinia/Pantoea/Tatumella, as revealed by 16 S rDNA library sequencing, suggests an impact of these bacteria on fermentation. PMID:20559826

Garcia-Armisen, Tamara; Papalexandratou, Zoi; Hendryckx, Hugo; Camu, Nicholas; Vrancken, Gino; De Vuyst, Luc; Cornelis, Pierre

2010-08-01

128

Effect of Chlorination Treatment on Gram Negative Bacterial Composition of Recycled Wastewater  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to assess the quality of recovered wastewater from the treatment plant of Mutah University, analysis was performed on samples collected from influent, polishing pool, chlorination tank and the ultimately disposal site at the university campus. In this assessment following parameters were used: temperature, BOD5, COD, effect of chlorination treatment, total bacterial counts (TBC, type of bacterial species isolated and the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria during the treatment. Though BOD5 and COD values of treated water were within the acceptable range of Jordanian standards, the bacterial counts suggested that the efficiency of applied chlorination treatment was inconsistent. This discrepancy was particularly noticed on the water sample collected from polishing pool. Chlorine treatment of wastewater was not an efficient disinfectant method, besides it`s potential to promote the production of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Some of the coliform species isolated from influent and effluent samples were found to be chlorine resistant. Such resistance seams to be species specific. Also an unexpected bacterial growth profile was observed where the total bacterial counts on some selective media were higher than the counts detected on enriched media. A re-evaluation for the current method of wastewater treatment is recommended.

Khaled Khleifat

2006-01-01

129

Effects of Bac-D on Total Aerobic Bacteria Naturally Found on Broiler Breeder Eggs  

OpenAIRE

Hatchery sanitation is of the utmost importance in the poultry industry and may have drastic economic effects within a company. It has been shown that eggs with increased total aerobic bacterial counts may cause a decrease in hatchability, performance and growth, as well as a decrease in overall chick quality. Several methods have been utilized to decrease bacterial load on the exterior surface of the egg such as the use of: hydrogen peroxide, quaternary ammonium compounds, antibiotics and UV...

Lowman, Z. S.; Parkhurst, C. R.

2013-01-01

130

Bacterial cell monitoring in wastewater treatment plants by flow cytometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The activated sludge process is performed by a variable and mixed community of microorganisms in an aerobic aquatic environment, in which bacteria constitute the majority and represent the main microorganisms responsible for the degradation process in a plant. In this work, we monitored bacterial charge in different wastewater treatment plants by flow cytometry, also evaluating chlorination effects on bacterial viability, both by flow cytometry and traditional plate counts. Maximum values of bacterial charge were registered in the aeration tank of all plants monitored. Cell viability did not show significant differences (p > 0.05) in samples collected in "before chlorination" and "wastewater effluent" treatment steps; this suggests that the chlorination was not able to decrease total viable bacterial charge. In this work, we discuss the need to improve microbiological analyses, both in terms of measuring other potential pathogens and of using new methodological approaches in the traditional evaluation of the microbiological quality of effluents. PMID:18536486

Manti, Anita; Boi, Paola; Falcioni, Tania; Canonico, Barbara; Ventura, Alessia; Sisti, Davide; Pianetti, Anna; Balsamo, Maria; Papa, Stefano

2008-04-01

131

Bacterial contamination of street vending food in Kumasi, Ghana  

OpenAIRE

Street vending foods are readily available sources of meals for many people but the biological safe-ty of such food is always in doubt. The aim of this study is to ascertain bacterial isolate and deter-mine total counts of bacterial species responsible for the contamination of the street vending food in Kumasi so as to determine the microbiological safety of such a food. This prospective study was conducted among street vending food at four bus terminals in Kumasi. From November, 2008 to Febr...

Feglo, P.; Sakyi, K.

2012-01-01

132

The use of sources emitting coincident gamma-rays for the determination of photopeak and total efficiencies in non-point-source counting geometries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The validity of a previously published method for determination of full-energy peak as well as total efficiency curves and source activity from a 82Br spectrum is experimentally tested for the case of a thin slab mounted on the end cap of a 20% relative efficiency HpGe detector, as well as for a Marinelli beaker geometry. It is concluded that, even though a full-energy and total efficiency curve can be found that reproduce the measured 82Br spectrum, the corresponding source activity is an underestimation of the true value, apparently depending on the degree of variation of the efficiencies over the source volume. The applicability of the curves found to other radionuclides is as yet unclear. (orig.)

133

The use of sources emitting coincident gamma-rays for the determination of photopeak and total efficiencies in non-point-source counting geometries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The validity of a previously published method for determination of full-energy peak as well as total efficiency curves and source activity from a {sup 82}Br spectrum is experimentally tested for the case of a thin slab mounted on the end cap of a 20% relative efficiency HpGe detector, as well as for a Marinelli beaker geometry. It is concluded that, even though a full-energy and total efficiency curve can be found that reproduce the measured {sup 82}Br spectrum, the corresponding source activity is an underestimation of the true value, apparently depending on the degree of variation of the efficiencies over the source volume. The applicability of the curves found to other radionuclides is as yet unclear. (orig.).

Blaauw, M. [Technische Univ. Delft (Netherlands). Interfacultair Reactor Inst.; Ammerlaan, M.J.J. [Technische Univ. Delft (Netherlands). Interfacultair Reactor Inst.; Gelsema, S.J. [Technische Univ. Delft (Netherlands). Interfacultair Reactor Inst.

1997-01-21

134

Biodiversity Count  

Science.gov (United States)

In this class exercise, students count the number of species they can find in a five minute block of time in both an urban lawn and natural, remnant forest area. The students are introduced to the concept of low and high biodiversity areas and engage in a discussion about biodiversity loss.

Suzanne Savanick, Science Education Resource Center, Carleton College, ssavanic@carleton.edu

135

Women Count  

Science.gov (United States)

I am a counter by nature. I count things as an effective way to occupy my mind. How many people are in this room? How many are women? How many are wearing glasses? How many people are using a Mac versus a PC?

Hurley, Dana M.

2014-11-01

136

Shared Count  

Science.gov (United States)

If you're interested in checking out the social media shares for various websites, the Shared Count tool is a nice find. Visitors just need to enter the URL in question and then can find out how often the site has been shared on a range of social media platforms. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

Kumar, Neeraj

2014-03-27

137

Use of a total traffic count metric to investigate the impact of roadways on asthma severity: a case-control study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This study had two principal objectives: (i to investigate the relationship between asthma severity and proximity to major roadways in Perth, Western Australia; (ii to demonstrate a more accurate method of exposure assessment for traffic pollutants using an innovative GIS-based measure that fully integrates all traffic densities around subject residences. Methods We conducted a spatial case-control study, in which 'cases' were defined as individuals aged under 19 years of age with more severe asthma (defined here as two or more emergency department contacts with asthma in a defined 5-year period versus age- and gender-matched 'controls' with less severe asthma (defined here as one emergency department contact for asthma. Traffic exposures were measured using a GIS-based approach to determine the lengths of the roads falling within a buffer area, and then multiplying them by their respective traffic counts. Results We examined the spatial relationship between emergency department contacts for asthma at three different buffer sizes: 50 metres, 100 metres and 150 metres. No effect was noted for the 50 metre buffer (OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 0.91-1.26, but elevated odds ratios were observed with for crude (unadjusted estimates OR = 1.21 (95% CI: 1.00-1.46 for 100 metre buffers and OR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.02-1.54 for 150 metre buffers. For adjusted risk estimates, only the 150 metre buffer yielded a statistically significant finding (OR = 1.24; 95% CI:1.00-1.52. Conclusions Our study revealed a significant 24% increase in the risk of experiencing multiple emergency department contacts for asthma for every log-unit of traffic exposure. This study provides support for the hypothesis that traffic related air pollution increases the frequency of health service contacts for asthma. This study used advanced GIS techniques to establish traffic-weighted buffer zones around the geocoded residential location of subjects to provide an accurate assessment of exposure to traffic emissions, thereby providing a quantification of the ranges over which pollutants may exert a health effect.

deVos Annemarie JBM

2011-06-01

138

Counting Money  

Science.gov (United States)

Today you are going to practice counting money. We will be reviewing the penny, nickel, and dime, and quarter. The coin with the lowest value is the penny. Here is a picture of a penny. A penny is worth one cent or $0.01picture of a penny The next coin of the lowest value is the nickel. Here is a picture of a nickel. picture of a nickel A nickel is worth five cents or $0.05 The next coin ...

areese

2008-09-25

139

Profile counting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In ''profile counting'', a counter is moved progressively along the whole length of the body, and is so collimated that, at each position, it records the radioisotope content of the whole width of the body, but of only a short section of its length. If the counting rate at each position is plotted against the distance of the counter from the vertex of the head, the ''profile'' so obtained gives a rapid and quantitative measure of the radioisotope distribution throughout the body. When a suitable isotope is selectively concentrated in certain organs or tissues of the body, the profile will show peaks indicative of the sites and extent of such concentration, the organs concerned being identified by two-dimensional mapping, and profile counts continued to follow the turnover or changes of concentration in these organs. This technique has been used in the study of I131 concentration and metabolism in thyroid carcinomata, and its value in the management of the radioiodine treatment of such tumours will be discussed. It has also been used in examining the distribution of labelled thyroxine and triiodothyronine after intravenous administration, and of yttrium-90 oxide particles after intrapulmonary artery injection; and of other isotopes by gamma radiation or bremsstrahlung. The method gives a clinically convenient simplification of whole body mapping which lends itself particularly to the quantitative comparison of isotope distribution at different intervals aftee distribution at different intervals after a radioisotope dose, or after successive doses. (author)

140

[Factors affecting the DAPI fluorescence direct count in the tidal river sediment].  

Science.gov (United States)

The factors affecting the DAPI (4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylidole) fluorescence direct count in the tidal river sediment were examined. Sediment samples were collected from the Guangzhou section of the Pearl River. Besides sediment texture and organic matter, an improved staining procedure and the involved parameters were analyzed. Results showed that the procedure with the sediment with 2000 fold dilution and ultrasonic water bath for 10 min, and with a final DAPI concentration of 10 microg x mL(-1) and staining time for more than 30 min produced the optimum results of DAPI direct count in the sediment. The total bacterial number was correlated to the proportion of the non-nucleoid-containing cells to the total bacterial number (r = 0.587, p = 0.004). The organic matter content also correlated to the ration. The clay content had a strong correlation with the organic matter, through which the clay content also affected the ratio. A multiple regression analysis between the ration versus the organic matter, the total bacterial number, and the clay content showed that the regression equation fit the measure values satisfactorily (r = 0.694). These results indicated that the above factors needed to be considered in the applications of the DAPI fluorescence direct counting method to the tidal river sediment. PMID:21090314

Chen, Chen; Huang, Shan; Wu, Qun-he; Li, Rui-yi; Zhang, Ren-duo

2010-08-01

141

Radio-resistance of some bacterial pathogens in soft-shell clams (Mya arenaria) and mussels (Mytilus edulis)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gamma-irradiation decimal reduction doses were determined for E. coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, Strept. faecalis, Staph, aureus, and the Total Plate Count in a soft-shell clam or mussel substrate. Factors to be considered for designing and irradiation bacterial-decontamination process for shellfish are discussed

142

Bacterial Hazards Especially Pathogenic to Human in Consumable Marine Fishes of Noakhali Sadar, Bangladesh  

OpenAIRE

The present study was conducted for microbiological assessment of ten available marine fish species of three different feeding habits collected from three different markets of Noakhali district from July, 2012 to April, 2013. For this, Total Bacterial Counts (TBC), Total Coliform (TC), Fecal Coliform (FC) and the occurrence of Salmonella and Vibrio spp., were determined by using serial dilution and spread plate technique. Among three feeding habits, the highe...

Priyanka Rani Majumdar; Bhakta Supratim Sarker; Swapan Chandra Dey; Debasish Saha; Ripon Kumar Adhikary; Shuvagato Mondal

2014-01-01

143

Experimental infection of commercial layers with wild or attenuated Salmonella Gallinarum mutant strains: anatomic pathology, total blood cell count and serum protein levels  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate hemogram, blood serum components and anatomopathologic alterations in commercial layers experimentally challenged with an attenuated vaccine candidate strain (SG?cobS?cbiA) and other two pathogenic strains (SGDcobS and SGNalr) of Gallinarum [...] (SG). In total, 280 commercial layers were randomly divided into 4 groups (G1, G2, G3 and G4). At five days of age, birds from groups G1 received approximately 107 colony forming units (CFU) of SGDcobS; meanwhile birds from group G2 and G3 received the same dose of SGNalr and SG?cobS?cbiA, respectively. Birds from G4 were not infected. At 24 hours before (DBI) and 24 hours after (1 DAI), and three (3 DAI), five (5 DAI), seven (7 DAI) ten (10 DAI), and fifteen (15 DAI) days after the infection, 10 birds of each group were humanely killed and blood samples collected to hematological and serum tests. Samples of liver, spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, kidney and heart were also collected for the histological examination. Birds inoculated with SGDcobS and SGNalr showed similar alterations in hemogram, blood serum components and anatomopathologic exams. On the other hand, the exams of birds inoculated with SG?cobS?cbiA strain were similar to those of the uninfected birds. However, changes could be noticed in levels of uric acid and cholesterol during the course of the infection of birds from G3. Decrease in levels of light IgG 3 DAI was also observed in birds from this group. Pyknosis in kidney cells was a microscopic alteration found in birds from G3. Further studies must be done to verify if these alterations will not interfere in the performance of the vaccinate birds with SG?cobS?cbiA strain.

KO, Garcia; A, Berchieri Jr.; AM, Santana; MFF, Alarcon; OC, Freitas Neto; JJ, Fagliari.

2013-06-01

144

Evaluation of the Bacterial Contamination of the Iranian Currency Notes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "n "nBackground and Objectives: In many countries, there is a popular belief that the simultaneous "nhandling of food and money contributes to the incidence of food-related public health incidents. "nThe objective of this study was to determine the total bacterial count and the presence of food borne "nbacterial pathogens on Iranian currency notes, collected from food-related shops. "n "nMaterials and Methods: A total of 120 Iranian currency notes, comprising notes in four  denomination (2000, 5000, 10000 and 20000 R were collected from various food-related shops including, butchery, bakery, confectionary, fast food, ice cream and poultry meat shop. The currency notes were categorized into three groups according to their physical conditions. All currency notes were examined for total bacterial count, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella and Listeria according to the standard techniques."nResults: The average number of total bacterial count in four denomination of currency notes (2000,  5000, 10000 and 20000 R were 118.49, 106.32, 69.44 and 220.81 CFU/cm2, respectively. The association between total bacterial count and denomination of the currency was not statistically significant. Of the 120 currency notes on which bacteriological analysis was conducted 13.3 %, 32.5% and 10.8 % were contaminated with E. coli, S. aureus and B. cereus, respectively. Salmonella and Listeria were not isolated from samples. Currency notes collected from butchery, bakery, confectionary, fast food, ice cream and poultry meat shop were contaminated with E. coli at the rate of 60, 0, 5, 5, 0 and 10 %; with S. aureus at the rate of 55, 30, 10, 25, 40 and 35 %; with B. cereus at the rate of 0, 10, 20, 5, 20 and 10 %, respectively. There was not a statistically significant association between physical condition and bacterial contamination of the currency notes. The effect of presence or absence of cashier in food-related shops on bacterial contamination of the currency notes was also evaluated."nConclusion: Money has got the potential to change through many different hands and could be  exposed to many different environments at a relatively high frequency. Since there is very little information regarding the hygienic history of any forms of currency, great care should be taken when the same person facilitates the handling of money and the preparation and handling of food to avoid cross contamination.

E Khajeh Ali

2009-03-01

145

Counting tube  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The counting tube contains a flat rectangular chamber which has an electrode wire spread out in a meandering line. The cover plate has a window closed by a foil. In order to increase the sensitivity of the counter with respect to gamma radiation the inner walls of the chamber are coated with a gold layer of 2 to 3 ?m thickness. Thus the sensitivity for the gamma radiation of iodine 129 can be increased by a factor of 30. A flushing gas causes diffused in O2 to be discharged. (DG)

146

Uso de aditivos promotores de crescimento sobre o desempenho, características de carcaça e bactérias totais do intestino de frangos de corte Use of growth promoters additives on performance, carcass yield and total intestinalbacteria counts in broiler  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de aditivos promotores de crescimento em substituição ao antibiótico sobre o desempenho, características de carcaça (partes e gordura abdominal e bactérias totais do intestino delgado e cecos de frangos de corte de 1 a 42 dias de idade, criados em cama reutilizada e alimentados com rações à base de milho moído e farelo de soja. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com um arranjo fatorial 7 x 2, correspondendo a 7 fontes de aditivos (antibiótico, basal, mananoligossacarídeo (MOS, frutoligossacarídeo (FOS, ácido fumárico, cogumelo desidratado e probiótico e dois sexos (macho e fêmea. Foram utilizados um total de 1680 pintos, sexados, da linhagem Hybro, distribuídos em 14 tratamentos com 04 repetições e 30 aves por parcela experimental. Foi observado efeito significativo (PThe objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of growth promoters additives on performance, carcass yield (parts and abdominal fat, total intestinal bacteria counts in broilers from 1 at 42 days old fed with corn and soybean meal based diets, compared to antibiotics supplementation diets. In this study were urilized a 7 x 2 factorial design, with seven differents additives (antibiotic, basal, MOS, FOS, fumaric acid, mutshroom extract and probiotic and two sex (males and females. A total of1680 sexed broilers chickens from Hybro line were distributed in 14 treatments, with 4 replicates and 30 chickens per experimental unit. Effects of growth promotant additives on feed intake , feed conversion and production efficiency factor were measured. Male chickens shown better performance results than females in all parameters evaluated, except for viability. Additives shown positive effects on carcars yield, parts yield, and abdominal fat. Male chickens were heavier at slaughter and shown higher leg yields than females. Additives also influenced total bacteria counts in duodenum and caecum altering the microbiota of the intestinal chickens. These changes in intestinal microbiota might have contributed for a higher stability and better survival of good microorganisms in the intestinal ecosystem, resulting in benefits for the host. The results of this study shown that the use the addictive as a growth promoters should be used in the feeding for broilers chickens, in substitution to the antibiotic, without affecting the performance and carcass yield , in the period from 1 to 42 days of age.

Éder Clementino dos Santos

2005-02-01

147

Uso de aditivos promotores de crescimento sobre o desempenho, características de carcaça e bactérias totais do intestino de frangos de corte / Use of growth promoters additives on performance, carcass yield and total intestinalbacteria counts in broiler  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de aditivos promotores de crescimento em substituição ao antibiótico sobre o desempenho, características de carcaça (partes e gordura abdominal) e bactérias totais do intestino delgado e cecos de frangos de corte de 1 a 42 dias de idade, criados em [...] cama reutilizada e alimentados com rações à base de milho moído e farelo de soja. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com um arranjo fatorial 7 x 2, correspondendo a 7 fontes de aditivos (antibiótico, basal, mananoligossacarídeo (MOS), frutoligossacarídeo (FOS), ácido fumárico, cogumelo desidratado e probiótico) e dois sexos (macho e fêmea). Foram utilizados um total de 1680 pintos, sexados, da linhagem Hybro, distribuídos em 14 tratamentos com 04 repetições e 30 aves por parcela experimental. Foi observado efeito significativo (P Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of growth promoters additives on performance, carcass yield (parts and abdominal fat), total intestinal bacteria counts in broilers from 1 at 42 days old fed with corn and soybean meal based diets, compared to antibiotics supplementation diets. [...] In this study were urilized a 7 x 2 factorial design, with seven differents additives (antibiotic, basal, MOS, FOS, fumaric acid, mutshroom extract and probiotic) and two sex (males and females). A total of1680 sexed broilers chickens from Hybro line were distributed in 14 treatments, with 4 replicates and 30 chickens per experimental unit. Effects of growth promotant additives on feed intake , feed conversion and production efficiency factor were measured. Male chickens shown better performance results than females in all parameters evaluated, except for viability. Additives shown positive effects on carcars yield, parts yield, and abdominal fat. Male chickens were heavier at slaughter and shown higher leg yields than females. Additives also influenced total bacteria counts in duodenum and caecum altering the microbiota of the intestinal chickens. These changes in intestinal microbiota might have contributed for a higher stability and better survival of good microorganisms in the intestinal ecosystem, resulting in benefits for the host. The results of this study shown that the use the addictive as a growth promoters should be used in the feeding for broilers chickens, in substitution to the antibiotic, without affecting the performance and carcass yield , in the period from 1 to 42 days of age.

Éder Clementino dos, Santos; Antônio Soares, Teixeira; Rilke Tadeu Fonseca de, Freitas; Paulo Borges, Rodrigues; Eustáquio Souza, Dias; Luis David Solis, Murgas.

2005-02-01

148

Bacterial and Fungal Numbers in Ruminal and Cecal Contents of the Blue Duiker (Cephalophus monticola) †  

Science.gov (United States)

Total and cellulolytic bacterial and fungal numbers were determined in ruminal and cecal contents of 20 blue duikers (Cephalophus monticola). The animals were equally divided by sex and fed two diets, either high roughage or high concentrate. The mean concentration for total bacterial numbers in the rumen was 26.0 × 108/g of contents, with values ranging from 2 × 108/g to 93 × 108/g. Cellulolytic numbers averaged 6.0 × 108/g with a range of 1.5 × 108/g to 24.0 × 108/g. No differences related to sex or diet were found. In contrast, total bacterial numbers in the cecum differed between diets (P < 0.02), i.e., 1,046 × 106 bacteria per g for animals fed the high-forage diet compared with 166 × 106/g for those fed the high-concentrate diet. Cellulolytic bacterial counts in the cecal contents averaged 3.1 and 7.0% of the total counts for the high-forage and high-concentrate diets, respectively. Low concentrations of fungi were found in both ruminal and cecal contents of some, but not all, animals. Unexpectedly, concentrations of bacteria and fungi in the rumen and cecum were highly correlated with their total numbers (concentration multiplied by total weight of contents). PMID:16348413

Dehority, Burk A.; Varga, Gabriella A.

1991-01-01

149

Bacterial activity in a reservoir determined by autoradiography and its relationships to phyto- and zooplankton  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the drinking water reservoir Rimov (Southern Bohemia) bacterioplankton was studied during 1983. Special attention was given to the relationships between parameters of bacterial abundance, total and individual activity. Bacterial counts and biomass was assessed and autoradiographic determinations of the proportion of active bacteria incorporating thymidine (Th) and a mixture of amino acids (AA) and total uptake rate of AA were made over a year in the surface layer and during summer stratification from the thermocline and 15 m depth. Specific activity of metabolically active bacteria and specific activity per unit of biomass were negatively correlated with counts of metabolizing cells and with bacterial biomass, respectively. Total and individual heterotrophic activity and counts of bacteria coincided with the changes of phytoplankton biomass, whereas bacteria incorporating Th were more tightly correlated with primary production. The most significant relation of metabolically active bacteria was found to cladoceran biomass. Thus, this part of heterotrophic bacterial activity seems to be stimulated by leakage of dissolved organic matter from phytoplankton being disrupted and incompletely digested by cladocerans rather than from healthy photosynthetizing cells. (author)

150

Reticulocyte Count Test  

Science.gov (United States)

... RPI Formal name: Reticulocyte Count Related tests: Red Blood Cell Count ; Hemoglobin ; Hematocrit ; Complete Blood Count ; Blood Smear ; Erythropoietin ; ... marrow function; sometimes as part of a complete blood count (CBC) Sample Required? A blood sample obtained by inserting ...

151

Epiphytic bacterial community composition on two common submerged macrophytes in brackish water and freshwater  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants and their heterotrophic bacterial biofilm communities possibly strongly interact, especially in aquatic systems. We aimed to ascertain whether different macrophytes or their habitats determine bacterial community composition. We compared the composition of epiphytic bacteria on two common aquatic macrophytes, the macroalga Chara aspera Willd. and the angiosperm Myriophyllum spicatum L., in two habitats, freshwater (Lake Constance and brackish water (Schaproder Bodden, using fluorescence in situ hybridization. The bacterial community composition was analysed based on habitat, plant species, and plant part. Results The bacterial abundance was higher on plants from brackish water [5.3 × 107 cells (g dry mass-1] than on plants from freshwater [1.3 × 107 cells (g dry mass-1], with older shoots having a higher abundance. The organic content of freshwater plants was lower than that of brackish water plants (35 vs. 58%, and lower in C. aspera than in M. spicatum (41 vs. 52%. The content of nutrients, chlorophyll, total phenolic compounds, and anthocyanin differed in the plants and habitats. Especially the content of total phenolic compounds and anthocyanin was higher in M. spicatum, and in general higher in the freshwater than in the brackish water habitat. Members of the Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroidetes group were abundant in all samples (5–35% of the total cell counts and were especially dominant in M. spicatum samples. Alphaproteobacteria were the second major group (3–17% of the total cell counts. Betaproteobacteria, gammaproteobacteria, and actinomycetes were present in all samples (5 or 10% of the total cell counts. Planctomycetes were almost absent on M. spicatum in freshwater, but present on C. aspera in freshwater and on both plants in brackish water. Conclusion Bacterial biofilm communities on the surface of aquatic plants might be influenced by the host plant and environmental factors. Distinct plant species, plant part and habitat specific differences in total cell counts and two bacterial groups (CFB, planctomycetes support the combined impact of substrate (plant and habitat on epiphytic bacterial community composition. The presence of polyphenols might explain the distinct bacterial community on freshwater M. spicatum compared to that of M. spicatum in brackish water and of C. aspera in both habitats.

Blindow Irmgard

2008-04-01

152

Frequency of Bacterial Frequency of Bacterial Contamination in Traditional Ice Cream Produced in Arak, Iran (2011  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objective: Ice cream is a suitable environment for microbial growth due to its chemical structure, ingredients, and its increased supply and demand. In the absence of hygienic considerations, it can cause poisoning. This study aimed to determine bacterial contamination in traditional ice cream produced in Arak city in 2011. Material and Methods: The samples (n= 30 were randomly obtained from different parts of Arak in, 2011. The Samples were shipped in cold conditions and total count of microorganisms test was performed according to Iranian national standards. Results: In 16.66%, the microbial contamination was below the limit of microbial load (5×104, and in 83.3% the contamination was more than allowed level. Conclusion: This study highlights the dire situation for bacterial contamination of traditional ice cream in Arak city. Keywords: Arak, Ice Cream, Microbial Contamination

Rezaei, M. (MSc

2014-05-01

153

A rapid and universal bacteria-counting approach using CdSe/ZnS/SiO2 composite nanoparticles as fluorescence probe.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, a rapid, simple, and sensitive method was described for detection of the total bacterial count using SiO(2)-coated CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) as a fluorescence marker that covalently coupled with bacteria using glutaraldehyde as the crosslinker. Highly luminescent CdSe/ZnS were prepared by applying cadmium oxide and zinc stearate as precursors instead of pyrophoric organometallic precursors. A reverse-microemulsion technique was used to synthesize CdSe/ZnS/SiO(2) composite nanoparticles with a SiO(2) surface coating. Our results showed that CdSe/ZnS/SiO(2) composite nanoparticles prepared with this method possessed highly luminescent, biologically functional, and monodispersive characteristics, and could successfully be covalently conjugated with the bacteria. As a demonstration, it was found that the method had higher sensitivity and could count bacteria in 3 x 10(2) CFU/mL, lower than the conventional plate counting and organic dye-based method. A linear relationship of the fluorescence peak intensity (Y) and the total bacterial count (X) was established in the range of 3 x 10(2)-10(7) CFU/mL using the equation Y = 374.82X-938.27 (R = 0.99574). The results of the determination for the total count of bacteria in seven real samples were identical with the conventional plate count method, and the standard deviation was satisfactory. PMID:20016878

Fu, Xin; Huang, Kelong; Liu, Suqin

2010-02-01

154

Management Factors Influencing Milk Somatic Cell Count and Udder Infection Rate in Smallholder Dairy Cow Herds in Southern Vietnam  

OpenAIRE

The present study was conducted to investigate management factors influencing milk Somatic Cell Count (SCC) and udder infection rate in lactating cows housed at smallholder farms in Southern Vietnam. In total 115 lactating cows at 20 farms were included in the study. Management and milking routines were registered and quarter milk samples were taken for analysis of SCC and bacterial species. Watering routine was found to significantly influence herd milk SCC (p = 0.008) and the method of teat...

Ewa Wredle; Lennart Norell; Kerstin Svennersten-Sjaunja; Karin Ostensson; Vo Lam

2011-01-01

155

Physiological and community responses of established grassland bacterial populations to water stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of water stress upon the diversity and culturable activity of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of an established upland grassland soil have been investigated. Intact monoliths were subjected to different watering regimens over a 2-month period to study community adaptation to moisture limitation and subsequent response to stress alleviation following rewetting. Genetic diversity was analyzed with 16S-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of total soil-extracted DNA (rRNA genes) and RNA (rRNA transcripts) in an attempt to discriminate between total and active communities. Physiological response was monitored by plate counts, total counts, and BIOLOG-GN2 substrate utilization analyses. Controlled soil drying decreased the total number of CFU on all the media tested and also decreased the substrate utilization response. Following rewetting of dried soil, culture-based analyses indicated physiological recovery of the microbial population by the end of the experiment. In contrast, DGGE analyses of community 16S rRNA genes, rRNA transcripts and cultured communities did not reveal any changes relating to the moisture regimens, despite the observed physiological effects. We conclude that the imposed moisture regimen modulated the physiological status of the bacterial community and that bacterial communities in this soil are resistant to water stress. Further, we highlight the need for a reexamination of rRNA transcript-based molecular profiling techniques as a means of describing the active component of soil bacterial communities. PMID:14660337

Griffiths, Robert I; Whiteley, Andrew S; O'Donnell, Anthony G; Bailey, Mark J

2003-12-01

156

Intestinal Bacterial Flora that Compete on the Haem Precursor Iron Fumarate in Iron Deficiency Anemia Cases  

OpenAIRE

Aims: The study focused on finding if there is any possible relation between the intestinal bacterial population quantitative and qualitative and the deficiency of the most important iron compounds as haem precursors. Methodology and Results: Blood complete picture and stool analyses were done to 750 volunteer cases whom were asked for these analyses by their physicians. Analyses proved that 560 cases representing 75.2 % were anemic as the RBC(s) based on counts of the total studied cases of ...

Selim, S. A. H.; Alfy, S. M. E.; Diab, A. M.; Abdel Aziz, M. H.; Warrad, M. F.

2012-01-01

157

Bacterial contamination of street vending food in Kumasi, Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Street vending foods are readily available sources of meals for many people but the biological safe-ty of such food is always in doubt. The aim of this study is to ascertain bacterial isolate and deter-mine total counts of bacterial species responsible for the contamination of the street vending food in Kumasi so as to determine the microbiological safety of such a food. This prospective study was conducted among street vending food at four bus terminals in Kumasi. From November, 2008 to February, 2009, 60 food samples comprising ice-kenkey (15, cocoa drink (15, fufu (5, ready-to-eat red pepper (normally eaten with kenkey (5, salad (10 and macaroni (10 were purchased and ana-lyzed. The food samples were purchased and transported to the laboratory in sterile plastic bags and analyzed for bacterial contamination. Serial dilution of each food was prepared in buffered peptone water and inoculated onto plate count agar (PCA, MacConkey and blood agar plates. Growths on PCA were counted; those on other agar plates were identified by their colonial mor-phology, Gram stain, biochemical and sugar fermentation methods. The mean bacterial counts in these foods expressed to log10 CFU/ml were: fufu 6.36±0.47, cocoa drink 6.16±0.5, red pepper 5.92±0.64, ice-kenkey 5.58 ±0.52, macaroni 5.58±0.97 and salad 5.13±0.77. Most of these foods con-tained higher than acceptable contamination level of <5.0 log10 CFU/ml. The isolates obtained were Coagulate negative staphylococci (23.7%, Bacillus species (21.5%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (18%, Aeromonas pneumophila (17.7%, Enterobacter cloacae (6.7%, Staphylococcus aureus (3.7%, Escherichia coli (2.2% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.2%. Most ready-to-eat foods in Kumasi were contaminated with enteric bacteria and other potential food poisoning organisms with bacterial counts higher than the acceptable levels. Food vendors therefore need education on food hygiene.

Feglo, P.

2012-01-01

158

Evolution of histidine decarboxylase bacterial groups during the ripening of Spanish semi-preserved anchovies.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have studied the count evolutions of total aerobic mesophilic microorganisms, psychotrophic microorganisms, enterobacteria, faecal coliforms, sulphite-reducing bacteria and vibrio in spanish semi-preserved anchovies. These microorganisms are a sanitary index of the product and may produce high concentrations of histamine in both fresh and processed fish. The influence of NaCl concentration, redox potential, oxygen concentration and pH on bacterial growth have also been studied. With the exception of the sulphite-reducers and vibrio, the counts of the different bacterial groups decreased during the first two weeks of ripening, but later stabilized. The faecal coliforms did not appear in the culture media after these first two weeks, and the enterobacteria, what initially did not appear after first two weeks too, are detected at final phases probably for the final manipulation of elaboration processes. The count of the sulfite-reducers remained unchanged during the whole ripening process. Vibrio were not detected in any of the samples studied. NaCl and oxygen concentrations were the main factors influencing the decreasing bacterial counts. According to our results, the accumulation of high histamine concentrations in salted fish could be due to poor quality of the raw material, to inadequate handling or to other causes during its shelf life. The relationship with the histamine activity is probably due more to the presence of the halophilic or halotolerant microorganisms. PMID:8122442

Rodriguez-Jerez, J J; Lopez-Sabater, E I; Roig-Sagues, A X; Mora-Ventura, M T

1993-10-01

159

Use of fluorochromes for direct enumeration of total bacteria in environmental samples: past and present.  

OpenAIRE

Understanding the role of bacteria in microbial food webs is intimately connected to the methods applied in the direct enumeration of bacteria. We have examined over 220 papers describing studies in which fluorochrome staining followed by epifluorescent microscopic direct counts was used to estimate total bacterial abundances. In this review, we summarize patterns in the use of 3,6-bis[dimethylamino]acridinium chloride (acridine orange) and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), the two stains...

Kepner, R. L.; Pratt, J. R.

1994-01-01

160

Counting rates for Phase II ISABELLE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This short note addresses the issue of the singles counting rates in large solid angle hadron calorimeters at luminosities of 1033 cm-2 sec-1. By means of comparison it demonstrates the difference the physical configuration makes in these background counting rates. In addition a sobering calculation of the total calorimeter mass is made. Effects of an analyzing magnetic field are not considered here

161

Bacterial load in tissues and its predictive value for infection in open fractures.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The role of quantitative bacteriology is considered controversial for the prediction of infection in open fractures. A study was done in 20 patients with open fractures. Post debridement pieces of skin, muscle and periosteal tissue were obtained for quantitative bacterial counts. Among a total of 50 samples from all of the tissues, 29 showed positive bacterial counts (16 of 20 skin, 11 of 20 muscle and 2 of 10 periosteum samples. By quantitative estimation, the bacterial load was >10(5 per gram in 10 skin and 3 muscle tissue samples. Infection developed in 9 of the 20 cases within one month, and eight of these patients had contamination of >10(5 per gram in 8 of the skin but only 3 muscle samples. It was concluded that with tissue specific bacterial load estimation, prediction of subsequent infection can be made if skin tissue contains >10(5 per gram, or if muscle tissue carries any level of bacterial presence.

Sen RK

2000-12-01

162

Effect of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zylenicum supplementation on the intestinal selected bacterial population in Japanese quail  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of adding graded levels (0, 1.0 and 1.5% of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zylenicum in the basal diet on the intestinal bacterial population of the Japanese quail. Sixty Japanese quail were randomly distributed into 3 groups. Each treatment contained four replicates (5 birds/replicate. The results showed significant (P<0.05 improvement in lactobacillus of birds fed 1.5% cinnamon. Total bacterial count, coli form and fungi count was significantly (P<0.05 lower compared to the control. In conclusion, 1.5% level of cinnamon may be used for antimicrobial balance in gut for Japanese quail.

A. Baraa Mohamed,

2011-05-01

163

Bacteria killing nanotechnology Bio-Kil effectively reduces bacterial burden in intensive care units.  

Science.gov (United States)

A contaminated hospital environment has been identified as an important reservoir of pathogens causing healthcare-associated infections. This study is to evaluate the efficacy of bacteria killing nanotechnology Bio-Kil on reducing bacterial counts in an intensive care unit (ICU). Two single-bed rooms (S-19 and S-20) in the ICU were selected from 7 April to 27 May 2011. Ten sets of new textiles (pillow cases, bed sheets, duvet cover, and patient clothing) used by patients in the two single-bed rooms were provided by the sponsors. In the room S-20, the 10 sets of new textiles were washed with Bio-Kil; the room walls, ceiling, and air-conditioning filters were treated with Bio-Kil; and the surfaces of instruments (respirator, telephone, and computer) were covered with Bio-Kil-embedded silicon pads. Room S-19 served as the control. We compared the bacterial count on textiles and environment surfaces as well as air samples between the two rooms. A total of 1,364 samples from 22 different sites in each room were collected. The mean bacterial count on textiles and environmental surfaces in room S-20 was significantly lower than that in room S-19 (10.4 vs 49.6 colony-forming units [CFU]/100 cm(2); P bacterial counts in air samples than room S-19 (33.4-37.6 vs 21.6-25.7 CFU/hour/plate; P bacterial burden in the environment of the ICU. PMID:24136062

Hsueh, P-R; Huang, H-C; Young, T-G; Su, C-Y; Liu, C-S; Yen, M-Y

2014-04-01

164

The interplay of dietary nutrient specification and varying calcium to total phosphorus ratio on efficacy of a bacterial phytase: 1. Growth performance and tibia mineralization.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 14-d experiment was conducted to study the effects of 2 dietary variables on efficacy of a 6-phytase from Citrobacter braakii on broiler growth performance and tibia mineralization. Diets were formulated with or without nutrient matrix values for phytase as negative or positive control (NC or PC, respectively) and with 2 Ca:total P (tP; 2:1 or 2.5:1). The diets were supplemented with 0, 1,000, or 2,000 phytase units (FYT)/kg, thus producing a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. Birds and feed were weighed on d 7 and 21, and tibia bones were collected from all the birds on d 21. The main effects of nutrient matrix, Ca:tP, and phytase supplementation were significant (P phytase and matrix × phytase interactions were significant (P phytase increased weight gain (P phytase increased (P Phytase supplementation of diets with 2:1 Ca:tP increased (P phytase supplementation increased (P phytase supplementation (1,000 FYT/kg) was in NC diets with narrow Ca:tP, whereas the best response to higher level of phytase supplementation (2,000 FYT/kg) was achieved in diets in PC diets with wide Ca:tP. PMID:25332135

Olukosi, O A; Fru-Nji, F

2014-12-01

165

The Big Pumpkin Count.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

1981-01-01

166

Radiation counting statistics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is intended to describe the statistical methods necessary to design and conduct radiation counting experiments and evaluate the data from the experiment. The methods are described for the evaluation of the stability of a counting system and the estimation of the precision of counting data by application of probability distribution models. The methods for the determination of the uncertainty of the results calculated from the number of counts, as well as various statistical methods for the reduction of counting error are also described. (Author). 11 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs

167

Radiation counting statistics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is intended to describe the statistical methods necessary to design and conduct radiation counting experiments and evaluate the data from the experiment. The methods are described for the evaluation of the stability of a counting system and the estimation of the precision of counting data by application of probability distribution models. The methods for the determination of the uncertainty of the results calculated from the number of counts, as well as various statistical methods for the reduction of counting error are also described. (Author). 11 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs.

Suh, M. Y.; Jee, K. Y.; Park, K. K.; Park, Y. J.; Kim, W. H

1999-08-01

168

Bacterial adhesion.  

OpenAIRE

As mentioned in the introduction of this thesis bacterial adhesion has been studied from a variety of (mostly practice oriented) starting points. This has resulted in a range of widely divergent approaches. In order to elucidate general principles in bacterial adhesion phenomena, we felt it was necessary to start from a fundamental level i.e. using welldefined model systems. In our study colloid chemical principles are applied to microbial systems. Although both colloid chemists and microbiol...

Loosdrecht, M. C. M.

1988-01-01

169

Bacterial loads and microbial composition in high pressure treated oysters during storage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of bacterial communities present in high-pressure (HP)-treated, quick-frozen (QF), and raw oysters was carried out during three different seasons. Bacterial numbers and species diversity in each sample were determined at 0, 7, 14, and 21 days of storage. Results showed that numbers of total aerobic bacterial counts (TABC) in treated oysters were significantly lower than in untreated oysters at day 0 by 10 to 10(5) colony forming units per gram of oyster meat (CFU/g) in all samplings. However, an increase in TABC in HP-treated oysters was observed at days 7, 14, and 21 indicating that some bacteria survived the treatment and were able to proliferate during refrigeration conditions. Surprisingly, TABC in HP-treated oysters reached 10(8) CFU/g at 14 days of storage in all samplings (higher than TABC from raw oysters in two of the samplings performed). Analysis of the bacterial flora by 16S rDNA sequencing, revealed six different classes within the bacterial communities. The majority were Gram-negative bacteria, with the Gammaproteobacteria class representing between 56% and 92%. The most common bacterial genera found in this study were Shewanella, Vibrio and Psychrobacter. Four species of human pathogenic bacteria were also identified: V. vulnificus, V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, and A. hydrophila although V. vulnificus was detected only in raw oysters. PMID:19303653

Prapaiwong, Naparat; Wallace, Richard K; Arias, Covadonga R

2009-05-31

170

Relationship between oral malodor and the global composition of indigenous bacterial populations in saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral malodor develops mostly from the metabolic activities of indigenous bacterial populations within the oral cavity, but whether healthy or oral malodor-related patterns of the global bacterial composition exist remains unclear. In this study, the bacterial compositions in the saliva of 240 subjects complaining of oral malodor were divided into groups based on terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) profiles using hierarchical cluster analysis, and the patterns of the microbial community composition of those exhibiting higher and lower malodor were explored. Four types of bacterial community compositions were detected (clusters I, II, III, and IV). Two parameters for measuring oral malodor intensity (the concentration of volatile sulfur compounds in mouth air and the organoleptic score) were noticeably lower in cluster I than in the other clusters. Using multivariate analysis, the differences in the levels of oral malodor were significant after adjustment for potential confounding factors such as total bacterial count, mean periodontal pocket depth, and tongue coating score (P Rothia, and Treponema species than those of the other clusters. These results clearly correlate the global composition of indigenous bacterial populations with the severity of oral malodor. PMID:20228112

Takeshita, Toru; Suzuki, Nao; Nakano, Yoshio; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Yoneda, Masahiro; Hirofuji, Takao; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

2010-05-01

171

Approximate Triangle Counting  

OpenAIRE

Triangle counting is an important problem in graph mining. Clustering coefficients of vertices and the transitivity ratio of the graph are two metrics often used in complex network analysis. Furthermore, triangles have been used successfully in several real-world applications. However, exact triangle counting is an expensive computation. In this paper we present the analysis of a practical sampling algorithm for counting triangles in graphs. Our analysis yields optimal value...

Tsourakakis, Charalampos E.; Kolountzakis, Mihail N.; Miller, Gary L.

2009-01-01

172

Bacterial carbonatogenesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several series of experiments in the laboratory as well as in natural conditions teach that the production of carbonate particles by heterotrophic bacteria follows different ways. The 'passive' carbonatogenesis is generated by modifications of the medium that lead to the accumulation of carbonate and bicarbonate ions and to the precipitation of solid particles. The 'active' carbonatogenesis is independent of the metabolic pathways. The carbonate particles are produced by ionic exchanges through the cell membrane following still poorly known mechanisms. Carbonatogenesis appears to be the response of heterotrophic bacterial communities to an enrichment of the milieu in organic matter. The active carbonatogenesis seems to start first. It is followed by the passive one which induces the growth of initially produced particles. The yield of heterotrophic bacterial carbonatogenesis and the amounts of solid carbonates production by bacteria are potentially very high as compared to autotrophic or chemical sedimentation from marine, paralic or continental waters. Furthermore, the bacterial processes are environmentally very ubiquitous; they just require organic matter enrichment. Thus, apart from purely evaporite and autotrophic ones, all Ca and/or Mg carbonates must be considered as from heterotrophic bacterial origin. By the way, the carbon of carbonates comes from primary organic matter. Such considerations ask questions about some interpretations from isotopic data on carbonterpretations from isotopic data on carbonates. Finally, bacterial heterotrophic carbonatogenesis appears as a fundamental phase in the relationships between atmosphere and lithosphere and in the geo-biological evolution of Earth. (author)

173

Bacterial and yeast counts in Brazilian commodities and spices / Bactérias e leveduras associadas a amêndoas de cajueiro, de castanha-do-Brasil e à pimenta-do-reino preta e branca  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Um total de 13 gêneros de bactérias e 2 de leveduras foi detectado a partir de amêndoas de castanha de cajueiro, de amêndoas de castanha-do-Brasil e de pimenta-do-reino preta e branca produzidas no Brasil. O gênero bacteriano mais freqüentemente encontrado foi o Bacillus, com 8 espécies. As levedura [...] s Pichia sp., P. guillermondii e Rhodotorula sp., isoladas somente a partir de amêndoas de cajueiro, apresentaram populações mais elevadas que as de bactérias. Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium e Staphylococcus aureus foram também detectadas em amêndoas de cajueiro e de castanha-do-Brasil. Abstract in english A total of thirteen genera of bacteria and two genera of yeasts were detected in surface sterilized and unsterilized Brazilian commodities and spices such as cashew kernels, Brazil nut kernels, black and white pepper. The genus Bacillus with eight species was by far the most common. The yeasts isola [...] ted were Pichia sp., P. guillermondii and Rhodotorula sp. Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in cashew and Brazil nut kernels.

Francisco das Chagas Oliveira, Freire; Lisa, Offord.

2002-06-01

174

Bacterial Adhesion & Blocking Bacterial Adhesion  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Microorganisms are an integral part of all natural ecosystems, and as such are ubiquitous in nature. They often live adhered to or in association with surfaces of either organic or inorganic nature, and all surfaces will almost inevitably be colonized by microorganisms. This often results in the formation of highly complex sessile communities, referred to as biofilms. Such microbial communities are often highly dynamic and heterogeneous in nature. Microbial biofilms are of great importance in a wide range of natural processes and industrial settings, from the commensal flora of the gastrointestinal tract to the microbial flocs in waste water treatment facilities. Microbial biofilms may however also cause a wide range of industrial and medical problems, and have been implicated in a wide range of persistent infectious diseases, including implantassociated microbial infections. Bacterial adhesion is the first committing step in biofilm formation, and has therefore been intensely scrutinized. Much however, stillremains elusive. Bacterial adhesion is a highly complex process, which is influenced by a variety of factors. In this thesis, a range of physico-chemical, molecular and environmental parameters, which influence the transition from a planktonic lifestyle to a sessile lifestyle, have been studied. Protein conditioning film formation was found to influence bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation considerable, and an aqueous extract of fish muscle tissue was shown to significantly reduce or delay bacterial biofilm formation of a range of urinary tract infectious E.coli and Klebsiella isolates. Several other proteinaceous coatings were also found to display anti-adhesive properties, possibly providing a measure for controlling the colonization of implant materials. Several other parameters controlling bacterial adhesion were also studied. Subinhibitory concentrations of certain antimicrobial compounds and several surfactants were found to significantly affect bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, most likely by affecting the production of biofilm extracellular polymeric matrix components. These substances may both mediate and stabilize the bacterial biofilm. Finally, several adhesive structures were examined, and a novel physiological biofilm phenotype in E.coli biofilms was characterized, namely cell chain formation. The autotransporter protein, antigen 43, was implicated in this structural biofilm phenotype, at least in some bacterial strains. Understanding the fundamental requirements of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation may aid in the development of effective preventive measures.

Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

2008-01-01

175

Automated counting of mammalian cell colonies  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigating the effect of low-dose radiation exposure on cells using assays of colony-forming ability requires large cell samples to maintain statistical accuracy. Manually counting the resulting colonies is a laborious task in which consistent objectivity is hard to achieve. This is true especially with some mammalian cell lines which form poorly defined or `fuzzy' colonies, typified by glioma or fibroblast cell lines. A computer-vision-based automated colony counter is presented in this paper. It utilizes novel imaging and image-processing methods involving a modified form of the Hough transform. The automated counter is able to identify less-discrete cell colonies typical of these cell lines. The results of automated colony counting are compared with those from four manual (human) colony counts for the cell lines HT29, A172, U118 and IN1265. The results from the automated counts fall well within the distribution of the manual counts for all four cell lines with respect to surviving fraction (SF) versus dose curves, SF values at 2 Gy (SF2) and total area under the SF curve (Dbar). From the variation in the counts, it is shown that the automated counts are generally more consistent than the manual counts.

Barber, Paul R.; Vojnovic, Borivoj; Kelly, Jane; Mayes, Catherine R.; Boulton, Peter; Woodcock, Michael; Joiner, Michael C.

2001-01-01

176

Lateral organization of a membrane protein in a supported binary lipid domain: direct observation of the organization of bacterial light-harvesting complex 2 by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

A unique method is described for directly observing the lateral organization of a membrane protein (bacterial light-harvesting complex LH2) in a supported lipid bilayer using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy. The supported lipid bilayer consisted of anionic 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-rac-(1'-glycerol)] (DOPG) and 1,2-distearoly-sn-3-[phospho-rac-(1'-glycerol)] (DSPG) and was formed through the rupture of a giant vesicle on a positively charged coverslip. TIRF microscopy revealed that the bilayer was composed of phase-separated domains. When a suspension of cationic phospholipid (1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine: EDOPC) vesicles (approximately 400 nm in diameter), containing LH2 complexes (EDOPC/LH2 = 1000/1), was put into contact with the supported lipid bilayer, the cationic vesicles immediately began to fuse and did so specifically with the fluid phase (DOPG-rich domain) of the supported bilayer. Fluorescence from the incorporated LH2 complexes gradually (over approximately 20 min) spread from the domain boundary into the gel domain (DSPG-rich domain). Similar diffusion into the domain-structured supported lipid membrane was observed when the fluorescent lipid (1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-lissamine-rhodamine B sulfonyl: N-Rh-DOPE) was incorporated into the vesicles instead of LH2. These results indicate that vesicles containing LH2 and lipids preferentially fuse with the fluid domain, after which they laterally diffuse into the gel domain. This report describes for first time the lateral organization of a membrane protein, LH2, via vesicle fusion and subsequent lateral diffusion of the LH2 from the fluid to the gel domains in the supported lipid bilayer. The biological implications and applications of the present study are briefly discussed. PMID:16732671

Dewa, Takehisa; Sugiura, Ryuta; Suemori, Yoshiharu; Sugimoto, Miku; Takeuchi, Toshikazu; Hiro, Akito; Iida, Kouji; Gardiner, Alastair T; Cogdell, Richard J; Nango, Mamoru

2006-06-01

177

Bacterial assay for the rapid assessment of antifouling and fouling release properties of coatings and materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

An assay has been developed to accurately quantify the growth and release behaviour of bacterial biofilms on several test reference materials and coatings, using the marine bacterium Cobetia marina as a model organism. The assay can be used to investigate the inhibition of bacterial growth and release properties of many surfaces when compared to a reference. The method is based upon the staining of attached bacterial cells with the nucleic acid-binding, green fluorescent SYTO 13 stain. A strong linear correlation exists between the fluorescence of the bacterial suspension measured (RFU) using a plate reader and the total bacterial count measured with epifluorescence microscopy. This relationship allows the fluorescent technique to be used for the quantification of bacterial cells attached to surfaces. As the bacteria proliferate on the surface over a period of time, the relative fluorescence unit (RFU) measured using the plate reader also shows an increase with time. This was observed on all three test surfaces (glass, Epikote and Silastic T2) over a period of 4 h of bacterial growth, followed by a release assay, which was carried out by the application of hydrodynamic shear forces using a custom-made rotary device. Different fixed rotor speeds were tested, and based on the release analysis, 12 knots was used to provide standard shear force. The assay developed was then applied for assessing three different antifouling coatings of different surface roughness. The novel assay allows the rapid and sensitive enumeration of attached bacteria directly on the coated surface. This is the first plate reader assay technique that allows estimation of irreversibly attached bacterial cells directly on the coated surface without their removal from the surface or extraction of a stain into solution. PMID:20039190

D'Souza, Fraddry; Bruin, Anouk; Biersteker, Rens; Donnelly, Glen; Klijnstra, Job; Rentrop, Corne; Willemsen, Peter

2010-04-01

178

Bacterial cellulose/boehmite composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Composites based on bacterial cellulose membranes and boehmite were obtained. SEM results indicate that the bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes are totally covered by boehmite and obtained XRD patterns suggest structural changes due to this boehmite addition. Thermal stability is accessed through TG curves and is dependent on boehmite content. Transparency is high comparing to pure BC as can be seen through UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. (author)

179

Particle Association of Enterococcus and Total Bacteria in the Lower Hudson River Estuary, USA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bacterial particle association has important consequences for water-quality monitoring and modeling. Particle association can change vertical and horizontal transport of bacterial cells, as well as patterns of persistence and production. In this study, the abundance and particle association of total bacteria and the fecal-indicator, Enterococcus, were quantified between June and October 2008 in the lower Hudson River Estuary (HRE. Twelve sites were sampled, including mid-channel, near shore, and tributary habitats, plus a sewage outfall. Total bacterial cell counts averaged 9.2 × 109 ± 6.4 × 109 cell l–1 (1 standard deviation, comparable to previous sampling in the HRE. Unlike earlier studies, bacterial abundance did not change consistently along the north/south estuarine salinity gradient. Enterococcus concentrations were highly variable, but mid-channel stations had significantly lower values than other habitat categories. Counts of total bacteria and Enterococcus were both correlated with turbidity, which was also significantly lower at mid-channel stations. A larger fraction of Enterococci were associated with particles (52.9 ± 20.9%, 1 standard deviation than in the pool of total bacteria (23.8 ± 15.0%. This high frequency of particle association, relative to total bacteria, could cause Enterococcus to be preferentially retained near input sources because of enhanced deposition to bottom sediments, where they would be available for later resuspension. In turn, retention and resuspension in nearshore environments may explain the observed cross-channel variability of turbidity and Enterococcus. Assessments and predictive models of estuarine water quality may be improved by incorporating cross-channel variability and the effects of particle association on key indicators.

Elizabeth Suter

2011-10-01

180

Antimicrobial resistance in bacterial infections in urban and rural Tanzania  

OpenAIRE

Infectious diseases cause one in every six deaths worldwide. Antimicrobial drugs have helped dramatically in curing patients suffering from bacterial infections. However, emerging antimicrobial resistance in bacteria threatens to undermine the management of bacterial infections. Developing countries have greater burden of infectious diseases. A number of factors, which may promote antimicrobial resistance such as availability of antimicrobials without prescription, use of count...

Blomberg, Bjørn

2007-01-01

181

Sublattice Counting and Orbifolds  

CERN Document Server

Abelian orbifolds of C^3 are known to be encoded by hexagonal brane tilings. To date it is not known how to count all such orbifolds. We fill this gap by employing number theoretic techniques from crystallography, and by making use of Polya's Enumeration Theorem. The results turn out to be beautifully encoded in terms of partition functions and Dirichlet Series. The same methods apply to counting orbifolds of any toric non-compact Calabi-Yau singularity. As additional examples, we count the orbifolds of the conifold, of the L^{aba} theories, and of C^4.

Hanany, Amihay; Reffert, Susanne

2010-01-01

182

Importance of particle-associated bacterial heterotrophy in a coastal Arctic ecosystem  

Science.gov (United States)

The large quantities of particles delivered by the Mackenzie River to the coastal Beaufort Sea (Arctic Ocean) have implications for the spatial distribution, composition and productivity of its bacterial communities. Our objectives in this study were: (1) to assess the contribution of particle-associated bacteria (fraction ? 3 µm) to total bacterial production and their relationships with changing environmental conditions along a surface water transect; (2) to examine how particle-based heterotrophy changes over the annual cycle (Nov 2003-Aug 2004); and (3) to determine whether particle-associated bacterial assemblages differ in composition from the free-living communities (fraction hybridization (CARD-FISH) confirmed the dominance of Bacteria and presence of Archaea (43-84% and 0.2-5.5% of DAPI counts, respectively), which were evenly distributed throughout the Mackenzie Shelf, and not significantly related to environmental variables. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) revealed changes in the bacterial community structure among riverine, estuarine and marine stations, with separation according to temperature and salinity. There was evidence of differences between the particle-associated and free-living bacterial assemblages at the estuarine stations with highest POM content. Particle-associated bacteria are an important functional component of this Arctic ecosystem. Under a warmer climate, they are likely to play an increasing role in coastal biogeochemistry and carbon fluxes as a result of permafrost melting and increased particle transport from the tundra to coastal waters.

Garneau, Marie-Ève; Vincent, Warwick F.; Terrado, Ramon; Lovejoy, Connie

2009-01-01

183

Bacterial and toxic pollutants in lakes of river Indus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Indus river water gets polluted through three sources viz., municipal wastewater, industrial wastewater and agricultural runoff through drainage structure. The lakes in Sindh (fed by the river Indus), constitute the important source of drinking water, recreation and fish, etc. and offer employment for many. A large number of chemicals that either exist naturally in the land dissolve in the water, or human excreta added due to human activity thereby, contaminating and leading to various diseases. In order to assess the microbial contamination, detection of pollutant indicator organisms (coliform group), using Coliform test was performed by Most Probable Number technique and total bacterial count by Pour Plate method. The level of various heavy metals (arsenic, calcium, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, mercury, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium, selenium and zinc) and electrolytes (Cl/sup -1/, HCO/sub 3/sup -1/) was monitored in water and fish meat samples collected from Haleji and Keenjhar lakes to assess the impact of toxic pollutants. Metal concentrations in water and fish samples were estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Total coliform organisms were found in both the lake water samples, exceeded in 38% samples than the acceptable limits, while total average aerobic bacterial count analyzed in both the lakes was 102 CFU/ml - 1010 CFU/ml. Toxic chemical contaminants were estimated below the detection limit, while other several (essential) metlimit, while other several (essential) metal ions were found within the range set by WHO, except arsenic, cadmium and iron that exceeded slightly in 12.5% water samples. This study was designed to ensure the access of safe and potable water to urban and rural areas of Sindh. Further, the findings will help public/private enterprises and public health institutions to work for the people health friendly policies. (author)

184

Analog multivariate counting analyzers  

CERN Document Server

Characterizing rates of occurrence of various features of a signal is of great importance in numerous types of physical measurements. Such signal features can be defined as certain discrete coincidence events, e.g. crossings of a signal with a given threshold, or occurrence of extrema of a certain amplitude. We describe measuring rates of such events by means of analog multivariate counting analyzers. Given a continuous scalar or multicomponent (vector) input signal, an analog counting analyzer outputs a continuous signal with the instantaneous magnitude equal to the rate of occurrence of certain coincidence events. The analog nature of the proposed analyzers allows us to reformulate many problems of the traditional counting measurements, and cast them in a form which is readily addressed by methods of differential calculus rather than by algebraic or logical means of digital signal processing. Analog counting analyzers can be easily implemented in discrete or integrated electronic circuits, do not suffer fro...

Nikitin, A V; Armstrong, T P

2003-01-01

185

Counting Knights and Knaves  

Science.gov (United States)

To understand better some of the classic knights and knaves puzzles, we count them. Doing so reveals a surprising connection between puzzles and solutions, and highlights some beautiful combinatorial identities.

Levin,Oscar; Roberts, Gerri M.

2013-01-01

186

Galaxy number counts  

CERN Document Server

In these Lectures Notes I re-visit the problem of the deep number counts as a viable method to (1) study the evolution of the galaxy population in the past and (2) determine the value of the deceleration parameter q_0. After a brief description of the basic concepts needed to model the counts, we show that simple luminosity evolution models which incorporate dust are able to provide reasonable fits to both the deep counts and the redshift distribution of faint field galaxies if q_0=0.05. In order to fit the counts in a {\\it closed} (q_0=0.5) Universe, we include a population of fading dwarfs, more numerous in the past, based on current ideas to understand the nature of dwarf galaxies.

Campos, A

1995-01-01

187

Counting Belief Propagation  

CERN Document Server

A major benefit of graphical models is that most knowledge is captured in the model structure. Many models, however, produce inference problems with a lot of symmetries not reflected in the graphical structure and hence not exploitable by efficient inference techniques such as belief propagation (BP). In this paper, we present a new and simple BP algorithm, called counting BP, that exploits such additional symmetries. Starting from a given factor graph, counting BP first constructs a compressed factor graph of clusternodes and clusterfactors, corresponding to sets of nodes and factors that are indistinguishable given the evidence. Then it runs a modified BP algorithm on the compressed graph that is equivalent to running BP on the original factor graph. Our experiments show that counting BP is applicable to a variety of important AI tasks such as (dynamic) relational models and boolean model counting, and that significant efficiency gains are obtainable, often by orders of magnitude.

Kersting, Kristian; Natarajan, Sriraam

2012-01-01

188

Structured count data regression  

OpenAIRE

Overdispersion in count data regression is often caused by neglection or inappropriate modelling of individual heterogeneity, temporal or spatial correlation, and nonlinear covariate effects. In this paper, we develop and study semiparametric count data models which can deal with these issues by incorporating corresponding components in structured additive form into the predictor. The models are fully Bayesian and inference is carried out by computationally efficient MCMC techniques. In a sim...

Fahrmeir, Ludwig; Osuna, Leyre

2003-01-01

189

Christmas Bird Count  

Science.gov (United States)

The longest running Citizen Science survey in the world, Christmas Bird Count provides critical data on population trends. Tens of thousands of participants know that it is also a lot of fun. Data from the over 2,300 circles are entered after the count and become available to query under the Data & Research link. Participants will be helping to preserve bird species, as the data is used by conservation biologists to understand and protect species and their habitats.

Frank Chapman

190

Counting trees using symmetries  

OpenAIRE

We prove a new formula for the generating function of multitype Cayley trees counted according to their degree distribution. Using this formula we recover and extend several enumerative results about trees. In particular, we extend some results by Knuth and by Bousquet-M\\'elou and Chapuy about embedded trees. We also give a new proof of the multivariate Lagrange inversion formula. Our strategy for counting trees is to exploit symmetries of refined enumeration formulas: provi...

Bernardi, Olivier; Morales, Alejandro H.

2012-01-01

191

Bacterial Contamination in Saeng-go-gi, a Ready-to-Eat Fresh Raw Beef Dish Sold in Restaurants in South Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the bacterial contamination levels in ready-to-eat fresh raw beef, Saeng-go-gi in Korean, sold in restaurants. A total of 462 samples were analyzed by performing an aerobic bacterial plate count, a coliform count, and an Escherichia coli O157:H7 count. Aerobic bacterial plate counts of fresh raw beef obtained from Seoul, Cheonan, Daegu, Gunsan, and Gwangju retail store restaurants were 6.46, 6.89, 6.39, 6.58, and 6.67 log CFU/g, respectively, and coliforms were 4.05, 4.97, 4.76, 3.62, and 3.32 log CFU/g, respectively. Among the 462 assessed samples, suspected E. coli O157:H7 colonies were found in 32, 24, 20, 22, and 16 samples obtained from Seoul, Cheonan, Daegu, Gunsan, and Gwangju, respectively. The identity of these isolated colonies was further assessed by using a latex agglutination kit. The agglutination assay data showed that the isolates were not E. coli O157:H7. The data from this study could be used to design better food handling practices for reducing foodborne illnesses linked to fresh raw beef consumption. PMID:25719891

Park, Myoung Su; Moon, Jin San; Todd, Ewen C D; Bahk, Gyung Jin

2015-03-01

192

Assessment of viable bacteria and bacterial DNA in blood and bloodstain specimens stored under various conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbial forensic specimens that are collected at biocrime and bioterrorism scenes include blood, tissue, cloths containing biological fluids, swabs, water, soil, and aerosols. It is preferable that pathogens in such specimens are alive and kept in a steady state. Specimens may be stored for a prolonged period before analysis; therefore, it is important to understand the effect of the storage conditions on the pathogens contained within the specimens. In this study, we prepared blood and bloodstain specimens containing Gram-negative or -positive bacteria, stored the samples for 482 days under various conditions, and measured viable bacterial counts and total bacterial contents in the samples. Viable bacteria were preserved well in the samples stored at -30 and -80 °C, but were diminished or undetectable in the samples stored at 4 °C and room temperature. The total bacterial content was maintained in the blood samples stored at -30 and -80 °C and in the bloodstain samples stored under all temperature conditions, but decreased in the blood samples stored at 4 °C and room temperature. This study showed that the storage conditions affected viable bacteria and bacterial DNA and that freezing and drying were significant for their long-term storage. We provide important information for the storage of microbial forensic specimens. PMID:24237815

Hosokawa-Muto, Junji; Fujinami, Yoshihito; Mizuno, Natsuko

2013-11-01

193

Comparative analysis of salivary bacterial microbiome diversity in edentulous infants and their mothers or primary care givers using pyrosequencing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial contribution to oral disease has been studied in young children, but there is a lack of data addressing the developmental perspective in edentulous infants. Our primary objectives were to use pyrosequencing to phylogenetically characterize the salivary bacterial microbiome of edentulous infants and to make comparisons against their mothers. Saliva samples were collected from 5 edentulous infants (mean age?=?4.6±1.2 mo old) and their mothers or primary care givers (mean age?=?30.8±9.5 y old). Salivary DNA was extracted, used to generate DNA amplicons of the V4-V6 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16S rDNA gene, and subjected to 454-pyrosequencing. On average, over 80,000 sequences per sample were generated. High bacterial diversity was noted in the saliva of adults [1012 operational taxonomical units (OTU) at 3% divergence] and infants (578 OTU at 3% divergence). Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Fusobacteria were predominant bacterial phyla present in all samples. A total of 397 bacterial genera were present in our dataset. Of the 28 genera different (PRothia, Haemophilus, Gemella, Granulicatella, Leptotrichia, and Fusobacterium were also predominant genera in infant samples, while Haemophilus, Neisseria, Veillonella, Fusobacterium, Oribacterium, Rothia, Treponema, and Actinomyces were predominant in adults. Our data demonstrate that although the adult saliva bacterial microbiome had a greater OTU count than infants, a rich bacterial community exists in the infant oral cavity prior to tooth eruption. Streptococcus, Veillonella, and Neisseria are the predominant bacterial genera present in infants. Further research is required to characterize the development of oral microbiota early in life and identify environmental factors that impact colonization and oral and gastrointestinal disease risk. PMID:21853142

Cephas, Kimberly D; Kim, Juhee; Mathai, Rose Ann; Barry, Kathleen A; Dowd, Scot E; Meline, Brandon S; Swanson, Kelly S

2011-01-01

194

Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the bacterial microbiota of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) cultured in earthen ponds in the Philippines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The quantity and composition of the bacterial microbiota in the rearing water, sediment, gills and intestines of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus collected every 2 weeks from Day 30 to Day 120 after stocking for grow-out culture in 6 earthen brackish water ponds in the Philippines were examined. The total heterotrophic aerobic bacterial counts obtained in the water, sediment, gills and intestines of tilapia ranged from 10(3) to 10(4) c.f.u. ml(-1), 10(3)-10(5), 10(5)-10(7) and 10(4)-10(7) c.f.u. g(-1), respectively. In terms of composition, a total of 20 bacterial genera and 31 species were identified with the preponderance of gram-negative bacteria constituting 84 % of all bacterial isolates examined. Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus spp., Plesiomonas shigelloides, Shewanella putrefaciens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Staphylococcus spp. and Vibrio cholerae were the dominant bacteria identified in the gills and intestine of tilapia. These bacteria also dominated in the pond sediment and rearing water, except for the nil isolation of S. putrefaciens and V. cholerae in the water samples examined, indicating that resident bacteria in the pond water and sediment congruently typify the composition of bacterial microbiota in the gills and intestine of tilapia which under stressful conditions may propel the ascendance of disease epizootics. PMID:25555375

Pakingking, Rolando; Palma, Peter; Usero, Roselyn

2015-02-01

195

Haematogenous infection of a total knee arthroplasty with Klebsiella pneumoniae  

Science.gov (United States)

This case report describes a prosthetic joint infection due to the haematogenous spread of Klebsiella pneumoniae from a genitourinary focus. Prior to the infection, the patient was diagnosed with early stage prostatic carcinoma, which had been successfully treated with surgery. However, in the time period following surgical treatment, the patient suffered recurring urinary tract infections. During the course of these recurring infections, he developed a concurrent bacterial infection of his total knee arthroplasty. Two sequential joint aspirates revealed K pneumoniae to be the cause. Therefore, two-stage revision total knee arthroplasty was performed. This case reiterates the fact that invasive therapeutic procedures can cause bacteraemia resulting in infection of a joint replacement. We would therefore like to emphasise the importance of prophylactic antibiotic treatment prior to invasive therapies, particularly in organs with potentially large counts of bacteria. PMID:23592813

Pepke, Wojciech; Lehner, Burkhard; Bekeredjian-Ding, Isabelle; Egermann, Marcus

2013-01-01

196

Efficacy and safety of linezolid in treating gram-positive bacterial infection in the elderly: a retrospective study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Linezolid is commonly used for the treatment of drug-resistant Gram-positive bacterial infection. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of linezolid in treating Gram-positive bacterial infection in the elderly from January 2010 to December 2012. Total 40 elderly patients (>60 years old) with Gram-positive bacterial infection were treated with linezolid and their demographic and clinical data were collected and analyzed. Among the 40 patients, 31 patients (77.5 %) were cured. Linezolid caused little adverse effects on liver and renal function. The main adverse effect was thrombocytopenia and its incidence was significantly associated with baseline platelet count and the duration of treatment (P linezolid-induced thrombocytopenia. In conclusion, linezolid is effective to cure Gram-positive bacterial infection in the elderly and causes little adverse effects on liver and renal function. Timely monitoring of baseline platelet count may be helpful to guide the use of linezolid to avoid the occurrence of thrombocytopenia. PMID:24426174

Zhou, Zhi-Yong; Zhao, Xue-Qin; Shan, Bao-Zhong; Zhu, Jie; Zhang, Xiang; Tian, Qing-Fen; Chen, De-Fang; Jia, Tang-Hong

2014-03-01

197

Analysis Of Mast Cell Counts In Oral Leukoplakia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mast cells are regarded as one of the important cells of the immune system. They are generally believed to have different roles in human health and disease. Present study aimed to evaluate the total mast cell count, the distribution of degranulated mast cells and the possible role played by them in Oral Leukoplakia (OLK. Total mast cell count and the count of degranulated mast cells were analyzed separately in 40 histopathologically confirmed cases of OLK after staining the sections with 1% Toluidine blue. These values were compared with sections taken from clinically healthy papillary gingival in 10 normal subjects. The count of degranulated mast cells was also separately evaluated in the three zones viz. Sub-epithelial, Intermediate and Deeper zones of the connective tissue in all the OLK cases. There was significant increase in the total mast cell count and the count of degranulated mast cells in Oral Leukoplakia as compared to normal oral mucosa (p < 0.001. The count of degranulated cells was found to be the highest in the Deep zone in all the OLK cases studied. The resent study revealed that the total count of mast cells and the count of degranulated mast cells were significantly increased in oral leukoplakia. This may be attributed to their pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic role in oral leukoplakia and may actually play a significant role in its progression to invasive carcinoma.

Vindhya Savithri

2012-01-01

198

Quantitative and qualitative aspects of bacterial flora of Karachi coastal water shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis and Metapenaeus monoceros).  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial counts were made over a period of two years of two important commercial shrimp varieties of Karachi coastal waters. Bacteria were also isolated and identified. Total number of bacteria were found to be remarkably equal at 37 degrees, 30 degrees and 25 degrees C. Aerobic plate count of Penaeus merguiensis at 37 degrees C ranged from 1.2 X 10(5) to 6.0 X 10(7) CFU/g (Median 1.8 X 10(6) CFU/g), and were predominantly Vibrio, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, and Flavobacterium. The corresponding count at 30 degrees C ranged from 3.2 X 10(5) to 4.7 X 10(7) CFU/g (Median 2.6 X 10(6) CFU/g). The bacterial flora in order of predominance were Vibrio, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, Moraxella, Flavobacterium, Bacillus, Alteromonas, and Acinetobacter. The 25 degrees C counts ranged from 5.3 X 10(5) to 8.5 X 10(7) CFU/g (Median 3.1 X 10(6) CFU/g), the flora was composed of Vibrio, Moraxella, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Bacillus, Alteromonas, and Acinetobacter in order of predominance. The aerobic plate count of Metapenaeus monoceros at 30 degrees C ranged from 8.4 x 10(5) to 3.8 x 10(7) CFU/g (Median 2.9 x 10(6) CFU/g). The bacterial flora in order of predominance were Vibrio, Micrococcus, Moraxella, Pseudomonas, Alteromonas, Flavobacterium and Staphylococcus. No significant qualitative or quantitative difference was obtained between the two shrimp species. The presence of Staphylococcus at 37 degrees C was attributed to favourable incubation temperature as well as to excessive unsanitary handling while the absence of Moraxella and Alteromonas putrefaciens at this temperature was considered due to the psychotrophic nature of these organisms. PMID:3913252

Zuberi, R; Qadri, R B; Siddiqui, P M

1985-12-01

199

Bacterial response to siderophore and quorum-sensing chemical signals in the seawater microbial community  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Oceans are iron-deficient and nutrient-poor environments. These conditions impart limitations on our understanding of and our ability to identify microorganisms from the marine environment. However, less of knowledge on the influence of siderophores and N-acyl homoserinelactone as interspecies communication signals on the bacterial diversity of seawater has been understood. Results In the presence of 0.1 nM of the commercial siderophore desferroixamine and the known quorum-sensing chemical signals, synthetic N-(3-oxo-hexanoylhomoserine lactone (0.1 nM or N-octanoylhomoserine lactone (0.1 nM, the total numbers of bacteria in S9905 seawater increased nearly three-fold, and nearly eight-fold in S0011 seawater as determined by DAPI staining and counting, and increased three-fold by counting colony forming units in S9905 seawater after 7 days of incubation. Similar bacterial changes in bacterial abundance were observed when high concentration of desferroixamine (1 ?M and each of homoserine lactone compounds (1 ?M were presented in seawater samples. The number of cultivable bacterial species observed was also found to increase from 3 (without addition to 8 (with additions including three unknown species which were identified by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences. The growth of unknown species was found to be related to their siderophore production with response to the addition of desferroixamine and N-acyl homoserine lactones under iron-limited conditions. Conclusion Artificial addition of siderophores and HSLs may be a possible method to aid in the identification and isolation of marine bacterial species which are thought to be unknown.

Kamino Kei

2001-10-01

200

Controlling of bacterial flora contaminating animal diet and its components by gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The total bacterial counts in complete diets were found to range between 103-105 cells/g, which they ranged between 102 and 106 in the main components. One hundred and sixteen bacterial colonies were isolated from the animal diet samples and found to be gram positive belonging to three genera: Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Bacillus. The most radioresistant bacteria isolated at 7.5 KGy were identified as B. megaterium, B. licheniformis, B. pumilus, B.circulans and B.laterosporus. The D10 values for the bacteria contaminated the diet samples ranged between 928 Gy and 2199 Gy. Meanwhile, the D10 values of staph.aureus and Strapt.faecalis artificially contaminated the diet were 400 Gy and 1136 Gy, respectively. It could be recommended from obtained results that dose level of 10 KGy is quite sufficient to eliminate all pathogens from animal diets or their components. In addition, it decreases the microbial count to minimum counts and hence increases the diet shelf life.1 fig.,4 tab

201

Evaluation and determinants of airborne bacterial concentrations in school classrooms.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of 39 elementary schools was undertaken to determine indoor air concentrations of bioaerosols within a coastal, temperate climatic zone in British Columbia, Canada. This article reports the results for airborne bacteria. Determinants of exposure were grouped into environmental (outdoor temperature, relative humidity, season, weather), ventilation and comfort parameter (indoor relative humidity, temperature, indoor CO2 concentration, indoor fungal concentration), and occupancy (number of occupants, activity levels, occupancy patterns) variables. Regression modeling was used to evaluate the association between these factors and measured concentrations of indoor mesophilic bacteria. Naturally ventilated rooms (47% of the total rooms surveyed) had higher bacterial counts than mechanically ventilated rooms (geometric mean 325 vs. 166 CFU/m3, respectively, p indoor CO2, lower air exchange rate, the age of the building, signs of current or old moisture stains, room volume, indoor relative humidity, and occupant activity level in a multiple linear regression model, with ventilation factors accounting for 40% of the variance. PMID:15631055

Bartlett, Karen H; Kennedy, Susan M; Brauer, Michael; van Netten, Chris; Dill, Barbara

2004-10-01

202

Interpretation of galaxy counts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

New models are presented for the interpretation of recent counts of galaxies to 24th magnitude, and predictions are shown to 28th magnitude for future comparison with data from the Space Telescope. The results supersede earlier, more schematic models by the author. Tyson and Jarvis found in their counts a ''local'' density enhancement at 17th magnitude, on comparison with the earlier models; the excess is no longer significant when a more realistic mixture of galaxy colors is used. Bruzual and Kron's conclusion that Kron's counts show evidence for evolution at faint magnitudes is confirmed, and it is predicted that some 23d magnitude galaxies have redshifts greater than unity. These may include spheroidal systems, elliptical galaxies, and the bulges of early-type spirals and S0's, seen during their primeval rapid star formation

203

Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting  

Science.gov (United States)

An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a .sup.3 He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output ) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

Swansen, James E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01

204

Biogeochemical controls on the bacterial population in the eastern Atlantic Ocean  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Little is known about bacterial dynamics in the oligotrophic ocean, particularly about its cultivable population. We examined the abundance of total and cultivable bacteria in relation to changes in biogeochemical conditions in the eastern Atlantic Ocean with special regard to Vibrio spp., a group of bacteria that can cause diseases in human and aquatic organisms. Surface, deep water and plankton samples (<20 ?m, 20–55 ?m and >55 ?m were collected between 50° N and 24° S. Chlorophyll-a was very low (<0.3 ?g l?1 in most areas of the nutrient-poor Atlantic, except at a few locations near upwelling regions. In surface water, dissolved organic carbon (DOC and nitrogen (DON concentrations were 64–95 ?M C and 2–10 ?M N accounting for ?90 % and ?76 % of total organic C and N, respectively. DOC and DON gradually decreased to ~45 ?M C and <5 ?M N in the bottom water while dissolved inorganic nutrients (Si, P, N increased with depth. In the surface layer, culture independent total bacteria, represented by 4´-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI counts, ranged mostly between 107 and 108 cells l?1, while cultivable bacterial counts (CBC and Vibrio spp. were found at concentrations of 104–107 and 102–105 colony forming units (CFU l?1, respectively. Most bacteria (>99 % were found in the nanoplankton fraction (<20 ?m, however, bacterial abundance did not correlate with suspended particulates (chlorophyll-a, particulate organic C and N. Instead, we found a highly significant correlation between bacterial abundance and temperature (p < 0.001 and a significant correlation with DOC and DON. Among the cultivable bacteria, the abundance of Vibrio was also highly significantly correlated with DOC and DON (p < 0.0005 and p < 0.005, respectively. In cold waters of the mid-pelagic and abyssal zones, CBC was 50 to 100-times lower than in the surface layer; however, cultivable Vibrio spp. could be isolated from the bathypelagic zone and even near the seafloor (average ~10 CFU l?1. In contrast, DAPI counts revealed a homogenous distribution of the non-cultivable bacterial population throughout the oceanic depths. Our study indicates that Vibrio and other bacteria may largely depend on dissolved organic matter to survive in nutrient-poor oceanic habitats, without being associated with plankton or particles.

S. B. Neogi

2011-08-01

205

Surface Bacterial-Spore Assay Using Tb3+/DPA Luminescence  

Science.gov (United States)

Equipment and a method for rapidly assaying solid surfaces for contamination by bacterial spores are undergoing development. The method would yield a total (nonviable plus viable) spore count of a surface within minutes and a viable-spore count in about one hour. In this method, spores would be collected from a surface by use of a transparent polymeric tape coated on one side with a polymeric adhesive that would be permeated with one or more reagent(s) for detection of spores by use of visible luminescence. The sticky side of the tape would be pressed against a surface to be assayed, then the tape with captured spores would be placed in a reader that illuminates the sample with ultraviolet light and counts the green luminescence spots under a microscope to quantify the number of bacterial spores per unit area. The visible luminescence spots seen through the microscope would be counted to determine the concentration of spores on the surface. This method is based on the chemical and physical principles of methods described in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, including Live/Dead Spore Assay Using DPA-Triggered Tb Luminescence (NPO-30444), Vol. 27, No. 3 (March 2003), page 7a. To recapitulate: The basic idea is to exploit the observations that (1) dipicolinic acid (DPA) is present naturally only in bacterial spores; and (2) when bound to Tb3+ ions, DPA triggers intense green luminescence of the ions under ultraviolet excitation; (3) DPA can be released from the viable spores by using L-alanine to make them germinate; and (4) by autoclaving, microwaving, or sonicating the sample, one can cause all the spores (non-viable as well as viable) to release their DPA. One candidate material for use as the adhesive in the present method is polydimethysiloxane (PDMS). In one variant of the method for obtaining counts of all (viable and nonviable) spores the PDMS would be doped with TbCl3. After collection of a sample, the spores immobilized on the sticky tape surface would be lysed by heating or microwaving to release their DPA. Tb3+ ions from the TbCl3 would become bound to the released DPA. The tape would then be irradiated with ultraviolet and examined as described above. In another variant of the method - for obtaining counts of viable spores only - the PDMS would be doped with L-alanine in addition to TbCl3. As now envisioned, a fully developed apparatus for implementing this method would include a pulsed source of ultraviolet light and a time-gated electronic camera to record the images seen through the microscope during a prescribed exposure interval at a prescribed short time after an ultraviolet pulse. As in the method of the second-mentioned prior article, the pulsing and time-gating would be used to discriminate between the longer-lived Tb3+/DPA luminescence and the shorter-lived background luminescence in the same wavelength range. In a time-gated image, the bright luminescence from bacterial spores could easily be seen against a dark background.

Ponce, Adrian

2007-01-01

206

Bacterial Ecology  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bacterial ecology is concerned with the interactions between bacteria and their biological and nonbiological environments and with the role of bacteria in biogeochemical element cycling. Many fundamental properties of bacteria are consequences of their small size. Thus, they can efficiently exploit very dilute solutions of organic matter and their potential growth rates are very high. Bacteria do not have a cytoskeleton and they are covered by a rigid cells wall. Therefore they can only take up dissolved low-molecular-weight compounds from their surroundings; when bacteria exploit polymeric compounds these must first be undergo extracellular hydrolysis. Bacteria have a great diversity with respect to types of metabolism that far exceeds the metabolic repertoire of eukaryotic organisms. Bacteria play a fundamental role in the biosphere and certain key processes such as, for example, the production and oxidation of methane, nitrate reduction and fixation of atmospheric nitrogen are exclusively carried out by different groups of bacteria. Some bacterial species – ‘extremophiles’ – thrive in extreme environments in which no eukaryotic organisms can survive with respect to temperature, salinity or pH. Key Concepts:Key Concepts: * Fundamental properties of bacteria are related to their small size and lack of cytoskeleton. * Bacteria display a great diversity in types of metabolism. * Bacteria play a key role in the biosphere in terms of transfer of matter and energy. * A number of fundamental biogeochemical processes are carried exclusively by bacteria. * Bacteria play an important role in all types of habitats including some that cannot support eukaryotic life.

Fenchel, Tom

2011-01-01

207

Rainflow counting revisited  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As state of the art method the rainflow counting technique is presently applied everywhere in fatigue analysis. However, the author feels that the potential of the technique is not fully recognized in wind energy industries as it is used, most of the times, as a mere data reduction technique disregarding some of the inherent information of the rainflow counting results. The ideas described in the following aim at exploitation of this information and making it available for use in the design and verification process. (au)

Soeker, H. [Deutsches Windenergie-Institut (Germany)

1996-09-01

208

Computerized radioautographic grain counting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, radiolabeling techniques have become fundamental assays in physiology and biochemistry experiments. They also have assumed increasingly important roles in morphologic studies. Characteristically, radioautographic analysis of structure has been qualitative rather than quantitative, however, microcomputers have opened the door to several methods for quantifying grain counts and density. The overall goal of this chapter is to describe grain counting using the Bioquant, an image analysis package based originally on the Apple II+, and now available for several popular microcomputers. The authors discuss their image analysis procedures by applying them to a study of development in the central nervous system

209

The Kruskal Count  

CERN Document Server

The Kruskal Count is a card trick invented by Martin J. Kruskal in which a magician "guesses" a card selected by a subject according to a certain counting procedure. With high probability the magician can correctly "guess" the card. The success of the trick is based on a mathematical principle related to coupling methods for Markov chains. This paper analyzes in detail two simplified variants of the trick and estimates the probability of success. The model predictions are compared with simulation data for several variants of the actual trick.

Lagarias, J C; Vanderbei, R J; Lagarias, Jeffrey C.; Rains, Eric; Vanderbei, Robert J.

2001-01-01

210

Desulfovibrio bacterial species are increased in ulcerative colitis.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

BACKGROUND: Debate persists regarding the role of Desulfovibrio subspecies in ulcerative colitis. Combined microscopic and molecular techniques enable this issue to be investigated by allowing precise enumeration of specific bacterial species within the colonic mucous gel. The aim of this study was to combine laser capture microdissection and quantitative polymerase chain reaction to determine Desulfovibrio copy number in crypt-associated mucous gel in health and in acute and chronic ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Colonic mucosal biopsies were harvested from healthy controls (n = 19) and patients with acute (n = 10) or chronic (n = 10) ulcerative colitis. Crypt-associated mucous gel was obtained by laser capture microdissection throughout the colon. Pan-bacterial 16S rRNA and Desulfovibrio copy number\\/mm were obtained by polymerase chain reaction at each locus. Bacterial copy numbers were interrogated for correlation with location and disease activity. Data were evaluated using a combination of ordinary linear methods and linear mixed-effects models to cater for multiple interactions. RESULTS: Desulfovibrio positivity was significantly increased in acute and chronic ulcerative colitis at multiple levels within the colon, and after normalization with total bacterial signal, the relative Desulfovibrio load was increased in acute colitis compared with controls. Desulfovibrio counts did not significantly correlate with age, disease duration, or disease activity but interlevel correlations were found in adjacent colonic segments in the healthy control and chronic ulcerative colitis groups. CONCLUSION: The presence of Desulfovibrio subspecies is increased in ulcerative colitis and the data presented suggest that these bacteria represent an increased percentage of the colonic microbiome in acute ulcerative colitis.

Rowan, Fiachra

2012-02-01

211

Isolation, Characterization and Application of Bacterial Population From Agricultural Soil at Sohag Province, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Forty soil samples of agriculture soil were collected from two different sites in Sohag province, Egypt, during hot and cold seasons. Twenty samples were from soil irrigated with canal water (site A and twenty samples were from soil irrigated with wastewater (site B. This study aimed to compare the incidence of plasmids in bacteria isolated from soil and to investigate the occurrence of metal and antibiotic resistance bacteria, and consequently to select the potential application of these bacteria in bioremediation. The total bacterial count (CFU/gm in site (B was higher than that in site (A. Moreover, the CFU values in summer were higher than those values in winter at both sites. A total of 771 bacterial isolates were characterized as Bacillus, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Eschershia, Shigella, Xanthomonas, Acetobacter, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Moraxella and Methylococcus. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of Pb+2, Cu+2, Zn+2, Hg+2, Co+2, Cd+2, Cr+3, Te+2, As+2 and Ni+2 for plasmid-possessed bacteria were determined and the highest MICs were 1200 µg/mL for lead, 800 µg/mL for both Cobalt and Arsenate, 1200 µg/mL for Nickel, 1000 µg/ml for Copper and less than 600 µg/mL for other metals. Bacterial isolates from both sites A and B showed multiple heavy metal resistance. A total of 337 bacterial isolates contained plasmids and the incidence of plasmids was approximately 25-50% higher in bacteria isolated from site (B than that from site (A. These isolates were resistance to different antibiotics. Approximately, 61% of the bacterial isolates were able to assimilate insecticide, carbaryl, as a sole source of carbon and energy. However, the Citrobacter AA101 showed the best growth on carbaryl.

Bahig, A. E.

2008-01-01

212

Effect of gamma radiation and different packings used for storage of the drug bahera fruit (terminalia bellerica roxb) on microflora population (fungi, pathogenic bacterial sp & spc) and on the phytoconstituents (protein and tannin).  

Science.gov (United States)

The sample was collected from their natural habital (Shivalik of Hardwar). Four type of packings were used for storage. These included polythene, cloth, paper and gunny bag. Unpacked sample was used as control. The study was conducted for a period of 24 months (Jan 1990 to Dec 1991). Te drug sample s subjected to the following study.Periodical changes in the microflora population (Fungi, Total Bacterial count (spc) and Pathogenic bacterial species) and on the important phyto constituents (Protein & Tannin of the drug collected from shivalik of Hardwar) during storage under the effect of gamma radiation and different packings (cloth, paper, polythene and Gunny Bag) used. PMID:22556894

Sinh, M; Sharma, R K

1999-01-01

213

Bulk tank milk somatic cell count as an indicator of the hygiene status of primary milk production.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective was to clarify the association between bulk tank milk somatic cell count (BTSCC) and total bacterial count (BTTBC) and coliform bacteria count (BTCBC) in a large set of data based on the currently accepted legal limit of BTSCC=400,000/ml. We analysed the database obtained from one of four laboratories offering routine estimation of microbiological indicators and counts of somatic cells in bulk tank milk samples in the Czech Republic during the year 2003 (74,174; 73,921 and 33,020 records of BTSCC, BTTBC and BTCBC estimations, respectively, in milk from 2,769 suppliers). Raw data of BTSCC (with arithmetic mean 220,000/ml; 95th percentile=502,000/ml; 99th percentile=784,000/ml) indicated that the BTSCC limit was exceeded in 12% of samples. BTSCC did not sufficiently reflect the hygiene status of particular producing herds because correlation coefficients between bulk tank milk somatic cell score (BTSCS) and log BTTBC or log BTCBC were low. Categorization of herds according to the percentage of records exceeding the BTSCC limit gave significantly higher correlation coefficients for the association between this characteristic and log BTTBC or log BTCBC (r=0.84 and r=0.68, respectively). The percentage of records exceeding the BTSCC limit was a useful tool to highlight problem herds kept in inadequate hygienic conditions in primary milk production. Likewise, the value of BTSCS>5 seemed to be a useful tool for the discrimination of problem herds. PMID:16223454

Rysanek, Dusan; Babak, Vladimir

2005-11-01

214

Fragments of approximate counting.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 79, ?. 2 (2014), s. 496-525. ISSN 0022-4812 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA100190902 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : approximate counting * bounded arithmetic * ordering principle Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.467, year: 2013 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=9287274&fileId=S0022481213000376

Buss, S.R.; Kolodziejczyk, L.. A.; Thapen, Neil

2014-01-01

215

Radiation intensity counting system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method is described of excluding the natural dead time of the radiation detector (or eg Geiger-Mueller counter) in a ratemeter counting circuit, thus eliminating the need for dead time corrections. Using a pulse generator an artificial dead time is introduced which is longer than the natural dead time of the detector. (U.K.)

216

Counting on Frank  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, based on the picture book "Counting on Frank" by Rod Clement, students explore and compare the volume of different containers using standard and non-standard units of measure. Through this activity students develop an understanding of why standard units may be preferable to non-standard units. The activity includes a suggested lesson sequence with guide questions throughout.

2010-01-01

217

Fingerprint Ridge Count: A Polygenic Trait Useful in Classroom Instruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the use of the polygenic trait of total fingerprint ridge count in the classroom as a laboratory investigation. Presents information on background of topic, fingerprint patterns which are classified into three major groups, ridge count, the inheritance model, and activities. Includes an example data sheet format for fingerprints. (RT)

Mendenhall, Gordon; And Others

1989-01-01

218

Petrifilm plates for enumeration of bacteria counts in goat milk  

Science.gov (United States)

PetrifilmTM Aerobic Count (AC) and Coliform Count (CC) plates were validated against standard methods for enumeration of coliforms, total bacteria, and psychrotrophic bacteria in raw (n = 39) and pasteurized goat milk (n = 17) samples. All microbiological data were transformed into log form and sta...

219

The 'windowless' approach to scintillation counting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Multichannel analyser (MCA) relative pulse height spectra were used to monitor linear and logarithmic output liquid scintillation counters. Spectra for radiocarbon dating reference standards, known age samples and background were recorded. The counters tested were optimized for low-level sup(14)C counting. Their high voltage (EHT) was reduced, the phototubes were masked and the limited counting efficiency windows (65-80 percent) were set at balance point. The total count from the conventionally set window as well as the 1000 (0-250 KeV) channel relative pulse height spectrum was recorded. Spectral analysis could be carried out for the total 0-1 MeV energy range or within the counter set lower and upper limit window discriminators. This enables (i) MCA and set window computations to be compared, (ii) counter windows to be checked or optimized, (iii) merit of computations based on total spectral information to be evaluated and (iv) merit of linear or logarithmic data presentation to be evaluted. It will be shown that pulse height spectra analysis based on WINDOWLESS data acquisition is superior in all aspects to the conventional set window mode of data analysis. Full energy spectra information allows speedy recognition of: non-Poisson (non-random) events, quenching, radioactive impurities, counter instability and, especially for low-level counting, evaluation of long term spectral stability. Applied to radiocarbon dating it allows computations of minimal errorsws computations of minimal errors

220

Response Of Mice Tissues To Intranasal Bacterial Lysate Vaccination: Immunohistopathological Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effective protection against pathogenic bacteria requires both mucosal and systemic immune responses. Intranasal administration of antigens induces these responses. The protective effect of intranasal immunization with different formalin-inactivated bacterial lysates in albino mice was evaluated. This study used formalin inactivated lysate of each of the following Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas aeroginosa ,Salmonella typhi , Shigella flexeneri , Staphylococcus aureus , Bacillus subtilis and mixed bacterial lysates. The lysate was administered intranasally (5µl/ nostril once daily for seven consecutive days. The results of this study recorded some changes in peripheral blood total and differential leucocytic counts , peritoneal fluid and bone marrow lymphocytic percentages . Spleen and thymus weight changes were reported under the effect of Salmonella typhi lysate, Shigella flexeneri lysate and Staph. aureus lysate. The level of immunoglobulin G (Ig G was assessed in serum, bronchial lavage and nasal bed harvest. The levels of Ig G were significantly elevated in the three determinants, suggesting an efficient immunostimulatory effect of bacterial lysates. Some of these levels were exceeding 2-3 folds of that of the control group. Histopathological studies recorded changes in some reticuloendothelial system organs including the liver, spleen and thymus gland, besides, some changes were also observed in the lung and bronchi under the effect of intranasal vaccination. This study supports the immunoprotective effect of intranasal vaccination, using bacterial lysates.

Hanaa A. Mansour

2005-03-01

221

Maternal behaviour and socio-economic influences on the bacterial content of infant weaning foods in rural northern Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

The bacterial contamination of infant weaning foods was examined in the context of a longitudinal study of lactation and infant growth, the Chiang Mai Lactation Study. Sixty-two mother-infant pairs were selected by random sampling from a rural area outside the city of Chiang Mai and studied for 48 hours in their homes on six occasions over the first year of life. Data on food hygiene practices and maternal factors were related to the total bacterial count per gram and coliform content of weaning foods. Bottle feeding, premastication, and mashing were significantly related to an increased bacterial content of weaning foods, while boiling foods to make soups, preparing in and feeding from a banana leaf, and using boiled water to prepare foods all reduced their bacterial content. Storage also increased the bacterial contamination in foods and foods were more highly contaminated in the rainy season. Maternal age and education were also related to some feeding practices. By promoting the feeding of traditional, but less contaminated weaning foods, an intervention is put forward which would aim to reduce weaning food contamination and thereby reduce incidence of diarrhoea in this area of Northern Thailand. PMID:7563277

Imong, S M; Jackson, D A; Rungruengthanakit, K; Wongsawasdii, L; Amatayakul, K; Drewett, R F; Baum, J D

1995-08-01

222

Whole body counting of radon daughters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on five adult males that were exposed for one hour to radon and radon daughter products in an exposure chamber and subsequently measured for radon daughter product activity in the chest region by whole body counting methods. The gamma-ray detection rate was approximated by a single exponential with a 35 minute half period, consistent with the physical decay of a mixture of RaB and RaC. About half of the deposited activity was associated with internal deposition and half with external deposition on clothing, skin and hair. The average counting rate from radon daughters on clothing was 10 times the average from skin and hair. Under as well as outer clothing contributed substantially to the counting rate. A strong correlation was found between internal and external deposition indicating that total activity provides a useful index of internal deposition

223

Counting nilpotent Galois extensions  

CERN Document Server

We obtain strong information on the asymptotic behaviour of the counting function for nilpotent Galois extensions with bounded discriminant of arbitrary number fields. This extends previous investigations for the case of abelian groups. In particular, the result confirms a conjecture by the second author on this function for arbitrary groups in the nilpotent case. We further prove compatibility of the conjecture with taking wreath products with the cyclic group of order 2 and give examples in degree up to 8.

Klueners, J; Klueners, Juergen; Malle, Gunter

2001-01-01

224

Counting Flux Vacua  

OpenAIRE

We develop a technique for computing expected numbers of vacua in Gaussian ensembles of supergravity theories, and apply it to derive an asymptotic formula for the index counting all flux supersymmetric vacua with signs in Calabi-Yau compactification of type IIb string theory, which becomes exact in the limit of a large number of fluxes. This should give a reasonable estimate for actual numbers of vacua in string theory, for CY's with small b_3.

Ashok, Sujay; Douglas, Michael R.

2003-01-01

225

Counting Flux Vacua  

CERN Document Server

We develop a technique for computing expected numbers of vacua in Gaussian ensembles of supergravity theories, and apply it to derive an estimate for the index counting all flux supersymmetric vacua with signs in Calabi-Yau compactification of type IIb string theory, which becomes exact in the limit of a large number of fluxes. This should give a reasonable estimate for actual numbers of vacua in string theory, for CY's with small b_3.

Ashok, S; Ashok, Sujay; Douglas, Michael R.

2004-01-01

226

BACTERIAL PLASMIDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plasmids, extrachromosomal DNA, were identified in bacteria pertaining to family of Enterobacteriacae for the very first time. After that, they were discovered in almost every single observed strain. The structure of plasmids is made of circular double chain DNA molecules which are replicated autonomously in a host cell. Their length may vary from few up to several hundred kilobase (kb. Among the bacteria, plasmids are mostly transferred horizontally by conjugation process. Plasmid replication process can be divided into three stages: initiation, elongation, and termination. The process involves DNA helicase I, DNA gyrase, DNA polymerase III, endonuclease, and ligase.Plasmids contain genes essential for plasmid function and their preservation in a host cell (the beginning and the control of replication. Some of them possess genes whichcontrol plasmid stability. There is a common opinion that plasmids are unnecessary fora growth of bacterial population and their vital functions; thus, in many cases they can be taken up or kicked out with no lethal effects to a plasmid host cell. However,there are numerous biological functions of bacteria related to plasmids. Plasmids identification and classification are based upon their genetic features which are presented permanently in all of them, and these are: abilities to preserve themselves in a host cell and to control a replication process. In this way, plasmids classification among incompatibility groups is performed. The method of replicon typing, which is based on genotype and not on phenotype characteristics, has the same results as in compatibility grouping.

Marina Dinic

2007-12-01

227

The right to count does not always count  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The best prescription against illness is learning to read and to count. People who are unable to count have a harder time learning to read. People who have difficulty counting make poorer decisions, are less able to combine information and are less likely to have a strategy for life

Sodemann, Morten

228

Seasonal variability in airborne bacterial communities at a high elevation site and their relationship to other air studies and to potential sources  

Science.gov (United States)

Airborne bacteria are a large component of the near-surface atmospheric aerosol; however we know surprisingly little about their spatiotemporal dynamics and even less about their distributions at high-elevation. With this work, we describe seasonal shifts in bacterial abundances, total particle abundances, and bacterial community structure at a high-elevation research station located in Colorado, USA. In addition, we describe the unique composition of these high-elevation airborne bacterial communities as compared to the bacteria commonly observed throughout the lower elevation atmosphere as well as bacteria common to major sources such as leaf surfaces, soils, water bodies and various other surfaces. To address these knowledge gaps, we collected aerosol samples on the rooftop of Storm Peak Laboratory (3200 m ASL) over the course of 2-3 week periods during each of the four calendar seasons. Total bacterial abundances were assessed via flow cytometry, total particle abundances were calculated with an aerodynamic particle sizer, and bacterial communities were characterized using a high-throughput barcoded DNA sequencing approach. The airborne bacterial communities at Storm Peak Lab were then used in a meta-analysis comparing Storm Peak bacteria to other near-surface (lower elevation) bacterial communities and to the communities of likely source environments. Bacterial abundances varied by season, which was similar but not identical to the changes in total particle abundances across the same sampling period. Airborne bacterial community structure varied significantly by season, with the summer communities being the most distinct. Season specific bacterial groups were identified, suggesting that a large proportion of the airborne community may be derived from nearby sources. However following a multi-environment meta-analysis using several air and source derived bacterial community datasets, the high-elevation air communities were the most distinct as compared to the other airborne communities used in the analysis. Furthermore, a very low proportion of the Storm Peak airborne community could be explained by the source environments used in the meta-analysis, suggesting a unique airborne community at high-elevation. High-alpine bacterial communities appear to make up a large fraction of the total atmospheric aerosol, however the different seasonal patterns between bacterial counts and total particle counts suggest that distinct factors control the quantities of different particles making it into the atmosphere. Furthermore, the characteristics of local terrestrial sources that undergo seasonal cycles seem to have a large influence on the airborne communities, but these sources could not explain the occurrence of all airborne bacterial taxa. As airborne bacteria are more commonly being recognized as a ubiquitous component of the atmosphere, a better understanding of their temporal dynamics in the high-alpine environment may give us insight into their many potential roles in atmospheric dynamics, free troposphere atmospheric dispersal patterns, and their role in human and environmental health.

Bowers, R. M.; Mccubbin, I. B.; Hallar, A. G.; Fierer, N.

2012-12-01

229

Total-Count Calibration Blocks for use in uranium Exploration  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Transportable calibration blocks for field scintillometers and borehole probes were manufactured from concrete and installed at calibration sites in Denmark and Greece. The concrete mixes were prepared from aggregates of quartz sand and crushed uranium-thorium ore. Hater-reducing agents and silica dust added to the cement paste produced concretes of acceptable porosity and pore structure. The content of ore was adjusted to provide block grades of approximately 2, 140, and 540 units of radioelement concentration (Ur). Thorium was estimated to contribute 0.39 ± 0.02 Ur per ppm Th. The adopted reference grades include concrete pore moisture and are normalized to an effective atomic number of 13. Grade instability due to radon emanation was not detected.

LØvborg, Leif

1983-01-01

230

Total-count calibration blocks for use in uranium exploration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transportable calibration blocks for field scintillometers and borehole probes were manufactured from concrete and installed at calibration sites in Denmark and Greece. The concrete mixes were prepared from aggregates of quartz sand and crushed uranium-thorium ore. Water-reducing agents and silica dust added to the cement paste produced concretes of acceptable porosity and pore structure. The content of ore was adjusted to provide block grades of approximately 2, 140, and 540 units of radioelement concentration (Ur). Thorium was estimated to contribute 0.39 +- 0.02 Ur per ppm Th. The adopted reference grades include concrete pore moisture and are normalized to an effective atomic number of 13. Grade instability due to radon emanation was not detected. (author)

231

Dot-blot hybridization: quantitative analysis with direct beta counting.  

Science.gov (United States)

The suitability of using direct beta counting (DBC) for quantitating radioactivity of the probe:target complex in dot-blot hybridization was evaluated using a Packard Matrix 96. A comparison of blots analyzed using autoradiography followed by densitometry scanning (film/densitometry) with those analyzed using direct beta counting revealed similar data trends with the two methods. However, direct beta counting quantitated the amount of radioactivity in the dot blots directly (without film exposure or additional sample preparation), which significantly reduced the time required to obtain results. Blots analyzed first with direct beta counting and then liquid scintillation counting exhibited similar data trends with both methods. Despite a decreased counting efficiency, analysis with direct beta counting has the following advantages compared with liquid scintillation counting: 1) no additional sample preparation is required (no vials or cocktail are used), 2) no sample destruction occurs due to analysis and 3) quantitative results are obtained more rapidly (since the radioactivity for all 96 samples in a dot blot is simultaneously determined in real time). Analysis with direct beta counting was also shown not to interfere with the successful reprobing of stripped dot blots with either unique sequence or total genomic probes. Overall, direct beta counting provides quick, quantitative results for dot blots while saving considerable time and effort. PMID:1793587

Sognier, M A; Neft, R E; Roe, A L; Eberle, R L; Belli, J A

1991-10-01

232

Bacterial tyrosinases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tyrosinases are nearly ubiquitously distributed in all domains of life. They are essential for pigmentation and are important factors in wound healing and primary immune response. Their active site is characterized by a pair of antiferromagnetically coupled copper ions, CuA and CuB, which are coordinated by six histidine residues. Such a "type 3 copper centre" is the common feature of tyrosinases, catecholoxidases and haemocycanins. It is also one of several other copper types found in the multi-copper oxidases (ascorbate oxidase, laccase). The copper pair of tyrosinases binds one molecule of atmospheric oxygen to catalyse two different kinds of enzymatic reactions: (1) the ortho-hydroxylation of monophenols (cresolase activity) and (2) the oxidation of o-diphenols to o-diquinones (catecholase activity). The best-known function is the formation of melanins from L-tyrosine via L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa). The complicated hydroxylation mechanism at the active centre is still not completely understood, because nothing is known about their tertiary structure. One main reason for this deficit is that hitherto tyrosinases from eukaryotic sources could not be isolated in sufficient quantities and purities for detailed structural studies. This is not the case for prokaryotic tyrosinases from different Streptomyces species, having been intensively characterized genetically and spectroscopically for decades. The Streptomyces tyrosinases are non-modified monomeric proteins with a low molecular mass of ca. 30kDa. They are secreted to the surrounding medium, where they are involved in extracellular melanin production. In the species Streptomyces, the tyrosinase gene is part of the melC operon. Next to the tyrosinase gene (melC2), this operon contains an additional ORF called melC1, which is essential for the correct expression of the enzyme. This review summarizes the present knowledge of bacterial tyrosinases, which are promising models in order to get more insights in structure, enzymatic reactions and functions of "type 3 copper" proteins in general. PMID:16423650

Claus, Harald; Decker, Heinz

2006-01-01

233

Cerenkov counting technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review is presented on the progress made in the Cerenkov counting technique. History, theory, and applications have shown that this technique is simple, easy, and can be used for the determination of low levels of radionuclides with a low background liquid scintillation counter. It has been applied to the measurement of radioactive biological tracers, fission products (90Sr, 89Sr) and natural radionuclides (222Rn, 226Ra, 224Ra, 210Pb, 224Th, 228Th, 238U) in various types of samples. Advantages and disadvantages of this technique are summarized. (author). 41 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

234

Bacterial Enhancement of Vinyl Fouling by Algae  

OpenAIRE

The role of bacteria in the development of algae on low-density vinyl was investigated. Unidentified bacterial contaminants in unialgal stock cultures of Phormidium faveolarum and Pleurochloris pyrenoidosa enhanced, by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude, colonization of vinyl by these algae, as determined by epifluorescence microscopy counts and chlorophyll a in extracts of colonized vinyl. Colonization by bacteria always preceded that by algae. Scanning electron microscopy of the colonized Phormidiu...

Holmes, Paul E.

1986-01-01

235

EFFECT OF GRADE -III EXERCISE ON TOTAL LEUCOCYTE COUNT AND DIFFERENTIAL LEUCOCYTE COUNT  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: Exercise is a type of physical activity and is defined as a planned. Structured and repetitive bodily movement done to improve and to maintain physical fitness .exercise stress releases some amount of adrenaline from adrenal medulla. Adrenaline brings about a beta receptor mediated vasodilatation in skeletal muscles which may contribute to the anticipatory vasodilatation in the blood vassals, and increased blood flow is seen during and for a short while after the exercise. Due t...

Amrutha.K,; Dr. Desai J.M,; Annepaka Eliya Raju,; Jhansi.K.

2014-01-01

236

Counting RG flows  

CERN Document Server

Interpreting renormalization group flows as solitons interpolating between different fixed points, we ask various questions that are normally asked in soliton physics but not in renormalization theory. Can one count RG flows? Are there different "topological sectors" for RG flows? What is the moduli space of an RG flow, and how does it compare to familiar moduli spaces of (supersymmetric) dowain walls? Analyzing these questions in a wide variety of contexts --- from counting RG walls to AdS/CFT correspondence --- will not only provide favorable answers, but will also lead us to a unified general framework that is powerful enough to account for peculiar RG flows and predict new physical phenomena. Namely, using Bott's version of Morse theory we relate the topology of conformal manifolds to certain properties of RG flows that can be used as precise diagnostics and "topological obstructions" for the strong form of the C-theorem in any dimension. Moreover, this framework suggests a precise mechanism for how the v...

Gukov, Sergei

2015-01-01

237

Do your syringes count?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: This study was designed to investigate anecdotal evidence that residual Sestamibi (MIBI) activity vaned in certain situations. For rest studies different brands of syringes were tested to see if the residuals varied. The period of time MIBI doses remained in the syringe between dispensing and injection was also considered as a possible source of increased residual counts. Stress Mibi syringe residual activities were measured to assess if the method of stress test affected residual activity. MIBI was reconstituted using 13 Gbq of Technetium in 3mls of normal saline then boiled for 10 minutes. Doses were dispensed according to department protocol and injected via cannula. Residual syringes were collected for three syringe types. In each case the barrel and plunger were measured separately. As the syringe is flushed during the exercise stress test and not the pharmacological stress test the chosen method was recorded. No relationship was demonstrated between the time MIBI remained in a syringe prior to injection and residual activity. Residual activity was not affected by method of stress test used. Actual injected activity can be calculated if the amount of activity remaining in the syringe post injection is known. Imaging time can be adjusted for residual activity to optimise count statistics. Preliminary results in this study indicate there is no difference in residual activity between syringe brands.Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society o) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

238

Determination of Contamination Profiles of Human Bacterial Pathogens in Shrimp Obtained from Java, Indonesia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shrimp continues to be an important export commodity for Indonesia and contributed significantly to the country’s revenue. However, shrimp exports have been frequently rejected by importing countries due to filth, Salmonella and insanitary conditions. This study was conducted to evaluate the profiles of bacterial contamination of ocean and aquaculture shrimp obtained from the area of West, Central and East Java; frozen shrimp and shrimp during industry production of frozen shrimp. The study indicated that both ocean and aquaculture shrimp obtained from the study area were heavily contaminated. On the average, shrimp obtained from West Java were more contaminated than those obtained from East and Central Java. The total bacterial counts were generally higher in ocean shrimp than those of aquaculture ones. Salmonella was present in two of 32 samples of ocean shrimp and in four of 32 samples of aquaculture shrimp obtained from the study area. Vibrio cholerae was not detected in shrimp from West Java, but was found in three out of 16 samples obtained from East and Central Java. V. parahaemolyticus was frequently identified in aquaculture shrimp but absent in fresh ocean shrimp. Studies on shrimp collected from six sampling points during frozen shrimp production revealed that processing will reduce the number of total bacterial, E. coli, and Staphylococal counts. However, the processing did not effectively reduce the incidence of Salmonella or V. parahaemolyticus when the raw material has been contaminated with the pathogens. Sizing and grading as well as arrangement of shrimp before freezing were considered as the critical points where bacteria should be controlled to inhibit growth and cross contamination with bacteria such as Listeria. Implementation of Good Agricultural Practices in production of raw shrimp as well as Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point at the line processing are expected to improve the quality of fresh and frozen shrimp. (author)

239

Sediment bacterial indicators in an urban shellfishing subestuary of the lower Chesapeake Bay.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this study were to document the spatial and temporal distributions and compositions of bacteria in the sediments and overlying waters of an important urban shellfishing area in the lower Chesapeake Bay region, the Lynnhaven Estuary. Marked fluctuations were observed in the date of many of the physicochemical parameters and the indicator bacteria. The higher-salinity water and coarser sediment of the inlet site showed lower overall bacterial densities than did the headwater sites, where freshwater runoff and decreased tidal action were characteristic. Densities of benthic indicator bacteria, when expressed on a volumetric basis, were significantly greater than counts in the overlying waters. These counts were indicative of a fecally polluted system and were well above the safe maximum limits for shellfish-growing waters. Significantly fewer total and fecal bacteria were observed in both the water and the sediment during the warm months of May, July, and August. The primary sources of the Lynnhaven's bacterial pollution appeared to be typical of urban and agricultural runoff, although failure of septic tank systems was suspected as a problem in the Lynnhaven's western branch. These results illustrated that sediments in shellfishing areas could serve as a reservoir for high densities of indicator bacteria and that, potentially, pathogens could pose a health hazard. PMID:7294785

Erkenbrecher, C W

1981-09-01

240

Intestinal Bacterial Flora that Compete on the Haem Precursor Iron Fumarate in Iron Deficiency Anemia Cases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aims: The study focused on finding if there is any possible relation between the intestinal bacterial population quantitative and qualitative and the deficiency of the most important iron compounds as haem precursors. Methodology and Results: Blood complete picture and stool analyses were done to 750 volunteer cases whom were asked for these analyses by their physicians. Analyses proved that 560 cases representing 75.2 % were anemic as the RBC(s based on counts of the total studied cases of less than 263 x 104 and the haemoglobin amount ranged between 7.2 and 11.3 g/dl, while the remainder 24.8 % of the volunteer sample was not anemic. A high male/female ratio ofanemic cases, 1:27 was also documented. Considering that all the studied stool samples should be completely free from any parasites or any other anemia-related diseases was a priority. Bacteriological analysis of stool samples of the anemic cases resulted in the detection of high counts of total viable bacteria, exceeded 42 x 109 cfu/g, while it was never more than 26 x 106 cfu/g and decreased to 4 x 106 cfu/g in many cases in this study. Identifying of the 361 bacterial isolates, were found to belong to 12 genera and 19 species, 6 of them; Pseudomonas putrefaciens, Micrococcus luteus, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus coagulans , were found and in high counts in the stool samples of only anemic cases. The ability of these isolates to compete for iron compounds such as ferrous fumarate alone or with glucose and phytate as activators or inhibitors to these abilities was investigated. Results proved 11 species out of the 19 identified species are capable to use and compete on ferrous fumarate as a haemprecursor. Sensitivity test for the representatives of the 19 species and 6 of the most commonly used antibiotics in the Egyptian pharmacy, using standard disc method, revealed variable susceptibilities of almost all of them to more than one of the studied antibiotics, except Corynebacterium equatium, which was found very resistant to two antibiotics; colistin sulfate and erythrocin. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The study finally concluded the strong role of intestinal bacterial counts and types as competitors on the haem precursor iron-containing compounds like ferrous fumarate.

Selim, S. A. H.

2012-06-01

241

Cerenkov counting technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review is presented on the progress made in the Cerenkov counting technique. History, theory, and applications have shown that this technique is simple, easy, and can be used for the determination of low levels of radionuclides with a low background liquid scintillation counter. It has been applied to the measurement of radioactive biological tracers, fission products ( sup 9 sup 0 Sr, sup 8 sup 9 Sr) and natural radionuclides ( sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn, sup 2 sup 2 sup 6 Ra, sup 2 sup 2 sup 4 Ra, sup 2 sup 1 sup 0 Pb, sup 2 sup 2 sup 4 Th, sup 2 sup 2 sup 8 Th, sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U) in various types of samples. Advantages and disadvantages of this technique are summarized. (author)

242

Total protein  

Science.gov (United States)

The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes of proteins found in the fluid portion of your blood. These are albumin and globulin. Proteins are important parts of all cells and tissues. ...

243

Bacterial Skin Infections  

Science.gov (United States)

... of Bacterial Skin Infections The skin provides a remarkably good barrier against bacterial infections. Although many bacteria ... especially to the hands and feet, and the high levels of sugar (glucose) in their blood decrease ...

244

Integer sequences counting periodic points  

OpenAIRE

An existing dialogue between number theory and dynamical systems is advanced. A combinatorial device gives necessary and sufficient conditions for a sequence of non-negative integers to count the periodic points in a dynamical system. This is applied to study linear recurrence sequences which count periodic points. Instances where the $p$-parts of an integer sequence themselves count periodic points are studied. The Mersenne sequence provides one example, and the denominator...

Everest, Graham; Puri, Yash; Ward, Thomas

2002-01-01

245

ABC transporters: bacterial exporters.  

OpenAIRE

The ABC transporters (also called traffic ATPases) make up a large superfamily of proteins which share a common function and a common ATP-binding domain. ABC transporters are classified into three major groups: bacterial importers (the periplasmic permeases), eukaryotic transporters, and bacterial exporters. We present a comprehensive review of the bacterial ABC exporter group, which currently includes over 40 systems. The bacterial ABC exporter systems are functionally subdivided on the basi...

Fath, M. J.; Kolter, R.

1993-01-01

246

Counting Books: Make Your Own!  

Science.gov (United States)

On the first night, I saw 5 stars in the desert. On the second night, I saw 10… What do you think I saw on the third night? Combine arts and crafts, literacy, and math by making a counting book. The activity comes with suggestions for what to count by, depending on level of challenge needed. Younger learners can count forward or backward by 1’s; older learners can base their counting books on multiples, fractions, or other number patterns. Available as a web page and downloadable PDF.

2012-06-26

247

Compton suppression gamma-counting: The effect of count rate  

Science.gov (United States)

Past research has shown that anti-coincidence shielded Ge(Li) spectrometers enhanced the signal-to-background ratios for gamma-photopeaks, which are situated on high Compton backgrounds. Ordinarily, an anti- or non-coincidence spectrum (A) and a coincidence spectrum (C) are collected simultaneously with these systems. To be useful in neutron activation analysis (NAA), the fractions of the photopeak counts routed to the two spectra must be constant from sample to sample to variations must be corrected quantitatively. Most Compton suppression counting has been done at low count rate, but in NAA applications, count rates may be much higher. To operate over the wider dynamic range, the effect of count rate on the ratio of the photopeak counts in the two spectra (A/C) was studied. It was found that as the count rate increases, A/C decreases for gammas not coincident with other gammas from the same decay. For gammas coincident with other gammas, A/C increases to a maximum and then decreases. These results suggest that calibration curves are required to correct photopeak areas so quantitative data can be obtained at higher count rates. ?? 1984.

Millard, H.T., Jr.

1984-01-01

248

"Just" Counting: Young Children's Oral Counting and Enumeration  

Science.gov (United States)

This article focuses on the specific skills and abilities of young children in oral counting and enumeration. Responses to an oral counting task and an enumeration task by a sample (n=93) of 3- and 4-year old children attending a range of pre-five establishments in an urban district of northern England are described. The findings, whilst providing…

Threlfall, John; Bruce, Bob

2005-01-01

249

Bacterial pathogen indicators regrowth and reduced sulphur compounds' emissions during storage of electro-dewatered biosolids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electro-dewatering (ED) increases biosolids dryness from 10-15 to 30-50%, which helps wastewater treatment facilities control disposal costs. Previous work showed that high temperatures due to Joule heating during ED inactivate total coliforms to meet USEPA Class A biosolids requirements. This allows biosolids land application if the requirements are still met after the storage period between production and application. In this study, we examined bacterial regrowth and odour emissions during the storage of ED biosolids. No regrowth of total coliforms was observed in ED biosolids over 7d under aerobic or anaerobic incubations. To mimic on-site contamination during storage or transport, ED samples were seeded with untreated sludge. Total coliform counts decreased to detection limits after 4d in inoculated samples. Olfactometric analysis of ED biosolids odours showed that odour concentrations were lower compared to the untreated and heat-treated control biosolids. Furthermore, under anaerobic conditions, odorous reduced sulphur compounds (methanethiol, dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl disulphide) were produced by untreated and heat-treated biosolids, but were not detected in the headspaces above ED samples. The data demonstrate that ED provides advantages not only as a dewatering technique, but also for producing biosolids with lower microbial counts and odour levels. PMID:25065797

Navab-Daneshmand, Tala; Enayet, Samia; Gehr, Ronald; Frigon, Dominic

2014-10-01

250

Gamma radiation effects on bacterial contamination and organoleptic characteristics of frozen Ponaeus Monodon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was the application of irradiation process to decrease bacterial contamination of the penaeus monodon. The shrimp samples were obtained from Hormozgan and were sent to the microbiological laboratory. Bacterial contamination of shrimp were determined by counting the aerobic mesophil bacteria, Staphylococcus areus, Coliforms, Vibrio. parahaemolyticus and Salmonella. The shrimp samples were irradiated at different doses of gamma ray. Finally, the optimum dose of the gamma ray for bacterial decontamination of shrimp, especially of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus, was obtained to be 2 kGy. Also, the chemical factors of irradiated and non-irradiated samples such as Protein, Fat, total volatile Nitrogen, Non Protein Nitrogen, Peroxide Value and Amino Acids were measured. There were not any important difference among them. Also, there were not any significant difference between total volatile Nitrogen and Peroxide Value (P>0.05) for the irradiated and non-irradiated shrimp samples. Study of bacterial contaminations of the irradiated and non irradiated samples after 12 months showed that irradiation by 2 kGy can control the microbial contaminations. Four types of films for packaging: Pet.pe, Pp.pe, Bopp, and Pe.20 were used for storage of the irradiated and non irradiated shrimp samples in-18degreeC during 12 months. All of the packages were studied on the aspects of color, odor, tissue and taste of shrimp samples and elasticity and pressingshrimp samples and elasticity and pressing of packages. For the irradiated and non irradiated shrimp Pet.pe and Pp.pe were preferred, respectively.

251

Heterotrophic plate counts of surface water samples by using impedance methods.  

OpenAIRE

Membrane filtration, spread plating, and pour plating are conventional methods used to determine the heterotrophic plate counts of water samples. Impedance methods were investigated as an alternative to conventional methods, since sample dilution is not required and the bacterial count can be estimated within 24 h. Comparisons of impedance signals obtained with different water samples revealed that capacitance produced faster detection times than conductance. Moreover, the correlation between...

Noble, P. A.; Ashton, E.; Davidson, C. A.; Albritton, W. L.

1991-01-01

252

Platelet Counts and Platelet Activation Markers in Obese Subjects  

OpenAIRE

Objective. In this work we studied the correlation between platelet count, platelet activation, and systemic inflammation in overweight, obese, and morbidly obese individuals. Methods and subjects. A total of 6319 individuals participated in the study. Complete blood counts, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) serum levels, and body mass index (BMI) were measured during routine checkups. Platelet activation markers were studied among 30 obese (BMI = 41 ± 8 kg/m2...

Aaron Tomer; Shlomo Berliner; Itzhak Shapira; Galina Shenkerman; Subchi Abu-Abeid; Nili Saar; Ori Rogowski; Dan Justo; Dorit Samocha-Bonet

2008-01-01

253

Prevention of bacterial adhesion  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Management of bacterial infections is becoming increasingly difficult due to the emergence and increasing prevalence of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to available antibiotics. Conventional antibiotics generally kill bacteria by interfering with vital cellular functions, an approach that imposes selection pressure for resistant bacteria. New approaches are urgently needed. Targeting bacterial virulence functions directly is an attractive alternative. An obvious target is bacterial adhesion. Bacterial adhesion to surfaces is the first step in colonization, invasion, and biofilm formation. As such, adhesion represents the Achilles heel of crucial pathogenic functions. It follows that interference with adhesion can reduce bacterial virulence. Here, we illustrate this important topic with examples of techniques being developed that can inhibit bacterial adhesion. Some of these will become valuable weapons for preventing pathogen contamination and fighting infectious diseases in the future.

Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

2010-01-01

254

Bacterial Cleanability of Various Types of Eating Surfaces.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a study of the capability of commercial dishwashers to remove bacteria from various kinds of service plates. Gives an account of preliminary research on the bacterial cleanability of eating surfaces of different materials by two radiological procedures--(1) radiological count, and (2) autoradiographic measurement. Among the factors…

Ridenour, Gerald M.; Armbruster, E. H.

1953-01-01

255

Hanford whole body counting manual  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document, a reprint of the Whole Body Counting Manual, was compiled to train personnel, document operation procedures, and outline quality assurance procedures. The current manual contains information on: the location, availability, and scope of services of Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the administrative aspect of the whole body counting operation; Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the step-by-step procedure involved in the different types of in vivo measurements; the detectors, preamplifiers and amplifiers, and spectroscopy equipment; the quality assurance aspect of equipment calibration and recordkeeping; data processing, record storage, results verification, report preparation, count summaries, and unit cost accounting; and the topics of minimum detectable amount and measurement accuracy and precision. 12 refs., 13 tabs

256

Oral bacterial DNA findings in pericardial fluid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: We recently reported that large amounts of oral bacterial DNA can be found in thrombus aspirates of myocardial infarction patients. Some case reports describe bacterial findings in pericardial fluid, mostly done with conventional culturing and a few with PCR; in purulent pericarditis, nevertheless, bacterial PCR has not been used as a diagnostic method before. Objective: To find out whether bacterial DNA can be measured in the pericardial fluid and if it correlates with pathologic–anatomic findings linked to cardiovascular diseases. Methods: Twenty-two pericardial aspirates were collected aseptically prior to forensic autopsy at Tampere University Hospital during 2009–2010. Of the autopsies, 10 (45.5% were free of coronary artery disease (CAD, 7 (31.8% had mild and 5 (22.7% had severe CAD. Bacterial DNA amounts were determined using real-time quantitative PCR with specific primers and probes for all bacterial strains associated with endodontic disease (Streptococcus mitis group, Streptococcus anginosus group, Staphylococcus aureus/Staphylococcus epidermidis, Prevotella intermedia, Parvimonas micra and periodontal disease (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatus, and Dialister pneumosintes. Results: Of 22 cases, 14 (63.6% were positive for endodontic and 8 (36.4% for periodontal-disease-associated bacteria. Only one case was positive for bacterial culturing. There was a statistically significant association between the relative amount of bacterial DNA in the pericardial fluid and the severity of CAD (p=0.035. Conclusions: Oral bacterial DNA was detectable in pericardial fluid and an association between the severity of CAD and the total amount of bacterial DNA in pericardial fluid was found, suggesting that this kind of measurement might be useful for clinical purposes.

Anne-Mari Louhelainen

2014-11-01

257

Totally James  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

Owens, Tom

2006-01-01

258

Chromophore-enhanced bacterial photothermolysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of chromophore dyes to enhance the bactericidal effect of laser energy was studied as a means to optimize laser treatment for the decontamination of wound. Using an in vitro study, various concentrations of indocyanine green (ICG), carbon black, and fluorescein were mixed with a suspension of bacteria and plated on tryptic soy agar. Plates were exposed to a laser beam of 10-15 watts for times ranging from 0 to 180 seconds, incubated overnight, and colony counts were performed. Bacteria not mixed with chromophore were used as controls. Six bacterial strains encompassing a range of bacterial types were used: Staphylococcus aureau, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus spore suspensions, and Clostridium perfringens. Laser treatment alone had no effect on any of the bacteria. Significant killing of gram-positive bacteria, including spores of Bacillus cereus, was observed only with the use of ICG and diode laser energy. No effect was observed using any of the chromophores on the gram-negative bacteria. The results of this study indicate that successful killing of gram-positive bacteria can be achieved using ICG combined with appropriate laser energy and wavelength. Efforts to enhance the susceptibility of gram-negative bacteria to photothermolysis by laser energy were unsuccessful.

Huckleby, Jana K.; Morton, Rebecca J.; Bartels, Kenneth E.

1999-06-01

259

Live/Dead Bacterial Spore Assay Using DPA-Triggered Tb Luminescence  

Science.gov (United States)

A method of measuring the fraction of bacterial spores in a sample that remain viable exploits DPA-triggered luminescence of Tb(3+) and is based partly on the same principles as those described earlier. Unlike prior methods for performing such live/dead assays of bacterial spores, this method does not involve counting colonies formed by cultivation (which can take days), or counting of spores under a microscope, and works whether or not bacterial spores are attached to other small particles (i.e., dust), and can be implemented on a time scale of about 20 minutes.

Ponce, Adrian

2003-01-01

260

Bacterial meningitis in Saudi children.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the four years period from 1988 to 1991, 50 pediatric patients were diagnosed to have bacterial meningitis, out of a total number of 9057 pediatric admissions at Qatif Central Hospital, Qatif, Saudi Arabia, and 82% were less than two years of age. The causative organisms were isolated in 27 (54%) patients. The bacteria grown included Haemophilus influenzae type B in 8 patients (29.6%), Neisseria meningitidis in 8 patients (29.6%), Streptococcus pneumonia in 6 (22%) patients, and other bacteria in 5 patients (18.5%). Cerebro spinal fluid cultures from twenty three patients (46%) showed no organisms, however their clinical and C.S.F. findings were compatible with bacterial meningitis. One case of H. influenzae type B was resistant to ampicillin. Six patients died with an over all mortality of 12%, and 10 patients (20%) developed some kind of C.N.S. sequelae. Partially treated meningitis formed a large percentage of our sample. PMID:1340860

Srair, H A; Aman, H; al-Madan, M; al-Khater, M

1992-01-01

261

A mind you can count on: validating breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness  

OpenAIRE

Mindfulness practice of present moment awareness promises many benefits, but has eluded rigorous behavioral measurement. To date, research has relied on self-reported mindfulness or heterogeneous mindfulness trainings to infer skillful mindfulness practice and its effects. In four independent studies with over 400 total participants, we present the first construct validation of a behavioral measure of mindfulness, breath counting. We found it was reliable, correlated with self-reported mindfu...

Levinson, Daniel B.; Stoll, Eli L.; Kindy, Sonam D.; Merry, Hillary L.; Davidson, Richard J.

2014-01-01

262

Relationship between Somatic Cell Counts, Mastitis and Milk Quality in Ettawah Grade and PESA Goats  

OpenAIRE

Mastitis is a bacterial disease that leads to increased somatic cell counts and reduced milk quality in dairy goats. Reduction in quality is manifested through a reduction in fat, protein, lactose content and an increase in milk somatic cell counts and salts content. Thus mastitis affects productivity of animals and hence their economic value. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of somatic cell counts (SCC) and mastitis on milk quality in PE and PESA. On-Farm mastitis tests were ...

Petlane, Molefe; Noor, Ronny Rachman; Maheswari, Rarah Ratih Adjie

2013-01-01

263

Integer sequences counting periodic points  

CERN Document Server

An existing dialogue between number theory and dynamical systems is advanced. A combinatorial device gives necessary and sufficient conditions for a sequence of non-negative integers to count the periodic points in a dynamical system. This is applied to study linear recurrence sequences which count periodic points. Instances where the $p$-parts of an integer sequence themselves count periodic points are studied. The Mersenne sequence provides one example, and the denominators of the Bernoulli numbers provide another. The methods give a dynamical interpretation of many classical congruences such as Euler-Fermat for matrices, and suggest the same for the classical Kummer congruences satisfied by the Bernoulli numbers.

Everest, G; Ward, T; Everest, Graham; Puri, Yash; Ward, Thomas

2002-01-01

264

Evaluation of procalcitonin and neopterin level in serum of patients with acute bacterial infection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fever as a common presenting complaint in pediatric patients can be due to various causes. Differentiating bacterial infection from other causes is important because the prompt use of antibiotics is critical in bacterial infection. Traditional markers of infection such as BT and WBC count may be unspecific and culture may be late or absent. CRP and Procalcitonin (PCT have been considered to evaluate the evolution of infections and sepsis in patients presenting with SIRS. Neopterin has also been proposed to aid in the diagnosis of bacterial infection. In this study, we compared the value of the serum PCT, neopterin level, and WBC count for predicting bacterial infection and outcome in children with fever. METHODS: 158 pediatric (2-120-month-old patients suspected to have acute bacterial infection, based on clinical judgment in which other causes of SIRS were ruled out were included in the study. WBC count with differential was determined and PCT and neopterin levels were measured. RESULTS: PCT level was higher in bacterial infection and patients who were complicated or expired. CONCLUSION: Rapid PCT test is superior to neopterin and WBC count for anticipating bacterial infection, especially in ED where prompt decision making is critical. ABBREVIATIONS: BT, body temperature; WBC, white blood cell; PCT, procalcitonin; CRP, C-reactive protein; SIRS, systemic inflammatory response syndrome; ED, emergency department.

Babak Pourakbari

2010-06-01

265

Faint Submillimter Galaxy Counts at 450 micron  

CERN Document Server

We present the results of SCUBA2 observations at 450 micron and 850 micron of the field lensed by the massive cluster A370. With a total survey area > 100 arcmin2 and 1 sigma sensitivities of 3.92 and 0.82 mJy/beam at 450 and 850 micron respectively, we find a secure sample of 20 sources at 450 micron and 26 sources at 850 micron with a signal-to-noise ratio > 4. Using the latest lensing model of A370 and Monte Carlo simulations, we derive the number counts at both wavelengths. The 450 micron number counts probe a factor of four deeper than the counts recently obtained from the Herschel Space Telescope at similar wavelengths, and we estimate that ~47-61% of the 450 micron extragalactic background light (EBL) resolved into individual sources with 450 micron fluxes greater than 4.5 mJy. The faint 450 micron sources in the 4 sigma sample have positional accuracies of 3 arcseconds, while brighter sources (signal-to-noise > 6 sigma) are good to 1.4 arcseconds. Using the deep radio map (1 sigma ~ 6 uJy) we find tha...

Chen, Chian-Chou; Barger, Amy J; Casey, Caitlin M; Lee, Nicholas; Sanders, David B; Wang, Wei-Hao; Williams, Jonathan P

2012-01-01

266

Statistical treatment of nuclear counting results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the exact time a specific nucleus undergoes radioactive decay cannot be specified, nor can showers caused by secondary cosmic rays be predicted, statistical laws play an important role in almost all cases of experimental nuclear physics. This paper describes the method for the statistical treatment of nuclear counting results obtained experimentally by taking into account random variables pertaining to both frequent and infrequent phenomena. When processing counting measurement data, it is recommended to first discard spurious random variables that spoil the statistics by using Chauvenet's criterion, as well as to test if the results in the statistical sample follow a unique statistical distribution by using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test (U-test). The verification of the suggested statistical method was performed on counting statistics obtained both from the radioactive source Cs-137 and background radiation, expected to follow the normal distribution and the Poisson distribution, respectively. Results show that the application of the proposed statistical method excludes random fluctuations of the radioactive source or of the background radiation from the total statistical sample, as well as possible inadequacies in the experimental set-up and show an extremely effective agreement of the theoretical distribution of random variables with the corresponding experimentally obtained random variables. (author)

267

Counting strategy with monitoring system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Frequently in physical measuring systems the intensity of a given radiation source (neutron, ?, X-ray, UV- or visible light radiation etc.) serves as a basis for the evaluation of the results. Such measurements generally imply as a necessary prerequisite that the measured effects are larger than the fluctuations in the source itself. Otherwise the fluctuations of the source have to be registrated by using a monitoring device and to be incorporated into the data evaluation. Such an arrangement requires an additional measuring channel which is coupled to the instruments used for the measurement of the physical effect to be studied. These additional devices, however, also facilitate a new strategy in event counting, which apart from the well-known fixed count or fixed time modes offer further possibilities which have been neglected so far. This so-called preset-monitor-count mode (fixed monitor count) and its advantages to the conventional preset modes are discussed. (Auth.)

268

Counting Graylings on the Tundra  

Science.gov (United States)

This article profiles Linda Deegan, scientist with the Arctic Long-Term Ecological Research site in the Kuparuk River region of Alaska, as she counts and tags Arctic grayling as they migrate from streams to lakes in the fall.

Carol Landis

269

WBC (White Blood Cell) Differential Count  

Science.gov (United States)

... name: White Blood Cell Differential Related tests: White Blood Cell Count , Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , Bone Marrow Aspiration ... to Get Tested? As part of a complete blood count (CBC) , when you have a routine health examination; when ...

270

Limit of sensitivity of low-background counting equipment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Hazards Control Department's Radiological Measurements Laboratory (RML) analyzes many types of sample media in support of the Laboratory's health and safety program. The Department has determined that the equation for the minimum limit of sensitivity, MDC(?,?) = 2.71 + 3.29 (rbts)1/2 is also adequate for RML counting systems with very-low-background levels. This paper reviews the normal distribution case and address the special case of determining the limit of sensitivity of a counting system when the background count rate is well known and small. In the latter case, we must use an exact test procedure based on the binomial distribution. However, the error in using the normal distribution for calculating a detection system's limit of sensitivity is not significant even as the total observed number of counts approaches or equals zero. 2 refs., 4 figs

271

Late onset sepsis and intestinal bacterial colonization in very low birth weight infants receiving long-term parenteral nutrition / Sepse de ataque tardio e colonização bacteriana intestinal em neonatos de muito baixo peso recebendo nutrição parenteral total  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O objetivo deste estudo foi estabelecer a taxa de sepse de ataque tardio (LOS) do nosso serviço, caracterizar a microbiota intestinal e avaliar uma possível associação entre a flora intestinal e sepse em recém-nascidos cirúrgicos que estavam recebendo nutrição parenteral (NP). MÉTODOS: C [...] ulturas do intestino foram colhidas no início da nutrição parenteral e, posteriormente, uma vez por semana. As amostras para a cultura de sangue foram coletadas com base em critérios clínicos estabelecidos pela equipe médica. A ponta do cateter venoso central (CVC) foi removida sob condições assépticas. Métodos laboratoriais padrão foram usados para identificar os microrganismos que cresceram em culturas de sangue, do intestino, e da ponta do CVC. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 74 recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso. Todas as crianças estavam recebendo nutrição parenteral e antibióticos quando a cultura do intestino foi iniciada. No total, 21 (28,4%) crianças apresentaram 28 episódios de sepse tardia sem fonte identificada. Os estafilococos coagulase negativo foram os mais comuns das bactérias identificadas, tanto no intestino (74,2%) como no sangue (67,8%). Todas as infecções ocorreram em pacientes que receberam nutrição parenteral através de um cateter venoso central. Seis crianças experimentaram episódios de translocação microbiana. CONCLUSÕES: Neste estudo LOS foi o episódio mais frequente em recém-nascidos recebendo nutrição parenteral e submetidos a cirurgia, 28,6% da infecção provavelmente foi um fenômeno derivado do intestino o que exige novas estratégias para a prevenção. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to establish the late onset sepsis (LOS) rate of our service, characterize the intestinal microbiota and evaluate a possible association between gut flora and sepsis in surgical infants who were receiving parenteral nutrition (PN). METHODS: Surveillance cu [...] ltures of the gut were taken at the start of PN and thereafter once a week. Specimens for blood culture were collected based on clinical criteria established by the medical staff. The central venous catheter (CVC) tip was removed under aseptic conditions. Standard laboratory methods were used to identify the microorganisms that grew on cultures of gut, blood and CVC tip. RESULTS: 74 very low birth weight infants were analyzed. All the infants were receiving PN and antibiotics when the gut culture was started. In total, 21 (28.4%) infants experienced 28 episodes of LOS with no identified source. Coagulase negative staphylococci were the most common bacteria identified, both in the intestine (74.2%) and blood (67.8%). All infections occurred in patients who received PN through a central venous catheter. Six infants experienced episodes of microbial translocation. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, LOS was the most frequent episode in neonates receiving parenteral nutrition who had been submitted to surgery; 28.6% of this infection was probably a gut-derived phenomenon and requires novel strategies for prevention.

Priscila Castro Cordeiro, Fernandes; Elias Jose Oliveira von, Dolinger; Vânia Olivetti Steffen, Abdallah; Daiane Silva, Resende; Paulo Pinto, Gontijo Filho; Denise von Dolinger de, Brito.

2011-08-01

272

Procalcitonin in sepsis and bacterial infections  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The differentiation of sepsis and systemic bacterial infections from other causes of systemic inflammatory response is crucial from the therapeutic point of view. The clinical signs and symptoms are non-specific and traditional biomarkers like white cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein are not sufficiently sensitive or specific to guide therapeutic decisions. Procalcitonin (PCT is considered a reliable marker for the diagnosis and prognosis of moderate to severe bacterial infections, and it has also been evaluated to guide the clinicians in the rational usage of antibiotics. This review describes the diagnostic and prognostic role of PCT as a biomarker in various clinical settings along with the laboratory aspects and its usefulness in risk stratification and antibiotic stewardship.

Abhijit Chaudhury

2013-10-01

273

Bacterial Profiles and Physico-chemical Parameters of Water Samples from Different Sites of the New Calabar River, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water samples were collected from three sites (Ogbakiri, Choba and Iwofe of the New Calabar River and were evaluated for microbiological and physico-chemical characteristics. Bacterial isolates consisting mainly of gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Acinetobacter spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella spp., Vibrio sp. and Nocardia asteroides were isolated from the samples. The highest total coliform counts log10 2.9 were encountered in water samples from Iwofe but the lowest counts log101.9 occurred in the water samples from Ogbakiri. Ecological parameters varied among the sites with the highest pH value of 7.87 occurring at Iwofe and lowest of 6.12 at Choba. Maximum salinity level of 150/00 was observed at Iwofe and lowest at Choba. In contrast, maximum dissolved oxygen of 10.1ppm was observed at Choba and the minimum at Iwofe. The different bacterial profiles are probably attributable to the anthropogenic and industrial activities of the sites.

Edun O. M.

2012-06-01

274

Fungal and Bacterial Diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungal and bacterial diseases are important constraints to production. Recognition of diseases and information on their biology is important in disease management. This chapter is aimed at providing diagnostic information on fungal and bacterial diseases of sugar beet and their biology, epidemiolo...

275

Effect of water temperature on bacterial killing in laundry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The increasing cost of energy directed our attention to testing the feasibility of low temperature washing. Hospital laundries use formulated chemicals at high temperature wash waters of 66 degrees C. Wash water effluents and fabric bacterial counts of heavily soiled linen were correlated with alkalinity and temperature measurements to investigate the bacterial killing action of hot and cold wash formulas. Terry towels were found to be contaminated with 10(7) to 10(9) organisms per 100 cm2 at the beginning of the washing process. The most common gram-negative rods found were Klebsiella, Enterobacter and Serratia species. Staphylococci were the predominant gram-positives. Both cold and hot water washing including the bleach cycle reduced bacterial counts in fabric by 3 log10. Similarly wash water cfu/mL mL declined 3 to 4 log10. A further 0.5 to 1.0 log10 reduction was effected in the 93.3 degrees C drying cycle. Low temperature wash formulas were comparable to high temperature laundry with respect to bacterial counts and species. Cold water formulas at 31.1 degrees C offer an alternative method to reduce energy consumption and maintain bacteriological and esthetic linen quality. PMID:3647942

Smith, J A; Neil, K R; Davidson, C G; Davidson, R W

1987-05-01

276

Application of neutron multiplicity counting to waste assay  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the use of a new figure of merit code that calculates both bias and precision for coincidence and multiplicity counting, and determines the optimum regions for each in waste assay applications. A {open_quotes}tunable multiplicity{close_quotes} approach is developed that uses a combination of coincidence and multiplicity counting to minimize the total assay error. An example is shown where multiplicity analysis is used to solve for mass, alpha, and multiplication and tunable multiplicity is shown to work well. The approach provides a method for selecting coincidence, multiplicity, or tunable multiplicity counting to give the best assay with the lowest total error over a broad spectrum of assay conditions. 9 refs., 6 figs.

Pickrell, M.M.; Ensslin, N. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Sharpe, T.J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

1997-11-01

277

Hanford whole body counting manual  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs

278

Hanford whole body counting manual  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

1990-06-01

279

Total Quality and Total Mobility Qualità totale e mobilità totale  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available FIABA ONLUS (Italian Fund for Elimination of Architectural Barriers was founded in 2000 with the aim of promoting a culture of equal opportunities and, above all, it has as its main goal to involve public and private institutions to create a really accessible and usable environment for everyone. Total accessibility, Total usability and Total mobility are key indicators to define quality of life within cities. A supportive environment that is free of architectural, cultural and psychological barriers allows everyone to live with ease and universality. In fact, people who access to goods and services in the urban context can use to their advantage time and space, so they can do their activities and can maintain relationships that are deemed significant for their social life. The main aim of urban accessibility is to raise the comfort of space for citizens, eliminating all barriers that discriminate people, and prevent from an equality of opportunity. “FIABA FUND - City of ... for the removal of architectural barriers” is an idea of FIABA that has already affected many regions of Italy as Lazio, Lombardy, Campania, Abruzzi and Calabria. It is a National project which provides for opening a bank account in the cities of referring, in which for the first time, all together, individuals and private and public institutions can make a donation to fund initiatives for the removal of architectural barriers within its own territory for a real and effective total accessibility. Last February the fund was launched in Rome with the aim of achieving a Capital without barriers and a Town European model of accessibility and usability. Urban mobility is a prerequisite to access to goods and services, and to organize activities related to daily life. FIABA promotes the concept of sustainable mobility for all, supported by the European Commission’s White Paper. We need a cultural change in management and organization of public means, which might focus on individual in its totality, with all its needs. For this reason it is necessary to focus on output of public and private transports which must be totally and globally accessible. Metropolitan and suburban transports need to have modern buses, and it has been calculated that it is possible to provide a total replacement of the fleet in a period from five to ten years. Total Quality must become the goal of every Local Government. FIABA suggests that a Total Quality Manager be always present in the institutional environment, as a guarantor of quality perceived by people living in their city for tourism, work, and leisure. It is essential to establish a favorable environment for all, to ensure the comfort of 100% of the population to give some definite and reliable answers.FIABA ONLUS (Italian Fund for Elimination of Architectural Barriers was founded in 2000 with the aim of promoting a culture of equal opportunities and, above all, it has as its main goal to involve public and private institutions to create a really accessible and usable environment for everyone. Total accessibility, Total usability and Total mobility are key indicators to define quality of life within cities. A supportive environment that is free of architectural, cultural and psychological barriers allows everyone to live with ease and universality. In fact, people who access to goods and services in the urban context can use to their advantage time and space, so they can do their activities and can maintain relationships that are deemed significant for their social life. The main aim of urban accessibility is to raise the comfort of space for citizens, eliminating all barriers that discriminate people, and prevent from an equality of opportunity. “FIABA FUND - City of ... for the removal of architectural barriers” is an idea of FIABA that has already affected many regions of Italy as Lazio, Lombardy, Campania, Abruzzi and Calabria. It is a National project which provides for opening a bank account in the cities of referring, in which for the first time, all together, individ

Giuseppe Trieste

2010-05-01

280

The nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers on Meloidogyne incognita in sandy soil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In a greenhouse experiment, the nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers including the nitrogen fixing bacteria (NFB) Paenibacillus polymyxa (four strains), the phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) Bacillus megaterium (three strains) and the potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB) B. circu [...] lans (three strains) were evaluated individually on tomato plants infested with the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in potted sandy soil. Comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2, increased the counts of total bacteria and total bacterial spores in plants potted soil from 1.2 to 2.6 folds estimated 60 days post-inoculation. Consequently, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7 increased significantly the shoot length (cm), number of leaves / plant, shoot dry weight (g) / plant and root dry weight (g) / plant by 32.6 %, 30.8 %, 70.3 % and 14.2 %, respectively. Generally, the majority treatments significantly reduced the nematode multiplication which was more obvious after 60 days of inoculation. Among the applied strains, P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2 inoculations resulted in the highest reduction in nematode population comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control. They recorded the highest reduction in numbers of hatched juveniles/root by 95.8 %, females/root by 63.75 % and juveniles/1kg soil by 57.8 %. These results indicated that these bacterial biofertilizers are promising double purpose microorganisms for mobilizing of soil nutrients (nitrogen, phosphate and potassium) and for the biological control of M. incognita.

M.E, El-Hadad; M.I, Mustafa; Sh.M, Selim; T.S, El-Tayeb; A.E.A, Mahgoob; Norhan H. Abdel, Aziz.

2011-03-01

281

The nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers on Meloidogyne incognita in sandy soil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a greenhouse experiment, the nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers including the nitrogen fixing bacteria (NFB Paenibacillus polymyxa (four strains, the phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB Bacillus megaterium (three strains and the potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB B. circulans (three strains were evaluated individually on tomato plants infested with the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in potted sandy soil. Comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2, increased the counts of total bacteria and total bacterial spores in plants potted soil from 1.2 to 2.6 folds estimated 60 days post-inoculation. Consequently, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7 increased significantly the shoot length (cm, number of leaves / plant, shoot dry weight (g / plant and root dry weight (g / plant by 32.6 %, 30.8 %, 70.3 % and 14.2 %, respectively. Generally, the majority treatments significantly reduced the nematode multiplication which was more obvious after 60 days of inoculation. Among the applied strains, P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2 inoculations resulted in the highest reduction in nematode population comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control. They recorded the highest reduction in numbers of hatched juveniles/root by 95.8 %, females/root by 63.75 % and juveniles/1kg soil by 57.8 %. These results indicated that these bacterial biofertilizers are promising double purpose microorganisms for mobilizing of soil nutrients (nitrogen, phosphate and potassium and for the biological control of M. incognita.

M.E El-Hadad

2011-03-01

282

Counting Results in Weak Formalisms  

OpenAIRE

The counting ability of weak formalisms is of interest as a measure of their expressive power. The question was investigated in the 1980's in several papers in complexity theory and in weak arithmetic. In each case, the considered formalism (AC$^0$--circuits, first--order logic, $Delta_0$, respectively) was shown to be able to count precisely up to a polylogarithmic number. An essential part of each of the proofs is the construction of a 1--1 mapping from a small subset of ${0,ldots,N-...

Durand, Arnaud; Lautemann, Clemens; More, Malika

2007-01-01

283

White blood cell differential counts in severely leukopenic samples: a comparative analysis of different solutions available in modern laboratory hematology  

Science.gov (United States)

Background We evaluated the efficacy of white blood cell (WBC) differential counts in severely leukopenic samples by the Hematoflow method and by automated hematology analyzers and compared the results with manual counts. Methods EDTA-anticoagulated blood samples (175 samples) with WBC counts of 40-990/µL were selected. Hematoflow differential counts were performed in duplicates employing flow cytometry using the CytoDiff reagent and analysis software. Differential counts were also performed using the DxH 800 (Beckman Coulter) and XE-2100 (Sysmex) automated hematology analyzers. The sum of the manual counts by a hematology technician and a resident were used as the manual counts. Results The total analysis time and hands-on time required by the Hematoflow method were shorter than those required by manual counting. Hematoflow counts were reproducible, showed a good correlation with automated analyzers, and also showed strong correlation with manual counts (r > 0.8) in neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes. None of the cases containing less than 4% blasts as analyzed by the Hematoflow method had blasts in the manual counts, but 8 cases of 21 cases (38.1%) with over 4% blasts by Hematoflow had blasts in manual counts. Conclusion Hematoflow counts of severely leukopenic samples were reproducible and showed a good correlation with manual counts in terms of neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts. The Hematoflow method also detected the presence of blasts. Manual slide review is recommended when over 4% blasts are found by Hematoflow. PMID:25025014

Kim, Ah Hyun; Lee, Wonbae; Kim, Myungshin; Kim, Yonggoo

2014-01-01

284

Bacterial communities in the collection and chlorinated distribution sections of a drinking water system in Budapest, Hungary.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial communities of a bank-filtered drinking water system were investigated by aerobic cultivation and clone library analysis. Moreover, bacterial communities were compared using sequence-aided terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) fingerprinting at ten characteristic points located at both the collecting and the distributing part of the water supply system. Chemical characteristics of the samples were similar, except for the presence of chlorine residuals in the distribution system and increased total iron concentration in two of the samples. Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) concentration increased within the collection system, it was reduced by chlorination and it increased again in the distribution system. Neither fecal indicators nor pathogens were detected by standard cultivation techniques. Chlorination reduced bacterial diversity and heterotrophic plate counts. Community structures were found to be significantly different before and after chlorination: the diverse communities in wells and the collection system were dominated by chemolithotrophic (e.g., Gallionella and Nitrospira) and oligocarbophilic-heterotrophic bacteria (e.g., Sphingomonas, Sphingopyxis, and Bradyrhizobium). After chlorination in the distribution system, the most characteristic bacterium was related to the facultative methylotrophic Methylocella spp. Communities changed within the distribution system too, Mycobacterium spp. or Sphingopyxis spp. became predominant in certain samples. PMID:24810748

Homonnay, Zalán G; Török, György; Makk, Judit; Brumbauer, Anikó; Major, Eva; Márialigeti, Károly; Tóth, Erika

2014-07-01

285

Far-Ultraviolet Number Counts of Field Galaxies  

CERN Document Server

The far-ultraviolet (FUV) number counts of galaxies constrain the evolution of the star-formation rate density of the universe. We report the FUV number counts computed from FUV imaging of several fields including the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, the Hubble Deep Field North, and small areas within the GOODS-North and -South fields. These data were obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Solar Blind Channel of the Advance Camera for Surveys. The number counts sample a FUV AB magnitude range from 21-29 and cover a total area of 15.9 arcmin^2, ~4 times larger than the most recent HST FUV study. Our FUV counts intersect bright FUV GALEX counts at 22.5 mag and they show good agreement with recent semi-analytic models based on dark matter "merger trees" by Somerville et al. (2011). We show that the number counts are ~35% lower than in previous HST studies that use smaller areas. The differences between these studies are likely the result of cosmic variance; our new data cover more lines of sight and more area than pre...

Voyer, Elysse N; Teplitz, Harry I; Siana, Brian D; de Mello, Duilia F

2011-01-01

286

Platelet Counts and Platelet Activation Markers in Obese Subjects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective. In this work we studied the correlation between platelet count, platelet activation, and systemic inflammation in overweight, obese, and morbidly obese individuals. Methods and subjects. A total of 6319 individuals participated in the study. Complete blood counts, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP serum levels, and body mass index (BMI were measured during routine checkups. Platelet activation markers were studied among 30 obese (BMI = 41 ± 8 kg/m2 and 35 nonobese (BMI = 24 ± 3 kg/m2 individuals. Platelet activation status was evaluated by flow cytometry using specific antibodies against the activated platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb/IIIa, p-selectin (CD-62 p, and binding of Annexin-V to platelet anionic phospholipids. Results. Overweight, obese, and morbidly obese females had significantly elevated platelet counts (P<.0001 compared with normal-weight females. No significant elevation of platelet counts was observed in the male subgroups. A significant age adjusted correlation between BMI and platelet counts (P<.0001 was found among females. This correlation was attenuated (P=.001 after adjustment for hs-CRP concentrations. The flow cytometry analysis of platelets showed no significant differences in activation marker expression between nonobese and obese individuals. Discussion. Obesity may be associated with elevated platelet counts in females with chronic inflammation. Obesity is not associated with increased platelet activation.

Aaron Tomer

2008-03-01

287

Evaluation of free-stall mattress bedding treatments to reduce mastitis bacterial growth  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bacterial counts were compared in free-stall mattresses and teat ends exposed to 5 treatments in a factorial study design on 1 dairy farm. Mattresses in five 30-cow groups were subjected to 1 of 5 bedding treatments every other day: 0.5 kg of hydrated limestone, 120 mL of commercial acidic conditioner, 1 kg of coal fly ash, 1 kg of kiln-dried wood shavings, and control (no bedding). Counts of coliforms, Klebsiella spp., Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus spp. were lowest on mattresses bedded with lime. Mattresses bedded with the commercial acidic conditioner had the next lowest counts for coliforms, Klebsiella spp., and Streptococcus spp. Wood shavings and the no-bedding control had the highest counts for coliform and Klebsiella spp. Compared with wood shavings or control, fly ash reduced the counts of coliforms, whereas for the other 3 bacterial groups, the reduction was not always significant. Streptococcus spp. counts were greatest in the control group and did not differ among the shavings and fly ash groups. Teat swab results indicated that hydrated lime was the only bedding treatment that significantly decreased the counts of both coliforms and Klebsiella spp. There were no differences in Streptococcus spp. numbers on the teats between any of the bedding treatments. Bacterial populations grew steadily on mattresses and were generally higher at 36 to 48 h than at 12 to 24 h, whereas bacterial populations on teats grew rapidly by 12 h and then remained constant. Hydrated lime was the only treatment that significantly reduced bacterial counts on both mattresses and teat ends, but it caused some skin irritation.

Kristula, M.A.; Dou, Z.; Toth, J.D.; Smith, B.I.; Harvey, N.; Sabo, M. [University of Penn, Kennett Square, PA (United States)

2008-05-15

288

Fitting a distribution to miccrobial counts: making sense of zeros  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Non-detects or left-censored results are inherent to the traditional methods of microbial enumeration in foods. Typically, a low concentration of microorganisms in a food unit goes undetected in plate counts or most probable number (MPN) counts, and produces “artificial zeros”. However, these “artificial zeros” are only a share of the total number of zero counts resulting from a sample, as their number adds up to the number of “true zeros” resulting from uncontaminated units. In the process of fitting a probability distribution to microbial counts, “artificial” and “true” zeros are usually undifferentiated. This practice may lead to errors in the estimation of the parameters for the distribution of microbial concentrations, most specifically to the underestimation of the mean and overestimation of the variance. Distributions of microbial counts are often used as input in quantitative microbial risk assessment; therefore it is possible that errors related to these distributions have an impact in terms of food safety, if an influence on the estimated risk is observed. In this study, we developed a method to estimate both the parameters of a lognormal distribution of microbial concentrations (mean and standard deviation) and the prevalence of contaminated food units (one minus the proportion of “true zeros”) from a set of microbial counts. By running the model with in silico generated concentration and count data, we could evaluate the performance of this method in terms of estimation of the three different parameters. In principle, the higher the proportion of zeros in a dataset, the higher the error in the estimation will be, and a lower prevalence contributes to a higher proportion of “true zeros” in microbial counts. Therefore, we also investigated the effect of the prevalence on the estimation of the distribution parameters mean and standard deviation by running the same model for different prevalence scenarios.

Ribeiro Duarte, Ana Sofia; Stockmarr, Anders

289

Evaluation of procalcitonin and neopterin level in serum of patients with acute bacterial infection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Fever as a common presenting complaint in pediatric patients can be due to various causes. Differentiating bacterial infection from other causes is important because the prompt use of antibiotics is critical in bacterial infection. Traditional markers of infection such as BT and WBC coun [...] t may be unspecific and culture may be late or absent. CRP and Procalcitonin (PCT) have been considered to evaluate the evolution of infections and sepsis in patients presenting with SIRS. Neopterin has also been proposed to aid in the diagnosis of bacterial infection. In this study, we compared the value of the serum PCT, neopterin level, and WBC count for predicting bacterial infection and outcome in children with fever. METHODS: 158 pediatric (2-120-month-old) patients suspected to have acute bacterial infection, based on clinical judgment in which other causes of SIRS were ruled out were included in the study. WBC count with differential was determined and PCT and neopterin levels were measured. RESULTS: PCT level was higher in bacterial infection and patients who were complicated or expired. CONCLUSION: Rapid PCT test is superior to neopterin and WBC count for anticipating bacterial infection, especially in ED where prompt decision making is critical. ABBREVIATIONS: BT, body temperature; WBC, white blood cell; PCT, procalcitonin; CRP, C-reactive protein; SIRS, systemic inflammatory response syndrome; ED, emergency department.

Babak, Pourakbari; Setareh, Mamishi; Javid, Zafari; Hanieh, Khairkhah; Mohammad H, Ashtiani; Masomeh, Abedini; Shahla, Afsharpaiman; Soroush Seifi, Rad.

2010-06-01

290

Liquid scintillation counting of porphyrins  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbon-14-labelled porphyrins may be counted by liquid scintillation up to a vial concentration of ca. 3 x 10-5 M (ca. 0.5 mg/vial), either directly or after initial sorption onto chromatography paper. A readily-constructed quench curve permits direct conversion of cpm to Bq and is practical for 14C to ca. 35% efficiency. (author)

291

[Complete blood counts: new parameters].  

Science.gov (United States)

Performing a complete blood count analysis is a daily routine necessary for a good care of patients. Nowadays, modern blood analyzers provide on top of classical blood values, several additional parameters. In this paper, using short case presentations, we discuss how to interpret these results and integrate them in the clinical context. PMID:24313051

Lambert, J-F; Vollenweider, P

2013-10-30

292

Shakespeare Live! and Character Counts.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses a live production of Shakespeare's "Macbeth" (in full costume but with no sets) for all public middle school and high school students in Harrisonburg and Rockingham, Virginia. The paper states that the "Character Counts" issues that are covered in the play are: decision making, responsibility and citizenship, trustworthiness,…

Brookshire, Cathy A.

293

Logistic regression for dichotomized counts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sometimes there is interest in a dichotomized outcome indicating whether a count variable is positive or zero. Under this scenario, the application of ordinary logistic regression may result in efficiency loss, which is quantifiable under an assumed model for the counts. In such situations, a shared-parameter hurdle model is investigated for more efficient estimation of regression parameters relating to overall effects of covariates on the dichotomous outcome, while handling count data with many zeroes. One model part provides a logistic regression containing marginal log odds ratio effects of primary interest, while an ancillary model part describes the mean count of a Poisson or negative binomial process in terms of nuisance regression parameters. Asymptotic efficiency of the logistic model parameter estimators of the two-part models is evaluated with respect to ordinary logistic regression. Simulations are used to assess the properties of the models with respect to power and Type I error, the latter investigated under both misspecified and correctly specified models. The methods are applied to data from a randomized clinical trial of three toothpaste formulations to prevent incident dental caries in a large population of Scottish schoolchildren. PMID:24862513

Preisser, John S; Das, Kalyan; Benecha, Habtamu; Stamm, John W

2014-05-26

294

Approximate counting in bounded arithmetic.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 72, ?. 3 (2007), s. 959-993. ISSN 0022-4812 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA1019401; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : bounded arithmetic * weak pigeonhole principle * approximate counting Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.609, year: 2007

Je?ábek, Emil

2007-01-01

295

Bacterial Tracheitis (Pseudomembranous Croup)  

Science.gov (United States)

... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals ... Bacterial Tracheitis Wheezing in Infants and Young Children Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Children's Health Issues > Respiratory Disorders ...

296

The automatic recognition and counting of cough  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cough recordings have been undertaken for many years but the analysis of cough frequency and the temporal relation to trigger factors have proven problematic. Because cough is episodic, data collection over many hours is required, along with real-time aural analysis which is equally time-consuming. A method has been developed for the automatic recognition and counting of coughs in sound recordings. Methods The Hull Automatic Cough Counter (HACC is a program developed for the analysis of digital audio recordings. HACC uses digital signal processing (DSP to calculate characteristic spectral coefficients of sound events, which are then classified into cough and non-cough events by the use of a probabilistic neural network (PNN. Parameters such as the total number of coughs and cough frequency as a function of time can be calculated from the results of the audio processing. Thirty three smoking subjects, 20 male and 13 female aged between 20 and 54 with a chronic troublesome cough were studied in the hour after rising using audio recordings. Results Using the graphical user interface (GUI, counting the number of coughs identified by HACC in an hour long recording, took an average of 1 minute 35 seconds, a 97.5% reduction in counting time. HACC achieved a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 96%. Reproducibility of repeated HACC analysis is 100%. Conclusion An automated system for the analysis of sound files containing coughs and other non-cough events has been developed, with a high robustness and good degree of accuracy towards the number of actual coughs in the audio recording.

Morice Alyn H

2006-09-01

297

Bacterial Sexually Transmitted Diseases  

OpenAIRE

Common sexually transmitted bacterial organisms may affect the anorectum and perianal skin. While some of these infections are a result of contiguous spread from genital infection, most result from receptive anal intercourse. Polymicrobial infection is common and there is overlap in symptoms caused by the organisms that may infect the anorectum. This article addresses the most common bacterial organisms that are sexually transmitted and affect the anorectum. It includes discussions of gonorrh...

Whitlow, Charles B.

2004-01-01

298

The liquid scintillation counting efficiency for 137 Cs137m Ba and 129 I  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We compute the liquid scintillation counting efficiency for ''137 Cs+ ''137m Ba and ''129 I taking into account the scintillator chemical composition. We consider the beta transition shape factors for the forbidden beta transitions of these nuclides, and the effects of ''137m Ba and ''129m Xe half-lives on the total counting efficiency

299

Fixation, counting, and manipulation of heterotrophic nanoflagellates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Quantitative effects of several fixatives on heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNAN) and phototrophic nanoflagellates (PNAN) were investigated by hemacytometer and epifluorescence counting techniques. Counts of Monas sp. cultures before and after fixation with unbuffered 0.3% glutaraldehyde and 5% formaldehyde showed no loss of cells during fixation, and cell concentrations remained constant for several weeks after fixation. Buffering of fixatives with borax caused severe losses, up to 100% within 2 h. Field samples from Lake Vechten showed no decline of HNAN and total nanoflagellate concentrations for at least 1 week after fixation with 5% formaldehyde and with 1% glutaraldehyde. With 1% glutaraldehyde, the chlorophyll autofluorescence of PNAN was much brighter than with 5% formaldehyde, although it was lost after a few days and thus limited the storage time of samples. However, when primulin-stained slides were prepared soon after fixation and stored at -30 degrees C, the loss of autofluorescence was prevented and PNAN and HNAN concentrations were stable for at least 16 weeks. Effects of filtration and centrifugation on HNAN were also studied. Filtration vacuum could not exceed 3 kPa since 10 kPa already caused losses of 15 to 20%. Similar losses were caused by centrifugation, even at low speed (500 x g). PMID:16347232

Bloem, J; Bär-Gilissen, M J; Cappenberg, T E

1986-12-01

300

It's not the pixel count, you fool  

Science.gov (United States)

The first thing a "marketing guy" asks the digital camera engineer is "how many pixels does it have, for we need as many mega pixels as possible since the other guys are killing us with their "umpteen" mega pixel pocket sized digital cameras. And so it goes until the pixels get smaller and smaller in order to inflate the pixel count in the never-ending pixel-wars. These small pixels just are not very good. The truth of the matter is that the most important feature of digital cameras in the last five years is the automatic motion control to stabilize the image on the sensor along with some very sophisticated image processing. All the rest has been hype and some "cool" design. What is the future for digital imaging and what will drive growth of camera sales (not counting the cell phone cameras which totally dominate the market in terms of camera sales) and more importantly after sales profits? Well sit in on the Dark Side of Color and find out what is being done to increase the after sales profits and don't be surprised if has been done long ago in some basement lab of a photographic company and of course, before its time.

Kriss, Michael A.

2012-01-01

301

Molecular Methods for Assessement the Bacterial Communities from Different Type of Soils in Romania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rhizobia are soil bacteria that are capable to form nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with leguminous plants. This ability, as well as the diversity of microbial populations in the soil, and in the rhizosphere of host plants and non-host plants is influenced by several factors, including crop management. The aim of this work was the examination of the influence of some factors on indigenous populations of rhizobia in soils under different crop managements. The genetic diversity of rhizobial strains isolated directly from soil (free-living state or from root nodules of three herbaceous perennial legumes was examined. The study was conducted in the experimental fields located in Moara Domneasc? area (South of Romania and in the Bra?ov County. The characteristics of brown reddish soil were determined (nitrogen content, organic carbon content and pH. Counting of the rhizobia populations was done by most probable number estimation and by viable plate counts. Bacterial strains were isolated directly from soil samples or from root nodules of different plant species (Trifolium repens, T. pratense and Lotus corniculatus. The characterization of rhizobia was performed by DNA fingerprinting (ERIC PCR and BOX PCR and the bacterial diversity of soils was examined by DGGE technique. The results revealed that the rhizobial diversity was significantly lower in soils under increased fertilization with N. A reduced intraspecific polymorphism was observed in the strains recovered from the same plant species (Trifolium spp., whatever the origin of the plant (Moara Domneasc? or Bra?ov but clear differences appeared to be related to the origin of nodules (red or white clover as revealed by DNA fingerprints. However, various amplicon profiles were observed by DGGE when total DNA isolated from soils was examined, the differences being associated with the fertilization level.

Mirela DU?A

2011-05-01

302

Bacterial Biovolume and Biomass Estimations  

OpenAIRE

The biomass of bacterial populations in aquatic ecosystems is often estimated by measuring bacterial biovolume and converting this into biomass in terms of carbon. A reliable conversion factor relating the measured bacterial biovolume to bacterial carbon content is essential for this approach. Based on direct measurements of bacterial cell carbon content, cell number, and biovolume, I have derived an average conversion factor of 5.6 × 10?13 g of C ?m?3. This conversion factor is 3.4 to ...

Bratbak, Gunnar

1985-01-01

303

Determination of Total, Viable Cells and Enterobacteraceae in Categorized Milk Powder  

OpenAIRE

The present study was conducted to examine the microbiological quality of commercial milk powders. A total of 30 dried milk powders, 10 each of Skim Milk Powder (SMP), Semi Skim Milk Powder (SSMP) and Full Cream Milk Powder (FCMP) purchased from market of Hyderabad, Sindh were evaluated for microbiological quality characteristics, like Total Viable Count (TVC), thermoduric count and Enterobacteraceae Count (EbC). Total viable count, (6.1 x 103±7.2 x 102cfu/g) and Enterobacteraceae count, (2....

Imran Rashid Rajput; Khaskheli, M.; Kaleri, H. A.; Fazlani, S. A.; Devi, K.; Khaskheli, G. B.

2009-01-01

304

Bacterial diversity in antibiotic wastewater treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The bacterial diversity of an antibiotic industrial wastewater treatment system was analyzed to provide the information required for further optimization of this process and for identification of bacterial strains that perform improved degradation of antibiotic industrial wastewater. The total bacterial DNA of samples collected at three stages (aeration, precipitation, and idle) during the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) of the 16 s rDNA V3 regions. Community analysis was conducted in terms of the richness value (S), the dominance degree and the Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H). Rich bacterial diversity was apparent in the aeration stage of the SBR process, and the number of bands in the aeration stage was more abundant than that in the precipitation and idle stages. The DGGE analysis showed 15 bands, six of which were uncultured bacteria, and included one anaerobic and five aerobic bacteria. The microbial community in the aeration stage was the most complex of the whole SBR process, while the dominant bacteria differed in each reaction stage. These results demonstrate the cyclical dynamic changes in the bacterial population during the SBR process for the treatment of antibiotic industrial wastewater. PMID:24355857

Han, J; Wang, L Y; Cai, B Y

2013-01-01

305

The relationship between holding time and the bacterial load on surgical instruments.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this investigation was to determine the bacterial load on used instruments and to evaluate the relationship between the bacterial load and the holding time prior to cleaning. Thirty six sets were evaluated to establish the average number of bacteria per square centimeter. For the experimental study, three different bacteria were prepared in sheep blood and used to contaminate sterile stainless steel pieces with the surface of 10 cm(2). After incubation at room temperature for 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h, colonies were counted and compared to time zero. Bacterial counts were between 10 and 250 CFU/cm(2), depending on the operation site. Bacterial load was found to have increased after 6 h. An increase of 3log10 CFU/cm(2) was measured after 12 h. It is imperative to clean surgical instruments in the first 6 h to ensure effective disinfection and sterility. PMID:25829705

Percin, Duygu; Sav, Hafize; Hormet-Oz, Hatice Tuna; Karauz, Murat

2015-02-01

306

Total viable bacteria removal by means of an electrostatic air cleaner; Abbattimento della carica batterica totale aerodispersa mediante barriera filtrante di tipo elettrostatico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper presents the methodology followed in order to define the relationship between the removal of inorganic and/or viable particulates and a commercial electrostatic precipitator, FEMEC like configured. Inorganic aerosols needed to control the efficiency removal were generated through an ultrasonic home humidifier, while a bacterial characterised air flow was obtained directly from the duet work of the central heating and cooling system serving the environmental analyses laboratory of the University of Ancona. Microbiological analyses were performed by a traditional plate count method. The difference between the amount of viable bacteria evaluated on plate count data, in the presence of electrostatic filtration, results statistically significative. Bacterial removal by electrostatic filtration resulted on an average of 79% of the samples analysed. [Italian] Il presente lavoro riassume la metodologia seguita per la definizione del rapporto esistente fra il funzionamento di un filtro elettrostatico commerciale a piastre doppio stadio tipo FEMEC e l'abbattimento sia di particolato inorganico sia di particolato di tipo biologico vivo, provenienti da impianti di termoventilazione. La generazione di particolato inorganico e' stata realizzata tramite generatore ultrasonico alimentato con soluzione salina di solfato di ammonio. La carica batterica in ingresso al filtro e' stata ottenuta direttamente dall'impianto di climatizzazione di tipo misto al servizio del laboratorio chimico ambientale dell'Universita' di Ancona. Nelle condizioni operative impiegate e' stata verificata una differenza statisticamente significativa dell'abbattimento della carica batterica totale ottenuta tramite filtrazione elettrostatica dell'aria. Il risultato dei conteggi nei campioni di aria filtrati evidenzia un conteggio nullo nel 79%, contro un 37% nei prelievi eseguiti in assenza di filtrazione.

Bontempi, L. [Tecnica Bontempi snc, Calvisano BS (Italy); D' Errico, M. [Ancona Univ., Ancona (Italy). Facolta' di Medicina; Fava, G. [Ancona Univ., Ancona (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze dei Materiali e della Terra

2001-01-01

307

Counting arcs in negative curvature  

CERN Document Server

Let M be a complete Riemannian manifold with negative curvature, and let C_-, C_+ be two properly immersed locally convex subsets of M. We survey the asymptotic behaviour of the number of common perpendiculars of length at most s from C_- to C_+, giving error terms and counting with weights, starting from the work of Huber, Herrmann, Margulis and ending with the works of the authors. We describe the relationship with counting problems in circle packings of Kontorovich, Oh, Shah. We survey the tools used to obtain the precise asymptotics (Bowen-Margulis and Gibbs measures, skinning measures). We describe several arithmetic applications, in particular the ones by the authors on the asymptotics of the number of representations of integers by binary quadratic, Hermitian or Hamiltonian forms.

Parkkonen, Jouni

2012-01-01

308

Countdown: Counting with a Calendar  

Science.gov (United States)

Learners will count down the days to a special event. How much longer? Calendars, dates, and units of time mean much more when you’re anticipating a special event. Locate the date you’re waiting for on the calendar. Younger learners can keep track of how many days. Older learners can count down the hours, minutes, and even seconds as the time draws near. Or, challenge a multi-age group to find as many ways as they can to express the amount of time left (32 days, 4 weeks and 4 days, 1 month and 1 day..). Make this a routine: Each time you gather the group, check the countdown. Available as a web page and downloadable pdf.

TERC

2010-01-01

309

Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviations from the Poisson. As a broad class of alternative models, we propose to use nonparametric mixtures of rounded continuous kernels. An efficient Gibbs sampler is developed for posterior computation, and a simulation study is performed to assess performance. Focusing on the rounded Gaussian case, we generalize the modeling framework to account for multivariate count data, joint modeling with continuous and categorical variables, and other complications. The methods are illustrated through applications to a developmental toxicity study and marketing data. This article has supplementary material online. PMID:22523437

Canale, Antonio; Dunson, David B

2011-12-01

310

Registrating device for photon counting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electronic recording device for photon counting is described. The device presents a time selector for the measurement of weak optical pulsed fluxes in nanosecond range. The device is manufactured in the CAMAC standard, the output of the information obtained is possible both in a computer and on its own graphical display.The block-diagram of the device, principle of its operation and basic characteristics are considered. 2 refs.; 7 figs

311

The Making Cases Count intiative.  

Science.gov (United States)

Given the challenges faced, how can homeopaths communicate the power and scope of the therapeutic system of homeopathy? Homeopaths need to communicate to patients, the public and media, other healthcare professionals, healthcare researchers, and funders of healthcare (healthcare insurers, those who commission healthcare services either in publicly funded healthcare systems such as the NHS or charities). Effective communication with these stakeholders requires information that is: (a) easily understood, (b) credible, and (c) relevant. The patient's voice is the trusted, indisputable and easily understood common ground in homeopathy. Yet, the experiences of patients are rarely heard outside the profession of homeopathy. Homeopaths are in a unique position to make these voices heard by disseminating the results of their routine practice cases incorporating their patients' voices. The 'Making Cases Count' initiative has been created in order to bring about a culture where easily understood, trusted and salient information is regularly made available to all stakeholders in homeopathy. The Making Cases Count initiative supports, guides and incentives homeopaths to collect routine data with the aim of bringing about a culture where a significant proportion of homeopaths collect routine data from their patients in a format which will then be able to be transformed (i.e. anonymised, summarised and counted). This routine data requires numbers and categories to report the behavior and the perspective of patients receiving homeopathic treatment. This can be strengthened through the use of validated outcome measures in hearing patients' voices. When transformed, this routine data will then be able to inform homeopaths and more importantly other key stakeholders. It is now time to make patient cases count. PMID:25146064

Relton, C; Viksveen, P; Kessler, U

2014-08-01

312

Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts  

OpenAIRE

Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviatio...

Canale, Antonio; Dunson, David B.

2011-01-01

313

Urticaria and bacterial infections.  

Science.gov (United States)

The association between urticaria and infectious diseases has been discussed for >100 years. However, a causal relationship with underlying or precipitating infection is difficult to establish. The purpose of this work was to perform a systematic analysis of the published cases of urticaria associated with bacterial infections. We give an umbrella breakdown of up-to-date systematic reviews and other important publications on the complex association of urticaria and bacterial infections. We did a Medline search, for English language articles published until January 2014, using the key words "urticaria" and "bacteria/bacterial disease"; a second analysis was performed in groups of bacteria and using each germ name as a key word. Many bacterial infections have been associated with urticaria manifestation, such as Helicobacter pylori, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Mycoplasma pneumonia, Salmonella, Brucella, Mycobacterium leprae, Borrelia, Chlamydia pneumonia, and Yersinia enterocolitica. In some cases the skin manifestations, described as urticaria, could be caused by the presence of the microorganism in the skin, or for the action of their toxins, or to the complement activation mediated by circulating immune complexes. Although only a weak association with urticaria of unclear pathogenesis exists, clinicians should consider these bacterial agents in the workup of the patients with urticaria. The eradication of the infection could, in fact, lead to the resolution of urticaria. Prospective studies and well-structured research are obviously needed to better clarify the real role of bacteria in the pathogenesis of urticaria and their relative prevalence. PMID:24857191

Minciullo, Paola L; Cascio, Antonio; Barberi, Giuseppina; Gangemi, Sebastiano

2014-01-01

314

Bacterial flora of spices and its control by gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The bacterial contamination was tested in 26 samples of spices. Chili, allspice and paprika were the most contaminated spices by bacteria. Five bacterial genera were isolated, namely bacillus, staphylococcus, streptococcus, micrococcus, and coccobacillus, all being gram-positive. Most isolates have been related to the genus bacillus. The bacterial isolates were identified as B. alvei, B. circulans, B. megaterium, B. pasteurii, B. pumilus, B. thuringiensis, B. sphaericus, B. incertaesedis, Micrococcus luteus, staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus sp. and coccobacillus sp. Irradiation of spices led to a significant decrease in the bacterial count of all samples. The dose required to inhibit completely the natural bacterial flora was 25 KGY. The most radioresistant isolates were staphylococcus aureus and micrococcus luteus which were subjected to sublethal doses of 15 and 20 KGY respectively. The dose response curves of the 2 most radioresistant isolates showed simple exponential relationship. The D 10-value of S. aureus and M. luteus were 0.9 and 1.1 KGY, respectively. The effect of storage period on the bacterial load of, as well as, the antibacterial activity of the tested spices were investigated. (author)

315

Evaluation of Visitor Counting Technologies and Their Energy Saving Potential through Demand-Controlled Ventilation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Direction-sensitive visitor counting sensors can be used in demand-controlled ventilation (DCV. The counting performance of two light beam sensors and three camera sensors, all direction sensitive, was simultaneously evaluated at an indoor location. Direction insensitive sensors (two mat sensors and one light beam sensor were additionally tested as a reference. Bidirectional counting data of free people flow was collected for 36 days in one-hour resolution, including five hours of manual counting. Compared to the manual results, one of the light beam sensors had the most equally balanced directional overall counting errors (4.6% and 5.2%. The collected data of this sensor was used to model the air transportation energy consumption of visitor counting sensor-based DCV and constant air volume ventilation (CAV. The results suggest that potential savings in air transportation energy consumption could be gained with the modeled DCV as its total daily airflow during the test period was 54% of the total daily airflow of the modeled CAV on average. A virtually real-time control of ventilation could be realized with minute-level counting resolution. Site-specific calibration of the visitor counting sensors is advisable and they could be complemented with presence detectors to avoid unnecessary ventilation during unoccupied periods of the room. A combination of CO2 and visitor counting sensors could be exploited in DCV to always guarantee sufficient ventilation with a short response time.

Jussi Kuutti

2014-03-01

316

Association between diabetes complications and leukocyte counts in Iranian patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sedigheh Moradi1, Scott Reza Jafarian Kerman2, Farzaneh Rohani1, Fereshteh Salari21Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center (Firouzgar, Hemmat Campus, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, 2Scientific Students Research Committee, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IranBackground: The long term complications of diabetes can be fatal. They are also renowned for being an economic burden. Previous studies have demonstrated a relationship between inflammatory markers and complications of diabetes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between leukocyte counts and these complications.Methods: The study included 184 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The study was carried out in Iran during 2007 and 2008. Data collected on the subjects were as follows: age, gender, weight, height, blood pressure, smoking history, lipid profile including low density lipoprotein (LDL, high density lipoprotein (HDL, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and leukocyte count, albuminuria, and retinopathy. Furthermore, information on cardiac history for 100 patients was collected. The subjects were split into two groups according to their leukocyte levels: low (?7000/mm³ and high (>7000/mm³; and then analyzed by Student's t-test or Mann–Whitney U-test as appropriate.Results: The average leukocyte count in these patients was 7594 ± 1965/mm³. Leukocyte count was significantly different in patients with and without retinopathy and albuminuria (P < 0.0001. According to this analysis, a leukocyte count of 6750/mm³ with a sensitivity of 80.2% and a specificity of 56.4%, and a count of 7550/mm³ with a sensitivity of 63.2% and a specificity of 74.6% indicated at least one diabetes complication.Conclusion: An elevated leukocyte count even within the normal range was associated with chronic complications in type 2 diabetes.Keywords: leukocytes, diabetes complications, inflammation

Moradi S

2012-01-01

317

Finger ridge-count variability in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mean finger ridge-count data were obtained, primarily from literature sources, for 31 male and 24 female sub-Saharan African samples. The 10 finger ridge-counts and total ridge-count were used as independent variables in a multiple regression analysis, latitude and longitude serving in turn as the dependent variables. The results show that it is not the magnitude of the ridge-counts themselves that is important, but rather contrasts between groups of digits. The most important geographically patterned variation in ridge-counts consists of contrasts between digits 4 and 5 and digits 2 and 3. South and south-east African populations are characterized by low contrasts, west Africans by high contrasts and, south-west Africans are intermediate. The geographical patterning of the contrast agrees well with known patterns of gene flow into and within the continent as determined by serological genes. Principal components analysis was also carried out to determine whether within-group components corresponding to the geographically relevant between-group variation could be identified. The third, fourth and fifth components drew the same types of contrasts between the groups of digits identified in the multiple regression analysis, but they were relatively unimportant. The geographically important principal components would have been overlooked in a traditional multivariate analysis of finge ridge-counts, since the analysis would have been dominated by pattern size. We conclude that finger ridge-counts are potentially very useful in population studies, but account must be taken of their multicomponent nature. PMID:434765

Jantz, R L; Hawkinson, C H

1979-01-01

318

Leukocyte Populations and C-Reactive Protein as Predictors of Bacterial Infections in Febrile Outpatient Children  

OpenAIRE

Objective: Infections remain the major cause of unnecessary antibiotic use in pediatric outpatient settings. Complete blood count (CBC) is the essential test in the diagnosis of infections. C-reactive protein (CRP) is also useful for assessment of young children with serious bacterial infections. The purpose of the study was to evaluate leukocyte populations and CRP level to predict bacterial infections in febrile outpatient children.

Kaya, Zu?hre; Ku?c?u?kcongar, Aynur; Vurall?, Dog?us?; Emeksiz, Hamdi Cihan; Gu?rsel, Tu?rkiz

2014-01-01

319

Comparison of coliphage and bacterial aerosols at a wastewater spray irrigation site.  

OpenAIRE

Microbiological aerosols were measured on a spray irrigation site at Fort Huachuca, Ariz. Indigenous bacteria and tracer bacteriophage were sampled from sprays of chlorinated and unchlorinated secondary-treatment wastewaters during day and night periods. Aerosol dispersal and downwind migration were determined. Bacterial and coliphage f2 aerosols were sampled by using Andersen viable type stacked-sieve and high-volume electrostatic precipitator samplers. Bacterial standard plate counts averag...

Bausum, H. T.; Schaub, S. A.; Kenyon, K. F.; Small, M. J.

1982-01-01

320

Evaluation of procalcitonin and neopterin level in serum of patients with acute bacterial infection  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Fever as a common presenting complaint in pediatric patients can be due to various causes. Differentiating bacterial infection from other causes is important because the prompt use of antibiotics is critical in bacterial infection. Traditional markers of infection such as BT and WBC count may be unspecific and culture may be late or absent. CRP and Procalcitonin (PCT) have been considered to evaluate the evolution of infections and sepsis in patients presenting with SIRS. Neopteri...

Babak Pourakbari; Setareh Mamishi; Javid Zafari; Hanieh Khairkhah; Ashtiani, Mohammad H.; Masomeh Abedini; Shahla Afsharpaiman; Soroush Seifi Rad

2010-01-01

321

Relationship of blood and milk cell counts with mastitic pathogens in Murrah buffaloes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to see the effect of mastitic pathogens on the blood and milk counts of Murrah buffaloes. Milk and blood samples were collected from 9 mastitic Murrah buffaloes. The total leucocyte Counts (TLC and Differential leucocyte counts (DLC in blood were within normal range and there was a non-significant change in blood counts irrespective of different mastitic pathogens. Normal milk quarter samples had significantly (P<0.01 less Somatic cell counts (SCC. Lymphocytes were significantly higher in normal milk samples, whereas infected samples had a significant increase (P<0.01 in milk neutrophils. S. aureus infected buffaloes had maximum milk SCC, followed by E. coli and S. agalactiae. Influx of neutrophils in the buffalo mammary gland was maximum for S. agalactiae, followed by E.cli and S. aureus. The study indicated that level of mastitis had no affect on blood counts but it influenced the milk SCC of normal quarters.

C. Singh

2010-02-01

322

Dynamics of bacterial communities before and after distribution in a full-scale drinking water network.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the biological stability of drinking water distribution systems is imperative in the framework of process control and risk management. The objective of this research was to examine the dynamics of the bacterial community during drinking water distribution at high temporal resolution. Water samples (156 in total) were collected over short time-scales (minutes/hours/days) from the outlet of a treatment plant and a location in its corresponding distribution network. The drinking water is treated by biofiltration and disinfectant residuals are absent during distribution. The community was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and flow cytometry as well as conventional, culture-based methods. Despite a random dramatic event (detected with pyrosequencing and flow cytometry but not with plate counts), the bacterial community profile at the two locations did not vary significantly over time. A diverse core microbiome was shared between the two locations (58-65% of the taxa and 86-91% of the sequences) and found to be dependent on the treatment strategy. The bacterial community structure changed during distribution, with greater richness detected in the network and phyla such as Acidobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes becoming abundant. The rare taxa displayed the highest dynamicity, causing the major change during water distribution. This change did not have hygienic implications and is contingent on the sensitivity of the applied methods. The concept of biological stability therefore needs to be revised. Biostability is generally desired in drinking water guidelines but may be difficult to achieve in large-scale complex distribution systems that are inherently dynamic. PMID:25732558

El-Chakhtoura, Joline; Prest, Emmanuelle; Saikaly, Pascal; van Loosdrecht, Mark; Hammes, Frederik; Vrouwenvelder, Hans

2015-05-01

323

Bacterial meningitis in children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To demonstrate the epidemiology, clinical manifestations and bacteriological profile of bacterial meningitis in children beyond the neonatal period in our hospital. This was a retrospective descriptive study conducted at Prince Rashid Hospital in Irbid, Jordan. The medical records of 50 children with the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis during 4 years period, were reviewed. The main cause of infection was streptococcus pneumoniae, followed by Haemophilus influenza and Niesseria meningitides. Mortality was higher in infants and meningococcal infection, while complications were more encountered in cases of streptococcus pneumoniae. Cerebrospinal fluid culture was positive in 11 cases and Latex agglutination test in 39. There is a significant reduction of the numbers of bacterial meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenza type B species. (author)

324

Modeling and simulation of count data.  

Science.gov (United States)

Count data, or number of events per time interval, are discrete data arising from repeated time to event observations. Their mean count, or piecewise constant event rate, can be evaluated by discrete probability distributions from the Poisson model family. Clinical trial data characterization often involves population count analysis. This tutorial presents the basics and diagnostics of count modeling and simulation in the context of pharmacometrics. Consideration is given to overdispersion, underdispersion, autocorrelation, and inhomogeneity. PMID:25116273

Plan, E L

2014-01-01

325

Cellphones A Modern Stayhouse For Bacterial Pathogens  

OpenAIRE

Cellphones are increasingly used by health care personnels for communication. These can harbour variouspotential pathogens and become an exogenous source of nosocomial infections. A total of 160 cellphonesbelonging to doctors and paramedical staff working in various departments at govt. medical college andhospital, Amritsar were screened for bacterial isolates. Sterile swabs moistened with nutrient broth wereused to swab the front, back and the sides of the cellphones and were subjected to cu...

Usha Arora; Pushpa Devi; Aarti Chadha; Sita Malhotra

2009-01-01

326

Regulation of bacterial sulfate reduction and hydrogen sulfide fluxes in the central Namibian coastal upwelling zone  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The coastal upwelling system off central Namibia is one of the most productive regions of the oceans and is characterized by frequently occurring shelf anoxia with severe effects for the benthic life and fisheries. We present data on water column dissolved oxygen, sulfide, nitrate and nitrite, pore water profiles for dissolved,sulfide and sulfate, S-35-sulfate reduction rates, as well as bacterial counts of large sulfur bacteria from 20 stations across the continental shelf and slope. The stations covered two transects and included the inner shelf with its anoxic and extremely oxygen-depleted bottom waters, the oxygen minimum zone on the continental slope, and the lower continental slope below the oxygen minimum zone. High concentrations of dissolved sulfide, up to 22 mM, in the near-surface sediments of the inner shelf result from extremely high rates of bacterial sulfate reduction and the low capacity to oxidize and trap sulfide. The inner shelf break marks the seaward border of sulfidic bottom waters, and separates two different regimes of bacterial sulfate reduction. In the sulfidic bottom waters on the shelf, up to 55% of sulfide oxidation is mediated by the large nitrate-storing sulfur bacteria, Thiomargarita spp. The filamentous relatives Beggiatoa spp. OCCUPY low-O-2 bottom waters on the outer shelf. Sulfide oxidation on the slope is apparently not mediated by the large sulfur bacteria. The data demonstrate the importance of large sulfur bacteria, which live close to the sediment-water interface and reduce the hydrogen sulfide flux to the water column. Modeling of pore water sulfide concentration profiles indicates that sulfide produced by bacterial sulfate reduction in the uppermost 16 cm of sediment is sufficient to account for the total flux of hydrogen sulfide to the water column. However, the total pool of hydrogen sulfide in the water column is too large to be explained by steady state diffusion across the sediment-water interface. Episodic advection of hydrogen sulfide, possibly triggered by methane eruptions, may contribute to hydrogen sulfide in the water column. Copyright (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd.

Bruchert, V.; JØrgensen, BB

2003-01-01

327

1.NBT Counting Circles II  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Setup Have students stand and form a circle facing in toward each other. Select a counting sequence to be practiced with no more than 6-10 numbers in t...

328

Complete Blood Count (CBC) Interpretation  

Science.gov (United States)

This tutorial is designed to aid first and second year medical students learn how to interpret a complete blood count. It includes material on how the test is done, its general application and pitfalls in interpretation. QuickTime movies and Java script runtime plug-in scripts are required for some pages. The tutorial concludes with a short self-help quiz covering the major points developed. The plug-ins noted above are available free at the following sites: http://www.apple.com/quicktime/download/win.html and http://www.sun.com/. Questions should be directed to Dr. Mark Braun (braunm@indiana.edu).Annotated: false

329

Candidate bacterial conditions.  

OpenAIRE

This article provides background information on bacterial diseases and discusses those that are candidates for elimination or eradication. Only one disease, neonatal tetanus, is a strong candidate for elimination. Others, including Haemophilus influenzae b infection, leprosy, diphtheria, pertussis, tuberculosis, meningococcal disease, congenital syphilis, trachoma and syphilis are important causes of morbidity and mortality in industrialized and developing countries. For all these diseases, e...

Cohen, M. L.

1998-01-01

330

BACTERIAL KIDNEY DISEASE  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial kidney disease (BKD), caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, is a prevalent disease that impacts the sustainable production of salmonid fish for consumption and species conservation efforts. The disease is chronic in nature and mortality most often occurs in 6–12 month old juvenile salmonid...

331

Evaluation of intestinal bacterial flora of conventional and organic broilers using culture-based methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The major bacteria colonizing the intestinal tract (ileum and caecum of organic (O and conventional (C chickens were counted, isolated and identified by conventional methods. Chickens were obtained from 7 conventional and 7 organic chicken farms (n=203. Intestinal sampling was performed at different ages, every 10 days, starting at 20 days until 40 and from 20 days to 80 days of age, respectively, for conventional and organic birds. Statistical analysis was performed on two separate data sets (40 days of age and all ages.The comparison of C vs O systems was analyzed with univariate and multivariate procedures. There were large differences in bacterial counts in relation to the portion of intestine, the rearing system and the farms. In the ileum of conventional birds Enterobacteria were higher than in organic birds (7.03 vs 6.09 CFUxlog/g; P<0.05, whereas the contrary was observed for Lactobacilli (6.75 vs 7.07 CFUxlog/g; P<0.05. With respect to the other microflora, the effect of farm probably masked possible differences. The effect of rearing system was more visible in the caecum than in the ileum: Enterobacteria levels were higher in C than in O chickens (7.42 vs 7.05 CFUxlog/g; P<0.01, whereas Enterococci (7.65 vs 6.55 CFUxlog/g; P<0.05, Lactobacilli (7.85 vs 7.31 CFUxlog/g; P<0.05 and total aerobia (8.12 vs 7.66 CFUxlog/g; P<0.01 counts were higher in organic chickens. Multivariate analysis of caecum microflora showed the possibility of discriminating the rearing system. In the ileum of conventional birds Enterobacteria and total aerobia increased with age, while Lactobacilli decreased. In the O system, Enterobacteria, Lactobacilli and total anaerobia showed a similar trend, whereas total aerobia and Enterococci showed the opposite trend. A similar situation was observed in the caecum. Further investigations are necessary to better assess the role and effect of the enteric flora on the productive performance and on the health status of reared chickens.

Cesare Castellini

2010-01-01

332

ACTIVE BACTERIAL CORE SURVEILLANCE (ABCS)  

Science.gov (United States)

Active Bacterial Core Surveillance is population based surveillance system. Surveillance of invasive bacterial diseases due to pathogens at nine Emerging Infections Program sites. The coverage is the based on a study population, nationwide....

333

Automatic cell counting with ImageJ.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cell counting is an important routine procedure. However, to date there is no comprehensive, easy to use, and inexpensive solution for routine cell counting, and this procedure usually needs to be performed manually. Here, we report a complete solution for automatic cell counting in which a conventional light microscope is equipped with a web camera to obtain images of a suspension of mammalian cells in a hemocytometer assembly. Based on the ImageJ toolbox, we devised two algorithms to automatically count these cells. This approach is approximately 10 times faster and yields more reliable and consistent results compared with manual counting. PMID:25542972

Grishagin, Ivan V

2015-03-15

334

Bacterial colonization of phyllosphere of Mediterranean aromatic plants.  

OpenAIRE

The influence of secondary metabolites on the bacterial colonization of the phyllosphere of four aromatic species of the Mediterranean region was studied for the determination of total bacterial populations (TBP) and populations of ice nucleation active bacteria (INA). The aromatic plants used were lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), Greek sage (Salvia fruticosa), and Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum), all growing in neighboring sites. Lavender w...

Karamanoli, K.; ???????????, ?.; Vokou, D.; Menkissoglu, U.; Constantinidou, H. -i

2011-01-01

335

Bacterial Community Structure and Function along a Heavy Metal Gradient  

OpenAIRE

The response of the planktonic, sediment, and epilithic bacterial communities to increasing concentrations of heavy metals was determined in a polluted river. None of the communities demonstrated a pollution-related effect on bacterial numbers (viable and total), heterotrophic activity, resistance to Pb or Cu, or species diversity as determined by either the Shannon-Wiener diversity index or rarefaction. The lack of correlation between concentrations of heavy metals and resistance in the sedi...

Dean-ross, Deborah; Mills, Aaron L.

1989-01-01

336

Commercial application of bacterial heap leaching in Ganzhou uranium mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper the situation of commercial application on bacterial heap leaching in Ganzhou Uranium Mine is introduced, and the construction of biomembrane oxidizing tank, regeneration and recycled utilization of barren solution are summarized. Total five heaps, 18436 t, uranium ore are leached by bacteria during the half of a year. The result is consistent with that of commercial experiment. The technology of bacterial heap leaching is more perfected

337

Modeling the Lag Time of Listeria monocytogenes from Viable Count Enumeration and Optical Density Data  

OpenAIRE

The following two factors significantly influence estimates of the maximum specific growth rate (?max) and the lag-phase duration (?): (i) the technique used to monitor bacterial growth and (ii) the model fitted to estimate parameters. In this study, nine strains of Listeria monocytogenes were monitored simultaneously by optical density (OD) analysis and by viable count enumeration (VCE) analysis. Four usual growth models were fitted to our data, and estimates of growth parameters were comp...

Baty, F.; Flandrois, J. P.; Delignette-muller, M. L.

2002-01-01

338

Counting efficiency of scintillating gels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Scintillating gels that are suitable for the counting of insoluble radioact+ve samples, sometimes exhibit in addition a higher scintillation yield than the corresponding liquid scintillators. This property, observable when silica is added into dioxane liquid scintillators, is inherent in some primary solutes (PPO, PBD, butyl-PBD) while not obvious for others (CPO, PFD, BPO, ?NPO). Quenching properties of chlorinated compounds (CHCl3, CCl4) and energy transfer mechanisms are not changed by silica addition. On the other hand, PPO, PBD and butyl-PBD fluorescence quantum yields are markedly increased under these conditions, probably because of the higher viscosity of the samples. Another scintillating gel was prepared by the addition of HP55 (hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose phthalate) into PPO-dioxane liquid scintillator; its scintillation yield is reduced without any change of transfer mechanisms and at the same time PPO fluorescence quantum yield is diminished. A static quenching process by HP55 is likely to occur, which screens the viscosity effect noticed in the presence of Cab-O-Sil. Thus, PPO, PBD and butyl-PBD seem to be the most efficient primary solutes among those studied since they provide gel scintillator giving improved counting efficiency compared to that of liquid scintillator. (author)

339

Photon Counting 3-D Object Recognition Using Digital Holography  

OpenAIRE

We present an analysis of the recognition performance of 3-D objects reconstructed from digital holograms recorded under photon counting conditions. The digital holograms are computed by applying four-step phase-shifting techniques to interferograms recorded with weak coherent light. Recognition capability is analyzed as a function of the total number of photons by using a maximum-likelihood approach adapted to one-class classification problems. The likelihood is modeled assumi...

Latorre Carmona, Pedro; Javidi, Bahram; Pla Ban?o?n, Filiberto; Tajahuerce, Enrique

2013-01-01

340

New Bacterial Meningitis Vaccine Approved  

Science.gov (United States)

... bacterial meningitis among people aged 10 through 25. Meningococcal disease, or meningitis, is a life-threatening bacterial infection of the ... a college dormitory. Some 500 cases of bacterial meningitis were recorded by the U.S. Centers ... disease can be treated with antibiotics, although this ...

341

Counting efficiencies by liquid scintillation counting. Single isomeric transitions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work we present liquid scintillation counting efficiency tables for several radionuclides with single isomeric transitions, in which electron conversion and gamma emission processes are competitive. We study the radionuclides: ''58m CO, ''77mSE, ''79mBR, ''87mSR,''89mY,''93mNB,''103mRh, ''107mAG, ''109mAG, ''113mIn, ''131mXe; ''133mXe,''135mBa, ''167mEr, for two different scintillators, Ultima-Gold and Insta-Gel. We consider volumes of 10 and 15 mL for Ultima gold, and 15 mL for Insta-Gel

342

Effect of dietary restriction on total and bacterium-specific mucosal secretory immunoglobulin A in bile-diverted intestinal self-filling blind loops.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of starvation on the mucosal secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) response to bacterial antigens was studied in bile-free rat self-filling blind loops constructed at the end of a Roux-en-Y branch of jejunum. Rats were fed a 50% restricted diet for 1 to 4 weeks after surgery. sIgA was measured in the mucosa and lumen by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Dietary restriction caused a final rise of luminal sIgA which was less than 50% of that of normally fed controls Luminal bacteria counts were not different in the two groups. The percentage of total sIgA precipitated with intestinal bacteria was not significantly affected by dietary restriction, and there was no change in the specific binding of sIgA to several bacterial species. Nonprecipitated sIgA exhibited a low but significant specific binding to bacteria in both diet-restricted and fed rats. Diet restriction therefore reduced the total sIgA response to luminal bacteria, but the specific bacterial binding capacity per microgram of sIgA was not altered. In these short-term experiments diet-restricted animals appeared to be capable of secreting sIgA in excess of requirement, since the nonprecipitable luminal fraction contained free sIgA with binding capacity for bacteria. The ability of sIgA to react with specific antigens may therefore be of more significance as an indicator of bacterial susceptibility than the measurement of total sIgA. PMID:3338846

Lichtman, S N; Sherman, P M; Forstner, G G

1988-01-01

343

Design Study of an Incinerator Ash Conveyor Counting System - 13323  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A design study has been performed for a system that should measure the Cs-137 activity in ash from an incinerator. Radioactive ash, expected to consist of both Cs-134 and Cs-137, will be transported on a conveyor belt at 0.1 m/s. The objective of the counting system is to determine the Cs-137 activity and direct the ash to the correct stream after a diverter. The decision levels are ranging from 8000 to 400000 Bq/kg and the decision error should be as low as possible. The decision error depends on the total measurement uncertainty which depends on the counting statistics and the uncertainty in the efficiency of the geometry. For the low activity decision it is necessary to know the efficiency to be able to determine if the signal from the Cs-137 is above the minimum detectable activity and that it generates enough counts to reach the desired precision. For the higher activity decision the uncertainty of the efficiency needs to be understood to minimize decision errors. The total efficiency of the detector is needed to be able to determine if the detector will be able operate at the count rate at the highest expected activity. The design study that is presented in this paper describes how the objectives of the monitoring systems were obtained, the choice of detector was made and how ISOCS (In Situ Object Counting System) mathematical modeling was used to calculate the efficiency. The ISOCS uncertainty estimator (IUE) was used to determine which parameters of the ash was important to know accurately in order to minimize the uncertainty of the efficiency. The examined parameters include the height of the ash on the conveyor belt, the matrix composition and density and relative efficiency of the detector. (authors)

344

Design Study of an Incinerator Ash Conveyor Counting System - 13323  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A design study has been performed for a system that should measure the Cs-137 activity in ash from an incinerator. Radioactive ash, expected to consist of both Cs-134 and Cs-137, will be transported on a conveyor belt at 0.1 m/s. The objective of the counting system is to determine the Cs-137 activity and direct the ash to the correct stream after a diverter. The decision levels are ranging from 8000 to 400000 Bq/kg and the decision error should be as low as possible. The decision error depends on the total measurement uncertainty which depends on the counting statistics and the uncertainty in the efficiency of the geometry. For the low activity decision it is necessary to know the efficiency to be able to determine if the signal from the Cs-137 is above the minimum detectable activity and that it generates enough counts to reach the desired precision. For the higher activity decision the uncertainty of the efficiency needs to be understood to minimize decision errors. The total efficiency of the detector is needed to be able to determine if the detector will be able operate at the count rate at the highest expected activity. The design study that is presented in this paper describes how the objectives of the monitoring systems were obtained, the choice of detector was made and how ISOCS (In Situ Object Counting System) mathematical modeling was used to calculate the efficiency. The ISOCS uncertainty estimator (IUE) was used to determine which parameters of the ash was important to know accurately in order to minimize the uncertainty of the efficiency. The examined parameters include the height of the ash on the conveyor belt, the matrix composition and density and relative efficiency of the detector. (authors)

Jaederstroem, Henrik; Bronson, Frazier [Canberra Industries Inc., 800 Research Parkway Meriden CT 06450 (United States)

2013-07-01

345

Bacterial diversity in faeces from polar bear (Ursus maritimus in Arctic Svalbard  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Polar bears (Ursus maritimus are major predators in the Arctic marine ecosystem, feeding mainly on seals, and living closely associated with sea ice. Little is known of their gut microbial ecology and the main purpose of this study was to investigate the microbial diversity in faeces of polar bears in Svalbard, Norway (74-81°N, 10-33°E. In addition the level of blaTEM alleles, encoding ampicillin resistance (ampr were determined. In total, ten samples were collected from ten individual bears, rectum swabs from five individuals in 2004 and faeces samples from five individuals in 2006. Results A 16S rRNA gene clone library was constructed, and all sequences obtained from 161 clones showed affiliation with the phylum Firmicutes, with 160 sequences identified as Clostridiales and one sequence identified as unclassified Firmicutes. The majority of the sequences (70% were affiliated with the genus Clostridium. Aerobic heterotrophic cell counts on chocolate agar ranged between 5.0 × 104 to 1.6 × 106 colony forming units (cfu/ml for the rectum swabs and 4.0 × 103 to 1.0 × 105 cfu/g for the faeces samples. The proportion of ampr bacteria ranged from 0% to 44%. All of 144 randomly selected ampr isolates tested positive for enzymatic ?-lactamase activity. Three % of the ampr isolates from the rectal samples yielded positive results when screened for the presence of blaTEM genes by PCR. BlaTEM alleles were also detected by PCR in two out of three total faecal DNA samples from polar bears. Conclusion The bacterial diversity in faeces from polar bears in their natural environment in Svalbard is low compared to other animal species, with all obtained clones affiliating to Firmicutes. Furthermore, only low levels of blaTEM alleles were detected in contrast to their increasing prevalence in some clinical and commensal bacterial populations.

Brusetti Lorenzo

2010-01-01

346

16S rRNA gene-based metagenomic analysis identifies a novel bacterial co-prevalence pattern in dental caries  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To identify the prevalence of acidogenic and nonacidogenic bacteria in patients with polycaries lesions, and to ascertain caries specific bacterial prevalence in relation to noncaries controls. Materials and Methods: Total genomic DNA extracted from saliva of three adults and four children from the same family were subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis on a next generation sequencer, the PGS-Ion Torrent. Those bacterial genera with read counts > 1000 were considered as significant in each of the subject and used to associate the occurrence with caries. Results and Conclusion: Sequencing analysis indicated a higher prevalence of Streptococcus, Rothia, Granulicatella, Gemella, Actinomyces, Selenomonas, Haemophilus and Veillonella in the caries group relative to controls. While higher prevalence of Streptococcus, Rothia and Granulicatella were observed in all caries samples, the prevalence of others was observable in 29–57% of samples. Interestingly, Rothia and Selenomonas, which are known to occur within anaerobic environments of dentinal caries and subgingival plaque biofilms, were seen in the saliva of these caries patients. Taken together, the study has identified for the first time a unique co-prevalence pattern of bacteria in caries patients that may be explored as distinct caries specific bacterial signature to predict cariogenesis in high-risk primary and mixed dentition age groups. PMID:25713496

Jagathrakshakan, Sri Nisha; Sethumadhava, Raghavendra Jayesh; Mehta, Dhaval Tushar; Ramanathan, Arvind

2015-01-01

347

Improved counting efficiencies for measuring 239Pu in the lung in the sitting position.  

Science.gov (United States)

For a study sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) made lung counting measurements of lung deposition in 10 women who had inhaled 92mNb in England. These women were measured in both the supine and sitting (torso 45 degrees from horizontal) positions with a counting system of Ge planar detectors and another counting system of Phoswich detectors. The average increase in counting efficiency from the supine to the sitting position was 108% for the Ge detectors and 310% for the Phoswich detectors. Individual counting efficiency increases ranged from 15-260% for the Ge detectors and from 40-480% for the Phoswich detectors. The increase in counting efficiency was roughly proportional to the total chest wall thickness of the measured individuals. By using the equivalent muscle tissue thickness of the individual's chest wall, the increase in counting efficiency could be attributed to the decrease in the tissue absorption in the sitting position. The decreased distance between the lungs and the detector achieved in the sitting positions may also account for some of the improvement in counting efficiency. In addition, some undetermined internal change in activity distribution (source-to-detector geometry) and tissue absorption may possibly contribute to the improved counting efficiency of the sitting vs. the supine position. PMID:2592207

Palmer, H E; Rieksts, G A; Jefferies, S J; Gunston, K J

1989-11-01

348

Bacterial flora concurrent with Helicobacter pylori in the stomach of patients with upper gastrointestinal diseases  

OpenAIRE

AIM: To investigate the non-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) bacterial flora concurrent with H. pylori infection. METHODS: A total of 103 gastric biopsy specimens from H. pylori positive patients were selected for bacterial culture. All the non-H. pylori bacterial isolates were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). RESULTS: A total of 201 non-H. pylori bacterial isolates were cultivated from 67 (65.0%) of the 103 gastric samp...

Yuan Hu; Li-Hua He; Di Xiao; Guo-Dong Liu; Yi-Xin Gu; Xiao-Xia Tao; Jian-Zhong Zhang

2012-01-01

349

Bacterial community survey of sediments at Naracoorte Caves, Australia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bacterial diversity in sediments at UNESCO World Heritage listed Naracoorte Caves was surveyed as part of an investigation carried out in a larger study on assessing microbial communities in caves. Cave selection was based on tourist accessibility; Stick Tomato and Alexandra Cave (> 15000 annual visits and Strawhaven Cave was used as control (no tourist access. Microbial analysis showed that Bacillus was the most commonly detected microbial genus by culture dependent and independent survey of tourist accessible and inaccessible areas of show (tourist accessible and control caves. Other detected sediment bacterial groups were assigned to the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. The survey also showed differences in bacterial diversity in caves with human access compared to the control cave with the control cave having unique microbial sequences (Acinetobacter, Agromyces, Micrococcus and Streptomyces. The show caves had higher bacterial counts, different 16S rDNA based DGGE cluster patterns and principal component groupings compared to Strawhaven. Different factors such as human access, cave use and configurations could have been responsible for the differences observed in the bacterial community cluster patterns (tourist accessible and inaccessible areas of these caves. Cave sediments can therefore act as reservoirs of microorganisms. This might have some implications on cave conservation activities especially if these sediments harbor rock art degrading microorganisms in caves with rock art.

Ball Andrew S.

2012-07-01

350

Bacterial dynamics during yearlong spontaneous fermentation for production of ngari, a dry fermented fish product of Northeast India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ngari is the most popular traditionally processed non-salted fish product, prepared from sun-dried small cyprinid fish Puntius sophore (Ham.) in Manipur state of Northeast India. The microbial involvement in ngari production remained uncertain due to its low moisture content and yearlong incubation in anaerobically sealed earthen pots without any significant change in total microbial count. The culture-independent PCR-DGGE analysis used during this study confirmed a drastic bacterial community structural change in comparison to its raw material. To understand the bacterial dynamics during this dry fermentation, time series samples collected over a period of nine months through destructive sampling from two indigenous ngari production centres were analysed by using both culture-dependent and culture-independent molecular methods. A total of 210 bacteria isolated from the samples were identified by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) based grouping and 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity analysis. The dominant bacteria were Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. cohnii (38.0%), Tetragenococcus halophilus subsp. flandriensis (16.8%), a novel phylotype related to Lactobacillus pobuzihii (7.2%), Enterococcus faecium (7.2%), Bacillus indicus (6.3%) and Staphylococcus carnosus (3.8%). Distinct bacterial dynamics with the emergence of T. halophilus at third month (10(6)CFU/g), L. pobuzihii at sixth month (10(6)CFU/g), S. carnosus at three to six months (10(4)CFU/g) and B. indicus at six to nine months (10(5)CFU/g) in both the production centres was observed during ngari fermentation. However, the other two dominant bacteria S. cohnii and E. faecium were isolated throughout the fermentation with the population of 10(6)CFU/g and 10(4)CFU/g respectively. Culture-independent PCR-DGGE analysis further showed the presence of additional species, in which Kocuria halotolerans and Macrococcus caseolyticus disappeared during fermentation while Clostridium irregulare and Azorhizobium caulinodans were detected throughout the fermentation. Principal component analysis showed a drastic bacterial community structural change at the sixth month of fermentation. These identified dominant bacterial cultures of T. halophilus, L. pobuzihii, S. carnosus and B. indicus could be effectively utilised for designing starter culture and optimizing fermentation technology for industrialisation of ngari production. PMID:25637876

Devi, Khunjamayum Romapati; Deka, Manab; Jeyaram, Kumaraswamy

2015-04-16

351

Low Background Counting At SNOLAB  

Science.gov (United States)

It is a continuous and ongoing effort to maintain radioactivity in materials and in the environment surrounding most underground experiments at very low levels. These low levels are required so that experiments can achieve the required detection sensitivities for the detection of low-energy neutrinos, searches for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to determine these low background levels in the materials and the underground environment. This proceedings will describe the SNOLAB High Purity Germanium Detector which has been in continuous use for the past five years and give results of many of the items that have been counted over that period. Brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be given, and the radon levels at SNOLAB will be discussed.

Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce

2011-04-01

352

Low Background Counting At SNOLAB  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is a continuous and ongoing effort to maintain radioactivity in materials and in the environment surrounding most underground experiments at very low levels. These low levels are required so that experiments can achieve the required detection sensitivities for the detection of low-energy neutrinos, searches for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to determine these low background levels in the materials and the underground environment. This proceedings will describe the SNOLAB High Purity Germanium Detector which has been in continuous use for the past five years and give results of many of the items that have been counted over that period. Brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be given, and the radon levels at SNOLAB will be discussed.

353

Automatic counting of nuclear tracks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two software packages designed for automatic counting nuclear tracks are tested and compared. The image processing in the first package is divided into three parts segmentation, speckle elimination and removal of ill-formed track holes. The second package is also divided into three parts but the last part is modified such that the track holes with white centres are filled by the program. The processes in the second package are done by the use of mathematical morphology. From the test, it was found that the first package has severe limitations for the working range. The second package provides a greater working range but the running time of the program is longer than that of the first package. 5 refs., 3 tabs

354

Counting solutions from finite samplings  

CERN Document Server

We formulate the solution counting problem within the framework of inverse Ising problem and use belief propagation equations to estimate the entropy whose value provides an upper bound on the true one. We test this idea on both diluted models (random 2-SAT and 3-SAT problems) and fully-connected model (binary perceptron), and show that when the constraint density is small, this upper bound can be very close to the true value. The information stored by the salamander retina under the natural movie stimuli can also be estimated and our result is consistent with that obtained by Monte Carlo method. Of particular significance is sizes of other metastable states for this real neuronal network can also be predicted.

Huang, Haiping

2011-01-01

355

Sediment varve counting with PIXE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The feasibility of the particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique for varve counting of vertically taken marine and lacustrine sediments was studied aiming at its possible use as a dating procedure by observing the yearly variation of the constituent elements. The samples were impregnated with a low viscosity epoxy resin to obtain slabs with preserved layered structure suitable for the PIXE analyses. PIXE-spectra were taken as a function of depth distance and the normalized X-ray peak area variations were determined. Especially, concentration changes of silicon and iron were found to be clear. Due to the employed sample preparation technique the observed chlorine concentration corresponds to the amount of water in the initial sample. Maximum chlorine concentration appeared at positions where the Si and Fe concentrations were near minimum. By plotting the Si/Cl or Fe/Cl peak area ratios, an even more distinct position dependent variation was noted. (author)

356

Counting system for radioactive fluids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A counting system is described for radioactive fluids including a portable gamma ray detector having a detecting portion; a radiation shielded panel having front and rear sides and including a plurality of openings extending therethrough, each of the panel openings being adapted to physically receive the detecting portion of the detector; a vessel for receiving a radioactive fluid sample associated with at least one of the panel openings and located behind the panel coaxially with the panel opening; means for selectively introducing a radioactive fluid into the sample vessel; means for electrically connecting the detector to instrumentation for analyzing the radioactivity of a radioactive fluid, whereby the radioactivity of a radioactive fluid contained in each of the sample vessels can be selectively determined by inserting the detecting portion of the detector into the corresponding panel opening; and radiation shielded plugs adapted to be inserted into each of the panel openings other than the one in which the detector is inserted

357

Photon counting compressive depth mapping  

CERN Document Server

We demonstrate a compressed sensing, photon counting lidar system based on the single-pixel camera. Our technique recovers both depth and intensity maps from a single under-sampled set of incoherent, linear projections of a scene of interest at ultra-low light levels around 0.5 picowatts. Only two-dimensional reconstructions are required to image a three-dimensional scene. We demonstrate intensity imaging and depth mapping at 256 x 256 pixel transverse resolution with acquisition times as short as 3 seconds. We also show novelty filtering, reconstructing only the difference between two instances of a scene. Finally, we acquire 32 x 32 pixel real-time video for three-dimensional object tracking at 14 frames-per-second.

Howland, Gregory A; Ware, Matthew R; Howell, John C

2013-01-01

358

Acute focal bacterial nephritis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Acute focal bacterial nephritis is a very rate type of infective nephritis. It is characterised by groups of abscesses of 1 to 5 mm, situated in the renal cortex with pus tracking to the papillae. Urography is normal or suggests a non-specific enlargement. On sonography, non-homogeneous foci with reduced echogenicity are observed. Unenhanced CT shows indefinite lesions of reduced density, which do not enhance as much as the surrounding parenchyma after contrast injection. On angiography these areas appear as hypovascular lesions. The disease must be differentiated from a malignant renal tumour and from an acute renal abscess. The clinical findings and the results of sonographic and radiological observations on five patients with acute focal bacterial nephritis are described. (orig.)

359

Universality in Bacterial Colonies  

CERN Document Server

The emergent spatial patterns generated by growing bacterial colonies have been the focus of intense study in physics during the last twenty years. Both experimental and theoretical investigations have made possible a clear qualitative picture of the different structures that such colonies can exhibit, depending on the medium on which they are growing. However, there are relatively few quantitative descriptions of these patterns. In this paper, we use a mechanistically detailed simulation framework to measure the scaling exponents associated with the advancing fronts of bacterial colonies on hard agar substrata, aiming to discern the universality class to which the system belongs. We show that the universal behavior exhibited by the colonies can be much richer than previously reported, and we propose the possibility of up to four different sub-phases within the medium-to-high nutrient concentration regime. We hypothesize that the quenched disorder that characterizes one of these sub-phases is an emergent prop...

Bonachela, Juan A; Xavier, Joao B; Levin, Simon A; 10.1007/s10955-011-0179-x

2011-01-01

360

Synovial fluid analysis and bacterial findings in arthritic joints of juvenile male camel (Camelus dromedarius) calves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eighteen synovial fluid samples from 11 male dromedarian calves, 9-12 month old, were analysed cytologically and bacteriologically. Calves were lame and all joints were grossly swollen. The mean +/- SD of total nucleated cell count was 7970 +/- 5000 cells/microl (range 2800-20,000 cells/microl). Polymorphonuclear (PMN) leucocytes were the predominant cell type. The mean +/- SD of absolute and percentages of each cell type were as follows: PMN leucocytes 5518 +/- 3600 cells/microl and 68 +/- 19%, monocytes/macrophages 1600 +/- 1120 cells/microl and 26 +/- 17%, lymphocytes 830 +/- 140 cells/microl and 8 +/- 7%, and red blood cell 350 +/- 130 cells/microl. The mean +/- SD of total protein concentration was 3.5 +/- 1 g/dl (range 2.5-5 g/dl). The most commonly isolated bacteria were non-haemolytic streptococci spp., followed by Arcanobacterium pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. No bacterial growth was obtained in eight samples and non-revealed Mycoplasma spp. PMID:17305968

Bani Ismail, Z; Al-Rukibat, R; Al-Tarazi, Y; Al-Zghoul, M B

2007-03-01

361

Bacterial tactic responses.  

OpenAIRE

Many, if not most, bacterial species swim. The synthesis and operation of the flagellum, the most complex organelle of a bacterium, takes a significant percentage of cellular energy, particularly in the nutrient limited environments in which many motile species are found. It is obvious that motility accords cells a survival advantage over non-motile mutants under normal, poorly mixed conditions and is an important determinant in the development of many associations between bacteria and other ...

Armitage, Jp

1999-01-01

362

Bacterial transformation of terpenoids  

Science.gov (United States)

Data on the bacterial transformation of terpenoids published in the literature in the past decade are analyzed. Possible pathways for chemo-, regio- and stereoselective modifications of terpenoids are discussed. Considerable attention is given to new technological approaches to the synthesis of terpenoid derivatives suitable for the use in the perfume and food industry and promising as drugs and chiral intermediates for fine organic synthesis. The bibliography includes 246 references.

Grishko, V. V.; Nogovitsina, Y. M.; Ivshina, I. B.

2014-04-01

363

Bacterial chromosome dynamics.  

OpenAIRE

Bacterial chromosomes are highly compacted structures and share many properties with their eukaryote counterparts, despite not being organized into chromatin or being contained within a cell nucleus. Proteins conserved across all branches of life act in chromosome organization, and common mechanisms maintain genome integrity and ensure faithful replication. The principles that underlie chromosome segregation in bacteria and eukaryotes share similarities, although bacteria segregate DNA as it ...

Sherratt, Dj

2003-01-01

364

Bacterial meningitis in Nottingham.  

OpenAIRE

Records of 171 cases of bacterial meningitis admitted to Nottingham hospitals from January 1974 to June 1980 were reviewed. The distribution of organisms producing meningitis and the factors influencing mortality in different age groups were assessed. Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae accounted for 69% of all proven cases. The overall mortality was 26% being lowest in patients with meningococcal meningitis (0%) and highest in those with pneumococcal m...

Ispahani, P.

1983-01-01

365

Direct Measurements of Natural Planktonic Bacterial Community Viability by Flow Cytometry  

OpenAIRE

A range of fluorescent viability dyes were used in conjunction with flow cytometry to rapidly enumerate viable bacteria from freshwater environments. Optimal labelling was achieved by using carboxyfluorescein diacetate or chemchrome B with a detergent-mediated permeabilization step. The viable bacterial count under optimal conditions was 7% in oligotrophic lake water and 75% in polluted river water.

Porter, J.; Diaper, J.; Edwards, C.; Pickup, R.

1995-01-01

366

Interfering with bacterial gossip.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Biofilm resilience poses major challenges to the development of novel antimicrobial agents. Biofilm bacteria can be considered small groups of “Special Forces” capable of infiltrating the host and destroying important components of the cellular defense system with the aim of crippling the host defense. Antibiotics exhibit a rather limited effect on biofilms. Furthermore, antibiotics have an ‘inherent obsolescence’ because they select for development of resistance. Bacterial infections with origin in bacterial biofilms have become a serious threat in developed countries. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms are thought to be the dominant agent in many chronic infections including those in cystic fibrosis lungs and chronic wounds. With the present day’s awareness of biofilms, the future task is to exploit this knowledge for development and application of antimicrobial intervention strategies that appropriately target bacteria in their relevant habitat with the aim of mitigating their destructive impact on patients. In this review we describe molecular mechanisms involved in “bacterial gossip” (more scientifically referred to as quorum sensing (QS) and c-di-GMP signaling), virulence, biofilm formation, resistance and QS inhibition as future antimicrobial targets, in particular those that would work to minimize selection pressures for the development of resistant bacteria.

Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

2011-01-01

367

Polyphasic approach for assessing changes in an autochthonous marine bacterial community in the presence of Prestige fuel oil and its biodegradation potential.  

Science.gov (United States)

A laboratory experiment was conducted to identify key hydrocarbon degraders from a marine oil spill sample (Prestige fuel oil), to ascertain their role in the degradation of different hydrocarbons, and to assess their biodegradation potential for this complex heavy oil. After a 17-month enrichment in weathered fuel, the bacterial community, initially consisting mainly of Methylophaga species, underwent a major selective pressure in favor of obligate hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms, such as Alcanivorax and Marinobacter spp. and other hydrocarbon-degrading taxa (Thalassospira and Alcaligenes), and showed strong biodegradation potential. This ranged from >99% for all low- and medium-molecular-weight alkanes (C(15)-C(27)) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (C(0)- to C(2)- naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene, and carbazole), to 75-98% for higher molecular-weight alkanes (C(28)-C(40)) and to 55-80% for the C(3) derivatives of tricyclic and tetracyclic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (e.g., C(3)-chrysenes), in 60 days. The numbers of total heterotrophs and of n-alkane-, aliphatic-, and PAH degraders, as well as the structures of these populations, were monitored throughout the biodegradation process. The salinity of the counting medium affects the counts of PAH degraders, while the carbon source (n-hexadecane vs. a mixture of aliphatic hydrocarbons) is a key factor when counting aliphatic degraders. These limitations notwithstanding, some bacterial genera associated with hydrocarbon degradation (mainly belonging to ?- and ?-Proteobacteria, including the hydrocarbonoclastic Alcanivorax and Marinobacter) were identified. We conclude that Thalassospira and Roseobacter contribute to the degradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons, whereas Mesorhizobium and Muricauda participate in the degradation of PAHs. PMID:21562979

Jiménez, Núria; Viñas, Marc; Guiu-Aragonés, Cèlia; Bayona, Josep M; Albaigés, Joan; Solanas, Anna M

2011-08-01

368

Polyphasic approach for assessing changes in an autochthonous marine bacterial community in the presence of Prestige fuel oil and its biodegradation potential  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A laboratory experiment was conducted to identify key hydrocarbon degraders from a marine oil spill sample (Prestige fuel oil), to ascertain their role in the degradation of different hydrocarbons, and to assess their biodegradation potential for this complex heavy oil. After a 17-month enrichment in weathered fuel, the bacterial community, initially consisting mainly of Methylophaga species, underwent a major selective pressure in favor of obligate hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms, such as Alcanivorax and Marinobacter spp. and other hydrocarbon-degrading taxa (Thalassospira and Alcaligenes), and showed strong biodegradation potential. This ranged from >99% for all low- and medium-molecular-weight alkanes (C{sub 15}-C{sub 27}) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (C{sub 0-} to C{sub 2-} naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene, and carbazole), to 75-98% for higher molecular-weight alkanes (C{sub 28}-C{sub 40}) and to 55-80% for the C{sub 3} derivatives of tricyclic and tetracyclic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (e.g., C{sub 3}-chrysenes), in 60 days. The numbers of total heterotrophs and of n-alkane-, aliphatic-, and PAH degraders, as well as the structures of these populations, were monitored throughout the biodegradation process. The salinity of the counting medium affects the counts of PAH degraders, while the carbon source (n-hexadecane vs. a mixture of aliphatic hydrocarbons) is a key factor when counting aliphatic degraders. These limitations notwithstanding, some bacterial genera associated with hydrocarbon degradation (mainly belonging to {alpha}- and {gamma}-Proteobacteria, including the hydrocarbonoclastic Alcanivorax and Marinobacter) were identified. We conclude that Thalassospira and Roseobacter contribute to the degradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons, whereas Mesorhizobium and Muricauda participate in the degradation of PAHs. (orig.)

Jimenez, Nuria [Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Microbiology; IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Vinas, Marc [GIRO Technological Centre, Mollet del Valles (Spain); Guiu-Aragones, Celia; Solanas, Anna M. [Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Microbiology; Bayona, Josep M.; Albaiges, Joan [IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry

2011-08-15

369

Body fluid cell counts by automated methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Automated cell counting for body fluids is gradually replacing manual cell counting by hemocytometer. Automation offers potential benefits of improved accuracy, efficiency, and standardization. The addition of body fluid modes to some hematology analyzers adapts the technology and software to meet the particular requirements of body fluid analysis. However, the functional sensitivity for low cell counts currently limits applicability of automated methods to all types of body fluid. Microscopic review is indicated when malignancy is a diagnostic consideration. PMID:25676374

Sandhaus, Linda M

2015-03-01

370

Power-counting theorem for staggered fermions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lattice power-counting is extended to QCD with staggered fermions. As preparation, the difficulties encountered by Reisz's original formulation of the lattice power-counting theorem are illustrated. One of the assumptions that is used in his proof does not hold for staggered fermions, as was pointed out long ago by Luescher. Finally, I generalize the power-counting theorem, and the methods of Reisz's proof, such that the difficulties posed by staggered fermions are overcome

371

Efficient Algorithms for Approximate Triangle Counting  

OpenAIRE

Counting the number of triangles in a graph has many important applications in network analysis. Several frequently computed metrics like the clustering coefficient and the transitivity ratio need to count the number of triangles in the network. Furthermore, triangles are one of the most important graph classes considered in network mining. In this paper, we present a new randomized algorithm for approximate triangle counting. The algorithm can be adopted with different samp...

Chehreghani, Mostafa Haghir

2013-01-01

372

Immunity and Simplicity for Exact Counting and Other Counting Classes  

CERN Document Server

Ko [RAIRO 24, 1990] and Bruschi [TCS 102, 1992] showed that in some relativized world, PSPACE (in fact, ParityP) contains a set that is immune to the polynomial hierarchy (PH). In this paper, we study and settle the question of (relativized) separations with immunity for PH and the counting classes PP, C_{=}P, and ParityP in all possible pairwise combinations. Our main result is that there is an oracle A relative to which C_{=}P contains a set that is immune to BPP^{ParityP}. In particular, this C_{=}P^A set is immune to PH^{A} and ParityP^{A}. Strengthening results of Torán [J.ACM 38, 1991] and Green [IPL 37, 1991], we also show that, in suitable relativizations, NP contains a C_{=}P-immune set, and ParityP contains a PP^{PH}-immune set. This implies the existence of a C_{=}P^{B}-simple set for some oracle B, which extends results of Balcázar et al. [SIAM J.Comp. 14, 1985; RAIRO 22, 1988] and provides the first example of a simple set in a class not known to be contained in PH. Our proof technique requires...

Rothe, J

1998-01-01

373

Quality counts: new parameters in blood cell counting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently several parameters have been introduced to the complete blood count such as nucleated red blood cells, immature granulocytes; immature reticulocyte fraction, immature platelet fraction and red cell fragments as well as new parameters for detection of functional iron deficiency. Leucocyte positional parameters, which may diagnose specific diseases (e.g. differentiate between abnormal lymphocytes in leukaemia and viral conditions and may also detect malarial infection) are now available. At this time they are only used for research; however, generally such parameters later become reportable. One manufacturer's routine analyser allows measurement of cells by flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies. Currently, there are no accredited external quality assessment schemes (EQAS) for these parameters. For a number of parameters, on some instruments, there is no internal quality control, which brings into question whether these parameters should be used for clinical decision making. Other more established parameters, such as mean platelet volume, red cell distribution width and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate do not have EQAS available. The UK National EQAS for General Haematology held a workshop earlier this year in 2008 to discuss these parameters. Participants were asked to provide a consensus opinion on which parameters are the most important for inclusion in future haematology EQAS. PMID:19452619

Briggs, C

2009-06-01

374

Radiation Counting System Software Using Visual Basic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been created a Gamma Radiation Counting System using interface card, which paired with Personal Computer (PC) and operated by the Visual Basic program. The program was set through varied menu selections such as ”Multi Counting” , ”Counting and Record” and ”View Data”. An interface card for data acquisition was formed by using AMD9513 components as a counter and timer which can be programmed. This counting system was tested and used in waste facility in PTNBR and the result is quite good. (author)

375

Count rate limitations in pulsed accelerator fields  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses various concepts involved in the counting losses of pulse-counting health physics instrumentation when used within the pulsed radiation environments of typical accelerator fields, in order to pre-establish appropriate limitations in use. Discussed are the 'narrow' pulse and the 'wide' pulse cases, the special effect of neutron moderating assemblies, and the effect of pulse microstructure on the counting losses of the pulse-counting instrumentation. Examples are provided which highlight the various concepts and limitations.

Justus, Alan L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-15

376

Count rate effect in proportional counters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The count rate effect on the pulse height and resolution observed in gas-proportional counters is - in a wide range of the count rate - the result of the rise-time variations of current pulses generated in the active volume of the counter. The paper presents a description of the probable physical processes governing the variations of the pulse rise-time which occur during the operation of the counter and are due to varying either the count rate or the applied voltage. On the basis of the pulse rise-time concept the differences in the count rate effect observed in various types of proportional counters are discussed. (author)

377

Putative radioresistant bacterial isolate from sewage water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sewage water was collected from a stagnant body of water in Balara, Quezon City. approximately 150 ml was aseptically transferred into eight Erlenmeyer flasks. Seven flasks were then subjected to different doses of radiation at the 60Co irradiation facility, PNRI (Philippine Nuclear Research Institute) which are as follows: 0.01 kGy, 0.1 kGy, 0.5 kGy, 1 kGy, 5 kGy, 10 kGy, and 15 kGy. The remaining flask was used as the control. After irradiation, all the different treatments were subjected to colony count at the culture collection laboratory, NSRI. Results showed that the colonies from sewage water treatments irradiated at 0.01 kGy (treatment A), 0.10 kGy (treatment B), and 0.50 kGy (treatment C) exhibited a decreasing trend with colony counts 4.60 x 103 CFU/ml, and 1.30 x 103 CFU/ml, and 26 CFU/ml, respectively. Contrastingly, at 1 kGy (treatment D), high colony count of 2.95 x 103 CFU/ml was observed which is even higher compared to the control (1.02 x 103 CFU/ml). Treatment E that was irradiated at 5 kGy manifested low survival rate (25 CFU/ml) indicating the presence of few putative intermediate radioresistant bacteria. Radiation dose treatments higher than 5 kGy (i.e., 10 kGy and 15 kGy) exhibited no bacterial survival. (Author)

378

Effects of seasons on some semen parameters and bacterial contamination of Awassi ram semen.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of season on some semen parameters and bacterial contamination of Awassi ram semen. Semen samples from six mature Awassi rams were used in this study. Semen collection was performed with artificial vagina every week, from September 2009 to October 2010. Volume, sperm concentration, mass motility, individual motility, percentage live sperm and sperm abnormalities were evaluated. Moreover, determination of viable bacterial count of the rams was also recorded weekly. Higher (p semen volume in the hot summer and spring months was observed of August (1.55 ± 0.08 ml) and March (1.27 ± 0.15 ml). Sperm concentration was highest (p ram semen quality, and summer high temperature in northern Iraq has no effect on Awassi ram semen. There is a significant effect of season on bacterial count on Awassi ram semen. PMID:21883516

Azawi, O I; Ismaeel, M A

2012-06-01

379

Characterization of bacterial pathogens in rural and urban irrigation water.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study aimed to compare the bacteriological quality of an urban and rural irrigation water source. Bacterial counts, characterization, identification and diversity of aerobic bacteria were determined. Escherichia coli isolated from both sites was subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing, virulence gene (Stx1/Stx2 and eae) determination and (GTG)5 Rep-PCR fingerprinting. Low mean monthly counts for aerobic spore formers, anaerobic spore formers and Staphylococcus aureus were noted although occasional spikes were observed. The most prevalent bacterial species at both sites were Bacillus spp., E. coli and Enterobacter spp. In addition, E. coli and Bacillus spp. were most prevalent in winter and summer respectively. Resistance to at least one antibiotic was 84% (rural) and 83% (urban). Highest resistance at both sites was to cephalothin and ampicillin. Prevalence of E. coli possessing at least one virulence gene (Stx1/Stx2 and eae) was 15% (rural) and 42% (urban). All (rural) and 80% (urban) of E. coli possessing virulence genes showed antibiotic resistance. Complete genetic relatedness (100%) was shown by 47% of rural and 67% of urban E. coli isolates. Results from this study show that surface irrigation water sources regardless of geographical location and surrounding land-use practices can be reservoirs of similar bacterial pathogens. PMID:25719470

Aijuka, Matthew; Charimba, George; Hugo, Celia J; Buys, Elna M

2015-03-01

380

Constituent rearrangement diagrams, quark counting and duality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, some basic problems of two body hadron reactions are discussed. Many features of hadron reactions can be attributed to the patterns of constituent rearrangement diagram (CRD). A simple explanation of the ratio of the total cross sections of meson-baryon and baryon-baryon collision by the quark counting can be considered as indication that a meson and a baryon are composite systems of the quark = antiquark and three quark, respectively. The countable nature of constituents is described in terms of CRD. CRD manifests not only flavor symmetry but also the dynamical aspects of hadron reactions. A two-body hadron reaction is described by the amplitude which is given by a sum of the constituent (quark) rearrangement amplitude, each of which corresponds to a CRD. Each CRD can be specified by either of rearranged quark numbers or pair quark numbers. Each quark line of CRD corresponds to a contraction of superscripts and subscript of two different tensors with flavor indices. An assumption, spectator assumption, was introduced to study a spin or helicity in hadron reactions. From this assumption, many relationships are obtained. The most of relationships are satisfied by experimental data, and the S- channel helicities are conserved well in the diffraction process. The concept of duality which is one of the important characteristics of hadron reactions is conceived in the CRD. Discussions of this problem is given at the last part of this paper. (Kato, Tlast part of this paper. (Kato, T

381

The use of the full blood count and differential parameters to assess immune activation levels in asymptomatic, untreated HIV infection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: A feature of HIV/AIDS is chronic immune activation, which results in a number of complications including inflammation-related disorders and blood cytopaenias. Immune activation status is not routinely tested in HIV infection. However, the full blood count (FBC) is a commonly performed te [...] st. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesised that FBC parameters would be significantly different in HIV-infected v. -uninfected individuals, and that some of these parameters would correlate with markers of immune activation (i.e. percentage CD38 expression on CD8+ T cells (%CD38onCD8)) and disease progression (i.e. CD4+ counts) in HIV infection. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study with 83 HIV-infected adults who were antiretroviral therapy-naive and clinically well, and 51 HIV-uninfected adults. The %CD38onCD8 and CD4+ counts were determined by flow cytometry and the FBC was performed on a Siemens ADVIA 2120 system. FBC parameters investigated were total white cell count (WCC), haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, platelet count, absolute neutrophil count, absolute lymphocyte count, and percentage of large unstained cells (%LUCs). RESULTS: Significant differences were found between the HIV-infected and -uninfected groups for total WCC, Hb, neutrophil count, lymphocyte count and %LUCs. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) for the total WCC (5.3±1.3 v. 6.9±2.2; p

N, Vanker; H, Ipp.

2014-01-01

382

Total body water and total body potassium in anorexia nervosa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the ill hospitalized patient with clinically relevant malnutrition, there is a measurable decrease in the ratio of the total body potassium to total body water (TBK/TBW) and a detectable increase in the ratio of total exchangeable sodium to total exchangeable potassium (Nae/Ke). To evaluate body composition analyses in anorexia nervosa patients with chronic uncomplicated semistarvation, TBK and TBW were measured by whole body K40 counting and deuterium oxide dilution in 10 females with stable anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched female controls. The ratio of TBK/TBW was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in anorexia nervosa patients than controls. The close inverse correlation found in published studies between TBK/TBW and Nae/Ke together with our results suggest that in anorexia nervosa, Nae/Ke may be low or normal. A decreased TBK/TBW is not a good indicator of malnutrition in the anorexia nervosa patient. The use of a decreased TBK/TBW ratio or an elevated Nae/Ke ratio as a definition of malnutrition may result in inappropriate nutritional management in the patient with severe nonstressed chronic semistarvation.

Dempsey, D.T.; Crosby, L.O.; Lusk, E.; Oberlander, J.L.; Pertschuk, M.J.; Mullen, J.L.

1984-08-01

383

Total body water and total body potassium in anorexia nervosa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the ill hospitalized patient with clinically relevant malnutrition, there is a measurable decrease in the ratio of the total body potassium to total body water (TBK/TBW) and a detectable increase in the ratio of total exchangeable sodium to total exchangeable potassium (Nae/Ke). To evaluate body composition analyses in anorexia nervosa patients with chronic uncomplicated semistarvation, TBK and TBW were measured by whole body K40 counting and deuterium oxide dilution in 10 females with stable anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched female controls. The ratio of TBK/TBW was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in anorexia nervosa patients than controls. The close inverse correlation found in published studies between TBK/TBW and Nae/Ke together with our results suggest that in anorexia nervosa, Nae/Ke may be low or normal. A decreased TBK/TBW is not a good indicator of malnutrition in the anorexia nervosa patient. The use of a decreased TBK/TBW ratio or an elevated Nae/Ke ratio as a definition of malnutrition may result in inappropriate nutritional management in the patient with severe nonstressed chronic semistarvation

384

On-chip counting the number and the percentage of CD4+ T lymphocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel technique is reported for counting the number and the percentage of CD4+ T lymphocytes in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel. This system integrates optical fluorescence detection with resistive pulse sensing enhanced by a metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET). The MOSFET signal indicates the total number of the cells passing through the detection channel, while the concurrent fluorescence signal records only the number of cells tagged with a specific fluorescent dye. The absolute count of the CD4+ T cells and its percentage to the total lymphocytes can be analyzed by combining the two counting results, which shows comparable accuracy to those from the commercial flow cytometer. The fastest observed counting rate for a single-channel microchip is 8.5 cells per second. This technique is highly promising as it could greatly reduce the cost for HIV diagnosis and treatment and make it accessible to resource-poor developing countries. PMID:18231671

Wang, Yao-Nan; Kang, Yuejun; Xu, Dongyan; Chon, Chan Hee; Barnett, Louise; Kalams, Spyros A; Li, Deyu; Li, Dongqing

2008-02-01

385

Bacterial contribution to dissolved organic matter in eutrophic Lake Kasumigaura, Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Incubation experiments using filtered waters from Lake Kasumigaura were conducted to examine bacterial contribution to a dissolved organic carbon (DOC) pool. Bacterial abundance, bacterial production, concentrations of DOC, total dissolved amino acids (TDAA), and total dissolved neutral sugars (TDNS) were monitored during the experiments. Bacterial production during the first few days was very high (20 to 35 ?g C liter(-1) day(-1)), accounting for 40 to 70% of primary production. The total bacterial production accounted for 34 to 55% of the DOC loss during the experiment, indicating high bacterial activities in Lake Kasumigaura. The DOC degradation was only 12 to 15%, whereas the degradation of TDAA and TDNS ranged from 30 to 50%, suggesting the preferential usage of TDAA and TDNS. The contribution of bacterially derived carbon to a DOC pool in Lake Kasumigaura was estimated using d-amino acids as bacterial biomarkers and accounted for 30 to 50% of the lake DOC. These values were much higher than those estimated for the open ocean (20 to 30%). The ratio of bacterially derived carbon to bulk carbon increased slightly with time, suggesting that the bacterially derived carbon is more resistant to microbial degradation than bulk carbon. This is the first study to estimate the bacterial contribution to a DOC pool in freshwater environments. These results indicate that bacteria play even more important roles in carbon cycles in freshwater environments than in open oceans and also suggests that recent increases in recalcitrant DOC in various lakes could be attributed to bacterially derived carbon. The potential differences in bacterial contributions to dissolved organic matter (DOM) between freshwater and marine environments are discussed. PMID:24038686

Kawasaki, Nobuyuki; Komatsu, Kazuhiro; Kohzu, Ayato; Tomioka, Noriko; Shinohara, Ryuichiro; Satou, Takayuki; Watanabe, Fumiko Nara; Tada, Yuya; Hamasaki, Koji; Kushairi, M R M; Imai, Akio

2013-12-01

386

Defining the estimated core genome of bacterial populations using a Bayesian decision model.  

OpenAIRE

The bacterial core genome is of intense interest and the volume of whole genome sequence data in the public domain available to investigate it has increased dramatically. The aim of our study was to develop a model to estimate the bacterial core genome from next-generation whole genome sequencing data and use this model to identify novel genes associated with important biological functions. Five bacterial datasets were analysed, comprising 2096 genomes in total. We developed a Bayesian decisi...

Tonder, Aj; Mistry, S.; Bray, Je; Hill, Dm; Cody, Aj; Farmer, Cl; Klugman, Kp; Von Gottberg, A.; Bentley, Sd; Parkhill, J.; Jolley, Ka; Maiden, Mc; Brueggemann, AB

2014-01-01

387

Association of weight and breed type with adjusted 40K count and certain indices of carcass composition in beef steers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four phantoms weighing 500, 700, 900 and 1100 pounds were developed to determine the influence of body mass on whole-body counting efficiency. Counting efficiency was observed to decrease as phantom weight increased from 500 to 1100 pounds. Standard source counting efficiency accounted for greater than 98 percent of the variation in phantom counting efficiency. Two counts, obtained on the same animal on the same day were determined to be highly repeatable. Significant breed type and weight group differences were found for adjusted count. Linear like trends were observed for the relationships between count data and weight. Adjusted count was more strongly associated with composition than was weight, on a within slaughter weight basis. Within weight group standard errors for fat-free lean and total body fat were generally less when using adjusted count as the independent variable than when using weight, regardless of breed type. A combination of both variables generally provided the most precise estimates of composition. Across weight regression resulted in empty body weight accounting for a larger proportion of the variation in composition than accounted for by adjusted count. A significant reduction in the across weight standard errors of estimate was noted when both adjusted count and weight were fitted to the model. Significant breed type and weight group effects were noted for carcass measurements and carcass composition

388

The translation of preschoolers' physical activity guidelines into a daily step count target.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed at translating the physical activity (PA) guideline (180 min of total PA per day) into a step count target in preschoolers. 535 Flemish preschoolers (mean age: 4.41 ± 0.58) wore an ActiGraph accelerometer (GT1M, GT3X and GT3X+) - with activated step count function - for four consecutive days. The step count target was calculated from the accelerometer output using a regression equation, applying four different cut-points for light-to-vigorous PA: Pate, Evenson, Reilly, and Van Cauwenberghe. The present analysis showed that 180 min of total PA per day is equivalent to the following step count targets: 5,274 steps/day using the Pate cut-point, 4,653 steps/day using the Evenson cut-point, 11,379 steps/day using the Reilly cut-point and 13,326 steps/day using the Van Cauwenberghe cut-point. Future studies should focus on achieving consensus on which cut-points to use in preschoolers before a definite step count target in preschoolers can be proposed. Until then, we propose to use a provisional step count target of 11,500 steps/day as this step count target is attainable, realistic and helpful in promoting preschoolers' PA. PMID:25524541

De Craemer, Marieke; De Decker, Ellen; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Verloigne, Maïté; Manios, Yannis; Cardon, Greet

2015-05-01

389

Radiology of bacterial pneumonia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bacterial pneumonia is commonly encountered in clinical practice. Radiology plays a prominent role in the evaluation of pneumonia. Chest radiography is the most commonly used imaging tool in pneumonias due to its availability and excellent cost benefit ratio. CT should be used in unresolved cases or when complications of pneumonia are suspected. The main applications of radiology in pneumonia are oriented to detection, characterisation and follow-up, especially regarding complications. The classical classification of pneumonias into lobar and bronchial pneumonia has been abandoned for a more clinical classification. Thus, bacterial pneumonias are typified into three main groups: Community acquired pneumonia (CAD), Aspiration pneumonia and Nosocomial pneumonia (NP).The usual pattern of CAD is that of the previously called lobar pneumonia; an air-space consolidation limited to one lobe or segment. Nevertheless, the radiographic patterns of CAD may be variable and are often related to the causative agent. Aspiration pneumonia generally involves the lower lobes with bilateral multicentric opacities. Nosocomial Pneumonia (NP) occurs in hospitalised patients. The importance of NP is related to its high mortality and, thus, the need to obtain a prompt diagnosis. The role of imaging in NP is limited but decisive. The most valuable information is when the chest radiographs are negative and rule out pneumonia. The radiographic patterns of NP are very variable, most commonly shoof NP are very variable, most commonly showing diffuse multifocal involvement and pleural effusion. Imaging plays also an important role in the detection and evaluation of complications of bacterial pneumonias. In many of these cases, especially in hospitalised patients, chest CT must be obtained in order to better depict these associate findings

390

Changes in T-cell count in patients undergoing radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To know changes in immunological competence of T-cells induced by radiotherapy, T-cells in peripheral blood of patients who underwent radiotherapy were observed before, during, and 6 months after the irradiation. The subjects were 69 patients having malignant tumors including 20 with gastric cancer, 15 with breast cancer, and 9 with colon cancer. 200 rad of an exposure dose was irradiated for successive 5 to 6 days. A total of exposure doses ranged from 2,000 to 10,000 rad. T-cell count decreased markedly until exposure doses reached 3,000 rad, but its decrease was mild after exposure doses were over 3,000 rad. T-cell count decreased slightly in patients whose head and neck were irradiated, but it decreased markedly in patients whose thorax and abdomen were irradiated. Therefore, it was thought that there was a relationship between exposed sites and the decrease in T-cell count. T-cell count decreased markedly when irradiation field was wide. The smaller exposure doses were, the earlier the recovery of T-cell were. T-cells irradiated with over 7,000 rad did not recover within 6 months after the irradiation. The recovery of T-cells in patients with gastric cancer who did not undergo gastrectomy was markedly worse than that in patients who had gastrectomy. Patterns of changes in T-cell count were divided into 4 (ascending curve, U-type curve, flat curve, and descending curve), and prognosis of patients were discussed. There was a clear difference in prognosis of patienta clear difference in prognosis of patients among four patterns. (Tsunoda, M.)