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Validation parameters of instrumental method for determination of total bacterial count in milk  

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The method of flow citometry as rapid, instrumental and routine microbiological method is used for determination of total bacterial count in milk. The results of flow citometry are expressed as individual bacterial cells count. Problems regarding the interpretation of the results of total bacterial count can be avoided by transformation of the results of flow citometry method onto the scale of reference method (HRN ISO 6610:2001.). The method of flow citometry, like any analitycal method, acc...

Nataša Mikulec; Dubravka Samaržija; Neven Antunac; Šimun Zamberlin; Zrinka Kuliš; Iva Horvat

2004-01-01

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Validation parameters of instrumental method for determination of total bacterial count in milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The method of flow citometry as rapid, instrumental and routine microbiological method is used for determination of total bacterial count in milk. The results of flow citometry are expressed as individual bacterial cells count. Problems regarding the interpretation of the results of total bacterial count can be avoided by transformation of the results of flow citometry method onto the scale of reference method (HRN ISO 6610:2001.. The method of flow citometry, like any analitycal method, according to the HRN EN ISO/IEC 17025:2000 standard, requires validation and verification. This paper describes parameters of validation: accuracy, precision, specificity, range, robustness and measuring uncertainty for the method of flow citometry.

Nataša Mikulec

2004-10-01

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Total viable bacterial count using a real time all-fibre spectroscopic system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid, accurate and sensitive enumeration of bacterial populations in the natural environment is an essential task for many research fields. Widely used standard methods for counting bacteria such as heterotrophic plate count require 1 to 8 days of incubation time for limited accuracy, while more accurate and rapid techniques are often expensive and may require bulky equipment. In the present study, we have developed a computerized optical prototype for bacterial detection. The goal of this research was to estimate the potential of this optical system for Total Viable Bacterial Count in water. For this purpose, we tested water batches with different microbiological content. Bacterial detection was based on fluorescence enhanced by nucleic acid staining. High sensitivity was achieved by a stable diode pumped solid state laser, sensitive CCD spectrometer and in situ excitation and signal collection. The results have shown that the bacterial count from different water origins using our optical setup along with multivariate analysis presents a higher accuracy and a shorter detection time compared to standard methods. For example, in a case where the fluorescence signal is calibrated to the water batch regression line, the relative standard deviation of the optical system enumeration varies between 21 and 36%, while that of the heterotropic plate count counterpart varies between 41 and 59%. In summary, we conclude that the all-fibre optical system may offer the following advantages over conventional methods: near real time examinations, portability, sensitivity, accuracy and ability to detect 10(2) to 10(8) CFU per ml bacterial concentrations. PMID:23730684

Bogomolny, E; Swift, S; Vanholsbeeck, F

2013-07-21

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Relationship among specific bacterial counts and total bacterial and somatic cell counts and factors influencing their variation in ovine bulk tank milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

To analyze the relationship among the counts of different organisms and total bacterial count (BTTBC) and somatic cell count (BTSCC) as determined in dairy laboratories in ovine bulk tank milk, 751 bulk tank milk samples from 205 dairy sheep flocks belonging to Consortium for Ovine Promotion (CPO) were collected between January and December 2011. Four samplings were carried out in each flock, once per season, throughout 1 yr. Variables analyzed were bulk tank counts of thermoduric, psychrotrophic, coliform, and gram-positive catalase-negative cocci (GPCNC) bacterial groups. Thermoduric, psychrotrophic, and coliform species were significantly related to BTTBC, whereas GPCNC were correlated with both BTTBC and BTSCC variables. Highest counts were for psychrotroph and coliform groups, and a moderate to high correlation (r=0.51) was found between both variables, indicating that poor cleaning practices in the flocks tend to select for less-resistant organisms, such as gram-negative rods. In addition, BTTBC correlated with BTSCC (r=0.42). Some variation factors for specific bacterial counts, such as breed, season, milking type, dry therapy, and milk yield, were also analyzed. Flock information was collected from flock books, annual audits, and the CPO traceability system. Psychrotrophs and coliforms had elevated counts in winter, whereas GPCNC were higher in summer and in hand-milked flocks. Dry therapy contributed to the reduction in psychrotrophic bacteria; therefore, some strains of mammary pathogens could also be psychrotrophic bacteria. Results of this study would be helpful for troubleshooting milk quality problems and developing premium payment systems in dairy sheep. PMID:23200475

de Garnica, M L; Linage, B; Carriedo, J A; De La Fuente, L F; García-Jimeno, M C; Santos, J A; Gonzalo, C

2013-02-01

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Farm management factors associated with bulk tank total bacterial count in irish dairy herds during 2006/07  

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Abstract Research has shown that total bacterial count (TBC), which is the bacterial growth per ml of milk over a fixed period of time, can be decreased by good hygiene and farm management practices. The objective of the current study was to quantify the associations between herd management factors and bulk tank TBC in Irish spring calving, grass-based dairy herds. The relationship between bulk tank TBC and farm management and infrastructure was examined using data from 400 randomly...

Pt, Kelly; O'Sullivan K; Dp, Berry; Sj, More; Wj, Meaney; Callaghan Ej, O.; O'Brien B

2009-01-01

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Evaluation of Vit. B12+Fe and Cu Administration on the Somatic Cell Count, Total Bacterial Count and Compounds Milk of Dairy Cattle  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was studying the effect of vit. B12+Fe and Cu on the somatic cell count, total bacterial count and compounds milk of Holstein cows. In this study, 4 groups contain 10 dairy Holstein cows were selected with same parity and milk production as control, vit. B12+Fe injectable (10 mL day-1, Cu injectable (2 mL day-1 and vit. B12+Fe along with Cu treatment groups. These were injected from 1 week precalving probably to 1 week after parturition. Milk samples were collected as twice weekly from the calving time to 1 week. Total Bacterial Count (TBC, Somatic Cell Count (SCC, fat, protein, Solid Non Fat (SNF and lactose of milk were evaluated. Results showed the increasing rate of fat and lactose in vit. B12+Fe along with Cu treatment group compared to other groups. All groups were lower than control group in protein level. On the other hand, vit. B12+Fe treatment group was high in milk production, low in SNF and so, it had high effect on reducing bacterial total count compared to other groups. Furthermore, Cu treatment group was better than other groups in SCC. It was concluded that vit. B12+Fe and Cu have beneficial effects on udder immune system and compounds milk of Holstein cows.

S.A. Saheb Fosoul

2012-01-01

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Evaluation of Vit. B12+Fe and Cu Administration on the Somatic Cell Count, Total Bacterial Count and Compounds Milk of Dairy Cattle  

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The aim of this study was studying the effect of vit. B12+Fe and Cu on the somatic cell count, total bacterial count and compounds milk of Holstein cows. In this study, 4 groups contain 10 dairy Holstein cows were selected with same parity and milk production as control, vit. B12+Fe injectable (10 mL day-1), Cu injectable (2 mL day-1) and vit. B12+Fe along with Cu treatment groups. These were injected from 1 week precalving probably to 1 ...

Saheb Fosoul, S. A.; Pirestani, A.

2012-01-01

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Bulk milk somatic cell counts are related to bulk milk total bacterial counts and several herd-level risk factors in dairy goats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to describe the temporal variation in bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) on Dutch dairy goat farms and to assess the correlation of BMSCC with bulk milk total bacterial counts (BMTBC) and with several herd management factors. Bulk milk somatic cell count and BMTBC data were recorded from 90% of the dairy goat farms in the Netherlands over the years 2005 to 2007. Farm characteristics and management information was collected by means of questionnaires. The bulk milk data and the questionnaire data were linked and linear mixed models were used to identify risk factors for increased BMSCC and BMTBC. Bulk milk somatic cell count was found to display a distinct pattern throughout the year, being highest around December and lowest around June. Bulk milk somatic cell count correlated to BMTBC (r = 0.4). Significant factors in the BMSCC model were month in lactation, treating mastitic animals instead of culling, caprine arthritis encephalitis status, milk fever prevalence, and liner material. Month in lactation and treating mastitic animals instead of culling were also significant in the BMTBC model. In the high-BMSCC period, a higher number of goats with an extended lactation significantly reduced the BMSCC. Thus, this study indicates that mastitis-related factors account for some of the variation in BMSCC and BMTBC levels between dairy goat herds. It shows that intramammary infection is probably the most important factor driving the correlation between BMSCC and BMTBC, suggesting that programs to improve udder health may have a positive effect on both BMSCC and BMTBC. PMID:19700695

Koop, G; Nielen, M; van Werven, T

2009-09-01

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Contagem bacteriana total do leite em diferentes sistemas de ordenha e de resfriamento / Total bacterial count of milk in different systems of milking and cooling  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito dos sistemas de ordenha e de resfriamento na contagem bacteriana total (CBT) e na quantidade de leite com CBT [...] ste do Paraná, no período de janeiro a outubro de 2006. Após as coletas, a qualidade do leite foi analisada em laboratório pelo método de citometria de fluxo. Os dados de CBT foram classificados por sistema de ordenha, tipo de resfriador e intervalos da CBT, segundo critério da Instrução Normativa 62, e submetidos à análise de independência de Qui-Quadrado. As proporções de CBT do leite entre tipos de resfriadores, em cada sistema de ordenha, foram comparadas utilizando-se a estatística calculada Z. Observou-se menor (p Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the effect of milking systems and cooling on total bacterial count (TBC), and the amount of milk samples with TBC [...] Brazil, from January to October 2006. After the sampling was conducted, the milk quality was analyzed in the laboratory by the method of flow cytometry. The TBC data were classified by milking system, type of coolers and intervals of the TBC, in accordance with Normative Instruction 62, and submitted to the chi-square test for independence. The proportions of milk TBC among types of coolers at each milking system were compared using the calculated statistic Z. A lower TBC value (p

L.E., Taffarel; P.B., Costa; N.T.E. de, Oliveira; G.C., Braga; W.J., Zonin.

2013-03-01

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Flow rate measurements by total count methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioisotopes total count method for determination of the flow rate of fluid in pipes. Radioactive tracer techniques can be used for measuring the flow rate of fluid in pipes. In this technique the radioactive material is injected into the fluid to be measured and than detected with radioisotope detector. The flow rate is counted with Total Count method based on the total count of radioactive tracer to be injected. In the Industrial Laboratory of CAIR-BATAN, been conducted experiment on water flow rate in different diameter of pipes using Bromine-82 and Chrom-51 EDTA as tracer. Using the flow meter, the results can be compared. The ratio of the two measurements will determine the realibity of both techniques. (authors). 3 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

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Recuento de bacterias totales en leche cruda de tambos que caracterizan la zona noroeste de Santa Fe y sur de Santiago del Estero / Total bacterial count in raw milk of dairy farms that characterize the northwest zone of Santa Fe and south of Santiago del Estero  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Un total de 6.998 muestras de leche cruda de pool de tanque, correspondientes a 55 establecimientos lecheros asociados a la Cooperativa Tambera Nueva Alpina Ltda., fueron recolectadas entre los años 1993 y 2002. Se realizó el Recuento de Microorganismos Aerobios Mesófilos Totales, obteniéndose como [...] resultado un valor medio de 1,2 x 105± 2,4 x 105UFC/ml que caracteriza la zona. El año de finalización de la experiencia, se observó un 97% de los tambos evaluados con promedios £ 1,0 x 105UFC/ml. Solamente un 3% sobrepasa este límite, no encontrándose establecimientos con niveles superiores a 1,5 x 105UFC/ml. Al relacionar este indicador con parámetros composicionales, las correlaciones más significativas resultaron para: Recuento de Bacterias Totales vs Acidez (r = 0,292; P Abstract in english A total of 6.998 raw milk samples of bulk tank, belonging to 55 dairy farms associated to the Cooperativa Tambera Nueva Alpina Ltda., were collected between the years 1993 and 2002. The Total Mesophilic Aerobic Microorganisms Count was analyzed, obtaining a medium value of 1.2 x 105± 2.4 x 105CFU/ml [...] that characterizes the zone. The final year of experience, observed a 97% of dairy farms evaluated with averages £ 1,0 x 105CFU/ml. Only a 3% it surpasses this limit, not being found establishments with levels over 1.5 x 105CFU/ml. Relating this indicators with compositionals parameters, the most significant correlation resulted for: Total Bacterial Count vs Acidity (r = 0.292; P

G.R., Revelli; O. A., Sbodio; E.J., Tercero.

2004-09-01

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Robotic milking and milk quality: effects on bacterial counts, somatic cell counts, freezing point and free fatty acids  

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Full Text Available Changes in milk quality after the introduction of automatic milking systems (AM-systems on dairy farms in TheNetherlands, Germany and Denmark were examined and the data were compared with milk quality results of farms withconventional milking technology. After introduction, a small, but significant increase in total bacterial count, somatic cellcount, freezing point and free fatty acids was observed. The highest levels for total plate count and cell count are foundin the first six months after introduction. After this period the milk quality slightly improves to a more stable level.Risk factors related with milk quality concern general farm characteristics, animal health, AM-system, cleaning and cooling,housing, management skills of the farmer and the hygiene on the farm. Total plate count was significantly relatedto milk yield of the herd, cleaning of the area around the AM-system and the overall hygiene on the farm. Bulk milksomatic cell count appeared to be significantly related to milk yield of the herd and the number of milkings before replacementof the liners. An increased milking frequency is not the only explanation of increased free fatty acid levels. Technicalfactors related to free fatty acids mainly concerned the air inlet in the teat cups, bubbling (excessive air inlet and a toolong post run time of the milk pump. However, several questions regarding the causes of increased free fatty acid levelsremained unclear.

Yvonne van der Vorst

2010-01-01

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Relationship between total bacteria counts and somatic cell counts from mammary quarters infected by mastitis pathogens Relação entre contagem total de bactérias e contagem de células somáticas de quartos mamários infectados por patógenos da mastite  

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This study was conducted to establish the relationship between somatic cell count (SCC) and bacterial shedding from mammary quarters according to mastitis pathogens. Milk samples from 638 mammary quarters were examined for mastitis pathogens, SCC and total bacterial count (TBC). The raw data of SCC and TBC were used to perform descriptive statistics. The significance of the arithmetic mean differences between SCC and TBC according to bacteriological examination results was determined by a two...

João Emídio Ferreira Lopes Júnior; Carla Cristine Lange; Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos de Paiva Brito; Fabiana Ribeiro Santos; Marco Aurélio Souto Silva; Luciano Castro Dutra de Moraes; Guilherme Nunes de Souza

2012-01-01

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The relationship between compost bedded pack performance, management, and bacterial counts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to assess the relationships among temperature, moisture, carbon-to-nitrogen (C:N) ratio, space per cow, and bacterial counts from bedding material collected from compost bedded pack (CBP) barns. A field survey of 42 routinely aerated CBP barns was conducted in Kentucky between October 2010 and March 2011. Two bedding material samples of 1,064.7 cm(3) each were collected during a single site visit from 9 evenly distributed locations throughout each barn and thoroughly mixed to create a composite sample representative of the entire CBP. Bacterial counts were determined for coliforms, Escherichia coli, streptococci, staphylococci, and Bacillus spp. University of Kentucky Regulatory Services (Lexington) laboratory personnel performed nutrient analyses to determine moisture, carbon, and nitrogen contents. Surface and 10.2-cm pack depth temperatures were collected for each of the 9 evenly distributed locations and the mean calculated to produce a composite temperature. Space per cow was calculated as the total CBP area divided by number of cows housed on the CBP. The GLM procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) generated models to describe factors affecting bacterial counts. Bacterial counts were 6.3 ± 0.6, 6.0 ± 0.6, 7.2 ± 0.7, 7.9 ± 0.5, and 7.6 ± 0.5 log 10 cfu/g of dry matter for coliform, Escherichia coli, streptococci, staphylococci, and Bacillus spp., respectively. Composite temperature, CBP moisture, C:N ratio, and space per cow had no effect on coliform counts. Escherichia coli reached a peak concentration when the C:N ratio was between 30:1 and 35:1. Staphylococci counts increased as ambient temperature increased. Streptococci counts decreased with increased space per cow and composite temperature and increased with increasing ambient temperature and moisture. Streptococci counts peaked at a C:N ratio ranging from 16:1 to 18:1. Bacillus spp. counts were reduced with increasing moisture, C:N ratio, and ambient temperature. Mastitis-causing bacteria thrive in similar conditions to that of composting bacteria and microbes, making elimination of these at higher temperatures (55 to 65°C) difficult in an active composting environment. Producers must use recommended milking procedures and other preventative practices to maintain low somatic cell count in herds with a CBP barn. PMID:24630648

Black, R A; Taraba, J L; Day, G B; Damasceno, F A; Newman, M C; Akers, K A; Wood, C L; McQuerry, K J; Bewley, J M

2014-05-01

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Short communication: Bacterial counts in recycled manure solids bedding replaced daily or deep packed in freestalls.  

Science.gov (United States)

An experiment was conducted to compare bacterial counts of mastitis pathogens in deep-packed manure solids bedding with those in manure solids bedding replaced daily from mattresses. Eighteen Holstein cows were housed in 1 pen with 18 stalls. One row of 9 stalls was equipped with mattresses topped with bedding. The back one-third of these stalls toward the alleyway was covered in 25 mm of recycled manure solids, which was removed daily for the next 6 d and replaced with bedding from the brisket board and lunge space areas of stalls. The second row of 9 stalls was bedded for 3 wk with 100 to 150 mm of deep-pack recycled manure bedding from which only fecal matter was removed daily. After 3 wk, bedding treatments were changed between rows in a switchback design. Mean total gram-negative bacterial counts did not differ between treatments throughout the experiment. Coliform and Klebsiella spp. bacterial counts were lower in daily replaced bedding compared with deep pack across the experiment and on each of d 0, 1, 2, and 6. Streptococcal counts were reduced in daily replacement stalls compared with deep-pack stalls on d 0 and greater in daily replacement stalls compared with deep-pack stalls on d 1, 2, and 6. Daily replacement of recycled manure bedding from the back one-third of the stalls appeared to be an effective approach to reducing exposure to coliforms, specifically Klebsiella, but not streptococci. However, bacterial counts in bedding from both treatments were elevated throughout the trial and resulted in considerable risk for exposure to teats and development of intramammary infections. PMID:24630654

Sorter, D E; Kester, H J; Hogan, J S

2014-05-01

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Caracterización de sistemas productivos lecheros en el Sur de Chile con distintos sistemas de manejo y su relación con el recuento total bacteriano de la leche producida: un análisis multivariable / Characterisation of milk production systems of Southern Chile under different farm management systems and their relationship with total bacterial count of milk: a multivariate analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este estudio determinó y caracterizó tipos de sistemas productivos lecheros para obtención de leche (SP) en el Sur de Chile, asociando las variables de manejo con recuentos bacterianos de las partidas de leche de éstos. Se utilizó información cualitativa referente a diversas variables de manejo para [...] producir leche. Se analizaron 108 productores, mediante análisis de correspondencias múltiples y análisis de conglomerados. Se identificó 4 formas de obtener leche. El grupo SP1 (43% de la muestra) aportó el 87% de la leche a la industria y presentó adecuadas formas de manejo, clasificando todos, el 100% de sus partidas de leche en el mejor rango de calidad (? 20.000 ufc/mL). El SP2 (20% de la muestra) aportó un 10% del total de leche aunque mayoritariamente presentó inadecuadas formas de manejo, y clasificó un 77% de las partidas de leche en el mejor rango de calidad (? 20.000 ufc/mL), esta inconsistencia sugiere la necesidad de analizar en mayor profundidad este grupo. Finalmente, los grupos SP3 y SP4, que en conjunto entregaron sólo un 3% de la leche de la muestra total a la industria pero que representaron un 37% de la muestra, presentaron inadecuadas formas de manejo y se consideraron "grupos problema", predominando en ambos partidas de leche de mala calidad con recuentos > 200.000 ufc/mL en un 76 y 72%, respectivamente, en especial en SP3 con un 61% de las partidas de leche clasificadas en el peor rango establecido (> 800.000 ufc/mL). Consecuentemente se deben realizar acciones correctivas, relacionadas fundamentalmente con la temperatura de almacenamiento de la leche y con el correcto lavado de equipos, estanques y utensilios en SP3 y SP4. Abstract in english In this study, different types of dairy management systems for milk production (SP) in Southern Chile were determined and characterised, relating management variables to bacterial count in raw milk. Qualitative information on several management variables was utilised for evaluation. A survey was con [...] ducted on 108 dairy farmers and the management systems were evaluated using both multiple correspondence and conglomerate analysis. Four milk production systems were identified. The SP1 group (43% of the surveyed farmers) that delivered 87% of the industry milk had an adequate production management, with 100% of the produced milk being classified as best quality (? 20.000 cfu/mL). The SP2 group (20% of surveyed farmers) that produced 10% of the total milk delivered, mainly showed inadequate ways of milk production, however, 77% of the milk was classified as best quality. The uneven results suggest that further in-depth analysis of the group is required. Finally, the SP3 and SP4 groups that produced only 3% of the milk delivered but represented 37% of the surveyed farmers, had inadequate production management and were classified as "problem groups" with low milk quality with bacterial counts > 200.000 cfu/mL for 76% and 72% of the produced milk, respectively; specially the SP3 group with 61% of the milk in the worst quality category (> 800.000 cfu/mL). Therefore, corrective actions, mainly related to milk storage temperature and milking equipment cleaning, are required for the SP3 and SP4 groups.

BL, Carrillo; C, Pinargote; C, Brito; J, González; VH, Moreira; A, Báez.

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Total lymphocyte count as a surrogate marker for CD4 count in resource-limited settings  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background CD4 testing is the recognized gold standard used to stage HIV/AIDS, guide treatment decisions for HIV-infected persons and evaluate effectiveness of therapy. The need for a less expensive surrogate marker that can be used in resource-limited setting is however necessary. The study sought to assess the suitability of Total lymphocyte count (TLC as a surrogate marker for CD4 count in resource-limited localities in Ghana. Methods This observational study was conducted at the Central Regional Hospital, which has one of the established antiretroviral therapy centres in Ghana. A total of one hundred and eighty-four (184 confirmed HIV I seropositive subjects were included in the study. Blood samples were taken from all the subjects for estimation of CD4 and total lymphocyte counts. The study subjects were further categorised into three (3 groups according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC classification criteria as follows: CD4 counts (1???500 cells/mm3 (2 200–499 cells/mm3 and (3 3. Positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV, sensitivity and specificity of various TLC cut-offs were computed for three groups. Correlation and Receiver Operator Characteristic analysis was performed for the various CD4 counts and their corresponding Total Lymphocyte count obtained. Results The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of TLC 1200 cells/ mm3 to predict CD4 count were 3 72.2%, 100%, 100% and 95.7% respectively. A TLC of 1500 cells/ mm3 was found to have maximal sensitivity (96.67%, specificity (100%, PPV (100% and NPV (75.0% for predicting a CD4 cell count of 200–499 cell/mm3. A TLC of 1900 cells/mm3 was also found to have a maximal sensitivity (98.45%, specificity (100%, PPV (100% and NPV (100% for predicting CD4 count ?500 cells/mm3. A positive correlation was noted between 184 paired CD4 and TLC counts (r?=?0.5728. Conclusion Total Lymphocyte count can therefore adequately serve as a surrogate marker for CD4 count in HIV patients who are naïve for antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited areas.

Obirikorang Christian

2012-06-01

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Correlation between Total Lymphocyte Count, Hemoglobin, Hematocrit and CD4 Count in HIV/AIDS Patients  

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Full Text Available Lymphocyte CD4+count, a standard laboratory test for staging of HIV infection, is expensive and unavailable in resource-restricted countries. Total lymphocyte count (TLC and hemoglobin (Hb are recommended as simple & inexpensive surrogates. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation, sensitivity and predictive power of these parameters as substitutes for CD4 count. One hundred HIV patients enrolled in this analytic descriptive study in Ahvaz, a city in the South of Iran, from 2005 to 2006. They were tested for CD4 count, TLC, Hb, and hematocrit (Hct. The cutoffs were determined as: 200 cells/µL, 1200 cells/µL, 12 g/dl and 30%, respectively. We used Sys Max SE 9500 for CBC and Flow cytometry for CD4 count. The correlation coefficient established correlation between values. Sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values were calculated. 2 females (%2 and 98 males (%98 of the mean age of 32±5 years were studied. 87 cases (%87 were IV drug users, the majority having a history of imprisonment. The mean CD4 count, TLC, Hb and Hct were 279±225, 2102±1250, 10.7±2.4 and 30.4±9.0, respectively. A strong correlation was observed between CD4 count and TLC (R = 0.645, P = 0.001, but no correlation was seen between CD4 count and Hb or Hct (R= 0.451, P=0.056 and R= 0.375, P=0.816 respectively. This study shows that TLC is a suitable surrogate marker for CD4 count. Hb and Hct are of limited value in predicting CD4 counts and should not be substituted for CD4counts.

Alavi S.M

2009-04-01

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Correlation Between Total Lymphocyte Count, Hemoglobin, Hematocrit and CD4 Count in HIV Patients in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The expensive and technology limited setting of CD4 count testing is a major setback to the initiation of HAART in a resource limited country like Nigeria. Simple and inexpensive tools such as Hemoglobin (Hb measurement and Total Lymphocyte Count (TLC are recommended as substitute marker. In order to assess the correlations of these parameters with CD4 count, 100 “apparently healthy” male volunteers tested HIV positive aged ?20 years but ?40 years were recruited and from whom Hb, Hct, TLC and CD4 count were obtained. The correlation coefficients, R, the Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient of Efficiency (CoE and the p-values of the ANOVA model of Hb, Hct and TLC with CD4 count were assessed. The assessments show that there is no significant relationship of any of these parameters with CD4 count and the correlation coefficients are very weak. This study shows that Hb, Hct and TLC cannot be substitute for CD4 count as this might lead to certain individuals’ deprivation of required treatment.

Shemaiah Olufemi Okeniyi

2014-01-01

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Total Gamma Count Rate Analysis Method for Nondestructive Assay Characterization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new approach to nondestructively characterize waste for disposal, based on total gamma response, has been developed at the Idaho Cleanup Project by CH2M-WG Idaho, LLC and Idaho State University, and is called the total gamma count rate analysis method. The total gamma count rate analysis method measures gamma interactions that produce energetic electrons or positrons in a detector. Based on previous experience with waste assays, the radionuclide content of the waste container is then determined. This approach potentially can yield minimum detection limits of less than 10 nCi/g. The importance of this method is twofold. First, determination of transuranic activity can be made for waste containers that are below the traditional minimum detection limits. Second, waste above 10 nCi/g and below 100 nCi/g can be identified, and a potential path for disposal resolved

 
 
 
 
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Total Gamma Count Rate Analysis Method for Nondestructive Assay Characterization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new approach to nondestructively characterize waste for disposal, based on total gamma response, has been developed at the Idaho Cleanup Project by CH2M-WG Idaho, LLC and Idaho State University, and is called the total gamma count rate analysis method. The total gamma count rate analysis method measures gamma interactions that produce energetic electrons or positrons in a detector. Based on previous experience with waste assays, the radionuclide content of the waste container is then determined. This approach potentially can yield minimum detection limits of less than 10 nCi/g. The importance of this method is twofold. First, determination of transuranic activity can be made for waste containers that are below the traditional minimum detection limits. Second, waste above 10 nCi/g and below 100 nCi/g can be identified, and a potential path for disposal resolved.

Cecilia R. Hoffman; Yale D. Harker

2006-03-01

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Validity of total leucocytes count and neutrophil count (differential leucocytes) in diagnosing suspected acute appendicitis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of Total Leucocytes Count (TLC) with Neutrophil count; Differential Leucocytes Count (DLC) in diagnosing cases of suspected acute appendicitis. Study design: Validation study. Place and duration of the study: Department of Surgery, Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Rawalpindi, from April 2008 to October 2008. Method: A total of 100 patients of Pain right iliac fossae who underwent appendicectomy were included. Detailed history of all the patients was taken for pain in right lower abdomen, its severity, its nature, relieving or provoking factors. Clinical examination was done in detail. Total and Differential Leucocytes Count was done. Every patient's appendix was examined grossly after appendicectomy for evidence of appendicitis. Diagnostic measures of TLC and DLC were calculated by standard formulas. Results: Sensitivity and specificity of TLC is 86.9% and 81.25% respectively and that of DLC is 82% and 68.75% respectively. Accuracy was 86% for TLC and 80% for DLC. Conclusion: TLC is more sensitive, specific and accurate test as compared to DLC and it should be used as diagnostic aid for suspected acute appendicitis cases. (author)

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Influence of somatic cell count and total bacterial counts of raw milk in cheese yield using small-scale methodology Influência da contagem de células somáticas e da contagem bacteriana total do leite cru no rendimento da produção de queijos, utilizando metodologia em escala reduzida  

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The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of SCC and TBC of raw milk in cheese yield, using a reduced scale method, and to evaluate theoretical prediction of cheese yield. 270 samples of raw milk were split into three SCC levels (below 200,000; 200,000-750,000; above 750,000 SC/mL) and three TBC levels (below 100,000; 100,000-750,000; above 750,000 CFU/mL). Raw milk samples were submitted to compositional analysis (fat, protein, lactose, total solids and SNF content), SCC, T...

Silva, N. M. A.; Bastos, L. P. F.; Oliveira, D. L. S.; Oliveira, M. C. P. P.; Fonseca, L. M.

2012-01-01

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Influence of somatic cell count and total bacterial counts of raw milk in cheese yield using small-scale methodology / Influência da contagem de células somáticas e da contagem bacteriana total do leite cru no rendimento da produção de queijos, utilizando metodologia em escala reduzida  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar a influência da CCS e CBT do leite cru no rendimento de queijos, utilizando método em escala reduzida, e avaliar a predição teórica do rendimento de queijos. Foram utilizadas 270 amostras de leite cru com três níveis de CCS (abaixo de 200.000; 200.000-750. [...] 000; acima de 750.000 CS/mL) e três níveis de CBT (abaixo de 100.000; 100.000-750.000; acima de 750.000 UFC/mL). As amostras de leite cru foram submetidas a análises de composição (gordura, proteína, lactose, EST e ESD), CCS, CBT, crioscopia e pH. A produção dos queijos em escala reduzida foi feita segundo o método desenvolvido na Universidade de Cornell, EUA (Melilli et al., 2002). As amostras de soro de queijo foram submetidas a análises de composição (gordura, proteína total, proteína verdadeira, lactose, EST e ESD) e CCS. O aumento da CCS no leite cru refletiu na maior perda de proteína no soro. CCS elevada (acima de 200.000 CS/mL) foi correlacionada ao menor rendimento de massa seca. Foi encontrada uma correlação alta entre os valores teóricos de rendimento e os valores de rendimento preditos pela metodologia em escala reduzida, indicando que esta metodologia pode ser utilizada para a predição do rendimento de queijos. Abstract in english The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of SCC and TBC of raw milk in cheese yield, using a reduced scale method, and to evaluate theoretical prediction of cheese yield. 270 samples of raw milk were split into three SCC levels (below 200,000; 200,000-750,000; above 750,000 SC/mL) [...] and three TBC levels (below 100,000; 100,000-750,000; above 750,000 CFU/mL). Raw milk samples were submitted to compositional analysis (fat, protein, lactose, total solids and SNF content), SCC, TBC, freezing point and pH. The production of the small-scale cheese was conducted according to the method developed at Cornell University (Melilli et al., 2002). Cheese whey samples were submitted to compositional analysis (fat, total protein, true protein, lactose, total solids and SNF content) and SCC. The increase in the SCC of raw milk resulted in increased protein loss in cheese whey. High SCC (above 200,000 SC/mL) in milk samples was correlated to reduced dry matter yield. There was no effect of TBC in cheese yield in the experimental conditions used. There was a high correlation between the theoretical yield values and the yield values predicted by the small-scale method, indicating that this method is appropriate for cheese yield prediction.

N.M.A., Silva; L.P.F., Bastos; D.L.S., Oliveira; M.C.P.P., Oliveira; L.M., Fonseca.

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Influence of somatic cell count and total bacterial counts of raw milk in cheese yield using small-scale methodology Influência da contagem de células somáticas e da contagem bacteriana total do leite cru no rendimento da produção de queijos, utilizando metodologia em escala reduzida  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of SCC and TBC of raw milk in cheese yield, using a reduced scale method, and to evaluate theoretical prediction of cheese yield. 270 samples of raw milk were split into three SCC levels (below 200,000; 200,000-750,000; above 750,000 SC/mL and three TBC levels (below 100,000; 100,000-750,000; above 750,000 CFU/mL. Raw milk samples were submitted to compositional analysis (fat, protein, lactose, total solids and SNF content, SCC, TBC, freezing point and pH. The production of the small-scale cheese was conducted according to the method developed at Cornell University (Melilli et al., 2002. Cheese whey samples were submitted to compositional analysis (fat, total protein, true protein, lactose, total solids and SNF content and SCC. The increase in the SCC of raw milk resulted in increased protein loss in cheese whey. High SCC (above 200,000 SC/mL in milk samples was correlated to reduced dry matter yield. There was no effect of TBC in cheese yield in the experimental conditions used. There was a high correlation between the theoretical yield values and the yield values predicted by the small-scale method, indicating that this method is appropriate for cheese yield prediction.Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar a influência da CCS e CBT do leite cru no rendimento de queijos, utilizando método em escala reduzida, e avaliar a predição teórica do rendimento de queijos. Foram utilizadas 270 amostras de leite cru com três níveis de CCS (abaixo de 200.000; 200.000-750.000; acima de 750.000 CS/mL e três níveis de CBT (abaixo de 100.000; 100.000-750.000; acima de 750.000 UFC/mL. As amostras de leite cru foram submetidas a análises de composição (gordura, proteína, lactose, EST e ESD, CCS, CBT, crioscopia e pH. A produção dos queijos em escala reduzida foi feita segundo o método desenvolvido na Universidade de Cornell, EUA (Melilli et al., 2002. As amostras de soro de queijo foram submetidas a análises de composição (gordura, proteína total, proteína verdadeira, lactose, EST e ESD e CCS. O aumento da CCS no leite cru refletiu na maior perda de proteína no soro. CCS elevada (acima de 200.000 CS/mL foi correlacionada ao menor rendimento de massa seca. Foi encontrada uma correlação alta entre os valores teóricos de rendimento e os valores de rendimento preditos pela metodologia em escala reduzida, indicando que esta metodologia pode ser utilizada para a predição do rendimento de queijos.

N.M.A. Silva

2012-10-01

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Influence of somatic cell count and total bacterial counts of raw milk in cheese yield using small-scale methodology / Influência da contagem de células somáticas e da contagem bacteriana total do leite cru no rendimento da produção de queijos, utilizando metodologia em escala reduzida  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar a influência da CCS e CBT do leite cru no rendimento de queijos, utilizando método em escala reduzida, e avaliar a predição teórica do rendimento de queijos. Foram utilizadas 270 amostras de leite cru com três níveis de CCS (abaixo de 200.000; 200.000-750. [...] 000; acima de 750.000 CS/mL) e três níveis de CBT (abaixo de 100.000; 100.000-750.000; acima de 750.000 UFC/mL). As amostras de leite cru foram submetidas a análises de composição (gordura, proteína, lactose, EST e ESD), CCS, CBT, crioscopia e pH. A produção dos queijos em escala reduzida foi feita segundo o método desenvolvido na Universidade de Cornell, EUA (Melilli et al., 2002). As amostras de soro de queijo foram submetidas a análises de composição (gordura, proteína total, proteína verdadeira, lactose, EST e ESD) e CCS. O aumento da CCS no leite cru refletiu na maior perda de proteína no soro. CCS elevada (acima de 200.000 CS/mL) foi correlacionada ao menor rendimento de massa seca. Foi encontrada uma correlação alta entre os valores teóricos de rendimento e os valores de rendimento preditos pela metodologia em escala reduzida, indicando que esta metodologia pode ser utilizada para a predição do rendimento de queijos. Abstract in english The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of SCC and TBC of raw milk in cheese yield, using a reduced scale method, and to evaluate theoretical prediction of cheese yield. 270 samples of raw milk were split into three SCC levels (below 200,000; 200,000-750,000; above 750,000 SC/mL) [...] and three TBC levels (below 100,000; 100,000-750,000; above 750,000 CFU/mL). Raw milk samples were submitted to compositional analysis (fat, protein, lactose, total solids and SNF content), SCC, TBC, freezing point and pH. The production of the small-scale cheese was conducted according to the method developed at Cornell University (Melilli et al., 2002). Cheese whey samples were submitted to compositional analysis (fat, total protein, true protein, lactose, total solids and SNF content) and SCC. The increase in the SCC of raw milk resulted in increased protein loss in cheese whey. High SCC (above 200,000 SC/mL) in milk samples was correlated to reduced dry matter yield. There was no effect of TBC in cheese yield in the experimental conditions used. There was a high correlation between the theoretical yield values and the yield values predicted by the small-scale method, indicating that this method is appropriate for cheese yield prediction.

N.M.A., Silva; L.P.F., Bastos; D.L.S., Oliveira; M.C.P.P., Oliveira; L.M., Fonseca.

1367-13-01

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The Influence of Pumping on Observed Bacterial Counts in Groundwater Samples: Implications for Sampling Protocol and Water Quality Interpretation  

Science.gov (United States)

Drinking water quality has become an important issue in Ontario following the events in Walkerton in 2000. Many rural communities are reliant on private groundwater wells for drinking water, and it is the responsibility of the owner to have the water tested to make sure it is safe for human consumption. Homeowners can usually take a sample to the local health unit for total coliform and E. Coli analysis at no charge to determine if the water supply is being tainted by surface water or fecal matter, both of which could indicate the potential for negative impacts on human health. However, is the sample coming out of the tap representative of what is going on the aquifer? The goal of this study is to observe how bacterial counts may vary during the course of well pumping, and how those changing results influence the assessment of water quality. Multiple tests were conducted in bedrock monitoring wells to examine the influence of pumping rate and pumped volume on observed counts of total coliform, E. Coli, fecal streptococcus, fecal coliform and heterotrophic plate count. Bacterial samples were collected frequently during the course of continuous purging events lasting up to 8 hours. Typical field parameters (temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen and ORP) were also continuously monitored during the course of each test. Common practice in groundwater studies is to wait until these parameters have stabilized or three well volumes have been removed prior to sampling, to ensure the sample is taken from new water entering the well from the aquifer, rather than the original water stored in the borehole prior to the test. In general, most bacterial counts were low, but did go above the drinking water standard of 0 counts/100mL (total coliform and E. Coli) at times during the tests. Results show the greatest variability in the observed bacterial counts at the onset of pumping prior to the removal of three well volumes. Samples taken after the removal of three well volumes are more likely to show stabilized bacterial counts, however, this sort of pumping event is not common during daily household water use or when a sample is being collected for a bacterial test by the homeowner. The stabilization of bacterial counts was delayed compared to the field parameters. Bacterial counts were influenced on the short-term by changes in pumping rate, however, similar long-term stability of the counts was observed. The trends of tests conducted in multi-level piezometers (sand pack between the screen and the wellbore wall) were similar to tests conducted in open boreholes. The results imply that bacterial counts and the subsequent water quality interpretations are influenced by the pumping rate and when the sample was taken during the pumping event. Early time results are more likely to reflect the bacterial response to the perturbations caused by the pump itself, while later samples reflect the adjustment of the bacterial colonies, in and adjacent to the well, to the new conditions. Further consideration needs to be given to these parameters when designing a bacterial sampling protocol in groundwater and when assessing the quality of drinking water using bacteria as indicators.

Kozuskanich, J.; Novakowski, K.; Anderson, B.

2008-12-01

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Total leucocyte count, C-reactive protein and neutrophil count: Diagnostic Aid in acute appendicitis  

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Full Text Available Background/Aim: Acute appendicitis is one of the most common acute intraabdominal affections seen in surgical departments, which can be treated easily if an accurate diagnosis is made in time. Otherwise, delay in diagnosis and treatment can lead to diffuse peritonitis. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted on 110 patients who were operated for acute appendicitis to determine the role and predictive value of the total leucocyte count (TLC, C-reactive protein (CRP and percentage of neutrophil count in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Preoperative TLC, CRP and percentage of neutrophil count were determined and were compared with the results of the histopathology of the removed appendix. Results: Of all the patients studied, 92 had histopathologically positive appendicitis. The TLC was found to be significantly high in 90 patients who proved to have acute appendicitis, whereas CRP was high in only 88 patients and neutrophil percentage was raised in 91; four had a normal CRP level. Thus, TLC had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 97.82%, 55.55% and 91.8%, respectively. CRP had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 95.6%, 77.77% and 95.6% respectively. Percentage of neutrophil count had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 98.9%, 38.88% and 89.21%, respectively. When used in combination, there was a marked improvement in the specificity and the positive predictive value to 88.04% and 98.7%, respectively. Conclusion: The inflammatory markers, i.e., TLC, CRP and neutrophil count can be helpful in the diagnosis when measured together as this increases their specificity and positive predictive value.

Shafi Sheikh

2009-01-01

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Bacterial and Archaeal direct counts: a faster method of enumeration, for enrichment cultures and aqueous environmental samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new presence/absence method has been developed to count fluorochrome-stained bacterial and archaeal cells on membrane filters using epifluorescence microscopy. This approach was derived from the random distribution of cells on membranes that allowed the use of the Poisson distribution to estimate total cell densities. Comparison with the standard Acridine Orange Direct Count (AODC) technique shows no significant difference in the estimation of total cell populations, or any reduction in the precision of these estimations. The new method offers advantages over the standard AODC in considerably faster counting, as there is no need to discriminate between every potential cell visible on a field and fluorescent detritus, it is only necessary to confirm the presence of one cell. Additionally, the new method requires less skill, so has less reliance on expert counters, and that should reduce inter-counter variability. Although this work used the fluorochrome Acridine Orange, clearly the results are applicable to any fluorochrome used to count bacterial and archaeal cells. This method was developed using enrichment cultures for use with enrichment cultures and aqueous environmental samples where interfering detrital and mineral particles are minimal e.g., freshwater/seawater, therefore, it is not suitable for estimating total cells from sediment samples. This method has the potential for use in any situation where counts of randomly distributed items are made using a grid or quadrat system. PMID:24361191

Cragg, Barry A; Parkes, R John

2014-03-01

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Low-cost, high-throughput, automated counting of bacterial colonies.  

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Research involving bacterial pathogens often requires enumeration of bacteria colonies. Here, we present a low-cost, high-throughput colony counting system consisting of colony counting software and a consumer-grade digital camera or document scanner. We demonstrate that this software, called "NICE" (NIST's Integrated Colony Enumerator), can count bacterial colonies as part of a high-throughput multiplexed opsonophagocytic killing assay used to characterize pneumococcal vaccine efficacy. The results obtained with NICE correlate well with the results obtained from manual counting, with a mean difference of less than 3%. NICE is also rapid; it can count colonies from multiple reaction wells within minutes and export the results to a spreadsheet for data processing. As this program is freely available from NIST, NICE should be helpful in bacteria colony enumeration required in many microbiological studies, and in standardizing colony counting methods. PMID:20140968

Clarke, Matthew L; Burton, Robert L; Hill, A Nayo; Litorja, Maritoni; Nahm, Moon H; Hwang, Jeeseong

2010-08-01

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Removal of hair surrounding the teat and associated bacterial counts on teat skin surface, in milk, and intramammary infections.  

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The effectiveness of monthly removal of hair surrounding teats on the reduction of teat skin surface bacteria, and the incidence of intramammary infection (IMI), was studied for 10 months in a dairy farm. A split udder design was used where hair was removed on one side, left or right, with the other side serving as a control. Controls and treatment sides were randomly applied in a systematic fashion to 218 cows. Standard milking time pre- and post-milking hygiene practices were applied to all udders during the trial. Collection of teat skin swab solutions preceded aseptic collection of milk samples, performed at monthly intervals, immediately prior to milking. Teat skin bacterial counts did not differ between control and treated teats. Incidences of IMI were similar for treatment when compared with control mammary quarters, as measured by total or by pathogen type. In a second study, the effect of hair removal on the bacterial content of milk was determined using 40 cows. Treatments and allocations were as described. Udder half milk, milk from both mammary quarters of each udder half, was combined and diverted into separate buckets. Buckets were thoroughly cleaned and sanitized between milkings. A portion of bucket milk was collected 24 h after removal of udder hair. The total milk bacterial counts, and counts of psychrotrophs and thermoduric organisms were not reduced by udder hair removal. Results do not suggest that removal of udder hair leads to an improvement in milk quality as determined by milk bacterial content in the herd studied. PMID:14633199

Silk, A S; Fox, L K; Hancock, D D

2003-11-01

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Relationship between Total Lymphocyte count (TLC) and CD4 count among peoples living with HIV, Southern Ethiopia: a retrospective evaluation  

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Abstract Background CD4 count is a standard measure of immunodeficiency in adults infected with HIV to initiate and monitor highly active antiretroviral therapy; however, it may not be feasible in resource poor countries. There is a need to have another marker of immunodeficiency that is less resource demanding. Objective The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between total lymphocyte count and CD4 count in one of the resource poor countries,...

Loha Eskindir; Daka Deresse

2008-01-01

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Antimicrobial susceptibility testing in 90 min by bacterial cell count monitoring.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rise in antimicrobial resistance has become a serious global health problem. Restrictive use of antibiotics seems the only option to temper this accession since research in new antibiotics has halted. Antimicrobial stewardship programmes rely on quick access to susceptibility data. This study evaluated the concept of bacterial cell count monitoring as a fast method to determine susceptibility. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus strains were tested for amoxicillin/piperacillin and gentamicin by three conventional methods (VITEK2(®) , Etest(®) and broth-macrodilution). Bacterial cell count monitoring reliably predicted susceptibility after 90 min for Escherichia coli and after 120 min for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus without any minor, major or very major discrepancies. Time-to-result was reduced by 74%, 83% and 76%, respectively. Bacterial cell count monitoring shows great potential for rapid susceptibility testing. PMID:22390723

Broeren, M A C; Maas, Y; Retera, E; Arents, N L A

2013-03-01

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A commercial bacterial colony counter for semi-automatic track counting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The information one must obtain from a solid state track detector depends on the specific application. The most common information need is the measurement of track density. The number of tracks per unit area is commonly used in neutron and alpha dosimetry, for example, to determine radiation dose. In recent years, a class of semi-automatic counting systems has become available for under $15,000. These systems, usually developed for bacterial colony counting, are capable of measuring track density. The basic instrument is designed to count relatively large objects with low magnification using an illuminated stage. However, track counting can be done with an accessory television camera coupled to an optical microscope. Tracks from electrochemical etching can be counted easily with objectives as low as 2X. (author)

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Evaluating total lymphocyte counts as a substitute for CD4 counts in the follow up of AIDS patients  

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Full Text Available This study evaluated total lymphocyte count (TLC as a substitute marker for CD4+ cell counts to identify patients who need prophylaxis against opportunistic infection (CD4 < 200 cells/mm³ and patients with CD4 < 350 cells/mm³ (Brazilian threshold value of CD4 count to define AIDS. We evaluated TLC and CD4+ cells count of 1,174 HIV-infected patients, in Salvador, Brazil, from May 2003 to September 2004. CD4+ cell counts were performed by flow cytometry, and TLC was measured with an automated hematological counter. The mean CD4 count was 430 cells/mm³ (range: 4 to 2,531 cells/mm³. Mean TLC was 1,900 cells/mm³ (range: 300 to 6,200 cells/mm³. Using a threshold value of 1,000 cells/mm³ for TLC, the positive predictive value (PPV was 77% for CD4 < 200 cells/mm³, but the sensitivity was only 29%, while the negative predictive value (NPV was 88%, with 98% specificity. Similar findings were observed for CD4 count < 350. Using the same threshold value of 1,000 cells/mm³ for TLC, sensitivity was 14%, and specificity 99% (PPV= 94%; NPV=62%. In 70/1,510 (5% of the samples the sum of CD4 and CD8 cell counts was greater than the TLC and in 27% (419/1,510 this sum was below 65% of the TLC. TLC has a high specificity to identify patients for prophylaxis, but a quite low sensitivity. It is not useful as an alternative to CD4+ T-cell counts as a marker in HIV-infected patients.

Ana Luiza Dias Angelo

2007-10-01

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Antimicrobial susceptibility testing in 90 min by bacterial cell count monitoring  

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The rise in antimicrobial resistance has become a serious global health problem. Restrictive use of antibiotics seems the only option to temper this accession since research in new antibiotics has halted. Antimicrobial stewardship programmes rely on quick access to susceptibility data. This study evaluated the concept of bacterial cell count monitoring as a fast method to determine susceptibility. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus strains were tested for amoxi...

Broeren, M. A. C.; Maas, Y.; Retera, E.; Arents, N. L. A.

2013-01-01

37

Salivary biomass assessed by bioluminescence ATP assay related to (bacterial and somatic) cell counts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work aimed (1) to evaluate ATP content in saliva by the bioluminescent luciferin-luciferase method, (2) to evaluate the relationships between ATP content, bacterial count and epithelial cell numbers in saliva, (3) to study the effect of two different antiseptics (peroxidase system producing hypothiocyanite and chlorhexidine) on the salivary biomass. In 45 young adults, the salivary ATP content ranged from 8 to 1515 nM. Salivary ATP content was significantly and directly correlated to bacterial count and epithelial cell numbers (Spearman-Rank correlation, Phypothiocyanite (OSCN(-)). Chlorhexidine (CHX) reduced salivary ATP content to 52.0+/-16.7 per cent. OSCN(-) did not affect the transformed logarithm of bacterial count but CHX reduced it from 7. 02+/-0.26 to 0.52+/-0.33. No effect of OSCN(-) was seen on the ratio of epithelial cell viability while CHX reduced it from 46.7+/-5.1 to 3.9+/-1.1 per cent. It is concluded that the combination of the evaluations of the ATP content and cell numbers in saliva can provide reliable data about the effects of oral antiseptics on salivary biomass. PMID:10814968

Gallez, F; Fadel, M; Scruel, O; Cantraine, F; Courtois, P

2000-06-01

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Significance of Preoperative Total Lymphocyte Count as a Prognostic Criterion in Adult Cardiac Surgery  

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Background: Evaluation of operational risk is a consequential goal in perioperative management of patients in cardiac surgery. Preoperative total lymphocyte count (PTLC) is a prognostic criterion of adverse major cardiovascular outcomes. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of PTLC as an independent predictor of postoperative morbidity and mortality in cardiac surgery. Patients and Methods: Of 1604 patients scheduled for cardiac surgery between September, 2012 and March, 2013, a total of 1171 consecutive patients underwent elective primary valvular heart surgery and coronary artery bypass grafting. The patients were divided to three groups according to their PTLCs. The baseline characteristics and postoperative mortality and morbidity of the patients as well as the intensive care unit (ICU) stay according to the PTLCs were recorded and analyzed. The only inclusion criterion was a preoperative complete blood count. Exclusion criteria included: ages under 18 or over 80 years old, emergency surgery, adult patients with congenital heart disease and previous open heart surgery, and patients with any bacterial or viral infection during two weeks before the surgery. Protocol of anesthetic medications was used in all the patients similarly and according to standard. All the patients were admitted to the ICU after the surgery. Results: A PTLC < 1500 cells/µL was associated with significantly high mortality and morbidity (P = 0.0001). In-hospital mortality and major composite morbidity were 9.65% and 28.4%, respectively. Low PTLC was associated with more frequent need for inotropic and intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) support (P < 0.001), dialysis-dependent acute renal failure (P = 0.0001), postoperative superficial wound infections (P = 0.0001) and prolong ICU stay (P = 0.0001). Conclusions: Our study results showed that low PTLC was an independent, valuable prognostic criterion, with high sensitivity and specificity for evaluation of postoperative morbidity and mortality in cardiac surgery.

Aghdaii, Nahid; Ferasatkish, Rasoul; Mohammadzadeh Jouryabi, Ali; Hamidi, Seyed Hosein

2014-01-01

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Total IgE and Absolute Eosinophils Count as a Predictor of Allergic Diseases in Children  

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Full Text Available Objective: To study the role of both serum total IgE levels and the absolute eosinophils count, total IgE alone, absolute eosinophils count alone as a marker of allergy in children, and to see their association with the host factors (age and sex Methods: A retrospective study was conducted at King Abdul Aziz University Hospital ­ Jeddah (KAUH, during the year 2008. Three hundred children below the age of fifteen years meeting the inclusion criteria were enrolled for the study. Serum total IgE levels and absolute eosinophils count were done in all patients. Data was collected and tabulated. Chi-square was applied to test the association of the variables using SPSS and p-value of <0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: Out of 300 patients, 27(9% had raised both serum total IgE and absolute eosinophils count, 146(48.67% had raised serum total IgE alone, 40(13.3% had raised absolute eosinophils count alone. Both IgE plus absolute eosinophilic count, total IgE alone and absolute eosinophilic count alone are not significantly related to the child sex with (P-values 0.759, 0.742, 0.699 respectively, however all are related significantly to the child age (P-values <0.004, <0.001, <0.012 respectively. All are not related significantly to systemic allergies except the significant relation between the absolute eosinophils count with atopic dermatitis (P-value <0.031 Conclusion: Serum total IgE level and absolute eosinophils count, total IgE alone and absolute eosinophils count alone are not a good predictor of allergy in children except that the absolute eosinophils count can be considered as a strong predictor of atopic dermatitis in children. It's clear now, that as the child age increase the positivity of all the tests increase also.

Hamid Habib, ** Moufag Tayeb, *** Majdy Qutub, **** Jamil Samkari

2010-09-01

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Utility of total lymphocyte count as a surrogate marker for CD4 counts in HIV-1 infected children in Kenya  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In resource-limited settings, such as Kenya, access to CD4 testing is limited. Therefore, evaluation of less expensive laboratory diagnostics is urgently needed to diagnose immuno-suppression in children. Objectives To evaluate utility of total lymphocyte count (TLC as surrogate marker for CD4 count in HIV-infected children. Methods This was a hospital based retrospective study conducted in three HIV clinics in Kisumu and Nairobi in Kenya. TLC, CD4 count and CD4 percent data were abstracted from hospital records of 487 antiretroviral-naïve HIV-infected children aged 1 month - 12 years. Results TLC and CD4 count were positively correlated (r = 0.66, p 59 months of age (r = 0.68, p 3, age 12-35 months (CD4 count 3, and age above 59 months (CD4 count 3. WHO recommended TLC threshold values for severe immuno-suppression of 4000, 3000, 2500 and 2000 cells/mm3 for age categories 59 months had low sensitivity of 25%, 23%, 33% and 62% respectively in predicting severe immuno-suppression using CD4 count as gold standard. Raising TLC thresholds to 7000, 6000, 4500 and 3000 cells/mm3 for each of the stated age categories increased sensitivity to 71%, 64%, 56% and 86%, with positive predictive values of 85%, 61%, 37%, 68% respectively but reduced specificity to 73%, 62%, 54% and 68% with negative predictive values of 54%, 65%, 71% and 87% respectively. Conclusion TLC is positively correlated with absolute CD4 count in children but current WHO age-specific thresholds had low sensitivity to identify severely immunosuppressed Kenyan children. Sensitivity and therefore utility of TLC to identify immuno-suppressed children may be improved by raising the TLC cut off levels across the various age categories.

Wamalwa Dalton C

2011-09-01

 
 
 
 
41

A new method for total-count ?-ray measurement of radon absorb in activated carbon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, a method for total-count ?-ray measurement of radon in activated carbon is presented, with correction for decay and time delay for the measurement based on the decay of radon and its progeny. Simulation of the total-counts of ?-rays from radon-absorbed activated carbon was performed. The results show that the time-dependent calculated curve of ?-ray total-counts agrees well with the measured one. The front part of the curve, where the counts increase first and decrease later, is the time delay for the measurement. The duration of delayed measurement is closely related to the duration of radon absorbed by activated carbon, but it has nothing to do with the radon concentration. And the longer the adsorption duration,the shorter is the time delay. Then,the counts follow the function of e-0.000125t, which is also independent of the concentration of radon absorbed by activated carbon. (authors)

42

Bacterial counts from five over-the-counter probiotics: are you getting what you paid for?  

Science.gov (United States)

There is concern that the bacterial colony counts present at the time of manufacture and listed on the probiotic package may not be reflective of the numbers viable colonies at the time of purchase and patient consumption thereby diminishing efficacy. We performed a colony count study of three separate samples of five different probiotics purchased from three different stores: Bifidobacterium infantis (Align(®)); Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285(®) and Lactobacillus casei LBC80R(®) (Bio-K+(®)); Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (Culturelle(®)); Saccharomyces boulardii (Florastor(®)) and "L. acidophilus" and "Lactobacillus helveticus" (Lactinex(®)). Approximately 1 g of powder of each (Lactinex(®) tablets were crushed before testing) was reconstituted in sterile distilled water, serial 10-fold dilutions were prepared and plated in duplicate onto blood agar plates, with incubation for 48 h in an anaerobic chamber (except the Saccharomyces which was incubated aerobically) after which colony counts were performed. The Florastor(®) packaging did not state an expected concentration and was found to have 9.2 × 10(9)-1.3 × 10(10) CFU/g. Lactinex(®), Align(®), Bio-K+(®), and Culturelle(®) had viable colony counts that were similar to those stated on the package. PMID:24184290

Goldstein, Ellie J C; Citron, Diane M; Claros, Marina C; Tyrrell, Kerin L

2014-02-01

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Manageable risk factors associated with bacterial and coliform counts in unpasteurized bulk milk in Flemish dairy herds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Associations between herd management practices and both bacterial counts (BC) and coliform counts (CC) from 254 and 242 dairy herds in Flanders (Belgium), respectively, were studied. Data were analyzed using multivariable, multilevel linear regression analysis, allowing variance components analyses. Both BC and CC fluctuated throughout the year, although the milk quality parameters followed an opposite pattern. Bacterial count values decreased with each increase of the cleaning frequency of the cubicles (once per week, once per day, twice per day, or more than twice per day) between January and March. Herds with a conventional milking parlor had substantially lower BC than herds where the cows were milked using an automatic milking system. Lower BC were observed when the milking parlor was equipped with an automatic cluster removal system, when premilking teat disinfection was applied, when the dry cows were supplemented with a mix of minerals and vitamins, and when the teats were prepared either first wet and dried or via an automatic milking system. Milking cows with a high-pipeline milking parlor setup or with an automatic milking system was associated with substantially higher CC values. Herds where prepartum heifers were often treated with antimicrobials before calving had a lower CC than farms where heifers were either not or only rarely treated. Most variation in BC and CC resided at the herd level rather than at the observation level, indicating that management is important in the control of both BC and CC. Still, only a small proportion of the total variance was explained by factors capturing information related to the milking, herd health, and dry cow management, which suggests that the bacteriological milk quality and, in particular, CC is primarily driven by other factors than the ones included in this study. PMID:24704236

Piepers, S; Zrimšek, P; Passchyn, P; De Vliegher, S

2014-06-01

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EFFECT OF AN ENZYMATIC COMPLEX ON EGG PRODUCTION AND QUALITY, TOTAL PLASMA PROTEIN LEVELS AND CECAL BACTERIAL COUNT OF LAYERS EFEITO DE UM COMPLEXO ENZIMÁTICO NA PRODUÇÃO E NA QUALIDADE DE OVOS, NOS NÍVEIS DE PROTEÍNAS PLASMÁTICAS E NA POPULAÇÃO BACTERIANA CECAL EM POEDEIRAS SEMIPESADAS  

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Full Text Available This study aimed to relate the egg production with health status, expressed as cecal bacteria contamination, as well as to investigate the effect of total plasma proteins with egg quality of layers fed different diets reformulated to different metabolizable energy levels using an enzyme complex, obtained by solid state fermentation.  A total of  384 26-week old Hisex Brown layers were fed experimental diets during 280 days (10 periods of 28 days each. A total of 4 birds were allocated per cage, in a total of 64 birds/treatment. Treatments consisted in reformulating diets to different metablizable energy levels using an enzyme complex (EC obtained by  solid state fermentation:   T1 – basal diet (control; T2 –  basal diet  + EC (reformulated to  120 kcal ME/kg; T3 – basal diet + EC (reformulated to 90 kcal ME/kg; T4 – basal diet + EC (reformulated to 60 kcal ME/kg; T5 – basal diet + EC (reformulated to 30 kcal ME/kg and T6 – basal diet + EC ( on top. Egg production, egg weight, Haugh units, albumen weight, total plasma proteins and cecal bacteria count were evaluated.  Egg weight and albumen weight and cecal bacteria count, but not egg production, Haugh units and total plasma proteins,   were adversely affected when the EC was added on top of a diet containing a regular commercial premix. This study indicates that the health status of the gut can be improved by adding the SSF enzyme complex on top of a regular diet.

KEY WORDS: Exogenous enzymes, Haugh units, sanitary status.
Objetivou-se relacionar a produção de ovos com o status sanitário das aves, expresso pelo nível de contaminação bacteriana cecal, bem como os níveis plasmáticos de proteínas totais com a qualidade dos ovos de aves que receberam dietas com complexo enzimático (CE com diferentes níveis de valorização da energia metabolizável. Utilizaram-se 384 poedeiras Hisex Brown por um período de 280 dias, divididos em dez ciclos de 28 dias cada, iniciando-se o experimento quando as aves alcançaram a 26ª semana de idade. Cada gaiola com quatro aves representou uma unidade experimental totalizando 64 aves/tratamento. Os tratamentos consistiram em dietas reformuladas para valorização da energia metabolizável pelo CE: T1 – dieta basal (controle; T2 – dieta basal + CE (valorizado em 120 kcal EM/kg; T3 – dieta basal + CE (valorizado em 90 kcal EM/kg; T4 – dieta basal + CE (valorizado em 60 kcal EM/kg; T5 – dieta basal + CE (valorizado em 30 kcal EM/kg e T6 – dieta basal + CE (sem valorização energética – on top. Avaliaram-se produção de ovos (PDOV, peso dos ovos (POV, unidades Haugh (UH, peso da clara (PC, níveis de proteína plasmática totais (PPTs e contagem do conteúdo cecal. Observou-se que, quando o CE foi adicionado on top, o POV e o PCL foram menores, assim como houve uma diminuição na carga bacteriana cecal desses animais. Entretanto, a PDOV, UH e as PPTs não sofreram influência dos tratamentos. Esses dados indicam que o estado sanitário do intestino pode ser melhorado ao ser adicionado o complexo enzimático on top da dieta.  

PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Enzimas exógenas, status sanitário, unidade Haugh.

Fabiane Pereira Gentilini

2009-07-01

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Comparative seric TGF(?1, ?2) levels and platelets count response in total body irradiated baboons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total body irradiation associated or not with r-hIL-6 treatment a relation between TGF-?1 and TGF-?2 blood levels and platelets count. During radio-induced thrombocytopenia, by decreasing its ability to inhibit proliferation of stem cells and megakaryocytopoiesis, the TGF-? falling induced a favorable condition for hematopoietic recovery. (author)

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Flow Measurements Carried Out in France with Radioactive Tracers, Using the Total Count Method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors describe their experiments with the total count method in measuring the discharges of rivers and of hydroelectric plant penstocks. Their procedure was to sample a portion of the current during the passage of the activity wave by means of gauges and constant-level tanks. The sample and an aliquot part of the injected activity are counted in the same geometty. This method has several advantages over the conventional method using a submerged probe. First, it avoids the difficulties presented by the counting geometry, both in rivers and in penstocks; it likewise makes it possible to determine the statistical counting accuracy and, by making several samplings in the measurement section, to verify whether good mixing conditions are present. Furthermore, since it allows the use of a scintillation counter and concentration of the tracer by chemical means, the method, by comparison with the conventional technique, requires a minimal activity to yield a given degree of accuracy. In conclusion, the authors give the results of measurement s of discharges of rivers and penstocks and state their views on the future of the total count method. (author)

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Lessons from the organization of a proficiency testing program in food microbiology by interlaboratory comparison: analytical methods in use, impact of methods on bacterial counts and measurement uncertainty of bacterial counts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The proficiency testing program in food microbiology RAEMA (Réseau d'Analyses et d'Echanges en Microbiologie des Aliments), created in 1988, currently includes 450 participating laboratories. This interlaboratory comparison establishes proficiency in detection of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes, as well as enumeration of aerobic micro-organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, beta-glucuronidase-positive Escherichia coli, anaerobic sulfito-reducing bacteria, Clostridium perfringens, coagulase-positive staphylococci, and L. monocytogenes. Twice a year, five units samples are sent to participants to assess their precision and trueness for enumeration and detection of micro-organisms. Most of participating laboratories use standard or validated alternative methods, they were 50-70% in 1994 and, for 5 years, they are 95%. An increasing use of alternative methods was also observed. This phenomenon is all the more significant as standard methods are laborious and time consuming; thus, 50% of the laboratories use alternative methods for the detection of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes. More and more laboratories use ready-to-use media and although the percentage is variable according to the microflora, we can consider that, today, 50-60% of the laboratories participating to the proficiency program only use ready-to-use media. The internal quality assurance programs lead also to an increasing use of media quality controls. The impact of analytical methods on bacterial counts was assessed by grouping together the results obtained by participating laboratories during the 10 last testing schemes from 1999 to 2003. The identified significant factors influencing enumeration results are variable from one microflora to another. Some of them significantly influence many microflora: the plating method (spiral plating or not) is influential for aerobic micro-organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, and staphylococci, the type of culture medium and the medium manufacturer is influential for aerobic micro-organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, E. coli, anaerobic sulfito-reducing bacteria, staphylococci, and L. monocytogenes. Others are specific of some micro-organisms: the resuscitation broth for L. monocytogenes, the mode of medium preparation for staphylococci and the incubation temperature for C. perfringens. These effects lead generally to small differences of about 0.1 log10 cfu g(-1), except for the enumeration of anaerobic sulfito-reducing bacteria, where the difference reaches 0.7 log10 cfu g(-1). These results, although difficult to extrapolate to all actual situations, which associate numerous food constituents and physiological states of bacteria to detect or numerate, allow nevertheless the quantification of interlaboratory variations linked to the methods in use. The analysis of bacterial counts obtained by the laboratories participating to the RAEMA proficiency testing program allowed also to validate a formula to calculate the repeatability of bacterial counts and to estimate the between-laboratory uncertainties for the majority of micro-organisms enumerated in food microbiology. The repeatability uncertainty is only indirectly affected by the method in use but depends essentially on the number of counted colonies. On the other hand, the between-laboratory uncertainty varies with the enumeration method in use, this variability is relatively small for the enumerations calling for methods without colony confirmation, i.e. for the enumeration of aerobic micro-organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, 'total' and thermotolerant coliforms, beta-glucuronidase-positive E. coli and coagulase-positive staphylococci with the technique using the rabbit-plasma fibrinogen agar. For these methods, the average between-laboratory standard deviation is 0.17 log10 cfu g(-1). The between-laboratory uncertainty is, on the contrary, larger for more complex techniques. For the enumeration of coagulase-positive staphylococci with the Baird-Parker agar, the between-laboratory standard deviation is equal to 0.23 log10 cfu g(-1), it is equal to 0.28 lo

Augustin, Jean-Christophe; Carlier, Vincent

2006-02-01

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Monte Carlo simulation of uncertainties in three-count total alpha radon progeny measurement techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent studies of three-count total alpha sequential sampling and counting methods using a law of propagation of erros (LPE) model has shown that small variations in pump flow rate and airborne radon progeny concentrations present from measurement to measurement can result in much larger variations in the overall precision of measurement than can be predicted on the basis of counting statistics alone. In contrast, results predicted by a Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) model developed in this work show that these variations have only a small effect on the overall precision of measurement for radon progeny concentrations typically found in uranium mines (1000-3700 Bq m-3) and in buildings with potential alpha energy concentrations equal to or exceeding 4x10-7 J m-3(0.02 WL). The discrepancy observed between results predicted by the MCS model and the LPE model is attributed mainly to the LPE model assumption of independence of variations in alpha count totals and independence of variations in estimated airborne radon progeny concentrations. For the case where radioactive decay is the only source of random error, the LPE model assumption of independence in estimated airborne radon progeny concentrations results in an overestimation of the relative standard deviation of the potential alpha energy concentration by from 80 to 105%. Monte Carlo precision estimates evaluated for sequential three-count total-alpha measurement techniques show that precision estimates based on counting statistics alone are reliable when measurement to measurement pump flow rate variations are less than 3% and litre to litre concentration variations are less than 10%. (orig.)

49

[A method for assessing the total viable count of fresh meat based on hyperspectral scattering technique].  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study is to develop a hyperspectral imaging system to predict the bacteria total viable count in fresh pork. The hyperspectral scattering data were curvefitted by different fitting methods, and correlation differences of models were compared based on the bacteria total viable count of fresh pork, thus providing modeling basis of device for future study. Total 63 fresh pork samples which was used in the experiment were stored at 4 degrees C in the refrigerator of constant temperature. Experiment was performed everyday for 15 days. 4 or 5 random samples were used each day for the experiment. Hyperspectral scattering images and spectral scattering optical data in the wavelength region of 400 to 1 100 nm were acquired from the surface of all of the pork samples. Lorentz and Gompertz function and the modified function was applied to fit the scattering profiles of pork samples. Different parameters could be obtained by Lorentz and Gompertz fitting and the modified function fitting. The different parameters could represent the optical characteristic of the scattering profiles. The standard values of the bacteria total viable count of pork were obtained by classical microbiological plating methods. Because the standard value of the bacteria total viable count was big, log10 of the bacteria total viable count obtained by classical microbiological plating was used to simplify the calculation. Both individual parameters and integrated parameters were explored to develop the models. The multi-linear regression statistical approach was used to establish the models for predicting pork the bacteria total viable count. Both Lorentz and Gompertz function and the modified function included three and four parameters formula. The results showed that correlation coefficient of the models is higher with Lorentz three parameters combination, Lorentz four parameters combination and Gompertz four parameters combination than the individual parameters and other two or three integrated parameters. The three models' correction set and prediction set correlation coefficients were 0.93, 0.96, 0.96 and 0.90, 0.90, 0.92, and the corresponding standard deviation were 0.47, 0.44, 0.39 and 0.56, 0.46, 0.42. Correlation was best with Gompertz four parameters. The device system will select the best correlation and the best stability of the model as the final model. PMID:25208404

Song, Yu-Lin; Peng, Yan-Kun; Guo, Hui; Zhang, Lei-Lei; Zhao, Juan

2014-03-01

50

Monte Carlo simulation of gamma-ray total counting efficiency for a Phoswich detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The LB 1000-PW detector is mainly used for determining total alpha, beta and gamma activity of low activity natural sources such as water, soil, air filters and any other environmental sources. Detector efficiency needs to be known in order to measure the absolute activity of such samples. This paper presents results on the total gamma counting efficiency of a Phoswich detector from point and disk sources. The directions of photons emitted from the source were determined by Monte Carlo techniques and the true path lengths in the detector were determined by analytical equations depending on photon directions. Results are tabulated for various gamma energies

51

Total Lymphocyte Count as surrogate marker for CD4 Cell Count in HIV-Infected Individuals in Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The high cost of CD4 count estimation in resource-limited countries is a major challenge in initiating patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Therefore, assessment of inexpensive and simple laboratory diagnostic marker is mandatory to diagnose immuno-suppression. Objective To evaluate utility of total lymphocyte count (TLC as surrogate marker for CD4 count in HIV-infected patients. Materials and Methods In this cross sectional study, 400 ART-naive HIV-positive patients enrolled in Gondar University Hospital, from March 2011 to May 2011, were tested for CD4 count & TLC. The cutoffs were determined as: 200 cells/?L for CD4 count and 1200 cells/?L for TLC by using BD FACS count and CELL DYN 1800 Flow Cytometrys respectively. Spearman correlation between TLC and CD4 cell count were assessed. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for different age a group, TLC ?1200 was computed for CD4 count ?200 cells/cu.mm. Results Among 400 ART naive HIV infected patients, 278 (69.5% were females. The mean age of the study participants was 33.7. TLC and CD4 count were positively correlated (r?=?0.33, p?=?0.001. A TLC of ?1200 cells/m?m3 was found to have a sensitivity (32.86%, specificity (95.33%, PPV (79.7%, and NPV (71.9% for predicting a CD4 count of Conclusion This study showed that low sensitivity and specificity of TLC as a surrogate measure for CD4 count. Moreover, CD4 cell counts of?

Wondimeneh Yitayih

2012-07-01

52

Precision of helicopter-based total-area counts of large ungulates in bushveld  

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Full Text Available Precision in helicopter total-area counts in bushveld for a range of common species are evaluated. Counts were conducted on properties ranging in size from 250 ha to 10 000 ha as part of experiments on precision and power. Counts were conducted in three vegetation types: mopane veld, sourish mixed bushveld and arid bushveld. Scant regard is given to precision as a factor in large herbivore monitoring, with more effort often devoted to accuracy. Coefficients of variation varied from 3.2 % to 70.9 %. Median values are generally acceptable for the establishment of trends for long-term monitoring, but might be inadequate for annual population size monitoring and evaluation. A regression of all species and vegetation types by the standard error showed a significant correlation. Similar regressions were also developed for impala, kudu, warthog, and zebra. Regressions by vegetation type for mopane veld, sourish mixed bushveld, and northwest arid bushveld were also significant. However, the high correlation for some vegetation types might be an artifact of the small sample sizes.

B.K. Reilly

2002-12-01

53

Intraoperative controls for bacterial contamination during total knee replacement.  

Science.gov (United States)

The increasing number of infected total knee replacements produces a financial and social burden upon patients, families, hospitals, insurance companies, and government. Methods of reducing the problem of wound infection are discussed in this article, including prophylactic anticoagulation, CPM, autologous blood replacement, good nutrition, and careful wound closure. PMID:2919078

Ritter, M A

1989-01-01

54

Point-of-care method for total white cell count: an evaluation of the HemoCue WBC device  

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Point-of-care testing (POCT) is becoming an important adjunct to haematology laboratory practice. An important component of the blood count is the total white cell count (WBC). Previously, this required laborious microscopic cell counting, but it can now be performed by means of automation; however, in many under-resourced countries, costly automated counters are only available in very few central hospitals. Moreover, neither method is practical in most POCT situations. The HemoCue WBC has be...

Osei-bimpong, A.; Jury, C.; Mclean, R.; Lewis, S. M.

2009-01-01

55

Determination of total viable count (TVC) in chicken breast fillets by near-infrared hyperspectral imaging and spectroscopic transforms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Near infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging (HSI) and different spectroscopic transforms were investigated for their potential in detecting total viable counts in raw chicken fillets. A laboratory-based pushbroom hyperspectral imaging system was utilized to acquire images of raw chicken breast fillets and the resulting reflectance images were corrected and transformed into hypercubes in absorbance and Kubelka-Munck (K-M) units. Full wavelength partial least regression models were established to correlate the three spectral profiles with measured bacterial counts, and the best calibration model was based on absorbance spectra, where the correlation coefficients (R) were 0.97 and 0.93, and the root mean squared errors (RMSEs) were 0.37 and 0.57 log10 colony forming units (CFU) per gram for calibration and cross validation, respectively. To simplify the models, several wavelengths were selected by stepwise regression. More robustness was found in the resulting simplified models and the model based on K-M spectra was found to be excellent with an indicative high ratio of performance to deviation (RPD) value of 3.02. The correlation coefficients and RMSEs for this model were 0.96 and 0.40 log10 CFU per gram as well as 0.94 and 0.50 log10 CFU per gram for calibration and cross validation, respectively. Visualization maps produced by applying the developed models to the images could be an alternative to test the adaptability of a calibration model. Moreover, multi-spectral imaging systems were suggested to be developed for online applications. PMID:23598014

Feng, Yao-Ze; Sun, Da-Wen

2013-02-15

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Comparison of effects of suture and cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive on bacterial counts in contaminated lacerations.  

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We studied the effects of closing lacerations with suture or cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive on staphylococcal counts in inoculated guinea pig lacerations. Wounds closed with adhesive alone had lower counts than wounds containing suture material (P < 0.05). The results of a time-kill study were consistent with a bacteriostatic adhesive effect of the adhesive against Staphylococcus aureus.

Howell, J. M.; Bresnahan, K. A.; Stair, T. O.; Dhindsa, H. S.; Edwards, B. A.

1995-01-01

57

Effect of total motile sperm count in intra-uterine insemination on ongoing pregnancy rate.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a descriptive retrospective cohort study, we determined the cumulative pregnancy rate for couples undergoing intra-uterine insemination (IUI) with at least one total motile sperm count (TMC) 1 million. Eight hundred and ninety-five cycles in 273 couples were studied from 2006 to 2009. In 895 cycles, ovarian stimulation was performed through recFSH injections. IUI was scheduled 38 ± 2 h after the administration of HCG when at least one follicle measured >18 mm. The cumulative pregnancy rate according to the TMC was calculated. The cumulative pregnancy rate after four cycles of IUI was 17.3% in couples with at least one TMC 1 million. It is concluded that the TMC does not significantly influence cumulative pregnancy rates after 4 IUI cycles. Couples with a low TMC could benefit from IUI. This could be considered before IVF. PMID:24386953

Kleppe, M; van Hooff, M H; Rhemrev, J P

2014-12-01

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A CORRELATION STUDY OF TOTAL SALIVARY COUNTS AND VIRULENT MARKERS OF STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS WITH CARIES EXPERIENCE  

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Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate an impending relationship between salivary Streptococcus mutans count, sucrose dependent glass adherence, and water insoluble glucan synthesis of isolated strains of Streptococcus mutans with caries experience among young adults between the age group of 20 to 23 years which may enable future planning of caries prevention in adults. A total of 70 dental students undergoing compulsory rotary internship were selected for the study based on certain inclusion and exclusion criteria. After assessing DMFT and DMFS of the subjects, stimulated saliva was collected for the above mentioned analysis. Statistical analysis was done using student t test for comparing the means of the results of the two groups. Before applying t test the variances of both the groups was tested using Levene's test

Gandhimathi C

2014-06-01

59

Comparison of Fecal Indicator Bacterial Counts in Shellfish Harvested from Kedah, Penang and Perak Pre and Post-Tsunami  

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Full Text Available The objectives of this paper are to examine the level of fecal indicator bacterial counts (Fecal Coliform (FC and Escherichia coli (EC in shellfish harvested from Penang, Perak and Kedah after the tsunami and to compare the mean FC and EC in shellfish from the three states pre and post-tsunami. The data used in this paper were obtained from the Department of Fisheries’ Sanitary and Photosanitary (SPS Program which monitored the shellfish culture areas around the Peninsular Malaysia regularly. Data were analysed using SPSS (Version 11.5. Generally more than 50% of the samples collected from each states after the tsunami complied to the microbiological safety guidelines (0.05 between the mean FC and EC counts in Penang, Perak and Kedah pre and post-tsunami.

Wan Norhana, N.

2006-01-01

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Quality of raw cow milk in Republic of Macedonia determined through the testing of somatic cell count and total viable count  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Somatic cells count and total viable count are criteria used to estimate the compliance of raw cow milk with the Book of rules for demands for safety and hygiene and procedures for official controls of milk and milk products, Official Gazette of RM 157/2007. According to the given demands, raw milk operators are obliged to conduct all procedures and to guarantee that milk is in compliance with the criteria laid down in Book of rules. At the same time, Republic of Macedonia have to fulfill EU ...

Angelovski Ljupco; Jankuloski Dean; Kostova Sandra; Ratkova Marija; Erakovic Tokalic Irena; Sekulovski Pavle

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Association between milking practices and psychrotrophic bacterial counts in bulk tank milk / Asociación entre prácticas de ordeño y recuento de organismos psicrótrofos en leche de tanque de frío  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar los factores de riesgo para altos recuentos de organismos psicrótrofos en leche de tanques de tambos de la Argentina. Se examinaron muestras de leche cruda de tanques de frío de 27 tambos, y se realizó el recuento de organismos psicrótrofos totales (PT), de psi [...] crótrofos proteolíticos (PP) y de psicrótrofos lipolíticos (PL) (variables dependientes). Se realizó una encuesta para registrar las condiciones de infraestructura, el equipo de ordeño y las prácticas de ordeño (variables independientes). Se utilizaron pruebas bivariadas de asociación y regresión logística para determinar la asociación entre las variables independientes y los recuentos de organismos psicrótrofos. La leche enfriada en sistemas de placas de intercambio o tanques tipo cuba tuvo una probabilidad mayor de dar recuentos elevados de PT y PP (16,39 y 10,52) comparada con la enfriada en tanques tipo "panza fría". La limpieza periódica del equipo de frío (3 veces por semana o diariamente) se asoció con bajos recuentos de PT (aproximadamente 1,5 log de UFC/ml). Los tambos cuyos ordeñadores no se higienizaban las manos durante el ordeño tuvieron una probabilidad 7,81 veces mayor de tener recuentos elevados de PP. No se encontró asociación entre el recuento de PL y las variables independientes. La única variable asociada con los recuentos de PT y PP en el modelo de regresión logística fue el sistema de enfriamiento utilizado en el tambo. El tipo de sistema de refrigeración usado y su adecuado mantenimiento higiénico son importantes para la obtención de leche con baja carga de organismos psicrótrofos en el tambo. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine on-farm risk factors for psychrotrophic bacterial counts in bulk tank milk from dairy farms in Argentina. Raw milk samples from bulk tanks of 27 dairy farms were examined for total psychrotrophic counts (TPC), proteolytic psychrotrophic counts (PPC) and li [...] polytic psychrotrophic counts (LPC) (dependent or outcome variables). A survey recording infrastructure conditions, milking equipment and milking management (independent variables) was performed. Bivariate association proofs and logistic regression analyses were used to determine association between independent variables and psychrotrophic bacterial counts. Milk cooled in plate heat exchangers or barrel tanks were 16.39 and 10.52 times more likely to yield TPC and PPC above the standard established for high quality milk compared with milk cooled in bulk tanks, respectively. Periodic cleaning of cooling tanks (3 times a week or daily) was associated with lower TPC (approximately 1.5 log CFU/ml) than weekly cleaning frequency and farms where milkers did not wash their hands during milking time were 7.81 times more likely to have higher PPC. No association was found between LPC and any of the independent variables. The only variable associated with TPC and PPC in a logistic regression model was the refrigeration system used on the farm. Dairy farms that possessed bulk milk cooling tanks yielded the lowest bacterial counts. Results of this study highlight the importance of both the type of cooling system used on the farm and its adequate hygienic maintenance for obtaining low pshychrotrophic counts at dairy farm.

Ana I., Molineri; Marcelo L., Signorini; Alejandra L., Cuatrín; Vilma R., Canavesio; Verónica E., Neder; Norma B., Russi; Julio C., Bonazza; Luis F., Calvinho.

2012-09-01

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Relationship between total bacteria counts and somatic cell counts from mammary quarters infected by mastitis pathogens / Relação entre contagem total de bactérias e contagem de células somáticas de quartos mamários infectados por patógenos da mastite  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo foi realizado com objetivo de estabelecer a relação entre contagem de células somáticas (CCS) e a liberação de bactérias de quartos mamários de acordo com os patógenos da mastite. Amostras de leite de 638 quartos mamários foram examinadas para identificação dos patógenos da mastite, CCS [...] e contagem total de bactérias (CTB). Estatísticas descritivas foram utilizadas para avaliar os dados brutos de CCS e CTB. A diferença entre médias para CCS e CTB de acordo com os resultados dos exames bacteriológicos foi avaliada pelo teste T para amostras independentes. Foram realizadas a correlação de Pearson, de Spearman e regressão linear com os dados transformados. As médias geométricas de acordo com os resultados dos exames bacteriológicos foram (células mL-1; UFC mL-1): sem crescimento (52.000; 12.000), estafilococos coagulase negativo (85.000; 17.000), Staphylococcus aureus (587.000; 77000); outros estreptococus (432.000; 108.000) e Streptococcus agalactiae (1.572.000; 333.000). A correlação de Pearson e Spearman entre CCS e CTB foi maior que 0,60 para todos os patógenos da mastite. O coeficiente angular das regressões lineares mostrou diferentes aumentos da CTB como o mesmo aumento da CCS de acordo com os patógenos da mastite. O coeficiente angular para o S. agalactiae (0.542) foi maior em relação aos outros patógenos da mastite. Os resultados sugerem que a intensidade do processo inflamatório foi associada com a quantidade de bactérias da mastite liberada pela glândula mamária. Abstract in english This study was conducted to establish the relationship between somatic cell count (SCC) and bacterial shedding from mammary quarters according to mastitis pathogens. Milk samples from 638 mammary quarters were examined for mastitis pathogens, SCC and total bacterial count (TBC). The raw data of SCC [...] and TBC were used to perform descriptive statistics. The significance of the arithmetic mean differences between SCC and TBC according to bacteriological examination results was determined by a two-tailed unpaired t-test. Pearson and Spearman´s correlations were done with logarithmic data and linear regression analyses. The geometric means of the bacteriological examination results were (cells mL-1; CFU mL-1): no growth (52,000; 12,000), coagulase-negative staphylococci (85,000; 17,000), Staphylococcus aureus (587,000; 77,000); other streptococci (432,000; 108,000) and Streptococcus agalactiae (1,572,000; 333,000). The Pearson and Spearman's correlations between SCC and TBC were higher than 0.60 for all mastitis pathogens. The regression analyses slopes showed different increase in TBC with the same increase in SCC according to mastitis pathogens. The slope for S. agalactiae (0.542) was higher than that for other mastitis pathogens. The results suggest that the intensity of inflammatory process was associated with number of mastitis pathogens shedding from the mammary gland.

João Emídio Ferreira, Lopes Júnior; Carla Cristine, Lange; Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva, Brito; Fabiana Ribeiro, Santos; Marco Aurélio Souto, Silva; Luciano Castro Dutra de, Moraes; Guilherme Nunes de, Souza.

2012-04-01

63

Relationship between total bacteria counts and somatic cell counts from mammary quarters infected by mastitis pathogens Relação entre contagem total de bactérias e contagem de células somáticas de quartos mamários infectados por patógenos da mastite  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to establish the relationship between somatic cell count (SCC and bacterial shedding from mammary quarters according to mastitis pathogens. Milk samples from 638 mammary quarters were examined for mastitis pathogens, SCC and total bacterial count (TBC. The raw data of SCC and TBC were used to perform descriptive statistics. The significance of the arithmetic mean differences between SCC and TBC according to bacteriological examination results was determined by a two-tailed unpaired t-test. Pearson and Spearman´s correlations were done with logarithmic data and linear regression analyses. The geometric means of the bacteriological examination results were (cells mL-1; CFU mL-1: no growth (52,000; 12,000, coagulase-negative staphylococci (85,000; 17,000, Staphylococcus aureus (587,000; 77,000; other streptococci (432,000; 108,000 and Streptococcus agalactiae (1,572,000; 333,000. The Pearson and Spearman's correlations between SCC and TBC were higher than 0.60 for all mastitis pathogens. The regression analyses slopes showed different increase in TBC with the same increase in SCC according to mastitis pathogens. The slope for S. agalactiae (0.542 was higher than that for other mastitis pathogens. The results suggest that the intensity of inflammatory process was associated with number of mastitis pathogens shedding from the mammary gland.Este estudo foi realizado com objetivo de estabelecer a relação entre contagem de células somáticas (CCS e a liberação de bactérias de quartos mamários de acordo com os patógenos da mastite. Amostras de leite de 638 quartos mamários foram examinadas para identificação dos patógenos da mastite, CCS e contagem total de bactérias (CTB. Estatísticas descritivas foram utilizadas para avaliar os dados brutos de CCS e CTB. A diferença entre médias para CCS e CTB de acordo com os resultados dos exames bacteriológicos foi avaliada pelo teste T para amostras independentes. Foram realizadas a correlação de Pearson, de Spearman e regressão linear com os dados transformados. As médias geométricas de acordo com os resultados dos exames bacteriológicos foram (células mL-1; UFC mL-1: sem crescimento (52.000; 12.000, estafilococos coagulase negativo (85.000; 17.000, Staphylococcus aureus (587.000; 77000; outros estreptococus (432.000; 108.000 e Streptococcus agalactiae (1.572.000; 333.000. A correlação de Pearson e Spearman entre CCS e CTB foi maior que 0,60 para todos os patógenos da mastite. O coeficiente angular das regressões lineares mostrou diferentes aumentos da CTB como o mesmo aumento da CCS de acordo com os patógenos da mastite. O coeficiente angular para o S. agalactiae (0.542 foi maior em relação aos outros patógenos da mastite. Os resultados sugerem que a intensidade do processo inflamatório foi associada com a quantidade de bactérias da mastite liberada pela glândula mamária.

João Emídio Ferreira Lopes Júnior

2012-04-01

64

Relationship between total bacteria counts and somatic cell counts from mammary quarters infected by mastitis pathogens / Relação entre contagem total de bactérias e contagem de células somáticas de quartos mamários infectados por patógenos da mastite  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo foi realizado com objetivo de estabelecer a relação entre contagem de células somáticas (CCS) e a liberação de bactérias de quartos mamários de acordo com os patógenos da mastite. Amostras de leite de 638 quartos mamários foram examinadas para identificação dos patógenos da mastite, CCS [...] e contagem total de bactérias (CTB). Estatísticas descritivas foram utilizadas para avaliar os dados brutos de CCS e CTB. A diferença entre médias para CCS e CTB de acordo com os resultados dos exames bacteriológicos foi avaliada pelo teste T para amostras independentes. Foram realizadas a correlação de Pearson, de Spearman e regressão linear com os dados transformados. As médias geométricas de acordo com os resultados dos exames bacteriológicos foram (células mL-1; UFC mL-1): sem crescimento (52.000; 12.000), estafilococos coagulase negativo (85.000; 17.000), Staphylococcus aureus (587.000; 77000); outros estreptococus (432.000; 108.000) e Streptococcus agalactiae (1.572.000; 333.000). A correlação de Pearson e Spearman entre CCS e CTB foi maior que 0,60 para todos os patógenos da mastite. O coeficiente angular das regressões lineares mostrou diferentes aumentos da CTB como o mesmo aumento da CCS de acordo com os patógenos da mastite. O coeficiente angular para o S. agalactiae (0.542) foi maior em relação aos outros patógenos da mastite. Os resultados sugerem que a intensidade do processo inflamatório foi associada com a quantidade de bactérias da mastite liberada pela glândula mamária. Abstract in english This study was conducted to establish the relationship between somatic cell count (SCC) and bacterial shedding from mammary quarters according to mastitis pathogens. Milk samples from 638 mammary quarters were examined for mastitis pathogens, SCC and total bacterial count (TBC). The raw data of SCC [...] and TBC were used to perform descriptive statistics. The significance of the arithmetic mean differences between SCC and TBC according to bacteriological examination results was determined by a two-tailed unpaired t-test. Pearson and Spearman´s correlations were done with logarithmic data and linear regression analyses. The geometric means of the bacteriological examination results were (cells mL-1; CFU mL-1): no growth (52,000; 12,000), coagulase-negative staphylococci (85,000; 17,000), Staphylococcus aureus (587,000; 77,000); other streptococci (432,000; 108,000) and Streptococcus agalactiae (1,572,000; 333,000). The Pearson and Spearman's correlations between SCC and TBC were higher than 0.60 for all mastitis pathogens. The regression analyses slopes showed different increase in TBC with the same increase in SCC according to mastitis pathogens. The slope for S. agalactiae (0.542) was higher than that for other mastitis pathogens. The results suggest that the intensity of inflammatory process was associated with number of mastitis pathogens shedding from the mammary gland.

João Emídio Ferreira, Lopes Júnior; Carla Cristine, Lange; Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva, Brito; Fabiana Ribeiro, Santos; Marco Aurélio Souto, Silva; Luciano Castro Dutra de, Moraes; Guilherme Nunes de, Souza.

65

Improving prediction of total viable counts in pork based on hyperspectral scattering technique  

Science.gov (United States)

A hyperspectral scattering technique was investigated for predicting the total viable counts (TVC) of pork in the article. Fresh pork was purchased from a local market and stored at 4°C for 1-15 days. Totally 35 samples were used in the experiment and 2-4 samples were taken out randomly each day for collecting hyperspectral images and reference microbiological tests. Gompertz function was applied to fit the scattering profiles of pork and Teflon, and the fitting results were pretty good in the spectral range of 470-1010 nm. Both individual parameters and integrated parameters were explored to develop the multi-linear regression models for predicting pork TVC, and the results indicated that individual Gompertz parameter ? was superior to other individual parameters, while the integrated parameters can perform better. The best result for predicting pork TVC was achieved by the form of (?, ?, ?), with the RCV of 0.963. The study demonstrated that hyperspectral scattering technique combined with Gompertz function was potential for rapid determination of pork TVC, and would be a valid tool for monitoring the quality and safety attributes of meat in the future.

Tao, Feifei; Peng, Yankun; Song, Yulin; Guo, Hui; Chao, Kuanglin

2012-05-01

66

Importance of the sampled milk fraction for the prediction of total quarter somatic cell count.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the changes in somatic cell counts (SCC) in different fractions of milk, with special emphasis on the foremilk and cisternal milk fractions. Therefore, in Experiment 1, quarter milk samples were defined as strict foremilk (F), cisternal milk (C), first 400 g of alveolar milk (A1), and the remaining alveolar milk (A2). Experiment 2 included 6 foremilk fractions (F1 to F6), consisting of one hand-stripped milk jet each, and the remaining cisternal milk plus the entire alveolar milk (RM). In Experiment 1, changes during milking indicated the importance of the sampled milk fraction for measuring SCC because the decrease in the first 3 fractions (F, C, and A1) was enormous in milk with high total quarter SCC. The decline in SCC from F to C was 50% and was 80% from C to A1. Total quarter SCC presented a value of approximately 20% of SCC in F or 35% of SCC in C. Changes in milk with low or very low SCC were marginal during milking. Fractions F and C showed significant differences in SCC among different total SCC concentrations. These differences disappeared with the alveolar fractions A1 and A2. In Experiment 2, a more detailed investigation of foremilk fractions supported the findings of Experiment 1. A significant decline in the foremilk fractions even of F1 to F6 was observed in high-SCC milk at concentrations >350 x 10(3) cells/mL. Although one of these foremilk fractions presented only 0.1 to 0.2% of the total milk, the SCC was 2- to 3-fold greater than the total quarter milk SCC. Because the trait of interest (SCC) was measured directly by using the DeLaval cell counter (DCC), the quality of measurement was tested. Statistically interesting factors (repeatability, recovery rate, and potential matrix effects of milk) proved that the DCC is a useful tool for identifying the SCC of milk samples, and thus of grading udder health status. Generally, the DCC provides reliable results, but one must consider that SCC even in strict foremilk can differ dramatically from SCC in the total cisternal fraction, and thus also from SCC in the alveolar fraction. PMID:17033011

Sarikaya, H; Bruckmaier, R M

2006-11-01

67

BACTERIAL TOC (TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON) REMOVAL ON SAND AND GAC (GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON)  

Science.gov (United States)

A method is developed to separate the effects of adsorption and biodegradation in long term total organic carbon (TOC) removal observed on GAC contactors. TOC removal is compared on parallel sand and GAC contactors. Temperature control is used to manipulate bacterial TOC removal ...

68

Total Counting and Spectroscopy in the Assessment of Alpha Radioactivity in Human Tissues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A seven-year programme of measurements of alpha radioactivity is briefly reviewed. The programme which was based initially on a sensitive and simple counting technique, using thin zinc cadmium sulphide screens, now employs in addition techniques of alpha spectroscopy developed for work with very large area low-specific-activity sources. These techniques are capable of measuring specific activities down to 10-13 c/g and can in certain cases provide energy resolution of the order of 40 keV together with independent identification based on half-life measurements. Two alpha spectrometers are described which have been used on a wide variety of human and environmental materials. Particular attention has been given to the study of Po210, now known to be present in a variety of foods and human tissues. Techniques are also described for the study of Pu239 in the atmosphere and examples given of .the results of measurements of low-level air contamination with this material. Techniques for the measurement of Pu239 in normal human tissues are described and some results given. Consideration is given to the contribution made by Po210 to the natural background radiation dose-rate in human bone and reproductive organs. It is shown that this contribution may be a significant fraction of the total dose received. (author)

69

Oil flow rate measurements using 198Au and total count technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In industrial plants, oil and oil compounds are usually transported by closed pipelines with circular cross-section. The use of radiotracers in oil transport and processing industrial facilities allows calibrating flowmeters, measuring mean residence time in cracking columns, locate points of obstruction or leak in underground ducts, as well as investigating flow behavior or industrial processes such as in distillation towers. Inspection techniques using radiotracers are non-destructive, simple, economic and highly accurate. Among them, Total Count, which uses a small amount of radiotracer with known activity, is acknowledged as an absolute technique for flow rate measurement. A viscous fluid transport system, composed by four PVC pipelines with 13m length (12m horizontal and 1m vertical) and 1/2, 3/4, 1 and 2-inch gauges, respectively, interconnected by maneuvering valves was designed and assembled in order to conduct the research. This system was used to simulate different flow conditions of petroleum compounds and for experimental studies of flow profile in the horizontal and upward directions. As 198Au presents a single photopeak (411,8 keV), it was the radioisotope chosen for oil labeling, in small amounts (6 ml) or around 200 kBq activity, and it was injected in the oil transport lines. A NaI scintillation detector 2'x 2', with well-defined geometry, was used to measure total activity, determine the calibration factor F and, positioned after a homogenization distance and interconnected to a standardized electronic set of nuclear instrumentation modules (NIM), to detect the radioactive cloud. (author)

70

Starch Gelatinization, Total Bacterial Counts and Sensory Evaluation of Deep Fried Cassava Balls (Akara-Akpu  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two frying variables (Oil temperature and frying time at three levels each, were studied to determine effects on degree of starch gelatinization, consumer response and microbial quality of fried cassava balls (Akara-akpu. Results showed that the degree of starch gelatinization of Akara-akpu increased with increasing oil temperature ( °C, time and moisture content of Akara-akpu paste. Optimum starch gelatinization value of 29.62-34.41% was established for Akara-akpu samples. Based on consumer panel results, oil temperature of 160 °C at 5 min and 180 °C at 4 min should be used to produce acceptable Akara-akpu. It was evident that higher sensory scores in terms of crunchiness, overall quality and willingness to purchase were obtained at the established optimum gelatinization range.

M.A. Igyor

2008-01-01

71

Quality of raw cow milk in Republic of Macedonia determined through the testing of somatic cell count and total viable count  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Somatic cells count and total viable count are criteria used to estimate the compliance of raw cow milk with the Book of rules for demands for safety and hygiene and procedures for official controls of milk and milk products, Official Gazette of RM 157/2007. According to the given demands, raw milk operators are obliged to conduct all procedures and to guarantee that milk is in compliance with the criteria laid down in Book of rules. At the same time, Republic of Macedonia have to fulfill EU criteria laid down in Directive 92/46 (Council directive 92/46/EEC laying down the health rules for the production and placing on the market of raw milk, heat-treated milk and milkbased products for quality of raw milk as part of implementation of community legislation and milk production. The independent laboratory for milk quality control at FVM-Skopje, in frame of its activities in the period February- August 2008 has conducted a study for obtaining preliminary results for the situation with raw milk quality produced in R. of Macedonia for somatic cells counts and total viable count. In the study we analyzed 2065 samples for TVC and 1625 samples for SCC of raw milk samples produced in different parts of the country. From the tested samples only 41,8% fulfill criteria for SCC and 41,45% criteria for TVC lay down in Book of rules for 2008. Assessment of the results in light of Council Directive it is obvious that only 42,7% of the samples for SCC and 10,7% for TVC fulfill the criteria of Council Directive having in mind different requirements vs. Book of rules.

Angelovski Ljupco

2008-11-01

72

BIN PIXEL COUNT, MEAN AND TOTAL OF INTENSITIES EXTRACTED FROM PARTITIONED EQUALIZED HISTOGRAM FOR CBIR  

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Full Text Available In this paper we have introduced three simple feature vector extraction ideas to retrieve the images from database of 2000 images includes 20 different classes into it. The feature extraction process mainly based on splitting the image into three planes, for each plane an equalized histogram will be calculated which is divided in two, three and four equal parts to form the 8, 27 and 64 bins respectively. Three simple ways are used to extract the information in these three different sizes of bin sets. One is, ‘Count’ of the pixels falling in specific range of the histogram of each plane into its destination bin. Second, ‘Total’ intensities of these pixels in each of these bins is taken into consideration, and in third variation is the ‘Mean’ of these intensities is considered to represent the feature vector. Determination of the destination bin address for each pixel under process depends upon the R,G, B value of that pixel which falls in any one part of the equalized partitioned histogram, because based on it the 3digits flag will be assigned to that pixel with respect to its R, G, and B values. This way, sixfeature vector databases are prepared for 2000 images with three variable sizes and 3 variations in the extraction methods. We have maintained the separate set of bins for each plane and that way we have 3 more variations in databases. Means in all we have 18 feature vector databases that is six databases for each Red, Green and Blueplane. Experimentation uses image database of 20 classes having 100 images of each of the following classes: Flower, Sunset, Mountain, Buliding, Bus, Dinosaur, Elephant, Barbie, Mickey, Horses,Kingfisher, Dove, Crow, Rainbowrose, Pyramids, Plates, Car, Trees, Ship and Waterfall. Performance of our approaches is evaluated using two parameters LIRS and LSRR and results are refined and combined using three criteria Criterion1, 2 and 3.

H. B. Kekre

2012-03-01

73

Métodos de conservação de amostras de leite para determinação da contagem bacteriana total por citometria de fluxo / Milk sample conservation methods to determine the total bacteria count by flow cytometry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se o efeito da temperatura de armazenamento e da idade da amostra sobre a contagem bacteriana total de amostras de leite conservadas com azidiol para verificar a possibilidade de utilização de uma única amostra nas análises previstas na Instrução Normativa 51 (IN-51). Utilizaram-se 320 alíqu [...] otas de leite coletado de um tanque de expansão para avaliação de três temperaturas de armazenamento - a 0 ºC (congelada), 7 ºC (refrigerada) e 24 ºC (à temperatura ambiente) -, três tipos de conservação (bronopol, azidiol e sem conservante) e quatro idades da amostra (1, 3, 5 e 7 dias). Para contagem bacteriana total, foram consideradas controle amostras refrigeradas, com azidiol e amostras de um dia e, para composição e contagem de células somáticas (CCS), os controles foram amostras refrigeradas, com bronopol e de um dia. Nas amostras conservadas com bronopol, a contagem bacteriana total foi menor que na controle, independentemente da idade e da temperatura. O mesmo foi observado nas amostras com azidiol e congeladas. Amostras com azidiol apresentaram aumento da contagem bacteriana total, independentemente da idade, enquanto, naquelas que não receberam azidiol, a contagem bacteriana total foi superior à das amostras refrigeradas, conservadas com azidiol e de um dia. As amostras conservadas com azidiol e refrigeradas tiveram aumento linear na contagem bacteriana total de 0,0058 log por dia, o que pode ser considerado sem importância prática. Amostras conservadas com azidiol e refrigeradas apresentaram CCS menor, em todas as idades, em relação a amostras refrigeradas e conservadas com bronopol. Os teores de gordura e lactose reduziram após o quinto dia. Foi necessária a coleta de duas amostras: uma destinada à determinação de CCS e da composição contendo bronopol e outra para contagem bacteriana total contendo azidiol. Amostras para contagem bacteriana total podem ser analisadas em até sete dias, se mantidas a 7 ºC e adicionadas de azidiol. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of storage temperature and sample age on the total bacterial count (TBC) of milk samples preserved with azidiol to verify whether a single sample could be used to perform regulatory milk analysis under the Normative Instruction 51 (IN-51). Three [...] hundred and twenty milk aliquots were used collected from an expansion tank to assess three storage temperatures (0 ºC - frozen: 7 ºC - refrigerated, and 24 ºC - room temperature), three types of conservation (bronopol, azidiol and no preservative) and four sample ages (1, 3, 5, and 7 days). For the total bacteria count, refrigerated control samples, with azidiol and one day old samples, and for composition and somatic cell count (SCC), the controls were defined as one day old refrigerated samples containing bronopol. Samples conserved with bronopol presented lower total bacteria count than the control regardless of storage temperature and sample age. Milk samples conserved with azidiol and stored refrigerated presented lower SCC, regardless of age, compared to refrigerated samples conserved with bronopol. The fat and lactose contents decreased after the fifth day. Two samples had to be collected: one for SCC determination and composition containing bronopol and another for the total bacteria count containing azidiol. Milk samples used for total bacteria count can be tested up to 7 days if they are kept at 7 ºC with the addition of azidiol.

Laerte Dagher, Cassoli; Paulo Fernando, Machado; Arlei, Coldebella.

2010-02-01

74

Point-of-care method for total white cell count: an evaluation of the HemoCue WBC device.  

Science.gov (United States)

Point-of-care testing (POCT) is becoming an important adjunct to haematology laboratory practice. An important component of the blood count is the total white cell count (WBC). Previously, this required laborious microscopic cell counting, but it can now be performed by means of automation; however, in many under-resourced countries, costly automated counters are only available in very few central hospitals. Moreover, neither method is practical in most POCT situations. The HemoCue WBC has been developed as a simplified alternative method, consisting of a reagent pre-loaded disposable cuvette together with basic image analysis technology. This report describes an assessment of its utility. The WBC of 500 routine blood samples from the hospital were tested in parallel by the HemoCue WBC and by a reference analyser to assess accuracy and utility of the former. The tests included precision, linearity, type of blood sample and anticoagulant and potential interfering substances in blood specimens. In the tests for accuracy, 192 of the 200 showed percentage difference from the NEQAS reference of 2% normoblasts or reticulocytosis showed significant differences from the reference measurements. The HemoCue WBC is reliable for WBC counts within the analytical range of 0.4-30.0 x 10(9)/l, except in samples where there are significant numbers of normoblasts or reticulocytes. It is simple to use and provides a valuable advance in the facilities available for POCT in haematology. PMID:18759736

Osei-Bimpong, A; Jury, C; McLean, R; Lewis, S M

2009-12-01

75

Validation of the Micro Biological Survey Method for Total Viable Count and E. coli in Food Samples  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was the validation of the Micro Biological Survey (MBS method for microbiological analysis of food for Total Viable Count (TVC and Escherichia coli (E. coli. The MBS method is a rapid quantitative alternative method for the detection and selective counting of bacteria in agro-food, in water and in environmental samples. It is based on colorimetric survey in mono-use disposable reaction vials that must be filled with the samples without any preliminary treatment (e.g., homogenization, dilution, etc.; the greater the number of bacteria presents into the sample, the faster the color change. However, an independent evaluation of the analytical results obtained with MBS method would be required before commercialization. Therefore, this alternative method was validated in comparison to the reference method. The general estimate of precision, reliability, uncertainty, linearity, accuracy and selectivity were determined. All the performance parameters have demonstrated total correlation between the alternative method and the reference method for the detection and counting of TVC and E. coli both in artificially contaminated and in naturally contaminated samples. MBS assay can be used as rapid and user friendly screening method for detection of TVC and E. coli in food industry.

Francesca Romana Priolisi

2011-01-01

76

Quantitative detection of antibody based on single-molecule counting by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy with quantum dot labeling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We presented a sensitive method to quantify antibody based on single-molecule counting by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy with quantum dot labeling. In this method, the biotinylated monoclonal anti-human IgG molecules were immobilized on the silanized glass substrate surface. By the strong biotin-streptavidin affinity, streptavidin-coated quantum dots were labeled to the target molecules as fluorescent probe. Then, images of fluorescent spots in the evanescent wave field were obtained by a high-sensitivity electron multiplying charge-coupled device. Finally, the number of fluorescent spots corresponding to single molecules in the subframe images was counted, one by one. The linear range of 8.0 x 10-14 to 5.0 x 10-12 mol L-1 was obtained between the number of single molecules and the sample concentration

77

Quantitative detection of antibody based on single-molecule counting by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy with quantum dot labeling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We presented a sensitive method to quantify antibody based on single-molecule counting by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy with quantum dot labeling. In this method, the biotinylated monoclonal anti-human IgG molecules were immobilized on the silanized glass substrate surface. By the strong biotin-streptavidin affinity, streptavidin-coated quantum dots were labeled to the target molecules as fluorescent probe. Then, images of fluorescent spots in the evanescent wave field were obtained by a high-sensitivity electron multiplying charge-coupled device. Finally, the number of fluorescent spots corresponding to single molecules in the subframe images was counted, one by one. The linear range of 8.0 x 10{sup -14} to 5.0 x 10{sup -12} mol L{sup -1} was obtained between the number of single molecules and the sample concentration.

Jiang Dafeng [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, 250100 Jinan (China); Wang Lei [School of Pharmacy, Shandong University, 250012 Jinan (China); Jiang Wei [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, 250100 Jinan (China)], E-mail: wjiang@sdu.edu.cn

2009-02-16

78

Gamma-spectrometric and total alpha-beta counting methods for radioactivity analysis of deuterium depleted water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to national regulations, as well as to the EU directive on the quality of drinking water, the radionuclide concentrations represent some of the drinking water quality parameters. Among the most important radioactivity content parameters are: the total alpha and total beta concentration (Bq/l); K-40 content, and the gamma-nuclides volume activities. The paper presents the measuring methods for low-level total alpha and/or beta counting of volume samples, as well as the high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometric method used to measure the volume activity of nuclides in drinking water. These methods are applied to monitor the radioactivity content and quality of the QLARIVIA brand of Deuterium depleted water (DDW). There are discussed the performances of these applied methods as well as some preliminary results. (authors)

79

Validation of the Soleris NF-TVC method for determination of total viable count in a variety of foods.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of the Soleris Non-fermenting-Total Viable Count (NF-TVC) automated growth-based method for semiquantitative detection of mesophilic, aerobic microorganisms in a variety of food products. A probability of detection (POD) statistical model was used to compare Soleris results at multiple test thresholds (dilutions) with aerobic plate counts determined using reference dilution plating procedures. Nine naturally contaminated food products were tested, with Soleris testing performed at three or four threshold levels for each food. Using the POD model, all Soleris test results were in statistical agreement with the reference plating procedures with the exception of a single threshold level in two trials with black pepper, and a single threshold level in the independent laboratory trial with cheesecake. Results of ruggedness testing showed that the Soleris method produced accurate results even when minor variances in operating parameters, including sample volume and incubation temperature, were introduced. Results of the internal and independent laboratory validation studies showed that the Soleris NF-TVC method can be used as an accurate alternative to conventional dilution plating procedures for evaluation of microbial counts at threshold levels, while saving 24 h or more in analysis time. PMID:23767366

Mozola, Mark; Gray, R Lucas; Feldpausch, Jill; Alles, Susan; McDougal, Susan; Montei, Carolyn; Sarver, Ron; Steiner, Brent; Cooper, Christine; Rice, Jennifer

2013-01-01

80

How much locomotive activity is needed for an active physical activity level: analysis of total step counts  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Although physical activity recommendations for public health have focused on locomotive activity such as walking and running, it is uncertain how much these activities contribute to overall physical activity level (PAL. The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of locomotive activity to PAL using total step counts measured in a calorimeter study. Methods PAL, calculated as total energy expenditure divided by basal metabolic rate, was evaluated in 11 adult men using three different conditions for 24-hour human calorimeter measurements: a low-activity day (L-day targeted at a low active level of PAL (1.45, and a high-frequency moderate activity day (M-day or a high-frequency vigorous activity day (V-day targeted at an active level of PAL (1.75. These subjects were permitted only light activities except prescribed activities. In a separate group of 41 adults, free-living PAL was evaluated using doubly-labeled water (DLW. In both experiments, step counts per day were also measured using an accelerometer. Results In the human calorimeter study, PAL and step counts were 1.42 ± 0.10 and 8,973 ± 543 steps/d (L-day, 1.82 ± 0.14 and 29,588 ± 1,126 steps/d (M-day, and 1.74 ± 0.15 and 23,755 ± 1,038 steps/d (V-day, respectively. In the DLW study, PAL and step counts were 1.73 ± 0.15 and 10,022 ± 2,605 steps/d, and there was no significant relationship between PAL and daily step counts. Conclusions These results indicate that an enormous number of steps are needed for an active level of PAL if individuals extend physical activity-induced energy expenditure by only locomotive activity. Therefore, non-locomotive activity such as household activity should also play a significant role in increasing PAL under free-living conditions.

Ohkawara Kazunori

2011-11-01

 
 
 
 
81

Globulinas totales y recuento linfocitario como marcadores de mortalidad en sepsis y shock séptico / Total globulins and lymphocyte count as markers of mortality in sepsis and septic shock  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: No existen estudios que demuestren si pacientes en sepsis o shock séptico que presentan globulinas plasmáticas totales y/o recuento linfocitario plasmático disminuidos, tendrían mayor mortalidad. Pacientes y Método: Estudio de cohorte prospectivo de 103 pacientes ingresados a la Unidad [...] de Cuidados Intensivos, que cumplían criterios de sepsis o shock séptico, seguidos diariamente en el Hospital Dr. Gustavo Fricke entre junio y noviembre de 2009. Resultados: Hubo asociación entre mortalidad y recuento linfocitario medido a partir del tercer día (valor p 0,05). El área bajo la curva ROC del recuento linfocitario medido al tercer día fue 0,68 (IC 95% 0,530,82), con una sensibilidad de 75%, especificidad 52%, LR(+) 1,57 y LR(-) 0,48 para un punto de corte de 510 linfocitos/mm³, comportándose además como factor de riesgo independiente de mortalidad (OR 3,67, IC 95% 1,03-13,1). Discusión: El recuento linfocitario se asocia precozmente y en forma independiente al pronóstico de mayor mortalidad en estos pacientes. Abstract in english Background: There are no studies probing if patients in sepsis or septic shock with lower levels of total plas-matic globulins and/or lymphocyte count have higher mortality. Patients and Method: Prospective cohort study of 103 patients admitted in Intensive Care Unit followed daily at the Dr. Gustav [...] o Fricke Hospital between June and November of 2009, with sepsis or septic shock criteria. Results: There was association between mortality and lymphocytic count measured from the third day of their hospitalization (P 0.05). The area under ROC curve for the mean lymphocyte count at the third day was 0.68 (95% CI 0.53-0.82), with a sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 52%, LR(+) 1.57 and LR(-) 0.48 for a cut-off at 510 lymphocytes/mm³, behaving also as an independent risk factor of mortality (OR 3.67, 95% CI 1.03-13.1). Discussion: Lymphocyte count is early and independently associated with increased mortality in patients with sepsis or septic shock.

Rodrigo, Conlledo; Álvaro, Rodríguez; Javiera, Godoy; Carlos, Merino; Felipe, Martínez.

82

White blood cell count, absolute neutrophil count, as predictors of hidden bacterial infections in febrile children 1-18 months of age without focus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

rature and WBC P>0.05, while there was a significant difference between the two groups in respect to the ANC P = 0.02, also ANC had better sensitivity (78%) and specificity (89%) than WBC (sensitivity 77%, specificity 62%). Conclusion: ANC is a good predictive test for determining bacterial infection in young febrile children without focus, However there is need for other more reliable rapid cost effective measures in dealing with young febrile children at emergency department. (author)

83

Total blood lymphocyte counts in hemochromatosis probands with HFE C282Y homozygosity: relationship to severity of iron overload and HLA-A and -B alleles and haplotypes  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been reported that some persons with hemochromatosis have low total blood lymphocyte counts, but the reason for this is unknown. Methods We measured total blood lymphocyte counts using an automated blood cell counter in 146 hemochromatosis probands (88 men, 58 women with HFE C282Y homozygosity who were diagnosed in medical care. Univariate and multivariate analyses of total blood lymphocyte counts were evaluated using these variables: sex; age, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin concentration at diagnosis; units of blood removed by phlebotomy to achieve iron depletion; and human leukocyte antigen (HLA-A and -B alleles and haplotypes. Results The mean age at diagnosis was 49 ± 14 years (range 18 – 80 years in men and 50 ± 13 years (range 22 – 88 years in women. The correlations of total blood lymphocyte counts with sex, age, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin concentration at diagnosis, and units of blood removed by phlebotomy to achieve iron depletion were not significant at the 0.05 level. Univariate analyses revealed significant associations between total blood lymphocyte counts and presence of the HLA-A*01, -B*08, and -B*14 alleles, and the A*01-B*08 haplotype. Presence of the A*01 allele, B*08 allele, or A*01-B*08 haplotype were associated with a lower total blood lymphocyte count, whereas presence of the B*14 allele was associated with a greater total blood lymphocyte count. There was an inverse association of total blood lymphocyte count with units of phlebotomy to achieve iron depletion, serum ferritin concentration, and with presence of the A*01-B*08 haplotype. Conclusion We conclude that there is a significant inverse relationship of total blood lymphocyte counts and severity of iron overload in hemochromatosis probands with HFE C282Y homozygosity. The presence of the HLA-A*01 allele or the -B*08 allele was also associated with significantly lower total blood lymphocyte counts, whereas presence of the -B*14 allele was associated with significantly higher total blood lymphocyte counts. In univariate and multivariate analyses, total blood lymphocyte counts were significantly lower in probands with the HLA-A*01-B*08 haplotype than in probands without this haplotype.

Acton Ronald T

2005-07-01

84

Suitability of total coliform ?-D-galactosidase activity and CFU counts in monitoring faecal contamination of environmental water samples  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Total coliforms are a group of bacteria found in high numbers in mammalian intestines; hence their presence in water indicates the possible contamination with faecal material. Total and faecal coliform counts were monitored over a period of 18 months using mFC, m-Endo and CM1046 media together with [...] enzymatic assays on 215 environmental water samples obtained from the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. A positive correlation, with an R² value of 0.9393 was observed between faecal and total coliform colony units employing mFc and m-Endo media, and 0.8818 using CM1046 media. Also, a positive correlation was observed between Escherichia coli colony-forming units and ?-d-galactosidase (B-GAL) activity (R²=0.8542). Overall, this study indicated that faecal contamination of environmental water samples could be monitored by measuring total coliform ?-galactosidase activity and total coliform colony-forming units.

VC, Wutor; CA, Togo; BI, Pletschke.

2009-01-01

85

Model calculations of the total electron count for the GPS satellites system  

Science.gov (United States)

[1] The global numerical model of the thermosphere, ionosphere, and protonosphere of the Earth, making it possible to calculate all the main parameters of the near-Earth plasma, is used to calculate the total electron content (TEC). The calculations are performed along the ray of the signal propagation between the ground-based reception point and a GPS system satellite. The values of TEC calculated according to satellite data are compared with the ``true model'' value of TEC for magnetically quiet conditions of the spring equinox at moderate solar activity. Relative errors in determination of the satellite TEC for two European stations Brest (48.5o N, 5.5o W) and Kaliningrad (55o N, 20o E) are calculated. It is demonstrated that an increase of the number of the observed satellites does not always lead to an increase of the accuracy of the TEC measured with the help of the satellites.

Surotkin, V. A.; Klimenko, V. V.; Koren'kov, Yu. N.

2007-02-01

86

Bacterial contamination of the wound during primary total hip and knee replacement  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and purpose Previous work has shown that despite preventive measures, intraoperative contamination of joint replacements is still common, although most of these patients seem to do well in follow-up of up to 5 years. We analyzed the prevalence and bacteriology of intraoperative contamination of primary joint replacement and assessed whether its presence is related to periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) on long-term follow-up. Patients and methods 49 primary total hip replacements (THRs) and 41 total knee replacements (TKRs) performed between 1990 and 1991 were included in the study. 4 bacterial swabs were collected intraoperatively during each procedure. Patients were followed up for joint-related complications until March 2011. Results 19 of 49 THRs and 22 of 41 TKRs had at least 1 positive culture. Coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus were the most common organisms, contaminating 28 and 9 operations respectively. Where information was available, bacteria from 27 of 29 contaminated operations were susceptible to the prophylactic antibiotic administered. 13% of samples gathered before 130 min of surgery were contaminated, as compared to 35% collected after that time. 2 infections were diagnosed, both in TKRs. 1 of them may have been related to intraoperative contamination. Interpretation Intraoperative contamination was common but few infections occurred, possibly due to the effect of prophylactic antibiotics. The rate of contamination was higher with longer duration of surgery. It appears that positive results from intraoperative swabs do not predict the occurrence of PJI. PMID:24650025

2014-01-01

87

Study on the Total Coliforms Count and Coli Titter in the Waters of Kardzhali Reservoir, Bulgaria  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine TC (total coliforms and coli titter from two sampling stations in the aquatory of Kardzhali Dam Lake and one station in River Arda, in August, 2011. The values of the TC index in the reservoir vary from 1900±674 cfu/100ml in station I, to 1293±194 cfu/100ml in station II, while the TC value of River Arda reaches 1698±134 cfu/100ml. In Reservoir Kardzhali, the smallest volume of water in which Escherichia coli cells were found, varies between 5 and 15 ml, while for the River Arda the value of coli titter is equal to 1. With highest percentage, regarding the presence of microbiological species in the reservoir waters, is the genus Klebsiella (70%, followed by Citrobacter (15%, Enterobacter (10% and Serratia (5%, respectively represented by the species Klebsiella oxytoca, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae and Serattia marcescens. In the river Arda two genuses were found - Serratia (50% and Salmonella (50%.

Oliver Y. Todorov

2012-12-01

88

Incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with ascites. Diagnostic value of white blood cell count and pH measurement in ascitic fluid  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

During a 21-month period, 65 consecutive patients admitted with ascites were included in a prospective study of the incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and paracentesis was performed on admission. The ascitic fluid was cultured, ascitic leucocytes were counted and pH was measured. Bacterial growth was found in five patients with chronic liver disease, who were diagnosed as having spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), since no intra-abdominal focus could be demonstrated. Thus, the incidence of SBP in this material was 7.7% (95% confidence limits: 2.5-17%). SBP was caused by Escherichia coli (n = 3), coagulase negative staphylococcus (n = 1), and Bacteroides species (n = 1). Abdominal tenderness, abnormal intestinal sounds, fever and hepatic encephalopathy were equally frequent in the group with SBP and in patients with sterile ascites. Infection was not anticipated in any of the patients with SBP. In contrast to several previous studies, neither ascites pH nor ascites leucocyte counts were any help in obtaining a rapid diagnosis. Survival time of patients with SBP was significantly shorter than of patients without SBP.

Storgaard, J S; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup

1991-01-01

89

Flow cytometry total cell counts: a field study assessing microbiological water quality and growth in unchlorinated drinking water distribution systems.  

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The objective of this study was to evaluate the application of flow cytometry total cell counts (TCCs) as a parameter to assess microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems and to determine the relationships between different parameters describing the biostability of treated water. A one-year sampling program was carried out in two distribution systems in The Netherlands. Results demonstrated that, in both systems, the biomass differences measured by ATP were not significant. TCC differences were also not significant in treatment plant 1, but decreased slightly in treatment plant 2. TCC values were found to be higher at temperatures above 15°C than at temperatures below 15°C. The correlation study of parameters describing biostability found no relationship among TCC, heterotrophic plate counts, and Aeromonas. Also no relationship was found between TCC and ATP. Some correlation was found between the subgroup of high nucleic acid content bacteria and ATP (R (2) = 0.63). Overall, the results demonstrated that TCC is a valuable parameter to assess the drinking water biological quality and regrowth; it can directly and sensitively quantify biomass, detect small changes, and can be used to determine the subgroup of active HNA bacteria that are related to ATP. PMID:23819117

Liu, G; Van der Mark, E J; Verberk, J Q J C; Van Dijk, J C

2013-01-01

90

Counting statistics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The production of X-rays is a random process that follows the Poisson distribution. The Poisson distribution closely approximates a normal distribution, especially at high accumulated total counts. The normal distribution has a number of properties of importance to X-ray analysts that allow convenient calculation of measurement precision, counting times and detection limits. For a single measurement where N counts are accumulated (i.e. N = count rate x count time) ? = ?N where ? theoretical standard deviation Practical applications of statistics applicable to X-ray analysis will be presented. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

91

Are albumin and total lymphocyte count significant and reliable predictors of mortality in fractured neck of femur patients?  

Science.gov (United States)

Hip fractures are a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in the elderly. It is important to identify factors that predict an increased mortality following hip fracture. The aim of this study was to identify significant predictors of mortality at 6 and 12 months following hip fractures. Three hundred patients above the age of 65 were identified who were admitted in to the hospital with fracture neck of femur. Two hundred and seventy-four patients were operated and were included into the study. Variables collected were age, gender, significant comorbidities, admission albumin level and admission total lymphocyte count (TLC). Admission time and subsequent time to surgery were also analysed. Our study showed that albumin and TLC were found to be the only clearly significant mortality predictors at 12 months and a delay of up to 4 days to surgery does not significantly increase the mortality at 12 months. PMID:23989803

Kumar, Vishwajeet; Alva, Avinash; Akkena, Sudheer; Jones, Morgan; Murphy, Philip N; Clough, Tim

2014-10-01

92

Canine cerebrospinal fluid total nucleated cell counts and cytology associations with the prevalence of magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities  

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Full Text Available Timothy B Hugo, Kathryn L Heading, Robert H Labuc Melbourne Veterinary Specialist Centre, Glen Waverley, Vic, Australia Introduction: The combination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI are often used to investigate intracranial disease in dogs. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine if the total nucleated cell count (TNCC or cytology findings in abnormal CSF are associated with the prevalence of MRI abnormalities. Materials and methods: For each case, the TNCC was categorized into one of three groups: A (<25×106/L; B (25–100×106/L; and C (>100×106/L. Cytology findings were categorized by the predominant cell type as lymphocytic, monocytoid, neutrophilic, or eosinopilic. MRI descriptions were classified as either normal or abnormal, and abnormal studies were further evaluated for the presence of specific characteristics (multifocal or diffuse disease versus focal disease, positive T2-weighted hyperintensity, positive FLAIR hyperintensity, contrast enhancement, mass effect, and the presence of poorly or well-defined lesion margins. Results: Forty-five dogs met the inclusion criteria and MRI abnormalities were found in 29/45 (64% dogs. TNCCs were not associated with the prevalence of MRI abnormalities or specific characteristics. Cytology categories were significantly associated with the prevalence of MRI abnormalities (P<0.001. Specifically, monocytoid cytology was 22.8 times more likely to have an abnormal MRI than lymphocytic cytology. CSF cytology was not significantly associated with specific abnormal MRI characteristics. Conclusion: There are minimal associations between CSF abnormalities and the prevalence of MRI abnormalities. These results support the continued importance of utilizing both tests when investigating intracranial disease. When CSF analysis must be performed initially, this study has demonstrated that an abnormal CSF with a monocytoid cytology supports the value of performing a brain MRI in dogs with evidence of intracranial neurological disease. Keywords: cerebrospinal fluid, magnetic resonance imaging, canine, total nucleated cell counts, cytology

Hugo TB

2014-08-01

93

Application of real-time PCR for total airborne bacterial assessment: Comparison with epifluorescence microscopy and culture-dependent methods  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditional culture-dependent methods to quantify and identify airborne microorganisms are limited by factors such as short-duration sampling times and inability to count non-culturable or non-viable bacteria. Consequently, the quantitative assessment of bioaerosols is often underestimated. Use of the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) to quantify bacteria in environmental samples presents an alternative method, which should overcome this problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a real-time Q-PCR assay as a simple and reliable way to quantify the airborne bacterial load within poultry houses and sewage treatment plants, in comparison with epifluorescence microscopy and culture-dependent methods. The estimates of bacterial load that we obtained from real-time PCR and epifluorescence methods, are comparable, however, our analysis of sewage treatment plants indicate these methods give values 270-290 fold greater than those obtained by the "impaction on nutrient agar" method. The culture-dependent method of air impaction on nutrient agar was also inadequate in poultry houses, as was the impinger-culture method, which gave a bacterial load estimate 32-fold lower than obtained by Q-PCR. Real-time quantitative PCR thus proves to be a reliable, discerning, and simple method that could be used to estimate airborne bacterial load in a broad variety of other environments expected to carry high numbers of airborne bacteria.

Rinsoz, Thomas; Duquenne, Philippe; Greff-Mirguet, Guylaine; Oppliger, Anne

94

Correlation of total heterotrophic bacterial load in relation with hydrographical features of Pazhayakayal estuary, Tuticorin, India.  

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An investigation was made on total heterotrophic bacterial (THB) load in relation with hydrographical features of Pazhayakayal estuary, Tuticorin, from July 2009 to June 2010. The watertemperature (25 to 32 degrees C), pH (7 to 10), and salinity (0 per thousand to 35.7 per thousand) were maximum during summer season (April-June) and minimum during monsoon season (October-December). The dissolved oxygen (DO) varied from 0.2 to 9.95 mg l(-1). The THB load was high (42.0 x 10(-7) cfu m(-1)) during monsoon season and low (1.2 x 10(-7) cfu ml(-1)) during summer. The correlation was insignificant between temperature, pH and THB load, however THB load was negatively correlated with salinity. Almost in all the stations (I-VI), THB load were found to be maximum (40.0 x 10(-7), 36.0 x 10(-7), 30.0 x 10(-7), 36x10(-7), 42.0 x 10 x 10(-7) and 29.6 x 10(-7) cfu ml(-1)) during monsoon season might be due to the bulk rainfall and freshwater input. PMID:23360006

Rani, J; Kannagi, Anita; Shanthi, V

2012-07-01

95

Multilevel analysis of bacterial counts from chronic periodontitis after root planing/scaling, surgery, and systemic and local antibiotics: 2-year results  

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Full Text Available Aim: To follow changes (over 2 years in subgingival bacterial counts of five microbial complexes including health-related Actinomyces spp. in deeper pockets (?5 mm after periodontal treatments. Methods: Eight different treatments were studied: (1 scaling+root planing (SRP; (2 periodontal surgery (SURG+systemic amoxicillin (AMOX+systemic metronidazole (MET; (3 SURG+locally delivered tetracycline (TET; (4 SURG; (5 AMOX+MET+TET; (6 AMOX+MET; (7 TET; and (8 SURG+AMOX+MET+TET. Antibiotics were given immediately following SRP. Subgingival plaque was collected mesiobuccally from each tooth, except third molars, from 176 subjects, completing the study, at baseline, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months post-treatment and analysed for 40 different bacteria using checkerboard hybridization. A negative binomial (NB generalized estimating equation (NB GEE model was used to analyze count data and a logistic GEE was used for proportions. Results: We observed short-term beneficial changes in the composition of the red complex of up to 3 months by treating subjects with AMOX+MET+TET. Similar short-term improvements with the same treatment were observed for Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola of the red complex. SURG had also short-term beneficial effect on Porphyromonas gingivalis. No periodontal treatments applied to severely affected sites promoted the growth of Actinomyces. Smoking elevated counts of both the red and orange complex while bleeding on probing (BOP and gingival redness were also predictors of more red complex counts. Comparatively similar findings were obtained by analyzing counts and by analyzing proportions. Conclusions: Although short-term reductions in the counts of the red complex were observed in sites that were treated with AMOX+MET+TET, long-term significant effects were not observed with any of the eight treatments. Poor oral hygiene in patients with severe chronic periodontitis diminished the beneficial effects of treatment.

Ibrahimu Mdala

2013-07-01

96

The effect of gamma radiation and certain insecticides on the total hemocyte counts and its different types in larvae of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis (boisd.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Treatment of the cotton leaf worm larvae Spodoptera Littoralis with gamma radiation gradually decreased the total haemocyte count as the dose increased. While in larvae treated with fenvalerate the total haemocyte count significantly decreased and a further decrease occurred when larvae were treated with gamma rays. Larvae which were treated with sumithion showed insignificant increase of total haemocyte count from control, but when sumithion was applied before gamma irradiation a gradual decrease of the total haemocyte occurred. In case of larvae treated with L c30 level of fenvalerate or sumithion an insignificant increase in the total haemocyte count occurred, while irradiation of larvae after insecticide treatment lead to a gradual decrease in the total haemocyte count as the dose of gamma radiation was increased. The haemocytes of fourth instar larvae were found to consist of eight kinds which are pro haemocytes, plasmatocytes, spindle cells, granulated cells, oenocytoids, adipohaemocytes, cytocytes and sphrule cells. Treatment of larvae with gamma radiation, insecticides (fenvalerate or sumithion) only or with the insecticide combined with gamma radiation significantly affected the percentage of haemocytes. Also significant differences were found between the different types p f haemocytes. Prohaemocytes were the predominant type.5 tab

97

Effect of partial substitution of NaCl with KCl on Halloumi cheese during storage: chemical composition, lactic bacterial count, and organic acids production.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of partial substitution of NaCl with KCl on chemical composition, lactic bacterial count, and organic acids profile of Halloumi cheese was investigated. Halloumi cheeses were made and kept in 4 different brine solutions at 18% including NaCl only (HA), 3NaCl : 1KCl (HB), 1NaCl : 1KCl (HC), and 1NaCl : 3KCl (HD) and then stored at 4 degrees C for 56 d. No significant effect was observed between control and experimental cheeses in terms of moisture, fat, protein, lactic bacterial count, and pH values at the same storage period. There was a significant difference in ash, sodium, and potassium contents among experimental cheeses at the same storage period. Ash, sodium, and potassium contents increased significantly during storage at same salt treatment. There was no significant difference in lactic and citric acid contents among experimental cheeses and that of the control. In contrary, there was a significant difference in acetic acid among experimental cheeses. A strong positive correlation was observed between ash, Na, and K contents. An inverse correlation between organic acids and both Na and K contents was also observed. PMID:20722906

Ayyash, Mutamed M; Shah, Nagendra P

2010-08-01

98

Validation of the Micro Biological Survey Method for Total Viable Count and E. coli in Food Samples  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was the validation of the Micro Biological Survey (MBS) method for microbiological analysis of food for Total Viable Count (TVC) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). The MBS method is a rapid quantitative alternative method for the detection and selective counting of bacteria in agro-food, in water and in environmental samples. It is based on colorimetric survey in mono-use disposable reaction vials that must be filled with the samples without any preliminary tr...

Francesca Romana Priolisi; Alessio De Ascenti; Francesca Losito; Giorgia Bottini; Alberto Mari; Giovanni Antonini

2011-01-01

99

Effect of gamma irradiation on shelf life extension, total counts of microbials and biochemical sensory change on luncheon meat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate the effect of gamma irradiation and sodium nitrate on storability and marketability of luncheon, packed luncheon was exposed to several treatments; gamma irradiation at doses 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 KGy using a 60 CO package irradiator, mixed with sodium nitrite (NaNO2) 60 mg/Kg meat, with no irradiation and a combined treatment of both NaNO2 treatment and irradiated with a dose of 2 KGy only. Half of the irradiated and unirradiated samples were stored in refrigeration (1-4 centigrade), to study storability and the second half were stored at room temperature (18-20 centigrade) to study marketability of luncheon. During storage period the population of microorganisms, biochemical changes and sensory properties were evaluated every two weeks for the refrigerated samples and weekly for the unrefrigerated samples. The results indicated that gamma irradiation and sodium nitrite reduced the counts of microorganisms and increased the shelf-life of luncheon. Both treatments (irradiation, sodium nitrite) increased total acidity, lipid oxidation, and the volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) immediately after processing and reduced all of them through out storage. Sensory evaluation (firmness, color, taste, and flavor) indicated no significant differences (P>0.05) between treated and untreated samples. (author)

100

Drivers shaping the diversity and biogeography of total and active bacterial communities in the South China Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

Very few studies have been devoted to understanding microbial biogeography from the viewpoint of active versus total bacterial communities. Here, we examined the bacterial community along two transects, one from the inner Pearl River estuary to the open water of the South China Sea (SCS) and the other from the Luzon Strait to the SCS basin, using 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA and rDNA. Bacterial community composition was strongly correlated with environmental factors and weakly correlated with geographical distance between sites, although the diversity and biogeographic patterns differed substantially between the total and active communities. Compared to the total community, the active heterotrophic bacterial community displayed higher environmental sensitivity and a greater distance effect that was in fact mainly contributed by the active assemblage from deep waters. Taken together, the 16S rRNA versus rDNA relationships and community network models implied that the active heterotrophic bacteria, in high competition with each other, have high growth rates and high loss rates from predation, and hence are less-abundant in the SCS. Thereinto, most of the taxa act as specialists in the ecosystem and the others as generalists, which could cause some dispersal limitations such that some species could not become successfully established in the new location as they were moved through drift and, therefore, the active bacterial community could be determined to have a distinct distance-decay relationship. Altogether, our results supported the proposal that the current distributions of bacteria in the SCS were actually the result of both contemporary selection and historical drift processes.

Zhang, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Dai, M.; Jiao, N.

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
101

Total and Differential White Blood Cell Counts Predict Eight-Year Incident Stoke in Elderly Japanese-American Men: The Honolulu Heart Program  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Previous studies have found that a higher white blood cell (WBC) count is associated with incident stroke. There have been few studies examining differential WBC counts in elderly or Asian populations. We studied the association between total and differential WBC counts and incident stroke in an older Asian population. Methods: The Honolulu Heart Program is a prospective population-based study of cardiovascular diseases in Japanese-American men that started in 1965. At exam 4 (1991–93), 3,741 men ages 71–93 years participated, and total and differential WBC counts were measured in 3,569 men using a Coulter counter machine. Data on incident stroke (all strokes [ALL-CVA], thromboembolic [TE-CVA] and hemorrhagic [HEM-CVA]) were available through December 1999 (8 years follow-up) from a comprehensive hospital surveillance system. After excluding 227 subjects with prevalent stroke, 3,342 subjects were divided into quartiles of total WBC, neutrophil (segmented and band), granulocyte (neutrophil, eosinophil and basophil), lymphocyte, and monocyte counts for separate analyses. Results: Age-adjusted incident ALL-CVA rates increased significantly with total WBC quartiles (7.68, 9.04, 9.26, 14.1, per 1,000 person years follow-up, respectively, P = .0014). Relative risks for ALL-CVA for each quartile of total and differential WBC counts were obtained using Cox proportional hazards, using the lowest quartile as the reference group. After full adjustment including age, cardiovascular risk factors, fibrinogen, prevalent CHD, cancer or COPD, and aspirin/NSAID use, the relative risks in the highest quartiles of total WBC, neutrophil, and granulocyte counts were 1.63 (95%CI = 1.05–2.54, P = .03), 2.19 (95%CI = 1.41–3.39, P < .001) and 1.91 (95%CI = 1.25–2.92, P = .003), respectively. These significant associations were also seen for TE-CVA, but not for HEM-CVA. No significant associations were found between lymphocyte or monocyte counts and incident stroke or subtypes. Conclusions: In elderly Japanese-American men, higher total WBC, neutrophil, and granulocyte counts were independent predictors of overall stroke, as well as thromboembolic stroke. Further studies are needed to establish cut-points and treatment options.

Ross, G Webster; Chen, Randi; Bell, Christina; Willcox, Bradley; Abbott, Robert; Launer, Lenore; Kaya, Brock; Masaki, Kamal

2014-01-01

102

Comparison of fluorescence microscopy and solid-phase cytometry methods for counting bacteria in water  

Science.gov (United States)

Total direct counts of bacterial abundance are central in assessing the biomass and bacteriological quality of water in ecological and industrial applications. Several factors have been identified that contribute to the variability in bacterial abundance counts when using fluorescent microscopy, the most significant of which is retaining an adequate number of cells per filter to ensure an acceptable level of statistical confidence in the resulting data. Previous studies that have assessed the components of total-direct-count methods that contribute to this variance have attempted to maintain a bacterial cell abundance value per filter of approximately 106 cells filter-1. In this study we have established the lower limit for the number of bacterial cells per filter at which the statistical reliability of the abundance estimate is no longer acceptable. Our results indicate that when the numbers of bacterial cells per filter were progressively reduced below 105, the microscopic methods increasingly overestimated the true bacterial abundance (range, 15.0 to 99.3%). The solid-phase cytometer only slightly overestimated the true bacterial abundances and was more consistent over the same range of bacterial abundances per filter (range, 8.9 to 12.5%). The solid-phase cytometer method for conducting total direct counts of bacteria was less biased and performed significantly better than any of the microscope methods. It was also found that microscopic count data from counting 5 fields on three separate filters were statistically equivalent to data from counting 20 fields on a single filter.

Lisle, John T.; Hamilton, Martin A.; Willse, Alan R.; McFeters, Gordon A.

2004-01-01

103

Leukocyte-subset counts in idiopathic parkinsonism provide clues to a pathogenic pathway involving small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. A surveillance study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Following Helicobacter pylori eradication in idiopathic parkinsonism (IP, hypokinesia improved but flexor-rigidity increased. Small intestinal bacterial-overgrowth (SIBO is a candidate driver of the rigidity: hydrogen-breath-test-positivity is common in IP and case histories suggest that Helicobacter keeps SIBO at bay. Methods In a surveillance study, we explore relationships of IP-facets to peripheral immune/inflammatory-activation, in light of presence/absence of Helicobacter infection (urea-breath- and/or stool-antigen-test: positivity confirmed by gastric-biopsy and hydrogen-breath-test status for SIBO (positivity: >20 ppm increment, 2 consecutive 15-min readings, within 2h of 25G lactulose. We question whether any relationships found between facets and blood leukocyte subset counts stand in patients free from anti-parkinsonian drugs, and are robust enough to defy fluctuations in performance consequent on short t½ therapy. Results Of 51 IP-probands, 36 had current or past Helicobacter infection on entry, 25 having undergone successful eradication (median 3.4 years before. Thirty-four were hydrogen-breath-test-positive initially, 42 at sometime (343 tests during surveillance (2.8 years. Hydrogen-breath-test-positivity was associated inversely with Helicobacter-positivity (OR 0.20 (95% CI 0.04, 0.99, p In 38 patients (untreated (17 or on stable long-t½ IP-medication, the higher the natural-killer count, the shorter stride, slower gait and greater flexor-rigidity (by mean 49 (14, 85 mm, 54 (3, 104 mm.s-1, 89 (2, 177 Nm.10-3, per 100 cells.?l-1 increment, p=0.007, 0.04 & 0.04 respectively, adjusted for patient characteristics. T-helper count was inversely associated with flexor-rigidity before (p=0.01 and after adjustment for natural-killer count (-36(-63, -10 Nm.10-3 per 100 cells.?l-1, p=0.007. Neutrophil count was inversely associated with tremor (visual analogue scale, p=0.01. Effect-sizes were independent of IP-medication, and not masked by including 13 patients receiving levodopa (except natural-killer count on flexor-rigidity. Cellular associations held after allowing for potentially confounding effect of hydrogen-breath-test or Helicobacter status. Moreover, additional reduction in stride and speed (68 (24, 112 mm & 103 (38, 168 mm.s-1, each p=0.002 was seen with Helicobacter-positivity. Hydrogen-breath-test-positivity, itself, was associated with higher natural-killer and T-helper counts, lower neutrophils (p=0.005, 0.02 & 0.008. Conclusion We propose a rigidity-associated subordinate pathway, flagged by a higher natural-killer count, tempered by a higher T-helper, against which Helicobacter protects by keeping SIBO at bay.

Dobbs R

2012-10-01

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The effect on early plaque formation, gingivitis and salivary bacterial counts of mouthwashes containing hexetidine/zinc, aminefluoride/tin or chlorhexidine.  

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This study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of mouthwashes containing hexetidine/zinc (HZA) or tin (ASF) in inhibiting plaque formation and gingivitis in humans. 24 dental students and assistants participated in the study (latin square design) with 7-day test periods. They rinsed twice daily for 1 min with one of the following formulations: HZA = 750 ppm hexetidine/750 ppm zinc acetate, ASF = 100 ppm aminefluorid/310 ppm stannous fluoride, CHX = 0.1% chlorhexidine and M = negative control. Plaque accumulation was determined planimetrically and gravimetrically. Gingivitis was evaluated with the papillary bleeding index. Total colony forming units and S. mutans counts were estimated from saliva samples. The results showed that HZA and CHX almost completely inhibited plaque accumulation and gingivitis. ASF was less effective than HZA and CHX but still reduced plaque significantly compared to the negative control. Furthermore, CHX reduced salivary S. mutans counts. PMID:3479455

Hefti, A F; Huber, B

1987-10-01

105

Clinical value of total white blood cells and neutrophil counts in patients with suspected appendicitis: retrospective study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Acute appendicitis (AA is common surgical problem associated with acute-phase reaction. Blood tests role in decision-making process is unclear. This retrospective study aimed to determine diagnostic value of preoperative evaluation of white blood cells (WBCs and neutrophils and its value in predicting AA severity. Methods Medical records of 456 patients who underwent appendectomy during 4-years period were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were subdivided according to histological finding into: normal appendix (n = 29, uncomplicated inflamed appendix (n = 350, complicated appendicitis (n = 77. Diagnostic performances of WBCs and neutrophils were analyzed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves. Results WBCs and neutrophils counts were higher in patients with inflamed and complicated appendix than normal appendix and in complicated than inflamed appendix. In patients, WBCs count 9.400 × 103/mL had sensitivity of 76.81%, specificity of 65.52%, positive predictive value (PPV of 97.0%, negative predictive value (NPV of 16.1%, positive likelihood ratio [LR(+] of 2.23, negative LR(? of 0.35. Neutrophil count 7.540 × 103/mL had sensitivity of 70.96%, specificity of 65.52%, PPV of 96.8%, NPV of 13.3%, LR(+ of 2.06, LR(? of 0.44. Areas under ROC curve were 0.701, 0.680 for elevated WBCs and neutrophils count. Conclusions Clinicians should not rely on either elevated WBCs or neutrophils count as appendicitis indicator as clinical data are superior in decision-making appendectomy.

Al-gaithy Zuhoor K

2012-10-01

106

Cut-off values of serum IgE (total and A. fumigatus -specific) and eosinophil count in differentiating allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis from asthma.  

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The cut-off values of immunological tests employed in diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) have never been validated. Herein, we compare the immunological findings in patients with ABPA and asthma using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Consecutive asthmatic subjects underwent all the following investigations: Aspergillus skin test, IgE levels (total and A. fumigatus-specific), Aspergillus precipitins, eosinophil count, chest radiograph and CT chest. There were 372 subjects (179 men, mean age 35.9 years) with a mean asthma duration of 8 years. ABPA was diagnosed in 76 patients (64 bronchiectasis, 12 without bronchiectasis). ABPA was separated from asthma using the best cut-off values of total IgE, A. fumigatus IgE and total eosinophil count of 2347 IU ml(-1) , 1.91 kUA l(-1) and 507 cells per ?l respectively. The sensitivity/specificity of these parameters were 87/81%; 99/87%; and, 79/76% respectively. The corresponding AUC values were 0.95, 0.90 and 0.82 respectively. The combination of these three tests at the aforementioned cut-offs provided 100% specificity. Our study provides evidence-based cut-off values of IgE (total and A. fumigatus-specific) and eosinophil counts in differentiating ABPA from asthma. As this is a single centre retrospective study, further studies from different centres are required, as these values could vary by ethnicity and environmental exposure. PMID:24963741

Agarwal, Ritesh; Aggarwal, Ashutosh N; Garg, Mandeep; Saikia, Biman; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke

2014-11-01

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An Increased Total Resected Lymph Node Count Benefits Survival following Pancreas Invasive Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms Resection: An Analysis Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result Registry Database  

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Background The therapeutic effect of lymph node dissection for pancreas invasive intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) remains unclear. The study investigated whether cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) rates among invasive IPMN patients improve when more lymph nodes are harvested during surgery. Study Design The study cohort was retrieved from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. The lymph node count was categorized into quartiles. The relationship between lymph node count and survival was analyzed using Kaplan–Meier curves and a Cox proportional-hazards model. The stage migration was assessed by Chi-square tests. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to minimize confounding variables between groups. Results In total, 1,080 patients with resected invasive IPMNs from 1992 to 2011 were included. Univariate and multivariate Cox models indicated that an increased lymph node count independently improves survival. The Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests identified 16 nodes as an optimal cut-off value that yielded a significant survival benefit for all invasive IPMN patients. The stage migration effect existed in this cohort. After PSM, the 5-year CSS increased from 36% to 47%, and the median survival rate increased from 30 months to 40 months by increasing the lymph node count to over 16, alone. The 5-year OS rate also provided additional support for this result. Conclusion Increased lymph node counts were associated with improved survival in invasive IPMN patients. One cut-off value of lymph node count was 16 for this improvement. PMID:25264746

Tian, Rui; You, Lei; Dai, Menghua; Liao, Quan; Zhang, Taiping; Zhao, Yupei

2014-01-01

108

Assessment of the efficiency of SimPlate[tm] total plate count color indicator (TPC CI to quantify mesophilic aerobic microorganisms in pasteurized milk  

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Full Text Available The SimPlate[tm] TPC CI system is a rapid method to count mesophilic aerobic microorganisms (MAM in foods, based on the use of resazurine to indicate bacterial growth. Its efficiency in pasteurized milk was evaluated using 142 pasteurized milk samples (38 type A, 43 type B and 61 type C collected in Londrina, PR. The standard plating method, using Plate Count Agar (PCA was used for comparison. The plates of both systems were incubated at 35ºC and read after 24h and 48h. The occurrence of false-positive and false-negative wells and the predominant microorganisms in them were also evaluated. The results were compared by simple correlation and mean variance analyses. The correlation (r and mean variance values were 0.6811 and 0.7583 for the results obtained after 24h, respectively, and 0.9126 and 0.0842 for the results obtained after 48h, respectively. These results indicate that the performance of the system increases when the plates are incubated for 48h. When the three types of milk were evaluated separately, these values were 0.9285 and 0.0817 for type A milk, 0.9231 and 0.0466 for type B milk and 0.7209 and 0.1082 for type C milk. These results indicate that the better the quality of the milk the better the performance of SimPlate[tm] TPC CI. False-negative wells, found more frequently in samples with high MAM counts, were caused by Gram positive microorganisms, poorly detected by the SimPlate[tm] TPC CI system because they grew slowly and had low reduction capacity. The results indicated a higher efficiency of the SimPlate[tm] TPC CI system in the reading at 48h.

Nero Luís Augusto

2002-01-01

109

High diversity of bacterial pathogens and antibiotic resistance in salmonid fish farm pond water as determined by molecular identification employing 16S rDNA PCR, gene sequencing and total antibiotic susceptibility techniques.  

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The aim of this study was to examine the microbiological and related parameters (antibiotic resistance and pathogen identification) of water at two salmonid fish farms in Northern Ireland. Total Bacterial Counts at the Movanagher Fish Farm was 1730 colony forming units (cfu)/ml water (log10 3.24cfu/ml) and 3260cfu/ml (log10 3.51cfu/ml) at the Bushmills Salmon Station. Examination of resulting organisms revealed 10 morphological phenotypes, which were subsequently sequenced to determine their identification. All these organisms were Gram-negative and no Gram-positive organisms were isolated from any water sample. From these phenotypes, eight different genera were identified including Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Chryseobacterium, Erwinia, Flavobacterium, Pseudomonas and Rheinheimera. One unnamed novel taxon was identified from water at the Movanagher Fish Farm, belonging to the genus Acinetobacter and has been tentatively named Acinetobacter movanagherensis. No other novel taxa were observed. All but one of these environmental organisms (Erwinia) are potential pathogens of fish disease. Total antibiotic resistance was observed to varying degrees in water specimens. The most resistant populations were observed in water taken from the Bushmills Salmon Station inlet, followed by water from the Movanagher Fish Farm. No resistance was observed against tetracycline and there was only one occurrence of resistance against ciprofloxacin. Overall, this study indicates that potential fish pathogens made up the majority of environmental organisms identified, even in the absence of recorded fish disease. There was also relatively high levels of total antibiotic resistance in the bacterial water populations examined, where tetracycline was the only antibiotic with zero resistance. These data indicate that the threat of bacterial disease is relatively close due to the indigenous colonization of farm water and that husbandry standards should be maintained at a high standard to avert bacterial disease outbreaks, rather than relying on the absence of specific pathogens in the immediate farm environment. PMID:25105488

Moore, John E; Huang, Junhua; Yu, Pengbo; Ma, Chaofeng; Moore, Peter Ja; Millar, Beverley C; Goldsmith, Colin E; Xu, Jiru

2014-10-01

110

Bacterial infection of central venous catheters in short-term total parenteral nutrition.  

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Fourteen severely ill ventilated patients in an intensive care unit, requiring short-term total parenteral nutrition, were examined for catheter-related infection. Microbiological analysis using Maki's SQ technique was carried out on catheter exit site, catheter hub, proximal subcutaneous segment of catheter and catheter up. Qualitative cultures were carried out on total parenteral nutrition and peripheral blood samples. Twenty six of 29 catheters removed (90%) were culture positive but only 7 catheters were related to positive blood cultures, giving a catheter-related bacteremia (CRB) rate of 24%. Haematogenous seeding was strongly implicated in 7/29 (24%) of catheters. Patients' skin flora appeared to be the main source of catheter-related infection. The organisms isolated for patients with CRB included coagulase-negative staphylococci, Acinetobacter and Klebsiella. It is suggested that to control infective complications of central venous catheters, emphasis should be focused on specialised intravenous therapy teams and the use of strict protocols for insertion and care of central lines. PMID:10968131

Chan, L; Ngeow, Y F; Parasakthi, N

1998-03-01

111

Toothbrushing with hydrogen peroxide-sodium bicarbonate compared to toothpowder and water in reducing periodontal pocket suppuration and darkfield bacterial counts.  

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This study attempted to isolate and test the therapeutic effectiveness of toothbrushing with hydrogen peroxide-sodium bicarbonate supplemented with scaling and systemic antibiotics. Forty-two subjects selected for pocket suppuration were divided into two groups. Group I was treated sequentially with brushing, scaling and systemic antibiotics. Group II was treated with brushing and scaling performed concurrently. Half of each group were control subjects using an inert toothpowder. Subjects were monitored by darkfield microscopy for spirochetes and motile rods. In Group I, toothbrushing alone showed approximately a 1/3 reduction in the number of suppuration sites, no difference between experimental and control subgroups and no significant changes in the darkfield counts. Scaling, whether subsequent to the toothbrushing (Group I) or concurrent with the toothbrushing (Group II), showed a statistically significant reduction (about 70%) in the number of suppuration sites in all subgroups. Darkfield counts after scaling were reduced significantly in some subgroups but not in others. The addition of systemic antibiotics in Group I resulted in an almost total elimination of suppuration sites and spirochetes in 15 subjects, but there were no significant differences between the test and control subgroups. In both Groups I and II, neither experimental peroxide-bicarbonate subgroup could be differentiated statistically from its toothpowder-water control at any time. PMID:6348245

West, T L; King, W J

1983-06-01

112

Model of sepsis (Caecal Ligation and Puncture in rats caused by mixed and pure bacterial cultures and changes in white blood cell counts  

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Full Text Available The number of leucocytes and immunocompetent cells, was investigated during a clinical form of sepsis in rats. The experiments were carried out on 104 male rats, Wistar strain, of body weight 190 to 240 g. The rats were divided into four groups: three with 28 animals and one control group with 20 animals. The animals were killed 12, 24, 72 or 120 hours after surgical intervention. This consisted of caecal ligation and puncture (CLP, with inoculation of mixed bacteria or pure cultures of Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus. They induced similar changes in the total leukocyte counts and percentages of different white blood cells. The significant leucopenia in the first half (early sepsis of the examined period preceded significant leukosis in the rats with sepsis in the second half of the experiment (late sepsis. Also there were significant alterations in the numbers of granulocytes and agranulocytes. Neutrophilia and lymphopenia dominated during the whole period.

Stojanovi? Dragica

2004-01-01

113

Evaluation of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate test in conjunction with a gram negative bacterial plate count for detecting irradiation of chicken  

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A study to evaluate the potential of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) test in conjunction with a Gram negative bacterial (GNB) plate count for detecting the irradiation of chicken is described. Preliminary studies demonstrated that chickens irradiated at an absorbed dose of 2.5 kGy could be differentiated from unirradiated birds by measuring levels of endotoxin and of numbers of GNB on chicken skin. Irradiated birds were found to have endotoxin levels similar to those found in unirradiated birds but significantly lower numbers of GNB. In a limited study the test was found to be applicable to birds from different processors. The effect of temperature abuse on the microbiological profile, and thus the efficacy of the test, was also investigated. After temperature abuse, the irradiated birds were identifiable at worst up to 3 days after irradiation treatment at the 2.5 kGy level and at best some 13 days after irradiation. Temperature abuse at 15{sup 0}C resulted in rapid recovery of surviving micro-organisms which made differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds using this test unreliable. The microbiological quality of the bird prior to irradiation treatment also affected the test as large numbers of GNB present on the bird prior to irradiation treatment resulted in larger numbers of survivors. In addition, monitoring the developing flora after irradiation treatment amd during subsequent chilled storage also aided differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds. Large numbers of yeast and Gram positive cocci were isolated from irradiated carcasses whereas Gram negative oxidative rods were the predominant spoilage flora on unirradiated birds. (author).

Scotter, S.L.; Wood, R.; McWeeny, D.J. (Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Norwich (UK). Food Science Lab.)

1990-01-01

114

Effects of temperature and fertilization on the structure of total versus active bacterial communities from sub-Antarctic seawater exposed to crude oil and diesel fuel  

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Full Text Available Polar environments are exposed to the risk of oil pollution. However, there is limited knowledge regarding how the variation of physicochemical factors influencing biodegradation may affect bacterial community structure. The effects of temperature (4, 10 and 20°C and organic fertilization (Inipol EAP 22 on community structure and diversity of bacteria inhabiting Kerguelen sub-Antarctic waters were studied in crude- and diesel-amended microcosms. Dynamics of total (i.e., 16S rDNA-based and metabolically active (i.e., 16S rRNA-based bacterial community structure and diversity were monitored using capillary-electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism. Results showed that total and active community structures were differently influenced by temperature and fertilization in the presence of hydrocarbons. Both fertilization and temperature induced changes in total community structure in the presence of crude oil and diesel. However, temperature showed a limited influence on active community structure, and fertilization induced changes in the presence of crude oil only. Simpson's index decreased for total bacterial communities at all temperatures in the presence of crude oil and diesel, whereas a lower reduction was observed for active bacterial populations. In the presence of fertilizer, the diversity of the whole community approached control values after seven incubation weeks; this was not observed for the active bacterial community. This study evidenced qualitative differences in total and active bacterial community structures of Kerguelen seawaters in the presence of hydrocarbons and different responses relative to variation in temperature and fertilization. These factors and hydrocarbons composition have to be taken into account to understand bacterial community dynamics after an oil spill.

Arturo Rodríguez-Blanco

2013-05-01

115

Calculation of total counting efficiency of a NaI(Tl) detector by hybrid Monte-Carlo method for point and disk sources.  

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This paper presents results on the total gamma counting efficiency of a NaI(Tl) detector from point and disk sources. The directions of photons emitted from the source were determined by Monte-Carlo techniques and the photon path lengths in the detector were determined by analytic equations depending on photon directions. This is called the hybrid Monte-Carlo method where analytical expressions are incorporated into the Monte-Carlo simulations. A major advantage of this technique is the short computation time compared to other techniques on similar computational platforms. Another advantage is the flexibility for inputting detector-related parameters (such as source-detector distance, detector radius, source radius, detector linear attenuation coefficient) into the algorithm developed, thus making it an easy and flexible method to apply to other detector systems and configurations. The results of the total counting efficiency model put forward for point and disc sources were compared with the previous work reported in the literature. PMID:17611113

Yalcin, S; Gurler, O; Kaynak, G; Gundogdu, O

2007-10-01

116

Total alpha and beta determination by liquid scintillation counting in water samples from a Brazilian intercomparison exercise  

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This paper describes CNEN/LAPOC's participation in the Brazilian Intercomparison Exercise (PNI) for simultaneous determination of total radioactivity in water samples, which took place in August and December 2008. The Proficiency Test (PT) also involved a short description of the nuclear analytical technique employed, emphasizing sources of uncertainty. A Liquid Scintillation System (Packard TRICARB 2700) was used with appropriate corrections applied to final results, expressed as Bq L{sup -1}. Participation and PT data provide independent information on performance of a Laboratory and have an important role in method validation; especially because it allows the assessment of method performance over an entire range of concentrations and matrices. PT is also an important tool to demonstrate equivalence of measurements, if not their metrological comparability, and to promote education and improvement of Lab practices. (author)

Dias, Fabiana F.; Taddei, Maria Helena T., E-mail: fdias@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Pocos de Caldas (LAPOC/CNEN-MG); Pontedeiro, Elizabeth May Braga Dulley, E-mail: bettymay@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Rejeitos; Jacomino, Vanusa Feliciano, E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

2009-07-01

117

Total mesophilic counts underestimate in many cases the contamination levels of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in chilled-stored food products at the end of their shelf-life.  

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The major objective of this study was to determine the role of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in spoilage-associated phenomena at the end of the shelf-life of 86 various packaged (air, vacuum, modified-atmosphere) chilled-stored retail food products. The current microbiological standards, which are largely based on the total viable mesophilic counts lack discriminatory capacity to detect psychrotrophic LAB. A comparison between the total viable counts on plates incubated at 30 °C (representing the mesophiles) and at 22 °C (indicating the psychrotrophs) for 86 food samples covering a wide range - ready-to-eat vegetable salads, fresh raw meat, cooked meat products and composite food - showed that a consistent underestimation of the microbial load occurs when the total aerobic mesophilic counts are used as a shelf-life parameter. In 38% of the samples, the psychrotrophic counts had significantly higher values (+0.5-3 log CFU/g) than the corresponding total aerobic mesophilic counts. A total of 154 lactic acid bacteria, which were unable to proliferate at 30 °C were isolated. In addition, a further 43 with a poor recovery at this temperature were also isolated. This study highlights the potential fallacy of the total aerobic mesophilic count as a reference shelf-life parameter for chilled food products as it can often underestimate the contamination levels at the end of the shelf-life. PMID:22986212

Pothakos, Vasileios; Samapundo, Simbarashe; Devlieghere, Frank

2012-12-01

118

Analysis of bacterial diversity during the fermentation of inyu, a high-temperature fermented soy sauce, using nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and the plate count method.  

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The diversity of bacteria associated with the fermentation of inyu, also known as black soy sauce, was studied through the nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of samples collected from the fermentation stages of the inyu production process. The DGGE profiles targeted the bacterial 16S rDNA and revealed the presence of Citrobacter farmeri, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter hormaechei, Enterococcus faecium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pantoea agglomerans, Salmonella enterica, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus sciuri and Weissella confusa. The bacterial compositions of 4 fermented samples were further elucidated using the plate count method. The bacteria isolated from the koji-making stage exhibited the highest diversity; Brachybacterium rhamnosum, E. hormaechei, K. pneumoniae, Kurthia gibsonii, Pantoea dispersa, Staphylococcus gallinarum, Staphylococcus kloosii and S. sciuri were identified. Koji collected during the preincubation stage presented the largest cell counts, and E. hormaechei, K. pneumoniae, E. cloacae and Enterobacter pulveris were identified. In brine samples aged for 7 and 31 days, the majority of the bacteria isolated belonged to 4 Bacillus species, but 4 Staphylococcus species and Delftia tsuruhatensis were also detected. This study demonstrates the benefits of using a combined approach to obtain a more complete picture of microbial populations and provides useful information for the control or development of bacterial flora during inyu fermentation. PMID:23200659

Wei, Chia-Li; Chao, Shiou-Huei; Tsai, Wen-Bin; Lee, Pei-Shan; Tsau, Nai-Hung; Chen, Jhih-Shan; Lai, Wen-Lin; Tu, James Ching-Yueh; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

2013-04-01

119

Absolute total (counting) and charge-separated partial cross-sections for electron impact ionization of La, Pr, Ho, Tm, and Lu atoms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electron impact ionization of La, Pr, Ho, Tm, and Lu Atoms has been studied through measurements of absolute total (apparent ?a and counting ?c) and charge-separated partial cross sections ?q+ (q=1-4) from the single ionization thresholds to 900 eV. The absolute and partial measurements were done using an electron-atom crossed beam apparatus and a magnetic deflection mass spectrometer, respectively. After a brief discussion on the present results, an overall discussion is made in more compact from on the cross-section results for 13 lanthanide-atom species including those for the 8 species treated in our previous studies. It is confirmed that the atoms having a 5d electron (La, Gd, and Lu) provide larger single-ionization cross sections and thereby larger ?c values and larger population of singly-charged ions. It is also confirmed that resonance-like feature starting around the 4d limits is observed in the ?3+ curves for lighter lanthanide atoms. This phenomenon, observed for the first time for a neutral-atom series, is explained as the shape resonance occurring in the scattered-electron channel. (author)

120

Serum total IgE levels and total eosinophil counts: relationship with treatment response in patients with acute asthma / Relação dos níveis séricos de IgE total e das contagens de eosinófilos com a resposta ao tratamento em pacientes com asma aguda  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Determinar se há uma relação dos níveis de IgE total no soro e das contagens de eosinófilos com a resposta à farmacoterapia de rotina em pacientes com asma aguda. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 162 pacientes com asma aguda. Foram determinados os níveis séricos de IgE total, as contagens d [...] e células no sangue periférico e as contagens de eosinófilos. O tratamento foi ajustado individualmente de acordo com a gravidade da asma. Foi realizada espirometria antes do início do tratamento e duas semanas após seu término. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: alto nível de IgE (> 100 UI/mL) e baixo nível de IgE ( Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To determine whether serum total IgE levels and total eosinophil counts have any relationship with the response to routine pharmacological treatment in patients with acute asthma. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 162 patients with acute asthma. Serum total IgE levels, peripheral [...] blood cell counts and eosinophil counts were determined. The treatment was adjusted for each patient according to the severity of asthma. Spirometry was performed at baseline and two weeks after the treatment. The patients were divided into two groups: high IgE (>100 IU/mL) and low IgE (

Ebrahim, Razi; Gholam Abbass, Moosavi.

2010-02-01

 
 
 
 
121

Total and differential leucocyte counts and lymphocyte subpopulations in lymph, afferent and efferent to the supramammary lymph node, during endotoxin-induced bovine mastitis.  

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Leucocyte trafficking in afferent and efferent mammary lymph and the supramammary lymph node in cows was examined during 4 h after intramammary infusion of endotoxin from Escherichia coli. Total and differential leucocyte counts were measured in milk, blood and lymph. The proportions of CD4(+), CD8(+), major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II(+) and IgM(+) lymphocytes were examined in the lymph and lymph node. At post-infusion hour (PIH) 4, the flow rates of both lymph fluids had increased approximately eightfold. Total leucocyte concentration increased in afferent lymph, but decreased in efferent lymph. Neutrophils increased in afferent lymph at PIH 2 and in efferent lymph and milk at PIH 4. The predominant cell type in afferent lymph shifted from lymphocyte to neutrophil while lymphocyte was still at PIH 4 the predominant type in efferent lymph. Among the lymphocytes, B cells were predominant in afferent lymph and lymph node at PIH 4 while T cells, mainly CD4(+) cells, were predominant in efferent lymph both at PIH 0 and PIH 4. The CD4 : CD8 ratio was higher in efferent lymph and the challenged lymph node than in afferent lymph and the control node, respectively. There was a significant difference in proportions of each lymphocyte subpopulation except for IgM(+) cells, between afferent and efferent lymph after infusion. According to the results, there was already during the first hours of the immune response, a non-random trafficking of neutrophils and lymphocyte subpopulations resulting in a changed distribution of cells in afferent and efferent lymph and a difference in lymphocyte reactivity between the two lymph fluids. PMID:17348968

Lun, S; Aström, G; Magnusson, U; Ostensson, K

2007-04-01

122

Comparison between MICRO-CARD-FISH and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries to assess the active versus total bacterial community in the coastal Arctic  

Science.gov (United States)

We collected surface- and deep-water samples (maximum depth 300 m) during the spring–summer transition in the coastal Arctic along a transect in the Kongsfjorden (Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen, Norway) to determine the structure of the active versus total marine bacterioplankton community using different approaches. Catalysed reporter deposition–fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with microautoradiography (MICRO–CARD–FISH) was used to determine the abundance and activity of different bacterial groups. The bacterial communities were dominated by members of Alphaproteobacteria followed by Bacteroidetes, whereas Gammaproteobacteria were present at low abundance but exhibited a high percentage of active cells taking up leucine. The clone libraries of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA) and 16S rRNA from two different depths were used to decipher the bacterial community structure. Independently of the type of clone libraries analysed (16S rDNA- or 16S rRNA-based), four major and four minor taxonomic groups were detected. The bacterioplankton community was mainly dominated at both the DNA and the RNA levels by Alphaproteobacteria followed by Gammaproteobacteria. The Rhodobacteriaceae were the most abundant members of the Alphaproteobacteria in both DNA and RNA clone libraries, followed by the SAR11 clade, which was only detectable at the 16S rDNA level. Moreover, there was a general agreement between the results obtained with both techniques, although some specific phylogenetic groups, such as SAR11 and Roseobacter, deviated substantially from this relation. These discrepancies are most likely linked to different physiological states among members of the bacterioplankton community. Combined, MICRO–CARD–FISH and DNA and RNA clone libraries, however, allowed for accurately quantifying different bacterial groups and their activity as well as a detailed phylogenetic insight into the fractions of present versus metabolically active bacterial groups. PMID:23565124

De Corte, Daniele; Sintes, Eva; Yokokawa, Taichi; Herndl, Gerhard J

2013-01-01

123

Counting Books  

Science.gov (United States)

The web site provides instructions for making counting books. Suggestions for using the completed books for counting one at a time, skip-counting, fractions and introducing addition and subtraction are given. Children should be able to write the numbers from 1 to 10 before beginning this activity.

2010-01-01

124

Behavior of Salmonella heidelberg and Salmonella enteritidis strains following broiler chick inoculation: evaluation of cecal morphometry, liver and cecum bacterial counts and fecal excretion patterns  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the years, Salmonella Heidelberg (SH has gained prominence in North America poultry production and in the poultry production of other countries. Salmonella Heidelberg has been isolated and reported from poultry and poultry products in Brazil since 1962, whereas Salmonella Enteritidis (SE has only emerged as a serious problem in poultry and public health since 1993. These strains of Salmonella can cause intestinal problems in newly hatched chicks, and infection may persist until adulthood. Upon slaughter of chickens, Salmonella can contaminate carcasses, a condition that poses a threat to human health. The aim of this study was to compare the fecal excretion of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Heidelberg in newly hatched chicks (orally inoculated with 10(5ufc/mL each until 20 days of age. In addition, the ratio of cecal villus height:crypt depth (morphometry and liver and cecum cell counts was analyzed in chicks ranging from 0 to 3 days of age and infected with these two Salmonella strains. One hundred seventeen chicks were separated into one of three experimental groups: a control group, an SE-infected group and an SH-infected group. Eight chicks per group were euthanized at 6, 12 and 72 hours post-inoculation (pi to allow for Salmonella isolation from the liver and cecum and for the collection of the cecum for villi and crypt analysis. Other birds were allowed to mature to 20 days of age and cloacal swabs were taken at 2, 6, 13 and 20 days pi to compare the fecal excretion of inoculated strains. The Salmonella Enteritidis group had a higher number of cells excreted during the trial. Both strains were isolated from the liver and cecum by 6h pi. At 12h pi the Salmonella Heidelberg group had high cell counts in the cecum. No difference was found in liver cell counts. Both strains showed lower villus height:crypt depth ratio than the control group post-infection.

Anderlise Borsoi

2011-03-01

125

Behavior of salmonella heidelberg and salmonella enteritidis strains following broiler chick inoculation: evaluation of cecal morphometry, liver and cecum bacterial counts and fecal excretion patterns.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the years, Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) has gained prominence in North America poultry production and in the poultry production of other countries. Salmonella Heidelberg has been isolated and reported from poultry and poultry products in Brazil since 1962, whereas Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) has only emerged as a serious problem in poultry and public health since 1993. These strains of Salmonella can cause intestinal problems in newly hatched chicks, and infection may persist until adulthood. Upon slaughter of chickens, Salmonella can contaminate carcasses, a condition that poses a threat to human health. The aim of this study was to compare the fecal excretion of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Heidelberg in newly hatched chicks (orally inoculated with 10(5)ufc/mL each) until 20 days of age. In addition, the ratio of cecal villus height:crypt depth (morphometry) and liver and cecum cell counts was analyzed in chicks ranging from 0 to 3 days of age and infected with these two Salmonella strains. One hundred seventeen chicks were separated into one of three experimental groups: a control group, an SE-infected group and an SH-infected group. Eight chicks per group were euthanized at 6, 12 and 72 hours post-inoculation (pi) to allow for Salmonella isolation from the liver and cecum and for the collection of the cecum for villi and crypt analysis. Other birds were allowed to mature to 20 days of age and cloacal swabs were taken at 2, 6, 13 and 20 days pi to compare the fecal excretion of inoculated strains. The Salmonella Enteritidis group had a higher number of cells excreted during the trial. Both strains were isolated from the liver and cecum by 6h pi. At 12h pi the Salmonella Heidelberg group had high cell counts in the cecum. No difference was found in liver cell counts. Both strains showed lower villus height:crypt depth ratio than the control group post-infection. PMID:24031631

Borsoi, Anderlise; Ruschel do Santos, Luciana; Beatriz Rodrigues, Laura; Luiz de Souza Moraes, Hamilton; Tadeu Pippi Salle, Carlos; Pinheiro do Nascimento, Vladimir

2011-01-01

126

Comparative seric TGF({beta}1, {beta}2) levels and platelets count response in total body irradiated baboons; Evolution comparee des taux seriques des TGF ({beta}1, {beta}2) et de la numeration plaquettaire chez le babouin irradie globalement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Total body irradiation associated or not with r-hIL-6 treatment a relation between TGF-{beta}1 and TGF-{beta}2 blood levels and platelets count. During radio-induced thrombocytopenia, by decreasing its ability to inhibit proliferation of stem cells and megakaryocytopoiesis, the TGF-{beta} falling induced a favorable condition for hematopoietic recovery. (author). 5 refs.

Mestries, J.C.; Veyret, J.; Agay, D.; Van Uye, A.; Caterini, R.; Herodin, F.; Mathieu, J.; Chancerelle, Y.

1994-12-31

127

Total Organic Carbon Distribution and Bacterial Cycling Across A Geostrophic Front In Mediterranean Sea. Implications For The Western Basin Carbon Cycle  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the dynamic of the total organic carbon (TOC) pool and the role it played in the carbon cycle during winter 1997-1998 in the Almeria-Oran jet-front (AOF) system resulting from the spreading of Atlantic surface water through the Gibraltar Strait in the Alboran Sea (Southwestern Mediterranean Sea). We determined TOC by using high temperature combustion technique (HTC) and bacterial produc- tion (BP; via [3H] leucine incorporation) during two legs in the frontal area. We also estimated labile TOC (l-TOC) and bacterial growth efficiency (BGE) by performing TOC biodegradation experiments on board during the cruise whereas water column semi-labile (sl-TOC), and refractory-TOC were determined from TOC profile exami- nation. These results are discussed in relation with current velocity measured by using accoustic doppler current profiler (ADCP). Lowest TOC stocks (6330-6853 mmol C m-2) over 0-100 m were measured in the northern side of the geostrophic Jet which is also the highest dynamic area (horizontal speed of 80 cm s-1 in the first 100 m di- rected eastward). Our results indicated variable turnover times of sl-TOC across the Jet-Front system, which might be explained by different coupling of primary produc- tion and bacterial production observed in these areas. We also estimated TOC and sl-TOC transports within the Jet core off the Alboran Sea as well as potential CO2 production through bacterial respiration produced from sl-TOC assimilation by het- erotrophic bacteria.

Sempere, R.; van Wambeke, F.; Bianchi, M.; Dafner, E.; Lefevre, D.; Bruyant, F.; Prieur, L.

128

Total volatile fatty acids and bacterial production rates as affected by rations containing untreated or ammonia (urea) treated rice straw in croos-bred cattle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding ammoniated rice straw on ruminal total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) and bacterial production rates. Twelve karan swiss, male, rumen fistulated calves (2-2.5 yrs) were divided in three equal groups. Animals were offered rice straw either untreated (A) or 4 per cent urea+40 per cent moisture treated and ensiled for 30 days (B) or 5 per cent urea+30 per cent moisture treated and ensiled for 30 days (C). Protein requirements were met through concentrate mixture. Levels of NH3-N and TCA-precipitable-N in strained rumen liquor (SRL) were significantly higher (20.34±0.022, 63.26±0.81 (B), 20.78±0.41, 64.98±0.87 (C) (mg/100 ml SRL) in groups fed ammoniated ±0.31, 45.94±1.91 mg/100 ml S RL), respectively. The bacterial production rates in the rumen (g/day) were significantly higher in groups B and C as compared to group A. TVFA concentrations (mmole/100 ml SRL ) and TVFA production rates (mmole/d) were also significantly higher in groups B and C as compared to group A. The bacterial production rates were significantly co-related with TVFA, NH3-N, TCA precipitable-N concentration in the rumen and ATP production. Multiple regression equations relating bacterial production rates with (i)NH3-N and TVFA concentration in the rumen, (ii)NH3-N and TVFA production rates and (iii)NH3-N and ATP produced were also developed. (author). 18 refs., 2 tabs

129

Behavior of Salmonella heidelberg and Salmonella enteritidis strains following broiler chick inoculation: evaluation of cecal morphometry, liver and cecum bacterial counts and fecal excretion patterns  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Over the years, Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) has gained prominence in North America poultry production and in the poultry production of other countries. Salmonella Heidelberg has been isolated and reported from poultry and poultry products in Brazil since 1962, whereas Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) has [...] only emerged as a serious problem in poultry and public health since 1993. These strains of Salmonella can cause intestinal problems in newly hatched chicks, and infection may persist until adulthood. Upon slaughter of chickens, Salmonella can contaminate carcasses, a condition that poses a threat to human health. The aim of this study was to compare the fecal excretion of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Heidelberg in newly hatched chicks (orally inoculated with 10(5)ufc/mL each) until 20 days of age. In addition, the ratio of cecal villus height:crypt depth (morphometry) and liver and cecum cell counts was analyzed in chicks ranging from 0 to 3 days of age and infected with these two Salmonella strains. One hundred seventeen chicks were separated into one of three experimental groups: a control group, an SE-infected group and an SH-infected group. Eight chicks per group were euthanized at 6, 12 and 72 hours post-inoculation (pi) to allow for Salmonella isolation from the liver and cecum and for the collection of the cecum for villi and crypt analysis. Other birds were allowed to mature to 20 days of age and cloacal swabs were taken at 2, 6, 13 and 20 days pi to compare the fecal excretion of inoculated strains. The Salmonella Enteritidis group had a higher number of cells excreted during the trial. Both strains were isolated from the liver and cecum by 6h pi. At 12h pi the Salmonella Heidelberg group had high cell counts in the cecum. No difference was found in liver cell counts. Both strains showed lower villus height:crypt depth ratio than the control group post-infection.

Anderlise, Borsoi; Luciana Ruschel do, Santos; Laura Beatriz, Rodrigues; Hamilton Luiz de Souza, Moraes; Carlos Tadeu Pippi, Salle; Vladimir Pinheiro do, Nascimento.

2011-03-01

130

Behavior of Salmonella heidelberg and Salmonella enteritidis strains following broiler chick inoculation: evaluation of cecal morphometry, liver and cecum bacterial counts and fecal excretion patterns  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Over the years, Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) has gained prominence in North America poultry production and in the poultry production of other countries. Salmonella Heidelberg has been isolated and reported from poultry and poultry products in Brazil since 1962, whereas Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) has [...] only emerged as a serious problem in poultry and public health since 1993. These strains of Salmonella can cause intestinal problems in newly hatched chicks, and infection may persist until adulthood. Upon slaughter of chickens, Salmonella can contaminate carcasses, a condition that poses a threat to human health. The aim of this study was to compare the fecal excretion of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Heidelberg in newly hatched chicks (orally inoculated with 10(5)ufc/mL each) until 20 days of age. In addition, the ratio of cecal villus height:crypt depth (morphometry) and liver and cecum cell counts was analyzed in chicks ranging from 0 to 3 days of age and infected with these two Salmonella strains. One hundred seventeen chicks were separated into one of three experimental groups: a control group, an SE-infected group and an SH-infected group. Eight chicks per group were euthanized at 6, 12 and 72 hours post-inoculation (pi) to allow for Salmonella isolation from the liver and cecum and for the collection of the cecum for villi and crypt analysis. Other birds were allowed to mature to 20 days of age and cloacal swabs were taken at 2, 6, 13 and 20 days pi to compare the fecal excretion of inoculated strains. The Salmonella Enteritidis group had a higher number of cells excreted during the trial. Both strains were isolated from the liver and cecum by 6h pi. At 12h pi the Salmonella Heidelberg group had high cell counts in the cecum. No difference was found in liver cell counts. Both strains showed lower villus height:crypt depth ratio than the control group post-infection.

Anderlise, Borsoi; Luciana Ruschel do, Santos; Laura Beatriz, Rodrigues; Hamilton Luiz de Souza, Moraes; Carlos Tadeu Pippi, Salle; Vladimir Pinheiro do, Nascimento.

131

Counting cormorants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This chapter focuses on Cormorant population counts for both summer (i.e. breeding) and winter (i.e. migration, winter roosts) seasons. It also explains differences in the data collected from undertaking ‘day’ versus ‘roost’ counts, gives some definitions of the term ‘numbers’, and presents two examples of how numerical data can be used to calculate ‘Cormorant days’ and breeding success.

Bregnballe, Thomas; Carss, David N

2013-01-01

132

Evaluation of the limulus amoebocyte lysate test in conjunction with a gram negative bacterial plate count for detecting irradiation of chicken  

Science.gov (United States)

A study to evaluate the potential of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) test in conjuction with a Gram negative bacteria (GNB) plate count for detecting the irradiation of chicken is described. Preliminary studies demonstrated that chickens irradiated at an absorbed dose of 2.5 kGy could be differentiated from unirradiated birds by measuring levels of endotoxin and of numbers of GNB on chicken skin. Irradiated birds were found to have endotoxin levels similar to those found in unirradiated birds but significantly lower numbers of GNB. In a limited study the test was found to be applicable to birds from different processors. The effect of temperature abuse on the microbiological profile, and thus the efficacy of the test, was also investigated. After temperature abuse, the irradiated birds were identifiable at worst up to 3 days after irradiation treatment at the 2.5 kGy level and at best some 13 days after irradiation. Temperature abuse at 15°C resulted in rapid recovery of surviving micro-organisms which made differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds using this test unreliable. The microbiological quality of the bird prior to irradiation treatment also affected the test as large numbers of GNB present on the bird prior to irradiation treatment resulted in larger numbers of survivors. In addition, monitoring the developing flora after irradiation treatment and during subsequent chilled storage also aided differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds. Large numbers of yeasts and Gram positive cocci were isolated from irradiated carcasses whereas Gram negative oxidative rods were the predominant spoilage flora on unirradiated birds.

Scotter, Susan L.; Wood, Roger; McWeeny, David J.

133

Serum total IgE levels and total eosinophil counts: relationship with treatment response in patients with acute asthma Relação dos níveis séricos de IgE total e das contagens de eosinófilos com a resposta ao tratamento em pacientes com asma aguda  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether serum total IgE levels and total eosinophil counts have any relationship with the response to routine pharmacological treatment in patients with acute asthma. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 162 patients with acute asthma. Serum total IgE levels, peripheral blood cell counts and eosinophil counts were determined. The treatment was adjusted for each patient according to the severity of asthma. Spirometry was performed at baseline and two weeks after the treatment. The patients were divided into two groups: high IgE (>100 IU/mL and low IgE (OBJETIVO: Determinar se há uma relação dos níveis de IgE total no soro e das contagens de eosinófilos com a resposta à farmacoterapia de rotina em pacientes com asma aguda. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 162 pacientes com asma aguda. Foram determinados os níveis séricos de IgE total, as contagens de células no sangue periférico e as contagens de eosinófilos. O tratamento foi ajustado individualmente de acordo com a gravidade da asma. Foi realizada espirometria antes do início do tratamento e duas semanas após seu término. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: alto nível de IgE (> 100 UI/mL e baixo nível de IgE (< 100 UI/mL. Foram comparadas entre os dois grupos as relações das determinações basais e das alterações em percentual dos seguintes parâmetros: VEF, CVF, FEF25-75%, contagem de células brancas no sangue periférico e contagem de eosinófilos. RESULTADOS:Não houve diferenças significativas entre os grupos em relação às alterações em percentual dos parâmetros estudados. Tampouco houve diferenças significativas entre os grupos em relação aos valores basais de VEF, CVF e FEF25-75%, em % do predito. CONCLUSÕES: Com base nesses achados, concluímos que os níveis séricos de IgE total, as contagens de células brancas no sangue periférico e as contagens de eosinófilos não são preditores do tratamento farmacológico de pacientes com asma aguda.

Ebrahim Razi

2010-02-01

134

Detecting structural and functional differences in activated sludge bacterial communities originating from laboratory treatment of elementally and totally chlorine-free bleaching effluents.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability to differentiate functional and structural diversity of bacterial communities present in activated sludges adapted to elementally (ECF) and totally (TCF) chlorine-free bleaching effluents was evaluated. Community function was evaluated through substrate utilization patterns in BiologGN microplates, and taxonomic structure was evaluated by fluorescent in situ hybridization using probes targeting the Eubacteria; the alpha, beta, and gamma subclasses of the Proteobacteria; and gram-positive bacteria with high GC content. Over 6-week sampling periods, ECF-and TCF-adapted sludge bacterial communities presented reproducible substrate utilization patterns that through principal components (PCs) analysis, separated the ECF samples from the TCF samples. Application of the fluorescent in situ hybridization technique was complicated by the intense autofluorescence of the bleaching effluent sludge samples that interfered with detection of specific hybridization signals. The most notable difference in community structure detected using the chosen set of probes was the relatively greater proportion of cells of the alpha subclass in TCF sludge (27%) than in ECF sludge (6%). Nonspecific hybridization with beta and gamma probes was relatively high, but both sludges appeared to have similar proportions of cells of the beta (20-22%) and gamma (11-12%) subclasses. The two sludges presented relatively few gram-positive cells with high GC content (ECF- and TCF-activated sludges were detected. The kinetics of the development of these differences in treatment plants and their relationships with treatment efficiency and production process conditions should now be evaluated. PMID:11989769

Mounteer, Ann H; Passos, Flávia M L; Borges, Arnaldo Chaer; Silva, Daison Olzany

2002-03-01

135

Counting carbohydrates  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbohydrates are found in fruit, cereal, bread, pasta, and rice. They are quickly turned into a sugar ... sugar better if they can count how many carbohydrates they eat. Your dietitian will teach you a ...

136

Effects of Ensiling Total Mixed Potato Hash Ration with or without Bacterial Inoculation on Silage Fermentation and Nutritive Value for Growing Pigs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Total Mixed Rations (TMR that contained 795 g kg-1 (as is basis of Potato Hash (PH were formulated and ensiled in 210 L drums (10 drums treatment-1 with or without lalsil fresh (heterofermentative lactic acid bacterial inoculant. After 3 months of ensiling, drums were opened and analysed for fermentation characteristics and nutritive value. This was followed by an 8 weeks growth study using forty crossbred pigs (Large white X landrace, twenty males and twenty females weighing 203 kg. Inoculating the TMR with lalsil fresh reduced (p-1 which could be attributed to the lower dietary protein (-1 DM and higher fibre contents. Further research is needed to evaluate effects of enzyme addition on the ensiling of potato hash and supplementation of energy and protein on feed intake and growth performance of pigs consuming the silage.

R. Thomas

2011-01-01

137

Determination of Pu content in a Spent Fuel Assembly by Measuring Passive Total Neutron count rate and Multiplication with the Differential Die-Away Instrument  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inspired by approach of Bignan and Martin-Didier (ESARDA 1991) we introduce novel (instrument independent) approach based on multiplication and passive neutron. Based on simulations of SFL-1 the accuracy of determination of totPu content with new approach is ?1.3-1.5%. Method applicable for DDA instrument, since it can measure both multiplication and passive neutron count rate. Comparison of pro's and con's of measuring/determining of 239Pueff and totPu suggests a potential for enhanced diversion detection sensitivity.

138

Effect of supplementing orchardgrass herbage with a total mixed ration or flaxseed on fermentation profile and bacterial protein synthesis in continuous culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 4-unit dual-flow continuous culture fermentor system was used to evaluate the effects of supplementing fresh herbage with a total mixed ration (TMR) or flaxseed on nutrient digestibility, fermentation profile, and bacterial N synthesis. Diets were randomly assigned to fermentors in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Each fermentor was fed a total of 70 g of dry matter/d of 1 of 4 diets: (1) 100% freeze-dried orchardgrass herbage (Dactylis glomerata L.; HERB), (2) 100% freeze-dried TMR (100TMR), (3) 50% orchardgrass herbage supplemented with 50% TMR (50TMR), or (4) 90% orchardgrass herbage supplemented with 10% ground flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.; FLAX). Preplanned, single degree of freedom orthogonal contrasts were constructed to assess the effects of feeding system (HERB vs. 100TMR), herbage supplementation (HERB vs. 50TMR + FLAX), and herbage supplemental source (50TMR vs. FLAX). Compared with the HERB diet, the 100TMR diet significantly reduced apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber. Herbage supplementation with 50TMR or FLAX significantly reduced or tended to reduce apparent digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber, suggesting that replacing high-quality, highly digestible fresh herbage with forage TMR likely caused depressions in nutrient digestibilities. Concentration of total volatile fatty acids, molar proportions of acetate, propionate, and isovalerate, as well as the acetate:propionate ratios were all significantly higher in fermentors fed 100TMR compared with HERB, likely in response to enhanced supply of fermentable energy. In general, feeding system, herbage supplementation, and type of supplementation did not affect N metabolism in the present study. The few significant changes in N metabolism (e.g., flows of total N and non-NH3-N) were primarily linked to increased fermentor N supply with feeding herbage-based diets (HERB and FLAX). Although TMR-based diets decreased nutrient digestibility slightly, TMR offered advantages in bacterial fermentation in relation to volatile fatty acid production, which could potentially translate into better animal performance. Flaxseed shows promise as an alternative supplement for herbage-based diets; however, further in vivo evaluation is needed to determine the optimal level to optimize animal production while reducing feed costs. PMID:23522677

Soder, K J; Brito, A F; Rubano, M D

2013-05-01

139

Heterotrophic plate count vs. in situ bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicon profiles from drinking water reveal completely different communities with distinct spatial and temporal allocations in a distribution net  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Heterotrophic plate count using ISO 6222 agar (HPC) vs. in situ bacterial (DF) community structure from corresponding samples of a drinking water distribution system were investigated by 16S rRNA gene-based polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR DGGE) profiling. The i [...] nvestigation regime covered 10 different sampling locations and 2 points in time (t1, t2). In order to ensure accurate and reproducible 16S rRNA gene profile analysis, rigorous methodical evaluation and standardisation procedures were undertaken (DGGE optimisation, replication of PCR, multiple-lane standardisation, representative sampling volume determination, application of multiple similarity coefficients). The reproducibility level of the profile analysis was determined to be > 90% similarity. Two completely different communities were revealed from HPC vs. DF as indicated by DGGE analysis and sequencing. HPC populations could be identified as ubiquitously occurring cultivable copiotrophic microbes, whilst most DF sequences could be allocated to sequences from microorganisms found in oligotrophic aquatic environments. Spatial- and temporal-based 16S rRNA gene amplicon profile analysis from recovered communities further revealed contrasting results. As proven by Jackknife simulations, DF profiles remarkably corresponded to sampling time, whereas HPC profiles revealed spatial associations within the distribution system. Recovered data demonstrate that cultivation based HPC vs. direct cell-based investigations can result in completely different results if used for monitoring purposes in distribution systems.

MM, Burtscher; F, Zibuschka; RL, Mach; G, Lindner; AH, Farnleitner.

2009-07-01

140

Diversity of the total bacterial community associated with Ghanaian and Brazilian cocoa bean fermentation samples as revealed by a 16 S rRNA gene clone library.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cocoa bean fermentation is a spontaneous process involving a succession of microbial activities, starting with yeasts, followed by lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. So far, all microbiological studies about cocoa bean fermentation were based on culture-dependent (isolation, cultivation, and identification), or, more recently, culture-independent (PCR-DGGE, or polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) methods. Using a metagenomic approach, total DNA was extracted from heap and box fermentations at different time points and from different locations (Ghana and Brazil, respectively) to generate a 16 S rDNA clone library that was sequenced. The sequencing data revealed a low bacterial diversity in the fermentation samples and were in accordance with the results obtained through culture-dependent and a second, culture-independent analysis (PCR-DGGE), suggesting that almost all bacteria involved in the fermentation process are cultivable. One exception was the identification by 16 S rDNA library sequencing of Gluconacetobacter species of acetic acid bacteria that were not detected by the two other approaches. The presence of Enterobacteriaceae related to Erwinia/Pantoea/Tatumella, as revealed by 16 S rDNA library sequencing, suggests an impact of these bacteria on fermentation. PMID:20559826

Garcia-Armisen, Tamara; Papalexandratou, Zoi; Hendryckx, Hugo; Camu, Nicholas; Vrancken, Gino; De Vuyst, Luc; Cornelis, Pierre

2010-08-01

 
 
 
 
141

Counting Money  

Science.gov (United States)

Today you are going to practice counting money. We will be reviewing the penny, nickel, and dime, and quarter. The coin with the lowest value is the penny. Here is a picture of a penny. A penny is worth one cent or $0.01picture of a penny The next coin of the lowest value is the nickel. Here is a picture of a nickel. picture of a nickel A nickel is worth five cents or $0.05 The next coin ...

Areese

2008-09-25

142

Bacterial gastroenteritis  

Science.gov (United States)

Infectious diarrhea - bacterial gastroenteritis; Acute gastroenteritis; Gastroenteritis - bacterial ... Bacterial gastroenteritis can affect one person or a group of people who all ate the same food. It is ...

143

Effect of Chlorination Treatment on Gram Negative Bacterial Composition of Recycled Wastewater  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to assess the quality of recovered wastewater from the treatment plant of Mutah University, analysis was performed on samples collected from influent, polishing pool, chlorination tank and the ultimately disposal site at the university campus. In this assessment following parameters were used: temperature, BOD5, COD, effect of chlorination treatment, total bacterial counts (TBC, type of bacterial species isolated and the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria during the treatment. Though BOD5 and COD values of treated water were within the acceptable range of Jordanian standards, the bacterial counts suggested that the efficiency of applied chlorination treatment was inconsistent. This discrepancy was particularly noticed on the water sample collected from polishing pool. Chlorine treatment of wastewater was not an efficient disinfectant method, besides it`s potential to promote the production of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Some of the coliform species isolated from influent and effluent samples were found to be chlorine resistant. Such resistance seams to be species specific. Also an unexpected bacterial growth profile was observed where the total bacterial counts on some selective media were higher than the counts detected on enriched media. A re-evaluation for the current method of wastewater treatment is recommended.

Khaled Khleifat

2006-01-01

144

Counting Possibilia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Timothy Williamson supports the thesis that every possible entity necessarily exists and so he needs to explain how a possible son of Wittgenstein’s, for example, exists in our world:he exists as a merely possible object (MPO, a pure locus of potential. Williamson presents a short argument for the existence of MPOs: how many knives can be made by fitting together two blades and two handles? Four: at the most two are concrete objects, the others being merely possible knives and merely possible objects. This paper defends the idea that one can avoid reference and ontological commitment to MPOs. My proposal is that MPOs can be dispensed with by using the notion of rules of knife-making. I first present a solution according to which we count lists of instructions - selected by the rules - describing physical combinations between components. This account, however, has its own difficulties and I eventually suggest that one can find a way out by admitting possible worlds, entities which are more commonly accepted - at least by philosophers - than MPOs. I maintain that, in answering Williamson’s questions, we count classes of physically possible worlds in which the same instance of a general rule is applied.

Alfredo Tomasetta

2010-06-01

145

Experimental infection of commercial layers with wild or attenuated Salmonella Gallinarum mutant strains: anatomic pathology, total blood cell count and serum protein levels  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate hemogram, blood serum components and anatomopathologic alterations in commercial layers experimentally challenged with an attenuated vaccine candidate strain (SG?cobS?cbiA) and other two pathogenic strains (SGDcobS and SGNalr) of Gallinarum [...] (SG). In total, 280 commercial layers were randomly divided into 4 groups (G1, G2, G3 and G4). At five days of age, birds from groups G1 received approximately 107 colony forming units (CFU) of SGDcobS; meanwhile birds from group G2 and G3 received the same dose of SGNalr and SG?cobS?cbiA, respectively. Birds from G4 were not infected. At 24 hours before (DBI) and 24 hours after (1 DAI), and three (3 DAI), five (5 DAI), seven (7 DAI) ten (10 DAI), and fifteen (15 DAI) days after the infection, 10 birds of each group were humanely killed and blood samples collected to hematological and serum tests. Samples of liver, spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, kidney and heart were also collected for the histological examination. Birds inoculated with SGDcobS and SGNalr showed similar alterations in hemogram, blood serum components and anatomopathologic exams. On the other hand, the exams of birds inoculated with SG?cobS?cbiA strain were similar to those of the uninfected birds. However, changes could be noticed in levels of uric acid and cholesterol during the course of the infection of birds from G3. Decrease in levels of light IgG 3 DAI was also observed in birds from this group. Pyknosis in kidney cells was a microscopic alteration found in birds from G3. Further studies must be done to verify if these alterations will not interfere in the performance of the vaccinate birds with SG?cobS?cbiA strain.

KO, Garcia; A, Berchieri Jr.; AM, Santana; MFF, Alarcon; OC, Freitas Neto; JJ, Fagliari.

146

Experimental infection of commercial layers with wild or attenuated Salmonella Gallinarum mutant strains: anatomic pathology, total blood cell count and serum protein levels  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate hemogram, blood serum components and anatomopathologic alterations in commercial layers experimentally challenged with an attenuated vaccine candidate strain (SG?cobS?cbiA) and other two pathogenic strains (SGDcobS and SGNalr) of Gallinarum [...] (SG). In total, 280 commercial layers were randomly divided into 4 groups (G1, G2, G3 and G4). At five days of age, birds from groups G1 received approximately 107 colony forming units (CFU) of SGDcobS; meanwhile birds from group G2 and G3 received the same dose of SGNalr and SG?cobS?cbiA, respectively. Birds from G4 were not infected. At 24 hours before (DBI) and 24 hours after (1 DAI), and three (3 DAI), five (5 DAI), seven (7 DAI) ten (10 DAI), and fifteen (15 DAI) days after the infection, 10 birds of each group were humanely killed and blood samples collected to hematological and serum tests. Samples of liver, spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, kidney and heart were also collected for the histological examination. Birds inoculated with SGDcobS and SGNalr showed similar alterations in hemogram, blood serum components and anatomopathologic exams. On the other hand, the exams of birds inoculated with SG?cobS?cbiA strain were similar to those of the uninfected birds. However, changes could be noticed in levels of uric acid and cholesterol during the course of the infection of birds from G3. Decrease in levels of light IgG 3 DAI was also observed in birds from this group. Pyknosis in kidney cells was a microscopic alteration found in birds from G3. Further studies must be done to verify if these alterations will not interfere in the performance of the vaccinate birds with SG?cobS?cbiA strain.

KO, Garcia; A, Berchieri Jr.; AM, Santana; MFF, Alarcon; OC, Freitas Neto; JJ, Fagliari.

2013-06-01

147

Irradiation of sangari (Prosopis cineraria): Effect on composition and microbial counts during storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fresh dried and old dried sangari (Prosopis cineraria) were treated with 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 7.0 kGy of irradiation and subsequently stored at ambient temperatures. Proximate values and total bacterial counts were evaluated immediately after irradiation and at regular intervals of 1 month during 3 months of storage. No significant changes were found in moisture, fat, protein, ash and fiber contents. Total sugar content was increased in both control and irradiated samples possibly due to conversion of starch into sugars. Irradiation treatment reduces total bacterial counts of dried samples of both fresh and old dried sangari. However, a dose of 5.0 kGy completely decontaminated both sangari and there was no microbial growth in 5.0 kGy irradiated samples during the storage period. Irradiation at 5.0 kGy was enough to extend the shelf-life of dried sangari up to 3 months without any significant change in the nutritional qualities. - Highlights: ? Sangari (Prosopis cineraria) was irradiated and stored at ambient temperature. ? No significant changes were observed in proximate analysis during storage. ? Starch content was decreased during storage at all irradiation doses. ? A dose of 5 kGy was found appropriate to eliminate total bacterial counts.

148

Irradiation of sangari (Prosopis cineraria): Effect on composition and microbial counts during storage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fresh dried and old dried sangari (Prosopis cineraria) were treated with 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 7.0 kGy of irradiation and subsequently stored at ambient temperatures. Proximate values and total bacterial counts were evaluated immediately after irradiation and at regular intervals of 1 month during 3 months of storage. No significant changes were found in moisture, fat, protein, ash and fiber contents. Total sugar content was increased in both control and irradiated samples possibly due to conversion of starch into sugars. Irradiation treatment reduces total bacterial counts of dried samples of both fresh and old dried sangari. However, a dose of 5.0 kGy completely decontaminated both sangari and there was no microbial growth in 5.0 kGy irradiated samples during the storage period. Irradiation at 5.0 kGy was enough to extend the shelf-life of dried sangari up to 3 months without any significant change in the nutritional qualities. - Highlights: > Sangari (Prosopis cineraria) was irradiated and stored at ambient temperature. > No significant changes were observed in proximate analysis during storage. > Starch content was decreased during storage at all irradiation doses. > A dose of 5 kGy was found appropriate to eliminate total bacterial counts.

Joshi, Priyanka [S. K. Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner 334 006 (India); Nathawat, N.S. [Central Arid Zone Research Institute, RRS, Bikaner 334 006 (India); Chhipa, B.G. [S. K. Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner 334 006 (India); Hajare, Sachin N. [Food Technology Divisions, BARC, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Goyal, Madhu; Sahu, M.P. [S. K. Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner 334 006 (India); Singh, Govind, E-mail: govindsingh10@rediffmail.com [S. K. Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner 334 006 (India)

2011-11-15

149

Bacterial Contamination of Tsire-Suya, a Nigerian Meat Product  

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Full Text Available Samples of raw meat prior to roasting, and tsire-suya were analyzed bacteriologically for total viable, coliform, staphylococcal counts and the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The sensitivity of the bacterial isolates to some antibiotics and spices was evaluated. The total viable count varied from 20x102 to 289x102 cfu/g for the raw meat and 7x102 to 171x102 cfu/g for the tsire-suya. The coliform count was 4x102 to 71x102 cfu/g for the raw meat and 1x102 to 42x102 for the tsire-suya while the staphylococcal count ranged from 1x102 to 60x102 cfu/g for the raw meat and 1x102 to 12x102 cfu/g for tsire-suya. From results obtained, bacterial count was higher in raw meat than in tsire-suya. P. aeruginosa, B. cereus, S. aureus, and E. coli, were isolated from the raw meat and tsire-suya. The isolates were sensitive to some of the antibiotics and spices tested. However, E. coli was only sensitive to gentamicin. While P. aeruginosa on the other hand was resistant to Afromomum melegueta, Piper quinense and Capsicum fructescens, the three spices tested for this study. The incidence of the isolated bacteria in tsire-suya, a ready-to-eat meat product in Nigeria is of health significance.

R.E. Uzeh

2006-01-01

150

Money Counts  

Science.gov (United States)

In this math lesson, learners count and compare amounts of money less than or equal to one dollar. Learners begin by finding all of the possible combinations of coins that can be used to equal a specified amount of money. They then compare two amounts of money and use number sense skills and problem solving strategies to move coins from one group to another so that both groups are equal in value. Learners play the Money Exchange Game as they roll a die with money amounts and try to be the first person to obtain exactly $1.00. Learners must make monetary exchanges in the game such as trading ten pennies for a dime. Finally, learners shop in a puppet supply store where they are given one dollar to buy items to make a paper bag puppet.

Pbs

2012-01-01

151

A comparative study on the physicochemical and bacterial analysis of drinking, borewell and sewage water in the three different places of Sivakasi.  

Science.gov (United States)

The drinking, borewell and sewage water in the Sanmugasikamani Nadar (S.N) street, Naivatti Nadar (N.N) street and Thiruthangal area of Sivakasi has been studied. The various constituents monitored include the physicochemical characters like pH, total solids, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids; chemical parameters like total alkalinity acidity free CO2, dissolved oxygen, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, chloride, salinity and bacterial parameters like standard plate count (SPC), total coliform count (TCC), faecal coliform count (FCC), faecal streptococcal count (FSC). Most of the physicochemical characters of drinking and borewell water were within the ISI permissible level. However in water samples from all the sites, bacterial count exceeded the recommended permissible level of WHO. Introduction of sewage into the drinking and borewell water was the main reason for the bacterial contamination. The boiling of water is therefore advisable before consumption. The physicochemical and bacterial characters of the sewage water were unworthy. The sewage water recycling was necessary to minimize the water born diseases. PMID:17717994

Krishnan, R Radha; Dharmaraj, K; Kumari, B D Ranjitha

2007-01-01

152

Preliminary Study on Efficacy of Leaves, Seeds and Bark Extracts of Moringa oleifera in Reducing Bacterial load in Water  

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Water quality and treatment are the most important issue in everywhere, especially in the developing countries, where safe and clean water is not continuously provided. Moringa oleifera is one of the best natural coagulants that has effectively used in water treatments. The aqueous extract of seeds, leaves and bark of Moringa oleifera was evaluated for their efficacy in reducing total bacterial load, coliform count and faecal coliform counts in the treatment of drinking water. The standard po...

Osman, Mohamed S.; Goja, Arafat M.

2013-01-01

153

Uso de aditivos promotores de crescimento sobre o desempenho, características de carcaça e bactérias totais do intestino de frangos de corte / Use of growth promoters additives on performance, carcass yield and total intestinalbacteria counts in broiler  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com este trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de aditivos promotores de crescimento em substituição ao antibiótico sobre o desempenho, características de carcaça (partes e gordura abdominal) e bactérias totais do intestino delgado e cecos de frangos de corte de 1 a 42 dias de idade, criados em [...] cama reutilizada e alimentados com rações à base de milho moído e farelo de soja. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com um arranjo fatorial 7 x 2, correspondendo a 7 fontes de aditivos (antibiótico, basal, mananoligossacarídeo (MOS), frutoligossacarídeo (FOS), ácido fumárico, cogumelo desidratado e probiótico) e dois sexos (macho e fêmea). Foram utilizados um total de 1680 pintos, sexados, da linhagem Hybro, distribuídos em 14 tratamentos com 04 repetições e 30 aves por parcela experimental. Foi observado efeito significativo (P Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of growth promoters additives on performance, carcass yield (parts and abdominal fat), total intestinal bacteria counts in broilers from 1 at 42 days old fed with corn and soybean meal based diets, compared to antibiotics supplementation diets. [...] In this study were urilized a 7 x 2 factorial design, with seven differents additives (antibiotic, basal, MOS, FOS, fumaric acid, mutshroom extract and probiotic) and two sex (males and females). A total of1680 sexed broilers chickens from Hybro line were distributed in 14 treatments, with 4 replicates and 30 chickens per experimental unit. Effects of growth promotant additives on feed intake , feed conversion and production efficiency factor were measured. Male chickens shown better performance results than females in all parameters evaluated, except for viability. Additives shown positive effects on carcars yield, parts yield, and abdominal fat. Male chickens were heavier at slaughter and shown higher leg yields than females. Additives also influenced total bacteria counts in duodenum and caecum altering the microbiota of the intestinal chickens. These changes in intestinal microbiota might have contributed for a higher stability and better survival of good microorganisms in the intestinal ecosystem, resulting in benefits for the host. The results of this study shown that the use the addictive as a growth promoters should be used in the feeding for broilers chickens, in substitution to the antibiotic, without affecting the performance and carcass yield , in the period from 1 to 42 days of age.

Éder Clementino dos, Santos; Antônio Soares, Teixeira; Rilke Tadeu Fonseca de, Freitas; Paulo Borges, Rodrigues; Eustáquio Souza, Dias; Luis David Solis, Murgas.

2005-02-01

154

Uso de aditivos promotores de crescimento sobre o desempenho, características de carcaça e bactérias totais do intestino de frangos de corte Use of growth promoters additives on performance, carcass yield and total intestinalbacteria counts in broiler  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de aditivos promotores de crescimento em substituição ao antibiótico sobre o desempenho, características de carcaça (partes e gordura abdominal e bactérias totais do intestino delgado e cecos de frangos de corte de 1 a 42 dias de idade, criados em cama reutilizada e alimentados com rações à base de milho moído e farelo de soja. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com um arranjo fatorial 7 x 2, correspondendo a 7 fontes de aditivos (antibiótico, basal, mananoligossacarídeo (MOS, frutoligossacarídeo (FOS, ácido fumárico, cogumelo desidratado e probiótico e dois sexos (macho e fêmea. Foram utilizados um total de 1680 pintos, sexados, da linhagem Hybro, distribuídos em 14 tratamentos com 04 repetições e 30 aves por parcela experimental. Foi observado efeito significativo (PThe objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of growth promoters additives on performance, carcass yield (parts and abdominal fat, total intestinal bacteria counts in broilers from 1 at 42 days old fed with corn and soybean meal based diets, compared to antibiotics supplementation diets. In this study were urilized a 7 x 2 factorial design, with seven differents additives (antibiotic, basal, MOS, FOS, fumaric acid, mutshroom extract and probiotic and two sex (males and females. A total of1680 sexed broilers chickens from Hybro line were distributed in 14 treatments, with 4 replicates and 30 chickens per experimental unit. Effects of growth promotant additives on feed intake , feed conversion and production efficiency factor were measured. Male chickens shown better performance results than females in all parameters evaluated, except for viability. Additives shown positive effects on carcars yield, parts yield, and abdominal fat. Male chickens were heavier at slaughter and shown higher leg yields than females. Additives also influenced total bacteria counts in duodenum and caecum altering the microbiota of the intestinal chickens. These changes in intestinal microbiota might have contributed for a higher stability and better survival of good microorganisms in the intestinal ecosystem, resulting in benefits for the host. The results of this study shown that the use the addictive as a growth promoters should be used in the feeding for broilers chickens, in substitution to the antibiotic, without affecting the performance and carcass yield , in the period from 1 to 42 days of age.

Éder Clementino dos Santos

2005-02-01

155

Evaluation of the Bacterial Contamination of the Iranian Currency Notes  

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Full Text Available "n "nBackground and Objectives: In many countries, there is a popular belief that the simultaneous "nhandling of food and money contributes to the incidence of food-related public health incidents. "nThe objective of this study was to determine the total bacterial count and the presence of food borne "nbacterial pathogens on Iranian currency notes, collected from food-related shops. "n "nMaterials and Methods: A total of 120 Iranian currency notes, comprising notes in four  denomination (2000, 5000, 10000 and 20000 R were collected from various food-related shops including, butchery, bakery, confectionary, fast food, ice cream and poultry meat shop. The currency notes were categorized into three groups according to their physical conditions. All currency notes were examined for total bacterial count, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella and Listeria according to the standard techniques."nResults: The average number of total bacterial count in four denomination of currency notes (2000,  5000, 10000 and 20000 R were 118.49, 106.32, 69.44 and 220.81 CFU/cm2, respectively. The association between total bacterial count and denomination of the currency was not statistically significant. Of the 120 currency notes on which bacteriological analysis was conducted 13.3 %, 32.5% and 10.8 % were contaminated with E. coli, S. aureus and B. cereus, respectively. Salmonella and Listeria were not isolated from samples. Currency notes collected from butchery, bakery, confectionary, fast food, ice cream and poultry meat shop were contaminated with E. coli at the rate of 60, 0, 5, 5, 0 and 10 %; with S. aureus at the rate of 55, 30, 10, 25, 40 and 35 %; with B. cereus at the rate of 0, 10, 20, 5, 20 and 10 %, respectively. There was not a statistically significant association between physical condition and bacterial contamination of the currency notes. The effect of presence or absence of cashier in food-related shops on bacterial contamination of the currency notes was also evaluated."nConclusion: Money has got the potential to change through many different hands and could be  exposed to many different environments at a relatively high frequency. Since there is very little information regarding the hygienic history of any forms of currency, great care should be taken when the same person facilitates the handling of money and the preparation and handling of food to avoid cross contamination.

E Khajeh Ali

2009-03-01

156

Bistability and bacterial infections.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial infections occur when the natural host defenses are overwhelmed by invading bacteria. The main component of the host defense is impaired when neutrophil count or function is too low, putting the host at great risk of developing an acute infection. In people with intact immune systems, neutrophil count increases during bacterial infection. However, there are two important clinical cases in which they remain constant: a) in patients with neutropenic-associated conditions, such as those undergoing chemotherapy at the nadir (the minimum clinically observable neutrophil level); b) in ex vivo examination of the patient's neutrophil bactericidal activity. Here we study bacterial population dynamics under fixed neutrophil levels by mathematical modelling. We show that under reasonable biological assumptions, there are only two possible scenarios: 1) Bacterial behavior is monostable: it always converges to a stable equilibrium of bacterial concentration which only depends, in a gradual manner, on the neutrophil level (and not on the initial bacterial level). We call such a behavior type I dynamics. 2) The bacterial dynamics is bistable for some range of neutrophil levels. We call such a behavior type II dynamics. In the bistable case (type II), one equilibrium corresponds to a healthy state whereas the other corresponds to a fulminant bacterial infection. We demonstrate that published data of in vitro Staphylococcus epidermidis bactericidal experiments are inconsistent with both the type I dynamics and the commonly used linear model and are consistent with type II dynamics. We argue that type II dynamics is a plausible mechanism for the development of a fulminant infection. PMID:20463954

Malka, Roy; Shochat, Eliezer; Rom-Kedar, Vered

2010-01-01

157

Predictive Value of Decoy Receptor 3 in Postoperative Nosocomial Bacterial Meningitis  

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Full Text Available Nosocomial bacterial meningitis requires timely treatment, but what is difficult is the prompt and accurate diagnosis of this disease. The aim of this study was to assess the potential role of decoy receptor 3 (DcR3 levels in the differentiation of bacterial meningitis from non-bacterial meningitis. A total of 123 patients were recruited in this study, among them 80 patients being with bacterial meningitis and 43 patients with non-bacterial meningitis. Bacterial meningitis was confirmed by bacterial culture of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF culture and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to detect the level of DcR3 in CSF. CSF levels of DcR3 were statistically significant between patients with bacterial meningitis and those with non-bacterial meningitis (p < 0.001. A total of 48.75% of patients with bacterial meningitis received antibiotic >24 h before CSF sampling, which was much higher than that of non-bacterial meningitis. CSF leucocyte count yielded the highest diagnostic value, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC of 0.928, followed by DcR3. At a critical value of 0.201 ng/mL for DcR3, the sensitivity and specificity were 78.75% and 81.40% respectively. DcR3 in CSF may be a valuable predictor for differentiating patients with bacterial meningitis from those with non-bacterial meningitis. Further studies are needed for the validation of this study.

Yong-Juan Liu

2014-11-01

158

AIDS-associated paracoccidioidomycosis in a patient with a CD4+ T-cell count of 4 cells/mm³ / Paracoccidioidomicose associada a Aids em paciente com a contagem total de quatro células T-CD4+  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho apresenta-se paciente com coinfecção paracoccidioidomicose/Aids. No momento do diagnóstico, a contagem de células T CD4 + era 4 células. No exame histopatológico, observou-se a presença de granulomas tuberculóides bem formados e na imunohistoquímica, ausência de células Foxp3, raros l [...] infócitos T CD4+ e presença de células T CD8+ em moderada quantidade. Com duas semanas de uso da anfotericina B, verificou-se a regressão de grande parte das lesões cutâneas. Após 14 meses, o paciente encontra-se em uso de terapia antiretroviral e sem evidências de atividade da micose Abstract in english We describe a case of a patient presenting with HIV and paracoccidioidomycosis co-infection. At the time of diagnosis total CD4+ T-cell count was 4 cells/mm3. Histopathology revealed tuberculoid granulomas, scarce CD4+ T cells, a moderate number of CD8+ cells and the absence of Foxp3+ cells. Most of [...] the cutaneous lesions healed after two weeks of treatment with amphotericin B. After 14 months the patient is still under antiretroviral therapy and no clinical evidence of recurrence of the mycosis has been observed

Lisiane Machado Contente, Nogueira; Mônica, Santos; Luiz Carlos de Lima, Ferreira; Carolina, Talhari; Rodrigo Ribeiro, Rodrigues; Sinésio, Talhari.

159

A rapid and universal bacteria-counting approach using CdSe/ZnS/SiO2 composite nanoparticles as fluorescence probe.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, a rapid, simple, and sensitive method was described for detection of the total bacterial count using SiO(2)-coated CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) as a fluorescence marker that covalently coupled with bacteria using glutaraldehyde as the crosslinker. Highly luminescent CdSe/ZnS were prepared by applying cadmium oxide and zinc stearate as precursors instead of pyrophoric organometallic precursors. A reverse-microemulsion technique was used to synthesize CdSe/ZnS/SiO(2) composite nanoparticles with a SiO(2) surface coating. Our results showed that CdSe/ZnS/SiO(2) composite nanoparticles prepared with this method possessed highly luminescent, biologically functional, and monodispersive characteristics, and could successfully be covalently conjugated with the bacteria. As a demonstration, it was found that the method had higher sensitivity and could count bacteria in 3 x 10(2) CFU/mL, lower than the conventional plate counting and organic dye-based method. A linear relationship of the fluorescence peak intensity (Y) and the total bacterial count (X) was established in the range of 3 x 10(2)-10(7) CFU/mL using the equation Y = 374.82X-938.27 (R = 0.99574). The results of the determination for the total count of bacteria in seven real samples were identical with the conventional plate count method, and the standard deviation was satisfactory. PMID:20016878

Fu, Xin; Huang, Kelong; Liu, Suqin

2010-02-01

160

Protective Effect Of Oral And Intranasal Bacterial Lysates In Mice  

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Full Text Available In this study albino mice were used to test the beneficial effect of bacterial lysates vaccination against lethal dose of Pseudomonas aeroginosa. Escherichia coli lysate, Pseudomonas aeroginosa lysate, Staphylococcus aureus lysate and mixed bacterial lysates were administered through the oral and the intranasal routes, both in the presence and absence of Freund's adjuvant versus a placebo. Pseudomonas aeroginosa fifty percent lethal dose ( LD50 was injected intraperitonealy following intranasal and oral vaccination. The placebo and the four bacterial lysates were also used in association with Freund's adjuvant. The results of the LD50 in intranasal vaccinated groups were 50%, 37.5%, 100%, 0% and 12.5%, and those with Freund's adjuvant were 25%, 25% , 12.5%, 62.5%, 0% and 0% respectively. The results of LD50 in oral vaccination were 50%, 25%, 62.5% 0% and 37.5%, and those treated with Freund's adjuvants were 12.5%, 12.5 %, 12.5%, 37.5 %, 0% and 25% respectively. The bacterial lysates vaccinated groups were studied for the total body weight (T, liver (L, spleen (S, thymus (Th weights and the L+S+Th/T ratio. Besides, the peripheral blood and the peritoneal fluid total and differential leucocytic counts were determined and the bone marrow lymphocyte percentage. The serum immunoglobulins G and M were assessed using the immundiffusion plates. Our conclusion is: Bacterial lysates can play an important role as immunomodulators when used by oral or intranasal routes.

Hanaa, A. Mansour* and Maha G. Soliman

2003-12-01

 
 
 
 
161

Radon counting statistics - a Monte Carlo investigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive decay is a Poisson process, and so the Coefficient of Variation (COV) of open-quotes nclose quotes counts of a single nuclide is usually estimated as 1/?n. This is only true if the count duration is much shorter than the half-life of the nuclide. At longer count durations, the COV is smaller than the Poisson estimate. Most radon measurement methods count the alpha decays of 222Rn, plus the progeny 218Po and 214Po, and estimate the 222Rn activity from the sum of the counts. At long count durations, the chain decay of these nuclides means that every 222Rn decay must be followed by two other alpha decays. The total number of decays is open-quotes 3Nclose quotes, where N is the number of radon decays, and the true COV of the radon concentration estimate is 1/?(N), ?3 larger than the Poisson total count estimate of 1/?3N. Most count periods are comparable to the half lives of the progeny, so the relationship between COV and count time is complex. A Monte-Carlo estimate of the ratio of true COV to Poisson estimate was carried out for a range of count periods from 1 min to 16 h and three common radon measurement methods: liquid scintillation, scintillation cell, and electrostatic precipitation of progeny. The Poisson approximation underestimates COV by less than 20% for count durations of less than 60 min

162

Uji kadar formalin, kadar garam dan total bakteri ikan asin tenggiri asal Kabupaten Sarmi Provinsi Papua  

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Full Text Available Food safety is depending on the accurence of a dangerous fisical, chemical and microbiology components. Quality of food with healty and a complete safe nutrient is the most important things in the food material. Because of food that consume influencing people brain and health. The aim of this research was to determine the content of formaldehyde, salt and Total Plate Count of bacteria in the tenggiri salty fish from Sarmi Papua. Formsaldehyde was indentificated by using cromatofat acid method as qualitative and spectrophotometer as quantitative method. Choman method was used to analize salt content. Total Plate Count (TPC was used for bacterial content analysis. The result showed that Tenggiri salty fish from Sarmi is not contain formaldehyde. About 9.76 % to 16.31 % of salt contant and approximately 24.5 x 10- 5- 49.5 x 10 5 colony/gram of bacterial in total. This conclude that Tenggiri salty fish have already

Yenni Y. Salosa

2013-04-01

163

Office space bacterial abundance and diversity in three metropolitan areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

People in developed countries spend approximately 90% of their lives indoors, yet we know little about the source and diversity of microbes in built environments. In this study, we combined culture-based cell counting and multiplexed pyrosequencing of environmental ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences to investigate office space bacterial diversity in three metropolitan areas. Five surfaces common to all offices were sampled using sterile double-tipped swabs, one tip for culturing and one for DNA extraction, in 30 different offices per city (90 offices, 450 total samples). 16S rRNA gene sequences were PCR amplified using bar-coded "universal" bacterial primers from 54 of the surfaces (18 per city) and pooled for pyrosequencing. A three-factorial Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) found significant differences in viable bacterial abundance between offices inhabited by men or women, among the various surface types, and among cities. Multiplex pyrosequencing identified more than 500 bacterial genera from 20 different bacterial divisions. The most abundant of these genera tended to be common inhabitants of human skin, nasal, oral or intestinal cavities. Other commonly occurring genera appeared to have environmental origins (e.g., soils). There were no significant differences in the bacterial diversity between offices inhabited by men or women or among surfaces, but the bacterial community diversity of the Tucson samples was clearly distinguishable from that of New York and San Francisco, which were indistinguishable. Overall, our comprehensive molecular analysis of office building microbial diversity shows the potential of these methods for studying patterns and origins of indoor bacterial contamination. "[H]umans move through a sea of microbial life that is seldom perceived except in the context of potential disease and decay." - Feazel et al. (2009). PMID:22666400

Hewitt, Krissi M; Gerba, Charles P; Maxwell, Sheri L; Kelley, Scott T

2012-01-01

164

Changes in the Bacterial Microbiota in Gut, Blood, and Lungs following Acute LPS Instillation into Mice Lungs  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Previous reports have shown that the gastrointestinal (GI) bacterial microbiota can have profound effects on the lungs, which has been described as the “gut-lung axis”. However, whether a “lung-gut” axis exists wherein acute lung inflammation perturbs the gut and blood microbiota is unknown. Methods Adult C57/Bl6 mice were exposed to one dose of LPS or PBS instillation (n?=?3 for each group) directly into lungs. Bacterial microbiota of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, blood, and cecum were determined using 454 pyrotag sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) at 4 through 168 hours post-instillation. We then investigated the effects of oral neomycin and streptomycin (n?=?8) on the microbiota at 4 and 24 hours post LPS instillation versus control treatment (n?=?5 at baseline and 4 hours, n?=?7 at 24 hours). Results At 24 hours post LPS instillation, the total bacterial count was significantly increased in the cecum (P<0.05); whereas the total bacterial count in blood was increased at 4, 48, and 72 hours (P<0.05). Antibiotic treatment reduced the total bacteria in blood but not in the cecum. The increase in total bacteria in the blood correlated with Phyllobacteriaceae OTU 40 and was significantly reduced in the blood for both antibiotic groups (P<0.05). Conclusion LPS instillation in lungs leads to acute changes in the bacterial microbiota in the blood and cecum, which can be modulated with antibiotics. PMID:25333938

Sze, Marc A.; Tsuruta, Masashi; Yang, Shun-Wei Julia; Oh, Yeni; Man, S. F. Paul; Hogg, James C.; Sin, Don D.

2014-01-01

165

Intestinal Bacterial Flora that Compete on the Haem Precursor Iron Fumarate in Iron Deficiency Anemia Cases  

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Aims: The study focused on finding if there is any possible relation between the intestinal bacterial population quantitative and qualitative and the deficiency of the most important iron compounds as haem precursors. Methodology and Results: Blood complete picture and stool analyses were done to 750 volunteer cases whom were asked for these analyses by their physicians. Analyses proved that 560 cases representing 75.2 % were anemic as the RBC(s) based on counts of the total studied cases of ...

Selim, S. A. H.; Alfy, S. M. E.; Diab, A. M.; Abdel Aziz, M. H.; Warrad, M. F.

2012-01-01

166

Alteration of bacterial adhesion induced by the substrate stiffness.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this paper is to study the impact of the substrate stiffness on the bacterial adhesion. For this purpose, agarose hydrogels are used as substrates with controlled mechanical properties. Indeed, the elastic modulus of these hydrogels, more precisely the shear storage moduli G', evolves with the agarose concentration (in this study from 0.75% to 3%). Other physico-chemical characteristics of the surface, known to be involved in bacterial adhesion, as hydrophobicity, were confirmed to remain constant. Two marine bacterial strains, a positive Gram Bacillus sp. 4J6 and a negative Gram Pseudoalteromonas sp. D41 were selected. Their retention on the substrates was analysed by confocal laser scanning microscopy and by counting of viable adhered bacteria. It was demonstrated that surface elastic modulus correlated with bacterial retention. Bacteria D41 adhered in higher numbers to rigid surfaces. For 4J6, bacterial adhesion patterns were changed: clusterings were observed on surfaces with lower elastic modulus. Furthermore, a proteomic study, based on the total soluble proteome of D41 strain, highlights an impact of elastic modulus on proteins synthesis. These data demonstrated an adapted response of adhering bacteria on hydrogels of varying mechanical properties. PMID:24189194

Guégan, C; Garderes, J; Le Pennec, Gaël; Gaillard, F; Fay, F; Linossier, I; Herry, J-M; Fontaine, M-N Bellon; Réhel, K Vallée

2014-02-01

167

Bacterial contamination of street vending food in Kumasi, Ghana  

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Full Text Available Street vending foods are readily available sources of meals for many people but the biological safe-ty of such food is always in doubt. The aim of this study is to ascertain bacterial isolate and deter-mine total counts of bacterial species responsible for the contamination of the street vending food in Kumasi so as to determine the microbiological safety of such a food. This prospective study was conducted among street vending food at four bus terminals in Kumasi. From November, 2008 to February, 2009, 60 food samples comprising ice-kenkey (15, cocoa drink (15, fufu (5, ready-to-eat red pepper (normally eaten with kenkey (5, salad (10 and macaroni (10 were purchased and ana-lyzed. The food samples were purchased and transported to the laboratory in sterile plastic bags and analyzed for bacterial contamination. Serial dilution of each food was prepared in buffered peptone water and inoculated onto plate count agar (PCA, MacConkey and blood agar plates. Growths on PCA were counted; those on other agar plates were identified by their colonial mor-phology, Gram stain, biochemical and sugar fermentation methods. The mean bacterial counts in these foods expressed to log10 CFU/ml were: fufu 6.36±0.47, cocoa drink 6.16±0.5, red pepper 5.92±0.64, ice-kenkey 5.58 ±0.52, macaroni 5.58±0.97 and salad 5.13±0.77. Most of these foods con-tained higher than acceptable contamination level of <5.0 log10 CFU/ml. The isolates obtained were Coagulate negative staphylococci (23.7%, Bacillus species (21.5%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (18%, Aeromonas pneumophila (17.7%, Enterobacter cloacae (6.7%, Staphylococcus aureus (3.7%, Escherichia coli (2.2% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.2%. Most ready-to-eat foods in Kumasi were contaminated with enteric bacteria and other potential food poisoning organisms with bacterial counts higher than the acceptable levels. Food vendors therefore need education on food hygiene.

Feglo, P.

2012-01-01

168

Bacterial and yeast counts in Brazilian commodities and spices Bactérias e leveduras associadas a amêndoas de cajueiro, de castanha-do-Brasil e à pimenta-do-reino preta e branca  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A total of thirteen genera of bacteria and two genera of yeasts were detected in surface sterilized and unsterilized Brazilian commodities and spices such as cashew kernels, Brazil nut kernels, black and white pepper. The genus Bacillus with eight species was by far the most common. The yeasts isolated were Pichia sp., P. guillermondii and Rhodotorula sp. Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in cashew and Brazil nut kernels.Um total de 13 gênero...

Francisco das Chagas Oliveira Freire; Lisa Offord

2002-01-01

169

Prospective Evaluation of the Risk of Serious Bacterial Infection in Children Who Present to the Emergency Department With Hyperpyrexia (Temperature of 106?F or Higher)  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND Previous studies of children with temperatures ?106°F (hyperpyrexia) disagree as to whether hyperpyrexia confers a high risk of serious bacterial infection. OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to determine (1) the risk of serious bacterial infection in children with hyperpyrexia and (2) whether clinical presentation can identify hyperpyrexic patients at risk for serious bacterial infection. METHODS Data were collected prospectively on all children <18 years of age presenting to a pediatric emergency department during a 2-year period with rectal temperatures of ?106°F. History, physical examination, complete blood cell counts, blood cultures, and nasopharyngeal viral cultures were obtained on all of the patients. RESULTS Of 130 828 visits, 103 children had hyperpyrexia (1 per 1270 patient visits). Of the 103 subjects, 20 had serious bacterial infection, and 22 had laboratory-proven viral illness (including 1 subject with bacterial/viral coinfection). The presence of a chronic underlying illness was associated with an increased risk of serious bacterial infection. The presence of rhinorrhea or any viral symptom was associated with a decreased risk of serious bacterial infection, although diarrhea itself was associated with an increased risk of serious bacterial infection. Age, maximum temperature, and total white blood cell count were not predictive of either bacterial or viral illness. CONCLUSIONS Children with hyperpyrexia are at equally high risk for serious bacterial infection and for viral illness. Bacterial and viral coinfection also occurs. No aspect of the clinical presentation reliably distinguishes between bacterial and viral illness. We recommend consideration of antibiotic treatment for all children presenting to the emergency department with hyperpyrexia without confirmed viral illness. PMID:16818546

Trautner, Barbara W.; Chantal Caviness, A.; Gerlacher, Gary R.; Demmler, Gail; Macias, Charles G.

2007-01-01

170

Bacterial load in tissues and its predictive value for infection in open fractures.  

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Full Text Available The role of quantitative bacteriology is considered controversial for the prediction of infection in open fractures. A study was done in 20 patients with open fractures. Post debridement pieces of skin, muscle and periosteal tissue were obtained for quantitative bacterial counts. Among a total of 50 samples from all of the tissues, 29 showed positive bacterial counts (16 of 20 skin, 11 of 20 muscle and 2 of 10 periosteum samples. By quantitative estimation, the bacterial load was >10(5 per gram in 10 skin and 3 muscle tissue samples. Infection developed in 9 of the 20 cases within one month, and eight of these patients had contamination of >10(5 per gram in 8 of the skin but only 3 muscle samples. It was concluded that with tissue specific bacterial load estimation, prediction of subsequent infection can be made if skin tissue contains >10(5 per gram, or if muscle tissue carries any level of bacterial presence.

Sen RK

2000-12-01

171

HETEROTROPHIC PLATE COUNT BACTERIA IN POTABLE WATER: MONITORING METHODS AND APPLICATION  

Science.gov (United States)

The heterotrophic plate count (HPC), formerly known as the standard plate count, is a useful tool for enumerating bacteria in potable water. his chapter briefly reviews the development of the heterotrophic bacterial plate count for use in water quality measurements in the United ...

172

Bacterial biomass and activity in the marginal ice zone of the northern Barents Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacteria in the Arctic Waters are well adapted to low temperatures and play a key role in the transformation of organic matter. However, the activity of planktonic bacteria at cellular level remains poorly understood. In this study, we use fluorescent markers (4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC), Live/Dead BacLight viability kit) to discriminate between bacterial cells with a variety of physiological activities in the 0-200 m water column and sinking particles. During two field studies (July 2003 and 2004), we covered nine stations in the northern Barents Sea. The median bacterial abundance (DAPI staining) in the upper 50 m layer was 0.9×10 6 cells ml -1 (range 0.2-3.2×10 6 cells ml -1) in 2003 and 0.5×10 6 cells ml -1 (range 0.2-1.0×10 6 cells ml -1) in 2004. Bacteria with sufficient electron transport activity to be stained with CTC were on average 10% of the total count and ca. 20% of the total cells had intact cell membranes. In the water column, proxies of substrate availability (POC, PON, chlorophyll a, primary production) and bacterial production (thymidine and leucine uptake) correlated strongly with total bacterial count, CTC-stained cells and cells with 'leaky' membrane (stained with propidium iodine), but not with the concentration of cells with intact cell membrane. Contrary to expectations, the proportion of CTC-stained bacteria was not higher in the sinking particles (captured with sediment traps) compared to the ambient water. However, out of the bacteria with intact cell membranes, a higher proportion scored as CTC positive in the aggregates compared to the ambient water. Bacterial cells with 'leaky' cell membranes formed the largest part of total cell count in all samples, and accumulated in sites with high microbial activity (sinking aggregates, chlorophyll maxima, layers of high primary and bacterial production). We hypothesize that the source of the bacterial cells with 'leaky' cell membranes was metabolically the most active fraction of the bacterial assemblage (stained with CTC).

Tammert, Helen; Olli, Kalle; Sturluson, Maria; Hodal, Helene

2008-10-01

173

Bacteria killing nanotechnology Bio-Kil effectively reduces bacterial burden in intensive care units.  

Science.gov (United States)

A contaminated hospital environment has been identified as an important reservoir of pathogens causing healthcare-associated infections. This study is to evaluate the efficacy of bacteria killing nanotechnology Bio-Kil on reducing bacterial counts in an intensive care unit (ICU). Two single-bed rooms (S-19 and S-20) in the ICU were selected from 7 April to 27 May 2011. Ten sets of new textiles (pillow cases, bed sheets, duvet cover, and patient clothing) used by patients in the two single-bed rooms were provided by the sponsors. In the room S-20, the 10 sets of new textiles were washed with Bio-Kil; the room walls, ceiling, and air-conditioning filters were treated with Bio-Kil; and the surfaces of instruments (respirator, telephone, and computer) were covered with Bio-Kil-embedded silicon pads. Room S-19 served as the control. We compared the bacterial count on textiles and environment surfaces as well as air samples between the two rooms. A total of 1,364 samples from 22 different sites in each room were collected. The mean bacterial count on textiles and environmental surfaces in room S-20 was significantly lower than that in room S-19 (10.4 vs 49.6 colony-forming units [CFU]/100 cm(2); P < 0.001). Room S-20 had lower bacterial counts in air samples than room S-19 (33.4-37.6 vs 21.6-25.7 CFU/hour/plate; P < 0.001). The density of microbial isolations was significantly greater among patients admitted to room S-19 than those to room S-20 (9.15 vs 5.88 isolates per 100 patient-days, P < 0.05). Bio-Kil can significantly reduce bacterial burden in the environment of the ICU. PMID:24136062

Hsueh, P-R; Huang, H-C; Young, T-G; Su, C-Y; Liu, C-S; Yen, M-Y

2014-04-01

174

Bacterial and yeast counts in Brazilian commodities and spices / Bactérias e leveduras associadas a amêndoas de cajueiro, de castanha-do-Brasil e à pimenta-do-reino preta e branca  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Um total de 13 gêneros de bactérias e 2 de leveduras foi detectado a partir de amêndoas de castanha de cajueiro, de amêndoas de castanha-do-Brasil e de pimenta-do-reino preta e branca produzidas no Brasil. O gênero bacteriano mais freqüentemente encontrado foi o Bacillus, com 8 espécies. As levedura [...] s Pichia sp., P. guillermondii e Rhodotorula sp., isoladas somente a partir de amêndoas de cajueiro, apresentaram populações mais elevadas que as de bactérias. Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium e Staphylococcus aureus foram também detectadas em amêndoas de cajueiro e de castanha-do-Brasil. Abstract in english A total of thirteen genera of bacteria and two genera of yeasts were detected in surface sterilized and unsterilized Brazilian commodities and spices such as cashew kernels, Brazil nut kernels, black and white pepper. The genus Bacillus with eight species was by far the most common. The yeasts isola [...] ted were Pichia sp., P. guillermondii and Rhodotorula sp. Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in cashew and Brazil nut kernels.

Francisco das Chagas Oliveira, Freire; Lisa, Offord.

175

Bacterial and yeast counts in Brazilian commodities and spices Bactérias e leveduras associadas a amêndoas de cajueiro, de castanha-do-Brasil e à pimenta-do-reino preta e branca  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A total of thirteen genera of bacteria and two genera of yeasts were detected in surface sterilized and unsterilized Brazilian commodities and spices such as cashew kernels, Brazil nut kernels, black and white pepper. The genus Bacillus with eight species was by far the most common. The yeasts isolated were Pichia sp., P. guillermondii and Rhodotorula sp. Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in cashew and Brazil nut kernels.Um total de 13 gêneros de bactérias e 2 de leveduras foi detectado a partir de amêndoas de castanha de cajueiro, de amêndoas de castanha-do-Brasil e de pimenta-do-reino preta e branca produzidas no Brasil. O gênero bacteriano mais freqüentemente encontrado foi o Bacillus, com 8 espécies. As leveduras Pichia sp., P. guillermondii e Rhodotorula sp., isoladas somente a partir de amêndoas de cajueiro, apresentaram populações mais elevadas que as de bactérias. Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium e Staphylococcus aureus foram também detectadas em amêndoas de cajueiro e de castanha-do-Brasil.

Francisco das Chagas Oliveira Freire

2002-06-01

176

Bacterial and yeast counts in Brazilian commodities and spices / Bactérias e leveduras associadas a amêndoas de cajueiro, de castanha-do-Brasil e à pimenta-do-reino preta e branca  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Um total de 13 gêneros de bactérias e 2 de leveduras foi detectado a partir de amêndoas de castanha de cajueiro, de amêndoas de castanha-do-Brasil e de pimenta-do-reino preta e branca produzidas no Brasil. O gênero bacteriano mais freqüentemente encontrado foi o Bacillus, com 8 espécies. As levedura [...] s Pichia sp., P. guillermondii e Rhodotorula sp., isoladas somente a partir de amêndoas de cajueiro, apresentaram populações mais elevadas que as de bactérias. Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium e Staphylococcus aureus foram também detectadas em amêndoas de cajueiro e de castanha-do-Brasil. Abstract in english A total of thirteen genera of bacteria and two genera of yeasts were detected in surface sterilized and unsterilized Brazilian commodities and spices such as cashew kernels, Brazil nut kernels, black and white pepper. The genus Bacillus with eight species was by far the most common. The yeasts isola [...] ted were Pichia sp., P. guillermondii and Rhodotorula sp. Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in cashew and Brazil nut kernels.

Francisco das Chagas Oliveira, Freire; Lisa, Offord.

2002-06-01

177

Preliminary Study on Efficacy of Leaves, Seeds and Bark Extracts of Moringa oleifera in Reducing Bacterial load in Water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water quality and treatment are the most important issue in everywhere, especially in the developing countries, where safe and clean water is not continuously provided. Moringa oleifera is one of the best natural coagulants that has effectively used in water treatments. The aqueous extract of seeds, leaves and bark of Moringa oleifera was evaluated for their efficacy in reducing total bacterial load, coliform count and faecal coliform counts in the treatment of drinking water. The standard pour plate method and the most probable numbers were used in the determination of bacterial count. The seed extracts showed a great effective in the reduction of total coliform count (55.9% and faecal coliform count (92.5 % as compared to bark (45.0 and 90.7 % and leaf (47.1 and 88.7 % extracts at 3g/100ml, respectively. From the results from this study, it can be concluded that the Moringa oleifera extracts (seed extracts can be used as safe as non-toxic natural coagulant materials in household water treatment, especially in rural areas and small communities where no adequate and safe water supply is provided.

Mohamed S. Osman

2013-06-01

178

Bacterial responses to temperature during aeration of pig slurry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The temperature effect on total anaerobic and aerobic bacterial growth in pig slurry was studied using low level batch aeration treatments. Five bioreactors were built using Plexiglas tubes to perform five temperature treatments (5 degrees C, 10 degrees C, 15 degrees C, 20 degrees C, and 25 degrees C). An airflow rate of 0.129 L/min/L manure was used to aerate manure contained in all reactors. Data showed that temperature had a profound impact on the aerobic counts in pig slurry during the aeration process. When the temperature increased from 15 degrees C to 25 degrees C, the average oxidation-reduction potential decreased from +40 mV to -60 mV, accompanied by a 75% reduction of aerobic bacteria in the manure. At 25 degrees C, the anaerobic counts were consistently higher than aerobic counts for most of days. A quadratic relationship was observed between the aerobic counts and the oxidation-reduction potential with a correlation coefficient of 0.8374. To reduce odor generation potential, the oxidation-reduction potential in the manure should be maintained at +35 mV or higher. PMID:12009197

Zhu, Jun; Ndegwa, Pius M; Luo, Ancheng

2002-05-01

179

Species composition of bacterial communities influences attraction of mosquitoes to experimental plant infusions.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the container habitats of immature mosquitoes, catabolism of plant matter and other organic detritus by microbial organisms produces metabolites that mediate the oviposition behavior of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Public health agencies commonly use oviposition traps containing plant infusions for monitoring populations of these mosquito species, which are global vectors of dengue viruses. In laboratory experiments, gravid females exhibited significantly diminished responses to experimental infusions made with sterilized white oak leaves, showing that attractive odorants were produced through microbial metabolic activity. We evaluated effects of infusion concentration and fermentation time on attraction of gravid females to infusions made from senescent bamboo or white oak leaves. We used plate counts of heterotrophic bacteria, total counts of 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole-stained bacterial cells, and 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to show that changes in the relative abundance of bacteria and the species composition of bacterial communities influenced attraction of gravid A. aegypti and A. albopictus mosquitoes to infusions. DGGE profiles showed that bacterial species composition in infusions changed over time. Principal components analysis indicated that oviposition responses to plant infusions were in general most affected by bacterial diversity and abundance. Analysis of bacterial 16S rDNA sequences derived from DGGE bands revealed that Proteobacteria (Alpha-, Beta-, Delta-, and Gamma-) were the predominant bacteria detected in both types of plant infusions. Gravid A. aegypti were significantly attracted to a mix of 14 bacterial species cultured from bamboo leaf infusion. The oviposition response of gravid mosquitoes to plant infusions is strongly influenced by abundance and diversity of bacterial species, which in turn is affected by plant species, leaf biomass, and fermentation time. PMID:19641948

Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Wesson, Dawn M; Arellano, Consuelo; Schal, Coby; Apperson, Charles S

2010-01-01

180

Sublattice Counting and Orbifolds  

CERN Document Server

Abelian orbifolds of C^3 are known to be encoded by hexagonal brane tilings. To date it is not known how to count all such orbifolds. We fill this gap by employing number theoretic techniques from crystallography, and by making use of Polya's Enumeration Theorem. The results turn out to be beautifully encoded in terms of partition functions and Dirichlet Series. The same methods apply to counting orbifolds of any toric non-compact Calabi-Yau singularity. As additional examples, we count the orbifolds of the conifold, of the L^{aba} theories, and of C^4.

Hanany, Amihay; Reffert, Susanne

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

KANDUNGAN BAKTERI TOTAL Coli DAN Escherechia coli / FECAL Coli AIR MINUM DARI DEPOT AIR MINUM ISI ULANG DI JAKARTA, TANGERANG, DAN BEKASI  

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A study on drinking water quality produced by drinking water refill depots (AMIU) was done in Jakarta, Tangerang and Bekasi. Analysis unit of the study was drinking water refill depots with the sample number of 38 depots. For every selected depot, laboratory analysis were done for natural water (clean water) and drinking water produced by the depots. The total number of sample were 76 water samples. One of the parameters analyzed was microbiological contents, namey total coli bacterial count ...

Haryono Haryono; Sukar Sukar; Athena Athena

2012-01-01

182

Complete Blood Count  

Science.gov (United States)

... viral infections (e.g., chicken pox , cytomegalovirus (CMV) , Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) , herpes , rubella ) Certain bacterial infections (e.g., pertussis (whooping cough) , tuberculosis (TB) ) Toxoplasmosis Chronic inflammatory disorder (e.g., ulcerative colitis) Lymphocytic leukemia, ...

183

Bacterial glycoproteomics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glycosylated proteins are ubiquitous components of eukaryote cellular surfaces, where the glycan moieties are implicated in a wide range of cell-cell recognition events. Once thought to be restricted to eukaryotes, glycosylation is now being increasingly reported in prokaryotes. Many of these discoveries have grown from advances in analytical technologies and genome sequencing. This review highlights the capabilities of high-sensitivity mass spectrometry for carbohydrate structure determination of bacterial glycoproteins and the emergence of glycoproteomic strategies that have evolved from proteomics and genomics for the functional analysis of bacterial glycosylation. PMID:16735721

Hitchen, Paul G; Dell, Anne

2006-06-01

184

Bacterial Quality of Informally Marketed Raw Milk in Kenitra City, Morocco  

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Full Text Available One hundred and twenty samples of raw milk were randomly collected from six dairies in different locations in Kenitra City (Morocco from October 2010 to March 2011 and were subjected to evaluation. The study has shown that 119 samples were of poor merchantability and 24 samples of bad sanitary quality. Microbiological enumeration revealed that the counts of total mesophilic aerobic bacteria, 6.9x108 cfu mL-1; faecal coliforms, 4.2x107 cfu mL-1 and Staphylococcus aureus, 1.4x105 cfu mL-1. Salmonella sp. were below detection level in all of the samples. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from one sample. The same contamination degree between dairies and districts (p>0.05 was detected. A significant correlation was observed between total bacterial counts and faecal coliforms (r = 0.51; p<0.001 and also between total bacterial counts and temperature of storage (r = -0.37; p<0.001. The microbiological quality of raw milk sold in Kénitra city was judged marginal indicating the need for improved hygienic standards.

Abdelmajid Soulaymani

2012-01-01

185

Bacterial Adhesion & Blocking Bacterial Adhesion  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Microorganisms are an integral part of all natural ecosystems, and as such are ubiquitous in nature. They often live adhered to or in association with surfaces of either organic or inorganic nature, and all surfaces will almost inevitably be colonized by microorganisms. This often results in the formation of highly complex sessile communities, referred to as biofilms. Such microbial communities are often highly dynamic and heterogeneous in nature. Microbial biofilms are of great importance in a wide range of natural processes and industrial settings, from the commensal flora of the gastrointestinal tract to the microbial flocs in waste water treatment facilities. Microbial biofilms may however also cause a wide range of industrial and medical problems, and have been implicated in a wide range of persistent infectious diseases, including implantassociated microbial infections. Bacterial adhesion is the first committing step in biofilm formation, and has therefore been intensely scrutinized. Much however, stillremains elusive. Bacterial adhesion is a highly complex process, which is influenced by a variety of factors. In this thesis, a range of physico-chemical, molecular and environmental parameters, which influence the transition from a planktonic lifestyle to a sessile lifestyle, have been studied. Protein conditioning film formation was found to influence bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation considerable, and an aqueous extract of fish muscle tissue was shown to significantly reduce or delay bacterial biofilm formation of a range of urinary tract infectious E.coli and Klebsiella isolates. Several other proteinaceous coatings were also found to display anti-adhesive properties, possibly providing a measure for controlling the colonization of implant materials. Several other parameters controlling bacterial adhesion were also studied. Subinhibitory concentrations of certain antimicrobial compounds and several surfactants were found to significantly affect bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, most likely by affecting the production of biofilm extracellular polymeric matrix components. These substances may both mediate and stabilize the bacterial biofilm. Finally, several adhesive structures were examined, and a novel physiological biofilm phenotype in E.coli biofilms was characterized, namely cell chain formation. The autotransporter protein, antigen 43, was implicated in this structural biofilm phenotype, at least in some bacterial strains. Understanding the fundamental requirements of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation may aid in the development of effective preventive measures.

Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

2008-01-01

186

Analog multivariate counting analyzers  

CERN Document Server

Characterizing rates of occurrence of various features of a signal is of great importance in numerous types of physical measurements. Such signal features can be defined as certain discrete coincidence events, e.g. crossings of a signal with a given threshold, or occurrence of extrema of a certain amplitude. We describe measuring rates of such events by means of analog multivariate counting analyzers. Given a continuous scalar or multicomponent (vector) input signal, an analog counting analyzer outputs a continuous signal with the instantaneous magnitude equal to the rate of occurrence of certain coincidence events. The analog nature of the proposed analyzers allows us to reformulate many problems of the traditional counting measurements, and cast them in a form which is readily addressed by methods of differential calculus rather than by algebraic or logical means of digital signal processing. Analog counting analyzers can be easily implemented in discrete or integrated electronic circuits, do not suffer fro...

Nikitin, A V; Armstrong, T P

2003-01-01

187

Counting interesting elections  

CERN Document Server

We provide an elementary proof of a formula for the number of northeast lattice paths that lie in a certain region of the plane. Equivalently, this formula counts the lattice points inside the Pitman--Stanley polytope.

Pudwell, Lara K

2008-01-01

188

Reticulocyte Count Test  

Science.gov (United States)

... to top 3. What is immature reticulocyte fraction (IRF)? The immature reticulocyte fraction (IRF) is calculated as a ratio of immature reticulocytes ... reticulocyte count test is performed. In certain conditions, IRF is a better indicator of bone marrow response ...

189

Counting colored random triangulations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We revisit the problem of enumeration of vertex-tricolored planar random triangulations solved in [Nucl. Phys. B 516 [FS] (1998) 543-587] in the light of recent combinatorial developments relating classical planar graph counting problems to the enumeration of decorated trees. We give a direct combinatorial derivation of the associated counting function, involving tricolored trees. This is generalized to arbitrary k-gonal tessellations with cyclic colorings and checked by use of matrix models

190

Liquid Scintillation Counting  

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In liquid scintillation counting (LSC) we use the process of luminescense to detect ionising radiation emit$ed from a radionuclide. Luminescense is emission of visible light of nonthermal origin. 1t was early found that certain organic molecules have luminescent properties and such molecules are used in LSC. Today LSC is the mostwidespread method to detect pure beta-ernitters like tritium and carbon-14. 1t has unique properties in its efficient counting geometry, deteetability and the lack of...

Carlsson, Sten

1993-01-01

191

Bacterial Safety of Commercial and Handmade Enteral Feeds in an Iranian Teaching Hospital  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: This study aimed to investigate and compare the bacterial safety of handmade and commercial ready-to-use enteral feeding formulas used in an Iranian teaching hospital. Methods: In this experimental study, a total number of 70 samples (21 handmade formulas sampled at two sampling times, i.e. the time of preparation and 18 h after preparation, and 28 commercial ready-to-use formulas) were studied. Total count of viable microorganisms, coliform count and Staphylococcus aureus count for all samples were conducted. Results: Out of 42 handmade samples, 16 samples (76%) had total viable counts greater than 103 CFU/g in the first sampling time and 17 samples (81%) had total viable counts greater than 103 CFU/g in the second sampling time. Also, 11 (52%) had coliform contamination in the first sampling time which reached 76% (16 samples) in the second sampling time. Regarding contamination with S. aureus, 5 samples (24%) were contaminated in the first- and 13 samples (62%) were contaminated in the second-sampling time. Out of 28 commercial formulas, 27 samples (96%) had total viable counts greater than 103 CFU/g. Also, 24 samples (86%) were contaminated with S. aureus and 27 samples (96%) were contaminated with coliforms. In order to compare these two formulas, the results of Mann-Whitney test showed that contamination of ready-to-use formulas in all three microbiological samples was significantly more than that for handmade samples. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that the microbial safety of enteral feeding solutions in this hospital is much lower than standard values, demonstrating that the development of protocols for clean techniques in the preparation, handling and storage of both commercial and handmade enteral feeds is necessary. PMID:24932392

Baniardalan, Mahtash; Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Jalali, Mohammad; Badri, Shirinsadat

2014-01-01

192

Model Counting in Product Configuration  

CERN Document Server

We describe how to use propositional model counting for a quantitative analysis of product configuration data. Our approach computes valuable meta information such as the total number of valid configurations or the relative frequency of components. This information can be used to assess the severity of documentation errors or to measure documentation quality. As an application example we show how we apply these methods to product documentation formulas of the Mercedes-Benz line of vehicles. In order to process these large formulas we developed and implemented a new model counter for non-CNF formulas. Our model counter can process formulas, whose CNF representations could not be processed up till now.

Kübler, Andreas; Küchlin, Wolfgang; 10.4204/EPTCS.29.5

2010-01-01

193

Bacterial Contamination of Date Fruits During Postharvest Handling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Microbial contamination of date fruits may happen during the different phases of their postharvest handling. In this work, six samples of dates belonging to the varieties Succary, Rothaneh, Barhi, Sebbaka, Umm-AlKhashab and Reshodiah were randomly collected from Buraydah City date marketplace during the seasons 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 and investigated for bacterial contamination using the aliquot obtained from three successive washings with sterilized distilled water for each of fresh, cooled (4oC and frozen (-10oC date samples. The results revealed the presence of a high count of aerobacteria as a result of the first washing for fresh dates ranging between 56.7X103 (Sebbaka and 101.2X103 (Umm AlKhashab CFU/g date in season 2000/2001. The percentage reduction in the total count of bacteria as a result of the first washing ranged between 84.5 and 98% in season 2000/2001. Likewise in season 2001/2002, the total count due to the first washing of fresh dates ranged between 150X103 (Succary and 240X103 (Reshodiah, which resulted in a percentage reduction in the total count ranging between 90.5 and 99.5%. The presumptive test indicated the presence of coliform bacteria on the surface of some date varieties after 24-48 h. However, the IMViC reactions showed the presence of Entrobacter aerogenes rather than Escherichia coli which dismissed the likelihood of fecal contamination in the examined samples. On the other hand, Salmonella enteritidis inoculated to date surface failed to survive more than 9 days

Ahmad I. Al-Turki

2004-01-01

194

Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting  

Science.gov (United States)

An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a .sup.3 He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output ) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

Swansen, James E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01

195

Bacterial Olfaction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Sensing their environment is a crucial ability of all life forms. In higher eukaryotes the sensing of airborne volatile compounds, or olfaction, is well developed. In plants, slime moulds and yeast there is also compelling evidence that these organisms can smell their environment and respond accordingly. Here we show that bacteria are also capable of olfaction. Bacillus licheniformis was able to sense airborne volatile metabolites produced by neighbouring bacterial culture...

2010-01-01

196

Bacterial rheotaxis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The motility of organisms is often directed in response to environmental stimuli. Rheotaxis is the directed movement resulting from fluid velocity gradients, long studied in fish, aquatic invertebrates, and spermatozoa. Using carefully controlled microfluidic flows, we show that rheotaxis also occurs in bacteria. Excellent quantitative agreement between experiments with Bacillus subtilis and a mathematical model reveals that bacterial rheotaxis is a purely physical phenomenon, in contrast to ...

Marcos; Fu, Henry C.; Powers, Thomas R.; Stocker, Roman

2012-01-01

197

Whose interests count?  

Science.gov (United States)

Whose interests should count and how should various interests be balanced at the pediatric patient's bedside? The interests of the child patient clearly count. Recently, however, many authors have argued that the family's interests also count. But how should we think about the interests of others? What does it mean to talk about "the family" in this context? Does it really just mean the interests of each individual family member? Or is the family itself a moral entity that has interests of its own independent of the interests of each of its members? Are such interests important only as they affect the patient's interest or also for their own sake? In this special supplement to Pediatrics, a group of pediatricians, philosophers, and lawyers grapple with these questions. They examine these issues from different angles and reach different conclusions. Jointly, they demonstrate the ethical importance and, above all, the ethical complexity of the family's role at the bedside. PMID:25274878

Brudney, Daniel; Lantos, John D

2014-10-01

198

Analytical calculations of counting losses in internal gas proportional counting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In internal gas proportional counting, the evaluation of counting losses is important in order to obtain high accuracy measurement results. In this paper, counting losses due to the wall effect not counted and beta particles with very low energy are evaluated by analytical calculations. The calculated and experimental results are compared and a very good agreement is found.

Stanga, D. E-mail: doru@ifin.nipne.ro; Picolo, J.L.; Coursol, N.; Mitev, K.; Moreau, I

2002-02-01

199

Analytical calculations of counting losses in internal gas proportional counting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In internal gas proportional counting, the evaluation of counting losses is important in order to obtain high accuracy measurement results. In this paper, counting losses due to the wall effect not counted and beta particles with very low energy are evaluated by analytical calculations. The calculated and experimental results are compared and a very good agreement is found

200

Bacterial cellulose/boehmite composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Composites based on bacterial cellulose membranes and boehmite were obtained. SEM results indicate that the bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes are totally covered by boehmite and obtained XRD patterns suggest structural changes due to this boehmite addition. Thermal stability is accessed through TG curves and is dependent on boehmite content. Transparency is high comparing to pure BC as can be seen through UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. (author)

 
 
 
 
201

Bacterial cellulose/boehmite composites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Composites based on bacterial cellulose membranes and boehmite were obtained. SEM results indicate that the bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes are totally covered by boehmite and obtained XRD patterns suggest structural changes due to this boehmite addition. Thermal stability is accessed through TG curves and is dependent on boehmite content. Transparency is high comparing to pure BC as can be seen through UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. (author)

Salvi, Denise T.B. de; Barud, Hernane S.; Messaddeq, Younes; Ribeiro, Sidney J.L. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho. UNESP. Instituto de Quimica de Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Caiut, Jose Mauricio A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo. Departamento de Quimica - FFCLRP/USP, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

2011-07-01

202

Total lymphoid irradiation of intractable rheumatoid arthritis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eleven patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis were treated with fractionated total lymphoid irradiation, (total dose 20 Gy). Lasting improvement in clinical symptoms was found in four patients during treatment and the remaining patients experienced similar benefit within 2 months of irradiation. There was marked reduction in exacerbations and number of joints involved. Morning stiffness, joint swelling and tenderness decreased. Complications included severe fatigue during treatment and acute bacterial arthritis in multiple joints in one patient. Four patients have since died, one of renal failure, another of cardiogenic shock following surgery 3 and 24 months after total lymphoid irradiation. Both had generalised amyloidosis. The third patient developed joint empyema and died of toxic cardiac failure. The fourth died 3 months after resection of a Kaposi's sarcoma complicated by wound infection which responded to treatment. Immunologically, total lymphoid irradiation resulted in suppression of the absolute lymphocyte count and reduction in T-helper cells, the number of T-suppressor cells remaining unchanged. These data provide evidence of T-cell involvement in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Total lymphoid irradiation can induce sustained improvement in clinical disease activity, but severe, possibly fatal, side-effects cannot be ignored. (author)

203

Computerized radioautographic grain counting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, radiolabeling techniques have become fundamental assays in physiology and biochemistry experiments. They also have assumed increasingly important roles in morphologic studies. Characteristically, radioautographic analysis of structure has been qualitative rather than quantitative, however, microcomputers have opened the door to several methods for quantifying grain counts and density. The overall goal of this chapter is to describe grain counting using the Bioquant, an image analysis package based originally on the Apple II+, and now available for several popular microcomputers. The authors discuss their image analysis procedures by applying them to a study of development in the central nervous system

204

Prime Counting Function Model  

Science.gov (United States)

The Prime Counting Function model uses the trial division algorithm to compute the number of primes less than or equal to the number n. Although the trial division algorithm is inefficient, we use it to perform a lengthy calculation while a standard EJS simulation thread accumulates and plots data from the parallel computation. Users can vary the number of independent threads and observe the computational time. The Prime Counting Function Model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the model's jar file will run the simulation if Java is installed.

Christian, Wolfgang

2013-10-11

205

Isolation of bacterial cerebrospinal fluid culture contaminants at a major military medical center.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent decades, bacterial meningitis rates have decreased secondary to the success of routine vaccinations. Ironically, the decreased incidence may contribute to the challenge of establishing accurate and timely diagnoses. Studies have suggested that in immunocompetent patients with normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) white blood cell counts (WBC), positive CSF cultures may be disregarded as presumed contaminants, making the initial CSF WBC increasingly relevant. This single-institution retrospective study sought to integrate clinical data with positive cultures in an era when CSF contaminants may be more commonly isolated in culture than true pathogens. A total of 7715 adult and pediatric CSF samples from 1995 to 2009 were obtained at a major military medical center. Clinical and laboratory data from 121 positive bacterial cultures were reviewed. Our bacterial CSF contamination rate (false positives) was 0.91% (70/7715). True-positive (TP) CSF cultures totaled 51 (0.66%). Among TPs, 16% (8/51) demonstrated normal CSF cell counts. The notably low 15-year CSF contamination rate of 0.91%, suggests that positive cultures are likely to represent true infection in our institution. We believe efforts to decrease the contamination rate are among the most cost-effective, while targeted clinical re-evaluation for all patients with positive CSF cultures remains vital. In light of this data, a targeted approach to re-evaluating positive cultures while incorporating the clinical context remains prudent. PMID:24094835

Wong, Priscilla H; Maranich, Ashley M; Muench, Dawn F

2013-12-01

206

[Spatial and seasonal variation of soil culturable-bacterial functional groups in a Mexican tropical dry forest].  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbial biomass and activity in soils are frequently studied in tropical dry forests, but scarce information is available about the relationships between functional bacterial groups and soil fertility, where relief interacts with rainfall seasonality. The culturable-bacterial groups and nutrients were studied during two consecutive years in soils from two topographic areas of different relief (hilltop vs hillslope) in a tropical dry forest from Chamela Jalisco, Mexico. We expected that seasonal and spatial variation in soil resources availability affects the abundance of functional culturable-bacterial groups. To evaluate this, fifteen soil cores (1kg), 0-5cm depth, were taken in the dry, early rainy and rainy seasons, from each of the ten replicate plots in hilltop and hillslope areas located in three microbasins. We found that hilltop soils were more organic and had higher concentration of labile C and total nutrient forms than hillslope soils, for which these soils had higher counts of colony-forming units (CFU) of total heterotrophic and P solubilizing bacteria. In both hilltop and hillslope soils, C and nutrient concentrations, as well as the counts of CFU of heterotrophic and P solubilizing bacteria generally decreased from the dry to the rainy season during the two study years. In contrast, the counts of CFU nitrifying and cellulolytic bacteria were higher at the hillslope than at the hilltop soils. The seasonal pattern of both groups was opposite to that of heterotrophic bacteria, presumably associated with a decrease in soil labile C and organic matter quality. In conclusion, our study suggests that available C appears to be the main factor that controls the structure of soil bacterial groups and soil fertility, where relief, rainfall seasonality and intra- and inter-annual variations are critical factors that interactively modify bacterial dynamics related to soil C availability in the tropical dry forest. PMID:23894994

Montaño, Noé Manuel; Sandoval-Pérez, Ana Lidia; Nava-Mendoza, Maribel; Sánchez-Yañez, Juan Manuel; Garcia-Oliva, Felipe

2013-03-01

207

Shane-Wirtanen counts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that the 2.5 break in the galaxy correlation function derived from the Shane-Wirtanen counts is indistinguishable from an artifact introduced by residual system variations in the effective magnitude limit from plate to plate. In order to avoid introduction of a break, the systematic errors from plate to plate must be < or approx. =0.05 mag

208

What Counts as Evidence?  

Science.gov (United States)

Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…

Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

2014-01-01

209

Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This patent describes a high speed circuit for accurate neutron coincidence counting comprising: neutron detecting means for providing an above-threshold signal upon neutron detection; amplifying means inputted by the neutron detecting means for providing a pulse output having a pulse width of about 0.5 microseconds upon the input of each above threshold signal; digital processing means inputted by the pulse output of the amplifying means for generating a pulse responsive to each input pulse from the amplifying means and having a pulse width of about 50 nanoseconds effective for processing an expected neutron event rate of about 1 Mpps: pulse stretching means inputted by the digital processing means for producing a pulse having a pulse width of several milliseconds for each pulse received form the digital processing means; visual indicating means inputted by the pulse stretching means for producing a visual output for each pulse received from the digital processing means; and derandomizing means effective to receive the 50 ns neutron event pulses from the digital processing means for storage at a rate up to the neutron event rate of 1 Mpps and having first counter means for storing the input neutron event pulses

210

Analysis Of Mast Cell Counts In Oral Leukoplakia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mast cells are regarded as one of the important cells of the immune system. They are generally believed to have different roles in human health and disease. Present study aimed to evaluate the total mast cell count, the distribution of degranulated mast cells and the possible role played by them in Oral Leukoplakia (OLK. Total mast cell count and the count of degranulated mast cells were analyzed separately in 40 histopathologically confirmed cases of OLK after staining the sections with 1% Toluidine blue. These values were compared with sections taken from clinically healthy papillary gingival in 10 normal subjects. The count of degranulated mast cells was also separately evaluated in the three zones viz. Sub-epithelial, Intermediate and Deeper zones of the connective tissue in all the OLK cases. There was significant increase in the total mast cell count and the count of degranulated mast cells in Oral Leukoplakia as compared to normal oral mucosa (p < 0.001. The count of degranulated cells was found to be the highest in the Deep zone in all the OLK cases studied. The resent study revealed that the total count of mast cells and the count of degranulated mast cells were significantly increased in oral leukoplakia. This may be attributed to their pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic role in oral leukoplakia and may actually play a significant role in its progression to invasive carcinoma.

Vindhya Savithri

2012-01-01

211

Bacterial and toxic pollutants in lakes of river Indus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Indus river water gets polluted through three sources viz., municipal wastewater, industrial wastewater and agricultural runoff through drainage structure. The lakes in Sindh (fed by the river Indus), constitute the important source of drinking water, recreation and fish, etc. and offer employment for many. A large number of chemicals that either exist naturally in the land dissolve in the water, or human excreta added due to human activity thereby, contaminating and leading to various diseases. In order to assess the microbial contamination, detection of pollutant indicator organisms (coliform group), using Coliform test was performed by Most Probable Number technique and total bacterial count by Pour Plate method. The level of various heavy metals (arsenic, calcium, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, mercury, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium, selenium and zinc) and electrolytes (Cl/sup -1/, HCO/sub 3/sup -1/) was monitored in water and fish meat samples collected from Haleji and Keenjhar lakes to assess the impact of toxic pollutants. Metal concentrations in water and fish samples were estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Total coliform organisms were found in both the lake water samples, exceeded in 38% samples than the acceptable limits, while total average aerobic bacterial count analyzed in both the lakes was 102 CFU/ml - 1010 CFU/ml. Toxic chemical contaminants were estimated below the detection limit, while other several (essential) metlimit, while other several (essential) metal ions were found within the range set by WHO, except arsenic, cadmium and iron that exceeded slightly in 12.5% water samples. This study was designed to ensure the access of safe and potable water to urban and rural areas of Sindh. Further, the findings will help public/private enterprises and public health institutions to work for the people health friendly policies. (author)

212

Bacterial Ecology  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bacterial ecology is concerned with the interactions between bacteria and their biological and nonbiological environments and with the role of bacteria in biogeochemical element cycling. Many fundamental properties of bacteria are consequences of their small size. Thus, they can efficiently exploit very dilute solutions of organic matter and their potential growth rates are very high. Bacteria do not have a cytoskeleton and they are covered by a rigid cells wall. Therefore they can only take up dissolved low-molecular-weight compounds from their surroundings; when bacteria exploit polymeric compounds these must first be undergo extracellular hydrolysis. Bacteria have a great diversity with respect to types of metabolism that far exceeds the metabolic repertoire of eukaryotic organisms. Bacteria play a fundamental role in the biosphere and certain key processes such as, for example, the production and oxidation of methane, nitrate reduction and fixation of atmospheric nitrogen are exclusively carried out by different groups of bacteria. Some bacterial species – ‘extremophiles’ – thrive in extreme environments in which no eukaryotic organisms can survive with respect to temperature, salinity or pH. Key Concepts:Key Concepts: * Fundamental properties of bacteria are related to their small size and lack of cytoskeleton. * Bacteria display a great diversity in types of metabolism. * Bacteria play a key role in the biosphere in terms of transfer of matter and energy. * A number of fundamental biogeochemical processes are carried exclusively by bacteria. * Bacteria play an important role in all types of habitats including some that cannot support eukaryotic life.

Fenchel, Tom

2011-01-01

213

Dinosaur Count and Sort  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners sort and count different colored plastic dinosaurs by various attributes including tail length, whether or not the dinosaurs have horns, etc. Learners discuss the basis of their sorting, describe individual dinosaurs as well as groups and count the whole as well as subsets of the whole. This identification, sorting and grouping based on different traits (physical attributes, diet, habitat) provides a strong foundation for the development of the concept of species. The lesson plan also explains that dinosaurs lived a long time ago, but because they are no longer alive today, they are said to be extinct. Reasons for their extinction and the concept of endangered species can be explored.

Omsi

2004-01-01

214

Counting Migrant Buddhists  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Religious demography is generally a challenging endeavor, and counting and defining religions and religious identities in an Asian context is notoriously difficult. Buddhists in both Asia and the West have a long tradition of grey zone religiosity, which means that membership and mono-identity is less common than syncretic engagement and hybrid identity. The immigrant Buddhists in the West are far more numerous than the convert and new age Buddhists. Their numbers are, however, extremely difficult to obtain. This article discusses the methodological and theoretical problems in quantifying immigrant religion and the challenges of operationalizing such constraints into concrete methods. The empirical data derive from the author’s engagement in several research projects on Buddhism in Denmark in which traditions from both Theravada and Mahayana groups are represented. While concrete figures are suggested, it is also concluded that further empirical research as well as comparison with more contexts is necessary for the continued refinement of usable methods in counting immigrant religion.

Borup, JØrn

2014-01-01

215

Let's Count to 5  

Science.gov (United States)

In this 5-lesson unit students make groups of zero through five objects and connect number words to the groups. They develop counting strategies and use numerals to record the size of a group. Lessons include familiar nursery rhymes and songs, links to interactive applets, and visual, auditory, and kinesthetic activities. Also included are student activity sheets, questions for students and teachers, assessment and extension ideas.

Burton, Grace M.

2000-01-01

216

Counting flux vacua  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We develop a technique for computing expected numbers of vacua in Gaussian ensembles of supergravity theories, and apply it to derive an asymptotic formula for the index counting all flux supersymmetric vacua with signs in Calabi-Yau compactification of type IIb string theory, which becomes exact in the limit of a large number of fluxes. This should give a reasonable estimate for actual numbers of vacua in string theory, for CY's with small b3. (author)

217

Experimental infection with different bacterial strains in larvae and juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei reared in Santa Catarina State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.5471 Experimental infection with different bacterial strains in larvae and juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei reared in Santa Catarina State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.5471  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study evaluated the pathogenic characteristics of bacteria isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei during an outbreak at the Laboratory of Marine Shrimp, UFSC, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Their virulence potential in larvae and juvenile shrimp and the effects on the total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity and serum agglutinate titre were examined after experimental infection. Bacterial strains were isolated from larvae and adult shrimps, identified by the AP120E biochemical system as: two strains of Vibrio alginolyticus, three of Aeromonas salmonicida and one of Pasteurella multocida sp. and Pasteurella sp. All the bacterial strains isolated in this study caused mortality in shrimp. One strain of V. alginolyticus was responsible for 97.3 and 88.7% mortality in larvae and juvenil shrimps, respectively. The shrimp immunological system was influenced by experimental infection with V. alginolyticus. Decrease in the total haemocyte count and increase in the phenoloxidase activity and the serum agglutinate titre (p V. alginolyticus isolated from larvae and juvenile reared marine shrimp.This study evaluated the pathogenic characteristics of bacteria isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei during an outbreak at the Laboratory of Marine Shrimp, UFSC, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Their virulence potential in larvae and juvenile shrimp and the effects on the total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity and serum agglutinate titre were examined after experimental infection. Bacterial strains were isolated from larvae and adult shrimps, identified by the AP120E biochemical system as: two strains of Vibrio alginolyticus, three of Aeromonas salmonicida and one of Pasteurella multocida sp. and Pasteurella sp. All the bacterial strains isolated in this study caused mortality in shrimp. One strain of V. alginolyticus was responsible for 97.3 and 88.7% mortality in larvae and juvenil shrimps, respectively. The shrimp immunological system was influenced by experimental infection with V. alginolyticus. Decrease in the total haemocyte count and increase in the phenoloxidase activity and the serum agglutinate titre (p V. alginolyticus isolated from larvae and juvenile reared marine shrimp.

Adolfo Jatoba

2010-09-01

218

Model Counting in Product Configuration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We describe how to use propositional model counting for a quantitative analysis of product configuration data. Our approach computes valuable meta information such as the total number of valid configurations or the relative frequency of components. This information can be used to assess the severity of documentation errors or to measure documentation quality. As an application example we show how we apply these methods to product documentation formulas of the Mercedes-Benz line of vehicles. In order to process these large formulas we developed and implemented a new model counter for non-CNF formulas. Our model counter can process formulas, whose CNF representations could not be processed up till now.

Andreas Kübler

2010-07-01

219

The right to count does not always count  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The best prescription against illness is learning to read and to count. People who are unable to count have a harder time learning to read. People who have difficulty counting make poorer decisions, are less able to combine information and are less likely to have a strategy for life

Sodemann, Morten

220

Bacterial response to siderophore and quorum-sensing chemical signals in the seawater microbial community  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Oceans are iron-deficient and nutrient-poor environments. These conditions impart limitations on our understanding of and our ability to identify microorganisms from the marine environment. However, less of knowledge on the influence of siderophores and N-acyl homoserinelactone as interspecies communication signals on the bacterial diversity of seawater has been understood. Results In the presence of 0.1 nM of the commercial siderophore desferroixamine and the known quorum-sensing chemical signals, synthetic N-(3-oxo-hexanoylhomoserine lactone (0.1 nM or N-octanoylhomoserine lactone (0.1 nM, the total numbers of bacteria in S9905 seawater increased nearly three-fold, and nearly eight-fold in S0011 seawater as determined by DAPI staining and counting, and increased three-fold by counting colony forming units in S9905 seawater after 7 days of incubation. Similar bacterial changes in bacterial abundance were observed when high concentration of desferroixamine (1 ?M and each of homoserine lactone compounds (1 ?M were presented in seawater samples. The number of cultivable bacterial species observed was also found to increase from 3 (without addition to 8 (with additions including three unknown species which were identified by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences. The growth of unknown species was found to be related to their siderophore production with response to the addition of desferroixamine and N-acyl homoserine lactones under iron-limited conditions. Conclusion Artificial addition of siderophores and HSLs may be a possible method to aid in the identification and isolation of marine bacterial species which are thought to be unknown.

Kamino Kei

2001-10-01

 
 
 
 
221

Surface Bacterial-Spore Assay Using Tb3+/DPA Luminescence  

Science.gov (United States)

Equipment and a method for rapidly assaying solid surfaces for contamination by bacterial spores are undergoing development. The method would yield a total (nonviable plus viable) spore count of a surface within minutes and a viable-spore count in about one hour. In this method, spores would be collected from a surface by use of a transparent polymeric tape coated on one side with a polymeric adhesive that would be permeated with one or more reagent(s) for detection of spores by use of visible luminescence. The sticky side of the tape would be pressed against a surface to be assayed, then the tape with captured spores would be placed in a reader that illuminates the sample with ultraviolet light and counts the green luminescence spots under a microscope to quantify the number of bacterial spores per unit area. The visible luminescence spots seen through the microscope would be counted to determine the concentration of spores on the surface. This method is based on the chemical and physical principles of methods described in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, including Live/Dead Spore Assay Using DPA-Triggered Tb Luminescence (NPO-30444), Vol. 27, No. 3 (March 2003), page 7a. To recapitulate: The basic idea is to exploit the observations that (1) dipicolinic acid (DPA) is present naturally only in bacterial spores; and (2) when bound to Tb3+ ions, DPA triggers intense green luminescence of the ions under ultraviolet excitation; (3) DPA can be released from the viable spores by using L-alanine to make them germinate; and (4) by autoclaving, microwaving, or sonicating the sample, one can cause all the spores (non-viable as well as viable) to release their DPA. One candidate material for use as the adhesive in the present method is polydimethysiloxane (PDMS). In one variant of the method for obtaining counts of all (viable and nonviable) spores the PDMS would be doped with TbCl3. After collection of a sample, the spores immobilized on the sticky tape surface would be lysed by heating or microwaving to release their DPA. Tb3+ ions from the TbCl3 would become bound to the released DPA. The tape would then be irradiated with ultraviolet and examined as described above. In another variant of the method - for obtaining counts of viable spores only - the PDMS would be doped with L-alanine in addition to TbCl3. As now envisioned, a fully developed apparatus for implementing this method would include a pulsed source of ultraviolet light and a time-gated electronic camera to record the images seen through the microscope during a prescribed exposure interval at a prescribed short time after an ultraviolet pulse. As in the method of the second-mentioned prior article, the pulsing and time-gating would be used to discriminate between the longer-lived Tb3+/DPA luminescence and the shorter-lived background luminescence in the same wavelength range. In a time-gated image, the bright luminescence from bacterial spores could easily be seen against a dark background.

Ponce, Adrian

2007-01-01

222

Counting Lattice Triangulations  

CERN Document Server

We discuss the problem to count, or, more modestly, to estimate the number f(m,n) of unimodular triangulations of the planar grid of size $m\\times n$. Among other tools, we employ recursions that allow one to compute the (huge) number of triangulations for small m and rather large n by dynamic programming; we show that this computation can be done in polynomial time if m is fixed, and present computational results from our implementation of this approach. We also present new upper and lower bounds for large m and n, and we report about results obtained from a computer simulation of the random walk that is generated by flips.

Kaibel, V; Kaibel, Volker

2002-01-01

223

How to count elephants in West African savannahs? Synthesis and comparison of main gamecount methods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The comparison of some elephants count methods – aerial sampling count, aerial total count and direct foot count – has been presented through surveys' study cases implemented in Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger. We compare them in terms of effort and cost to survey an area (sampling efficiency), efficiency in data collection (detection efficiency) as well as accuracy and precision. Aerial sampling count returns low sampling and detection efficiency and very low precision and accuracy figures...

2012-01-01

224

How to count elephants in West African savannahs? Synthesis and comparison of main gamecount methods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The comparison of some elephants count methods – aerial sampling count, aerial total count and direct foot count – has been presented through surveys’ study cases implemented in Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger. We compare them in terms of effort and cost to survey an area (sampling efficiency), efficiency in data collection (detection efficiency) as well as accuracy and precision. Aerial sampling count returns low sampling and detection efficiency and very low precision and accuracy figur...

Bouche?, P.; Lejeune, P.; Vermeulen, C.

2012-01-01

225

Total-count calibration blocks for use in uranium exploration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transportable calibration blocks for field scintillometers and borehole probes were manufactured from concrete and installed at calibration sites in Denmark and Greece. The concrete mixes were prepared from aggregates of quartz sand and crushed uranium-thorium ore. Water-reducing agents and silica dust added to the cement paste produced concretes of acceptable porosity and pore structure. The content of ore was adjusted to provide block grades of approximately 2, 140, and 540 units of radioelement concentration (Ur). Thorium was estimated to contribute 0.39 +- 0.02 Ur per ppm Th. The adopted reference grades include concrete pore moisture and are normalized to an effective atomic number of 13. Grade instability due to radon emanation was not detected. (author)

226

Total-Count Calibration Blocks for use in uranium Exploration  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Transportable calibration blocks for field scintillometers and borehole probes were manufactured from concrete and installed at calibration sites in Denmark and Greece. The concrete mixes were prepared from aggregates of quartz sand and crushed uranium-thorium ore. Hater-reducing agents and silica dust added to the cement paste produced concretes of acceptable porosity and pore structure. The content of ore was adjusted to provide block grades of approximately 2, 140, and 540 units of radioelement concentration (Ur). Thorium was estimated to contribute 0.39 ± 0.02 Ur per ppm Th. The adopted reference grades include concrete pore moisture and are normalized to an effective atomic number of 13. Grade instability due to radon emanation was not detected.

LØvborg, Leif

1983-01-01

227

Desulfovibrio bacterial species are increased in ulcerative colitis.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

BACKGROUND: Debate persists regarding the role of Desulfovibrio subspecies in ulcerative colitis. Combined microscopic and molecular techniques enable this issue to be investigated by allowing precise enumeration of specific bacterial species within the colonic mucous gel. The aim of this study was to combine laser capture microdissection and quantitative polymerase chain reaction to determine Desulfovibrio copy number in crypt-associated mucous gel in health and in acute and chronic ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Colonic mucosal biopsies were harvested from healthy controls (n = 19) and patients with acute (n = 10) or chronic (n = 10) ulcerative colitis. Crypt-associated mucous gel was obtained by laser capture microdissection throughout the colon. Pan-bacterial 16S rRNA and Desulfovibrio copy number\\/mm were obtained by polymerase chain reaction at each locus. Bacterial copy numbers were interrogated for correlation with location and disease activity. Data were evaluated using a combination of ordinary linear methods and linear mixed-effects models to cater for multiple interactions. RESULTS: Desulfovibrio positivity was significantly increased in acute and chronic ulcerative colitis at multiple levels within the colon, and after normalization with total bacterial signal, the relative Desulfovibrio load was increased in acute colitis compared with controls. Desulfovibrio counts did not significantly correlate with age, disease duration, or disease activity but interlevel correlations were found in adjacent colonic segments in the healthy control and chronic ulcerative colitis groups. CONCLUSION: The presence of Desulfovibrio subspecies is increased in ulcerative colitis and the data presented suggest that these bacteria represent an increased percentage of the colonic microbiome in acute ulcerative colitis.

Rowan, Fiachra

2012-02-01

228

Do your syringes count?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: This study was designed to investigate anecdotal evidence that residual Sestamibi (MIBI) activity vaned in certain situations. For rest studies different brands of syringes were tested to see if the residuals varied. The period of time MIBI doses remained in the syringe between dispensing and injection was also considered as a possible source of increased residual counts. Stress Mibi syringe residual activities were measured to assess if the method of stress test affected residual activity. MIBI was reconstituted using 13 Gbq of Technetium in 3mls of normal saline then boiled for 10 minutes. Doses were dispensed according to department protocol and injected via cannula. Residual syringes were collected for three syringe types. In each case the barrel and plunger were measured separately. As the syringe is flushed during the exercise stress test and not the pharmacological stress test the chosen method was recorded. No relationship was demonstrated between the time MIBI remained in a syringe prior to injection and residual activity. Residual activity was not affected by method of stress test used. Actual injected activity can be calculated if the amount of activity remaining in the syringe post injection is known. Imaging time can be adjusted for residual activity to optimise count statistics. Preliminary results in this study indicate there is no difference in residual activity between syringe brands.Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society o) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

229

Isolation, Characterization and Application of Bacterial Population From Agricultural Soil at Sohag Province, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Forty soil samples of agriculture soil were collected from two different sites in Sohag province, Egypt, during hot and cold seasons. Twenty samples were from soil irrigated with canal water (site A and twenty samples were from soil irrigated with wastewater (site B. This study aimed to compare the incidence of plasmids in bacteria isolated from soil and to investigate the occurrence of metal and antibiotic resistance bacteria, and consequently to select the potential application of these bacteria in bioremediation. The total bacterial count (CFU/gm in site (B was higher than that in site (A. Moreover, the CFU values in summer were higher than those values in winter at both sites. A total of 771 bacterial isolates were characterized as Bacillus, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Eschershia, Shigella, Xanthomonas, Acetobacter, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Moraxella and Methylococcus. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of Pb+2, Cu+2, Zn+2, Hg+2, Co+2, Cd+2, Cr+3, Te+2, As+2 and Ni+2 for plasmid-possessed bacteria were determined and the highest MICs were 1200 µg/mL for lead, 800 µg/mL for both Cobalt and Arsenate, 1200 µg/mL for Nickel, 1000 µg/ml for Copper and less than 600 µg/mL for other metals. Bacterial isolates from both sites A and B showed multiple heavy metal resistance. A total of 337 bacterial isolates contained plasmids and the incidence of plasmids was approximately 25-50% higher in bacteria isolated from site (B than that from site (A. These isolates were resistance to different antibiotics. Approximately, 61% of the bacterial isolates were able to assimilate insecticide, carbaryl, as a sole source of carbon and energy. However, the Citrobacter AA101 showed the best growth on carbaryl.

Bahig, A. E.

2008-01-01

230

Counting plane Mumford curves  

CERN Document Server

A $p$-adic version of Gromov-Witten invariants for counting plane curves of genus $g$ and degree $d$ through a given number of points is discussed. The multiloop version of $p$-adic string theory considered by Chekhov and others motivates us to ask how many of these curves are Mumford curves, i.e.\\ uniformisable by a domain at the boundary of the Bruhat-Tits tree for $\\PGL_2(\\mathbb{Q}_p)$. Generally, the number of Mumford curves depends on the position of the given points in $\\mathbb{P}^2$. With the help of tropical geometry we find configurations of points through which all curves of given degree and genus are Mumford curves. The article is preceded by an introduction to some concepts of $p$-adic geometry and their relation to string theory.

Bradley, Patrick Erik

2008-01-01

231

Scintillation counting apparatus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A well is bored into an inorganic scintillator (crystal), or constructed by assembling loose szintillator elements. The surface of the crystal and the inside of the well are covered with a highly transparent protecting material. A photomultiplier (P.M.) tube is coupled to the scintillator, to the bottom or to the side of the well. A light reflecting coating is applied, except on the inside of the well, and this assembly is enclosed in a light-tight container. Low activity soft beta liquid scintillation counting is easily achieved if the specimen is placed in the well and if the crystal is transparent to the light emitted by the liquid scintillator. No extra shielding is required, as the crystal ensures this function and as scintillations produced by background gamma radiation in the inorganic scintillator have a markedly different decay time, thus permitting discrimination. The probe can also be used directly as a gamma detector. (ORU)

232

Dynamics of indigenous bacterial communities associated with crude oil degradation in soil microcosms during nutrient-enhanced bioremediation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial population dynamics were examined during bioremediation of an African soil contaminated with Arabian light crude oil and nutrient enrichment (biostimulation). Polymerase chain reaction followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) were used to generate bacterial community fingerprints of the different treatments employing the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene as molecular marker. The DGGE patterns of the nutrient-amended soils indicated the presence of distinguishable bands corresponding to the oil-contaminated-nutrient-enriched soils, which were not present in the oil-contaminated and pristine control soils. Further characterization of the dominant DGGE bands after excision, reamplification and sequencing revealed that Corynebacterium spp., Dietzia spp., Rhodococcus erythropolis sp., Nocardioides sp., Low G+C (guanine plus cytosine) Gram positive bacterial clones and several uncultured bacterial clones were the dominant bacterial groups after biostimulation. Prominent Corynebacterium sp. IC10 sequence was detected across all nutrient-amended soils but not in oil-contaminated control soil. Total heterotrophic and hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial counts increased significantly in the nutrient-amended soils 2 weeks post contamination whereas oil-contaminated and pristine control soils remained fairly stable throughout the experimental period. Gas chromatographic analysis of residual hydrocarbons in biostimulated soils showed marked attenuation of contaminants starting from the second to the sixth week after contamination whereas no significant reduction in hydrocarbon peaks were seen in the oil-contaminated control soil throughout the 6-week experimental period. Results obtained indicated that nutrient amendment of oil-contaminated soil selected and enriched the bacterial communities mainly of the Actinobacteria phylogenetic group capable of surviving in toxic contamination with concomitant biodegradation of the hydrocarbons. The present study therefore demonstrated that the soil investigated harbours hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial populations which can be biostimulated to achieve effective bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil. PMID:21824988

Chikere, Chioma B; Surridge, Karen; Okpokwasili, Gideon C; Cloete, Thomas E

2012-03-01

233

Experimental infection with different bacterial strains in larvae and juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei reared in Santa Catarina State, Brazil = Infecção experimental em larvas e juvenis de Litopaenaeus vannamei cultivados no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study evaluated the pathogenic characteristics of bacteria isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei during an outbreak at the Laboratory of Marine Shrimp, UFSC, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Their virulence potential in larvae and juvenile shrimp and theeffects on the total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity and serum agglutinate titre were examined after experimental infection. Bacterial strains were isolated from larvae and adult shrimps, identified by the AP120E biochemical system as: ...

Celso Carlos Buglione; Felipe do Nascimento Vieira; José Luiz Pedreira Mouriño; Fabiola Santiago Pedrotti; Adolfo Jatoba; Maurício Laterça Martins

2010-01-01

234

KANDUNGAN BAKTERI TOTAL Coli DAN Escherechia coli / FECAL Coli AIR MINUM DARI DEPOT AIR MINUM ISI ULANG DI JAKARTA, TANGERANG, DAN BEKASI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study on drinking water quality produced by drinking water refill depots (AMIU was done in Jakarta, Tangerang and Bekasi. Analysis unit of the study was drinking water refill depots with the sample number of 38 depots. For every selected depot, laboratory analysis were done for natural water (clean water and drinking water produced by the depots. The total number of sample were 76 water samples. One of the parameters analyzed was microbiological contents, namey total coli bacterial count and Escherechia coli / fecal coli. For collecting information about the sources and storage of natural waters, drinking water treatment processes, treatment equipment, and so on, the depots operators and drinking water refill association personnel were interviewed as well as the water treatment equipment distributors. Based on the interview, it can be stated that the main principles of the water treatment processes from natural water to become drinking water in the AMIU depots were only filtration and disinfections processes. Natural water sources mostly was mountain spring water (89.5%, originated from Bogor (60.5%. and Sukabumi (26.3%. According to the results of laboratory analysis, it can be stated that the percentages of the natural water samples which were not complying with the standards of total coli bacterial count was 31.6% and that of fecal coli was 28.9%. Whereas for drinking water produced by the depots, the percentages of water samples which were not complying with the total coli bacterial count and fecal coli standards were 28.9% and 18.4% respectively. Additionally, the drinking water treatment processes were not sufficient for natural water with the high contents (around 1.600 MPN/100 ml of total coli and fecal coli bacterial.

Athena Athena

2012-10-01

235

Resultados preliminares de la evaluación de diferentResultados diferentes concentraciones de la suspensión bacteriana empleada como inóculo en el Ensayo bactericida de Sangre Total / Preliminary evaluation of different concentrations of bacterial suspensions used in the Whole Blood Bactericidal Assay  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El Ensayo Bactericida del Suero (EBS), está considerado como la “prueba de oro” para evaluar la eficacia serológica de vacunas antimeningocócicas, teniendo en cuenta que la presencia de anticuerpos bactericidas en el suero se relaciona con la protección frente a esta enfermedad. Los niveles de antic [...] uerpos anticapsulares obtenidos frente a los serogrupos A y C de Neisseria meningitidis han confirmado la utilidad de esta técnica. Sin embargo, se señala una pobre correlación entre los resultados de laboratorio y la protección clínica demostrada después de la aplicación de vacunas compuestas por vesículas de membrana externa del serogrupo B. Ison y colaboradores desarrollaron el Ensayo de Sangre Total (EST), que evalúa la capacidad bactericida de la sangre. Los resultados obtenidos indican que es un marcador de inmunidad más sensible que el EBS para el serogrupo B. En un estudio de evaluación de la vacuna antimeningocócica cubana VA-MENGOC-BC®, realizado en infantes y empleando el EST, se obtuvo un 50% de respondedores a la cepa homóloga (B:4:P1.19,15). La respuesta contra cepas heterólogas resultó baja. Teniendo en cuenta estos resultados y los de otros estudios realizados por los autores, se evaluó el comportamiento de la prueba utilizando concentraciones menores de la suspensión bacteriana empleada como inóculo. Para este propósito se estudió la actividad bactericida de la sangre de dos adultos sanos, mediante el EST frente a las cepas B:4:P1.19,15 (Cu 385/83) y B:15:P1.7,16 (MC58). Se evaluaron, además de la concentración recomendada originalmente (106ó107 UFC/mL), dos inferiores (105 y 104 UFC/mL). El primer donante mostró una actividad lítica del 40% frente a la cepa homóloga, a una concentración de inóculo de 107 UFC/mL. Para las concentraciones de 105 y 104 UFC/mL la lisis fue de alrededor del 80%. El comportamiento frente a la cepa heteróloga fue de un 25% de lisis a la mayor concentración del inóculo y aproximadamente de un 60% para las concentraciones inferiores. El segundo donante no mostró actividad lítica alguna frente a un inóculo de 107 UFC/mL de la cepa homóloga, mientras que empleando inóculos de 105 y 104 UFC/mL se obtuvieron respuestas de alrededor del 55% y del 65% respectivamente. El comportamiento frente a la cepa heteróloga fue de un 40% de lisis a la mayor concentración del inóculo y de un 70% y 80% a las concentraciones 105 y 104 UFC/mL respectivamente Abstract in english The Serum Bactericidal Assay (SBA) has been considered the “golden standard” to evaluate the serological efficacy of meningococcal vaccines, taking into account that the presence of serum bactericidal antibodies is related with protection. The levels of A and C capsular polysaccharide antibodies aga [...] inst these serogroups has confirmed the reliability of this assay. The SBA has also been used to asses the efficacy of serogroup B vaccines, but in some studies, the correlation between serological efficacy and protection has been poor. Ison et al developed the Whole Blood Assay (WBA) that measures the complete bactericidal activity in blood. The results obtained indicate that this model is a more sensitive marker of immunity than SBA for serogroup B. The results from the evaluation of the Cuban meningococcal vaccine (VA-MENGOC-BC®) in infants using WBA showed that after the immunisation around 50% of infants exhibited >50% lysis of the vaccine strain (B:4:P1.19,15). The results against heterologous strains were poor. Taking into account these and other results we evaluated the behavior of the WBA using lower concentrations of the bacterial suspension used as inoculum. Blood from two healthy adults was screened for bactericidal activity using the WBA, against B:4:P1.19,15(Cu 385/83) and B:15:P1.7,16 (MC58) strains. In addition to the recommended concentration (106 or 107 CFU/mL), two lower concentrations were used (105 and 104 CFU/mL). The first donor showed a lytic activity of 40% against the homolog

María Amalia, Camaraza; Natasha, Anwar; Teresita, Leiva; Aida, G. Arnet; Franklin, Sotolongo; Catherine, Ison.

236

Resultados preliminares de la evaluación de diferentResultados diferentes concentraciones de la suspensión bacteriana empleada como inóculo en el Ensayo bactericida de Sangre Total / Preliminary evaluation of different concentrations of bacterial suspensions used in the Whole Blood Bactericidal Assay  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El Ensayo Bactericida del Suero (EBS), está considerado como la “prueba de oro” para evaluar la eficacia serológica de vacunas antimeningocócicas, teniendo en cuenta que la presencia de anticuerpos bactericidas en el suero se relaciona con la protección frente a esta enfermedad. Los niveles de antic [...] uerpos anticapsulares obtenidos frente a los serogrupos A y C de Neisseria meningitidis han confirmado la utilidad de esta técnica. Sin embargo, se señala una pobre correlación entre los resultados de laboratorio y la protección clínica demostrada después de la aplicación de vacunas compuestas por vesículas de membrana externa del serogrupo B. Ison y colaboradores desarrollaron el Ensayo de Sangre Total (EST), que evalúa la capacidad bactericida de la sangre. Los resultados obtenidos indican que es un marcador de inmunidad más sensible que el EBS para el serogrupo B. En un estudio de evaluación de la vacuna antimeningocócica cubana VA-MENGOC-BC®, realizado en infantes y empleando el EST, se obtuvo un 50% de respondedores a la cepa homóloga (B:4:P1.19,15). La respuesta contra cepas heterólogas resultó baja. Teniendo en cuenta estos resultados y los de otros estudios realizados por los autores, se evaluó el comportamiento de la prueba utilizando concentraciones menores de la suspensión bacteriana empleada como inóculo. Para este propósito se estudió la actividad bactericida de la sangre de dos adultos sanos, mediante el EST frente a las cepas B:4:P1.19,15 (Cu 385/83) y B:15:P1.7,16 (MC58). Se evaluaron, además de la concentración recomendada originalmente (106ó107 UFC/mL), dos inferiores (105 y 104 UFC/mL). El primer donante mostró una actividad lítica del 40% frente a la cepa homóloga, a una concentración de inóculo de 107 UFC/mL. Para las concentraciones de 105 y 104 UFC/mL la lisis fue de alrededor del 80%. El comportamiento frente a la cepa heteróloga fue de un 25% de lisis a la mayor concentración del inóculo y aproximadamente de un 60% para las concentraciones inferiores. El segundo donante no mostró actividad lítica alguna frente a un inóculo de 107 UFC/mL de la cepa homóloga, mientras que empleando inóculos de 105 y 104 UFC/mL se obtuvieron respuestas de alrededor del 55% y del 65% respectivamente. El comportamiento frente a la cepa heteróloga fue de un 40% de lisis a la mayor concentración del inóculo y de un 70% y 80% a las concentraciones 105 y 104 UFC/mL respectivamente Abstract in english The Serum Bactericidal Assay (SBA) has been considered the “golden standard” to evaluate the serological efficacy of meningococcal vaccines, taking into account that the presence of serum bactericidal antibodies is related with protection. The levels of A and C capsular polysaccharide antibodies aga [...] inst these serogroups has confirmed the reliability of this assay. The SBA has also been used to asses the efficacy of serogroup B vaccines, but in some studies, the correlation between serological efficacy and protection has been poor. Ison et al developed the Whole Blood Assay (WBA) that measures the complete bactericidal activity in blood. The results obtained indicate that this model is a more sensitive marker of immunity than SBA for serogroup B. The results from the evaluation of the Cuban meningococcal vaccine (VA-MENGOC-BC®) in infants using WBA showed that after the immunisation around 50% of infants exhibited >50% lysis of the vaccine strain (B:4:P1.19,15). The results against heterologous strains were poor. Taking into account these and other results we evaluated the behavior of the WBA using lower concentrations of the bacterial suspension used as inoculum. Blood from two healthy adults was screened for bactericidal activity using the WBA, against B:4:P1.19,15(Cu 385/83) and B:15:P1.7,16 (MC58) strains. In addition to the recommended concentration (106 or 107 CFU/mL), two lower concentrations were used (105 and 104 CFU/mL). The first donor showed a lytic activity of 40% against the homolog

María Amalia, Camaraza; Natasha, Anwar; Teresita, Leiva; Aida, G. Arnet; Franklin, Sotolongo; Catherine, Ison.

2000-06-01

237

Response Of Mice Tissues To Intranasal Bacterial Lysate Vaccination: Immunohistopathological Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effective protection against pathogenic bacteria requires both mucosal and systemic immune responses. Intranasal administration of antigens induces these responses. The protective effect of intranasal immunization with different formalin-inactivated bacterial lysates in albino mice was evaluated. This study used formalin inactivated lysate of each of the following Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas aeroginosa ,Salmonella typhi , Shigella flexeneri , Staphylococcus aureus , Bacillus subtilis and mixed bacterial lysates. The lysate was administered intranasally (5µl/ nostril once daily for seven consecutive days. The results of this study recorded some changes in peripheral blood total and differential leucocytic counts , peritoneal fluid and bone marrow lymphocytic percentages . Spleen and thymus weight changes were reported under the effect of Salmonella typhi lysate, Shigella flexeneri lysate and Staph. aureus lysate. The level of immunoglobulin G (Ig G was assessed in serum, bronchial lavage and nasal bed harvest. The levels of Ig G were significantly elevated in the three determinants, suggesting an efficient immunostimulatory effect of bacterial lysates. Some of these levels were exceeding 2-3 folds of that of the control group. Histopathological studies recorded changes in some reticuloendothelial system organs including the liver, spleen and thymus gland, besides, some changes were also observed in the lung and bronchi under the effect of intranasal vaccination. This study supports the immunoprotective effect of intranasal vaccination, using bacterial lysates.

Hanaa A. Mansour

2005-03-01

238

Monitoring of the bacterial and fungal biodiversity and dynamics during Massa Medicata Fermentata fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The microbial community dynamics play an important role during Massa Medicata Fermentata (MMF) fermentation. In this study, bacterial and fungal communities were investigated based on the culture-dependent method and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis. Meanwhile the dynamic changes of digestive enzyme activities were also examined. Plating results showed that MMF fermentation comprised two stages: pre-fermentation stage (0-4 days) was dominated by bacterial community and post-fermentation stage (5-9 days) was dominated by fungal community. The amount of bacteria reached the highest copy number 1.2?×?10(10) CFU/g at day 2, but the fungi counts reached 6.3?×?10(5) CFU/g at day 9. A total of 170 isolates were closely related to genera Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Mucor, Saccharomyces, Rhodotorula, and Amylomyces. DGGE analysis showed a clear reduction of bacterial and fungal diversity during fermentation, and the dominant microbes belonged to genera Enterobacter, Pediococcus, Pseudomonas, Mucor, and Saccharomyces. Digestive enzyme assay showed filter paper activity; the activities of amylase, carboxymethyl cellulase, and lipase reached a peak at day 4; and the protease activity constantly increased until the end of the fermentation. In this study, we carried out a detailed and comprehensive analysis of microbial communities as well as four digestive enzymes' activities during MMF fermentation process. The monitoring of bacterial and fungal biodiversity and dynamics during MMF fermentation has significant potential for controlling the fermentation process. PMID:23982327

Xu, Yun; Xie, Yan-Bo; Zhang, Xin-Ran; Chen, Chen; Xiang, Hongyu; Xie, Qiuhong

2013-11-01

239

Evolution of bacterial community during bioremediation of PAHs in a coal tar contaminated soil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The monitoring of a windrow treatment applied to soil contaminated by mostly 2, 3- and 4-ring PAHs produced by coal tar distillation was performed by following the evolution of both PAH concentration and the bacterial community. Total and PAH-degrading bacterial community structures were followed by 165 rRNA PCR-DGGE in parallel with quantification by bacterial counts and 16 PAH measurements. Six months of biological treatment led to a strong decrease in 2-, 3- and 4-ring PAH concentrations (98, 97 and 82%, respectively). This result was associated with the activity of bacterial PAH-degraders belonging mainly to the Gamma proteobacteria, in particular the Enterobacteria and Pseudomonas genera which were detected over the course of the treatment. This group was considered to be a good bioindicator to determine the potential PAH biodegradation of contaminated soil. Conversely other species like the Beta proteobacteria were detected after 3 months when 2-, 3- and 4-ring PAHs were almost completely degraded. Thus presence of the Beta proteobacteria group could be considered a good candidate indicator to estimate the endpoint of biotreatment of this type of PAH contaminated soil.

Lors, C.; Ryngaert, A.; Perie, F.; Diels, L.; Damidot, D. [University of Lille, Lille (France)

2010-11-15

240

Study of the bacterial ecosystem in tropical cooked and peeled shrimps using a polyphasic approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

The characterization of the microbial ecosystem of cooked tropical shrimps was carried out using a polyphasic approach. First, culture-dependent methods were used for bacterial enumeration and the phenotypic and molecular identification of bacterial isolates. Then, culture-independent methods, including PCR-TTGE (V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene), provided a fingerprinting of bacterial DNA directly extracted from shrimps. Two batches of cooked and peeled tropical shrimps were stored at 5 and 15 degrees C for 5 and 3 weeks, respectively. Trained panelists carried out a sensory evaluation and microbiological enumerations were performed. When spoilage of samples was perceived, several colonies were isolated from the total viable count media. Thus, 137 bacterial strains were identified by phenotypic and molecular tests. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) constituted the major group with the most represented genera being Carnobacterium (C. divergens, C. maltaromaticum and indiscernible C. alterfunditum/pleistocenium), Vagococcus (indiscernible V. carniphilus/fluvialis) and Enterococcus (E. faecalis and E. faecium). The other groups corresponded to Brochothrix thermosphacta and Enterobacteriaceae (Serratia liquefaciens). In PCR-TTGE profiles some of DNA fragments were assigned to those of standard strains (S. liquefaciens, B. thermosphacta, E. faecalis, C. divergens and C. maltaromaticum) or identified isolates from culture-dependent analysis (E. faecium). Other additional informations were provided by fragment cloning (Psychrobacter sp, Citrobacter gillenii and Firmicute). In conclusion, TTGE is an excellent tool to monitor the evolution of the microbial ecosystem in seafood products. PMID:18573557

Jaffrès, E; Sohier, D; Leroi, F; Pilet, M F; Prévost, H; Joffraud, J J; Dousset, X

2009-04-30

 
 
 
 
241

Spatial Heterogeneity of Bacterial Assemblages in Marine Sediments: The Influence of Deposit Feeding by Balanoglossus aurantiacus .  

Science.gov (United States)

Densities and substrate utilization patterns of the bacterial assemblages of three intertidal sandflats were contrasted to investigate spatial heterogeneity. Possible influence of deposit-feeding Balanoglossus aurantiacus (Enteropneusta: Ptychoderidae) was also studied by comparing samples taken from the faecal mounds with surrounding sediments. While there were no significant differences in total bacterial abundance, carbon source utilization patterns, determined using Biolog GN microtitre plates, differed among the sandflats and within the sandflats for samples from grids more than 10 m apart. No consistent quantitative or qualitative differences were detected among clusters of ambient sediment samples taken less than 0·5 m apart. Qualitative differences in microbial assemblages were found between faecal mounds and ambient (>10 cm apart) sediment within a single intertidal flat. These differences were in part due to digestive removal of bacteria, as heterotrophic plate counts and response in Biolog plates (average well colour development, AWCD) were significantly higher for the surrounding sediment. However, when Biolog profiles were normalized to AWCD, it became clear that gut passage resulted in structural shifts in bacterial assemblages. These changes were due to digestion of a subset of ingested bacteria with the concomitant stimulation (or inoculation) of other groups, which were largely unculturable under the conditions employed. These findings illustrate that deposit feeding effects spatial heterogeneity in sedimentary bacterial assemblages. Given the ephemeral nature of these disturbed patches, however, it is not yet clear that deposit feeding is a primary determinant of microbial community structure in this sedimentary landscape.

Wilde, S. B.; Plante, C. J.

2002-07-01

242

Effect of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene on soil bacterial communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

To gain insight into the impact of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) on soil microbial communities, we characterized the bacterial community of several TNT-contaminated soils from two sites with different histories of contamination and concentrations of TNT. The amount of extracted DNA, the total cell counts and the number of CFU were lower in the TNT-contaminated soils. Analysis of soil bacterial diversity by DGGE showed a predominance of Pseudomonadaceae and Xanthomonadaceae in the TNT-contaminated soils, as well as the presence of Caulobacteraceae. CFU from TNT-contaminated soils were identified as Pseudomonadaceae, and, to a lesser extent, Caulobacteraceae. Finally, a pristine soil was spiked with different concentrations of TNT and the soil microcosms were incubated for 4 months. The amount of extracted DNA decreased in the microcosms with a high TNT concentration [1.4 and 28.5 g TNT/kg (dry wt) of soil] over the incubation period. After 7 days of incubation of these soil microcosms, there was already a clear shift of their original flora towards a community dominated by Pseudomonadaceae, Xanthomonadaceae, Comamonadaceae and Caulobacteraceae. These results indicate that TNT affects soil bacterial diversity by selecting a narrow range of bacterial species that belong mostly to Pseudomonadaceae and Xanthomonadaceae. PMID:18228070

George, Isabelle; Eyers, Laurent; Stenuit, Benoît; Agathos, Spiros N

2008-04-01

243

Spark counting of solid state nuclear tracks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dominant parameter for maintaining response linearity (i.e. -2 using a spark electrode of 38 mm diameter. The optimum spark electrode diameter was found to lie around 16 mm, linearity being maintained up to approx. 1100 counts cm-2. Throughout this study a polyester film aluminized on both sides to a total aluminium thickness of 0.037 ?m (+- 10%) was used as the conductor between the spark and the return electrodes. (author)

244

Evidence for counting in insects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here we investigate the counting ability in honeybees by training them to receive a food reward after they have passed a specific number of landmarks. The distance to the food reward is varied frequently and randomly, whilst keeping the number of intervening landmarks constant. Thus, the bees cannot identify the food reward in terms of its distance from the hive. We find that bees can count up to four objects, when they are encountered sequentially during flight. Furthermore, bees trained in this way are able count novel objects, which they have never previously encountered, thus demonstrating that they are capable of object-independent counting. A further experiment reveals that the counting ability that the bees display in our experiments is primarily sequential in nature. It appears that bees can navigate to food sources by maintaining a running count of prominent landmarks that are passed en route, provided this number does not exceed four. PMID:18504627

Dacke, Marie; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

2008-10-01

245

LAWRENCE RADIATION LABORATORY COUNTING HANDBOOK  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Counting Handbook is a compilation of operational techniques and performance specifications on counting equipment in use at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Berkeley. Counting notes have been written from the viewpoint of the user rather than that of the designer or maintenance man. The only maintenance instructions that have been included are those that can easily be performed by the experimenter to assure that the equipment is operating properly.

Group, Nuclear Instrumentation

1966-10-01

246

Herbicides induce change in metabolic and genetic diversity of bacterial community from a cold oligotrophic lake.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pristine cold oligotrophic lakes show unique physical and chemical characteristics with permanent fluctuation in temperature and carbon source availability. Incorporation of organic toxic matters to these ecosystems could alter the bacterial community composition. Our goal was to assess the effects of simazine (Sz) and 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) upon the metabolic and genetic diversity of the bacterial community in sediment samples from a pristine cold oligotrophic lake. Sediment samples were collected in winter and summer season, and microcosms were prepared using a ration 1:10 (sediments:water). The microcosms were supplemented with 0.1 mM 2,4-D or 0.5 mM Sz and incubated for 20 days at 10 °C. Metabolic diversity was evaluated by using the Biolog Ecoplate™ system and genetic diversity by 16S rDNA amplification followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis. Total bacterial counts and live/dead ratio were determined by epifluorescence microscopy. The control microcosms showed no significant differences (P > 0.05) in both metabolic and genetic diversity between summer and winter samples. On the other hand, the addition of 2,4-D or Sz to microcosms induces statistical significant differences (P < 0.05) in metabolic and genetic diversity showing the prevalence of Actinobacteria group which are usually not detected in the sediments of these non-contaminated lacustrine systems. The obtained results suggest that contaminations of cold pristine lakes with organic toxic compounds of anthropic origin alter their homeostasis by inhibiting specific susceptible bacterial groups. The concomitant increase of usually low representative bacterial groups modifies the bacterial composition commonly found in this pristine lake. PMID:24158391

Aguayo, P; González, C; Barra, R; Becerra, J; Martínez, M

2014-03-01

247

Bacterial flora and antimicrobial resistance in raw frozen cultured seafood imported to Denmark.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intensified aquaculture includes the use of antimicrobials for disease control. In contrast to the situation in livestock, Escherichia coli and enterococci are not part of the normal gastrointestinal flora of fish and shrimp and therefore not suitable indicators of antimicrobial resistance in seafood. In this study, the diversity and phenotypic characteristics of the bacterial flora in raw frozen cultured and wild-caught shrimp and fish were evaluated to identify potential indicators of antimicrobial resistance. The bacterial flora cultured on various agar media at different temperatures yielded total viable counts of 4.0 × 10(4) to 3.0 × 10(5) CFU g(-1). Bacterial diversity was indicated by 16S rRNA sequence analysis of 84 isolates representing different colony types; 24 genera and 51 species were identified. Pseudomonas spp. (23% of isolates), Psychrobacter spp. (17%), Serratia spp. (13%), Exiguobacterium spp. (7%), Staphylococcus spp. (6%), and Micrococcus spp. (6%) dominated. Disk susceptibility testing of 39 bacterial isolates to 11 antimicrobials revealed resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, erythromycin, and third generation cephalosporins. Resistance to third generation cephalosporins was found in Pseudomonas, a genus naturally resistant to most ?-lactam antibiotics, and in Staphylococcus hominis. Half of the isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested. Results indicate that identification of a single bacterial resistance indicator naturally present in seafood at point of harvest is unlikely. The bacterial flora found likely represents a processing rather than a raw fish flora because of repeated exposure of raw material to water during processing. Methods and appropriate indicators, such as quantitative PCR of resistance genes, are needed to determine how antimicrobials used in aquaculture affect resistance of bacteria in retailed products. PMID:23462087

Noor Uddin, Gazi M; Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Guardabassi, Luca; Dalsgaard, Anders

2013-03-01

248

A Comparison between Droplet Digital and Quantitative PCR in the Analysis of Bacterial 16S Load in Lung Tissue Samples from Control and COPD GOLD 2  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Low biomass in the bacterial lung tissue microbiome utilizes quantitative PCR (qPCR) 16S bacterial assays at their limit of detection. New technology like droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) could allow for higher sensitivity and accuracy of quantification. These attributes are needed if specific bacteria within the bacterial lung tissue microbiome are to be evaluated as potential contributors to diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We hypothesize that ddPCR is better at quantifying the total bacterial load in lung tissue versus qPCR. Methods Control (n?=?16) and COPD GOLD 2 (n?=?16) tissue samples were obtained from patients who underwent lung resection surgery, were cut on a cryotome, and sections were assigned for use in quantitative histology or for DNA extraction. qPCR and ddPCR were performed on these samples using primers spanning the V2 region on the 16S rRNA gene along with negative controls. Total 16S counts were compared between the two methods. Both methods were assessed for correlations with quantitative histology measurements of the tissue. Results There was no difference in the average total 16S counts (P>0.05) between the two methods. However, the negative controls contained significantly lower counts in the ddPCR (0.55 ± 0.28 16S/uL) than in the qPCR assay (1.00 ± 0.70 16S copies) (P <0.05). The coefficient of variation was significantly lower for the ddPCR assay (0.18 ± 0.14) versus the qPCR assay (0.62 ± 0.29) (P<0.05). Conclusion Overall the ddPCR 16S assay performed better by reducing the background noise in 16S of the negative controls compared with 16S qPCR assay.

Sze, Marc A.; Abbasi, Meysam; Hogg, James C.; Sin, Don D.

2014-01-01

249

Bacterial Enhancement of Vinyl Fouling by Algae  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The role of bacteria in the development of algae on low-density vinyl was investigated. Unidentified bacterial contaminants in unialgal stock cultures of Phormidium faveolarum and Pleurochloris pyrenoidosa enhanced, by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude, colonization of vinyl by these algae, as determined by epifluorescence microscopy counts and chlorophyll a in extracts of colonized vinyl. Colonization by bacteria always preceded that by algae. Scanning electron microscopy of the colonized Phormidiu...

Holmes, Paul E.

1986-01-01

250

Integrated counting system - user guide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The facilities of a nucleonic counting system in one module in the standard 6000 series and its use in applications is described. Details are given of ways of employing the module for the rapid and low cost development of computer-based systems in nucleonic counting applications. (author)

251

KIDS COUNT Pocket Guide, 2005  

Science.gov (United States)

By providing policymakers and citizens with benchmarks of child well-being, KIDS COUNT seeks to enrich local, state, and national discussions concerning ways to secure better futures for all children. This "Pocket Guide" is derived from the 2005 "KIDS COUNT Data Book." The following sections are included: (1) Essay; (2) Charts on 10 Key…

Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2005

2005-01-01

252

Effects of Bac-D on Total Aerobic Bacteria Naturally Found on Broiler Breeder Eggs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hatchery sanitation is of the utmost importance in the poultry industry and may have drastic economic effects within a company. It has been shown that eggs with increased total aerobic bacterial counts may cause a decrease in hatchability, performance and growth, as well as a decrease in overall chick quality. Several methods have been utilized to decrease bacterial load on the exterior surface of the egg such as the use of: hydrogen peroxide, quaternary ammonium compounds, antibiotics and UV light exposure. Many disinfectants may effectively sanitize the egg; however, they have detrimental effects on the developing embryo due to the removal of the cuticle, allowing increased moisture loss from the egg. Benzalkonium chloride has been effectively used as a first aid antiseptic for humans. Bac-D, a novel disinfectant with benzalkonium chloride utilized as the active ingredient. Bac-D is a safe, potential substitute to harsh chemicals. In this trial, eggs were sprayed with the same volume of either Bac-D or water. Eggs were sampled at 3 different time points after spray (0, 1.5, or 3 h. At the culmination of each time point, a portion of the eggs was inoculated with an endogenous bacterial inoculum. Eggs were placed in a bag with 1% PBS and the rinsate was promptly plated on TSA (Tryptic Soy Agar. There were significant decreases (p<0.0001 in the log CFU/mL numbers at each time point (0, 1.5, 3 h. These results reveal the potential sanitizing effects of Bac-D on total aerobic bacterial counts on eggs.

Z.S. Lowman

2013-01-01

253

The effectiveness of peppermint and thyme essential oil mist in reducing bacterial contamination in broiler houses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been demonstrated by various in vitro studies, whereas their effect on poultry farm hygiene has not been thoroughly investigated, in particular with reference to aerial treatment. The present study aims to assess the antibacterial effects of natural essential oils in broiler houses. Two experimental rooms were fogged with aqueous solutions of peppermint and thyme oils. The control room was sprayed with pure water. The experiment was conducted on broilers aged 1 to 42 d. The rooms were fogged every 3 d. One day after fogging, the total counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, and mannitol-positive staphylococci were determined. Samples were collected from the air, litter, walls, and drinkers. The results of the study demonstrate that essential oil mist may improve hygiene standards in broiler farms. During broiler growth, the mean total counts of mesophilic bacteria in the rooms treated with essential oils were lower (P oil was higher than in the control. Both oils reduced bacterial counts, but thyme oil was more effective in reducing coliform bacteria, whereas peppermint oil had a higher inhibitory effect on the proliferation of staphylococci. These promising results encourage further research to determine the optimal doses and the effects of essential oils and their combinations on the living conditions and health status of broiler chickens. PMID:24135585

Witkowska, D; Sowinska, J

2013-11-01

254

Counting methods are decisive for rankings based on publication and citation studies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

For all rankings Of Countries research output based on number of publications or citations compared with population, GDP, R&D and public R&D expenses, and other national characteristics the counting method is decisive. Total counting (full credit to a country when at least one of the authors is from this country) and Fractional Counting (a country receives a fraction of full credit for a publication equal to the fraction of authors from this country) Of publications give widely different results. Counting methods must be stated, rankings based on different counting methods cannot be compared, and Fractional Counting is to be preferred.

Gauffriau, Marianne; Larsen, Peder Olesen

2005-01-01

255

Evaluation of Bacterial Contamination of Water Supply in Dental Unit Water Lines at Zahedan Dental School 2008  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Assessment of microbial contamination in dental unit waterlines has been focused on because of high risk of dangerous infections in immunocompromised patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bacterial contamination of water supply in dental unit water lines at Zahedan Dental School.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive analytical study we investigated 400 water samples collected from four parts of each unit including air/water syringe, turbine handpiece (before & after flushing, cup filler and 1 water sample collected from city water reservoir in Zahedan faculty of dentistry during 2008. Water samples were taken on Saturdays (the first working day in a week and Wednesdays (the last working day in a week, before and after treatment on the same unit. Samples were transported in closed sterile containers to microbiology laboratory. All samples were incubated on blood agar and McCankey plates for 72 hours at 37°C. Bacterial contamination were then evaluted. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and t-test.Results: Total mean bacterial count was 6914 cfu/ml. Mean bacterial contamination on Saturdays (8859 cfu/ml were higher than Wednesdays (4969 cfu/ml. Mean bacterial contamination before treatment was (5155 cfu/ml less than the end of treatment (8673 cfu/ml on the same unit. Mean bacterial contaminations of prosthetics clinic (13439cfu/ml was higher than other clinics. The mean of periodentology clinic bacterial contaminations (3012 cfu/ml was the least.Conclusion: The result of this study demonstrated that microbiological level of dental unit water lines is high. The dentists must be aware of the high level of microorganisms in the dental unit's water and thus minimize the risk of infection in both staff and patients.

Mollashahi Leila

2010-03-01

256

A mind you can count on: validating breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness  

Science.gov (United States)

Mindfulness practice of present moment awareness promises many benefits, but has eluded rigorous behavioral measurement. To date, research has relied on self-reported mindfulness or heterogeneous mindfulness trainings to infer skillful mindfulness practice and its effects. In four independent studies with over 400 total participants, we present the first construct validation of a behavioral measure of mindfulness, breath counting. We found it was reliable, correlated with self-reported mindfulness, differentiated long-term meditators from age-matched controls, and was distinct from sustained attention and working memory measures. In addition, we employed breath counting to test the nomological network of mindfulness. As theorized, we found skill in breath counting associated with more meta-awareness, less mind wandering, better mood, and greater non-attachment (i.e., less attentional capture by distractors formerly paired with reward). We also found in a randomized online training study that 4 weeks of breath counting training improved mindfulness and decreased mind wandering relative to working memory training and no training controls. Together, these findings provide the first evidence for breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness. PMID:25386148

Levinson, Daniel B.; Stoll, Eli L.; Kindy, Sonam D.; Merry, Hillary L.; Davidson, Richard J.

2014-01-01

257

Bacterial accumulation by the Demospongiae Hymeniacidon perlevis: a tool for the bioremediation of polluted seawater.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sponges can filter large amounts of water, which exerts an important grazing impact on free bacteria, an important component of the diet of sponges. We examined the accumulation of bacteria in the Demospongiae (Hymeniacidon perlevis). Analyses were performed on homogenates from unstarved and starved sponges in seawater from their sampling site (the Ionian Sea). Culturable heterotrophic bacteria (22 degrees C), total culturable bacteria (37 degrees C) and vibrios densities were measured on marine agar 2216, plate count agar and TCBS agar, respectively. Total and fecal coliforms, as well as fecal streptococci, were determined by the most probable number method (MPN). H. perlevis was able to accumulate all of the six microbiological groups. Bacterial groups differed in their resistance to digestion by H. perlevis. Our data suggest that H. perlevis may accumulate, remediate and metabolize bacteria and that they may be employed as a useful bioindicator and bioremediator. PMID:20434181

Longo, C; Corriero, G; Licciano, M; Stabili, L

2010-08-01

258

Inactivation of Selected Bacterial Pathogens in Dairy Cattle Manure by Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion (Balloon Type Digester  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion of animal manure in biogas digesters has shown promise as a technology in reducing the microbial load to safe and recommended levels. We sought to treat dairy manure obtained from the Fort Hare Dairy Farm by investigating the survival rates of bacterial pathogens, through a total viable plate count method, before, during and after mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Different microbiological media were inoculated with different serial dilutions of manure samples that were withdrawn from the biogas digester at 3, 7 and 14 day intervals to determine the viable cells. Data obtained indicated that the pathogens of public health importance were 90%–99% reduced in the order: Campylobacter sp. (18 days < Escherichia coli sp. (62 days < Salmonella sp. (133 days from a viable count of 10.1 × 103, 3.6 × 105, 7.4 × 103 to concentrations below the detection limit (DL = 102 cfu/g manure, respectively. This disparity in survival rates may be influenced by the inherent characteristics of these bacteria, available nutrients as well as the stages of the anaerobic digestion process. In addition, the highest p-value i.e., 0.957 for E. coli showed the statistical significance of its model and the strongest correlation between its reductions with days of digestion. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the specific bacterial pathogens in manure can be considerably reduced through anaerobic digestion after 133 days.

Christy E. Manyi-Loh

2014-07-01

259

Inactivation of Selected Bacterial Pathogens in Dairy Cattle Manure by Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion (Balloon Type Digester)  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaerobic digestion of animal manure in biogas digesters has shown promise as a technology in reducing the microbial load to safe and recommended levels. We sought to treat dairy manure obtained from the Fort Hare Dairy Farm by investigating the survival rates of bacterial pathogens, through a total viable plate count method, before, during and after mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Different microbiological media were inoculated with different serial dilutions of manure samples that were withdrawn from the biogas digester at 3, 7 and 14 day intervals to determine the viable cells. Data obtained indicated that the pathogens of public health importance were 90%–99% reduced in the order: Campylobacter sp. (18 days) < Escherichia coli sp. (62 days) < Salmonella sp. (133 days) from a viable count of 10.1 × 103, 3.6 × 105, 7.4 × 103 to concentrations below the detection limit (DL = 102 cfu/g manure), respectively. This disparity in survival rates may be influenced by the inherent characteristics of these bacteria, available nutrients as well as the stages of the anaerobic digestion process. In addition, the highest p-value i.e., 0.957 for E. coli showed the statistical significance of its model and the strongest correlation between its reductions with days of digestion. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the specific bacterial pathogens in manure can be considerably reduced through anaerobic digestion after 133 days. PMID:25026086

Manyi-Loh, Christy E.; Mamphweli, Sampson N.; Meyer, Edson L.; Okoh, Anthony I.; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael

2014-01-01

260

Intestinal Bacterial Flora that Compete on the Haem Precursor Iron Fumarate in Iron Deficiency Anemia Cases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aims: The study focused on finding if there is any possible relation between the intestinal bacterial population quantitative and qualitative and the deficiency of the most important iron compounds as haem precursors. Methodology and Results: Blood complete picture and stool analyses were done to 750 volunteer cases whom were asked for these analyses by their physicians. Analyses proved that 560 cases representing 75.2 % were anemic as the RBC(s based on counts of the total studied cases of less than 263 x 104 and the haemoglobin amount ranged between 7.2 and 11.3 g/dl, while the remainder 24.8 % of the volunteer sample was not anemic. A high male/female ratio ofanemic cases, 1:27 was also documented. Considering that all the studied stool samples should be completely free from any parasites or any other anemia-related diseases was a priority. Bacteriological analysis of stool samples of the anemic cases resulted in the detection of high counts of total viable bacteria, exceeded 42 x 109 cfu/g, while it was never more than 26 x 106 cfu/g and decreased to 4 x 106 cfu/g in many cases in this study. Identifying of the 361 bacterial isolates, were found to belong to 12 genera and 19 species, 6 of them; Pseudomonas putrefaciens, Micrococcus luteus, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus coagulans , were found and in high counts in the stool samples of only anemic cases. The ability of these isolates to compete for iron compounds such as ferrous fumarate alone or with glucose and phytate as activators or inhibitors to these abilities was investigated. Results proved 11 species out of the 19 identified species are capable to use and compete on ferrous fumarate as a haemprecursor. Sensitivity test for the representatives of the 19 species and 6 of the most commonly used antibiotics in the Egyptian pharmacy, using standard disc method, revealed variable susceptibilities of almost all of them to more than one of the studied antibiotics, except Corynebacterium equatium, which was found very resistant to two antibiotics; colistin sulfate and erythrocin. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The study finally concluded the strong role of intestinal bacterial counts and types as competitors on the haem precursor iron-containing compounds like ferrous fumarate.

Selim, S. A. H.

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
261

Total protein  

Science.gov (United States)

The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes of proteins found in the fluid portion of your blood. These are albumin and globulin. Proteins are important parts of all cells and tissues. ...

262

Prevention of bacterial adhesion  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Management of bacterial infections is becoming increasingly difficult due to the emergence and increasing prevalence of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to available antibiotics. Conventional antibiotics generally kill bacteria by interfering with vital cellular functions, an approach that imposes selection pressure for resistant bacteria. New approaches are urgently needed. Targeting bacterial virulence functions directly is an attractive alternative. An obvious target is bacterial adhesion. Bacterial adhesion to surfaces is the first step in colonization, invasion, and biofilm formation. As such, adhesion represents the Achilles heel of crucial pathogenic functions. It follows that interference with adhesion can reduce bacterial virulence. Here, we illustrate this important topic with examples of techniques being developed that can inhibit bacterial adhesion. Some of these will become valuable weapons for preventing pathogen contamination and fighting infectious diseases in the future.

Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

2010-01-01

263

Cellular automaton for bacterial towers  

Science.gov (United States)

A simulation approach to the stochastic growth of bacterial towers is presented, in which a non-uniform and finite nutrient supply essentially determines the emerging structure through elementary chemotaxis. The method is based on cellular automata and we use simple, microscopic, local rules for bacterial division in nutrient-rich surroundings. Stochastic nutrient diffusion, while not crucial to the dynamics of the total population, is influential in determining the porosity of the bacterial tower and the roughness of its surface. As the bacteria run out of food, we observe an exponentially rapid saturation to a carrying capacity distribution, similar in many respects to that found in a recently proposed phenomenological hierarchical population model, which uses heuristic parameters and macroscopic rules. Complementary to that phenomenological model, the simulation aims at giving more microscopic insight into the possible mechanisms for one of the recently much studied bacterial morphotypes, known as “towering biofilm”, observed experimentally using confocal laser microscopy. A simulation suggesting a mechanism for biofilm resistance to antibiotics is also shown.

Indekeu, J. O.; Giuraniuc, C. V.

2004-05-01

264

Photon counting based uranium analyser  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper discusses the development of photon counting based instrument for the trace detection of uranium in aqueous samples in ppb level. The long lived luminescence from the uranyl salts is detected by a photon counting module which essentially consists of a time gated PMT, electronics for the pulse preconditioning and high speed counters implemented in FPGA. A microcontroller based embedded system interacts with the FPGA and handles the user interface of the instrument. (author)

265

Can bacterial translocation be a beneficial event?  

Science.gov (United States)

Infection is a major concern in intestinal transplant recipients. Bacterial migration to extraintestinal sites is a central component of the gut hypothesis of sepsis. However, some studies have cited the beneficial effects of bacterial translocation (BT) on the host acquired immune system. We evaluated the role of previous BT on a subsequent BT challenge, examined the BT index in organs as well as changes in white blood cell (WBC) count in mesenteric lymph and blood for correlation with outcomes. Wistar rats (n = 60) were divided into a BT group (n = 20), which underwent inoculation of 10 mL of 10(10) CFU/mL Escherichia coli R-6 confined to the small intestine as opposed to a BT1-14 group (n = 20), which underwent the BT procedure on days 1 and 14 or a S1-BT14 group (n = 20) that received 10 mL of saline on day 1 and the BT procedure on day 14. Half of the animals were killed 2 hours following the BT procedure. Samples from different compartments were collected for culture. Mesenteric lymph and peripheral blood were examined for WBC counts. The other half of the hosts was subjected to outcome evaluation concerning weight gain and mortality. Animals undergoing double BT showed a significantly lower index of bacterial recovery (liver, spleen, and blood) compared with those having a single BT (P < .05). The WBC count of mesenteric lymph cells after double BT was similar to naïve animals, but significantly lower than the single BT group (P < .05). The outcome was unchanged among double BT versus other groups. A previous BT challenge was efficient to generate a host-defense mechanism against a second BT episode induced by intestinal overgrowth with the same bacterial strain. PMID:16908297

Salzedas-Netto, A A; Silva, R M; Martins, J L; Menchaca-Diaz, J L; Bugni, G M; Watanabe, A Y; Silva, F J P; Fagundes-Neto, U; Morais, M B; Koh, I H J

2006-01-01

266

Population Size and Distribution of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii in Relation to Total Soil Bacteria and Soil Depth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial cells small enough to pass through 0.4-mum-pore-size filters made up 5 to 9% of the indigenous bacterial population in 0- to 20-cm-depth samples of Abiqua silty clay loam. Within the same soil samples, cells of a similar dimension were stained with fluorescent antibodies specific to each of four antigenically distinct indigenous serogroups of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii and made up 22 to 34% of the soil population of the four serogroups. Despite the extensive contribution of small cells to these soil populations, no evidence of their being capable of either growth or nodulation was obtained. The density of soil bacteria which could be cultured ranged between 0.5 and 8.5% of the >0.4-mum direct count regardless of media, season of sampling, or soil depth. In the same soil samples, the viable nodulating populations of biovar trifolii determined by the plant infection soil dilution technique ranged between 1 and 10% of the >0.4-mum direct-immunofluorescence count of biovar trifolii. The <0.4-mum cell populations of both total soil bacteria and biovar trifolii changed abruptly between the 10- to 15-cm and 15- to 20-cm soil depth increments, increasing from 5 to 20% and from 20 to 50%, respectively, of their direct-count totals. The increase in density of the small-cell population corresponded to a significant increase in soil bulk density (1.07 to 1.21 g cm). The percent contribution of the <0.4-mum direct count to individual serogroup totals increased with soil depth by approximately 2-fold (39 to 87%) for serogroups 17 and 21 and by 12-fold (6 to 75%) for serogroups 6 and 36. PMID:16347896

Bottomley, P J; Dughri, M H

1989-04-01

267

Statistical treatment of nuclear counting results  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the exact time a specific nucleus undergoes radioactive decay cannot be specified, nor can showers caused by secondary cosmic rays be predicted, statistical laws play an important role in almost all cases of experimental nuclear physics. This paper describes the method for the statistical treatment of nuclear counting results obtained experimentally by taking into account random variables pertaining to both frequent and infrequent phenomena. When processing counting measurement data, it is recommended to first discard spurious random variables that spoil the statistics by using Chauvenet’s criterion, as well as to test if the results in the statistical sample follow a unique statistical distribution by using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test (U-test. The verification of the suggested statistical method was performed on counting statistics obtained both from the radioactive source Cs-137 and background radiation, expected to follow the normal distribution and the Poisson distribution, respectively. Results show that the application of the proposed statistical method excludes random fluctuations of the radioactive source or of the background radiation from the total statistical sample, as well as possible inadequacies in the experimental set-up and show an extremely effective agreement of the theoretical distribution of random variables with the corresponding experimentally obtained random variables.

Doli?anin ?emal B.

2011-01-01

268

Faint Submillimter Galaxy Counts at 450 micron  

CERN Document Server

We present the results of SCUBA2 observations at 450 micron and 850 micron of the field lensed by the massive cluster A370. With a total survey area > 100 arcmin2 and 1 sigma sensitivities of 3.92 and 0.82 mJy/beam at 450 and 850 micron respectively, we find a secure sample of 20 sources at 450 micron and 26 sources at 850 micron with a signal-to-noise ratio > 4. Using the latest lensing model of A370 and Monte Carlo simulations, we derive the number counts at both wavelengths. The 450 micron number counts probe a factor of four deeper than the counts recently obtained from the Herschel Space Telescope at similar wavelengths, and we estimate that ~47-61% of the 450 micron extragalactic background light (EBL) resolved into individual sources with 450 micron fluxes greater than 4.5 mJy. The faint 450 micron sources in the 4 sigma sample have positional accuracies of 3 arcseconds, while brighter sources (signal-to-noise > 6 sigma) are good to 1.4 arcseconds. Using the deep radio map (1 sigma ~ 6 uJy) we find tha...

Chen, Chian-Chou; Barger, Amy J; Casey, Caitlin M; Lee, Nicholas; Sanders, David B; Wang, Wei-Hao; Williams, Jonathan P

2012-01-01

269

Chromophore-enhanced bacterial photothermolysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of chromophore dyes to enhance the bactericidal effect of laser energy was studied as a means to optimize laser treatment for the decontamination of wound. Using an in vitro study, various concentrations of indocyanine green (ICG), carbon black, and fluorescein were mixed with a suspension of bacteria and plated on tryptic soy agar. Plates were exposed to a laser beam of 10-15 watts for times ranging from 0 to 180 seconds, incubated overnight, and colony counts were performed. Bacteria not mixed with chromophore were used as controls. Six bacterial strains encompassing a range of bacterial types were used: Staphylococcus aureau, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus spore suspensions, and Clostridium perfringens. Laser treatment alone had no effect on any of the bacteria. Significant killing of gram-positive bacteria, including spores of Bacillus cereus, was observed only with the use of ICG and diode laser energy. No effect was observed using any of the chromophores on the gram-negative bacteria. The results of this study indicate that successful killing of gram-positive bacteria can be achieved using ICG combined with appropriate laser energy and wavelength. Efforts to enhance the susceptibility of gram-negative bacteria to photothermolysis by laser energy were unsuccessful.

Huckleby, Jana K.; Morton, Rebecca J.; Bartels, Kenneth E.

1999-06-01

270

HAEMOCYTES CLASSIFICATION AND DIFFERENTIAL COUNTS IN THE FRESHWATER CRAB, PARATELPHUSA HYDRODROMOUS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The morphological study of haemocytes from the freshwater crab Paratelphusa hydrodromous was carried out by light microscopy. Total haemocytes count and differential count of crab haemocytes were made. Total count of haemocytes was noted as 140+3.288 cells/mm3. Three types of haemocytes were identified in fresh water crab Paratelphusa hydrodromous: hyalinocytes, semigranulocytes and granulocytes. The proportion of hyalinocytes was found to be 35%, whereas semigranulocytes were found as 62% and granulocytes 43%.

A .RULPRAKASH

2013-03-01

271

Standardization of 241Am by digital coincidence counting, liquid scintillation counting and defined solid angle counting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nuclide 241Am decays by alpha emission to 237Np. Most of the decays (84.6%) populate the excited level of 237Np with energy of 59.54 keV. Digital coincidence counting was applied to standardize a solution of 241Am by alpha-gamma coincidence counting with efficiency extrapolation. Electronic discrimination was implemented with a pressurized proportional counter and the results were compared with two other independent techniques: Liquid scintillation counting using the logical sum of double coincidences in a TDCR array and defined solid angle counting taking into account activity inhomogeneity in the active deposit. The results show consistency between the three methods within a limit of a 0.3%. An ampoule of this solution will be sent to the International Reference System (SIR) during 2009. Uncertainties were analysed and compared in detail for the three applied methods.

272

Standardization of 241Am by digital coincidence counting, liquid scintillation counting and defined solid angle counting  

CERN Document Server

The nuclide 241Am decays by alpha emission to 237Np. Most of the decays (84.6 %) populate the excited level of 237Np with energy of 59.54 keV. Digital Coincidence Counting was applied to standardize a solution of 241Am by alpha-gamma coincidence counting with efficiency extrapolation. Electronic discrimination was implemented with a pressurized proportional counter and the results were compared with two other independent techniques: Liquid Scintillation Counting using the logical sum of double coincidences in a TDCR array and Defined Solid Angle Counting taking into account activity inhomogeneity in the active deposit. The results show consistency between the three methods within a limit of a 0.3%. An ampoule of this solution will be sent to the International Reference System (SIR) during 2009. Uncertainties were analysed and compared in detail for the three applied methods.

Balpardo, C; Rodrigues, D; Arenillas, P

2010-01-01

273

Standardization of 241Am by digital coincidence counting, liquid scintillation counting and defined solid angle counting.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nuclide (241)Am decays by alpha emission to (237)Np. Most of the decays (84.6%) populate the excited level of (237)Np with energy of 59.54 keV. Digital coincidence counting was applied to standardize a solution of (241)Am by alpha-gamma coincidence counting with efficiency extrapolation. Electronic discrimination was implemented with a pressurized proportional counter and the results were compared with two other independent techniques: Liquid scintillation counting using the logical sum of double coincidences in a TDCR array and defined solid angle counting taking into account activity inhomogeneity in the active deposit. The results show consistency between the three methods within a limit of a 0.3%. An ampoule of this solution will be sent to the International Reference System (SIR) during 2009. Uncertainties were analysed and compared in detail for the three applied methods. PMID:20031433

Balpardo, C; Capoulat, M E; Rodrigues, D; Arenillas, P

2010-01-01

274

Oral bacterial DNA findings in pericardial fluid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: We recently reported that large amounts of oral bacterial DNA can be found in thrombus aspirates of myocardial infarction patients. Some case reports describe bacterial findings in pericardial fluid, mostly done with conventional culturing and a few with PCR; in purulent pericarditis, nevertheless, bacterial PCR has not been used as a diagnostic method before. Objective: To find out whether bacterial DNA can be measured in the pericardial fluid and if it correlates with pathologic–anatomic findings linked to cardiovascular diseases. Methods: Twenty-two pericardial aspirates were collected aseptically prior to forensic autopsy at Tampere University Hospital during 2009–2010. Of the autopsies, 10 (45.5% were free of coronary artery disease (CAD, 7 (31.8% had mild and 5 (22.7% had severe CAD. Bacterial DNA amounts were determined using real-time quantitative PCR with specific primers and probes for all bacterial strains associated with endodontic disease (Streptococcus mitis group, Streptococcus anginosus group, Staphylococcus aureus/Staphylococcus epidermidis, Prevotella intermedia, Parvimonas micra and periodontal disease (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatus, and Dialister pneumosintes. Results: Of 22 cases, 14 (63.6% were positive for endodontic and 8 (36.4% for periodontal-disease-associated bacteria. Only one case was positive for bacterial culturing. There was a statistically significant association between the relative amount of bacterial DNA in the pericardial fluid and the severity of CAD (p=0.035. Conclusions: Oral bacterial DNA was detectable in pericardial fluid and an association between the severity of CAD and the total amount of bacterial DNA in pericardial fluid was found, suggesting that this kind of measurement might be useful for clinical purposes.

Anne-Mari Louhelainen

2014-11-01

275

Improvements to counting procedures and devices, especially liquid scintillation counting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The invention concerns the processes and systems for counting the occurrences bringing about the appearance of two signals in time coincidence. It has a significant use in the counting of decay in a sample labelled with a radioactive tracer, particularly by liquid scintillation spectrometry (3H and 14C). It permits the substraction of random coincidences in conditions offering a better response to the requirements of practice. The signals coming from the sample are detected on the two channels; the prompt coincidences are detected between the signals on both channels; the signals from one of the channels are given a preset delay in relation to those coming from the other channel; the delayed coincidences between the signals coming from the two channels and subjected to a relative time shift equal to said delay, are detected and only the prompt coincidences in excess to delayed coincidences are counted

276

Bacterial pathogen indicators regrowth and reduced sulphur compounds' emissions during storage of electro-dewatered biosolids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electro-dewatering (ED) increases biosolids dryness from 10-15 to 30-50%, which helps wastewater treatment facilities control disposal costs. Previous work showed that high temperatures due to Joule heating during ED inactivate total coliforms to meet USEPA Class A biosolids requirements. This allows biosolids land application if the requirements are still met after the storage period between production and application. In this study, we examined bacterial regrowth and odour emissions during the storage of ED biosolids. No regrowth of total coliforms was observed in ED biosolids over 7d under aerobic or anaerobic incubations. To mimic on-site contamination during storage or transport, ED samples were seeded with untreated sludge. Total coliform counts decreased to detection limits after 4d in inoculated samples. Olfactometric analysis of ED biosolids odours showed that odour concentrations were lower compared to the untreated and heat-treated control biosolids. Furthermore, under anaerobic conditions, odorous reduced sulphur compounds (methanethiol, dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl disulphide) were produced by untreated and heat-treated biosolids, but were not detected in the headspaces above ED samples. The data demonstrate that ED provides advantages not only as a dewatering technique, but also for producing biosolids with lower microbial counts and odour levels. PMID:25065797

Navab-Daneshmand, Tala; Enayet, Samia; Gehr, Ronald; Frigon, Dominic

2014-10-01

277

[Model investigations of the impedance effectiveness conerning bacterial relevant to food hygiene].  

Science.gov (United States)

The impedance technique mostly meets today's requirements of microbiological rapid methods. At relatively high prime cost for the equipment the advantages are marked by low personnel and material costs as well as swiftness combined with highly flexible usage. The method is applicable for both quantitative and qualitative examinations but can fail occasionally in total count determination, especially if the sample material contains heterogeneous microbes. In model investigations with 53 strains of 17 different genera Enterobacteriaceae strains, Aeromonads and Enterococcus strains proved to be highly impedance effective. Lactobacillus strains and Pseudomonads as well as Staphylococcus aureus strains showed a low impedance effectiveness. Several strains, for example of the genera Micrococcus, Acinetobacter and Brochothrix, did not show any changes of the medium impedance under the chosen conditions. Criterion for characterization of impedance effectiveness was the impedance detection time starting with identical initial counts (10(3) cfu/ml). Impedance effectiveness of microbes was determined at highly varying degree by the parameters of generation time, lag-phase duration and relative activity. This can lead either to wrong negative (underestimations) or wrong positive (overestimations) results of bacterial count. PMID:9852770

Schulenburg, J; Bergann, T

1998-11-01

278

Adaptation of an automatic bacterial colony counter for measuring lung tumor growth in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adaptation of an automatic bacterial colony counter proved to be an efficient procedure for detecting and quantitating tumor growth in mouse lungs prepared by the Wexler method of India ink insufflation. After correlation of the size discriminator settings on the automatic counter with the Wexler visual scale, the amount of tumor growth in the lungs of 52 mice was determined by eye and independently by the automatic counter. There was no statistical difference between the two procedures. When the mouse lungs were grouped according to the number of tumors computed by eye, there was no statistical difference between the two counting procedures in any of the groups. The standard deviation was independent of the number of tumors in the lungs. This caused the precision of the automatic counter to be poor in lungs with few tumors because the error was a greater percentage of the total. In lungs with a large number of tumors, which were difficult to count by eye, close agreement between the two methods of counting was demonstrated. PMID:326389

Filardi, M J; Lininger, L; McKneally, M F

1977-08-01

279

Hanford whole body counting manual  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs

280

Counting Strings, Wound and Bound  

CERN Document Server

We analyze zero mode counting problems for Dirac operators that find their origin in string theory backgrounds. A first class of quantum mechanical models for which we compute the number of ground states arises from a string winding an isometric direction in a geometry, taking into account its energy due to tension. Alternatively, the models arise from deforming marginal bound states of a string winding a circle, and moving in an orthogonal geometry. After deformation, the number of bound states is again counted by the zero modes of a Dirac operator. We count these bound states in even dimensional asymptotically linear dilaton backgrounds as well as in Euclidean Taub-NUT. We show multiple pole behavior in the fugacities keeping track of a U(1) charge. We also discuss a second class of counting problems that arises when these backgrounds are deformed via the application of a heterotic duality transformation. We discuss applications of our results to Appell-Lerch sums and the counting of domain wall bound state...

Ashok, Sujay K; Troost, Jan

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Hydrodebridement of wounds: effectiveness in reducing wound bacterial contamination and potential for air bacterial contamination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to assess the level of air contamination with bacteria after surgical hydrodebridement and to determine the effectiveness of hydro surgery on bacterial reduction of a simulated infected wound. Methods Four porcine samples were scored then infected with a broth culture containing a variety of organisms and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. The infected samples were then debrided with the hydro surgery tool (Versajet, Smith and Nephew, Largo, Florida, USA. Samples were taken for microbiology, histology and scanning electron microscopy pre-infection, post infection and post debridement. Air bacterial contamination was evaluated before, during and after debridement by using active and passive methods; for active sampling the SAS-Super 90 air sampler was used, for passive sampling settle plates were located at set distances around the clinic room. Results There was no statistically significant reduction in bacterial contamination of the porcine samples post hydrodebridement. Analysis of the passive sampling showed a significant (p 3 to 16780 CFUs/m3 were observed with active sampling of the air whilst using hydro surgery equipment compared with a basal count of 582 CFUs/m3. During removal of the wound dressing, a significant increase was observed relative to basal counts (p Conclusion The results suggest a significant increase in bacterial air contamination both by active sampling and passive sampling. We believe that action might be taken to mitigate fallout in the settings in which this technique is used.

Armstrong David G

2009-05-01

282

FAR-ULTRAVIOLET NUMBER COUNTS OF FIELD GALAXIES  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The far-ultraviolet (FUV) number counts of galaxies constrain the evolution of the star formation rate density of the universe. We report the FUV number counts computed from FUV imaging of several fields including the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, the Hubble Deep Field North, and small areas within the GOODS-North and South fields. These data were obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Solar Blind Channel of the Advance Camera for Surveys. The number counts sample an FUV AB magnitude range from 21 to 29 and cover a total area of 15.9 arcmin2, ?4 times larger than the most recent HST FUV study. Our FUV counts intersect bright FUV Galaxy Evolution Explorer counts at 22.5 mag and they show good agreement with recent semi-analytic models based on dark matter 'merger trees' by R. S. Somerville et al. We show that the number counts are ?35% lower than in previous HST studies that use smaller areas. The differences between these studies are likely the result of cosmic variance; our new data cover more lines of sight and more area than previous HST FUV studies. The integrated light from field galaxies is found to contribute between 65.9+8-8 and 82.6+12-12 photons s-1 cm-2 sr-1 A-1 to the FUV extragalactic background. These measurements set a lower limit for the total FUV background light.

283

Demonstrating Bacterial Flagella.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes an effective laboratory method for demonstrating bacterial flagella that utilizes the Proteus mirabilis organism and a special harvesting technique. Includes safety considerations for the laboratory exercise. (MDH)

Porter, John R.; And Others

1992-01-01

284

Limit of sensitivity of low-background counting equipment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Hazards Control Department's Radiological Measurements Laboratory (RML) analyzes many types of sample media in support of the Laboratory's health and safety program. The Department has determined that the equation for the minimum limit of sensitivity, MDC(?,?) = 2.71 + 3.29 (rbts)1/2 is also adequate for RML counting systems with very-low-background levels. This paper reviews the normal distribution case and address the special case of determining the limit of sensitivity of a counting system when the background count rate is well known and small. In the latter case, we must use an exact test procedure based on the binomial distribution. However, the error in using the normal distribution for calculating a detection system's limit of sensitivity is not significant even as the total observed number of counts approaches or equals zero. 2 refs., 4 figs

285

Basic principles of scintillation counting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of the energy of radiation, the crystal size, the collimation of the beam and scattering on the pulse-height distribution produced by monoenergetic radiation will be discussed. These aspects will be related to scintillation scanning. The effects of voltage on the operation of photomultiplier s and so-called plateaus will be dealt with. Glow-transfer tubes for counting will be dealt with and a useful substraction circuit for comparing the counting rate from two separate scintillation counters will be presented. (author)

286

Radiometric assay of bacterial growth: analysis of factors determining system performance and optimization of assay technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A quantitative technique for the measurement of 14CO2 released from a bacterial culture was evaluated. The technique uses liquid scintillation counting to record 14CO2 accumulation on a fluor-impregnated filter paper within a double-chambered scintillation vial that also houses the bacterial growth medium. We have successfully identified and corrected the major causes for a variably low detection efficiency, and also established the optimum mixture of reagents for the detection system. Incorporation of Triton X-100 into the scintillation fluid used for the detector reduced the variability between identical assays in a single batch from 50% to 5%, and, in conjunction with an increase in the scintillator concentration, raised the counting efficiency from 30% to 70-88%. The response of the improved detector is linear over a wide range of count-rates. Another significant modification was the interchange of growth and detector chambers. Overall, a 40-fold increase in count-rate during the exponential phase of bacterial growth was obtained by improving 14CO2 detection efficiency, increasing the rate of 14CO2 transfer from liquid to gas phases and enlarging the growth supporting capacity of the detector system. The minimum detection time for bacterial growth was shortened and the exponential phase of bacterial proliferation was lengthened by at least 2 hr. High counting efficiency, precision, and linearity make the improved detector a sensitive and reliable tool for radiometry of bacterial growth and metabolism

287

The rare bacterial biosphere.  

Science.gov (United States)

All communities are dominated by a few species that account for most of the biomass and carbon cycling. On the other hand, a large number of species are represented by only a few individuals. In the case of bacteria, these rare species were until recently invisible. Owing to their low numbers, conventional molecular techniques could not retrieve them. Isolation in pure culture was the only way to identify some of them, but current culturing techniques are unable to isolate most of the bacteria in nature. The recent development of fast and cheap high-throughput sequencing has begun to allow access to the rare species. In the case of bacteria, the exploration of this rare biosphere has several points of interest. First, it will eventually produce a reasonable estimate of the total number of bacterial taxa in the oceans; right now, we do not even know the right order of magnitude. Second, it will answer the question of whether "everything is everywhere." Third, it will require hypothesizing and testing the ecological mechanisms that allow subsistence of many species in low numbers. And fourth, it will open an avenue of research into the immense reserve of genes with potential applications hidden in the rare biosphere. PMID:22457983

Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

2012-01-01

288

Late onset sepsis and intestinal bacterial colonization in very low birth weight infants receiving long-term parenteral nutrition / Sepse de ataque tardio e colonização bacteriana intestinal em neonatos de muito baixo peso recebendo nutrição parenteral total  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: O objetivo deste estudo foi estabelecer a taxa de sepse de ataque tardio (LOS) do nosso serviço, caracterizar a microbiota intestinal e avaliar uma possível associação entre a flora intestinal e sepse em recém-nascidos cirúrgicos que estavam recebendo nutrição parenteral (NP). MÉTODOS: C [...] ulturas do intestino foram colhidas no início da nutrição parenteral e, posteriormente, uma vez por semana. As amostras para a cultura de sangue foram coletadas com base em critérios clínicos estabelecidos pela equipe médica. A ponta do cateter venoso central (CVC) foi removida sob condições assépticas. Métodos laboratoriais padrão foram usados para identificar os microrganismos que cresceram em culturas de sangue, do intestino, e da ponta do CVC. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 74 recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso. Todas as crianças estavam recebendo nutrição parenteral e antibióticos quando a cultura do intestino foi iniciada. No total, 21 (28,4%) crianças apresentaram 28 episódios de sepse tardia sem fonte identificada. Os estafilococos coagulase negativo foram os mais comuns das bactérias identificadas, tanto no intestino (74,2%) como no sangue (67,8%). Todas as infecções ocorreram em pacientes que receberam nutrição parenteral através de um cateter venoso central. Seis crianças experimentaram episódios de translocação microbiana. CONCLUSÕES: Neste estudo LOS foi o episódio mais frequente em recém-nascidos recebendo nutrição parenteral e submetidos a cirurgia, 28,6% da infecção provavelmente foi um fenômeno derivado do intestino o que exige novas estratégias para a prevenção. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to establish the late onset sepsis (LOS) rate of our service, characterize the intestinal microbiota and evaluate a possible association between gut flora and sepsis in surgical infants who were receiving parenteral nutrition (PN). METHODS: Surveillance cu [...] ltures of the gut were taken at the start of PN and thereafter once a week. Specimens for blood culture were collected based on clinical criteria established by the medical staff. The central venous catheter (CVC) tip was removed under aseptic conditions. Standard laboratory methods were used to identify the microorganisms that grew on cultures of gut, blood and CVC tip. RESULTS: 74 very low birth weight infants were analyzed. All the infants were receiving PN and antibiotics when the gut culture was started. In total, 21 (28.4%) infants experienced 28 episodes of LOS with no identified source. Coagulase negative staphylococci were the most common bacteria identified, both in the intestine (74.2%) and blood (67.8%). All infections occurred in patients who received PN through a central venous catheter. Six infants experienced episodes of microbial translocation. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, LOS was the most frequent episode in neonates receiving parenteral nutrition who had been submitted to surgery; 28.6% of this infection was probably a gut-derived phenomenon and requires novel strategies for prevention.

Priscila Castro Cordeiro, Fernandes; Elias Jose Oliveira von, Dolinger; Vânia Olivetti Steffen, Abdallah; Daiane Silva, Resende; Paulo Pinto, Gontijo Filho; Denise von Dolinger de, Brito.

2011-08-01

289

Late onset sepsis and intestinal bacterial colonization in very low birth weight infants receiving long-term parenteral nutrition / Sepse de ataque tardio e colonização bacteriana intestinal em neonatos de muito baixo peso recebendo nutrição parenteral total  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: O objetivo deste estudo foi estabelecer a taxa de sepse de ataque tardio (LOS) do nosso serviço, caracterizar a microbiota intestinal e avaliar uma possível associação entre a flora intestinal e sepse em recém-nascidos cirúrgicos que estavam recebendo nutrição parenteral (NP). MÉTODOS: C [...] ulturas do intestino foram colhidas no início da nutrição parenteral e, posteriormente, uma vez por semana. As amostras para a cultura de sangue foram coletadas com base em critérios clínicos estabelecidos pela equipe médica. A ponta do cateter venoso central (CVC) foi removida sob condições assépticas. Métodos laboratoriais padrão foram usados para identificar os microrganismos que cresceram em culturas de sangue, do intestino, e da ponta do CVC. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 74 recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso. Todas as crianças estavam recebendo nutrição parenteral e antibióticos quando a cultura do intestino foi iniciada. No total, 21 (28,4%) crianças apresentaram 28 episódios de sepse tardia sem fonte identificada. Os estafilococos coagulase negativo foram os mais comuns das bactérias identificadas, tanto no intestino (74,2%) como no sangue (67,8%). Todas as infecções ocorreram em pacientes que receberam nutrição parenteral através de um cateter venoso central. Seis crianças experimentaram episódios de translocação microbiana. CONCLUSÕES: Neste estudo LOS foi o episódio mais frequente em recém-nascidos recebendo nutrição parenteral e submetidos a cirurgia, 28,6% da infecção provavelmente foi um fenômeno derivado do intestino o que exige novas estratégias para a prevenção. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to establish the late onset sepsis (LOS) rate of our service, characterize the intestinal microbiota and evaluate a possible association between gut flora and sepsis in surgical infants who were receiving parenteral nutrition (PN). METHODS: Surveillance cu [...] ltures of the gut were taken at the start of PN and thereafter once a week. Specimens for blood culture were collected based on clinical criteria established by the medical staff. The central venous catheter (CVC) tip was removed under aseptic conditions. Standard laboratory methods were used to identify the microorganisms that grew on cultures of gut, blood and CVC tip. RESULTS: 74 very low birth weight infants were analyzed. All the infants were receiving PN and antibiotics when the gut culture was started. In total, 21 (28.4%) infants experienced 28 episodes of LOS with no identified source. Coagulase negative staphylococci were the most common bacteria identified, both in the intestine (74.2%) and blood (67.8%). All infections occurred in patients who received PN through a central venous catheter. Six infants experienced episodes of microbial translocation. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, LOS was the most frequent episode in neonates receiving parenteral nutrition who had been submitted to surgery; 28.6% of this infection was probably a gut-derived phenomenon and requires novel strategies for prevention.

Priscila Castro Cordeiro, Fernandes; Elias Jose Oliveira von, Dolinger; Vânia Olivetti Steffen, Abdallah; Daiane Silva, Resende; Paulo Pinto, Gontijo Filho; Denise von Dolinger de, Brito.

290

A new practical counting-card  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new practical counting-card we developed recently used for advanced personal computer will be introduced in this paper briefly. The counting-card we developed is a general-purpose counter indeed, which is designed based on PCI bus. Mainly, a micro-controller 8051AH and a 6-decade counter chip LS7031 were used to construct this card. The card can be located in an advanced personal computer directly to construct a data acquisition system. The maximum count capacity of this card is 109-1, ranging from 0 to 999 999 999, the maximum counting time range, can be set in 1 cycle, is 1 x 106s, the maximum counting rate is 20 MHz for positive TTL input. There are several counting functions with this card. The card can function as a preset counter, the counting interval can be preset, the minimum counting interval is 10 ms, During the counting interval, the data counted can be displayed and stored each second. Also, this card can count in one cycle or recycle, which can be selected. Under recycle counting mode, the interval between the counting cycle can be preset too. This counting-card has a big counting capacity. It can count in a high frequency. It can be used to replaced normal counter and scaler module or instrument. This card can be used in variety purpose. (authors)

291

7 CFR 993.502 - Size count.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Size count. 993.502 Section 993.502 Agriculture...PRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA Pack Specification as to Size Definitions § 993.502 Size count. Size count means the count or...

2010-01-01

292

Liquid scintillation counting of porphyrins  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbon-14-labelled porphyrins may be counted by liquid scintillation up to a vial concentration of ca. 3 x 10-5 M (ca. 0.5 mg/vial), either directly or after initial sorption onto chromatography paper. A readily-constructed quench curve permits direct conversion of cpm to Bq and is practical for 14C to ca. 35% efficiency. (author)

293

Carbon fiber counting. [aircraft structures  

Science.gov (United States)

A method was developed for characterizing the number and lengths of carbon fibers accidentally released by the burning of composite portions of civil aircraft structure in a jet fuel fire after an accident. Representative samplings of carbon fibers collected on transparent sticky film were counted from photographic enlargements with a computer aided technique which also provided fiber lengths.

Pride, R. A.

1980-01-01

294

Liquid scintillation, counting, and compositions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The emissions of radioactive isotopes in both aqueous and organic samples can be measured by liquid scintillation counting in micellar systems. The micellar systems are made up of scintillation solvent, scintillation solute and a mixture of surfactants, preferably at least one of which is relatively oil-soluble water-insoluble and another which is relatively water-soluble oil-insoluble

295

Phase space quark counting rule  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple quark counting rule based on phase space consideration suggested before is used to fit all 39 recent experimental data points on inclusive reactions. Parameter free relations are found to agree with experiments. Excellent detail fits are obtained for 11 inclusive reactions

296

Application of neutron multiplicity counting to waste assay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the use of a new figure of merit code that calculates both bias and precision for coincidence and multiplicity counting, and determines the optimum regions for each in waste assay applications. A open-quotes tunable multiplicityclose quotes approach is developed that uses a combination of coincidence and multiplicity counting to minimize the total assay error. An example is shown where multiplicity analysis is used to solve for mass, alpha, and multiplication and tunable multiplicity is shown to work well. The approach provides a method for selecting coincidence, multiplicity, or tunable multiplicity counting to give the best assay with the lowest total error over a broad spectrum of assay conditions. 9 refs., 6 figs

297

On Walk Counts and Complexity of General Graphs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This report was motivated by a recent work of Gutman, Rucker and Rucker on walks in simple molecular graphs, i.e., graphs without multiple edges and loops. Three methods for counting walks in general graphs, i.e., graphs with multiple bonds and loops, are presented: (i graphical method based on the Morgan summation procedure, (ii method based on augmented adjacency matrices of higher orders and (iii method based on eigenvalues and eigenvectors of augmented adjacency matrices of higher orders. They represent extensions of the methods discussed previously in the literature for simple graphs. The total walk count (twc was used as a measure for complexity of general graphs. It is shown that twc indices increase with size, branching, cyclicity, the number of loops and multiple bonds, and decrease with symmetry of general graphs. The total walk count appears to be a valuable tool to account for complexity for several types of molecular graphs.

Istvan Lukovits

2002-08-01

298

Application of neutron multiplicity counting to waste assay  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the use of a new figure of merit code that calculates both bias and precision for coincidence and multiplicity counting, and determines the optimum regions for each in waste assay applications. A {open_quotes}tunable multiplicity{close_quotes} approach is developed that uses a combination of coincidence and multiplicity counting to minimize the total assay error. An example is shown where multiplicity analysis is used to solve for mass, alpha, and multiplication and tunable multiplicity is shown to work well. The approach provides a method for selecting coincidence, multiplicity, or tunable multiplicity counting to give the best assay with the lowest total error over a broad spectrum of assay conditions. 9 refs., 6 figs.

Pickrell, M.M.; Ensslin, N. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Sharpe, T.J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

1997-11-01

299

Bacterial farming by the fungus Morchella crassipes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The interactions between bacteria and fungi, the main actors of the soil microbiome, remain poorly studied. Here, we show that the saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal soil fungus Morchella crassipes acts as a bacterial farmer of Pseudomonas putida, which serves as a model soil bacterium. Farming by M. crassipes consists of bacterial dispersal, bacterial rearing with fungal exudates, as well as harvesting and translocation of bacterial carbon. The different phases were confirmed experimentally using cell counting and (13)C probing. Common criteria met by other non-human farming systems are also valid for M. crassipes farming, including habitual planting, cultivation and harvesting. Specific traits include delocalization of food production and consumption and separation of roles in the colony (source versus sink areas), which are also found in human agriculture. Our study evidences a hitherto unknown mutualistic association in which bacteria gain through dispersal and rearing, while the fungus gains through the harvesting of an additional carbon source and increased stress resistance of the mycelium. This type of interaction between fungi and bacteria may play a key role in soils. PMID:24174111

Pion, Martin; Spangenberg, Jorge E; Simon, Anaele; Bindschedler, Saskia; Flury, Coralie; Chatelain, Auriel; Bshary, Redouan; Job, Daniel; Junier, Pilar

2013-12-22

300

The real-time fitting of radioactive decay curves. Pt. 3. Counting during sampling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analysis of a least-squares method for the real-time fitting of the theoretical total count function to the actual total count from radioactive decays has been given previously for the case where counting takes place after a sample is taken. The counting may be done in a number of different counting systems which distinguish between different types or energies of radiation emitted from the sample. The method would allow real-time determination of the numbers of atoms and hence activities of the individual isotopes present and has been designated the Time Evolved Least-Squares method (TELS). If the radioactivity which is to be measured exists as an aerosol or in a form where a sample is taken at a constant rate it may be possible to count during sampling and by so doing reduce the total time required to determine the activity of the individual isotopes present. The TELS method is extended here to the case where counting and the evaluation of the activity takes place concurrently with the sampling. The functions which need to be evaluated are derived and the calculations required to implement the method are discussed. As with the TELS method of counting after sampling the technique of counting during sampling and the simultaneous evaluation of activity could be achieved in real-time. Results of testing the method by computer simulation for two counting schemes for the descendants of radon are presented. ((orig.))

 
 
 
 
301

How to count elephants in West African savannahs? Synthesis and comparison of main gamecount methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The comparison of some elephants count methods – aerial sampling count, aerial total count and direct foot count – has been presented through surveys' study cases implemented in Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger. We compare them in terms of effort and cost to survey an area (sampling efficiency, efficiency in data collection (detection efficiency as well as accuracy and precision. Aerial sampling count returns low sampling and detection efficiency and very low precision and accuracy figures when counting elephants populations below 0.5 elephant·km-2. Precision can partly be improved by stratification. Direct foot count returns the best sampling and detection efficiency but insufficient data number to produce reliable estimates. Therefore some authors often produced no results for elephants. Aerial total count is a costly method in absolute value. It requires important logistic and no measure of error is possible. However it provides relatively good sampling and detection efficiency as well as relatively accurate figures appreciated by wildlife managers if technical requirements are respected. Aerial total count could be recommended to survey small population of West African elephants each 3 to 5 years to minimize yearly count costs.

Bouché, P.

2012-01-01

302

Importance of particle-associated bacterial heterotrophy in a coastal Arctic ecosystem  

Science.gov (United States)

The large quantities of particles delivered by the Mackenzie River to the coastal Beaufort Sea (Arctic Ocean) have implications for the spatial distribution, composition and productivity of its bacterial communities. Our objectives in this study were: (1) to assess the contribution of particle-associated bacteria (fraction ? 3 µm) to total bacterial production and their relationships with changing environmental conditions along a surface water transect; (2) to examine how particle-based heterotrophy changes over the annual cycle (Nov 2003-Aug 2004); and (3) to determine whether particle-associated bacterial assemblages differ in composition from the free-living communities (fraction leucine-based (BP-Leu) and thymidine-based (BP-TdR) bacterial production, with values up to 98% at the inshore, low salinity stations. The relative contribution of particle-associated bacteria to total BP-Leu was positively correlated with temperature and particulate organic material (POM) concentration. The annual dataset showed low activities of particle-associated bacteria during late fall and most of the winter, and a period of high particle-associated activity in spring and summer, likely related to the seasonal inputs of riverine POM. Results from catalyzed reporter deposition for fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) confirmed the dominance of Bacteria and presence of Archaea (43-84% and 0.2-5.5% of DAPI counts, respectively), which were evenly distributed throughout the Mackenzie Shelf, and not significantly related to environmental variables. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) revealed changes in the bacterial community structure among riverine, estuarine and marine stations, with separation according to temperature and salinity. There was evidence of differences between the particle-associated and free-living bacterial assemblages at the estuarine stations with highest POM content. Particle-associated bacteria are an important functional component of this Arctic ecosystem. Under a warmer climate, they are likely to play an increasing role in coastal biogeochemistry and carbon fluxes as a result of permafrost melting and increased particle transport from the tundra to coastal waters.

Garneau, Marie-Ève; Vincent, Warwick F.; Terrado, Ramon; Lovejoy, Connie

2009-01-01

303

Total inexperiencia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A partir de la ruptura entre las diferentes ramas del arte, y de los posteriores intentos por reagrupar la disciplina en un arte total, Alonso trata de hilvanar un hilo entre esa totalidad y la ciudad. Si para los situacionistas la ciudad es el escenario último de la vida del hombre -y como tal, el marco ideal para realizar esta integración- aparece entonces un compromiso nuevo entre el urbanismo, la arquitectura y la experiencia que el ciudadano vive, cotidianamente, en sus recorridos y paseosStarting from the current split of the different artistic disciplines, and the later attempts to regroup them into a total art, Alonso proposes a link between that totality and the city. If, for the situationists, the city is the ultimate staging of man's life -and, as such, the ideal frame for this integration-, then urbanism, architecture, and the citizen's everyday lived experience must assume together a new kind of commitment

Pedro Alonso

2002-12-01

304

Sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of blood cultures from cattle clinically suspected of bacterial endocarditis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study investigated the number of blood culture-positive cattle among 215 animals clinically suspected of having bacterial endocarditis. For animals that were necropsied, the sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of the diagnosis of endocarditis were calculated on the basis of the isolation of the causative bacteria from blood. Furthermore, it was investigated whether the glutaraldehyde coagulation time, total leucocyte count, per cent neutrophil granulocytes, pulse rate and duration of disease could help to discriminate endocarditis from other diseases. Among 138 animals necropsied the sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of blood cultivation were 70.7 per cent, 93.8 per cent and 89.1 per cent, respectively. None of the other measurements could be used to discriminate between endocarditis and non-endocarditis cases.

Houe, Hans; Jungersen, Gregers

1993-01-01

305

Bacterial communities reflect the spatial variation in pollutant levels in Brazilian mangrove sediment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The majority of oil from oceanic oil spills converges on coastal ecosystems such as mangrove forests. A major challenge to mangrove bioremediation is defining the mangrove's pollution levels and measuring its recuperation from pollution. Bioindicators can provide a welcome tool for defining such recovery. To determine if the microbial profiles reflected variation in the pollutants, samples from different locations within a single mangrove with a history of exposure to oil were chemically characterised, and the microbial populations were evaluated by a comprehensive range of conventional and molecular methods. Multivariate ordination of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) microbial community fingerprints revealed a pronounced separation between the sediment and rhizosphere samples for all analysed bacterial communities (Bacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Pseudomonas). A Mantel test revealed significant relationships between the sediment chemical fertility and oil-derived pollutants, most of the bacterial community fingerprints from sediment samples, and the counts by different cultivation strategies. The level of total petroleum hydrocarbons was significantly associated with the Bacteria and Betaproteobacteria fingerprints, whereas anthracene and the total level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were associated with the Actinobacteria. These results show that microbial communities from the studied mangrove reflect the spatial variation of the chemicals in the sediment, demonstrating the specific influences of oil-derived pollutants. PMID:20803251

Peixoto, R; Chaer, G M; Carmo, F L; Araújo, F V; Paes, J E; Volpon, A; Santiago, G A; Rosado, A S

2011-02-01

306

Bacterial community characterization of a sequencing batch reactor treating pre-ozonized sulfamethoxazole in water.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antibiotics are pharmaceutical compounds widely used to treat a broad range of infections. These chemicals appear to be recalcitrant compounds when released to water systems, and their presence at the effluent of wastewater treatment plants and surface waters has been widely documented. Sulfamethoxazole (SMX), a sulfonamide commonly used to treat urinary infections, is one of them. Ozonation was proved to be a suitable method to remove SMX antibiotic in water. However, it is stated that a high ozone dosage would be necessary to achieve the complete mineralization of the intermediates. In this work, ozonation is coupled with a Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor (SBBR) in order to completely degrade SMX and its metabolites from water solutions. Moreover, a precise description of the microbial community in the bioreactor is provided by means of traditional microscopy and molecular biology techniques. The results obtained showed high Total Organic Carbon removals at the end of the biological treatment (89% removal). Furthermore, nitrates produced during the aerobic SBBR's performance were monitored and eliminated by adding an anoxic stage, achieving an overall nitrogen removal of 86%. A bacterial community analysis of the SBBR during aerobic and aerobic-anoxic conditions was performed, targeting the bacterial 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene. These results revealed a dominant contribution of bacteria from the Proteobacteria class, with a major contribution from the Rhizobiales and Burkholderiales orders during the bioreactor performance, counting 52% of the total population. PMID:24191493

Esplugas, Marc; González, Oscar; Sans, Carme

2013-01-01

307

Impact of commonly used agrochemicals on bacterial diversity in cultivated soils.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of three selected agrochemicals on bacterial diversity in cultivated soil have been studied. The selected agrochemicals are Cerox (an insecticide), Ceresate and Paraquat (both herbicides). The effect on bacterial population was studied by looking at the total heterotrophic bacteria presence and the effect of the agrochemicals on some selected soil microbes. The soil type used was loamy with pH of 6.0-7.0. The soil was placed in opaque pots and bambara bean (Vigna subterranean) seeds cultivated in them. The agrochemicals were applied two weeks after germination of seeds at concentrations based on manufacturer's recommendation. Plant growth was assessed by weekly measurement of plant height, foliage appearance and number of nodules formed after one month. The results indicated that the diversity index (Di) among the bacteria populations in untreated soil and that of Cerox-treated soils were high with mean diversity index above 0.95. Mean Di for Ceresate-treated soil was 0.88, and that for Paraquattreated soil was 0.85 indicating low bacterial populations in these treatment-type soils. The study also showed that application of the agrochemicals caused reduction in the number of total heterotrophic bacteria population sizes in the soil. Ceresate caused 82.50% reduction in bacteria number from a mean of 40 × 10(5) cfu g(-1) of soil sample to 70 × 10(4) cfu g(-1). Paraquat-treated soil showed 92.86% reduction, from a mean of 56 × 10(5) cfu g(-1) to 40 × 10(4) cfu g(-1). Application of Cerox to the soil did not have any remarkable reduction in bacterial population number. Total viable cell count studies using Congo red yeast-extract mannitol agar indicated reduction in the number of Rhizobium spp. after application of the agrochemicals. Mean number of Rhizobium population numbers per gram of soil was 180 × 10(4) for the untreated soil. Cerox-treated soil recorded mean number of 138 × 10(4) rhizobial cfu g(-1) of soil, a 23.33% reduction. Ceresate- and Paraquat-treated soils recorded 20 × 10(4) and 12 × 10(4) cfu g(-1) of soil, respectively, representing 88.89% and 93.33% reduction in Rhizobium population numbers. Correspondingly, the mean number of nodules per plant was 44 for the growth in untreated soil, 30 for the plant in the Cerox-treated soil, 8 for the plant in Paraquat-treated soil and 3 for the plant in Ceresate-treated soil. The study has confirmed detrimental effect of insecticide on bacterial populations in the soil. Total heterotrophic counts, rhizobial counts as well as the number of nodules of all samples taken from the chemically treated soils were all low as compared to values obtained for the untreated soil. However, the effect of the insecticide was minimal in all cases as compared to the effects of the herbicides on the soil fauna. Indiscriminate use of agrochemicals on farms can therefore affect soil flora and subsequently food production. PMID:23100773

Ampofo, J A; Tetteh, W; Bello, M

2009-09-01

308

White blood cell count and mortality in acute myocardial infarction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Coronary atherosclerosis is increasingly viewed as an inflammatory process. We assessed the relation between WBC count on admission and mortality in STEMI patients treated with primary PCI. Material & Method: Totally 205 patients with STEMI less than 24 hours before admission who admitted for primary angioplasty enrolled in study. Study end points were defined as myocardial adverse cardiac event (MACE) and mortalit...

Negar Salehi; Rahimeh Eskandarian; Hamid Reza Sanati; Ata Firouzi; Farshad Shakerian; Seyfollah Abdi; Homan Bakhshandeh; Mojde Nasiri Ahmad Abadi; Negin Nouri; Anoushiravan Vakili-Zarch

2013-01-01

309

Simple Identification of Complex ADHD Subtypes Using Current Symptom Counts  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of the assessment of the accuracy of simple rules based on symptom count for assigning youths to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder subtypes show that having six or more total symptoms and fewer than three hyperactive-impulsive symptoms is an accurate predictor for the latent class sever inattentive subtype.

Volk, Heather E.; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Hay, David A.; Todd, Richard D.

2009-01-01

310

The automatic recognition and counting of cough  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cough recordings have been undertaken for many years but the analysis of cough frequency and the temporal relation to trigger factors have proven problematic. Because cough is episodic, data collection over many hours is required, along with real-time aural analysis which is equally time-consuming. A method has been developed for the automatic recognition and counting of coughs in sound recordings. Methods The Hull Automatic Cough Counter (HACC is a program developed for the analysis of digital audio recordings. HACC uses digital signal processing (DSP to calculate characteristic spectral coefficients of sound events, which are then classified into cough and non-cough events by the use of a probabilistic neural network (PNN. Parameters such as the total number of coughs and cough frequency as a function of time can be calculated from the results of the audio processing. Thirty three smoking subjects, 20 male and 13 female aged between 20 and 54 with a chronic troublesome cough were studied in the hour after rising using audio recordings. Results Using the graphical user interface (GUI, counting the number of coughs identified by HACC in an hour long recording, took an average of 1 minute 35 seconds, a 97.5% reduction in counting time. HACC achieved a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 96%. Reproducibility of repeated HACC analysis is 100%. Conclusion An automated system for the analysis of sound files containing coughs and other non-cough events has been developed, with a high robustness and good degree of accuracy towards the number of actual coughs in the audio recording.

Morice Alyn H

2006-09-01

311

Platelet Counts and Platelet Activation Markers in Obese Subjects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective. In this work we studied the correlation between platelet count, platelet activation, and systemic inflammation in overweight, obese, and morbidly obese individuals. Methods and subjects. A total of 6319 individuals participated in the study. Complete blood counts, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP serum levels, and body mass index (BMI were measured during routine checkups. Platelet activation markers were studied among 30 obese (BMI = 41 ± 8 kg/m2 and 35 nonobese (BMI = 24 ± 3 kg/m2 individuals. Platelet activation status was evaluated by flow cytometry using specific antibodies against the activated platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb/IIIa, p-selectin (CD-62 p, and binding of Annexin-V to platelet anionic phospholipids. Results. Overweight, obese, and morbidly obese females had significantly elevated platelet counts (P<.0001 compared with normal-weight females. No significant elevation of platelet counts was observed in the male subgroups. A significant age adjusted correlation between BMI and platelet counts (P<.0001 was found among females. This correlation was attenuated (P=.001 after adjustment for hs-CRP concentrations. The flow cytometry analysis of platelets showed no significant differences in activation marker expression between nonobese and obese individuals. Discussion. Obesity may be associated with elevated platelet counts in females with chronic inflammation. Obesity is not associated with increased platelet activation.

Aaron Tomer

2008-03-01

312

Determination of Total, Viable Cells and Enterobacteraceae in Categorized Milk Powder  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study was conducted to examine the microbiological quality of commercial milk powders. A total of 30 dried milk powders, 10 each of Skim Milk Powder (SMP), Semi Skim Milk Powder (SSMP) and Full Cream Milk Powder (FCMP) purchased from market of Hyderabad, Sindh were evaluated for microbiological quality characteristics, like Total Viable Count (TVC), thermoduric count and Enterobacteraceae Count (EbC). Total viable count, (6.1 x 103±7.2 x 102cfu/g) and...

Imran Rashid Rajput; Khaskheli, M.; Kaleri, H. A.; Fazlani, S. A.; Devi, K.; Khaskheli, G. B.

2009-01-01

313

Fitting a distribution to miccrobial counts: making sense of zeros  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Non-detects or left-censored results are inherent to the traditional methods of microbial enumeration in foods. Typically, a low concentration of microorganisms in a food unit goes undetected in plate counts or most probable number (MPN) counts, and produces “artificial zeros”. However, these “artificial zeros” are only a share of the total number of zero counts resulting from a sample, as their number adds up to the number of “true zeros” resulting from uncontaminated units. In the process of fitting a probability distribution to microbial counts, “artificial” and “true” zeros are usually undifferentiated. This practice may lead to errors in the estimation of the parameters for the distribution of microbial concentrations, most specifically to the underestimation of the mean and overestimation of the variance. Distributions of microbial counts are often used as input in quantitative microbial risk assessment; therefore it is possible that errors related to these distributions have an impact in terms of food safety, if an influence on the estimated risk is observed. In this study, we developed a method to estimate both the parameters of a lognormal distribution of microbial concentrations (mean and standard deviation) and the prevalence of contaminated food units (one minus the proportion of “true zeros”) from a set of microbial counts. By running the model with in silico generated concentration and count data, we could evaluate the performance of this method in terms of estimation of the three different parameters. In principle, the higher the proportion of zeros in a dataset, the higher the error in the estimation will be, and a lower prevalence contributes to a higher proportion of “true zeros” in microbial counts. Therefore, we also investigated the effect of the prevalence on the estimation of the distribution parameters mean and standard deviation by running the same model for different prevalence scenarios.

Ribeiro Duarte, Ana Sofia; Stockmarr, Anders

314

Counting arcs in negative curvature  

CERN Document Server

Let M be a complete Riemannian manifold with negative curvature, and let C_-, C_+ be two properly immersed locally convex subsets of M. We survey the asymptotic behaviour of the number of common perpendiculars of length at most s from C_- to C_+, giving error terms and counting with weights, starting from the work of Huber, Herrmann, Margulis and ending with the works of the authors. We describe the relationship with counting problems in circle packings of Kontorovich, Oh, Shah. We survey the tools used to obtain the precise asymptotics (Bowen-Margulis and Gibbs measures, skinning measures). We describe several arithmetic applications, in particular the ones by the authors on the asymptotics of the number of representations of integers by binary quadratic, Hermitian or Hamiltonian forms.

Parkkonen, Jouni

2012-01-01

315

Statistical Modeling of Storm Counts.  

Science.gov (United States)

A statistical model is presented of a recently compiled record of monthly extratropical storm counts for the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States for the period 1942-83. The counts are modeled as a Poisson process with nonstationary mean function. The mean function is decomposed into a secular component and a seasonal cycle. Because the form of the secular component is unknown, a nonparametric regression approach suitable for Poisson data is used to estimate it. The estimated secular component is generally constant through the 1950s, then declines through the 1970s. The estimate is found to be statistically significant. A Fourier series involving two harmonics is fit to the seasonal cycle. A preliminary check indicates that the seasonal cycle remains stable through time. Some diagnostics based on suitably defined residuals are presented that generally confirm the goodness-of-fit and distributional assumptions underlying the model.

Solow, Andrew R.

1989-02-01

316

It's not the pixel count, you fool  

Science.gov (United States)

The first thing a "marketing guy" asks the digital camera engineer is "how many pixels does it have, for we need as many mega pixels as possible since the other guys are killing us with their "umpteen" mega pixel pocket sized digital cameras. And so it goes until the pixels get smaller and smaller in order to inflate the pixel count in the never-ending pixel-wars. These small pixels just are not very good. The truth of the matter is that the most important feature of digital cameras in the last five years is the automatic motion control to stabilize the image on the sensor along with some very sophisticated image processing. All the rest has been hype and some "cool" design. What is the future for digital imaging and what will drive growth of camera sales (not counting the cell phone cameras which totally dominate the market in terms of camera sales) and more importantly after sales profits? Well sit in on the Dark Side of Color and find out what is being done to increase the after sales profits and don't be surprised if has been done long ago in some basement lab of a photographic company and of course, before its time.

Kriss, Michael A.

2012-01-01

317

On how to count Goldstone bosons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A generalization of Goldstone's theorem is presented which is valid for theories either with or without relativistic invariance. The central suggestion is that, under certain specified assumptions, all Goldstone bosons can be divided into two classes, termed type I and type II, in accordance with the behaviour of their dispersion laws. A Goldstone boson is a member of either the first or the second class according to its energy, in the limit of long wavelengths is proportional to an odd or an even power of its momentum respectively. The major result then is that, if each Goldstone boson of type I is counted once and that of type II is counted twice, the total number of 'bosons' so obtained is always equal to or greater than the number of symmetry generators that are spontaneously broken. An immediate corollary is the familiar result that for relativistically invariant theories the number of Goldstone bosons can never be less than the number of spontaneously broken generators. Throughout the proof of the above result particular emphasis is placed on theories which are not Lorentz invariant. (Auth.)

318

The Making Cases Count intiative.  

Science.gov (United States)

Given the challenges faced, how can homeopaths communicate the power and scope of the therapeutic system of homeopathy? Homeopaths need to communicate to patients, the public and media, other healthcare professionals, healthcare researchers, and funders of healthcare (healthcare insurers, those who commission healthcare services either in publicly funded healthcare systems such as the NHS or charities). Effective communication with these stakeholders requires information that is: (a) easily understood, (b) credible, and (c) relevant. The patient's voice is the trusted, indisputable and easily understood common ground in homeopathy. Yet, the experiences of patients are rarely heard outside the profession of homeopathy. Homeopaths are in a unique position to make these voices heard by disseminating the results of their routine practice cases incorporating their patients' voices. The 'Making Cases Count' initiative has been created in order to bring about a culture where easily understood, trusted and salient information is regularly made available to all stakeholders in homeopathy. The Making Cases Count initiative supports, guides and incentives homeopaths to collect routine data with the aim of bringing about a culture where a significant proportion of homeopaths collect routine data from their patients in a format which will then be able to be transformed (i.e. anonymised, summarised and counted). This routine data requires numbers and categories to report the behavior and the perspective of patients receiving homeopathic treatment. This can be strengthened through the use of validated outcome measures in hearing patients' voices. When transformed, this routine data will then be able to inform homeopaths and more importantly other key stakeholders. It is now time to make patient cases count. PMID:25146064

Relton, C; Viksveen, P; Kessler, U

2014-08-01

319

Charge transfer counting statistics revisited  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Charge transfer statistics of quantum particles is obtained by analysing the time evolution of the many-body wave function. Exploiting properly chosen gauge transformations, we construct the probabilities for transfers of a discrete number of particles. Generally, the derived formula for counting statistics differs from the one previously obtained by Levitov {\\it et al.} (J. of Math. Phys. {\\bf 37}, 4845 (1996)). The two formulae agree only if the initial state is prohibited...

Shelankov, A.; Rammer, J.

2002-01-01

320

Two-Photon Counting interferometry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two-photon counting (TPC) interferometry has been realized by measuring the electrical current due to two-photon absorption in the space charge layer of a semiconductor detector located at the output port of an interferometer. We apply this technique to study the correlation properties of twin beams issued from parametric fluorescence. We describe in details how the different second-order correlation functions (interbeam, intrabeam) can be extracted at the femtosecond timescale from raw data....

Boitier, Fabien; Godard, Antoine; Dubreuil, Nicolas; Delaye, Philippe; Fabre, Claude; Rosencher, Emmanuel

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Counting Irreducible Double Occurrence Words  

CERN Document Server

A double occurrence word $w$ over a finite alphabet $\\Sigma$ is a word in which each alphabet letter appears exactly twice. Such words arise naturally in the study of topology, graph theory, and combinatorics. Recently, double occurrence words have been used for studying DNA recombination events. We develop formulas for counting and enumerating several elementary classes of double occurrence words such as palindromic, irreducible, and strongly-irreducible words.

Burns, Jonathan

2011-01-01

322

Bacterial Profiles and Physico-chemical Parameters of Water Samples from Different Sites of the New Calabar River, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water samples were collected from three sites (Ogbakiri, Choba and Iwofe of the New Calabar River and were evaluated for microbiological and physico-chemical characteristics. Bacterial isolates consisting mainly of gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Acinetobacter spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella spp., Vibrio sp. and Nocardia asteroides were isolated from the samples. The highest total coliform counts log10 2.9 were encountered in water samples from Iwofe but the lowest counts log101.9 occurred in the water samples from Ogbakiri. Ecological parameters varied among the sites with the highest pH value of 7.87 occurring at Iwofe and lowest of 6.12 at Choba. Maximum salinity level of 150/00 was observed at Iwofe and lowest at Choba. In contrast, maximum dissolved oxygen of 10.1ppm was observed at Choba and the minimum at Iwofe. The different bacterial profiles are probably attributable to the anthropogenic and industrial activities of the sites.

Edun O. M.

2012-06-01

323

1999 KIDS COUNT Data Book  

Science.gov (United States)

The Annie E. Casey Foundation, a private charitable organization, aims to initiate and develop "public policies, human-service reforms, and community supports" to assist disadvantaged children in the US. One of the principal activities of the organization is the publication of the KIDS COUNT Data Book, "which uses the best available data to measure the educational, social, economic, and physical well-being of children" all over the US. This site offers public access to the online database for the 1999 KIDS COUNT Data Book. Included are tables of state and national data profiles based on statistical indicators, lists of states ranked by indicator, interactive line graphs allowing users to compare indicators from up to eight areas, and color-coded US maps representing KIDS COUNT data. Users can download all of the raw data files for 1999 in a compressed .zip file or they may download raw data files individually as either a MS Excel spreadsheet file (.xls) or a comma-delimited text file (.csv).

324

Source Counts and Background Radiation  

CERN Document Server

Our present understanding of the extragalactic source counts and background radiation at infrared and sub-mm wavelengths is reviewed. Available count data are used to constrain evolutionary models of galaxies and Active Nuclei. The CIRB, on the other hand, provides crucial information on the integrated past IR emissivity, including sources so faint to be never accessible. The near-IR and sub-mm are suited to search for the CIRB. These cosmological windows are ideal to detect redshifted photons from the two most prominent broad emission features in galaxy spectra: the stellar photospheric 1 micron peak and the one at 100 micron due to dust re-radiation. The recently claimed detection of an isotropic diffuse component at 100-200 microns would support the evidence for strong cosmic evolution from $z=0$ to $z\\sim 2$ of faint gas-rich late-type galaxies, as inferred from direct long-$\\lambda$ counts. Furthermore, an equally intense CIRB flux measured in the wavelength range 200 to 500 $\\mu m$ may be in support of ...

Franceschini, A; Bressan, A; Césarsky, C J; Danese, L; Zotti, G D; Elbaz, D; Granato, G L; Mazzei, P; Silva, L

1997-01-01

325

Jellyfish Modulate Bacterial Dynamic and Community Structure  

Science.gov (United States)

Jellyfish blooms have increased in coastal areas around the world and the outbreaks have become longer and more frequent over the past few decades. The Mediterranean Sea is among the heavily affected regions and the common bloom - forming taxa are scyphozoans Aurelia aurita s.l., Pelagia noctiluca, and Rhizostoma pulmo. Jellyfish have few natural predators, therefore their carcasses at the termination of a bloom represent an organic-rich substrate that supports rapid bacterial growth, and may have a large impact on the surrounding environment. The focus of this study was to explore whether jellyfish substrate have an impact on bacterial community phylotype selection. We conducted in situ jellyfish - enrichment experiment with three different jellyfish species. Bacterial dynamic together with nutrients were monitored to assess decaying jellyfish-bacteria dynamics. Our results show that jellyfish biomass is characterized by protein rich organic matter, which is highly bioavailable to ‘jellyfish - associated’ and ‘free - living’ bacteria, and triggers rapid shifts in bacterial population dynamics and composition. Based on 16S rRNA clone libraries and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, we observed a rapid shift in community composition from unculturable Alphaproteobacteria to culturable species of Gammaproteobacteria and Flavobacteria. The results of sequence analyses of bacterial isolates and of total bacterial community determined by culture independent genetic analysis showed the dominance of the Pseudoalteromonadaceae and the Vibrionaceae families. Elevated levels of dissolved proteins, dissolved organic and inorganic nutrient release, bacterial abundance and carbon production as well as ammonium concentrations characterized the degradation process. The biochemical composition of jellyfish species may influence changes in the amount of accumulated dissolved organic and inorganic nutrients. Our results can contribute insights into possible changes in bacterial population dynamics and nutrient pathways following jellyfish blooms which have important implications for ecology of coastal waters. PMID:22745726

Tinta, Tinkara; Kogovsek, Tjasa; Malej, Alenka; Turk, Valentina

2012-01-01

326

Total inexperiencia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish A partir de la ruptura entre las diferentes ramas del arte, y de los posteriores intentos por reagrupar la disciplina en un arte total, Alonso trata de hilvanar un hilo entre esa totalidad y la ciudad. Si para los situacionistas la ciudad es el escenario último de la vida del hombre -y como tal, el [...] marco ideal para realizar esta integración- aparece entonces un compromiso nuevo entre el urbanismo, la arquitectura y la experiencia que el ciudadano vive, cotidianamente, en sus recorridos y paseos Abstract in english Starting from the current split of the different artistic disciplines, and the later attempts to regroup them into a total art, Alonso proposes a link between that totality and the city. If, for the situationists, the city is the ultimate staging of man's life -and, as such, the ideal frame for this [...] integration-, then urbanism, architecture, and the citizen's everyday lived experience must assume together a new kind of commitment

Pedro, Alonso.

327

Bacterial NO Synthases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unlike mammalian NO synthases, bacterial NO synthases do not contain a reductase domain. The only exception from this rule is the NO synthase from myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum, but its reductase domain has unusual structure and location in the enzyme molecule. Recent achievements in bacterial genome sequencing have revealed the gene coding NO synthase (represented as an oxygenase domain) in some bacteria and have advanced the study of structure and functions of bacterial NO synthases. Important features of structure, sources of reducing equivalents, evolutionary connections, and functions of bacterial NO synthases (i.e. participation in nitration of the indole ring of Trp, in reparation of UV-radiation damage, role in adaptation of bacteria to oxidative stress, participation in the synthesis of cGMP, and resistance of bacteria against antibiotics) are described. PMID:21166639

Filippovich, S Iu

2010-10-01

328

The nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers on Meloidogyne incognita in sandy soil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In a greenhouse experiment, the nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers including the nitrogen fixing bacteria (NFB) Paenibacillus polymyxa (four strains), the phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) Bacillus megaterium (three strains) and the potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB) B. circu [...] lans (three strains) were evaluated individually on tomato plants infested with the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in potted sandy soil. Comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2, increased the counts of total bacteria and total bacterial spores in plants potted soil from 1.2 to 2.6 folds estimated 60 days post-inoculation. Consequently, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7 increased significantly the shoot length (cm), number of leaves / plant, shoot dry weight (g) / plant and root dry weight (g) / plant by 32.6 %, 30.8 %, 70.3 % and 14.2 %, respectively. Generally, the majority treatments significantly reduced the nematode multiplication which was more obvious after 60 days of inoculation. Among the applied strains, P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2 inoculations resulted in the highest reduction in nematode population comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control. They recorded the highest reduction in numbers of hatched juveniles/root by 95.8 %, females/root by 63.75 % and juveniles/1kg soil by 57.8 %. These results indicated that these bacterial biofertilizers are promising double purpose microorganisms for mobilizing of soil nutrients (nitrogen, phosphate and potassium) and for the biological control of M. incognita.

M.E, El-Hadad; M.I, Mustafa; Sh.M, Selim; T.S, El-Tayeb; A.E.A, Mahgoob; Norhan H. Abdel, Aziz.

2011-03-01

329

The nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers on Meloidogyne incognita in sandy soil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a greenhouse experiment, the nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers including the nitrogen fixing bacteria (NFB Paenibacillus polymyxa (four strains, the phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB Bacillus megaterium (three strains and the potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB B. circulans (three strains were evaluated individually on tomato plants infested with the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in potted sandy soil. Comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2, increased the counts of total bacteria and total bacterial spores in plants potted soil from 1.2 to 2.6 folds estimated 60 days post-inoculation. Consequently, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7 increased significantly the shoot length (cm, number of leaves / plant, shoot dry weight (g / plant and root dry weight (g / plant by 32.6 %, 30.8 %, 70.3 % and 14.2 %, respectively. Generally, the majority treatments significantly reduced the nematode multiplication which was more obvious after 60 days of inoculation. Among the applied strains, P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2 inoculations resulted in the highest reduction in nematode population comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control. They recorded the highest reduction in numbers of hatched juveniles/root by 95.8 %, females/root by 63.75 % and juveniles/1kg soil by 57.8 %. These results indicated that these bacterial biofertilizers are promising double purpose microorganisms for mobilizing of soil nutrients (nitrogen, phosphate and potassium and for the biological control of M. incognita.

M.E El-Hadad

2011-03-01

330

Evaluation of free-stall mattress bedding treatments to reduce mastitis bacterial growth  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bacterial counts were compared in free-stall mattresses and teat ends exposed to 5 treatments in a factorial study design on 1 dairy farm. Mattresses in five 30-cow groups were subjected to 1 of 5 bedding treatments every other day: 0.5 kg of hydrated limestone, 120 mL of commercial acidic conditioner, 1 kg of coal fly ash, 1 kg of kiln-dried wood shavings, and control (no bedding). Counts of coliforms, Klebsiella spp., Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus spp. were lowest on mattresses bedded with lime. Mattresses bedded with the commercial acidic conditioner had the next lowest counts for coliforms, Klebsiella spp., and Streptococcus spp. Wood shavings and the no-bedding control had the highest counts for coliform and Klebsiella spp. Compared with wood shavings or control, fly ash reduced the counts of coliforms, whereas for the other 3 bacterial groups, the reduction was not always significant. Streptococcus spp. counts were greatest in the control group and did not differ among the shavings and fly ash groups. Teat swab results indicated that hydrated lime was the only bedding treatment that significantly decreased the counts of both coliforms and Klebsiella spp. There were no differences in Streptococcus spp. numbers on the teats between any of the bedding treatments. Bacterial populations grew steadily on mattresses and were generally higher at 36 to 48 h than at 12 to 24 h, whereas bacterial populations on teats grew rapidly by 12 h and then remained constant. Hydrated lime was the only treatment that significantly reduced bacterial counts on both mattresses and teat ends, but it caused some skin irritation.

Kristula, M.A.; Dou, Z.; Toth, J.D.; Smith, B.I.; Harvey, N.; Sabo, M. [University of Penn, Kennett Square, PA (United States)

2008-05-15

331

46 CFR 122.504 - Passenger count.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger count. 122.504 Section 122.504 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 122.504 Passenger count. The master of a...

2010-10-01

332

Impact of the O2 concentrations on bacterial communities and quality of modified atmosphere packaged Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).  

Science.gov (United States)

The importance of spoilage-related bacteria in fresh Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) under different modified atmospheres (MAs) at 4 °C and the effect of O2 were demonstrated in the current study. The changes of bacterial communities in MA-packed shrimp during cold storage were studied by a combined method of plate counts with isolation and identification. Three gas mixtures were applied: 80% CO2 /5% O2 /15% N2, 80% CO2 /10% O2 /10% N2 and 80% CO2 /20% O2, and unsealed packages of shrimp were used as the control. In addition, the TVB-N, pH, whiteness index, and sensory scores were also determined to evaluate the quality changes of shrimp. MA packaging effectively inhibited the increase of total psychrotrophic bacteria counts and H2 S-producing bacteria counts by about 1.7 and 2.1 log cycles, respectively. The growth of Gram-negative spoilage bacteria in shrimp, including Shewanella spp., Aeromonas spp., and Pseudomonas spp., was inhibited by MA packaging, but the growth rate of Gram-positive bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Brochothrix spp. were less affected by MA as effectively as Gram-negative bacteria. In comparison with the MA-packaged samples, the counts of H2 S producers in shrimp under a CO2 -enriched atmosphere with 20% O2 were slightly lower than the count in samples under an atmosphere with 5% O2 . However, MA with 20% O2 led to higher concentrations of TVB-N, and lower whiteness values and sensory scores. The shelf life of shrimp under 80% CO2 /10% O2 /10% N2 has been prolonged by > 6 d in comparison with the control according to the sensory scores. PMID:24329954

Qian, Yun-Fang; Yang, Sheng-Ping; Xie, Jing; Xiong, Qing; Gao, Zhi-Li

2013-12-01

333

The liquid scintillation counting efficiency for 137 Cs137m Ba and 129 I  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We compute the liquid scintillation counting efficiency for ''137 Cs+ ''137m Ba and ''129 I taking into account the scintillator chemical composition. We consider the beta transition shape factors for the forbidden beta transitions of these nuclides, and the effects of ''137m Ba and ''129m Xe half-lives on the total counting efficiency

334

Seasonal dynamics of pelagic and benthic (littoral and profundal) bacterial abundances and activities in a deep prealpine lake (L. Constance)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to obtain a first insight into the characteristics of pelagic, littoral and profundal bacterial communities and their potential role for the degradation of organic matter in the deep prealpine Lake Constance, we compared the seasonal dynamics of bacterial abundances and activities during the annual cycle in the epilimnetic water of a central station as well as in surface layers of sediments at a central profundal and a littoral site. For this purpose, bacterial abundances (DAPI count...

Sala, M. Montserrat; Gu?de, Hans

2006-01-01

335

A combined cultivation and cultivation-independent approach shows high bacterial diversity in water-miscible metalworking fluids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ten metalworking fluids (MWF) and seven water preparation basis samples (WPB) were taken from five industrial plants in Germany. Total cells (TCC) and colony forming units (CFU) were counted, strains were isolated and their 16S rRNA gene was sequenced. Additionally, DNA was extracted directly from the samples, and clone libraries of 16S rRNA genes were built and gene sequenced. TCC ranged from 7.6×10(4) TCC/mL MWF to 1.6×10(8) TCC/mL MWF, and from 4.6×10(2) TCC/mL WPB to 7.8×10(7) TCC/mL WPB. The CFU showed similar but often lower results. A total of 70 isolates and 732 clones were 16S rRNA gene sequenced and all isolates, as well as 183 of the nearly full length 16S rRNA of these clones, were gene sequenced. A total of 98 different genera were detected in all 17 samples. The number of genera within each sample varied highly, with 1-22 genera per sample. The dominant genera in MWF were Leucobacter, Desemzia, Sphingomonas and Wautersiella. From these, only Sphingomonas was detected in WPB as well. This study showed that MWF can harbour a high bacterial diversity, which differs significantly from the bacterial flora of the corresponding WPB. PMID:22609341

Lodders, Nicole; Kämpfer, Peter

2012-06-01

336

Importance of counting in biology.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, analysis of biological problems through structural and quantitative approaches is described. Classical genetics on major histocompatibility complex in avian species has been evaluated. Experiments showing that antibodies from various individuals were generally distinct have led to further analysis of immunoglobulin light chain diversity by means of O'Farrell's 2D gel technique. The transition of the research towards vaccine development has been described. 'It's not the voting that's democracy, it's the counting.' - Tom Stoppard (Czech-born dramatist), Jumpers (1972) act 1. PMID:15953182

Pink, J R L

2005-07-01

337

Complete Blood Count (CBC) Interpretation  

Science.gov (United States)

This tutorial is designed to aid first and second year medical students learn how to interpret a complete blood count. It includes material on how the test is done, its general application and pitfalls in interpretation. QuickTime movies and Java script runtime plug-in scripts are required for some pages. The tutorial concludes with a short self-help quiz covering the major points developed. The plug-ins noted above are available free at the following sites: http://www.apple.com/quicktime/download/win.html and http://www.sun.com/. Questions should be directed to Dr. Mark Braun (braunm@indiana.edu).Annotated: false

2010-05-31

338

Effect of alternative antibiotics in treatment of cefotaxime resistant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate effective alternative antibiotics in treatment of cefotaxime-resistant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. METHODS: One hundred cirrhotic patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis [ascitic fluid polymorphonuclear cell count (PMNLs ? 250 cells/mm3 at admission] were empirically treated with cefotaxime sodium 2 g/12 h and volume expansion by intravenous human albumin. All patients were subjected to history taking, complete examination, laboratory tests (including a complete blood cell count, prothrombin time, biochemical tests of liver and kidney function, and fresh urine sediment, chest X-ray, a diagnostic abdominal paracentesis, and the sample subjected to total and differential cell count, chemical examination, aerobic and anaerobic cultures. Patients were divided after 2 d by a second ascitic PMNL count into group?I; patients sensitive to cefotaxime (n = 81, group II (n = 19; cases resistant to cefotaxime (less than 25% decrease in ascitic PMNL count. Patients of group II were randomly assigned into meropenem (n = 11 or levofloxacin (n = 8 subgroups. All patients performed an end of treatment ascitic PMNL count. Patients were considered improved when: PMNLs decreased to < 250 cells/mm3, no growth in previously positive culture cases, and improved clinical manifestations with at least 5 d of antibiotic therapy. RESULTS: Age, sex, and Child classes showed no significant difference between group?I?and group II. Fever and abdominal pain were the most frequent manifestations and were reported in 82.7% and 80.2% of patients in group?I?and in 94.7% and 84.2% of patients in group II, respectively. Patients in group II had a more severe ascitic inflammatory response than group?I?and this was demonstrated by more ascitic lactate dehydrogenase (LDH [median: 540 IU/L (range: 150-1200 IU/L vs median: 240 IU/L (range: 180-500 IU/L, P = 0.000] and PMNL [median: 15??000 cell/mm3 (range: 957-23??822 cell/mm3 vs 3400 cell/mm3 (range: 695-26??400 cell/mm3, P = 0.000] counts. Ascitic fluid culture was positive in 32% of cases. Cefotaxime failed in 19% of patients; of these patients, 11 (100% responded to meropenem and 6 (75% responded to levofloxacin. Two patients with failed levofloxacin therapy were treated according to the in vitro culture and sensitivity (one case was treated with vancomycin and one case was treated with ampicillin/sulbactam. In group II the meropenem subgroup had higher LDH (range: 108-860 IU/L vs 120-491 IU/L, P = 0.042 and PMNL counts (range: 957-23??822 cell/mm3 vs 957-15??222 cell/mm3, P = 0.000 at initiation of the alternative antibiotic therapy; there was no significant difference in the studied parameters between patients responsive to meropenem and patients responsive to levofloxacin at the end of therapy (mean ± SD: 316.01 ± 104.03 PMNLs/mm3 vs 265.63 ± 69.61 PMNLs/mm3, P = 0.307. The isolated organisms found in group II were; enterococci, acinetobacter, expanded-spectrum ?-lactamase producing Escherichia coli, ?-lactamase producing Enterobacter and Staphylococcus aureus. CONCLUSION: Empirical treatment with cefotaxime is effective in 81% of cases; meropenem is effective in cefotaxime-resistant cases.

Ahmed Abouelkhair Badawy

2013-01-01

339

Count-doubling time safety circuit  

Science.gov (United States)

There is provided a nuclear reactor count-factor-increase time monitoring circuit which includes a pulse-type neutron detector, and means for counting the number of detected pulses during specific time periods. Counts are compared and the comparison is utilized to develop a reactor scram signal, if necessary.

Rusch, Gordon K. (Downers Grove, IL); Keefe, Donald J. (Lemont, IL); McDowell, William P. (Downers Grove, IL)

1981-01-01

340

DC KIDS COUNT e-Databook Indicators  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents indicators that are included in DC Action for Children's 2012 KIDS COUNT e-databook, their definitions and sources and the rationale for their selection. The indicators for DC KIDS COUNT represent a mix of traditional KIDS COUNT indicators of child well-being, such as the number of children living in poverty, and indicators of…

DC Action for Children, 2012

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Efficiency of ciprofloxacin for bacterial control, post-thaw quality, and in vivo fertility of buffalo spermatozoa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ciprofloxacin (CP) was evaluated for bacterial control, post-thaw quality, and fertility of buffalo semen. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Proteus sp., Corynebacterium sp., Micrococcus sp., and Staphylococcus sp. were isolated from buffalo semen. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Corynebacterium sp., and Micrococcus sp. were resistant to streptomycin, whereas P. aeruginosa and Proteus sp. were resistant to penicillin. All bacteria were susceptible to CP. In vitro dose toxicity was assessed in sodium citrate buffer containing 0, 200 to 2000 ?g/mL of CP. CP up to 1000 ?g/mL was found nontoxic to motility and viability of buffalo sperm. For post-thaw quality, buffalo semen was frozen in Tris-citric acid extender containing streptomycin-penicillin (SP; 1000 ?g/mL-1000 IU/mL) or CP 600 ?g/mL and was assessed for total aerobic bacterial count (post-thaw), motility, plasma membrane integrity, viability at 0, 2, and 4 hours post-thaw. At 4 hours post-thaw, plasma membrane integrity (%) was higher (P semen (two bulls) frozen in Tris-citric acid extender containing SP or CP was used to inseminate, and 400 inseminations (200/group) were recorded. Higher (P ? 0.05) fertility rate was recorded with CP (55%) compared with SP (41%). In conclusion, use of CP in extender was efficient to control the bacterial contamination without compromising the post-thaw quality and fertility of cryopreserved water buffalo bull semen. PMID:23746693

Akhter, S; Ansari, M S; Rakha, B A; Andrabi, S M H; Qadeer, S; Iqbal, R; Ullah, N

2013-09-01

342

Association between diabetes complications and leukocyte counts in Iranian patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sedigheh Moradi1, Scott Reza Jafarian Kerman2, Farzaneh Rohani1, Fereshteh Salari21Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center (Firouzgar, Hemmat Campus, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, 2Scientific Students Research Committee, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IranBackground: The long term complications of diabetes can be fatal. They are also renowned for being an economic burden. Previous studies have demonstrated a relationship between inflammatory markers and complications of diabetes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between leukocyte counts and these complications.Methods: The study included 184 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The study was carried out in Iran during 2007 and 2008. Data collected on the subjects were as follows: age, gender, weight, height, blood pressure, smoking history, lipid profile including low density lipoprotein (LDL, high density lipoprotein (HDL, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and leukocyte count, albuminuria, and retinopathy. Furthermore, information on cardiac history for 100 patients was collected. The subjects were split into two groups according to their leukocyte levels: low (?7000/mm³ and high (>7000/mm³; and then analyzed by Student's t-test or Mann–Whitney U-test as appropriate.Results: The average leukocyte count in these patients was 7594 ± 1965/mm³. Leukocyte count was significantly different in patients with and without retinopathy and albuminuria (P < 0.0001. According to this analysis, a leukocyte count of 6750/mm³ with a sensitivity of 80.2% and a specificity of 56.4%, and a count of 7550/mm³ with a sensitivity of 63.2% and a specificity of 74.6% indicated at least one diabetes complication.Conclusion: An elevated leukocyte count even within the normal range was associated with chronic complications in type 2 diabetes.Keywords: leukocytes, diabetes complications, inflammation

Moradi S

2012-01-01

343

Rapid determination of 90Sr Optimum use of a limited total analysis time  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method giving the lowest detection limit when a total analysis time has to be split between ingrowth and counting of 90Y in 90Sr determination is described. The detection limit is a function of background count-rate, total analysis time and the fraction of the total analysis time spent on counting. The optimum fraction used for counting was found to be similar 33%, if the total time was less than or equal to 5.4 half-lives of 90Y. An example illustrates the detection limits for different total analysis times using a typical liquid scintillation counter for the Cherenkov measurements of the fast ?- particles from 90Y. For a total analysis time of 24 h and a background count-rate of 25 cpm, the instrumental detection limit is lowered by similar 15%, if the optimum counting time is used compared to a counting time a factor of two shorter than the optimum one. ((orig.))

344

The study on the detecting technique of high-enrichment uranium by active coincidence neutron count  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A small column of Uranium fission material, which contains 90.34% 235U, is detected by active coincidence neutron counting in this study. An active well coincidence counter is used to measure the fission neutrons from 235u induced by Am-Li neutron source. The linear correlation coefficient comes to 0.999 after a linear recombination is performed between the mass of uranium metal and real coincidence counts rate, total neutron counts rate calculated by least square method respectively. Further more, it is determined the trend of neutron counts varying with different sample shapes, the distances between neutron source and sample while keeping the Uranium quality a constant. (authors)

345

Counting efficiency of scintillating gels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Scintillating gels that are suitable for the counting of insoluble radioact+ve samples, sometimes exhibit in addition a higher scintillation yield than the corresponding liquid scintillators. This property, observable when silica is added into dioxane liquid scintillators, is inherent in some primary solutes (PPO, PBD, butyl-PBD) while not obvious for others (CPO, PFD, BPO, ?NPO). Quenching properties of chlorinated compounds (CHCl3, CCl4) and energy transfer mechanisms are not changed by silica addition. On the other hand, PPO, PBD and butyl-PBD fluorescence quantum yields are markedly increased under these conditions, probably because of the higher viscosity of the samples. Another scintillating gel was prepared by the addition of HP55 (hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose phthalate) into PPO-dioxane liquid scintillator; its scintillation yield is reduced without any change of transfer mechanisms and at the same time PPO fluorescence quantum yield is diminished. A static quenching process by HP55 is likely to occur, which screens the viscosity effect noticed in the presence of Cab-O-Sil. Thus, PPO, PBD and butyl-PBD seem to be the most efficient primary solutes among those studied since they provide gel scintillator giving improved counting efficiency compared to that of liquid scintillator. (author)

346

Bacterial adherence to polymethylmethacrylate posterior chamber IOLs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: Bacterial adherence to intraocular lenses (IOLs has been incriminated in the pathogenesis of postoperative endophthalmitis. Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most common organism isolated. We studied the in-vitro adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis to Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA IOLs and the effect of duration of exposure to adherence. Methods: Two groups of 10 IOLs each were incubated in Staphylococcus epidermidis suspension for 2 minutes and 20 minutes respectively. Adhesion of bacterial cells was determined by counting the number of viable bacteria attached to IOLs. Results: The mean bacterial adherence with 2 minutes incubation was 12,889 ± 7,150 bacteria / IOL and with 20 minutes incubation was 84,226 ± 35,024 bacteria/IOL (P< 0.01. Conclusion: Our results show that Staphylococcus epidermidis adheres to PMMA IOLs in vitro and the degree of adherence is less for shorter duration of exposure. We conclude that viable bacteria irreversibly adherent to IOLs may play a role in the pathogenesis of postoperative endophthalmitis. Shorter duration of operative manipulation and exposure to contaminating sources may decrease the chances of postoperative endophthalmitis.

Tyagi Shalini

2001-01-01

347

Urticaria and bacterial infections.  

Science.gov (United States)

The association between urticaria and infectious diseases has been discussed for >100 years. However, a causal relationship with underlying or precipitating infection is difficult to establish. The purpose of this work was to perform a systematic analysis of the published cases of urticaria associated with bacterial infections. We give an umbrella breakdown of up-to-date systematic reviews and other important publications on the complex association of urticaria and bacterial infections. We did a Medline search, for English language articles published until January 2014, using the key words "urticaria" and "bacteria/bacterial disease"; a second analysis was performed in groups of bacteria and using each germ name as a key word. Many bacterial infections have been associated with urticaria manifestation, such as Helicobacter pylori, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Mycoplasma pneumonia, Salmonella, Brucella, Mycobacterium leprae, Borrelia, Chlamydia pneumonia, and Yersinia enterocolitica. In some cases the skin manifestations, described as urticaria, could be caused by the presence of the microorganism in the skin, or for the action of their toxins, or to the complement activation mediated by circulating immune complexes. Although only a weak association with urticaria of unclear pathogenesis exists, clinicians should consider these bacterial agents in the workup of the patients with urticaria. The eradication of the infection could, in fact, lead to the resolution of urticaria. Prospective studies and well-structured research are obviously needed to better clarify the real role of bacteria in the pathogenesis of urticaria and their relative prevalence. PMID:24857191

Minciullo, Paola L; Cascio, Antonio; Barberi, Giuseppina; Gangemi, Sebastiano

2014-01-01

348

How much do women count if they not counted?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The condition of women throughout the world is marked by countless injustices and violations of the most fundamental rights established by the Universal Declaration of human rights and every culture is potentially prone to commit discrimination against women in various forms. Women are worse fed, more exposed to physical violence, more exposed to diseases and less educated; they have less access to, or are excluded from, vocational training paths; they are the most vulnerable among prisoners of conscience, refugees and immigrants and the least considered within ethnic minorities; from their very childhood, women are humiliated, undernourished, sold, raped and killed; their work is generally less paid compared to men’s work and in some countries they are victims of forced marriages. Such condition is the result of old traditions that implicit gender-differentiated education has long promoted through cultural models based on theories, practices and policies marked by discrimination and structured differentially for men and women. Within these cultural models, the basic educational institutions have played and still play a major role in perpetuating such traditions. Nevertheless, if we want to overcome inequalities and provide women with empowerment, we have to start right from the educational institutions and in particular from school, through the adoption of an intercultural approach to education: an approach based on active pedagogy and on methods of analysis, exchange and enhancement typical of socio-educational animation. The intercultural approach to education is attentive to promote the realisation of each individual and the dignity and right of everyone to express himself/herself in his/her own way. Such an approach will give women the opportunity to become actual agents of collective change and to get the strength and wellbeing necessary to count and be counted as human beings entitled to freedom and equality, and to have access to all the rights set out in Declarations, Covenants and Conventions.

Federica Taddia

2006-01-01

349

Bacterial diversity in antibiotic wastewater treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The bacterial diversity of an antibiotic industrial wastewater treatment system was analyzed to provide the information required for further optimization of this process and for identification of bacterial strains that perform improved degradation of antibiotic industrial wastewater. The total bacterial DNA of samples collected at three stages (aeration, precipitation, and idle) during the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) of the 16 s rDNA V3 regions. Community analysis was conducted in terms of the richness value (S), the dominance degree and the Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H). Rich bacterial diversity was apparent in the aeration stage of the SBR process, and the number of bands in the aeration stage was more abundant than that in the precipitation and idle stages. The DGGE analysis showed 15 bands, six of which were uncultured bacteria, and included one anaerobic and five aerobic bacteria. The microbial community in the aeration stage was the most complex of the whole SBR process, while the dominant bacteria differed in each reaction stage. These results demonstrate the cyclical dynamic changes in the bacterial population during the SBR process for the treatment of antibiotic industrial wastewater. PMID:24355857

Han, J; Wang, L Y; Cai, B Y

2013-01-01

350

The importance of the viable but non-culturable state in human bacterial pathogens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many bacterial species have been found to exist in a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state since its discovery in 1982. VBNC cells are characterized by a loss of culturability on routine agar, which impairs their detection by conventional plate count techniques. This leads to an underestimation of total viable cells in environmental or clinical samples, and thus poses a risk to public health. In this review, we present recent findings on the VBNC state of human bacterial pathogens. The characteristics of VBNC cells, including the similarities and differences to viable, culturable cells and dead cells, and different detection methods are discussed. Exposure to various stresses can induce the VBNC state, and VBNC cells may be resuscitated back to culturable cells under suitable stimuli. The conditions that trigger the induction of the VBNC state and resuscitation from it are summarized and the mechanisms underlying these two processes are discussed. Last but not least, the significance of VBNC cells and their potential influence on human health are also reviewed. PMID:24917854

Li, Laam; Mendis, Nilmini; Trigui, Hana; Oliver, James D; Faucher, Sebastien P

2014-01-01

351

The importance of the viable but non-culturable state in human bacterial pathogens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many bacterial species have been found to exist in a viable but non-culturable (VBNC state since its discovery in 1982. VBNC cells are characterized by a loss of culturability on routine agar, which impairs their detection by conventional plate count techniques. This leads to an underestimation of total viable cells in environmental or clinical samples, and thus poses a risk to public health. In this review, we present recent findings on the VBNC state of human bacterial pathogens. The characteristics of VBNC cells, including the similarities and differences to viable, culturable cells and dead cells, and different detection methods are discussed. Exposure to various stresses can induce the VBNC state, and VBNC cells may be resuscitated back to culturable cells under suitable stimuli. The conditions that trigger the induction of the VBNC state and resuscitation from it are summarized and the mechanisms underlying these two processes are discussed. Last but not least, the significance of VBNC cells and their potential influence on human health are also reviewed.

LaamLi

2014-06-01

352

Molecular Methods for Assessement the Bacterial Communities from Different Type of Soils in Romania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rhizobia are soil bacteria that are capable to form nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with leguminous plants. This ability, as well as the diversity of microbial populations in the soil, and in the rhizosphere of host plants and non-host plants is influenced by several factors, including crop management. The aim of this work was the examination of the influence of some factors on indigenous populations of rhizobia in soils under different crop managements. The genetic diversity of rhizobial strains isolated directly from soil (free-living state or from root nodules of three herbaceous perennial legumes was examined. The study was conducted in the experimental fields located in Moara Domneasc? area (South of Romania and in the Bra?ov County. The characteristics of brown reddish soil were determined (nitrogen content, organic carbon content and pH. Counting of the rhizobia populations was done by most probable number estimation and by viable plate counts. Bacterial strains were isolated directly from soil samples or from root nodules of different plant species (Trifolium repens, T. pratense and Lotus corniculatus. The characterization of rhizobia was performed by DNA fingerprinting (ERIC PCR and BOX PCR and the bacterial diversity of soils was examined by DGGE technique. The results revealed that the rhizobial diversity was significantly lower in soils under increased fertilization with N. A reduced intraspecific polymorphism was observed in the strains recovered from the same plant species (Trifolium spp., whatever the origin of the plant (Moara Domneasc? or Bra?ov but clear differences appeared to be related to the origin of nodules (red or white clover as revealed by DNA fingerprints. However, various amplicon profiles were observed by DGGE when total DNA isolated from soils was examined, the differences being associated with the fertilization level.

Mirela DU?A

2011-05-01

353

Bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial vaginosis is a clinical condition caused by replacement of the normal hydrogen peroxide producing Lactobacillus sp. in the vagina with high concentrations of characteristic sets of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Bacterial vaginosis is the most prevalent cause of vaginal discharge or malodor, although 50 percent of women who meet the criteria for this condition are asymptomatic. Bacterial vaginosis is reported in 10 to 41 percent of women, and new evidence has shown association with maternal and fetal morbidity. Studies have shown that spontaneous abortion, preterm labor, premature birth, preterm premature rupture of the membranes, amniotic fluid infection, postpartum endometritis, and postcesarean wound infections are increased because of infection with bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy. Clinical trials demonstrated important reductions in many of these adverse events with appropriate screening and antimicrobial treatment protocols. New low-cost, diagnostic, point-of-care screening tools are available for rapid screening of patients, affording the physician the opportunity to potentially make a dramatic clinical and cost impact in preventing preterm birth and the costly sequelae of prematurity. Practicing physicians need to be aware of current guidelines for screening and treating pregnant patients for bacterial vaginosis. The authors recommend that all pregnant women be screened and treated with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC-P) recommended oral regimens early in pregnancy. Each treated women should be evaluated for "test of cure" 1 month after treatment. Mothers likely to benefit from "screen and treat" approaches include 1) those with the highest concentrations of genital anaerobes and mycoplasmas, 2) women with prior preterm birth or who have low body mass (BMI bacterial vaginosis flora (i.e., oral clindamycin or erythromycin and metronidazole). PMID:10804540

McGregor, J A; French, J I

2000-05-01

354

Bacterial flora of spices and its control by gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The bacterial contamination was tested in 26 samples of spices. Chili, allspice and paprika were the most contaminated spices by bacteria. Five bacterial genera were isolated, namely bacillus, staphylococcus, streptococcus, micrococcus, and coccobacillus, all being gram-positive. Most isolates have been related to the genus bacillus. The bacterial isolates were identified as B. alvei, B. circulans, B. megaterium, B. pasteurii, B. pumilus, B. thuringiensis, B. sphaericus, B. incertaesedis, Micrococcus luteus, staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus sp. and coccobacillus sp. Irradiation of spices led to a significant decrease in the bacterial count of all samples. The dose required to inhibit completely the natural bacterial flora was 25 KGY. The most radioresistant isolates were staphylococcus aureus and micrococcus luteus which were subjected to sublethal doses of 15 and 20 KGY respectively. The dose response curves of the 2 most radioresistant isolates showed simple exponential relationship. The D 10-value of S. aureus and M. luteus were 0.9 and 1.1 KGY, respectively. The effect of storage period on the bacterial load of, as well as, the antibacterial activity of the tested spices were investigated. (author)

355

Low Background Counting At SNOLAB  

Science.gov (United States)

It is a continuous and ongoing effort to maintain radioactivity in materials and in the environment surrounding most underground experiments at very low levels. These low levels are required so that experiments can achieve the required detection sensitivities for the detection of low-energy neutrinos, searches for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to determine these low background levels in the materials and the underground environment. This proceedings will describe the SNOLAB High Purity Germanium Detector which has been in continuous use for the past five years and give results of many of the items that have been counted over that period. Brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be given, and the radon levels at SNOLAB will be discussed.

Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce

2011-04-01

356

Isotope counting and nuclear imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is almost half a century since radioactive phosphorus, produced in the cyclotron, was first used to treat leukaemia and, some 4 years later, to measure blood volume in a rabbit, while iron absorption and utilization were studied with radioactive iron. The haematological applications of radioisotopes now embrace the labelling of such blood constituents as granulocytes, platelets and leucocytes as well as erythrocytes; kinetic studies, absorption, utilization and turnover; organ uptake and function; imaging; measurements of compartmental volumes and various immunoassays. This chapter describes instrumentation employed in these techniques and often able to serve commonly several aspects of haematology. The basic principles of nuclear decay, gamma emission and scintillation counting are reviewed in many text books on the use of radioisotopes in medicine, and is, therefore, not given in detail here. Instead, the important aspects which have a bearing on practical use of these techniques are described

357

Sediment varve counting with PIXE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The feasibility of the particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique for varve counting of vertically taken marine and lacustrine sediments was studied aiming at its possible use as a dating procedure by observing the yearly variation of the constituent elements. The samples were impregnated with a low viscosity epoxy resin to obtain slabs with preserved layered structure suitable for the PIXE analyses. PIXE-spectra were taken as a function of depth distance and the normalized X-ray peak area variations were determined. Especially, concentration changes of silicon and iron were found to be clear. Due to the employed sample preparation technique the observed chlorine concentration corresponds to the amount of water in the initial sample. Maximum chlorine concentration appeared at positions where the Si and Fe concentrations were near minimum. By plotting the Si/Cl or Fe/Cl peak area ratios, an even more distinct position dependent variation was noted. (author)

358

Counting solutions from finite samplings  

CERN Document Server

We formulate the solution counting problem within the framework of inverse Ising problem and use belief propagation equations to estimate the entropy whose value provides an upper bound on the true one. We test this idea on both diluted models (random 2-SAT and 3-SAT problems) and fully-connected model (binary perceptron), and show that when the constraint density is small, this upper bound can be very close to the true value. The information stored by the salamander retina under the natural movie stimuli can also be estimated and our result is consistent with that obtained by Monte Carlo method. Of particular significance is sizes of other metastable states for this real neuronal network can also be predicted.

Huang, Haiping

2011-01-01

359

Comparison of coliphage and bacterial aerosols at a wastewater spray irrigation site.  

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Microbiological aerosols were measured on a spray irrigation site at Fort Huachuca, Ariz. Indigenous bacteria and tracer bacteriophage were sampled from sprays of chlorinated and unchlorinated secondary-treatment wastewaters during day and night periods. Aerosol dispersal and downwind migration were determined. Bacterial and coliphage f2 aerosols were sampled by using Andersen viable type stacked-sieve and high-volume electrostatic precipitator samplers. Bacterial standard plate counts averag...

Bausum, H. T.; Schaub, S. A.; Kenyon, K. F.; Small, M. J.

1982-01-01

360

A precise, efficient radiometric assay for bacterial growth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The two-compartment radiometric assay for bacterial growth promised major advantages over systems in clinical use, but poor reproducibility and counting efficiency limited its application. In this method, 14-CO/sub 2/ produced by bacterial metabolism of C-14-glucose is trapped and counted on filter paper impregnated with NaOH and fluors. The authors sought to improve assay efficiency and precision through a systematic study of relevant physical and chemical factors. Improvements in efficiency (88% vs. 10%) and in precision (relative S.D. 5% vs. 40%) were produced by a) reversing growth medium and scintillator chambers to permit vigorous agitation, b) increasing NaOH quantity and using a supersaturated PPO solution and c) adding detergent to improve uniformity of NaOH-PPO mixture. Inoculum size, substrate concentration and O/sub 2/ transfer rate affected assay sensitivity but not bacterial growth rate. The authors' assay reliably detects bacterial growth for inocula of 10,000 organisms in 1 hour and for 25 organisms within 4 1/2 hours, thus surpassing other existing clinical and research methods