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1

Topical thrombin preparations and their use in cardiac surgery  

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Full Text Available Brianne L Dunn1, Walter E Uber1, John S Ikonomidis21Department of Pharmacy Services and 2Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USAAbstract: Coagulopathic bleeding may lead to increased morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. Topical bovine thrombin has been used to promote hemostasis after surgical procedures for over 60 years and is used frequently as a topical hemostatic agent in cardiac surgery. Recently, use of bovine thrombin has been reported to be associated with increased risk for anaphylaxis, thrombosis, and immune-mediated coagulopathy thought secondary to the production of antifactor V and antithrombin antibodies. In patients who develop bovine thrombin-induced immune-mediated coagulopathy, clinical manifestations may range from asymptomatic alterations in coagulation tests to severe hemorrhage and death. Patients undergoing cardiac surgical procedures may be at increased risk for development of antibodies to bovine thrombin products and associated complications. This adverse immunologic profile has led to the development of alternative preparations including a human and a recombinant thrombin which have been shown to be equally efficacious to bovine thrombin and have reduced antigenicity. However, the potential benefit associated with reduced antigenicity is not truly known secondary to the lack of long-term experience with these products. Given the potentially higher margin of safety and less stringent storage concerns compared to human thrombin, recombinant thrombin may be the most reasonable approach in cardiac surgery.Keywords: bovine thrombin, human thrombin, recombinant thrombin, immune-mediated coagulopathy, topical hemostatic agents, thrombin 

Brianne L Dunn

2009-10-01

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Risk of bleeding in surgical patients treated with topical bovine thrombin sealants: a review of the literature  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most anticipated, but potentially serious complications during or after surgery are bleeding events. Among the many potential factors associated with bleeding complications in surgery, the use of bovine thrombin has been anecdotally identified as a possible cause of increased bleeding risk. Most of these reports of bleeding events in association with the use of topical bovine thrombin have been limited to case reports lacking clear cause and effect relationship determination. Recent studies have failed to establish significant differences in the rates of bleeding events between those treated with bovine thrombin and those treated with either human or recombinant thrombin. Methods We conducted a search of MEDLINE for the most recent past 10 years (1997–2007 and identified all published studies that reported a study of surgical patients with a clear objective to examine the risk of bleeding events in surgical patients. We also specifically noted the reporting of any topical bovine thrombin used during surgical procedures. We aimed to examine whether there were any differences in the risk of bleeds in general surgical populations as compared to those studies that reported exposure to topical bovine thrombin. Results We identified 21 clinical studies that addressed the risk of bleeding in surgery. Of these, 5 studies analyzed the use of bovine thrombin sealants in surgical patients. There were no standardized definitions for bleeding events employed across these studies. The rates of bleeds in the general surgery studies ranged from 0.1%–20.2%, with most studies reporting rates between 2.6%–4%. The rates of bleeding events ranged from 0.0%–13% in the bovine thrombin studies with most studies reporting between a 2%–3% rate. Conclusion The risk of bleeds was not clearly different in those studies reporting use of bovine thrombin in all patients compared to the other surgical populations studied. A well-designed and well-controlled study is needed to accurately examine the bleeding risks in surgical patients treated and unexposed to topical bovine thrombin, and to evaluate the independent risk associated with topical bovine thrombin as well as other risk factors.

Crean Sheila

2008-03-01

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Development of gel-forming lyophilized formulation with recombinant human thrombin.  

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Abstract The objective of this work was development and evaluation of gel-forming lyophilized formulation with recombinant human thrombin for topical administration. The influence of pH, ionic strength and buffer type on protein stability was evaluated as part of the pre-formulation screening studies. Results indicated an optimal pH from 6.0 to 7.0 and increased stability with increasing content of sodium chloride. The tested buffer types had no significant effect on thrombin stability. For further development, thermosensitive Pluronic® F-127 was employed as a bulking and gelling agent. Physical and mechanical characterization and viscosity measurement confirmed the gel-forming properties of the formulation at the application temperature of 32?°C. Several techniques (addition of well-soluble polyols, different freezing protocols and reconstitution under vacuum) were tested to decrease the reconstitution time. The obtained results revealed that a vacuum in the vial headspace is crucial for acceptable reconstitution. The freeze drying process has no negative impact on recombinant thrombin stability, and this was confirmed by reverse-phase-HPLC, activity assay and optical density measurements. PMID:25347143

Murányi, Andrej; Bartoš, Peter; Tichý, Eduard; Lazová, Jana; Pšenková, Jana; Zabka, Marián

2014-10-27

4

Effects of recombinant activated factor VII on thrombin-mediated feedback activation of coagulation.  

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Thrombin is a key hemostatic enzyme, which propagates its own generation by activating factors V, VIII, and XI. Sustained thrombin generation also activates thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), which stabilizes fibrin clot against fibrinolysis. Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) is considered a novel hemostatic intervention for refractory bleeding, but rebleeding episodes related to fibrinolysis still occur. The present study aimed to investigate the antifibrinolytic effects of rFVIIa in relation to thrombin generation. Using thrombelastography, the effects of rFVIIa on thrombin-activated fibrin formation and on fibrinolysis induced by tissue plasminogen activator were evaluated in various factor-deficient plasma samples. A Thrombinoscope was used to quantitate thrombin generation. Thrombin increased antifibrinolytic activity in a concentration-dependent manner as demonstrated by a longer clot lysis time. In plasma deficient in factors V, VIII, IX, X, or XI, clot lysis occurred early (factor-XI-deficient plasma. A normal clot lysis time was observed in factor-XIII-deficient or dual antithrombin/factor-VIII-deficient plasma. Inhibition of TAFI increased the rate of fibrinolysis. Thrombin generation was delayed or decreased in single factor-deficient plasma except for factor XIII deficiency. After rFVIIa addition, the peak thrombin generation reached over 100 nmol/l in factor-XI-deficient plasma, but not in plasma deficient in factors V, VIII, IX, or X. Thrombin generation and subsequent activation of TAFI were important for clot stability. We conclude that rFVIIa therapy does not compensate for increased susceptibility to fibrinolysis due to lack of factor(s) necessary for the formation of tenase and prothrombinase. PMID:18277134

Taketomi, Taro; Szlam, Fania; Bader, Stephen O; Sheppard, Chelsea A; Levy, Jerrold H; Tanaka, Kenichi A

2008-03-01

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Assessment of thrombus imaging potency of thrombin-targeting recombinant hirudin in vitro and in vivo  

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The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of recombinant hirudin HV2 (rHHV2) as a thrombus imaging agent. 125I-rHHV2 and 125I-Th were prepared with Chloramine method, the labeling rate were 86.64% and 62.20%, with the radioactive purity of 89.70% and 91.22%, with the specific activity of 22.4 TBq/mmol and 94.43 TBq/mmol respectively. The competitive radioassay showed that the Th-fibrin complex formation did not affect the ability of rHHV2 binding with Th. In the complex, the molecular binding ratio of rHHV2 to Th and fibrinogen was 14:14:1. 99mTc-rHHV2 was prepared by 2-iminothiolane modified method, the labeled rate was 94%, with the radioactive purity of 93.90%, with the specific activity of 2.30 TBq/mmol. It was used to image fresh thrombi on arteries and veins of dog or rabbit (30 ?g/kg). In SPECT images, all thrombin were clearly visible, arterial thrombosis imaging can be seen clearly within 45 min after injection and fade away slowly, venous thrombosis imaging also can be seen within 30 min after injection and quantitative imaging ratios between the thrombus and opposite vessel increased following the time. Biodistribution studies in mouse demonstrated that rHHV2 was excreted from kidneys. These data indicate that Th in Th-fibrin complex could be a potent target for diagnosis of thrombus and 99mTc-rHHV2 could be a new thrombotic imaging agent. (authors)

6

The glycoprotein Ib-IX-V complex contributes to tissue factor-independent thrombin generation by recombinant factor VIIa on the activated platelet surface.  

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Several lines of evidence suggest that recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) is able to activate factor X on an activated platelet, in a tissue factor-independent manner. We hypothesized that, besides the anionic surface, a receptor on the activated platelet surface is involved in this process. Here, we showed that, in an ELISA setup, a purified extracellular fragment of GPIbalpha bound to immobilized rFVIIa. Surface plasmon resonance established a affinity constant (K(d)) of approximately 20 nM for this interaction. In addition, CHO cells transfected with the GPIb-IX-V complex could adhere to immobilized rFVIIa, whereas wild-type CHO cells could not. Furthermore, platelets sti-mulated with a combination of collagen and thrombin adhered to immobilized rFVIIa under static conditions. Platelet adhesion was inhibited by treatment with O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase, which specifically cleaves GPIbalpha from the platelet surface. In addition, rFVIIa-mediated thrombin generation on the activated platelet surface was inhibited by cleaving GPIbalpha from its surface. In summary, 3 lines of evidence showed that rFVIIa interacts with the GPIb-IX-V complex, and this interaction enhanced tissue factor-independent thrombin generation mediated by rFVIIa on the activated platelet surface. The rFVIIa-GPIbalpha interaction could contribute to cessation of bleeding after administration of rFVIIa to patients with bleeding disorders. PMID:18612104

Weeterings, Cees; de Groot, Philip G; Adelmeijer, Jelle; Lisman, Ton

2008-10-15

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Topics in cosmology: Structure formation, dark energy and recombination  

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The field of theoretical cosmology consists of numerous, inter-related branches, whose ambitious goal is to uncover the history of the universe from its beginning to its future. Achieving this, no doubt, requires a deep understanding of many areas of physics. In this thesis I touch upon a few of these areas in which I worked during my PhD studies. Chapter (2) describes our work in finding the accretion and merger history of dark matter halos. Dark matter halos are the collapsed dark matter structures in the late time evolution of the universe, whose existence is vital for the formation of galaxies in the Universe as they act as the potential wells where normal matter (collectively called Baryons) can accumulate, cool, and form stars. It is then no surprise that the properties of galaxies depends on the properties of the dark matter halo in which it resides, including its merger history, i.e. the number of times it merged with other halos. Even though these merger rates can be calculated theoretically for infinitesimal time steps, in order to find the merger history over an extended period of time one had to use either Monte-Carlo simulations to build up the total rates of merging and accreting from the infinitesimal rates or use N-body simulations. In chapter (2) we show how we used random walk formalism to write down an analytical (integral) equation for the merger history of halos. We have solved this equation numerically and find very good agreement with Monte-Carlo simulations. This work can be used in theories of galaxy formation and evolution. We then switch from the overdense regions of the Universe, halos, to the underdense ones, voids. These structures have not attracted as much attention from cosmologists as their overdense counterparts in probing the cosmological models. We show here that the shapes of voids as a probe can be of use for future surveys to pin down the equation of state of the dark energy, i.e. the ratio of its pressure to its energy density. As first approximation, voids can be considered to be ellipsoids whose axis ratio evolution depends on the cosmological parameters. This, together with the fact that the initial distribution of the axis ratios is known (because the intial density field is Gaussian) can be used to infer the equation of state of the dark energy statistically from the observation of voids at different redshifts and with different sizes. The standard method of Fisher matrices is then used to forecast how well a future survey can measure the equation of state. We find promising results with constraints coming from void ellipticity measurements comparable to those of other standard methods. Chapter (4) goes farther back in the history of the Universe. During the recombination era, when the Universe was around a thousandth of its present size, it became cool enough that free electrons got captured by free protons to make hydrogen atoms. Consequently, the Thompson scattering of photons off of free electrons dropped dramatically and the Universe became transparent to photon propagation. The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is a remnant from this epoch, consisting of photons last scattered off of a free electron. A wealth of information is contained in the statistical properties of the CMB field. However, in order to take full advantage of this probe one needs to know the recombination history, i.e. the evolution of the number density of free electrons as a function of time, to sub-percent level accuracy during this era. There are a plethora of phenomena, from radiative transfer effects to atomic and molecular ones, that have the potential to change the recombination history to this level. Our work was to calculate the effect that the formation of hydrogen molecules will have on the recombination history. Even though the abundance of hydrogen molecules is very small, they still have the potential to change the recombination history by reshuffling photons from the blue side of the Ly-alpha line to its red side and vise-versa. To find the magnitude of the effect, we solve the appropri

Alizadeh, Esfandiar

8

An unexpected link between angiotensinogen and thrombin.  

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Angiotensinogen is well known as source protein for a group of potent vasoactive hormones, however, a discrete biochemical activity of the angiotensinogen body is not known. Here we investigated angiotensinogen from the lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis (L. fluviatilis), an early-diverged vertebrate. The recombinantly produced protein showed progressive inhibitory activity towards human ?-thrombin with a second-order rate constant of 2.6×10(4) M(-1) min(-1). Heparin enhanced the reaction rate >800-fold with a bell-shaped dose-response curve and a stoichiometry of inhibition (SI) of 1.3, revealing lamprey angiotensinogen as an effective ?-thrombin inhibitor. Genomic, biochemical, and protein sequence data indicate that angiotensinogen and heparin cofactor II (HCII) originated from a common ancestral thrombin antagonist, thus providing insight into an early stage of thrombin control. PMID:21722639

Wang, Yunjie; Ragg, Hermann

2011-07-21

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Catalytically competent human and bovine zeta-thrombin and chimeras generated from unfolded polypeptide chains.  

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Human and bovine alpha-thrombin cleaved at the B-chain by chymotrypsin generates catalytically competent zeta-thrombins, which are comprised of two noncovalently linked fragments: a 36-(human) or 49-(bovine) residue A-chain linked by a disulfide to B-chain residues B1-148 (zeta 1-thrombin) and B-chain residues B149-259 (zeta 2-thrombin). Human and bovine D-Phe-Pro-Arg-CH2-zeta- and PhMeSO2-zeta-thrombins were prepared by reaction of the active-site histidine (H-B43) and serine (S-B205) with PPACK and PMSF, respectively. Unfolding and dissociation of the noncovalently linked polypeptide chains of either human or bovine D-Phe-Pro-Arg-CH2-zeta- and PhMeSO2-zeta-thrombins in 4.5 M guanidine-HCl and refolding upon 30-fold dilution in 50 mM sodium phosphate buffer pH 6.5, 750 mM NaCl, 0.1% PEG resulted in biphasic generation of catalytic activity. The slow phase was eliminated in the presence of the competitive inhibitor benzamidine-HCl. Unfolding and refolding mixtures of the appropriate inactive precursors generated the active chimeric thrombins bovine zeta 1-thrombin:human zeta 2-thrombin and human zeta 1-thrombin:bovine zeta 2-thrombin. Human zeta 1-thrombin and zeta 2-thrombin were isolated, and, upon recombining, the isolated fragments refolded to generate catalytically competent zeta-thrombin with an active-site content, specific activity toward Chromozym-TH, and a specificity constant (kcat/Km) for FPA release from fibrinogen that were all within 60% of those of native alpha-thrombin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1304387

Lewis, S D; Brezniak, D V; Fenton, J W; Shafer, J A

1992-08-01

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Inhibition of thrombin generation in plasma by inhibitors of factor Xa.  

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A series of inhibitors of factor Xa (FXa) were investigated using the thrombin generation assay to evaluate the potency and specificity needed to efficiently block thrombin generation in activated human plasma. By inhibiting FXa the generation of thrombin in plasma is delayed and decreased. Inhibitor concentrations which cause 50 percent inhibition of thrombin generation (IC50) correlate in principle with the Ki values for inhibition of free FXa. Recombinant tick anticoagulant peptide (r-TAP) is able to inhibit thrombin generation with considerably low IC50 values of 49 nM and 37 nM for extrinsic and intrinsic activation, respectively. However, the potent synthetic, low molecular weight inhibitors of FXa (Ki values of about 20 nM) are less effective in inhibiting the generation of thrombin with IC50 values at micromolar concentrations. The overall effect of inhibitors of FXa in the thrombin generation assay was compared to that of thrombin inhibitors. On the basis of similar Ki values for the inhibition of the respective enzyme, synthetic FXa inhibitors are less effective than thrombin inhibitors. In contrast, the highly potent FXa inhibitor r-TAP causes a stronger reduction of the thrombin activity in plasma than the most potent thrombin inhibitor hirudin. PMID:9364987

Prasa, D; Svendsen, L; Stürzebecher, J

1997-10-01

11

Mechanisms of Arg-Pro-Pro-Gly-Phe inhibition of thrombin.  

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Investigations determined the mechanism(s) by which Arg-Pro-Pro-Gly-Phe (RPPGF) inhibits thrombin-induced platelet activation. High concentrations of RPPGF inhibit thrombin-induced coagulant activity. RPPGF binds to the active site of thrombin by forming a parallel beta-strand with Ser214-Gly216 and interacts with His57, Asp189, and Ser195 of the catalytic triad. RPPGF competitively inhibits alpha-thrombin from hydrolyzing Sar-Pro-Arg-paranitroanilide with a Ki = 1.75 +/- 0.03 mM. Other mechanisms were sought to explain why RPPGF inhibits thrombin activation of platelets at concentrations below that which inhibits its active site. Soluble RPPGF blocks biotinylated NATLDPRSFLLR of the thrombin cleavage site on protease-activated receptor (PAR)1 from binding to the peptide RPPGC (IC50 = 20 microM). The soluble recombinant extracellular domain of PAR1 (rPAR1EC) blocks biotinylated RPPGF binding to rPAR1EC (IC50 = 50 microM) bound to microtiter plates, but rPAR1EC deletion mutants missing the sequence LDPR or PRSF do not. RPPGF and related forms prevent the thrombin-like enzyme thrombocytin from proteolyzing rPAR1EC at concentrations that do not block thrombocytin's active site. These studies indicate that RPPGF is a bifunctional inhibitor of thrombin: it binds to PAR1 to prevent thrombin cleavage at Arg41 and interacts with the active site of alpha-thrombin. PMID:12598231

Hasan, Ahmed A K; Warnock, Mark; Nieman, Marvin; Srikanth, Sujata; Mahdi, Fakhri; Krishnan, Raman; Tulinsky, Alexander; Schmaier, Alvin H

2003-07-01

12

Data management in thrombin generation.  

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To obtain a thrombin generation (TG) curve from the conversion of added fluorogenic substrate, thrombin concentrations are to be derived from the observed velocity of increase of fluorescence (dF/dt). The relation between velocity and thrombin concentration varies during the experiment because substrate is consumed and because fluorescence is not linear with the concentration of product. Here we review the techniques that we developed to: PMID:23158401

Hemker, H Coenraad; Kremers, R

2013-01-01

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Nanocomplexation of thrombin with cationic amylose derivative for improved stability and hemostatic efficacy  

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As a topical hemostatic agent, thrombin has wide application for many surgical treatments. However, native thrombin always suffers from its physical and chemical instabilities. In this work, a nanocomplexation strategy was developed for modifying the stability and hemostatic efficacy of thrombin, in which a water-soluble cationic amylose derivative containing poly(l-lysine) dendrons was prepared by a click reaction and then used to complex thrombin in an aqueous system. For resultant thrombin nanocomplexes, their morphology and particle size distribution were investigated. Their stabilities were studied in terms of activity retention percentages under different storage time, pH values, and illumination time. In addition, their ability to achieve in vitro fibrinogen and blood coagulation were evaluated. Via a rat hepatic hemorrhage model and a rat iliac artery hemorrhage model, these thrombin nanocomplexes were confirmed to have good tissue biocompatibility and in vivo hemostatic effectiveness.

Zhuang, Baoxiong; Li, Zhihua; Pang, Jiadong; Li, Wenbin; Huang, Pinbo; Wang, Jie; Zhou, Yu; Lin, Qing; Zhou, Quanbo; Ye, Xiao; Ye, Huilin; Liu, Yimin; Zhang, Li-Ming; Chen, Rufu

2015-01-01

14

Mutagenesis of thrombin selectively modulates inhibition by serpins heparin cofactor II and antithrombin III. Interaction with the anion-binding exosite determines heparin cofactor II specificity.  

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Thrombin is a multifunctional serine protease that plays a critical role in hemostasis. Thrombin is inhibited by the serpins antithrombin III and heparin cofactor II in a reaction that is dramatically accelerated by glycosaminoglycans. The structural basis of the interaction with these inhibitors was investigated by introducing single amino acid substitutions into the anion-binding exosite (R68E, R70E) and unique insertion loops (K52E, K154A) of thrombin. The rate of inhibition of these recombinant thrombins by antithrombin III and heparin cofactor II was determined in the absence and presence of glycosaminoglycan. The second order rate constant (k2) for inhibition by antithrombin III without heparin was 3.7 x 10(5) M-1 min-1 for wild-type thrombin; rates for the mutant thrombins varied less than 2-fold. For inhibition by antithrombin III with heparin, the rate constant was 4.5 x 10(8) M-1 min-1 for wild-type thrombin with no significant differences between any of the recombinant thrombins. In contrast, the rate constant for inhibition by heparin cofactor II without glycosaminoglycan was 4.3 x 10(4) M-1 min-1 for wild-type thrombin; rates were 10-fold slower for thrombin K52E and 2- to 3-fold slower for thrombins R68E and R70E. The rate constants for inhibition of wild-type thrombin by HCII in the presence of heparin or dermatan sulfate were 9.2 x 10(8) M-1 min-1 and 9.0 x 10(8) M-1 min-1, respectively. Compared to wild-type thrombin, the rate of inhibition by HCII with glycosaminoglycan was 5- to 15-fold slower for thrombins K52E and R70E and 50- to over 100-fold slower for thrombin R68E. Thrombin K154A was inhibited by heparin cofactor II with rates similar to wild-type thrombin in all assays. These results suggest that heparin cofactor II interacts with residue Lys-52 in the proposed S1' subsite and with residues Arg-68 and Arg-70 in the anion-binding exosite of thrombin, and that these interactions contribute to the molecular basis of heparin cofactor II specificity for thrombin. PMID:8429040

Sheehan, J P; Wu, Q; Tollefsen, D M; Sadler, J E

1993-02-15

15

Limited efficacy of topical recombinant feline interferon-omega for treatment of cats with acute upper respiratory viral disease.  

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Despite a lack of controlled studies confirming its efficacy, recombinant feline interferon-omega (rfeIFN-?) is used in the treatment of feline upper respiratory tract disease (FURTD), which is usually caused by feline calicivirus (FCV) or feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1). The aims of the present study were to investigate whether administration of rfeIFN-? improves clinical signs in cats with acute FURTD and whether this treatment reduces shedding of FCV. Thirty-seven cats affected with acute FURTD were recruited into a prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial. The presence of FCV and/or FHV-1 was determined by performing quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) on oropharyngeal and conjunctival swabs. Cats were randomly assigned to treatment groups, receiving either placebo or rfeIFN-? (2.5?MU/kg) subcutaneously, followed by 0.5?MU topically at 8-h intervals via the conjunctiva, intranasally, and orally for 21 days. All cats received additional treatment with antibiotics, expectorants, and inhalation of nebulised physiological saline with camomile. Clinical signs and FCV shedding were evaluated over 42 days. All cats demonstrated improvement in clinical signs during the course of the study, with no significant difference in any of the assessed variables when comparing the two groups. FCV copy numbers decreased more rapidly in cats receiving rfeIFN-?. Treatment with rfeIFN-? was not effective in ameliorating clinical signs of acute viral FURTD compared to placebo, but might accelerate a reduction in FCV load in infected cats. PMID:25457261

Ballin, Anne C; Schulz, Bianka; Helps, Christopher; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Mueller, Ralf S; Hartmann, Katrin

2014-12-01

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Thrombin potential and thrombin generation after exhaustive exercise.  

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Exhaustive exercise leads to an activation of blood coagulation, but the implications of this activation are still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate if a hypercoagulant stage exists after exhaustive treadmill- or cycle exercise; intrinsic and extrinsic endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) were measured by using the method of Hemker et al. Thirteen healthy male subjects underwent an exhaustive treadmill (TR) or cycle (CY) ergometer test and a control-day in random order. Blood samples were taken, repeatedly, after a 30 min rest, immediately before and after, and 1 h after exercise for measuring intrinsic and extrinsic total thrombin potential (TTPin, TTPex) (including free and alpha 2 -macroglobulin-bound thrombin) and endogenous thrombin potential (ETPin, ETPex), aPTT, PT, F1 + 2 and TAT. In comparison to the pre-value taken immediately before the exercise, the intrinsic TTP was significantly (p < 0.05) increased directly after exercise (TR-TTPin, + 11.6 %; CY-TTPin, + 11.5 %). In contrast, ETPin remained unchanged after both exercises. Additionally for TTPex and ETPex, no changes after exercise were detectable. aPTT was significantly (p < 0.05) shorter after exercise (TR-aPTT, - 16.2 %; CY-aPTT - 17.5 %), F1 + 2-concentrations were higher (p < 0.05) (TR-F1 + 2, + 21.2 %; CY-F1 + 2, + 9.8 %), but TAT remained unchanged. Differences between TR or CY could not be determined. These results show the expected shortening of aPTT and the increase of F1 + 2 indicating an activation of the coagulation system during exercise. However, the unchanged intrinsic and extrinsic ETP lead to the conclusion that in healthy young male subjects the potential for thrombin generation is insignificant, is directly counterbalanced by alpha 2-macroglobulin and is independent of the type of exhaustive exercise done. PMID:12402182

Hilberg, T; Prasa, D; Stürzebecher, J; Gläser, D; Gabriel, H H

2002-10-01

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Inhibition of Intrinsic Thrombin Generation  

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Full Text Available Background: The contact phase of coagulation is of physiologic/pathophysiologic importance, whenever unphysiologic polynegative substances such as cell fragments (microparticles get in contact with blood. There are several clinically used inhibitors of intrinsic thrombin generation. Here the inhibitory concentrations 50% (IC50 of these anticoagulants are measured by the highly specifi c thrombin generation assay INCA.Methods: Unfrozen pooled normal citrated plasma in polystyrole tubes was supplemented at 23°C in duplicate with 0–2 IU/ml low molecular weight heparin (dalteparin, 0–2 IU/ml unfractionated heparin, 0–500 KIU/ml aprotinin, or 0–40 mM arginine. 50 ?l plasma or 1 IU/ml thrombin standard were pipetted into a polystyrole microtiter plate with fl at bottom. 5 ?l SiO2/ CaCl2 - reagent (INCA activator were added and after 0–30 min incubation at 37°C 100 ?l 2.5 M arginine, pH 8.6, were added; arginine inhibits hemostasis activation and depolymerizes generated fi brin within 20 min at 23°C. The in the physiologic 37°C incubation phase generated thrombin was then chromogenically detected. The intra-assay CV values were < 5%. Results and Discussion: The approximate IC50 were 0.01 IU/ml dalteparin, 0.02 IU/ml heparin, 25 KIU/ml aprotinin, and 12 mM arginine. The effi ciency of any anticoagulant on intrinsic thrombin generation should be measured for each individual patient.

Thomas W. Stief

2006-01-01

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Multiple inhibitory kinetics reveal an allosteric interplay among thrombin functional sites.  

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Thrombin is a key blood clotting enzyme; therefore, developing of its inhibitors has become a mainstream in antithrombotic pharmacology. As a result, a wide variety of proteins, peptides, peptidomimetics, DNA, RNA, and carbohydrates were reported to be effective inhibitors of thrombin activities. The majority of described inhibitors were characterized kinetically with amidolytic assay only; though some of them inhibit fibrinogen binding rather than amidolytic activity, e.g. hirugen and nucleic acid aptamers. Per contra, studying the inhibition kinetics of fibrinogen hydrolysis might reveal essential peculiarities of mechanism of action of thrombin inhibitors. In this paper the effect of thrombin inhibitors on fibrinogen hydrolysis has been investigated using improved turbidimetric assay. This technique is highly productive versus fibrinopeptide determination allowing elucidation of inhibition type and apparent constant for different types of thrombin inhibitors. The protein (recombinant hirudin, antithrombin III), peptide (bivalirudin, hirugen), and peptidomimetic (argatroban, PPACK) inhibitors were characterized in terms of inhibition types for the first time. Unexpectedly, for others: heparin, RNA aptamer Toggle-25t, partial inhibition has been shown indicating allosteric interplay between exosites. Improved turbidimetric assay is also applicable for studying the fibrin association inhibitors. Hence, GPRP-peptide was characterized kinetically for the first time. The kinetic study revealed a repertoire of different inhibition types and also close allosteric interplay within the thrombin. The results are undoubtedly important for understanding the enzyme activity regulation, as well as for the rational development of new antithrombotic substances. PMID:25467079

Zavyalova, Elena; Kopylov, Alexey

2015-01-01

19

Effect of Electronic Polarization to Human ?-Thrombin  

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The polarized protein-specific charges (PPC) of human ?-thrombin (thrombin) and its inhibitor (L86) are made possible by employing the recently developed molecular fractionation with conjugate caps approach incorporated the Poisson—Boltzmann model. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of thrombin have been carried out to investigate the dynamics and stability of the thrombin-inhibitor using PPC and AMBER charges respectively. Detailed analysis and comparison of MD results show that the PPC can correctly describe the polarized state of the thrombin and L86. Especially, the root-mean-square deviation of backbone atoms and the hydrogen bonds using PPC are more stable than the AMBER charge. The present results indicate that protein polarization plays critical roles in maintaining the compact structure of thrombin.

Duan, Li-Li; Li, Zong-Chao; He, Xiang; Zhang, Qing-Gang

2014-04-01

20

Effect of thrombin on maturing human megakaryocytes.  

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Thrombin causes platelet activation and secretion. In some nucleated cells, it is mitogenic. In this study, we have investigated how human megakaryocytes (MKs) respond to this agonist and whether the response depends on the maturation stage. MKs were cultured from bone marrow precursors in liquid culture in the presence of normal plasma. To determine whether thrombin can activate MKs, 14-day MK cultures were incubated with thrombin for 5 minutes, and cells were studied by electron microscopy,...

Cramer, E. M.; Masse?, J. M.; Caen, J. P.; Garcia, I.; Breton-gorius, J.; Debili, N.; Vainchenker, W.

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Rat uterine stromal cells: thrombin receptor and growth stimulation by thrombin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The estrogen-stimulated maturation of the immature rat uterus is mediated by peptide growth factors whose expression is regulated by estradiol. We present evidence that thrombin is a uterine growth factor. When an immature rat is given a single injection of estradiol, the uterus increases 50% in wet weight within 3 h through the imbibition of water and plasma proteins, including prothrombin. Tissue factor, the initiator of coagulation, is induced 3- to 4-fold over the same time period. Thrombin is generated in situ from prothrombin through the coagulation cascade. It acts as a growth factor through the proteolytically activated thrombin receptor. Thrombin's role as a growth factor in uterine stromal cells is proven by two lines of evidence: demonstrations that the proteolytically activated thrombin receptor is present and that cultured cells are stimulated to grow by thrombin. Thrombin receptor in the uterus is demonstrated by reverse transcription-PCR for receptor messenger RNA by specific [125I]peptide labeling of a membrane-bound binding protein of about 60 kDa and by Western blot with a thrombin receptor antipeptide antibody. Thrombin's effectiveness as a growth factor is shown by thrombin-stimulated growth of primary stromal cell cultures, with maximum stimulation at 100 nM. That the effect is mediated by the proteolytically activated thrombin receptor is shown by the inhibition of growth by hirudin, a highly specific inhibitor of thrombin; the absence of enhanced growth with Pro-Phe-Arg-chloromethyl ketone-thrombin, an active site-inhibited thrombin derivative; and the stimulation of growth by the thrombin receptor-activating peptide. PMID:8756541

Arena, C S; Quirk, S M; Zhang, Y Q; Henrikson, K P

1996-09-01

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DABIGATRAN ETEXILATE: NEW DIRECT THROMBIN INHIBITORS ANTICOAGULANTS  

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Full Text Available Thrombin plays a key role in thrombotic events, and therefore thrombin inhibition represents a therapeutic target for numerous thromboembolic diseases. Thrombin is responsible for the conversion of soluble fibrinogen to fibrin; clot stabilization through activation of factor XIII and the formation of cross-linkage among fibrin molecules; and the generation of additional thrombin through activation of factors V, VIII, and XI. Direct thrombin inhibitors are an innovative class of anticoagulants that bind directly to thrombin to inhibit its actions and impede the clotting process. Dabigatran is the first direct thrombin inhibitor, orally available first approval by US Food and Drugs Administration in 2010. Specifically and reversibly inhibits thrombin, so the duration of action is predictable. The anticoagulant effect correlates well with plasma drug concentrations, which implies an effective anticoagulation with low bleeding risk without major problems of interactions with other drugs. The predictable pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics characteristics of dabigatran may facilitate dental management of patients who until now have been in treatment with traditional anticoagulants, given that it doesn’t require routine laboratory monitoring in the vast majority of patients treated. They also present a profile of drug interactions very favorable.

Patel Kinjal B

2011-04-01

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Systemic thrombin generation by glucose  

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Full Text Available Background: Systemic thrombin activity (F2a, i.e. thrombin protected and transported by a2- macroglobulin, is a new biomarker for the activation state of coagulation in vivo. F2a > 120% of normal diagnoses a pathologic disseminated intravascular coagulation (PIC in humans, either acute or chronic. Since glucose triggers intrinsic coagulation, the present work aimed to quantify systemic thrombin generation induced by glucose in vivo in mice. Material and Methods: Balb/c mice were i.p. injected with different concentrations of glucose (0 - 0.3 mmoles. After 0 - 3 h EDTA-blood was withdrawn, centrifuged, and the plasma was stabilized 1 + 1 with 2.5 M arginine, pH 8.6, and analyzed for systemically circulating F2a (that is F2a.?2M. The F2a.?2M activity in mice without glucose injection was defined as 100% of murine norm. Results: 1 h after i.p. injection 0.1 - 0.3 mmoles glucose resulted in about 1.4 fold increase of plasmatic glucose and in about 2.5 fold increase of systemic F2a activity. At the 45 min time interval between i.p. injection of 0.038 mmoles glucose and blood withdrawing an approximately 1.5fold increase of plasma glucose caused a 4fold increase in systemic F2a. Discussion: When systemic F2a reaches 120% of the normal, the normal human intravascular coagulation (NIC turns to the pre-phase of pathologic plasmatic intravascular coagulation (PIC-0 also defined as pre-PIC. At 150% systemic F2a, the PIC-0 changes to PIC-1 which is the common pathologic plasmatic intravascular coagulation (typical PIC. At 200% systemic F2a, PIC-1 changes to PIC-2 (consumption PIC. The present assay technique seems to be suitable in judging the coagulation activation state of any mammalian blood. Diabetic patients should be monitored for the new biomarker systemic F2a similarly as for the old biomarker glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c. The target systemic F2a range should be NIC, preferably around 100% of normal.

Hani Harb

2012-02-01

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The unresolved safety concerns of bovine thrombin  

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Full Text Available Abstract A recent review has suggested that bovine thrombin is not associated with an increased risk of bleeding in surgical populations. In spite of extremely limited evidence available, many valuable resources (e.g. safety surveillance and post-marketing programs, case reports were excluded in reaching this conclusion. While waiting for the adequately powered, controlled clinical trials to address the effects of bovine thrombin on bleeding and thrombotic events, the potential risk cannot be simply ignored. Rather, continued vigilance in the post-surgical setting for bleeding events that may be associated with the development of acquired coagulation factor inhibitors following bovine thrombin administration is warranted.

Javidroozi Mazyar

2008-09-01

25

Thrombin generation and the pathogenesis of cancer.  

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Advanced cancer is associated with a hypercoagulable state that is triggered by tissue factor (TF). TF-initiated thrombin generation is crucial for metastasis through fibrin and platelet deposition, as well as thrombin-dependent protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1 signaling. Surprisingly, PAR2, which is not cleaved by thrombin, appears to cosignal with PAR1 to elicit thrombin effects in metastatic tumor cells. In contrast to TF-driven thrombin pathways in metastasis, direct TF signaling plays a role in angiogenesis-dependent tumor growth. In TF cytoplasmic-domain-deleted mice, PAR2-dependent angiogenesis and tumor growth is enhanced, demonstrating a role for host cell TF signaling. In tumor cells, TF-factor VIIa (FVIIa) activates PAR2 and thereby regulates proangiogenic growth factor expression as well as integrins involving crosstalk with the TF cytoplasmic domain. In addition to thrombin-PAR signaling in metastasis and TF-FVIIa-PAR2 signaling in tumor growth, it is likely that additional protease pathways will prove to be crucial activators of PARs in cancer. Transmembrane serine proteases as well as matrix metalloproteinase are prime candidates for accessory pathways to regulate metastasis, tumor expansion, and angiogenesis dependent on specific features of the local tumor microenvironment. PMID:16673267

Ruf, Wolfram; Mueller, Barbara M

2006-04-01

26

A novel hirudin derivative characterized with anti-platelet aggregations and thrombin inhibition  

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Background Hirudin is an anti-coagulative product of the salivary glands of the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis. It is a powerful and specific thrombin inhibitor. Peptides containing the RGD motif competitively inhibit the binding of fibrinogen to GP IIb/IIIa on the platelets, thus inhibiting platelet aggregation. Results We have constructed a recombinant RGD-hirudin (r-RGD-hirudin) by fusing the tripeptide RGD sequence to the native hirudin (wt-hirudin). The r-RGD-hirudin was expressed at...

Mo, Wei; Zhang, Yan-ling; Chen, Hong-shan; Wang, Long-sheng; Song, Hou-yan

2009-01-01

27

Thrombin has a bimodal effect on glioma cell growth.  

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Using rat glioma C6 cells as a model, we have found a bimodal effect of alpha-thrombin on cell growth. In C6 cells treated with alpha-thrombin at concentrations from 0.02 nM to 1.0 nM, inhibition of cell proliferation was noted. Because the thrombin receptor agonist peptide TRAP-6 also induced inhibition of cell proliferation and the thrombin receptor antagonist peptide T1 prevented the inhibitory effect of alpha-thrombin on C6 glioma cell growth, thrombin receptor involvement in antiprolifer...

Schafberg, H.; Nowak, G.; Kaufmann, R.

1997-01-01

28

The ability of thrombin inhibitors to reduce the thrombin activity generated in plasma on extrinsic and intrinsic activation.  

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In a thrombin generation test with continuous registration of thrombin activity in plasma we studied the ability of a variety of thrombin inhibitors of different type and mechanism of action of influence the activity of thrombin after activation of the coagulation system. Depending on the inhibitor, the peak of thrombin activity is delayed and/or reduced. By blocking the active site of generated thrombin inhibitors cause a concentration dependent reduction of the thrombin peak and inhibit feed-back reactions of thrombin resulting in a delay of thrombin generation. Highly potent synthetic active-site directed inhibitors (Ki < or = 20 nM) reduce the thrombin activity formed in plasma after extrinsic or intrinsic activation with the same efficiency (IC50 0.1-0.6 microM) as hirudin. The delay and reduction of thrombin generation by inhibitors of the anion-binding exosite 1 of thrombin is only attributed to an inhibition of feed-back reactions of thrombin. For a 50% reduction of thrombin activity in plasma by this type of inhibitors relatively high concentrations were determined. PMID:9066001

Prasa, D; Svendsen, L; Stürzebecher, J

1997-03-01

29

A simplified mathematical model for thrombin generation.  

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A new phenomenological mathematical model based directly on laboratory data for thrombin generation and having a patient-specific character is described. A set of the solved equations for cell-based models of blood coagulation that can reproduce the temporal evolution of thrombin generation is proposed; such equations are appropriate for use in computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations. The initial values for the reaction rates are either taken from already existing model or experimental data, or they can obtained from simple reasoning under certain assumptions; it is shown that coefficients can be adjusted in order to fit a range of different thrombin generation curves as derived from thrombin generation assays. The behaviour of the model for different platelet concentration seems to be in good agreement with reported experimental data. It is shown that the reduced set of equations used represents to a good approximation a low-order model of the detailed mechanism and thus it can represent a cost-effective and-case specific mathematical model of coagulation reactions up to thrombin generation. PMID:24238617

Papadopoulos, Konstantinos P; Gavaises, Manolis; Atkin, Chris

2014-02-01

30

PROTON BRIDGING IN THE INTERACTIONS OF THROMBIN WITH SMALL INHIBITORS†  

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Thrombin is the pivotal serine protease enzyme in the blood cascade system. Phe-Pro-Arg-chloromethylketone (PPACK), phosphate and phosphonate ester inhibitors form a covalent bond with the active-site Ser of thrombin. PPACK, a mechanism-based inhibitor, and the phosphate/phosphonate esters form adducts that mimic intermediates formed in reactions catalyzed by thrombin. Therefore, the dependence of the inhibition of human ?-thrombin on the concentration of these inhibitors, pH, and temperatur...

Kovach, Ildiko M.; Kelley, Paul; Eddy, Carol; Jordan, Frank; Baykal, Ahmet

2009-01-01

31

Thrombin increases lung fibroblast survival while promoting alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis via the endoplasmic reticulum stress marker, CCAAT enhancer-binding homologous protein.  

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Apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) and survival of lung fibroblasts are critical events in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis; however, mechanisms underlying the apoptosis of AECs and the resistance of lung fibroblasts to apoptosis remain obscure. Herein, we demonstrate that the fate of these two cell types depends on the expression of CCAAT enhancer-binding homologous protein (CHOP). We observed that thrombin, which is overexpressed in scleroderma (SSc; systemic sclerosis) and other interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), increases the expression of CHOP in primary AECs and in A549 cells via an Ets1-dependent pathway. In addition, thrombin activates caspase-3 in AECs and induces apoptosis of these cells in a CHOP-dependent manner. In contrast, thrombin decreases endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced CHOP in lung fibroblasts through Myc-dependent mechanisms and protects such cells from apoptosis. Furthermore, when lung fibroblasts are transfected with recombinant CHOP, they then undergo apoptosis, even in the presence of thrombin, suggesting that CHOP signaling pathways are downstream of thrombin. In accordance with the differential effects of thrombin on AECs and lung fibroblasts, we observed strong expression of CHOP in AECs in fibrotic lung tissue isolated from patients with SSc-associated ILD (SSc-ILD), but not in lung myofibroblasts nor in normal lung tissue. Expression of CHOP in SSc lung is accompanied by positive staining for the thrombin receptor, protease-activated receptor-1, and for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling, suggesting roles for both thrombin and CHOP in AEC apoptosis in SSc-ILD. We conclude that regulation of CHOP by thrombin directs AECs toward apoptosis while promoting survival of lung fibroblasts, ultimately contributing to the persistent fibroproliferation seen in SSc-ILD and other fibrosing lung diseases. PMID:24279877

Atanelishvili, Ilia; Liang, Jun; Akter, Tanjina; Spyropoulos, Demetri D; Silver, Richard M; Bogatkevich, Galina S

2014-05-01

32

Vesicular aptasensor for the detection of thrombin.  

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Self-assembled phospholipid vesicles are functionalized with thrombin-binding aptamers using a thiol-click reaction. The resulting aptasensors signal the binding of the analyte to the vesicle surface by changes of the emission properties of membrane co-embedded reporter dyes. PMID:25205174

Müller, Andreas; König, Burkhard

2014-10-28

33

Label-free sensing of thrombin based on quantum dots and thrombin binding aptamer.  

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A facile and sensitive label-free approach for detection of thrombin based on CdTe quantum dots (QDs) and thrombin binding aptamer (TBA) is presented. The crude QDs can be "activated" with fluorescence enhancement by adding extra Cd(2+) to the solution in basic medium. As a result, the positively charged Cd(2+)-activating CdTe QDs could interact with the negatively charged TBA, leading to fluorescence quenching. When thrombin was added, TBA was induced to form a G-quadruplex structure and combined specifically with its target, releasing the QDs with a recovery of the fluorescence intensity. The sensing approach is based on the strongly specific interactions between TBA and thrombin over the electrostatic interactions between TBA and positively charged QDs. Based on the fluorescence enhancement of QDs, selective detection of thrombin was successfully achieved. A linear response for thrombin was observed in the range from 1.4 nM to 21 nM with a detection limit of 0.70 nM. PMID:23598204

Zhang, Xiangyuan; Hu, Ruoxin; Shao, Na

2013-03-30

34

Thrombin-induced increase in albumin permeability across the endothelium  

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We studied the effect of thrombin on albumin permeability across the endothelial monolayer in vitro. Bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells were grown on micropore membranes. Morphologic analysis confirmed the presence of a confluent monolayer with interendothelial junctions. Albumin permeability was measured by the clearance of 125I-albumin across the endothelial monolayer. The control 125I-albumin clearance was 0.273 +/- 0.02 microliter/min. The native enzyme, alpha-thrombin (10(-6) to 10(-10) M), added to the luminal side of the endothelium produced concentration-dependent increases in albumin clearance (maximum clearance of 0.586 +/- 0.08 microliter/min at 10(-6) M). Gamma (gamma) thrombin (10(-6) M and 10(-8) M), which lacks the fibrinogen recognition site, also produced a concentration-dependent increase in albumin clearance similar to that observed with alpha-thrombin. Moreover, the two proteolytically inactive forms of the native enzyme, i-Pr2 P-alpha-thrombin and D-Phe-Pro-Arg-CH2-alpha-thrombin, increased the 125I-albumin clearance (0.610 +/- 0.09 microliter/min and 0.609 +/- 0.02 microliter/min for i-Pr2 P-alpha-thrombin and D-Phe-Pro-Arg-CH2-alpha-thrombin at 10(-6) M, respectively). Since the modified forms of thrombin lack the fibrinogen recognition and active serine protease sites, the results indicate that neither site is required for increased albumin permeability. The increase in albumin clearance with alpha-thrombin was not secondary to endothelial cell lysis because lactate dehydrogenase concentration in the medium following thrombin was not significantly different from baseline values. There was also no morphological evidence of cell lysis. Moreover, the increase in 125I-albumin clearance induced by alpha-thrombin was reversible by washing thrombin from the endothelium

35

XIMELAGATRAN: A NEW DIRECT THROMBIN INHIBITOR  

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Full Text Available Venous thromboembolism is a serious illness that affects patient morbidity and mortality and presents a significant management challenge to healthcare providers world-wide. Despite major achievements in the significant reduction of thromboembolic complications, the most common therapies currently used for prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism – heparins and vitamin K antagonists such as warfarin – have several limitations. Warfarin sodium is an effective oral anticoagulant drug. However, warfarin has a narrow therapeutic window with significant risks of hemorrhage at therapeutic concentrations. Dosing is difficult and requires frequent monitoring. New oral anticoagulant agents are required to improve current anticoagulant therapy. Furthermore, while warfarin is effective in venous disease, it does not provide more than 60% risk reduction compared with placebo in venous thrombosis prophylaxis and considerably lower risk reduction in terms of arterial thrombosis. Unlike warfarin and heparin, these direct thrombin inhibitors are able to inhibit fibrin-bound thrombin and so produce more effective inhibition of coagulation. Importantly, some members of this class of drugs have been developed for oral administration. Ximelagatran is an oral pro-drug of melagatran, a synthetic small peptidomimetic with direct thrombin inhibitory actions and anticoagulant activity. As an oral agent, ximelagatran has a number of desirable properties including a rapid onset of action, fixed dosing, stable absorption, apparent low potential for medication interactions, and no requirement for monitoring of drug levels or dose adjustment. It has a short plasma elimination half-life of about 4 hours in cases of unexpected hemorrhage or need for reversal.

Mehta Hiren R

2011-04-01

36

Rational Design of Potent, Small, Synthetic Allosteric Inhibitors of Thrombin  

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Thrombin is a key enzyme targeted by the majority of current anticoagulants that are direct inhibitors. Allosteric inhibition of thrombin may offer a major advantage of finely tuned regulation. We present here sulfated benzofurans as the first examples of potent, small allosteric inhibitors of thrombin. A sulfated benzofuran library of 15 sulfated monomers and 13 sulfated dimers with different charged, polar and hydrophobic substituents was studied in this work. Synthesis of the sulfated benz...

Sidhu, Preetpal Singh; Liang, Aiye; Mehta, Akul Y.; Abdel Aziz, May H.; Zhou, Qibing; Desai, Umesh R.

2011-01-01

37

Thrombin-mediated impairment of fibroblast growth factor-2 activity.  

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Thrombin generation increases in several pathological conditions, including cancer, thromboembolism, diabetes and myeloproliferative syndromes. During tumor development, thrombin levels increase along with several other molecules, including cytokines and angiogenic factors. Under such conditions, it is reasonable to predict that thrombin may recognize new low-affinity substrates that usually are not recognized under low-expression levels conditions. In the present study, we hypothesized that fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 may be cleaved by thrombin and that such action may lead to an impairment of its biological activity. The evidence collected in the present study indicates that FGF-2-induced proliferation and chemotaxis/invasion of SK-MEL-110 human melanoma cells were significantly reduced when FGF-2 was pre-incubated with active thrombin. The inhibition of proliferation was not influenced by heparin. Phe-Pro-Arg-chloromethyl ketone, a specific inhibitor of the enzymatic activity of thrombin, abolished the thrombin-induced observed effects. Accordingly, both FGF-2-binding to cell membranes as well as FGF-2-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation were decreased in the presence of thrombin. Finally, HPLC analyses demonstrated that FGF-2 is cleaved by thrombin at the peptide bond between residues Arg42 and Ile43 of the mature human FGF-2 sequence. The apparent k(cat)/K(m) of FGF-2 hydrolysis was 1.1 x 10(4) M(-1) x s(-1), which is comparable to other known low-affinity thrombin substrates. Taken together, these results demonstrate that thrombin digests FGF-2 at the site Arg42-Ile43 and impairs FGF-2 activity in vitro, indicating that FGF-2 is a novel thrombin substrate. PMID:19438723

Totta, Pierangela; De Cristofaro, Raimondo; Giampietri, Claudia; Aguzzi, Maria S; Faraone, Debora; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Facchiano, Antonio

2009-06-01

38

Thrombin generation in a patient with an acquired high-titre factor V inhibitor.  

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The management of patients with acquired factor V inhibitors is challenging, because their bleeding risk is highly variable and only poorly correlated with routine coagulation tests. Furthermore, there is no standardized treatment for bleeding control or inhibitor eradication. An 84-year-old white man underwent uneventful surgery for a ruptured intracerebral haemangioma. There were no perioperative coagulation abnormalities. Eight weeks after surgery, however, the prothrombin and the activated partial thromboplastin times were found to be maximally prolonged without signs of acute haemorrhage. A factor V inhibitor of 212 Bethesda units was diagnosed. We used a fluorogenic real-time thrombin generation assay with low concentrations of tissue factor (TF) to analyse the factor V inhibitor for interference with coagulation in platelet-poor plasma. Compared with three bleeding patients with acquired haemophilia A and severely deficient thrombin generation, total thrombin generation capacity was similar in the patient and healthy controls. However, the lag phase was significantly prolonged, suggesting a defect in the initiation/amplification, but not in the propagation phase of TF-triggered thrombin generation. This defect could be fully reproduced by purified patient IgG and largely corrected by ex-vivo addition of activated prothrombin complex concentrate, but not recombinant human FVIIa. Addition of normal platelets to the patient's plasma resulted in a pronounced shortening of the lag phase, suggesting that platelet-derived factor V can escape the inhibitor. Our findings offer an explanation for the absence of spontaneous bleeding in this patient and support the concept of platelet transfusions for the management of acute haemorrhages in patients with acquired factor V inhibitors. PMID:25158984

Schmidt, David E; Steinhagen, Friederike; Schnabel, Claudia; Spath, Brigitte; Holstein, Katharina; Fiedler, Walter; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Renné, Thomas; Langer, Florian

2014-08-25

39

Effects of a plasma-derived C1 esterase inhibitor on hemostatic activation, clot formation, and thrombin generation.  

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Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare, autosomal dominant disease in which C1 esterase inhibitor (C1 INH) is deficient or dysfunctional. Package inserts for nanofiltered C1 esterase inhibitor (C1 INH-nf) products contain warnings about thrombotic events. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of C1 INH-nf on hemostatic activation, clot formation, and thrombin generation. Ten healthy volunteers provided blood samples for thromboelastometry using the ROTEM system. Platelet-poor samples were prepared for thrombin generation studies. C1 INH-nf was added to samples at final concentrations of 0.14, 0.7, 1.4, 2.8, and 7.0 U/ml. Recombinant factor VIIa and prothrombin complex concentrate were used as procoagulant controls, and antithrombin and desirudin were used as anticoagulant controls. C1 INH-nf had no procoagulant effect on hemostasis based on thromboelastometry, regardless of the final concentration or activating reagent used (P > 0.05 for all comparisons of C1 INH-nf versus negative control). C1 INH-nf 2.8 and 7.0 U/ml concentrations had a statistically significant anticoagulant effect on maximum clot firmness (P generation lag time, peak thrombin generation, or thrombin generation rate, regardless of the final concentration or activating reagent used (P ex vivo at concentrations up to 10-fold higher than those achieved with clinical dosing in patients with HAE. PMID:25222191

Levy, Jerrold H; Szlam, Fania; Gelone, Steven

2014-12-01

40

Hypersensitivity to thrombin of platelets from hypercholesterolemic rats  

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Hypersensitivity of platelets to thrombin has been associated with hypercholesterolemia. The authors have examined the mechanisms involved in this hypersensitivity. Rats were given diets rich in milk fat and containing added cholesterol and taurocholate to produce hypercholesterolemia (HC) (262 +/- 25 mg%) or added sitosterol as a normocholesterolemic control (NC) (89 +/- 6 mg%). Washed platelets were prelabelled with 14C-serotonin. In the presence of acetylsalicyclic acid (ASA) (to inhibit thromboxane A2 (TXA2) formation) and creatine phosphate/creatine phosphokinase (CP/CPK) (to remove released ADP), HC platelets aggregated more (26 +/- 1%) and released more 14C (9.1 +/- 2.0%) than NC platelets (aggregation: 0%, p 14C release: 1.5 +/- 0.5%, p 2 formation is involved in the hypersensitivity of HC platelets to thrombin. Total binding of 125I-thrombin to HC platelets was less than that to NC platelets but HC platelets were smaller and had less protein than NC platelets; the thrombin binding per mg platelet protein was the same for HC and NC platelets, indicating that hypersensitivity to thrombin of HC platelets does not result from increased thrombin binding. Thus, hypersensitivity of HC platelets to thrombin is not due to TXA2 formation, the action of released ADP or increased thrombin binding

 
 
 
 
41

Mechanisms of platelet activation by thrombin: a short history.  

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Platelet activation by thrombin is relevant to arterial thrombosis, therefore it is an attractive target for the development of new antithrombotic drugs. In the 1970s the platelet membrane complex glycoprotein (GP) Ib-V-IX was shown to have a high affinity binding site for thrombin on GPIb? and a substrate cleaved by thrombin, GPV. For several years it was considered to be involved in platelet activation by thrombin. The discovery of the protease activated receptors (PARs) in 1991 was a major breakthrough in the field. The first member of this family of receptors to be discovered was PAR1, a seven transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor which, upon cleavage by thrombin, unmasks a new amino-terminus able to bind intramolecularly to PAR1 itself thus inducing signaling. On human platelets PAR1 and, later PAR4, were demonstrated to mediate most of the platelet responses to thrombin. However, after the discovery of PARs, different groups demonstrated that GPIb? is required to stimulate a full platelet activation by thrombin. A model where thrombin binds to the GPIb receptor prior to proteolysis of the PAR receptors was supported by several lines of evidence. A role for GPV as inhibitor of GPIb? signaling has been shown by using GPV knock-out mice. Crystallographic data suggested that thrombin bound to GPIb? might be able to interact with other GPIb? molecules on the same or other platelets, shedding light on a new role for thrombin binding to GPIb?. Finally, anti-PAR1 molecules were developed which are now in phase II and III clinical studies as antithrombotic drugs. PMID:22137742

De Candia, Erica

2012-03-01

42

Planar Hall magnetoresistive aptasensor for thrombin detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of aptamer-based assays is an emerging and attractive approach in disease research and clinical diagnostics. A sensitive aptamer-based sandwich-type sensor is presented to detect human thrombin using a planar Hall magnetoresistive (PHR) sensor in cooperation with superparamagnetic labels. A PHR sensor has the great advantages of a high signal-to-noise ratio, a small offset voltage and linear response in the low-field region, allowing it to act as a high-resolution biosensor. In the system presented here, the sensor has an active area of 50 µm × 50 µm with a 10-nm gold layer deposited onto the sensor surface prior to the binding of thiolated DNA primary aptamer. A polydimethylsiloxane well of 600-µm radius and 1-mm height was prepared around the sensor surface to maintain the same specific area and volume for each sensor. The sensor response was traced in real time upon the addition of streptavidin-functionalized magnetic labels on the sensor. A linear response to the thrombin concentration in the range of 86 pM-8.6 µM and a lower detection limit down to 86 pM was achieved by the proposed present method with a sample volume consumption of 2 µl. The proposed aptasensor has a strong potential for application in clinical diagnosis. PMID:24727201

Sinha, B; Ramulu, T S; Kim, K W; Venu, R; Lee, J J; Kim, C G

2014-09-15

43

Monocyte IL-10 produced in response to lipopolysaccharide modulates thrombin generation by inhibiting tissue factor expression and release of active tissue factor-bound microparticles.  

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Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated monocytes are known to have a procoagulant effect. This property is currently explained by the fact that monocytes, in response to LPS, can express tissue factor (TF) and undergo a process of membrane microvesiculation. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) has been shown to downregulate TF expression and inhibit procoagulant activity (PCA). In order to further characterize the inhibitory effect of IL-10 on LPS-induced PCA, we used the integrated system of analysis of kinetics of thrombin generation in normal plasma (thrombinography). For this, we developed an original method of elutriation allowing to obtain a highly purified monocyte preparation, under endotoxin-free conditions. Thrombin generation was measured using a highly sensitive and specific fluorogenic method which we adapted to inhibit the contact factor pathway. Results show that recombinant human IL-10 decreased the kinetics of thrombin generation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the inhibition of endogenous IL-10 released by monocytes in response to LPS is associated with an increase in the kinetics of thrombin generation. We demonstrated that this effect was a consequence of the up-regulation of TF expression and TF-bound microparticle release. In conclusion, we report that IL-10 can regulate thrombin generation in conditions close to physiology as allowed by thrombinography, and that endogenous IL-10 regulates TF expression and release of active TF-bound microparticles by a negative feed back loop through IL-10 receptor alpha. PMID:17393023

Poitevin, Stéphane; Cochery-Nouvellon, Eva; Dupont, Annick; Nguyen, Philippe

2007-04-01

44

Expression, purification, and properties of recombinant encephalomyocarditis virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.  

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Encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase (GST), which allowed easy purification of the fusion protein by affinity chromatography on immobilized glutathione. Inclusion of a thrombin cleavage site between the GST carrier and the viral enzyme facilitated the release of purified mature EMC virus RNA polymerase from the GST carrier by proteolysis with thrombin. The purified recombinant enzyme ...

Sankar, S.; Porter, A. G.

1991-01-01

45

Label-free impedimetric biosensor for thrombin using the thrombin-binding aptamer as receptor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study presents the further establishment of impedimetric biosensors with aptamers as receptors. Aptamers are short single-stranded oligonucleotides which bind analytes with a specific region of their 3D structure. Electrical impedance spectroscopy is a sensitive method for analyzing changes on the electrode surface, e.g. caused by receptor-ligand-interactions. Fast and inexpensive prototyping of electrodes on the basis of commercially available compact discs having a 24 carat gold reflective layer was investigated. Electrode structures (CDtrodes [1]) in the range from few millimetres down to 100 microns were realized. The well-studied thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA) was used as receptor for characterizing these micro- and macro-electrodes. The impedance signal showed a linear correlation for concentrations of thrombin between 1.0 nM to 100 nM. This range corresponds well with most of the references and may be useful for the point-of-care testing (POCT).

46

APTAMER-BASED SERRS SENSOR FOR THROMBIN DETECTION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We describe an aptamer-based Surface Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering (SERRS) sensor with high sensitivity, specificity, and stability for the detection of a coagulation protein, human a-thrombin. The sensor achieves high sensitivity and a limit of detection of 100 pM by monitoring the SERRS signal change upon the single step of thrombin binding to immobilized thrombin binding aptamer. The selectivity of the sensor is demonstrated by the specific discrimination of thrombin from other protein analytes. The specific recognition and binding of thrombin by the thrombin binding aptamer is essential to the mechanism of the aptamer-based sensor, as shown through measurements using negative control oligonucleotides. In addition, the sensor can detect 1 nM thrombin in the presence of complex biofluids, such as 10% fetal calf serum, demonstrating that the immobilized, 5{prime}-capped, 3{prime}-capped aptamer is sufficiently robust for clinical diagnostic applications. Furthermore, the proposed sensor may be implemented for multiplexed detection using different aptamer-Raman probe complexes.

Cho, H; Baker, B R; Wachsmann-Hogiu, S; Pagba, C V; Laurence, T A; Lane, S M; Lee, L P; Tok, J B

2008-07-02

47

Inhibition of thrombin in plasma by heparin or arginine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The inhibition of plasmatic thrombin is of clinical importance in a broad range of diseases. To obtain reliable data the assay system should be as similar to physiology as possible. Using a newly developed physiologic assay system for fibrinogen/thrombin interaction (the FIFTA), the inhibition of plasmatic thrombin by heparin or by arginine was studied. The standard fibrinogen functional turbidimetric assay (FIFTA) was performed, varying heparin or arginine concentrations and varying the time point the inhibitor was added to the FIFTA. Plasmatic heparin concentrations equal to or greater than 0.63 IU/mL completely inhibit thrombin in the assay system described. The IC(50) is 0.1 IU/mL heparin. Heparin can only inhibit fibrin generation within the first 2 minutes at room temperature (RT=23 degrees C). The 50% inhibitory time point, that is, the time point that a 10 IU/mL final concentration of heparin results in 50% inhibition of FIFTA, is 30 seconds at RT. A final arginine concentration of at least 125 mM in the first 100 seconds of the FIFTA reaction at RT completely inhibits turbidity increase. Half-maximal turbidity increase occurs at 63 mM arginine. Final arginine concentrations of at least 250 mM completely inhibit turbidity increase, when arginine acts in the first 4 minutes (RT) of the thrombin/ fibrinogen interaction. A final arginine concentration of 477 mM added at the 12-minute or 30-minute thrombin/ fibrinogen reaction time point decreases the resulting turbidity by 50% after an additional 30 minutes at RT. Pathologic disseminated intravascular coagulation occurs in a multitude of diseases; in common is always the generation of thrombin either by the contact phase or by the tissue factor phase of coagulation. Such pathologically elevated thrombin activity in blood or blood products must be prevented or inhibited. This study demonstrates the efficiency of two physiologic thrombin inhibitors: heparin and arginine. PMID:17456623

Stief, Thomas W

2007-04-01

48

[Activation of the anticoagulation system following intravenous administration of beta-thrombin].  

Science.gov (United States)

Beta-thrombin possessing high esterase activity and tracing coagulating ability, being product of limited proteolysis of alpha-thrombin in vitro, accelerates recalcification time and thrombin generation in plasma, but not the conversion of prothrombin to enzyme. Thus, beta-thrombin is the activator of early stages of blood coagulation, does not possess fibrinolytic activity and does not activate plasminogen. The i. v. administration of beta-thrombin to rats induces changes in blood coagulability which are accompanied by an increase in plasma recalcification time, total fibrinolytic activity and non-enzymatic fibrinolysis. Nothing of the kind occurs after administration alpha-thrombin, having tracing clotting activity similar to R-thrombin activity. The data obtained suggest the possibility of reflex activation of the anticoagulating system by beta-thrombin or undirectly by alpha-thrombin generated by beta-thrombin activation at early stages of blood coagulation. PMID:456683

Strukova, S M; Umarova, B A; Semenova, O A; Liapina, L A; Kudriashov, B A

1979-05-01

49

Fibrinogen and thrombin concentrations are critical for fibrin glue adherence in rat high-risk colon anastomoses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Fibrin glues have not been consistently successful in preventing the dehiscence of high-risk colonic anastomoses. Fibrinogen and thrombin concentrations in glues determine their ability to function as sealants, healers, and/or adhesives. The objective of the current study was to compare [...] the effects of different concentrations of fibrinogen and thrombin on bursting pressure, leaks, dehiscence, and morphology of high-risk ischemic colonic anastomoses using fibrin glue in rats. METHODS: Colonic anastomoses in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (weight, 250-350 g) treated with fibrin glue containing different concentrations of fibrinogen and thrombin were evaluated at post-operative day 5. The interventions were low-risk (normal) or high-risk (ischemic) end-to-end colonic anastomoses using polypropylene sutures and topical application of fibrinogen at high (120 mg/mL) or low (40 mg/mL) concentrations and thrombin at high (1000 IU/mL) or low (500 IU/mL) concentrations. RESULTS: Ischemia alone, anastomosis alone, or both together reduced the bursting pressure. Glues containing a low fibrinogen concentration improved this parameter in all cases. High thrombin in combination with low fibrinogen also improved adherence exclusively in low-risk anastomoses. No differences were detected with respect to macroscopic parameters, histopathology, or hydroxyproline content at 5 days post-anastomosis. CONCLUSIONS: Fibrin glue with a low fibrinogen content normalizes the bursting pressure of high-risk ischemic left-colon anastomoses in rats at day 5 after surgery.

Eliseo Portilla-de, Buen; Abel, Orozco-Mosqueda; Caridad, Leal-Cortés; Gonzalo, Vázquez-Camacho; Clotilde, Fuentes-Orozco; Andrea Socorro, Alvarez-Villaseñor; Michel Dassaejv, Macías-Amezcua; Alejandro, González-Ojeda.

2014-04-01

50

Antithrombotic effects of bromophenol, an alga-derived thrombin inhibitor  

Science.gov (United States)

Thrombin, the ultimate proteinase of the coagulation cascade, is an attractive target for the treatment of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. A bromophenol derivative named (+)-3-(2,3-dibromo-4, 5-dihydroxy-phenyl)-4-bromo-5,6-dihydroxy-1,3-dihydroiso-benzofuran 1, isolated from the brown alga Leathesia nana exhibited significant thrombin inhibitory activity. In this study, we investigated the inhibition of human thrombin in vitro with this bromophenol derivative, and its antithrombotic efficacy in vivo using the arteriovenous shunt model and the ferric chloride-induced arterial thrombosis model in rats. The results show that the bromophenol derivative is a potential inhibitor of thrombin (IC50=1.03 nmol/L). In antithrombotic experiments in vivo, the bromophenol derivative also shows good effect comparing with the control group. These data indicate that the bromophenol derivative is a potential drug for prophylaxis and the treatment of thrombotic diseases.

Shi, Dayong; Li, Xiaohong; Li, Jing; Guo, Shuju; Su, Hua; Fan, Xiao

2010-01-01

51

Endovascular Thrombin Injection for a Pulmonary Artery Pseudoaneurysm: Case Report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Massive hemoptysis caused by pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysms is uncommon, and endovascular treatment such as coil embolization is the first choice for treating pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysms. Various embolic agents could be used according to the angiographic findings, yet embolization with thrombin injection is very rare. Herein, we describe a case of a pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm that was successfully treated by endovascular thrombin injection using a microcatheter because of the difficulty in performing a coil embolization due to a short feeding artery.

52

Endovascular Thrombin Injection for a Pulmonary Artery Pseudoaneurysm: Case Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Massive hemoptysis caused by pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysms is uncommon, and endovascular treatment such as coil embolization is the first choice for treating pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysms. Various embolic agents could be used according to the angiographic findings, yet embolization with thrombin injection is very rare. Herein, we describe a case of a pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm that was successfully treated by endovascular thrombin injection using a microcatheter because of the difficulty in performing a coil embolization due to a short feeding artery.

Shin, Jin Ho; Shin, Ji Hoon; Yoon, Hyun Ki [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2011-12-15

53

Development and Optimization of a Thrombin Sandwich Aptamer Microarray  

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A sandwich microarray employing two distinct aptamers for human thrombin has been optimized for the detection of subnanomolar concentrations of the protein. The aptamer microarray demonstrates high specificity for thrombin, proving that a two-site binding assay with the TBA1 aptamer as capture layer and the TBA2 aptamer as detection layer can ensure great specificity at times and conditions compatible with standard routine analysis of biological samples. Aptamer microarray sensitivity was eva...

Anna Meneghello; Alice Sosic; Agnese Antognoli; Erica Cretaio; Barbara Gatto

2012-01-01

54

Cellular signaling events involved in thrombin activation of vascular endothelium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although cytosolic calcium ([Ca])/sub I/), inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG) are important second messengers involved in stimulus-response coupling to certain hormones, little information is available regarding their role in the activation of vascular endothelial cells (EC) during coagulation. The authors have used cultured human umbilical vein EC to examine thrombin effects on [Ca]/sub I/ and on IP3 and DAG formation. Thrombin (1 U/ml) induces a rapid (peak 2+ indicator)-loaded EC. In addition thrombin stimulates concentration-dependent (.001-1 U/ml) increases in calcium efflux and IP3 formation in EC prelabeled with 45Ca or 3H-myoinositol. Peak IP3 (182+/-14% control) is rapid (3H-arachidonic acid-labeled EC, thrombin increases DAG (protein kinase C activator) at 15 sec (133+/-8% control), as well as 5 min (148+/-12% control). EC preincubation with 4?-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (10-7M, 5 min), a potent activator of protein kinase C, blocks thrombin (1 U/ml)-induced increases in [Ca]/sub I/ and IP3. Thus, thrombin may trigger at least two distinct signaling pathways (IP3/calcium; DAG/protein kinase C) in EC. In addition, DAG stimulation of protein kinase C may influence this mediator's action in vascular EC

55

Biochemical characterization of bovine plasma thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background TAFI is a plasma protein assumed to be an important link between coagulation and fibrinolysis. The three-dimensional crystal structures of authentic mature bovine TAFI (TAFIa in complex with tick carboxypeptidase inhibitor, authentic full lenght bovine plasma thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI, and recombinant human TAFI have recently been solved. In light of these recent advances, we have characterized authentic bovine TAFI biochemically and compared it to human TAFI. Results The four N-linked glycosylation sequons within the activation peptide were all occupied in bovine TAFI, similar to human TAFI, while the sequon located within the enzyme moiety of the bovine protein was non-glycosylated. The enzymatic stability and the kinetic constants of TAFIa differed somewhat between the two proteins, as did the isoelectric point of TAFI, but not TAFIa. Equivalent to human TAFI, bovine TAFI was a substrate for transglutaminases and could be proteolytically cleaved by trypsin or thrombin/solulin complex, although small differences in the fragmentation patterns were observed. Furthermore, bovine TAFI exhibited intrinsic activity and TAFIa attenuated tPA-mediated fibrinolysis similar to the human protein. Conclusion The findings presented here suggest that the properties of these two orthologous proteins are similar and that conclusions reached using the bovine TAFI may be extrapolated to the human protein.

Kristensen Torsten

2009-05-01

56

A plasmin-activatable thrombin inhibitor reduces experimental thrombosis and assists experimental thrombolysis in murine models.  

Science.gov (United States)

The leech protein hirudin is a potent natural thrombin inhibitor. Its potential as an antithrombotic agent is limited by its promotion of bleeding. We attempted to modify this profile by positioning albumin and a plasmin cleavage site on its N-terminus, in recombinant protein HSACHV3 [comprising hirudin variant 3 (HV3) fused to the C-terminus of human serum albumin (HSA) via a plasmin cleavage site (C)], Previously we showed that HSACHV3 inhibited thrombin in a plasmin-dependent manner, and that, unlike HV3, it did not increase bleeding in vivo when administered to mice. Here we tested HSACHV3 for the ability to reduce thrombosis and assist enzymatic thrombolysis in animal models. Intravenous administration of HSACHV3, but not a control protein lacking the plasmin cleavage site (HSAHV3), reduced thrombus weight by 2.1-fold in the ferric chloride-injured mouse vena cava. Similarly, thrombi formed in a rabbit jugular vein stasis model were 1.7-fold lighter in animals treated with HSACHV3 compared to those receiving HSAHV3. Administration of 60 mg/kg body weight HSACHV3 prolonged the time to occlusion in the ferric chloride-injured mouse carotid artery by threefold compared to vehicle controls, while equimolar HSAHV3 had no effect. HSACHV3 had no ability to restore flow to the murine carotid arteries occluded by ferric chloride treatment, but combining HSACHV3 (60 mg/kg) with recombinant mutant tissue plasminogen activator (TNKase) significantly reduced the time to restore patency to the artery compared to TNKase alone. Unlike unfused HV3, HSACHV3 did not increase bleeding in a mouse liver laceration model. Our results show that HSACHV3 acts as an antithrombotic agent that does not promote bleeding and which speeds the time to flow restoration when used as an adjunct to pharmacological thrombolysis in animal models. PMID:25481811

Sheffield, W P; Eltringham-Smith, L J; Gataiance, S; Bhakta, V

2014-12-01

57

Impedimetric thrombin aptasensor based on chemically modified graphenes  

Science.gov (United States)

Highly sensitive biosensors are of high importance to the biomedical field. Graphene represents a promising transducing platform for construction of biosensors. Here for the first time we compare the biosensing performance of a wide set of graphenes prepared by different methods. In this work, we present a simple and label-free electrochemical impedimetric aptasensor for thrombin based on chemically modified graphene (CMG) platforms such as graphite oxide (GPO), graphene oxide (GO), thermally reduced graphene oxide (TR-GO) and electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ER-GO). Disposable screen-printed electrodes were first modified with chemically modified graphene (CMG) materials and used to immobilize a DNA aptamer which is specific to thrombin. The basis of detection relies on the changes in impedance spectra of redox probe after the binding of thrombin to the aptamer. It was discovered that graphene oxide (GO) is the most suitable material to be used as compared to the other three CMG materials. Furthermore, the optimum concentration of aptamer to be immobilized onto the modified electrode surface was determined to be 10 ?M and the linear detection range of thrombin was 10-50 nM. Lastly, the aptasensor was found to demonstrate selectivity for thrombin. Such simply fabricated graphene oxide aptasensor shows high promise for clinical diagnosis of biomarkers and point-of-care analysis.

Loo, Adeline Huiling; Bonanni, Alessandra; Pumera, Martin

2011-12-01

58

[Thrombin--a regulator of reparative processes in wound healing].  

Science.gov (United States)

Thrombin, binding to receptors of the protease activated receptor (PAR) family, is involved in wound healing by inducing the reparation processes and regulating the activity of mast cells, which secrete mediators of inflammation. Using thrombin receptor agonist peptide (TRAP-6) for the activation of rat mast cells, effect of several receptors, including PAR-1, on mast cells was demonstrated. It was shown that TRAP increases the concentration of Ca2+ in the cytoplasm of mast cells and regulates cell degranulation, while releasing nitrogen oxide. Thrombin encapsulated in poly(N-vinyl caprolactam)-calcium alginate (PVCL-Ca-Alg) hydrogel films promotes wound healing in rats as demonstrated by the acceleration of fibroblast proliferation and neovascularization. PMID:9612571

Strukova, S M; Dugina, T N; Chistov, I V; Markvicheva, E A; Kuptsova, S V; Kolokol'chikova, E G; Rumsh, L D; Zubov, V P; Gluza, E

1998-04-01

59

Development and Optimization of a Thrombin Sandwich Aptamer Microarray  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A sandwich microarray employing two distinct aptamers for human thrombin has been optimized for the detection of subnanomolar concentrations of the protein. The aptamer microarray demonstrates high specificity for thrombin, proving that a two-site binding assay with the TBA1 aptamer as capture layer and the TBA2 aptamer as detection layer can ensure great specificity at times and conditions compatible with standard routine analysis of biological samples. Aptamer microarray sensitivity was evaluated directly by fluorescent analysis employing Cy5-labeled TBA2 and indirectly by the use of TBA2-biotin followed by detection with fluorescent streptavidin. Sub-nanomolar LODs were reached in all cases and in the presence of serum, demonstrating that the optimized aptamer microarray can identify thrombin by a low-cost, sensitive and specific method.

Anna Meneghello

2012-08-01

60

Fractal gold modified electrode for ultrasensitive thrombin detection  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a label-free and ultrasensitive aptasensor based on a fractal gold modified (FracAu) electrode for thrombin detection with a femtomolar detection limit. The FracAu electrode was prepared by electrodeposition of hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (HAuCl4) onto a bare indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode surface. After this process the electrode was characterized by SEM. A thiol-modified aptamer against thrombin was immobilized on the FracAu electrode through a self-assembling process. Upon thrombin binding, the interfacial electron transfer of the FracAu electrode was perturbed by the formation of an aptamer-thrombin complex. The concentration of thrombin in the sample solution was determined by measuring the change in the oxidation peak current of hydroxymethyl ferrocene (C11H12FeO) with differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The current response (reduced peak current) had a linear relationship with the logarithm of thrombin concentrations in the range of 10-15 to 10-10 M with a detection limit of 5.7 fM. Furthermore, the as-prepared FracAu electrode exhibited high selectivity. The application of FracAu electrodes may be extended to prepare other types of biosensors, such as immunosensors, enzyme biosensors and DNA biosensors. These results show that FracAu electrodes have great promise for clinical diagnosis of disease-related biomarkers.We report a label-free and ultrasensitive aptasensor based on a fractal gold modified (FracAu) electrode for thrombin detection with a femtomolar detection limit. The FracAu electrode was prepared by electrodeposition of hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (HAuCl4) onto a bare indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode surface. After this process the electrode was characterized by SEM. A thiol-modified aptamer against thrombin was immobilized on the FracAu electrode through a self-assembling process. Upon thrombin binding, the interfacial electron transfer of the FracAu electrode was perturbed by the formation of an aptamer-thrombin complex. The concentration of thrombin in the sample solution was determined by measuring the change in the oxidation peak current of hydroxymethyl ferrocene (C11H12FeO) with differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The current response (reduced peak current) had a linear relationship with the logarithm of thrombin concentrations in the range of 10-15 to 10-10 M with a detection limit of 5.7 fM. Furthermore, the as-prepared FracAu electrode exhibited high selectivity. The application of FracAu electrodes may be extended to prepare other types of biosensors, such as immunosensors, enzyme biosensors and DNA biosensors. These results show that FracAu electrodes have great promise for clinical diagnosis of disease-related biomarkers. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1 showing current reductions of FracAu and bulk Au biosensors, Fig. S2 showing cyclic voltammogram of FracAu and bulk Au electrode in 0.5 M H2SO4 aqueous solution. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30826f

Xu, Li-Ping; Wang, Shuqi; Dong, Haifeng; Liu, Guodong; Wen, Yongqiang; Wang, Shutao; Zhang, Xueji

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
61

The pharmacological modulation of thrombin-induced cerebral thromboembolism in the rabbit.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

1. Intracarotid (i.c.) administration of thrombin induced a marked accumulation of 111indium-labelled platelets and 125I-labelled fibrinogen within the cranial vasculature of anaesthetized rabbits. 2. Thrombin (100 iu kg-1, i.c.) - induced platelet accumulation was completely abolished by pretreatment with desulphatohirudin (CGP 39393; 1 mg kg-1 i.c., 1 min prior to thrombin). Administration of CGP 39393 1 or 20 min after thrombin produced a significant reduction in platelet accumulation. 3. ...

May, G. R.; Paul, W.; Crook, P.; Butler, K. D.; Page, C. P.

1992-01-01

62

Synthesis and biochemical evaluation of triazole/tetrazole-containing sulfonamides against thrombin and related serine proteases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A small library of 25 triazole/tetrazole-based sulfonamides have been synthesized and further evaluated for their inhibitory activity against thrombin, trypsin, tryptase and chymase. In general, the triazole-based sulfonamides inhibited thrombin more efficiently than the tetrazole counterparts. Particularly, compound 26 showed strong thrombin inhibition (Ki =880 nM) and significant selectivity against other human related serine proteases like trypsin (Ki =729 µM). Thrombin binding affinity o...

Siles, Rogelio; Kawasaki, Yuko; Ross, Patrick; Freire, Ernesto

2011-01-01

63

Bexarotene Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

Targretin® Topical Gel ... Topical bexarotene is used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL, a type of skin cancer) that ... Topical bexarotene comes as a gel to apply to the skin. It is usually applied once every ...

64

A cell-based model of thrombin generation.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed a cell-based model of thrombin generation using activated monocytes as a source of tissue factor (TF) and platelets serving as a surface for thrombin generation. Monocytes are activated by lipopolysaccharide and express cell-bound TF. To these are added physiologic (plasma) concentrations of all the plasma procoagulants as well as TF pathway inhibitor, antithrombin, and C1-esterase inhibitor. Coagulation takes place in microtiter wells and is initiated by factor VIIa (FVIIa) and calcium. At time intervals, aliquots are removed, platelet activation is measured by the expression of P-selectin, and thrombin generation is measured by chromogenic assay. In addition, one can measure the activation of FIX, FX, FVIII, FV, and FXI. Initial results reveal that the FVIIa-TF interaction results in the activation of FX to FXa and FIX to FIXa. FXa stays in the vicinity of the TF-bearing cell and, in the presence of FVa, converts a small amount of prothrombin to thrombin on the surface of the TF cell. This small amount of thrombin is not sufficient to clot fibrinogen, but is sufficient to activate platelets and FVIII, FV, and FXI. Following platelet activation, FVIIIa, FVa, and FXa occupy sites on the activated platelet surface. FIXa, activated by TF-FVIIa, does not remain on the TF cell, but converts FX to FXa on the platelet surface. FXIa acts to boost FIXa generation on the activated platelet, increasing FXa and subsequent thrombin generation. We have also shown that activated protein C does not inactivate Va on the platelet surface but rather on endothelial cell surfaces. PMID:16673264

Roberts, Harold R; Hoffman, Maureane; Monroe, Dougald M

2006-04-01

65

PKC? mediates thrombin augmented fibroblast-mediated collagen gel contraction  

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Fibroblast-mediated collagen gel contraction has been used as an in vitro model of tissue remodeling. Thrombin is one of the mediators present in the milieu of airway inflammation and may be involved in airway tissue remodeling. We have previously reported that thrombin stimulates fibroblast-mediated collagen gel contraction partially through the PAR1/PKC? signaling pathway (Fang et al, ERJ, 2004; 24: 918-924). Here we further report that the delta-isoform of PKC (PKC?) is also activated by...

Fang, Qiuhong; Mao, Lijun; Kobayashi, Tetsu; Wang, Xingqi; Wyatt, Todd A.; Kim, Huijung; Liu, Xiangde; Rennard, Stephen I.

2008-01-01

66

[Fibrinogen-thrombin as bridge therapy in massive hemoptysis].  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents the case of a young woman with massive hemoptysis (1,000 mL in 6 hours) due to tuberculosis, which could not be controlled by insertion of a Fogarty catheter through a fiber-optic bronchoscope. Because of asphyxia and persistent bleeding risk we instilled fibrinogen-thrombin through a fiber-optic bronchoscope inserted catheter, achieving bleeding cessation and permitting the placing of a double-lumen oro-tracheal tube. Later on, the patient underwent lobectomy and anti-tuberculosis treatment. The fibrinogen-thrombin could be considered as a bridge, transitory measure for massive hemoptysis, while definitive treatment could be established. PMID:23715303

Cuervo, Francisco; Giraldo, Luis F; Vélez, Carlos; Forero, María R

2013-01-01

67

Coupling of the thrombin receptor to G12 may account for selective effects of thrombin on gene expression and DNA synthesis in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In 1321N1 astrocytoma cells, thrombin, but not carbachol, induces AP-1-mediated gene expression and DNA synthesis. To understand the divergent effects of these G protein-coupled receptor agonists on cellular responses, we examined Gq-dependent signaling events induced by thrombin receptor and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor stimulation. Thrombin and carbachol induce comparable changes in phosphoinositide and phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis, mobilization of intracellular Ca2+, diglyceride gen...

Post, G. R.; Collins, L. R.; Kennedy, E. D.; Moskowitz, S. A.; Aragay, A. M.; Goldstein, D.; Brown, J. H.

1996-01-01

68

Catalytically competent human and bovine zeta-thrombin and chimeras generated from unfolded polypeptide chains.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Human and bovine alpha-thrombin cleaved at the B-chain by chymotrypsin generates catalytically competent zeta-thrombins, which are comprised of two noncovalently linked fragments: a 36-(human) or 49-(bovine) residue A-chain linked by a disulfide to B-chain residues B1-148 (zeta 1-thrombin) and B-chain residues B149-259 (zeta 2-thrombin). Human and bovine D-Phe-Pro-Arg-CH2-zeta- and PhMeSO2-zeta-thrombins were prepared by reaction of the active-site histidine (H-B43) and serine (S-B205) with P...

Lewis, S. D.; Brezniak, D. V.; Fenton, J. W.; Shafer, J. A.

1992-01-01

69

A Guided Mode Resonance Aptasensor for Thrombin Detection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent developments in aptamers have led to their widespread use in analytical and diagnostic applications, particularly for biosensing. Previous studies have combined aptamers as ligands with various sensors for numerous applications. However, merging the aptamer developments with guided mode resonance (GMR devices has not been attempted. This study reports an aptasensor based home built GMR device. The 29-mer thrombin aptamer was immobilized on the surface of a GMR device as a recognizing ligand for thrombin detection. The sensitivity reported in this first trial study is 0.04 nm/?M for thrombin detection in the concentration range from 0.25 to 1 ?M and the limit of detection (LOD is 0.19 ?M. Furthermore, the binding affinity constant (Ka measured is in the range of 106 M?1. The investigation has demonstrated that such a GMR aptasensor has the required sensitivity for the real time, label-free, in situ detection of thrombin and provides kinetic information related to the binding.

Wen-Yih Chen

2011-09-01

70

Thrombin generation and low-molecular-weight heparin prophylaxis in pregnant women with thrombophilia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pregnancy is associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism, especially in the presence of thrombophilia. However, there is no consensus on the optimal approach for thromboprophylaxis in this population. Recent evidence suggests that thrombin generation correlates with the overall procoagulant state of the plasma. Our aim was to evaluate thrombin generation in a prospective cohort of thrombophilic pregnant women, and investigate the effectiveness of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) prophylaxis in pregnancy. Women with severe (n=8), mild (n=47) and no (n=15) thrombophilia were followed throughout their pregnancies. Thrombin generation was evaluated in each trimester as well as five days and eight weeks postpartum (as a reference category). In women undergoing LMWH prophylaxis, thrombin generation and anti-Factor-Xa activity were measured just before and 4 hours after administration (peak effect). Thrombin generation was determined using Technothrombin TGA assay system. For the analysis, median peak thrombin and endogenous thrombin potential were used. Peak thrombin and endogenous thrombin potential were increased during pregnancy compared to the non-pregnant state with the highest results in the severe thrombophilia group. In women receiving LMWH prophylaxis a decrease was observed in thrombin generation at peak effect but over the progression of pregnancy the extent of this decrease reduced in a stepwise fashion. Our results show that thrombin generation demonstrates the hypercoagulable state in thrombophilic pregnancies. In addition, we found the effect of LMWH prophylaxis to progressively decrease with advancing stages of pregnancy. PMID:25392852

Selmeczi, A; Roach, R E J; Móré, C; Batta, Z; Hársfalvi, J; van der Bom, J G; Boda, Z; Oláh, Z

2015-01-27

71

Effects of thrombin on the integrity of monolayers of cultured human endothelial cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

51Cr-prelabelled endothelial cells (EC) in confluent monolayers were incubated in RPMI 1640 + foetal calf serum 20% (v/v) to which purified thrombin was added. Thrombin (greater than or equal to 0.1 NIH U/ml) significantly accelerated 51Cr-release and caused extensive but reversible cell contraction. Thrombin-exposed EC reacted to a new dose of thrombin with no appreciable shape change, but 51Cr-efflux was again accelerated. EC exposed to thrombin pretreated with N-bromosuccinimide (modifying the macromolecular site) or phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (blocking the serine site) retained normal morphology and did not leak excess amounts of 51Cr. Antithrombin III also inhibited the effect of thrombin. Pretreatment of EC with either indomethacin, aspirin, sulfinpyrazone, pronase or neuraminidase did not influence the effect of subsequent thrombin exposure

72

Immobilized thrombin receptor agonist peptide accelerates wound healing in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

To accelerate the healing processes in wound repair, attempts have been repeatedly made to use growth factors including thrombin and its peptide fragments. Unfortunately, the employment of thrombin is limited because of its high liability and pro-inflammatory actions at high concentrations. Some cellular effects of thrombin in wound healing are mediated by the activation of protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1). The thrombin receptor agonist peptide (TRAP:SFLLRN) activates this receptor and mimics the effects of thrombin, but TRAP is a relatively weak agonist. We speculated that the encapsulated peptide may be more effective for PAR-1 activation than nonimmobilized peptide and developed a novel method for TRAP encapsulation in hydrogel films based on natural and synthetic polymers. The effects of an encapsulated TRAP in composite poly(N-vinyl caprolactam)-calcium alginate (PVCL) hydrogel films were investigated in a mouse model of wound healing. On day 7 the wound sizes decreased by about 60% under TRAP-chitosan-containing PVCL films, as compared with control films without TRAP. In the case of TRAP-polylysine-containing films no significant decrease in wound sizes was found. The fibroblast/macrophage ratio increased under TRAP-containing films on day 3 and on day 7. The number of proliferating fibroblasts increased to 150% under TRAP-chitosan films on day 7 as compared with control films. The number of [3H]-thymidine labeled endothelial and epithelial cells in granulation tissues was also enhanced. Thus, the immobilized TRAP to PVCL-chitosan hydrogel films were found to promote wound healing following the stimulation of fibroblast and epithelial cell proliferation and neovascularization. Furthermore, TRAP was shown to inhibit the secretion of the inflammatory mediator PAF from stimulated rat peritoneal mast cells due to augmentation of NO release from the mast cells. The encapsulated TRAP is suggested to accelerate wound healing due to the anti-inflammatory effects and earlier development of the proliferative phase of wound healing. PMID:11697718

Strukova, S M; Dugina, T N; Chistov, I V; Lange, M; Markvicheva, E A; Kuptsova, S; Zubov, V P; Glusa, E

2001-10-01

73

Fluorouracil Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluorouracil cream and topical solution are used to treat actinic or solar keratoses (scaly or crusted lesions [skin areas] caused by years of too much exposure to sunlight). Fluorouracil cream and topical solution are also used to treat a type ...

74

Oxybutynin Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxybutynin topical gel is used to treat overactive bladder (a condition in which the bladder muscles contract uncontrollably and ... Topical oxybutynin comes as a gel to apply to the skin. It is usually applied once a ...

75

Tavaborole Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

Tavaborole topical solution is used to treat fungal toenail infections (infections that may cause nail discoloration, splitting, or pain). Tavaborole topical solution is in a class of medications called ...

76

Efinaconazole Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

Efinaconazole topical solution is used to treat fungal toenail infections (infections that may cause nail discoloration, splitting, or pain). Efinaconazole topical solution is in a class of medications called ...

77

Tretinoin Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

Tretinoin comes in topical liquid, cream, and gel. Tretinoin usually is used daily at bedtime or once every 2 or 3 days. Follow ... nonmedicated cosmetics on cleansed skin. Do not use topical preparations with a lot of alcohol, menthol, spices, ...

78

Bimatoprost Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

Topical bimatoprost is used to treat hypotrichosis (less than the normal amount of hair) of the eyelashes ... the growth of longer, thicker, and darker lashes. Topical bimatoprost is in a class of medications called ...

79

Topical anesthesia.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To consider topical anesthetic options available to primary care physicians, indications for their use, and efficacy and safety of these agents as supported by the literature. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Five randomized controlled trials were retrieved that compared various topical anesthetics as well as topical anesthetics versus infiltrative anesthesia. MAIN FINDINGS: A combination of lidocaine, epinephrine, and tetracaine (LET) is currently the topical anesthetic of choice for repair o...

Keyes, P. D.; Tallon, J. M.; Rizos, J.

1998-01-01

80

Nonradiative recombination in semiconductors  

CERN Document Server

In recent years, great progress has been made in the understandingof recombination processes controlling the number of excessfree carriers in semiconductors under nonequilibrium conditions. As a result, it is now possible to give a comprehensivetheoretical description of these processes. The authors haveselected a number of experimental results which elucidate theunderlying physical problems and enable a test of theoreticalmodels. The following topics are dealt with: phenomenological theory ofrecombination, theoretical models of shallow and deep localizedstates, cascade model of carrier captu

Abakumov, VN; Yassievich, IN

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Evaluation of DNA aptamers directed to thrombin as potential thrombus imaging agents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two DNA aptamers directed against two separate exosites on human ?-thrombin were evaluated for thrombus-imaging potential. Aptamer ODN 1 is directed to the thrombin substrate binding site (exosite 1). Our finding that ODN 1 competes with fibrin for binding to exosite 1 on thrombin suggests that ODN 1 will not be useful for thrombus imaging. Aptamer ODN 2 is directed against the thrombin heparin binding site (exosite 2). ODN 2 bound to model thrombi that were formed either by clotting purified fibrinogen with thrombin, or by recalcifying citrated plasma. As the thrombin content of thrombi was increased the rate of ODN 2 uptake into preformed thrombi increased, whereas the rate of release of ODN 2 out of preformed thrombi decreased. This in vitro data suggested that ODN 2 might be useful for thrombus imaging because it can bind to exosite 2 on fibrin-bound thrombin. However, in a rabbit jugular vein model using thrombus supplemented with human thrombin, ODN 2 uptake was equal to the ovalbumin control, and did not reflect thrombin content. While the in vitro results with ODN 2 were consistent with thrombus imaging, the rapid clearance of ODN 2 from circulation, combined with slow mass transfer in the clot, seem to work against in vivo thrombin-dependent imaging or washout analysis

82

Evaluation of DNA aptamers directed to thrombin as potential thrombus imaging agents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two DNA aptamers directed against two separate exosites on human {alpha}-thrombin were evaluated for thrombus-imaging potential. Aptamer ODN 1 is directed to the thrombin substrate binding site (exosite 1). Our finding that ODN 1 competes with fibrin for binding to exosite 1 on thrombin suggests that ODN 1 will not be useful for thrombus imaging. Aptamer ODN 2 is directed against the thrombin heparin binding site (exosite 2). ODN 2 bound to model thrombi that were formed either by clotting purified fibrinogen with thrombin, or by recalcifying citrated plasma. As the thrombin content of thrombi was increased the rate of ODN 2 uptake into preformed thrombi increased, whereas the rate of release of ODN 2 out of preformed thrombi decreased. This in vitro data suggested that ODN 2 might be useful for thrombus imaging because it can bind to exosite 2 on fibrin-bound thrombin. However, in a rabbit jugular vein model using thrombus supplemented with human thrombin, ODN 2 uptake was equal to the ovalbumin control, and did not reflect thrombin content. While the in vitro results with ODN 2 were consistent with thrombus imaging, the rapid clearance of ODN 2 from circulation, combined with slow mass transfer in the clot, seem to work against in vivo thrombin-dependent imaging or washout analysis.

Dougan, Hayes E-mail: dougan@triumf.ca; Weitz, Jeffrey I.; Stafford, Alan R.; Gillespie, Kris D.; Klement, Petr; Hobbs, John B.; Lyster, Donald M

2003-01-01

83

Roles of low specificity and cofactor interaction sites on thrombin during factor XIII activation. Competition for cofactor sites on thrombin determines its fate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Factor XIII is activated by thrombin, and this reaction is enhanced by the presence of fibrin(ogen). Using a substrate-based screening assay for factor XIII activity complemented by kinetic analysis of activation peptide cleavage, we show by using thrombin mutants of surface-exposed residues that Arg-178, Arg-180, Asp-183, Glu-229, Arg-233, and Trp-50 of thrombin are necessary for direct activation of factor XIII. These residues define a low specificity site known to be important also for both protein C activation and for inhibition of thrombin by antithrombin. The enhancing effect of fibrinogen occurs as a consequence of its conversion to fibrin and subsequent polymerization. Surface residues of thrombin further involved in high specificity fibrin-enhanced factor XIII activation were identified as His-66, Tyr-71, and Asn-74. These residues represent a distinct interaction site on thrombin (within exosite I) also employed by thrombomodulin in its cofactor-enhanced activation of protein C. In competition experiments, thrombomodulin inhibited fibrin-enhanced factor XIII activation. Based upon these and prior published results, we propose that the polymerization process forms a fibrin cofactor that acts to approximate thrombin and factor XIII bound to separate and complementary domains of fibrinogen. This enables enhanced factor XIII activation to be localized around the fibrin clot. We also conclude that proximity to and competition for cofactor interaction sites primarily directs the fate of thrombin. PMID:12794066

Philippou, Helen; Rance, James; Myles, Timothy; Hall, Scott W; Ariens, Robert A; Grant, Peter J; Leung, Lawrence; Lane, David A

2003-08-22

84

A Guided Mode Resonance Aptasensor for Thrombin Detection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent developments in aptamers have led to their widespread use in analytical and diagnostic applications, particularly for biosensing. Previous studies have combined aptamers as ligands with various sensors for numerous applications. However, merging the aptamer developments with guided mode resonance (GMR) devices has not been attempted. This study reports an aptasensor based home built GMR device. The 29-mer thrombin aptamer was immobilized on the surface of a GMR device as a recognizing ...

Wen-Yih Chen; Chien-Chieh Lee; Jenq-Yang Chang; Tsung-Hsun Yang; Jen-Tsai Liu; Ting-Jou Ding; Sheng-Fu Lin

2011-01-01

85

A critical role for thrombin in vertebrate lens regeneration.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lens regeneration in urodele amphibians such as the newt proceeds from the dorsal margin of the iris where pigment epithelial cells (PEC) re-enter the cell cycle and transdifferentiate into lens. A general problem in regeneration research is to understand how the events of tissue injury or removal are coupled to the activation of plasticity in residual differentiated cells or stem cells. Thrombin, a pivotal regulator of the injury response, has been implicated as a regulator of cell cycle re-...

Imokawa, Yutaka; Simon, Andra?s; Brockes, Jeremy P.

2004-01-01

86

Stabilization of the E* Form Turns Thrombin into an Anticoagulant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Previous studies have shown that deletion of nine residues in the autolysis loop of thrombin produces a mutant with an anticoagulant propensity of potential clinical relevance, but the molecular origin of the effect has remained unresolved. The x-ray crystal structure of this mutant solved in the free form at 1.55 {angstrom} resolution reveals an inactive conformation that is practically identical (root mean square deviation of 0.154 {angstrom}) to the recently identified E* form. The side chain of Trp215 collapses into the active site by shifting >10 {angstrom} from its position in the active E form, and the oxyanion hole is disrupted by a flip of the Glu192-Gly193 peptide bond. This finding confirms the existence of the inactive form E* in essentially the same incarnation as first identified in the structure of the thrombin mutant D102N. In addition, it demonstrates that the anticoagulant profile often caused by a mutation of the thrombin scaffold finds its likely molecular origin in the stabilization of the inactive E* form that is selectively shifted to the active E form upon thrombomodulin and protein C binding.

Bah, Alaji; Carrell, Christopher J.; Chen, Zhiwei; Gandhi, Prafull S.; Di Cera, Enrico; (WU-MED)

2009-07-31

87

Thrombin generation by activated factor VII on platelet activated by different agonists. Extending the cell-based model of hemostasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Platelet activation is crucial in normal hemostasis. Using a clotting system free of external tissue factor, we investigated whether activated Factor VII in combination with platelet agonists increased thrombin generation (TG in vitro. Methods and results TG was quantified by time parameters: lag time (LT and time to peak (TTP, and by amount of TG: peak of TG (PTG and area under thrombin formation curve after 35 minutes (AUC?35min in plasma from 29 healthy volunteers using the calibrated automated thrombography (CAT technique. TG parameters were measured at basal conditions and after platelet stimulation by sodium arachidonate (AA, ADP, and collagen (Col. In addition, the effects of recombinant activated FVII (rFVIIa alone or combined with the other platelet agonists on TG parameters were investigated. We found that LT and TTP were significantly decreased (p 35min were significantly increased (p 35min (but not PTG when compared to platelet rich plasma activated with agonists in the absence of rFVIIa. Conclusion Platelets activated by AA, ADP, Col or rFVIIa triggered TG. This effect was increased by combining rFVIIa with other agonists. Our intrinsic coagulation system produced a burst in TG independent of external tissue factor activity an apparent hemostatic effect with little thrombotic capacity. Thus we suggest a modification in the cell-based model of hemostasis.

Herrera Maria

2006-04-01

88

Thrombin-induced cerebral hemorrhage: role of protease-activated receptor-1.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thrombin causes blood-brain barrier disruption, and this study examined whether thrombin can cause brain hemorrhage through protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1). Male wild type and PAR-1 knockout mice had an intracerebral injection of thrombin or saline. Mice then underwent serial T2 magnetic resonance imaging and were euthanized for brain hemoglobin, iron, and interleukin-1? measurements. Thrombin caused massive T2 lesions and brain hemorrhage in wild type mice. These effects were markedly reduced in PAR-1 knockout mice. Thrombin also increased brain interleukin-1?, and this was absent in PAR-1 knockout mice. In conclusion, thrombin increases interleukin-1? levels and induces intracerebral hemorrhage through PAR-1 activation. PMID:24323711

Cheng, Yingying; Xi, Guohua; Jin, Hang; Keep, Richard F; Feng, Jiachun; Hua, Ya

2014-08-01

89

Mice lacking the thrombin receptor, PAR1, have normal skin wound healing.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thrombin's actions on platelets, macrophages, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells have prompted the hypothesis that thrombin may be important for inflammatory and fibroproliferative processes in wound healing. Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is a G-protein-coupled receptor that mediates many of the cellular activities of thrombin. To test the role of this receptor in vivo, we generated PAR1-deficient mice. Despite the observation that fibroblasts cultured from these mice lacked responsive...

Connolly, A. J.; Suh, D. Y.; Hunt, T. K.; Coughlin, S. R.

1997-01-01

90

Human Thrombin Detection Through a Sandwich Aptamer Microarray: Interaction Analysis in Solution and in Solid Phase  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have developed an aptamer-based microarray for human thrombin detection exploiting two non-overlapping DNA thrombin aptamers recognizing different exosites of the target protein. The 15-mer aptamer (TBA1) binds the fibrinogen-binding site, whereas the 29-mer aptamer (TBA2) binds the heparin binding domain. Extensive analysis on the complex formation between human thrombin and modified aptamers was performed by Electrophoresis Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA), in order to verify in solution whet...

Alice Sosic; Erica Cretaio; Barbara Gatto; Anna Meneghello

2011-01-01

91

Identification of a thrombin cleavage site and a short form of ADAMTS-18  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We previously reported that C-terminal fragment of ADAMTS-18 induces platelet fragmentation through ROS release. We have shown that thrombin cleaves ADAMTS-18 and that a short form of ADAMTS-18 in in vitro translational assay. However, the exact thrombin cleavage site and whether a short form ADAMTS-18 presents in vivo are not clear. In this study, we first identified that the thrombin cleavage site is between Arg775 and Ser776 by thrombin cleavage of ADAMTS-18 peptide following mass spectrum...

Wang, Jianhui; Zhang, Wei; Yi, Zanhua; Wang, Shiyang; Li, Zongdong

2012-01-01

92

Synthesis and biochemical evaluation of triazole/tetrazole-containing sulfonamides against thrombin and related serine proteases.  

Science.gov (United States)

A small library of 25 triazole/tetrazole-based sulfonamides have been synthesized and further evaluated for their inhibitory activity against thrombin, trypsin, tryptase and chymase. In general, the triazole-based sulfonamides inhibited thrombin more efficiently than the tetrazole counterparts. Particularly, compound 26 showed strong thrombin inhibition (K(i)=880 nM) and significant selectivity against other human related serine proteases like trypsin (K(i)=729 ?M). Thrombin binding affinity of the same compound was determined by ITC and demonstrated that the binding of this new triazole-based scaffold is enthalpically driven, making it a good candidate for further development. PMID:21807511

Siles, Rogelio; Kawasaki, Yuko; Ross, Patrick; Freire, Ernesto

2011-09-15

93

Atomic excitation and recombination in external fields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This volume offers a timely look at Rydberg states of atoms in external fields and dielectronic recombination. Each topic provides authoritative coverage, presents a fresh account of a flourishing field of current atomic physics and introduces new opportunities for discovery and development. Topics considered include electron-atom scattering in external fields; observations of regular and irregular motion as exemplified by the quadratic zeeman effect and other systems; Rydberg atoms in external fields and the Coulomb geometry; crossed-field effects in the absorption spectrum of lithium in a magnetic field; precise studies of static electric field ionization; widths and shapes of stark resonances in sodium above the saddle point; studies of electric field effects and barium autoionizing resonances; autoionization and dielectronic recombination in plasma electric microfields; dielectronic recombination measurements on multicharged ions; merged beam studies of dielectronic recombination; Rydberg atoms and dielectronic recombination in astrophysics; and observations on dielectronic recombination

94

Thrombin drives tumorigenesis in colitis-associated colon cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The established association between inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer underscores the importance of inflammation in colon cancer development. On the basis of evidence that hemostatic proteases are powerful modifiers of both inflammatory pathologies and tumor biology, gene-targeted mice carrying low levels of prothrombin were used to directly test the hypothesis that prothrombin contributes to tumor development in colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC). Remarkably, imposing a modest 50% reduction in circulating prothrombin in fII+/- mice, a level that carries no significant bleeding risk, dramatically decreased adenoma formation following an azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate challenge. Similar results were obtained with pharmacologic inhibition of prothrombin expression or inhibition of thrombin proteolytic activity. Detailed longitudinal analyses showed that the role of thrombin in tumor development in CAC was temporally associated with the antecedent inflammatory colitis. However, direct studies of the antecedent colitis showed that mice carrying half-normal prothrombin levels were comparable to control mice in mucosal damage, inflammatory cell infiltration, and associated local cytokine levels. These results suggest that thrombin supports early events coupled to inflammation-mediated tumorigenesis in CAC that are distinct from overall inflammation-induced tissue damage and inflammatory cell trafficking. That prothrombin is linked to early events in CAC was strongly inferred by the observation that prothrombin deficiency dramatically reduced the formation of very early, precancerous aberrant crypt foci. Given the importance of inflammation in the development of colon cancer, these studies suggest that therapeutic interventions at the level of hemostatic factors may be an effective means to prevent and/or impede colitis-associated colon cancer progression. PMID:24710407

Turpin, Brian; Miller, Whitney; Rosenfeldt, Leah; Kombrinck, Keith; Flick, Matthew J; Steinbrecher, Kris A; Harmel-Laws, Eleana; Mullins, Eric S; Shaw, Maureen; Witte, David P; Revenko, Alexey; Monia, Brett; Palumbo, Joseph S

2014-06-01

95

Ultrasound guided percutaneous thrombin injection of iatrogenic femoral artery pseudoaneurysms after coronary angiography and intervention.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ultrasound guided percutaneous thrombin injection has recently been described for the treatment of iatrogenic femoral pseudoaneurysms. Patient selection and technical aspects of this technique are still evolving and safety data, particularly after coronary intervention, remains limited. The percutaneous thrombin injection of femoral artery pseudoaneurysms in 13 consecutive patients, most of whom were receiving antiplatelet/anticoagulant treatment (aspirin 11, heparin 4, clopidogrel 6), is ...

Ferguson, Jd; Whatling, Pj; Martin, V.; Walton, J.; Banning, Ap

2001-01-01

96

Ciclopirox Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

Ciclopirox topical solution is used along with regular nail trimming to treat fungal infections of the fingernails ... that may cause nail discoloration, splitting and pain). Ciclopirox is in a class of medications called antifungals. ...

97

Tacrolimus Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

Tacrolimus ointment is used to treat the symptoms of eczema (atopic dermatitis; a skin disease that causes ... whose eczema has not responded to another medication. Tacrolimus is in a class of medications called topical ...

98

Assessment of raloxifene, estradiol-17?, dl-ormeloxifene and levormeloxifene on thrombin activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Background: Cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality globally. Cancer-associated thrombosis is well established in clinical settings, and thrombin has been found to induce angiogenesis at cancer sites. This establishes a link between cardiovascular diseases and cancer, where cancer and thrombin have been intricately associated. Various selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) have been reported to exhibit anticancer activity. Therefore, we investigated estradiol-17? and SERMs dl-ormeloxifene (centchroman), raloxifene and levormeloxifene (l-centchroman) for their anticancer effects and their effect on thrombin activity. Methods: Anticancer activity was assessed against PC-3 cell line by flow cytometry following treatment with estradiol-17? and SERMs at 10 nM-1 mM concentrations. The cells were stained with propidium iodide and the percentage of cells in the sub-G0/G1 region was considered apoptotic. Thrombin inhibitory effect was evaluated by thrombin inhibition assay in vitro following incubation with 100 nM-3 mM concentrations of estradiol-17? or various SERMs. Further, the effect of estradiol-17? and SERMs on endogenous thrombin generation potential (ETP) was assessed by thrombin generation assay on rat plasma in vitro. Results: These compounds exhibited >90% cell death in PC-3 cell lines at 1 mM concentration except estradiol-17?. Neither estradiol-17?, dl-ormeloxifene and levormeloxifene showed any thrombin inhibitory or enhancing activity in thrombin inhibition assay, nor did they show any effect on ETP on rat plasma in vitro. However, raloxifene inhibited thrombin activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Raloxifene decreased ETP of the plasma at 3 and 1 mM,which is equivalent to that of 30-100 U/mL of heparin. Interestingly, raloxifene increased thrombin generation at lower concentrations and it inhibited thrombin generation at higher concentrations. Conclusions: These observations suggest that dl-ormeloxifene, estradiol-17? and levormeloxifene do not possess thrombin inhibitory activity. Raloxifene possesses thrombin modulatory effect in addition to its anticancer activity, and this observation may help us in understanding the thromboembolic complications associated with raloxifene. PMID:24468615

Surin, William R; Bhalla, Hiralal; Kuriakose, Gini C; Singh, Man Mohan

2014-01-27

99

Activated human protein C prevents thrombin-induced thromboembolism in mice. Evidence that activated protein c reduces intravascular fibrin accumulation through the inhibition of additional thrombin generation.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Activated protein C (APC) is a potent physiologic anticoagulant with profibrinolytic properties, and has been shown to prevent thrombosis in different experimental models. We investigated the effect of human APC on thrombin-induced thromboembolism in mice, a model of acute intravascular fibrin deposition leading to death within minutes. APC given intravenously (i.v.) as a bolus 2 min before thrombin challenge (1,250 U/kg) reduced mortality in a dose-dependent manner despite the lack of thromb...

Gresele, P.; Momi, S.; Berrettini, M.; Nenci, G. G.; Schwarz, H. P.; Semeraro, N.; Colucci, M.

1998-01-01

100

Magnetic resonance imaging, rheological properties, and physicochemical characteristics of meat systems with fibrinogen and thrombin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and textural and physicochemical analyses were carried out to evaluate the effect of fibrinogen and thrombin (Fibrimex) addition to meat systems formulated with and without NaCl. For this purpose, different model systems were elaborated: fibrinogen and thrombin (FT), meat emulsion (ME), and meat emulsion with fibrinogen and thrombin (MEFT), with 0, 1, and 2% of NaCl. The addition of fibrinogen-thrombin to meat emulsions results in a gel network with modified physicochemical and textural characteristics, increasing the hardness and springiness. The addition of NaCl at 2% to FT and MEFT systems reduced the gel hardness. MRI parameters (T2, T1, and apparent diffusion coefficient) indicated that systems with fibrinogen and thrombin (FT and MEFT) presented a structure with many and large pores, bulk water, and higher translational motion of water. Significant correlations were found between MRI, texture, and physicochemical parameters. PMID:17937480

Herrero, A M; Cambero, M I; Ordóñez, J A; Castejón, D; Romero de Avila, M D; de la Hoz, L

2007-11-14

 
 
 
 
101

Cosmological Recombination  

Science.gov (United States)

In this thesis we focus on studying the physics of cosmological recombination and how the details of recombination affect the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies. We present a detailed calculation of the spectral line distortions on the CMB spectrum arising from the Lyman-alpha and the lowest two-photon transitions in the recombination of hydrogen (H), and the corresponding lines from helium (He). The peak of these distortions mainly comes from the Lyman-alpha transition and occurs at about 170 microns, which is the Wien part of the CMB. The major theoretical limitation for extracting cosmological parameters from the CMB sky lies in the precision with which we can calculate the cosmological recombination process. With this motivation, we perform a multi-level calculation of the recombination of H and He with the addition of the spin-forbidden transition for neutral helium (He I), plus the higher order two-photon transitions for H and among singlet states of He I. We find that the inclusion of the spin-forbidden transition results in more than a percent change in the ionization fraction, while the other transitions give much smaller effects. Last we modify RECFAST by introducing one more parameter to reproduce recent numerical results for the speed-up of helium recombination. Together with the existing hydrogen `fudge factor', we vary these two parameters to account for the remaining dominant uncertainties in cosmological recombination. By using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method with Planck forecast data, we find that we need to determine the parameters to better than 10% for He I and 1% for H, in order to obtain negligible effects on the cosmological parameters.

Wong, Wan Yan

2008-11-01

102

Thrombin-specific inactivation of endothelial cell derived plasminogen activator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although thrombin (T) has diverse functions in the overall hemostatic mechanism, relatively little is known about its direct effect on components of the fibrinolytic enzyme system. The authors have investigated the interaction of T with plasminogen activators (PA) derived from bovine aortic endothelial cells (EC) in culture (2-5th passage, preconfluent monolayers). Varying concentrations of purified bovine or human thrombin were added to EC-conditioned media (CM). CM + T mixtures were assayed at various times for PA activity using purified plasminogen and a sensitive /sup 125/I-fibrinogenolytic or caseinolytic assay. T (5 nM), but not plasmin or trypsin at equivalent concentrations, resulted in a time-dependent inhibition of the PA activity in CM. T had no effect on the PA activity of urokinase, streptokinase or preformed plasmin. The ability of T to inactivate the EC-derived PA was abolished by prior treatment of T with active site-directed reagents. SDS-PAGE and zymography with copolymerized fibrinogen and plasminogen revealed further specificity in that only one of the multiple-molecular weight forms of PA present in EC-CM was inactivated by T. The authors conclude that in a highly specific fashion, T inactivates the predominant PA present in EC-CM by limited proteolysis. Thus, another potentially important function of T is suggested which may have particular significance in the temporal regulation of coagulation and fibrinolysis at the blood-endothelium interface.

Highsmith, R.F.; Gallaher, M.J.

1986-03-05

103

Cosmological Recombination  

CERN Document Server

In this thesis we focus on studying the physics of cosmological recombination and how the details of recombination affect the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies. We present a detailed calculation of the spectral line distortions on the CMB spectrum arising from the Lyman-alpha and the lowest two-photon transitions in the recombination of hydrogen (H), and the corresponding lines from helium (He). The peak of these distortions mainly comes from the Lyman-alpha transition and occurs at about 170 microns, which is the Wien part of the CMB. The major theoretical limitation for extracting cosmological parameters from the CMB sky lies in the precision with which we can calculate the cosmological recombination process. With this motivation, we perform a multi-level calculation of the recombination of H and He with the addition of the spin-forbidden transition for neutral helium (He I), plus the higher order two-photon transitions for H and among singlet states of He I. We find that the inclusion of the s...

Wong, Wan Yan

2008-01-01

104

AI Topics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The items in this collage were selected from the AI TOPICS Web site's "AI in the News" collection that can be found -- complete with links to the item's source and related AI TOPICS pages -- at www. aaai.org/aitopics/html/current.php. Please note that: (1) an excerpt may not reflect the overall tenor of the item, nor contain all of the relevant information; and, (2) all items are offered "as is" and the fact that an item has been selected does not imply any endorsement whatsoever.

Glick, Jonathan

2007-01-01

105

Duplex-quadruplex motifs in a peculiar structural organization cooperatively contribute to thrombin binding of a DNA aptamer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Potent second-generation thrombin aptamers adopt a duplex-quadruplex bimodular folding and recognize thrombin exosite II with very high affinity and specificity. A sound model of these oligonucleotides, either free or in complex with thrombin, is not yet available. Here, a structural study of one of these aptamers, HD22-27mer, is presented. The crystal structure of this aptamer in complex with thrombin displays a novel architecture in which the helical stem is enchained to a pseudo-G-quadruplex. The results also underline the role of the residues that join the duplex and quadruplex motifs and control their recruitment in thrombin binding. PMID:24311581

Russo Krauss, Irene; Pica, Andrea; Merlino, Antonello; Mazzarella, Lelio; Sica, Filomena

2013-12-01

106

Protamine sulfate down-regulates thrombin generation by inhibiting factor V activation.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Protamine sulfate is a positively charged polypeptide widely used to reverse heparin-induced anticoagulation. Paradoxically, prospective randomized trials have shown that protamine administration for heparin neutralization is associated with increased bleeding, particularly after cardiothoracic surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. The molecular mechanism(s) through which protamine mediates this anticoagulant effect has not been defined. In vivo administration of pharmacologic doses of protamine to BALB\\/c mice significantly reduced plasma thrombin generation and prolonged tail-bleeding time (from 120 to 199 seconds). Similarly, in pooled normal human plasma, protamine caused significant dose-dependent prolongations of both prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time. Protamine also markedly attenuated tissue factor-initiated thrombin generation in human plasma, causing a significant decrease in endogenous thrombin potential (41% +\\/- 7%). As expected, low-dose protamine effectively reversed the anticoagulant activity of unfractionated heparin in plasma. However, elevated protamine concentrations were associated with progressive dose-dependent reduction in thrombin generation. To assess the mechanism by which protamine mediates down-regulation of thrombin generation, the effect of protamine on factor V activation was assessed. Protamine was found to significantly reduce the rate of factor V activation by both thrombin and factor Xa. Protamine mediates its anticoagulant activity in plasma by down-regulation of thrombin generation via a novel mechanism, specifically inhibition of factor V activation.

Ni Ainle, Fionnuala

2009-08-20

107

Heparin coating of tantalum coronary stents reduces surface thrombin generation but not factor IXa generation.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study we used an in-vitro technique to examine initiation and propagation of blood coagulation at the surface of tantalum coronary stents exposed to flowing platelet-rich and platelet-free plasma. The time course of factor IXa production at the surface of the stent was not influenced by platelets. In spite of a significant factor IXa production, no thrombin activity was detected when the tantalum stent was exposed to platelet-free plasma; only when the stent was exposed to platelet-rich plasma was extensive thrombin production observed. These findings indicate that tantalum triggers blood coagulation, but that (adherent) platelets are essential for thrombin generation. Heparin-coated tantalum stents exposed to flowing platelet-rich plasma showed that factor IXa generation was slightly reduced compared with the bare stent. However, the heparin coating drastically delayed the onset of thrombin generation and largely reduced the steady-state production of thrombin. We found a clear relationship between the antithrombin binding capacity and the antithrombogenic potential of the heparin-coated stents. The mode of action of immobilized heparin is thought to abrogate thrombin generation by inhibiting thrombin-dependent positive feedback reactions at the surface of the coronary stent. PMID:9712292

Blezer, R; Cahalan, L; Cahalan, P T; Lindhout, T

1998-07-01

108

Hyperbranched rolling circle amplification based electrochemiluminescence aptasensor for ultrasensitive detection of thrombin.  

Science.gov (United States)

An ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) aptamer sensor for protein (thrombin as an example) detection based on hyperbranched rolling circle amplification (HRCA) had been developed. A complementary single-strand DNA (CDNA) of the thrombin aptamer had been modified on the gold electrode firstly, and then hybridized with thrombin aptamer to make the aptamer immobilized on the electrode surface, in the presence of thrombin, aptamer-thrombin bioaffinity complexes formed and made thrombin aptamer leave the electrode surface. Thus, the linear padlock probe hybridized with the free CDNA on the electrode surface and circularized by Escherichia coli DNA ligase. Subsequently, the linear padlock probe was served as a template for the initiation of HRCA reaction, and a lot of dsDNA modified on the electrode surface. Then Ru(phen)?²? (acted as the ECL indicator) intercalates specifically into double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) grooves to generate ECL signal. The ECL intensity of the system has a linear relationship with thrombin concentration in the range of 3.0-300 aM with a detection limit of 1.2 aM (S/N=3). The proposed method combines the high sensitivity of ECL, exponential ampli?cation of HRCA for signal enhancement and high selectivity of aptamer. PMID:25086328

Jin, Guixiao; Wang, Chunmei; Yang, Linlin; Li, Xiaojuan; Guo, Longhua; Qiu, Bin; Lin, Zhenyu; Chen, Guonan

2015-01-15

109

Quantitative phosphoproteomics unveils temporal dynamics of thrombin signaling in human endothelial cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thrombin is the key serine protease of the coagulation cascade and a potent trigger of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1)-mediated platelet aggregation. In recent years, PAR1 has become an appealing target for anticoagulant therapies. However, the inhibitors that have been developed so far increase bleeding risk in patients, likely because they interfere with endogenous PAR1 signaling in the endothelium. Because of its complexity, thrombin-induced signaling in endothelial cells has remained incompletely understood. Here, we have combined stable isotope amino acids in cell culture, affinity-based phosphopeptide enrichment, and high-resolution mass spectrometry and performed a time-resolved analysis of the thrombin-induced signaling in human primary endothelial cells. We identified 2224 thrombin-regulated phosphorylation sites, the majority of which have not been previously related to thrombin. Those sites were localized on proteins that are novel to thrombin signaling, but also on well-known players such as PAR1, Rho-associated kinase 2, phospholipase C, and proteins related to actin cytoskeleton, cell-cell junctions, and Weibel-Palade body release. Our study provides a unique resource of phosphoproteins and phosphorylation sites that may generate novel insights into an intimate understanding of thrombin-mediated PAR signaling and the development of improved PAR1 antagonists that affect platelet but not endothelial cell function. PMID:24501219

van den Biggelaar, Maartje; Hernández-Fernaud, Juan Ramon; van den Eshof, Bart L; Neilson, Lisa J; Meijer, Alexander B; Mertens, Koen; Zanivan, Sara

2014-03-20

110

Thrombin binds to murine bone marrow-derived macrophages and enhances colony-stimulating factor-1-driven mitogenesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The binding and mitogenic properties of thrombin have been established in various transformed cell lines. In such systems, thrombin induces cell division in the absence of exogenous growth factors, and the enzyme is considered to act directly as a mitogen. This study explores thrombin's interaction with nontransformed, growth factor-dependent cells. Binding of 125I-alpha-thrombin to colony-stimulating factor (CSF)-1-dependent bone marrow-derived macrophages is saturable, time-dependent, and displaceable by both unlabeled alpha-thrombin, and esterolytically inactive thrombin. Both dissociation studies of pre-bound radio-labeled thrombin and Scatchard analysis assisted by the program Ligand suggest adherence of thrombin-binding data to a multi-site model. There are an estimated 2 x 10(4) high affinity sites (Kd = 7 x 10(-9)M) and 2 x 10(6) low affinity sites (Kd = 9 x 10(-7)M) per cell. Quiescent bone marrow-derived macrophages were cultured with either 10(-8)M thrombin, 1000 units of CSF-1/ml, or both and [3H]thymidine incorporation was determined. Thrombin alone did not induce mitogenesis. CSF-1 induced mitogenesis with peak [3H] thymidine incorporation occurring 24 h after addition of the mitogen. This CSF-1-dependent mitogenic influence was enhanced greater than 2-fold by treatment with thrombin

111

Thrombin receptors define responsiveness of cholesterol-modified platelets.  

Science.gov (United States)

The microviscosity of human platelet membranes was changed by incubating platelets with liposomes containing various ratios of cholesterol and lecithin. Binding of 125I-thrombin to the modified platelets was measured together with platelet aggregation and secretion. In cholesterol-normal platelets (mole ratio of cholesterol to phospholipid (C:PL) = 0.553; eta = 2.40 poise), weighted nonlinear least squares curve fitting indicated that a model involving two classes of sites was adequate to describe the binding isotherm (K1 = 8.3 X 10(8) M-1; R1 = 150 sites/platelet; K2 = 6.4 X 10(6) M-1; R2 = 16,000 sites/platelet). In cholesterol-enriched platelets (C:PL = 0.857; eta = 3.05 poise), the apparent affinities for the two classes of sites decreased to 55 and 53%, respectively, while the binding capacities increased to 170 and 160%, respectively. In contrast, in the cholesterol-depleted platelets (C:PL = 0.435; eta = 2.03 poise), the affinities increased to 220 and 180%, respectively, while the binding capacities decreased to 53 and 46%, respectively. In cholesterol-enriched, cholesterol-normal, and cholesterol-depleted platelets, the thrombin concentrations required for half-maximal aggregation were 0.17, 0.35, and 0.52 nM, respectively, while the values for half-maximal secretion of [14C]serotonin were 0.17, 0.40, and 0.55 nM, respectively. Plots of receptor occupancy versus biological response showed that maximum response in cholesterol-enriched, cholesterol-normal, and cholesterol-depleted platelets occurred with occupancy of 30, 50, and 70% of the high affinity sites, respectively. In all three treatment groups, occupancy of 40-50 high affinity sites results in 50% aggregation. These results show that (i) modification of platelet membrane microviscosity results in changes in the number and affinity of both high and low affinity thrombin receptors, (ii) the change in receptor number rather than affinity is the determinant for platelet responsiveness, and (iii) the changes in membrane microviscosity do not appear to alter the coupling between occupied receptor and subsequent bioresponse. PMID:6311825

Tandon, N; Harmon, J T; Rodbard, D; Jamieson, G A

1983-10-10

112

Thrombostatin FM compounds: direct thrombin inhibitors ? mechanism of action in vitro and in vivo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Novel pentapeptides called Thrombostatin FM compounds consisting mostly of D-isomers and unusual amino acids were prepared based upon the stable angiotensin converting enzyme breakdown product of bradykinin - RPPGF. These peptides are direct thrombin inhibitors prolonging the thrombin clotting time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and prothrombin time at {>=}0.78, 1.6, and 1.6 {mu}m, respectively. They competitively inhibit {alpha}-thrombin-induced cleavage of a chromogenic substrate at 4.4--8.2 {mu}m. They do not significantly inhibit plasma kallikrein, factor (F) XIIa, FXIa, FIXa, FVIIa-TF, FXa, plasmin or cathepsin G. One form, FM19 [rOicPaF(p-Me)], blocks {alpha}-thrombin-induced calcium flux in fibroblasts with an IC{sub 50} of 6.9 {+-} 1.2 {mu}m. FM19 achieved 100% inhibition of threshold {alpha}- or {gamma}-thrombin-induced platelet aggregation at 8.4 {+-} 4.7 {mu}m and 16 {+-} 4 {mu}m, respectively. The crystal structure of thrombin in complex with FM19 shows that the N-terminal D-Arg retrobinds into the S1 pocket, its second residue Oic interacts with His-57, Tyr-60a and Trp-60d, and its C-terminal p-methyl Phe engages thrombin's aryl binding site composed of Ile-174, Trp-215, and Leu-99. When administered intraperitoneal, intraduodenal, or orally to mice, FM19 prolongs thrombin clotting times and delays carotid artery thrombosis. FM19, a low affinity reversible direct thrombin inhibitor, might be useful as an add-on agent to address an unmet need in platelet inhibition in acute coronary syndromes in diabetics and others who with all current antiplatelet therapy still have reactive platelets.

Nieman, M.T.; Burke, F.; Warnock, M.; Zhou, Y.; Sweigart, J.; Chen, A.; Ricketts, D.; Lucchesi, B.R.; Chen, Z.; Cera, E.Di; Hilfinger, J.; Kim, J.S.; Mosberg, H.I.; Schmaier, A.H. (Case Western); (Michigan); (TSRL); (WU-MED)

2008-04-29

113

Thrombin-inhibiting nanoparticles rapidly constitute versatile and detectable anticlotting surfaces  

Science.gov (United States)

Restoring an antithrombotic surface to suppress ongoing thrombosis is an appealing strategy for treatment of acute cardiovascular disorders such as erosion of atherosclerotic plaque. An antithrombotic surface would present an alternative to systemic anticoagulation with attendant risks of bleeding. We have designed thrombin-targeted nanoparticles (NPs) that bind to sites of active clotting to extinguish local thrombin activity and inhibit platelet deposition while exhibiting only transient systemic anticoagulant effects. Perfluorocarbon nanoparticles (PFC NP) were functionalized with thrombin inhibitors (either D-phenylalanyl-L-prolyl-L-arginyl-chloromethyl ketone or bivalirudin) by covalent attachment of more than 15 000 inhibitors to each PFC NP. Fibrinopeptide A (FPA) ELISA demonstrated that thrombin-inhibiting NPs prevented cleavage of fibrinogen by both free and clot-bound thrombin. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed that a layer of thrombin-inhibiting NPs prevented growth of clots in vitro. Thrombin-inhibiting NPs were administered in vivo to C57BL6 mice subjected to laser injury of the carotid artery. NPs significantly delayed thrombotic occlusion of the artery, whereas an equivalent bolus of free inhibitor was ineffective. For thrombin-inhibiting NPs, only a short-lived (?10 min) systemic effect on bleeding time was observed, despite prolonged clot inhibition. Imaging and quantification of in vivo antithrombotic NP layers was demonstrated by MRI of the PFC NP. 19F MRI confirmed colocalization of particles with arterial thrombi, and quantitative 19F spectroscopy demonstrated specific binding and retention of thrombin-inhibiting NPs in injured arteries. The ability to rapidly form and image a new antithrombotic surface in acute vascular syndromes while minimizing risks of bleeding would permit a safer method of passivating active lesions than current systemic anticoagulant regimes.

Wheatley Myerson, Jacob; He, Li; Allen, John Stacy; Williams, Todd; Lanza, Gregory; Tollefsen, Douglas; Caruthers, Shelton; Wickline, Samuel

2014-09-01

114

Contribution of A1 subunit residue Q316 in thrombin-activated factor VIII to A2 subunit dissociation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Blood coagulation factor VIII (fVIII) is activated by thrombin to form an A1/A2/A3-C1-C2 heterotrimer, which functions as a cofactor for factor IXa during intrinsic pathway factor X activation. Human thrombin-activated fVIII (fVIIIa) decays rapidly because of first-order dissociation of the A2 subunit, which may function to regulate the coagulation mechanism. The three fVIII A domains each consist of two cupredoxin-like subdomains. Substitution of the COOH-terminal A1 subdomain of porcine fVIIIa, which decays more slowly than human fVIIIa, reduces the dissociation rate constant for fVIIIa decay. Examination of a human fVIII A1-A2-A3 homology model [Pemberton, S., et al. (1997) Blood 89, 2413-2421) revealed a possible interaction between Q316 in the FG helix of the COOH-terminal A1 subdomain and M539 in the FG helix of the NH2-terminal A2 subdomain, which are sites where human and porcine fVIII differ. Decays of purified recombinant human and porcine fVIIIa and the human fVIIIa mutants Q316H, M539L and Q316H/M539L were compared at 23 and 37 degrees C. The decay rates of the Q316H and Q316H/M539L mutants, but not the M539L mutant, were significantly slower than human fVIIIa. These results indicate that the FG helix of the COOH-terminal A1 cupredoxin-like subdomain of fVIII may be under selective pressure by the requirements of hemostatic balance. PMID:17676877

Parker, Ernest T; Lollar, Pete

2007-08-28

115

[Polymer coatings with immobilized thrombin and peptides: preparation and use for wound healing].  

Science.gov (United States)

Polymer dressings with encapsulated thrombin or synthetic peptides which can mimic thrombin action are employed for wound healing. Paper describes the method for preparation of these hydrogel composites of PVCL-CaAlg [poly(N-vinyl caprolactam-calcium alginate). The effect of encapsulated thrombin/peptides on tissue repair process have beet investigatat in vivo experiments using a mouse model of wound healing. The developed dressings accelerated wound healing: thascan be used as a basis for creation of novel formulations with controlled drug release for wound therapy. PMID:12698556

Markvicheva, E A; Kuptsova, S V; Rumsh, L D; Dugina, T N; Lange, M A; Chistov, I V; Strukova, S M; Zubov, V P

2002-01-01

116

Lysosomotropic agents selectively potentiate thrombin-induced acid hydrolase secretion from platelets.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thrombin induces partial secretion (up to 60%) of beta-N-acetyl-D-hexosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.52) from untreated platelets. Preincubation of platelets with 10 mM NH4Cl for up to 2 hr resulted in a time-dependent and marked stimulation of thrombin-induced secretion of both this enzyme and other acid glycosidases from platelets. The enhancement of the thrombin-induced secretion was not due to cell lysis, and NH4Cl alone did not cause leakage of lysosomal enzymes into the medium. The effect could b...

Oost, B. A.; Smith, J. B.; Holmsen, H.; Vladutiu, G. D.

1985-01-01

117

Fluorescent reporters of thrombin, heparin cofactor II, and heparin binding in a ternary complex  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thrombin inactivation by heparin cofactor II (HCII) is accelerated by ternary complex formation with heparin. The novel active-site-labeled thrombins, [4?F]FPR-T and [6F]FFR-T, and the exosite I probe, Hir-(54–65)( SO3?), characterized thrombin exosite I and II interactions with HCII and heparin in the complex. HCII binding to exosite I of heparin-bound [4?F]FPR-T caused a saturable fluorescence increase, absent with antithrombin. Heparin binding to exosite II and a second weaker s...

Verhamme, Ingrid M.

2012-01-01

118

THE EVALUATION OF CLOTTING TIME IN BOVINE THROMBIN, REPTILASE ® , AND THROMBIN-LIKE FRACTION OF Crotalus durissus terrificus VENOM USING BOVINE, EQUINE, OVINE, BUBALINE AND HUMAN CRYOPRECIPITATES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the thrombin-like fraction of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, Reptilase , and bovine thrombin of fibrinogen pools on bovine, equine, ovine, bubaline and human cryoprecipitates. The authors also made a comparative study between animal and human cryoprecipitates to see if any there was any possibility of future use in medicine. Fibrinogen levels in cryoprecipitate were studied using 48 blood samples obtained as follows:12 samples from humans, 9 from bovine, 10 from equine, 10 from ovine and 7 from bubaline. The results obtained showed average levels of 375.50 mg % for humans, 218.33 mg % for bovine, 240.80 mg % for equine, 267.70 mg % for ovine and 664.00 mg % for bubaline. Upon the formation of pools of human and animal fibrinogens, the following results were obtained: 435 mg % for humans, 444 mg % for bovine, 337 mg % for equine, 390 mg % for ovine and 530 mg % for bubaline. Statistical analysis (using the analysis of variance for entirely randomized experiment for the calculation of F statistics demonstrated that the bubaline fibrinogen level was higher than that of human, and both were higher than those of ovine, equine, and bovine. Clotting times were determined using different dilutions of bovine thrombin, thrombin-like fraction of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, and Reptilase . Comparing these clotting times, results for human and bovine were found to be very similar, whereas using equine, ovine, and bubaline the results above a dilution of 1:3 were markedly different. The results obtained permitted the following conclusions to be drawn show that: 1 bovine thrombin presented better interactivity with fibrinogen extracted both from human and bovine cryoprecipitates; 2 there was similar behavior when bovine thrombin was substituted for Reptilase and for the thrombin-like fraction of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom; 3 cryoprecipitate from bovine can, in special circumstances, substitute human cryoprecipitate in medical practice; 4 human and bovine cryoprecipitates can be used with both Reptilase and Crotalus durissus terrificus fractions using a dilution up to 1:5; 5 the use of bovine cryoprecipitate can be recommended using either bovine thrombin, Reptilase , or thrombin-like fraction of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom.

I. A. THOMAZINI-SANTOS

1998-01-01

119

Thrombin-inducible platelet adhesion and regulation of the platelet seven-transmembrane thrombin receptor-1 (PAR-1): effects of unfractionated heparin and lepirudin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heparin may induce platelet activation and even heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Lepirudin has been approved for HIT treatment. We speculated that lepirudin inhibits platelet function under high shear and the platelet thrombin receptor PAR-1 better than heparin. Thrombin-inducible platelet adherence under high shear conditions and the expression of PAR-1 were studied after samples from healthy donors were exposed in vitro to increasing concentrations of unfractionated heparin or lepirudin. Compared to baseline and to lepirudin, heparin induced platelet P-selectin expression (p = 0.04). Platelet adherence increased slightly in the presence of lepirudin, but not heparin (p = 0.04). Thrombin-inducible platelet aggregate formation and consecutive adherence under high shear conditions was inhibited by both anticoagulants (p = 0.004). Further, heparin and lepirudin inhibited thrombin-inducible cleavage and internalization of PAR-1 at a dosage of 1.0 U/ml and 1.6 microg/ml, respectively (p = 0.004). Thus, heparin and lepirudin inhibit thrombin-inducible platelet activation in vitro to a similar extent. PMID:19929245

Reiter, Nina; Eichelberger, Beate; Kaider, Alexandra; Panzer, Simon

2009-12-01

120

The interaction of recombinant factor VIIa with platelet glycoprotein Ib.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) exerts potent prohemostatic activities via both tissue factor-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Tissue factor-independent enhancement of hemostasis involves a direct interaction of rFVIIa with the activated platelet membrane resulting in factor X activation. We have recently shown that rFVIIa binds to the platelet glycoprotein Ib/IX/V complex in addition to the negatively charged membrane surface. This interaction appears to slightly enhance tissue factor-independent thrombin generation. These findings add to our understanding of the mechanism of action of rFVIIa and may lead to improved therapeutic use of the drug. PMID:20153024

Lisman, Ton; de Groot, Philip G

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
121

A fluorescent sandwich assay for thrombin using aptamer modified magnetic beads and quantum dots  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe an aptamer-based sandwich assay for thrombin by using a pair of thrombin-binding aptamers, namely one 15-mer aptamer (denoted as Apt15) and one 29-mer aptamer (denoted as Apt29). Either Apt29 or Apt15 can be used as capture aptamers on magnetic beads or reporter aptamers on the quantum dots to form the sandwich complex. Detection of thrombin is achieved by the fluorescent measurement of quantum dots in the sandwich complex. The choice of capture aptamers and reporter aptamers, and the effect of the addition order of the aptamers modified magnetic beads and the aptamers modified quantum dots were investigated. Detection of 0.05 nM thrombin was accomplished. The proteins hemoglobin, lysozyme, and transferrin did not interfere in this assay. (author)

122

Human Thrombin Detection Through a Sandwich Aptamer Microarray: Interaction Analysis in Solution and in Solid Phase  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We have developed an aptamer-based microarray for human thrombin detection exploiting two non-overlapping DNA thrombin aptamers recognizing different exosites of the target protein. The 15-mer aptamer (TBA1 binds the fibrinogen-binding site, whereas the 29-mer aptamer (TBA2 binds the heparin binding domain. Extensive analysis on the complex formation between human thrombin and modified aptamers was performed by Electrophoresis Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA, in order to verify in solution whether the chemical modifications introduced would affect aptamers/protein recognition. The validated system was then applied to the aptamer microarray, using the solid phase system devised by the solution studies. Finally, the best procedure for Sandwich Aptamer Microarray (SAM and the specificity of the sandwich formation for the developed aptasensor for human thrombin were optimized.

Alice Sosic

2011-10-01

123

Role of Leu99 of thrombin in determining the P2 specificity of serpins.  

Science.gov (United States)

A recent study indicated that Tyr99 (chymotrypsin numbering) of factor Xa and Thr99 of activated protein C are S2 subsite residues that determine the P2 specificity of their substrates and inhibitors. To investigate the contribution of Leu99 to the P2 binding specificity of thrombin, three mutants of thrombin were prepared in which Leu99 was substituted with Tyr (L99Y), Thr (L99T), or Gly (L99G). Kinetic analysis indicated that antithrombin (AT with P2 Gly) inhibited thrombin L99Y, 14.1- and 5.5-fold slower than thrombin in the absence and presence of heparin, respectively. The L99Y mutation increased the stoichiometry of AT inhibition in the presence of heparin from approximately 1.6 to approximately 4.6, indicating that L99Y recognized AT as a substrate. The inhibition rates of L99T and L99G by AT, respectively, were 500.0- and 916.7-fold slower than thrombin in the absence of heparin but only 41.8- and 64.5-fold slower than thrombin in the presence of heparin. Resolution of the two-step reactions of AT with the mutant thrombins revealed that the impaired reactivities occurred in the second reaction step in which a non-covalent AT-thrombin encounter complex is converted to a stable, covalent complex. In reactions with protein C inhibitor (PCI with P2 Phe), L99Y was inhibited 3.5-fold slower than thrombin, L99T was inhibited at a similar or faster rate, and L99G was inhibited 23.9-fold faster than thrombin. The epidermal growth factor-like domains 4-6 of thrombomodulin (TM4-6) accelerated the PCI inhibition of wild-type and L99G thrombins 73.9- and 5.3-fold, respectively. Further studies indicated that the fibrinogen clotting and protein C activation rates by the mutants were impaired, but the cofactor function of TM was not affected as TM4-6 bound to wild-type [Kd(app) = 5.9 nM] and mutant thrombins with similar affinities [Kd(app) = 4.4-6.9 nM] and enhanced protein C activation rates by all mutants effectively. These results indicate that (1) Leu99 of thrombin is critical for determination of the P2 specificity of serpins, AT and PCI, (2) increasing the polarity of the S2 pocket of thrombin by introduction of a hydrophilic residue into this pocket is detrimental for reaction with AT, but it is tolerated in reaction with PCI, so that only the size of the S2 pocket of thrombin determines the P2 specificity of PCI, and (3) the thrombomodulin-induced conformational change that results in acceleration of thrombin inhibition by PCI involves Leu99. PMID:9200692

Rezaie, A R

1997-06-17

124

Pseudoaneurysm After Spontaneous Rupture of Renal Angiomyolipoma in Tuberous Sclerosis: Successful Treatment with Percutaneous Thrombin Injection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report a case of a large perinephric pseudoaneurysm due to spontaneous rupture of renal angiomyolipoma, occluded by percutaneous thrombin injection under ultrasound guidance in a young woman affected by tuberous sclerosis

125

Increased anticoagulant activity of thrombin-binding DNA aptamers by nanoscale organization on DNA nanostructures  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Control over thrombin activity is much desired to regulate blood clotting in surgical and therapeutic situations. Thrombin-binding RNA and DNA aptamers have been used to inhibit thrombin activity and thus the coagulation cascade. Soluble DNA aptamers, as well as two different aptamers tethered by a flexible single-strand linker, have been shown to possess anticoagulant activity. Here, we link multiple aptamers at programmed positions on DNA nanostructures to optimize spacing and orientation of the aptamers and thereby to maximize anticoagulant activity in functional assays. By judicious engineering of the DNA nanostructures, we have created a novel, functional DNA nanostructure, which is a multi-aptamer inhibitor with activity eightfold higher than free aptamer. Reversal of the thrombin inhibition was also achieved by the use of single-stranded DNA antidotes, thus enabling significant control over blood coagulation.

Rangnekar, Abhijit; Zhang, Alex M.

2012-01-01

126

Interaction of hirudin with thrombin: Identification of a minimal binding domain of hirudin that inhibits clotting activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hirudin, isolated from the European leech Hirudo medicinalis, is a potent inhibitor of thrombin, forming an almost irreversible thrombin-hirudin complex. Previously, the authors have shown that the carboxyl terminus of hirudin (residues 45-65) inhibits clotting activity and without binding to the catalytic site of thrombin. In the present study, a series of peptides corresponding to this carboxyl-terminal region of hirudin have been synthesized, and their anticoagulant activity and binding properties to thrombin were examined. Binding was assessed by their ability to displace 125I-hirudin 45-65 from Sepharose-immobilized thrombin and by isolation of peptide-thrombin complexes. They show that the carboxyl-terminal 10 amino acid residues 56-65 (Phe-Glu-Glu-Ile-Pro-Glu-Glu-Tyr-Leu-Gln) are minimally required for binding to thrombin and inhibition of clotting. Phe-56 was critical for maintaining anticoagulant activity as demonstrated by the loss of activity when Phe-56 was substituted with D-Phe, Glu, or Leu. In addition, they found that the binding of the carboxyl-terminal peptide of hirudin with thrombin was associated with a significant conformational change of thrombin as judged by circular dichroism. This conformational change might be responsible for the loss of clotting activity of thrombin

127

Interaction of hirudin with thrombin: Identification of a minimal binding domain of hirudin that inhibits clotting activity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hirudin, isolated from the European leech Hirudo medicinalis, is a potent inhibitor of thrombin, forming an almost irreversible thrombin-hirudin complex. Previously, the authors have shown that the carboxyl terminus of hirudin (residues 45-65) inhibits clotting activity and without binding to the catalytic site of thrombin. In the present study, a series of peptides corresponding to this carboxyl-terminal region of hirudin have been synthesized, and their anticoagulant activity and binding properties to thrombin were examined. Binding was assessed by their ability to displace {sup 125}I-hirudin 45-65 from Sepharose-immobilized thrombin and by isolation of peptide-thrombin complexes. They show that the carboxyl-terminal 10 amino acid residues 56-65 (Phe-Glu-Glu-Ile-Pro-Glu-Glu-Tyr-Leu-Gln) are minimally required for binding to thrombin and inhibition of clotting. Phe-56 was critical for maintaining anticoagulant activity as demonstrated by the loss of activity when Phe-56 was substituted with D-Phe, Glu, or Leu. In addition, they found that the binding of the carboxyl-terminal peptide of hirudin with thrombin was associated with a significant conformational change of thrombin as judged by circular dichroism. This conformational change might be responsible for the loss of clotting activity of thrombin.

Mao, S.J.T.; Yates, M.T.; Owen, T.J.; Krstenansky, J.L. (Merrell Dow Research Institute, Cincinnati, OH (USA))

1988-10-18

128

Novel role for p21-activated kinase 2 in thrombin-induced monocyte migration.  

Science.gov (United States)

To understand the role of thrombin in inflammation, we tested its effects on migration of THP-1 cells, a human monocytic cell line. Thrombin induced THP-1 cell migration in a dose-dependent manner. Thrombin induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2, Gab1, and p115 RhoGEF, leading to Rac1- and RhoA-dependent Pak2 activation. Downstream to Pyk2, Gab1 formed a complex with p115 RhoGEF involving their pleckstrin homology domains. Furthermore, inhibition or depletion of Pyk2, Gab1, p115 RhoGEF, Rac1, RhoA, or Pak2 levels substantially attenuated thrombin-induced THP-1 cell F-actin cytoskeletal remodeling and migration. Inhibition or depletion of PAR1 also blocked thrombin-induced activation of Pyk2, Gab1, p115 RhoGEF, Rac1, RhoA, and Pak2, resulting in diminished THP-1 cell F-actin cytoskeletal remodeling and migration. Similarly, depletion of G?12 negated thrombin-induced Pyk2, Gab1, p115 RhoGEF, Rac1, RhoA, and Pak2 activation, leading to attenuation of THP-1 cell F-actin cytoskeletal remodeling and migration. These novel observations reveal that thrombin induces monocyte/macrophage migration via PAR1-G?12-dependent Pyk2-mediated Gab1 and p115 RhoGEF interactions, leading to Rac1- and RhoA-targeted Pak2 activation. Thus, these findings provide mechanistic evidence for the role of thrombin and its receptor PAR1 in inflammation. PMID:24025335

Gadepalli, Ravisekhar; Kotla, Sivareddy; Heckle, Mark R; Verma, Shailendra K; Singh, Nikhlesh K; Rao, Gadiparthi N

2013-10-25

129

Characterization of Enhanced Monovalent and Bivalent Thrombin DNA Aptamer Binding Using Single Molecule Force Spectroscopy  

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Thrombin aptamer binding strength and stability is dependent on sterical parameters when used for atomic force microscopy sensing applications. Sterical improvements on the linker chemistry were developed for high-affinity binding. For this we applied single molecule force spectroscopy using two enhanced biotinylated thrombin aptamers, BFF and BFA immobilized on the atomic force microscopy tip via streptavidin. BFF is a dimer composed of two single-stranded aptamers (aptabody) connected to ea...

Neundlinger, Isabel; Poturnayova, Alexandra; Karpisova, Ivana; Rankl, Christian; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Snejdarkova, Maja; Hianik, Tibor; Ebner, Andreas

2011-01-01

130

Engineering Thrombin for Selective Specificity toward Protein C and PAR1*  

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Thrombin elicits functional responses critical to blood homeostasis by interacting with diverse physiological substrates. Ala-scanning mutagenesis of 97 residues covering 53% of the solvent accessible surface area of the enzyme identifies Trp215 as the single most important determinant of thrombin specificity. Saturation mutagenesis of Trp215 produces constructs featuring kcat/Km values for the hydrolysis of fibrinogen, protease-activated receptor PAR1, and protein C that span five orders of ...

Marino, Francesca; Pelc, Leslie A.; Vogt, Austin; Gandhi, Prafull S.; Di Cera, Enrico

2010-01-01

131

Development of a Multiplex Sandwich Aptamer Microarray for the Detection of VEGF165 and Thrombin  

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In this work we have developed a multiplex microarray system capable of detecting VEGF165 and thrombin. We recently described a Sandwich Aptamer Microarray (SAM) for thrombin detection feasible for use in multiplex microarrays; here we describe a new aptasensor for VEGF165 detection employing Vap7 and VEa5, two DNA aptamers recognizing different sites of the protein. The aptamers were modified to be adapted to the solid phase platform of SAM and their capability to simultaneously recognize VE...

Anna Meneghello; Barbara Gatto; Agnese Antognoli; Erica Cretaio; Alice Sosic

2013-01-01

132

Fibrinogen-elongated ? Chain Inhibits Thrombin-induced Platelet Response, Hindering the Interaction with Different Receptors*  

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The expression of the elongated fibrinogen ? chain, termed ??, derives from alternative splicing of mRNA and causes an insertion sequence of 20 amino acids. This insertion domain interacts with the anion-binding exosite (ABE)-II of thrombin. This study investigated whether and how ?? chain binding to ABE-II affects thrombin interaction with its platelet receptors, i.e. glycoprotein Ib? (GpIb?), protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1, and PAR4. Both synthetic ...

Lancellotti, Stefano; Rutella, Sergio; Filippis, Vincenzo; Pozzi, Nicola; Rocca, Bianca; Cristofaro, Raimondo

2008-01-01

133

Percutaneous ultrasound-guided thrombin injection for the treatment of iatrogenic femoral artery pseudoaneurysms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To audit our experience with ultrasound-guided thrombin injection for the treatment of iatrogenic femoral artery pseudoaneurysms. Methods: A retrospective study of 85 consecutive patients undergoing percutaneous ultrasound-guided thrombin injection of post-catheterization femoral pseudoaneurysms during the period January 2002 to May 2007. Results: Pseudoaneurysms had a mean maximum diameter of 3.3 cm (range 1.0-7.6 cm) and a mean neck width of 3.4 mm (range 1.0-7.0 mm). No statistically significant correlation existed between maximum diameter and neck width (Kendall's rank correlation tau b = -0.09, p = 0.5). The median dose of thrombin injected was 425 U (range 100-1500 U). The procedure resulted in complete sac thrombosis in 81 (95%) patients. Seventy-nine pseudoaneurysms thrombosed immediately after one injection, whereas two required a second thrombin injection. There were no procedural complications. The maximum diameter of the pseudoaneurysm was predictive of procedural success (Wilcoxon's rank sum test, p = 0.001) and of the 5 patients with a pseudoaneurysm measuring ?6 cm, ultrasound-guided thrombin injection was unsuccessful in 4 (4/5 versus 0/80, p < 0.0001, Fisher's exact test). Three of these necessitated implantation of a stent-graft, whereas one required repeated thrombin injection and coil placement. In contrast, the pseudoaneurysm neck width did not seem to relate to the success of the procedure. Conclusion: Percutaneous ultrasound-guided thusion: Percutaneous ultrasound-guided thrombin injection of is a quick, effective and safe treatment for iatrogenic femoral pseudoaneurysms. For larger pseudoaneurysms, although it is worth attempting more than one thrombin injection, endovascular repair may eventually be required.

134

Thrombin related peptide TP508 promoted fracture repair in a mouse high energy fracture model  

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Abstract Background Thrombin related peptide (TP508) is a 23 amino-acid synthetic peptide that represents a portion of the receptor-binding domain of thrombin molecule. Previous studies have shown that TP508 can accelerate musculoskeletal tissue repair including fracture healing. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TP508 on fracture healing in a murine fracture model representing high energy fracture situation. Methods

Pan Xiao-Hua; Ryaby James T; Hanratty Brain M; Li Gang

2009-01-01

135

Percutaneous ultrasound-guided thrombin injection for the treatment of iatrogenic femoral artery pseudoaneurysms  

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Purpose: To audit our experience with ultrasound-guided thrombin injection for the treatment of iatrogenic femoral artery pseudoaneurysms. Methods: A retrospective study of 85 consecutive patients undergoing percutaneous ultrasound-guided thrombin injection of post-catheterization femoral pseudoaneurysms during the period January 2002 to May 2007. Results: Pseudoaneurysms had a mean maximum diameter of 3.3 cm (range 1.0-7.6 cm) and a mean neck width of 3.4 mm (range 1.0-7.0 mm). No statistically significant correlation existed between maximum diameter and neck width (Kendall's rank correlation tau b = -0.09, p = 0.5). The median dose of thrombin injected was 425 U (range 100-1500 U). The procedure resulted in complete sac thrombosis in 81 (95%) patients. Seventy-nine pseudoaneurysms thrombosed immediately after one injection, whereas two required a second thrombin injection. There were no procedural complications. The maximum diameter of the pseudoaneurysm was predictive of procedural success (Wilcoxon's rank sum test, p = 0.001) and of the 5 patients with a pseudoaneurysm measuring {>=}6 cm, ultrasound-guided thrombin injection was unsuccessful in 4 (4/5 versus 0/80, p < 0.0001, Fisher's exact test). Three of these necessitated implantation of a stent-graft, whereas one required repeated thrombin injection and coil placement. In contrast, the pseudoaneurysm neck width did not seem to relate to the success of the procedure. Conclusion: Percutaneous ultrasound-guided thrombin injection of is a quick, effective and safe treatment for iatrogenic femoral pseudoaneurysms. For larger pseudoaneurysms, although it is worth attempting more than one thrombin injection, endovascular repair may eventually be required.

Vlachou, Paraskevi A. [Department of Radiology, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester (United Kingdom); Karkos, Christos D., E-mail: ckarkos@hotmail.com [Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester (United Kingdom); Bains, Salena; McCarthy, Mark J. [Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester (United Kingdom); Fishwick, Guy; Bolia, Amman [Department of Radiology, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester (United Kingdom)

2011-01-15

136

Efficacy of fibrinogen/thrombin-coated equine collagen patch in controlling lymphatic leaks.  

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We report the use of fibrinogen/thrombin-coated equine collagen patch (Tachosil(®) ) as a sealant agent in six patients who underwent heart surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD) and developed an intraoperative lymphatic leakage detected at the time of surgery. The use of fibrinogen/thrombin-coated equine collagen patch proved to be safe and effective in preventing the development of postoperative chylothorax. PMID:22583120

Vida, Vladimiro L; Padalino, Massimo A; Barzon, Elisa; Stellin, Giovanni

2012-07-01

137

Dual amplification strategy of highly sensitive thrombin amperometric aptasensor based on chitosan-Au nanocomposites.  

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A highly sensitive and selective electrochemical aptasensor for thrombin was developed. By introducing chitosan-gold nanoparticles and horseradish peroxidase (CS-AuNPs-HRP) conjugates to the sensitive union, the thrombin detection signal was dual amplified. The capture probe was prepared by immobilizing an anti-thrombin aptamer on core-shell Fe(3)O(4)-Au magnetic nanoparticles (AuMNPs) and which was served as magnetic separation material as well. The detection probe was prepared from another anti-thrombin aptamer, horseradish peroxidase (HRP), thiolated CS nanoparticle and gold nanoparticle (CS-AuNPs-HRP-Apt2). In the presence of thrombin, the sandwich structure of AuMNPs-Apt1/thrombin/Apt2-CS-AuNPs-HRP was formed and abundant HRP was captured in it. The resultant conjugates are of magnetic characters and were captured onto the surface of a screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) to prepare the modified electrode by a magnet located on the outer flank of the SPCE. It was demonstrated that the oxidation of hydroquinone (HQ) with H(2)O(2) was dramatically accelerated by the captured HRP. The electrochemical signal, which correlated to the reduction of BQ (the oxidation product of HQ), was amplified by the catalysis of HRP toward the reaction and the enrichment of HRP on the electrode surface. Under optimized conditions, ultrasensitive and high specific detection for thrombin was realized with the proposed assay strategy. The signal current was linearly correlated to the thrombin concentration in the range of 0.01-10 pM with a detection limit of 5.5 fM (S/N = 3). These results promise extensive applications of this newly proposed signal amplification strategy in protein detection and disease diagnosis. PMID:22701874

Zhao, Jie; Lin, Fanbo; Yi, Yinhui; Huang, Yan; Li, Haitao; Zhang, Youyu; Yao, Shouzhuo

2012-08-01

138

Topical haemostatic agents for skin wounds: a systematic review  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Various agents and techniques have been introduced to limit intra-operative blood loss from skin lesions. No uniformity regarding the type of haemostasis exists and this is generally based on the surgeon's preference. To study the effectiveness of haemostatic agents, standardized wounds like donor site wounds after split skin grafting (SSG appear particularly suitable. Thus, we performed a systematic review to assess the effectiveness of haemostatic agents in donor site wounds. Methods We searched all randomized clinical trials (RCTs on haemostasis after SSG in Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library until January 2011. Two reviewers independently assessed trial relevance and quality and performed data analysis. Primary endpoint was effectiveness regarding haemostasis. Secondary endpoints were wound healing, adverse effects, and costs. Results Nine relevant RCTs with a fair methodological quality were found, comparing epinephrine, thrombin, fibrin sealant, alginate dressings, saline, and mineral oil. Epinephrine achieved haemostasis significantly faster than thrombin (difference up to 2.5 minutes, saline or mineral oil (up to 6.5 minutes. Fibrin sealant also resulted in an up to 1 minute quicker haemostasis than thrombin and up to 3 minutes quicker than placebo, but was not directly challenged against epinephrine. Adverse effects appeared negligible. Due to lack of clinical homogeneity, meta-analysis was impossible. Conclusion According to best available evidence, epinephrine and fibrin sealant appear superior to achieve haemostasis when substantial topical blood loss is anticipated, particularly in case of (larger SSGs and burn debridement.

Ubbink Dirk T

2011-07-01

139

Thrombin production and human neutrophil elastase sequestration by modified cellulosic dressings and their electrokinetic analysis.  

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Wound healing is a complex series of biochemical and cellular events. Optimally, functional material design addresses the overlapping acute and inflammatory stages of wound healing based on molecular, cellular, and bio-compatibility issues. In this paper the issues addressed are uncontrolled hemostasis and inflammation which can interfere with the orderly flow of wound healing. In this regard, we review the serine proteases thrombin and elastase relative to dressing functionality that improves wound healing and examine the effects of charge in cotton/cellulosic dressing design on thrombin production and elastase sequestration (uptake by the wound dressing). Thrombin is central to the initiation and propagation of coagulation, and elastase is released from neutrophils that can function detrimentally in a stalled inflammatory phase characteristic of chronic wounds. Electrokinetic fiber surface properties of the biomaterials of this study were determined to correlate material charge and polarity with function relative to thrombin production and elastase sequestration. Human neutrophil elastase sequestration was assessed with an assay representative of chronic wound concentration with cotton gauze cross-linked with three types of polycarboxylic acids and one phosphorylation finish; thrombin production, which was assessed in a plasma-based assay via a fluorogenic peptide substrate, was determined for cotton, cotton-grafted chitosan, chitosan, rayon/polyester, and two kaolin-treated materials including a commercial hemorrhage control dressing (QuickClot Combat Gauze). A correlation in thrombin production to zeta potential was found. Two polycarboxylic acid cross linked and a phosphorylated cotton dressing gave high elastase sequestration. PMID:24956451

Edwards, Judson Vincent; Prevost, Nicolette

2011-01-01

140

[Sodium ions as the effector of catalytic action of alpha-thrombin].  

Science.gov (United States)

A process of thrombin interaction with synthetic and natural substrates in the presence of Na+ ions has been analyzed in the survey. Molecular bases of this interaction have been presented, interrelation between the structure and function of thrombin has been noted; the nature of the unique site of its active centre which determines high thrombin affinity for the substrates and increase of its catalytic activity defined by the term of "specificity to univalent cations" have been considered in detail. Na+ ions play the role of allosteric effector in realization of two informational states of thrombin which penform, respectively, two fundamental and competing functions in the process of hemostasis. The molecular basis of the process of Na+ binding with thrombin is rather simple and depends only on the single site which importance for the enzyme function is marked by numerous investigations of a number of authors, and it is shown that Na(+)-binding site is distributed in the other zone of thrombin molecule as compared to exosites I and II, which do not take part in Na(+)-binding and allosteric transduction. Considerable attention was given to conformational conversions of a thrombin molecule caused by Na+ ions binding. It was shown that the transition slow fast of the enzyme forms leads to formation of the ion pair Arg-187: Asp-222, optimal orientation of Asp-189 and Ser-195 for binding of substrates and considerable shift of the lateral chain Glu-192 determined by the disturbance of the lattice of water molecules which connects Na(+)-binding site with aminoacid Ser-195 of the active centre of the enzyme. New data have been presented which indicate that the changes in the lattice of water molecules and allosteric nucleus of Na(+)-binding site of the enzyme are the basic link of raising the affinity between the thrombin and substrate and mechanism of the enzyme activation by Na(+)-ions. The survey touches some problems of creation of allosteric inhibitors of thrombin which can take essential effect on Na(+)-binding site and favor stabilization of the anticoagulant slow-form of thrombin, and of enzyme rational mutants with selective specificity in respect of protein C which display effective and safe anticoagulant and antithrombotic effects in vivo. PMID:18030731

Kolodze?skaia, M V; Volkov, G L

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Identification of a thrombin receptor with factor Xa receptor and tissue factor in human pancreatic carcinoma cells  

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Venous thromboembolism is a common feature of pancreatic cancer. The underlying mechanism is unclear, but is likely to involve thrombin generation on the cell surface. Human pancreatic carcinoma cell lines (n=8) have been studied immmunohistochemically for the expression of tissue factor, factor Xa receptor, and thrombin receptor. Each antigen had a distinct pattern of immunoreactivity in cell membrane and cytoplasm. Tissue factor was predominantly localised to the membrane, whereas thrombin ...

Kakkar, A. K.; Lemoine, N. R.; Stone, S. R.; Altieri, D.; Williamson, R. C. N.

1995-01-01

142

Thrombin detection using a piezoelectric aptamer-linked immunosorbent assay.  

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The development of diagnostic assays using highly targeted specific aptamers with existing detection platforms has been an endeavor with few opportunities until now. Many current commercially available diagnostic platforms make use of detection systems employing capture agents composed of modified antigen-specific antibodies coupled with a variety of detection modalities, including radioimmunoassays, fluorescence-based detection assays, electro/chemiluminescence assays, and immunoradiometric assays. In the studies presented here, a novel frequency-modulating technology from BioScale called Acoustic Membrane MicroParticle (AMMP) detection was used to demonstrate a sensitive and reproducible method of incorporating aptamers as capture and detection agents. The method provides a robust and rapid detection of thrombin in human serum while also eliminating the labor-intensive efforts of Western blot analysis and is not affected by the interfering substances found in serum that often affect optical-based detection systems. In addition, we have demonstrated, for the first time, the adaptation of the AMMP platform to exploit aptamers against a clinically relevant target. The AMMP platform is an ideal medium for using aptamers in commercial assay development for application in a clinical setting. PMID:23994562

Collins, Cheryl M; Yui, Samuel; Roberts, Charles E S; Kojic, Igor

2013-12-01

143

Thrombin generation as a predictor of radiotherapy induced skin erythema  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background and purpose: Biological mechanisms underlying radiation induced erythema remain largely unknown, with no simple way to accurately predict or prevent extreme cases. Based on the recent findings in patients suffering from chronic urticaria, we sought to determine if similar mechanisms of hypercoagulation contributed to comparable skin reactions during radiotherapy. Materials and methods: Plasma levels of prothrombin factor 1+2 (F1+2), D-dimers and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (Pai-1) were tested in 32 women undergoing irradiation following breast conserving surgery for early breast cancer. Reflectance spectrophotometry was used to objectively assess erythema throughout the treatment by measuring the amount of light reflected from the skin surface as a function of wavelength. Correlations between peak levels of erythema and plasma biomarkers were then assessed. Results: Individual peak reflectance readings generally occurred between day 29 of treatment and 2 weeks post radiotherapy, and represented a median increase of 66% (range: 11-146%; p < 0.001) from baseline. Peak reflectance correlated with F1+2 and Pai-1 levels measured both at baseline and day 29 of treatment, and multivariate analysis indicated that these two baseline measurements were the best predictors of peak reflectance, accounting for 59% of the variability in erythema (p = 0.000004). Conclusions: Patients with signs of intravascular thrombin generation are at higher risk of radiotherapy-iation are at higher risk of radiotherapy-induced skin reactions, providing a new therapeutic avenue for possibly predicting and preventing this side effect of cancer treatment

144

A blood meal-induced Ixodes scapularis tick saliva serpin inhibits trypsin and thrombin, and interferes with platelet aggregation and blood clotting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ixodes scapularis is a medically important tick species that transmits causative agents of important human tick-borne diseases including borreliosis, anaplasmosis and babesiosis. An understanding of how this tick feeds is needed prior to the development of novel methods to protect the human population against tick-borne disease infections. This study characterizes a blood meal-induced I. scapularis (Ixsc) tick saliva serine protease inhibitor (serpin (S)), in-house referred to as IxscS-1E1. The hypothesis that ticks use serpins to evade the host's defense response to tick feeding is based on the assumption that tick serpins inhibit functions of protease mediators of the host's anti-tick defense response. Thus, it is significant that consistent with hallmark characteristics of inhibitory serpins, Pichia pastoris-expressed recombinant IxscS-1E1 (rIxscS-1E1) can trap thrombin and trypsin in SDS- and heat-stable complexes, and reduce the activity of the two proteases in a dose-responsive manner. Additionally, rIxscS-1E1 also inhibited, but did not apparently form detectable complexes with, cathepsin G and factor Xa. Our data also show that rIxscS-1E1 may not inhibit chymotrypsin, kallikrein, chymase, plasmin, elastase and papain even at a much higher rIxscS-1E1 concentration. Native IxscS-1E1 potentially plays a role(s) in facilitating I. scapularis tick evasion of the host's hemostatic defense as revealed by the ability of rIxscS-1E1 to inhibit adenosine diphosphate- and thrombin-activated platelet aggregation, and delay activated partial prothrombin time and thrombin time plasma clotting in a dose-responsive manner. We conclude that native IxscS-1E1 is part of the tick saliva protein complex that mediates its anti-hemostatic, and potentially inflammatory, functions by inhibiting the actions of thrombin, trypsin and other yet unknown trypsin-like proteases at the tick-host interface. PMID:24583183

Ibelli, Adriana M G; Kim, Tae K; Hill, Creston C; Lewis, Lauren A; Bakshi, Mariam; Miller, Stephanie; Porter, Lindsay; Mulenga, Albert

2014-05-01

145

Strong activity of acid-stable trypsin inhibitor in bovine thrombin for clinical use.  

Science.gov (United States)

Strong activity of acid-stable trypsin inhibitor (ASTI) was confirmed in some clinical thrombin preparations. Thrombin preparations of human plasma origin had no detectable ASTI activity, whereas some preparations of bovine plasma origin revealed more than 5,000 U/vial (5,000 thrombin units), indicating a higher content of ASTI than of thrombin in terms of protein concentration. Contamination by other biologically active substances was also suggested by variations in amidolytic activity with several synthetic substrates (S-2238, S-2251, S-2444, S-2266 and Bz-L-Arg-pNA). On isoelectric focussing, the ASTI activities migrated in acidic positions with pI values of 3.9, 4.5, 5.0, 5.9 and 6.5, respectively. They were almost parallel to the thrombin Bz-L-Arg-pNA hydrolytic activity, and differed from that of the purified thrombin preparation (pI = 7.0). By gel filtration on Sephadex G-100, the molecular weights of the inhibitors as calculated using standard proteins were 140,000 (main), 70,000 and less than 10,000 (minor), respectively. An immunological difference between the main inhibitor (pI = 3.9, mol wt 140,000) and previously reported plasma ASTI was also confirmed with goat anti-UTI serum by the double immunodiffusion and ELISA methods. The inhibitor exerted a strong inhibitory effect not only on trypsin and chymotrypsin, but also on non-plasmic fibrinolysis with human leukocyte elastase, and to a lesser extent on the blood coagulation system (lengthening of APTT and PT). Clearly, when using thrombin preparations and analyzing the data obtained after their administration, the effects of this and other contaminant biologically active substances must be taken into account. PMID:3141090

Sumi, H; Hamada, H; Maehara, S; Mihara, H

1988-09-30

146

Construction of photoelectrochemical thrombin aptasensor via assembling multilayer of graphene-CdS nanocomposites.  

Science.gov (United States)

A photoelectrochemical (PEC) aptasensor for highly sensitive and specific detection of thrombin was developed by using graphene–CdS nanocomposites multilayer as photoactive species and electroactive mediator hexaammineruthenium(III) chloride (Ru(NH(3))(6)(3+)) as signal enhancer. Graphene–CdS nanocomposites (G–CdS) were synthesized by one-pot reduction of oxide graphene and CdCl2 with thioacetamide. The photoactive multilayer was prepared by alternative assembly of the negatively charged 3-mercaptopropionic acid modified graphene–CdS nanocomposites (MPA-G–CdS) and the positively charged polyethylenimine (PEI) on ITO electrode. This layer-by-layer assembly method enhanced the stability and homogeneity of the photocurrent readout of G–CdS. Thrombin aptamer was covalently bound to the multilayer by using glutaraldehyde as cross-linking. Electroactive mediator (Ru(NH(3))(6)(3+)) could interact with the DNA phosphate backbone and thus facilitated the electron transfer between G–CdS multilayer and electrode and enhanced the photocurrent. Hybridizing of a long complementary DNA with thrombin aptamer could increase the adsorption amount of (Ru(NH(3))(6)(3+)), which in turn boosted the signal readout. In the presence of target thrombin, the affinity interaction between thrombin and its aptamer resulted in the long complementary DNA releasing from the G–CdS multilayer and decreasing of photocurrent signal. On the basis of G–CdS multilayer as the photoactive species, (Ru (NH(3))(6)(3+)) as an electroactive mediator, and aptamer as a recognition module, a high sensitive PEC aptasensor for thrombin detection was proposed. The thrombin aptasensor displayed a linear range from 2.0 pM to 600.0 pM and a detection limit of 1.0 pM. The present strategy provided a promising ideology for the future development of PEC biosensor. PMID:25314620

Shangguan, Li; Zhu, Wei; Xue, Yanchun; Liu, Songqin

2015-02-15

147

A multifunctional label-free electrochemical impedance biosensor for Hg(2+), adenosine triphosphate and thrombin.  

Science.gov (United States)

A multifunctional label-free biosensor for the detection of Hg(2+), adenosine triphosphate and thrombin has been developed based on the changing of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) from the modified electrodes when nucleic acid subunits interacting with different targets. The modified electrode consists of three interaction sections, including DNA with T-T mismatch recognizing Hg(2+) to form T-Hg(2+)-T complex, split DNA chip against ATP, and DNA domin against thrombin to form G-quadruplex. Upon DNA interaction with thrombin or ATP, an increased charge transfer resistance (Rct) had been detected. However, a decreased Rct against Hg(2+) was obtained. The Rct difference (?Rct) has relationship with the concentration of the different targets, Hg(2+), ATP and thrombin can be selectively detected with the detection limit of 0.03, 0.25, and 0.20nmolL(-1), respectively. To separately detect the three analytes existing in the same sample, ATP aptamer, G-rich DNA strands and EDTA were applied to mask ATP, Hg(2+) or thrombin separately. PMID:25476361

Chen, Lifen; Chen, Zhong-Ning

2015-01-15

148

Treatment of intractable arterial hemorrhage during stereotactic brain biopsy with thrombin. Report of three patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Of 165 consecutive patients undergoing computerized tomography- or magnetic resonance imaging-guided stereotactic brain biopsies at the Cleveland Clinic between June, 1987, and November, 1989, four patients (2.4%) developed arterial hemorrhage refractory to conventional efforts to secure hemostasis. Craniotomy was performed in one of these patients to control the hemorrhage; in the other three, 0.5 to 2 cc of thrombin (5000 U/cc) was slowly injected via the biopsy cannula, resulting in immediate control of bleeding in all three cases. Postoperatively, the first two patients treated with 1 to 2 cc of thrombin were slow to awaken; one had evidence of vasospasm by transcranial Doppler ultrasound studies and multiple infarcts on cranial computerized tomography, while the other had a moderate-sized frontal hematoma with intracranial hypertension. After prolonged recovery periods, only mild neurological deficits persisted in both patients. The third patient, treated with 0.5 cc of thrombin, had an uneventful postoperative course. Thrombin is highly effective for stopping intractable arterial hemorrhage during stereotactic brain biopsy; however, it is a vasospastic agent and may have been responsible for the cerebral infarctions in one patient. Therefore, thrombin should be used only as a last resort, short of craniotomy, to control intractable arterial hemorrhage during stereotactic brain biopsy. PMID:1988604

Chimowitz, M I; Barnett, G H; Palmer, J

1991-02-01

149

Fluorescent measurement of affinity binding between thrombin and its aptamers using on-chip affinity monoliths.  

Science.gov (United States)

A microfluidic chip with integrated 2mm long monoliths incorporated with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) groups was developed for thrombin-aptamer interaction study. The non-G quartet forming oligonucleotide coated monoliths was compared to a 15 mer thrombin-binding aptamer, in which affinity binding and elution processes were real-time monitored fluorescently. The results showed that the fluorescence intensity of aptamer stationary phase is approximately 10 times higher than that of the control column, which is probably due to the successful suppression of nonspecific adsorption between thrombin and aptamers/monoliths by using PEG-monolith. The experiment was repeated using human serum albumin (HSA) and green fluorescence protein (GFP) as interferences, it was double confirmed that thrombin was selectively retained by PEG-monolith. An elution efficiency of 75% was achieved with an elute of 200mM acetic acid and 2M NaCI, and the eluted thrombin was successfully separated in an ionic buffer system of 20mM NaHCO3 (pH 9.5) with 3% PEG. The hydrophilic and antifouling properties of PEG-monolith greatly decrease nonspecific adsorption and enhance detection sensitivity, which provided an alternative method to perform on-chip fluorescent measurement of bioaffinity binding. PMID:23587316

Gao, Changlu; Sun, Xiuhua; Woolley, Adam T

2013-05-24

150

Signal amplification for thrombin impedimetric aptasensor: sandwich protocol and use of gold-streptavidin nanoparticles.  

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In this work, we report a highly specific amplification strategy demonstrated for the ultrasensitive biosensing of thrombin with the use of gold-streptavidin nanoparticles (strep-AuNPs) and silver reduction enhancement. The biotinylated aptamer of thrombin was immobilized onto an avidin-graphite epoxy composite (AvGEC) electrode surface by affinity interaction between biotin and avidin; electrochemical impedance measurements were performed in a solution containing the redox marker ferrocyanide/ferricyanide. The change in interfacial charge transfer resistance (Rct) experimented by the redox marker, was recorded to confirm aptamer complex formation with target protein, thrombin (Thr), in a label-free first stage. A biotinylated second thrombin aptamer, with complementary recognition properties was then used in a sandwich approach. The addition of strep-AuNPs and silver enhancement treatment led to a further increment of Rct thus obtaining significant signal amplification. The AptThrBio1-Thr-AptThrBio2 sandwich formation was inspected by confocal microcopy after incubation with streptavidin quantum dots. In order to visualize the presence of gold nanoparticles, the same silver enhancement treatment was applied to electrodes already modified with the nanoparticle-sandwich conjugate, allowing direct observation by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results showed high sensitivity and selectivity for thrombin detection, with an improvement from ca. 4.7 pM in a simple assay to 0.3 pM in the amplified reported scheme. PMID:24296061

Ocaña, Cristina; del Valle, Manel

2014-04-15

151

The mechanism of melanoma-associated thrombin activity and von Willebrand factor release from endothelial cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Activation of the coagulation system in malignancy enables tumor spreading and is thus associated with poor prognosis for the patient. In this study, we analyzed the in vitro mechanisms by which two human metastatic melanoma cell lines, MV3 and WM9, transform the vascular endothelium into a prothrombotic activated state. We show that both melanoma cell lines activate prothrombin due to tissue factor (TF) expression by showing that thrombin generation was blocked with a TF-neutralizing antibody and TF-siRNA. In addition, using the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64, we excluded the formerly described cancer procoagulant (CP) as a major factor contributing to thrombin generation. Furthermore, we describe a direct thrombin-independent response of endothelial cells (ECs) to MV3-derived supernatant as measured by rapid release of VWF. We also show that two clinically approved LMWHs, tinzaparin and enoxaparin, are effective inhibitors of thrombin generation and thrombin activity in plasma. Furthermore, our data indicate a protective effect of heparins on EC activation as shown by reduced VWF release in response to MV3 supernatant. These promising effects of heparins on the melanoma-induced thrombotic conditions justify further clinical investigations in the field of oncology. PMID:20505748

Kerk, Nina; Strozyk, Elwira A; Pöppelmann, Birgit; Schneider, Stefan W

2010-09-01

152

Alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor M358R reduces thrombin generation when displayed on the surface of cells expressing tissue factor.  

Science.gov (United States)

The M358R variant of alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (API) is a potent soluble inhibitor of thrombin. Previously we engineered AR-API M358R, a membrane-bound form of this protein and showed that it inhibited exogenous thrombin when expressed on transfected cells lacking tissue factor (TF). To determine the suitability of AR-API M358R for gene transfer to vascular cells to limit thrombogenicity, we tested the ability of AR-API M358R to inhibit endogenous thrombin generated in plasma via co-expression co-expressing it on the surface of cells expressing TF. Transfected AR-API M358R formed inhibitory complexes with thrombin following exposure of recalcified, defibrinated plasma to TF on T24/83 cells, but discontinuously monitored thrombin generation was unaffected. Similarly, AR-API M358R expression did not reduce continuously monitored thrombin generation by T24/83 cell suspensions exposed to recalcified normal plasma in a Thrombogram-Thrombinoscope-type thrombin generation assay (TGA); in contrast, 1?M hirudin variant 3 or soluble API M358R abolished thrombin generation. Gene transfer of TF to HEK 293 conferred the ability to support TF-dependent thrombin generation on HEK 293 cells. Co-transfection of HEK 293 cells with a 9:1 excess of DNA encoding AR-API M358R to that encoding TF reduced peak thrombin generation approximately 3-fold compared to controls. These in vitro results suggest that surface display of API M358R inhibits thrombin generation when the tethered serpin is expressed in excess of TF, and suggest its potential to limit thrombosis in appropriate vascular beds in animal models. PMID:25242242

Gierczak, Richard F; Pepler, Laura; Bhagirath, Vinai; Liaw, Patricia C; Sheffield, William P

2014-11-01

153

Thrombin induces IL-6 but not TNFalpha secretion by mouse mast cells: threshold-level thrombin receptor and very low level FcepsilonRI signaling synergistically enhance IL-6 secretion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mast cells become activated in multiple diseases wherein thrombin generation is often clinically apparent, but the effect of thrombin on cytokine release by mast cells remains unexplored. Thus, we examined IL-6 and TNFalpha release by thrombin-challenged mast cells. Thrombin and the protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 peptide TRAP(14) induced these cells to secrete IL-6 in a dose-dependent fashion. Mast cells secreted > or =2800 pg IL-6/10(6) cells over 24 h, but only low levels of serotonin and no significant TNFalpha. Furthermore, at near-background levels of allergen, threshold doses of alpha-thrombin synergistically enhanced the IL-6 response (by up to 100-fold), but high-dose costimulation led to a simple additive response. Both the PI(3)- and sphingosine-kinase signaling pathways contributed importantly to the thrombin response. Our data thus clearly demonstrate that low-level thrombin and FcepsilonRI signaling can synergize to augment mast cell IL-6 responses, and that thrombin also differentially induces cytokine secretion by mast cells. PMID:11104585

Gordon, J R; Zhang, X; Stevenson, K; Cosford, K

2000-11-01

154

Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of potent thrombin inhibitors: piperazides of 3-amidinophenylalanine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thrombin is the key enzyme in the blood coagulation system, and inhibitors of its proteolytic activity are of therapeutic interest since they are potential anticoagulants. The most potent inhibitor of the benzamidine type is N alpha-[(2-naphthylsulfonyl)glycyl]-4-amidinophenylalanylpiperid ide (NAPAP). However, NAPAP and other benzamidine derivatives do not show favorable pharmacological properties; above all, they have very low systemic bioavailability after oral administration. The goal of designing new compounds was to obtain potent inhibitors with improved pharmacokinetic properties. Piperazide derivatives of 3-amidinophenylalanine as the key building block were synthesized. The piperazine moiety opened the possibility to introduce quite different substituents on the second nitrogen using common synthetic procedures. Some of the newly synthesized compounds are potent inhibitors of thrombin and offer an approach to study structure-function relationships for inhibition of thrombin and related enzymes and for the improvement of their pharmacokinetic properties. PMID:9301673

Stürzebecher, J; Prasa, D; Hauptmann, J; Vieweg, H; Wikström, P

1997-09-12

155

Placental vascular pathology and increased thrombin generation as mechanisms of disease in obstetrical syndromes  

Science.gov (United States)

Obstetrical complications including preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, preterm labor, preterm prelabor rupture of membranes and fetal demise are all the clinical endpoint of several underlying mechanisms (i.e., infection, inflammation, thrombosis, endocrine disorder, immunologic rejection, genetic, and environmental), therefore, they may be regarded as syndromes. Placental vascular pathology and increased thrombin generation were reported in all of these obstetrical syndromes. Moreover, elevated concentrations of thrombin-anti thrombin III complexes and changes in the coagulation as well as anticoagulation factors can be detected in the maternal circulation prior to the clinical development of the disease in some of these syndromes. In this review, we will assess the changes in the hemostatic system during normal and complicated pregnancy in maternal blood, maternal–fetal interface and amniotic fluid, and describe the contribution of thrombosis and vascular pathology to the development of the great obstetrical syndromes. PMID:25426334

Mastrolia, Salvatore Andrea; Mazor, Moshe; Loverro, Giuseppe; Klaitman, Vered

2014-01-01

156

Thrombin-induced Migration and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Expression Are Regulated by MAPK and PI3K Pathways in C6 Glioma Cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Glioblastoma multiforme is one of the most common and aggressive tumors in central nervous system. It often possesses characteristic necrotic lesions with hemorrhages, which increase the chances of exposure to thrombin. Thrombin has been known as a regulator of MMP-9 expression and cancer cell migration. However, the effects of thrombin on glioma cells have not been clearly understood. In the present study, influences of thrombin on glioma cell migration were examined using Boyden chamber mig...

Kim, Jiyoung; Lee, Jae-won; Kim, Song-in; Choi, Yong-joon; Lee, Won-ki; Jeong, Myung-ja; Cha, Sang-hoon; Lee, Hee Jae; Chun, Wanjoo; Kim, Sung-soo

2011-01-01

157

Glu-192----Gln substitution in thrombin mimics the catalytic switch induced by thrombomodulin.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In serine proteases, residue 192, three residues prior to the active site Ser-195, plays an important role in determining substrate specificity. In trypsin (EC 3.4.21.4) and most trypsin-like enzymes with relatively broad specificity, this position is occupied by Gln. In thrombin (EC 3.4.21.5), an enzyme with restricted specificity, position 192 is occupied by Glu. The potential importance of Glu-192 in restricting the specificity of thrombin was investigated by isosterically replacing Glu-19...

Le Bonniec, B. F.; Esmon, C. T.

1991-01-01

158

Towards a standardization of thrombin generation assessment: The influence of tissue factor, platelets and phospholipids concentration on the normal values of Thrombogram-Thrombinoscope assay  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Thrombin generation assay was developed several years ago to mimic physiological coagulation mechanisms but it had important limitations. Thrombogram-Thrombinoscope assay using a fluorogenic substrate, allows obtaining thrombin generation curves in non-defibrinated platelet rich plasma (PRP) in a fully automated manner. Methods We standardised the methodology of Thrombogram-Thrombinoscope and we evaluated the precision of thrombin generation ...

Leflem Lena; Busson Joël; Depasse François; Gerotziafas Grigoris T; Elalamy Ismail; Samama Meyer M

2005-01-01

159

Recombinant Technology and Probiotics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recombinant technology has led the way to monumental advances in the development of useful molecules, including the development of safe probiotics. The development of novel approaches using recombinant technology and probiotics that allow accurate targeting of therapeutics to the mucosa is an interesting area of research. The creation and use of recombinant probiotics expressing recombinantovalbumin, recombinant ovalbumin mutants and yet-to-be-designed recombinant hypo/non-allergenic molecules offer the opportunity to further investigate their effects for food, nutrition, environment andhealth. This review highlights advances in native probiotics and recombinant probiotics expressing native and recombinant molecules for food, nutrition, environment and health.

Icy D’Silva

2011-09-01

160

Longitudinal assessment of thrombin generation potential in response to alteration of antiplatelet therapy after TIA or ischaemic stroke.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

The impact of changing antiplatelet therapy on thrombin generation potential in patients with ischaemic cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is unclear. We assessed patients within 4 weeks of TIA or ischaemic stroke (baseline), and then 14 days (14d) and >90 days (90d) after altering antiplatelet therapy. Thrombin generation was assessed in platelet poor plasma. Ninety-one patients were recruited. Twenty-four were initially assessed on no antiplatelet therapy, and then after 14d (N = 23) and 90d (N = 8) on aspirin monotherapy; 52 were assessed on aspirin monotherapy, and after 14 and 90 days on aspirin and dipyridamole combination therapy; 21 patients were assessed on aspirin and after 14 days (N = 21) and 90 days (N = 19) on clopidogrel. Peak thrombin generation and endogenous thrombin potential were reduced at 14 and 90 days (p ? 0.04) in the overall cohort. We assessed the impact of individual antiplatelet regimens on thrombin generation parameters to investigate the cause of this effect. Lag time and time-to-peak thrombin generation were unchanged at 14 days, but reduced 90 days after commencing aspirin (p ? 0.009). Lag time, peak thrombin generation and endogenous thrombin potential were reduced at both 14 and 90 days after adding dipyridamole to aspirin (p ? 0.01). Lag time was reduced 14 days after changing from aspirin to clopidogrel (p = 0.045), but this effect was not maintained at 90 days (p = 0.2). This pilot study did not show any consistent effects of commencing aspirin, or of changing from aspirin to clopidogrel on thrombin generation potential during follow-up. The addition of dipyridamole to aspirin led to a persistent reduction in peak and total thrombin generation ex vivo, and illustrates the diverse, potentially beneficial, newly recognised \\'anti-coagulant\\' effects of dipyridamole in ischaemic CVD.

Tobin, W O

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
161

Recombinant Technology and Probiotics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recombinant technology has led the way to monumental advances in the development of useful molecules, including the development of safe probiotics. The development of novel approaches using recombinant technology and probiotics that allow accurate targeting of therapeutics to the mucosa is an interesting area of research. The creation and use of recombinant probiotics expressing recombinantovalbumin, recombinant ovalbumin mutants and yet-to-be-designed recombinant hypo/non-allergenic molecule...

Icy D’Silva

2011-01-01

162

(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate decreases thrombin/paclitaxel-induced endothelial tissue factor expression via the inhibition of c-Jun terminal NH2 kinase phosphorylation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Patients with paclitaxel-eluting stents are concerned with stent thrombosis caused by premature discontinuation of dual antiplatelet therapy or clopidogrel resistance. This study investigates the effect of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on the expression of thrombin/paclitaxel-induced endothelial tissue factor (TF) expressions in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). EGCG was nontoxic to HAECs at 6 h up to a concentration of 25 {mu}mol/L. At a concentration of 25 {mu}mol/L, EGCG pretreatment potently inhibited both thrombin-stimulated and thrombin/paclitaxel-stimulated endothelial TF protein expression. Thrombin and thrombin/paclitaxel-induced 2.6-fold and 2.9-fold increases in TF activity compared with the control. EGCG pretreatment caused a 29% and 38% decrease in TF activity on thrombin and thrombin/paclitaxel treatment, respectively. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed that thrombin and thrombin/paclitaxel-induced 3.0-fold and 4.6-fold TF mRNA expressions compared with the control. EGCG pretreatment caused an 82% and 72% decrease in TF mRNA expression on thrombin and thrombin/paclitaxel treatment, respectively. The c-Jun terminal NH2 kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125 reduced thrombin/paclitaxel-induced TF expression. Furthermore, EGCG significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of JNK to 49% of thrombin/paclitaxel-stimulated HAECs at 60 min. Immunofluorescence assay did not show an inhibitory effect of EGCG on P65 NF-{kappa}B nuclear translocation in the thrombin/paclitaxel-stimulated endothelial cells. In conclusion, EGCG can inhibit TF expression in thrombin/paclitaxel-stimulated endothelial cells via the inhibition of JNK phosphorylation. The unique property of EGCG may be used to develop a new drug-eluting stent by co-coating EGCG and paclitaxel.

Wang, Huang-Joe [Institute of Biotechnology, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, No. 2, Yuh-Der Road, Taichung 40447, Taiwan (China); Lo, Wan-Yu [Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, No. 2, Yuh-Der Road, Taichung 40447, Taiwan (China); Graduate Integration of Chinese and Western Medicine, China Medical University, No. 91, Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Lu, Te-Ling [School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, No. 91, Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Huang, Haimei, E-mail: hmhuang@life.nthu.edu.tw [Institute of Biotechnology, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

2010-01-01

163

(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate decreases thrombin/paclitaxel-induced endothelial tissue factor expression via the inhibition of c-Jun terminal NH2 kinase phosphorylation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Patients with paclitaxel-eluting stents are concerned with stent thrombosis caused by premature discontinuation of dual antiplatelet therapy or clopidogrel resistance. This study investigates the effect of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on the expression of thrombin/paclitaxel-induced endothelial tissue factor (TF) expressions in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). EGCG was nontoxic to HAECs at 6 h up to a concentration of 25 ?mol/L. At a concentration of 25 ?mol/L, EGCG pretreatment potently inhibited both thrombin-stimulated and thrombin/paclitaxel-stimulated endothelial TF protein expression. Thrombin and thrombin/paclitaxel-induced 2.6-fold and 2.9-fold increases in TF activity compared with the control. EGCG pretreatment caused a 29% and 38% decrease in TF activity on thrombin and thrombin/paclitaxel treatment, respectively. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed that thrombin and thrombin/paclitaxel-induced 3.0-fold and 4.6-fold TF mRNA expressions compared with the control. EGCG pretreatment caused an 82% and 72% decrease in TF mRNA expression on thrombin and thrombin/paclitaxel treatment, respectively. The c-Jun terminal NH2 kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125 reduced thrombin/paclitaxel-induced TF expression. Furthermore, EGCG significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of JNK to 49% of thrombin/paclitaxel-stimulated HAECs at 60 min. Immunofluorescence assay did not show an inhibitory effect of EGCG on P65 NF-?B nuclear translocation in the thrombin/paclitaxel-stimulated endothelial cells. In conclusion, EGCG can inhibit TF expression in thrombin/paclitaxel-stimulated endothelial cells via the inhibition of JNK phosphorylation. The unique property of EGCG may be used to develop a new drug-eluting stent by co-coating EGCG and paclitaxel.

164

Beyond heparinization: design of highly potent thrombin inhibitors suitable for surface coupling.  

Science.gov (United States)

During extracorporeal circulation, when blood comes in contact with artificial surfaces, patients receive a standard treatment with anticoagulants to avoid blood coagulation. Dialysis patients in particular are systemically treated with heparin up to four times a week, causing a high burden for the body. For potential anticoagulant modification of external materials, such as dialysis equipment, a series of highly potent thrombin inhibitors was developed. All inhibitors share the general formula arylsulfonyl-P3-Pro-4-amidinobenzylamide, where P3 is glycyl or a trifunctional amino acid residue in L-configuration. Among this series, several derivatives inhibit thrombin with Ki values of less than 1?nM. Specificity measurements revealed that this inhibitor type is highly specific for thrombin with negligible activity against related trypsin-like serine proteases. X-ray analysis of the most potent analogue in complex with thrombin demonstrated that the N-terminal arylsulfonyl group occupies the aryl binding site, whereas the P3 side chain is directed into the solvent and therefore is well suited for further coupling. Based on their in vitro profile, these inhibitors are suitable candidates for the development of hemocompatible materials with anticoagulant properties. PMID:22907907

Steinmetzer, Torsten; Baum, Bernhard; Biela, Adam; Klebe, Gerhard; Nowak, Götz; Bucha, Elke

2012-11-01

165

Improved thrombin binding aptamer by incorporation of a single unlocked nucleic acid monomer  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A 15-mer DNA aptamer (named TBA) adopts a G-quadruplex structure that strongly inhibits fibrin-clot formation by binding to thrombin. We have performed thermodynamic analysis, binding affinity and biological activity studies of TBA variants modified by unlocked nucleic acid (UNA) monomers. UNA-U placed in position U3, U7 or U12 increases the thermodynamic stability of TBA by 0.15-0.50?kcal/mol. In contrast, modification of any position within the two G-quartet structural elements is unfavorable for quadruplex formation. The intramolecular folding of the quadruplexes is confirmed by T(m) versus ln c analysis. Moreover, circular dichroism and thermal difference spectra of the modified TBAs displaying high thermodynamic stability show bands that are characteristic for antiparallel quadruplex formation. Surface plasmon resonance studies of the binding of the UNA-modified TBAs to thrombin show that a UNA monomer is allowed in many positions of the aptamer without significantly changing the thrombin-binding properties. The biological effect of a selection of the modified aptamers was tested by a thrombin time assay and showed that most of the UNA-modified TBAs possess anticoagulant properties, and that the construct with a UNA-U monomer in position 7 is a highly potent inhibitor of fibrin-clot formation.

Pasternak, Anna; Hernandez, Frank J

2011-01-01

166

Development of a Multiplex Sandwich Aptamer Microarray for the Detection of VEGF165 and Thrombin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work we have developed a multiplex microarray system capable of detecting VEGF165 and thrombin. We recently described a Sandwich Aptamer Microarray (SAM for thrombin detection feasible for use in multiplex microarrays; here we describe a new aptasensor for VEGF165 detection employing Vap7 and VEa5, two DNA aptamers recognizing different sites of the protein. The aptamers were modified to be adapted to the solid phase platform of SAM and their capability to simultaneously recognize VEGF165 by forming a ternary complex was analyzed in solution. Having so defined the best tandem arrangement of modified aptamers, we set up the aptasensor for VEGF165, and finally analyzed the multiplex system with the two aptasensors for the simultaneous detection of VEGF165 and thrombin. The results indicate that each sandwich is specific, even when the two proteins are mixed. The system performance is consistent with the behavior evidenced by the biochemical analysis, which proves to be valuable to drive the evaluation and refinement of aptamers prior to or along the development of a detection platform. Since thrombin upregulates VEGF expression, the simultaneous recognition of these two proteins could be useful in the analysis of biomarkers in pathologies characterized by neo-angiogenesis.

Anna Meneghello

2013-10-01

167

A Reusable Impedimetric Aptasensor for Detection of Thrombin Employing a Graphite-Epoxy Composite Electrode  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Here, we report the application of a label-free electrochemical aptasensor based on a graphite-epoxy composite electrode for the detection of thrombin; in this work, aptamers were immobilized onto the electrodes surface using wet physical adsorption. The detection principle is based on the changes of the interfacial properties of the electrode; these were probed in the presence of the reversible redox couple [Fe(CN6]3?/[Fe(CN6]4? using impedance measurements. The electrode surface was partially blocked due to formation of aptamer-thrombin complex, resulting in an increase of the interfacial electron-transfer resistance detected by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS. The aptasensor showed a linear response for thrombin in the range of 7.5 pM to 75 pM and a detection limit of 4.5 pM. The aptasensor was regenerated by breaking the complex formed between the aptamer and thrombin using 2.0 M NaCl solution at 42 °C, showing its operation for different cycles. The interference response caused by main proteins in serum has been characterized.

Manel del Valle

2012-03-01

168

An off-on-off electrochemiluminescence approach for ultrasensitive detection of thrombin.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work demonstrates an aptasensor for ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) detection of thrombin based on an "off-on-off" approach. The system is composed of an Eu(3+)-doped CdS nanocrystals (CdS:Eu NCs) film on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) as ECL emitter. Then gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) labeled hairpin-DNA probe (ssDNA1) containing thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA) sequence was linked on the NCs film, which led to ECL quenching (off) as a result of Förster-resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the CdS:Eu NC film and the proximal AuNPs. Upon the occurrence of hybridization with its complementary DNA (ssDNA2), an ECL enhancement (on) occurred owing to the interactions of the excited CdS:Eu NCs with ECL-induced surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in AuNPs at large separation. Thrombin could induce ssDNA1 forming a G-quadruplex and cause the AuNPs to be close to CdS:Eu NCs film again, which resulted in an enhanced ECL quenching (off). This "off-on-off" system showed a maximum 7.4-fold change of ECL intensity due to the configuration transformation of ssDNA1 and provides great sensitivity for detection of thrombin in a wide detection range from 50 aM to 1 pM. PMID:24699694

Deng, Li; Du, Ying; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

2014-09-15

169

In vivo catabolism of human heparin cofactor II and its complex with thrombin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The plasma clearance of human heparin cofactor II (HC) and its complex with thrombin (HC-T) was studied in mice and compared to the clearance of two other plasma proteinase inhibitor complexes: antithrombin III-thrombin (AT-T) and ? 1-proteinase inhibitor-elastase (? 1PI-E). Purified HC was labelled with 125I without loss of activity as assessed by kinetic analysis of thrombin inhibition and by ability to form a detergent-resistant complex with thrombin. 125I-HC cleared from the circulation with a t1/2 of 80 min; 125I-HC-T cleared with a t1/2 of 10 min. When coinjected, a 2500-fold molar excess of unlabelled HC-T partially blocked the clearance of 125I-HC-T (t1/2 of 53 min), suggesting the involvement of a receptor-mediated process in the catabolism of HC-T. Coinjection of a 1500-fold molar excess of AT-T also slowed the clearance of 125I-HC-T (t1/2 of 29 min); a 2000-fold molar excess of ? 1PI-E further competed for 125I-HC-T recovered at autopsy was localized to the liver; similar results have been obtained for AT-T and ? 1PI-trypsin

170

Development of a Multiplex Sandwich Aptamer Microarray for the Detection of VEGF165 and Thrombin  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work we have developed a multiplex microarray system capable of detecting VEGF165 and thrombin. We recently described a Sandwich Aptamer Microarray (SAM) for thrombin detection feasible for use in multiplex microarrays; here we describe a new aptasensor for VEGF165 detection employing Vap7 and VEa5, two DNA aptamers recognizing different sites of the protein. The aptamers were modified to be adapted to the solid phase platform of SAM and their capability to simultaneously recognize VEGF165 by forming a ternary complex was analyzed in solution. Having so defined the best tandem arrangement of modified aptamers, we set up the aptasensor for VEGF165, and finally analyzed the multiplex system with the two aptasensors for the simultaneous detection of VEGF165 and thrombin. The results indicate that each sandwich is specific, even when the two proteins are mixed. The system performance is consistent with the behavior evidenced by the biochemical analysis, which proves to be valuable to drive the evaluation and refinement of aptamers prior to or along the development of a detection platform. Since thrombin upregulates VEGF expression, the simultaneous recognition of these two proteins could be useful in the analysis of biomarkers in pathologies characterized by neo-angiogenesis. PMID:24097233

Sosic, Alice; Meneghello, Anna; Antognoli, Agnese; Cretaio, Erica; Gatto, Barbara

2013-01-01

171

A Reusable Impedimetric Aptasensor for Detection of Thrombin Employing a Graphite-Epoxy Composite Electrode  

Science.gov (United States)

Here, we report the application of a label-free electrochemical aptasensor based on a graphite-epoxy composite electrode for the detection of thrombin; in this work, aptamers were immobilized onto the electrodes surface using wet physical adsorption. The detection principle is based on the changes of the interfacial properties of the electrode; these were probed in the presence of the reversible redox couple [Fe(CN)6]3?/[Fe(CN)6]4? using impedance measurements. The electrode surface was partially blocked due to formation of aptamer-thrombin complex, resulting in an increase of the interfacial electron-transfer resistance detected by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The aptasensor showed a linear response for thrombin in the range of 7.5 pM to 75 pM and a detection limit of 4.5 pM. The aptasensor was regenerated by breaking the complex formed between the aptamer and thrombin using 2.0 M NaCl solution at 42 °C, showing its operation for different cycles. The interference response caused by main proteins in serum has been characterized. PMID:22736991

Ocaña, Cristina; Pacios, Mercè; del Valle, Manel

2012-01-01

172

Inhibition of Thrombin-Activated Fibrinolysis Inhibitor Increases Survival in Experimental Kidney Fibrosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Uncontrolled diabetes, inflammation, and hypertension are key contributors to progressive renal fibrosis and subsequent loss of renal function. Reduced fibrinolysis appears to be a feature of ESRD, but its contribution to the fibrotic program has not been extensively studied. Here, we show that in patients with CKD, the activity levels of serum thrombin-activated fibrinolysis inhibitor and plasmin strongly correlated with the degree of renal function impairment. We made similar observations in rats after subtotal nephrectomy and tested whether pharmacologic inhibition of thrombin-activated fibrinolysis inhibitor with UK-396082 could reduce renal fibrosis and improve renal function. Compared with untreated animals, UK-396082-treated animals had reduced glomerular and tubulointerstitial fibrosis after subtotal nephrectomy. Renal function, as measured by an increase in creatinine clearance, was maintained and the rate of increase in proteinuria was reduced in UK-396082-treated animals. Furthermore, cumulative survival improved from 16% to 80% with inhibition of thrombin-activated fibrinolysis inhibitor. Taken together, these data support the importance of the fibrinolytic axis in regulating renal fibrosis and point to a potentially important therapeutic role for suppression of thrombin-activated fibrinolysis inhibitor activity. PMID:25411467

Atkinson, John M; Pullen, Nick; Da Silva-Lodge, Michelle; Williams, Lynne; Johnson, Tim S

2014-11-19

173

The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Thrombin Generation Assessed by the Calibrated Automated Thrombogram.  

Science.gov (United States)

Observational and in vitro studies suggest that vitamin D may have antithrombotic activity. This study aimed to examine the relationship between vitamin D supplementation and thrombin generation. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and thrombin generation parameters were measured in 73 healthy volunteers. Participants with serum 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L (n = 53) were treated with vitamin D3 and tested for 25(OH)D and thrombin generation at the end of treatment. Lag time and time to peak decreased after treatment by a mean of -0.49 ± 0.51 minute (P < .001) and -0.76 ± 0.70 minute (P < .001), respectively, whereas endogenous thrombin potential and peak height increased after treatment by a mean of 170.1 ± 339.8 nmol/L minute (P = .001) and 34.2 ± 47.8 nmol/L (P < .001), respectively. Treatment with vitamin D supplementation seems to have prothrombotic effect in patients with vitamin D insufficiency. These findings should be interpreted with caution and need to be replicated in future studies. PMID:25376616

Saliba, Walid; Awad, Karem; Ron, Gilat; Elias, Mazen

2014-11-01

174

A non-aggregation colorimetric assay for thrombin based on catalytic properties of silver nanoparticles.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we developed a simple and rapid colorimetric assay for protein detection based on the reduction of dye molecules catalyzed by silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Aptamer-modified magnetic particles and aptamer-functionalized AgNPs were employed as capture and detection probes, respectively. Introduction of thrombin as target protein could form a sandwich-type complex involving catalytically active AgNPs, whose catalytic activity was monitored on the catalytic reduction of rhodamine B (RhB) by sodium borohydride (NaBH4). The amount of immobilized AgNPs on the complex increased along with the increase of the thrombin concentration, thus the detection of thrombin was achieved via recording the decrease in absorbance corresponding to RhB. This method has adopted several advantages from the key factors involved, i.e., the sandwich binding of affinity aptamers contributed to the increased specificity; magnetic particles could result in rapid capture and separation processes; the conjugation of AgNPs would lead to a clear visual detection. It allows for the detection limit of thrombin down to picomolar level by the naked eye, with remarkable selectivity over other proteins. Moreover, it is possible to apply this method to the other targets with two binding sites as well. PMID:24356228

Li, Jie; Li, Wei; Qiang, Weibing; Wang, Xi; Li, Hui; Xu, Danke

2014-01-01

175

Thrombin binds to a high-affinity approximately 900,000-dalton site on human platelets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The functional sizes of the binding sites for thrombin on human platelets and isolated membranes have been determined by the technique of radiation inactivation: similar results were obtained. Independent studies using different radiation doses (0, 3, and 48 Mrad) and different thrombin concentrations (10(-10), 10(-8), and 10(-6) M) confirmed the presence of three binding sites with functional sizes of 900,000, 30,000, and 4000 daltons. The binding site of lowest apparent size (4000 daltons) probably corresponds to what has been termed nonspecific binding since its dissociation constant (2900 nM) is well outside the physiological range. The site of intermediate size (30,000 daltons) is also probably not involved in platelet activation since its dissociation constant (11 nM) is also beyond the concentration range required for activation, although it may be involved in other aspects of platelet-thrombin interaction. The sites with the largest functional size are probably important in platelet function since their dissociation constant (0.3 nM) is in the range required for platelet activation. The functional size of these sites (900,000 daltons) suggests that the high-affinity site for thrombin binding to platelets may involve a multimolecular complex of membrane components

176

CT-Guided Percutaneous Thrombin Injection for Treatment of an Inferior Pancreaticoduodenal Artery Pseudoaneurysm  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a case of an inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery pseudoaneurysm treated by computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous injection of thrombin. As far as we are aware, we present the first documented case of successful long-term (9 months) follow-up with no evidence of recurrence

177

Thrombin conducts epithelial?mesenchymal transition via protease?activated receptor?1 in human gastric cancer.  

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Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is thought to be a key step for cancer metastasis. Using an immunohistochemical approach with gastric carcinoma tissue, we found the expression of protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1), along with a metalloproteinase known to activate PAR1, were associated with poorer prognosis, compared with expression-negative tumors, and activated PAR1 promotes gastric cancer cell invasion and proliferation in vivo. In this study we observed EMT induction by the PAR1 agonist ?-thrombin, in human gastric cell lines stably expressing PAR1. We investigated ?-thrombin-induced changes in the cell forms of pcDNA3.1-MKN45 (MKN45/Mock), pcDNA3.1?PAR1 transfected MKN45 (MKN45/PAR1), and MKN74. Expression levels of epithelial and mesenchymal markers as well as the distribution of transcriptional factors of E-cadherin in the cytoplasm and nucleus were also noted in these cell lines. We observed ?-thrombin-induced morphological changes in MKN45/PAR1 and MKN74 cells. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry of these cells indicated a fall in the expression level of E-cadherin and an increase in fibronectin expression after 48 h. PAR1 activation also induced significant increases in nuclear levels of the Snail which is a repressor of E-cadherin gene expression. We found EMT in gastric cancer cell lines that underwent ?-thrombin-induced PAR1 activation. PMID:25231630

Otsuki, Tadayoshi; Fujimoto, Daisuke; Hirono, Yasuo; Goi, Takanori; Yamaguchi, Akio

2014-12-01

178

[Analysis of the mechanisms of effect of beta/gamma-thrombin on the state of the anticoagulating system].  

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A 75-min perfusion of the rabbit humorally isolated carotid sinus with intact innervation with the beta/gamma-thrombin in concentrations of 2.9 X 10(7) M and 8.8 X 10(-7) M did not alter normal values of total and non-enzymatic fibrinolysis or plasma recalcification time in the systemic blood stream. Hence, beta/gamma-thrombin differs from alpha-thrombin in its inability to stimulate chemoreceptors of the carotid sinus which suggests a major part of the additional area for binding macromolecular substrates played in the thrombin interaction with vascular wall's chemoreceptors. I. V. administration of 2.1 X 10(-6) M beta/gamma-thrombin induces in rats a considerable increase of the soluble fibrin: 9.4-fold within the 1st min and 4.5-fold by the 5th min which suggests a generation of endogenous alpha-thrombin in the blood stream. This process maintains the activation of anticoagulating system occurring after the i. v. beta/gamma-thrombin administration. PMID:7152054

Semenova, O A; Umarova, B A; Strukova, S M; Kudriashov, B A

1982-11-01

179

Monitoring thrombin generation and screening anticoagulants through pulse laser-induced fragmentation of biofunctional nanogold on cellulose membranes.  

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Thrombin generation (TG) has an important part in the blood coagulation system, and monitoring TG is useful for diagnosing various health issues related to hypo-coagulability and hyper-coagulability. In this study, we constructed probes by using mixed cellulose ester membranes (MCEMs) modified with gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) for monitoring thrombin activity using laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS). The LDI process produced Au cationic clusters ([Au(n)](+); n = 1-3) that we detected through MS. When thrombin reacted with fibrinogen on the Au NPs-MCEMs, insoluble fibrin was formed, hindering the formation of Au cationic clusters and, thereby, decreasing the intensity of their signals in the mass spectrum. Accordingly, we incorporated fibrinogen onto the Au NPs-MCEMs to form Fib-Au NPs-MCEM probes to monitor TG with good selectivity (>1000-fold toward thrombin with respect to other proteins or enzymes) and sensitivity (limit of detection for thrombin of ca. 2.5 pM in human plasma samples). Our probe exhibited remarkable performance in monitoring the inhibition of thrombin activity by direct thrombin inhibitors. Analyses of real samples using our new membrane-based probe suggested that it will be highly useful in practical applications for the effective management of hemostatic complications. PMID:25141032

Li, Yu-Jia; Chiu, Wei-Jane; Unnikrishnan, Binesh; Huang, Chih-Ching

2014-09-10

180

Prostacyclin release from cultured and ex vivo bovine vascular endothelium. Studies with thrombin, arachidonic acid, and ionophore A23187.  

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Prostacyclin release from systemic and pulmonary endothelium has been evaluated in cultured cell monolayers and in an ex vivo vascular segment model in which the endothelium remains in contact with subendothelial structures. The effect of exposure to arachidonic acid, ionophore A23187, and thrombin on prostacyclin release has been assessed. Arachidonic acid elicited prostacyclin release in a dose-dependent fashion. Ionophore also stimulated bovine systemic endothelium to release prostacyclin. Thrombin-endothelial cell interactions have been examined extensively. Unlike umbilical venous endothelium, systemic and pulmonary bovine endothelium did not release prostacyclin following exposure to thrombin. Exposure to thrombin also failed to evoke the release of tritiated arachidonate metabolites from the bovine endothelial cell preparations. The presence of high affinity binding sites for thrombin (KD = 9.5 X 10(-9) M) on the bovine endothelium suggests that either thrombin binding is causally unrelated to prostacyclin release or that the bovine cells lack mediators required for thrombin to exert its effect. PMID:6790869

Goldsmith, J C; Jafvert, C T; Lollar, P; Owen, W G; Hoak, J C

1981-08-01

 
 
 
 
181

Thrombin inhibition with dabigatran protects against high-fat diet-induced fatty liver disease in mice.  

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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Robust coagulation cascade activation is common in obese patients with NAFLD. We identified a critical temporal relationship between thrombin generation and the manifestation of hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and injury in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 1, 2, and 3 months. Mice fed a HFD exhibited dramatic increases in hepatocellular injury and inflammation over time. Hepatic fibrin deposition preceded an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase, and the most dramatic changes in liver histopathology occurred in conjunction with a detectable increase in plasma thrombin-antithrombin levels at 3 months. To directly determine whether thrombin activity promotes NAFLD pathogenesis, mice were fed a HFD and simultaneously treated with the direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran etexilate for 3 months. Notably, dabigatran treatment significantly reduced hepatic fibrin deposition, hepatic inflammation, hepatocellular injury, and steatosis in mice fed a HFD. Of interest, dabigatran treatment also significantly attenuated HFD-induced body weight gain. Gene expression analysis suggested that thrombin potentially drives NAFLD pathogenesis by altering the expression of genes associated with lipid metabolism and bile acid synthesis. Collectively, the results suggest that thrombin activity is central to HFD-induced body weight gain, liver injury, and inflammation and provide the proof-of-principle evidence that pharmacological thrombin inhibition could be effective in limiting NAFLD and associated pathologies. PMID:25138021

Kopec, Anna K; Joshi, Nikita; Towery, Keara L; Kassel, Karen M; Sullivan, Bradley P; Flick, Matthew J; Luyendyk, James P

2014-11-01

182

Role and regulation of the thrombin receptor (PAR-1) in human melanoma.  

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To determine treatment strategies and predict the clinical outcome of patients with melanoma it is important to understand the etiology of this disease. Recently, there has been some insight into molecular basis of melanoma including identification of a few of the regulatory factors and genes involved in this disease. For instance, the transcription factor AP-2 plays a tumor suppressor-like role in melanoma progression by regulating genes involved in tumor growth and metastasis. Previously, we have shown that the progression of human melanoma to the metastatic phenotype is associated with loss of AP-2 expression and deregulation of target genes such as MUC18/MCAM, c-KIT, and MMP-2. Increasing evidence demonstrates that the thrombin receptor (protease-activated receptor-1, PAR-1) plays a major role in tumor invasion and contributes to the metastatic phenotype of human melanoma. This review focuses on the role of the thrombin receptor in melanoma and its regulation by AP-2. We show that loss of AP-2 expression in metastatic melanoma cells correlates with overexpression of the thrombin receptor. Our analysis of AP-2/Sp1 complexes within the regulatory region of the thrombin receptor demonstrates that AP-2 binds the proximal 3' region of the promoter and diminishes PAR-1 expression. Levels of AP-2 and Sp1 proteins in a panel of melanoma cell lines demonstrated a marked decrease in the ratio of AP-2/Sp1, a decrease that correlated with overexpression of PAR-1 in metastatic melanoma cells. We propose that loss of AP-2 results in increased expression of the thrombin receptor, which subsequently contributes to the metastatic phenotype of melanoma by upregulating the expression of adhesion molecules, proteases, and angiogenic molecules. PMID:12789289

Tellez, Carmen; Bar-Eli, Menashe

2003-05-19

183

Thrombin inhibition by dabigatran attenuates atherosclerosis in ApoE deficient mice  

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Introduction Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by endothelial cell damage, infiltration, proliferation and accumulation of macrophages, lymphocytes and transformed vascular smooth muscle cells within the vascular wall and procoagulation processes involving activation of plasmatic coagulation events and platelets. Numerous studies suggested a close interaction between thrombin action and atherogenesis, but possibly underlying mechanisms are multiple and specific treatment options were missing until now. Material and methods Atherosclerosis prone 12 weeks old ApoE–/– mice were fed a cholesterol rich diet for 4 weeks and were concomitantly treated orally with placebo or the thrombin inhibitor dabigatran (1.2 g/kg/day). Results The thrombin time (HEMOCLOT®) was significant extended in dabigatran treated animals. Vascular oxidative stress was significantly reduced during thrombin inhibition, as assessed by L012 chemiluminescence in aortic segments (212 ±84 vs. 69 ±21 RLU/s/mg dry weight, p = 0.048). Organ chamber experiments of isolated aortic rings showed that dabigatran treatment significantly improved endothelium-derived vasorelaxation (p < 0.001). Dabigatran treated mice developed less atherosclerotic lesions (6.2 ±0.2% vs. 9 ±1.1%, p = 0.037) and showed less infiltration of atherosclerotic lesions with macrophages (2.59 ±0.3% vs. 5.14 ±0.7%, p = 0.0046), as determined by systematic histological and immunohistological analyses of the aortic root. Blood pressure, body weight and food intake were not altered by the treatment. Conclusions The thrombin inhibitor dabigatran reduces vascular oxidative stress and inflammation, improves endothelial function and decreases atherosclerosis in mice. PMID:24701228

Pingel, Simon; Tiyerili, Vedat; Mueller, Jens; Werner, Nikos; Nickenig, Georg

2014-01-01

184

Autocrine production of basic fibroblast growth factor translated from novel synthesized mRNA mediates thrombin-induced mitogenesis in smooth muscle cells.  

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Thrombin is known to stimulate smooth muscle cell (SMC) growth in culture but the mechanisms underlying growth stimulation remain unclear. Previous works have observed a significant increase in platelet-derived growth factor AA and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) release by bovine aortic SMC after addition of thrombin. The aim of this study was to clarify the link between thrombin, bFGF and SMC proliferation by examining the kinetics of autocrine production of bFGF by thrombin-stimulated SMC and its contribution to thrombin-induced mitogenesis. Experiments were performed to assess the dynamics of thrombin-induced bFGF mRNA transcription and to distinguish, following thrombin stimulus, between the activation of 'old' bFGF protein and/or bFGF mRNA, or novel mRNA synthesis and subsequent translation. Bovine aortic SMCs were stimulated with thrombin in serum-free culture. bFGF mRNA expression was determined by RT-PCR. Mitogenic activity of thrombin was determined by 3H-thymidine uptake. Our results demonstrate that the peak of bFGF mRNA expression occurred 24 h after thrombin stimulation. Experiments performed with cycloheximide, a translation inhibitor, revealed a translation peak later than 24 h after thrombin stimulation. Thrombin-induced mitogenic activity in SMCs was partially inhibited by the addition of anti-bFGF antibody (p<0.001) and of hirudin (p<0.001). When hirudin was added 24 h after stimulation, thrombin-induced mitogenic activity was not inhibited. In conclusion, thrombin-induced mitogenesis was partially mediated by the autocrine production of bFGF, mainly due to protein synthesis by novel mRNA with a transcription peak at 24 h and a later translation peak. PMID:11835269

Cucina, Alessandra; Borrelli, Valeria; Lucarelli, Marco; Sterpetti, Antonio V; Cavallaro, Antonino; Strom, Roberto; Santoro-D'Angelo, Luciana; Scarpa, Sigfrido

2002-03-01

185

Comparison of the structures of the cyclotheonamide A complexes of human alpha-thrombin and bovine beta-trypsin.  

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Thrombin, a trypsin-like serine protease present in blood, plays a central role in the regulation of thrombosis and hemostasis. A cyclic pentapeptide, cyclotheonamide A (CtA), isolated from sponges of the genus Theonella, inhibits thrombin, trypsin, and certain other serine proteases. Enzyme inhibition data for CtA indicate that it is a moderate inhibitor of alpha-thrombin (K(i) = 1.0 nM), but substantially more potent toward trypsin (K(i) = 0.2 nM). The comparative study of the crystal struc...

Ganesh, V.; Lee, A. Y.; Clardy, J.; Tulinsky, A.

1996-01-01

186

Therapeutic Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies  

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During the last two decades, the rapid growth of biotechnology-derived techniques has led to a myriad of therapeutic recombinant monoclonal antibodies with significant clinical benefits. Recombinant monoclonal antibodies can be obtained from a number of natural sources such as animal cell cultures using recombinant DNA engineering. In contrast to…

Bakhtiar, Ray

2012-01-01

187

The effects of Thrombin and Cytokines upon the Biomechanics and Remodeling of Isolated Amnion Membrane, in vitro  

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Abruption-induced thrombin generation and inflammation/infection induced cytokine production have both been associated with fetal membrane (FM) weakening and preterm premature rupture of the fetal membranes (PPROM). Using our in vitro model system we have demonstrated that thrombin, and separately the cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF?) and interleukin-1-beta (IL-1?), remodel and weaken full thickness FM. Additionally, we have reported that the anti-oxidant and NF?B inhibitor, al...

Kumar, D.; Schatz, F.; Moore, Rm; Mercer, Bm; Rangaswamy, N.; Mansour, Jm; Lockwood, Cj; Moore, Jj

2011-01-01

188

The long term immunological response of swine after two exposures to a salmon thrombin and fibrinogen hemostatic bandage  

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Experimental salmon thrombin/fibrinogen dressings have been shown to provide effective hemostasis in severe hemorrhage situations. The hypothesis for this study was that swine would still remain healthy without coagulopathy six months after exposure to salmon thrombin/fibrinogen dressings. Initial exposure was by insertion of the salmon dressing into the peritoneal cavity. Three months after the initial exposure, the same animals were subjected to two full thickness dermal wounds on the dorsa...

Rothwell, Stephen W.; Settle, Timothy; Wallace, Shannon; Dorsey, Jennifer; Simpson, David; Bowman, James R.; Janmey, Paul; Sawyer, Evelyn

2010-01-01

189

Endogenous platelet factor 4 stimulates activated protein C generation in vivo and improves survival after thrombin or lipopolysaccharide challenge  

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Pharmacologic infusion of activated protein C (APC) improves survival in severe sepsis, and platelet factor 4 (PF4) accelerates APC generation in a primate thrombin-infusion model. We now tested whether endogenous platelet PF4 content affects APC generation. Mice completely deficient in PF4 (mPF4?/?) had impaired APC generation and survival after thrombin infusion, similar to the impairment seen in heterozygote protein C–deficient (PC+/?) mice. Transgenic mice overexpressing human PF4...

Kowalska, M. Anna; Mahmud, Shawn A.; Lambert, Michele P.; Poncz, Mortimer; Slungaard, Arne

2007-01-01

190

Binding of ?2-macroglobulin-thrombin complexes and methylamine-treated ?2-macroglobulin to human blood monocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The binding of ?2-macroglobulin (?2M) to human peripheral blood monocytes was investigated. Monocytes, the precursors of tissue macrophages, were isolated from fresh blood by centrifugal elutriation or density gradient centrifugation. Binding studies were performed using 125I-labeled ?2M. Cells and bound ligand were separated from free ligand by rapid vacuum filtration. Nonlinear least-squares analysis of data obtained in direct binding studies at 00C showed that monocytes bound the ?2M-thrombin complex with a K/sub d/ 3.0 +- .09 nM and the monocyte had 1545 +- 153 sitescell. Thrombin alone did not compete for the site. Binding was divalent cation dependent. Direct binding studies also demonstrated that monocytes bound methylamine-treated ?2M in a manner similar to ?2M-thrombin. Competitive binding studies showed that ?2M-thrombin and methylamine-treated ?2M bound to the same sites on the monocyte. In contrast, native ?2M did not compete with ?2M-thrombin for the site. Studies done at 370C suggested that after binding, the monocyte internalized and degraded ?2M-thrombin and excreted the degradation products. Receptor turnover and degradation of ?2M-thrombin complexes were blocked in monocytes treated with chloroquine, an inhibitor of lysosomal function. The results indicate that human monocytes indicate that human monocytes have a divalent cation dependent, high-affinity binding site for ?2M-thrombin and methylamine-treated ?2M which may function to clear ?2M-proteinase complexes from the circulation

191

THROMBIN REGULATES METASTATIC POTENTIAL OF HUMAN RHABDOMYOSARCOMA CELLS – DISTINCT ROLE OF PAR1 AND PAR3 SIGNALING  

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We observed that human rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cells highly express a tissue factor (TF) that promotes thrombin formation, which indirectly and directly affects RMS progression. First, we found that thrombin activates platelets to generate microvesicles (PMVs), which transfer to RMS cells’ ?2?3 integrin and increase their adhesiveness to endothelial cells. Accordingly, RMS cells covered with PMVs showed higher metastatic potential after intravenous injection into immunodeficient mice. Furt...

Wysoczynski, Marcin; Rui, Liu; Kucia, Magda; Drukala, Justyna; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z.

2010-01-01

192

Membrane Permeabilization by Thrombin-Induced Platelet Microbicidal Protein 1 Is Modulated by Transmembrane Voltage Polarity and Magnitude  

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Thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal protein 1 (tPMP-1) is a small, cationic peptide generated from rabbit platelets when they are exposed to thrombin in vitro. It has potent microbicidal activity against a broad spectrum of bacterial and fungal pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus. Previous in vitro studies involving whole staphylococcal cells and planar lipid bilayers (as artificial bacterial membrane models) suggested that membrane permeabilization by tPMP-1 is voltage dependent (S...

Koo, Su-pin; Bayer, Arnold S.; Kagan, Bruce L.; Yeaman, Michael R.

1999-01-01

193

Cardiovascular and biochemical studies on the effects of thrombin and dabigatran and the interaction with vasopressor molecules  

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Background: The effect of serine protease thrombin and its directly acting inhibitor dabigatran were evaluated on the heart rate, blood pressure, and phospholipase C (PLC) enzyme activity and the intracellular calcium levels in the platelets. Methods: Heart rate and blood pressure were estimated using electrophysiology equipment. Results: While thrombin was unable to significantly affect the heart rate and blood pressure, the inhibitor dabigatran was able to reduce the heart rate apprec...

Anand, R.; Arumugasamy, K.; Tyagi, Manoj G.

2014-01-01

194

Subnanomolar Concentrations of Thrombin Enhance the Volume-Sensitive Efflux of Taurine from Human 1321N1 Astrocytoma Cells  

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The ability of subnanomolar concentrations of thrombin to protect both neurons and glia from ischemia and other metabolic insults has recently been reported. In this study, we demonstrate an additional neuroprotective property of thrombin; its ability to promote the release of the organic osmolyte, taurine, in response to hypoosmotic stress. Incubation of human 1321N1 astrocytoma cells with hypo-osmolar buffers (320 –227 mOsM) resulted in a time-dependent release of taurine. Inclusion of th...

Cheema, Tooba A.; Ward, Caroline E.; Fisher, Stephen K.

2005-01-01

195

Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 and Thrombin Differentially Activate Gene Expression in Endothelial Cells via PAR-1 and Promote Angiogenesis  

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Many tumor types express matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1); its collagenase activity facilitates both tumor cell invasion and metastasis. MMP-1 expression is also associated with increased angiogenesis; however, the exact mechanism by which this occurs is not clear. MMP-1 proteolytically activates protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1), a thrombin receptor that is highly expressed in endothelial cells. Thrombin is also present in the tumor microenvironment, and its activation of PAR-1 is pro-...

Blackburn, Jessica S.; Brinckerhoff, Constance E.

2008-01-01

196

Thrombin-stimulated proliferation of cultured human synovial fibroblasts through proteolytic activation of proteinase-activated receptor-1.  

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We examined the mechanism of thrombin on proliferation of synovial fibroblasts obtained from rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Thrombin concentration-dependently induced proliferation of synovial fibroblasts. Proliferation in response to thrombin (10 U/ml) was completely blocked by hirudin. TP367 and TP508, peptides corresponding to 2 noncatalytic regions of thrombin, failed to induce cell proliferation. Thrombin did not induce the production of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in synovial fibroblasts. Expression of proteinase-activated receptor (PAR)-1 and PAR-3 mRNAs was observed in synovial fibroblasts. Thrombin and PAR-1 agonist peptide (AP), but not PAR-3 AP, induced intracellular calcium mobilization. PAR-1 AP induced cell proliferation whereas PAR-3 AP and PAR-4 AP had no effect on proliferation. Pertussis toxin (PTX), a Gialpha protein inhibitor; wortmannin, a PI (phosphatidylinositol) 3-kinase inhibitor; and PD98059, a specific MEK [mitogen-activated protein (MAK) kinase kinase] inhibitor, inhibited the thrombin-induced cell proliferation. Furthermore, the proliferation of synovial fibroblasts was suppressed by U-73122, a PLC (phospholipase C) inhibitor; 2-APB, an antagonist of InsP3 (inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate) receptor; and GF-109203X, a PKC (protein kinase C) inhibitor. These results suggest that thrombin induces the proliferation of RA synovial fibroblasts through the activation of PAR-1, leading to the PTX-sensitive G proteins - PI3 kinase pathway and PTX-insensitive G proteins - PLC (InsP3 receptor) Ca(2+)-PKC branch. PMID:18787303

Furuhashi, Ikue; Abe, Kazuki; Sato, Toshitsugu; Inoue, Hideo

2008-09-01

197

Balloon-assisted ultrasound-guided thrombin injection of a pseudoaneurysm in the posterior tibial artery: A case report  

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An ultrasound-guided direct injection of thrombin is currently the first choice of treatment for the postcatheterization pseudoaneurysm, mainly in the femoral artery. A pseudoaneurysm in the posterior tibial artery is very rare, so there are not enough reports about proper treatment yet. We report a case of a balloon-assisted injection of thrombin under ultrasonography-guidance to manage a pseudoaneurysm in the posterior tibial artery and concurrently to prevent a distal artery embolization.

Lee, Taeg Ki; Jeon, Yong Sun; Hong, Kee Chun; Cho, Soon Gu; Kim, Eu Gene [Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

2014-05-15

198

Amidino-containing Schiff base copper(II) and iron(III) chelates as a thrombin inhibitor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four series of Schiff base copper(II) and iron(III) chelates were synthesized from 4-formyl-3-hydroxybenzamidine or 3-formyl-4-hydroxybenzamidine and various L- or D-amino acids. Their inhibitory activities for bovine alpha-thrombin (abbreviated as thrombin) were determined. The most potent thrombin inhibitor in this series is copper(II) chelate (1g') derived from 4-formyl-3-hydroxybenzamidine and D-Trp. Its Ki value, 2.7x10(-8) M, is comparable to that of Argatroban (MD-805), which is a clinically used compound. The iron(III) chelates derived from 4-formyl-3-hydroxybenzamidine and hydrophobic L-amino acids (Val, Ile, Leu, Phe, Trp, Met) also exhibited higher inhibitory potency. It appears that coordination geometry composed of metal ion, amidino group, amino acid side chain is well accommodated to the thrombin active site. From the Ki values of Schiff base metal chelates for thrombin, the structure-activity relationships between the chelates and active site of thrombin were discussed. PMID:15635223

Toyota, Eiko; Sekizaki, Haruo; Takahashi, Yu-u; Itoh, Kunihiko; Tanizawa, Kazutaka

2005-01-01

199

Nafamostat mesilate attenuates neuronal damage in a rat model of transient focal cerebral ischemia through thrombin inhibition.  

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Evidence suggests that thrombin, a blood coagulation serine protease, mediates neuronal injury in experimental cerebral ischemia. Here, we test the hypothesis that nafamostat mesilate, a serine protease inhibitor, may ameliorate ischemia-induced neuronal damage through thrombin inhibition after ischemic stroke. Focal ischemia was induced in adult Sprague-Dawley rats by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery for 2 hours followed by 22 hours of reperfusion. The administration of nafamostat mesilate during ischemia and reperfusion reduced the brain infarct volume, edema volume and neurological deficit. Thrombin expression and activity in the ipsilateral striatum were increased after ischemia, whereas the administration of nafamostat mesilate significantly inhibited thrombin expression and activity. Immunostaining showed that the majority of thrombin was expressed in neurons. TUNEL staining showed that nafamostat mesilate reduced the number of dying cells during ischemia. A rat behavioral test showed that nafamostat mesilate treatment significantly improved the learning ability of ischemic rats. These results suggest that nafamostat mesilate may have a potential therapeutic role for neuroprotection against focal cerebral ischemia through thrombin inhibition. PMID:24985053

Chen, Tao; Wang, Jing; Li, Chenhui; Zhang, Weining; Zhang, Luyong; An, Lufan; Pang, Tao; Shi, Xinzhong; Liao, Hong

2014-01-01

200

Large-scale preparation of active caspase-3 in E. coli by designing its thrombin-activatable precursors  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Caspase-3, a principal apoptotic effector that cleaves the majority of cellular substrates, is an important medicinal target for the treatment of cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. Large amounts of the protein are required for drug discovery research. However, previous efforts to express the full-length caspase-3 gene in E. coli have been unsuccessful. Results Overproducers of thrombin-activatable full-length caspase-3 precursors were prepared by engineering the auto-activation sites of caspase-3 precursor into a sequence susceptible to thrombin hydrolysis. The engineered precursors were highly expressed as soluble proteins in E. coli and easily purified by affinity chromatography, to levels of 10–15 mg from 1 L of E. coli culture, and readily activated by thrombin digestion. Kinetic evaluation disclosed that thrombin digestion enhanced catalytic activity (kcat/KM of the precursor proteins by two orders of magnitude. Conclusion A novel method for a large-scale preparation of active caspase-3 was developed by a strategic engineering to lack auto-activation during expression with amino acid sequences susceptible to thrombin, facilitating high-level expression in E. coli. The precursor protein was easily purified and activated through specific cleavage at the engineered sites by thrombin, generating active caspase-3 in high yields.

Park Sung

2008-12-01

 
 
 
 
201

Thrombin effectuates therapeutic arteriogenesis in the rabbit hindlimb ischemia model: A quantitative analysis by computerized in vivo imaging  

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We report on an experimental mammalian controlled study that documents arteriogenic capacity of thrombin and utilizes computerized algorithms to quantify the newly formed vessels. Hindlimb ischemia was surgically invoked in 10 New Zealand white rabbits. After quiescence of endogenous angiogenesis heterologous bovine thrombin was intramuscularly injected (1500 units) in one hindlimb per rabbit (Group T). Contralateral limbs were infused with normal saline (Group C). Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) of both limbs was performed after thrombin infusion by selective cannulation of the abdominal aorta and digital images were post-processed with computerized algorithms in order to enhance newly formed vessels. Total vessel area and total vessel length were quantified. In vivo functional evaluation included measurements of blood flow volume at the level of the external iliac artery by Doppler ultrasonography both at baseline and at 20 days after thrombin infusion. Total vessel area and length (in pixels) were 14,713±1023 and 5466±1327 in group T versus 12,015±2557 and 4598±1269 in group C ( p=0.0062 and 0.1526, respectively). Blood flow volumes (ml/min) at baseline and at 20 days after thrombin infusion were 25.87±11.09 and 38.06±11.72 in group T versus 26.57±11.19 and 20.35±7.20 in group C ( p=0.8898 and 0.0007, respectively). Intramuscular thrombin effectuates an arteriogenic response in the rabbit hindlimb ischemia model. Computerized algorithms may enable accurate quantification of the neovascularization outcome.

Kagadis, George C.; Karnabatidis, Dimitrios; Katsanos, Konstantinos; Diamantopoulos, Athanassios; Samaras, Nikolaos; Maroulis, John; Siablis, Dimitrios; Nikiforidis, George C.

2006-12-01

202

Spectroscopic and Electrochemical Detection of Thrombin/5'-SH or 3'-SH Aptamer Immobilized on (porous) Gold Substrates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thrombin is a serine protease that catalyzes the conversion of soluble fibrinogen to insoluble fibrin, and thus induces physiological and pathological blood coagulation. Therefore, it is important to detect thrombin in blood serum for purposes of diagnosis. To achieve this goal, it has been suggested that a 15-mer aptamer strongly binds with thrombin to form a G-quartet structure of the aptamer. Generally, 5'-end thiol-functionalized aptamer has been used as an anti-thrombin binder. Herein, we evaluate the possibility of utilizing a 3'-SH aptasensor for thrombin detection using SPR spectroscopy, and compare the enhancement of the electrochemical signal of the thrombin-aptamer bound on a porous gold substrate. Although the two aptamers have similar configurations, in SPR analysis, the 3'-SH aptamer was a effective aptasensor as well as 5'-SH aptamer. Results from electrochemical analysis showed that the porous gold substrate acted as a good substrate for an aptasensor and demonstrated 5-fold enhancement of current change, as compared to gold thin film

203

Thrombin effectuates therapeutic arteriogenesis in the rabbit hindlimb ischemia model: A quantitative analysis by computerized in vivo imaging  

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We report on an experimental mammalian controlled study that documents arteriogenic capacity of thrombin and utilizes computerized algorithms to quantify the newly formed vessels. Hindlimb ischemia was surgically invoked in 10 New Zealand white rabbits. After quiescence of endogenous angiogenesis heterologous bovine thrombin was intramuscularly injected (1500 units) in one hindlimb per rabbit (Group T). Contralateral limbs were infused with normal saline (Group C). Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) of both limbs was performed after thrombin infusion by selective cannulation of the abdominal aorta and digital images were post-processed with computerized algorithms in order to enhance newly formed vessels. Total vessel area and total vessel length were quantified. In vivo functional evaluation included measurements of blood flow volume at the level of the external iliac artery by Doppler ultrasonography both at baseline and at 20 days after thrombin infusion. Total vessel area and length (in pixels) were 14,713+/-1023 and 5466+/-1327 in group T versus 12,015+/-2557 and 4598+/-1269 in group C (p=0.0062 and 0.1526, respectively). Blood flow volumes (ml/min) at baseline and at 20 days after thrombin infusion were 25.87+/-11.09 and 38.06+/-11.72 in group T versus 26.57+/-11.19 and 20.35+/-7.20 in group C (p=0.8898 and 0.0007, respectively). Intramuscular thrombin effectuates an arteriogenic response in the rabbit hindlimb ischemia model. Computerized algorithms may enable accurate quantification of the neovascularization outcome.

Kagadis, George C. [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Rion 26500 (Greece)]. E-mail: George.Kagadis@med.upatras.gr; Karnabatidis, Dimitrios [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Rion 26500 (Greece); Katsanos, Konstantinos [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Rion 26500 (Greece); Diamantopoulos, Athanassios [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Rion 26500 (Greece); Samaras, Nikolaos [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Rion 26500 (Greece); Maroulis, John [Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Rion 26500 (Greece); Siablis, Dimitrios [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Rion 26500 (Greece); Nikiforidis, George C. [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Rion 26500 (Greece)

2006-12-20

204

Thrombin receptor and RhoA mediate cell proliferation through integrins and cysteine-rich protein 61.  

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A subset of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), including the thrombin receptor (PAR1), elicits mitogenic responses. Thrombin also activates Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA) and activating protein (AP-1) -mediated gene expression in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells, whereas the nonmitogenic agonist carbachol does not. Transcriptomic analysis was used to explore differential gene induction by these agonists and revealed that the matricellular protein cysteine-rich 61 (Cyr61/CCN1) is selectively induced by thrombin. The ability of GPCR agonists to induce Cyr61 parallels their ability to activate RhoA; agonist-stimulated Cyr61 expression is inhibited by C3 toxin. When Cyr61 is down-regulated using short interfering RNA (siRNA) or short-hairpin RNA (shRNA), thrombin-induced DNA synthesis is significantly attenuated. When Cyr61 expression is induced, it appears in the extracellular compartment and on the cell surface. Extracellular Cyr61 interacts with alpha(5), alpha(6), and beta(1) integrins on these cells, and monoclonal antibodies directed against alpha(5) and beta(1) integrins inhibit thrombin-induced DNA synthesis. Functional blockade of Cyr61 with soluble heparin or anti-Cyr61 antibodies also inhibits thrombin-induced DNA synthesis. Thus Cyr61 is a highly inducible, secreted extracellular factor through which GPCR and RhoA signaling pathways engage integrins that contribute to GPCR-mediated proliferation. PMID:18687805

Walsh, Colin T; Radeff-Huang, Julie; Matteo, Rosalia; Hsiao, Albert; Subramaniam, Shankar; Stupack, Dwayne; Brown, Joan Heller

2008-11-01

205

Regulation of prostaglandin synthesis mediated by thrombin and B2 bradykinin receptors in a fibrosarcoma cell line.  

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The murine fibrosarcoma cell line HSDM1C1 synthesizes prostaglandin E2 in response to thrombin and bradykinin, two products of the coagulation pathway. These physiologic effectors interact with two independent cell-surface receptor systems whose properties we have characterized. HSDM1C1 cells possess a B2 bradykinin receptor, a type more sensitive to native bradykinin than to related peptides, including Met-Lys- and desArg9-bradykinin. A period of bradykinin desensitization follows the initial response. Recovery occurs within 1 hr by a process independent of serum factors. The thrombin-mediated pathway differs in several respects. The maximum amount of prostaglandin E2 synthesized is 40% lower. Prolonged desensitization of the thrombin response occurs after an initial exposure; recovery requires at least 3 hr and depends strictly on the presence of serum. Antithrombin III and hirudin, two proteins that specifically inactivate thrombin, act in serum-free medium to relieve thrombin desensitization. Thrombin's prolonged desensitization thus suggests a persistent ligand-receptor association. The expression of receptor-mediated prostaglandin synthesis governed by multiple physiologic effectors in the same cell may reflect environmental conditions, such as the relative proportions of each effector and the presence of exogenous factors that modulate the ligand-receptor interaction. PMID:6127164

Becherer, P R; Mertz, L F; Baenziger, N L

1982-08-01

206

Thrombin induces ischemic LTP (iLTP): implications for synaptic plasticity in the acute phase of ischemic stroke.  

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Acute brain ischemia modifies synaptic plasticity by inducing ischemic long-term potentiation (iLTP) of synaptic transmission through the activation of N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR). Thrombin, a blood coagulation factor, affects synaptic plasticity in an NMDAR dependent manner. Since its activity and concentration is increased in brain tissue upon acute stroke, we sought to clarify whether thrombin could mediate iLTP through the activation of its receptor Protease-Activated receptor 1 (PAR1). Extracellular recordings were obtained in CA1 region of hippocampal slices from C57BL/6 mice. In vitro ischemia was induced by acute (3?minutes) oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). A specific ex vivo enzymatic assay was employed to assess thrombin activity in hippocampal slices, while OGD-induced changes in prothrombin mRNA levels were assessed by (RT)qPCR. Upon OGD, thrombin activity increased in hippocampal slices. A robust potentiation of excitatory synaptic strength was detected, which occluded the ability to induce further LTP. Inhibition of either thrombin or its receptor PAR1 blocked iLTP and restored the physiological, stimulus induced LTP. Our study provides important insights on the early changes occurring at excitatory synapses after ischemia and indicates the thrombin/PAR1 pathway as a novel target for developing therapeutic strategies to restore synaptic function in the acute phase of ischemic stroke. PMID:25604482

Stein, Efrat Shavit; Itsekson-Hayosh, Zeev; Aronovich, Anna; Reisner, Yair; Bushi, Doron; Pick, Chaim G; Tanne, David; Chapman, Joab; Vlachos, Andreas; Maggio, Nicola

2015-01-01

207

Deletion of the thrombin cleavage domain of osteopontin mediates breast cancer cell adhesion, proteolytic activity, tumorgenicity, and metastasis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteopontin (OPN is a secreted phosphoprotein often overexpressed at high levels in the blood and primary tumors of breast cancer patients. OPN contains two integrin-binding sites and a thrombin cleavage domain located in close proximity to each other. Methods To study the role of the thrombin cleavage site of OPN, MDA-MB-468 human breast cancer cells were stably transfected with either wildtype OPN (468-OPN, mutant OPN lacking the thrombin cleavage domain (468-?TC or an empty vector (468-CON and assessed for in vitro and in vivo functional differences in malignant/metastatic behavior. Results All three cell lines were found to equivalently express thrombin, tissue factor, CD44, ?v?5 integrin and ?1 integrin. Relative to 468-OPN and 468-CON cells, 468-?TC cells expressing OPN with a deleted thrombin cleavage domain demonstrated decreased cell adhesion (p in vitro. Furthermore, injection of 468-?TC cells into the mammary fat pad of nude mice resulted in decreased primary tumor latency time (p Conclusions The results presented here suggest that expression of thrombin-uncleavable OPN imparts an early tumor formation advantage as well as a metastatic advantage for breast cancer cells, possibly due to increased proteolytic activity and decreased adhesion and apoptosis. Clarification of the mechanisms responsible for these observations and the translation of this knowledge into the clinic could ultimately provide new therapeutic opportunities for combating breast cancer.

Postenka Carl O

2011-01-01

208

Thrombin receptor agonist Peptide immobilized in microspheres stimulates reparative processes in rats with gastric ulcer.  

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The effect of synthetic thrombin receptor (PAR1) agonist peptide encapsulated in microspheres made of lactic and glycolic acid copolymer on tissue reparation was studied in rats with acetate-induced ulcer. PAR1 agonist peptide was immobilized in biodegraded lactic and glycolic acid microspheres by double emulgation, the kinetics of peptide release was analyzed, and the dynamics of ulcer healing was studied in experimental (administration of microspheres with the peptide into the stomach) and two control groups (administration of saline or spheres without peptide). Thrombin receptor agonist peptide gradually released from lactic and glycolic acid microspheres into the stomach shortened the inflammation phase and shifted the proliferation phase to the earlier period, thus accelerating healing of experimental ulcers in rats. PMID:17369897

Rusanova, A V; Makarova, A M; Strukova, S M; Markvicheva, E A; Gorbachyova, L R; Stashevskaya, K S; Vasil'eva, T V; Sidorova, E I; Bespalova, Zh D; Grandfils, Ch

2006-07-01

209

Thrombin generation in platelet-poor plasma is normal in patients with hereditary mucocutaneous haemorrhages.  

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Mild hereditary bleeding disorders presenting with mucocutaneous haemorrhages are usually difficult to diagnose. We measured thrombin generation in platelet-poor plasma (TG-PPP) in 206 patients with a clinically unequivocal bleeding tendency: 45 with von Willebrand disease (vWD), 49 with platelet aggregation/secretion defects (PASD), 10 with a combination of both and 102 who did not fit the diagnostic criteria for any known haemostatic disorder. TG-PPP was not significantly different from controls in all patient groups, indicating that an abnormality in the plasmatic clotting system is unlikely to contribute to the bleeding in patients with type 1 vWD and PASD. In patients with undiagnosed mild hereditary bleeding disorders, there must be other mechanisms which explain the abnormal haemorrhagic tendency, most likely as yet unrecognized defects in platelet-vessel wall interaction. As a next step we plan to investigate thrombin generation in PRP. PMID:12853710

Quiroga, Teresa; Goycoolea, Manuela; Giesen, Peter L A; Morales, María; Muñoz, Blanca; Aranda, Eduardo; Rodríguez, Soledad; Panes, Olga; Martínez, Carlos; Pereira, Jaime; Mezzano, Diego

2003-01-01

210

Molecular basis for the inhibition of human alpha-thrombin by the macrocyclic peptide cyclotheonamide A.  

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The macrocyclic peptide cyclotheonamide A (CtA), isolated from the marine sponge Theonella sp., represents an unusual class of serine protease inhibitor. A complex of this inhibitor with human alpha-thrombin, a protease central to the bioregulation of thrombosis and hemostasis, was studied by x-ray crystallography. This work (2.3-A resolution) confirms the structure of CtA and reveals intimate details about its molecular recognition within the enzyme active site. Interactions due to the "Pro-...

Maryanoff, B. E.; Qiu, X.; Padmanabhan, K. P.; Tulinsky, A.; Almond, H. R.; Andrade-gordon, P.; Greco, M. N.; Kauffman, J. A.; Nicolaou, K. C.; Liu, A.

1993-01-01

211

Alpha-Lipoic Acid Inhibits Thrombin-Induced Fetal Membrane Weakening In Vitro  

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Cytokine-mediated inflammation and abruption-induced thrombin generation are separately implicated in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-mediated weakening of fetal membranes (FM) leading to preterm premature rupture of the fetal membranes (PPROM). At term, FM of both labored vaginal and unlabored caesarian deliveries exhibit a weak zone overlying the cervix exhibiting ECM remodeling characterized by increased MMP9 protein and activity. We have reproduced these biochemical changes as well as FM w...

Moore, Rm; Schatz, F.; Kumar, D.; Mercer, Bm; Abdelrahim, A.; Rangaswamy, N.; Bartel, C.; Mansour, Jm; Lockwood, Cj; Moore, Jj

2010-01-01

212

Direct thrombin injection into aneurysmal sac in a patient with a type II endo-leak  

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Endovascular grafting of abdominal aortic aneurysms provides a good alternative to open surgery, especially in high-risk patients. Endoleaks are a well-recognized complication and are typically diagnosed on CT. We describe a case in which a patient's endoleak was evaluated by MRI and successfully treated by direct thrombin injection into the site of the leak. Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

213

Effect of thrombin peptide 508 (TP508) on bone healing during distraction osteogenesis in rabbit tibia  

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Thrombin-related peptide 508 (TP508) accelerates bone regeneration during distraction osteogenesis (DO). We have examined the effect of TP508 on bone regeneration during DO by immunolocalization of Runx2 protein, a marker of osteoblast differentiation, and of osteopontin (OPN) and bone sialoprotein (BSP), two late markers of the osteoblast lineage. Distraction was performed in tibiae of rabbits over a period of 6 days. TP508 (30 or 300 ?g) or vehicle was injected into the distraction gap a...

Amir, Lisa R.; Li, Gang; Schoenmaker, Ton; Everts, Vincent; Bronckers, Antonius L. J. J.

2007-01-01

214

Markers of thrombin and plasmin generation in patients with inherited thrombophilia.  

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AIM--To determine the prevalence of a biochemically detectable hypercoagulable state, defined in terms of increased thrombin or plasmin generation, in patients with phenotypically characterised thrombophilia. METHODS--Plasma concentrations of the prothrombin activation peptide F1.2 and fibrin degradation (FbDP) and fibrinogen degradation products (FgDP) were measured by enzyme immunoassay in 104 patients deficient in natural anticoagulants, and 35 unaffected relatives. RESULTS--Increased conc...

Lee, L. H.; Jennings, I.; Luddington, R.; Baglin, T.

1994-01-01

215

Selection of thrombin-binding aptamers by using computational approach for aptasensor application  

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The possibility of introducing a computationally assisted method to study aptamer-protein interaction was evaluated with the aim of streamlining the screening and selection of new aptamers. Starting from information on the 15-mer (5-GGTTGGTGTGGTTGG-3 thrombin binding aptamer (TBA), a library of mutated DNA sequences (994 elements) was generated and screened using shapegauss a shape-based scoring function from openeye software to generate computationally derived binding scores. The TBA and thr...

Bini, Alessandra; Mascini, Marcello; Mascini, Marco; Turner, Anthony

2011-01-01

216

Ultrasound guided percutaneous thrombin injection for the treatment of iatrogenic pseudoaneurysms.  

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Iatrogenic aneurysms are usually postcatheterisation pseudoaneurysms of the femoral artery. Until recently, the treatment of choice was ultrasound guided compression repair. A case of pseudoaneurysm of the axillary artery, arising as a complication of pacemaker insertion in an 83 year old man is reported. Compression repair was not possible in this case, and so the aneurysm was occluded by percutaneous ultrasound guided thrombin injection directly into the aneurysm sac. Percutaneous ultrasou...

Ferguson, Jd; Banning, Ap

2000-01-01

217

Histamine and thrombin modulate endothelial focal adhesion through centripetal and centrifugal forces.  

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We examined the contribution of actin-myosin contraction to the modulation of human umbilical vein endothelial cell focal adhesion caused by histamine and thrombin. Focal adhesion was measured as the electrical resistance across a cultured monolayer grown on a microelectrode. Actin-myosin contraction was measured as isometric tension of cultured monolayers grown on a collagen gel. Histamine immediately decreased electrical resistance but returned to basal levels within 3-5 min. Histamine did ...

Moy, A. B.; Engelenhoven, J.; Bodmer, J.; Kamath, J.; Keese, C.; Giaever, I.; Shasby, S.; Shasby, D. M.

1996-01-01

218

Cleavage-based hybridization chain reaction for electrochemical detection of thrombin.  

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In the present work, we constructed a new label-free "inter-sandwich" electrochemical aptasensor for thrombin (TB) detection by employing a cleavage-based hybridization chain reaction (HCR). The designed single-stranded DNA (defined as binding DNA), which contained the thrombin aptamer binding sequence, a DNAzyme cleavage site and a signal reporter sequence, was first immobilized on the electrode. In the absence of a target TB, the designed DNAzymes could combine with the thrombin aptamer binding sequence via complementary base pairing, and then Cu(2+) could cleave the binding DNA. In the presence of a target TB, TB could combine with the thrombin aptamer binding sequence to predominantly form an aptamer-protein complex, which blocked the DNAzyme cleavage site and prevented the binding DNA from being cleaved by Cu(2+)-dependent DNAzyme. As a result, the signal reporter sequence could leave the electrode surface to trigger HCR with the help of two auxiliary DNA single-strands, A1 and A2. Then, the electron mediator hexaammineruthenium (III) chloride ([Ru(NH3)6](3+)) was embedded into the double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) to produce a strong electrochemical signal for the quantitative measurement of TB. For further amplification of the electrochemical signal, graphene reduced by dopamine (PDA-rGO) was introduced as a platform in this work. With this strategy, the aptasensor displayed a wide linearity in the range of 0.0001 nM to 50 nM with a low detection limit of 0.05 pM. Moreover, the resulting aptasensor exhibited good specificity and acceptable reproducibility and stability. Because of these factors, the fabrication protocol proposed in this work may be extended to clinical application. PMID:24971937

Chang, Yuanyuan; Chai, Yaqin; Xie, Shunbi; Yuan, Yali; Zhang, Juan; Yuan, Ruo

2014-09-01

219

Thrombin Production and Human Neutrophil Elastase Sequestration by Modified Cellulosic Dressings and Their Electrokinetic Analysis  

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Wound healing is a complex series of biochemical and cellular events. Optimally, functional material design addresses the overlapping acute and inflammatory stages of wound healing based on molecular, cellular, and bio-compatibility issues. In this paper the issues addressed are uncontrolled hemostasis and inflammation which can interfere with the orderly flow of wound healing. In this regard, we review the serine proteases thrombin and elastase relative to dressing functionality that improve...

Nicolette Prevost; Judson Vincent Edwards

2011-01-01

220

Effects of the oral, direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran on five common coagulation assays  

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Dabigatran is an oral, reversible thrombin inhibitor that has shown promising results in large clinical trials. Laboratory monitoring is not needed but the effects on common coagulation assays are incompletely known. Dabigatran was added to plasma from healthy subjects in the concentration range 0-1,000 mu g/l and analysed using several reagents for activated thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), fibrinogen, antithrombin, and activated protein C resistance. Typical trough concent...

Lindahl, Tomas; Baghaei, Fariba; Fagerberg Blixter, Inger; Gustafsson, Kerstin; Stigendal, Lennart; Sten-linder, Margareta; Strandberg, Karin; Hillarp, Andreas

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Thrombin-stimulated immunoprecipitation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase from human platelets.  

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Growth factors and transforming proteins that activate tyrosine phosphorylation have been shown to cause an increased labeling of 3-phosphate-containing phosphatidylinositols. Turnover correlates with the formation of a complex between phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, the activated protein-tyrosine kinase, and other proteins thought to participate in transmembrane signaling. When human platelets are treated with thrombin, labeling of 3-phosphate-containing phosphatidylinositols is stimulated wi...

Mitchell, C. A.; Jefferson, A. B.; Bejeck, B. E.; Brugge, J. S.; Deuel, T. F.; Majerus, P. W.

1990-01-01

222

Endogenous thrombin potential for predicting risk of venous thromboembolism in carriers of factor V Leiden.  

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Measurement of endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) detects hypercoagulability and can be used to identify activated protein C resistance due to factor V Leiden (FVL). However, not all carriers of FVL suffer thrombosis and therefore we sought to determine if the test for ETP could be modified in such a way as to enable detection of FVL patients who were at increased risk of venous thromboembolism. Protac, an activator of both protein C and factor V, was incorporated into the traditional thrombin generation reaction and ratios (reaction with Protac:reaction without Protac) were calculated. Plasma samples from 42 FVL heterozygotes (12 with a history of thrombosis and 30 with no prior thrombosis) and 38 controls (non-FVL with no history of thrombosis) were analysed. The mean ETP ratio was significantly higher in FVL heterozygotes (0.90 +/- 0.06) compared to normal controls (0.41 +/- 0.10; p = 0.00004). Multivariate analysis indicated that the average ETP ratio was significantly and inversely correlated with factor V levels in FVL heterozygotes (p = 0.002) but not controls. Within the FVL group, patients with a history of thrombosis had higher ETP ratios (0.92 +/- 0.06) compared to those without (0.89 +/- 0.05), however, this did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.09). Further investigation into the use of ETP for detecting risk of thrombosis in people who are genetically predisposed is warranted. The recent introduction of diagnostic ETP measurements in the form of the calibrated automated thrombin generation from Thrombinoscope and the TechnoThrombin from Baxter should facilitate such studies. PMID:17565236

Lincz, Lisa F; Lonergan, Amy; Scorgie, Fiona E; Rowlings, Phillip; Gibson, Richard; Lawrie, Andrew; Seldon, Michael

2006-01-01

223

Fundamental study of recombination and recombineering in Escherichia coli  

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Recombination and recombineering systems have been used in Escherichia coli to recombinant DNA sequences. With endonuclease and DNA lipase the bacterial plasmid and target DNA fragment can bind together and recombinant for a new DNA sequences. Red Proteins have been used in recombineering system to perform the function as the enzymes in recombination system, and faster and easier than the other way of recombinant new DNA sequences in E.coli. In this report we get to know the pr...

Sun, Xiaohang; Huang, Yang

2008-01-01

224

Diclofenac Topical (osteoarthritis pain)  

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Diclofenac topical gel (Voltaren) is used to relieve pain from osteoarthritis (arthritis caused by a breakdown of ... the knees, ankles, feet, elbows, wrists, and hands. Diclofenac topical liquid (Pennsaid) is used to relieve osteoarthritis ...

225

Dissociative electronic recombination in astrophysics and astrochemistry  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of dissociative electronic recombination (DER) in the formation of interstellar molecules is discussed, reviewing the results of recent theoretical investigations. Topics addressed include deuterium fractionation and ionization in dense clouds, the cosmological implications of deuterium fractionation, the formation of cyanopolyynes, and the interstellar ketyl radical as a test of the DER theory of Bates (1986 and 1987). The reaction pathways governing the interstellar chemistry of key species are shown in diagrams.

Turner, B. E.

226

Recombinant factor IX.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the introduction of recombinant preparations of factor VIII and recombinant factor VII and VIIa, patients with other forms of hemophilia, especially hemophilia B, have remained at increased risk for blood borne viruses because of a lack of clinically utilizable preparations of recombinant factor IX. This report describes the state of current tests with a recently licensed preparation of recombinant factor IX, BeneFix, from Genetics Institute. Structurally, functionally, and therapeutically, recombinant factor IX is comparable to monoclonal plasma-derived factor IX. The only observed difference between recombinant and plasma factor IX is the recovery in pharmacokinetic studies where recombinant factor IX recovery was approximately 72% that of a plasma factor IX product. This difference is attributed to be due to minor differences in the post-translational modification of recombinant factor IX compared to plasma. These studies demonstrate that recombinant factor IX is effective in the treatment of hemophilia B and has the safety profile expected from a product prepared by recombinant technology. PMID:9198163

White, G C; Beebe, A; Nielsen, B

1997-07-01

227

Doppler ultrasound-guided percutaneous thrombin injection for treating femoral pseudoaneurysms  

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Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the success rate of percutaneous injectionof thrombin, guided by Doppler ultrasound to treat femoralpseudoaneurysms. Methods: Twenty-three patients withfemoral pseudoaneurysms were treated with ultrasound-guidedthrombin injection, between September 2003 and October 2007.Pseudoaneurysm size, dose of thrombin used, result of therapy andcomplications were prospectively documented. Other aspects analyzedincluded the type of procedure that caused the pseudoaneurysm(diagnostic catheterization, angioplasty, stent placement, size ofendovascular introducer, use of hemostatic device and body massindex (BMI of patients. Results: A total of 27 injections of thrombinwere performed. The mean transverse diameter was 3.5 cm. Themean dose of thrombin injected was 666.7 IU. The primary successrate ranged from 19 to 23 (83%. Reperfusion occurred in onepseudoaneurysm. The rate of secondary thrombosis was four in four(100%. No thromboembolic, infectious or allergic complicationsoccurred. Conclusions: Ultrasound-guided percutaneous thrombininjection is the best method for treating femoral pseudoaneurysmscaused by endovascular procedures. It presents high rates of success,low recurrence rates and almost no complications.

Frederico Celestino Miranda

2008-12-01

228

The technique of measuring thrombin generation with fluorogenic substrates: 3. The effects of sample dilution.  

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Assessing the clotting function inevitably brings about dilution of plasma. With the existing techniques of thrombin generation (TG) measurement, dilution ranges from 2:3 to 1:8. However, the possibility that dilution alters procoagulant and anticoagulant pathways differently has not been examined. We investigated the effects of dilution on the thrombin generation process and found that the anticoagulant pathways are far more affected by dilution than the procoagulant pathways. That is, when prothrombin and antithrombin concentrations are kept constant, dilution of plasma does not significantly affect tissue factor (TF)-driven thrombin generation. We demonstrate that dilution of plasma slows down the inhibitory activity of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) to a greater extent when compared with the down regulation by diluting procoagulant factors. Dilution of plasma has also a negative effect on the participation of the antihaemophiliac factors VIII and IX in TG driven by contact activation or low TF concentration. We also investigated the effect of dilution on the participation of the anticoagulant system that consists of thrombomodulin, protein C and protein S (APC system). We found that plasma dilution causes a loss of sensitivity towards TM and APC. Furthermore, at high dilutions (> 1:12) a second wave of prothrombinase-activity was observed that could be attributed to the suppression of protein S-dependent inhibition. In conclusion, the mechanism of TG is profoundly disturbed by plasma dilution. As a consequence, the less a plasma sample is diluted, the better a TG experiment represents the physiological process. PMID:19132204

De Smedt, Erik; Wagenvoord, Rob; Coen Hemker, H

2009-01-01

229

Does thrombin stimulation of human platelets proceed via a simultaneous Na+-H+ exchange?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thrombin stimulation of human platelets initiates a membrane depolarization attributable to a Na+ influx into, and an alkalinization of, the cytoplasm, both of which follow a similar rapid time scale and thrombin dose dependence. These responses precede secretion of the contents of dense granules (serotonin) and, after 1 min, of lysosomes (?-glucuronidase). These markers have been used to determine whether the Na+ influx and H+ efflux are sequential or simultaneous. They have examined these parameters in D2O-Hepes buffers. NMR evidence indicates that equilibration is rapid, and virtually complete within the 3 minute pre-stimulation platelets equilibration period. The rate of depolarization is 70-80% slower in D2O than in H2O. The time to reach maximal depolarization is 5-10 sec longer, the extent of depolarization 60% inhibited, and the [H+] change 85-100% inhibited. The serotonin secretion is unaltered, and the ?-glucuronidase secretion is 130-180% enhanced. 10-4 M amiloride inhibits Na+ influx, i.e. depolarization, and the pH change completely. Adjustment to pH/sub i/ 7.3 with NH4Cl led to a 30-80% enhanced ?-glucuronidase release upon thrombin exposure. These results suggest that the Na+ and H+ fluxes across the platelet membrane occur sequentially, the Na+ occurring first. Furthermore, granule secretion, previously shown by us to be independent of the existent Na+ gradient, depends on the cytoplasmic K+ and H+ concentrations

230

Elevated Cytokines, Thrombin and PAI-1 in Severe HCPS Patients Due to Sin Nombre Virus  

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Full Text Available Sin Nombre Hantavirus (SNV, Bunyaviridae Hantavirus is a Category A pathogen that causes Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS with case fatality ratios generally ranging from 30% to 50%. HCPS is characterized by vascular leakage due to dysregulation of the endothelial barrier function. The loss of vascular integrity results in non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, shock, multi-organ failure and death. Using Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS measurements, we found that plasma samples drawn from University of New Mexico Hospital patients with serologically-confirmed HCPS, induce loss of cell-cell adhesion in confluent epithelial and endothelial cell monolayers grown in ECIS cultureware. We show that the loss of cell-cell adhesion is sensitive to both thrombin and plasmin inhibitors in mild cases, and to thrombin only inhibition in severe cases, suggesting an increasing prothrombotic state with disease severity. A proteomic profile (2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry of HCPS plasma samples in our cohort revealed robust antifibrinolytic activity among terminal case patients. The prothrombotic activity is highlighted by acute ?30 to >100 fold increases in active plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1 which, preceded death of the subjects within 48 h. Taken together, this suggests that PAI-1 might be a response to the severe pathology as it is expected to reduce plasmin activity and possibly thrombin activity in the terminal patients.

Virginie Bondu

2015-02-01

231

Elevated Cytokines, Thrombin and PAI-1 in Severe HCPS Patients Due to Sin Nombre Virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sin Nombre Hantavirus (SNV, Bunyaviridae Hantavirus) is a Category A pathogen that causes Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS) with case fatality ratios generally ranging from 30% to 50%. HCPS is characterized by vascular leakage due to dysregulation of the endothelial barrier function. The loss of vascular integrity results in non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, shock, multi-organ failure and death. Using Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) measurements, we found that plasma samples drawn from University of New Mexico Hospital patients with serologically-confirmed HCPS, induce loss of cell-cell adhesion in confluent epithelial and endothelial cell monolayers grown in ECIS cultureware. We show that the loss of cell-cell adhesion is sensitive to both thrombin and plasmin inhibitors in mild cases, and to thrombin only inhibition in severe cases, suggesting an increasing prothrombotic state with disease severity. A proteomic profile (2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry) of HCPS plasma samples in our cohort revealed robust antifibrinolytic activity among terminal case patients. The prothrombotic activity is highlighted by acute ?30 to >100 fold increases in active plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) which, preceded death of the subjects within 48 h. Taken together, this suggests that PAI-1 might be a response to the severe pathology as it is expected to reduce plasmin activity and possibly thrombin activity in the terminal patients. PMID:25674766

Bondu, Virginie; Schrader, Ron; Gawinowicz, Mary Ann; McGuire, Paul; Lawrence, Daniel A; Hjelle, Brian; Buranda, Tione

2015-01-01

232

In vitro Effect of Verapamil on Platelet Activation Induced by ADP, Collagen or Thrombin.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the effects in Vitro of the calcium channel blocker verapamil (0.1, 0.2 or 0.3 mM) on platelet aggregation, on cytoplasmic Ca(+ +) levels and on TxB(2) production after activation of platelets with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (100 µM), collagen (20 µg/ml) or thrombin (1 U/ml). A Platelet Ionized Calcium Aggregometer was used and washed, aequorin loaded platelets were employed. The drug was able to inhibit similarly and always significantly aggregation, Ca(+ +) fluxes and TxB(2) production when collagen was the agonist. Furthermore, inhibition of aggregation and TxB(2) production was significant at all the concentrations tested when platelets were activated by ADP or thrombin, but in this case inhibition of Ca (+ +) fluxes was observed only with the higher concentrations of the drug (0.2 or 0.3 mM). Hence, with these two last agonists inhibition of Ca(+ +) movements was less pronounced than inhibition of aggregation or TxB(2) production. These data suggest that platelet activation by collagen depends directly and almost exclusively on Ca(+ +) fluxes through biological membranes, while activation by ADP or thrombin is less strictly related to Ca(+ +) movements. Indeed, with these last two agonists verapamil may inhibit platelet activation also by calcium-independent mechanism(s). PMID:21043728

Brocchieri, A; Pacchiarini, L; Saporiti, A; Grignani, G

1995-01-01

233

Thrombin and melittin activate phospholipase C in human HaCaT keratinocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following the activation of specific receptors, phospholipase C has been shown to cleave the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate into the 2nd messengers inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol. Both 2nd messengers contribute to the regulation of cellular proliferation. The receptor for bradykinin is coupled to this pathway in keratinocytes, but knowledge about other activators of phospholipase C is limited. Additional mediators and agents were therefore examined regarding their ability to activate phospholipase C in HaCaT keratinocytes. Analysis for 3H-inositol phosphates was performed by anion-exchange HPLC. Thrombin and melittin induced a time- and dose-dependent release of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Several other mediators examined such as angiotension II, neurotensin, C3a, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide, phenylephrin, and prostaglandin E2, did not induce the formation of inositol phosphates. In view of the mitogenic activity and the increased formation of thrombin after tissue injury, the coupling of the thrombin receptor to phospholipase C in HaCaT keratinocytes suggests a role of this protease in epidermal wound healing. PMID:8734916

Haase, I; Czarnetzki, B M; Rosenbach, T

1996-04-01

234

Association of thrombin generation potential with platelet PAR-1 regulation and P-selectin expression in patients on dual antiplatelet therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the association of thrombin generation potential with platelet protease activated receptor (PAR)-1 regulation and platelet activation in 52 stable coronary artery disease patients on continuous therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel (n?=?42) or prasugrel (n?=?10). Compared to controls, peak thrombin generation potential was elevated in only 11 patients (p?>?0.05), while F1.2 was elevated in 26 patients (p?thrombin inducible P-selectin expression were significantly elevated in patients compared to controls (p?thrombin generation potential or F1.2 and PAR-1 regulation. However, there was a significant inverse correlation between levels of peak thrombin generation potential and in vitro thrombin-inducible expression of P-selectin (p?=?0.002), suggesting in vivo depletion of platelet alpha granules due to ongoing platelet activation. PMID:24435325

Badr Eslam, Roza; Posch, Florian; Lang, Irene M; Gremmel, Thomas; Eichelberger, Beate; Ay, Cihan; Panzer, Simon

2014-02-01

235

Quasispecies and recombination.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recombination is introduced into Eigen's theory of quasispecies evolution. Comparing numerical simulations of the rate equations in the non-recombining and recombining cases show that recombination has a strong effect on the error threshold and, for a wide range of mutation rates, gives rise to two stable fixed points in the dynamics. This bi-stability results in the existence of two error thresholds. However, we prove that, for low mutation rates the bi-stability breaks down and the unique equilibrium distribution is concentrated around the sequence with highest fitness. PMID:16982076

Jacobi, Martin Nilsson; Nordahl, Mats

2006-12-01

236

Recombination and Genetic Diversity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In this paper we present a spatial stochastic model for genetic recombination, that answers if diversity is preserved in an infinite population of recombinat-ing individuals distributed spatially. We show that, for finite times, recombination may maintain all the various potential different types, b [...] ut when time grows infinitely, the diversity of individuals extinguishes off. So under the model premisses, recombination and spatial localization alone are not enough to explain diversity in a population. Further we discuss an application of the model to a controversy regarding the diversity of "Major Histocompatibility Complex" (MHC).

T. C., Coutinho; T.T.da, Silva; G.L., Toledo.

2012-12-01

237

Investigation of the thrombin-generating capacity, evaluated by thrombogram, and clot formation evaluated by thrombelastography of platelets stored in the blood bank for up to 7 days  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Transfusion based on the Thrombelastograph (TEG) results reduces transfusion requirements in cardiac surgery and in liver transplantation. Taking the pivotal role of thrombin generation in the coagulation process into consideration, the clinical utility of the TEG may, in part, depend on its reflection of the dynamics of thrombin generation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The kinetics of thrombin generation of platelets stored for 2 and 7 days, respectively, was assessed by calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT) and the lag time (min), time to peak (ttPeak; min), peak (nm thrombin) and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP; nm thrombin*min) were registered. Clot formation was evaluated by TEG and the R time (min), maxial amplitude (MA; mm), time to maximum thrombus generation (TMG; min) and maximum thrombus generation (MTG; dynes cm(-2) s(-1)) and total thrombus generation (TTG; dyne cm(-2)) were registered. RESULTS: Platelets become more procoagulant, evaluated both by TEG and CAT during storage. The reduction in CAT lag time and the ttPeak correlated with a decrease in the TEG R time and TMG (P < 0.0001) as did the CAT peak thrombin generation and the TEG MTG (P = 0.0035). No correlation between ETP and TTG was found (P = 0.65). CONCLUSION: The kinetics of thrombin generation, as evaluated by CAT, correlates with the thrombus generation, as evaluated by thrombelastography and this may in part explain the clinical utility of the TEG in identifying clinically relevant coagulopathies, secondary to impaired thrombin generation Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2

Johansson, Per Ingemar; Svendsen, M.S.

2008-01-01

238

Thrombin modulates the expression of a set of genes including thrombospondin-1 in human microvascular endothelial cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thrombospondin-1 (THBS1) is a large extracellular matrix glycoprotein that affects vasculature systems such as platelet activation, angiogenesis, and wound healing. Increases in THBS1 expression have been liked to disease states including tumor progression, atherosclerosis, and arthritis. The present study focuses on the effects of thrombin activation of the G-protein-coupled, protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) on THBS1 gene expression in the microvascular endothelium. Thrombin-induced changes in gene expression were characterized by microarray analysis of approximately 11,000 different human genes in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1). Thrombin induced the expression of a set of at least 65 genes including THBS1. Changes in THBS1 mRNA correlated with an increase in the extracellular THBS1 protein concentration. The PAR-1-specific agonist peptide (TFLLRNK-PDK) mimicked thrombin stimulation of THBS1 expression, suggesting that thrombin signaling is through PAR-1. Further studies showed THBS1 expression was sensitive to pertussis toxin and protein kinase C inhibition indicating G(i/o)- and G(q)-mediated pathways. THBS1 up-regulation was also confirmed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells stimulated with thrombin. Analysis of the promoter region of THBS1 and other genes of similar expression profile identified from the microarray predicted an EBOX/EGRF transcription model. Expression of members of each family, MYC and EGR1, respectively, correlated with THBS1 expression. These results suggest thrombin formed at sites of vascular injury increases THBS1 expression into the extracellular matrix via activation of a PAR-1, G(i/o), G(q), EBOX/EGRF-signaling cascade, elucidating regulatory points that may play a role in increased THBS1 expression in disease states. PMID:15817447

McLaughlin, Joseph N; Mazzoni, Maria R; Cleator, John H; Earls, Laurie; Perdigoto, Ana Luisa; Brooks, Joshua D; Muldowney, James A S; Vaughan, Douglas E; Hamm, Heidi E

2005-06-10

239

Topical report review status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Topical Report Review Status is scheduled to be published semi-annually. The primary purpose of this document is to provide periodic progress reports of on-going topical report reviews, to identify those topical reports for which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff review has been completed and, to the extent practicable, to provide NRC management with sufficient information regarding the conduct of the topical report program to permit taking whatever actions deemed necessary or appropriate. This document is also intended to be a source of information to NRC Licensing Project Managers and other NRC personnel regarding the status of topical reports which may be referenced in applications for which they have responsibility. This status report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the topical report program, but is also used by NRC to advise the industry of report review status

240

Aptamer conjugated Mo(6)S(9-x)I(x) nanowires for direct and highly sensitive electrochemical sensing of thrombin.  

Science.gov (United States)

We demonstrate the use of a novel electrochemical sensing platform based on aptamer conjugated Mo(6)S(9-x)I(x) nanowires (MoSI NWs) for the highly sensitive detection of the blood clotting enzyme thrombin. MoSI NWs nanowires were self-assembled on a gold electrode to which thrombin binding aptamers were covalently attached. The modification and immobilization steps of the electrodes were characterised by cyclic voltammetry along with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The platform is based on the creation of a self-assembled MoSI MW layer via the sulfur-gold affinity followed by the creation of MoSI-thiolated aptamer conjugates via the sulfur-sulfur affinity. Using this system, sensitive quantitative detection of thrombin is realized by monitoring differences of differential pulse voltammetric responses of electrostatically trapped [Ru(NH(3))(6)](3+) cations to the aptamer before and after thrombin binding. The sensitivity limit for the detection of thrombin is 10 pM. This value is 10-fold better than all currently reported one step label free electrochemical strategies. Given the direct label free nature of the approach and the simplicity of the electronic detection, the aptamer conjugated MoSI NWs biosensor appears well suited for implementation in portable point of care microdevices directed at the rapid and sensitive detection of proteins and pathogens. PMID:20176468

McMullan, Martin; Sun, Nijuan; Papakonstantinou, Pagona; Li, Meixian; Zhou, Wuzong; Mihailovic, Dragan

2011-01-15

 
 
 
 
241

Magnetic relaxation switch and colorimetric detection of thrombin using aptamer-functionalized gold-coated iron oxide nanoparticles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We describe a sensitive biosensing system combining magnetic relaxation switch diagnosis and colorimetric detection of human {alpha}-thrombin, based on the aptamer-protein interaction induced aggregation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au nanoparticles. To demonstrate the concept, gold-coated iron oxide nanoparticle was synthesized by iterative reduction of HAuCl{sub 4} onto the dextran-coated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. The resulting core-shell structure had a flowerlike shape with pretty narrow size distribution (referred to as 'nanorose'). The two aptamers corresponding to human {alpha}-thrombin were conjugated separately to two distinct nanorose populations. Once a solution containing human {alpha}-thrombin was introduced, the nanoroses switched from a well dispersed state to an aggregated one, leading to a change in the spin-spin relaxation time (T{sub 2}) as well as the UV-Vis absorption spectra of the solution. Thus the qualitative and quantitative detection method for human {alpha}-thrombin was established. The dual-mode detection is clearly advantageous in obtaining a more reliable result; the detection range is widened as well. By using the dual-mode detection method, a detectable T{sub 2} change is observed with 1.0 nM human {alpha}-thrombin, and the detection range is from 1.6 nM to 30.4 nM.

Liang Guohai; Cai Shaoyu; Zhang Peng [Department of Chemistry and Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Peng Youyuan [Department of Chemistry, Quanzhou Normal University, Quanzhou 362000 (China); Chen Hui; Zhang Song [Department of Chemistry and Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Kong Jilie, E-mail: jlkong@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry and Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

2011-03-18

242

Magnetic relaxation switch and colorimetric detection of thrombin using aptamer-functionalized gold-coated iron oxide nanoparticles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe a sensitive biosensing system combining magnetic relaxation switch diagnosis and colorimetric detection of human ?-thrombin, based on the aptamer-protein interaction induced aggregation of Fe3O4-Au nanoparticles. To demonstrate the concept, gold-coated iron oxide nanoparticle was synthesized by iterative reduction of HAuCl4 onto the dextran-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The resulting core-shell structure had a flowerlike shape with pretty narrow size distribution (referred to as 'nanorose'). The two aptamers corresponding to human ?-thrombin were conjugated separately to two distinct nanorose populations. Once a solution containing human ?-thrombin was introduced, the nanoroses switched from a well dispersed state to an aggregated one, leading to a change in the spin-spin relaxation time (T2) as well as the UV-Vis absorption spectra of the solution. Thus the qualitative and quantitative detection method for human ?-thrombin was established. The dual-mode detection is clearly advantageous in obtaining a more reliable result; the detection range is widened as well. By using the dual-mode detection method, a detectable T2 change is observed with 1.0 nM human ?-thrombin, and the detection range is from 1.6 nM to 30.4 nM.

243

Extracellular histones promote thrombin generation through platelet-dependent mechanisms: involvement of platelet TLR2 and TLR4  

Science.gov (United States)

The release of histones from dying cells is associated with microvascular thrombosis and, because histones activate platelets, this could represent a possible pathogenic mechanism. In the present study, we assessed the influence of histones on the procoagulant potential of human platelets in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and in purified systems. Histones dose-dependently enhanced thrombin generation in PRP in the absence of any trigger, as evaluated by calibrated automated thrombinography regardless of whether the contact phase was inhibited. Activation of coagulation required the presence of fully activatable platelets and was not ascribable to platelet tissue factor, whereas targeting polyphosphate with phosphatase reduced thrombin generation even when factor XII (FXII) was blocked or absent. In the presence of histones, purified polyphosphate was able to induce thrombin generation in plasma independently of FXII. In purified systems, histones induced platelet aggregation; P-selectin, phosphatidylserine, and FV/Va expression; and prothrombinase activity. Blocking platelet TLR2 and TLR4 with mAbs reduced the percentage of activated platelets and lowered the amount of thrombin generated in PRP. These data show that histone-activated platelets possess a procoagulant phenotype that drives plasma thrombin generation and suggest that TLR2 and TLR4 mediate the activation process. PMID:21673343

Semeraro, Fabrizio; Ammollo, Concetta T.; Morrissey, James H.; Dale, George L.; Friese, Paul; Esmon, Naomi L.

2011-01-01

244

Thrombin stimulation of synthesis and secretion of fibronectin by human A549 epithelial cells and mouse LB fibroblasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thrombin, a serine protease generated at wound sites, takes part in multiple biological functions, including wound healing. The present report elucidates the effect of thrombin on fibronectin (FN) synthesis and secretion in fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Subconfluent cultures of mouse LB fibroblasts and human A549 epithelial cells were exposed to various concentrations of bovine plasma thrombin at 37 degrees C for 16 hr. After exposure, cells were processed for determination of cell-associated and secreted FN by metabolic labeling, immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, and peroxidase immunocytochemistry. The correlation of FN production with cell growth was studied by a combined procedure of peroxidase immunocytochemistry and light microscopic autoradiography. The amounts of cell-associated and secreted FN were significantly increased with dose increments of thrombin. The increases were most evident in secreted FN. The increase of cell-associated FN was also evidenced by results from immunofluorescence and immunocytochemical studies. Ultrastructurally, the intracellular FN was localized in rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complexes, and secretory granules, whereas non-released extracellular FN was localized in the plasma membrane of cell-to-cell contacts and in the extracellular fibrils. More intense cytoplasmic FN staining was observed in cells that were not labeled with [3H]-thymidine, indicating that FN production may vary with different phases of cell groway vary with different phases of cell growth. The results imply that thrombin may play an important role in the early phases of wound healing

245

Signal amplification aptamer biosensor for thrombin based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with graphene, quantum dots and gold nanoparticles  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) assay for sensitive determination of thrombin is designed employing CdSe/ZnS quantum dots served as an ECL label. This ECL sensor is fabricated on graphene modified glassy carbon electrode which is then covered with a low surface coverage of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). An aptamer is used to selectively recognize the target. The thiol-terminated aptamer is first immobilized on AuNPs/graphene modified electrode, and then thrombin is imported to form the aptamer-thrombin complexes. After blocking the nonspecifically bound oligonucleotides with MCH solution, another CdSe/ZnS quantum dots modified aptamer is hybridized with the free thiol-terminated aptamer to form a DNA complexe. A decreased ECL signal is observed upon recognition of the target thrombin. The integrated ECL intensity versus the concentration of thrombin is linear in the range from 0.01 to 50 nM. The detection limit is 10 fM. The present aptasensor also exhibits excellent selectivity, stability and reusability. This sensing system can provide a promising label-free model for aptamer-based compounds sensitive detection.

Xie, Lingling; You, Liqin; Cao, Xiaoyu

2013-05-01

246

TOPICAL TREATMENT OF MELASMA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Melasma is a common hypermelanotic disorder affecting the face that is associated with considerable psychological impacts. The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topical therapy has remained the mainstay of treatment. Multiple options for topical treatment are available, of which hydroquinone (HQ) is the most commonly prescribed agent. Besides HQ, other topical ...

Bandyopadhyay Debabrata

2009-01-01

247

Sparse Topical Coding  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present sparse topical coding (STC), a non-probabilistic formulation of topic models for discovering latent representations of large collections of data. Unlike probabilistic topic models, STC relaxes the normalization constraint of admixture proportions and the constraint of defining a normalized likelihood function. Such relaxations make STC amenable to: 1) directly control the sparsity of inferred representations by using sparsity-inducing regularizers; 2) be seamlessl...

Zhu, Jun; Xing, Eric P.

2012-01-01

248

[Topical therapy of rosacea].  

Science.gov (United States)

Metronidazole and azelaic acid are the only topical medications approved for rosacea. All other topical treatments for rosacea and its special forms are used off-label. Topical steroids are not indicated in rosacea, because of their side effects (induction of steroid rosacea, high risk of facial skin atrophy, and high risk of rebound after cessation of therapy). Topical as well as systemic steroids are allowed only as initial and short term therapy for acute forms of rosacea (e.g. rosacea fulminans). Papular and pustular rosacea is the major indication for topical therapy. Sebaceous gland and connective tissue hyperplasia in glandular-hypertrophic rosacea as well as erythema in erythematous rosacea do not respond well to topical measures. A new active substance, the alpha-2-adrenoreceptor agonist brimonidine, will be approved soon for the topical treatment of erythema in rosacea. All severe forms of rosacea should initially be treated with a combination of topical and systemic agents. After improvement of the clinical symptoms, topical treatment alone is usually adequate to maintain the control. PMID:23780475

Schöfer, H

2013-07-01

249

Differential proteolytic activation of factor VIII-von Willebrand factor complex by thrombin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Blood coagulation factor VIII (fVIII) is a plasma protein that is decreased or absent in hemophilia A. It is isolated as a mixture of heterodimers that contain a variably sized heavy chain and a common light chain. Thrombin catalyzes the activation of fVIII in a reaction that is associated with cleavages in both types of chain. The authors isolated a serine protease from Bothrops jararacussu snake venom that catalyzes thrombin-like heavy-chain cleavage but not light-chain cleavage in porcine fVIII as judged by NaDodSO4/PAGE and N-terminal sequence analysis. Using a plasma-free assay of the ability of activated 125I-fVIII to function as a cofactor in the activation of factor X by factor IXa, they found that fVIII is activated by the venom enzyme. The venom enzyme-activated fVIII was isolated in stable form by cation-exchange HPLC. von Willebrand factor inhibited venom enzyme-activated fVIII but not thrombin-activated fVIII. These results suggest that the binding of fVIII to von Willebrand factor depends on the presence of an intact light chain and that activated fVIII must dissociate from von Willebrand factor to exert its cofactor effect. Thus, proteolytic activation of fVIII-von Willebrand factor complex appears to be differentially regulated by light-chain cleavage to dissociate the complex and heavy-chain cleavage to activate the cofactor function

250

Minimally Invasive Therapy of Pseudoaneurysms of the Trunk: Application of Thrombin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thrombin injection has been proven to be successful in postcatheterization pseudoaneurysms. However, there are only a few reports on the treatment of pseudoaneurysms of the trunk. We report our first experiences using a percutaneous as well as an endovascular access. Eight iatrogenic pseudoaneurysms of the trunk (aorta, n = 4; pulmonary artery, n = 1; gastroduodenal artery, n = 1; left gastric artery, n = 1, renal artery, n = 1) were treated either percutaneously using CT guidance (n = 3) or via an endovascular access (n = 5). Noninvasive control angiograms were performed at day 1 and weeks 1 and 3 by either CT or MR angiography. The total volume of the pseudoaneurysms was 31.2 ± 23.1 ml on average, with a mean volume of the perfused aneurysmal lumen of 12.9 ± 7.2 ml. The maximum diameter was 4.1 ± 1.39 cm on average. In each case, the aneurysmal neck was not wider than 2 mm. One pseudoaneurysm occluded spontaneously following selective catheterization. The remaining pseudoaneurysms were successfully treated by injection of 765 ± 438.1 IU thrombin. In one individual, a nontarget embolization occurred, as well as an intervention-associated rupture of a pseudoaneurysm. High-grade stenoses of the donor artery were found in a different case. Only once was the endoluminal access converted to a percutaneous one. Thrombin injection might be a future first-line treatment of vascular lesions such as pseudoaneurysms of the trunk. In our experience both percutanous and endol experience both percutanous and endoluminal access are technically feasible and safe. However, further experiences are mandatory, especially concerning the question of dosage and long-term results

251

Monitoring of dabigatran therapy using Hemoclot(®) Thrombin Inhibitor assay in patients with atrial fibrillation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dabigatran, a new direct thrombin inhibitor, achieves strong anticoagulation that is more predictable than warfarin. Nevertheless, a patient on dabigatran therapy (DT) may suffer from thrombotic or bleeding events. The routine monitoring of DT is not recommended, and standard coagulation tests are not sensitive enough for the assessment of DT activity. The aim of this study was to examine the clinical usefulness of the Hemoclot(®) Thrombin Inhibitor (HTI) assay in the assessment of dabigatran plasma levels in patients with non-valvular AF. Nineteen patients (12 men, 7 women) on DT were included in this preliminary prospective observational study. Dabigatran was administrated twice daily in a two dose regimens: 150 mg (5 patients) and 110 mg (14 patients). Blood samples were taken for the assessment of trough and peak levels of dabigatran. Dabigatran concentrations were measured with the HTI assay. The average dabigatran trough level was 69.3 ± 55.5 ng/ml and the average dabigatran peak level was 112.7 ± 66.6 ng/ml. The dabigatran trough plasma concentration was in the established reference range in 15 patients and the dabigatran peak plasma concentration was in the established reference range in 9 patients, respectively. Despite the fact that the activated partial thromboplastin and thrombin times were generally changed (prolonged), these tests failed to identify the patients with too low or too high dabigatran concentrations. The study confirmed the high sensitivity of the HTI assay for the assessment of dabigatran plasma levels. When compared to standard coagulation tests, the HTI is a more suitable assay for the monitoring of patients treated with dabigatran. Monitoring of DT may be beneficial in selected patients; however, further studies will be needed for the final clarification of this issue. PMID:25103614

Samoš, Matej; Stan?iaková, Lucia; Ivanková, Jela; Staško, Ján; Ková?, František; Dobrotová, Miroslava; Galajda, Peter; Kubisz, Peter; Moká?, Marián

2015-01-01

252

Rational Design and Characterization of D-Phe-Pro-D-Arg-Derived Direct Thrombin Inhibitors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The tremendous social and economic impact of thrombotic disorders, together with the considerable risks associated to the currently available therapies, prompt for the development of more efficient and safer anticoagulants. Novel peptide-based thrombin inhibitors were identified using in silico structure-based design and further validated in vitro. The best candidate compounds contained both l- and d-amino acids, with the general sequence d-Phe(P3)-Pro(P2)-d-Arg(P1)-P1?-CONH2. The P1? pos...

Figueiredo, Ana C.; Clement, Cristina C.; Zakia, Sheuli; Gingold, Julian; Philipp, Manfred; Pereira, Pedro J. B.

2012-01-01

253

A Reusable Impedimetric Aptasensor for Detection of Thrombin Employing a Graphite-Epoxy Composite Electrode  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Here, we report the application of a label-free electrochemical aptasensor based on a graphite-epoxy composite electrode for the detection of thrombin; in this work, aptamers were immobilized onto the electrodes surface using wet physical adsorption. The detection principle is based on the changes of the interfacial properties of the electrode; these were probed in the presence of the reversible redox couple [Fe(CN)6]3?/[Fe(CN)6]4? using impedance measurements. The electrode surface was p...

Manel del Valle; Mercè Pacios; Cristina Ocaña

2012-01-01

254

Post-traumatic hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm treated with endovascular embolization and thrombin injection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Post-traumatic hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm is uncommon, appearing in approximately 1% of hepatic trauma cases. Most are extrahepatic (80% and have a late onset. Although they are usually asymptomatic, they should always be treated becasue of the high risk of complications, especially breakage. Currently the treatment of choice is endovascular embolization with coils or the exclusion of the pseudoaneurysm using other intravascular devices. Recently there have been accounts of a treatment that combines embolization with coils and image-guided percutaneous human thrombin injection. We present a case of post-traumatic hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm that was successfully treated using this combined technique

Lloret Estañ Francisco, López Conesa Asunción, Capel Alemán Antonio, Robles Campos Ricardo, Reus Pintado Manuel, Marín Hernández Caridad

2010-02-01

255

Structure-based understanding of ligand affinity using human thrombin as a model system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kinetic study of a series of compounds containing the thrombin-directed peptide D-Phe-ProboroArg-OH had indicated that the structure of the N-terminal blocking group may be correlated with binding [Kettner, C., Mersinger, L., & Knabb, R. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 18289-18297]. In order to further study this phenomenon, a second series of compounds that contains a C-terminal methyl ester in place of the boronic acid was synthesized, binding measured, and the three-dimensional structure in complex with human thrombin determined by X-ray crystallography. Incubation of Ac-D-Phe-Pro-Arg-OMe, Boc-D-Phe-Pro-Arg-OMe, and H-D-Phe-Pro-Arg-OMe resulted in the formation of thrombin-product complexes within the crystal. Ki values for the corresponding products (free carboxylic acids) were 60 +/- 12 microM, 7.8 +/- 0.1 microM, 0.58 +/- 0.02 microM, respectively, indicating that the nature of the N-terminal blocking group has a significant effect on affinity. Examination of the crystal structures indicated that the higher affinity of the H-D-Phe peptide is due to rearrangement of one residue comprising the S3 site (Glu192) in order to maximize electrostatic interactions with the "NH3(+)-" of H-D-Phe. The relative affinity of Boc-D-Phe-Pro-Arg-OH is due to favorable hydrophobic interactions between thrombin and the bulky butyl group. However, this results in less favorable binding of Arg-P1 in the oxyanion hole as shown by long hydrogen-bonding distances. This work gave rise to some general observations applicable to structure-based drug design: (1) altering the structure of an inhibitor at one site can affect binding at an unchanged distal site; (2) minor alteration of inhibitor structure can lead to small, but significant reorganization of neighboring protein structure; (3) these unexpected reorganizations can define alternate binding motifs. PMID:8703940

Nienaber, V L; Mersinger, L J; Kettner, C A

1996-07-30

256

Detection of thrombin with an aptamer-based macromolecule biosensor using bacterial ghost system.  

Science.gov (United States)

A rapid on-site detection of exogenous proteins without the need for equipped laboratories or skilled personnel would benefit many areas. We built a rapid protein detection platform based on aptamer-induced inner-membrane scaffolds dimerization by virtue of bacterial ghost system. When the detection platform was coincubated with two kinds of aptamers targeting two different sites of thrombin, green fluorescence or ?-lactamase activity were yielded with two different designs. The latter was detected by commercially available testing strips. PMID:25524099

Wang, Jiasheng; Ding, Ke; Chen, Yujie; Zhang, Lifeng; Liu, Zukai; Xue, Angli; Gu, Wenjia; Yang, Xiaoyue; Li, Xihan; Huang, Jin; Xing, Congcong; Cao, Yunlong; Chen, Ming

2014-12-19

257

Topical anaesthesia for venepuncture.  

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A topical anaesthetic cream was tested in a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial of 15 children. The severity of pain experienced during venepuncture was assessed, using visual analogue and verbal rating scales. The topical anaesthetic cream was found to be significantly superior to placebo using each form of assessment.

Clarke, S.; Radford, M.

1986-01-01

258

Topics in meson spectroscopy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this mini-review I discuss three topics in meson spectroscopy. The production of heavy quarkonium states, S-wave scattering below 1 GeV, and exotic hybrid meson production. This is not intended to be a comprehensive review, just an overview of several topics of current interest. (orig.)

Godfrey, S. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics]|[Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

2002-10-01

259

Aptamer-based sensing for thrombin in red region via fluorescence resonant energy transfer between NaYF?:Yb,Er upconversion nanoparticles and gold nanorods.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, we design a FRET system for sensitive and selective determination of thrombin in red region, in which NaYF?:Yb,Er upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) act as donor and gold nanorods (Au NRs) act as acceptor. NaYF?:Yb,Er UCNPs with a strong emission at 661 nm were successfully synthesized by tuning the doped ions ratio. Carboxyl-functionalized NaYF?:Yb,Er UCNPs and Au NRs were then prepared and conjugated with the thrombin aptamers, respectively. The fluorescence emission band of NaYF?:Yb,Er UCNPs (?(max)=661 nm) highly overlaps with the absorption band of Au NRs(?(max)=666 nm), which benefits from the large tunability of the spectrum band of Au NRs. A FRET system was then formed when thrombin was added to the mixture of NaYF?:Yb,Er UCNPs and Au NRs, which were both modified thrombin aptamers. The fluorescence quenching efficiency of NaYF?:Yb,Er UCNPs was increased in a thrombin concentration-dependent manner, which built the principle of thrombin quantification. The linear range was 2.5-90 nM in an aqueous buffer, and 3.75-112.5 nM in spiked human serum samples for thrombin. It also demonstrates a high selectivity to other biological species due to the specific binding. The measurement of thrombin in human plasma is satisfying, suggesting that the FRET system is of practical value in a complex biological sample matrix in red region. PMID:23639344

Chen, Hongqi; Yuan, Fei; Wang, Shaozhen; Xu, Juan; Zhang, Yiyan; Wang, Lun

2013-10-15

260

Thrombin effectuates therapeutic arteriogenesis in the rabbit hindlimb ischemia model: A quantitative analysis by computerized in vivo imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report on an experimental mammalian controlled study that documents arteriogenic capacity of thrombin and utilizes computerized algorithms to quantify the newly formed vessels. Hindlimb ischemia was surgically invoked in 10 New Zealand white rabbits. After quiescence of endogenous angiogenesis heterologous bovine thrombin was intramuscularly injected (1500 units) in one hindlimb per rabbit (Group T). Contralateral limbs were infused with normal saline (Group C). Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) of both limbs was performed after thrombin infusion by selective cannulation of the abdominal aorta and digital images were post-processed with computerized algorithms in order to enhance newly formed vessels. Total vessel area and total vessel length were quantified. In vivo functional evaluation included measurements of blood flow volume at the level of the external iliac artery by Doppler ultrasonography both at baseline and at 20 days after thrombin infusion. Total vessel area and length (in pixels) were 14,713+/-1023 and 5466+/-1327 in group T versus 12,015+/-2557 and 4598+/-1269 in group C (p=0.0062 and 0.1526, respectively). Blood flow volumes (ml/min) at baseline and at 20 days after thrombin infusion were 25.87+/-11.09 and 38.06+/-11.72 in group T versus 26.57+/-11.19 and 20.35+/-7.20 in group C (p=0.8898 and 0.0007, respectively). Intramuscular thrombin effectuates an arteriogenic response in the rabbit hindlimb ischemia model. Computerized algorithms may enabia model. Computerized algorithms may enable accurate quantification of the neovascularization outcome

 
 
 
 
261

Thrombin stimulates the release of arachidonate but not 8,11,14-eicosatrienoate from endothelial cell glycerolipids  

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Previous studies in their laboratory have shown that thrombin stimulates the release of arachidonate (20:4(n-6)) but not 22:4(n-6) from endothelial cell glycerolipids. The authors now report that thrombin also does not significantly stimulate the release of 8,11,14-[14C]eicosatrienoate per se. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were radiolabeled for 24 hr with 1.25 ?M [14C]20:3(n-6) or [14C]20:4(n-6). When incubated for 10 min in buffered saline with 50 ?M fat-free albumin and 1 U/ml thrombin, these cells released 4.1% and 7.6%, respectively, of the previously incorporated radioactivity. Analysis of released 14C-fatty acids by radio-gas chromatography indicated that the thrombin-stimulated release from cells prelabelled with [14C]20:3(n-6) was essentially due to release of [14C]arachidonate synthesized endogenously by desaturation of the [14C]20:3(n-6). Expressed as a percentage of each 14C-fatty acyl present moiety in cellular glycerolipids of cells prelabelled with [14C]20:3(n-6), release was 8.2% for arachidonate but only 0.63% for 20:3(n-6). Studies with other 14C-fatty acids indicate that 5,8,11-20:3 is released in response to thrombin (5-9%); 8,11,14,17-20:4 is not (<1%). These results suggest that a ?5 double bond in the fatty acid is necessary for thrombin-stimulated release from endothelial cell glycerolipids

262

Isolation and characterization of recombinant murine Wnt3a.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wnt proteins are a family of morphogens that possess potent biological activity. Structure-function studies have been impeded by poor yield of biologically active recombinant Wnt as well as a propensity of isolated Wnt to self-associate in the absence of detergent. Using stably transfected Drosophila S2 cells, studies have been conducted to improve recovery of recombinant murine Wnt3a, establish conditions for a detergent-free Wnt preparation and examine the effects of limited proteolysis. S2 cell culture conditioned media was subjected to a 3-step protocol including dye-ligand chromatography, immobilized metal affinity chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. Through selective pooling of column fractions, homogeneous and purified Wnt3a preparations were obtained. Limited proteolysis of Wnt3a with thrombin resulted in site-specific cleavage within the N-terminal saposin-like motif. To generate detergent-free protein, Wnt3a was immobilized on Cu(2+)-charged, iminodiacetic acid-derivatized Sepharose beads, detergent-free buffer was applied and Wnt3a eluted from the beads with buffer containing imidazole plus 30mM methyl-ß-cyclodextrin (MßCD). Wnt3a recovered in MßCD-containing buffer was soluble and biologically active. Insofar as MßCD is a member of a family of non-toxic, low molecular weight compounds capable of binding and solubilizing small hydrophobic ligands, Wnt-cyclodextrin complexes may facilitate structure-activity studies in the absence of adverse detergent effects. PMID:25448592

Witkowski, Andrzej; Krishnamoorthy, Aparna; Su, Betty; Beckstead, Jennifer A; Ryan, Robert O

2015-02-01

263

First 20 years with recombinant FVIIa (NovoSeven).  

Science.gov (United States)

This review describes the background for the development of recombinant FVIIa (rFVIIa; NovoSeven) for use in haemophilic patients with inhibitors. The first proof of principle for using pharmacological doses of FVIIa as a haemostatic agent was obtained by producing small amounts of pure plasma-derived FVIIa, which showed encouraging effect in two patients with haemophilia A and inhibitors. To make pure FVIIa available for use in a larger number of patients, rFVIIa was produced that was approved for use in patients with inhibitors against coagulation factors (congenital haemophilia and acquired haemophilia) in 1996 (EU), 1999 (USA) and 2000 (Japan). The efficacy rate in severe bleedings and in major surgery including major orthopaedic surgery has been found to be around 90% in controlled studies, and no serious safety concerns have been demonstrated. The availability of rFVIIa has facilitated the performance of elective major surgery in haemophilia patients with inhibitors. Further steps along the vision of providing a treatment for inhibitor patients similar to non-inhibitor patients have been the efficacy of rFVIIa in home-treatment and recently the encouraging experience in prophylaxis. The concept of using pharmacological doses of rFVIIa as a haemostatic agent is a new one, which has caused difficulties in finding the correct dose. A step forward has been the demonstration that similar efficacy can be achieved after one single dose of 270 ?g kg(-1) instead of three injections of a dose of 90 ?g kg(-1). The higher clearance rate in children suggests that higher doses may be beneficial in children. The availability of rFVIIa has made advances in the understanding of coagulation processes possible. In a cell-based in vitro model, it has been shown that rFVIIa binds to preactivated platelets if present in concentrations of 30 nm or higher. By doing so, it activates FX into FXa and enhances the thrombin generation on the activated platelet surface in the absence of FVIII/FIX. Through the increased thrombin generation, a firm, well-structured fibrin haemostatic plug, which is resistant to premature lysis, is formed. By exploiting this mechanism of action, rFVIIa may also be effective in situations other than haemophilia, characterized by an impaired thrombin generation. PMID:20609014

Hedner, U; Lee, C A

2011-01-01

264

Modulation of human uterine smooth muscle cell collagen contractility by thrombin, Y-27632, TNF alpha and indomethacin  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm labour occurs in approximately 10% of pregnancies and is a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality. However, the pathways involved in regulating contractility in normal and preterm labour are not fully elucidated. Our aim was to utilise a human myometrial contractility model to investigate the effect of a number of uterine specific contractility agents in this system. Therefore, we investigated the contractile response of human primary uterine smooth muscle cells or immortalised myometrial smooth muscle cells cultured within collagen lattices, to known mediators of uterine contractility, which included thrombin, the ROCK-1 inhibitor Y-27632, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha and the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory indomethacin. Methods Cell contractility was calculated over time, with the collagen gel contraction assay, utilising human primary uterine smooth muscle cells (hUtSMCs and immortalised myometrial smooth muscle cells (hTERT-HM: a decrease in collagen gel area equated to an increase in contractility. RNA was isolated from collagen embedded cells and gene expression changes were analysed by real time fluorescence reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Scanning electron and fluorescence microscopy were employed to observe cell morphology and cell collagen gel interactions. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc tests. Results TNF alpha increased collagen contractility in comparison to the un-stimulated collagen embedded hUtSMC cells, which was inhibited by indomethacin, while indomethacin alone significantly inhibited contraction. Thrombin augmented the contractility of uterine smooth muscle cell and hTERT-HM collagen gels, this effect was inhibited by the thrombin specific inhibitor, hirudin. Y-27632 decreased both basal and thrombin-induced collagen contractility in the hTERT-HM embedded gels. mRNA expression of the thrombin receptor, F2R was up-regulated in hUtSMCs isolated from collagen gel lattices, following thrombin-stimulated contractility. Conclusion TNF alpha and thrombin increased uterine smooth muscle cell collagen contractility while indomethacin had the opposite effect. Thrombin-induced collagen contractility resulted in F2R activation which may in part be mediated by the ROCK-1 pathway. This study established the in vitro human myometrial model as a viable method to assess the effects of a range of uterotonic or uterorelaxant agents on contractility, and also permits investigation of the complex regulatory pathways involved in mediating myometrial contractility at labour.

Smith Terry J

2009-01-01

265

The Use of Direct Thrombin Injection to Treat a Type II Endoleak Following Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the use of thrombin to treat a type II endoleak which was causing continued abdominal aortic aneurysm expansion in a patient who had undergone endovascular repair. A small quantity of thrombin was injected into the leak by a percutaneous approach directly into the aneurysm sac using color doppler ultrasound. The procedure was successful and required only a few minutes to perform. We believe this procedure is an alternative to some of the more complex and technically challenging means of treating this lesion

266

Role of Na+/H+ exchange in thrombin-induced platelet-activating factor production by human endothelial cells.  

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Thrombin-stimulated endothelial cells produce platelet-activating factor (PAF) in a dose-dependent manner: the activation of a Ca2+-dependent lyso-PAF acetyltransferase is the rate-limiting step in this process. The present study shows that acetyltransferase activation and consequent PAF production induced by thrombin in human endothelial cells are markedly inhibited in Na+-free media or after addition of the amiloride analog 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride, suggesting that a Na+/H+ antiport...

Bosia, Amalia; Pescarmona, Gianpiero; Turrini, Francesco Michelangelo; Garbarino, Giovanni; Ghigo, Dario Antonio; Bussolino, Federico

1988-01-01

267

C-Src/Jak2/PDGFR/PKC?-dependent MMP-9 induction is required for thrombin-stimulated rat brain astrocytes migration.  

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Among matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), MMP-9 has been observed in patients with brain inflammatory diseases and may contribute to the pathology of brain diseases. Thrombin has been known as a regulator of MMP-9 expression and cells migration. However, the mechanisms underlying thrombin-induced MMP-9 expression in rat brain astrocytes (RBA-1 cells) were not completely understood. Here, we demonstrated that thrombin induced the expression of pro-form MMP-9 in RBA-1 cells and cells migration which were attenuated by pretreatment with the inhibitor of receptor tyrosine kinase (Genistein), c-Src (PP1), Jak2 (AG490), PDGFR (AG1296), PI3K (LY294002), Akt (SH-5), PKCs (Ro318220), PKC? (Rottlerin), or NF-?B (Bay11-7082) and transfection with siRNA of c-Src, PDGFR, Akt, PKC?, ATF2, p65, IKK?, or IKK?. In addition, thrombin-stimulated c-Src, Jak2, or PDGFR phosphorylation was inhibited by a thrombin inhibitor (PPACK), PP1, AG490, or AG1296. Thrombin further stimulated c-Src and PDGFR complex formation in RBA-1 cells. Thrombin also stimulated Akt and PKC? phosphorylation and PKC? translocation which were reduced by PPACK, PP1, AG490, AG1296, or LY294002. We further observed that thrombin markedly stimulated ATF2 or I?B? phosphorylation and NF-?B p65 translocation which were inhibited by Rottlerin or LY294002. Finally, thrombin stimulated in vivo binding of p65 to the MMP-9 promoter, which was reduced by pretreatment with Rottlerin or LY294002. These results concluded that in RBA-1 cells, thrombin activated a c-Src/Jak2/PDGFR/PI3K/Akt/PKC? pathway, which in turn triggered ATF2 and NF-?B activation and ultimately induced MMP-9 expression associated with cell migration. PMID:24018979

Lin, Chih-Chung; Lee, I-Ta; Chi, Pei-Ling; Hsieh, Hsi-Lung; Cheng, Shin-Ei; Hsiao, Li-Der; Liu, Chiung-Ju; Yang, Chuen-Mao

2014-04-01

268

Calcium/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta 6 (CaMKIIdelta6) and RhoA involvement in thrombin-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Multiple Ca(2+) release and entry mechanisms and potential cytoskeletal targets have been implicated in vascular endothelial barrier dysfunction; however, the immediate downstream effectors of Ca(2+) signals in the regulation of endothelial permeability still remain unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the contribution of multifunctional Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) as a mediator of thrombin-stimulated increases in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayer permeability. For the first time, we identified the CaMKIIdelta(6) isoform as the predominant CaMKII isoform expressed in endothelium. As little as 2.5 nM thrombin maximally increased CaMKIIdelta(6) activation assessed by Thr(287) autophosphorylation. Electroporation of siRNA targeting endogenous CaMKIIdelta (siCaMKIIdelta) suppressed expression of the kinase by >80% and significantly inhibited 2.5 nM thrombin-induced increases in monolayer permeability assessed by electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS). siCaMKIIdelta inhibited 2.5 nM thrombin-induced activation of RhoA, but had no effect on thrombin-induced ERK1/2 activation. Although Rho kinase inhibition strongly suppressed thrombin-induced HUVEC hyperpermeability, inhibiting ERK1/2 activation had no effect. In contrast to previous reports, these results indicate that thrombin-induced ERK1/2 activation in endothelial cells is not mediated by CaMKII and is not involved in endothelial barrier hyperpermeability. Instead, CaMKIIdelta(6) mediates thrombin-induced HUVEC barrier dysfunction through RhoA/Rho kinase as downstream intermediates. Moreover, the relative contribution of the CaMKIIdelta(6)/RhoA pathway(s) diminished with increasing thrombin stimulation, indicating recruitment of alternative signaling pathways mediating endothelial barrier dysfunction, dependent upon thrombin concentration. PMID:20442409

Wang, Zhen; Ginnan, Roman; Abdullaev, Iskandar F; Trebak, Mohamed; Vincent, Peter A; Singer, Harold A

2010-07-01

269

Computational study of some benzamidine-based inhibitors of thrombin-like snake venom proteinases  

Science.gov (United States)

Pit viper venoms contain a number of serine proteinases that, despite their observed coagulant thrombin-like action in vitro, exhibit a paradoxical benign defibrinogenating (anticoagulant) action in vivo, with clinical applications in preventing thrombi and improved blood circulation. Considering that several benzamidine-based inhibitors, some highly selective to thrombin, also inhibit the enzymatic activity of such venombins, the modeling of their enzyme-inhibitor interactions could provide valuable information on the topological factors that determine the divergences in activity. The first step, and the object of the present study, was to derive the necessary set of parameters, consistent with the CHARMM force field, and to perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on a few selected representatives of the inhibitors in question under physiological conditions. Bonding and van der Waals parameters were derived by analogy to similar ones in the existing force field. Net atomic charges were obtained with a restrained fitting to the molecular electrostatic potential generated at B3LYP/6-31G(d) level. The parameters were refined to reproduce the available experimental geometries and crystal data, and the MD simulations of the free inhibitors in aqueous solution at 298 K provided an insightful description of their available conformational space.

Henriques, Elsa S.; Nascimento, Marco A. C.; Ramos, Maria João

270

Insights into the role of thrombin in the pathogenesis of recurrent ischaemia after acute coronary syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a medical emergency. Patients who survive the initial event remain at risk of recurrent cardiovascular events. In most cases, ACS is triggered by thrombosis after rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque. Key to thrombus formation at this site is the generation of thrombin, which not only converts fibrinogen to fibrin but also serves as a potent platelet agonist and induces platelet aggregation at the site of vascular injury. Although dual antiplatelet therapy is more effective for the prevention of recurrent events than aspirin alone after ACS, there remains an approximately 10?% risk of recurrent ischaemic events at one year. Recent studies have evaluated whether the addition of an anticoagulant to antiplatelet therapy reduces the risk of recurrent ischaemia after an ACS event. Rivaroxaban, an oral factor Xa inhibitor, attenuates thrombin generation. When used in conjunction with dual antiplatelet therapy in patients with stabilised ACS, rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily significantly reduced the risk of the composite endpoint of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction and stroke compared with placebo. Although it increased the risk of bleeding, rivaroxaban was associated with a reduction in mortality; a finding that supports the use of a dual-pathway approach that combines anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy. This review explores the pathophysiology of ACS to provide perspective on the results of recent clinical trials with novel oral anticoagulants for ACS and to identify their potential role in this setting. PMID:25030773

Weitz, Jeffrey I

2014-11-01

271

Mechanism of the Anticoagulant Activity of Thrombin Mutant W215A/E217A  

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The thrombin mutant W215A/E217A (WE) is a potent anticoagulant both in vitro and in vivo. Previous x-ray structural studies have shown that WE assumes a partially collapsed conformation that is similar to the inactive E* form, which explains its drastically reduced activity toward substrate. Whether this collapsed conformation is genuine, rather than the result of crystal packing or the mutation introduced in the critical 215-217 {beta}-strand, and whether binding of thrombomodulin to exosite I can allosterically shift the E* form to the active E form to restore activity toward protein C are issues of considerable mechanistic importance to improve the design of an anticoagulant thrombin mutant for therapeutic applications. Here we present four crystal structures of WE in the human and murine forms that confirm the collapsed conformation reported previously under different experimental conditions and crystal packing. We also present structures of human and murine WE bound to exosite I with a fragment of the platelet receptor PAR1, which is unable to shift WE to the E form. These structural findings, along with kinetic and calorimetry data, indicate that WE is strongly stabilized in the E* form and explain why binding of ligands to exosite I has only a modest effect on the E*-E equilibrium for this mutant. The E* {yields} E transition requires the combined binding of thrombomodulin and protein C and restores activity of the mutant WE in the anticoagulant pathway.

Gandhi, Prafull S.; Page, Michael J.; Chen, Zhiwei; Bush-Pelc, Leslie; Di Cera, Enrico; (WU-MED)

2009-09-15

272

Cytosolic Ca profile of resting and thrombin-stimulated platelets from black women with NIDDM.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, human platelets were used as a cellular model for exploring cytosolic free Ca (Cai) regulation in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Cai levels were monitored in resting and thrombin-stimulated platelets from obese females with NIDDM; obese, nondiabetic women, and nonobese, nondiabetic women. All subjects were black. Significant and marked elevation of basal Cai levels was observed in platelets from the diabetic subjects when no aspirin was used during platelet isolation. However, no significant differences were observed in Cai between aspirin-treated platelets from women with NIDDM and platelets from nondiabetic women. The rate of the Cai return to basal level after thrombin stimulation was significantly lower in platelets from the diabetic subjects, suggesting an abnormality in platelet Ca extrusion or sequestration in NIDDM. Platelet Cai levels positively correlated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (LDL/HDL) and fasting blood glucose. These findings suggest abnormalities in platelet Cai homeostasis in NIDDM that are influenced by the serum lipid profile and perhaps glucose. PMID:7599351

Zentay, Z; Raguwanshi, M; Reddi, A; Lasker, N; Dasmahapatra, A; Aviv, A

1995-01-01

273

Activity of thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor in the plasma of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) experience impaired balance between fibrinolysis and coagulation, manifested by increased prothrombotic tendency and intensified inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the TAFI activity level (thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor) in the plasma of AAA patients. Plasma levels of PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1), urokinase-type plasminogen activator and uPAR (urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor) were measured as markers of fibrinolytic activity. The study showed that the activity of the thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor in the plasma of AAA patients was significantly lower than in the plasma of the control individuals (64.6?±?10.1 vs. 54.2?±?10.9%, P?D-dimers (fibrin fragments) were significantly higher in patients with AAA than in the control group (44.3?±?17.5 vs. 21.7?±?8.7?ng/ml and 1869.6?±?1490.1 vs. 181.5?±?188.6?ng/ml, respectively). Lowered activity of the fibrinolysis inhibitor TAFI may heighten the blood fibrinolytic potential in AAA patients and contribute to the development of comorbidities. Therefore, TAFI participation in AAA pathogenesis cannot be excluded. PMID:24378973

Dubis, Joanna; Zuk, Natalia; Grendziak, Ryszard; Zapotoczny, Norbert; Pfanhauser, Monika; Witkiewicz, Wojciech

2014-04-01

274

Post-receptor events associated with thrombin-induced platelet activation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thrombin is by far the most potent platelet agonist. Potentially this reflects multiple intracellular processes involved in transmitting the activation signal from the initial contact with a receptor, or binding site, to the final platelet response. Platelet membranes have two putative receptors: the high affinity glycoprotein Ib, whose function remains to be clarified, and the moderate affinity autoproteolytic receptor. The autoproteolytic receptor is a member of a family of receptors, with seven transmembrane domains, which interact with GTP-binding proteins. Distal to the membrane, several forms of phospholipase C are activated and roles for both heterotrimeric and low molecular mass GTP-binding proteins have been presented. Phospholipase C acts on inositol phospholipids to generate inositol trisphosphate and diacylglycerol, both of which function as second messengers in thrombin-induced platelet activation. Inositol trisphosphate mobilizes internal calcium stores and this is accompanied, and enhanced, by an influx of calcium from the external milieu. Diacylglycerol and calcium both serve to regulate the activity of multiple protein kinases which, in turn, mediate the phosphorylated state of numerous proteins. Phosphorylation can occur on serine, threonine or tyrosine residues of target proteins and the phosphorylated state of these proteins determines the final activation of the platelet. PMID:8148490

McNicol, A; Gerrard, J M

1993-12-01

275

A sensitive HIV-1 envelope induced fusion assay identifies fusion enhancement of thrombin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the interaction between HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) and target cell receptors, various cell-cell-fusion assays have been developed. In the present study, we established a novel fusion system. In this system, the expression of the sensitive reporter gene, firefly luciferase (FL) gene, in the target cells was used to evaluate cell fusion event. Simultaneously, constitutively expressed Renilla luciferase (RL) gene was used to monitor effector cell number and viability. FL gave a wider dynamic range than other known reporters and the introduction of RL made the assay accurate and reproducible. This system is especially beneficial for investigation of potential entry-influencing agents, for its power of ruling out the false inhibition or enhancement caused by the artificial cell-number variation. As a case study, we applied this fusion system to observe the effect of a serine protease, thrombin, on HIV Env-mediated cell-cell fusion and have found the fusion enhancement activity of thrombin over two R5-tropic HIV strains.

276

Sparse Topical Coding  

CERN Document Server

We present sparse topical coding (STC), a non-probabilistic formulation of topic models for discovering latent representations of large collections of data. Unlike probabilistic topic models, STC relaxes the normalization constraint of admixture proportions and the constraint of defining a normalized likelihood function. Such relaxations make STC amenable to: 1) directly control the sparsity of inferred representations by using sparsity-inducing regularizers; 2) be seamlessly integrated with a convex error function (e.g., SVM hinge loss) for supervised learning; and 3) be efficiently learned with a simply structured coordinate descent algorithm. Our results demonstrate the advantages of STC and supervised MedSTC on identifying topical meanings of words and improving classification accuracy and time efficiency.

Zhu, Jun

2012-01-01

277

Topics in Calculus  

Science.gov (United States)

E. Lee Lady, a professor in the Department of Mathematics at the University of Hawaii, authored these notes to help students learn how to use, not just understand, the concepts of calculus. A total of fifteen topics are covered and include max-min problems, exponential growth, and the derivation of Kepler's second law. The materials are available in DVI, .pdf, or Java versions. Each topic can be obtained as a separate file.

Lady, E. Lee.

1998-01-01

278

Topical treatment of melasma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Melasma is a common hypermelanotic disorder affecting the face that is associated with considerable psychological impacts. The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topical therapy has remained the mainstay of treatment. Multiple options for topical treatment are available, of which hydroquinone (HQ is the most commonly prescribed agent. Besides HQ, other topical agents for which varying degrees of evidence for clinical efficacy exist include azelaic acid, kojic acid, retinoids, topical steroids, glycolic acid, mequinol, and arbutin. Topical medications modify various stages of melanogenesis, the most common mode of action being inhibition of the enzyme, tyrosinase. Combination therapy is the preferred mode of treatment for the synergism and reduction of untoward effects. The most popular combination consists of HQ, a topical steroid, and retinoic acid. Prolonged HQ usage may lead to untoward effects like depigmentation and exogenous ochronosis. The search for safer alternatives has given rise to the development of many newer agents, several of them from natural sources. Well-designed controlled clinical trials are needed to clarify their role in the routine management of melasma.

Bandyopadhyay Debabrata

2009-01-01

279

Thrombin Time  

Science.gov (United States)

... Dufour, D. R., Editors (© 2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry: AACC Press, Washington, DC. Pp 227-238. Henry's ... Us Your Comments ©2001 - by American Association for Clinical Chemistry • Contact Us | Terms of Use | Privacy We comply ...

280

Thrombin-induced expression of RANTES mRNA through protease activated receptor-1 in human synovial fibroblasts  

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Methods: A semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and reporter gene assay were performed using cultured human synovial fibroblasts from patients with RA. The up regulatory effects of thrombin on RANTES mRNA expression were tested. In addition, the roles of protease activated receptors (PARs) were analysed.

Hirano, F.; Kobayashi, A.; Hirano, Y.; Nomura, Y.; Fukawa, E.; Makino, I.

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Regulation of Meiotic Recombination  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Meiotic recombination results in the heritable rearrangement of DNA, primarily through reciprocal exchange between homologous chromosome or gene conversion. In plants these events are critical for ensuring proper chromosome segregation, facilitating DNA repair and providing a basis for genetic diversity. Understanding this fundamental biological mechanism will directly facilitate trait mapping, conventional plant breeding, and development of genetic engineering techniques that will help support the responsible production and conversion of renewable resources for fuels, chemicals, and the conservation of energy (1-3). Substantial progress has been made in understanding the basal recombination machinery, much of which is conserved in organisms as diverse as yeast, plants and mammals (4, 5). Significantly less is known about the factors that regulate how often and where that basal machinery acts on higher eukaryotic chromosomes. One important mechanism for regulating the frequency and distribution of meiotic recombination is crossover interference - or the ability of one recombination event to influence nearby events. The MUS81 gene is thought to play an important role in regulating the influence of interference on crossing over. The immediate goals of this project are to use reverse genetics to identify mutants in two putative MUS81 homologs in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, characterize those mutants and initiate a novel forward genetic screen for additional regulators of meiotic recombination. The long-term goal of the project is to understand how meiotic recombination is regulated in higher eukaryotes with an emphasis on the molecular basis of crossover interference. The ability to monitor recombination in all four meiotic products (tetrad analysis) has been a powerful tool in the arsenal of yeast geneticists. Previously, the qrt mutant of Arabidopsis, which causes the four pollen products of male meiosis to remain attached, was developed as a facile system for assaying recombination using tetrad analysis in a higher eukaryotic system (6). This system enabled the measurement of the frequency and distribution of recombination events at a genome wide level in wild type Arabidopsis (7), construction of genetic linkage maps which include positions for each centromere (8), and modeling of the strength and pattern of interference (9). This proposal extends the use of tetrad analysis in Arabidopsis by using it as the basis for assessing the phenotypes of mutants in genes important for recombination and the regulation of crossover interference and performing a novel genetic screen. In addition to broadening our knowledge of a classic genetic problem - the regulation of recombination by crossover interference - this proposal also provides broader impact by: generating pedagogical tools for use in hands-on classroom experience with genetics, building interdisciplinary collegial partnerships, and creating a platform for participation by junior scientists from underrepresented groups. There are three specific aims: (1) Isolate mutants in Arabidopsis MUS81 homologs using T-DNA and TILLING (2) Characterize recombination levels and interference in mus81 mutants (3) Execute a novel genetic screen, based on tetrad analysis, for genes that regulate meiotic recombination

Gregory p. Copenhaver

2011-11-09

282

GDP beta S enhances the activation of phospholipase C caused by thrombin in human platelets: evidence for involvement of an inhibitory GTP-binding protein  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Guanosine 5'-O-thiotriphosphate (GTP gamma S) and thrombin stimulate the activity of phospholipase C in platelets that have been permeabilized with saponin and whose inositol phospholipids have been prelabeled with (/sup 3/H)inositol. Ca/sup 2 +/ has opposite effects on the formation of (/sup 3/H)inositol phosphates induced by thrombin or GTP gamma S. While the action of GTP gamma S on the formation of (/sup 3/H)inositol phosphates is inhibited by Ca/sup 2 +/, action of thrombin is stimulated by Ca/sup 2 +/. Guanosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) (GDP beta S), which inhibits the function of GTP-binding proteins, also inhibits the effect of GTP gamma S on phospholipase C stimulation but, surprisingly, increases the effect of thrombin. Ca/sup 2 +/ increases the inhibitory effect of GDP beta S on GTP gamma S activation of phospholipase C, but Ca/sup 2 +/ further enhances the stimulatory effect of GDP beta S on the thrombin activation of phospholipase C. This indicates that two mechanisms are responsible for the activation of phospholipase C in platelets. A GTP-binding protein is responsible for regulation of phospholipase C induced by GTP gamma S, while the effect of thrombin on the stimulation of phospholipase C is independent of GTP-binding proteins. However, the effect of thrombin may be modulated by the action of an inhibitory GTP-binding protein.

Oberdisse, E.; Lapetina, E.G.

1987-05-14

283

A electrochemiluminescence aptasensor for detection of thrombin incorporating the capture aptamer labeled with gold nanoparticles immobilized onto the thio-silanized ITO electrode  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A novel electrochemiluminescence (ECL) aptasensor was proposed for sensitive and cost-effective detection of the target thrombin adopted an aptamer-based sandwich format. To detect thrombin, capture aptamers labeled with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were first immobilized onto the thio-silanized ITO electrode surface through strong Au-S bonds. After catching the target thrombin, signal aptamers tagged with ECL labels were attached to the assembled electrode surface. As a result, an AuNPs-capture-aptamer/thrombin/ECL-tagged-signal-aptamer sandwich type was formed. Treating the resulting electrode surface with tri-n-propylamine (TPA) and applying a swept potential to the electrode, ECL response was generated which realized the detection of target protein. Spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance techniques were used to characterize and confirm the fabrication of the ECL aptasensor. AuNPs amplification and smart sensor fabrication art were implemented for the sensitive and cost-effective detection purpose. Signal-to-dose curve excellently followed a sandwich format equation and could be used to quantify the protein, and the detection limit was estimated to be 10 nM. Other forms of thrombin such as {beta}- and {gamma}-thrombins had negligible response, which indicated a high specificity of {alpha}-thrombin detection. The aptasensor opened up new fields of aptamer applications in ECL domain, a highly sensitive technique, and had a promising perspective to be applied in microarray analysis.

Fang Lanyun [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022, Jilin (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Ningbo Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Ningbo 315010, Zhejiang (China); Lue Zhaozi [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022, Jilin (China); Wei Hui [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022, Jilin (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang Erkang [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022, Jilin (China)], E-mail: ekwang@ciac.jl.cn

2008-10-17

284

Effect of Locked-Nucleic Acid on a Biologically Active G-Quadruplex. A Structure-Activity Relationship of the Thrombin Aptamer  

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Full Text Available Here we tested the ability to augment the biological activity of the thrombin aptamer, d(GGTTGGTGTGGTTGG, by using locked nucleic acid (LNA to influence its G-quadruplex structure. Compared to un-substituted control aptamer, LNA-containing aptamers displayed varying degrees of thrombin inhibition. Aptamers with LNA substituted in either positions G5, T7, or G8 showed decreased thrombin inhibition, whereas LNA at position G2 displayed activity comparable to un-substituted control aptamer. Interestingly, the thermal stability of the substituted aptamers does not correlate to activity – the more stable aptamers with LNA in position G5, T7, or G8 showed the least thrombin inhibition, while a less stable aptamer with LNA at G2 was as active as the un-substituted aptamer. These results suggest that LNA substitution at sites G5, T7, and G8 directly perturbs aptamer-thrombin affinity. This further implies that for the thrombin aptamer, activity is not dictated solely by the stability of the G-quadruplex structure, but by specific interactions between the central TGT loop and thrombin and that LNA can be tolerated in a biologically active nucleic acid structure albeit in a position dependent fashion.

Michael B. Jarstfer

2008-03-01

285

A electrochemiluminescence aptasensor for detection of thrombin incorporating the capture aptamer labeled with gold nanoparticles immobilized onto the thio-silanized ITO electrode  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A novel electrochemiluminescence (ECL) aptasensor was proposed for sensitive and cost-effective detection of the target thrombin adopted an aptamer-based sandwich format. To detect thrombin, capture aptamers labeled with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were first immobilized onto the thio-silanized ITO electrode surface through strong Au-S bonds. After catching the target thrombin, signal aptamers tagged with ECL labels were attached to the assembled electrode surface. As a result, an AuNPs-capture-aptamer/thrombin/ECL-tagged-signal-aptamer sandwich type was formed. Treating the resulting electrode surface with tri-n-propylamine (TPA) and applying a swept potential to the electrode, ECL response was generated which realized the detection of target protein. Spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance techniques were used to characterize and confirm the fabrication of the ECL aptasensor. AuNPs amplification and smart sensor fabrication art were implemented for the sensitive and cost-effective detection purpose. Signal-to-dose curve excellently followed a sandwich format equation and could be used to quantify the protein, and the detection limit was estimated to be 10 nM. Other forms of thrombin such as ?- and ?-thrombins had negligible response, which indicated a high specificity of ?-thrombin detection. The aptasensor opened up new fields of aptamer applications in ECL domain, a highly sensitive technique, and had a promising perspective to be applied in microarray analystive to be applied in microarray analysis

286

GDP beta S enhances the activation of phospholipase C caused by thrombin in human platelets: evidence for involvement of an inhibitory GTP-binding protein  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Guanosine 5'-O-thiotriphosphate (GTP gamma S) and thrombin stimulate the activity of phospholipase C in platelets that have been permeabilized with saponin and whose inositol phospholipids have been prelabeled with [3H]inositol. Ca2+ has opposite effects on the formation of [3H]inositol phosphates induced by thrombin or GTP gamma S. While the action of GTP gamma S on the formation of [3H]inositol phosphates is inhibited by Ca2+, action of thrombin is stimulated by Ca2+. Guanosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) (GDP beta S), which inhibits the function of GTP-binding proteins, also inhibits the effect of GTP gamma S on phospholipase C stimulation but, surprisingly, increases the effect of thrombin. Ca2+ increases the inhibitory effect of GDP beta S on GTP gamma S activation of phospholipase C, but Ca2+ further enhances the stimulatory effect of GDP beta S on the thrombin activation of phospholipase C. This indicates that two mechanisms are responsible for the activation of phospholipase C in platelets. A GTP-binding protein is responsible for regulation of phospholipase C induced by GTP gamma S, while the effect of thrombin on the stimulation of phospholipase C is independent of GTP-binding proteins. However, the effect of thrombin may be modulated by the action of an inhibitory GTP-binding protein

287

cAMP controls the restoration of endothelial barrier function after thrombin?induced hyperpermeability via Rac1 activation  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Inflammatory mediators like thrombin disrupt endothelial adherens junctions (AJs) and barrier integrity leading to oedema formation followed by resealing of AJs and a slow recovery of the barrier function. The molecular mechanisms of this process have not yet been fully delineated. The aim of the present study was to analyse the molecular mechanism of endothelial barrier recovery and thrombin was used as model inflammatory mediator. Thrombin caused a strong increase in endothelial permeability within 10 min accompanied by loss of Rac1 but not cdc42 activity, drop in cellular cAMP contents, and a strong activation of the endothelial contractile machinery mainly via RhoA/Rock signalling. Activation of RhoA/Rock signalling precedes and is dependent upon a rise in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration. Inhibition of cytosolic Ca2+ rise but not MLCK or Rock enhances the recovery of endothelial barrier function. The cellular cAMP contents increased gradually during the barrier recovery phase (30–60 min after thrombin challenge) accompanied by an increase in Rac1 activity. Inhibition of Rac1 activity using a specific pharmacological inhibitor (NSC23766) abrogated the endothelial barrier recovery process, suggesting a Rac1?dependent phenomenon. Likewise, inhibition of either adenylyl cyclase or the cAMP?effectors PKA and Epac (with PKI and ESI?09, respectively) caused an abrogation of Rac1 activation, resealing of endothelial AJs and recovery of endothelial barrier function. The data demonstrate that endothelial barrier recovery after thrombin challenge is regulated by Rac1 GTPase activation. This Rac1 activation is due to increased levels of cellular cAMP and activation of downstream signalling during the barrier recovery phase. PMID:25344477

Aslam, Muhammad; Tanislav, Christian; Troidl, Christian; Schulz, Rainer; Hamm, Christian; Gündüz, Dursun

2014-01-01

288

cAMP controls the restoration of endothelial barrier function after thrombin-induced hyperpermeability via Rac1 activation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inflammatory mediators like thrombin disrupt endothelial adherens junctions (AJs) and barrier integrity leading to oedema formation followed by resealing of AJs and a slow recovery of the barrier function. The molecular mechanisms of this process have not yet been fully delineated. The aim of the present study was to analyse the molecular mechanism of endothelial barrier recovery and thrombin was used as model inflammatory mediator. Thrombin caused a strong increase in endothelial permeability within 10 min accompanied by loss of Rac1 but not cdc42 activity, drop in cellular cAMP contents, and a strong activation of the endothelial contractile machinery mainly via RhoA/Rock signalling. Activation of RhoA/Rock signalling precedes and is dependent upon a rise in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. Inhibition of cytosolic Ca(2+) rise but not MLCK or Rock enhances the recovery of endothelial barrier function. The cellular cAMP contents increased gradually during the barrier recovery phase (30-60 min after thrombin challenge) accompanied by an increase in Rac1 activity. Inhibition of Rac1 activity using a specific pharmacological inhibitor (NSC23766) abrogated the endothelial barrier recovery process, suggesting a Rac1-dependent phenomenon. Likewise, inhibition of either adenylyl cyclase or the cAMP-effectors PKA and Epac (with PKI and ESI-09, respectively) caused an abrogation of Rac1 activation, resealing of endothelial AJs and recovery of endothelial barrier function. The data demonstrate that endothelial barrier recovery after thrombin challenge is regulated by Rac1 GTPase activation. This Rac1 activation is due to increased levels of cellular cAMP and activation of downstream signalling during the barrier recovery phase. PMID:25344477

Aslam, Muhammad; Tanislav, Christian; Troidl, Christian; Schulz, Rainer; Hamm, Christian; Gündüz, Dursun

2014-10-01

289

Thrombin receptor deficiency leads to a high bone mass phenotype by decreasing the RANKL/OPG ratio.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thrombin and its receptor (TR) are, respectively, expressed in osteoclasts and osteoblasts. However, their physiological roles on bone metabolism have not been fully elucidated. Here we investigated the bone microarchitecture by micro-computed tomography (?CT) and demonstrated increased trabecular and cortical bone mass in femurs of TR KO mice compared to WT littermates. Trabecular thickness and connectivity were significantly enhanced. The physiological role of TR on both inorganic and organic phases of bone is illustrated by a significant increase in BMD and a decrease in urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD) crosslink concentration in TR KO mice. Moreover, TR KO cortical bone expanded and had a higher polar moment of inertia (J), implying stronger bone. Bone histomorphometry illustrated unaltered osteoblast and osteoclast number and surface in femoral metaphyses, indicating that thrombin/TR regulates osteoblasts and osteoclasts at functional levels. Serum analysis showed a decrease in RANKL and an increase in osteoprotegerin (OPG) levels and reflected a reduced RANKL/OPG ratio in the TR KO group. In vitro experiments using MC3T3 pre-osteoblasts demonstrated a TR-dependent stimulatory effect of thrombin on the RANKL/OPG ratio. This effect was blocked by TR antagonist and p42/p44-ERK inhibitor. In addition, thrombin also intensified p42/p44-ERK expression and phosphorylation. In conclusion, the thrombin/TR system maintains normal bone remodeling by activating RANKL and limiting OPG synthesis by osteoblasts through the p42/44-ERK signaling pathway. Consequently, TR deficiency inhibits osteoclastogenesis, resulting in a high bone mass phenotype. PMID:25460576

Tudpor, Kukiat; van der Eerden, Bram C J; Jongwattanapisan, Prapaporn; Roelofs, Joris J T H; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M; Bindels, René J M; Hoenderop, Joost G J

2015-03-01

290

Personal experiences in direct ultrasound-guided injection of thrombin into the lumen of pseudoaneurysm as a method of treatment in case of iatrogenic femoral artery damage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Pseudoaneurysms constitute a quite common complication of procedures requiring puncture of the common femoral artery. The risk factors of the condition include: obesity, arterial hypertension, sex (more prevalent in males) as well as antithrombotic therapy. Material/Methods: The US-guided injection of thrombin into the pseudoaneurysm lumen was performed in patients referred from the Department of Invasive Cardiology who had undergone coronarography or coronary angioplasty. Pseudoaneurysms constituted the complication of common femoral artery canulation. After setting the diagnosis of pseudoaneurysm by means of Doppler ultrasound, patients with large pseudoaneurysms of volume exceeding 10 mm were qualified for thrombin injection. Generally, 33 patients underwent the treatment. In 3 cases - due to the presence of multiocular pseudoaneurysm - thrombin was administered twice. Results: Taking into account the safety of the procedure, ultimately 33 patients were qualified for thrombin administration, in whom aneurism of diameter exceeding 10 mm was diagnosed. In 3 patients with aneurysm of less than 10 mm, only a compression band was used prophylactically. In one case, because of a considerable oedema surrounding the tissue, as well as deep location of the aneurysm in the groin, thrombin treatment was not given due to technical reasons. In 30 cases, single administration of thrombin was effective and resulted in a complete thrombosis of the pseudoaneurism lumen te thrombosis of the pseudoaneurism lumen within a couple of seconds following thrombin injection. In 3 patients with multicellular aneurysm, thrombin was given twice, resulting in a total obliteration of the pseudoaneurysm in two cases only. No complications were observed after the performed procedures. No recanalisation of pseudoaneurysms was demonstrated in follow-up examinations. Conclusions: 1. Direct thrombin injection into the pseudoaneurysm lumen can constitute an alternative method of treatment for open surgical techniques. 2. The procedure is highly effective, cheap and minimally invasive. (authors)

291

Polarity in adenovirus recombination.  

Science.gov (United States)

The distributions of the crossovers necessary to generate ts+ genomes have been examined in a collection of clonally unrelated ts+ recombinants from a set of ts X ts adenovirus crosses. In a cross between two parents that are grossly heterologous between map units 80.2 and 91.5, the distribution of crossovers was significantly skewed toward the left-hand end of the genome, with a declining frequency proceeding rightward. This gradient of recombination was modified by the removal of the right-hand heterology and by the presence of another region of heterology between map units 3.67 and 10.11. In a cross where the ts markers were flanked by both heterologies, no gradient was observed and ts+ recombinants were characterized by a higher rate of supernumerary crossovers. In a cross designed so that one ts marker was internal to two heterologies, crossovers were found disproportionately between the second ts marker and the nearby heterology. In addition, ts+ recombinants formed by crossing over internal to the heterologies again were accompanied by a high frequency of supernumerary crossovers. Finally, ts+ recombinant frequencies in crosses identical except for the presence of either one or two flanking heterologies were markedly lower in the latter case. These data, taken together, suggest that a major pathway of adenovirus recombination initiates at, or near, the molecular termini and is perhaps driven by the displaced single strands produced during DNA replication. Internal initiation, on the other hand, may employ these single strands to form genetic "patches." PMID:6330982

Munz, P L; Young, C S

1984-06-01

292

Incorporation of noncoded amino acids into the N-terminal domain 1-47 of hirudin yields a highly potent and selective thrombin inhibitor.  

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Hirudin is an anticoagulant polypeptide isolated from a medicinal leech that inhibits thrombin with extraordinary potency (Kd = 0.2-1.0 pM) and selectivity. Hirudin is composed of a compact N-terminal region (residues 1-47, cross-linked by three disulfide bridges) that binds to the active site of thrombin, and a flexible C-terminal tail (residues 48-64) that interacts with the exosite I of the enzyme. To minimize the sequence of hirudin able to bind thrombin and also to improve its therapeuti...

Filippis, V.; Russo, I.; Vindigni, A.; Di Cera, E.; Salmaso, S.; Fontana, A.

1999-01-01

293

Thrombin induces Egr-1 expression in fibroblasts involving elevation of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, phosphorylation of ERK and activation of ternary complex factor  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The serine protease thrombin catalyzes fibrin clot formation by converting fibrinogen into fibrin. Additionally, thrombin stimulation leads to an activation of stimulus-responsive transcription factors in different cell types, indicating that the gene expression pattern is changed in thrombin-stimulated cells. The objective of this study was to analyze the signaling cascade leading to the expression of the zinc finger transcription factor Egr-1 in thrombin-stimulated lung fibroblasts. Results Stimulation of 39M1-81 fibroblasts with thrombin induced a robust and transient biosynthesis of Egr-1. Reporter gene analysis revealed that the newly synthesized Egr-1 was biologically active. The signaling cascade connecting thrombin stimulation with Egr-1 gene expression required elevated levels of cytosolic Ca2+, the activation of diacylgycerol-dependent protein kinase C isoenzymes, and the activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK. Stimulation of the cells with thrombin triggered the phosphorylation of the transcription factor Elk-1. Expression of a dominant-negative mutant of Elk-1 completely prevented Egr-1 expression in stimulated 39M1-81 cells, indicating that Elk-1 or related ternary complex factors connect the intracellular signaling cascade elicited by activation of protease-activated receptors with transcription of the Egr-1 gene. Lentiviral-mediated expression of MAP kinase phosphatase-1, a dual-specific phosphatase that dephosphorylates and inactivates ERK in the nucleus, prevented Elk-1 phosphorylation and Egr-1 biosynthesis in thrombin stimulated 39M1-81 cells, confirming the importance of nuclear ERK and Elk-1 for the upregulation of Egr-1 expression in thrombin-stimulated lung fibroblasts. 39M1-81 cells additionally express M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. A comparison between the signaling cascades induced by thrombin or carbachol showed no differences, except that signal transduction via M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors required the transactivation of the EGF receptor, while thrombin signaling did not. Conclusion This study shows that stimulus-transcription coupling in thrombin-treated lung fibroblasts relies on the elevation of the intracellular Ca2+-concentration and the activation of PKC and ERK. In the nucleus, ternary complex factors function as key proteins linking the intracellular signaling cascade with enhanced transcription of the Egr-1 gene. This study further shows that the dominant-negative Elk-1 mutant is a valuable tool to study Elk-1-mediated gene transcription.

Thiel Gerald

2009-05-01

294

Topic Tracking with Dynamic Topic Model and Topic-based Weighting Method  

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Full Text Available In topic tracking, a topic is usually described by several stories. How to represent a topic is always an issue and a difficult problem in the research on topic tracking. To emphasis the topic in stories, we provide an improved topic-based tf*idf weighting method to measure the topical importance of the features in the representation model. To overcome the topic drift problem and filter the noise existed in the tracked topic description, a dynamic topic model is proposed based on the static model. It extends the initial topic model with the information from the incoming related stories and filters the noise using the latest unrelated story. The topic tracking systems are implemented on the TDT4 Chinese corpus. The experimental results indicate that both the new weighting method and the dynamic model can improve the tracking performance.

Xiaoyan Zhang

2010-05-01

295

A study of the conditions and accuracy of the thrombin time assay of plasma fibrinogen  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The conditions, accuracy, precision and possible error of the thrombin time assay of plasma fibrinogen are determined. Comparison with an estimation of clottable protein by absorbance at 280 nm gave a correlation coefficient of 0.96 and the regression line y = 1.00 x + 0.56 (n = 34). Comparison with a radial immunodiffusion method yielded the correlation coefficient 0.97 and the regression line y = 1.18 x = 2.47 (n = 26). The presence of heparin in clinically applied concentrations produced a slight shortening of the clotting times. The resulting error in the estimated concentrations of fibrinogen was too small to affect the clinical usefulness of the determinations. The influence of fibrin(ogen) degradation products was significant only in excessive amounts in samples containing low levels of fibrinogen.

Jespersen, J; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen

1982-01-01

296

Ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescence detection of thrombin based on aptamer and cystamine modified gold nanoparticle probe  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, our group showed that one can detect specific oligonucleotides at low femtomolar levels with the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biobarcode approach based on tris-(2, 2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (TBR)-labeled cysteamine. It would be a significant advance to use the cysteamine assisted ECL biobarcode assay to detect protein targets in addition to DNA targets. Taking advantage of sandwich binding of two affinity aptamers for increased specificity, TBR-cysteamine as biobarcode for signal amplification and magnetic beads based ECL technology for rapid detection, a promising assay for thrombin quantification is developed. The sandwich complex could be selectively captured by micromagnetic particles and then quantified by ECL signals. Current cysteamine-Gold nanoparticle (GNP) conjugates based ECL biobarcode assay is expected to become a powerful tool for protein analysis.

Duan, Ruixue; Zhou, Xiaoming

2012-03-01

297

Characterization of Ixophilin, A Thrombin Inhibitor from the Gut of Ixodes scapularis  

Science.gov (United States)

Ixodes scapularis, the black-legged tick, vectors several human pathogens including Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease in North America. Pathogen transmission to the vertebrate host occurs when infected ticks feed on the mammalian host to obtain a blood meal. Efforts to understand how the tick confronts host hemostatic mechanisms and imbibes a fluid blood meal have largely focused on the anticoagulation strategies of tick saliva. The blood meal that enters the tick gut remains in a fluid state for several days during the process of feeding, and the role of the tick gut in maintaining the blood-meal fluid is not understood. We now demonstrate that the tick gut produces a potent inhibitor of thrombin, a key enzyme in the mammalian coagulation cascade. Chromatographic fractionation of engorged tick gut proteins identified one predominant thrombin inhibitory activity associated with an approximately 18 kDa protein, henceforth referred to as Ixophilin. The ixophilin gene was preferentially transcribed in the guts of feeding nymphs. Expression began after 24 hours of feeding, coincident with the flow of host blood into the tick gut. Immunity against Ixophilin delayed tick feeding, and decreased feeding efficiency significantly. Surprisingly, immunity against Ixophilin resulted in increased Borrelia burgdorferi transmission to the host, possibly due to delayed feeding and increased transmission opportunity. These observations illuminate the potential drawbacks of targeting individual tick proteins in a functional suite. They also underscore the need to identify the “anticoagulome” of the tick gut, and to prioritize a critical subset of anticoagulants that could be targeted to efficiently thwart tick feeding, and block pathogen transmission to the vertebrate host. PMID:23874485

Narasimhan, Sukanya; Perez, Oriana; Mootien, Sara; DePonte, Kathleen; Koski, Raymond A.; Fikrig, Erol; Ledizet, Michel

2013-01-01

298

Inhibition of tissue factor pathway inhibitor increases the sensitivity of thrombin generation assay to procoagulant microvesicles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients with cancer have a seven-fold to 10-fold increased risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE). Circulating microvesicles could be a predictive biomarker for VTE in cancer. Thrombin generation assay (TGA) is a useful technique to detect procoagulant activity of microvesicles. However, TGA suffers from a lack of sensitivity due to the presence of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) in plasma. The aim of the study was to improve the sensitivity of TGA to tissue factor by limiting the interference of TFPI. Serial dilutions of MDA-MB231 cells were incubated for 45 min at 37°C to generate microvesicles. Samples were then centrifuged and supernatants that contain microvesicles were used for TGA. Normal pooled plasma was incubated with inhibitor of TFPI or was diluted twice to decrease plasma level of TFPI. Lagtime was used as a surrogate marker of TGA to detect procoagulant activity of microvesicles. Inhibition of TFPI decreased twice the cell concentration needed for a significant reduction of lagtime and decreased 2.4-fold the intraassay variability. Plasma dilution had no impact on the TGA sensitivity when TGA was triggered by microvesicles derived from MDA-MB-231. Thrombin generation is a very sensitive method to study the procoagulant activity of tissue factor bearing microvesicles. The sensitivity can be increased by inhibition of TFPI with specific monoclonal antibody against its Kunitz domain I. A two times plasma dilution is an interesting cheaper alternative to study the procoagulant activity of microvesicles by TGA with a good sensitivity, especially when low plasma quantities are available. PMID:23807485

Gheldof, Damien; Mullier, François; Chatelain, Bernard; Dogné, Jean-Michel; Chatelain, Christian

2013-07-01

299

Resolution of radiolabeled molecular species of phospholipid in human platelets: effect of thrombin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Resolution of individual molecular species of human platelet 1,2-diradyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholines and 1,2-diradyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamines by reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) allowed a thorough analysis of those phospholipids labeled with [3H]arachidonic acid. Approximately 54% and 16% of the total incorporated radiolabel was found in choline glycerophospholipids and ethanolamine glycerophospholipids, respectively, with ca. 90% of this being found in the 1,2-diacyl molecular species. Eighty percent of [3H]-arachidonic acid incorporated into 1-acyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine in resting platelets was equally distributed between 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl and 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, while 70% of the radiolabel in 1-acyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine was found in 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine. Thrombin stimulation (5 U/ml for 5 min) resulted in deacylation of all 1-acyl-2-[3H]arachidonoyl molecular species of 1-acyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1-acyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethanolamine. There was also a slight increase in 1-O-alkyl-2-[3H]arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and a significant increase in 1-O-alk-1'-enyl-2-[3H]arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine molecular species of over 300%. Thus, HPLC methodology indicates that arachidonoyl-containingogy indicates that arachidonoyl-containing molecular species of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine are the major source of arachidonic acid in thrombin-stimulated human platelets, while certain ether phospholipid molecular species become enriched in arachidonate

300

PREFACE: CEWQO Topical Issue CEWQO Topical Issue  

Science.gov (United States)

This topical issue of Physica Scripta collects selected peer-reviewed contributions based on invited and contributed talks and posters presented at the 15th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics (CEWQO) which took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 (http://cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu). On behalf of the whole community took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 (http://cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu, cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu). On behalf of the whole community of the workshop, we thank the referees for their careful reading and useful suggestions which helped to improve all of the submitted papers. A brief description of CEWQO The Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics is a series of conferences started informally in Budapest in 1992. Sometimes small events transform into important conferences, as in the case of CEWQO. Professor Jozsef Janszky, from the Research Institute of Solid State Physics and Optics, is the founder of this series. Margarita Man'ko obtained the following information from Jozsef Janszky during her visit to Budapest, within the framework of cooperation between the Russian and Hungarian Academies of Sciences in 2005. He organized a small workshop on quantum optics in Budapest in 1992 with John Klauder as a main speaker. Then, bearing in mind that a year before Janszky himself was invited by Vladimir Buzek to give a seminar on the same topic in Bratislava, he decided to assign the name 'Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics', considering the seminar in Bratislava to be the first workshop and the one in Budapest the second. The third formal workshop took place in Bratislava in 1993 organized by Vladimir Buzek, then in 1994 (Budapest, by Jozsef Janszky), 1995 and 1996 (Budmerice, Slovakia, by Vladimir Buzek), 1997 (Prague, by Igor Jex), 1999 (Olomouc, Czech Republic, by Zdenek Hradil), 2000 (Balatonfüred, Hungary, by Jozsef Janszky ), 2001 (Prague, by Igor Jex), 2002 (Szeged, Hungary, by Mihaly Benedict), 2003 (Rostock,Germany, by Werner Vogel and Sascha Wallentowitz), 2004 (Trieste, Italy, by Naseem Rahman and Sascha Wallentowitz), 2005 (Bilkent, Ankara, by Alexander Shumovsky), 2006 (Vienna, by Helmut Rauch), 2007 (Palermo, Italy, by Antonino Messina) and 2008 (Belgrade, by Mirjana Bozic). The CEWQO series developed in two directions following the rapid development of quantum optics and the transitional development of the scientific collaboration of Central European researchers with researchers from old and new emerging Central European countries, and from all over the world. The topics discussed at CEWQO 08 were divided into ten groups that aimed to cover the broad scope of modern quantum optics: Fundamental aspects of quantum optics and quantum mechanics Single photons and photon pairs Cavity and circuit QED Atoms in intense fields Neutron, atom and molecular quantum optics Quantum gases and fluids Coherence, entanglement and decoherence Optical properties of condensed matter and nanostructures Open quantum systems and chaos Quantum information processing Central European Workshops on Quantum Optics realize and are consistent with a wider idea, and a social, economical, cultural and political program promoted since 1989 by the Central European Initiative (CEI), the main goal of which was to help transition countries in Central Europe to become closer to the EU. The resulting support of the CEI, first obtained thanks to the scientific reputation, organizing activities, and efforts of Helmut Rauch, has been very important for the organization of the CEWQO in recent years, particularly in 2008. The support of the Sixth and Seventh Framework Programs of the European Commission was also very important. A short review of papers in this topical issue A principal role in this topical issue is played by the photon. Vuletic et al describe the mapping of the photon-polarization state onto a single collective-spin excitation (magnon) shared between two atomic ensembles. A heralded quantum memory based on this mapping is demonstrated. Dodonov derives a formula which predicts a photon generation rate in a cavity due to

Bozic, Mirjana; Man'ko, Margarita

2009-09-01

 
 
 
 
301

Recombinant hormones in osteoporosis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

For the last 10 years, bone anabolic therapy with the recombinant human parathyroid hormone (rhPTH) analogue, teriparatide (rhPTH[1 - 34]), or full-length rhPTH(1 - 84) has been an option in the treatment of osteoporosis. Both drugs are given as a daily subcutaneous injection. In the USA, only teriparatide is marketed.

Rejnmark, Lars; Rejnmark, Lars

2013-01-01

302

Recombineering linear BACs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recombineering is a powerful genetic engineering technique based on homologous recombination that can be used to accurately modify DNA independent of its sequence or size. One novel application of recombineering is the assembly of linear BACs in E. coli that can replicate autonomously as linear plasmids. A circular BAC is inserted with a short telomeric sequence from phage N15, which is subsequently cut and rejoined by the phage protelomerase enzyme to generate a linear BAC with terminal hairpin telomeres. Telomere-capped linear BACs are protected against exonuclease attack both in vitro and in vivo in E. coli cells and can replicate stably. Here we describe step-by-step protocols to linearize any BAC clone by recombineering, including inserting and screening for presence of the N15 telomeric sequence, linearizing BACs in vivo in E. coli, extracting linear BACs, and verifying the presence of hairpin telomere structures. Linear BACs may be useful for functional expression of genomic loci in cells, maintenance of linear viral genomes in their natural conformation, and for constructing innovative artificial chromosome structures for applications in mammalian and plant cells. PMID:25239740

Chen, Qingwen; Narayanan, Kumaran

2015-01-01

303

Dissociative recombination; potential curves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calculations of potential curves of oxygen, hydrogen and helium molecules responsible for dissociative electron recombination with positive ions of these molecules are presented. The scope of calculations ensuring sufficient accuracy of quantitative results in determination of spectroscopic properties of molecules is presented

304

Dissociative recombination of NH+  

Science.gov (United States)

We have experimentally investigated dissociative recombination of NH+ with electrons using a merged ion and electron beam configuration in a storage ring. A fast counting and position sensitive imaging detector enabled us to perform fragment imaging measurements over relative electron-ion collision energies from 0 to 12 eV. The results show unprecedented details on product excitation and on the reaction dynamics.

Yang, B.; Novotný, O.; Krantz, C.; Buhr, H.; Mended, M.; Nordhorn, C.; Geppert, W. D.; Berg, M.; Bing, D.; Domesle, C.; Grussie, F.; Savin, D. W.; Schwalm, D.; Cai, X.; Wolf, A.

2014-04-01

305

Discovering Health Topics in Social Media Using Topic Models  

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By aggregating self-reported health statuses across millions of users, we seek to characterize the variety of health information discussed in Twitter. We describe a topic modeling framework for discovering health topics in Twitter, a social media website. This is an exploratory approach with the goal of understanding what health topics are commonly discussed in social media. This paper describes in detail a statistical topic model created for this purpose, the Ailment Topic Aspect Model (ATAM...

Paul, Michael J.; Dredze, Mark

2014-01-01

306

Evidence supporting the use of recombinant activated factor VII in congenital bleeding disorders  

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Full Text Available Pär I Johansson, Sisse R OstrowskiCapital Region Blood Bank, Section for Transfusion Medicine, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkBackground: Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa, NovoSeven® was introduced in 1996 for the treatment of hemophilic patients with antibodies against coagulation factor VIII or IX.Objective: To review the evidence supporting the use of rFVIIa for the treatment of patients with congenital bleeding disorders.Patients and methods: English-language databases were searched in September 2009 for reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs evaluating the ability of rFVIIa to restore hemostasis in patients with congenital bleeding disorders.Results: Eight RCTs involving 256 hemophilic patients with antibodies against coagulation factors, also known as inhibitors, were identified. The evidence supporting the use of rFVIIa in these patients was weak with regard to dose, clinical setting, mode of administration, efficacy, and adverse events, given the limited sample size of each RCT and the heterogeneity of the studies.Conclusion: The authors suggest that rFVIIa therapy in hemophilic patients with inhibitors should be based on the individual’s ability to generate thrombin and form a clot, and not on the patient’s weight alone. Therefore, assays for thrombin generation, such as whole-blood thromboelastography, have the potential to significantly improve the treatment of these patients.Keywords: hemophilia, inhibitors, coagulation factor VIII, coagulation factor IX, rFVIIa, NovoSeven, FEIBA, hemostasis, RCT

Pär I Johansson

2010-06-01

307

Recombinant human fibrinogen that produces thick fibrin fibers with increased wound adhesion and clot density.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human fibrinogen is a biomaterial used in surgical tissue sealants, scaffolding for tissue engineering, and wound healing. Here we report on the post-translational structure and functionality of recombinant human FI (rFI) made at commodity levels in the milk of transgenic dairy cows. Relative to plasma-derived fibrinogen (pdFI), rFI predominantly contained a simplified, neutral carbohydrate structure and >4-fold higher levels of the ?'-chain transcriptional variant that has been reported to bind thrombin and Factor XIII. In spite of these differences, rFI and pdFI were kinetically similar with respect to the thrombin-catalyzed formation of protofibrils and Factor XIIIa-mediated formation of cross-linked fibrin polymer. However, electron microscopy showed rFI produced fibrin with much thicker fibers with less branching than pdFI. In vivo studies in a swine liver transection model showed that, relative to pdFI, rFI made a denser, more strongly wound-adherent fibrin clot that more rapidly established hemostasis. PMID:23215461

Calcaterra, Jennifer; Van Cott, Kevin E; Butler, Stephen P; Gil, Geun Cheol; Germano, Marta; van Veen, Harrie A; Nelson, Kay; Forsberg, Erik J; Carlson, Mark A; Velander, William H

2013-01-14

308

Topic in Depth - Telematics  

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Often used in mobile telephony, vehicle tracking, online navigation, and emergency assistance, the design of wireless systems for the collection and dissemination of data is known as telematics. This Topic in Depth offers definitions, research information, and the uses of the technology in industry.

2010-09-16

309

Topical anesthesia in phacoemulsification  

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Full Text Available Purpose : To evaluate the efficacy of topical anesthesia; topical Benoxinate 0.4% (Oxybuprocaine and Xylocaine (Lidocaine gel, in selected cataract patients as an alternative to peribulbar or retrobulbar block anesthesia during cataract surgery. Materials and Methods : Prospective non-comparative evaluation of patients? and surgeon?s satisfaction at the end of the procedure. Three hundred patients (300 eyes were included in the study. The procedure was explained to patients with details regarding what will happen and what to expect during surgery. All patients received topical anesthesia with Benoxinate 0.4% eye drops and Xylocaine gel 2%. All surgeries were done by the same surgeon using the same machine (updated LEGACY phacoemulsifier, Alcon and approach (clear corneal incision and followed by a foldable intraocular lens (IOL implantation. Results : None of the patients had severe pain during the procedure; only 2% (six of 300 required use of intravenous sedation (Propofol, both the surgeon?s and the patients? satisfaction were high. Eye movements and blepharospasm were not significant problems, and no serious complications occurred. Rate of vitreous loss due to posterior capsule tear/rupture was within literature reported range and not different from our previous experience. Conclusion : Topical anesthesia is a satisfactory and safe alternative to retrobulbar and peribulbar anesthesia for clear corneal phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation in selected cataract patients in the hands of experienced cataract surgeon.

Waheeb Saad

2010-01-01

310

LD Topics: Math & Dyscalculia  

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This collection of articles for parents and educators addresses learning disabilities in the area of mathematics. The articles address a variety of topics, including strategies for working with children with dyscalculia, parent-teacher collaboration, identification of disabilities, use of technology, and developing number sense.

2011-01-01

311

Topical immunomodulators in dermatology  

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Full Text Available Topical immunomodulators are agents that regulate the local immune response of the skin. They are now emerging as the therapy of choice for several immune-mediated dermatoses such as atopic dermatitis, contact allergic dermatitis, alopecia areata, psoriasis, vitiligo, connective tissue disorders such as morphea and lupus erythematosus, disorders of keratinization and several benign and malignant skin tumours, because of their comparable efficacy, ease of application and greater safety than their systemic counterparts. They can be used on a domiciliary basis for longer periods without aggressive monitoring. In this article, we have discussed the mechanism of action, common indications and side-effects of the commonly used topical immunomodulators, excluding topical steroids. Moreover, newer agents, which are still in the experimental stages, have also been described. A MEDLINE search was undertaken using the key words "topical immunomodulators, dermatology" and related articles were also searched. In addition, a manual search for many Indian articles, which are not indexed, was also carried out. Wherever possible, the full article was reviewed. If the full article could not be traced, the abstract was used.

Khandpur Sujay

2004-04-01

312

RNA-seq analysis of transcriptomes in thrombin-treated and control human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells.  

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The characterization of gene expression in cells via measurement of mRNA levels is a useful tool in determining how the transcriptional machinery of the cell is affected by external signals (e.g. drug treatment), or how cells differ between a healthy state and a diseased state. With the advent and continuous refinement of next-generation DNA sequencing technology, RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) has become an increasingly popular method of transcriptome analysis to catalog all species of transcripts, to determine the transcriptional structure of all expressed genes and to quantify the changing expression levels of the total set of transcripts in a given cell, tissue or organism. RNA-seq is gradually replacing DNA microarrays as a preferred method for transcriptome analysis because it has the advantages of profiling a complete transcriptome, providing a digital type datum (copy number of any transcript) and not relying on any known genomic sequence. Here, we present a complete and detailed protocol to apply RNA-seq to profile transcriptomes in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells with or without thrombin treatment. This protocol is based on our recent published study entitled "RNA-seq Reveals Novel Transcriptome of Genes and Their Isoforms in Human Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Cells Treated with Thrombin," in which we successfully performed the first complete transcriptome analysis of human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells treated with thrombin using RNA-seq. It yielded unprecedented resources for further experimentation to gain insights into molecular mechanisms underlying thrombin-mediated endothelial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of inflammatory conditions, cancer, diabetes, and coronary heart disease, and provides potential new leads for therapeutic targets to those diseases. The descriptive text of this protocol is divided into four parts. The first part describes the treatment of human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells with thrombin and RNA isolation, quality analysis and quantification. The second part describes library construction and sequencing. The third part describes the data analysis. The fourth part describes an RT-PCR validation assay. Representative results of several key steps are displayed. Useful tips or precautions to boost success in key steps are provided in the Discussion section. Although this protocol uses human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells treated with thrombin, it can be generalized to profile transcriptomes in both mammalian and non-mammalian cells and in tissues treated with different stimuli or inhibitors, or to compare transcriptomes in cells or tissues between a healthy state and a disease state. PMID:23426025

Cheranova, Dilyara; Gibson, Margaret; Chaudhary, Suman; Zhang, Li Qin; Heruth, Daniel P; Grigoryev, Dmitry N; Ye, Shui Qing

2013-01-01

313

Topical Methotrexate In Localized Psoriasis  

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Full Text Available A comparative study of topical methotrexate and topical tar in eighteen patients of localized psoriasis with bilateral involvement of both lower legs, equal in area and disease severity was carried out. The patients were asked to apply topical methorexate 0.25% in a hydrophilic gel twice daily on right leg. The test sites were score, before therapy, after one month and after two months. The result with topical methotrexate preparation was promising but was comparable to topical tar formulation.

Rath Namita

2004-01-01

314

Thrombin induces ICAM-1 expression in human lung epithelial cells via c-Src/PDGFR/PI3K/Akt-dependent NF-?B/p300 activation.  

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Up-regulation of ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1) is frequently implicated in lung inflammation and lung diseases, such as IPF (idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis). Thrombin has been shown to play a key role in inflammation via the induction of adhesion molecules, which then causes lung injury. However, the mechanisms underlying thrombin-induced ICAM-1 expression in HPAEpiCs (human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells) remain unclear. In the present study, we have shown that thrombin induced ICAM-1 expression in HPAEpiCs. Pre-treatment with the inhibitor of thrombin [PPACK (D-Phe-Pro-Arg-chloromethyl ketone)], c-Src (PP1), PDGFR (platelet-derived growth factor receptor) (AG1296), PI3K (phosohinositide 3-kinase) (LY294002), NF-?B (nuclear factor ?B) (Bay11-7082) or p300 (GR343) and transfection with siRNAs of c-Src, PDGFR, Akt, p65 and p300 markedly reduced thrombin-induced ICAM-1 expression and monocyte adherence to HPAEpiCs challenged with thrombin. In addition, we established that thrombin stimulated the phosphorylation of c-Src, PDGFR, Akt and p65, which were inhibited by pre-treatment with their respective inhibitors PP1, AG1296, LY294002 or Bay11-7082. In addition, thrombin also enhanced Akt and NF-?B translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus, which was reduced by PP1, AG1296 or LY294002. Thrombin induced NF-?B promoter activity and the formation of the p65-Akt-p300 complex, which were inhibited by AG1296, LY294002 or PP1. Finally, we have shown that thrombin stimulated in vivo binding of p300, Akt and p65 to the ICAM-1 promoter, which was reduced by AG1296, LY294002, SH-5 or PP1. These results show that thrombin induced ICAM-1 expression and monocyte adherence via a c-Src/PDGFR/PI3K/Akt/NF-?B-dependent pathway in HPAEpiCs. Increased understanding of the signalling mechanisms underlying ICAM-1 gene regulation will create opportunities for the development of anti-inflammatory therapeutic strategies. PMID:24506791

Cheng, Shin-Ei; Lee, I-Ta; Lin, Chih-Chung; Hsiao, Li-Der; Yang, Chuen-Mao

2014-08-01

315

Thrombin mediates migration of rat brain astrocytes via PLC, Ca²?, CaMKII, PKC?, and AP-1-dependent matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression.  

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Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays a crucial role in pathological processes of brain inflammation, injury, and neurodegeneration. Thrombin has been known as a regulator of MMP-9 expression and cells migration. However, the mechanisms underlying thrombin-induced MMP-9 expression in rat brain astrocytes (RBA-1 cells) remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that thrombin induced the expression of pro-form MMP-9 and migration of RBA-1 cells, which were inhibited by pretreatment with the inhibitor of Gq-coupled receptor (GPAnt2A), Gi/o-coupled receptor (GPAnt2), PC-PLC (D609), PI-PLC (U73122), Ca(2+)-ATPase (thapsigargin, TG), calmodulin (CaMI), CaMKII (KN62), PKC (Gö6976 or GF109203X), MEK1/2 (PD98059), p38 MAPK (SB202190), JNK1/2 (SP600125), or AP-1 (Tanshinone IIA) or the intracellular calcium chelator (BAPTA/AM) and transfection with siRNA of PKC?, Erk2, JNK1, p38 MAPK, c-Jun, or c-Fos. In addition, thrombin-induced elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration was attenuated by PPACK (a thrombin inhibitor). Thrombin further induced CaMKII phosphorylation and PKC? translocation, which were inhibited by U73122, D609, KN62, TG, or BAPTA/AM. Thrombin also induced PKC?-dependent p42/p44 MAPK and JNK1/2, but not p38 MAPK activation. Finally, we showed that thrombin enhanced c-Fos expression and c-Jun phosphorylation. c-Fos mRNA levels induced by thrombin were reduced by PD98059, SP600125, and Gö6976, but not SB202190. Thrombin stimulated in vivo binding of c-Fos to the MMP-9 promoter, which was reduced by pretreatment with SP600125 or PD98059, but not SB202190. These results concluded that thrombin activated a PLC/Ca(2+)/CaMKII/PKC?/p42/p44 MAPK and JNK1/2 pathway, which in turn triggered AP-1 activation and ultimately induced MMP-9 expression in RBA-1 cells. PMID:23585120

Lin, Chih-Chung; Lee, I-Ta; Wu, Wen-Bin; Liu, Chiung-Ju; Hsieh, Hsi-Lung; Hsiao, Li-Der; Yang, Chien-Chung; Yang, Chuen-Mao

2013-12-01

316

Dabigatran, a direct thrombin inhibitor, blocks differentiation of normal fibroblasts to a myofibroblast phenotype and demonstrates anti-fibrotic effects on scleroderma lung fibroblasts  

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Myofibroblasts are the principal mesenchymal cells responsible for tissue remodeling, collagen deposition, and the restrictive nature of lung parenchyma associated with pulmonary fibrosis. We previously reported that thrombin activates protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 thereby inducing normal lung fibroblasts to differentiate to a myofibroblast phenotype resembling scleroderma lung myofibroblasts. Here we demonstrate that the thrombin inhibitor dabigatran inhibits in a dose-dependant manner...

Bogatkevich, Galina S.; Ludwicka-bradley, Anna; Silver, Richard M.

2009-01-01

317

Experiência inicial com o uso de adesivo tissular contendo trombina para tratamento do pseudo-aneurisma femoral Treatment of femoral pseudoaneurysm with thrombin tissue adhesive: initial experience  

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Full Text Available O pseudo-aneurisma (PSA após cateterização femoral tem sido diagnosticado com regularidade em serviços com grande movimento de intervenções percutâneas, com incidência variando de 0,05 a 6%. PSA femorais pequenos podem ser acompanhados até a resolução espontânea. As opções de tratamento são: compressão guiada por ultra-som, injeção de trombina para trombose do PSA e tratamento cirúrgico. A injeção percutânea de trombina tem a vantagem de ser um procedimento indolor e rápido. Podem ser utilizados trombina isolada ou preparados contendo trombina associada a fibrinogênio e fatores de coagulação. A experiência inicial dos autores de cinco casos tratados com injeção de adesivo tissular contendo trombina mostrou resultado satisfatório em quatro; um caso necessitou tratamento cirúrgico. Não houve sucesso com uso isolado de trombina humana, porém, ocorreu trombose imediata após injeção de preparado de trombina associada a fibrinogênio/fator XIII. Neste artigo, são discutidas as opções de tratamento dos PSA femorais e a técnica do uso de trombina percutânea.Pseudoaneurysms caused by femoral artery catheterization have been regularly diagnosed in medical units with a great number of percutaneous interventions, with a documented incidence between 0.05 and 6%. Small femoral pseudoaneurysms undergo spontaneous resolution. Treatment options are: ultrasound-guided compression, thrombin injection to induce pseudoaneurysm thrombosis and surgical treatment. Percutaneous thrombin injection has the advantage of being a fast and painless procedure. Both isolated thrombin and thrombin preparations with fibrinogen and coagulation factors can be used. The authors' initial experience with five cases treated with thrombin tissue adhesive showed successful results in four; one case required surgery. There was no success with isolated human thrombin, but immediate thrombosis was achieved after injection of thrombin associated to fibrinogen and factor XIII. In this article, the treatment options for femoral pseudoaneurysms and the technique of percutaneous thrombin are discussed.

Daniel Mendes Pinto

2006-03-01

318

Experiência inicial com o uso de adesivo tissular contendo trombina para tratamento do pseudo-aneurisma femoral / Treatment of femoral pseudoaneurysm with thrombin tissue adhesive: initial experience  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O pseudo-aneurisma (PSA) após cateterização femoral tem sido diagnosticado com regularidade em serviços com grande movimento de intervenções percutâneas, com incidência variando de 0,05 a 6%. PSA femorais pequenos podem ser acompanhados até a resolução espontânea. As opções de tratamento são: compre [...] ssão guiada por ultra-som, injeção de trombina para trombose do PSA e tratamento cirúrgico. A injeção percutânea de trombina tem a vantagem de ser um procedimento indolor e rápido. Podem ser utilizados trombina isolada ou preparados contendo trombina associada a fibrinogênio e fatores de coagulação. A experiência inicial dos autores de cinco casos tratados com injeção de adesivo tissular contendo trombina mostrou resultado satisfatório em quatro; um caso necessitou tratamento cirúrgico. Não houve sucesso com uso isolado de trombina humana, porém, ocorreu trombose imediata após injeção de preparado de trombina associada a fibrinogênio/fator XIII. Neste artigo, são discutidas as opções de tratamento dos PSA femorais e a técnica do uso de trombina percutânea. Abstract in english Pseudoaneurysms caused by femoral artery catheterization have been regularly diagnosed in medical units with a great number of percutaneous interventions, with a documented incidence between 0.05 and 6%. Small femoral pseudoaneurysms undergo spontaneous resolution. Treatment options are: ultrasound- [...] guided compression, thrombin injection to induce pseudoaneurysm thrombosis and surgical treatment. Percutaneous thrombin injection has the advantage of being a fast and painless procedure. Both isolated thrombin and thrombin preparations with fibrinogen and coagulation factors can be used. The authors' initial experience with five cases treated with thrombin tissue adhesive showed successful results in four; one case required surgery. There was no success with isolated human thrombin, but immediate thrombosis was achieved after injection of thrombin associated to fibrinogen and factor XIII. In this article, the treatment options for femoral pseudoaneurysms and the technique of percutaneous thrombin are discussed.

Daniel Mendes, Pinto; José Olimpio, Dias Júnior; Bernardo Lopes Cançado, Fonseca; Rodrigo Daniel, Moreialvar; Leonardo Ghizoni, Bez; Caetano de Sousa, Lopes.

2006-03-01

319

The effect of Arg306-->Ala and Arg506-->Gln substitutions in the inactivation of recombinant human factor Va by activated protein C and protein S.  

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Factor Va (fVa) is inactivated by activated protein C (APC) by cleavage of the heavy chain at Arg306, Arg506, and Arg679. Site-directed mutagenesis of human factor V cDNA was used to substitute Arg306-->Ala (rfVa306A) and Arg506-->Gln (rfVa506Q). Both the single and double mutants (rfVa306A/506Q) were constructed. The activation of these procofactors by alpha-thrombin and their inactivation by APC were assessed in coagulation assays using factor V-deficient plasma. All recombinant and wild-ty...

Egan, J. O.; Kalafatis, M.; Mann, K. G.

1997-01-01

320

Fluorescence enhancement upon G-quadruplex folding: synthesis, structure, and biophysical characterization of a dansyl/cyclodextrin-tagged thrombin binding aptamer.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel fluorescent thrombin binding aptamer (TBA), conjugated with the environmentally sensitive dansyl probe at the 3'-end and a ?-cyclodextrin residue at the 5'-end, has been efficiently synthesized exploiting Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition procedures. Its conformation and stability in solution have been studied by an integrated approach, combining in-depth NMR, CD, fluorescence, and DSC studies. ITC measurements have allowed us to analyze in detail its interaction with human thrombin. All the collected data show that this bis-conjugated aptamer fully retains its G-quadruplex formation ability and thrombin recognition properties, with the terminal appendages only marginally interfering with the conformational behavior of TBA. Folding of this modified aptamer into the chairlike, antiparallel G-quadruplex structure, promoted by K(+) and/or thrombin binding, typical of TBA, is associated with a net fluorescence enhancement, due to encapsulation of dansyl, attached at the 3'-end, into the apolar cavity of the ?-cyclodextrin at the 5'-end. Overall, the structural characterization of this novel, bis-conjugated TBA fully demonstrates its potential as a diagnostic tool for thrombin recognition, also providing a useful basis for the design of suitable aptamer-based devices for theranostic applications, allowing simultaneously both detection and inhibition or modulation of the thrombin activity. PMID:24094251

De Tito, Stefano; Morvan, François; Meyer, Albert; Vasseur, Jean-Jacques; Cummaro, Annunziata; Petraccone, Luigi; Pagano, Bruno; Novellino, Ettore; Randazzo, Antonio; Giancola, Concetta; Montesarchio, Daniela

2013-11-20

 
 
 
 
321

SUMO Wrestles with Recombination  

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Full Text Available DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs comprise one of the most toxic DNA lesions, as the failure to repair a single DSB has detrimental consequences on the cell. Homologous recombination (HR constitutes an error-free repair pathway for the repair of DSBs. On the other hand, when uncontrolled, HR can lead to genome rearrangements and needs to be tightly regulated. In recent years, several proteins involved in different steps of HR have been shown to undergo modification by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO peptide and it has been suggested that deficient sumoylation impairs the progression of HR. This review addresses specific effects of sumoylation on the properties of various HR proteins and describes its importance for the homeostasis of DNA repetitive sequences. The article further illustrates the role of sumoylation in meiotic recombination and the interplay between SUMO and other post-translational modifications.

Lumír Krej?í

2012-07-01

322

Recombinant vaccines against leptospirosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leptospirosis is an important neglected infectious disease that occurs in urban environments, as well as in rural regions worldwide. Rodents, the principal reservoir hosts of pathogenic Leptospira spp., and other infected animals shed the bacteria in their urine. During occupational or even recreational activities, humans that come into direct contact with infected animals or with a contaminated environment, particularly water, are at risk of infection. Prevention of urban leptospirosis is largely dependent on sanitation measures that are often difficult to implement, especially in developing countries. Vaccination with inactivated whole-cell preparations (bacterins) has limited efficacy due to the wide antigenic variation of the pathogen. Intensive efforts towards developing improved recombinant vaccines are ongoing. During the last decade, many reports on the evaluation of recombinant vaccines have been published. Partial success has been obtained with some surface-exposed protein antigens. The combination of protective antigens and new adjuvants or delivery systems may result in the much-needed effective vaccine. PMID:22048111

Dellagostin, Odir A; Grassmann, André A; Hartwig, Daiane D; Félix, Samuel R; da Silva, Éverton F; McBride, Alan J A

2011-11-01

323

Topic in Depth - Chlorine  

Science.gov (United States)

Chlorine, a chemical element whose name means â??pale green,â? is explored from a number of angles in this informative Topic in Depth.Weâ??ve all heard of chlorine being used in swimming pools and drinking water, but this jack-of-all-trades chemical element is also used in making everything from plastics and dry cleaning products to insecticides and pharmaceuticals.

324

Topics on mathematical crystallography  

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In July 2012 the General Assembly of the United Nations resolved that 2014 should be the International Year of Crystallography, 100 years since the award of the Nobel Prize for the discovery of X-ray diffraction by crystals. On this special occasion, we address several topics in mathematical crystallography. Especially motivated by the recent development in systematic design of crystal structures by both mathematicians and crystallographers, we discuss interesting relationsh...

Sunada, Toshikazu

2014-01-01

325

Superconductivity elementary topics  

CERN Document Server

This book describes the elementary concepts of superconductivity and discusses the topics of flux-lattice melting, magnetization including the para-Meissner effect, microwave absorption, a.c. resistivity along with the London penetration depth, the Mössbauer effect, levitation, fractals and nuclear magnetic resonance. There are appendices covering superconducting compounds, the isotope effect, symmetries, the pseudogap, relativistic superconductivity, the Cherenkov effect and soft vortices. Also included is an appendix on the quantum Hall effect. In all of the chapters, the theoretical descrip

Shrivastava, KN

2000-01-01

326

Topical immunomodulators in dermatology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Topical immunomodulators are agents that regulate the local immune response of the skin. They are now emerging as the therapy of choice for several immune-mediated dermatoses such as atopic dermatitis, contact allergic dermatitis, alopecia areata, psoriasis, vitiligo, connective tissue disorders such as morphea and lupus erythematosus, disorders of keratinization and several benign and malignant skin tumours, because of their comparable efficacy, ease of application and greater safety than th...

Khandpur Sujay; Sharma V; Sumanth K

2004-01-01

327

Topical photodynamic therapy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Topical photodynamic therapy is a therapeutic modality in development, thus arises grate interest among dermatologists worldwide. It is an effective therapy for actinic keratosis, superficial BCC and Bowenos disease. Treatment efficacy, good cosmetics, low risk of skin cancer, low invasiveness, low rate of adverse events, facility for treating multiple or large lesions, especially in poor healing sites and, for penile, digital and facial involvement, low general toxicity and possibility of re...

Polja?ki Mirjana; Jovanovi? Marina; Matovi? Ljubinka; Lugonja Branislava; Gaji? Branislava; Roš Tatjana

2006-01-01

328

A colorimetric sandwich-type assay for sensitive thrombin detection based on enzyme-linked aptamer assay.  

Science.gov (United States)

A colorimetric sandwich-type assay based on enzyme-linked aptamer assay has been developed for the fast and sensitive detection of as low as 25 fM of thrombin with high linearity. Aptamer-immobilized glass was used to capture the target analyte, whereas a second aptamer, functionalized with horseradish peroxidase (HRP), was employed for the conventional 3,5,3',5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB)-based colorimetric detection. Without the troublesome antibody requirement of the conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), as low as 25 fM of thrombin could be rapidly and reproducibly detected. This assay has superior, or at least equal, recovery and accuracy to that of conventional antibody-based ELISA. PMID:24937288

Park, Jun Hee; Cho, Yea Seul; Kang, Sungmuk; Lee, Eun Jeong; Lee, Gwan-Ho; Hah, Sang Soo

2014-10-01

329

Demystified… recombinant antibodies  

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Recombinant antibodies are important tools for biomedical research and are increasingly being used as clinical diagnostic/therapeutic reagents. In this article, a background to humanised antibodies is given, together with details of the generation of antibody fragments—for example, single chain Fv fragments. Phage antibody fragments are fast becoming popular and can be generated by simple established methods of affinity enrichment from libraries derived from immune cells. Phage display meth...

Smith, K. A.; Nelson, P. N.; Warren, P.; Astley, S. J.; Murray, P. G.; Greenman, J.

2004-01-01

330

Radiative recombination rate coefficients  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiative recombination rate coefficients obtained using the nonrelativistic dipole result of Stobbe for the RR cross section are compared to other nonrelativistic approaches. A good agreement is found with widely used formulas. The RR rate coefficients can be calculated for different beam temperatures and for arbitrary nl sublevels up to high Rydberg states. The computation technique used allows us a fast evaluation of the dipole matrix elements without any additional approximation. (orig.)

Brinzanescu, O. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); National Inst. for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Bucharest Magurele (Romania); Stoehlker, T. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

2001-07-01

331

Radiative recombination rate coefficients  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiative recombination rate coefficients obtained using the nonrelativistic dipole result of Stobbe for the RR cross section are compared to other nonrelativistic approaches. A good agreement is found with widely used formulas. The RR rate coefficients can be calculated for different beam temperatures and for arbitrary nl sublevels up to high Rydberg states. The computation technique used allows us a fast evaluation of the dipole matrix elements without any additional approximation. (orig.)

Brinzanescu, O. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); National Inst. for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Stoehlker, T. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

2000-10-01

332

Soluble recombinant influenza vaccines.  

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Soluble, recombinant forms of influenza A virus haemagglutinin and neuraminidase have been produced in cells of lower eukaryotes, and shown in a mouse model to induce complete protective immunity against a lethal virus challenge. Soluble neuraminidase, produced in a baculovirus system, consisted of tetramers, dimers and monomers. Only the tetramers were enzymatically active. The immunogenicity decreased very considerably in the order tetra > di > mono. Therefore, we fused the head part of the...

Fiers, W.; Neirynck, S.; Deroo, T.; Saelens, X.; Jou, W. M.

2001-01-01

333

Recombinant Influenza Vaccines  

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This review covers the problems encountered in the construction and production of new recombinant influenza vaccines. New approaches to the development of influenza vaccines are investigated; they include reverse genetics methods, production of virus-like particles, and DNA- and viral vector-based vaccines. Such approaches as the delivery of foreign genes by DNA- and viral vector-based vaccines can preserve the native structure of antigens. Adenoviral vectors are a promising...

Sedova, E. S.; Shcherbinin, D. N.; Migunov, A. I.; Smirnov, Iu A.; Logunov, D. Iu; Shmarov, M. M.; Tsybalova, L. M.; Naroditskii?, B. S.; Kiselev, O. I.; Gintsburg, A. L.

2012-01-01

334

Hydrogen-oxygen recombiner  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An apparatus for efficiently and safely recombining hydrogen and oxygen gas to form water vapor, the apparatus being particularly adapted for use with a nuclear reactor system in which potentially dangerous hydrogen gas, evolved within the containment vessel during certain postulated accident conditions, can be eliminated. Further, this apparatus also aids in the removal of certain radioactive contaminents from the gases in a containment vessel

335

Evaluation of AR-H067637, the active metabolite of the new direct thrombin inhibitor AZD0837, in models of venous and arterial thrombosis and bleeding in anaesthetised rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

AZD0837, currently in clinical development, is a once-daily oral anticoagulant that is bioconverted to AR-H067637, a selective, reversible direct thrombin inhibitor (DTI). When developing a new DTI, the antithrombotic effects are commonly investigated in in vivo animal models; this report shows the effect of AR-H067637 in venous and arterial thrombosis and bleeding models in anaesthetised rats. Thrombus formation was induced by topical application of ferric chloride to the carotid artery or to the caval vein with partial stasis. Cutaneous incision bleeding time and muscle transection blood loss were assessed, with or without acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), ecarin coagulation time (ECT) and thrombin coagulation time (TCT) were used as plasma biomarkers of anticoagulant effect. Dalteparin was used as a reference compound. AR-H067637, given by continuous infusion, displayed a dose-dependent antithrombotic effect, with 50% inhibition (IC50) of thrombus size in venous and arterial thrombosis models obtained at plasma concentrations of 0.13 ?M and 0.55 ?M, respectively, without increased bleeding. Dose-dependent increased bleeding and blood loss were seen at plasma concentrations ?1 ?M AR-H067637. At the highest AR-H067637 plasma concentration tested, bleeding time and blood loss increased two and four times the vehicle group. Addition of ASA moderately potentiated bleeding time and blood loss. APTT, ECT and TCT were dose-dependently prolonged. These studies demonstrate that the DTI AR-H067637 inhibits thrombus formation in rat venous and arterial thrombosis models with no or minor increases in bleeding. PMID:20806126

Pehrsson, S; Johansson, K; Kjaer, M; Elg, M

2010-12-01

336

Recombinant hirudin as a periprocedural antithrombotic in coronary angioplasty for unstable angina pectoris.  

Science.gov (United States)

Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty is often complicated by thrombotic abrupt vessel closure in patients with unstable angina pectoris. The present multicentre trial was performed to determine the feasibility of two-dose regimens of recombinant hirudin (r-hirudin) compared to standard heparin in patients undergoing coronary angioplasty for unstable angina, and to investigate the effects of the different treatment regimen on markers of coagulation activation. At five participating centres, 61 patients were randomly enrolled in one of two sequential groups of r-hirudin (group 1: 0.3 mg.kg-1 i.v. bolus, 0.12 mg.kg-1.h-1 i.v. infusion; 21 patients; group 2: 0.5 mg.kg-1 i.v. bolus, 0.24 mg.kg-1.h-1 i.v. infusion; 19 patients) or in a heparin control group (150 IU.kg-1 i.v. bolus, 20 IU.kg-1.h-1 i.v. infusion; 21 patients). Antithrombotic therapy was started immediately before coronary angioplasty and continued for 24 h. This was followed by a low-dose anticoagulant infusion for another 24 h (r-hirudin: 0.04 mg . kg-1 . h-1; heparin: 7 IU . kg-1 . h-1). Activated partial thromboplastin time, r-hirudin plasma concentrations by both immunological and functional assay, thrombin-hirudin complex, thrombin-antithrombin III complex, soluble fibrin, and prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 were closely monitored. The median partial thromboplastin time prolongations at 24 h vs baseline were found to be 1.9-fold and 2.3-fold in r-hirudin group 1 and dose group 2, respectively, and 3.0-fold in the heparin group. There was a dose-dependent correlation between partial thromboplastin time and the r-hirudin plasma levels (r = 0.61). In five of 21 patients of dose group 1, three of 19 patients of dose group 2, and 10/21 patients of the heparin group, partial thromboplastin time values exceeding the predefined target range prompted an interruption of the infusion. One major bleeding complication occurred in dose group 2. The functional assay for the estimation of r-hirudin plasma concentrations showed excellent correlations to the immunological technique (r = 0.99). Differences between the thrombin-hirudin complex levels could not be observed. Increased concentrations of thrombin-antithrombin III complex, soluble fibrin, and prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 were seen 4-8 h after coronary angioplasty and after reduction of the high-dose therapy in dose group 1 when compared with dose group 2 and the heparin group, respectively. Based on coagulation tests the present study showed the feasibility of a periprocedural antithrombotic regimen with r-hirudin for patients undergoing coronary angioplasty for unstable angina. In addition to the partial thromboplastin time the determination of r-hirudin plasma levels by a chromogenic substrate assay considerably improves the monitoring of therapy. The lower dose r-hirudin regimen seems to be suboptimal as periprocedural anticoagulation in coronary angioplasty patients as indicated by markers of thrombin generation and thrombin activity. PMID:8869862

Hafner, G; Rupprecht, H J; Luz, M; Terres, W; Schindel, F; Friesen, H J; Heinrichs, H; Jessel, A; Meyer, J; Prellwitz, W

1996-08-01

337

The recombination epoch revisited  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies of cosmological recombination have shown that this process produces as a by-product a highly superthermal population of Ly-alpha photons which retard completion of recombination. Cosmological redshifting was thought to determine the frequency distribution of the photons, while two-photon decay of hydrogen's 2s state was thought to control their numbers. It is shown here that frequency diffusion due to photon scattering dominate the cosmological redshift in the frequency range near line center which fixes the ratio of ground state to excited state population, while incoherent scattering into the far-red damping wing effectively destroys Ly-alpha photons as a rate which is competitive with two-photon decay. The former effect tends to hold back recombination, while the latter tends to accelerate it; the net results depends on cosmological parameters, particularly the combination Omega(b) h/sq rt (2q0), where Omega(b) is the fraction of the critical density provided by baryons.

Krolik, Julian H.

1989-01-01

338

Dielectronic recombination theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A theory now in wide use for the calculation of dielectronic recombination cross sections (?DR) and rate coefficients (?DR) was one introduced originally by Feshbach for nuclear physics applications, and then later adapted for atomic scattering problems by Hahn. In the following, we briefly review this theory in a very general form, which allows one to account for the effects of overlapping and interacting resonances, as well as continuum-continuum coupling. An extension of our notation will then also allow for the inclusion of the effects of direct radiative recombination, along with a treatment of the interference between radiative and dielectronic recombination. Other approaches to the calculation of ?DR have been described by Fano and by Seaton. We will not consider those theories here. Calculations of ?DR have progressed considerably over the last 25 years, since the early work of Burgess. Advances in the reliability of theoretical predictions have also been promoted recently b a variety of direct laboratory measurements of ?DR. While the measurements of ?DR for ?n ? 0 excitations have tended to agree very well with calculations, the case of ?n = 0 has been much problematic. However, by invoking a mechanism originally proposed by Jacobs, which takes into account the effect of stray electric fields on high Rydberg states (HRS) participating in the DR process, new calculations have improved the agreement between theory and experiment for these cases. Nevertheless, certain discrepancies still remain

339

Epiregulin is a potent vascular smooth muscle cell-derived mitogen induced by angiotensin II, endothelin-1, and thrombin  

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Vasoactive GTP-binding protein-coupled receptor agonists such as angiotensin II (AII), endothelin-1 (ET-1), and ?-thrombin (?-Thr) have been reported to indirectly stimulate vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation by regulating the expression of one or more autocrine growth factors. Using ion-exchange, gel-filtration, and reverse-phase chromatographic purification methods, we isolated a major mitogenic protein present in AII-stimulated rat aortic smooth musc...

Taylor, David S.; Cheng, Xinbo; Pawlowski, John E.; Wallace, Alison R.; Ferrer, Patricia; Molloy, Christopher J.

1999-01-01

340

Inhibition of collagen, and thrombin-induced platelet aggregation by Lansberg's hognose pit viper (Porthidium lansbergii hutmanni) venom.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Porthidium genus is represented by the P. lansbergii rozei and P. lansbergii hutmanni (Plh) subspecies in Venezuela. The venom components of these have been little studied, probably due to the low incidence of reported accidents, although acute and serious local effects such as invasive edema and disseminated ecchymosis are present during human envenonation. The aim of this work was to characterize the in vitro effects of crude P. l. hutmanni venom, and its fractions, on platelet aggregation triggered by two physiologic agonists: thrombin and collagen. The effects of thrombin and collagen were observed on a platelet-rich plasma (PRP) solution (3 x 10(5) platelets/microL) using serial dilutions of P. l. hutmanni venom (0.625-40 microg). The crude venom was fractionated by anionic exchange chromatography and two peaks obtained. Crude venom and both fractions were highly inhibitory on platelet aggregation mediated by the two agonists. The anti-aggregating dose (AD(50)) for both agonists was determined. PRP collagen-triggered aggregation was most inhibited by the crude venom (AD(50) = 0.67 microg) when compared with PRP thrombin-triggered aggregation (AD(50) = 4.92 microg). Collagen-induced aggregation was more intensely inhibited by venom than thrombin-induced aggregation. In conclusion, to specify the inhibition mechanisms involved for each of the active components in the venom from these subspecies, we must characterize and purify the inhibitors of aggregation from P. l. hutmanni venom, with the purpose of suggesting new pharmacological substances to be incorporated into the therapeutic arsenal to treat hemostatic pathologies related to high levels of platelet aggregation. PMID:17486300

López-Johnston, Juan C; de Bosch, Norma; Scannone, Héctor; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis

2007-12-01

 
 
 
 
341

A member of the selectin family (GMP-140/PADGEM) is expressed on thrombin-stimulated rat platelets in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Granule membrane protein (GMP-140) is an integral alpha-granule membrane glycoprotein, expressed on the surface of human platelets following degranulation, and is part of a new family of adhesion molecules (selectins) related to the endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule (ELAM-1) and to the lymphocyte homing receptors in man (Leu-8/TQ1) and in mouse (gp90MEL-14). 2. The cross-reactivity with rat platelets of the monoclonal antibodies (MAb), LYP20 and S12, directed against human GMP-140 was examined, with the purpose of assessing the homology of GMP-140 between human and rat platelets and of using positive MAbs to detect platelet activation in vivo in response to vascular disease in rats. 3. By ELISA technique, LYP20 gave a greater OD reading with thrombin-stimulated rat platelets than with resting platelets. 4. 125I-LYP20 bound significantly more to thrombin-stimulated rat platelets (3875 +/- 750 molecules/platelet) than to resting platelets (645 +/- 240 molecules/platelet, P less than 0.01) with 50% maximum binding at 0.13 +/- 0.02 microgram/ml; 125I-S12 did not bind to rat platelets. 5. By fluorescence-activated flow cytometry there were significantly more fluorescent thrombin-stimulated platelets (56 +/- 7% of total), compared with resting platelets (8 +/- 1% of total, P less than 0.001). 6. Western blots of rat platelet lysates showed that LYP20 bound to a single band identified, under non-reducing conditions, as having the same apparent M(r) as GMP-140. 7. LYP20 immunoprecipitated a protein which became radiolabelled on the surface of thrombin-activated rat platelets; S12 did not recognize any protein.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1380412

Winocour, P D; Chignier, E; Parmentier, S; McGregor, J L

1992-06-01

342

Effects of the direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran on ex vivo coagulation time in orthopaedic surgery patients: a population model analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aims To describe the pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic (PK–PD) characteristics of the direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran in hip replacement patients by assessing coagu- lation parameters activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and ecarin clotting time (ECT), interindividual variability and factors affecting PD responses. Methods BISTRO I patients received oral dabigatran etexilate postsurgery for 6–10 days. Dabig- atran plasma concentrations and aPTT/ECT were measured on t...

Liesenfeld, K. H.; Scha?fer, G. H.; Troconiz, I. F.; Tillmann, C. C.; Eriksson, B. I.; Stangier, J.

2006-01-01

343

In vitro inhibition by endothelins of thrombin-induced aggregation and Ca2+ mobilization in human platelets.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. The in vitro effects of endothelins (ET-1 and ET-3) on human platelets were investigated by measurement of the aggregatory responses of washed platelets to thrombin and by the determination of cytosolic pH (pHi) and free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) determined with the fluorescent indicators, BCECF and Fura-2. 2. ET-1 and ET-3 at concentrations ranging from 10(-10) to 5 x 10(-7) M, did not promote platelet aggregation but inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the aggregation induced by 0.05 u ml-1 thrombin (P less than 0.002 and less than 0.001, respectively) with maximal effects reached at 10(-8) M (17 +/- 3 and 15 +/- 2%, n = 11, P = 0.002 for each). 3. Even at 5 x 10(-7) M, ET-1 and ET-3 did not cause a measurable change in basal [Ca2+]i and pHi. When tested in combination with thrombin, 5 x 10(-7) M ET-1 and ET-3 decreased the transient peak of [Ca2+]i by 17 +/- 7 and 28 +/- 7% (n = 7 and 11, P = 0.03 and P = 0.002). No effect on pHi variations was detected. In the virtual absence of external Ca2+, 5 x 10(-7) M ET-3 inhibited the peak of [Ca2+]i by 18 +/- 6% (n = 6, P = 0.02). 4. The anti-aggregating agents, prostacyclin (PGI2, 10(-8)-10(-7) M) and nitroprusside (NP, 10 ng-50 micrograms l-1) also induced a dose-dependent inhibition of the thrombin-induced [Ca2+]i peak (P = 0.001 for each).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1393294

Astarie-Dequeker, C.; Iouzalen, L.; David-Dufilho, M.; Devynck, M. A.

1992-01-01

344

Anti-thrombin III, Protein C, and Protein S deficiency in acute coronary syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The final most common pathway for the majority of coronary artery disease is occlusion of a coronary vessel. Under normal conditions, antithrombin III (AT III, protein C, and protein S as an active protein C cofactor, are natural anticoagulants (hemostatic control that balances procoagulant activity (thrombin antithrombin complex balance to prevent thrombosis. If the condition becomes unbalanced, natural anticoagulants and the procoagulants can lead to thrombosis. Thirty subjects with acute coronary syndrome (ACS were studied for the incidence of antithrombin III (AT III, protein C, and protein S deficiencies, and the result were compare to the control group. Among patients with ACS, the frequency of distribution of AT-III with activity < 75% were 23,3% (7 of 30, and only 6,7% ( 2 of 30 in control subject. No one of the 30 control subject have protein C activity deficient, in ACS with activity < 70% were 13,3% (4 of 30. Fifteen out of the 30 (50% control subjects had protein S activity deficiency, while protein S deficiency activity < 70% was found 73.3.% (22 out of 30. On linear regression, the deterministic coefficient of AT-III activity deficiency to the development ACS was 13,25 %, and the deterministic coefficient of protein C activity deficient to the development of ACS was 9,06 %. The cut-off point for AT-III without protein S deficiency expected to contribute to the development of vessel disease was 45%. On discriminant analysis, protein C activity deficiency posed a risk for ACS of 4,5 greater than non deficient subjects, and AT-III activity deficiency posed a risk for ACS of 3,5 times greater than non deficient subjects. On binary logistic regression, protein S activity acted only as a reinforcing factor of AT-III activity deficiency in the development of ACS. Protein C and AT III deficiency can trigger ACS, with determinant coefficients of 9,06% and 13,25% respectively. Low levels of protein C posed a greater risk of ACS than low levels of AT III. Protein S deficiency was a reinforcing factor on AT-III deficient to development of ACS. The cut-off point of AT-III without protein S deficiency expected to give single vessel disease was 45%, and 9,5% for the development of triple vessel disease. (Med J Indones 2002; 11: 87-92Keywords: acute coronary syndrome, Anti-thrombin III, Protein C, Protein S

Dasnan Ismail

2002-05-01

345

CdS nanoparticles functionalized colloidal carbon particles: preparation, characterization and application for electrochemical detection of thrombin.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel and simple method for preparing cadmium sulfide nanoparticles (CdS NPs) functionalized colloidal carbon particles (CPs) has been successfully developed by in situ growing abundant CdS NPs on the surfaces of monodisperse carbon particles (CdS/CPs). The obtained CdS/CPs conjugates as signal amplification labels were further used for the ultrasensitive determination of thrombin. The CdS/CPs conjugates were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-visible absorption spectrum (UV). The protein electrical detection involves a dual binding event, based on thrombin linked to the CdS/CPs tags and glass surface by the specific aptamer-protein affinity interactions and a succedent electrochemical stripping transduction. Owing to the high-content CdS NPs on carbon particles, this assay allowed a desirable detection limit of 6.0 × 10(-17)M, which was 1000 times lower than that of only using CdS NPs as labels in the control experiments. This protocol exhibited excellent selectivity against these common proteins such as bovine plasma albumin, lysozyme and hemoglobin. The signal amplification approach proposed here provides a facile, cost-effective method for the ultrasensitive determination of thrombin in the practical samples. PMID:21392959

Dong, Xiao-Ya; Mi, Xiao-Na; Zhao, Wei-Wei; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

2011-04-15

346

Label-free triple-helix aptamer as sensing platform for "signal-on" fluorescent detection of thrombin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The design of a label-free aptamer for separation of recognition sequence from signal reporter is significant to ensure the high-efficiency affinity between aptamer and target. This work develops a label-free triple-helix aptamer (THA) as sensing platform for "signal-on" fluorescent detection of thrombin. THA was composed of aptamer sequence and help DNA 1 (H1), which contained the complementary sequence of hexachloro-fluorescein (HEX) labeled help DNA 2 (H2). The specific recognition event between aptamer and thrombin triggered the dismission of THA to release H1. The released H1 then reacted with the signal probe of H2/graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposite to form H1-H2 duplex, leading to the fluorescence recovery of H2 due to the detachment of H1-H2 duplex from the surface of GO. With employment of THA as a signal transducer and GO as a "superquencher", this method shows a sensitive response to thrombin with a wide concentration range from 5 to 1200nM. The limit of detection is 1.8nM (S/N=3) with excellent selectivity. Considering the universality of THA, the proposed aptasensor would provide a platform for homogeneous fluorescent detection of a wide range of analytes. PMID:25476322

Xu, Nan; Wang, Quanbo; Lei, Jianping; Liu, Lin; Ju, Huangxian

2015-01-15

347

Clinical and pharmacological properties of new oral anticoagulants for the prevention of cerebral thromboembolism: Factor Xa and thrombin inhibitors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vitamin K antagonists, such as warfarin and phen-procoumon, are the first-line oral anticoagulants for primary and secondary prevention of cerebral embo-lism in patients with atrial fibrillation. Although vitamin K antagonists can significantly decrease the risk of stroke, their use is limited by several important drawbacks, such as a narrow therapeutic window, the risk of intracranial and gastrointestinal bleeding, interactions with a number of drugs and nutrients, and the need for regular laboratory tests for therapy adjustment. Currently, new oral anticoagulants, such as direct thrombin inhibitors (e.g., dabigatran and direct factor Xa inhibitors (e.g., apixaban, rivaroxaban, are being developed and tested in clinical trials. Dabigatran and rivaroxaban were recently approved for prevention of cerebral embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation. The ad-vantages of dabigatran in comparison to warfarin are a lower rate of major bleedings with dabigatran 110mg bid, a better efficacy with dabigatran 150mg bid, no clinically relevant interactions with other drugs and no need for routine coagulation monitoring. The disadvantages are the absence of antidote and the absence of routine laboratory tests for precise mea-surements of anticoagulant effect of direct thrombin/ factor Xa inhibitors. This review will focus on throm-bin and factor Xa inhibitors, which are new and promising oral anticoagulants for the prevention of cerebral embolism. We will discuss their pharmacol-ogical and clinical properties and provide the most recent updates on their clinical trials.

Wolfgang H. Oertel

2012-02-01

348

Direct detection of thrombin binding to 8-bromodeoxyguanosine-modified aptamer: effects of modification on affinity and kinetics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The affinity of an 8-bromodeoxyguanosine- (8-BrdG-) substituted thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA-Br), which has the 1st and 10th guanosine residues replaced with 8-BrdG, was estimated using reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfS). When comparing TBA-Br with unmodified TBA (TBA-H), it was demonstrated that the modification effectively improved the affinity of TBA; dissociation constants (K(D)) of TBA-H and TBA-Br were 45.4?nM and 1.99?nM, respectively. These values, which were obtained by direct observation of thrombin binding using RIfS, have the same order of magnitude as those obtained in our previous study utilizing conformational changes in TBA to detect thrombin binding, thus confirming the validity of the obtained K(D) values. RIfS measurements also revealed that the 8-BrdG modification resulted in a lower dissociation rate constant (k(d)), which suggests that the enhancement of affinity can be attributed to the stabilization of the G-quadruplex structure on introduction of 8-BrdG. PMID:21941628

Goji, Shou; Matsui, Jun

2011-01-01

349

A sensitive electrochemical aptasensor based on water soluble CdSe quantum dots (QDs) for thrombin determination  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A novel aptamer biosensor with easy operation and good sensitivity, specificity, stability and reproducibility was developed by immobilizing the aptamer on water soluble CdSe quantum dots (QDs) modified on the top of the glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Methylene blue (MB) was intercalated into the aptamer sequence and used as an electrochemical marker. CdSe QDs improved the electrochemical signal because of their larger surface area and ion centers of CdSe QDs may also had a major role on amplifying the signal. The higher ion concentration caused more combination of aptamer which caused larger signal. The thrombin was detected by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) quantitatively. Under optimal conditions, the two linear ranges were obtained from 3 to 13 {mu}g mL{sup -1} and from 14 to 31 {mu}g mL{sup -1}, respectively. The detection limit was 0.08 {mu}g mL{sup -1} at 3{sigma}. The constructed biosensor had better responses compared with that in the absence of the CdSe QDs immobilizing. The control experiment was also carried out by using BSA, casein and IgG in the absence of thrombin. The results showed that the aptasensor had good specificity, stability and reproducibility to the thrombin. Moreover, the aptasensor could be used for detection of real sample with consistent results in comparison with those obtained by fluorescence method which could provide a promising platform for fabrication of aptamer based biosensors.

Li Yanfen; Han Min [Jiangsu Laboratory of New Power Batteries, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofuctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097 (China); Bai Hongyan [Jiangsu Laboratory of New Power Batteries, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofuctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097 (China); College of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Jiaxing College, Jiaxing 314001 (China); Wu Yong [Jiangsu Laboratory of New Power Batteries, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofuctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097 (China); Dai Zhihui, E-mail: daizhihuii@njnu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Laboratory of New Power Batteries, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofuctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097 (China); Bao Jianchun, E-mail: baojianchun@njnu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Laboratory of New Power Batteries, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofuctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097 (China)

2011-08-01

350

A sensitive electrochemical aptasensor based on water soluble CdSe quantum dots (QDs) for thrombin determination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A novel aptamer biosensor with easy operation and good sensitivity, specificity, stability and reproducibility was developed by immobilizing the aptamer on water soluble CdSe quantum dots (QDs) modified on the top of the glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Methylene blue (MB) was intercalated into the aptamer sequence and used as an electrochemical marker. CdSe QDs improved the electrochemical signal because of their larger surface area and ion centers of CdSe QDs may also had a major role on amplifying the signal. The higher ion concentration caused more combination of aptamer which caused larger signal. The thrombin was detected by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) quantitatively. Under optimal conditions, the two linear ranges were obtained from 3 to 13 ?g mL-1 and from 14 to 31 ?g mL-1, respectively. The detection limit was 0.08 ?g mL-1 at 3?. The constructed biosensor had better responses compared with that in the absence of the CdSe QDs immobilizing. The control experiment was also carried out by using BSA, casein and IgG in the absence of thrombin. The results showed that the aptasensor had good specificity, stability and reproducibility to the thrombin. Moreover, the aptasensor could be used for detection of real sample with consistent results in comparison with those obtained by fluorescence method which could provide a promising platform for fabrication of aptamer based biosensors.

351

Erythromycin and Benzoyl Peroxide Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

... peroxide are in a class of medications called topical antibiotics. The combination of erythromycin and benzoyl peroxide ... you are taking. Be sure to mention other topical medications for acne. Your doctor may need to ...

352

Topics in circular statistics  

CERN Document Server

This research monograph on circular data analysis covers some recent advances in the field, besides providing a brief introduction to, and a review of, existing methods and models. The primary focus is on recent research into topics such as change-point problems, predictive distributions, circular correlation and regression, etc. An important feature of this work is the S-plus subroutines provided for analyzing actual data sets. Coupled with the discussion of new theoretical research, the book should benefit both the researcher and the practitioner. Contents: Circular Probability Distributions

Jammalamadaka, S Rao

2001-01-01

353

Topics in field theory  

CERN Document Server

This monograph gives a systematic account of certain important topics pertaining to field theory, including the central ideas, basic results and fundamental methods.Avoiding excessive technical detail, the book is intended for the student who has completed the equivalent of a standard first-year graduate algebra course. Thus it is assumed that the reader is familiar with basic ring-theoretic and group-theoretic concepts. A chapter on algebraic preliminaries is included, as well as a fairly large bibliography of works which are either directly relevant to the text or offer supplementary material of interest.

Karpilovsky, G

1989-01-01

354

Topic in Depth - Aerodynamics  

Science.gov (United States)

Aerodynamics is the study of what makes things go fast, right? More specifically, itâÂÂs the study of the interaction between bodies and the atmosphere. This topic in depth highlights some fun websites on the science of aerodynamics, for beginners to researchers. If youâÂÂve been watching Wimbeldon lately, you might have been wondering about the aerodynamics of tennis. Or maybe you were riding your bike the other day and wondering how you could pick up a little more speed next time. These sites can help explain.

2010-09-17

355

Topics in Operator Theory  

CERN Document Server

This is the first volume of a collection of original and review articles on recent advances and new directions in a multifaceted and interconnected area of mathematics and its applications. It encompasses many topics in theoretical developments in operator theory and its diverse applications in applied mathematics, physics, engineering, and other disciplines. The purpose is to bring in one volume many important original results of cutting edge research as well as authoritative review of recent achievements, challenges, and future directions in the area of operator theory and its applications.

Ball, Joseph A; Helton, JWilliam; Rodman, Leiba; Spitkovsky, Iiya

2010-01-01

356

Thrombin generation during cardiopulmonary bypass: the possible role of retransfusion of blood aspirated from the surgical field  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In spite of using heparin-coated extracorporeal circuits, cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB is still associated with an extensive thrombin generation, which is only partially suppressed by the use of high dosages of heparin. Recent studies have focused on the origins of this thrombotic stimulus and the possible role of retransfused suctioned blood from the thoracic cavities on the activation of the extrinsic coagulation pathway. The present study was designed to find during CPB an association between retransfusion of suctioned blood from the pericardium and pleural space, containing activated factor VIIa and systemic thrombin generation. Methods Blood samples taken from 12 consenting patients who had elective cardiac surgery were assayed for plasma factor VIIa, prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2, and thrombin-antithrombin (TAT concentrations. Blood aspirated from the pericardium and pleural space was collected separately, assayed for F1+2, TAT, and factor VIIa and retransfused to the patient after the aorta occlusion. Results After systemic heparinization and during CPB thrombin generation was minimal, as indicated by the lower than base line plasma levels of F1+2, and TAT after correction for hemodilution. In contrast, blood aspirated from the thoracic cavities had significantly higher levels of factor VIIa, F1+2, and TAT compared to the simultaneous samples from the blood circulation (P 1+2, and TAT rose significantly from 1.6 to 2.9 nmol/L (P = 0.002 and from 5.1 to 37.5 ?g/L (P = 0.01, respectively. The increase in both F1+2, and TAT levels correlated significantly with the amount of retransfused suctioned blood (r = 0.68, P = 0.021 and r = 0.90, P = 0.001, respectively. However, the circulating factor VIIa levels did not correlate with TAT and F1+2 levels. Conclusions These data suggest that blood aspirated from the thoracic cavities during CPB is highly thrombogenic. Retransfusion of this blood may, therefore, promote further systemic thrombin generation during CPB.

de Jong Dick S

2003-07-01

357

Probit Normal Correlated Topic Models  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The logistic normal distribution has recently been adapted via the transformation of multivariate Gaus- sian variables to model the topical distribution of documents in the presence of correlations among topics. In this paper, we propose a probit normal alternative approach to modelling correlated topical structures. Our use of the probit model in the context of topic discovery is novel, as many authors have so far con- centrated solely of the logistic model partly due to th...

Yu, Xingchen; Fokoue, Ernest

2014-01-01

358

Effects of thrombin on intracellular calcium and pH in human and murine platelets.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to compare the effect of thrombin (Thr) on cytosolic calcium [Ca2]+i and intracellular pH [pH]i in human and murine platelets. Rich-platelet suspensions from both species were loaded with Fura-2 (2 microM) or BCECF (0.75 microM) by incubation with their respective acetoxymethyl esters to measure cytosolic calcium [Ca2+]i or intracellular pH [pH]i, respectively. Suspensions were challenged with increasing concentrations of Thr, from 0.1 to 10 IU/ml. Basal [Ca2+]i in human platelets was 98 +/- 6 and 99.1 +/- 9 nM in rat platelets (n = 20). Thr increased [Ca2+]i, EC50 was 1.1 +/- 0.04 in human and 0.97 +/- 0.06 IU/ml in rat platelets (n = 7). Extracellular Mg2+ (4 or 8 mM) abolished Thr response on [Ca2+]i. [pH]i in human was 7.09 +/- 0.08 and 7.11 +/- 0.04 in rat platelets. Thr induced alkalinization of platelets in both species. Our results indicate that the potency of Thr to change [Ca2+]i and [pH]i was similar in both species, allowing for comparisons between human and murine platelets and to extrapolate results from an animal model to human pathology. PMID:10938903

Salazar, D; Valencia, L; Sierra, G; Paniagua, R; Melendez, E; Reyes, J L

2000-06-01

359

Study of the specificity of thrombin with tripeptidyl-p-nitroanilide substrates.  

Science.gov (United States)

The kinetic behaviour of human thrombin has been studied with 26 tripeptidyl-p-nitroanilide substrates protected at the N terminus and with 9 unprotected ones. By the regression analysis of experimentally determined 1/Km, kcat and kcat/Km values the individual contribution of each side chain of the various substrates to the kinetic parameters was calculated. The contributions to the kinetic parameters of the best substrates provide information about the structure of the binding site. The interaction of subsites S1 and P1, which determines primary specificity, proved to be marginal on the basis of contribution values, though it depends upon this contact whether the substrate is hydrolyzed at all. At subsite S2 proline appeared to be favourable. Subsite S3 plays an important role in efficiency. The best parameters were obtained here with the D configurations of bulky amino acid residues. The aromatic protecting groups applied did not improve the properties of substrates. BZDPhe-Pro-Arg-Nan was predicted by calculation to be better than the protected substrates assayed. The compound was synthesized and tested. Its experimentally determined 1/Km, 55.1 mM-1, was in good agreement with 50.9 mM-1 found by calculation. PMID:7238516

Pozsgay, M; Szabó, G; Bajusz, S; Simonsson, R; Gáspár, R; Elödi, P

1981-04-01

360

Thrombin antithrombin complex and IL-18 serum levels in stroke patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The complex picture of inflammation and coagulation alterations comes to life in acute stroke phases. Increasing evidence points to a strong interaction and extensive crosstalk between the inflammation and coagulation systems: the interest towards this relationship has increased since recent experimental research showed that the early administration of antithrombin III (ATIII decreases the volume of ischemia in mice and might be neuroprotective, playing an antiinflammatory role. We aimed to establish the extent of the relationship among markers of inflammation (S100B and IL-18 and procoagulant and fibrinolytic markers (ATIII, thrombin-antithrombin III complex (TAT, Fibrin Degradation Products (FDP, D-dimer in 13 comatose patients affected by focal cerebral ischemia. Plasma levels of TAT, D-dimer and FDP, IL18 and S100B were increased. IL-18 and S100B high serum levels in ischemic patients suggest an early activation of the inflammatory cascade in acute ischemic injury. The basic principles of the interaction between inflammatory and coagulation systems are revised, from the perspective that simultaneous modulation of both coagulation and inflammation, rather than specific therapies aimed at one of these systems could be more successful in stroke therapy.

Rosalba Tufano

2010-06-01

 
 
 
 
361

Human tumor cells cultured "in vitro" activate platelet function by producing ADP or thrombin.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the effects on platelet function of different human tumour cells cultured "in vitro": Mo T lymphocyte cell line, NCI-N592 small cell lung carcinoma cell line, and 5637 bladder carcinoma cell line. Mo and NCI-N592 cells possessed a slight, dose-dependent platelet aggregating activity, which was completely abolished by apyrase and unaffected by hirudin. The cell-free supernatant also induced an aggregation response, which was very similar to that obtained with tumour cell suspensions. The presence of ADP in the cell-free supernatants of cell suspensions was confirmed by HPLC analysis. On the contrary, aggregation induced by 5637 cells was preceded by a significant lag phase; it was not affected by apyrase but it was abolished by hirudin, and the cell-free supernatant had no effect. These data suggest that Mo and NCI-N592 cells activate platelets by producing ADP, while 5637 cells stimulate platelet function by generating thrombin. The amount of ADP produced by the first two tumour cell lines was measured by bioassay: the extent of such production was similar for both cell lines and the maximum was reached after 60 minutes and maintained for up to 3 hours. These results suggest that neoplastic cells can activate platelets by different mechanisms: such investigations should be performed in homologous systems and in well-defined experimental conditions. PMID:2628235

Zucchella, M; Dezza, L; Pacchiarini, L; Meloni, F; Tacconi, F; Bonomi, E; Grignani, G; Notario, A

1989-01-01

362

Mesoporous carbon microparticles as a novel fluorescent sensing platform for thrombin detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present paper presents the novel use of MC microparticles (MCMPs) as a novel fluorescent sensing platform for thrombin detection. The MCMPs were prepared by a nanocasting method using mesoporous silica (MS) NPs as a hard template. The general concept used in this approach lies in the facts that the non-covalent adsorption of the dye-labeled TA on MCMP driven by ?-? stacking of DNA bases on MCMP leads to substantial quenching of dye fluorescence due to their very close proximity. However, the presence of target TB results in the change of TA conformation to quadruplex due to the quadruplex-TB complex formation. Because the binding between the complex and MCMP is not strong enough to guarantee the close proximity of dyes to MCMP surface, fluorescence quenching is suppressed. This sensing system has a low detection limit down to 0.25nM and exhibits excellent selectivity. We also demonstrate its application in human blood serum system. PMID:21440431

Zhang, Yingwei; Liu, Sen; Sun, Xuping

2011-05-15

363

Did the universe recombine?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Zel'dovich-Sunyaev model-independent arguments for the existence of a neutral hydrogen phase is reviewed in light of new limits on the Compton y parameter from COBE. It is concluded that with baryon densities compatible with standard cosmological nucleosynthesis, the universe could have remained fully ionized throughout its history without producing a detectable spectral distortion. It is argued that it is unlikely that spectral observations of the cosmic microwave background will ever require the universe to have recombined for flat cosmologies. 22 refs

364

Topics on continua  

CERN Document Server

Specialized as it might be, continuum theory is one of the most intriguing areas in mathematics. However, despite being popular journal fare, few books have thoroughly explored this interesting aspect of topology. In Topics on Continua, Sergio Macías, one of the field's leading scholars, presents four of his favorite continuum topics: inverse limits, Jones's set function T, homogenous continua, and n-fold hyperspaces, and in doing so, presents the most complete set of theorems and proofs ever contained in a single topology volume. Many of the results presented have previously appeared only in research papers, and some appear here for the first time. After building the requisite background and exploring the inverse limits of continua, the discussions focus on Professor Jones''s set function T and continua for which T is continuous. An introduction to topological groups and group actions lead to a proof of Effros''s Theorem, followed by a presentation of two decomposition theorems. The author then offers an...

Macias, Sergio

2005-01-01

365

Characterization of an anti-thrombospondin monoclonal antibody (P8) that inhibits human blood platelet functions. Normal binding of P8 to thrombin-activated Glanzmann thrombasthenic platelets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stimulated human blood platelets release thrombospondin, an alpha-granule glycoprotein of 450 kDa. The aim of this work was to characterize an anti-thrombospondin monoclonal antibody (P8) in order to study the role of thrombospondin in platelet functions. The presence of thrombospondin receptor sites on resting and thrombin-stimulated platelets of three Glanzmann's thrombasthenia patients and normal donors was investigated using the P8 monoclonal antibody. Monoclonal antibody P8 was extensively characterized using ELISA, immunoprecipitation, immunoadsorbent affinity chromatography combined with tryptic peptide map analysis and crossed immunoelectrophoretic techniques. Labelled P8 bound strongly to thrombin-stimulated normal platelets (n = 14917 +/- 420, mean +/- SD) (Kd = 9.2 +/- 3.0 nM) and poorly to resting platelets (n = 2697 +/- 1278) (Kd = 24.8 +/- 18.6 nM). Moreover, the number of binding sites for P8 on thrombin-stimulated platelets from three Glanzmann's thrombasthenia patients, lacking the IIb-IIIa glycoprotein complex, were found similar to normal samples. F(ab')2 fragments of P8 inhibited aggregation of, and reduced secretion from, washed platelets stimulated by low concentrations of thrombin (0.05-0.06 U/ml) and collagen (0.5-0.6 microgram/ml). F(ab')2 fragments of P8 inhibited thrombin-induced platelet aggregation, but did not reduce fibrinogen binding (n) nor affect its dissociation constant (Kd). Inhibition of platelet aggregation by P8 suggests that thrombospondin plays an active role in promoting platelet aggregation, at low concentrations of thrombin and collagen. Normal binding of P8 to thrombin-stimulated Glanzmann thrombasthenic platelets indicates the presence of a thrombospondin receptor on the platelet surface distinct from the GPIIb-IIIa complex. PMID:3338471

Boukerche, H; McGregor, J L

1988-01-15

366

Nonreplicative RNA Recombination in Poliovirus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Current models of recombination between viral RNAs are based on replicative template-switch mechanisms. The existence of nonreplicative RNA recombination in poliovirus is demonstrated in the present study by the rescue of viable viruses after cotransfections with different pairs of genomic RNA fragments with suppressed translatable and replicating capacities. Approximately 100 distinct recombinant genomes have been identified. The majority of crossovers occurred between nonhomologous segments...

Gmyl, Anatoly P.; Belousov, Evgeny V.; Maslova, Svetlana V.; Khitrina, Elena V.; Chetverin, Alexander B.; Agol, Vadim I.

1999-01-01

367

Hemoperitoneum presenting with the use of a topical hemostatic agent in oocyte retrieval: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hemoperitoneum may occur from an ovarian puncture point after oocyte retrieval. Case presentation We report a case of massive hemoperitoneum following transvaginal ultrasound-guided oocyte retrieval in a 33-year-old Caucasian woman. The bleeding required emergency laparoscopy because of active bleeding from the ovarian puncture point. Hemostasis was very difficult to achieve, and traditional operative procedures were not efficient. The only way to stop the bleeding was by using an absorbable fibrinogen and thrombin sealant sponge, which was applied around the ovary. During laparoscopy three pints of packed red blood were administered. No specific alteration of screening coagulation tests was found one month later. Conclusions Hemostasis can be very difficult to achieve with traditional operative procedures. Topical hemostatic agents can be useful to preserve the ovary wherever possible.

Chatrian Amélie

2012-11-01

368

Superconcentration and related topics  

CERN Document Server

A certain curious feature of random objects, introduced by the author as “super concentration,” and two related topics, “chaos” and “multiple valleys,” are highlighted in this book. Although super concentration has established itself as a recognized feature in a number of areas of probability theory in the last twenty years (under a variety of names), the author was the first to discover and explore its connections with chaos and multiple valleys. He achieves a substantial degree of simplification and clarity in the presentation of these findings by using the spectral approach. Understanding the fluctuations of random objects is one of the major goals of probability theory and a whole subfield of probability and analysis, called concentration of measure, is devoted to understanding these fluctuations. This subfield offers a range of tools for computing upper bounds on the orders of fluctuations of very complicated random variables. Usually, concentration of measure is useful when more direct prob...

Chatterjee, Sourav

2014-01-01

369

Topics in orbit equivalence  

CERN Document Server

This volume provides a self-contained introduction to some topics in orbit equivalence theory, a branch of ergodic theory. The first two chapters focus on hyperfiniteness and amenability. Included here are proofs of Dye's theorem that probability measure-preserving, ergodic actions of the integers are orbit equivalent and of the theorem of Connes-Feldman-Weiss identifying amenability and hyperfiniteness for non-singular equivalence relations. The presentation here is often influenced by descriptive set theory, and Borel and generic analogs of various results are discussed. The final chapter is a detailed account of Gaboriau's recent results on the theory of costs for equivalence relations and groups and its applications to proving rigidity theorems for actions of free groups.

Kechris, Alexander S

2004-01-01

370

Topics on String Phenomenology  

CERN Document Server

These lectures present some topics of string phenomenology and contain two parts. In the first part, I review the possibility of lowering the string scale in the TeV region, that provides a theoretical framework for solving the mass hierarchy problem and unifying all interactions. The apparent weakness of gravity can then be accounted by the existence of large internal dimensions, in the submillimeter region, and transverse to a braneworld where our universe must be confined. I review the main properties of this scenario and its implications for observations at both particle colliders, and in non-accelerator gravity experiments. In the second part, I discuss a simple framework of toroidal string models with magnetized branes, that offers an interesting self-consistent setup for string phenomenology. I will present an algorithm for fixing the geometric parameters of the compactification, build calculable particle physics models such as a supersymmetric SU(5) Grand Unified Theory with three generations of quark...

Antoniadis, Ignatios

2008-01-01

371

Phage display of the serpin alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor randomized at consecutive residues in the reactive centre loop and biopanned with or without thrombin.  

Science.gov (United States)

In spite of the power of phage display technology to identify variant proteins with novel properties in large libraries, it has only been previously applied to one member of the serpin superfamily. Here we describe phage display of human alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor (API) in a T7 bacteriophage system. API M358R fused to the C-terminus of T7 capsid protein 10B was directly shown to form denaturation-resistant complexes with thrombin by electrophoresis and immunoblotting following exposure of intact phages to thrombin. We therefore developed a biopanning protocol in which thrombin-reactive phages were selected using biotinylated anti-thrombin antibodies and streptavidin-coated magnetic beads. A library consisting of displayed API randomized at residues 357 and 358 (P2-P1) yielded predominantly Pro-Arg at these positions after five rounds of thrombin selection; in contrast the same degree of mock selection yielded only non-functional variants. A more diverse library of API M358R randomized at residues 352-356 (P7-P3) was also probed, yielding numerous variants fitting a loose consensus of DLTVS as judged by sequencing of the inserts of plaque-purified phages. The thrombin-selected sequences were transferred en masse into bacterial expression plasmids, and lysates from individual colonies were screening for API-thrombin complexing. The most active candidates from this sixth round of screening contained DITMA and AAFVS at P7-P3 and inhibited thrombin 2.1-fold more rapidly than API M358R with no change in reaction stoichiometry. Deep sequencing using the Ion Torrent platform confirmed that over 800 sequences were significantly enriched in the thrombin-panned versus naïve phage display library, including some detected using the combined phage display/bacterial lysate screening approach. Our results show that API joins Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) as a serpin amenable to phage display and suggest the utility of this approach for the selection of "designer serpins" with novel reactivity and/or specificity. PMID:24427287

Scott, Benjamin M; Matochko, Wadim L; Gierczak, Richard F; Bhakta, Varsha; Derda, Ratmir; Sheffield, William P

2014-01-01

372

Enhanced effector function of CD8(+) T cells from healthy controls and HIV-infected patients occurs through thrombin activation of protease-activated receptor 1.  

Science.gov (United States)

Disruption of vascular integrity by trauma and other tissue insults leads to inflammation and activation of the coagulation cascade. The serine protease thrombin links these 2 processes. The proinflammatory function of thrombin is mediated by activation of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1). We found that peripheral blood effector memory CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes expressed PAR-1 and that expression was increased in CD8(+) T cells from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Thrombin enhanced cytokine secretion in CD8(+) T cells from healthy controls and HIV-infected patients. In addition, thrombin induced chemokinesis, but not chemotaxis, of CD8(+) T cells, which led to structural changes, including cell polarization and formation of a structure rich in F-actin and phosphorylated ezrin-radexin-moesin proteins. These findings suggest that thrombin mediates cross-talk between the coagulation system and the adaptive immune system at sites of vascular injury through increased T-cell motility and production of proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:23204166

Hurley, Amanda; Smith, Mindy; Karpova, Tatiana; Hasley, Rebecca B; Belkina, Natalya; Shaw, Stephen; Balenga, Nariman; Druey, Kirk M; Nickel, Erin; Packard, Beverly; Imamichi, Hiromi; Hu, Zonghui; Follmann, Dean; McNally, James; Higgins, Jeanette; Sneller, Michael; Lane, H Clifford; Catalfamo, Marta

2013-02-15

373

Enhanced Effector Function of CD8+ T Cells From Healthy Controls and HIV-Infected Patients Occurs Through Thrombin Activation of Protease-Activated Receptor 1  

Science.gov (United States)

Disruption of vascular integrity by trauma and other tissue insults leads to inflammation and activation of the coagulation cascade. The serine protease thrombin links these 2 processes. The proinflammatory function of thrombin is mediated by activation of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1). We found that peripheral blood effector memory CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes expressed PAR-1 and that expression was increased in CD8+ T cells from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected patients. Thrombin enhanced cytokine secretion in CD8+ T cells from healthy controls and HIV-infected patients. In addition, thrombin induced chemokinesis, but not chemotaxis, of CD8+ T cells, which led to structural changes, including cell polarization and formation of a structure rich in F-actin and phosphorylated ezrin-radexin-moesin proteins. These findings suggest that thrombin mediates cross-talk between the coagulation system and the adaptive immune system at sites of vascular injury through increased T-cell motility and production of proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:23204166

Hurley, Amanda; Smith, Mindy; Karpova, Tatiana; Hasley, Rebecca B.; Belkina, Natalya; Shaw, Stephen; Balenga, Nariman; Druey, Kirk M.; Nickel, Erin; Packard, Beverly; Imamichi, Hiromi; Hu, Zonghui; Follmann, Dean; McNally, James; Higgins, Jeanette; Sneller, Michael; Lane, H. Clifford; Catalfamo, Marta

2013-01-01

374

A 2D-DIGE-based proteomic analysis reveals differences in the platelet releasate composition when comparing thrombin and collagen stimulations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Upon stimulation, platelets release a high number of proteins (the releasate). There are clear indications that these proteins are involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases, such as atherosclerosis. In the present study we compared the platelet releasate following platelet activation with two major endogenous agonists: thrombin and collagen. Proteome analysis was based on 2D-DIGE and LC-MS/MS. Firstly, we showed the primary role of thrombin and collagen receptors in platelet secretion by these agonists; moreover, we demonstrated that GPVI is the primary responsible for collagen-induced platelet activation/aggregation. Proteomic analysis allowed the detection of 122 protein spots differentially regulated between both conditions. After excluding fibrinogen spots, down-regulated in the releasate of thrombin-activated platelets, 84 differences remained. From those, we successfully identified 42, corresponding to 37 open-reading frames. Many of the differences identified correspond to post-translational modifications, primarily, proteolysis induced by thrombin. Among others, we show vitamin K-dependent protein S, an anticoagulant plasma protein, is up-regulated in thrombin samples. Our results could have pathological implications given that platelets might be playing a differential role in various diseases and biological processes through the secretion of different subsets of granule proteins and microvesicles following a predominant activation of certain receptors. PMID:25645904

Vélez, Paula; Izquierdo, Irene; Rosa, Isaac; García, Ángel

2015-01-01

375

Thermodynamic and biological evaluation of a thrombin binding aptamer modified with several unlocked nucleic acid (UNA) monomers and a 2?-C-piperazino-UNA monomer  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Thrombin binding aptamer is a DNA 15-mer which forms a G-quadruplex structure and possess promising anticoagulant properties due to specific interactions with thrombin. Herein we present the influence of a single 2?-C-piperazino-UNA residue and UNA residues incorporated in several positions on thermodynamics, kinetics and biological properties of the aptamer. 2?-C-Piperazino-UNA is characterized by more efficient stabilization of quadruplex structure in comparison to regular UNA and increases thermodynamic stability of TBA by 0.28–0.44kcal/mol in a position depending manner with retained quadruplex topology and molecularity. The presence of UNA-U in positions U3, U7, and U12 results in the highest stabilization of G-quadruplex structure (??G37°=?1.03kcal/mol). On the contrary, the largest destabilization mounting to 1.79kcal/mol was observed when UNA residues were placed in positions U7, G8, and U9. Kinetic studies indicate no strict correlation between thermodynamic stability of modified variants and their binding affinity to thrombin. Most of the studied variants bind thrombin, albeit with decreased affinity in reference to unmodified TBA. Thrombin time assay studies indicate three variants as being as potent as TBA in fibrin clotting inhibition.

Jensen, Troels B.; Henriksen, Jonas Rosager

2011-01-01

376

Detection of thrombin using electrogenerated chemiluminescence based on Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}-doped silica nanoparticle aptasensor via target protein-induced strand displacement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A sensitive and selective aptasensor using tri(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II)-doped silica nanoparticles (Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}-doped SNPs) as DNA tags for detection of thrombin is developed based on the target protein-induced strand displacement of the DNA probe. For the proposed aptasensor, the aptamer was assembled on the surface of the Au electrode through Au-S binding. The hybridization event between the DNA probe labeled by the Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}-doped SNPs and the aptamer was evaluated by electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) measurements. Then, the DNA probe was displaced by thrombin and the binding event between the thrombin and the aptamer was monitored by ECL measurements again. The difference of ECL intensity ({delta}I{sub ECL}) of the two events could be used to quantify the thrombin. Other proteins, such as bovine serum albumin and bovine hemoglobin, had almost negligible {delta}I{sub ECL}. Under the optimal conditions, the {delta}I{sub ECL} was linearly related to the concentration of the thrombin in the range of 10 fM to 10 pM and the detection limit was down to 1.0 fM since SNPs containing a large number of Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} molecules were labeled on the DNA probe.

Wang Xiaoying; Zhou Jingming; Yun Wen; Xiao Shasha; Chang Zhu [Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); He Pingang [Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)], E-mail: pghe@chem.ecnu.edu.cn; Fang Yuzhi [Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)], E-mail: yuzhi@online.sh.cn

2007-08-29

377

Thermodynamic and biological evaluation of a thrombin binding aptamer modified with several unlocked nucleic acid (UNA) monomers and a 2'-C-piperazino-UNA monomer  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Thrombin binding aptamer is a DNA 15-mer which forms a G-quadruplex structure and possess promising anticoagulant properties due to specific interactions with thrombin. Herein we present the influence of a single 2'-C-piperazino-UNA residue and UNA residues incorporated in several positions on thermodynamics, kinetics and biological properties of the aptamer. 2'-C-Piperazino-UNA is characterized by more efficient stabilization of quadruplex structure in comparison to regular UNA and increases thermodynamic stability of TBA by 0.28-0.44kcal/mol in a position depending manner with retained quadruplex topology and molecularity. The presence of UNA-U in positions U3, U7, and U12 results in the highest stabilization of G-quadruplex structure (??G(37)(°)=-1.03kcal/mol). On the contrary, the largest destabilization mounting to 1.79kcal/mol was observed when UNA residues were placed in positions U7, G8, and U9. Kinetic studies indicate no strict correlation between thermodynamic stability of modified variants and their binding affinity to thrombin. Most of the studied variants bind thrombin, albeit with decreased affinity in reference to unmodified TBA. Thrombin time assay studies indicate three variants as being as potent as TBA in fibrin clotting inhibition.

Jensen, Troels B; Henriksen, Jonas R

2011-01-01

378

A label-free aptasensor for highly sensitive detection of ATP and thrombin based on metal-enhanced PicoGreen fluorescence.  

Science.gov (United States)

A label-free fluorescence aptasensor for highly selective and sensitive detection of ATP and thrombin was developed by using PicoGreen (PG) as signal molecule and surface-bound metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) substrates (silver island films, SIFs) as signal enhancers. On binding with ATP or thrombin, aptamers undergo structure switching, leading to a reduction of fluorescence intensity of PG. Chang of fluorescence intensity can be magnified by SIFs. The limit of detection for ATP and thrombin is 1.3 nM and 0.073 nM, respectively. The fluorescence quenching efficiency is linear in the logarithmic scale with ATP concentration range from 10 nM to 100 ?M (R(2)=0.995) and thrombin concentration range from 0.1 nM to 100 nM (R(2)=0.997). The coefficients of variation of the intra-assay reproducibility and inter-assay reproducibility for ATP (10 ?M) assay are 3.8% and 5.2%, respectively. In addition, the aptasensor is stable and can be reliably used for ATP measurement in biological samples. Overall, the aptasensor can be a useful and cost effective tool for the specific detection of ATP, thrombin and potentially other biomolecules in biological samples. PMID:25086329

Wang, Kaiyu; Liao, Jian; Yang, Xiangyue; Zhao, Meng; Chen, Min; Yao, Weirong; Tan, Weihong; Lan, Xiaopeng

2015-01-15

379

Label-free electrochemical aptasensor for sensitive thrombin detection using layer-by-layer self-assembled multilayers with toluidine blue-graphene composites and gold nanoparticles.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, toluidine blue-graphene (Tb-Gra) nanocomposites were prepared to design a Lable-free electrochemical aptasensor for highly sensitive detection of thrombin based on layer-by-layer (LBL) technology. The nanocomposites with excellent redox electrochemical activities were first immobilized on the gold nanoparticles (nano-Au) modified glassy carbon electrodes (GCE). Then, the LBL structure was performed by electrostatic adsorption between the positively charged Tb-Gra and negatively charged nano-Au, which formed {Tb-Gra/nano-Au}(n) multilayer films for electroactive species enrichment and biomolecule immobilization. Subsequently, the thiolated thrombin binding aptamer (TBA) was assembled on the nano-Au surface through Au-S bond. In the presence of target thrombin (TB), the TBA on the multilayer could catch the thrombin onto the electrode surface, which resulted in a barrier for electro-transfer, leading to the decrease of the electrochemical signal of Tb-Gra nanocomposites. Under the optimal conditions, a wide detection range from 0.001 nM to 80 nM and a low detection limit of 0.33 pM (defined as S/N=3) for thrombin were obtained. In addition, the sensor exhibited excellent selectivity against other proteins. PMID:22939121

Xie, Shunbi; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin; Bai, Lijuan; Yuan, Yali; Wang, Yan

2012-08-30

380

Optimal Recombination in Genetic Algorithms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper surveys results on complexity of the optimal recombination problem (ORP), which consists in finding the best possible offspring as a result of a recombination operator in a genetic algorithm, given two parent solutions. We consider efficient reductions of the ORPs, allowing to establish polynomial solvability or NP-hardness of the ORPs, as well as direct proofs of hardness results.

Eremeev, Anton V.; Kovalenko, Julia V.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Dielectronic recombination lines of C+  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper presents atomic data generated to investigate the recombination lines of C II in the spectra of planetary nebulae. These data include energies of bound and autoionizing states, oscillator strengths and radiative transition probabilities, autoionization probabilities, and recombination coefficients. The R-matrix method of electron scattering theory was used to describe the C2+ plus electron system

382

Dielectronic Recombination Lines of C+  

CERN Document Server

The current paper presents atomic data generated to investigate the recombination lines of C II in the spectra of planetary nebulae. These data include energies of bound and autoionizing states, oscillator strengths and radiative transition probabilities, autoionization probabilities, and recombination coefficients. The R-matrix method of electron scattering theory was used to describe the C2+ plus electron system.

Sochi, Taha

2012-01-01

383

Effect of thrombin on purine metabolism in the guinea pig heart  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In vitro coronary endothelial cells (EC) release adenosine (ADO) in response to thrombin (THR). The authors tested the hypothesis that THR causes the release of ADO from in situ EC of isolated guinea pig hearts. The authors preferentially labelled the EC by infusing 2,8-/sup 3/H-ADO (ADO; 5 x 10/sup -8/ M) into the heart for 30 minutes. Then THR (1 U/ml) or THR plus allopurinol (2.4 x 10-/sup 4M) was infused into the heart. Venous effluent samples analyzed for ADO, ADO and /sup 3/H-H/sub 2/O. THR increased the release of ADO from 32 +/- 11 pm/min/g to 175 +/- 47 after 4 minutes (p < 0.02, n = 5). Despite the increase in total ADO release, ADO did not increase. Release of H/sub 2/O increased from 10.1 +/- 10/sup 3/ dpm/min/g to 23.5 +/- 5.7 x 10/sup 3/ at 4 minutes. In the presence of the xanthine oxidase/dehydrogenase inhibitor allopurinol, H/sub 2/O release in response to THR fell to 3.6 +/- 1.2 x 10 dpm/min/gm. The authors conclude that the labelled EC are not the source of ADO released in response to THR. Instead the ADO released by THR comes from an unlabelled compartment, most likely the myocytes. This suggests that ADO release from myocytes may be a mechanism to regulate thrombogenesis. The THR-induced increase in H/sub 2/O release and it's inhibition by allopurinol indicates that THR enhances purine catabolism in EC.

Whelton, B.K.; Thompson, C.I.; Sparks, H.V.

1986-03-01

384

Thrombin-dependent Incorporation of von Willebrand Factor into a Fibrin Network.  

Science.gov (United States)

Attachment of platelets from the circulation onto a growing thrombus is a process involving multiple platelet receptors, endothelial matrix components, and coagulation factors. It has been indicated previously that during a transglutaminase reaction activated factor XIII (FXIIIa) covalently cross-links von Willebrand factor (VWF) to polymerizing fibrin. Bound VWF further recruits and activates platelets via interactions with the platelet receptor complex glycoprotein Ib (GPIb). In the present study we found proof for binding of VWF to a fibrin monomer layer during the process of fibrinogen-to-fibrin conversion in the presence of thrombin, arvin, or a snake venom from Crotalus atrox. Using a domain deletion mutant we demonstrated the involvement of the C domains of VWF in this binding. Substantial binding of VWF to fibrin monomers persisted in the presence of the FXIIIa inhibitor K9-DON, illustrating that cross-linking via factor XIII is not essential for this phenomenon and suggesting the identification of a second mechanism through which VWF multimers incorporate into a fibrin network. Under high shear conditions, platelets were shown to adhere to fibrin only if VWF had been incorporated. In conclusion, our experiments show that the C domains of VWF and the E domain of fibrin monomers are involved in the incorporation of VWF during the polymerization of fibrin and that this incorporation fosters binding and activation of platelets. Fibrin thus is not an inert end product but partakes in further thrombus growth. Our findings help to elucidate the mechanism of thrombus growth and platelet adhesion under conditions of arterial shear rate. PMID:25381443

Miszta, Adam; Pelkmans, Leonie; Lindhout, Theo; Krishnamoorthy, Ganeshram; de Groot, Philip G; Hemker, Coenraad H; Heemskerk, Johan W M; Kelchtermans, Hilde; de Laat, Bas

2014-12-26

385

Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor activity in healthy and diseased dogs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: In people, increased thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) antigen has been associated with increased risk of thrombosis, and decreased TAFI may contribute to bleeding diathesis. TAFI activity in dogs has been described in experimental models, but not in dogs with spontaneous disease. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare TAFI activity in healthy dogs with TAFI activity in dogs with spontaneous disease. Methods: Plasma samples from 20 clinically healthy Beagles and from 35 dogs with various diseases were analyzed using a commercial chromogenic assay that measured TAFI activity relative to activity in standardized pooled human plasma. Results: Median TAFI activity for the 20 Beagles was 46.1% (range 32.2-70.8%) compared with 62.6% (29.1-250%) for the 35 diseased dogs, and 14/35 (40%) had TAFI activities >the upper limit for controls. The highest individual activities (>225%) were in 3 dogs with malignant neoplasms and 1 dog with thrombocytopenia. For data grouped by diagnosis, median TAFI activity was 61.7% for benign neoplasia (n=5), 64.9% for malignant neoplasia (n=8), 75.5% for Angiostrongylus vasorum infection (n=4), 68.8% for bacterial sepsis (n=7), and 58.7% for miscellaneous diseases (n=11). Compared with TAFI activity in control dogs, median TAFI activity was significantly increased only in the group of dogs with bacterial sepsis. Conclusion: Bacterial sepsis was associated with significantly increased TAFI activity, and individual dogs with increased TAFI activities were found in all disease groups. The role of TAFI in the pathogenesis of hemostatic disorders in dogs and its value as a prognostic indicator deserve further investigation.

Jessen, Lisbeth Rem; Wiinberg, Bo

2010-01-01

386

A1 subunit-mediated regulation of thrombin-activated factor VIII A2 subunit dissociation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Factor VIII (fVIII) is the plasma protein that is missing or deficient in hemophilia A. In contrast, elevated levels of fVIII are associated with an increased risk of arterial and venous thrombosis. fVIII is activated by thrombin to form a non-covalently linked A1/A2/A3-C1-C2 heterotrimer. At physiological concentrations, fVIIIa decays as a result of A2 subunit dissociation, which may help regulate the balance between hemostasis and thrombosis. A2 subunit dissociation is faster in human fVIIIa than in porcine fVIIIa, which may represent an evolutionary adaptation associated with the development of the upright posture and venous stasis in the lower extremities. To investigate the basis for the different decay kinetics of human and porcine fVIIIa, hybrid fVIII molecules representing all possible combinations of human and porcine A domains were isolated. The kinetics of fVIIIa decay were measured and fit to a model describing a reversible bimolecular reaction in which the dissociation rate constant, k, and dissociation constant, Kd, were the fitted parameters. Substitution of the porcine A1 domain into human fVIIIa produced a dissociation rate constant indistinguishable from porcine fVIIIa. Subsequently, substitution of the second cupredoxin-like A1 subdomain resulted in a dissociation rate constant similar to porcine fVIIIa, whereas substitution of the first cupredoxin-like A1 subdomain resulted in a dissociation rate constant intermediate between human and porcine fVIIIa. We propose that cupredoxin-like A1 subdomains in fVIII contain inter-species differences that are a result of selective pressure on the dissociation rate constant. PMID:16513639

Parker, Ernest T; Doering, Christopher B; Lollar, Pete

2006-05-19

387

Discovering health topics in social media using topic models.  

Science.gov (United States)

By aggregating self-reported health statuses across millions of users, we seek to characterize the variety of health information discussed in Twitter. We describe a topic modeling framework for discovering health topics in Twitter, a social media website. This is an exploratory approach with the goal of understanding what health topics are commonly discussed in social media. This paper describes in detail a statistical topic model created for this purpose, the Ailment Topic Aspect Model (ATAM), as well as our system for filtering general Twitter data based on health keywords and supervised classification. We show how ATAM and other topic models can automatically infer health topics in 144 million Twitter messages from 2011 to 2013. ATAM discovered 13 coherent clusters of Twitter messages, some of which correlate with seasonal influenza (r = 0.689) and allergies (r = 0.810) temporal surveillance data, as well as exercise (r = ?.534) and obesity (r = ?-.631) related geographic survey data in the United States. These results demonstrate that it is possible to automatically discover topics that attain statistically significant correlations with ground truth data, despite using minimal human supervision and no historical data to train the model, in contrast to prior work. Additionally, these results demonstrate that a single general-purpose model can identify many different health topics in social media. PMID:25084530

Paul, Michael J; Dredze, Mark

2014-01-01

388

Anticoagulant profile of iopamidol and meglumine amidotrizoate and their lack of thrombin generation: an in vitro study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this in vitro study was to sketch the subtle anticoagulant profile of iopamidol 300 mg l/ml (low osmolality non ionic contrast medium) and meglumine amidotrizoate 370 mg l/ml (high osmolality ionic contrast medium) in situations where variable amounts of clotting factors are observed and to check whether thrombin-generation significantly occurred in non anti-coagulated blood-contrast materials mixtures. In the first experiment, mixtures of deficient plasmas with a routine plasma pool provided different ranges with a variable amounts of clotting factor II, V, VIII, X, XI and XII. For each clotting factor level studied within these ranges, an activated partial thromboplastin time was determined with either contrast material loaded thromboplastin (5% v/v) used as a control. In the second experiment fibrino-peptide A (FpA) or modified anti-thrombin III (ATM) assays were performed in either (9:1) non anti-coagulated blood contrast materials mixtures or blood-glucose mixtures (control). Differing aPTT prolongation profiles were observed when clotting factors V, VIII, XI and XII were lowered in the plasma. However, neither iopamidol not amidotrizoate induced an aPTT prolongation with decreasing clotting factor II. In the second experiment no significant thrombin generation was observed as both blood - contrast materials mixtures showed significantly lower FpA and ATM levels (p < 0.001) than glucose control after 5 minutes and 10 minutes incubation at room temperature. These findings provide evidence that the use of iopamidol in angiographic procedures does not increase risk of clotting or hemorrhage. (author)

Gritli, N.; Nsiri, B.; Mazigh, C.; Ghazouani, E.; M`henni, H.; Machghoul, S.; Gueddiche, M. [Hopital Militaire Principal d`Instruction de Tunis (Tunisia)

1998-01-01

389

Anticoagulant profile of iopamidol and meglumine amidotrizoate and their lack of thrombin generation: an in vitro study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this in vitro study was to sketch the subtle anticoagulant profile of iopamidol 300 mg l/ml (low osmolality non ionic contrast medium) and meglumine amidotrizoate 370 mg l/ml (high osmolality ionic contrast medium) in situations where variable amounts of clotting factors are observed and to check whether thrombin-generation significantly occurred in non anti-coagulated blood-contrast materials mixtures. In the first experiment, mixtures of deficient plasmas with a routine plasma pool provided different ranges with a variable amounts of clotting factor II, V, VIII, X, XI and XII. For each clotting factor level studied within these ranges, an activated partial thromboplastin time was determined with either contrast material loaded thromboplastin (5% v/v) used as a control. In the second experiment fibrino-peptide A (FpA) or modified anti-thrombin III (ATM) assays were performed in either (9:1) non anti-coagulated blood contrast materials mixtures or blood-glucose mixtures (control). Differing aPTT prolongation profiles were observed when clotting factors V, VIII, XI and XII were lowered in the plasma. However, neither iopamidol not amidotrizoate induced an aPTT prolongation with decreasing clotting factor II. In the second experiment no significant thrombin generation was observed as both blood - contrast materials mixtures showed significantly lower FpA and ATM levels (p < 0.001) than glucose control after 5 minutes and 10 minutes incubation at room temperatand 10 minutes incubation at room temperature. These findings provide evidence that the use of iopamidol in angiographic procedures does not increase risk of clotting or hemorrhage. (author)

390

Novel magnetic fibrin hydrogel scaffolds containing thrombin and growth factors conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles for tissue engineering  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ofra Ziv-Polat1, Hadas Skaat1, Abraham Shahar2, Shlomo Margel11Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Ramat-Gan 52900, Israel; 2NVR Research Ltd, Nes-Ziona 74031, IsraelAbstract: Novel tissue-engineered magnetic fibrin hydrogel scaffolds were prepared by the interaction of thrombin-conjugated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles with fibrinogen. In addition, stabilization of basal fibroblast growth factor (bFGF was achieved by the covalent and physical conjugation of the growth factor to the magnetic nanoparticles. Adult nasal olfactory mucosa (NOM cells were seeded in the transparent fibrin scaffolds in the absence or presence of the free or conjugated bFGF-iron oxide nanoparticles. The conjugated bFGF enhanced significantly the growth and differentiation of the NOM cells in the fibrin scaffolds, compared to the same or even five times higher concentration of the free bFGF. In the presence of the bFGF-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles, the cultured NOM cells proliferated and formed a three-dimensional interconnected network composed mainly of tapered bipolar cells. The magnetic properties of these matrices are due to the integration of the thrombin- and bFGF-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles within the scaffolds. The magnetic properties of these scaffolds may be used in future work for various applications, such as magnetic resonance visualization of the scaffolds after implantation and reloading the scaffolds via magnetic forces with bioactive agents, eg, growth factors bound to the iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles.Keywords: thrombin, fibroblast growth factor, fibrin scaffold, iron oxide nanoparticles, tissue engineering, magnetism, bioactive nanoparticle

Ziv-Polat O

2012-03-01

391

A sensitive electrochemical aptasensor for thrombin detection based on exonuclease-catalyzed target recycling and enzyme-catalysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, a sensitive electrochemical aptasensor based on exonuclease-catalyzed target recycling and enzyme-catalysis was developed for thrombin (TB) detection. Firstly, the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was abundantly embedded in the 3-(mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPTS) sol with a 3-D network that exhibited tunable porosity and high thermal stability. ADH, as an alcohol oxidase, catalyzed the conversation of alcohol into acetaldehyde coupling with the production of NADH in the presence of NAD(+). Then the immobilized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) could electrocatalyze the oxidation of NADH, finally promoting the redox reaction of the electroactive material methylene blue (MB) labeled on the hybrid double strand DNA (dsDNA). Furthermore, when the mixture of TB and RecJf exonuclease was introduced, TB combined with the thrombin aptamer II (TBA II) and the aptamer-TB complex was formed. And then, the RecJf exonuclease selectively degraded the TBA II from 5'?3', releasing the target TB into the solution. The free TB was reused to combine with other TBA II to accomplish the target recycling and realize the electrochemical signal amplification. In this way, excellent sensitivity of the aptasensor was obtained. The thrombin aptasensor achieved a detection limit of 1.7pM (defined as S/N=3) with a linear range from 5pM to 100nM. In addition, the proposed aptasensor had good stability and sensitivity, and would become a promising choice for the protein diagnostics in clinical analysis. PMID:23603135

Yi, Huayu; Xu, Wenju; Yuan, Yali; Wu, Yongmei; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Ruo

2013-09-15

392

An Automatic Topic Identification Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Topic is a stream of words which stands for the content of a text. Knowing the topic of a document can help people to be aware from its content and facilitate their searching process. Approach: This paper proposes an automatic algorithm to identify the topic for a textual document based on the chunks corresponding to each sentences in the document. Results and conclusion: We achieved 86% matching for both total and partial matching in our experimental data sample.

Hossein S. Baghdadi

2011-01-01

393

Topics in quantum field theory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this PhD-thesis some topics in quantum field theory are considered. The first chapter gives a background to these topics. The second chapter discusses renormalization. In particular it is shown how loop calculations can be performed when using the axial gauge fixing. Fermion creation and annihilation configurations for the one loop level are obtained and an example calculations was done to check that these lead to gauge invariant amplitudes. The next topic in the second chapter is renormal...

Dams, Christianus Johannes Franciscus

2006-01-01

394