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Sample records for temperature pyrolysis deoxygen

  1. Methods for deoxygenating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    Baird, Lance Awender; Brandvold, Timothy A.

    2015-06-30

    Methods for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. A method for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil comprising the steps of combining a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream with a heated low-oxygen-pyoil diluent recycle stream to form a heated diluted pyoil feed stream is provided. The heated diluted pyoil feed stream has a feed temperature of about 150.degree. C. or greater. The heated diluted pyoil feed stream is contacted with a first deoxygenating catalyst in the presence of hydrogen at first hydroprocessing conditions effective to form a low-oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil effluent.

  2. Apparatuses and methods for deoxygenating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    Kalnes, Tom N.

    2015-12-29

    Apparatuses and methods for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided herein. In one example, the method comprises of dividing a feedstock stream into first and second feedstock portions. The feedstock stream comprises the biomass-derived pyrolysis oil and has a temperature of about 60.degree. C. or less. The first feedstock portion is combined with a heated organic liquid stream to form a first heated diluted pyoil feed stream. The first heated diluted pyoil feed stream is contacted with a first deoxygenating catalyst in the presence of hydrogen to form an intermediate low-oxygen pyoil effluent. The second feedstock portion is combined with the intermediate low-oxygen pyoil effluent to form a second heated diluted pyoil feed stream. The second heated diluted pyoil feed stream is contacted with a second deoxygenating catalyst in the presence of hydrogen to form additional low-oxygen pyoil effluent.

  3. Methods for deoxygenating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    Brandvold, Timothy A.

    2015-07-14

    Methods for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. A method comprising the steps of diluting the biomass-derived pyrolysis oil with a phenolic-containing diluent to form a diluted pyoil-phenolic feed is provided. The diluted pyoil-phenolic feed is contacted with a deoxygenating catalyst in the presence of hydrogen at hydroprocessing conditions effective to form a low-oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil effluent.

  4. Methods and apparatuses for deoxygenating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    Baird, Lance Awender; Brandvold, Timothy A.

    2015-10-20

    Embodiments of methods and apparatuses for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. In one example, a method comprises the steps of separating a low-oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil effluent into a low-oxygen-pyoil organic phase stream and an aqueous phase stream. Phenolic compounds are removed from the aqueous phase stream to form a phenolic-rich diluent recycle stream. A biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream is diluted and heated with the phenolic-rich diluent recycle stream to form a heated diluted pyoil feed stream. The heated diluted pyoil feed stream is contacted with a deoxygenating catalyst in the presence of hydrogen to deoxygenate the heated diluted pyoil feed stream.

  5. EPR study of deoxygenated high-temperature superconductors

    R J Singh; P K Sharma; Shakeel Khan

    2002-05-01

    High-c superconductors are EPR silent but on a little deoxygenation of the high-c materials and their constituents, they yield rich but complex spectra. Spectra of (1) CuO, (2) BaCuO2, (3) CaCuO2, (4) Y2Cu2O5, (5) La2CuO4, (6) La2-CuO4 (M = Sr, Ba), (7) Y based-123, (8) Bi based-2201, 2212, 2223, (9) Tl based-2223 and (10) Hg based-1212,1223 have been studied. One thing common to all these materials is the CuO2 plane which gets fragmented on deoxygenation and the inherent antiferromagnetic coupling is partially destroyed which results in the appearance of the spectra. The spectra recorded have been identified to be due to (1) Cu-monomer, (2) Cu-dimer, (3) Cutetramer, (4) Cu-octamer and (5) one signal at very low field which could not be identified because there was no structure in it and may be due to fragments higher than octamers. Very big fragments do not give any spectra because the original AF order probably remains intact in them. It is expected that when the fragments become magnetically isolated from the bulk, they produce EPR spectra. Most of the spectra have been analyzed and their spin-Hamiltonian parameters determined. The spectra of these species vary a little in terms of g-value and fine-structure splitting constant from sample to sample or even in the same sample and this may be attributed to some extra oxygen attachments retained with these species. Most frequently occurring species is the Cu-tetramer, (CuO)4. As (CuO)4 represents the unit cell of the all important two-dimensional CuO2 plane of the high-c materials, its spectra have been argued to provide some clue to the mechanism of high-c superconductivity. The tetramer (CuO)4 is a four one-half spin system and is essentially 16-fold degenerate by Heisenberg isotropic exchange, it is split into 6 components: one pentet, three triplets and two singlets. In superconductors the pentet appears to be the ground state and in the non-superconducting constituents the singlets seem to form the ground

  6. Ceria promoted deoxygenation and denitrogenation of Thalassiosira weissflogii and its model compounds by catalytic in-situ pyrolysis.

    Aysu, Tevfik; Maroto-Valer, M Mercedes; Sanna, Aimaro

    2016-05-01

    Pyrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose, egg white powder, palm-jojoba oils mixtures Thalassiosira weissflogii model compounds was performed with CeO2 at 500°C, to evaluate its catalytic upgrading mechanism. Light organics, aromatics and aliphatics were originated from carbohydrates, proteins and lipids, respectively. Dehydration and decarboxylation were the main reactions involved in the algae and model compounds deoxygenation, while nitrogen was removed as NH3 and HCN. CeO2 increased decarbonylation reactions compared to in absence of catalyst, with production of ketones. The results showed that the catalysts had a significant effect on the pyrolysis products composition of T. weissflogii. CeO2, NiCeAl2O3 and MgCe/Al2O3 catalysts increased the aliphatics and decreased the oxygen content in bio-oils to 6-7 wt% of the algae starting O2 content. Ceria catalysts were also able to consistently reduce the N-content in the bio-oil to 20-38% of that in the parent material, with NiCe/Al2O3 being the most effective. PMID:26938809

  7. Low-temperature, selective catalytic deoxygenation of vegetable oil in supercritical fluid media.

    Kim, Seok Ki; Lee, Hong-Shik; Hong, Moon Hyun; Lim, Jong Sung; Kim, Jaehoon

    2014-02-01

    The effects of supercritical fluids on the production of renewable diesel-range hydrocarbons from natural triglycerides were investigated. Various supercritical fluids, which included CO2 (scCO2 ), propane (scC3 H8 ) and n-hexane (scC6 H14 ), were introduced with H2 and soybean oil into a fixed-bed reactor that contained pre-activated CoMo/γ-Al2 O3 . Among these supercritical fluids, scC3 H8 and scC6 H14 efficiently allowed the reduction of the reaction temperature by as much as 50 °C as a result of facilitated heat and mass transfer and afforded similar yields to reactions in the absence of supercritical fluids. The compositional analyses of the gas and liquid products indicated that the addition of scC3 H8 during the hydrotreatment of soybean oil promoted specific deoxygenation pathways, decarbonylation and decarboxylation, which consumed less H2 than the hydrodeoxygenation pathway. As a result, the quantity of H2 required to obtain a high yield of diesel-range hydrocarbons could be reduced to 57 % if scC3 H8 was used. As decarboxylation and decarbonylation are mildly endothermic reactions, the reduced heat transfer resistance in scC3 H8 may drive the deoxygenation reaction to thermodynamically favourable pathways. PMID:24339322

  8. Pyrolysis of biomass. Rapid pyrolysis at high temperature. Slow pyrolysis for active carbon preparation.

    Zanzi, Rolando

    2001-01-01

    Pyrolysis of biomass consists of heating solid biomass inthe absence of air to produce solid, liquid and gaseous fuels.In the first part of this thesis rapid pyrolysis of wood(birch) and some agricultural residues (olive waste, sugarcanebagasse and wheat straw in untreated and in pelletized form) athigh temperature (800ºC–1000ºC) is studied ina free fall reactor at pilot scale. These conditions are ofinterest for gasification in fluidized beds. Of main interestare the gas and char yields and ...

  9. Effect of temperature on pyrolysis products from four nut shells

    Demirbas, Ayhan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey)

    2006-06-01

    This article deals with slow pyrolysis of four shells such as hazelnut, walnut, almond and sunflower at the range of temperature 500-1200K in a cylindrical reactor batch reactor. The aim of this work was to experimentally investigate how the temperature affects char, liquid and gaseous product yields from different shells via pyrolysis. The amount of char from pyrolysis of the shell samples decreases with increasing the pyrolysis temperature. The highest liquid yields were obtained from the samples between 650 and 800K. The yield and the chemical composition of char can be calculated as functions of the pyrolysis temperature. The char components and higher heating values (HHVs) of shell fuels were correlated with pyrolysis temperatures. There were highly significant linear correlation between the pyrolysis temperature of the fuel and the fixed carbon content and HHV of char. (author)

  10. Low Temperature Dechlorination of Densified Refuse Derived Fuel in Pyrolysis

    LI Wei; XIE Qiang

    2005-01-01

    Study on behavior of chlorine contained in oval-shaped densified refuse derived fuel (d-RDF) prepared from unicipal solid waste in pyrolysis was carried out by means of temperature-programmed electrical furnace, and the gasevolving from pyrolysis was investigated by FTIR. De-HCl rate was calculated by determining the emission fraction of HCl in the flue gas and the fraction of Cl left in the pyrolysis residue. The results show that Cl in the d-RDF releases primarily in the form of HCl during the pyrolysis, and the initial releasing temperature of HCl enhances with the increase of heating rate. Meanwhile, the higher the end temperature of pyrolysis, the more the Cl released. De-HCl rate is about 70% when the end temperature of pyrolysis is around 600℃. Besides, mechanism of Cl release is discussed.

  11. Effect of temperature on pyrolysis product of empty fruit bunches

    Rahman, Aizuddin Abdul; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Abdullah, Nurhayati [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Pyrolysis of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was performed in a fixed bed reactor equipped with liquid collecting system. Pyrolysis process was conducted by varying the terminal pyrolysis temperature from 300 to 500°C under heating rate of 10°C/min for at least 2 hours. Char yield was obtained highest at 300°C around 55.88 wt%, and started to decrease as temperature increase. The maximum yield of pyrolysis liquid was obtained around 54.75 wt% as pyrolysis temperature reach 450°C. For gas yield percentage, the yield gained as temperature was increased from 300 to 500°C, within the range between 8.44 to 19.32 wt%. The char obtained at 400°C has great potential as an alternative solid fuel, due to its high heating value of 23.37 MJ/kg, low in volatile matter and ash content which are approximately around 40.32 and 11.12 wt%, respectively. The collected pyrolysis liquid within this temperature range found to have high water content of around 16.15 to 18.20 wt%. The high aqueous fraction seemed to cause the pyrolysis liquid to have low HHV which only ranging from 10.81 to 12.94 MJ/kg. These trends of results showed that necessary enhancement should be employ either on the raw biomass or pyrolysis products in order to approach at least the minimum quality of common hydrocarbon solid or liquid fuel. For energy production, both produced bio-char and pyrolysis liquid are considered as sustainable sources of bio-energy since they contained low amounts of nitrogen and sulphur, which are considered as environmental friendly solid and liquid fuel.

  12. Effect of temperature on pyrolysis product of empty fruit bunches

    Rahman, Aizuddin Abdul; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Abdullah, Nurhayati

    2015-04-01

    Pyrolysis of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was performed in a fixed bed reactor equipped with liquid collecting system. Pyrolysis process was conducted by varying the terminal pyrolysis temperature from 300 to 500°C under heating rate of 10°C/min for at least 2 hours. Char yield was obtained highest at 300°C around 55.88 wt%, and started to decrease as temperature increase. The maximum yield of pyrolysis liquid was obtained around 54.75 wt% as pyrolysis temperature reach 450°C. For gas yield percentage, the yield gained as temperature was increased from 300 to 500°C, within the range between 8.44 to 19.32 wt%. The char obtained at 400°C has great potential as an alternative solid fuel, due to its high heating value of 23.37 MJ/kg, low in volatile matter and ash content which are approximately around 40.32 and 11.12 wt%, respectively. The collected pyrolysis liquid within this temperature range found to have high water content of around 16.15 to 18.20 wt%. The high aqueous fraction seemed to cause the pyrolysis liquid to have low HHV which only ranging from 10.81 to 12.94 MJ/kg. These trends of results showed that necessary enhancement should be employ either on the raw biomass or pyrolysis products in order to approach at least the minimum quality of common hydrocarbon solid or liquid fuel. For energy production, both produced bio-char and pyrolysis liquid are considered as sustainable sources of bio-energy since they contained low amounts of nitrogen and sulphur, which are considered as environmental friendly solid and liquid fuel.

  13. Effect of temperature on pyrolysis product of empty fruit bunches

    Pyrolysis of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was performed in a fixed bed reactor equipped with liquid collecting system. Pyrolysis process was conducted by varying the terminal pyrolysis temperature from 300 to 500°C under heating rate of 10°C/min for at least 2 hours. Char yield was obtained highest at 300°C around 55.88 wt%, and started to decrease as temperature increase. The maximum yield of pyrolysis liquid was obtained around 54.75 wt% as pyrolysis temperature reach 450°C. For gas yield percentage, the yield gained as temperature was increased from 300 to 500°C, within the range between 8.44 to 19.32 wt%. The char obtained at 400°C has great potential as an alternative solid fuel, due to its high heating value of 23.37 MJ/kg, low in volatile matter and ash content which are approximately around 40.32 and 11.12 wt%, respectively. The collected pyrolysis liquid within this temperature range found to have high water content of around 16.15 to 18.20 wt%. The high aqueous fraction seemed to cause the pyrolysis liquid to have low HHV which only ranging from 10.81 to 12.94 MJ/kg. These trends of results showed that necessary enhancement should be employ either on the raw biomass or pyrolysis products in order to approach at least the minimum quality of common hydrocarbon solid or liquid fuel. For energy production, both produced bio-char and pyrolysis liquid are considered as sustainable sources of bio-energy since they contained low amounts of nitrogen and sulphur, which are considered as environmental friendly solid and liquid fuel

  14. Ecotoxicological characterization of biochars : role of feedstock and pyrolysis temperature

    Domene, X.; Enders, A.; Hanley, K; Lehmann, J.

    2015-01-01

    Seven contrasting feedstocks were subjected to slow pyrolysis at low (300 or 350 °C) and high temperature (550 or 600 °C), and both biochars and the corresponding feedstocks tested for short-term ecotoxicity using basal soil respiration and collembolan reproduction tests. After a 28-d incubation, soil basal respiration was not inhibited but stimulated by additions of feedstocks and biochars. However, variation in soil respiration was dependent on both feedstock and pyrolysis temperature. In t...

  15. Pyrolysis polygeneration of poplar wood: Effect of heating rate and pyrolysis temperature.

    Chen, Dengyu; Li, Yanjun; Cen, Kehui; Luo, Min; Li, Hongyan; Lu, Bin

    2016-10-01

    The pyrolysis of poplar wood were comprehensively investigated at different pyrolysis temperatures (400, 450, 500, 550, and 600°C) and at different heating rates (10, 30, and 50°C/min). The results showed that BET surface area of biochar, the HHV of non-condensable gas and bio-oil reached the maximum values of 411.06m(2)/g, 14.56MJ/m(3), and 14.39MJ/kg, under the condition of 600°C and 30°C/min, 600°C and 50°C/min, and 550°C and 50°C/min, respectively. It was conducive to obtain high mass and energy yield of bio-oil at 500°C and higher heating rate, while lower pyrolysis temperature and heating rate contributed towards obtaining both higher mass yield and energy yield of biochar. However, higher pyrolysis temperature and heating rate contributed to obtain both higher mass yield and energy yield of the non-condensable gas. In general, compared to the heating rate, the pyrolysis temperature had more effect on the product properties. PMID:27423545

  16. Flash pyrolysis of rapeseed cake: Influence of temperature on the yield and the characteristics of the pyrolysis liquid

    SMETS, Koen; Adriaensens, Peter; REGGERS, Guy; SCHREURS, Sonja; Carleer, Robert; Yperman, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Biomass waste is a promising source of renewable fuels and value-added chemicals. Rapeseed cake, the solid waste after pressing of rapeseed, is a biomass with such a potential. In this study, the possibilities of flash pyrolysis to convert rapeseed cake into a liquid form are investigated. Flash pyrolysis experiments are performed at four constant temperatures (350, 400, 450 and 550 degrees C) using a home-built lab-scale semi-continuous reactor. It is found that higher pyrolysis temperature ...

  17. Effects of temperature on pyrolysis products of oil sludge

    Jianguo LIU; Wei SONG; Yongfeng NIE

    2008-01-01

    Temperature is the determining factor of pyrolysis, which is one of the alternative technologies for oil sludge treatment. The effects of final:operating temperature ranging from 350 to 550℃ on pyrolysis products of oil sludge were studied in an externally-heating fixed bed reactor. With an increase of temperature, the mass fraction of solid residues, liquids, and gases in the final product is 67.00%-56.00%, 25.60%-32.35%, and 7.40%-11.65%, and their coresponding heat values are 34.4-13.8 MJ/kg, 44.41-46.6 MJ/kg, and 23.94-48.23 MJ/Nm3, respectively. The mass and energy tend to shift from solid to liquid and gas phase (especially to liquid phase) during the process, and the optimum temperature for oil sludge pyrolysis is 500℃. The liquid phase is mainly composed of alkane and alkene (C5.-C29), and the gas phase is dominantly HCs and H2.

  18. Relatively low-temperature pyrolysis of silane in free space

    Levin, H.

    1981-01-01

    The continuous flow pyrolyzer is a free space reactor that is used to study the effects of concentration, flow rate and temperature in making solar-grade silicon by pyrolysis of silane gas. Work with the continuous flow pyrolyzer is within the DOE-sponsored Low-Cost Solar Array Project. The work has led to a new theoretical treatment of silane pyrolysis in free space at relatively low temperatures (550 C to 750 C). It involves a sequential, three-step mechanism of particle growth: first, silicon atom generation by homogeneous reaction; second, coagulation to a 0.1 micron particle due to Brownian motion and van der Waals forces; and finally, chemical vapor deposition by heterogeneous reaction to final particle size.

  19. Low Temperature Pyrolysis of Graptolite Argillite (Dictyonema Shale in Autoclaves

    Galina Sharayeva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of the systematic experimental study obtained in this work on the effects of temperature (340–420 °C and exposure time (0–8h at nominal temperature on the yield of pyrolysis products from Estonian graptolite argillite (GA generated in autoclaves without any solvent are described. The yields of solid residue (SR, gas, pyrogenetic water (W and extractable with benzenemix ofthermobitumen and oil (TBO were estimated. The compound groups of TBO were assessed. The highest yield of TBO, 2.18% on dry GA basis and 13.2% of organic matter (OM was obtained at temperature of 420 °C and duration 0.5 h. The main compound groups in TBO obtained at 400 ᵒC are polar hetero-atomic compounds and polycyclic hydrocarbons surpassing 45% and 30% of TBO. The shares of aliphatic and monocyclic hydrocarbons are below 15% of TBO. The yield of W from GA is – about 10-15% of OM. The quantity of OM left in SR after pyrolysis is high, about 65% of OM. The yield of pyrolysis products from GA and the composition of its TBO are compared with those obtained under similar conditions from different oil shales: Estonian Kukersite, US Utah Green River, and Jordanian Attarat.

  20. Low temperature microwave-assisted vs conventional pyrolysis of various biomass feedstocks

    Peter Shuttleworth; Vitaliy Budarin; Mark Gronnow; James H. Clark; Rafael Luque

    2012-01-01

    A comparison between conventional pyrolysis and a novel developed low-temperature microwave-assisted pyrolysis methodology has been performed for the valorisation of a range of biomass feedstocks including waste residues.Microwave pyrolysis was found to efficiently deliver comparable evolution of bio-gases in the system as compared with conventional pyrolysis at significantly reduced temperatures (120-180 ℃ vs 250-400 ℃).The gas obtained from microwave-assistet pyrolysis was found to contain CO2,CH4 and CO as major components as well as other related chemicals (e.g.acids,aldehydes,alkanes) which were obtained in different proportions depending on the selected feedstock.

  1. Flash pyrolysis of heavy metal contaminated biomass from phytoremediation: Influence of temperature, entrained flow and wood/leaves blended pyrolysis on the behaviour of heavy metals

    STALS, Mark; THIJSSEN, Elsy; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Carleer, Robert; Schreurs, Sonja; Yperman, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Phytoremediation crop disposal is a problem inhibiting the widespread use of the remediation technique. Flash pyrolysis as processing method for metal contaminated biomass is investigated: the rather low pyrolysis temperature prevents metal compounds from volatilisation while valuable pyrolysis oil is produced. Both plant stems and leaves are pyrolysed in a lab-scale semi-continuous reactor. Parameters under investigation are pyrolysis temperature (623, 723 and 823 K), the use of hot-gas filt...

  2. Catalytic pyrolysis of palm kernel shell waste in a fluidized bed.

    Kim, Sung Won; Koo, Bon Seok; Lee, Dong Hyun

    2014-09-01

    The catalytic pyrolysis of palm kernel shell was investigated in a fluidized bed with zsm-5 and equilibrium FCC (Ecat) catalysts. Catalytic pyrolysis oil yields were remarkably reduced and gas yields were increased due to the higher catalytic reaction of primary volatiles compared to non-catalytic pyrolysis. Char yields were affected by temperature and the pore structure of the catalysts. The pyrolysis oil was characterized by lower H/C and O/C molar ratios due to aromatization and deoxygenation of volatiles by the catalysts. The catalytic pyrolysis oils contained more oxygen and nitrogen and less sulfur than petroleum oils. The oils had a high concentration of nitriles, with a carbon number distribution similar to fatty acids. The catalytic pyrolysis oils featured high nitriles yield with Ecat and high aromatics yield in the light fraction with zsm-5, due to characteristics of the catalyst. The catalytic pyrolysis oils showed potentials as feedstocks for bio-diesel and chemicals. PMID:25006017

  3. Characterization of slow pyrolysis biochars: effects of feedstocks and pyrolysis temperature on biochar properties.

    Kloss, Stefanie; Zehetner, Franz; Dellantonio, Alex; Hamid, Raad; Ottner, Franz; Liedtke, Volker; Schwanninger, Manfred; Gerzabek, Martin H; Soja, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Biochars are increasingly used as soil amendment and for C sequestration in soils. The influence of feedstock differences and pyrolysis temperature on biochar characteristics has been widely studied. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the formation of potentially toxic compounds that remain in the biochars after pyrolysis. We investigated biochars from three feedstocks (wheat straw, poplar wood, and spruce wood) that were slowly pyrolyzed at 400, 460, and 525°C for 5 h (straw) and 10 h (woodchips), respectively. We characterized the biochars' pH, electrical conductivity, elemental composition (by dry combustion and X-ray fluorescence), surface area (by N adsorption), water-extractable major elements, and cation exchange capacity (CEC). We further conducted differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffractometry to obtain information on the biochars' molecular characteristics and mineralogical composition. We investigated trace metal content, total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content, and PAH composition in the biochars. The highest salt (4.92 mS cm) and ash (12.7%) contents were found in straw-derived biochars. The H/C ratios of biochars with highest treatment temperature (HTT) 525°C were 0.46 to 0.40. Surface areas were low but increased (1.8-56 m g) with increasing HTT, whereas CEC decreased (162-52 mmol kg) with increasing HTT. The results of DSC and FTIR suggested a loss of labile, aliphatic compounds during pyrolysis and the formation of more recalcitrant, aromatic constituents. X-ray diffractometry patterns indicated a mineralogical restructuring of biochars with increasing HTT. Water-extractable major and trace elements varied considerably with feedstock composition, with trace elements also affected by HTT. Total PAH contents (sum of EPA 16 PAHs) were highly variable with values up to 33.7 mg kg; irrespective of feedstock type, the composition of PAHs showed increasing dominance

  4. Novel electrochemical deoxygenation reaction using diphenylphosphinates.

    Lam, Kevin; Markó, István E

    2011-02-01

    The electrochemical reduction of diphenylphosphinate esters leads smoothly and in high yields to the corresponding deoxygenated products. In comparison with the previously developed methodologies, the electrolysis could be performed at lower temperature and with a higher current density, resulting in a shorter reaction time. PMID:21174395

  5. Pyrolysis temperature affects phosphorus transformation in biochar: Chemical fractionation and (31)P NMR analysis.

    Xu, Gang; Zhang, You; Shao, Hongbo; Sun, Junna

    2016-11-01

    Phosphorus (P) recycling or reuse by pyrolyzing crop residue has recently elicited increased research interest. However, the effects of feedstock and pyrolysis conditions on P species have not been fully understood. Such knowledge is important in identifying the agronomic and environmental uses of biochar. Residues of three main Chinese agricultural crops and the biochars (produced at 300°C-600°C) derived from these crops were used to determine P transformations during pyrolysis. Hedley sequential fractionation and (31)P NMR analyses were used in the investigation. Our results showed that P transformation in biochar was significantly affected by pyrolysis temperature regardless of feedstock (Wheat straw, maize straw and peanut husk). Pyrolysis treatment transformed water soluble P into a labile (NaHCO3-Pi) or semi-labile pool (NaOH-Pi) and into a stable pool (Dil. HCl P and residual-P). At the same time, organic P was transformed into inorganic P fractions which was identified by the rapid decomposition of organic P detected with solution (31)P NMR. The P transformation during pyrolysis process suggested more stable P was formed at a higher pyrolysis temperature. This result was also evidenced by the presence of less soluble or stable P species, such as such as poly-P, crandallite (CaAl3(OH)5(PO4)2) and Wavellite (Al3(OH)3(PO4)2·5H2O), as detected by solid-state (31)P NMR in biochars formed at a higher pyrolysis temperature. Furthermore, a significant proportion of less soluble pyrophosphate was identified by solution (2%-35%) and solid-state (8%-53%) (31)P NMR, which was also responsible for the stable P forms at higher pyrolysis temperature although their solubility or stability requires further investigation. Results suggested that a relatively lower pyrolysis temperature retains P availability regardless of feedstock during pyrolysis process. PMID:27343937

  6. Effect of pyrolysis temperature and air flow on toxicity of gases from a polycarbonate polymer

    Hilado, C. J.; Brick, V. E.; Brauer, D. P.

    1978-01-01

    A polycarbonate polymer was evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases generated at various temperatures without forced air flow and with 1 L/min air flow, using the toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. Time to various animal responses decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature over the range from 500 C to 800 C. There appeared to be no significant toxic effects at 400 C and lower temperatures.

  7. Formate-assisted pyrolysis

    DeSisto, William Joseph; Wheeler, Marshall Clayton; van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

    2015-03-17

    The present invention provides, among other thing, methods for creating significantly deoxygenated bio-oils form biomass including the steps of providing a feedstock, associating the feedstock with an alkali formate to form a treated feedstock, dewatering the treated feedstock, heating the dewatered treated feedstock to form a vapor product, and condensing the vapor product to form a pyrolysis oil, wherein the pyrolysis oil contains less than 30% oxygen by weight.

  8. Microwave and Conventional Pyrolysis of Coffee Hulls at Different Temperatures for a Hydrogen Rich Gas

    Menendez, Angel; Fernandez, Yolanda; Dominguez, Antonio; Pis, Juan; Valente Nabais, Joao; Carrott, Peter; Carrott, Manuela

    2006-01-01

    Microwave and Conventional Pyrolysis of Coffee Hulls at Different Temperatures for a Hydrogen Rich Gas. The paper reports the comparison of using a microwave and a conventional furnace to do the pysolysis of the coffee hulls.

  9. Catalytic pyrolysis of biomass: Effects of pyrolysis temperature, sweeping gas flow rate and MgO catalyst

    Cotton seed, as a biomass source, is pyrolysed in a tubular fixed-bed reactor under various sweeping gas (N2) flow rates at different pyrolysis temperatures. In the non-catalytic work, the maximum bio-oil yield was attained as 48.30% at 550 oC with a sweeping gas flow rate of 200 mL min-1. At the optimum conditions, catalytic pyrolysis of biomass samples was performed with various amounts of MgO catalyst (5, 10, 15, and 20 wt.% of raw material). Catalyst addition decreased the quantity of bio-oil yet increased the quality of bio-oil in terms of calorific value, hydrocarbon distribution and removal of oxygenated groups. It was observed that increasing the amount of catalyst used, decreased the oil yields while increased the gas and char yields. Bio-oils obtained at the optimum conditions were separated into aliphatic, aromatic and polar sub-fractions. After the application of column chromatography, bio-oils were subjected into elemental, FT-IR and 1H NMR analyses. Aliphatic sub-fractions of bio-oils were analyzed by GC-MS. It was deduced that the fuel obtained via catalytic pyrolysis mainly consisted of lower weight hydrocarbons in the diesel range. Finally, obtained results were compared with petroleum fractions and evaluated as a potential source for liquid fuels.

  10. Effect of precursor concentration and spray pyrolysis temperature upon hydroxyapatite particle size and density.

    Cho, Jung Sang; Lee, Jeong-Cheol; Rhee, Sang-Hoon

    2016-02-01

    In the synthesis of hydroxyapatite powders by spray pyrolysis, control of the particle size was investigated by varying the initial concentration of the precursor solution and the pyrolysis temperature. Calcium phosphate solutions (Ca/P ratio of 1.67) with a range of concentrations from 0.1 to 2.0 mol/L were prepared by dissolving calcium nitrate tetrahydrate and diammonium hydrogen phosphate in deionized water and subsequently adding nitric acid. Hydroxyapatite powders were then synthesized by spray pyrolysis at 900°C and at 1500°C, using these calcium phosphate precursor solutions, under the fixed carrier gas flow rate of 10 L/min. The particle size decreased as the precursor concentration decreased and the spray pyrolysis temperature increased. Sinterability tests conducted at 1100°C for 1 h showed that the smaller and denser the particles were, the higher the relative densities were of sintered hydroxyapatite disks formed from these particles. The practical implication of these results is that highly sinterable small and dense hydroxyapatite particles can be synthesized by means of spray pyrolysis using a low-concentration precursor solution and a high pyrolysis temperature under a fixed carrier gas flow rate. PMID:25891158

  11. Interactive Matching between the Temperature Profile and Secondary Reactions of Oil Shale Pyrolysis

    Zhang, Yu; Han, Zhennan; Wu, Hao;

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the effect of the reactor temperature profile on the distribution and characteristics of the products from fixed-bed pyrolysis of oil shale. Experiments were performed in a one-stage fixed-bed reactor and in a two-stage fixed-bed reactor. In the one-stage reactor, the...... shale oil yield reached 7.40 wt % with a reactor temperature profile from 900 to 550 degrees C and decreased to 2.23 wt % with the reverse temperature profile. The effect of the temperature profile was investigated further in the two-stage fixed-bed reactor combining a pyrolysis stage operating at 550...

  12. A review of the toxicity of biomass pyrolysis liquids formed at low temperatures

    Diebold, J P [Thermalchemie, Inc., Lakewood, CO (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The scaleup of biomass fast pyrolysis systems to large pilot and commercial scales will expose an increasingly large number of personnel to potential health hazards, especially during the evaluation of the commercial use of the pyrolysis condensates. Although the concept of fast pyrolysis to optimize liquid products is relatively new, low-temperature pyrolysis processes have been used over the aeons to produce charcoal and liquid by-products, e.g., smoky food flavors, food preservatives, and aerosols containing narcotics, e.g., nicotine. There are a number of studies in the historical literature that concern the hazards of acute and long-term exposure to smoke and to the historical pyrolysis liquids formed at low temperatures. The reported toxicity of smoke, smoke food flavors, and fast pyrolysis oils is reviewed. The data found for these complex mixtures suggest that the toxicity may be less than that of the individual components. It is speculated that there may be chemical reactions that take place that serve to reduce the toxicity during aging. 81 refs.

  13. Effect of fast pyrolysis conditions on biomass solid residues at high temperatures

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn;

    2016-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis of wood and straw was conducted in a drop tube furnace (DTF) and compared with corresponding data from a wire mesh reactor (WMR) to study the influence of temperature (1000-1400)°C, biomass origin (pinewood, beechwood, wheat straw, alfalfa straw), and heating rate (103 °C/s, 104 °C...... decreased in its half-width with respect to the parental fuel, whereas the alfalfa straw char particle size remained unaltered at higher temperatures. Soot particles in a range from 60 to 300 nm were obtained during fast pyrolysis. The soot yield from herbaceous fuels was lower than from wood samples...

  14. The influence of temperature and heating rate on the slow pyrolysis of biomass

    Williams, P.T.; Besler, Serpil [Leeds Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Fuel and Energy

    1996-10-01

    The slow pyrolysis of biomass in the form of pine wood was investigated in a static batch reactor at pyrolysis temperatures from 300 to 720{sup o}C and heating rates from 5 to 80 K min{sup -1}. The compositions and properties of the derived gases, pyrolytic oils and solid char were determined in relation to pyrolysis temperatures and heating rates. In addition, the wood and the major components of the wood - cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin - were pyrolysed in a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) under the same experimental conditions as in the static batch reactor. The static batch reactor results showed that as the pyrolysis temperature was increased, the percentage mass of solid char decreased, while gas and oil products increased. There was a small effect of heating rate on product yield. The lower temperature regime of decomposition of wood showed that mainly H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2} and CO were evolved and at the higher temperature regime, the main decomposition products were oil, H{sub 2}O, H{sub 2}, hydrocarbon gases and lower concentrations of CO and CO{sub 2}. Fourier transformation infra-red spectroscopy and elemental analysis of the oils showed they were highly oxygenated. The TGA results for wood showed two main regimes of weight loss, the lower temperature regime could be correlated with the decomposition of hemicellulose and the initial stages of cellulose decomposition whilst the upper temperature regime correlated mainly with the later stages of cellulose decomposition. Lignin thermal decomposition occurred throughout the temperature range of pyrolysis. (author)

  15. Temperature and time influence on the waste plastics pyrolysis in the fixed bed reactor

    Papuga Saša V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis as a technique of chemical recycling of plastic materials is causing an increasing level of interest as an environmentally and economically acceptable option for the processing of waste materials. Studies of these processes are carried out under different experimental conditions, in different types of reactors and with different raw materials, which makes the comparison of different processes and the direct application of process parameters quite complex. This paper presents the results of investigation of the influence of temperature in the range of 450°C to 525°C, on the yield of the process of pyrolysis of waste plastics mixture, composed of 45% polypropylene, 35% low density polyethylene and 25% high density polyethylene. Also, this paper presents results of the investigation of the effect of the reaction, atintervals of 30-90 [min], on the yield of pyrolysis of the mentioned waste plastics mixture. Research was conducted in a fixed bed pilot reactor, which was developed for this purpose. The results of the research show that at a temperature of 500°C, complete conversion of raw materials was achieved, for a period of 45 [min], with a maximum yield of the pyrolysis oil of 32.80%, yield of the gaseous products of 65.75% and the solid remains of 1.46%. Afurther increase of temperature increases the yield of gaseous products, at the expense of reducing the yield of pyrolysis oil. Obtained pyrolysis oil has a high calorific value of 45.96 [MJ/kg], and in this regard has potential applications as an alternative fuel.

  16. Products from the high temperature pyrolysis of RDF at slow and rapid heating rates

    Efika, EC; Onwudili, JA; Williams, PT

    2015-01-01

    The high-temperature pyrolysis behaviour of a sample of refuse derived fuel (RDF) as a model of municipal solid waste (MSW) was investigated in a horizontal tubular reactor between 700 and 900 °C, at varying heating rates, and at an extended vapour residence time. Experiments were designed to evaluate the influence of process conditions on gas yields as well as gas and oil compositions. Pyrolysis of RDF at 800 °C and at rapid heating rate resulted in the gas yield with the highest CV of 24.8 ...

  17. Effect of Temperature in Fluidized Bed Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass: Oil Quality Assessment in Test Units

    Westerhof, R.J.M.; Brilman, D.W.F.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.; Kersten, S.R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Pine wood was pyrolyzed in a 1 kg/h fluidized bed fast pyrolysis reactor that allows a residence time of pine wood particles up to 25 min. The reactor temperature was varied between 330 and 580 °C to study the effect on product yields and oil composition. Apart from the physical−chemical analysis, a

  18. Selective deoxygenation of aldehydes and alcohols on molybdenum carbide (Mo{sub 2}C) surfaces

    Xiong, Ke [Catalysis Center for Energy Innovation, Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Yu, Weiting [Chemical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Chen, Jingguang G., E-mail: jgchen@columbia.edu [Chemical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2014-12-30

    Highlights: • Mo{sub 2}C surface can deoxygenate propanal and 1-propanol to produce propene through a similar intermediate (propoxide or η{sup 2}(C,O)-propanal). • Mo{sub 2}C surface can deoxygenate furfural and furfuryl alcohol to make 2-methylfuran through a 2-methylfuran-like intermediate. • The presence of furan ring modifies the selectivity between deoxygenation and hydrogenation/dehydrogenation pathways. - Abstract: The selective deoxygenation of aldehydes and alcohols without cleaving the C-C bond is crucial for upgrading bio-oil and other biomass-derived molecules to useful fuels and chemicals. In this work, propanal, 1-propanol, furfural and furfuryl alcohol were selected as probe molecules to study the deoxygenation of aldehydes and alcohols on molybdenum carbide (Mo{sub 2}C) prepared over a Mo(1 1 0) surface. The reaction pathways were investigated using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS). The deoxygenation of propanal and 1-propanol went through a similar intermediate (propoxide or η{sup 2}(C,O)-propanal) to produce propene. The deoxygenation of furfural and furfuryl alcohol produced a surface intermediate similar to adsorbed 2-methylfuran. The comparison of these results revealed the promising deoxygenation performance of Mo{sub 2}C, as well as the effect of the furan ring on the selective deoxygenation of the C=O and C-OH bonds.

  19. Selective deoxygenation of aldehydes and alcohols on molybdenum carbide (Mo2C) surfaces

    Highlights: • Mo2C surface can deoxygenate propanal and 1-propanol to produce propene through a similar intermediate (propoxide or η2(C,O)-propanal). • Mo2C surface can deoxygenate furfural and furfuryl alcohol to make 2-methylfuran through a 2-methylfuran-like intermediate. • The presence of furan ring modifies the selectivity between deoxygenation and hydrogenation/dehydrogenation pathways. - Abstract: The selective deoxygenation of aldehydes and alcohols without cleaving the C-C bond is crucial for upgrading bio-oil and other biomass-derived molecules to useful fuels and chemicals. In this work, propanal, 1-propanol, furfural and furfuryl alcohol were selected as probe molecules to study the deoxygenation of aldehydes and alcohols on molybdenum carbide (Mo2C) prepared over a Mo(1 1 0) surface. The reaction pathways were investigated using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS). The deoxygenation of propanal and 1-propanol went through a similar intermediate (propoxide or η2(C,O)-propanal) to produce propene. The deoxygenation of furfural and furfuryl alcohol produced a surface intermediate similar to adsorbed 2-methylfuran. The comparison of these results revealed the promising deoxygenation performance of Mo2C, as well as the effect of the furan ring on the selective deoxygenation of the C=O and C-OH bonds

  20. Liquid Smoke Production Quality from Raw Materials Variation and Different Pyrolysis Temperature

    Ketut Budaraga

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This research is intended to know liquid smoke chemical and physical characteristics quality acquired from pyrolysis from various raw materials with different temperature level. The making of liquid smoke is done through pyrolysis process with temperature level 100 ± 10oC;  200 ± 10oC; 300±10oC;  and 400±10oC for 5 hour. This research is done experimentally by using complete random design on factorial pattern 3 x 4 with 3 repetition. Factor A is raw materials type that consists of coconut fibre, coconut shell and cinnamon while factor B is temperature level. The observed parameter consists of liquid smoke physical characteristic that consists of equipment performance, density, rendement, degree of acidity and chemical characteristic that consists of water-content, titrated acid total, phenol-content, carbonyl-content and benzo(apyren-content. The result of research shows that there is a very actual interaction (P<0,01 between using raw materials type with pyrolysis temperature level toward equipment performance, density, rendement, degree of acidity, water-content, titrated acid total, phenol-content, carbonyl-content and benzo(apyren-content. The best liquid smoke production quality can be found in raw materials cinnamon treatment on temperature level 400±10oC, which is pyrolysis equipment performance 16,29 ml/hour.meter, density 1,017 g/ml, rendement 38,78%, pH 3,503, titrated acid total 0,72 %, phenol-content 0,57 %, carbonyl-content 4,13 %, benzo(apyren-content 0,04 ppm. Based on the result of this research, it can be concluded that using cinnamon with level pyrolysis temperature 400±10oC is better used rather than coconut fibre and coconut shell because of its lowest benzo(apyren-content.

  1. Development of coconut pith chars towards high elemental mercury adsorption performance - Effect of pyrolysis temperatures.

    Johari, Khairiraihanna; Saman, Norasikin; Song, Shiow Tien; Cheu, Siew Chin; Kong, Helen; Mat, Hanapi

    2016-08-01

    In this study, chars from coconut pith (CP) were prepared aiming for superior adsorption towards elemental mercury (Hg(o)). The yield, proximate analysis, textural characteristics, surface functional groups and elemental composition analyses of the chars produced at pyrolysis temperature of 300 °C, 500 °C, 700 °C and 900 °C were compared. The surface area, pore volume, ash and carbon content of chars increased, while the yield and moisture content decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperatures. The changing of physical and chemical properties of the chars produced at variety pyrolysis temperature was much effect on the Hg(o) adsorption performance and definitely provides important information on the Hg(o) adsorption mechanism. The highest Hg(o) adsorption capacity was observed for CP900 (6067.49 μg/g), followed by CP700 (2395.98 μg/g), CP500 (289.76 μg/g), CP300 (1.68 μg/g), and CP (0.73 μg/g). The equilibrium data were well described by the Freundlich adsorption isotherm model. The pseudo-second order best described the kinetic data of the Hg(o) adsorption onto CP and CP300. For chars produced at higher pyrolysis temperature, however, the pseudo-zero order and pseudo-second order fitted well for the adsorption and breakthrough regions, respectively. The Hg(o) adsorption capacity of chars obtained from high pyrolysis temperature of CP significantly outperformed the commercial activated carbon (Darco KB-B) as well as superior to chars reported in the literature indicating the CP can be used as a precursor for preparation of chars as elemental mercury adsorbents. PMID:27160635

  2. Effect of temperature on energy potential of pyrolysis products from oil palm shells

    Lina María Romero Millán

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Context: Taking into account that near 220 000 tons of oil palm shells are produced every year in Colombia, as a waste of the Elaeis Guineensis palm oil transformation process, the aim of this work is to determine the energy potential of oil palm shells, when transformed through slow pyrolysis process.Methods: Using a fixed bed lab scale reactor, different oil palm shells pyrolysis tests were performed between 300°C and 500°C. The effect of the temperature in the process product yield and in the energy content of produced solids and gases were analyzed.Results: With a maximum mass yield of 50%, the char is considered the main product of oil palm shells pyrolysis, containing up to 73% of the raw biomass energy. The heating value of char raised with the temperature, from 29,6 MJ/kg at 300°C to 31,34 MJ/kg at 500°C. Moreover, the gas produced in the established temperature range had up to 13% of the energy content of the raw biomass, with a heating value near 12,5 MJ/m3.Conclusions: According to the results, slow pyrolysis can be considered an interesting process for the valorization of residual biomass as oil palm shells, through the production of solids and gases that can be used as fuels, or as precursor of other value-added products.

  3. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature on Rice Husk Char Characteristics and Its Tar Adsorption Capability

    Anchan Paethanom; Kunio Yoshikawa

    2012-01-01

    A biomass waste, rice husk, was inspected by thermoanalytical investigation to evaluate its capability as an adsorbent medium for tar removal. The pyrolysis process has been applied to the rice husk material at different temperatures 600, 800 and 1000 °C with 20 °C/min heating rate, to investigate two topics: (1) influence of temperature on characterization of rice husk char and; (2) adsorption capability of rice husk char for tar removal. The results showed that subsequent ...

  4. Recycling of automobile shredder residue with a microwave pyrolysis combined with high temperature steam gasification

    Presently, there is a growing need for handling automobile shredder residues - ASR or 'car fluff'. One of the most promising methods of treatment ASR is pyrolysis. Apart of obvious benefits of pyrolysis: energy and metals recovery, there is serious concern about the residues generated from that process needing to be recycled. Unfortunately, not much work has been reported providing a solution for treatment the wastes after pyrolysis. This work proposes a new system based on a two-staged process. The ASR was primarily treated by microwave pyrolysis and later the liquid and solid products become the feedstock for the high temperature gasification process. The system development is supported within experimental results conducted in a lab-scale, batch-type reactor at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH). The heating rate, mass loss, gas composition, LHV and gas yield of producer gas vs. residence time are reported for the steam temperature of 1173 K. The sample input was 10 g and the steam flow rate was 0.65 kg/h. The conversion reached 99% for liquids and 45-55% for solids, dependently from the fraction. The H2:CO mol/mol ratio varied from 1.72 solids and 1.4 for liquid, respectively. The average LHV of generated gas was 15.8 MJ/N m3 for liquids and 15 MJ/N m3 for solids fuels.

  5. PYROLYSIS OF EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES: INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON THE YIELDS AND COMPOSITION OF GASEOUS PRODUCT

    Mohamad Azri Sukiran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing concern on fossil fuel depletion and environmental problems, the utilization of renewable biomass resources is expected to play an important role in the future. Biomass can be converted into a variety of fuels and chemicals by different processes; one of which is pyrolysis that has been subjected to extensive research in recent years. In this study, pyrolysis of oil palm Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB was investigated using a quartz fluidised-fixed bed reactor. The effects of pyrolysis temperatures on the yields and composition of gaseous products were investigated. The temperatures of pyrolysis used were in the range of 300-600°C. The gaseous products from pyrolysis of (EFB were analyzed using a dual-channel micro-GC with Thermal Conductivity Detector (TCD. The highest and lowest gas yields obtained were 42.98 and 31.55% at 600 and 300°C, respectively. The gases detected were Carbon Monoxide (CO, carbon dioxide (CO2, Methane (CH4, Ethane (C2H6 and Ethylene (C2H4. At 300 and 400°C, the gas mixture comprised mainly CO2 (20% and CO (20%. Other gases such as CH4, C2H4 and C2H6 only evolved at higher temperature starting from 400°C with the yield of the latter two gases in very low concentration.

  6. Influence of fast pyrolysis temperature on biochar labile fraction and short-term carbon loss in a loamy soil

    Bruun, Esben; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Ibrahim, Norazana;

    2011-01-01

    Production of bio-oil, gas and biochar from pyrolysis of biomass is considered a promising technology for combined production of bioenergy and recalcitrant carbon (C) suitable for sequestration in soil. Using a fast pyrolysis centrifuge reactor (PCR) the present study investigated the relation...... between fast pyrolysis of wheat straw at different reactor temperatures and the short-term degradability of biochar in soil. After 115 days incubation 3–12% of the added biochar-C had been emitted as CO2. On average, 90% of the total biochar-C loss occurred within the first 20 days of the experiment......, emphasizing the importance of knowing the biochar labile fraction when evaluating a specific biochars C sequestration potential. The pyrolysis temperature influenced the outputs of biochar, bio-oil and syngas significantly, as well as the stability of the biochar produced. Contrary to slow pyrolysis a fast...

  7. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on the chemical oxidation stability of bamboo biochar.

    Chen, Dengyu; Yu, Xinzhi; Song, Chao; Pang, Xiaoli; Huang, Jing; Li, Yanjun

    2016-10-01

    Biochar produced by biomass pyrolysis has the advantage of carbon sequestration. However, some of the carbon atoms in biochar are not very stable. In this study, the effect of pyrolysis temperature on the chemical oxidation stability of bamboo biochar was investigated using the atomic ratios of H/C and O/C, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) oxidation spectrophotometric method. The results show that the carbon yield and ratios of H/C and O/C decreased from 71.72%, 0.71, and 0.32 to 38.48%, 0.22, and 0.06, respectively, as the temperature was increased from 300°C to 700°C. Moreover, the main oxygen-containing functional groups gradually decreased, while the degree of aromatization increased accordingly. The biochar showed a better stability at a higher pyrolysis temperature. The proportion of carbon loss, i.e., the amount of oxidized carbon with respect to the total carbon of the biochar, decreased from 16.52% to 6.69% with increasing temperature. PMID:27481469

  8. Influence of temperature and particle size on the fixed bed pyrolysis of orange peel residues

    Aguiar, L. [Departamento de Mecanica, Universidad de Pinar del Rio, Cuba. Calle Marti 270, final, Pinar del Rio (Cuba); Marquez-Montesinos, F. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de Pinar del Rio, Cuba. Calle Marti 270, final, Pinar del Rio (Cuba); Gonzalo, A.; Sanchez, J.L.; Arauzo, J. [Thermochemical Processes Group (GPT), Aragon Institute for Engineering Research (I3A), University of Zaragoza, Maria de Luna 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    Orange peel is a residue from the production of juice. Its energetic valorisation could be interesting in areas where a different use, such as animal feed, is not possible. In order to investigate the viability of energy recovery, the pyrolysis of orange peel residues was studied in a fixed bed reactor, as an initial assessment of this process. The influence of pyrolysis temperature (300-600 C) and particle size (d{sub p}<300{mu}m and d{sub p}>800{mu}m) on product distribution, gas composition and char heating value has been investigated using a factorial design of experiments. Gas, char and water are the main products obtained; tar is only about 6 wt.% of the initial residue. Temperature was found to be the parameter which exerts a more important influence on the results than particle size. (author)

  9. Growth Temperature Effect on Carbon Nano tubes Formation by Spray Pyrolysis Method

    Carbon nano tubes has been produced by using spray pyrolysis method with no carrier gas. Carbon nano tubes were formulated from a mixture a ferrocene and benzene with certain ratio and then the mixture were injected by the sprayer into the furnace. Growth temperature was optimized in the range of 650 until 850 oC to get the high quality of carbon nano tubes. These were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX). (author)

  10. Biomass Pyrolysis: Comments on Some Sources of Confusions in the Definitions of Temperatures and Heating Rates

    Jacques Lédé

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomass pyrolysis is usually characterized on the basis of temperature and heating rate. Unfortunately, these parameters are badly defined in processing reactors as well as in laboratory devices. From the results of simplified models, the present paper points out the significant mistakes that can be made when assuming that the actual temperature and heating rate of reacting biomass particles are the same as those of the external heating medium. The difficulties in defining these two parameters are underlined in both cases of a heat source temperature supposed to be constant or to increase with time.

  11. Effect of particle size and temperature on volatiles produced from coal by slow pyrolysis

    Morris, R.M. (University of Durban-Westville, Durban (South Africa). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1990-06-01

    Pyrolysis runs were carried out in the temperature range 1000-1150{degree}C and the particle size range +38 {mu}m to -2360{mu}m on a semianthracite coal from the Welgedacht area. Correlations were established for the yields of hydrogen and methane as functions of particle size and final temperature, and for carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide as a function of particle size at a final temperature before decomposition of carbonates in the mineral matter. The observations are explained in terms of secondary reactions occurring in the diffusion of the primary products through the pores of the char. 10 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Wood source and pyrolysis temperature interact to control PyOM degradation rates

    Bird, J. A.; Hatton, P. J.; Filley, T. R.; Chatterjee, S.; Auclerc, A.; Gormley, M.; Dastmalchi, K.; Stark, R. E.; Nadelhoffer, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    Surprisingly little is known about how shifts in tree species composition and increased forest fire frequency and intensity will affect one of the most stable pools of soil organic matter, i.e. the pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM or char). In a previous study, we showed that wood source and pyrolysis temperature interact to control PyOM structure and potential reactivity for two tree species common in high-latitude forests, jack pine (JP) and red maple (RM). Here, we investigate whether these differences affect PyOM turnover by examining the fates of 13C/15N-enriched JP wood and PyOM pyrolyzed at 300 (JP300) and 450 °C (JP450) and RM pyrolyzed at 450 °C (RM450). The substrates were applied 1-3 cm below the O/A interface of a well-drained Spodosol in a long-term forest fire study located at the University of Michigan Biological Station (Pellston, MI, USA). 13C-CO2effluxes from the first 996 days of decay showed a significant wood source by pyrolysis temperature interaction on PyOM field mineralisation rates, with RM450 mineralising twice faster than JP450 during the first 90 days. Increasing pyrolysis temperature substantially decreased field mineralization rates during the first 996 days, with mineralisation rates 24 and 80 times slower for JP300 and JP450 compared with JP wood. After 1 year, (i) bacterial groups were large sinks for PyOM-derived C as pyrolysis temperature increased and as substrate use efficiency decreased; (ii) potential phenol oxidase and net peroxidase activities were unaffected by the PyOM addition, although net peroxidase activities measured tended to lesser for soils amended with JP450 and RM450; and (iii) Collembola detritivores appeared less likely to be found for soils amended with JP450 and RM450. PyOM-derived C and N recoveries did not differ after 1 year; we will present 3-y recovery data. Our results suggest that the composition of angiosperms (e.g. RM) and gymnosperms (e.g. JP) in high-latitude forests is an underappreciated but

  13. Hydrogen production from biomass pyrolysis gas via high temperature steam reforming process

    Full text: The aim of this work has been undertaken as part of the design of continuous hydrogen production using the high temperature steam reforming process. The steady-state test condition was carried out using syngas from biomass pyrolysis, whilst operating at high temperatures between 600 and 1200 degree Celsius. The main reformer operating parameters (e.g. temperature, resident time and steam to biomass ratio (S/B)) have been examined in order to optimize the performance of the reformer. The operating temperature is a key factor in determining the extent to which hydrogen production is increased at higher temperatures (900 -1200 degree Celsius) whilst maintaining the same as resident time and S/B ratio. The effects of exhaust gas composition on heating value were also investigated. The steam reforming process produced methane (CH4) and ethylene (C2H4) between 600 to 800 degree Celsius and enhanced production ethane (C2H6) at 700 degree Celsius. However carbon monoxide (CO) emission was slightly increased for higher temperatures all conditions. The results show that the use of biomass pyrolysis gas can produce higher hydrogen production from high temperature steam reforming. In addition the increasing reformer efficiency needs to be optimized for different operating conditions. (author)

  14. Toluene pyrolysis studies and high temperature reactions of propargyl chloride

    Kern, R.D.; Chen, H.; Qin, Z. [Univ. of New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The main focus of this program is to investigate the thermal decompositions of fuels that play an important role in the pre-particle soot formation process. It has been demonstrated that the condition of maximum soot yield is established when the reaction conditions of temperature and pressure are sufficient to establish a radical pool to support the production of polyaromatic hydrocarbon species and the subsequent formation of soot particles. However, elevated temperatures result in lower soot yields which are attributed to thermolyses of aromatic ring structures and result in the bell-shaped dependence of soot yield on temperature. The authors have selected several acyclic hydrocarbons to evaluate the chemical thermodynamic and kinetic effects attendant to benzene formation. To assess the thermal stability of the aromatic ring, the authors have studied the pyrolyses of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, chlorobenzene and pyridine. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF) is employed to analyze the reaction zone behind reflected shock waves. Reaction time histories of the reactants, products, and intermediates are constructed and mechanisms are formulated to model the experimental data. The TOF work is often performed with use of laser schlieren densitometry (LS) to measure density gradients resulting from the heats of various reactions involved in a particular pyrolytic system. The two techniques, TOF and LS, provide independent and complementary information about ring formation and ring rupture reactions.

  15. Pyrolysis of waste materials: Characterization and prediction of sorption potential across a wide range of mineral contents and pyrolysis temperatures.

    Kah, Melanie; Sun, Huichao; Sigmund, Gabriel; Hüffer, Thorsten; Hofmann, Thilo

    2016-08-01

    Sewage sludge (50% mineral), manure (29%) and wood (pyrolysis across a wide range of mineral contents. A commercial plant-derived biochar (41% mineral) was also considered. The materials were extensively characterized and tested for their sorption towards the model sorbates benzene, naphthalene and pyrene. Plant-derived materials, regardless of their mineral content, developed micropores causing size exclusion of pyrene. Changes in properties and sorption behavior upon pyrolysis were generally consistent for the manure and wood series. A single regression equation developed on our data (including the sorbate hydrophobicity and sorbent polarity) provided excellent prediction of previously reported changes in sorption upon pyrolysis across a wide range of mineral content (up to 500°C). The sewage sludge series, however, followed a particular behavior, possibly due to very high mineral content (up to 67%). PMID:27136609

  16. Influence of pyrolysis temperature on characteristics and heavy metal adsorptive performance of biochar derived from municipal sewage sludge.

    Chen, Tan; Zhang, Yaxin; Wang, Hongtao; Lu, Wenjing; Zhou, Zeyu; Zhang, Yuancheng; Ren, Lulu

    2014-07-01

    To investigate systematically the influence of pyrolysis temperature on properties and heavy metal adsorption potential of municipal sludge biochar, biophysical dried sludge was pyrolyzed under temperature varying from 500°C to 900°C. The biochar yield decreased with the increase in pyrolysis temperature, while the ash content retained mostly, thus transforming the biochars into alkaline. The structure became porous as the temperature increased, and the concentrations of surface functional group elements remained low. Despite the comparatively high content of heavy metal in the biochar, the leaching toxicity of biochars was no more than 20% of the Chinese standard. In the batch experiments of cadmium(II) adsorption, the removal capacity of biochars improved under higher temperature, especially at 800°C and 900°C even one order of magnitude higher than that of the commercial activated carbon. For both energy recovery and heavy metal removal, the optimal pyrolysis temperature is 900°C. PMID:24835918

  17. Influence of fast pyrolysis temperature on biochar labile fraction and short-term carbon loss in a loamy soil

    Production of bio-oil, gas and biochar from pyrolysis of biomass is considered a promising technology for combined production of bioenergy and recalcitrant carbon (C) suitable for sequestration in soil. Using a fast pyrolysis centrifuge reactor (PCR) the present study investigated the relation between fast pyrolysis of wheat straw at different reactor temperatures and the short-term degradability of biochar in soil. After 115 days incubation 3-12% of the added biochar-C had been emitted as CO2. On average, 90% of the total biochar-C loss occurred within the first 20 days of the experiment, emphasizing the importance of knowing the biochar labile fraction when evaluating a specific biochars C sequestration potential. The pyrolysis temperature influenced the outputs of biochar, bio-oil and syngas significantly, as well as the stability of the biochar produced. Contrary to slow pyrolysis a fast pyrolysis process may result in incomplete conversion of biomass due to limitations to heat transfer and kinetics. In our case chemical analysis of the biochars revealed unconverted cellulosic and hemicellulosic fractions, which in turn were found to be proportional with the short-term biochar degradation in soil. As these labile carbohydrates are rapidly mineralized, their presence lowers the biochar-C sequestration potential. By raising the pyrolysis temperature, biochar with none or low contents of these fractions can be produced, but this will be on the expense of the biochar quantity. The yield of CO2 neutral bio-oil is the other factor to optimize when adjusting the pyrolysis temperature settings to give the overall greatest climate change mitigation effect.

  18. Influence of pyrolysis temperature on characteristics and phosphate adsorption capability of biochar derived from waste-marine macroalgae (Undaria pinnatifida roots).

    Jung, Kyung-Won; Kim, Kipal; Jeong, Tae-Un; Ahn, Kyu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    The collected roots of Undaria pinnatifida, the main waste in farming sites, accounting for 40-60% of annual production, was pyrolyzed under temperature ranging from 200 to 800°C to evaluate the influence of pyrolysis temperature on biochar properties and phosphate adsorption capacity. It was confirmed that an increase in the pyrolysis temperature led to a decrease of the yield of biochar, while ash content remained almost due to carbonization followed by mineralization. Elemental analysis results indicated an increase in aromaticity and decreased polarity at a high pyrolysis temperature. When the pyrolysis temperature was increased up to 400°C, the phosphate adsorption capacity was enhanced, while a further increase in the pyrolysis temperature lowered the adsorption capacity due to blocked pores in the biochar during pyrolysis. Finally, a pot experiment revealed that biochar derived from waste-marine macroalgae is a potent and eco-friendly alternative material for fertilizer after phosphate adsorption. PMID:26482944

  19. Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil

    McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2012-12-11

    A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

  20. Application and research on Regenerative High Temperature Air Combustion technology on low-rank coal pyrolysis

    Highlights: • Based on RHTAC technology, RRTC has been developed, and was adopted by Shenwu Pyrolysis Process (SPP). • For RRTC, the low calorific value gas fuel can be used and the heat loss in fume exhausted is low. • The RRTCs can realize accurate temperature control and the separation of volatile materials and fume in the pyrolyzer. • Tar yield and gas quality is improved. Moreover, SPP could solve some technical problems for low-rank coal pyrolysis. - Abstract: Regenerative High Temperature Air Combustion (RHTAC) technology is composed of circular-ceramic regenerator, burners, small four-way reversing valve and control system. RHTAC technology works by using the regenerator in burners to complete heat exchange between the high-temperature fume exhausted and the combustion air. Based on RHTAC technology, Regenerative Radiant Tube Combustor (RRTC) has been developed, and was adopted by Shenwu Pyrolysis Process (SPP), which is a new pyrolysis technology with the heat-carrier-free rotating bed. SPP was researched and developed to upgrade low-rank coal into the upgraded coal, tar and pyrolyzing gas. Presently, various coals from China and other countries have been conducted, including Lignite and Long flame coal. To understand the function of the RRTCs in SPP, a pilot plant has been constructed and used to investigate the effects of the RRTCs on the fume and pyrolyzer temperature distributions and pyrolyzing products. The results show that low calorific value gas fuel (>700 kcal/Nm3) can be used, the heat loss in fume exhausted is low (temp. about 150 °C), so thermal efficiency of the RRTC is greatly improved; the RRTCs can realize accurate temperature control and the separation of volatile materials and fume in the pyrolyzer, so as to increase tar yield and improve gas quality. The tar yield is more than 90% of the Gray-King tar yield; the pyrolyzing gas contains high contents of CH4, H2 and CO. Moreover, SPP could solve some technical problems, such as

  1. The stabilization of tannery sludge and the character of humic acid-like during low temperature pyrolysis.

    Ma, Hongrui; Gao, Mao; Hua, Li; Chao, Hao; Xu, Jing

    2015-11-01

    Tannery sludge contained plenty of organic matter, and the organic substance stability had direct impact on its derived chars' utilization. In this paper, the stabilization of tannery sludge and the variation of humic acid-like (HAL) extracted by different methods were investigated in a magnetic stirring reactor under low temperature pyrolysis of 100-400 °C. Results showed that the aromatic structure of pyrolysis chars increased with the increase of temperature and time. The char contained highly aromatic structure and relatively small dissolved organic matters (DOM) at 300 °C. The similar behaviors appeared in two HAL series by different extraction methods. The N content, H/C value, and aliphatic structures of HAL decreased with the increase of pyrolysis temperature, while the C/N value and aromatic structures increased with the rise of pyrolysis temperature. The composition and functional groups of HAL were similar with the purchased humic acid (HA). The fluorescence spectra revealed that two main peaks were found at Ex/Em = 239/363-368 nm and 283/359-368 nm in each HAL series from raw and 100 °C pyrolysis tannery sludge, representing a protein-like matter. The new peak appeared at Ex/Em = 263-283/388 nm in each HAL series from 200 °C pyrolysis tannery sludge-represented humic acid-like matter. The fluorescence intensity increased strongly compared to the other two peak intensity. Therefore, the humification of organic matter was increased by pyrolyzing. Notably, the HAL from 200 °C pyrolysis tannery sludge contained simple molecular structure, and the polycondensation increased but with a relative lower humification degree compared to soil HAL and purchased HA. Therefore, the sludge needs further oxidation. The humic substance was negligible by direct extraction when the temperature was 300 and 400 °C. PMID:26092361

  2. Nitrogen enrichment potential of biochar in relation to pyrolysis temperature and feedstock quality.

    Jassal, Rachhpal S; Johnson, Mark S; Molodovskaya, Marina; Black, T Andrew; Jollymore, Ashlee; Sveinson, Kelly

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) enrichment of biochar from both inorganic and organic waste N sources has the potential to add economic and environmental value through its use as a slow release N fertilizer. We investigated the sorption of N by, and its release from, biochar made at pyrolysis temperatures of 400, 500 and 600 °C from three feedstocks: poultry litter (PL with a carbon (C) to N ratio (C:N) of 14), softwood chips of spruce-pine-fir (SPF with a C:N of 470), and a 50:50 mixture of PL and SPF (PL/SPF). The prepared biochars were enriched with ammonium nitrate (AN) and urea ammonium nitrate (UAN). PL biochars had the lowest C content (50-56% C), but the highest pH (9.3-9.9), electrical conductivity (EC, 780-960 dS m(-1)), cation exchange capacity (CEC, 40-46 cmol kg(-1)), and N content (3.3-4.5%). While N content and hydrogen (H) to C atomic ratio (H:C) decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature irrespective of the feedstock used, both pH and EC slightly increased with pyrolysis temperature for all feedstocks. The PL and SPF biochars showed similar H:C and also similar N sorption and N release at all pyrolysis temperatures. These biochars sorbed up to 5% N by mass, irrespective of the source of N. However, PL/SPF biochar performed poorly in sorbing N from either AN or UAN. Biochar H:C was found to be unrelated to N sorption rates, suggesting that physical adsorption on active surfaces was the main mechanism of N sorption in these biochars. There were minor differences between N sorbed from NO3-N and NH4-N among different biochars. Very small amounts of sorbed N (0.2-0.4 mg N g(-1) biochar) was released when extracted with 1 M KCl solution, indicating that the retained N was strongly held in complex bonds, more so for NH4-N because the release of NO3-N was 3-4 times greater than that of NH4-N. NH4-N sorption far exceeded the effective CEC of the biochars, thereby suggesting that most of the sorption may be due to physical entrapment of NH4(+) in biochar pores

  3. Multi-species time-history measurements during high-temperature acetone and 2-butanone pyrolysis

    Lam, Kingyiu

    2013-01-01

    High-temperature acetone and 2-butanone pyrolysis studies were conducted behind reflected shock waves using five species time-history measurements (ketone, CO, CH3, CH4 and C2H4). Experimental conditions covered temperatures of 1100-1600 Kat 1.6 atm, for mixtures of 0.25-1.5% ketone in argon. During acetone pyrolysis, the CO concentration time-history was found to be strongly sensitive to the acetone dissociation rate constant κ1 (CH3COCH3 → CH3 + CH3CO), and this could be directly determined from the CO time-histories, yielding κ1(1.6 atm) = 2.46 × 1014 exp(-69.3 [kcal/mol]/RT) s-1 with an uncertainty of ±25%. This rate constant is in good agreement with previous shock tube studies from Sato and Hidaka (2000) [3] and Saxena et al. (2009) [4] (within 30%) at temperatures above 1450 K, but is at least three times faster than the evaluation from Sato and Hidaka at temperatures below 1250 K. Using this revised κ1 value with the recent mechanism of Pichon et al. (2009) [5], the simulated profiles during acetone pyrolysis show excellent agreement with all five species time-history measurements. Similarly, the overall 2-butanone decomposition rate constant κtot was inferred from measured 2-butanone time-histories, yielding κ tot(1.5 atm) = 6.08 × 1013 exp(-63.1 [kcal/mol]/RT) s -1 with an uncertainty of ±35%. This rate constant is approximately 30% faster than that proposed by Serinyel et al. (2010) [11] at 1119 K, and approximately 100% faster at 1412 K. Using the measured 2-butanone and CO time-histories and an O-atom balance analysis, a missing removal pathway for methyl ketene was identified. The rate constant for the decomposition of methyl ketene was assumed to be the same as the value for the ketene decomposition reaction. Using the revised κtot value and adding the methyl ketene decomposition reaction to the Serinyel et al. mechanism, the simulated profiles during 2-butanone pyrolysis show good agreement with the measurements for all five species.

  4. Evaluating the effects of temperature on pressurized pyrolysis of Nannochloropsis oculata based on products yields and characteristics

    Highlights: • N. oculata is a suitable feedstock for pyrolysis due to high volatile matter. • Temperature effects on product yields and properties during pressurized pyrolysis. • Algal bio-oil has high energy content and has similar composition as diesel fuel. • Suitability of char as a fuel was based on Van Krevelen diagram. • Gas from pyrolysis of N. oculata has high percentage of combustible hydrocarbons. - Abstract: Biofuels derived from pyrolysis of microalgae can be potential alternatives for petroleum-derived fuels. Pyrolysis is an easily controllable thermochemical conversion process that yields energy fuels such as bio-oil, char and combustible gases. Microalgae is a very promising feedstock for this process since it has high lipid content, grows faster than lignocellulosic biomass, has high productivity and high photosynthetic efficiency. Several reaction parameters including temperature could affect the yield and quality of biofuels from pyrolysis. This paper aimed to evaluate the effect of temperature during pyrolysis of Nannochloropsis oculata using a pressurized fixed-bed batch-type reactor. Based on the results, the distribution of the products significantly varied with pyrolysis temperature, and the pyrolysis process can be manipulated to favor one of its products. Bio-oil with high heating value (HHV) of about 38 MJ/kg, due to its high carbon (76wt%) and hydrogen (11wt%) contents, and low oxygen content (7wt%), can be produced from N. oculata. It also consists mainly of saturated (34.95%) and unsaturated aliphatics (34.43%), and aromatics (14.19%) ranging from C8 to C21, which is comparable to diesel fuel. The HHV of the char (27 MJ/kg) and gas (27 MJ/m3) were also relatively high. Based on their heating values (HHV) and compositions, the char, bio-oil and gas produced from pyrolysis of N. oculata can be potentially used as alternative sources of energy. Mass and energy conversion efficiencies of the process were also estimated to be

  5. Growth and characterization of V2O5 nanorods deposited by spray pyrolysis at low temperatures

    Abd-Alghafour, N. M.; Ahmed, Naser M.; Hassan, Zai.; Mohammad, Sabah M.; Bououdina, M.

    2016-07-01

    Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) nanorods were deposited by spray pyrolysis on preheated glass substrates at low temperatures. The influence of substrate temperature on the crystallization of V2O5 has been investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) revealed that the films deposited at Tsub = 300°C were orthorhombic structures with preferential along (001) direction. Formation of nanorods from substrate surface which led to the formation of films with small-sized and rod-shaped nanostructure is observed by field scanning electron microscopy. Optical transmittance in the visible range increases to reach a maximum value of about 80% for a substrate temperature of 350°C. PL spectra reveal one main broad peak centered around 540 nm with high intensity.

  6. Effect of pyrolysis temperatures and times on the adsorption of cadmium onto orange peel derived biochar.

    Tran, Hai Nguyen; You, Sheng-Jie; Chao, Huan-Ping

    2016-02-01

    The mechanism and capacity of adsorption of cadmium (Cd) on orange peel (OP)-derived biochar at various pyrolysis temperatures (400, 500, 600, 700 and 800°C) and heating times (2 and 6 h) were investigated. Biochar was characterized using proximate analysis, point of zero charge (PZC) analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Equilibrium and kinetic experiments of Cd adsorption on biochar were performed. The results indicated that the pH value at PZC of biochar approached 9.5. Equilibrium can be reached rapidly (within 1 min) in kinetic experiments and a removal rate of 80.6-96.9% can be generated. The results fitted the pseudo-second-order model closely. The adsorption capacity was estimated using the Langmuir model. The adsorption capacity of Cd on biochar was independent of the pyrolysis temperature and heating time (p>0.01). The maximum adsorption capacity of Cd was 114.69 (mg g(-1)). The adsorption of Cd on biochar was regarded as chemisorption. The primary adsorption mechanisms were regarded as Cπ-cation interactions and surface precipitation. Cadmium can react with calcite to form the precipitation of (Ca,Cd)CO3 on the surface of biochar. The OP-derived biochar can be considered a favourable alternative and a new green adsorbent for removing Cd(2+) ions from an aqueous solution. PMID:26608900

  7. Factors affecting sorption of nitro explosives to biochar: pyrolysis temperature, surface treatment, competition, and dissolved metals.

    Oh, Seok-Young; Seo, Yong-Deuk

    2015-05-01

    The application of rice straw-derived biochar for removing nitro explosives, including 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), from contaminated water was investigated through batch experiments. An increase in the pyrolysis temperature from 250 to 900°C in general led to higher pH, surface area, cation exchange capacity (CEC), point of zero charge, and C:O ratio of biochar. The maximum sorption capacity estimated by a mixed sorption-partition model increased when pyrolysis temperatures were elevated from 250 to 900°C, indicating that C content and aromaticity of biochar were strongly related to the sorption of nitro explosives to biochar. Surface treatment with acid or oxidant increased the sorption capacity of biochar for the two strong π-acceptor compounds (DNT and TNT) but not for RDX. However, the enhancement of sorption capacity was not directly related to increased surface area and CEC. Compared with single-sorption systems, coexistence of explosives or cationic metals resulted in decreased sorption of each explosive to biochar, suggesting that sorption of nitro explosives and cationic metals to electron-rich portions in biochar was competitive. Our results suggest that π-π electron donor acceptor interactions are main sorption mechanisms and that changing various conditions can enhance or reduce the sorption of nitro explosives to biochar. PMID:26024263

  8. Structures and lithium storage performance of Si-O-C composite materials depending on pyrolysis temperatures

    Fukui, Hiroshi; Eguchi, Katsuya; Ohsuka, Hisashi; Hino, Takakazu; Kanamura, Kiyoshi

    2013-12-01

    A polymer blend of a partially-branched phenyl-substituted polysilane, (Ph2Si)0.85(PhSi)0.15, and polystyrene (1:1 by weight) has been prepared to produce silicon oxycarbide (Si-O-C) composite materials through pyrolysis in the temperature range 700-1200 °C under an argon atmosphere. According to elemental analysis results, carbon is a major constituent in a series of Si-O-C composite materials obtained in this study. Completely amorphous features were observed for the composite materials obtained between 700 and 1100 °C, while a clearly discernible crystalline evolution of silicon carbide (SiC) phases was found in a glass network of the composite material obtained at 1200 °C. This paper also deals with electrochemical lithiation and delithiation for the series of Si-O-C composite materials. The first delithiation capacities of these composite materials were highly dependent on pyrolysis temperatures. The composite material obtained at 700 °C had the maximum delithiation capacity of ca. 800 mA h g-1, while the composite material obtained at 1200 °C showed the minimum delithiation capacity of ca. 330 mA h g-1. The crystalline evolution of SiC phases is thought to cause such a drastic decrease in delithiation capacity at 1200 °C.

  9. Substitution of fossil fuels by using low temperature pyrolysis of agricultural residues

    Externally heated rotary kiln pyrolysis reactor is used as a new process technology for the conversion of biomass into useful primary energy products. A 3 MW pyrolysis pilot plant is being operated for a period of two years using agricultural residues. Several analytical methods are applied to provide an insight into the complex process of pyrolysis. Fundamentals for an advanced pyrolysis model approach will be obtained by the results of the pilot plant. (author)

  10. Fast Pyrolysis Behavior of Banagrass as a Function of Temperature and Volatiles Residence Time in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

    Trevor James Morgan; Scott Q Turn; Anthe George

    2015-01-01

    A reactor was designed and commissioned to study the fast pyrolysis behavior of banagrass as a function of temperature and volatiles residence time. Four temperatures between 400 and 600°C were examined as well as four residence times between ~1.0 and 10 seconds. Pyrolysis product distributions of bio-oil, char and permanent gases were determined at each reaction condition. The elemental composition of the bio-oils and chars was also assessed. The greatest bio-oil yield was recorded when work...

  11. RELATION BETWEEN MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND PYROLYSIS TEMPERATURE OF PHENOL FORMALDEHYDE RESIN FOR GAS SEPARATION MEMBRANES

    MONIKA ŠUPOVÁ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper has been to characterize the relation between the pyrolysis temperature of phenol-formaldehyde resin, the development of a porous structure, and the mechanical properties for the application of semipermeable membranes for gas separation. No previous study has dealt with this problem in its entirety. Phenol-formaldehyde resin showed an increasing trend toward micropore porosity in the temperature range from 500 till 1000°C, together with closure of mesopores and macropores. Samples cured and pyrolyzed at 1000°C pronounced hysteresis of desorption branch. The ultimate bending strength was measured using a four-point arrangement that is more suitable for measuring of brittle materials. The chevron notch technique was used for determination the fracture toughness. The results for mechanical properties indicated that phenol-formaldehyde resin pyrolyzates behaved similarly to ceramic materials. The data obtained for the material can be used for calculating the technical design of gas separation membranes.

  12. High temperature pyrolysis: A new system for isotopic and elemental analysis

    A new method for the automated sample conversion and on-line determination of deuterium, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen isotopes for organic and inorganic substances is presented. The samples are pyrolytically decomposed in presence of reactive carbon in a high temperature pyrolysis system (HTP) at a temperature higher than 1400 deg. C. The method has a great potential for the analysis of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes ratios. The instrumentation and application is very simple and cost effective. The reproducibility of the δ-values is 3 per mille for D/H, 0.3 per mille for 18O, and 0.2 per mille for 13C and 15N respectively. The system is suitable for solid, liquid and gaseous samples. Results are presented for the isotopic composition of international reference materials which show the precision and accuracy of the method. (author)

  13. Indium oxide thin-film transistors processed at low temperature via ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    Faber, Hendrik

    2015-01-14

    The use of ultrasonic spray pyrolysis is demonstrated for the growth of polycrystalline, highly uniform indium oxide films at temperatures in the range of 200-300 °C in air using an aqueous In(NO3)3 precursor solution. Electrical characterization of as-deposited films by field-effect measurements reveals a strong dependence of the electron mobility on deposition temperature. Transistors fabricated at ∼250 °C exhibit optimum performance with maximum electron mobility values in the range of 15-20 cm2 V -1 s-1 and current on/off ratio in excess of 106. Structural and compositional analysis of as-grown films by means of X-ray diffraction, diffuse scattering, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveal that layers deposited at 250 °C are denser and contain a reduced amount of hydroxyl groups as compared to films grown at either lower or higher temperatures. Microstructural analysis of semiconducting films deposited at 250 °C by high resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy reveals that as-grown layers are extremely thin (∼7 nm) and composed of laterally large (30-60 nm) highly crystalline In2O3 domains. These unique characteristics of the In2O3 films are believed to be responsible for the high electron mobilities obtained from transistors fabricated at 250 °C. Our work demonstrates the ability to grow high quality low-dimensional In2O3 films and devices via ultrasonic spray pyrolysis over large area substrates while at the same time it provides guidelines for further material and device improvements.

  14. Indium oxide thin-film transistors processed at low temperature via ultrasonic spray pyrolysis.

    Faber, Hendrik; Lin, Yen-Hung; Thomas, Stuart R; Zhao, Kui; Pliatsikas, Nikos; McLachlan, Martyn A; Amassian, Aram; Patsalas, Panos A; Anthopoulos, Thomas D

    2015-01-14

    The use of ultrasonic spray pyrolysis is demonstrated for the growth of polycrystalline, highly uniform indium oxide films at temperatures in the range of 200-300 °C in air using an aqueous In(NO3)3 precursor solution. Electrical characterization of as-deposited films by field-effect measurements reveals a strong dependence of the electron mobility on deposition temperature. Transistors fabricated at ∼250 °C exhibit optimum performance with maximum electron mobility values in the range of 15-20 cm(2) V (-1) s(-1) and current on/off ratio in excess of 10(6). Structural and compositional analysis of as-grown films by means of X-ray diffraction, diffuse scattering, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveal that layers deposited at 250 °C are denser and contain a reduced amount of hydroxyl groups as compared to films grown at either lower or higher temperatures. Microstructural analysis of semiconducting films deposited at 250 °C by high resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy reveals that as-grown layers are extremely thin (∼7 nm) and composed of laterally large (30-60 nm) highly crystalline In2O3 domains. These unique characteristics of the In2O3 films are believed to be responsible for the high electron mobilities obtained from transistors fabricated at 250 °C. Our work demonstrates the ability to grow high quality low-dimensional In2O3 films and devices via ultrasonic spray pyrolysis over large area substrates while at the same time it provides guidelines for further material and device improvements. PMID:25490965

  15. Influences of Temperature and Coal Particle Size on the Flash Pyrolysis of Coal in a Fast-entrained Bed

    2006-01-01

    The experiments on the flash pyrolysis of a lignite were carried out in a fast-entrained bed reactor as a basic study on a so-called 'coal topping process'. The investigation focused on the effects of pyrolysis temperature and coal particle size on the product distribution and composition. The experimental results show that an increase in the pyrolysis temperature results in a higher yield of gaseous products while a larger particle size leads to a decrease of the liquid yield. An optimum temperature for the liquid yield was found to be 650 ℃. A certain amount of phenol groups was found in the liquid products, which may be used to produce high-valued fine chemicals. The FTIR analyses of the coal and chars show that aliphatic structures in the chars are gradually replaced by aromatic structures with the increasing of pyrolysis temperature and coal particle size. The results of this study provide fundamental data and optimal conditions to maximize light oils yields for the coal topping process.

  16. Flash pyrolysis at high temperature of ligno-cellulosic biomass and its components - production of synthesis gas

    Pyrolysis is the first stage of any thermal treatment of biomass and governs the formation of synthesis gas for the production of electricity, hydrogen or liquid fuels. The objective of this work is to establish a link between the composition of a biomass and its pyrolysis gas. We study experimental flash pyrolysis and fix the conditions in which quantities of gas are maximal, while aiming at a regime without heat and mass transfer limitations (particles about 100 μm): temperature of 950 C and residence time of about 2 s. Then we try to predict gas yields of any biomass according to its composition, applicable in this situation where thermodynamic equilibrium is not reached. We show that an additivity law does not allow correlating gas yields of a biomass with fractions of cellulose, hemi-cellulose and lignin contained in this biomass. Several explanations are suggested and examined: difference of pyrolytic behaviour of the same compound according to the biomass from which it is extracted, interactions between compounds and influence of mineral matter. With the aim of industrial application, we study pyrolysis of millimetric and centimetric size particles, and make a numerical simulation of the reactions of pyrolysis gases reforming. This simulation shows that the choice of biomass affects the quantities of synthesis gas obtained. (author)

  17. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on the properties of carbon/nickel nanocomposites prepared by sol–gel method

    Highlights: • Synthesis of nickel oxide nanoparticles in carbon structures. • Presence of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNT) around Ni nanoparticles for the sample treated at high pyrolysis temperature. • DC conductivity exhibited the presence of conduction percolation phenomenon and the dominance of conduction model 3D-GVRH in the studied materials. • From AC conductance PF/Ni nanocomposites have two behaviors: semiconductor and metal, depending on the pyrolysis temperature. • Appearance of a negative differential resistance (NDR) at room temperature in the sample treated at 600 °C. - Abstract: Carbon–nickel nanocomposites (C/Ni) were prepared by sol–gel method after the incorporation of nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles in organic matrix based on pyrogallol-formaldehyde (PF). The nanocomposites heated under inert atmosphere have been characterized by various techniques such as X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and electrical analysis. The XRD spectra exhibited the presence of NiO or metallic Ni phase in amorphous carbon matrix at low pyrolysis temperature, while at 1000 °C the graphite structure line was observed. The TEM images indicate the presence of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNT) around Ni nanoparticles for the sample treated at high pyrolysis temperature. The AC conductance shows that our nanocomposites have two behaviors: semiconductor and metal, depending on the pyrolysis temperature. The voltage–current V(I) characteristics of the compound show two different regions: an Ohmic region at low current and a negative differential resistance (NDR) region at higher current. This switching phenomenal behavior has been explained by an electrothermal model

  18. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on the properties of carbon/nickel nanocomposites prepared by sol–gel method

    Mansour, N. Ben, E-mail: Nabil.Benmansour@fsg.rnu.tn [Laboratory of Physics of Materials and Nanomaterials Applied at Environment (LaPhyMNE), Gabès University, Faculty of Sciences in Gabès, Gabès (Tunisia); Najeh, I.; Mansouri, S. [Laboratory of Physics of Materials and Nanomaterials Applied at Environment (LaPhyMNE), Gabès University, Faculty of Sciences in Gabès, Gabès (Tunisia); El Mir, L. [Laboratory of Physics of Materials and Nanomaterials Applied at Environment (LaPhyMNE), Gabès University, Faculty of Sciences in Gabès, Gabès (Tunisia); Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU), College of Sciences, Department of Physics, Riyadh 11623 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of nickel oxide nanoparticles in carbon structures. • Presence of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNT) around Ni nanoparticles for the sample treated at high pyrolysis temperature. • DC conductivity exhibited the presence of conduction percolation phenomenon and the dominance of conduction model 3D-GVRH in the studied materials. • From AC conductance PF/Ni nanocomposites have two behaviors: semiconductor and metal, depending on the pyrolysis temperature. • Appearance of a negative differential resistance (NDR) at room temperature in the sample treated at 600 °C. - Abstract: Carbon–nickel nanocomposites (C/Ni) were prepared by sol–gel method after the incorporation of nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles in organic matrix based on pyrogallol-formaldehyde (PF). The nanocomposites heated under inert atmosphere have been characterized by various techniques such as X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and electrical analysis. The XRD spectra exhibited the presence of NiO or metallic Ni phase in amorphous carbon matrix at low pyrolysis temperature, while at 1000 °C the graphite structure line was observed. The TEM images indicate the presence of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNT) around Ni nanoparticles for the sample treated at high pyrolysis temperature. The AC conductance shows that our nanocomposites have two behaviors: semiconductor and metal, depending on the pyrolysis temperature. The voltage–current V(I) characteristics of the compound show two different regions: an Ohmic region at low current and a negative differential resistance (NDR) region at higher current. This switching phenomenal behavior has been explained by an electrothermal model.

  19. Effect of Fast Pyrolysis Conditions on the Biomass Solid Residues at High Temperatures (1000-1400°C)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Jensen, Anker D.; Jensen, Peter Arendt;

    Fast pyrolysis of wood and straw was conducted in a drop tube furnace (DTF) and compared with the experimental work on the wire-mesh reactor (WMR) to study the influence of temperature (1000-1400°C), biomass origin (softwood, hardwood, grass) and heating rate (1000°C/s, 10^4 °C/s) on the char yield...... and morphology. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS), elementary analysis, CAMSIZER XT, ash compositional analysis were applied to characterize the effect of operational conditions on the solid and gas products. Char yield from fast pyrolysis in the DFT setup was 2 to 6 % (daf) lower than in the WMR...... lower than from wood samples. During fast pyrolysis, additionally to the soot and char particles, spherical solid residues of particle size (60-300 nm) were obtained. Based on the previous studies, these smooth spherical particles are associated with the formation of condensed tars under fast heating...

  20. Effect of biochar produced at different pyrolysis temperature on the soil respiration of abandoned mine soil

    Kim, Yong Seong; Kim, Juhee; Hwang, Wonjae; Hyun, Seunghun

    2015-04-01

    Contaminated soils near an abandoned mine site included the high acidic mine tailing have received great interest due to potential risk to human health, because leachable elements in low pH continuously release from mine site soil with ground water and precipitation event. Biochar, which is the obtained pyrolysis process of biomass, is used as a soil amendments and carbon storage. Especially, many researchers report that the biochar application to soil show increasing soil pH, CEC, adsorption capacity of various elements, as well as, enhanced microbial activity. Therefore, biochar application to contaminated soil near abandoned mine site is expected to have a positive effects on management of these site and soils through the decreased leachability of contaminants. However, effects of biochar application to these site on the soil respiration, as a common measure of soil health, are poorly understood. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of biochar application to abandoned mine site soil on the microbial activity with soil respiration test. Biochar was obtained from giant Miscanthus in a slow pyrolysis process (heating rate of 10° C min-1 and N2 gas flow rate of 1.2 L min-1) at the temperature of 400° C (BC4) and 700° C (BC7), respectively. All biochar samples were prepared with grinding and sieving for particle size control (150~500μm). Soil sample was collected from abandoned mine site at Korea (36° 58'N, 128° 10'E). Main contaminants of this soil were As (12.5 g kg-1), Pb (7.3 g kg-1), and Zn (1.1 g kg-1). Biochars were applied (5% by dry weight) to the soil (final mixture weight were 800g), and then moisture contents were adjusted to 100% field capacity (-0.33 bar) in the respirometer with vacuum pump. CO2 efflux of each samples was continuously assessed using continuous aeration system (air flow rate 25 cc min-1) using air cylinder during 130hr (at 20° C and darkness condition). The CO2 emitted from the samples were carried to the

  1. Evaluation of Integrated Time-Temperature Effect in Pyrolysis Process of Historically Contaminated Soils with Cadmium (Cd and Lead (Pb

    Bulmău C

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available It is already known that heavy metals pollution causes important concern to human and ecosystem health. Heavy metals in soils at the European level represents 37.3% between main contaminates affecting soils (EEA, 2007. This paper illustrates results obtained in the framework of laboratory experiments concerning the evaluation of integrated time-temperature effect in pyrolysis process applied to contaminated soil by two different ways: it is about heavy metals historically contaminated soil from one of the most polluted areas within Romania, and artificially contaminated with PCB-containing transformer oil. In particular, the authors focused on a recent evaluation of pyrolysis efficiency on removing lead (Pb and cadmium (Cd from the contaminated soil. The experimental study evaluated two important parameters related to the studied remediation methodology: thermal process temperature and the retention time in reactor of the contaminated soils. The remediation treatments were performed in a rotary kiln reactor, taking into account three process temperatures (400°C, 600°C and 800°C and two retention times: 30 min. and 60 min. Completed analyses have focused on pyrolysis solids and gas products. Consequently, both ash and gas obtained after pyrolysis process were subjected to chemical analyses.

  2. Effect of temperature during the spray pyrolysis synthesis of silver nanopowder

    We report the results of the synthesis and characterization of Ag, AgO, AgNO3 nanopowders or mixtures of them, obtained by spray pyrolysis technique. An aqueous solution of AgNO3 with a concentration of 0.2 mol/L was sprayed through a horizontal tubular furnace where the solvent was evaporated and pyrolytic reaction occurs producing AgNO3, AgO and Ag particles. The synthesis was made at 500, 600 and 700 oC. The obtained material was analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscopy, and the optimal temperature to obtain particles of around 10 nm was 600 oC. The X-rays and Electron Diffraction analysis determined the coexistence of the phases of Ag, AgO and AgNO3, whereas the measurement of x-rays fluorescence the presence of Ag was detected. The solution concentration and the carrier flow, the temperature and the temperature gradient in the furnace influence in the phase and size of the particle.. (author)

  3. Techno-economic evaluation of high temperature pyrolysis processes for mixed plastic waste.

    Westerhout, R.W.J.; Koningsbruggen, van M.P.; Ham, van der A.G.J.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.

    1998-01-01

    Three pyrolysis processes for Mixed Plastic Waste (MPW) with different reactors (Bubbling Fluidized Bed, Circulating Fluidized Bed and Rotating Cone Reactor, respectively BFB, CFB and RCR) were designed and evaluated. The estimated fixed capital investment for a 50 kton/year MPW pyrolysis plant buil

  4. Catalytic Flash Pyrolysis of Biomass Using Different Types of Zeolite and Online Vapor Fractionation

    Imran, Ali

    2016-03-11

    Bio-oil produced from conventional flash pyrolysis has poor quality and requires expensive upgrading before it can be used as a transportation fuel. In this work, a high quality bio-oil has been produced using a novel approach where flash pyrolysis, catalysis and fractionation of pyrolysis vapors using two stage condensation are combined in a single process unit. A bench scale unit of 1 kg/h feedstock capacity is used for catalytic pyrolysis in an entrained down-flow reactor system equipped with two-staged condensation of the pyrolysis vapor. Zeolite-based catalysts are investigated to study the effect of varying acidities of faujasite Y zeolites, zeolite structures (ZSM5), different catalyst to biomass ratios and different catalytic pyrolysis temperatures. Low catalyst/biomass ratios did not show any significant improvements in the bio-oil quality, while high catalyst/biomass ratios showed an effective deoxygenation of the bio-oil. The application of zeolites decreased the organic liquid yield due to the increased production of non-condensables, primarily hydrocarbons. The catalytically produced bio-oil was less viscous and zeolites were effective at cracking heavy molecular weight compounds in the bio-oil. Acidic zeolites, H-Y and H-ZSM5, increased the desirable chemical compounds in the bio-oil such as phenols, furans and hydrocarbon, and reduced the undesired compounds such as acids. On the other hand reducing the acidity of zeolites reduced some of the undesired compounds in the bio-oil such as ketones and aldehydes. The performance of H-Y was superior to that of the rest of zeolites studied: bio-oil of high chemical and calorific value was produced with a high organic liquid yield and low oxygen content. H-ZSM5 was a close competitor to H-Y in performance but with a lower yield of bio-oil. Online fractionation of catalytic pyrolysis vapors was employed by controlling the condenser temperature and proved to be a successful process parameter to tailor the

  5. Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing the same

    Marinangeli, Richard; Brandvold, Timothy A; Kocal, Joseph A

    2013-08-27

    Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing them from carbonaceous biomass feedstock are provided. The carbonaceous biomass feedstock is pyrolyzed in the presence of a catalyst comprising base metal-based catalysts, noble metal-based catalysts, treated zeolitic catalysts, or combinations thereof to produce pyrolysis gases. During pyrolysis, the catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction whereby at least a portion of the oxygenated hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis gases are converted into hydrocarbons. The oxygen is removed as carbon oxides and water. A condensable portion (the vapors) of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  6. Influence of the Pyrolysis Temperature on Sewage Sludge Product Distribution, Bio-Oil, and Char Properties

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Dam-Johansen, Kim;

    2013-01-01

    behaviors of sludge oils were found to be considerably influenced by the applied pyrolysis temperatures. The sludge oil properties obtained at the optimal temperature of 575 °C were a HHV of 25.5 MJ/kg, a water-insoluble fraction of 18.7 wt %, a viscosity of 43.6 mPa s at 40 °C, a mean molecular weight of...... centrifugel reactor (PCR) at 475, 525, 575, and 625 °C. Maxima of both organic oil yield of 41 wt % on a dry ash free feedstock basis (daf) and a sludge oil energy recovery of 50% were obtained at 575 °C. The water-insoluble fraction, molecular-weight distribution, higher heating value (HHV), and thermal...... 392 g/mol, and metal concentrations lower than 0.14 wt % on a dry basis (db). Less optimal oil properties with respect to industrial applications were observed for oil samples obtained at 475 and 625 °C. Char properties of the 575 °C sample were an ash content of 81 wt % and a HHV of 6.1 MJ/kg db. A...

  7. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons toxicity and sorption behaviour of biochars prepared by pyrolysis of paper mill effluent treatment plant sludge.

    Devi, Parmila; Saroha, Anil K

    2015-09-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) toxicity and sorption behaviour of biochars prepared from pyrolysis of paper mill effluent treatment plant (ETP) sludge in temperature range 200-700 °C was studied. The sorption behaviour was found to depend on the degree of carbonization where the fractions of carbonized and uncarbonized organic content in the biochar act as an adsorption media and partition media, respectively. The sorption and partition fractions were quantified by isotherm separation method and isotherm parameters were correlated with biochar properties (aromaticity, polarity, surface area, pore volume and ash content). The risk assessment for the 16 priority EPA PAHs present in the biochar matrix was performed and it was found that the concentrations of the PAHs in the biochar were within the permissible limits prescribed by US EPA (except BC400 and BC500 for high molecular weight PAHs). PMID:26048085

  8. Fast Pyrolysis Behavior of Banagrass as a Function of Temperature and Volatiles Residence Time in a Fluidized Bed Reactor.

    Trevor James Morgan

    Full Text Available A reactor was designed and commissioned to study the fast pyrolysis behavior of banagrass as a function of temperature and volatiles residence time. Four temperatures between 400 and 600°C were examined as well as four residence times between ~1.0 and 10 seconds. Pyrolysis product distributions of bio-oil, char and permanent gases were determined at each reaction condition. The elemental composition of the bio-oils and chars was also assessed. The greatest bio-oil yield was recorded when working at 450°C with a volatiles residence time of 1.4 s, ~37 wt% relative to the dry ash free feedstock (excluding pyrolysis water. The amounts of char (organic fraction and permanent gases under these conditions are ~4 wt% and 8 wt% respectively. The bio-oil yield stated above is for 'dry' bio-oil after rotary evaporation to remove solvent, which results in volatiles and pyrolysis water being removed from the bio-oil. The material removed during drying accounts for the remainder of the pyrolysis products. The 'dry' bio-oil produced under these conditions contains ~56 wt% carbon which is ~40 wt% of the carbon present in the feedstock. The oxygen content of the 450°C, 1.4 s 'dry' bio-oil is ~38 wt%, which accounts for ~33 wt% of the oxygen in the feedstock. At higher temperature or longer residence time less bio-oil and char is recovered and more gas and light volatiles are produced. Increasing the temperature has a more significant effect on product yields and composition than increasing the volatiles residence time. At 600°C and a volatiles residence time of 1.2 seconds the bio-oil yield is ~21 wt% of the daf feedstock, with a carbon content of 64 wt% of the bio-oil. The bio-oil yield from banagrass is significantly lower than from woody biomass or grasses such as switchgrass or miscanthus, but is similar to barley straw. The reason for the low bio-oil yield from banagrass is thought to be related to its high ash content (8.5 wt% dry basis and high

  9. PYROLYSIS OF EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES: INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON THE YIELDS AND COMPOSITION OF GASEOUS PRODUCT

    Mohamad Azri Sukiran; Loh Soh Kheang; Nasrin Abu Bakar; Choo Yuen May

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing concern on fossil fuel depletion and environmental problems, the utilization of renewable biomass resources is expected to play an important role in the future. Biomass can be converted into a variety of fuels and chemicals by different processes; one of which is pyrolysis that has been subjected to extensive research in recent years. In this study, pyrolysis of oil palm Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB) was investigated using a quartz fluidised-fixed bed reactor. The effects of p...

  10. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on the properties of carbon/nickel nanocomposites prepared by sol-gel method

    Mansour, N. Ben; Najeh, I.; Mansouri, S.; El Mir, L.

    2015-05-01

    Carbon-nickel nanocomposites (C/Ni) were prepared by sol-gel method after the incorporation of nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles in organic matrix based on pyrogallol-formaldehyde (PF). The nanocomposites heated under inert atmosphere have been characterized by various techniques such as X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and electrical analysis. The XRD spectra exhibited the presence of NiO or metallic Ni phase in amorphous carbon matrix at low pyrolysis temperature, while at 1000 °C the graphite structure line was observed. The TEM images indicate the presence of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNT) around Ni nanoparticles for the sample treated at high pyrolysis temperature. The AC conductance shows that our nanocomposites have two behaviors: semiconductor and metal, depending on the pyrolysis temperature. The voltage-current V(I) characteristics of the compound show two different regions: an Ohmic region at low current and a negative differential resistance (NDR) region at higher current. This switching phenomenal behavior has been explained by an electrothermal model.

  11. Relationship between chemical composition and pyrolysis behaviour of a medium temperature pitch (or Lurgi-gasifier pitch)

    Sima, L.; Blanco Rodríguez, Clara; Santamaría Ramírez, Ricardo; Granda Ferreira, Marcos; Slaghuis, H.; Menéndez López, Rosa María

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies the chemical composition and pyrolysis behaviour of a medium temperature pitch produced in the SASOL–Lurgi coal gasification process. The results are compared to a commercial petroleum pitch and a commercial binder coal-tar pitch. The SASOL pitch had a high content in oxygen, mainly forming phenols, which make it very reactive at temperatures between 410 and 430 °C, temperatures at which the commercial pitches do not react in a great extent. Despite the high reactivity show...

  12. Studies on liquefaction and pyrolysis of peat and biomass at KTH

    A brief review of the study on thermochemical conversion of solid fuels is done. The study have been performed in the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, since the outbreak of energy crisis in the seventies. The main problems connected with utilisation of peat for energy are: 90% moisture content in the deposits and 35-40% oxygen content in the dry substance. Simultaneous dewatering and liquefaction of peat have been achieved by the Bjoerbom method. The wet peat has been treated with CO and H2O without preliminary drying, using water as a medium agent. After treatment water has been phase-separated from the heavy oil product. Another approach is de-oxygenation of peat prior to liquefaction. A significant part of oxygen in peat and biomass can be removed by thermal decomposition of the fuels prior to liquefaction and removal of carbon dioxide and water from the organic matter in them. The products obtained after de-oxygenation demand low consumption of external hydrogenation agent because they are rich in hydrogen. Some criteria for selection of peat as a raw material for liquefaction are given. The equipment and experimental procedure for pyrolysis of peat and biomass are described. A free fall tubular reactor with max operating pressure of 5 MPa and temperature of 1100oC has been used. The effect of treatment conditions under the rapid pyrolysis in the free fall reactor on the yield and the reactivity of char obtained after the final pyrolysis is shown. Peat and wood are transformed into pyrolysis products for less than 1 second; 35-50% of the moisture- and ash-free peat and 70% of the wood have been converted into gaseous products.The char obtained in the rapid pyrolysis contains a fraction which can be further de-volatilized by slow pyrolysis for a few minutes - time much longer than the time for formation of primary products. High reactivity of char is favoured by lower pyrolysis temperature, shorter residence time and larger particle size of the fuel. 3

  13. Evaluation of phosphorus adsorption capacity of sesame straw biochar on aqueous solution: influence of activation methods and pyrolysis temperatures.

    Park, J H; Ok, Y S; Kim, S H; Cho, J S; Heo, J S; Delaune, R D; Seo, D C

    2015-12-01

    The phosphorus (P) adsorption characteristic of sesame straw biochar prepared with different activation agents and pyrolysis temperatures was evaluated. Between 0.109 and 0.300 mg L(-1) in the form of inorganic phosphate was released from raw sesame straw biochar in the first 1 h. The release of phosphate was significantly enhanced from 62.6 to 168.2 mg g(-1) as the pyrolysis temperature increased. Therefore, sesame straw biochar cannot be used as an adsorbent for P removal without change in the physicochemical characteristics. To increase the P adsorption of biochar in aqueous solution, various activation agents and pyrolysis temperatures were applied. The amount of P adsorbed from aqueous solution by biochar activated using different activation agents appeared in the order ZnCl2 (9.675 mg g(-1)) > MgO (8.669 mg g(-1)) ⋙ 0.1N-HCl > 0.1N-H2SO4 > K2SO4 ≥ KOH ≥ 0.1N-H3PO4, showing ZnCl2 to be the optimum activation agent. Higher P was adsorbed by the biochar activated using ZnCl2 under different pyrolysis temperatures in the order 600 °C > 500 °C > 400 °C > 300 °C. Finally, the amount of adsorbed P by activated biochar at different ratios of biochar to ZnCl2 appeared in the order 1:3 ≒ 1:1 > 3:1. As a result, the optimum ratio of biochar to ZnCl2 and pyrolysis temperature were found to be 1:1 and 600 °C for P adsorption, respectively. The maximum P adsorption capacity by activated biochar using ZnCl2 (15,460 mg kg(-1)) was higher than that of typical biochar, as determined by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Therefore, the ZnCl2 activation of sesame straw biochar was suitable for the preparation of activated biochar for P adsorption. PMID:26040973

  14. Effects of Temperature Rise Rate on Pyrolysis of Plastic Wastes%升温速率对废塑料热解过程的影响

    石耀华; 马晓波; 陈德珍; 周恭明

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, pyrolysis experiments of plastic wastes, i.e. polyethylene ( PE), polypropylene (PP), polyvinylchloride(PVC) and their mixtures, were made at temperature rise rates of lO℃/min,20℃/min and 30℃/min in nitrogen atmosphere in which the temperature was from 20℃ to 700℃.Effects of pyrolysis process of waste plastics at different temperature rise rate were analyzed, and kinetics investigations were carried out by Coast - Redfern integration method. Pyrolysis characteristics and kinetic parameters of these three kinds of plastic wastes and their mixtures were obtained. The results show that temperature rise rate has an influence on pyrolysis rate, pyrolysis temperature range, activation energy and pre -exponential factor. The greater temperature rise rate, the faster pyrolysis reacts, the greater activation energy required, the more energy consumption on pyrolysis process. Therefore, in the pyrolysis process of waste plastics, temperature rise rate, pyrolysis materials, pyrolysis temperature and other conditions should be considered integrally. This research can provide theoretical and experimental data for the design of pyrolysis technology of plastic wastes.%选取废旧塑料聚乙烯(polyethylene,PE)、聚丙烯(polypropylene,PP)、聚氯乙烯(polyvi-nyl chloride,PVC)及其混合物,在氮气气氛下进行热解实验,实验温度从室温到700℃,升温速率分别为10℃/min、20℃/min和30℃/min.讨论了不同升温速率对废塑料热解过程的影响,并采用Coast-Redfem法进行了热解动力学分析,得到了三种废塑料及其混合物的热解特性及反应动力学、参数.研究结果表明,升温速率对热解速率,热解温度段,活化能,频率因子都有影响.升温速率越快,热解反应越快,所需的活化能也越大,热解过程对能量的消耗越多.因此,在废塑料热解过程中,要综合考虑升温速率,热解原料,热解温度等条件.本文可为废塑料热解工艺的研究提供理论依据和参考数据.

  15. STUDY ON THE GASEOUS PRODUCTS OF HIGH TEMPERATURE PYROLYSIS OF ACRYLONITRILE POLYMERS BY ON-LINE FTIR METHOD

    ZHAO Genxiang; CHEN Bangjie

    1987-01-01

    The gaseous products of high temperature pyrolysis (300℃ to 960℃) of acrylonitrile polymers were measured continuously under nitrogen atnosphere by on-line Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic method (FTIR). From the variations of characteristic peaks it was found that the nitrogen of macromolecules evolved were mainly in the form of hydrogen cyanide and ammonia. During the pyrolysis amorphous carbonaceous element was formed, and crosslinked to form network structure. Three kinds of samples were used for comparison. The experimental results show that the gaseous products of volatile small molecules were HCN, NH3, CH4, C2H6 and cyanide. CO and CO2 were also formed when copolymers of PAN were thermally pyrolyzed.

  16. Fast Pyrolysis of Lignin Using a Pyrolysis Centrifuge Reactor

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Sárossy, Zsuzsa;

    2013-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis of lignin from an ethanol plant was investigated on a lab scale pyrolysis centrifuge reactor (PCR) with respect to pyrolysis temperature, reactor gas residence time, and feed rate. A maximal organic oil yield of 34 wt % dry basis (db) (bio-oil yield of 43 wt % db) is obtained at...

  17. Temperature dependent grain-size and microstrain of CdO thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis method

    B G Jeyaprakash; K Kesavan; R Ashok Kumar; S Mohan; A Amalarani

    2011-07-01

    CdO thin films on glass substrate were prepared by home built spray pyrolysis unit from aqueous solution of Cd(CH3COO)2.2H2O at different substrate temperatures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies indicate the formation of polycrystalline cubic CdO phase with preferential orientation along (111) plane. X-ray line broadening technique is adopted to study the effect of substrate temperature on microstructural parameters such as grain size and microstrain. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the film prepared at 250°C consists of spherical shape grains with size in nanometer range and is comparable with the XRD studies.

  18. Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Performance of SnO2 Thin Film Transistors Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis.

    Zhang, XinAn; Zhai, JunXia; Yu, XianKun; Zhu, RuiJuan; Zhang, WeiFeng

    2015-08-01

    We fabricated SnO2 thin film transistors on thermally oxidized p-type silicon substrates by low-cost spray pyrolysis. The effect of annealing temperatures on electrical characteristics of SnO2 thin film transistors were investigated. Thermal annealing at higher temperatures induced a negative shift of the threshold voltage (VT) and an increase in the saturation mobility. It was found that the device annealed at 450 °C exhibited a good electrical performance with the field-effect mobility of 0.19 cm2/Vs, the threshold voltage of 2.5 V, and the on/off current ratio of 10(3). PMID:26369222

  19. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature on Physico-Chemical Properties of Corn Stover (Zea mays L.) Biochar and Feasibility for Carbon Capture and Energy Balance

    Rafiq, Muhammad Khalid; Bachmann, Robert Thomas; Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; Shang, Zhanhuan; Joseph, Stephen; Long, Ruijun

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of pyrolysis temperature on biochar characteristics and evaluated its suitability for carbon capture and energy production. Biochar was produced from corn stover using slow pyrolysis at 300, 400 and 500°C and 2 hrs holding time. The experimental biochars were characterized by elemental analysis, BET, FTIR, TGA/DTA, NMR (C-13). Higher heating value (HHV) of feedstock and biochars was measured using bomb calorimeter. Results show that carbon content of corn sto...

  20. The effects of calcination temperature on the electrochemical performance of LiMnPO4 prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    Research highlights: → Carbon-coated LiMnPO4 cathode materials were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. → The effects of calcinations temperature on the microstructure and electrochemical performance of C-LiMnPO4 were investigated. → X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations revealed that the calcination temperature had a strong influence on the morphology and crystallite size of the prepared final powder, and therefore the subsequent electrochemical performance of the material. → The C-LiMnPO4 powders prepared at 650 oC exhibited excellent electrochemical performance with a discharge capacity of 118 mAh g-1. - Abstract: Carbon-coated LiMnPO4 powders were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. The effects of calcination temperature on the microstructure and electrochemical performance of C-LiMnPO4 were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies showed that the crystallite size varied with calcination temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations revealed that the calcination temperature had a strong influence on the morphology of the prepared final powder, and therefore the subsequent electrochemical performance of the material. The C-LiMnPO4 powders prepared at 650 oC exhibited excellent electrochemical performance with a discharge capacity of 118 mAh g-1.

  1. Effects of Biochar Feedstock and Pyrolysis Temperature on Growth of Corn, Soybean, Lettuce and Carrot

    Biochar, the carbon-rich material remaining after pyrolysis (low oxygen) of cellulosic feedstocks, has the potential as a soil amendment to sequester carbon, improve soil water-holding capacity, and increase nutrient retention thereby enhancing soil conditions to benefit plant gr...

  2. Sustainable valorization of plastic wastes for energy with environmental safety via High-Temperature Pyrolysis (HTP) and High-Temperature Steam Gasification (HTSG)

    Kantarelis, E. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Un.Box 455, University Campus, GR54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Donaj, P.; Yang, W. [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), School of Industrial Engineering and Management, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Division of Energy and Furnace Technology, SE100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Zabaniotou, A., E-mail: sonia@cheng.auth.gr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Un.Box 455, University Campus, GR54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2009-08-15

    In the present study the energetic valorization of electric cable shredder residues (mixed plastics) has been investigated. Thermochemical conversion by means of High-Temperature Steam Gasification (HTSG) and High-Temperature Pyrolysis (HTP) was studied. The effects of temperature and reaction time - process parameters - were investigated. Comparison of the results showed that HTSG seems a more suitable process in terms of produced syngas quality (64%, v/v and 13 MJ/Nm{sup 3}) than HTP because of higher H{sub 2} yield and lower tar content.

  3. Sustainable valorization of plastic wastes for energy with environmental safety via High-Temperature Pyrolysis (HTP) and High-Temperature Steam Gasification (HTSG)

    In the present study the energetic valorization of electric cable shredder residues (mixed plastics) has been investigated. Thermochemical conversion by means of High-Temperature Steam Gasification (HTSG) and High-Temperature Pyrolysis (HTP) was studied. The effects of temperature and reaction time - process parameters - were investigated. Comparison of the results showed that HTSG seems a more suitable process in terms of produced syngas quality (64%, v/v and 13 MJ/Nm3) than HTP because of higher H2 yield and lower tar content.

  4. Characterization of Free Radicals By Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy in Biochars from Pyrolysis at High Heating Rates and at High Temperatures

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Jensen, Anker Degn; Larsen Andresen, Mogens;

    reactions is important in order to achieve the high fuel conversion at short residence times. However, little is known about the extent of free radical reactions in pulverized biomass at fast pyrolysis conditions.The concentration and type of free radicals from the decay (termination stage) of pyrolysis at......Understanding fast pyrolysis of biomass-derived materials is an important step in optimization of combustion processes. Similar to coal combustion, the fuel burn out is known to be influenced by the yield and reactivity of chars, produced during pyrolysis. The rapid heating of small biomass...... particles and the short residence time at high temperatures minimize the char yield and increase char reactivity. The differences in chemical composition of organic and inorganic matter between wood and herbaceous biomass affect the operational flexibility of power plants, and increase the complexity of...

  5. Analysis of sulfur in carbonaceous compounds by laser microprobe mass spectrometry and temperature-programmed oxidative pyrolysis

    Zimny, T.; Weber, J.V.; Krier, G.; Schneider, M.; Fixari, B.; Muller, J.F. [IUT, St. Avold (France). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-08-01

    The laser microprobe coupled with mass spectrometry and the temperature-programmed oxidative pyrolysis technique are used to analyze sulfur in a range of solid carbonaceous samples containing increasing amounts of sulfur (0.54-5.44% by weight). The results of both techniques are analysed by principal component analysis and multiple linear regression to determine significant mass spectral peaks and in order to establish the correlation between thermal analysis data and mass spectral intensities. The results demonstrate the potential of laser microprobe/mass spectrometry as an analytical tool for sulfur determination in solids.

  6. Interactive effects of biochar ageing in soils related to feedstock, pyrolysis temperature, and historic charcoal production.

    Heitkötter, Julian; Marschner, Bernd

    2015-04-01

    Biochar is suggested for soil amelioration and carbon sequestration, based on its assumed role as the key factor for the long-term fertility of Terra preta soils. Several studies have shown that certain biochar properties can undergo changes through ageing processes, especially regarding charge characteristics. However, only a few studies determined the changes of different biochars under the same incubation conditions and in different soils. The objective of this study was to characterize the changes of pine chip (PC)- and corn digestate (CD)-derived biochars pyrolyzed at 400 or 600 °C during 100 days of laboratory incubation in a historical kiln soil and an adjacent control soil. Separation between soil and biochar was ensured by using mesh bags. Especially, changes in charge characteristics depended on initial biochar properties affected by feedstock and pyrolysis temperature and on soil properties affected by historic charcoal production. While the cation exchange capacity (CEC) markedly increased for both CD biochars during incubation, PC biochars showed no or only slight increases in CEC. Corresponding to the changes in CEC, ageing of biochars also increased the amount of acid functional groups with increases being in average about 2-fold higher in CD biochars than in PC biochars. Further and in contrast to other studies, the surface areas of biochars increased during ageing, likely due to ash leaching and degradation of tar residues. Changes in CEC and surface acidity of CD biochars were more pronounced after incubation in the control soil, while surface area increase was higher in the kiln soil. Since the two acidic forest soils used in this this study did not greatly differ in physical or chemical properties, the main process for inducing these differences in the buried biochar most likely is related to the differences in dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Although the kiln soil contained about 50% more soil organic carbon due to the presence of charcoal

  7. Temperature and time influence on the waste plastics pyrolysis in the fixed bed reactor

    Papuga Saša V.; Gvero Petar M.; Vukić Ljiljana M.

    2016-01-01

    Pyrolysis as a technique of chemical recycling of plastic materials is causing an increasing level of interest as an environmentally and economically acceptable option for the processing of waste materials. Studies of these processes are carried out under different experimental conditions, in different types of reactors and with different raw materials, which makes the comparison of different processes and the direct application of process parameters quite ...

  8. Effect of Fast Pyrolysis Conditions on Structural Transformation and Reactivity of Herbaceous Biomasses at High Temperatures

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Jensen, Anker D.; Jensen, Peter Arendt;

    particle size on the char yield. X-ray diffractometry (XRD), N-adsorption (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), particle size analysis (CAMSIZER XT), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (29Si NMR; 13C NMR) and electron spinning resonance spectroscopy (ESR) were conducted to investigate the effect...... results, emphasizing its excellent properties as an ash tracer for the more precise recovery of elemental mass balances in pyrolysis....

  9. Low Temperature Synthesis of Fluorine-Doped Tin Oxide Transparent Conducting Thin Film by Spray Pyrolysis Deposition.

    Ko, Eun-Byul; Choi, Jae-Seok; Jung, Hyunsung; Choi, Sung-Churl; Kim, Chang-Yeoul

    2016-02-01

    Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) is widely used for the application of flat panel display like liquid crystal displays and plasma display panel. It is also applied in the field of touch panel, solar cell electrode, low-emissivity glass, defrost window, and anti-static material. Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) thin films were fabricated by spray pyrolysis of ethanol-added FTO precursor solutions. FTO thin film by spray pyrolysis is very much investigated and normally formed at high temperature, about 500 degrees C. However, these days, flexible electronics draw many attentions in the field of IT industry and the research for flexible transparent conducting thin film is also required. In the industrial field, indium-tin oxide (ITO) film on polymer substrate is widely used for touch panel and displays. In this study, we investigated the possibility of FTO thin film formation at relatively low temperature of 250 degrees C. We found out that the control of volume of input precursor and exhaust gases could make it possible to form FTO thin film with a relatively low electrical resistance, less than 100 Ohm/sq and high optical transmittance about 88%. PMID:27433704

  10. Chemical composition and temperature dependent performance of ZnO-thin film transistors deposited by pulsed and continuous spray pyrolysis

    Zinc oxide thin film transistors (TFTs) deposited by continuous and pulsed spray pyrolysis were investigated to analyze process kinetics which make reduction of process temperature possible. Thus, fluid mechanics, chemical composition, electrical performance, and deposition and annealing temperature were systematically analyzed. It was found that ZnO layers continuously deposited at 360 °C contained zinc oxynitrides, CO3, and hydro carbonate groups from pyrolysis of basic zinc acetate. Statistically, every second wurtzite ZnO unit cell contained an impurity atom. The purity and performance of the ZnO-TFTs increased systematically with increasing deposition temperature due to an improved oxidation processes. At 500 °C the zinc to oxygen ratio exceeded a high value of 0.96. Additionally, the ZnO film was not found to be in a stabilized state after deposition even at high temperatures. Introducing additional subsequent annealing steps stabilizes the film and allows the reduction of the overall thermal stress to the substrate. Further improvement of device characteristics was obtained by pulsed deposition which allowed a more effective transport of the by-products and oxygen. A significant reduction of the deposition temperature by 140 °C was achieved compared to the same performance as in continuous deposition mode. The trap density close to the Fermi energy could be reduced by a factor of two to 4 × 1017 eV−1 cm−3 due to the optimized combustion process on the surface. The optimization of the deposition processes made the fabrication of TFTs with excellent performance possible. The mobility was high and exceeded 12 cm2/V s, the subthreshold slope was 0.3 V dec−1, and an on-set close to the ideal value of 0 V was achieved

  11. The effects of feedstock pre-treatment and pyrolysis temperature on the production of biochar from the green seaweed Ulva.

    Roberts, David A; de Nys, Rocky

    2016-03-15

    Green seaweeds from the genus Ulva are a promising feedstock for the production of biochar for carbon (C) sequestration and soil amelioration. Ulva can be cultivated in waste water from land-based aquaculture and Ulva blooms ("green tides") strand millions of tons of biomass on coastal areas of Europe and China each year. The conversion of Ulva into biochar could recycle C and nutrients from eutrophic water into agricultural production. We produce biochar from Ulva ohnoi, cultivated in waste water from an aquaculture facility, and characterize its suitability for C sequestration and soil amelioration through bio-chemical analyses and plant growth experiments. Two biomass pre-treatments (fresh water rinsing to reduce salt, and pelletisation to increase density) were crossed with four pyrolysis temperatures (300-750 °C). Biomass rinsing decreased the ash and increased the C content of the resulting biochar. However, biochar produced from un-rinsed biomass had a higher proportion of fixed C and a higher yield. C sequestration decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperatures due to the combination of lower yield and lower total C content of biochar produced at high temperatures. Biochar produced from un-rinsed biomass at 300 °C had the greatest gravimetric C sequestration (110-120 g stable C kg(-1) seaweed). Biochar produced from un-pelletised Ulva enhanced plant growth three-fold in low fertility soils when the temperature of pyrolysis was less than 450 °C. The reduced effectiveness of the high-temperature biochars (>450 °C) was due to a lower N and higher salt content. Soil ameliorated with biochar produced from pelletised biomass had suppressed plant germination and growth. The most effective biochar for C sequestration and soil amelioration was produced from un-rinsed and un-pelletised Ulva at 300 °C. The green tide that occurs annually along the Shandong coastline in China generates sufficient biomass (200,000 tons dry weight) to ameliorate 12,500

  12. Co-production of biochar, bio-oil and syngas from halophyte grass (Achnatherum splendens L.) under three different pyrolysis temperatures.

    Irfan, Muhammad; Chen, Qun; Yue, Yan; Pang, Renzhong; Lin, Qimei; Zhao, Xiaorong; Chen, Hao

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, pyrolysis of Achnatherum splendens L. was performed under three different pyrolysis temperature (300, 500, and 700°C) to investigate the characteristics of biochar, bio-oil, and syngas. Biochar yield decreased from 48% to 24%, whereas syngas yield increased from 34% to 54% when pyrolysis temperature was increased from 300 to 700°C. Maximum bio-oil yield (27%) was obtained at 500°C. The biochar were characterized for elemental composition, surface, and adsorption properties. The results showed that obtained biochar could be used as a potential soil amendment. The bio-oil and syngas co-products will be evaluated in the future as bioenergy sources. Overall, our results suggests that A. splendens L. could be utilized as a potential feedstock for biochar and bioenergy production through pyrolytic route. PMID:27035478

  13. Effects of pyrolysis temperature on soybean stover- and peanut shell-derived biochar properties and TCE adsorption in water.

    Ahmad, Mahtab; Lee, Sang Soo; Dou, Xiaomin; Mohan, Dinesh; Sung, Jwa-Kyung; Yang, Jae E; Ok, Yong Sik

    2012-08-01

    Conversion of crop residues into biochars (BCs) via pyrolysis is beneficial to environment compared to their direct combustion in agricultural field. Biochars developed from soybean stover at 300 and 700 °C (S-BC300 and S-BC700, respectively) and peanut shells at 300 and 700 °C (P-BC300 and P-BC700, respectively) were used for the removal of trichloroethylene (TCE) from water. Batch adsorption experiments showed that the TCE adsorption was strongly dependent on the BCs properties. Linear relationships were obtained between sorption parameters (K(M) and S(M)) and molar elemental ratios as well as surface area of the BCs. The high adsorption capacity of BCs produced at 700 °C was attributed to their high aromaticity and low polarity. The efficacy of S-BC700 and P-BC700 for removing TCE from water was comparable to that of activated carbon (AC). Pyrolysis temperature influencing the BC properties was a critical factor to assess the removal efficiency of TCE from water. PMID:22721877

  14. Preconversion catalytic deoxygenation of phenolic functional groups. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1995

    Kubiak, C.P.

    1996-07-01

    Recent research in the author`s laboratory has established the viability of the catalytic deoxygenation of phenols by Co monoxide. The deoxygenation of phenols is a problem of both fundamental and practical importance. The deoxygenation of phenols to arenes is a conceptually simple, yet a very difficult chemical transformation to achieve. The phenolic C-O bond energy of 103 kcal/mol is as strong as a benzene C-H bond and over 10 kcal/mol stronger than the C-O bonds of methanol or ethanol. Catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of phenols over sulfided Mo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ni-Mo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Co-Mo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or other supported metal oxide catalysts can be achieved, at exceedingly high hydrogen pressures and temperature. Arene ring hydrogenation generally competes effectively with hydrodeoxygenation, and was found to occur an order of magnitude faster than HDO. As a consequence, most of the hydrogen is consumed in hydrogenation of the aromatic rings. HDO catalysts are easily poisoned. The inefficiency of catalysts for phenol deoxygenation in the presence of hydrogen can be attributed to the absence of a low energy mechanistic pathway for the hydrogenolysis of the strong phenol C-O bond. The authors are currently studying new transition metal catalysts for the efficient and selective deoxygenation of phenols using the Co/Co{sub 2} couple to remove phenolic oxygen atoms. The paper describes recent results on the mechanism of Co insertion into metal-oxygen bonds of phenoxides.

  15. Bitumen pyrolysis

    In the past bitumen was a preferred matrix for the embedding of low and intermediate level radioactive waste: its geological history promised long term stability in final repositories. A great variety of waste has been embedded: technological waste, spent ion exchange resins, concrete, rubble, etc. Liquid waste like evaporator concentrates can be dried and embedded simultaneously in extruders, allowing simple processes and equipment. Unfortunately, during long term intermediate storage the bituminized waste drums proved out being not as stable as expected: a significant number turned out to be no longer acceptable for final disposal, and some of them even needed repacking to enable further intermediate storage. A method to rework such drums with bituminized radioactive waste seems to be urgently needed. Pyrolysis and pyro-hydrolysis (= pyrolysis with water steam added) have a long history for the treatment of organic waste: spent solvent (TBP), spent ion exchange resins, alpha waste (predominantly PVC), etc. Due to its low process temperature and the endothermic character, such processes offer significant safety advantages, as compared to incineration or dissolving in organic solvents. Results of lab-scale investigations and concepts for facilities are presented. (authors)

  16. Sorption Characteristic of Phenanthrene on Biochar-Amended Soils: Effect of feedstock, pyrolysis temperature, and aging duration

    Hyun, S.; Kim, C.; Kim, Y. S.; Kim, J.

    2015-12-01

    The high sorption capacity of biochar is widely known in environmental studies. Especially, biochar is effective for removal of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) due to high surface area and porosity. In this study, the sorption characteristic of biochar-amended soil was evaluated by sorption kinetic experiment of phenanthrene (PHE). For PHE sorption test, the effect of biochar feedstock (sludge waste char (SWC), municipal waste char (MWC) and wood char (WC), Giant Miscanthus (GM)), pyrolysis temperature (400°C, 500°C and 700°C,), and duration of amending period (0, 3, 6, and 12 months) was assessed. Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques were used to detect pore structure and the surface functional group of biochar amended soils. For all kinetic tests, apparent sorption equilibrium was attained in 24 hr. The result showed that sorption capacity of biochar amended soils was greatly influenced by biochar feedstock and pyrolysis temperature. For all samples, the sorption capacity of PHE by biochar amended soils decreased with aging period. This observation is due to the fact that the aromatic characters of biochar are different by feedstock and pyrolysis temperature and the amount of O-containing hydrophilic functional groups increased surfaces of biochar by natural oxidation (e.g. carboxyl groups) as confirmed by the result of FT-IR and FE-SEM. In addition, biochar pore blockage by inorganic minerals, which tended to increase with aging period, might attenuate the sorption capacity of samples. In conclusion, biochar derived from various feed stocks are all effective for PHE sorption. But the sorption capacity of biochar amended soils decreased with increasing aging duration most likely due to increasing hydrophilic functional groups of biochar surfaces and pore blockage by inorganic minerals in the weathering processes. Therefore, for the design of biochar amendment to attenuate

  17. Experimental design applied to the optimization of pyrolysis and atomization temperatures for As measurement in water samples by GFAAS

    Ávila, Akie K.; Araujo, Thiago O.; Couto, Paulo R. G.; Borges, Renata M. H.

    2005-10-01

    In general, research experimentation is often used mainly when new methodologies are being developed or existing ones are being improved. The characteristics of any method depend on its factors or components. The planning techniques and analysis of experiments are basically used to improve the analytical conditions of methods, to reduce experimental labour with the minimum of tests and to optimize the use of resources (reagents, time of analysis, availability of the equipment, operator time, etc). These techniques are applied by the identification of variables (control factors) of a process that have the most influence on the response of the parameters of interest, by attributing values to the influential variables of the process in order that the variability of response can be minimum, or the obtained value (quality parameter) be very close to the nominal value, and by attributing values to the influential variables of the process so that the effects of uncontrollable variables can be reduced. In this central composite design (CCD), four permanent modifiers (Pd, Ir, W and Rh) and one combined permanent modifier W+Ir were studied. The study selected two factors: pyrolysis and atomization temperatures at five different levels for all the possible combinations. The pyrolysis temperatures with different permanent modifiers varied from 600 °C to 1600 °C with hold times of 25 s, while atomization temperatures ranged between 1900 °C and 2280 °C. The characteristic masses for As were in the range of 31 pg to 81 pg. Assuming the best conditions obtained on CCD, it was possible to estimate the measurement uncertainty of As determination in water samples. The results showed that considering the main uncertainty sources such as the repetitivity of measurement inherent in the equipment, the calibration curve which evaluates the adjustment of the mathematical model to the results and the calibration standards concentrations, the values obtained were similar to international

  18. Effects of several types of biomass fuels on the yield, nanostructure and reactivity of soot from fast pyrolysis at high temperatures

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn;

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the effect of biomass origin on the yield, nanostructure and reactivity of soot. Soot was produced from wood and herbaceous biomass pyrolysis at high heating rates and at temperatures of 1250 and 1400 °C in a drop tube furnace. The structure of solid residues was characterized...

  19. Optimization of growth temperature of multi-walled carbon nanotubes synthesized by spray pyrolysis method and application for arsenic removal

    S. Mageswari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Multi-walled carbon nanotubes have been synthesized at different temperatures ranging from 550 °C to 750 °C on silica supported Fe-Co catalyst by spray pyrolysis method using Citrus limonum oil under nitrogen atmosphere. The as-grown MWNTs were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD and Raman spectral studies. The HRTEM and Raman spectroscopic studies confirmed the evolution of MWNTs with the outer diameter between 25 and 38 nm. The possibility of use of as-grown MWNTs as an adsorbent for removal of As (V ions from drinking water was studied. Adsorption isotherm data were interpreted by the Langmuir and Freundlich equations. Kinetic data were studied using Elovich, pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order equations in order to elucidate the reaction mechanism.

  20. Low-temperature spray-pyrolysis of FeS2 films and their electrical and optical properties

    Orletskii, I. G.; Mar'yanchuk, P. D.; Maistruk, E. V.; Solovan, M. N.; Brus, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    Iron disulfide (FeS2) films with a wide range of electrical resistivities 100 Ω cm ⩽ ρ ⩽ 800 kΩ cm, a high adhesion to the substrate, and a resistance to aggressive media have been prepared by the spray pyrolysis of aqueous solutions of the salts FeCl3 · 6H2O and (NH2)2CS at low temperatures in the range 250°C ⩽ T S ⩽ 400°C. It has been found that the FeS2 films have a high transmittance T ≈ 60-70% and are characterized by a sharp transmission edge. It has been shown that the optical band gap for direct ( E g op = 2.19-2.78 eV) and indirect ( E g 'op = 1.26-1.36 eV) optical transitions depends on the conditions of film preparation.

  1. Influence of Growth Temperature on Structure and Optical Properties of Tin Oxide Films by Spray Pyrolysis Method

    Y. Larbah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tin oxide films (SnO2 are prepared by the spray pyrolysis technique at different temperatures. The XRD measurement confirm that the thin films grown by this technique have good crystalline tetragonal rutile structures. The observations by scanning electron microscopy indicate that polycrystalline SnO2 film surfaces were formed by pyramidal grains (200 nm 300 nm, The composition on the films was obtained by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES, which is identical to the analysis EDS. Characterization by UV-visible spectrophotometry of thin films showed that the films have an optical transmission above 80 % in the visible and the values of Eg were in the range 3.98-4.02 eV.

  2. Large-scale reactive molecular dynamics simulation and kinetic modeling of high-temperature pyrolysis of the Gloeocapsomorphaprisca microfossils.

    Zou, Chenyu; Raman, Sumathy; van Duin, Adri C T

    2014-06-12

    The ability to predict accurately the thermal conversion of complex carbonaceous materials is of value in both petroleum exploration and refining operations. Modeling the thermal cracking of kerogen under basinal heating conditions improves the predrill prediction of oil and gas yields and quality, thereby ultimately lowering the exploration risk. Modeling the chemical structure and reactivity of asphaltene from petroleum vacuum residues enables prediction of coke formation and properties in refinery processes, thereby lowering operating cost. The chemical structure-chemical yield modeling (CS-CYM) developed by Freund et al. is more rigorous, time-consuming, and requires a great deal of chemical insight into reaction network and reaction kinetics. The present work explores the applicability of a more fundamental atomistic simulation using the quantum mechanically based reactive force field to predict the product yield and overall kinetics of decomposition of two biopolymers, namely, the Kukersite and Gutternberg. Reactive molecular dynamics (RMD) simulations were performed on systems consisting of 10(4) to 10(5) atoms at different densities and temperatures to derive the overall kinetic parameters and a lumped kinetic model for pyrolysis. The kinetic parameters derived from the simulated pyrolysis of an individual component and the mixture of all four components in Guttenberg reveal the role of cross-talk between the fragments and enhanced reactivity of component A by radicals from other components. The Arrhenius extrapolation of the model yields reasonable prediction for the overall barrier for cracking. Because simulations were run at very high temperature (T > 1500 K) to study cracking within the simulation time of up to 1 ns, it, however, led to the entropically favored ethylene formation as a dominant decomposition route. Future work will focus on evaluating the applicability of accelerated reactive MD approaches to study cracking. PMID:24821589

  3. Desulphurization of a Turkish lignite by pyrolysis: comparison of slow and flash pyrolysis

    Ersahan, H. (Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    To observe the effect of the heating rate on the desulphurization, Bolu-Mengen lignite was desulphurized in the temperature range of 450-750[degree]C using flash and slow pyrolysis methods. A reduction of 57.6% and 34.2% in the total sulphur was obtained for the slow and flash pyrolysis at a pyrolysis temperature of 750[degree]C, respectively. It was observed that the flash pyrolysis is shifted toward higher temperatures with respect to the slow pyrolysis. The flash pyrolysis having high thermal efficiency has a potential as a desulphurization process. 27 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Fractional Catalytic Pyrolysis Technology for the Production of Upgraded Bio-oil using FCC Catalyst

    Mante, Nii Ofei Daku

    2011-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis technology is one of the thermochemical platforms used to produce high quality bio-oil and chemicals from biomass feedstocks. In the catalytic pyrolysis process, the biomass is rapidly heated under inert atmosphere in the presence of an acid catalyst or zeolite to promote deoxygenation and cracking of the primary vapors into hydrocarbons and small oxygenates. This dissertation examines the utilization of conventional fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalyst in the fractiona...

  5. Temperature dependence of the photoluminescence spectra of CdS: In thin films prepared by the spray pyrolysis technique

    Indium doped cadmium sulfide thin films (CdS:In) are prepared by the spray pyrolysis technique on glass substrates using a home-made spraying system at a substrate temperature Ts=490 °C. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra are recorded at different temperatures in the range 24–160 K. Two broad peaks were observed; a strong one in the visible region centered on E≈2.0 eV and a weak one in the infrared region centered on E≈1.06 eV. The first one is deconvoluted into two Gaussian peaks corresponding to the yellow and red bands, and the second one is deconvoluted into one Gaussian peak corresponding to the infrared band. A strong quenching of the PL intensity with temperature is observed after T=60 K for the yellow and infrared bands and after T=90 K for the red band. The activation energy Ea was estimated by using the Arrhenius plot for the different bands. The estimated values for the three bands lie in the range Ea≈23.4–27.3 meV. The peak positions of the yellow and red bands are red-shifted after T=90 K, while the peak position of the infrared band is blue shifted in the whole temperature range. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) for the three bands increases with temperature. According to these findings the three bands are explained in terms of bound excitons. -- Highlights: • The photoluminescence (PL) of sprayed CdS:In thin films is recorded at different temperatures. • The PL spectrum is deconvoluted to three Gaussian peaks corresponding to yellow, red and infrared bands. • The decrease of the PL intensity with temperature for these bands has similar behaviors. • The yellow and red bands are red-shifted with temperature, but the infrared band is blue-shifted. • From the Arrhenius plots the activation energy is estimated

  6. Role of the Support and Reaction Conditions on the Vapor-Phase Deoxygenation of m-Cresol over Pt/C and Pt/TiO2 Catalysts

    Griffin, Michael B.; Ferguson, Glen A.; Ruddy, Daniel A.; Biddy, Mary J.; Beckham, Gregg T.; Schaidle, Joshua A.

    2016-04-01

    The catalytic deoxygenation of biomass fast pyrolysis vapors offers a promising route for the sustainable production of liquid transportation fuels. However, a clear understanding of the mechanistic details involved in this process has yet to be achieved, and questions remain regarding the role of the catalyst support and the influence of reaction conditions. In order to gain insight into these questions, the deoxygenation of m-cresol was investigated over Pt/C and Pt/TiO2 catalysts using experimental and computational techniques. The performance of each catalyst was evaluated in a packed-bed reactor under two conditions (523 K, 2.0 MPa and 623 K, 0.5 MPa), and the energetics of the ring hydrogenation, direct deoxygenation, and tautomerization mechanisms were calculated over hydrogen-covered Pt(111) and oxygen vacancies on the surface of TiO2(101). Over Pt(111), ring hydrogenation to 3-methylcyclohexanone and 3-methylcyclohexanol was found to be the most energetically favorable pathway. Over TiO2(101), tautomerization and direct deoxygenation to toluene were identified as additional energetically favorable routes. These calculations are consistent with the experimental data, in which Pt/TiO2 was more active on a metal site basis and exhibited higher selectivity to toluene at 623 K relative to Pt/C. On the basis of these results, it is likely that the reactivity of Pt/TiO2 and Pt/C is driven by the metallic phase at 523 K, while contributions from the TiO2 support enhance deoxygenation at 623 K. These results highlight the synergistic effects between hydrogenation catalysts and reducible metal oxide supports and provide insight into the reaction pathways responsible for their enhanced deoxygenation performance.

  7. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature on Physico-Chemical Properties of Corn Stover (Zea mays L.) Biochar and Feasibility for Carbon Capture and Energy Balance

    Rafiq, Muhammad Khalid; Bachmann, Robert Thomas; Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; Shang, Zhanhuan; Joseph, Stephen; Long, Ruijun

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of pyrolysis temperature on biochar characteristics and evaluated its suitability for carbon capture and energy production. Biochar was produced from corn stover using slow pyrolysis at 300, 400 and 500°C and 2 hrs holding time. The experimental biochars were characterized by elemental analysis, BET, FTIR, TGA/DTA, NMR (C-13). Higher heating value (HHV) of feedstock and biochars was measured using bomb calorimeter. Results show that carbon content of corn stover biochar increased from 45.5% to 64.5%, with increasing pyrolysis temperatures. A decrease in H:C and O:C ratios as well as volatile matter, coupled with increase in the concentration of aromatic carbon in the biochar as determined by FTIR and NMR (C-13) demonstrates a higher biochar carbon stability at 500°C. It was estimated that corn stover pyrolysed at 500°C could provide of 10.12 MJ/kg thermal energy. Pyrolysis is therefore a potential technology with its carbon-negative, energy positive and soil amendment benefits thus creating win- win scenario. PMID:27327870

  8. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature on Physico-Chemical Properties of Corn Stover (Zea mays L. Biochar and Feasibility for Carbon Capture and Energy Balance.

    Muhammad Khalid Rafiq

    Full Text Available This study examined the influence of pyrolysis temperature on biochar characteristics and evaluated its suitability for carbon capture and energy production. Biochar was produced from corn stover using slow pyrolysis at 300, 400 and 500°C and 2 hrs holding time. The experimental biochars were characterized by elemental analysis, BET, FTIR, TGA/DTA, NMR (C-13. Higher heating value (HHV of feedstock and biochars was measured using bomb calorimeter. Results show that carbon content of corn stover biochar increased from 45.5% to 64.5%, with increasing pyrolysis temperatures. A decrease in H:C and O:C ratios as well as volatile matter, coupled with increase in the concentration of aromatic carbon in the biochar as determined by FTIR and NMR (C-13 demonstrates a higher biochar carbon stability at 500°C. It was estimated that corn stover pyrolysed at 500°C could provide of 10.12 MJ/kg thermal energy. Pyrolysis is therefore a potential technology with its carbon-negative, energy positive and soil amendment benefits thus creating win- win scenario.

  9. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature on Physico-Chemical Properties of Corn Stover (Zea mays L.) Biochar and Feasibility for Carbon Capture and Energy Balance.

    Rafiq, Muhammad Khalid; Bachmann, Robert Thomas; Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; Shang, Zhanhuan; Joseph, Stephen; Long, Ruijun

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of pyrolysis temperature on biochar characteristics and evaluated its suitability for carbon capture and energy production. Biochar was produced from corn stover using slow pyrolysis at 300, 400 and 500°C and 2 hrs holding time. The experimental biochars were characterized by elemental analysis, BET, FTIR, TGA/DTA, NMR (C-13). Higher heating value (HHV) of feedstock and biochars was measured using bomb calorimeter. Results show that carbon content of corn stover biochar increased from 45.5% to 64.5%, with increasing pyrolysis temperatures. A decrease in H:C and O:C ratios as well as volatile matter, coupled with increase in the concentration of aromatic carbon in the biochar as determined by FTIR and NMR (C-13) demonstrates a higher biochar carbon stability at 500°C. It was estimated that corn stover pyrolysed at 500°C could provide of 10.12 MJ/kg thermal energy. Pyrolysis is therefore a potential technology with its carbon-negative, energy positive and soil amendment benefits thus creating win- win scenario. PMID:27327870

  10. Deoxygenation of Plant Fatty Acid using NiSnK/ SiO2 as Catalyst

    Environmental friendly bio-oil which offers supply reliability as a potential alternative fuel, has spurred to rapid development of bio fuels technology. Palm oil is a potential renewable energy source for bio fuels production in the future and Malaysia is one of the world largest palm oil producers. However, undesired oxygen content in the plant fatty acid that contributes to low energy density, high viscosity, and low stability, makes the palm oil not effective to be used as bio fuels directly. In the present study, the performance of silica supported trimetal catalyst, NiSnK/ SiO2, on deoxygenation of used palm oil was evaluated. In addition, the effects of operating parameters, such as reaction temperature and weight hourly space velocity were investigated. Conversion of palmitic acid as high as 90 % was achieved in deoxygenation of used palm oil at reaction temperature 350 degree Celsius. In order to have a better understanding on the deoxygenation reaction, model compound system using the major saturated fatty acid in the used palm oil, palmitic acid was also carried out. Palmitic acid was found mainly decarboxylated into n-pentadecane with some decarboxylation and isomerization products. (author)

  11. High-temperature pyrolysis of blended animal manures for producing renewable energy and value-added biochar

    In this study, we used a commercial pilot-scale pyrolysis reactor system to produce combustible gas and biochar at 620 degrees Celsium from three sources (chicken litter, swine solids, mixture of swine solids with rye grass). Pyrolysis of swine solids produced gas with the greatest higher heating va...

  12. Pyrolysis of Pine Wood

    Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2005-01-01

    In this study, pinewood has been pyrolyzed using a fixed heating rate with a variable end-temperature. The pyrolysis process has been simulated using a mechanism with three parallel reactions for the formation of char, gas and tar. First order irreversible kinetics is assumed. This kind of model...... may predict the variation of product yield with operating conditions such as temperature and heating rate. The system of coupled differential equations describing the pyrolysis process is solved using the software DYMOLA. Various literature values for kinetic parameters have been compared with the...

  13. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-39 aluminosilicate zeolite

    Nicholas, Christpher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2013-12-17

    A new family of coherently grown composites of TUN and IMF zeotypes has been synthesized and show to be effective catalysts for catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.n+R.sub.rQ.sub.qAl.sub1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.s- ub.z where M represents zinc or a metal or metals from Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, R is an A,.OMEGA.-dihalosubstituted paraffin such as 1,4-dibromobutane, Q is a neutral amine containing 5 or fewer carbon atoms such as 1-methylpyrrolidine and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-39 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hyrdocarbons into hydrocarbons removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  14. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-39 aluminosilicate zeolite

    Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2014-10-07

    A new family of coherently grown composites of TUN and IMF zeotypes has been synthesized and shown to be effective catalysts for catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.n+R.sub.rQ.sub.qAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.s- ub.z where M represents zinc or a metal or metals from Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, R is an A,.OMEGA.-dihalosubstituted paraffin such as 1,4-dibromobutane, Q is a neutral amine containing 5 or fewer carbon atoms such as 1-methylpyrrolidine and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-39 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  15. Effect of pyrolysis temperatures on freely dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in sewage sludge-derived biochars.

    Zielińska, Anna; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sewage sludge pyrolysis on freely dissolved (Cfree) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contents in biochars. Four sewage sludges with varying properties and PAH contents were pyrolysed at temperatures of 500 °C, 600 °C or 700 °C. Cfree PAH contents were determined using polyoxymethylene (POM). The contents of Cfree PAHs in the sludges ranged from 262 to 294 ng L(-1). Sewage sludge-derived biochars have from 2.3- to 3.4-times lower Cfree PAH contents comparing to corresponding sewage sludges. The Cfree PAH contents in the biochars ranged between 81 ng L(-1) and 126 ng L(-1). As regards agricultural use of biochar, the lower contents of Cfree PAHs in the biochars compared to the sewage sludges makes biochar a safer material than sewage sludge in terms of PAH contents. PMID:27010168

  16. Effect of ZSM-5 Acidity on Aromatic Product Selectivity during Upgrading of Pine Pyrolysis Vapors

    Engtrakul, Chaiwat; Mukarakate, Calvin; Starace, Anne K.; Magrini, Kimberly A.; Rogers, Allyson K.; Yung, Matthew M.

    2016-07-01

    The impact of catalyst acidity on the selectivity of upgraded biomass pyrolysis products was studied by passing pine pyrolysis vapors over five ZSM-5 catalysts of varying acidity at 500 degrees C. The SiO2-to-Al2O3 ratio (SAR) of the ZSM-5 zeolite was varied from 23 to 280 to control the acidity of the catalyst and the composition of upgraded products. The upgraded product stream was analyzed by GCMS. Additionally, catalysts were characterized using temperature programmed desorption, diffuse-reflectance FTIR spectroscopy, N2 physisorption, and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the biomass pyrolysis vapors were highly deoxygenated to form a slate of aromatic hydrocarbons over all of the tested ZSM-5 catalysts. As the overall acidity of the ZSM-5 increased the selectivity toward alkylated (substituted) aromatics (e.g., xylene, dimethyl-naphthalene, and methyl-anthracene) decreased while the selectivity toward unsubstituted aromatics (e.g., benzene, naphthalene, and anthracene) increased. Additionally, the selectivity toward polycyclic aromatic compounds (2-ring and 3-ring) increased as catalyst acidity increased, corresponding to a decrease in acid site spacing. The increased selectivity toward less substituted polycyclic aromatic compounds with increasing acidity is related to the relative rates of cyclization and alkylation reactions within the zeolite structure. As the acid site concentration increases and sites become closer to each other, the formation of additional cyclization products occurs at a greater rate than alkylated products. The ability to adjust product selectivity within 1-, 2-, and 3-ring aromatic families, as well as the degree of substitution, by varying ZSM-5 acidity could have significant benefits in terms creating a slate of upgraded biomass pyrolysis products to meet specific target market demands.

  17. Flash pyrolysis at high temperature of ligno-cellulosic biomass and its components - production of synthesis gas; Pyrolyse flash a haute temperature de la biomasse ligno-cellulosique et de ses composes - production de gaz de synthese

    Couhert, C

    2007-11-15

    Pyrolysis is the first stage of any thermal treatment of biomass and governs the formation of synthesis gas for the production of electricity, hydrogen or liquid fuels. The objective of this work is to establish a link between the composition of a biomass and its pyrolysis gas. We study experimental flash pyrolysis and fix the conditions in which quantities of gas are maximal, while aiming at a regime without heat and mass transfer limitations (particles about 100 {mu}m): temperature of 950 C and residence time of about 2 s. Then we try to predict gas yields of any biomass according to its composition, applicable in this situation where thermodynamic equilibrium is not reached. We show that an additivity law does not allow correlating gas yields of a biomass with fractions of cellulose, hemi-cellulose and lignin contained in this biomass. Several explanations are suggested and examined: difference of pyrolytic behaviour of the same compound according to the biomass from which it is extracted, interactions between compounds and influence of mineral matter. With the aim of industrial application, we study pyrolysis of millimetric and centimetric size particles, and make a numerical simulation of the reactions of pyrolysis gases reforming. This simulation shows that the choice of biomass affects the quantities of synthesis gas obtained. (author)

  18. Catalytic pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica over nanoporous catalysts using Py-GC/MS

    Jeon Jong-Ki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The catalytic pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica was carried out over a hierarchical meso-MFI zeolite (Meso-MFI and nanoporous Al-MCM-48 using pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS. The effect of the catalyst type on the product distribution and chemical composition of the bio-oil was examined using Py-GC/MS. The Meso-MFI exhibited a higher activity in deoxygenation and aromatization during the catalytic pyrolysis of L. japonica. Meanwhile, the catalytic activity of Al-MCM-48 was lower than that of Meso-MFI due to its weak acidity.

  19. The pyrolysis of a tungsten alkyne complex as a low temperature route to tungsten carbide

    The synthesis of designed organometallic compounds and their selective activation and transformation into materials of high purity (for electronic applications), high strength and/or high temperature stability (for refractory or structural applications), represents a potential area of extreme growth in organometallic chemistry. Research in this area could provide entirely new, inexpensive, fabrication methods for common and exotic materials. In this paper, the authors develop design principles for the preparation of organometallic precursors, ''premetallics'' that can be selectively converted, in high yields, to a desired refractory metal. They also describe preliminary efforts to prepare tungsten carbides (WC/sub x/) from a prematallic

  20. Effect of low-temperature oxidation on the pyrolysis and combustion of whole oil

    Low-temperature oxidation (LTO) of the Fosterton crude oil mixed with its reservoir sand has been investigated in a tubular reactor. Reservoir sand saturated with 15 wt% of crude oil (20.5o API gravity) was subjected to air injection at low-temperature (220 oC) for a period of time (17 h and 30 min), resulting in the formation of an oxygenated hydrocarbon fuel. The vent gases were analyzed for the content of CO, CO2, and oxygen and the residue was analyzed to determine the elemental composition and calorific value. The presence of LTO region was verified from the values of apparent H/C ratio. In addition, thermal behavior and combustion kinetics of the residue was investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TG involves both non-isothermal and isothermal analysis and kinetic data was derived from isothermal studies. The general model for nth order reaction was used to obtain the kinetic parameters of the coke oxidation reaction. The activation energy, frequency factor and order of the reactions were determined using the model.

  1. Effect of oxidation on the chemical nature and distribution of low-temperature pyrolysis products from bituminous coal

    Furimsky, E.; MacPhee, J.A.; Vancea, L.; Ciavaglia, L.A.; Nandi, B.N.

    1983-04-01

    Two bituminous coals, a high volatile Eastern Canadian and a medium volatile Western Canadian, were used to investigate the effect of oxidation on yields and chemical composition of gases, liquids and chars produced during coal pyrolysis. Pyrolysis experiments were performed at 500 C using the Fischer assay method. Mild oxidation of coals resulted in a decrease of liquid hydrocarbon yields. Further coal oxidation increased the proportion of aromatic carbon in liquid products as determined by N.M.R. and also increased the content of oxygen in liquid products. The content of oxygen in chars was markedly lower than in corresponding coals. An attempt is made to explain reactions occurring during oxidation and subsequent pyrolysis of coal on the basis of differences in chemical composition of gases, liquids and chars. (19 refs.)

  2. Effect of oxidation on the chemical nature and distribution of low-temperature pyrolysis products from bituminous coal

    Furimsky, E.; Ciavaglia, L.A.; MacPhee, J.A.; Nandi, B.N.; Vancea, L.

    1983-04-01

    Two bituminous coals, a high volatile Eastern Canadian and a medium volatile Western Canadian, were used to investigate the effect of oxidation on yields and chemical composition of gases, liquids and chars produced during coal pyrolysis. Pyrolysis experiments were performed at 500/sup 0/C using the Fischer assay method. Mild oxidation of coals resulted in a decrease of liquid hydrocarbon yields. Further coal oxidation increased the proportion of aromatic carbon in liquid products as determined by n.m.r., and also increased the content of oxygen in liquid products. The content of oxygen in chars was markedly lower than in corresponding coals. An attempt is made to explain reactions occurring during oxidation and subsequent pyrolysis of coal on the basis of differences in chemical composition of gases, liquids and chars.

  3. Structure, provenance and residence time of terrestrial organic carbon: insights from Programmed temperature Pyrolysis-Combustion of river sediments

    Feng, X.; Galy, V.; Rosenheim, B. E.; Roe, K. M.; Williams, E. K.

    2010-12-01

    The terrestrial organic carbon (OC) represents one of the largest reservoirs of C on earth and thus plays a crucial role in the global C cycle, participating to the regulation of atmospheric chemistry. While degradation of sedimentary OC (petrogenic C) is a source of CO2 for the atmosphere, burial of biospheric C (e.g. plant debris and soil OC) is a long-term sequestration of atmospheric CO2. Over short timescales, the atmospheric CO2 level is also sensitive to variations of the residence time of carbon in continental reservoirs. Fluvial transport plays a crucial role in the organic carbon cycle, constituting the connection between the different reservoirs and promoting the transfer of C from one reservoir to the other. Moreover, thanks to the integrating effect of erosion, studying river sediments allows the spatial and temporal integration of organic carbon exchanges occurring in a given basin. OC transported by rivers (riverine OC) is known to be extremely heterogeneous in nature and reactivity, however; ranging from extremely refractory petrogenic C (e.g. graphite) to soil complex OC to labile vegetation debris. Here we use a recently developed method, a programmed-temperature pyrolysis-combustion system (PTP-CS) coupled to multiisotopic analysis, to determine the reactivity, age and nature of OC in river sediments. The method takes advantage of the wide range of reactivity and radiocarbon content of different components of riverine OC. We submitted to PTP-CS a set of river sediments from 1) the Ganges-Brahmputra river system and, 2) the lower Mississippi river. Preliminary results highlight the heterogeneous nature of riverine OC. Different components of the riverine OC pool decompose at different temperature and are characterized by extremely variable isotopic compositions. The decomposition of radiocarbon dead petrogenic C at very high temperature allows estimating the respective contribution of biospheric and petrogenic C. Moreover, biospheric OC appears to

  4. Characterization of the pyrolysis oil produced in the slow pyrolysis of sunflower-extracted bagasse

    Yorgun, S.; Sensoz, S. [Osmangazi Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Kockar, O.M. [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2001-07-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.)-extracted bagasse pyrolysis experiments were performed in a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of heating rate, final pyrolysis temperature, particle size and pyrolysis atmosphere on the pyrolysis product yields and chemical compositions have been investigated. The maximum oil yield of 23% was obtained in N{sub 2} atmosphere at a pyrolysis temperature of 550 {sup o}C and a heating rate of 7 {sup o}C min {sup -1}. The chemical characterisation has shown that the oil obtained from sunflower-extracted bagasse may be potentially valuable as fuel and chemical feedstocks. (Author)

  5. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-44 aluminosilicate zeolite

    Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2013-12-17

    A new family of aluminosilicate zeolites designated UZM-44 has been synthesized. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.k+T.sub.tAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.sub.z where "n" is the mole ratio of Na to (Al+E), M represents a metal or metals from zinc, Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 and or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, "m" is the mole ratio of M to (Al+E), "k" is the average charge of the metal or metals M, T is the organic structure directing agent or agents, and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-44 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  6. Oxo-rhenium catalyzed reductive coupling and deoxygenation of alcohols.

    Kasner, Gabrielle R; Boucher-Jacobs, Camille; Michael McClain, J; Nicholas, Kenneth M

    2016-06-01

    Representative benzylic, allylic and α-keto alcohols are deoxygenated to alkanes and/or reductively coupled to alkane dimers by reaction with PPh3 catalyzed by (PPh3)2ReIO2 (1). The newly discovered catalytic reductive coupling reaction is a rare C-C bond-forming transformation of alcohols. PMID:27174412

  7. Catalytic Deoxygenation of Fatty Acids: Elucidation of the Inhibition Process

    Hollak, S.A.W.; Jong, de K.P.; Es, van D.S.

    2014-01-01

    Catalytic deoxygenation of unsaturated fatty acids in the absence of H2 is known to suffer from significant catalyst inhibition. Thus far, no conclusive results have been reported on the cause of deactivation. Here we show that CC double bonds present in the feed or the products dramatically reduce

  8. Influence of biochar pyrolysis temperature and post-treatment on the uptake of mercury from flue gas

    Thermal processing, or pyrolysis, of plant and animal waste under oxygen limiting conditions results in a carbonized material called biochar. Most often, the proposed application for the biochar is soil applications as a conditioner or for the purpose of carbon sequestration. In this paper we demons...

  9. Pyrolysis Model of Single Biomass Pellet in Downdraft Gasifier

    薛爱军; 潘继红; 田茂诚; 伊晓璐

    2016-01-01

    By coupling the heat transfer equation with semi-global chemical reaction kinetic equations, a one-dimensional, unsteady mathematical model is developed to describe the pyrolysis of single biomass pellet in the pyrolysis zone of downdraft gasifier. The simulation results in inert atmosphere and pyrolysis zone agree well with the published experimental results. The pyrolysis of biomass pellets in pyrolysis zone is investigated, and the results show that the estimated convective heat transfer coefficient and emissivity coefficient are suitable. The mean pyro-lysis time is 15.22%, shorter than that in inert atmosphere, and the pellet pyrolysis process in pyrolysis zone belongs to fast pyrolysis. Among the pyrolysis products, tar yield is the most, gas the second, and char the least. During pyrolysis, the temperature change near the center is contrary to that near the surface. Pyrolysis gradually moves inwards layer by layer. With the increase of pyrolysis temperature and pellet diameter, the total pyrolysis time, tar yield, char yield and gas yield change in different ways. The height of pyrolysis zone is calculated to be 1.51—3.51 times of the characteristic pellet diameter.

  10. Pyrolysis of tyres. Influence of the final temperature of the process on emissions and the calorific value of the products recovered

    A study was made of the pyrolysis of tyre particles, with the aim of determining the possibilities of using the products resulting from the process as fuel. Three final temperatures were used, determined from thermogravimetric data. The design of the experiment was a horizontal oven containing a reactor into which particles of the original tyre were placed. After the process, a solid fraction (char) remained in the reactor, while the gases generated went through a set of scrubbers where most of the condensable fraction (oils) was retained. Finally, once free of this fraction, the gases were collected in glass ampoules. Solid and liquids fractions were subjected to thermogravimetric analyses in order to study their combustibility. The gas fraction was analysed by means of gas chromatography to establish the content of CO, CO2, H2 and hydrocarbons present in the samples (mainly components of gases produced in the pyrolysis process). A special study was made of the sulphur and chlorine content of all the fractions, as the presence of these elements could be problematic if the products are used as fuel. Tyre pyrolysis engenders a solid carbon residue that concentrates sulphur and chorine, with a relatively high calorific value, although not so high as that of the original tyre. The liquid fraction produced by the process has a high calorific value, which rises with the final temperature, up to 40 MJ/kg. The chlorine content of this fraction is negligible. Over 95% of the gas fraction, regardless of the final temperature, is composed of hydrocarbons of a low molecular weight and hydrogen, this fraction also appearing to be free of chlorine

  11. Pyrolysis Strategies for Effective Utilization of Lignocellulosic and Algal Biomass

    Maddi, Balakrishna

    protein degradation). Algal bio-char also had a significantly higher N-content. Overall, our results suggest that it is feasible to convert algal cultures deficient in lipids, such as nuisance algae obtained from natural blooms, into liquid fuels by thermochemical methods. Next, pyrolysis characteristics of each of the major components present in lignocellulosic as well as algal biomass were studied independently in a thermo-gravimetric analyzer, using model compounds. From those studies, we have established that, with algae and oil seed feed stocks, triglycerides degrade at distinctly higher temperatures (T>350 C) compared to both protein and carbohydrate fractions (T ~ 250-350 C). Similar trend was not seen for lignocellulosic biomass, where degradation temperature interval of lignin overlapped with that of carbohydrates. This unique trend observed for algal biomass (and oil seeds) can be exploited in multiple ways. First, it permits to separately collect high value triglyceride degradation products not contaminated with N-compounds from protein and oxygenates from carbohydrates; this observation formed the basis of a novel "pyrolytic fractionation technique" developed in this thesis. Second, it led to the development of a new and simple analytical method for rapid estimation of the triglyceride content of oleaginous feed stocks. Pyrolytic fractionation is a two-step pyrolysis approach that can be implemented for oleaginous feed stocks (algae and oil-seeds) to separately recover triglyceride degradation products as a "high-quality" bio-oil fraction. The first step is a low-temperature pyrolysis (T ~ 300-320 C) to produce bio-oils from degradation of protein and carbohydrate fractions. Solid residues left behind can subsequently be subjected to a second higher temperature pyrolysis (T ~ 420-430 C) to volatilize and/or degrade triglycerides to produce fatty acids and their derivatives (such as mono-, di- and tri-glycerides) and long chain hydrocarbons. Proof

  12. Pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis experiments with organization exchange resin

    Pyrolysis may be an important pretreatment step before vitrification in a cold crucible melter (CCM). During vitrification of organic resin the carbon or other remaining residues may harm the performance of the cold crucible melter of the eventual stability of the final glass product. Hence, it is important to reduce or prevent such harmful waste from entry into the cold crucible melter. Pretreatment with pyrolysis will generally provide volume reduction resulting in less amount of solid waste that needs to be handled by the CCM; in addition, the pyrolytic processes may breakdown much of the complex organics causing release through volatilization resulting in less carbon and other harmful substances. Hence, KEPRI has undertaken studies on the pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis of organic ion exchange resin. Pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis were examined with TGA and a tube furnace. TGA results for pyrolysis with the flow of nitrogen indicate that even after pyrolyzing from room temperature to about 900 deg C, a significant mass fraction of the original cationic resin remains, approximately 46 %. The anionic resin when pyrolytically heated in a flow of nitrogen only, from room temperature to about 900 deg C, produced a final residue mass fraction of about 8 percent. Oxidation at a ratio of air to nitrogen, 1:2, reduced the cationic resin to 5.3% when heated at 5 C/min. Oxidation of anionic resin at the same ratio and same heating rate left almost no solid residue. Pyrolysis (e.g. nitrogen-only environment) in the tube furnace of larger samples relative to the TGA produced very similar results to the TGA. The differences may be attributed to the scale effects such as surface area exposure to the gas stream, temperature distributions throughout the resin, etc. (author) 7 refs., 7 figs

  13. Substrate Temperature Effect on Charge Transport Performance of ZnO Electron Transport Layer Prepared by a Facile Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis in Polymer Solar Cells

    Jiang Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel ultrasonic spray pyrolysis for high-quality ZnO films based on zinc-ammonia solution was achieved in air. To investigate the structural and optical properties as well as the performance of polymer solar cells (PSCs, ZnO films at different substrate temperatures and thicknesses were prepared. The performance of poly(3-hexylthiophene:[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM based PSC was found to be improved due to the ZnO films. The crystal structure and roughness of the ZnO films fabricated at different temperatures were found to affect the performance of PSCs. The optimized power conversion efficiency was found to be maximum for PSCs with ZnO films prepared at 200°C. The growth process of these ZnO films is very simple, cost-effective, and compatible for larger-scale PSC preparation. The precursor used for spray pyrolysis is environmentally friendly and helps to achieve ZnO film preparation at a relative low temperature.

  14. Structural and optical properties of nanostructural V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis technique: Effect of the substrate temperature

    Irani, R. [Spray Lab, Physics Department, University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rozati, S.M., E-mail: smrozati@gmail.com [Spray Lab, Physics Department, University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Beke, S. [Department of Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy)

    2013-05-15

    V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films were deposited on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique. The variation in the structural and optical properties with a variation in the substrate temperature was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV–vis spectrophotometer. XRD was used to reveal the possible orientations of crystallites in the films prepared at different substrate temperatures ranging from 200 °C to 550 °C. The results showed that by increasing the temperature, the films grew along the (001) direction with an orthorhombic structure. The crystallite size was calculated using the Scherrer equation and observed that it increased with elevating the substrate temperature to 450 °C, but decreased when further increasing it. The highest transmittance was achieved when films were deposited at 550 °C. The absorption edge was estimated by using the Tauc plot. In the range 350 °C–550 °C, a shift of the absorption edge from 2.5 eV to 2.8 eV was observed due to the formation of chemical bonds at the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} film–substrate interface at high substrate temperatures (>450 °C). Field emission scanning electron microscopy showed that nanorods were formed when depositing at 500 °C. We conclude that by altering the substrate temperature the size of crystallites can be well controlled. - Highlights: ► Spray pyrolysis technique was used. ► We have synthesized highly oriented nanocrystalline V{sub 2}O{sub 5} films. ► By altering the substrate temperature the size of crystallites can be well controlled. ► The highest transmittance was achieved when films were deposited at 550 °C. ► Scanning electron microscopy showed that nanorods were formed when depositing at 500 °C.

  15. Structural and optical properties of nanostructural V2O5 thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis technique: Effect of the substrate temperature

    V2O5 thin films were deposited on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique. The variation in the structural and optical properties with a variation in the substrate temperature was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV–vis spectrophotometer. XRD was used to reveal the possible orientations of crystallites in the films prepared at different substrate temperatures ranging from 200 °C to 550 °C. The results showed that by increasing the temperature, the films grew along the (001) direction with an orthorhombic structure. The crystallite size was calculated using the Scherrer equation and observed that it increased with elevating the substrate temperature to 450 °C, but decreased when further increasing it. The highest transmittance was achieved when films were deposited at 550 °C. The absorption edge was estimated by using the Tauc plot. In the range 350 °C–550 °C, a shift of the absorption edge from 2.5 eV to 2.8 eV was observed due to the formation of chemical bonds at the V2O5 film–substrate interface at high substrate temperatures (>450 °C). Field emission scanning electron microscopy showed that nanorods were formed when depositing at 500 °C. We conclude that by altering the substrate temperature the size of crystallites can be well controlled. - Highlights: ► Spray pyrolysis technique was used. ► We have synthesized highly oriented nanocrystalline V2O5 films. ► By altering the substrate temperature the size of crystallites can be well controlled. ► The highest transmittance was achieved when films were deposited at 550 °C. ► Scanning electron microscopy showed that nanorods were formed when depositing at 500 °C

  16. Modeling pyrolysis of charring material in fire

    2002-01-01

    A modified model of pyrolysis for charring materials in fire has been proposed in this note. In this model some special factors which show the effect on pyrolysis are considered, i.e. heat loss by convection and radiation caused by surface temperature rise and shrinkage of char surface are considered. Experimental device is designed specially for validating the reliability of the model. Effects of density of materials and heat radiation on pyrolysis of materials have also been investigated.

  17. De-oxygenation of CO2 by using Hydrogen, Carbon and Methane over Alumina-Supported Catalysts

    R.Y. Raskar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The de-oxygenation of CO2 was explored by using hydrogen, methane, carbon etc., over alumina supported catalysts. The alumina-supported ruthenium, rhodium, platinum, molybdenum, vanadium and magnesium catalysts were first reduced in hydrogen atmosphere and then used for the de-oxygenation of CO2. Furthermore, experimental variables for the de-oxygenation of CO2 were temperature (range 50 to 650 oC, H2/CO2 mole ratios (1.0 to 5, and catalyst loading (0.5 to 10 wt %. During the de-oxygenation of CO2 with H2 or CH4 or carbon, conversion of CO2, selectivity to CO and CH4 were estimated. Moreover, 25.4 % conversion of CO2 by hydrogen was observed over 1 wt% Pt/Al2O3 catalyst at 650 oC with 33.8 % selectivity to CH4. However, 8.1 to 13.9 % conversion of CO2 was observed over 1 wt% Pt/Al2O3 catalyst at 550 oC in the presence of both H2 and CH4. Moreover, 42.8 to 79.4 % CH4 was converted with 9 to 23.1 % selectivity to CO. It was observed that the de-oxygenation of CO2 by hydrogen, carbon and methane produced carbon, CO and CH4. © 2012 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 6th February 2012; Revised: 23rd April 2012; Accepted: 24th April 2012[How to Cite: R. Y. Raskar, K. B. Kale, A. G. Gaikwad. (2011. De-oxygenation of CO2 by using Hydrogen, Carbon and Methane over Alumina-Supported Catalysts. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7 (1: 59-69.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.1.1631.59-69][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.1.1631.59-69 ] | View in 

  18. Effects of Pyrolysis Temperature on Product Yields and Energy Recovery from Co-Feeding of Cotton Gin Trash, Cow Manure, and Microalgae: A Simulation Study

    Hanif, Muhammad Usman; Capareda, Sergio C.; Iqbal, Hamid; Arazo, Renato Ortiz; Baig, Muhammad Anwar

    2016-01-01

    The intensive search of new and cleaner energy catches interest in recent years due to huge consumption of fossil fuels coupled with the challenge of energy and environmental sustainability. Production of renewable and environmentally benign energy from locally available raw materials is coming in the frontline. In this work, conversion of the combined biomass (cotton gin trash, cow manure, and Microalgae [Nannochloropsis oculata]) through batch pyrolysis has been investigated. The effect of temperature to the production of energy fuels such as bio-oil, char, and biogas have been simulated considering the yield and energy content as responses. Result of the investigation generally revealed that the proportions of the different biomass did not significantly affect the product yield and energy recovery. Significant effect of temperature is evident in the simulation result of energy recovery whereby maximum conversion was achieved at 400°C for char (91 wt%), 600°C for syngas (22 wt%), and 551°C for bio-oil (48 wt%). Overall energy conversion efficiency of 75.5% was obtained at 589°C in which 15.6 MJ/kg of mixed biomass will be elevated to pyrolysis products. PMID:27043929

  19. Effects of Pyrolysis Temperature on Product Yields and Energy Recovery from Co-Feeding of Cotton Gin Trash, Cow Manure, and Microalgae: A Simulation Study.

    Muhammad Usman Hanif

    Full Text Available The intensive search of new and cleaner energy catches interest in recent years due to huge consumption of fossil fuels coupled with the challenge of energy and environmental sustainability. Production of renewable and environmentally benign energy from locally available raw materials is coming in the frontline. In this work, conversion of the combined biomass (cotton gin trash, cow manure, and Microalgae [Nannochloropsis oculata] through batch pyrolysis has been investigated. The effect of temperature to the production of energy fuels such as bio-oil, char, and biogas have been simulated considering the yield and energy content as responses. Result of the investigation generally revealed that the proportions of the different biomass did not significantly affect the product yield and energy recovery. Significant effect of temperature is evident in the simulation result of energy recovery whereby maximum conversion was achieved at 400°C for char (91 wt%, 600°C for syngas (22 wt%, and 551°C for bio-oil (48 wt%. Overall energy conversion efficiency of 75.5% was obtained at 589°C in which 15.6 MJ/kg of mixed biomass will be elevated to pyrolysis products.

  20. Effects of Pyrolysis Temperature on Product Yields and Energy Recovery from Co-Feeding of Cotton Gin Trash, Cow Manure, and Microalgae: A Simulation Study.

    Hanif, Muhammad Usman; Capareda, Sergio C; Iqbal, Hamid; Arazo, Renato Ortiz; Baig, Muhammad Anwar

    2016-01-01

    The intensive search of new and cleaner energy catches interest in recent years due to huge consumption of fossil fuels coupled with the challenge of energy and environmental sustainability. Production of renewable and environmentally benign energy from locally available raw materials is coming in the frontline. In this work, conversion of the combined biomass (cotton gin trash, cow manure, and Microalgae [Nannochloropsis oculata]) through batch pyrolysis has been investigated. The effect of temperature to the production of energy fuels such as bio-oil, char, and biogas have been simulated considering the yield and energy content as responses. Result of the investigation generally revealed that the proportions of the different biomass did not significantly affect the product yield and energy recovery. Significant effect of temperature is evident in the simulation result of energy recovery whereby maximum conversion was achieved at 400°C for char (91 wt%), 600°C for syngas (22 wt%), and 551°C for bio-oil (48 wt%). Overall energy conversion efficiency of 75.5% was obtained at 589°C in which 15.6 MJ/kg of mixed biomass will be elevated to pyrolysis products. PMID:27043929

  1. Platelet inhibition by nitrite is dependent on erythrocytes and deoxygenation.

    Sirada Srihirun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nitrite is a nitric oxide (NO metabolite in tissues and blood, which can be converted to NO under hypoxia to facilitate tissue perfusion. Although nitrite is known to cause vasodilation following its reduction to NO, the effect of nitrite on platelet activity remains unclear. In this study, the effect of nitrite and nitrite+erythrocytes, with and without deoxygenation, on platelet activity was investigated. METHODOLOGY/FINDING: Platelet aggregation was studied in platelet-rich plasma (PRP and PRP+erythrocytes by turbidimetric and impedance aggregometry, respectively. In PRP, DEANONOate inhibited platelet aggregation induced by ADP while nitrite had no effect on platelets. In PRP+erythrocytes, the inhibitory effect of DEANONOate on platelets decreased whereas nitrite at physiologic concentration (0.1 µM inhibited platelet aggregation and ATP release. The effect of nitrite+erythrocytes on platelets was abrogated by C-PTIO (a membrane-impermeable NO scavenger, suggesting an NO-mediated action. Furthermore, deoxygenation enhanced the effect of nitrite as observed from a decrease of P-selectin expression and increase of the cGMP levels in platelets. The ADP-induced platelet aggregation in whole blood showed inverse correlations with the nitrite levels in whole blood and erythrocytes. CONCLUSION: Nitrite alone at physiological levels has no effect on platelets in plasma. Nitrite in the presence of erythrocytes inhibits platelets through its reduction to NO, which is promoted by deoxygenation. Nitrite may have role in modulating platelet activity in the circulation, especially during hypoxia.

  2. Comparison of activation media and pyrolysis temperature for activated carbons development by pyrolysis of potato peels for effective adsorption of endocrine disruptor bisphenol-A.

    Arampatzidou, Anastasia C; Deliyanni, Eleni A

    2016-03-15

    Activated carbon prepared from potato peels, a solid waste by product has been studied for the adsorption of an endocrine disruptor, Bisphenol-A, from aqueous solutions. The potato peels biomass was activated with H3PO4, KOH and ZnCl2 in order the effect of the activation agent to be evaluated. The activated biomass was carbonized at 400, 600 and/or 800 °C in order the effect of carbonization temperature on the texture, surface chemistry and adsorption properties to be found. The activated carbons prepared were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, Scanning Electron Microscope, thermal analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Equilibrium adsorption data followed both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Adsorption followed second order rate kinetics. The adsorption capacity calculated from the Langmuir isotherm was found 454.62 mg g(-1) at an initial pH 3 at 25 °C for the phosphoric acid activated carbon carbonized at 400 °C that proved to be the best adsorbent. PMID:26707777

  3. Effect of the substrate temperature on the physical properties of molybdenum tri-oxide thin films obtained through the spray pyrolysis technique

    Martinez, H.M. [Grupo de Materiales con Aplicaciones Tecnologicas, Departamento de Fisica Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Bogota (Colombia); Torres, J., E-mail: njtorress@unal.edu.co [Grupo de Materiales con Aplicaciones Tecnologicas, Departamento de Fisica Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Bogota (Colombia); Lopez Carreno, L.D. [Grupo de Materiales con Aplicaciones Tecnologicas, Departamento de Fisica Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Bogota (Colombia); Rodriguez-Garcia, M.E. [Departamento de Nanotecnologia, Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Queretaro, Qro., Mexico (Colombia)

    2013-01-15

    Polycrystalline molybdenum tri-oxide thin films were prepared using the spray pyrolysis technique; a 0.1 M solution of ammonium molybdate tetra-hydrated was used as a precursor. The samples were prepared on Corning glass substrates maintained at temperatures ranging between 423 and 673 K. The samples were characterized through micro Raman, X-ray diffraction, optical transmittance and DC electrical conductivity. The species MoO{sub 3} (H{sub 2}O){sub 2} was found in the sample prepared at a substrate temperature of 423 K. As the substrate temperature rises, the water disappears and the samples crystallize into {alpha}-MoO{sub 3}. The optical gap diminishes as the substrate temperature rises. Two electrical transport mechanisms were found: hopping under 200 K and intrinsic conduction over 200 K. The MoO{sub 3} films' sensitivity was analyzed for CO and H{sub 2}O in the temperature range 160 to 360 K; the results indicate that CO and H{sub 2}O have a reduction character. In all cases, it was found that the sensitivity to CO is lower than that to H{sub 2}O. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A low cost technique is used which produces good material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thin films are prepared using ammonium molybdate tetra hydrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The control of the physical properties of the samples could be done. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A calculation method is proposed to determine the material optical properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MoO{sub 3} thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis could be used as gas sensor.

  4. Effect of temperature on structural, optical and photoluminescence properties of polycrystalline CuInS2 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Copper indium disulphide (CuInS2), is a good absorber material for photovoltaic applications. In this work, CuInS2 is deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis on heated glass substrates. It is observed that the film growth temperature and the ion ratio Cu/In affects the structural and optical properties of CuInS2 thin films. This paper presents the effect of temperature on the growth (for the ion ratio Cu/In=1.25), optical and photoluminescence properties of sprayed CuInS2 films. The XRD patterns confirm the well defined single phase composition of CuInS2 films grown from 300 to 350 deg. C (at Cu/In=1.25) as optimum temperature for depositing well defined crystallites along (1 1 2) oriented CuInS2 thin films with chalcopyrite structure. D2d point symmetry group is associated with the CuInS2 crystallites with energy gap of 1.53 eV at room temperature. The chemical nature and the presence of additional phases are discussed based on the EDAX measurements. The absorption coefficient of sprayed CuInS2 films is found to be in the order of 105-106 cm-1 in the UV-visible region and the optical band gap decreases with increase in temperature. Defects-related photoluminescence properties are also discussed. CuInS2 polycrystalline films are prepared by the cost effective method of spray pyrolysis from the aqueous solutions of copper (II) chloride, indium (III) chloride and thiourea for synthesis on heated glass substrates.

  5. Effect of the substrate temperature on the physical properties of molybdenum tri-oxide thin films obtained through the spray pyrolysis technique

    Polycrystalline molybdenum tri-oxide thin films were prepared using the spray pyrolysis technique; a 0.1 M solution of ammonium molybdate tetra-hydrated was used as a precursor. The samples were prepared on Corning glass substrates maintained at temperatures ranging between 423 and 673 K. The samples were characterized through micro Raman, X-ray diffraction, optical transmittance and DC electrical conductivity. The species MoO3 (H2O)2 was found in the sample prepared at a substrate temperature of 423 K. As the substrate temperature rises, the water disappears and the samples crystallize into α-MoO3. The optical gap diminishes as the substrate temperature rises. Two electrical transport mechanisms were found: hopping under 200 K and intrinsic conduction over 200 K. The MoO3 films' sensitivity was analyzed for CO and H2O in the temperature range 160 to 360 K; the results indicate that CO and H2O have a reduction character. In all cases, it was found that the sensitivity to CO is lower than that to H2O. - Highlights: ► A low cost technique is used which produces good material. ► Thin films are prepared using ammonium molybdate tetra hydrated. ► The control of the physical properties of the samples could be done. ► A calculation method is proposed to determine the material optical properties. ► The MoO3 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis could be used as gas sensor.

  6. Pyrolysis process for producing fuel gas

    Serio, Michael A. (Inventor); Kroo, Erik (Inventor); Wojtowicz, Marek A. (Inventor); Suuberg, Eric M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Solid waste resource recovery in space is effected by pyrolysis processing, to produce light gases as the main products (CH.sub.4, H.sub.2, CO.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2O, NH.sub.3) and a reactive carbon-rich char as the main byproduct. Significant amounts of liquid products are formed under less severe pyrolysis conditions, and are cracked almost completely to gases as the temperature is raised. A primary pyrolysis model for the composite mixture is based on an existing model for whole biomass materials, and an artificial neural network models the changes in gas composition with the severity of pyrolysis conditions.

  7. Pyrolysis processing for solid waste resource recovery

    Serio, Michael A. (Inventor); Kroo, Erik (Inventor); Wojtowicz, Marek A. (Inventor); Suuberg, Eric M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Solid waste resource recovery in space is effected by pyrolysis processing, to produce light gases as the main products (CH.sub.4, H.sub.2, CO.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2O, NH.sub.3) and a reactive carbon-rich char as the main byproduct. Significant amounts of liquid products are formed under less severe pyrolysis conditions, and are cracked almost completely to gases as the temperature is raised. A primary pyrolysis model for the composite mixture is based on an existing model for whole biomass materials, and an artificial neural network models the changes in gas composition with the severity of pyrolysis conditions.

  8. Influence of pyrolysis temperature on fracture response in SiOC based composites reinforced by basalt woven fabric

    Chlup, Zdeněk; Černý, Martin; Strachota, Adam; Sucharda, Zbyněk; Halasová, Martina; Dlouhý, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 14 (2014), s. 3389-3398. ISSN 0955-2219 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP107/12/2445; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 ; RVO:67985891 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : Fracture behaviour * CMCs * Pyrolysis * Basalt fibre * Polysiloxane Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics; JI - Composite Materials (USMH-B); JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 2.947, year: 2014

  9. Direct Synthesis of Fe3C-Functionalized Graphene by High Temperature Autoclave Pyrolysis for Oxygen Reduction

    Hu, Yang; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Zhang, Wei;

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel approach to direct fabrication of few-layer graphene sheets with encapsulated Fe3C nanoparticles from pyrolysis of volatile non-graphitic precursors without any substrate. This one-step autoclave approach is facile and potentially scalable for production. Tested as an...... electrocatalyst, the graphene-based composite exhibited excellent catalytic activity towards the oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline solution with an onset potential of ca. 1.05 V (vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode) and a half-wave potential of 0.83 V, which is comparable to the commercial Pt/C catalyst....

  10. Thermodynamic method of establishing the pyrolysis enthalpy of solid fuels

    Postrzednik, S.

    1989-02-01

    This article presents a new method of establishing the pyrolysis enthalpy (heat) of solid fuels by exploiting the differential energy and material balance for the pyrolysis process. To this end, two values are utilised - temperature T and the concentration of volatile matter xi/sub FB/ - which unambiguously describe the course of pyrolysis. Progressive changes in concentration are determined with the aid of appropriate kinetic relationships for fuel pyrolysis.

  11. Gasification of some tropical woods by flash pyrolysis. Comparison of flash pyrolysis and conventional slow pyrolysis

    Doat, J.; Deglise, X.

    1982-01-01

    Flash pyrolysis was carried out on afforestation species and mixtures grouped as having high lignin, extractives or carbohydrate contents, at 500, 700, 900 and 1000 degrees C. As a control, temperate woods, cellulose and lignin were tested under the same conditions. The results showed that high temperature increased gasification, producing more CO and hydrocarbons. The addition of water or catalysts improved yields at high temperatures. Gas production was inversely correlated to lignin content of wood. A comparison between (a) slow pyrolysis and (b) flash pyrolysis showed (a) gave as much gas at 500 degrees C as (b) at 700 degrees C, but produced more CO2 than CO. At high temperature (b) gave the best gas yield and the worst charcoal yields. (Refs. 17).

  12. An optically accessible pyrolysis microreactor

    We report an optically accessible pyrolysis micro-reactor suitable for in situ laser spectroscopic measurements. A radiative heating design allows for completely unobstructed views of the micro-reactor along two axes. The maximum temperature demonstrated here is only 1300 K (as opposed to 1700 K for the usual SiC micro-reactor) because of the melting point of fused silica, but alternative transparent materials will allow for higher temperatures. Laser induced fluorescence measurements on nitric oxide are presented as a proof of principle for spectroscopic characterization of pyrolysis conditions

  13. An optically accessible pyrolysis microreactor

    Baraban, J. H.; Ellison, G. Barney [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); David, D. E. [Integrated Instrument Development Facility, CIRES, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0216 (United States); Daily, J. W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We report an optically accessible pyrolysis micro-reactor suitable for in situ laser spectroscopic measurements. A radiative heating design allows for completely unobstructed views of the micro-reactor along two axes. The maximum temperature demonstrated here is only 1300 K (as opposed to 1700 K for the usual SiC micro-reactor) because of the melting point of fused silica, but alternative transparent materials will allow for higher temperatures. Laser induced fluorescence measurements on nitric oxide are presented as a proof of principle for spectroscopic characterization of pyrolysis conditions.

  14. An optically accessible pyrolysis microreactor

    Baraban, J. H.; David, D. E.; Ellison, G. Barney; Daily, J. W.

    2016-01-01

    We report an optically accessible pyrolysis micro-reactor suitable for in situ laser spectroscopic measurements. A radiative heating design allows for completely unobstructed views of the micro-reactor along two axes. The maximum temperature demonstrated here is only 1300 K (as opposed to 1700 K for the usual SiC micro-reactor) because of the melting point of fused silica, but alternative transparent materials will allow for higher temperatures. Laser induced fluorescence measurements on nitric oxide are presented as a proof of principle for spectroscopic characterization of pyrolysis conditions.

  15. The slow and fast pyrolysis of cherry seed.

    Duman, Gozde; Okutucu, Cagdas; Ucar, Suat; Stahl, Ralph; Yanik, Jale

    2011-01-01

    The slow and fast pyrolysis of cherry seeds (CWS) and cherry seeds shells (CSS) was studied in fixed-bed and fluidized bed reactors at different pyrolysis temperatures. The effects of reactor type and temperature on the yields and composition of products were investigated. In the case of fast pyrolysis, the maximum bio-oil yield was found to be about 44 wt% at pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C for both CWS and CSS, whereas the bio yields were of 21 and 15 wt% obtained at 500 °C from slow pyrolysis of CWS and CSS, respectively. Both temperature and reactor type affected the composition of bio-oils. The results showed that bio-oils obtained from slow pyrolysis of CWS and CSS can be used as a fuel for combustion systems in industry and the bio-oil produced from fast pyrolysis can be evaluated as a chemical feedstock. PMID:20801019

  16. Effects of pyrolysis temperature on carbon retention and stability of biochar%热解温度对生物质炭碳保留量及稳定性的影响

    李飞跃; 汪建飞; 谢越; 李贺; 李孝良; 李粉茹

    2015-01-01

    以核桃壳为生物质炭生产原料,研究热解温度(200~700℃)对生物质炭产率、元素组成、表面官能团分布及其稳定性的影响,以期探明生物质炭基本性质随热解温度变化的规律,为全面了解生物质炭固碳减排效果提供理论参考。结果表明,生物质炭的C含量随温度升高而增加,H和O元素含量却随温度升高而降低。此外,生物质炭的H/C和O/C随着温度增加而减少。生物质炭的产率及碳保留量随着温度的升高而降低。红外光谱分析结果表明,经过热解核桃壳原材料分子中所含的-C-O和O-CH3基团消失,随着热解温度升高,生物质炭中的烷烃基团-CH逐渐减少,芳香化程度逐渐升高。500℃制备生物质炭的K2Cr2O7和KMnO4氧化碳损失量均最低,分别为10.4%和1.66%。相关分析表明,生物质炭的产率、碳保留量及稳定性与热解温度之间均具有显著相关关系。%Turning biomass wastes into biochar under the conditions of low temperature and limited oxygen has recently proven to be a promising approach for long-term carbon sequestration. However, the ultimate carbon sequestration efficiency of biochar depends not only on the feedstock type and production condition, but also on the environmental conditions of soil. In order to reveal the effects of pyrolysis temperature which is main parameter of biochar production condition on carbon retention and biochar stability, and provide more information for further improvement of carbon sequestration potential by turning biomass into biochar, the characteristics of biochar derived from walnut shell under lab condition were analyzed. During a typical slow pyrolysis process, the biochar was heated at a speed of approximately 20℃/minin a Muffle Furnace under limited oxygen and held at 200-700℃ for 2 h; then, biochar yield, elemental composition, functional groups distribution using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR

  17. Deoxygenation Reduces Sickle Cell Blood Flow at Arterial Oxygen Tension.

    Lu, Xinran; Wood, David K; Higgins, John M

    2016-06-21

    The majority of morbidity and mortality in sickle cell disease is caused by vaso-occlusion: circulatory obstruction leading to tissue ischemia and infarction. The consequences of vaso-occlusion are seen clinically throughout the vascular tree, from the relatively high-oxygen and high-velocity cerebral arteries to the relatively low-oxygen and low-velocity postcapillary venules. Prevailing models of vaso-occlusion propose mechanisms that are relevant only to regions of low oxygen and low velocity, leaving a wide gap in our understanding of the most important pathologic process in sickle cell disease. Progress toward understanding vaso-occlusion is further challenged by the complexity of the multiple processes thought to be involved, including, but not limited to 1) deoxygenation-dependent hemoglobin polymerization leading to impaired rheology, 2) endothelial and leukocyte activation, and 3) altered cellular adhesion. Here, we chose to focus exclusively on deoxygenation-dependent rheologic processes in an effort to quantify their contribution independent of the other processes that are likely involved in vivo. We take advantage of an experimental system that, to our knowledge, uniquely enables the study of pressure-driven blood flow in physiologic-sized tubes at physiologic hematocrit under controlled oxygenation conditions, while excluding the effects of endothelium, leukocyte activation, adhesion, inflammation, and coagulation. We find that deoxygenation-dependent rheologic processes are sufficient to increase apparent viscosity significantly, slowing blood flow velocity at arterial oxygen tension even without additional contributions from inflammation, adhesion, and endothelial and leukocyte activation. We quantify the changes in apparent viscosity and define a set of functional regimes of sickle cell blood flow personalized for each patient that may be important in further dissecting mechanisms of in vivo vaso-occlusion as well as in assessing risk of patient

  18. Slow, fast and flash pyrolysis of rapeseed

    Onay, O.; Kockar, O.M. [Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2003-12-01

    Pyrolysis experiments have been conducted on a sample of rapeseed to determine particularly the effects of pyrolysis temperature, heating rate, particle size and sweep gas flow rate on the pyrolysis product yields and their chemical compositions. The maximum oil yield of 73% was obtained at the final pyrolysis temperature of 550-600{sup o}C, particle size range of +0.6-1.25 mm, and sweep gas flow rate of 100 cm{sup 3}min{sup -1} (N{sub 2}) at flash pyrolysis conditions in 2 tubular transport reactor. Chromatographic and spectroscopic studies on the pyrolytic oil showed that the oil obtained from rapeseed can be used as a renewable fuel and chemical feedstock. (author)

  19. Transportation fuels from biomass via fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2013-09-21

    Biomass is a renewable source of carbon, which could provide a means to reduce the greenhouse gas impact from fossil fuels in the transportation sector. Biomass is the only renewable source of liquid fuels, which could displace petroleum-derived products. Fast pyrolysis is a method of direct thermochemical conversion (non-bioconversion) of biomass to a liquid product. Although the direct conversion product, called bio-oil, is liquid; it is not compatible with the fuel handling systems currently used for transportation. Upgrading the product via catalytic processing with hydrogen gas, hydroprocessing, is a means that has been demonstrated in the laboratory. By this processing the bio-oil can be deoxygenated to hydrocarbons, which can be useful replacements of the hydrocarbon distillates in petroleum. While the fast pyrolysis of biomass is presently commercial, the upgrading of the liquid product by hydroprocessing remains in development, although it is moving out of the laboratory into scaled-up process demonstration systems.

  20. Influence of substrate temperature on physical properties of (111 oriented CdIn2S4 thin films by nebulized spray pyrolysis technique

    J.Raj Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present the substrate temperature influenced change in the structural, optical, morphological, and electrical conductivity properties of CdIn2S4 thin films deposited on amorphous glass substrates by nebulized spray pyrolysis (NSP technique. X-ray diffraction pattern revealed that the as-deposited CdIn2S4 thin films had a cubic structure with a preferred orientation along (111 plane. The reduced strain by increasing the substrate temperature from 200 to 350 °C increased the average crystalline size from 17 to 33 nm while the formation of secondary phases such as CdIn2O4 and In2O3 reduced it to 21 nm after the substrate temperature at 450 °C. The energy dispersive analysis by X-ray (EDAX studies confirmed the presence of Cd, In, and S. The absorption coefficient, direct band gap energy, Urbach energy, skin depth, and extinction coefficient of CdIn2S4 films were analyzed by optical absorption spectra. The better conductivity and mobility noticed at Ts = 350 °C are explained by carrier concentration and crystalline size. Better optical and electrical conductivity behavior of CdIn2S4 thin film sample suggests for effective PEC solar cell fabrication.

  1. A Comparison of Lignin, Macroalgae, Wood and Straw Fast Pyrolysis

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Dam-Johansen, Kim;

    2013-01-01

    A fast pyrolysis study on lignin and macroalgae (non-conventional biomass) and wood and straw (conventional biomass) were carried out in a pyrolysis centrifugal reactor at pyrolysis temperature of 550 ºC. The product distributions and energy recoveries were measured and compared among...... these biomasses. The fast pyrolysis of macroalgae showed a promising result with a bio-oil yield of 65 wt% dry ash free basis (daf) and 76 % energy recovery in the bio-oil while the lignin fast pyrolysis provides a bio-oil yield of 47 wt% daf and energy recovery in bio-oil of 45 %. The physiochemical properties...

  2. Four-electron deoxygenative reductive coupling of carbon monoxide at a single metal site

    Buss, Joshua A.; Agapie, Theodor

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is the ultimate source of the fossil fuels that are both central to modern life and problematic: their use increases atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, and their availability is geopolitically constrained. Using carbon dioxide as a feedstock to produce synthetic fuels might, in principle, alleviate these concerns. Although many homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts convert carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, further deoxygenative coupling of carbon monoxide to generate useful multicarbon products is challenging. Molybdenum and vanadium nitrogenases are capable of converting carbon monoxide into hydrocarbons under mild conditions, using discrete electron and proton sources. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon monoxide on copper catalysts also uses a combination of electrons and protons, while the industrial Fischer-Tropsch process uses dihydrogen as a combined source of electrons and electrophiles for carbon monoxide coupling at high temperatures and pressures. However, these enzymatic and heterogeneous systems are difficult to probe mechanistically. Molecular catalysts have been studied extensively to investigate the elementary steps by which carbon monoxide is deoxygenated and coupled, but a single metal site that can efficiently induce the required scission of carbon-oxygen bonds and generate carbon-carbon bonds has not yet been documented. Here we describe a molybdenum compound, supported by a terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, that activates and cleaves the strong carbon-oxygen bond of carbon monoxide, enacts carbon-carbon coupling, and spontaneously dissociates the resulting fragment. This complex four-electron transformation is enabled by the terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, which acts as an electron reservoir and exhibits the coordinative flexibility needed to stabilize the different intermediates involved in the overall reaction sequence. We anticipate that these design elements might help in the development of efficient catalysts for

  3. FAST PYROLYSIS OF ENZYMATIC/MILD ACIDOLYSIS LIGNIN FROM MOSO BAMBOO

    Rui Lou; Shu-bin Wu; Gao-jin Lv

    2010-01-01

    The characteristics of enzymatic/mild acidolysis lignin (EMAL) isolated from moso bamboo were investigated using pyrolysis-gas chromato-graphy/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). Pyrolysis temperature as a factor on products was studied, and the pyrolysis mechanism was inferred with respect to the dominating products. Research results showed that pyrolysis products derived from EMAL pyrolysis were mainly heterocyclic (2,3-dihydrobenzofuran), phenols, esters, and a minor amount of acetic acid. Pyrol...

  4. Torrefaction/biochar production by microwave and conventional slow pyrolysis - comparison of energy properties

    Gronnow, Mark; Budarin, Vitaly; MASEK, Ondrej; Crombie, Kyle; Brownsort, Peter; Shuttleworth, Peter; Hurst, Peter; Clark, James

    2013-01-01

    The energy efficiency of torrefaction/pyrolysis of biomass to fuel/biochar was studied using conventional (slow) and microwave (low temperature) pyrolysis. Conventional pyrolysis is approximately three times as energy efficient as microwave pyrolysis, in terms of the energy required to process a unit of feedstock. However, this is more than compensated for by the higher energy content of the condensable and gaseous coproducts from microwave pyrolysis, as these can be utilized to generate the ...

  5. Role of substrate temperature on the properties of Na-doped ZnO thin film nanorods and performance of ammonia gas sensors using nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique

    Highlights: • Na-doped ZnO films deposited on glass by nebulizer spray pyrolysis (NSP) method. • NSP method for large area coatings and good results as compared with other methods. • HR-SEM studies reveal the formation of Na-doped ZnO films consisting of nano-rods. • Na-doped ZnO films ensure their stability and suitability for gas sensors. -- Abstract: Sodium doped zinc oxide (Na:ZnO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates at substrate temperatures 300, 400 and 500 °C by a novel nebulizer spray method. X-ray diffraction shows that all the films are polycrystalline in nature having hexagonal structure with high preferential orientation along (0 0 2) plane. High resolution SEM studies reveal the formation of Na-doped ZnO films having uniformly distributed nano-rods over the entire surface of the substrates at 400 °C. The complex impedance of the ZnO nano-rods shows two distinguished semicircles and the diameter of the arcs got decreased in diameter as the temperature increases from 170 to 270 °C and thereafter slightly increased

  6. Role of substrate temperature on the properties of Na-doped ZnO thin film nanorods and performance of ammonia gas sensors using nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique

    Mariappan, R., E-mail: marijpr@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sri Ramakrishna Mission Vidyalaya College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore 641 020, Tamil Nadu (India); Department of Physics, Adhiyamaan College of Engineering, Hosur 635 109, Tamilnadu (India); Ponnuswamy, V.; Suresh, R. [Department of Physics, Sri Ramakrishna Mission Vidyalaya College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore 641 020, Tamil Nadu (India); Suresh, P. [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Chandra Bose, A. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620 015, Tamil Nadu (India); Ragavendar, M. [Department of Physics, KPR Institute of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore 641 407, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2014-01-05

    Highlights: • Na-doped ZnO films deposited on glass by nebulizer spray pyrolysis (NSP) method. • NSP method for large area coatings and good results as compared with other methods. • HR-SEM studies reveal the formation of Na-doped ZnO films consisting of nano-rods. • Na-doped ZnO films ensure their stability and suitability for gas sensors. -- Abstract: Sodium doped zinc oxide (Na:ZnO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates at substrate temperatures 300, 400 and 500 °C by a novel nebulizer spray method. X-ray diffraction shows that all the films are polycrystalline in nature having hexagonal structure with high preferential orientation along (0 0 2) plane. High resolution SEM studies reveal the formation of Na-doped ZnO films having uniformly distributed nano-rods over the entire surface of the substrates at 400 °C. The complex impedance of the ZnO nano-rods shows two distinguished semicircles and the diameter of the arcs got decreased in diameter as the temperature increases from 170 to 270 °C and thereafter slightly increased.

  7. Spray pyrolysis growth of a high figure of merit, nano-crystalline, p-type transparent conducting material at low temperature

    Farrell, L.; Norton, E.; O'Dowd, B. J.; Caffrey, D.; Shvets, I. V.; Fleischer, K.

    2015-07-01

    In this letter, we demonstrate a low temperature (≈345 °C) growth method for Cu deficient CuCrO2 performed by spray pyrolysis using metal-organic precursors and a simple air blast nozzle. Smooth films were grown on glass substrates with a highest conductivity of 12 S/cm. The most conductive samples retain transparencies above 55% resulting in a figure of merit as high as 350 μS, which is the best performing p-type transparent conducting material grown by solution methods to date. Remarkably, despite the nano-crystallinity of the films, properties comparable with crystalline CuCrO2 are observed. No postannealing of the films is required in contrast to previous reports on crystalline material. The low processing temperature of this method means that the material can be deposited on flexible substrates. As this is a solution based technique, it is more attractive to industry as physical vapour deposition methods are slow and costly in comparison.

  8. Slow pyrolysis of pistachio shell

    Esin Apaydin-Varol; Ersan Putun; Ayse E. Putun [Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-08-15

    In this study, pistachio shell is taken as the biomass sample to investigate the effects of pyrolysis temperature on the product yields and composition when slow pyrolysis is applied in a fixed-bed reactor at atmospheric pressure to the temperatures of 300, 400, 500, 550, 700{sup o}C. The maximum liquid yield was attained at about 500-550{sup o}C with a yield of 20.5%. The liquid product obtained under this optimum temperature and solid products obtained at all temperatures were characterized. As well as proximate and elemental analysis for the products were the basic steps for characterization, column chromatography, FT-IR, GC/MS and SEM were used for further characterization. The results showed that liquid and solid products from pistachio shells show similarities with high value conventional fuels. 31 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Alveolar gas exchange, oxygen delivery and tissue deoxygenation in men and women during incremental exercise.

    Peltonen, Juha E; Hägglund, Harriet; Koskela-Koivisto, Tiina; Koponen, Anne S; Aho, Jyrki M; Rissanen, Antti-Pekka E; Shoemaker, J Kevin; Tiitinen, Aila; Tikkanen, Heikki O

    2013-08-15

    We investigated whether leg and arm skeletal muscle, and cerebral deoxygenation, differ during incremental cycling exercise in men and women, and if women's lower capacity to deliver O2 affects tissue deoxygenation. Men (n=10) compared to women (n=10), had greater cardiac output, which with greater hemoglobin concentration produced greater absolute (QaO2) and body size-adjusted oxygen delivery (QaO2i) at peak exercise. Despite women's lower peak QaO2, their leg muscle deoxygenation was similar at a given work rate and QaO2, but less than in men at peak exercise (Δtissue saturation index -27.1 ± 13.2% vs. -11.8 ± 5.7%, Pexercise, oxygen uptake was associated both with QaO2 and leg muscle deoxygenation (both Pmuscle and cerebral deoxygenation did not differ between sexes at peak exercise. Thus, both high O2 delivery and severe active muscle deoxygenation are determinants of good exercise performance, and active muscle deoxygenation responses are regulated partly in a sex-specific manner with an influence of exercise capacity. PMID:23707876

  10. Direct spray pyrolysis of aluminum chloride solution for alumina preparation

    吕国志; 张廷安; 王龙; 马思达; 豆志河; 刘燕

    2014-01-01

    The effects of pyrolysis mode and pyrolysis parameters on Cl content in alumina were investigated, and the alumina products were characterized by XRD, SEM and ASAP. The experimental results indicate that the spray pyrolysis efficiency is higher than that of static pyrolysis process, and the reaction and evaporation process lead to a multi-plot state of the alumina products by spray pyrolysis. Aluminum phase starts to transform intoγ-Al2O3 at spray pyrolysis temperature of 600 °C, which is about 200 °C lower than that of static pyrolysis process. The primary particle size of γ-Al2O3 product is 27.62 nm, and Cl content in alumina products is 0.38%at 800 °C for 20 min.

  11. Study on biomass catalytic pyrolysis for production of bio-gasoline by on-line FTIR

    Chang Bo Lu; Jian Zhong Yao; Wei Gang Lin; Wen Li Song

    2007-01-01

    The pyrolysis of biomass is a promising way for production of bio-gasoline if the stability and quality problems of the bio-crudeoil can be solved by catalytic cracking and reforming. In this paper, an on-line infrared spectrum was used to study the characteristics of catalytic pyrolysis with the following preliminary results. The removal of C=O of organic acid is more difficult than that of aldehydes and ketones. HUSY/γ-Al2O3 and REY/γ-Al2O3 catalysts exhibited better deoxygenating activities while HZSM-5/γ-Al2O3 catalyst exhibited preferred selectivities for production of iso-alkanes and aromatics. Finally, possible mechanisms of biomass catalytic pyrolysis are discussed as well.

  12. Effect of Solution Molarity, Substrate Temperature and Spray Time on The Structural and Optical Properties Of ZnO Thin Films Deposited By Spray Pyrolysis

    Zinc oxide thin films were deposited on a glass substrate by spray pyrolysis technique using solution of zinc acetate and air as the carrier gas. Effects of solution molarity, substrate temperature and spray time on films properties were investigated. All films deposited were characterized using X-ray diffraction for structural characterization and UV-VIS transmission spectrophotometry for optical properties. According to the analytical method, the type of crystal lattice was found to be hexagonal and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that the films deposited were polycrystalline with (002) plane as preferential orientation. The values of lattice constant, grain size, micro strain and dislocation density of all samples were calculated. In addition, Optical behaviors of film samples were analyzed by obtaining transmission spectra, in the wavelength range of 350-800 nm. The UV-VIS spectroscopy shows the high transparency of ZnO films in the UV region. An optimization of the films has been carried out to determine the best preparation conditions.

  13. An investigation on substrate temperature and copper to sulphur molar ratios on optical and electrical properties of nanostructural CuS thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis method

    Copper sulphide (CuS) thin films have been deposited on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis method using an aqueous solutions of copper (II) acetate and thiourea with different Cu to S molar ratios (0.33 and 0.43) at various substrate temperatures of 260, 285 and 310 °C. The structural, optical and electrical characterizations have been carried out using XRD, UV-Vis. transmittance/reflectance, PL spectra and Hall effect measurements. These characterizations indicated the formation of a CuS single phase (covellite) with polycrystalline nature with preferred orientation along (1 0 2) plane, except one with amorphous nature. Optical studies showed that the deposited layers have a relatively high absorption coefficient (5 × 104 to 1 × 105 cm-1) in the visible range, with an effective optical band gap of ∼2.4-2.6 eV. The Hall effect data showed that all the grown samples have a degenerate p-type conductivity with a hole concentration of ∼1.8 × 1020 to 1.7 × 1021 cm-3.

  14. Structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures grown by aerosol spray pyrolysis: Candidates for room temperature methane and hydrogen gas sensing

    Motaung, D.E., E-mail: dmotaung@csir.co.za [DST/CSIR Nanotechnology Innovation Centre, National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P. O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Mhlongo, G.H., E-mail: gmhlongo@csir.co.za [DST/CSIR Nanotechnology Innovation Centre, National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P. O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Kortidis, I. [Transparent Conductive Materials Lab, Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas, 100N. Plastira str., Vassilika Vouton, 70013 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Nkosi, S.S., E-mail: skosi@csir.co.za [CSIR-National Laser Centre, 626 Meiring Naude Rd, Brummeria, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); School of Physics, University of Witwatersrand, Private Bag X3, Johannesburg 2030 (South Africa); Malgas, G.F.; Mwakikunga, B.W.; Ray, S.Sinha [DST/CSIR Nanotechnology Innovation Centre, National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P. O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Kiriakidis, G., E-mail: kiriakid@iesl.forth.gr [Transparent Conductive Materials Lab, Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas, 100N. Plastira str., Vassilika Vouton, 70013 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); University of Crete, Department of Physics, 710 03 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2013-08-15

    We report on the synthesis of ZnO films by aerosol spray pyrolysis method at different deposition times. The surface morphology, crystal structure and the cross-sectional analysis of the prepared ZnO films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). XRD analysis revealed that the ZnO films are polycrystalline in nature. Structural analysis exploiting cross-sectional TEM profile showed that the films composed of nano-particles and columnar structures growing perpendicular to the substrate. AFM revealed that the columnar structures have a higher surface roughness as compared to the nanoparticles. The effect of ZnO crystallite size and crystallinity on the gas sensing performance of hydrogen and methane gases was also evaluated. Sensing film based on ZnO nanoparticles has numerous advantages in terms of its reliability and high sensitivity. These sensing materials revealed an improved response to methane and hydrogen gases at room temperature due to their high surface area, indicating their possible application as a gas sensor.

  15. Structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures grown by aerosol spray pyrolysis: Candidates for room temperature methane and hydrogen gas sensing

    Motaung, D. E.; Mhlongo, G. H.; Kortidis, I.; Nkosi, S. S.; Malgas, G. F.; Mwakikunga, B. W.; Ray, S. Sinha; Kiriakidis, G.

    2013-08-01

    We report on the synthesis of ZnO films by aerosol spray pyrolysis method at different deposition times. The surface morphology, crystal structure and the cross-sectional analysis of the prepared ZnO films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). XRD analysis revealed that the ZnO films are polycrystalline in nature. Structural analysis exploiting cross-sectional TEM profile showed that the films composed of nano-particles and columnar structures growing perpendicular to the substrate. AFM revealed that the columnar structures have a higher surface roughness as compared to the nanoparticles. The effect of ZnO crystallite size and crystallinity on the gas sensing performance of hydrogen and methane gases was also evaluated. Sensing film based on ZnO nanoparticles has numerous advantages in terms of its reliability and high sensitivity. These sensing materials revealed an improved response to methane and hydrogen gases at room temperature due to their high surface area, indicating their possible application as a gas sensor.

  16. Orientation-dependent low field magnetic anomalies and room-temperature spintronic material – Mn doped ZnO films by aerosol spray pyrolysis

    Graphical abstract: Optical microscopy images of Mn doped ZnO films deposited for 20 min. Highlights: •Mn–ZnO films showing transparent spherical bubbles were synthesized by ASP. •LFMA phenomenon was observed for these films. •A relatively novel reversal magnetic feature to that of LFMA was observed. •Ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition due to Mn doping was observed. •Angular dependence analysis showed evidence of magnetic anisotropy present. -- Abstract: High quality un-doped and Mn-doped ZnO films deposited by a simple aerosol spray pyrolysis technique for 20 and 30 min were studied using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. EPR analysis showed novel observation of low field microwave absorption (LFMA) on the manganese (Mn) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) films at various Mn concentrations. The results showed a peculiar behavior, reversal signal to that of LFMA. These findings also demonstrated that these films contain ferromagnetism at room temperature with possible applications in spintronics. Angular dependence measurements were found to induce magnetic transition from ferromagnetism to paramagnetism. Structural analysis showed that the undertaken materials are in wurtzite structures. The light absorption edge of Mn–ZnO films red shifted which enhanced the observed ferromagnetism. The direct modulation of the band gap caused by Mn–ZnO substitution is responsible for the red shift effect in absorption edge of ZnO

  17. Structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures grown by aerosol spray pyrolysis: Candidates for room temperature methane and hydrogen gas sensing

    We report on the synthesis of ZnO films by aerosol spray pyrolysis method at different deposition times. The surface morphology, crystal structure and the cross-sectional analysis of the prepared ZnO films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). XRD analysis revealed that the ZnO films are polycrystalline in nature. Structural analysis exploiting cross-sectional TEM profile showed that the films composed of nano-particles and columnar structures growing perpendicular to the substrate. AFM revealed that the columnar structures have a higher surface roughness as compared to the nanoparticles. The effect of ZnO crystallite size and crystallinity on the gas sensing performance of hydrogen and methane gases was also evaluated. Sensing film based on ZnO nanoparticles has numerous advantages in terms of its reliability and high sensitivity. These sensing materials revealed an improved response to methane and hydrogen gases at room temperature due to their high surface area, indicating their possible application as a gas sensor.

  18. Conventional and microwave induced pyrolysis of coffee hulls for the production of a hydrogen rich fuel gas

    Dominguez, Antonio; Menendez, Angel; Fernandez, Yolanda; Pis, Jose; Valente Nabais, Joao; Carrott, Peter; Carrott, Manuela

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the conventional and microwave-assisted pyrolysis of coffee hulls at 500, 800 and 1000 8C. The influence of the pyrolysis method and temperature on the product yields and on the characteristics of the pyrolysis products is discussed. It was found that the pyrolysis of this particular residue gives rise to a larger yield of the gas fraction compared to the other fractions, even at relatively low temperatures. A comparison of microwave-assisted pyrolysis and conven...

  19. The influence of the pyrolysis temperature on the electrochemical behavior of carbon-rich SiCN polymer-derived ceramics as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    Reinold, Lukas Mirko; Yamada, Yuto; Graczyk-Zajac, Magdalena; Munakata, Hirokazu; Kanamura, Kiyoshi; Riedel, Ralf

    2015-05-01

    Within this study we report on the impact of the pyrolysis temperature on the structural and electrochemical properties of the poly(phenylvinylsilylcarbodiimide) derived silicon carbonitride (SiCN) ceramic. Materials pyrolysed at 800 °C and 1300 °C, SiCN 800 and SiCN 1300, are found amorphous. Raman spectroscopy measurements indicate the increase in ordering of the free carbon phase with increasing pyrolysis temperature which leads to lower capacity recovered by SiCN 1300. Significant hysteresis is found for materials pyrolysed at 800 °C during electrochemical lithium insertion/extraction. This feature is attributed to much higher hydrogen content in SiCN 800 sample. An aging of SiCN 800 reflected by a change of elemental composition upon contact to air and a strong film formation are attenuated at a higher pyrolysis temperature. Single particle microelectrode investigation on SiCN 800 and SiCN 1300 clarify different electrochemical behavior of the materials. Much lower charge transfer resistance of SiCN 1300 in comparison to SiCN 800 explains better high currents electrochemical performance. Lithium ions diffusion coefficient Dmin ranges from 3.2 10-9 cm2s-1 to 6.4 10-11 cm2s-1 and is independent on the potential.

  20. Pyrolysis of spent ion-exchanger resins

    Slametschka, Rainer; Braehler, Georg [NUKEM Technologies GmbH (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Initial tests have shown that ion exchangers (IEX) can be decomposed by pyrolysis with very good results, yielding an inert and chemically resistant product. No additives are necessary. The main constituent of the product, the pyrolysis residues or ash, is carbon. It has been discovered that the entire radioactive inventory remains in the pyrolysis residues during pyrolysis of the IEX. This is achieved by relatively low process temperatures that prevent highly volatile nuclides such as the caesium nuclides from passing into the gaseous phase. Sintered metal filters in pyrolysis plant ensure that even the radioactivity bonded to the dust remains in the pyrolysis residues. In addition to the radionuclides, the main constituents of the residue are carbon from the original polystyrene matrix and sulphur from the functional groups. The pyrolysis residues form a flowable solid material and not a melt. It is thus easy to handle and can be compacted or cemented, depending on the requirements for interim and permanent storage. Any further constituents such as inorganic filter materials or even other organic materials do not interfere with the process, they are dried, calcined or also pyrolysed. (orig.)

  1. High quality bio-oil from catalytic flash pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass over alumina-supported sodium carbonate

    Imran, Ali

    2014-11-01

    Performance of a novel alumina-supported sodium carbonate catalyst was studied to produce a valuable bio-oil from catalytic flash pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. Post treatment of biomass pyrolysis vapor was investigated in a catalyst fixed bed reactor at the downstream of the pyrolysis reactor. In-situ catalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapor was conducted in an entrained flow pyrolysis reactor by feeding a premixed feedstock of the catalyst and biomass. Na2CO3/gamma-Al2O3 was very effective for de-oxygenation of the pyrolysis liquid and oxygen content of the bio-oil was decreased from 47.5 wt.% to 16.4 wt.%. An organic rich bio-oil was obtained with 5.8 wt.% water content and a higher heating value of 36.1 MJ/kg. Carboxylic acids were completely removed and the bio-oil had almost a neutral pH. This bio-oil of high calorific low, low water and oxygen content may be an attractive fuel precursor. In-situ catalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapor produced a very similar quality bio-oil compared to post treatment of pyrolysis vapors, and shows the possible application of Na2CO3/gamma-Al2O3 in a commercial type reactor system such as a fluidized bed reactor. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Spray pyrolysis process for preparing superconductive films

    This paper describes a spray pyrolysis method for preparing thin superconductive film. It comprises: preparing a spray pyrolysis solution comprising Bi,Sr,Ca and Cu metals in a solvent; heating a substrate to a first temperature; spraying the solution onto the heated substrate to form a film thereon; heating the film and substrate to a second temperature of about 700 degrees-825 degrees C, the second temperature being higher than the first temperature; heating the film and substrate to a third temperature of about 870 degrees-890 degrees C to melt the film; once the film and substrate reach the third temperature, further heat treating the film and substrate; cooling the film and substrate to ambient temperature. This patent also describes a spray pyrolysis method for preparing thin superconductive films. It comprises: preparing a spray pyrolysis solution comprising Bi, Ca and Cu metals and fluxing agent in a solvent; heating a substrate to a first temperature; spraying the solution onto the heated substrate to form a film thereon; heating the film and substrate to a second temperature about 700 degrees-825 degrees C, the second temperature being higher than the first temperature; heating the film and substrate at a third temperature about 840 degrees-860 degrees C; and cooling the film and substrate to ambient temperature

  3. Charcoal Production via Multistage Pyrolysis

    Adetoyese Olajire Oyedun; Ka Leung Lam; Chi Wai Hui

    2012-01-01

    Interests in charcoal usage have recently been re-ignited because it is believed that charcoal is a muchbetter fuel than wood. The conventional charcoal production consumes a large amount of energy due to the prolonged heating time and cooling time which contribute to the process completing in one to several days. Wood py-rolysis consists of both endothermic and exothermic reactions as well as the decomposition of the different components at different temperature range (hemicellulose: 200-260℃; cellulose: 240-350℃ and lignin: 280-500℃). Inthis study we propose a multistagepyrolysis which is an approach to carry out pyrolysis with multiple heating stages so as to gain certain processing benefits. We propose a three-stage approach which includes rapid stepwise heating stage to a variable target temperatures of 250 ℃, 300℃, 350 ℃ and 400 ℃, slow and gradual heatingstage to a tinal temperature of 400℃ and adiabatic with cooling stage. The multi-stage pyrolysis process can save 30% energy and the processing time by using a first temperature target of 300 ℃and heating rate of 5℃.min-1 to produce a fixed-carbon yield of 25.73% as opposed to the base case with a fixed-carbon yield of23.18%.

  4. Catalytic Pyrolysis and a Pyrolysis Kinetic Study of Shredded Printed Circuit Board for Fuel Recovery

    Salmiaton Ali; Chee Hoe Ng; Hizam Hashim

    2014-01-01

    Scrap printed circuit boards (PCBs) are the most abundant wastes that can be found in the landfills in Malaysia and this disposal certainly poses serious detrimental to the environment. This research aims to investigate optimum temperature for pyrolyzing waste PCBs, find out the best catalyst to be used in accelerating PCBs’ pyrolysis, select suitable ratio of catalyst to PCBs for higher oil yield and examine kinetics pyrolysis of the waste PCBs’ decomposition. Operating temperatures ranged f...

  5. Stochastic state-space temperature regulation of biochar production Part II: Application to manure processing via pyrolysis

    BACKGROUND: The concept of a designer biochar that targets the improvement of a specific soil property imposes the need for production processes to generate biochars with both high consistency and quality. These important production parameters can be affected by variations in process temperature tha...

  6. Analyses of residual iron in carbon nanotubes produced by camphor/ferrocene pyrolysis and purified by high temperature annealing

    Antunes, E. F.; de Resende, V. G.; Mengui, U. A.; Cunha, J. B. M.; Corat, E. J.; Massi, M.

    2011-07-01

    A detailed analysis of iron-containing phases in multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) powder was carried out. The MWCNTs were produced by camphor/ferrocene and purified by high temperature annealing in an oxygen-free atmosphere (N2 or VC). Thermogravimetric analysis, Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy enabled the evaluation of the residual iron in MWCNTs after purification. The VC treatments provided MWCNTs with a purity degree higher than 99%. Moreover, Raman spectroscopy revealed a significant improvement in graphitic ordering after thermal annealing. A brief description of the mechanism of iron removal was included. We highlight the mobility of iron atoms through graphitic sheets and the large contact angle of iron clusters formed on MWCNT surfaces at high temperatures.

  7. Analyses of residual iron in carbon nanotubes produced by camphor/ferrocene pyrolysis and purified by high temperature annealing

    Antunes, E.F., E-mail: ericafa@las.inpe.br [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Praca Marechal Eduardo Gomes, 50, CEP 12.228-900, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Av. dos Astronautas, 1758, CEP 12.227-010, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Resende, V.G. de; Mengui, U.A. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Av. dos Astronautas, 1758, CEP 12.227-010, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Cunha, J.B.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, CEP 91.501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Corat, E.J.; Massi, M. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Av. dos Astronautas, 1758, CEP 12.227-010, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    A detailed analysis of iron-containing phases in multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) powder was carried out. The MWCNTs were produced by camphor/ferrocene and purified by high temperature annealing in an oxygen-free atmosphere (N{sub 2} or VC). Thermogravimetric analysis, Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy enabled the evaluation of the residual iron in MWCNTs after purification. The VC treatments provided MWCNTs with a purity degree higher than 99%. Moreover, Raman spectroscopy revealed a significant improvement in graphitic ordering after thermal annealing. A brief description of the mechanism of iron removal was included. We highlight the mobility of iron atoms through graphitic sheets and the large contact angle of iron clusters formed on MWCNT surfaces at high temperatures.

  8. Investigation on the photo-induced de-oxygenation process of myoglobin in aqueous solution by use of fluorescence spectroscopy

    2008-01-01

    A photo-induced de-oxygenation process of myoglobin (Mb) in aqueous solution was investigated by use of fluorescence spectroscopy. The spectra are characterized by the fluorescence intensity declining gradually after each scan,and the decay of fluorescence intensity being significant in each scan,which is assigned to the release of oxygen from the opening of the heme-pockets induced by illumination. More illumination will cause more release of oxygen; if the temperature of an Mb solution is increased when it is illuminated,the rate of de-oxygenation will be higher. It was found that ligand-oxygen in Fe-porphyrin could be removed from Mb by nitrogen. This indicates that the interac-tion between oxy-Mb and other different gases can be tested by the method of fluorescence spectros-copy. In addition,fluorescence spectroscopy can be employed to probe the energy transfer between Fe-porphyrin and tryptophan or tyrosine in Mb molecules.

  9. How to control the temperature of the furnace for flash pyrolysis of coal. Sekitan kyusoku netsubunkairo no roon control hoho

    Egashira, T.; Iida, H.; Kawamura, T.; Kosuiryu, H.; Hashimoto, S.

    1994-02-15

    Conventionally, the thermal decomposition of coal is done by coke oven. Recently, a research is conducted to develop the process for quickly heating thermal decomposition of coal to produce the fuel gas and the tar with a higher yield. In this process, the heat required for thermal decomposition is supplied by indirectly heating the circulation gas. The circulation of a large quantity of high temperature gas accelerates the erosion-corrosion of the refractories and increases the heat loss through the furnace wall. This invention solves the problem. A particulate collector is installed at the outlet of the thermal decomposition furnace. The collected hot char is recycled to the high temperature gas generation furnace through a feeder as the heat source for the gasification reaction. The recycle quantity is arbitrarily set above the stoichiometric quantity to the oxidizing gas for combustion. With this way, the furnace temperature can be controlled to an arbitrary level, and the expansion of the service life of the refractories as well as the reduction of heat loss can be achieved. 4 figs.

  10. Pyrolysis of waste tyres: A review

    Williams, Paul T., E-mail: p.t.williams@leeds.ac.uk

    2013-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Pyrolysis of waste tyres produces oil, gas and char, and recovered steel. • Batch, screw kiln, rotary kiln, vacuum and fluidised-bed are main reactor types. • Product yields are influenced by reactor type, temperature and heating rate. • Pyrolysis oils are complex and can be used as chemical feedstock or fuel. • Research into higher value products from the tyre pyrolysis process is reviewed. - Abstract: Approximately 1.5 billion tyres are produced each year which will eventually enter the waste stream representing a major potential waste and environmental problem. However, there is growing interest in pyrolysis as a technology to treat tyres to produce valuable oil, char and gas products. The most common reactors used are fixed-bed (batch), screw kiln, rotary kiln, vacuum and fluidised-bed. The key influence on the product yield, and gas and oil composition, is the type of reactor used which in turn determines the temperature and heating rate. Tyre pyrolysis oil is chemically very complex containing aliphatic, aromatic, hetero-atom and polar fractions. The fuel characteristics of the tyre oil shows that it is similar to a gas oil or light fuel oil and has been successfully combusted in test furnaces and engines. The main gases produced from the pyrolysis of waste tyres are H{sub 2}, C{sub 1}–C{sub 4} hydrocarbons, CO{sub 2}, CO and H{sub 2}S. Upgrading tyre pyrolysis products to high value products has concentrated on char upgrading to higher quality carbon black and to activated carbon. The use of catalysts to upgrade the oil to a aromatic-rich chemical feedstock or the production of hydrogen from waste tyres has also been reported. Examples of commercial and semi-commercial scale tyre pyrolysis systems show that small scale batch reactors and continuous rotary kiln reactors have been developed to commercial scale.

  11. Pyrolysis of waste tyres: A review

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Pyrolysis of waste tyres produces oil, gas and char, and recovered steel. • Batch, screw kiln, rotary kiln, vacuum and fluidised-bed are main reactor types. • Product yields are influenced by reactor type, temperature and heating rate. • Pyrolysis oils are complex and can be used as chemical feedstock or fuel. • Research into higher value products from the tyre pyrolysis process is reviewed. - Abstract: Approximately 1.5 billion tyres are produced each year which will eventually enter the waste stream representing a major potential waste and environmental problem. However, there is growing interest in pyrolysis as a technology to treat tyres to produce valuable oil, char and gas products. The most common reactors used are fixed-bed (batch), screw kiln, rotary kiln, vacuum and fluidised-bed. The key influence on the product yield, and gas and oil composition, is the type of reactor used which in turn determines the temperature and heating rate. Tyre pyrolysis oil is chemically very complex containing aliphatic, aromatic, hetero-atom and polar fractions. The fuel characteristics of the tyre oil shows that it is similar to a gas oil or light fuel oil and has been successfully combusted in test furnaces and engines. The main gases produced from the pyrolysis of waste tyres are H2, C1–C4 hydrocarbons, CO2, CO and H2S. Upgrading tyre pyrolysis products to high value products has concentrated on char upgrading to higher quality carbon black and to activated carbon. The use of catalysts to upgrade the oil to a aromatic-rich chemical feedstock or the production of hydrogen from waste tyres has also been reported. Examples of commercial and semi-commercial scale tyre pyrolysis systems show that small scale batch reactors and continuous rotary kiln reactors have been developed to commercial scale

  12. Pyrolysis of rubber gloves in integral pyrolysis test plant

    Previously, pyrolysis of rubber gloves in laboratory study was described. In order to visualize the practical application of rubber gloves pyrolysis in terms of treating rubber gloves in medical waste, a new test plant was designed and constructed. The semi-continuous test plant was designed to accommodate rubber gloves that were not cut or shredded. The test plant has a capacity of 2kg/ hr and employed auxiliary fuel instead of the conventional electrical power for heating. The concept was based on moving bed reactor, but additional feature of sand jacket feature was also introduced in the design. Pyrolysis of the gloves was conducted at three temperatures, namely 350 degree Celsius, 400 degree Celsius and 450 degree Celsius. Oxygen presents inside of the reactor due to the combined effect of imperfect sealing and suction effect. This study addresses the performance of this test plant covering the time temperature profile, gas evolution profile and product yield. Comparison between the yield of the liquid, gas and char pyrolyzate was made against the laboratory study. It was found that the oil yield was less than the one obtained from bench scale study. Water formation was more pronounced. The presence of the oxygen also altered the tail gas composition but eliminate the sticky nature of solid residue, making it easier to handle. The chemical composition of the oil was determined and the main compounds in the oil were esters and phtalic acid. (author)

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions and soil properties following amendment with manure-derived biochars: Influence of pyrolysis temperature and feedstock type.

    Subedi, Raghunath; Taupe, Natalie; Pelissetti, Simone; Petruzzelli, Laura; Bertora, Chiara; Leahy, James J; Grignani, Carlo

    2016-01-15

    Manure-derived biochars can offer a potential option for the stabilization of manure, while mitigating climate change through carbon sequestration and the attenuation of nitrous oxide emission. A laboratory incubation study was conducted to assess the effects of four different manure-derived biochars produced from different feedstocks (poultry litter and swine manure) at different temperatures (400 or 600 °C). A commonly available standard wood chip biochar, produced at a greater temperature (1000 °C), and non-amended treatments were used as references. Two different soils (sandy and silt-loam) were amended with 2% (w/w) biochar on a dry soil weight basis (corresponding to 20 Mg ha(-1)), with the soil moisture being adjusted to 75% saturation level. After a pre-incubation period (21 days), 170 kg N ha(-1) of NH4NO3 fertilizer was added. Measurements of CO2, N2O, CH4 emissions and soil N mineralisation were carried out on different days during the 85 days of incubation. The net C mineralization and N2O emissions from both soils amended with poultry litter biochar at 400 °C were significantly greater than the other biochar treatments. Nitrate availability was greater in both soils in which the manure-derived biochar was used instead of the standard biochar. All of the biochars increased the pH of the silt-loam, sub-acid soil, but failed to improve the cation exchange capacities (CEC) in either soil. Total C and N, P, K and Mg (except Ca) were significantly increased in the manure-derived biochar amended soils, compared to the Control, and were positively correlated to the biochar nutrient contents. This study indicates that the soil application of biochar engenders effects that can vary considerably according to the biochar properties, as determined on the basis of the feedstock types and process conditions. Low-temperature biochar production from manure represents a possible way of producing a soil amendment that can stabilize C while supplying a

  14. Influence of Bark Pyrolysis Technology on Yield

    ZHAO Yong; YAN Zhen; LIU Yurong; WANG Shu

    2006-01-01

    With the self-made pyrolysis equipment in miniature,we experimented in different pyrolysis conditions to get different pyrolyzate yields (carbon,vinegar and gas).It proved that with the rise of temperature,the average yield of carbon descends gradually while the yields of vinegar and gas rise gradually.As the temperature rises,the yield of gas increases much more than that of vinegar.When speeding up the rising temperature,yield of carbon goes down while yields of vinegar and gas go up.

  15. Effects of Biomass Feedstock on the Yield and Reactivity of Soot from Fast Pyrolysis at High Temperatures

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Jensen, Peter A.; Glarborg, Peter;

    that of beechwood soot (from 33.2 to 102 nm) and wheat straw soot (from 11.5 to 165.3 nm). In addition, pinewood soot particles contained mainly multi-core structures at 1250°C. The potassium content played a more important role on the soot reactivity than the particle size and nanostructure.......This study investigated the effect of feedstock on the yield, nanostructure and reactivity of soot. Woody and herbaceous biomass were pyrolyzed at high heating rates and temperatures of 1250 and 1400°C in a drop tube furnace. The collected solid residues were structurally characterized by electron...... respect to the alkali content, particle size and nanostructure. Potassium was incorporated in the soot matrix and to a significant extent influenced the soot reactivity. The particle size distribution of pinewood soot produced at 1250°C was in the range from 27.2 to 263 nm which was broader compared to...

  16. Study on the optimization of low-temperature pyrolysis conditions for removal of mercury from soil%低温热解去除土壤汞污染的条件优化研究

    廖银锋

    2016-01-01

    The low-temperature pyrolysis method was used to remove the soil mercury pollution by heating the soil with low temperature( ﹤600℃). The mercury and its compounds in the soil could be converted into gas and the soil could be collected and used for cultivation. The temperature,heating time and water content in soil were the key factors affecting the removal of mercury from soil by low-temperature pyrolysis. This experimental studying on the relationship between the soil mercury removal rate with pyrolysis temperature,heating time,water content in soil,and optimize the influential factors to reach the best treatment effect.%低温热解法去除土壤汞污染利用低温(﹤600℃)加热土壤,使土壤中汞及其化合物转化为气态进行收集处理,处理后的土壤可继续用于耕作.热解温度、加热时间、土壤含水量是影响低温热解法去除土壤汞污染的关键因素.通过实验研究不同热解温度、热解时间、土壤含水量与土壤汞去除率之间的关系,优化低温热解法脱汞效率的影响因素,以期达到最好的处理效果.

  17. CATALYTIC FAST PYROLYSIS OF CELLULOSE MIXED WITH SULFATED TITANIA TO PRODUCE LEVOGLUCOSENONE: ANALYTICAL PY-GC/MS STUDY

    Qiang Lu; Xu-Ming Zhang,; Zhi-Bo Zhang; Ying Zhang; Xi-Feng Zhu; Chang-Qing Dong

    2012-01-01

    Sulfated titania (SO42-/TiO2) was prepared and used for catalytic fast pyrolysis of cellulose to produce levoglucosenone (LGO), a valuable anhydrosugar product. Analytical pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) technique was employed in this study to achieve the catalytic fast pyrolysis of cellulose and on-line analysis of the pyrolysis vapors. Experiments were performed to investigate the effects of several factors on the LGO production, i.e. pyrolysis temperature, cellulo...

  18. Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: A review

    Chen, Dezhen, E-mail: chendezhen@tongji.edu.cn [Thermal and Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan [Thermal and Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); He, Pinjing [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • MSW pyrolysis reactors, products and environmental impacts are reviewed. • MSW pyrolysis still has to deal with flue gas emissions and products’ contamination. • Definition of standardized products is suggested to formalize MSW pyrolysis technology. • Syngas is recommended to be the target product for single MSW pyrolysis technology. - Abstract: Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested.

  19. Reprint of: Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: A review

    Chen, Dezhen, E-mail: chendezhen@tongji.edu.cn [Thermal & Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan [Thermal & Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); He, Pinjing [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • MSW pyrolysis reactors, products and environmental impacts are reviewed. • MSW pyrolysis still has to deal with flue gas emissions and products’ contamination. • Definition of standardized products is suggested to formalize MSW pyrolysis technology. • Syngas is recommended to be the target product for single MSW pyrolysis technology. - Abstract: Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested.

  20. Reprint of: Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: A review

    Highlights: • MSW pyrolysis reactors, products and environmental impacts are reviewed. • MSW pyrolysis still has to deal with flue gas emissions and products’ contamination. • Definition of standardized products is suggested to formalize MSW pyrolysis technology. • Syngas is recommended to be the target product for single MSW pyrolysis technology. - Abstract: Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO2 and NH3, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested

  1. Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: A review

    Highlights: • MSW pyrolysis reactors, products and environmental impacts are reviewed. • MSW pyrolysis still has to deal with flue gas emissions and products’ contamination. • Definition of standardized products is suggested to formalize MSW pyrolysis technology. • Syngas is recommended to be the target product for single MSW pyrolysis technology. - Abstract: Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO2 and NH3, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested

  2. Suspension Combustion of Wood: Influence of Pyrolysis Conditions on Char Yield, Morphology, and Reactivity

    Dall'Ora, Michelangelo; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2008-01-01

    Chars from pine and beech wood were produced by fast pyrolysis in an entrained flow reactor and by slow pyrolysis in a thermogravimetric analyzer. The influence of pyrolysis temperature, heating rate and particle size on char yield and morphology was investigated. The applied pyrolysis temperatur......, char oxidation reactivity decreased as pyrolysis temperature increased. The amount and composition of the ash forming matter of the wood fuels seems to play an important role in determining the differences in char yield, morphology and reactivity.......Chars from pine and beech wood were produced by fast pyrolysis in an entrained flow reactor and by slow pyrolysis in a thermogravimetric analyzer. The influence of pyrolysis temperature, heating rate and particle size on char yield and morphology was investigated. The applied pyrolysis temperature...... varied in the range 673−1673 K for slow pyrolysis and between 873 and 1573 K for fast pyrolysis. The chars were oxidized in a thermogravimetric analyzer and the mass loss data were used to determine char oxidation reactivity. Char yield from fast pyrolysis (104−105 K/s) was as low as 1 to 6% on a dry ash...

  3. FAST PYROLYSIS OF ENZYMATIC/MILD ACIDOLYSIS LIGNIN FROM MOSO BAMBOO

    Rui Lou

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of enzymatic/mild acidolysis lignin (EMAL isolated from moso bamboo were investigated using pyrolysis-gas chromato-graphy/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS. Pyrolysis temperature as a factor on products was studied, and the pyrolysis mechanism was inferred with respect to the dominating products. Research results showed that pyrolysis products derived from EMAL pyrolysis were mainly heterocyclic (2,3-dihydrobenzofuran, phenols, esters, and a minor amount of acetic acid. Pyrolysis temperature had a distinct impact on yields of pyrolysis products. As pyrolysis temperature increased, the yield of 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran rapidly decreased; however, yields of phenols increased smoothly. It can be obtained that, at the low temperatures (250-400oC, pyrolysis products were mainly 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran, and the highest yield was 66.26% at 320oC; at the high temperatures (400-800oC, pyrolysis products were mainly phenols, and yields hit their highest level of 56.43% at 600 oC. A minor amount of acetic acid only emerged at 800°C. Knowledge of pyrolysis products releasing from EMAL and the pyrolysis mechanism could be basic and essential to the understanding of thermochemical conversion of EMAL to chemicals or high-grade energy.

  4. Kinetic analysis on lignite pyrolysis,combustion and gasification

    HU Xin; WANG Zhihua; ZHOU Zhijun; YOU Zhuo; ZHOU Junhu; CEN Kefa

    2013-01-01

    Pyrolysis and combustion combined polygeneration system is a more efficient way for lignite utilization,and can also produce variety of valuable pyrolysis products.To explore the feasibility of this polygeneration system,thermo-gravimetric analysis on YM lignite and DT bituminous coal was conducted,and the characteristic parameters for pyrolysis,combustion,and gasification were obtained.Moreover,the activation energy of each reaction was calculated by Coats-Redfern method.The experimental results showed that,compared with DT bituminous coal,YM lignite pyrolysis process starts at a lower temperature,and its semi-coke reactivity during combustion and gasification was better.In addition,activation energy calculation indicated that,the apparent activation energy of gasification of both coals were much higher than that of the pyrolysis.Therefore,for lignite,pyrolysis and combustion combined polygeneration system may achieve higher efficiency and be worthy for further research.

  5. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass for liquid biofuels production

    Yin, Chungen

    2012-01-01

    Production of 2nd-generation biofuels from biomass residues and waste feedstock is gaining great concerns worldwide. Pyrolysis, a thermochemical conversion process involving rapid heating of feedstock under oxygen-absent condition to moderate temperature and rapid quenching of intermediate products......, is an attractive way for bio-oil production. Various efforts have been made to improve pyrolysis process towards higher yield and quality of liquid biofuels and better energy efficiency. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis is one of the promising attempts, mainly due to efficient heating of feedstock by...... ‘‘microwave dielectric heating’’ effects. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass. First, conventional fast pyrolysis and microwave dielectric heating is briefly introduced. Then microwave-assisted pyrolysis process is thoroughly discussed stepwise from biomass...

  6. Fast pyrolysis of lignin, macroalgae and sewage sludge

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2013-01-01

    In the last twenty years, the fast pyrolysis process has been explored to produce bio-oil from biomass. Fast pyrolysis is a thermal conversion technology that is performed at a temperatures of 450 - 600 ºC, high biomass heating ratess (100 - 2000 K/s), a short gas residence time (less than 2 s) with no presence of oxygen. Fast pyrolysis can convert a large fraction of the biomass to bio-oil, and smaller fractions of char and gas. The pyrolysis centrifuge reactor (PCR) has been developed at th...

  7. Plasma pyrolysis of toxic waste

    The comparison of technical economic indexes of different waste treatment methods and plasma pyrolysis is presented in the paper. It testifies that plasma technologies are economically expedient for these purposes. Physical prerequisites allowing realizing plasma technologies are presented. Reliable and economical (70-120 Euro per ton of treated product) plasma generation is the basic condition of the technology realization. In this connection, various types of powerful generators of dense plasma (plasmatrons) in the range from 100 kW to 3 MW and temperature of plasma jets from 2000 to 10 000 K, and also physical processes taking place in electric-discharge chambers are examined. Differences between AC and DC electric arc plasma generators are analysed. Temperature in arcs of plasma generators varies from 6000 to 20,000 K, electron concentration is ne ∼ (1014-1019 cm-3). Specific ware of electrodes in various types of plasma generators intended for long-time operation modes is (10-7-10-4) g C-1. Physicochemical processes in plasma reactors intended for waste treatment and pyrolysis are described. Different types of technological processes on plasma treatment and pyrolysis of waste are analysed. Estimation of present situation of physical investigations and technological developments in this area and predictions for nearest future are included

  8. Plasma pyrolysis of toxic waste

    Rutberg, Ph G.

    2003-06-01

    The comparison of technical economic indexes of different waste treatment methods and plasma pyrolysis is presented in the paper. It testifies that plasma technologies are economically expedient for these purposes. Physical prerequisites allowing realizing plasma technologies are presented. Reliable and economical (70-120 Euro per ton of treated product) plasma generation is the basic condition of the technology realization. In this connection, various types of powerful generators of dense plasma (plasmatrons) in the range from 100 kW to 3 MW and temperature of plasma jets from 2000 to 10 000 K, and also physical processes taking place in electric-discharge chambers are examined. Differences between AC and DC electric arc plasma generators are analysed. Temperature in arcs of plasma generators varies from 6000 to 20 000 K, electron concentration is ne~(1014-1019 cm-3). Specific ware of electrodes in various types of plasma generators intended for long-time operation modes is (10-7-10-4) g C-1. Physicochemical processes in plasma reactors intended for waste treatment and pyrolysis are described. Different types of technological processes on plasma treatment and pyrolysis of waste are analysed. Estimation of present situation of physical investigations and technological developments in this area and predictions for nearest future are included. This article was scheduled to appear in issue 5 of Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion. To access this Special issue please follow this link: http://www.iop.org/EJ/toc/0741-3335/45/5

  9. Deoxygenation of glycolaldehyde and furfural on Mo2C/Mo(100)

    McManus, Jesse R.; Vohs, John M.

    2014-12-01

    The desire to produce fuels and chemicals in an energy conscious, environmentally sympathetic approach has motivated considerable research on the use of cellulosic biomass feedstocks. One of the major challenges facing the utilization of biomass is finding effective catalysts for the efficient and selective removal of oxygen from the highly-oxygenated, biomass-derived platform molecules. Herein, a study of the reaction pathways for the biomass-derived platform molecule furfural and biomass-derived sugar model compound glycolaldehyde provides insight into the mechanisms of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) on a model molybdenum carbide catalyst, Mo2C/Mo(100). Using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS), it was found that the Mo2C/Mo(100) catalyst was active for selective deoxygenation of the aldehyde carbonyl by facilitating adsorption of the aldehyde in an η2(C,O) bonding configuration. Furthermore, the catalyst showed no appreciable activity for furanic ring hydrogenation, highlighting the promise of relatively inexpensive Mo2C catalysts for selective HDO chemistry.

  10. Pyrolysis Process in Aramid Fibers Investigated by Py-GC/MS & TGA-DTA/MS

    WANG Xin-wei; HU Zu-ming; LIU Zhao-feng

    2007-01-01

    Poly(m-phenylene isophthalamine) (PMIA) and Poly( p-phenylene terphthalamine) (PPTA) are among the most important high-temperature resistant aramid fibers. The pyrolysis behaviors of these two fibers under inert gases were studied using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) and thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectrometry ( TGA-DTA/MS ). The pyrolysis processes of PMIA and PPTA are distinguishing, and the stepwise pyrolysates reflect these differences. A mechanism system of pyrolysis is suggested, which involving hydrolysis and homolysis. At low pyrolysis temperatures, hydrolysis is a primary reaction, and it is very noticeable in the first-step pyrolysis region of PMIA. Elevating pyrolysis temperature, homolysis is enhanced and keep a large advantage in the high temperature range. On the other hand, at higher temperatures, carbonization appens and the homolysis and carbonization of PPTA are emphasized more than of PMIA.

  11. Study of pyrolysis and gasification of biomass from the self-organization perspective

    Alevanau, Aliaksandr

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the analysis of kinetics of i) low-temperature pyrolysis of gaseous hydrocarbons, ii) high-temperature steam gasification of char of wood pellets (>700oC), iii) high temperature pyrolysis of straw pellets in an atmosphere of argon and steam, and iv) high temperature pyrolysis of slices of transversally cut wooden sticks. The results of the kinetic measurements in the high-temperature cases are approximated using a least-square based optimization software, which was s...

  12. Pyrolysis and Gasification

    Astrup, Thomas; Bilitewski, B.

    2011-01-01

    incineration capacity, but also a better ability of gasification over incineration to preserve the chemical energy of the waste is important. This chapter provides an overview of pyrolysis and gasification processes related to waste, the technology involved, energy recovery options, and important environmental......Pyrolysis and gasification include processes that thermally convert carbonaceous materials into products such as gas, char, coke, ash, and tar. Overall, pyrolysis generates products like gas, tar, and char, while gasification converts the carboncontaining materials (e.g. the outputs from pyrolysis......) into a mainly gaseous output. The specific output composition and relative amounts of the outputs greatly depend on the input fuel and the overall process configuration. Although pyrolysis processes in many cases also occur in gasification (however prior to the gasification processes), the overall...

  13. Microwave and Slow Pyrolysis Biochar – Comparison of Physical and Functional Properties

    Masek, Ondrej; Budarin, Vitaly; Gronnow, Mark; Crombie, Kyle; Brownsort, Peter; Fitzpatrick, Emma; Hurst, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article reports work that compares slow pyrolysis and MW pyrolysis of two different feedstock (willow chips and straw), with particular focus on physical properties of resulting chars and their relation to biochar soil function. In these experiments, slow pyrolysis laboratory units at the University of Edinburgh and the MW pyrolysis units at the University of York were used to produce biochar from identical feedstock under a range of temperatures. Physical properties and stability of thu...

  14. 污水污泥低温热解技术工艺与能量平衡分析%Analysis on Conditions and Energy Balance of Low-temperature Pyrolysis of Sewage Sludge

    胡艳军; 宁方勇

    2013-01-01

    Process conditions of pyrolysis technology with one-time feeding and stable operation system to produce the three-phase sewage sludge pyrolysis were in detailed investigated. Energy balance relationship was analyzed through energy-flow diagram, energy recycling rate and energy consumption rate. It was found that yield and calorific value of sludge pyrolysis product were influenced with three key factors in a decreased order of final temperature, reaction time and heating rate. Heating loss has a significant difference under different pyrolysis working conditions. Residence time and lower heating rate can cause obvious increase of input energy and the heat loss. Results of the heating balance analysis showed that pyrolysis system that produce gas products with high quality has the highest energy recycling rate and energy consumption rate, which are 0.94 and 1.73 respectively. Compared with pyrolysis process to produce liquid oil product, total energy is almost the same but total energy consumption can be reduced by 35%. It can be verified that low temperature pyrolysis technology of sewage sludge is more suitable to produce gas product according to its energy recovery and saving.%针对一次给料稳定运行污泥热解系统制取三相产物的工艺展开分析,并基于能流图、能源回收率、能耗比等方法和衡算指标讨论该工艺的能量平衡关系.研究发现:热解产物的产率和热值高低受热解终温影响最大,反应时间次之,升温速率最小.不同工况条件下热解过程热量损失具有明显差别,热解停留时间长、升温速率低都造成输入能量、热损失增大.热解过程能量平衡分析也验证了以制取气相产物为目标的污泥热解工艺条件的回收率和能耗比最高,分别为0.94和1.73;与高产出液相油的热解过程相比,产物总能量相差不多而系统消耗的能量能够减少35%.从能源回收、节约能源角度分析,污泥低温热解制取可燃性气

  15. Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: a review.

    Chen, Dezhen; Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan; He, Pinjing

    2014-12-01

    Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO2 and NH3, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested. PMID:25256662

  16. Reprint of: Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: a review.

    Chen, Dezhen; Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan; He, Pinjing

    2015-03-01

    Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO2 and NH3, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested. PMID:25700606

  17. Effect of temperature on composition of tar generated from pyrolysis of organic fraction of municipal solid waste%温度对城市有机垃圾热解焦油成分的影响

    张尚毅; 刘国涛; 唐利兰; 谢梦佩

    2016-01-01

    A series of batch experiments were performed to characterize the composition change of tars generated from pyrolysis of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) at the final pyrolysis temperatures of 600, 700 and 800℃, respectively. The carbon content in the tars increased from 74.49% to 83.42% with the pyrolysis temperature increased from 600 to 800℃. Although the aromaticity of tars was higher than OFMSW and lower than chars, the polarity of tars was lower than both OFMSW and chars. Decreases in H/C and O/C ratios in tars were observed with the increase in final pyrolysis temperature. The content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the dominant components of tars, increased from 54.06% to 83.45% when the pyrolysis temperature rose from 600 to 800°C. Naphthalene and its derivatives were main components of PAHs, and they accounted for 50.72%, 46.80% and 39.26% of total PAHs in tars that were obtained at 600, 700, 800℃, respectively. The pyrolysis tars generated from OFMSW could be utilized as carbon based matrix composites and the raw materials for the production of dyes, resins, solvents, and insect repellents, etc.%以城市有机垃圾热解焦油为对象,研究了不同热解终温下(600~800℃)焦油的特性及其随温度的变化规律.结果表明:随着热解终温从600℃升高至800℃,焦油中C含量从74.49%增至83.42%;焦油的芳香化程度高于原料而低于热解炭,焦油的极性低于原料和热解炭,随着热解终温的升高,焦油的H/C和O/C逐渐降低;多环芳烃(PAHs)是焦油的主要成分,随着热解终温从600℃升高至800℃,其含量从54.06%增至83.45%;萘及其衍生物是焦油PAHs的主要成分,其含量在热解终温600、700、800℃时分别占PAHs的50.72%、46.80%、39.26%.研究结果证明了垃圾热解焦油可用作碳基复合材料和作为制备染料、树脂、溶剂、驱虫剂等的原料.

  18. Pyrolysis and Gasification

    Astrup, Thomas; Bilitewski, B.

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification include processes that thermally convert carbonaceous materials into products such as gas, char, coke, ash, and tar. Overall, pyrolysis generates products like gas, tar, and char, while gasification converts the carboncontaining materials (e.g. the outputs from pyrolysis....... In Europe during World War II, wood-fueled gasifiers (or ‘gas generators’) were used to power cars during shortages of oil-based fuels. Sparked by oil price crises in 1970s and 1980s, further development in gasification technologies focused mainly on coal as a fuel to substitute for oil...

  19. ISOTHERMAL PYROLYSIS OF KRAFT PULP MILL SLUDGE

    Syamsudin Syamsudin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kraft pulp mill sludge cake composed of rejected wood fibers and activated sludge microorganisms. With a heating value about 14 MJ/kg (dried basis, this type of biomass had a potential as an alternative energy source. Unfortunately, it had an ash content of 27.6% and a moisture content of 80%. For reducing moisture content with minimum energy consumption, a combination of mechanical dewatering and thermal drying was studied previously. Meanwhile, experiments on isothermal pyrolysis had been carried out for further improvement on ultimate and proximate analysis of solid fuel. Final mass of char obtained from pyrolysis at 500oC was not significantly different from that of 700oC, so pyrolysis was considered to be optimum at 500oC. A char obtained from pyrolysis at temperature of 500oC had a pore surface area of 77.049 m2/g (highest among other temperatures. Kinetic of isothermal pyrolysis was well represented with a first order modified volumetric model with a frequency factor of 0.782 1/s and an activation of 34.050 kJ/mol.

  20. Analytical Applications Of Laser Powered Pyrolysis

    Woodin, R. L.; Kajkowski, K. A.

    1984-05-01

    The ability to rapidly heat samples using infrared laser radiation without the complicating effects of hot surfaces offers new opportunities for pyrolysis techniques in materials characterization and process control. By using pulsed radiation, timescales on the order of microseconds are achieved, restricting the chemistry primarily to initial reactions. The homogeneous nature of laser powered heating minimizes wall reactions and improves reproducibility by eliminating effects of surface contamination in the pyrolysis reactor. In Laser Powered Homogeneous Pyrolysis (LPHP), a pulsed CO2 laser (10μm) is used to rapidly heat a gas mixture to be pyrolyzed. If the mixture does not absorb 10um radiation, a chemically inert sensitizer such as SF6 or SiF4 must be added to couple energy into the mixture. Temperatures up to 1200K can be reached, with reaction times ranging from lOpsec to lOmsec. Product analysis is by gas chromatography after a sufficient number of laser pulses to generate detectable amounts of products. Applications of LPHP to hydrocarbon mixture analysis will be presented, as well as potential applications to process control. The short reaction times in LPHP will be illustrated by methane and ethane pyrolysis, which also provide information on the details of the temperature profile during laser powered pyrolysis.

  1. Aerobic training enhances muscle deoxygenation in early post-myocardial infarction

    Takagi, Shun; Murase, Norio; Kime, Ryotaro; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Osada, Takuya; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Exercise-induced skeletal muscle deoxygenation is startling by its absence in early post-myocardial infarction (MI) patients. Exercise training early post-MI is associated with reduced cardiovascular risk and increased aerobic capacity. We therefore investigated whether aerobic training could enhance the muscle deoxygenation in early post-MI patients. Methods 21 ± 8 days after the first MI patients (n = 16) were divided into 12-week aerobic training (TR, n = 10) or non-training (CON, ...

  2. Desulphurization of lignites by slow, fast, and flash pyrolysis and high intensity dry magnetic separation

    Koca, H.; Kockar, O.M.; Koca, S. [Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey). Porsuk Technical College

    2007-07-01

    Slow, fast and flash pyrolysis followed by high intensity dry magnetic (HIDM) separation experiments were conducted to obtain improved solid fuels. Pyrolysis experiments were performed in three different apparatus, and important parameters of processes, temperature, particle size, residence time and heating rate were studied to determine the optimum conditions. Desulphurization of lignites by flash pyrolysis is more successful than slow and fast pyrolysis. At optimum conditions of pyrolysis, up to 58.15, 60.24, and 62.31% sulphur reductions were obtained in slow, fast and flash pyrolysis, respectively. Char, obtained from the pyrolysis experiments, was further cleaned by a Permroll HIDM separator. Sulphur reduction enhanced up to 82.68, 84.40, and 86.55% in the char of slow, fast and flash pyrolysis, respectively.

  3. Effects of Pyrolysis Temperature on Product Yields and Energy Recovery from Co-Feeding of Cotton Gin Trash, Cow Manure, and Microalgae: A Simulation Study

    Hanif, Muhammad Usman; Capareda, Sergio C.; Iqbal, Hamid; Arazo, Renato Ortiz; Baig, Muhammad Anwar

    2016-01-01

    The intensive search of new and cleaner energy catches interest in recent years due to huge consumption of fossil fuels coupled with the challenge of energy and environmental sustainability. Production of renewable and environmentally benign energy from locally available raw materials is coming in the frontline. In this work, conversion of the combined biomass (cotton gin trash, cow manure, and Microalgae [Nannochloropsis oculata]) through batch pyrolysis has been investigated. The effect of ...

  4. Application of hierarchical MFI zeolite for the catalytic pyrolysis of Japanese larch.

    Park, Kyu-Hong; Park, Hyun Ju; Kim, Jeongnam; Ryoo, Ryong; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Park, Junhong; Park, Young-Kwon

    2010-01-01

    The catalytic pyrolysis of Japanese larch was carried out over a hierarchical MFI zeolite (Meso MFI C16). The zeolite was synthesized using an amphiphilic organosilane as a mesopore-directing agent, and its catalytic activity was compared with that of the conventional HZSM-5 and the mesoporous material from HZSM-5 (MMZ(ZSM-5)). The effect of the hierarchical MFI zeolite on the product distribution and chemical composition of the bio-oil was also examined. The hierarchical MFI zeolite exhibited the highest activity in deoxygenation and aromatization during the catalytic pyrolysis of Japanese larch. In particular, it showed high selectivity for valuable aromatics, such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX), even though it decreased the organic fraction of bio-oil. Its higher mesoporosity resulted, however, in an increase in the coke amount and in undesirable products, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PMID:20352861

  5. Novel technique for coal pyrolysis and hydrogenation product analysis

    Pfefferle, L.D.; Boyle, J.

    1993-03-15

    A microjet reactor coupled to a VUV photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer has been used to obtain species measurements during high temperature pyrolysis and oxidation of a wide range of hydrocarbon compounds ranging from allene and acetylene to cyclohexane, benzene and toluene. Initial work focused on calibration of the technique, optimization of ion collection and detection and characterization of limitations. Using the optimized technique with 118 nm photoionization, intermediate species profiles were obtained for analysis of the hydrocarbon pyrolysis and oxidation mechanisms. The soft'' ionization, yielding predominantly molecular ions, allowed the study of reaction pathways in these high temperature systems where both sampling and detection challenges are severe. Work has focused on the pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures representative of coal pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis products. The detailed mass spectra obtained during pyrolysis and oxidation of hydrocarbon mixtures is especially important because of the complex nature of the product mixture even at short residence times and low primary reactant conversions. The combustion community has advanced detailed modeling of pyrolysis and oxidation to the C4 hydrocarbon level but in general above that size uncertainties in rate constant and thermodynamic data do not allow us to a priori predict products from mixed hydrocarbon pyrolyses using a detailed chemistry model. For pyrolysis of mixtures of coal-derived liquid fractions with a large range of compound structures and molecular weights in the hundreds of amu the modeling challenge is severe. Lumped models are possible from stable product data.

  6. FAST PYROLYSIS OF LIGNINS

    Sedat Beis; Saikrishna Mukkamala; Nathan Hill; Jincy Joseph; Cirila Baker; Bruce Jensen; Elizabeth Stemmler; Clayton Wheeler; Brian Frederick; Adriaan van Heiningen; Alex Berg; William Joseph DeSisto

    2010-01-01

    Three lignins: Indulin AT, LignoboostTM, and Acetocell lignin, were characterized and pyrolyzed in a continuous-fed fast pyrolysis process. The physical and chemical properties of the lignins included chemical composition, heat content, ash, and water content. The distributed activation energy model (DAEM) was used to describe the pyrolysis of each lignin. Activation energy distributions of each lignin were quite different and generally covered a broad range of energies, typically found in li...

  7. Pyrolysis of waste tyres: a review.

    Williams, Paul T

    2013-08-01

    Approximately 1.5 billion tyres are produced each year which will eventually enter the waste stream representing a major potential waste and environmental problem. However, there is growing interest in pyrolysis as a technology to treat tyres to produce valuable oil, char and gas products. The most common reactors used are fixed-bed (batch), screw kiln, rotary kiln, vacuum and fluidised-bed. The key influence on the product yield, and gas and oil composition, is the type of reactor used which in turn determines the temperature and heating rate. Tyre pyrolysis oil is chemically very complex containing aliphatic, aromatic, hetero-atom and polar fractions. The fuel characteristics of the tyre oil shows that it is similar to a gas oil or light fuel oil and has been successfully combusted in test furnaces and engines. The main gases produced from the pyrolysis of waste tyres are H(2), C(1)-C(4) hydrocarbons, CO(2), CO and H(2)S. Upgrading tyre pyrolysis products to high value products has concentrated on char upgrading to higher quality carbon black and to activated carbon. The use of catalysts to upgrade the oil to a aromatic-rich chemical feedstock or the production of hydrogen from waste tyres has also been reported. Examples of commercial and semi-commercial scale tyre pyrolysis systems show that small scale batch reactors and continuous rotary kiln reactors have been developed to commercial scale. PMID:23735607

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF BIO-OIL FROM PALM KERNEL SHELL PYROLYSIS

    Ahmad, R; N. Hamidin; U.F.M. Ali; C.Z.A. Abidin

    2014-01-01

    Pyrolysis of palm kernel shell in a fixed-bed reactor was studied in this paper. The objectives were to investigate the effect of pyrolysis temperature and particle size on the products yield and to characterize the bio-oil product. In order to get the optimum pyrolysis parameters on bio-oil yield, temperatures of 350, 400, 450, 500 and 550 °C and particle sizes of 212–300 µm, 300–600 µm, 600µm–1.18 mm and 1.18–2.36 mm under a heating rate of 50 °C min-1 were investigated. The maximum bio-oil...

  9. Application of pyrolysis process in processing of mixed food wastes

    Grycová Barbora; Koutník Ivan; Pryszcz Adrian; Kaloč Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    The food industry produces large amounts of solid and also liquid wastes. Different waste materials and their mixtures were pyrolysed in the laboratory pyrolysis unit to a final temperature of 800°C with a 10 minute delay at the final temperature. After the pyrolysis process of the selected wastes a mass balance of the resulting products, off-line analysis of the pyrolysis gas and evaluation of solid and liquid products were carried out. The highest concentration of methane, hydrogen and carb...

  10. Differences in the mechanism of slow and rapid pyrolysis

    Levin, E.D.

    1971-01-01

    The pattern of change in the temperature field in a layer of disperse bark of Larix sibirica during pyrolysis was investigated. The peripheral part of the charge, adjacent to the retort wall, is coked at a rate of temperature increase of 5/sup 0/C/min, while the central part is coked at a rate of 15/sup 0/C/min, but the structure of the semi-coke is identical, indicating that the mechanism is the same in slow and rapid pyrolysis. However, the mechanism of the secondary transformations of the other chemical products does depend on the speed of pyrolysis.