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Sample records for temperature pyrolysis deoxygen

  1. Methods for deoxygenating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Lance Awender; Brandvold, Timothy A.

    2015-06-30

    Methods for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. A method for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil comprising the steps of combining a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream with a heated low-oxygen-pyoil diluent recycle stream to form a heated diluted pyoil feed stream is provided. The heated diluted pyoil feed stream has a feed temperature of about 150.degree. C. or greater. The heated diluted pyoil feed stream is contacted with a first deoxygenating catalyst in the presence of hydrogen at first hydroprocessing conditions effective to form a low-oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil effluent.

  2. Apparatuses and methods for deoxygenating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalnes, Tom N.

    2015-12-29

    Apparatuses and methods for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided herein. In one example, the method comprises of dividing a feedstock stream into first and second feedstock portions. The feedstock stream comprises the biomass-derived pyrolysis oil and has a temperature of about 60.degree. C. or less. The first feedstock portion is combined with a heated organic liquid stream to form a first heated diluted pyoil feed stream. The first heated diluted pyoil feed stream is contacted with a first deoxygenating catalyst in the presence of hydrogen to form an intermediate low-oxygen pyoil effluent. The second feedstock portion is combined with the intermediate low-oxygen pyoil effluent to form a second heated diluted pyoil feed stream. The second heated diluted pyoil feed stream is contacted with a second deoxygenating catalyst in the presence of hydrogen to form additional low-oxygen pyoil effluent.

  3. Methods for deoxygenating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandvold, Timothy A.

    2015-07-14

    Methods for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. A method comprising the steps of diluting the biomass-derived pyrolysis oil with a phenolic-containing diluent to form a diluted pyoil-phenolic feed is provided. The diluted pyoil-phenolic feed is contacted with a deoxygenating catalyst in the presence of hydrogen at hydroprocessing conditions effective to form a low-oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil effluent.

  4. Methods and apparatuses for deoxygenating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Lance Awender; Brandvold, Timothy A.

    2015-10-20

    Embodiments of methods and apparatuses for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. In one example, a method comprises the steps of separating a low-oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil effluent into a low-oxygen-pyoil organic phase stream and an aqueous phase stream. Phenolic compounds are removed from the aqueous phase stream to form a phenolic-rich diluent recycle stream. A biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream is diluted and heated with the phenolic-rich diluent recycle stream to form a heated diluted pyoil feed stream. The heated diluted pyoil feed stream is contacted with a deoxygenating catalyst in the presence of hydrogen to deoxygenate the heated diluted pyoil feed stream.

  5. EPR study of deoxygenated high-temperature superconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R J Singh; P K Sharma; Shakeel Khan

    2002-05-01

    High-c superconductors are EPR silent but on a little deoxygenation of the high-c materials and their constituents, they yield rich but complex spectra. Spectra of (1) CuO, (2) BaCuO2, (3) CaCuO2, (4) Y2Cu2O5, (5) La2CuO4, (6) La2-CuO4 (M = Sr, Ba), (7) Y based-123, (8) Bi based-2201, 2212, 2223, (9) Tl based-2223 and (10) Hg based-1212,1223 have been studied. One thing common to all these materials is the CuO2 plane which gets fragmented on deoxygenation and the inherent antiferromagnetic coupling is partially destroyed which results in the appearance of the spectra. The spectra recorded have been identified to be due to (1) Cu-monomer, (2) Cu-dimer, (3) Cutetramer, (4) Cu-octamer and (5) one signal at very low field which could not be identified because there was no structure in it and may be due to fragments higher than octamers. Very big fragments do not give any spectra because the original AF order probably remains intact in them. It is expected that when the fragments become magnetically isolated from the bulk, they produce EPR spectra. Most of the spectra have been analyzed and their spin-Hamiltonian parameters determined. The spectra of these species vary a little in terms of g-value and fine-structure splitting constant from sample to sample or even in the same sample and this may be attributed to some extra oxygen attachments retained with these species. Most frequently occurring species is the Cu-tetramer, (CuO)4. As (CuO)4 represents the unit cell of the all important two-dimensional CuO2 plane of the high-c materials, its spectra have been argued to provide some clue to the mechanism of high-c superconductivity. The tetramer (CuO)4 is a four one-half spin system and is essentially 16-fold degenerate by Heisenberg isotropic exchange, it is split into 6 components: one pentet, three triplets and two singlets. In superconductors the pentet appears to be the ground state and in the non-superconducting constituents the singlets seem to form the ground state as revealed by the temperature variation studies. In the case of La1.854Sr0.146CuO4 we have found the signature of quantum stripe formation. The high-c superconductivity theories involving spin bag, antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations and magnons can be explained on the basis of Cu-tetramers.

  6. Ceria promoted deoxygenation and denitrogenation of Thalassiosira weissflogii and its model compounds by catalytic in-situ pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aysu, Tevfik; Maroto-Valer, M Mercedes; Sanna, Aimaro

    2016-05-01

    Pyrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose, egg white powder, palm-jojoba oils mixtures Thalassiosira weissflogii model compounds was performed with CeO2 at 500°C, to evaluate its catalytic upgrading mechanism. Light organics, aromatics and aliphatics were originated from carbohydrates, proteins and lipids, respectively. Dehydration and decarboxylation were the main reactions involved in the algae and model compounds deoxygenation, while nitrogen was removed as NH3 and HCN. CeO2 increased decarbonylation reactions compared to in absence of catalyst, with production of ketones. The results showed that the catalysts had a significant effect on the pyrolysis products composition of T. weissflogii. CeO2, NiCeAl2O3 and MgCe/Al2O3 catalysts increased the aliphatics and decreased the oxygen content in bio-oils to 6-7wt% of the algae starting O2 content. Ceria catalysts were also able to consistently reduce the N-content in the bio-oil to 20-38% of that in the parent material, with NiCe/Al2O3 being the most effective. PMID:26938809

  7. Pyrolysis of biomass. Rapid pyrolysis at high temperature. Slow pyrolysis for active carbon preparation.

    OpenAIRE

    Zanzi, Rolando

    2001-01-01

    Pyrolysis of biomass consists of heating solid biomass inthe absence of air to produce solid, liquid and gaseous fuels.In the first part of this thesis rapid pyrolysis of wood(birch) and some agricultural residues (olive waste, sugarcanebagasse and wheat straw in untreated and in pelletized form) athigh temperature (800ºC–1000ºC) is studied ina free fall reactor at pilot scale. These conditions are ofinterest for gasification in fluidized beds. Of main interestare the gas and char yields and ...

  8. Effect of temperature on pyrolysis products from four nut shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, Ayhan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey)

    2006-06-01

    This article deals with slow pyrolysis of four shells such as hazelnut, walnut, almond and sunflower at the range of temperature 500-1200K in a cylindrical reactor batch reactor. The aim of this work was to experimentally investigate how the temperature affects char, liquid and gaseous product yields from different shells via pyrolysis. The amount of char from pyrolysis of the shell samples decreases with increasing the pyrolysis temperature. The highest liquid yields were obtained from the samples between 650 and 800K. The yield and the chemical composition of char can be calculated as functions of the pyrolysis temperature. The char components and higher heating values (HHVs) of shell fuels were correlated with pyrolysis temperatures. There were highly significant linear correlation between the pyrolysis temperature of the fuel and the fixed carbon content and HHV of char. (author)

  9. Formate assisted pyrolysis of pine sawdust for in-situ oxygen removal and stabilization of bio-oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Paige A; Wheeler, M Clayton; DeSisto, William J

    2014-12-01

    Pine sawdust was pretreated with several calcium compounds and then pyrolyzed in a fluidized bed pyrolysis reactor at 500 C. The catalytic action of the calcium compounds varies depending on the anion. Analysis of pyrolysis gas, liquid and char yields and compositions demonstrates that calcium sulfate is inert during pyrolysis while calcium formate, carbonate, hydroxide and oxide show significant deoxygenation activity. Of the salts which showed deoxygenation activity, calcium formate had the highest relative yield. This effect is likely attributable to the activity of calcium formate as a hydrogen donor at the pyrolysis temperature. PMID:25305646

  10. Theoretical estimation of pyrolysis temperatures in electrothermal sample atomization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method using was proposed for the determination of element speciation at the step of pyrolysis and theoretical estimation of pyrolysis temperature corresponding to the given analyte losses. The experimental and theoretical pyrolysis temperatures for compounds of 43, including those of B, Be, Cd, Cs, In, Li, Mo, Nb, Ru, Sr, Te, and V, elements were compared to take into account the loss kinetics. It was found that at various levels of analyte losses (0.1, 1, and 10 %), these temperatures exhibit linear relationship with a correlation coefficient of no less than 0.66. The developed approach provides the prediction of pyrolysis temperatures in electrochemical atomization and can used for the selection of a type of chemical modifier

  11. Effect of temperature on pyrolysis product of empty fruit bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrolysis of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was performed in a fixed bed reactor equipped with liquid collecting system. Pyrolysis process was conducted by varying the terminal pyrolysis temperature from 300 to 500°C under heating rate of 10°C/min for at least 2 hours. Char yield was obtained highest at 300°C around 55.88 wt%, and started to decrease as temperature increase. The maximum yield of pyrolysis liquid was obtained around 54.75 wt% as pyrolysis temperature reach 450°C. For gas yield percentage, the yield gained as temperature was increased from 300 to 500°C, within the range between 8.44 to 19.32 wt%. The char obtained at 400°C has great potential as an alternative solid fuel, due to its high heating value of 23.37 MJ/kg, low in volatile matter and ash content which are approximately around 40.32 and 11.12 wt%, respectively. The collected pyrolysis liquid within this temperature range found to have high water content of around 16.15 to 18.20 wt%. The high aqueous fraction seemed to cause the pyrolysis liquid to have low HHV which only ranging from 10.81 to 12.94 MJ/kg. These trends of results showed that necessary enhancement should be employ either on the raw biomass or pyrolysis products in order to approach at least the minimum quality of common hydrocarbon solid or liquid fuel. For energy production, both produced bio-char and pyrolysis liquid are considered as sustainable sources of bio-energy since they contained low amounts of nitrogen and sulphur, which are considered as environmental friendly solid and liquid fuel

  12. Effect of temperature on pyrolysis product of empty fruit bunches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Aizuddin Abdul; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Abdullah, Nurhayati [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Pyrolysis of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was performed in a fixed bed reactor equipped with liquid collecting system. Pyrolysis process was conducted by varying the terminal pyrolysis temperature from 300 to 500°C under heating rate of 10°C/min for at least 2 hours. Char yield was obtained highest at 300°C around 55.88 wt%, and started to decrease as temperature increase. The maximum yield of pyrolysis liquid was obtained around 54.75 wt% as pyrolysis temperature reach 450°C. For gas yield percentage, the yield gained as temperature was increased from 300 to 500°C, within the range between 8.44 to 19.32 wt%. The char obtained at 400°C has great potential as an alternative solid fuel, due to its high heating value of 23.37 MJ/kg, low in volatile matter and ash content which are approximately around 40.32 and 11.12 wt%, respectively. The collected pyrolysis liquid within this temperature range found to have high water content of around 16.15 to 18.20 wt%. The high aqueous fraction seemed to cause the pyrolysis liquid to have low HHV which only ranging from 10.81 to 12.94 MJ/kg. These trends of results showed that necessary enhancement should be employ either on the raw biomass or pyrolysis products in order to approach at least the minimum quality of common hydrocarbon solid or liquid fuel. For energy production, both produced bio-char and pyrolysis liquid are considered as sustainable sources of bio-energy since they contained low amounts of nitrogen and sulphur, which are considered as environmental friendly solid and liquid fuel.

  13. Theoretical Study of the Thermal Decomposition of Carboxylic Acids at Pyrolysis Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, J. M.; Robichaud, D. J.; Nimlos, M. R.

    2013-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are important in the processing of biomass into renewable fuels and chemicals. They are formed from the pretreatment and pyrolysis of hemicellulose biopolymers and are released from the decomposition of sugars. They result from the deconstruction of polyhydroxyalkanoates (bacterial carbon storage polymers) from fatty acids derived from algae, bacteria, and oil crops. The thermal deoxygenation of carboxylic acids is an important step in the conversion of biomass into aliphatic hydrocarbons suitable for use in renewable biofuels and as petrochemical replacements. Decarboxylation, a primary decomposition pathway under pyrolysis conditions, represents an ideal conversion process, because it eliminates two atoms of oxygen for every carbon atom removed. Problematically, additional deoxygenation processes exist (e.g. dehydration) that are in direct competition with decarboxylation and result in the formation of reactive and more fragmented end products. To better understand the competition between decarboxylation and other deoxygenation processes and to gain insight into possible catalysts that would favor decarboxylation, we have investigated the mechanisms and thermochemistry of the various unimolecular and bimolecular deoxygenation pathways for a family of C1-C4 organic acids using electronic structure calculations at the M06-2X/6-311++G(2df,p) level of theory.

  14. Flash pyrolysis of rapeseed cake: Influence of temperature on the yield and the characteristics of the pyrolysis liquid

    OpenAIRE

    Smets, Koen; Adriaensens, Peter; REGGERS, Guy; SCHREURS, Sonja; Carleer, Robert; Yperman, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Biomass waste is a promising source of renewable fuels and value-added chemicals. Rapeseed cake, the solid waste after pressing of rapeseed, is a biomass with such a potential. In this study, the possibilities of flash pyrolysis to convert rapeseed cake into a liquid form are investigated. Flash pyrolysis experiments are performed at four constant temperatures (350, 400, 450 and 550 degrees C) using a home-built lab-scale semi-continuous reactor. It is found that higher pyrolysis temperature ...

  15. Pressurized pyrolysis of rice husk in an inert gas sweeping fixed-bed reactor with a focus on bio-oil deoxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yangyang; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Jie

    2014-12-01

    The pyrolysis of rice husk was conducted in a fixed-bed reactor with a sweeping nitrogen gas to investigate the effects of pressure on the pyrolytic behaviors. The release rates of main gases during the pyrolysis, the distributions of four products (char, bio-oil, water and gas), the elemental compositions of char, bio-oil and gas, and the typical compounds in bio-oil were determined. It was found that the elevation of pressure from 0.1MPa to 5.0MPa facilitated the dehydration and decarboxylation of bio-oil, and the bio-oils obtained under the elevated pressures had significantly less oxygen and higher calorific value than those obtained under atmospheric pressure. The former bio-oils embraced more acetic acid, phenols and guaiacols. The elevation of pressure increased the formation of CH4 partially via the gas-phase reactions. An attempt is made in this study to clarify "the pure pressure effect" and "the combined effect with residence time". PMID:25463787

  16. Low Temperature Pyrolysis of Graptolite Argillite (Dictyonema Shale) in Autoclaves

    OpenAIRE

    Galina Sharayeva; Laine Tiikma

    2015-01-01

    The results of the systematic experimental study obtained in this work on the effects of temperature (340–420 °C) and exposure time (0–8h) at nominal temperature on the yield of pyrolysis products from Estonian graptolite argillite (GA) generated in autoclaves without any solvent are described. The yields of solid residue (SR), gas, pyrogenetic water (W) and extractable with benzenemix ofthermobitumen and oil (TBO) were estimated. The compound groups of TBO were assessed. The high...

  17. Ramped temperature pyrolysis radiocarbon dating of Antarctic marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenheim, B. E.; Domack, E.; Roe, K.; Adamic, J.

    2008-12-01

    Time scales for sediment facies adjacent to Antarctic ice shelves have posed a continuing challenge due to paucity of autochthonous carbonate minerals and the abundance of organic material from different sources of different ages. We have determined radiocarbon ages of fractions of bulk organic material released by ramped temperature program pyrolysis. These "pyrolysis ages" have sought to exploit differences in thermochemical stability of insoluble organic components in order to separate datable amounts of fresh, autochthonous carbon from "pre-aged" carbon coming from other reservoirs (continents, continental slopes, etc). When pyrolysis techniques yield distinct age plateaus (several consecutive temperature intervals with indistinguishable radiocarbon ages), the technique succeeds and chronologies can be considered robust and straightforward. However, in cases where there are no low temperature age plateaus, the age of the youngest component can only be estimated by kinetic modeling which introduces model uncertainties to the chronology. Here, we present a brief review of the early work on this technique focusing on necessary improvements to provide a standardized chronologic technique to the community. Results from the Ross Sea include refinement of finite ages that are typically derived from basal tills (i.e. ages greater than 30 ka) with a subsequent expansion of the ability to date strata that previously yielded only infinite ages. The method also allows for the resolution of more accurate ages for glacial marine intervals that overlie tills, and hence better estimates for deglaciation.

  18. Low Temperature Pyrolysis of Graptolite Argillite (Dictyonema Shale in Autoclaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Sharayeva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of the systematic experimental study obtained in this work on the effects of temperature (340–420 °C and exposure time (0–8h at nominal temperature on the yield of pyrolysis products from Estonian graptolite argillite (GA generated in autoclaves without any solvent are described. The yields of solid residue (SR, gas, pyrogenetic water (W and extractable with benzenemix ofthermobitumen and oil (TBO were estimated. The compound groups of TBO were assessed. The highest yield of TBO, 2.18% on dry GA basis and 13.2% of organic matter (OM was obtained at temperature of 420 °C and duration 0.5 h. The main compound groups in TBO obtained at 400 ᵒC are polar hetero-atomic compounds and polycyclic hydrocarbons surpassing 45% and 30% of TBO. The shares of aliphatic and monocyclic hydrocarbons are below 15% of TBO. The yield of W from GA is – about 10-15% of OM. The quantity of OM left in SR after pyrolysis is high, about 65% of OM. The yield of pyrolysis products from GA and the composition of its TBO are compared with those obtained under similar conditions from different oil shales: Estonian Kukersite, US Utah Green River, and Jordanian Attarat.

  19. Comment on ``Temperature dependence of the second magnetization peak in a deoxygenated YBa2Cu3O6.65 single crystal''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirsa, M.

    2001-06-01

    Measuring magnetic relaxation and hysteresis of a deoxygenated Y-123 single crystal with Tc=62.5 K, Salem-Sugui, Jr. and coworkers [Phys. Rev. B 60, 102 (1999)] analyze the fishtail effect (FE) in a broad temperature range, 1.8 to 60 K. They interpret their experimental data at temperatures above 5 K as a crossover from elastic to plastic creep, which causes the fishtail peak. At low temperatures, below 5 K, they see evidence for plastic creep even below the FE maximum. Their experiment can be, however, alternatively explained in terms of a thermally activated flux creep [Perkins et al., Phys. Rev. B 51, 8513 (1995)] affected at low temperatures by self-field effects.

  20. Flash pyrolysis of heavy metal contaminated biomass from phytoremediation: Influence of temperature, entrained flow and wood/leaves blended pyrolysis on the behaviour of heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    Stals, Mark; THIJSSEN, Elsy; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Carleer, Robert; SCHREURS, Sonja; Yperman, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Phytoremediation crop disposal is a problem inhibiting the widespread use of the remediation technique. Flash pyrolysis as processing method for metal contaminated biomass is investigated: the rather low pyrolysis temperature prevents metal compounds from volatilisation while valuable pyrolysis oil is produced. Both plant stems and leaves are pyrolysed in a lab-scale semi-continuous reactor. Parameters under investigation are pyrolysis temperature (623, 723 and 823 K), the use of hot-gas filt...

  1. Catalytic pyrolysis of palm kernel shell waste in a fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Won; Koo, Bon Seok; Lee, Dong Hyun

    2014-09-01

    The catalytic pyrolysis of palm kernel shell was investigated in a fluidized bed with zsm-5 and equilibrium FCC (Ecat) catalysts. Catalytic pyrolysis oil yields were remarkably reduced and gas yields were increased due to the higher catalytic reaction of primary volatiles compared to non-catalytic pyrolysis. Char yields were affected by temperature and the pore structure of the catalysts. The pyrolysis oil was characterized by lower H/C and O/C molar ratios due to aromatization and deoxygenation of volatiles by the catalysts. The catalytic pyrolysis oils contained more oxygen and nitrogen and less sulfur than petroleum oils. The oils had a high concentration of nitriles, with a carbon number distribution similar to fatty acids. The catalytic pyrolysis oils featured high nitriles yield with Ecat and high aromatics yield in the light fraction with zsm-5, due to characteristics of the catalyst. The catalytic pyrolysis oils showed potentials as feedstocks for bio-diesel and chemicals. PMID:25006017

  2. Influence of pyrolysis temperature on physicochemical properties of biochar obtained from the fast pyrolysis of pitch pine (Pinus rigida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Ho; Kim, Jae-Young; Cho, Tae-Su; Choi, Joon Weon

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of pyrolysis temperature on the physicochemical properties and structure of biochar. Biochar was produced by fast pyrolysis of pitch pine (Pinus rigida) using a fluidized bed reactor at different pyrolysis temperatures (300, 400 and 500 C). The produced biochars were characterized by elemental analysis, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, particle size distributions, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The yield of biochar decreased sharply from 60.7% to 14.4%, based on the oven-dried biomass weight, when the pyrolysis temperature rose from 300 C to 500 C. In addition, biochars were further carbonized with an increase in pyrolysis temperature and the char's remaining carbons were rearranged in stable form. The experimental results suggested that the biochar obtained at 400 and 500 C was composed of a highly ordered aromatic carbon structure. PMID:22705519

  3. Temperature dependence of the second magnetization peak in a deoxygenated yBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6.65} single crystal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salem-Sugui, S., Jr., Ghivelder, L.; Friesen, M.; Moloni, K.; Veal, B.; Paulikas, P.; Materials Science Division; Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Univ. of Wisconsin

    1999-07-01

    We report on magnetic measurements carried out in a YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6.65} deoxygenated single crystal with superconducting transition temperature T{sub c}=62.5 K. The so-called fishtail or second magnetization peak (H{sub p}) has been observed in magnetization curves from 60 K down to 1.8 K. In the region 6 Ktemperature is lowered. For T<6 K, H{sub p} increases linearly with temperature and an extrapolation to T=0 gives H{sub p}(0)=2.9 T. This value occurs just above a decoupling field H{sub d}, above which there is a change in the temperature dependence of the irreversibility line, a departure from the relation (1-T/T{sub c}){sup m}. Magnetic relaxation measurements for fields in the region of the second magnetization peak indicate a change in the mechanism originating the second peak below 5 K. At higher temperatures the peak position changes with time. For temperatures lower than 5 K there is no differences in relaxation below and above H{sub p}, and the position of the peak does not change with time.

  4. Novel electrochemical deoxygenation reaction using diphenylphosphinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Kevin; Markó, István E

    2011-02-01

    The electrochemical reduction of diphenylphosphinate esters leads smoothly and in high yields to the corresponding deoxygenated products. In comparison with the previously developed methodologies, the electrolysis could be performed at lower temperature and with a higher current density, resulting in a shorter reaction time. PMID:21174395

  5. Challenges in Designing Biochars for Specific Uses: Influence of Feedstock, Pyrolysis Temperature and Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, Jim; Spokas, Kurt; Novak, Jeff; Lentz, Rodrick

    2015-04-01

    Biochar feedstock choice, pyrolysis temperature and type (fast or slow) may be varied to optimize end-product uses. In general, increasing pyrolysis temperature tends to decrease biochar yield, but increase biochar total carbon, potassium, and magnesium content, pH, lime equivalency, and surface area, and decrease cation exchange capacity. Slow pyrolysis, in general, causes biochars to have greater nitrogen, sulfur, available phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, surface area, and cation exchange capacity as compared to biochars produced using fast pyrolysis. This presentation focuses attention on various biochars and the effects pyrolysis temperatures and types have on inherent biochar nutrients (total and available), pH, potential liming value, cation exchange capacity, and nutrient sorption and entrapment.

  6. Effect of pyrolysis temperature and air flow on toxicity of gases from a polycarbonate polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Brick, V. E.; Brauer, D. P.

    1978-01-01

    A polycarbonate polymer was evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases generated at various temperatures without forced air flow and with 1 L/min air flow, using the toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. Time to various animal responses decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature over the range from 500 C to 800 C. There appeared to be no significant toxic effects at 400 C and lower temperatures.

  7. Formate-assisted pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSisto, William Joseph; Wheeler, Marshall Clayton; van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

    2015-03-17

    The present invention provides, among other thing, methods for creating significantly deoxygenated bio-oils form biomass including the steps of providing a feedstock, associating the feedstock with an alkali formate to form a treated feedstock, dewatering the treated feedstock, heating the dewatered treated feedstock to form a vapor product, and condensing the vapor product to form a pyrolysis oil, wherein the pyrolysis oil contains less than 30% oxygen by weight.

  8. Yield and Characteristics of Pyrolysis Products Obtained from Schizochytrium limacinum under Different Temperature Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Renjie Dong; Benu Adhikari; Li Tian; Zonghu Ma; Ying Liu; Fang Ji; Yuguang Zhou; Gang Li

    2013-01-01

    Pyrolysis-gas chromatographic mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) was used to determine the yield and chemical composition of the pyrolysis products of Schizochytrium limacinum. The pyrolysis was carried out by varying the temperature from 300 °C to 800 °C. It was found that the main decomposition temperature of Schizochytrium limacinum was 428.16 °C, at which up to 66.5% of the mass was lost. A further 18.7% mass loss then occurred in a relatively slow pace until 760.2 °C due to complete decomposit...

  9. Microwave and Conventional Pyrolysis of Coffee Hulls at Different Temperatures for a Hydrogen Rich Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Menendez, Angel; Fernandez, Yolanda; Dominguez, Antonio; Pis, Juan; Valente Nabais, Joao; Carrott, Peter; Carrott, Manuela

    2006-01-01

    Microwave and Conventional Pyrolysis of Coffee Hulls at Different Temperatures for a Hydrogen Rich Gas. The paper reports the comparison of using a microwave and a conventional furnace to do the pysolysis of the coffee hulls.

  10. Catalytic pyrolysis of biomass: Effects of pyrolysis temperature, sweeping gas flow rate and MgO catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton seed, as a biomass source, is pyrolysed in a tubular fixed-bed reactor under various sweeping gas (N2) flow rates at different pyrolysis temperatures. In the non-catalytic work, the maximum bio-oil yield was attained as 48.30% at 550 oC with a sweeping gas flow rate of 200 mL min-1. At the optimum conditions, catalytic pyrolysis of biomass samples was performed with various amounts of MgO catalyst (5, 10, 15, and 20 wt.% of raw material). Catalyst addition decreased the quantity of bio-oil yet increased the quality of bio-oil in terms of calorific value, hydrocarbon distribution and removal of oxygenated groups. It was observed that increasing the amount of catalyst used, decreased the oil yields while increased the gas and char yields. Bio-oils obtained at the optimum conditions were separated into aliphatic, aromatic and polar sub-fractions. After the application of column chromatography, bio-oils were subjected into elemental, FT-IR and 1H NMR analyses. Aliphatic sub-fractions of bio-oils were analyzed by GC-MS. It was deduced that the fuel obtained via catalytic pyrolysis mainly consisted of lower weight hydrocarbons in the diesel range. Finally, obtained results were compared with petroleum fractions and evaluated as a potential source for liquid fuels.

  11. Effect of precursor concentration and spray pyrolysis temperature upon hydroxyapatite particle size and density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jung Sang; Lee, Jeong-Cheol; Rhee, Sang-Hoon

    2016-02-01

    In the synthesis of hydroxyapatite powders by spray pyrolysis, control of the particle size was investigated by varying the initial concentration of the precursor solution and the pyrolysis temperature. Calcium phosphate solutions (Ca/P ratio of 1.67) with a range of concentrations from 0.1 to 2.0 mol/L were prepared by dissolving calcium nitrate tetrahydrate and diammonium hydrogen phosphate in deionized water and subsequently adding nitric acid. Hydroxyapatite powders were then synthesized by spray pyrolysis at 900C and at 1500C, using these calcium phosphate precursor solutions, under the fixed carrier gas flow rate of 10 L/min. The particle size decreased as the precursor concentration decreased and the spray pyrolysis temperature increased. Sinterability tests conducted at 1100C for 1 h showed that the smaller and denser the particles were, the higher the relative densities were of sintered hydroxyapatite disks formed from these particles. The practical implication of these results is that highly sinterable small and dense hydroxyapatite particles can be synthesized by means of spray pyrolysis using a low-concentration precursor solution and a high pyrolysis temperature under a fixed carrier gas flow rate. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 422-430, 2016. PMID:25891158

  12. A review of the toxicity of biomass pyrolysis liquids formed at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diebold, J P [Thermalchemie, Inc., Lakewood, CO (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The scaleup of biomass fast pyrolysis systems to large pilot and commercial scales will expose an increasingly large number of personnel to potential health hazards, especially during the evaluation of the commercial use of the pyrolysis condensates. Although the concept of fast pyrolysis to optimize liquid products is relatively new, low-temperature pyrolysis processes have been used over the aeons to produce charcoal and liquid by-products, e.g., smoky food flavors, food preservatives, and aerosols containing narcotics, e.g., nicotine. There are a number of studies in the historical literature that concern the hazards of acute and long-term exposure to smoke and to the historical pyrolysis liquids formed at low temperatures. The reported toxicity of smoke, smoke food flavors, and fast pyrolysis oils is reviewed. The data found for these complex mixtures suggest that the toxicity may be less than that of the individual components. It is speculated that there may be chemical reactions that take place that serve to reduce the toxicity during aging. 81 refs.

  13. Preparation of indium sulfide thin film by nebulized spray pyrolysis technique at different substrate temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nebulized spray pyrolysis is a novel and easy technique of preparing thin films by which uniform precursor droplets can be deposited. Thin films having In2S3 compound were deposited with different substrate temperature by the above technique and they were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and optical absorption, transmission studies by UV-VIS spectrometer. The variation of thickness and electrical conductivity were also analyzed. The above properties were compared with the literature to find the effect of substrate temperature and due to this nebulized spray pyrolysis technique. (author)

  14. Dependence of Pyrolysis Rate of Coal on Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slyusarskiy Konstantin V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis process of coal has been researched to define kinetic constants which can be used for design and optimization of different processes of fuel transformation. The article considers anthracite powders and bituminous coal of Krasnogorsky mine with the use of non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis with mass spectrometry. Spectroscanning microscopy and laser diffraction for definition of sizes and forms of particles distribution has been done. Other parameters carbon content, ash and volatiles, density and moisture have been defined by standard methods. Energy of activation and pre-exponent with the use of models of Freedman, Starink and distributed activation energy model (DAEM, and also relative deviation of design data from experimental ones have been designed. The results of the analysis have shown the important influence of volatiles content and coal transformation degree on maximum reaction rate. Energy activation values received with the help of DAEM model are higher than with Freedman and Starink models. Process of pyrolysis of bituminous coal has a big rate in comparison with anthracite, and is better described by the above-mentioned models.

  15. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on the composition of the oils obtained from sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewage sludge was pyrolysed in a quartz reactor at 350, 450, 550 and 950 oC. The pyrolysis oils from the sewage sludge were characterized in detail by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Changes in the composition of the oils related to the process conditions were assessed by normalizing the areas of the peaks. It was demonstrated that, as the temperature of pyrolysis increased from 350 to 950 oC, the concentration of mono-aromatic hydrocarbons in the oils also increased. Conversely, phenol and its alkyl derivatives showed a strong decrease in their concentration as temperature rose. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with two to three rings passed through a maximum at a pyrolysis temperature of 450 oC. PAHs with 4-5 rings also presented a major increase as temperature increased up to 450 oC, the concentration at 950 oC being slightly higher than that at 450 oC. Quantification of the main compounds showed that sewage sludge pyrolysis oils contain significant quantities of potentially high-value hydrocarbons such as mono-aromatic hydrocarbons and phenolic compounds. The oils also contain substantial concentrations of PAHs, even at the lowest temperature of 350 oC. The pathway to PAH formation is believed to be via the Diels-Alder reaction and also via secondary reactions of oxygenated compounds such as phenols.

  16. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on the composition of the oils obtained from sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, M.E.; Martinez, O.; Calvo, L.F. [Natural Resources Institute, University of Leon, Avda. de Portugal 41, 24071 Leon (Spain); Menendez, J.A.; Dominguez, A.; Pis, J.J. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain); Bernad, P.L. [Department of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Oviedo (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    Sewage sludge was pyrolysed in a quartz reactor at 350, 450, 550 and 950 C. The pyrolysis oils from the sewage sludge were characterized in detail by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Changes in the composition of the oils related to the process conditions were assessed by normalizing the areas of the peaks. It was demonstrated that, as the temperature of pyrolysis increased from 350 to 950 C, the concentration of mono-aromatic hydrocarbons in the oils also increased. Conversely, phenol and its alkyl derivatives showed a strong decrease in their concentration as temperature rose. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with two to three rings passed through a maximum at a pyrolysis temperature of 450 C. PAHs with 4-5 rings also presented a major increase as temperature increased up to 450 C, the concentration at 950 C being slightly higher than that at 450 C. Quantification of the main compounds showed that sewage sludge pyrolysis oils contain significant quantities of potentially high-value hydrocarbons such as mono-aromatic hydrocarbons and phenolic compounds. The oils also contain substantial concentrations of PAHs, even at the lowest temperature of 350 C. The pathway to PAH formation is believed to be via the Diels-Alder reaction and also via secondary reactions of oxygenated compounds such as phenols. (author)

  17. Selective deoxygenation of aldehydes and alcohols on molybdenum carbide (Mo{sub 2}C) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Ke [Catalysis Center for Energy Innovation, Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Yu, Weiting [Chemical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Chen, Jingguang G., E-mail: jgchen@columbia.edu [Chemical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2014-12-30

    Highlights: • Mo{sub 2}C surface can deoxygenate propanal and 1-propanol to produce propene through a similar intermediate (propoxide or η{sup 2}(C,O)-propanal). • Mo{sub 2}C surface can deoxygenate furfural and furfuryl alcohol to make 2-methylfuran through a 2-methylfuran-like intermediate. • The presence of furan ring modifies the selectivity between deoxygenation and hydrogenation/dehydrogenation pathways. - Abstract: The selective deoxygenation of aldehydes and alcohols without cleaving the C-C bond is crucial for upgrading bio-oil and other biomass-derived molecules to useful fuels and chemicals. In this work, propanal, 1-propanol, furfural and furfuryl alcohol were selected as probe molecules to study the deoxygenation of aldehydes and alcohols on molybdenum carbide (Mo{sub 2}C) prepared over a Mo(1 1 0) surface. The reaction pathways were investigated using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS). The deoxygenation of propanal and 1-propanol went through a similar intermediate (propoxide or η{sup 2}(C,O)-propanal) to produce propene. The deoxygenation of furfural and furfuryl alcohol produced a surface intermediate similar to adsorbed 2-methylfuran. The comparison of these results revealed the promising deoxygenation performance of Mo{sub 2}C, as well as the effect of the furan ring on the selective deoxygenation of the C=O and C-OH bonds.

  18. Selective deoxygenation of aldehydes and alcohols on molybdenum carbide (Mo2C) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Mo2C surface can deoxygenate propanal and 1-propanol to produce propene through a similar intermediate (propoxide or η2(C,O)-propanal). • Mo2C surface can deoxygenate furfural and furfuryl alcohol to make 2-methylfuran through a 2-methylfuran-like intermediate. • The presence of furan ring modifies the selectivity between deoxygenation and hydrogenation/dehydrogenation pathways. - Abstract: The selective deoxygenation of aldehydes and alcohols without cleaving the C-C bond is crucial for upgrading bio-oil and other biomass-derived molecules to useful fuels and chemicals. In this work, propanal, 1-propanol, furfural and furfuryl alcohol were selected as probe molecules to study the deoxygenation of aldehydes and alcohols on molybdenum carbide (Mo2C) prepared over a Mo(1 1 0) surface. The reaction pathways were investigated using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS). The deoxygenation of propanal and 1-propanol went through a similar intermediate (propoxide or η2(C,O)-propanal) to produce propene. The deoxygenation of furfural and furfuryl alcohol produced a surface intermediate similar to adsorbed 2-methylfuran. The comparison of these results revealed the promising deoxygenation performance of Mo2C, as well as the effect of the furan ring on the selective deoxygenation of the C=O and C-OH bonds

  19. Preparation of Organic/Inorganic Membrane by PDMS Low-temperature Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Jiao-Zhu, LI Lin, JIN Xin, DING Ling-Hua, WANG Tong-Hua

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The organic/inorganic membranes were prepared via low-temperature pyrolysis of polymers. Firstly, polymeric membranes were prepared by dip-coating method using PDMS as the precursor and stainless steel as the support. Then they were pyrolyzed at 350-480C under inert atmosphere. The effects of preparation conditions on the gas separation performance of the organic/inorganic membranes were investigated. Chemical structure changes of PDMS in the pyrolysis process were studied by TG and FT-IR. The morphology of organic/inorganic membrane was characterized by SEM. The results showed that the organic/inorganic membranes with good gas separation performance could be successfully prepared by low-temperature pyrolysis of PDMS. The membrane retains part flexibility of PDMS, and presents good thermostability and high gas permselectivity. The gas separation performance and membrane layer structure of organic/inorganic membranes are greatly affected by the preparation conditions such as the PDMS concentration, coating times, pyrolysis temperature and properties of support. The gas separation performances prepared under the optimum condition are that the O2 permeation flux of 21.2 GPU(1 GPU=7.50110-12m3(STP/(m2?s?Pa and O2/N2 selectivity of 2.28.

  20. Influence of the Pyrolysis Temperature on Sewage Sludge Product Distribution, Bio-Oil, and Char Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Knudsen, Niels Ole; Sørensen, Hanne Risbjerg

    2013-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis may be used for sewage sludge treatment with the advantages of a significant reduction of solid waste volume and production of a bio-oil that can be used as fuel. A study of the influence of the reaction temperature on sewage sludge pyrolysis has been carried out using a pyrolysis...... centrifugel reactor (PCR) at 475, 525, 575, and 625 °C. Maxima of both organic oil yield of 41 wt % on a dry ash free feedstock basis (daf) and a sludge oil energy recovery of 50% were obtained at 575 °C. The water-insoluble fraction, molecular-weight distribution, higher heating value (HHV), and thermal...... behaviors of sludge oils were found to be considerably influenced by the applied pyrolysis temperatures. The sludge oil properties obtained at the optimal temperature of 575 °C were a HHV of 25.5 MJ/kg, a water-insoluble fraction of 18.7 wt %, a viscosity of 43.6 mPa s at 40 °C, a mean molecular weight of...

  1. Influence of temperature and biomass type on gaseous emissions and tar composition produced by biomass pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guehenneux, G.F.; Varin, S.A.; Baussand, P. [Groupe de Recherche sur l' Environnement et la Chimie Atmospherique (GRECA), 38 - Grenoble, (France); Brothier, M.; Estubier, P.; Fournel, B. [CEA Cadarache, Service d' Etudes des Procedes (SEP), Laboratoire d' Etude des Techniques de Decontamination (LETD), 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2003-09-01

    The use of renewable energy sources is becoming increasingly necessary to diminish the greenhouse effect gases production. Biomass is the most common form of renewable energy, widely used in the third world. Pyrolysis, which corresponds to the thermal decomposition of biomass under the action of heat and without any oxidant, is particularly well-adapted to the valorization of lignocellulosic products, as wood or straw. BIOCARB project, induced by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), and to which the Groupe de Recherche sur l'Environnement et la Chimie Atmospherique (GRECA) contributes, aims to produce fuel from the gasification of biomass. The thermal decomposition of biomass gives three phases: a gaseous phase which is composed of H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2} and hydrocarbons, a liquid phase containing tars and the solid residue essentially constituted of the mineral part. The characteristics of these three phases (weight or volume, chemical compositions) depend on processing conditions, and particularly on the temperature of pyrolysis. However, in the preliminary experiments reported here, some gaseous hydrocarbons condense into large quantities of tars which block up the furnace. This work presents experiments of pyrolysis of wood at 350-650 degrees C temperature range, realised at a laboratory scale. The gaseous phase and the tars were sampled and analysed. The results obtained show that the composition of the gases and the composition of the tars are linked and depend on the pyrolysis conditions. Indeed, an increase of temperature reduces the quantity of tars produced (and so, the risks of blockage), but increases the proportion of heavy volatile compounds hard to eliminate to obtain the final pyrolysis gas. The second part of this work presents a comparison between wood, straw and fescue pyrolyses at 550 degrees C. The composition of gaseous emissions and tars produced are different depending on the biomass used. The choice of operating conditions such as temperature and biomass type is very important to develop adapted process. (authors)

  2. Effects of inherent alkali and alkaline earth metallic species on biomass pyrolysis at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Song; Jiang, Long; Wang, Yi; Su, Sheng; Sun, Lushi; Xu, Boyang; He, Limo; Xiang, Jun

    2015-09-01

    This work aimed to investigate effects of inherent alkali and alkaline earth metallic species (AAEMs) on biomass pyrolysis at different temperatures. The yield of CO, H2 and C2H4 was increased and that of CO2 was suppressed with increasing temperature. Increasing temperature could also promote depolymerization and aromatization reactions of active tars, forming heavier polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, leading to decrease of tar yields and species diversity. Diverse performance of inherent AAEMs at different temperatures significantly affected the distribution of pyrolysis products. The presence of inherent AAEMs promoted water-gas shift reaction, and enhanced the yield of H2 and CO2. Additionally, inherent AAEMs not only promoted breakage and decarboxylation/decarbonylation reaction of thermally labile hetero atoms of the tar but also enhanced thermal decomposing of heavier aromatics. Inherent AAEMs could also significantly enhance the decomposition of levoglucosan, and alkaline earth metals showed greater effect than alkali metals. PMID:26005925

  3. Recycling of automobile shredder residue with a microwave pyrolysis combined with high temperature steam gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presently, there is a growing need for handling automobile shredder residues - ASR or 'car fluff'. One of the most promising methods of treatment ASR is pyrolysis. Apart of obvious benefits of pyrolysis: energy and metals recovery, there is serious concern about the residues generated from that process needing to be recycled. Unfortunately, not much work has been reported providing a solution for treatment the wastes after pyrolysis. This work proposes a new system based on a two-staged process. The ASR was primarily treated by microwave pyrolysis and later the liquid and solid products become the feedstock for the high temperature gasification process. The system development is supported within experimental results conducted in a lab-scale, batch-type reactor at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH). The heating rate, mass loss, gas composition, LHV and gas yield of producer gas vs. residence time are reported for the steam temperature of 1173 K. The sample input was 10 g and the steam flow rate was 0.65 kg/h. The conversion reached 99% for liquids and 45-55% for solids, dependently from the fraction. The H2:CO mol/mol ratio varied from 1.72 solids and 1.4 for liquid, respectively. The average LHV of generated gas was 15.8 MJ/N m3 for liquids and 15 MJ/N m3 for solids fuels.

  4. PYROLYSIS OF EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES: INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON THE YIELDS AND COMPOSITION OF GASEOUS PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Azri Sukiran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing concern on fossil fuel depletion and environmental problems, the utilization of renewable biomass resources is expected to play an important role in the future. Biomass can be converted into a variety of fuels and chemicals by different processes; one of which is pyrolysis that has been subjected to extensive research in recent years. In this study, pyrolysis of oil palm Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB was investigated using a quartz fluidised-fixed bed reactor. The effects of pyrolysis temperatures on the yields and composition of gaseous products were investigated. The temperatures of pyrolysis used were in the range of 300-600°C. The gaseous products from pyrolysis of (EFB were analyzed using a dual-channel micro-GC with Thermal Conductivity Detector (TCD. The highest and lowest gas yields obtained were 42.98 and 31.55% at 600 and 300°C, respectively. The gases detected were Carbon Monoxide (CO, carbon dioxide (CO2, Methane (CH4, Ethane (C2H6 and Ethylene (C2H4. At 300 and 400°C, the gas mixture comprised mainly CO2 (20% and CO (20%. Other gases such as CH4, C2H4 and C2H6 only evolved at higher temperature starting from 400°C with the yield of the latter two gases in very low concentration.

  5. Effect of final pyrolysis temperature on the mechanical and thermal properties of carbon foams reinforced by aluminosilicate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xiaowen, E-mail: xwwu@cugb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Fang, Minghao; Mei, Lefu; Luo, Bingcheng [School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Carbon foams with phenolic resin as precursor and aluminosilicate as reinforcement were prepared at different final pyrolysis temperatures. The microstructures, mechanical and thermal properties of the foams were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, mechanical testing and the laser flash method, respectively. The results show that the cells are mainly open with incomplete cell membranes, and the alumninosilicate particles are located in cell walls. The surface of cell openings becomes rougher as the final pyrolysis temperature increases. The ultimate compressive strength increases from 0.45 to 1.74 MPa when increasing the final pyrolysis temperature from 1100 to 1550 Degree-Sign C. The thermal conductivity ranged from 0.37 to 0.52 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1} at room temperature and decreases with increasing the final pyrolysis temperature. The occurrence of the mullite phase plays a key role in the changes of the mechanical properties and thermal conductivity of the foams.

  6. Influence of temperature and particle size on the fixed bed pyrolysis of orange peel residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, L. [Departamento de Mecanica, Universidad de Pinar del Rio, Cuba. Calle Marti 270, final, Pinar del Rio (Cuba); Marquez-Montesinos, F. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de Pinar del Rio, Cuba. Calle Marti 270, final, Pinar del Rio (Cuba); Gonzalo, A.; Sanchez, J.L.; Arauzo, J. [Thermochemical Processes Group (GPT), Aragon Institute for Engineering Research (I3A), University of Zaragoza, Maria de Luna 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    Orange peel is a residue from the production of juice. Its energetic valorisation could be interesting in areas where a different use, such as animal feed, is not possible. In order to investigate the viability of energy recovery, the pyrolysis of orange peel residues was studied in a fixed bed reactor, as an initial assessment of this process. The influence of pyrolysis temperature (300-600 C) and particle size (d{sub p}<300{mu}m and d{sub p}>800{mu}m) on product distribution, gas composition and char heating value has been investigated using a factorial design of experiments. Gas, char and water are the main products obtained; tar is only about 6 wt.% of the initial residue. Temperature was found to be the parameter which exerts a more important influence on the results than particle size. (author)

  7. Characterization of Biochar Properties Affected by Different Pyrolysis Temperatures Using Visible-Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Haiqing; Sheng, Kuichuan

    2012-01-01

    Rapid characterization of biochar for energy and ecological purpose utilization is fundamental. In this work, visible and near-infrared (vis-NIR) spectroscopy was used to measure ash, volatile matter, fixed carbon contents, and calorific value of three types of biochar produced from pine wood, cedar wood, and cotton stalk, respectively. The vis-NIR spectroscopy was also used to discriminate biochar feedstock types and pyrolysis temperature. Prediction result shows that partial least squares (...

  8. Growth Temperature Effect on Carbon Nano tubes Formation by Spray Pyrolysis Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nano tubes has been produced by using spray pyrolysis method with no carrier gas. Carbon nano tubes were formulated from a mixture a ferrocene and benzene with certain ratio and then the mixture were injected by the sprayer into the furnace. Growth temperature was optimized in the range of 650 until 850 oC to get the high quality of carbon nano tubes. These were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX). (author)

  9. Biomass Pyrolysis: Comments on Some Sources of Confusions in the Definitions of Temperatures and Heating Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Lédé

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomass pyrolysis is usually characterized on the basis of temperature and heating rate. Unfortunately, these parameters are badly defined in processing reactors as well as in laboratory devices. From the results of simplified models, the present paper points out the significant mistakes that can be made when assuming that the actual temperature and heating rate of reacting biomass particles are the same as those of the external heating medium. The difficulties in defining these two parameters are underlined in both cases of a heat source temperature supposed to be constant or to increase with time.

  10. Toluene pyrolysis studies and high temperature reactions of propargyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, R.D.; Chen, H.; Qin, Z. [Univ. of New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The main focus of this program is to investigate the thermal decompositions of fuels that play an important role in the pre-particle soot formation process. It has been demonstrated that the condition of maximum soot yield is established when the reaction conditions of temperature and pressure are sufficient to establish a radical pool to support the production of polyaromatic hydrocarbon species and the subsequent formation of soot particles. However, elevated temperatures result in lower soot yields which are attributed to thermolyses of aromatic ring structures and result in the bell-shaped dependence of soot yield on temperature. The authors have selected several acyclic hydrocarbons to evaluate the chemical thermodynamic and kinetic effects attendant to benzene formation. To assess the thermal stability of the aromatic ring, the authors have studied the pyrolyses of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, chlorobenzene and pyridine. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF) is employed to analyze the reaction zone behind reflected shock waves. Reaction time histories of the reactants, products, and intermediates are constructed and mechanisms are formulated to model the experimental data. The TOF work is often performed with use of laser schlieren densitometry (LS) to measure density gradients resulting from the heats of various reactions involved in a particular pyrolytic system. The two techniques, TOF and LS, provide independent and complementary information about ring formation and ring rupture reactions.

  11. Hydrogen production from biomass pyrolysis gas via high temperature steam reforming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The aim of this work has been undertaken as part of the design of continuous hydrogen production using the high temperature steam reforming process. The steady-state test condition was carried out using syngas from biomass pyrolysis, whilst operating at high temperatures between 600 and 1200 degree Celsius. The main reformer operating parameters (e.g. temperature, resident time and steam to biomass ratio (S/B)) have been examined in order to optimize the performance of the reformer. The operating temperature is a key factor in determining the extent to which hydrogen production is increased at higher temperatures (900 -1200 degree Celsius) whilst maintaining the same as resident time and S/B ratio. The effects of exhaust gas composition on heating value were also investigated. The steam reforming process produced methane (CH4) and ethylene (C2H4) between 600 to 800 degree Celsius and enhanced production ethane (C2H6) at 700 degree Celsius. However carbon monoxide (CO) emission was slightly increased for higher temperatures all conditions. The results show that the use of biomass pyrolysis gas can produce higher hydrogen production from high temperature steam reforming. In addition the increasing reformer efficiency needs to be optimized for different operating conditions. (author)

  12. Influence of fast pyrolysis temperature on biochar labile fraction and short-term carbon loss in a loamy soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Esben; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Ibrahim, Norazana; Egsgaard, Helge; Ambus, Per; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Production of bio-oil, gas and biochar from pyrolysis of biomass is considered a promising technology for combined production of bioenergy and recalcitrant carbon (C) suitable for sequestration in soil. Using a fast pyrolysis centrifuge reactor (PCR) the present study investigated the relation...... in soil. As these labile carbohydrates are rapidly mineralized, their presence lowers the biochar-C sequestration potential. By raising the pyrolysis temperature, biochar with none or low contents of these fractions can be produced, but this will be on the expense of the biochar quantity. The yield...... between fast pyrolysis of wheat straw at different reactor temperatures and the short-term degradability of biochar in soil. After 115 days incubation 3–12% of the added biochar-C had been emitted as CO2. On average, 90% of the total biochar-C loss occurred within the first 20 days of the experiment...

  13. [Properties of maize stalk biochar produced under different pyrolysis temperatures and its sorption capability to naphthalene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hua; Wang, Ya-Xiong; Tang, Jing-Chun; Tang, Jing-Chun; Zhu, Wen-Ying

    2014-05-01

    Biochar was made from maize stalk under three different temperatures of 300, 500 and 700 degreeC. The elemental composition of biochar was measured by elemental analyzer. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to measure the surface morphology. Sorption of naphthalene to biochar was researched by batch sorption experiments. Results showed that, with the increase of temperature, C content increased from 66. 79% to 76. 30% , H and O contents decreased from 4.92% and 19. 25% to 3. 18% and 9.53%, respectively; H/C, O/C, (O + N)/C, aromaticity and hydrophobicity increased, and polarity decreased. SEM results showed that maize stalk biochar was platy particles, and its roughness of surface increased with increasing temperature. The sorption of naphthalene on biochar followed the Lagergren pseudo-second order dynamic sorption model. Initial sorption rate and equilibrium sorption capacity increased as preparation temperatures increased at the same initial concentration of naphthalene. The isotherm sorption behavior can be described by the Freundlich model, which indicated that, as pyrolysis temperature increased, the sorption capacity of biochar increased, and nonlinearity increased first and then decreased. Biochar derived from maize stalk had distinct features when compared with other feedstocks, and its elemental composition, surface features and sorption behaviors were significantly influenced by pyrolysis temperature. PMID:25055682

  14. Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2012-12-11

    A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

  15. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature and Heating Rate in the Fabrication of Carbon Membrane: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.T. Jaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its brittleness and relatively high fabrication cost, the excellent performance of carbon membrane in gas separation outweighs such limitations. The carbon-based membranes have the capability to perform specific gas separations when compared to other types of membranes or any conventional separation technology that based on cryogenic, adsorption or absorption mechanisms. Basically, carbon membrane is a derivation of its polymeric precursor membrane. The derivation refers to the pyrolysis process of the polymeric membrane that turns it into a carbon membrane. During the process, the polymeric membrane undergoes a controlled thermal treatment and at the same time, inert atmosphere is continuously generated to remove any oxidizing agents. This process is proven to be highly critical and challenging because it determines the final pore structure and its corresponding performances of the carbon membrane. Heating rate and pyrolysis temperature are part of the pyrolysis process and the most tuned parameters to obtain a very fine carbon membrane according to an intended application-based performance. These parameters have been reported numerously for their significant impacts on the fabrication of carbon membranes and this paper provides the review.

  16. Influence of fast pyrolysis temperature on biochar labile fraction and short-term carbon loss in a loamy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production of bio-oil, gas and biochar from pyrolysis of biomass is considered a promising technology for combined production of bioenergy and recalcitrant carbon (C) suitable for sequestration in soil. Using a fast pyrolysis centrifuge reactor (PCR) the present study investigated the relation between fast pyrolysis of wheat straw at different reactor temperatures and the short-term degradability of biochar in soil. After 115 days incubation 3-12% of the added biochar-C had been emitted as CO2. On average, 90% of the total biochar-C loss occurred within the first 20 days of the experiment, emphasizing the importance of knowing the biochar labile fraction when evaluating a specific biochars C sequestration potential. The pyrolysis temperature influenced the outputs of biochar, bio-oil and syngas significantly, as well as the stability of the biochar produced. Contrary to slow pyrolysis a fast pyrolysis process may result in incomplete conversion of biomass due to limitations to heat transfer and kinetics. In our case chemical analysis of the biochars revealed unconverted cellulosic and hemicellulosic fractions, which in turn were found to be proportional with the short-term biochar degradation in soil. As these labile carbohydrates are rapidly mineralized, their presence lowers the biochar-C sequestration potential. By raising the pyrolysis temperature, biochar with none or low contents of these fractions can be produced, but this will be on the expense of the biochar quantity. The yield of CO2 neutral bio-oil is the other factor to optimize when adjusting the pyrolysis temperature settings to give the overall greatest climate change mitigation effect.

  17. Unusual proximal heme pocket geometry in the deoxygenated Thermobifida fusca: A combined spectroscopic investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Arcovito, Alessandro; Bonamore, Alessandra; Hazemann, Jean Louis; Boffi, Alberto; D'Angelo, Paola

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The spectroscopic properties of the deoxygenated truncated hemoglobin from the actinobacterium Thermobifida fusca have been investigated by means of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), and near infrared spectroscopies both at room and cryogenic temperatures. At room temperature the near infrared charge transfer band III occurs at 772nm, a value that is unusually high for a canonical deoxygenated hemoglobin species...

  18. Influence of pyrolysis temperature on characteristics and phosphate adsorption capability of biochar derived from waste-marine macroalgae (Undaria pinnatifida roots).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyung-Won; Kim, Kipal; Jeong, Tae-Un; Ahn, Kyu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    The collected roots of Undaria pinnatifida, the main waste in farming sites, accounting for 40-60% of annual production, was pyrolyzed under temperature ranging from 200 to 800C to evaluate the influence of pyrolysis temperature on biochar properties and phosphate adsorption capacity. It was confirmed that an increase in the pyrolysis temperature led to a decrease of the yield of biochar, while ash content remained almost due to carbonization followed by mineralization. Elemental analysis results indicated an increase in aromaticity and decreased polarity at a high pyrolysis temperature. When the pyrolysis temperature was increased up to 400C, the phosphate adsorption capacity was enhanced, while a further increase in the pyrolysis temperature lowered the adsorption capacity due to blocked pores in the biochar during pyrolysis. Finally, a pot experiment revealed that biochar derived from waste-marine macroalgae is a potent and eco-friendly alternative material for fertilizer after phosphate adsorption. PMID:26482944

  19. Application and research on Regenerative High Temperature Air Combustion technology on low-rank coal pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Based on RHTAC technology, RRTC has been developed, and was adopted by Shenwu Pyrolysis Process (SPP). • For RRTC, the low calorific value gas fuel can be used and the heat loss in fume exhausted is low. • The RRTCs can realize accurate temperature control and the separation of volatile materials and fume in the pyrolyzer. • Tar yield and gas quality is improved. Moreover, SPP could solve some technical problems for low-rank coal pyrolysis. - Abstract: Regenerative High Temperature Air Combustion (RHTAC) technology is composed of circular-ceramic regenerator, burners, small four-way reversing valve and control system. RHTAC technology works by using the regenerator in burners to complete heat exchange between the high-temperature fume exhausted and the combustion air. Based on RHTAC technology, Regenerative Radiant Tube Combustor (RRTC) has been developed, and was adopted by Shenwu Pyrolysis Process (SPP), which is a new pyrolysis technology with the heat-carrier-free rotating bed. SPP was researched and developed to upgrade low-rank coal into the upgraded coal, tar and pyrolyzing gas. Presently, various coals from China and other countries have been conducted, including Lignite and Long flame coal. To understand the function of the RRTCs in SPP, a pilot plant has been constructed and used to investigate the effects of the RRTCs on the fume and pyrolyzer temperature distributions and pyrolyzing products. The results show that low calorific value gas fuel (>700 kcal/Nm3) can be used, the heat loss in fume exhausted is low (temp. about 150 °C), so thermal efficiency of the RRTC is greatly improved; the RRTCs can realize accurate temperature control and the separation of volatile materials and fume in the pyrolyzer, so as to increase tar yield and improve gas quality. The tar yield is more than 90% of the Gray-King tar yield; the pyrolyzing gas contains high contents of CH4, H2 and CO. Moreover, SPP could solve some technical problems, such as high dust content in coal tar, likely blockage of pipeline and greatly increasing the subsequent tar processing cost

  20. The densification of bio-char: Effect of pyrolysis temperature on the qualities of pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiang; Yang, Haiping; Yao, Dingding; Zhu, Danchen; Wang, Xianhua; Shao, Jingai; Chen, Hanping

    2016-01-01

    The densification of bio-chars pyrolyzed at different temperatures were investigated to elucidate the effect of temperature on the properties of bio-char pellets and determine the bonding mechanism of pellets. Optimized process conditions were obtained with 128MPa compressive pressure and 35% water addition content. Results showed that both the volume density and compressive strength of bio-char pellets initially decreased and subsequently increased, while the energy consumption increased first and then decreased, with the increase of pyrolysis temperature. The moisture adsorption of bio-char pellets was noticeably lower than raw woody shavings but had elevated than the corresponding char particles. Hydrophilic functional groups, particle size and binder were the main factors that contributed to the cementation of bio-char particles at different temperatures. The result indicated that pyrolysis of woody shavings at 550-650°C and followed by densification was suitable to form bio-char pellets for application as renewable biofuels. PMID:26524250

  1. Formation of PAH and soot during acetylene pyrolysis at different gas residence times and reaction temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and soot from the pyrolysis of acetylene was studied, taking into account the influence of the operating conditions, such as gas residence time and temperature. The influence of gas residence time was considered between 1.28 and 3.88 s for the experiments carried out under different temperatures from 1073 to 1223 K. The total PAH was calculated as the addition of PAH concentration found in different locations, namely adsorbed on soot and on the reactor walls, and at the outlet gas stream. The relationship between the PAH concentrations and their carcinogenic equivalence sum (KE) was also evaluated. The results obtained showed that temperature and residence time have a high influence on pyrolysis products, especially on the PAH concentration adsorbed on soot, which exhibited the highest KE in all cases studied. -- Highlights: ► This study analyses the influence of gas residence time and reaction temperature on PAH and soot formation. ► The present work develops an analytical method for PAH-priorities quantification. ► A major amount of PAH adsorbed on soot is found under every evaluated condition. ► High PAH concentration does not necessarily involve more dangerous effects.

  2. Nitrogen enrichment potential of biochar in relation to pyrolysis temperature and feedstock quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassal, Rachhpal S; Johnson, Mark S; Molodovskaya, Marina; Black, T Andrew; Jollymore, Ashlee; Sveinson, Kelly

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) enrichment of biochar from both inorganic and organic waste N sources has the potential to add economic and environmental value through its use as a slow release N fertilizer. We investigated the sorption of N by, and its release from, biochar made at pyrolysis temperatures of 400, 500 and 600 °C from three feedstocks: poultry litter (PL with a carbon (C) to N ratio (C:N) of 14), softwood chips of spruce-pine-fir (SPF with a C:N of 470), and a 50:50 mixture of PL and SPF (PL/SPF). The prepared biochars were enriched with ammonium nitrate (AN) and urea ammonium nitrate (UAN). PL biochars had the lowest C content (50-56% C), but the highest pH (9.3-9.9), electrical conductivity (EC, 780-960 dS m(-1)), cation exchange capacity (CEC, 40-46 cmol kg(-1)), and N content (3.3-4.5%). While N content and hydrogen (H) to C atomic ratio (H:C) decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature irrespective of the feedstock used, both pH and EC slightly increased with pyrolysis temperature for all feedstocks. The PL and SPF biochars showed similar H:C and also similar N sorption and N release at all pyrolysis temperatures. These biochars sorbed up to 5% N by mass, irrespective of the source of N. However, PL/SPF biochar performed poorly in sorbing N from either AN or UAN. Biochar H:C was found to be unrelated to N sorption rates, suggesting that physical adsorption on active surfaces was the main mechanism of N sorption in these biochars. There were minor differences between N sorbed from NO3-N and NH4-N among different biochars. Very small amounts of sorbed N (0.2-0.4 mg N g(-1) biochar) was released when extracted with 1 M KCl solution, indicating that the retained N was strongly held in complex bonds, more so for NH4-N because the release of NO3-N was 3-4 times greater than that of NH4-N. NH4-N sorption far exceeded the effective CEC of the biochars, thereby suggesting that most of the sorption may be due to physical entrapment of NH4(+) in biochar pores. The results of this study suggest that biochar can be used to remove excess N from poultry and dairy manure and be a good mitigation option for reducing N leaching and gaseous losses. PMID:25621388

  3. Multi-species time-history measurements during high-temperature acetone and 2-butanone pyrolysis

    KAUST Repository

    Lam, Kingyiu

    2013-01-01

    High-temperature acetone and 2-butanone pyrolysis studies were conducted behind reflected shock waves using five species time-history measurements (ketone, CO, CH3, CH4 and C2H4). Experimental conditions covered temperatures of 1100-1600 Kat 1.6 atm, for mixtures of 0.25-1.5% ketone in argon. During acetone pyrolysis, the CO concentration time-history was found to be strongly sensitive to the acetone dissociation rate constant κ1 (CH3COCH3 → CH3 + CH3CO), and this could be directly determined from the CO time-histories, yielding κ1(1.6 atm) = 2.46 × 1014 exp(-69.3 [kcal/mol]/RT) s-1 with an uncertainty of ±25%. This rate constant is in good agreement with previous shock tube studies from Sato and Hidaka (2000) [3] and Saxena et al. (2009) [4] (within 30%) at temperatures above 1450 K, but is at least three times faster than the evaluation from Sato and Hidaka at temperatures below 1250 K. Using this revised κ1 value with the recent mechanism of Pichon et al. (2009) [5], the simulated profiles during acetone pyrolysis show excellent agreement with all five species time-history measurements. Similarly, the overall 2-butanone decomposition rate constant κtot was inferred from measured 2-butanone time-histories, yielding κ tot(1.5 atm) = 6.08 × 1013 exp(-63.1 [kcal/mol]/RT) s -1 with an uncertainty of ±35%. This rate constant is approximately 30% faster than that proposed by Serinyel et al. (2010) [11] at 1119 K, and approximately 100% faster at 1412 K. Using the measured 2-butanone and CO time-histories and an O-atom balance analysis, a missing removal pathway for methyl ketene was identified. The rate constant for the decomposition of methyl ketene was assumed to be the same as the value for the ketene decomposition reaction. Using the revised κtot value and adding the methyl ketene decomposition reaction to the Serinyel et al. mechanism, the simulated profiles during 2-butanone pyrolysis show good agreement with the measurements for all five species. © 2012 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The stabilization of tannery sludge and the character of humic acid-like during low temperature pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongrui; Gao, Mao; Hua, Li; Chao, Hao; Xu, Jing

    2015-11-01

    Tannery sludge contained plenty of organic matter, and the organic substance stability had direct impact on its derived chars' utilization. In this paper, the stabilization of tannery sludge and the variation of humic acid-like (HAL) extracted by different methods were investigated in a magnetic stirring reactor under low temperature pyrolysis of 100-400 C. Results showed that the aromatic structure of pyrolysis chars increased with the increase of temperature and time. The char contained highly aromatic structure and relatively small dissolved organic matters (DOM) at 300 C. The similar behaviors appeared in two HAL series by different extraction methods. The N content, H/C value, and aliphatic structures of HAL decreased with the increase of pyrolysis temperature, while the C/N value and aromatic structures increased with the rise of pyrolysis temperature. The composition and functional groups of HAL were similar with the purchased humic acid (HA). The fluorescence spectra revealed that two main peaks were found at Ex/Em?=?239/363-368 nm and 283/359-368 nm in each HAL series from raw and 100 C pyrolysis tannery sludge, representing a protein-like matter. The new peak appeared at Ex/Em?=?263-283/388 nm in each HAL series from 200 C pyrolysis tannery sludge-represented humic acid-like matter. The fluorescence intensity increased strongly compared to the other two peak intensity. Therefore, the humification of organic matter was increased by pyrolyzing. Notably, the HAL from 200 C pyrolysis tannery sludge contained simple molecular structure, and the polycondensation increased but with a relative lower humification degree compared to soil HAL and purchased HA. Therefore, the sludge needs further oxidation. The humic substance was negligible by direct extraction when the temperature was 300 and 400 C. PMID:26092361

  5. Laboratory studies of the kinetics at high temperature pyrolysis of shale. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holst, L.; Bjerle, I.; Andersson, L.A.

    1985-11-01

    During 1985, experiments have been made concerning high temperature pyrolysis of shale from the Kvarntorp deposit, in a free-fall reactor at the Dept. of Chemical Engineering II, Lund Inst. of Technology. The main purpose was to investigate how the shale conversion and product gas composition are influenced by temperature and particle size. From the experiments it will be seen that the conversion increases with increased temperature and with decreased particle size. The composition of the gas changes towards synthetic gas with increasing temperature, with a CO:H/sub 2/ ratio of 1:2 at 1400 degrees C. There is almost no influence by particle size. Dependence of activation energy on the particle size was also determined.

  6. Characterization of bio-oil and biochar from high-temperature pyrolysis of sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongmei; Zhai, Yunbo; Xu, Bibo; Xiang, Bobin; Zhu, Lu; Qiu, Lei; Liu, Xiaoting; Li, Caiting; Zeng, Guangming

    2015-01-01

    The influence of temperature (550-850C) on the characteristics of bio-oil and biochar from the pyrolysis of sewage sludge (SS) in a horizontal tube reactor was investigated. Results showed that when the pyrolysis temperature increased from 550C to 850C, the yield of bio-oil decreased from 26.16% (dry ash-free basis) to 20.78% (dry ash-free basis). Main components of bio-oil were phenols, esters, cholests, ketones, amides, indoles, and nitriles. Besides, the elevated heating rate of 25C/min was demonstrated to favour the complete combustion of bio-oil. Moreover, caused by the increase in temperature, the yield of biochar decreased from 54.9 to 50.6 wt%, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller surface area increased from 48.51 to 81.28?m2/g. Furthermore, pH was increased from 5.93 of SS to 7.15-8.96 of biochar. The negative ?-potential was also strengthened (-13.87 to -11.30?mV) and principal functional groups on the surface of biochar were -OH, C=O, C=C, -NO2, and S=O. PMID:25518986

  7. Evaluating the effects of temperature on pressurized pyrolysis of Nannochloropsis oculata based on products yields and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • N. oculata is a suitable feedstock for pyrolysis due to high volatile matter. • Temperature effects on product yields and properties during pressurized pyrolysis. • Algal bio-oil has high energy content and has similar composition as diesel fuel. • Suitability of char as a fuel was based on Van Krevelen diagram. • Gas from pyrolysis of N. oculata has high percentage of combustible hydrocarbons. - Abstract: Biofuels derived from pyrolysis of microalgae can be potential alternatives for petroleum-derived fuels. Pyrolysis is an easily controllable thermochemical conversion process that yields energy fuels such as bio-oil, char and combustible gases. Microalgae is a very promising feedstock for this process since it has high lipid content, grows faster than lignocellulosic biomass, has high productivity and high photosynthetic efficiency. Several reaction parameters including temperature could affect the yield and quality of biofuels from pyrolysis. This paper aimed to evaluate the effect of temperature during pyrolysis of Nannochloropsis oculata using a pressurized fixed-bed batch-type reactor. Based on the results, the distribution of the products significantly varied with pyrolysis temperature, and the pyrolysis process can be manipulated to favor one of its products. Bio-oil with high heating value (HHV) of about 38 MJ/kg, due to its high carbon (76wt%) and hydrogen (11wt%) contents, and low oxygen content (7wt%), can be produced from N. oculata. It also consists mainly of saturated (34.95%) and unsaturated aliphatics (34.43%), and aromatics (14.19%) ranging from C8 to C21, which is comparable to diesel fuel. The HHV of the char (27 MJ/kg) and gas (27 MJ/m3) were also relatively high. Based on their heating values (HHV) and compositions, the char, bio-oil and gas produced from pyrolysis of N. oculata can be potentially used as alternative sources of energy. Mass and energy conversion efficiencies of the process were also estimated to be approximately equal to 76% and 68%, respectively

  8. Effects of pyrolysis temperature on structural, Raman, and infrared properties of perovskite PbTiO3 nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sun A.; Kim, Byung Hoon; Cho, Sam Yeon; Han, Jin Kyu; Bu, Sang Don; Choi, Yong Chan

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we investigated the effects of the pyrolysis temperature on the structural, Raman, and infrared properties of PbTiO3 nanotubes (PTO-NTs). The PTO-NTs were synthesized by spin coating a sol-gel solution on porous anodic alumina membranes, followed by the pyrolysis step at 400 - 600 ℃. Then, PTO-NTs were finally crystallized at 600 - 700 ℃ in an oxygen atmosphere to get the perovskite phase. The PTO-NTs had an outer diameter of about 420 nm and a wall thickness of about 10 nm. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the tetragonality ( c/ a) increased from 1.019 to 1.028 as the pyrolysis temperature was increased from 400 to 600 ℃. Raman spectroscopy showed that the phonon modes of A 1( nTO) and E( nTO) increased with a redshift of the A 1(3TO) mode as the pyrolysis temperature was increased. In the Fourier-transform infrared spectra of PTO-NTs embedded in the porous anodic alumina membrane, the transmittance of the band at 499 cm-1 increased as the pyrolysis temperature was increased, which might be due to an increase in the tetragonality.

  9. Substitution of fossil fuels by using low temperature pyrolysis of agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Externally heated rotary kiln pyrolysis reactor is used as a new process technology for the conversion of biomass into useful primary energy products. A 3 MW pyrolysis pilot plant is being operated for a period of two years using agricultural residues. Several analytical methods are applied to provide an insight into the complex process of pyrolysis. Fundamentals for an advanced pyrolysis model approach will be obtained by the results of the pilot plant. (author)

  10. Release of fuel-bound nitrogen in biomass during high temperature pyrolysis and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, J.; Masutani, S.M.; Ishimura, D.M.; Turn, S.Q.; Kinoshita, C.M. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Pyrolysis and gasification of two biomass feedstocks with significantly different fuel-bound nitrogen (FBN) content were investigated to determine the effect of operating conditions on the partitioning of FBN among gas species. Experiments were performed in a bench-scale, indirectly-heated, fluidized bed reactor. Data were obtained over a range of temperatures and equivalence ratios representative of commercial biomass gasification processes. An assay of all major nitrogenous components of the gasification products was performed for the first time, providing a clear accounting of the evolution of FBN. Results indicate that: (1) NH{sub 3} is the dominant nitrogenous gas species produced during pyrolysis of biomass; (2) the majority of FBN is converted to NH{sub 3} or N{sub 2} during gasification; relative levels of NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2} are determined by thermochemical reactions which are affected strongly by temperature; (3) N{sub 2} appears to be produced from NH{sub 3} in the gas phase.

  11. Effect of pyrolysis temperatures and times on the adsorption of cadmium onto orange peel derived biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hai Nguyen; You, Sheng-Jie; Chao, Huan-Ping

    2016-02-01

    The mechanism and capacity of adsorption of cadmium (Cd) on orange peel (OP)-derived biochar at various pyrolysis temperatures (400, 500, 600, 700 and 800°C) and heating times (2 and 6 h) were investigated. Biochar was characterized using proximate analysis, point of zero charge (PZC) analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Equilibrium and kinetic experiments of Cd adsorption on biochar were performed. The results indicated that the pH value at PZC of biochar approached 9.5. Equilibrium can be reached rapidly (within 1 min) in kinetic experiments and a removal rate of 80.6-96.9% can be generated. The results fitted the pseudo-second-order model closely. The adsorption capacity was estimated using the Langmuir model. The adsorption capacity of Cd on biochar was independent of the pyrolysis temperature and heating time (p>0.01). The maximum adsorption capacity of Cd was 114.69 (mg g(-1)). The adsorption of Cd on biochar was regarded as chemisorption. The primary adsorption mechanisms were regarded as Cπ-cation interactions and surface precipitation. Cadmium can react with calcite to form the precipitation of (Ca,Cd)CO3 on the surface of biochar. The OP-derived biochar can be considered a favourable alternative and a new green adsorbent for removing Cd(2+) ions from an aqueous solution. PMID:26608900

  12. Influence of inherent minerals and pyrolysis temperature on the yield of pyrolysates of some Pakistani coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical method has been developed to quantitize tar, liquids and gaseous products resulting from the flash pyrolysis of sub-bituminous Makarwal coal. The method involves the thermal decomposition of 200 mg of 85-mesh size coal at 690 deg. C under the flow of nitrogen using Shimadzu PYR-2A open tubular pyrolyzer. The resulting tar and liquid fractions were separated using two traps at the exit of the pyrolyzer while the gaseous products leaving the traps were on line injected to gas chromatograph equipped with porapak Q column and flame ionization detector for the analysis. Effect of demineralization on the yields of products was investigated by treating raw samples with 2 M HCl. Removal of inherent minerals from coal by acid wash decreased the yield of total volatiles indicating catalytic properties of mineral under the condition used in present study. The influence of pyrolysis temperature on the yield of pyrolysates and hydrocarbon gases, resulting from raw coal samples, was studied over the temperature range of 500-770 deg. C.

  13. Antarctic sediment chronology by programmed-temperature pyrolysis: Methodology and data treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenheim, Brad E.; Day, Mary Beth; Domack, Eugene; Schrum, Heather; Benthien, Albert; Hayes, John M.

    2008-04-01

    We report a detailed programmed-temperature pyrolysis/combustion methodology for radiocarbon (14C) dating of Antarctic sub-ice shelf sediments. The method targets the autochthonous organic component in sediments that contain a distribution of acid-insoluble organic components from several sources of different ages. The approach has improved sediment chronology in organic-rich sediments proximal to Antarctic ice shelves by yielding maximum age constraints significantly younger than bulk radiocarbon dates from the same sediment horizons. The method proves adequate in determining isotope ratios of the pre-aged carbon end-member; however, the isotopic compositions of the low-temperature measurements indicate that no samples completely avoided mixing with some proportion of pre-aged organic material. Dating the unresolved but desired young end-member must rely on indirect methods, but a simple mixing model cannot be developed without knowledge of the sedimentation rate or comparable constraints. A mathematical approach allowing for multiple mixing components yields a maximum likelihood age, a first-order approximation of the relative proportion of the autochthonous component, and the temperature at which allochthonous carbon begins to volatilize and mix with the autochthonous component. It is likely that our estimation of the cutoff temperature will be improved with knowledge of the pyrolysis kinetics of the major components. Chronology is improved relative to bulk acid-insoluble organic material ages from nine temperature interval dates down to two, but incorporation of inherently more pre-aged carbon in the first division becomes more apparent with fewer and larger temperature intervals.

  14. Formation of brominated pollutants during the pyrolysis and combustion of tetrabromobisphenol A at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is the most widely used brominated flame retardant worldwide. A detailed examination of the degradation products emitted during thermal decomposition of TBBPA is presented in the study. Runs were performed in a laboratory furnace at different temperatures (650 and 800 °C) and in different atmospheres (nitrogen and air). More than one hundred semivolatile compounds have been identified by GC/MS, with special interest in brominated ones. Presence of HBr and brominated light hydrocarbons increased with temperature and in the presence of oxygen. Maximum formation of PAHs is observed at pyrolytic condition at the higher temperature. High levels of 2,4-, 2,6- and 2,4,6- bromophenols were found. The levels of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans have been detected in the ppm range. The most abundant isomers are 2,4,6,8-TeBDF in pyrolysis and 1,2,3,7,8-PeBDF in combustion. These results should be considered in the assessment of thermal treatment of materials containing brominated flame retardants. - Highlights: • Decomposition of a brominated flame retardant is performed in a laboratory furnace. • Both pyrolysis and combustion at two different temperatures are studied. • Brominated organic compounds such as Br-dioxins and furans are analysed. • Main product of decomposition is HBr, accounting for ca. 50%. • Very high and dangerous levels of PBDD/Fs and precursors (bromophenols) are detected. - TBBPA mainly decomposes to give HBr and brominated hydrocarbons at high temperature, but high levels of bromophenols and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans are also produced

  15. Evaluation of Alberta Plains coals for pyrolysis and liquefaction processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    duPlessis, M.P.

    1983-01-01

    Ten subbituminous coal specimens were selected for this investigation representing coal deposits of central Alberta. The study identified selective coal characteristics which showed trend-setting effects on the behavior of specimen coals to process reactions. Pyrolysis and solvolytic liquefaction reactions were studied as process variations. Pyrolysis behavior was determined by thermal gravimetric microassays coupled with detailed analysis of products from the Fischer-Schrader assay method. Liquefaction tests were conducted in stirred autoclaves. Empirical molecular weight of coal, fraction of carbon yielding volatile products, the oxidation state of the volatile carbon structure, mean reflectance of the vitrinite content, and the molecular fragment representing potential hydrocarbon source matter in solvolytic liquefaction were found to show trendsetting effects in pyrolysis and liquefaction reactions. It was seen that a fair amount of low boiling hydrocarbons could be obtained by pyrolysis, with mean average conversion to low temperature char at ca 72%, allowing ca 13.5 wt% coal to be converted to distillable oil and tar by-products. Though depositional history of coal formation influenced the solvolytic liquefaction behavior, each specimen showed some variation in the degree of conversion or in product distribution. The mean solvolytic conversion for all coals under various process modes was ca 84%. The variation in conversion data (79 to 95%) tends to reflect the ranking order in terms of reflectance, extent of deoxygenation reactions, and abundance of potential hydrocarbon source matter. 12 refs., 9 figs., 20 tabs.

  16. RELATION BETWEEN MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND PYROLYSIS TEMPERATURE OF PHENOL FORMALDEHYDE RESIN FOR GAS SEPARATION MEMBRANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONIKA ŠUPOVÁ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper has been to characterize the relation between the pyrolysis temperature of phenol-formaldehyde resin, the development of a porous structure, and the mechanical properties for the application of semipermeable membranes for gas separation. No previous study has dealt with this problem in its entirety. Phenol-formaldehyde resin showed an increasing trend toward micropore porosity in the temperature range from 500 till 1000°C, together with closure of mesopores and macropores. Samples cured and pyrolyzed at 1000°C pronounced hysteresis of desorption branch. The ultimate bending strength was measured using a four-point arrangement that is more suitable for measuring of brittle materials. The chevron notch technique was used for determination the fracture toughness. The results for mechanical properties indicated that phenol-formaldehyde resin pyrolyzates behaved similarly to ceramic materials. The data obtained for the material can be used for calculating the technical design of gas separation membranes.

  17. High temperature pyrolysis: A new system for isotopic and elemental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method for the automated sample conversion and on-line determination of deuterium, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen isotopes for organic and inorganic substances is presented. The samples are pyrolytically decomposed in presence of reactive carbon in a high temperature pyrolysis system (HTP) at a temperature higher than 1400 deg. C. The method has a great potential for the analysis of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes ratios. The instrumentation and application is very simple and cost effective. The reproducibility of the δ-values is 3 per mille for D/H, 0.3 per mille for 18O, and 0.2 per mille for 13C and 15N respectively. The system is suitable for solid, liquid and gaseous samples. Results are presented for the isotopic composition of international reference materials which show the precision and accuracy of the method. (author)

  18. Indium oxide thin-film transistors processed at low temperature via ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    KAUST Repository

    Faber, Hendrik

    2015-01-14

    The use of ultrasonic spray pyrolysis is demonstrated for the growth of polycrystalline, highly uniform indium oxide films at temperatures in the range of 200-300 °C in air using an aqueous In(NO3)3 precursor solution. Electrical characterization of as-deposited films by field-effect measurements reveals a strong dependence of the electron mobility on deposition temperature. Transistors fabricated at ∼250 °C exhibit optimum performance with maximum electron mobility values in the range of 15-20 cm2 V -1 s-1 and current on/off ratio in excess of 106. Structural and compositional analysis of as-grown films by means of X-ray diffraction, diffuse scattering, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveal that layers deposited at 250 °C are denser and contain a reduced amount of hydroxyl groups as compared to films grown at either lower or higher temperatures. Microstructural analysis of semiconducting films deposited at 250 °C by high resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy reveals that as-grown layers are extremely thin (∼7 nm) and composed of laterally large (30-60 nm) highly crystalline In2O3 domains. These unique characteristics of the In2O3 films are believed to be responsible for the high electron mobilities obtained from transistors fabricated at 250 °C. Our work demonstrates the ability to grow high quality low-dimensional In2O3 films and devices via ultrasonic spray pyrolysis over large area substrates while at the same time it provides guidelines for further material and device improvements.

  19. Flash pyrolysis at high temperature of ligno-cellulosic biomass and its components - production of synthesis gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrolysis is the first stage of any thermal treatment of biomass and governs the formation of synthesis gas for the production of electricity, hydrogen or liquid fuels. The objective of this work is to establish a link between the composition of a biomass and its pyrolysis gas. We study experimental flash pyrolysis and fix the conditions in which quantities of gas are maximal, while aiming at a regime without heat and mass transfer limitations (particles about 100 μm): temperature of 950 C and residence time of about 2 s. Then we try to predict gas yields of any biomass according to its composition, applicable in this situation where thermodynamic equilibrium is not reached. We show that an additivity law does not allow correlating gas yields of a biomass with fractions of cellulose, hemi-cellulose and lignin contained in this biomass. Several explanations are suggested and examined: difference of pyrolytic behaviour of the same compound according to the biomass from which it is extracted, interactions between compounds and influence of mineral matter. With the aim of industrial application, we study pyrolysis of millimetric and centimetric size particles, and make a numerical simulation of the reactions of pyrolysis gases reforming. This simulation shows that the choice of biomass affects the quantities of synthesis gas obtained. (author)

  20. Influence of feedstock and pyrolysis temperature of biochar amendments on transport of Escherichia coli in saturated and unsaturated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent research has shown that biochar amendment could enhance bacterial retention in soils. We evaluated the effects of biochar feedstock, pyrolysis temperature and application rate on soil retention of Escherichia coli. We compared how biochar produced from poultry litter and pine chip pyrolyzed ...

  1. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on the properties of carbon/nickel nanocomposites prepared by sol–gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Synthesis of nickel oxide nanoparticles in carbon structures. • Presence of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNT) around Ni nanoparticles for the sample treated at high pyrolysis temperature. • DC conductivity exhibited the presence of conduction percolation phenomenon and the dominance of conduction model 3D-GVRH in the studied materials. • From AC conductance PF/Ni nanocomposites have two behaviors: semiconductor and metal, depending on the pyrolysis temperature. • Appearance of a negative differential resistance (NDR) at room temperature in the sample treated at 600 °C. - Abstract: Carbon–nickel nanocomposites (C/Ni) were prepared by sol–gel method after the incorporation of nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles in organic matrix based on pyrogallol-formaldehyde (PF). The nanocomposites heated under inert atmosphere have been characterized by various techniques such as X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and electrical analysis. The XRD spectra exhibited the presence of NiO or metallic Ni phase in amorphous carbon matrix at low pyrolysis temperature, while at 1000 °C the graphite structure line was observed. The TEM images indicate the presence of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNT) around Ni nanoparticles for the sample treated at high pyrolysis temperature. The AC conductance shows that our nanocomposites have two behaviors: semiconductor and metal, depending on the pyrolysis temperature. The voltage–current V(I) characteristics of the compound show two different regions: an Ohmic region at low current and a negative differential resistance (NDR) region at higher current. This switching phenomenal behavior has been explained by an electrothermal model

  2. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on the properties of carbon/nickel nanocomposites prepared by sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansour, N. Ben, E-mail: Nabil.Benmansour@fsg.rnu.tn [Laboratory of Physics of Materials and Nanomaterials Applied at Environment (LaPhyMNE), Gabès University, Faculty of Sciences in Gabès, Gabès (Tunisia); Najeh, I.; Mansouri, S. [Laboratory of Physics of Materials and Nanomaterials Applied at Environment (LaPhyMNE), Gabès University, Faculty of Sciences in Gabès, Gabès (Tunisia); El Mir, L. [Laboratory of Physics of Materials and Nanomaterials Applied at Environment (LaPhyMNE), Gabès University, Faculty of Sciences in Gabès, Gabès (Tunisia); Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU), College of Sciences, Department of Physics, Riyadh 11623 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of nickel oxide nanoparticles in carbon structures. • Presence of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNT) around Ni nanoparticles for the sample treated at high pyrolysis temperature. • DC conductivity exhibited the presence of conduction percolation phenomenon and the dominance of conduction model 3D-GVRH in the studied materials. • From AC conductance PF/Ni nanocomposites have two behaviors: semiconductor and metal, depending on the pyrolysis temperature. • Appearance of a negative differential resistance (NDR) at room temperature in the sample treated at 600 °C. - Abstract: Carbon–nickel nanocomposites (C/Ni) were prepared by sol–gel method after the incorporation of nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles in organic matrix based on pyrogallol-formaldehyde (PF). The nanocomposites heated under inert atmosphere have been characterized by various techniques such as X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and electrical analysis. The XRD spectra exhibited the presence of NiO or metallic Ni phase in amorphous carbon matrix at low pyrolysis temperature, while at 1000 °C the graphite structure line was observed. The TEM images indicate the presence of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNT) around Ni nanoparticles for the sample treated at high pyrolysis temperature. The AC conductance shows that our nanocomposites have two behaviors: semiconductor and metal, depending on the pyrolysis temperature. The voltage–current V(I) characteristics of the compound show two different regions: an Ohmic region at low current and a negative differential resistance (NDR) region at higher current. This switching phenomenal behavior has been explained by an electrothermal model.

  3. Effect of Fast Pyrolysis Conditions on the Biomass Solid Residues at High Temperatures (1000-1400°C)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Jensen, Anker D.; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Glarborg, Peter; Umeki, Kentaro; Llamas, Angel David Garcia

    Fast pyrolysis of wood and straw was conducted in a drop tube furnace (DTF) and compared with the experimental work on the wire-mesh reactor (WMR) to study the influence of temperature (1000-1400°C), biomass origin (softwood, hardwood, grass) and heating rate (1000°C/s, 10^4 °C/s) on the char yield...... and morphology. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS), elementary analysis, CAMSIZER XT, ash compositional analysis were applied to characterize the effect of operational conditions on the solid and gas products. Char yield from fast pyrolysis in the DFT setup was 2 to 6 % (daf) lower than in the WMR...... apparatus. During fast pyrolysis pinewood underwent drastic morphological transformations, whereas beechwood and straw samples retained the original porous structure of the parental fuel with the slight melting on the surface. Particle size of Danish wheat straw char decreases in a half-width with respect...

  4. Effect of biochar produced at different pyrolysis temperature on the soil respiration of abandoned mine soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Seong; Kim, Juhee; Hwang, Wonjae; Hyun, Seunghun

    2015-04-01

    Contaminated soils near an abandoned mine site included the high acidic mine tailing have received great interest due to potential risk to human health, because leachable elements in low pH continuously release from mine site soil with ground water and precipitation event. Biochar, which is the obtained pyrolysis process of biomass, is used as a soil amendments and carbon storage. Especially, many researchers report that the biochar application to soil show increasing soil pH, CEC, adsorption capacity of various elements, as well as, enhanced microbial activity. Therefore, biochar application to contaminated soil near abandoned mine site is expected to have a positive effects on management of these site and soils through the decreased leachability of contaminants. However, effects of biochar application to these site on the soil respiration, as a common measure of soil health, are poorly understood. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of biochar application to abandoned mine site soil on the microbial activity with soil respiration test. Biochar was obtained from giant Miscanthus in a slow pyrolysis process (heating rate of 10° C min-1 and N2 gas flow rate of 1.2 L min-1) at the temperature of 400° C (BC4) and 700° C (BC7), respectively. All biochar samples were prepared with grinding and sieving for particle size control (150~500μm). Soil sample was collected from abandoned mine site at Korea (36° 58'N, 128° 10'E). Main contaminants of this soil were As (12.5 g kg-1), Pb (7.3 g kg-1), and Zn (1.1 g kg-1). Biochars were applied (5% by dry weight) to the soil (final mixture weight were 800g), and then moisture contents were adjusted to 100% field capacity (-0.33 bar) in the respirometer with vacuum pump. CO2 efflux of each samples was continuously assessed using continuous aeration system (air flow rate 25 cc min-1) using air cylinder during 130hr (at 20° C and darkness condition). The CO2 emitted from the samples were carried to the infrared gas sensor, and these data were sent to a data logger. During the measuring periods, the cumulative CO2 emission were similar between the control (516.8 mg-CO2 kg-1-soil) and BC4 5% mixture (519.3 mg-CO2 kg-1-soil), while BC7 5% mixture was significantly decreased (356.1 mg-CO2 kg-1-soil) compared to other treatment and control. Because the degradation rate of biochar generally increased with decreasing pyrolysis temperature, this result suggest that the soil respiration rates of biochar amended soils are affected by physico-chemical properties of biochar during early incubation periods (about 1 weeks), For example, surface properties of used biochars, which are related to adsorption of soil organic matter and CO2, have different properties with pyrolysis temperature such as specific surface area (BC4=5.08 m2g-1; BC7=260.75 m2 g-1, respectively), average pore diameter (BC4=4,673 nm; BC7=2,606 nm, respectively), and functional groups of biochar surface. However, there was not clear evidence of biochar-mine soil interaction process, because of the short observation periods. Future work should focus on the adsorption of CO2 and soil organic matter of biochar and soil-biochar interaction with long time periods and various biological test.

  5. Evaluation of Integrated Time-Temperature Effect in Pyrolysis Process of Historically Contaminated Soils with Cadmium (Cd and Lead (Pb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulmău C

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available It is already known that heavy metals pollution causes important concern to human and ecosystem health. Heavy metals in soils at the European level represents 37.3% between main contaminates affecting soils (EEA, 2007. This paper illustrates results obtained in the framework of laboratory experiments concerning the evaluation of integrated time-temperature effect in pyrolysis process applied to contaminated soil by two different ways: it is about heavy metals historically contaminated soil from one of the most polluted areas within Romania, and artificially contaminated with PCB-containing transformer oil. In particular, the authors focused on a recent evaluation of pyrolysis efficiency on removing lead (Pb and cadmium (Cd from the contaminated soil. The experimental study evaluated two important parameters related to the studied remediation methodology: thermal process temperature and the retention time in reactor of the contaminated soils. The remediation treatments were performed in a rotary kiln reactor, taking into account three process temperatures (400°C, 600°C and 800°C and two retention times: 30 min. and 60 min. Completed analyses have focused on pyrolysis solids and gas products. Consequently, both ash and gas obtained after pyrolysis process were subjected to chemical analyses.

  6. Flame Temperature Effect on the Structure of SiC Nanoparticles Grown by Laser Pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small SiC nanoparticles (10 nm diameter) have been grown in a flow reactor by CO2 laser pyrolysis from a C2H2 and SiH4 mixture. The laser radiation is strongly absorbed by SiH4 vibration. The energy is transferred to the reactive medium and leads to the dissociation of molecules and the subsequent growth of the nanoparticles. The reaction happens with a flame. The purpose of the experiments reported in this paper is to limit the size of the growing particles to the nanometric scale for which specific properties are expected to appear. Therefore the effects of experimental parameters on the structure and chemical composition of nanoparticles have been investigated. For a given reactive mixture and gas velocity, the flame temperature is governed by the laser power. In this study, the temperature was varied from 875 deg. C to 1100 deg. C. The chemical analysis of the products indicate that their composition is a function of the temperature. For the same C/Si atomic ratio in the gaseous phase, the C/Si ratio in the powder increases from 0.7 at 875 deg. C up to 1.02 at 1100 deg. C, indicating a growth mechanism limited by C2H2 dissociation. As expected, X-ray diffraction has shown an improved crystallisation with increasing temperature. Transmission electron microscopy observations have revealed the formation of 10 nm grains for all values of laser power (or flame temperature). These grains appear amorphous at low temperature, whereas they contain an increasing number of nanocrystals (2 nm diameter) when the temperature increases. These results pave the way to a better control of the structure and chemical composition of laser synthesised SiC nanoparticles in the 10 nm range

  7. Preparation of levoglucosenone through sulfuric acid promoted pyrolysis of bagasse at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Xian-wei; Wang, Zhi; Liao, Bing; Zhang, Ying; Guo, Qing-xiang

    2012-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis of bagasse pretreated by sulfuric acid was conducted in a fixed bed reactor to prepare levoglucosenone (LGO), a very important anhydrosugar for organic synthesis. The liquid yield and LGO yield were studied at temperatures from 240 to 350 °C and sulfuric acid loadings from 0.92 to 7.10 wt.%. An optimal LGO yield of 7.58 wt.% was obtained at 270 °C with a sulfuric acid pretreatment concentration of 0.05 M (corresponding to 4.28 wt.% sulfuric acid loading). For comparison, microcrystalline cellulose pretreated by 0.05 M sulfuric acid solution was pyrolyzed at temperature from 270 °C to 320 °C, and bagasse loaded with 3-5 wt.% phosphoric acid was pyrolyzed at temperature from 270 °C to 350 °C. The highest yield of LGO from bagasse was 30% higher than that from microcrystalline cellulose, and treatment with sulfuric acid allowed a 21% higher yield than treatment with phosphoric acid. PMID:22047659

  8. Tailoring biochars from different feedstock and produced at different temperature and time of pyrolysis for their use as soil amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zornoza, Raul; Moreno, Fabian; Acosta, Jose A.; Gomez Lopez, Maria Dolores; Faz, Angel

    2015-04-01

    Biochar used as a soil amendment to improve soil quality and fertility and increase soil carbon sequestration has been the focus of much research in the recent past. Unlike most conventional soil organic materials, which are readily decomposed, the recalcitrant nature of biochar increases its potential value as a soil amending material for the longer term. However, many biochars can be hydrophobic, and added to soil can aggravate water availability in areas where water scarcity is a major limiting factor for agriculture or forestry. It has been shown that biochar characteristics are influenced by production variables, especially feedstock, pyrolysis temperature and time of pyrolysis. Although there have been different studies characterizing biochars prepared from different sources, there are few studies comparing different types of biochar produced from domestic residues, manures or crop residues pyrolysis; there are, in addition, fewer studies dealing with the hydrophobic properties of the biochars. The different feedstock can have different properties which would result into different biochars even produced at the same operational factors. The main objective of this experiment was to study the influence of feedstock properties and pyrolysis temperature and time on nutrient contents, heavy metals, recalcitrance, thermal stability and hydrophobicity of biochars from cotton crop residues (CR), pig manure (PM) and domestic waste (DW). Biochars were obtained by pyrolysis under oxygen-limited conditions in a muffle furnace. The temperature was increased at 5C min-1 to 300C, 400C, 500C and 700C and then maintained for 1h, 2h, 4 and 5 h at this temperature. All biochar properties were strongly influenced by feedstock source except for pH, the recalcitrance index and hydrophobicity. Nutrient contents were normally higher in the PM biochar, except for Cu and Ca which were higher in the DW biochar and B in the CR biochar. Heavy metal contents were significantly higher in the DW biochar. Biochar yield was higher in the DW biochar owing to the higher content of ashes. The temperature of pyrolysis did not significantly influence the level of nutrients. However, biochar yield decreased with increasing temperature, while pH increased with increasing temperature. All biochars produced at 300C and 400C were highly hydrophobic. Hydrophobicity totally disappeared in all biochars produced over 500C at 2 h. Thermal stability was highly influenced by pyrolysis temperature, increasing with increasing temperature. Biochar produced at 300C and 400C showed presence of different pools of labile and recalcitrant pools, while biochar produced over 500C showed an acute recalcitrant phase, with low content of labile pools. The disappearance of hydrophobicity was associated with the decreased in the labile pools of the biochar and increased thermal stability. No significant influence of the pyrolysis time was observed in any of the properties studied except for hydrophobicity, which tended to decrease with decreasing the time of pyrolysis. Our results showed that biochars can be tailored for different purposes in terms of the needs of specific nutrients, C sequestration, reduction of the content of toxic heavy metals, or absence of hydrophobicity to avoid negative hydrological processes in the soil. Acknowledgements: This work has been funded by the Programme Young Leaders in Research from Fundacin Sneca (Agency of Science and Technology of the Region of Murcia, Spain) through the Project 18920/JLI/13.

  9. Catalytic Flash Pyrolysis of Biomass Using Different Types of Zeolite and Online Vapor Fractionation

    KAUST Repository

    Imran, Ali

    2016-03-11

    Bio-oil produced from conventional flash pyrolysis has poor quality and requires expensive upgrading before it can be used as a transportation fuel. In this work, a high quality bio-oil has been produced using a novel approach where flash pyrolysis, catalysis and fractionation of pyrolysis vapors using two stage condensation are combined in a single process unit. A bench scale unit of 1 kg/h feedstock capacity is used for catalytic pyrolysis in an entrained down-flow reactor system equipped with two-staged condensation of the pyrolysis vapor. Zeolite-based catalysts are investigated to study the effect of varying acidities of faujasite Y zeolites, zeolite structures (ZSM5), different catalyst to biomass ratios and different catalytic pyrolysis temperatures. Low catalyst/biomass ratios did not show any significant improvements in the bio-oil quality, while high catalyst/biomass ratios showed an effective deoxygenation of the bio-oil. The application of zeolites decreased the organic liquid yield due to the increased production of non-condensables, primarily hydrocarbons. The catalytically produced bio-oil was less viscous and zeolites were effective at cracking heavy molecular weight compounds in the bio-oil. Acidic zeolites, H-Y and H-ZSM5, increased the desirable chemical compounds in the bio-oil such as phenols, furans and hydrocarbon, and reduced the undesired compounds such as acids. On the other hand reducing the acidity of zeolites reduced some of the undesired compounds in the bio-oil such as ketones and aldehydes. The performance of H-Y was superior to that of the rest of zeolites studied: bio-oil of high chemical and calorific value was produced with a high organic liquid yield and low oxygen content. H-ZSM5 was a close competitor to H-Y in performance but with a lower yield of bio-oil. Online fractionation of catalytic pyrolysis vapors was employed by controlling the condenser temperature and proved to be a successful process parameter to tailor the desired bio-oil properties. A high calorific value bio-oil having up to 90% organics was produced using two staged condensation of catalytic pyrolysis vapor. Zeolite-based acidic catalysts can be used for selective deoxygenation, and the catalytic bio-oil quality can be further improved with staged vapor condensation.

  10. Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinangeli, Richard; Brandvold, Timothy A; Kocal, Joseph A

    2013-08-27

    Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing them from carbonaceous biomass feedstock are provided. The carbonaceous biomass feedstock is pyrolyzed in the presence of a catalyst comprising base metal-based catalysts, noble metal-based catalysts, treated zeolitic catalysts, or combinations thereof to produce pyrolysis gases. During pyrolysis, the catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction whereby at least a portion of the oxygenated hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis gases are converted into hydrocarbons. The oxygen is removed as carbon oxides and water. A condensable portion (the vapors) of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  11. Evaluation of Integrated Time-Temperature Effect in Pyrolysis Process of Historically Contaminated Soils with Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb)

    OpenAIRE

    Bulmău C; Cocârță D. M.; Reșetar-Deac A. M.

    2013-01-01

    It is already known that heavy metals pollution causes important concern to human and ecosystem health. Heavy metals in soils at the European level represents 37.3% between main contaminates affecting soils (EEA, 2007). This paper illustrates results obtained in the framework of laboratory experiments concerning the evaluation of integrated time-temperature effect in pyrolysis process applied to contaminated soil by two different ways: it is about heavy metals historically contaminated soil f...

  12. Influence of Growth Temperature on Structure and Optical Properties of Tin Oxide Films by Spray Pyrolysis Method

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Larbah; M. Adnane; A. Djelloul; M. Melouki

    2015-01-01

    Tin oxide films (SnO2) are prepared by the spray pyrolysis technique at different temperatures. The XRD measurement confirm that the thin films grown by this technique have good crystalline tetragonal rutile structures. The observations by scanning electron microscopy indicate that polycrystalline SnO2 film surfaces were formed by pyramidal grains (200 nm 300 nm), The composition on the films was obtained by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), which is identical to the analysis EDS. Characteri...

  13. Short-Term Effect of Feedstock and Pyrolysis Temperature on Biochar Characteristics, Soil and Crop Response in Temperate Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Nelissen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, there is limited understanding of how biochar application to soil could be beneficial to crop growth in temperate regions and which biochar types are most suitable. Biochar’s (two feedstocks: willow, pine; three pyrolysis temperatures: 450 °C, 550 °C, 650 °C effect on nitrogen (N availability, N use efficiency and crop yield was studied in northwestern European soils using a combined approach of process-based and agronomic experiments. Biochar labile carbon (C fractions were determined and a phytotoxicity test, sorption experiment, N incubation experiment and two pot trials were conducted. Generally, biochar caused decreased soil NO3− availability and N use efficiency, and reduced biomass yields compared to a control soil. Soil NO3− concentrations were more reduced in the willow compared to the pine biochar treatments and the reduction increased with increasing pyrolysis temperatures, which was also reflected in the biomass yields. Woody biochar types can cause short-term reductions in biomass production due to reduced N availability. This effect is biochar feedstock and pyrolysis temperature dependent. Reduced mineral N availability was not caused by labile biochar C nor electrostatic NH4+/NO3− sorption. Hence, the addition of fresh biochar might in some cases require increased fertilizer N application to avoid short-term crop growth retardation.

  14. Studies on liquefaction and pyrolysis of peat and biomass at KTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review of the study on thermochemical conversion of solid fuels is done. The study have been performed in the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, since the outbreak of energy crisis in the seventies. The main problems connected with utilisation of peat for energy are: 90% moisture content in the deposits and 35-40% oxygen content in the dry substance. Simultaneous dewatering and liquefaction of peat have been achieved by the Bjoerbom method. The wet peat has been treated with CO and H2O without preliminary drying, using water as a medium agent. After treatment water has been phase-separated from the heavy oil product. Another approach is de-oxygenation of peat prior to liquefaction. A significant part of oxygen in peat and biomass can be removed by thermal decomposition of the fuels prior to liquefaction and removal of carbon dioxide and water from the organic matter in them. The products obtained after de-oxygenation demand low consumption of external hydrogenation agent because they are rich in hydrogen. Some criteria for selection of peat as a raw material for liquefaction are given. The equipment and experimental procedure for pyrolysis of peat and biomass are described. A free fall tubular reactor with max operating pressure of 5 MPa and temperature of 1100oC has been used. The effect of treatment conditions under the rapid pyrolysis in the free fall reactor on the yield and the reactivity of char obtained after the final pyrolysis is shown. Peat and wood are transformed into pyrolysis products for less than 1 second; 35-50% of the moisture- and ash-free peat and 70% of the wood have been converted into gaseous products.The char obtained in the rapid pyrolysis contains a fraction which can be further de-volatilized by slow pyrolysis for a few minutes - time much longer than the time for formation of primary products. High reactivity of char is favoured by lower pyrolysis temperature, shorter residence time and larger particle size of the fuel. 3 tabs., 22 refs

  15. Fast Pyrolysis of Lignin Using a Pyrolysis Centrifuge Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Sárossy, Zsuzsa; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Knudsen, Niels Ole; Sørensen, Hanne Risbjerg; Egsgaard, Helge

    2013-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis of lignin from an ethanol plant was investigated on a lab scale pyrolysis centrifuge reactor (PCR) with respect to pyrolysis temperature, reactor gas residence time, and feed rate. A maximal organic oil yield of 34 wt % dry basis (db) (bio-oil yield of 43 wt % db) is obtained at...

  16. Hydrogen-rich gas production from waste plastics by pyrolysis and low-temperature steam reforming over a ruthenium catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operating conditions for low-temperature pyrolysis and steam reforming of plastics over a ruthenium catalyst were investigated. In the range studied, the highest gas and lowest coke fractions for polystyrene (PS) with a 60 g h-1 scale, continuous-feed, two-stage gasifier were obtained with a pyrolyzer temperature of 673 K, steam reforming temperature of 903 K, and weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 0.10 g-sample g-catalyst-1 h-1. These operating conditions are consistent with optimum conditions reported previously for polypropylene. Our results indicate that at around 903 K, the activity of the ruthenium catalyst was high enough to minimize the difference between the rates of the steam reforming reactions of the pyrolysates from polystyrene and polypropylene. The proposed system thus has the flexibility to compensate for differences in chemical structures of municipal waste plastics. In addition, the steam reforming temperature was about 200 K lower than the temperature used in a conventional Ni-catalyzed process for the production of hydrogen. Low-temperature steam reforming allows for lower thermal input to the steam reformer, which results in an increase in thermal efficiency in the proposed process employing a Ru catalyst. Because low-temperature steam reforming can be also expected to reduce thermal degradation rates of the catalyst, the pyrolysis-steam reforming process with a Ru catalyst has the potential for use in small-scale production of hydrogen-rich gas from waste plastics that can be used for power generation.

  17. Temperature dependent grain-size and microstrain of CdO thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B G Jeyaprakash; K Kesavan; R Ashok Kumar; S Mohan; A Amalarani

    2011-07-01

    CdO thin films on glass substrate were prepared by home built spray pyrolysis unit from aqueous solution of Cd(CH3COO)2.2H2O at different substrate temperatures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies indicate the formation of polycrystalline cubic CdO phase with preferential orientation along (111) plane. X-ray line broadening technique is adopted to study the effect of substrate temperature on microstructural parameters such as grain size and microstrain. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the film prepared at 250°C consists of spherical shape grains with size in nanometer range and is comparable with the XRD studies.

  18. The effect of temperature and heating rate on char properties obtained from solar pyrolysis of beech wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Kuo; Minh, Doan Pham; Gauthier, Daniel; Weiss-Hortala, Elsa; Nzihou, Ange; Flamant, Gilles

    2015-04-01

    Char samples were produced from pyrolysis in a lab-scale solar reactor. The pyrolysis of beech wood was carried out at temperatures ranging from 600 to 2000°C, with heating rates from 5 to 450°C/s. CHNS, scanning electron microscopy analysis, X-ray diffractometry, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller adsorption were employed to investigate the effect of temperature and heating rate on char composition and structure. The results indicated that char structure was more and more ordered with temperature increase and heating rate decrease (higher than 50°C/s). The surface area and pore volume firstly increased with temperature and reached maximum at 1200°C then reduced significantly at 2000°C. Besides, they firstly increased with heating rate and then decreased slightly at heating rate of 450°C/s when final temperature was no lower than 1200°C. Char reactivity measured by TGA analysis was found to correlate with the evolution of char surface area and pore volume with temperature and heating rate. PMID:25686544

  19. The effects of calcination temperature on the electrochemical performance of LiMnPO4 prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Carbon-coated LiMnPO4 cathode materials were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. → The effects of calcinations temperature on the microstructure and electrochemical performance of C-LiMnPO4 were investigated. → X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations revealed that the calcination temperature had a strong influence on the morphology and crystallite size of the prepared final powder, and therefore the subsequent electrochemical performance of the material. → The C-LiMnPO4 powders prepared at 650 oC exhibited excellent electrochemical performance with a discharge capacity of 118 mAh g-1. - Abstract: Carbon-coated LiMnPO4 powders were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. The effects of calcination temperature on the microstructure and electrochemical performance of C-LiMnPO4 were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies showed that the crystallite size varied with calcination temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations revealed that the calcination temperature had a strong influence on the morphology of the prepared final powder, and therefore the subsequent electrochemical performance of the material. The C-LiMnPO4 powders prepared at 650 oC exhibited excellent electrochemical performance with a discharge capacity of 118 mAh g-1.

  20. Effect of Fast Pyrolysis Conditions on Structural Transformation and Reactivity of Herbaceous Biomasses at High Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Jensen, Anker D.; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Glarborg, Peter; Spliethoff, Hartmut; Steibel, Markus; Hofmann Larsen, Flemming

    of organic and inorganic matter on the char structural transformations. The results indicate no influence of the free radicals on char reactivity and burnout. The formation of free radicals in fast pyrolysis is related to the differences in the ash composition, namely presence of K+ ions in the wheat...

  1. Effects of Biochar Feedstock and Pyrolysis Temperature on Growth of Corn, Soybean, Lettuce and Carrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar, the carbon-rich material remaining after pyrolysis (low oxygen) of cellulosic feedstocks, has the potential as a soil amendment to sequester carbon, improve soil water-holding capacity, and increase nutrient retention thereby enhancing soil conditions to benefit plant gr...

  2. Short-Term Effect of Feedstock and Pyrolysis Temperature on Biochar Characteristics, Soil and Crop Response in Temperate Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria Nelissen; Greet Ruysschaert; Dorette Müller-Stöver; Samuel Bodé; Jason Cook; Frederik Ronsse; Simon Shackley; Pascal Boeckx; Henrik Hauggaard-Nielsen

    2014-01-01

    At present, there is limited understanding of how biochar application to soil could be beneficial to crop growth in temperate regions and which biochar types are most suitable. Biochar’s (two feedstocks: willow, pine; three pyrolysis temperatures: 450 °C, 550 °C, 650 °C) effect on nitrogen (N) availability, N use efficiency and crop yield was studied in northwestern European soils using a combined approach of process-based and agronomic experiments. Biochar labile carbon (C) fractions were de...

  3. Interactive effects of biochar ageing in soils related to feedstock, pyrolysis temperature, and historic charcoal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitkötter, Julian; Marschner, Bernd

    2015-04-01

    Biochar is suggested for soil amelioration and carbon sequestration, based on its assumed role as the key factor for the long-term fertility of Terra preta soils. Several studies have shown that certain biochar properties can undergo changes through ageing processes, especially regarding charge characteristics. However, only a few studies determined the changes of different biochars under the same incubation conditions and in different soils. The objective of this study was to characterize the changes of pine chip (PC)- and corn digestate (CD)-derived biochars pyrolyzed at 400 or 600 °C during 100 days of laboratory incubation in a historical kiln soil and an adjacent control soil. Separation between soil and biochar was ensured by using mesh bags. Especially, changes in charge characteristics depended on initial biochar properties affected by feedstock and pyrolysis temperature and on soil properties affected by historic charcoal production. While the cation exchange capacity (CEC) markedly increased for both CD biochars during incubation, PC biochars showed no or only slight increases in CEC. Corresponding to the changes in CEC, ageing of biochars also increased the amount of acid functional groups with increases being in average about 2-fold higher in CD biochars than in PC biochars. Further and in contrast to other studies, the surface areas of biochars increased during ageing, likely due to ash leaching and degradation of tar residues. Changes in CEC and surface acidity of CD biochars were more pronounced after incubation in the control soil, while surface area increase was higher in the kiln soil. Since the two acidic forest soils used in this this study did not greatly differ in physical or chemical properties, the main process for inducing these differences in the buried biochar most likely is related to the differences in dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Although the kiln soil contained about 50% more soil organic carbon due to the presence of charcoal particles, extractable DOC was lower and less aromatic than in the adjacent control soil, likely due to strong sorption of dissolved organic matter (DOM) onto charcoal particles. We suggest that higher sorption of DOM onto the surface of biochar in the control soil provided additional acid functional groups and thus increased the surface charge to a greater extent than in the DOC poorer kiln soil. Hence, biochars incubated in the kiln soil showed less changes in CEC and surface acidity. Higher availability of DOM in the control soil could also stimulate microbial activity to a larger extent, resulting in higher oxidation rates of biochars incubated in the control soil.

  4. Modeling of biomass pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fuels used in industry and power sector for the last two decades have become expensive. As a result renewable energy source have been emerging increasingly important, of these, biomass appears to be the most applicable in the near future. The pyrolysis of biomass plays a key role amongst the three major and important process generally encountered in a gas producer, namely, pyrolysis, combustion and reduction of combustion products. Each biomass has its own pyrolysis characteristics and this important parameters must be known for the proper design and efficient operation of a gasification system. Thermogravimetric analysis has been widely used to study the devolatilization of solid fuels, such as biomass. It provides the weight loss history of a sample heated at a predetermined rate as a function of time and temperature. This paper presents the experimental results of modelling the weight loss curves of the main biomass components i.e. cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Thermogravimetric analysis of main components of biomass showed that pyrolysis is first order reaction. Furthermore pyrolysis of cellulose and hemicelluloe can be regarded as taking place in two stages, for while lignin pyrolysis is a single stage process. This paper also describes the Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) technique to predict the weight retained during pyrolysis at any temperature, for number of biomass species, such as cotton stalk, bagasse ad graoundnut shell. (author)

  5. Chemical composition and temperature dependent performance of ZnO-thin film transistors deposited by pulsed and continuous spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc oxide thin film transistors (TFTs) deposited by continuous and pulsed spray pyrolysis were investigated to analyze process kinetics which make reduction of process temperature possible. Thus, fluid mechanics, chemical composition, electrical performance, and deposition and annealing temperature were systematically analyzed. It was found that ZnO layers continuously deposited at 360 °C contained zinc oxynitrides, CO3, and hydro carbonate groups from pyrolysis of basic zinc acetate. Statistically, every second wurtzite ZnO unit cell contained an impurity atom. The purity and performance of the ZnO-TFTs increased systematically with increasing deposition temperature due to an improved oxidation processes. At 500 °C the zinc to oxygen ratio exceeded a high value of 0.96. Additionally, the ZnO film was not found to be in a stabilized state after deposition even at high temperatures. Introducing additional subsequent annealing steps stabilizes the film and allows the reduction of the overall thermal stress to the substrate. Further improvement of device characteristics was obtained by pulsed deposition which allowed a more effective transport of the by-products and oxygen. A significant reduction of the deposition temperature by 140 °C was achieved compared to the same performance as in continuous deposition mode. The trap density close to the Fermi energy could be reduced by a factor of two to 4 × 1017 eV−1 cm−3 due to the optimized combustion process on the surface. The optimization of the deposition processes made the fabrication of TFTs with excellent performance possible. The mobility was high and exceeded 12 cm2/V s, the subthreshold slope was 0.3 V dec−1, and an on-set close to the ideal value of 0 V was achieved

  6. The effects of feedstock pre-treatment and pyrolysis temperature on the production of biochar from the green seaweed Ulva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A; de Nys, Rocky

    2016-03-15

    Green seaweeds from the genus Ulva are a promising feedstock for the production of biochar for carbon (C) sequestration and soil amelioration. Ulva can be cultivated in waste water from land-based aquaculture and Ulva blooms ("green tides") strand millions of tons of biomass on coastal areas of Europe and China each year. The conversion of Ulva into biochar could recycle C and nutrients from eutrophic water into agricultural production. We produce biochar from Ulva ohnoi, cultivated in waste water from an aquaculture facility, and characterize its suitability for C sequestration and soil amelioration through bio-chemical analyses and plant growth experiments. Two biomass pre-treatments (fresh water rinsing to reduce salt, and pelletisation to increase density) were crossed with four pyrolysis temperatures (300-750 °C). Biomass rinsing decreased the ash and increased the C content of the resulting biochar. However, biochar produced from un-rinsed biomass had a higher proportion of fixed C and a higher yield. C sequestration decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperatures due to the combination of lower yield and lower total C content of biochar produced at high temperatures. Biochar produced from un-rinsed biomass at 300 °C had the greatest gravimetric C sequestration (110-120 g stable C kg(-1) seaweed). Biochar produced from un-pelletised Ulva enhanced plant growth three-fold in low fertility soils when the temperature of pyrolysis was less than 450 °C. The reduced effectiveness of the high-temperature biochars (>450 °C) was due to a lower N and higher salt content. Soil ameliorated with biochar produced from pelletised biomass had suppressed plant germination and growth. The most effective biochar for C sequestration and soil amelioration was produced from un-rinsed and un-pelletised Ulva at 300 °C. The green tide that occurs annually along the Shandong coastline in China generates sufficient biomass (200,000 tons dry weight) to ameliorate 12,500 ha of soil, sequester 15,000 t C and recycle 5500 t N into agriculture. We provide clear parameters for biochar production to enable the beneficial use of this biomass. PMID:26773429

  7. Pyrolysis of Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović, A.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of relevant literature on coal pyrolysis.Pyrolysis, as a process technology, has received considerable attention from many researchers because it is an important intermediate stage in coal conversion.Reactions parameters as the temperature, pressure, coal particle size, heating rate, soak time, type of reactor, etc. determine the total carbon conversion and the transport of volatiles and therebythe product distribution. Part of the possible environmental pollutants could be removed by optimising the pyrolysis conditions. Therefore, this process will be subsequently interesting for coal utilization in the future

  8. Laser schlieren, shock tube studies of high temperature hydrocarbon pyrolysis rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, J. H.

    1984-12-01

    Progress during the past 2-1/2 years is reflected in the completion of several projects using the laser-schlieren shock-tube technique; the pyrolysis of propane, ethylene, benzene, ethane, and 1,3-butadiene. In addition the new technique of laser flash absorption has been put into full operation and important results on 1.3-butadiene, showing that dissociation must be to two vinyl radicals as originally proposed, have been derived. Laser-schlieren data on toluene and ethylbenzene have also been obtained, and partially analyzed.

  9. Co-production of biochar, bio-oil and syngas from halophyte grass (Achnatherum splendens L.) under three different pyrolysis temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Muhammad; Chen, Qun; Yue, Yan; Pang, Renzhong; Lin, Qimei; Zhao, Xiaorong; Chen, Hao

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, pyrolysis of Achnatherum splendens L. was performed under three different pyrolysis temperature (300, 500, and 700°C) to investigate the characteristics of biochar, bio-oil, and syngas. Biochar yield decreased from 48% to 24%, whereas syngas yield increased from 34% to 54% when pyrolysis temperature was increased from 300 to 700°C. Maximum bio-oil yield (27%) was obtained at 500°C. The biochar were characterized for elemental composition, surface, and adsorption properties. The results showed that obtained biochar could be used as a potential soil amendment. The bio-oil and syngas co-products will be evaluated in the future as bioenergy sources. Overall, our results suggests that A. splendens L. could be utilized as a potential feedstock for biochar and bioenergy production through pyrolytic route. PMID:27035478

  10. Study of Surface Cleaning Methods and Pyrolysis Temperature on Nano-Structured Carbon Films using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerber, Pranita B.; Porter, Lisa M.; McCullough, L. A.; Kowalewski, Tomasz; Engelhard, Mark H.; Baer, Donald R.

    2012-10-12

    Nanostructured carbon (ns-C) films fabricated by stabilization and pyrolysis of di-block copolymers are of interest for a variety of electrical/electronic applications due to their chemical inertness, high-temperature insensitivity, very high surface area, and tunable electrical resistivity over a wide range [Kulkarni et al., Synth. Met. 159, (2009) 177]. Because of their high porosity and associated high specific surface area, controlled surface cleaning studies are important for fabricating electronic devices from these films. In this study, quantification of surface composition and surface cleaning studies on ns-C films synthesized by carbonization of di-block copolymers of polyacrylonitrile-b-poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PAN-b-PBA) at two different temperatures were carried out. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used for elemental analysis and to determine the efficacy of various surface cleaning methods for ns-C films and to examine the polymer residues in the films. The in-situ surface cleaning methods included: HF vapor treatment, vacuum annealing, and exposure to UV-ozone. Quantitative analysis of high-resolution XPS scans showed 11 at. % of nitrogen present in the films pyrolyzed at 600 °C, suggesting incomplete denitrogenation of the copolymer films. The nitrogen atomic concentration reduced significantly for films pyrolyzed at 900 °C confirming extensive denitrogenation at that temperature. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of nitrogen sub-peaks indicated higher loss of nitrogen atoms residing at the edge of graphitic clusters relative to that of nitrogen atoms within the graphitic cluster, suggesting higher graphitization with increasing pyrolysis temperature. Of the surface cleaning methods investigated, in-situ annealing of the films at 300 °C for 40 min was found to be the most efficacious in removing adventitious carbon and oxygen impurities from the surface.

  11. Study of surface cleaning methods and pyrolysis temperatures on nanostructured carbon films using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerber, Pranita; Porter, Lisa M.; McCullough, Lynne A.; Kowalewski, Tomasz; Engelhard, Mark; Baer, Donald [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Chemistry Department, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Nanostructured carbon (ns-C) films fabricated by stabilization and pyrolysis of diblock copolymers are of interest for a variety of electrical/electronic applications due to their chemical inertness, high-temperature insensitivity, very high surface area, and tunable electrical resistivity over a wide range [Kulkarni et al., Synth. Met. 159, 177 (2009)]. Because of their high porosity and associated high specific surface area, controlled surface cleaning studies are important for fabricating electronic devices from these films. In this study, quantification of surface composition and surface cleaning studies on ns-C films synthesized by carbonization of diblock copolymers of polyacrylonitrile-b-poly(n-butyl acrylate) at two different temperatures were carried out. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used for elemental analysis and to determine the efficacy of various surface cleaning methods for ns-C films and to examine the polymer residues in the films. The in-situ surface cleaning methods included HF vapor treatment, vacuum annealing, and exposure to UV-ozone. Quantitative analysis of high-resolution XPS scans showed 11 at. % nitrogen was present in the films pyrolyzed at 600 Degree-Sign C, suggesting incomplete denitrogenation of the copolymer films. The nitrogen atomic concentration decreased significantly for films pyrolyzed at 900 Degree-Sign C confirming extensive denitrogenation at that temperature. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of nitrogen subpeaks indicated higher loss of nitrogen atoms residing at the edge of graphitic clusters relative to that of nitrogen atoms within the graphitic clusters, suggesting higher graphitization with increasing pyrolysis temperature. Of the surface cleaning methods investigated, in-situ annealing of the films at 300 Degree-Sign C for 40 min was found to be the most efficacious in removing adventitious carbon and oxygen impurities from the surface.

  12. Pyrolysis of tyre wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Fernndez Fernndez, Ana M.; Dez Daz-Estbanez, M. Antonia; lvarez Garca, Ramn; Barriocanal Rueda, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    Two products obtained from the mechanical grinding of scrap tyres are the subject of the present study: granulated rubber and textile fibres used as tyre reinforcement. The two wastes were subjected to pyrolysis in a thermobalance and pyrolysis in a horizontal oven up to two final temperatures (550 C and 900 C) in order to obtain a char, condensable products (oil) and a gas. The oil and the gas were analysed by gas chromatography.

  13. PYROLYSIS OF WOODY MATERIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Bajus

    2010-01-01

    This work aimed to study the recovery of beech wood by the process of pyrolysis. The effects ofexperimental conditions in products yield and composition were studied. The thermal behaviour offorestry biomass was studied in a batch reactor at temperatures ranging from 350oC to 450oC. Thereaction time of wood thermal degradation took 95 min. The main objective was the identificationof the oxygenates and carbonaceous species generated by pyrolysis of beech wood. The productsof wood cracking were...

  14. Influence of pyrolysis temperature and heating rate on the production of bio-oil and char from safflower seed by pyrolysis, using a well-swept fixed-bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onay, Ozlem [Porsuk Vocational School, Anadolu University, 26470 Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2007-05-15

    In this study, fast pyrolysis of safflower seed (Carthamus tinctorius L.) was investigated with the aim to study the product distribution and their chemical compositions and to identify optimum process conditions for maximizing the bio-oil yield. Experiments were performed in a well-swept resistively heated fixed-bed reactor under nitrogen atmosphere. The maximum oil yield of 54% was obtained at the final pyrolysis temperature of 600 C, sweeping gas flow rate of 100 cm{sup 3} min{sup -} {sup 1} and heating rate of 300 C min{sup -} {sup 1} in a fixed-bed reactor. The elemental analysis and calorific value of the bio-oil were determined and compared with diesel fuel and then the chemical composition of the bio-oil was investigated using chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques (IR, GC/MS, simulated distillation). The char was characterized by elemental, BET surface area and SEM analyses. (author)

  15. Effect of Substrate Temperature on the Growth of Polycrystalline ZnS Thin Films Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Chandiramouli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnS thin films on glass substrate have been prepared by home built spray pyrolysis technique at 220, 250 and 280C. Aqueous solution of 50 mL containing zinc acetate dihydrate and thiourea salts of 1:1 M is sprayed as fine mist at a pressure of 2 kg cm-2 with flow rate of 3 mL min-1 on preheated glass substrate. Film obtained at 220C found to be amorphous and polycrystalline at 250 and 280C with preferential orientation along (111 plane. X-ray line broadening technique is utilized to determine the grain size and microstrain of the ZnS film. Compositional studies indicate the presence of oxygen for the film prepared at 250C. The effect of substrate temperature on crystalline structure, surface morphology and composition were analyzed and reported.

  16. Influence of Growth Temperature on Structure and Optical Properties of Tin Oxide Films by Spray Pyrolysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Larbah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tin oxide films (SnO2 are prepared by the spray pyrolysis technique at different temperatures. The XRD measurement confirm that the thin films grown by this technique have good crystalline tetragonal rutile structures. The observations by scanning electron microscopy indicate that polycrystalline SnO2 film surfaces were formed by pyramidal grains (200 nm 300 nm, The composition on the films was obtained by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES, which is identical to the analysis EDS. Characterization by UV-visible spectrophotometry of thin films showed that the films have an optical transmission above 80 % in the visible and the values of Eg were in the range 3.98-4.02 eV.

  17. Low-temperature spray-pyrolysis of FeS2 films and their electrical and optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orletskii, I. G.; Mar'yanchuk, P. D.; Maistruk, E. V.; Solovan, M. N.; Brus, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    Iron disulfide (FeS2) films with a wide range of electrical resistivities 100 Ω cm ⩽ ρ ⩽ 800 kΩ cm, a high adhesion to the substrate, and a resistance to aggressive media have been prepared by the spray pyrolysis of aqueous solutions of the salts FeCl3 · 6H2O and (NH2)2CS at low temperatures in the range 250°C ⩽ T S ⩽ 400°C. It has been found that the FeS2 films have a high transmittance T ≈ 60-70% and are characterized by a sharp transmission edge. It has been shown that the optical band gap for direct ( E g op = 2.19-2.78 eV) and indirect ( E g 'op = 1.26-1.36 eV) optical transitions depends on the conditions of film preparation.

  18. Large-scale reactive molecular dynamics simulation and kinetic modeling of high-temperature pyrolysis of the Gloeocapsomorphaprisca microfossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Chenyu; Raman, Sumathy; van Duin, Adri C T

    2014-06-12

    The ability to predict accurately the thermal conversion of complex carbonaceous materials is of value in both petroleum exploration and refining operations. Modeling the thermal cracking of kerogen under basinal heating conditions improves the predrill prediction of oil and gas yields and quality, thereby ultimately lowering the exploration risk. Modeling the chemical structure and reactivity of asphaltene from petroleum vacuum residues enables prediction of coke formation and properties in refinery processes, thereby lowering operating cost. The chemical structure-chemical yield modeling (CS-CYM) developed by Freund et al. is more rigorous, time-consuming, and requires a great deal of chemical insight into reaction network and reaction kinetics. The present work explores the applicability of a more fundamental atomistic simulation using the quantum mechanically based reactive force field to predict the product yield and overall kinetics of decomposition of two biopolymers, namely, the Kukersite and Gutternberg. Reactive molecular dynamics (RMD) simulations were performed on systems consisting of 10(4) to 10(5) atoms at different densities and temperatures to derive the overall kinetic parameters and a lumped kinetic model for pyrolysis. The kinetic parameters derived from the simulated pyrolysis of an individual component and the mixture of all four components in Guttenberg reveal the role of cross-talk between the fragments and enhanced reactivity of component A by radicals from other components. The Arrhenius extrapolation of the model yields reasonable prediction for the overall barrier for cracking. Because simulations were run at very high temperature (T > 1500 K) to study cracking within the simulation time of up to 1 ns, it, however, led to the entropically favored ethylene formation as a dominant decomposition route. Future work will focus on evaluating the applicability of accelerated reactive MD approaches to study cracking. PMID:24821589

  19. Stereospecific Deoxygenation of Aliphatic Epoxides to Alkenes under Rhenium Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagiri, Takuya; Murai, Masahito; Takai, Kazuhiko

    2015-07-01

    The combination of a catalytic amount of Re2O7 and triphenyl phosphite as a reductant is effective for the deoxygenation of unactivated aliphatic epoxides to alkenes. The reaction proceeds stereospecifically with variously substituted epoxides under neutral conditions and is compatible with various functional groups. Protection and deprotection of a double bond functionality using an epoxide are shown as an example of the current rhenium-catalyzed deoxygenation protocol. The effect of reductants for the stereoselectivity has also been studied, indicating that the use of electron-deficient phosphines or phosphites is the key for the stereospecific deoxygenation. PMID:26065934

  20. Fractional Catalytic Pyrolysis Technology for the Production of Upgraded Bio-oil using FCC Catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Mante, Nii Ofei Daku

    2011-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis technology is one of the thermochemical platforms used to produce high quality bio-oil and chemicals from biomass feedstocks. In the catalytic pyrolysis process, the biomass is rapidly heated under inert atmosphere in the presence of an acid catalyst or zeolite to promote deoxygenation and cracking of the primary vapors into hydrocarbons and small oxygenates. This dissertation examines the utilization of conventional fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalyst in the fractiona...

  1. Pyrolysis of Table Sugar

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Bulut; Selhan Karagöz

    2013-01-01

    Table sugars were pyrolyzed at different temperatures (300, 400, and 500°C) in a fixed-bed reactor. The effect of pyrolysis temperature on yields of liquid, solid, and gaseous products was investigated. As expected the yield of liquid products gradually increased and the yield of solid products gradually decreased when the pyrolysis temperature was raised. The yield of liquid products was greatest (52 wt%) at 500°C. The composition of bio-oils extracted with diethyl ether was identified by me...

  2. Temperature dependence of the photoluminescence spectra of CdS: In thin films prepared by the spray pyrolysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indium doped cadmium sulfide thin films (CdS:In) are prepared by the spray pyrolysis technique on glass substrates using a home-made spraying system at a substrate temperature Ts=490 °C. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra are recorded at different temperatures in the range 24–160 K. Two broad peaks were observed; a strong one in the visible region centered on E≈2.0 eV and a weak one in the infrared region centered on E≈1.06 eV. The first one is deconvoluted into two Gaussian peaks corresponding to the yellow and red bands, and the second one is deconvoluted into one Gaussian peak corresponding to the infrared band. A strong quenching of the PL intensity with temperature is observed after T=60 K for the yellow and infrared bands and after T=90 K for the red band. The activation energy Ea was estimated by using the Arrhenius plot for the different bands. The estimated values for the three bands lie in the range Ea≈23.4–27.3 meV. The peak positions of the yellow and red bands are red-shifted after T=90 K, while the peak position of the infrared band is blue shifted in the whole temperature range. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) for the three bands increases with temperature. According to these findings the three bands are explained in terms of bound excitons. -- Highlights: • The photoluminescence (PL) of sprayed CdS:In thin films is recorded at different temperatures. • The PL spectrum is deconvoluted to three Gaussian peaks corresponding to yellow, red and infrared bands. • The decrease of the PL intensity with temperature for these bands has similar behaviors. • The yellow and red bands are red-shifted with temperature, but the infrared band is blue-shifted. • From the Arrhenius plots the activation energy is estimated

  3. Role of the Support and Reaction Conditions on the Vapor-Phase Deoxygenation of m-Cresol over Pt/C and Pt/TiO2 Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Michael B.; Ferguson, Glen A.; Ruddy, Daniel A.; Biddy, Mary J.; Beckham, Gregg T.; Schaidle, Joshua A.

    2016-04-01

    The catalytic deoxygenation of biomass fast pyrolysis vapors offers a promising route for the sustainable production of liquid transportation fuels. However, a clear understanding of the mechanistic details involved in this process has yet to be achieved, and questions remain regarding the role of the catalyst support and the influence of reaction conditions. In order to gain insight into these questions, the deoxygenation of m-cresol was investigated over Pt/C and Pt/TiO2 catalysts using experimental and computational techniques. The performance of each catalyst was evaluated in a packed-bed reactor under two conditions (523 K, 2.0 MPa and 623 K, 0.5 MPa), and the energetics of the ring hydrogenation, direct deoxygenation, and tautomerization mechanisms were calculated over hydrogen-covered Pt(111) and oxygen vacancies on the surface of TiO2(101). Over Pt(111), ring hydrogenation to 3-methylcyclohexanone and 3-methylcyclohexanol was found to be the most energetically favorable pathway. Over TiO2(101), tautomerization and direct deoxygenation to toluene were identified as additional energetically favorable routes. These calculations are consistent with the experimental data, in which Pt/TiO2 was more active on a metal site basis and exhibited higher selectivity to toluene at 623 K relative to Pt/C. On the basis of these results, it is likely that the reactivity of Pt/TiO2 and Pt/C is driven by the metallic phase at 523 K, while contributions from the TiO2 support enhance deoxygenation at 623 K. These results highlight the synergistic effects between hydrogenation catalysts and reducible metal oxide supports and provide insight into the reaction pathways responsible for their enhanced deoxygenation performance.

  4. Reductive deoxygenation of alcohols & Synthesis of novel natural products isolated from Ruscus aculeatus L.

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Josef Maximilian

    2014-01-01

    The first part of this work (chapter 1 and 2) deals with the reductive deoxygenation of alcohols. Chapter 1 reviews catalytic deoxygenation methods currently used in organic synthesis. Recent examples are used to demonstrate the different deoxygenation strategies employing either a two-step procedure or the direct deoxygenation of alcohols. Chapter 2 reports the deoxygenation of benzylic alcohols with hydriodic acid in a biphasic media. This method, using boiling hydriodic acid and red phosph...

  5. High-temperature pyrolysis of blended animal manures for producing renewable energy and value-added biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we used a commercial pilot-scale, skid-mounted pyrolysis reactor system to produce combustible gas and biochar at 620C from three sources (chicken litter, swine solids, mixture of swine solids with rye grass). Pyrolysis of swine solids produced gas with the greatest higher heating va...

  6. High-temperature pyrolysis of blended animal manures for producing renewable energy and value-added biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we used a commercial pilot-scale pyrolysis reactor system to produce combustible gas and biochar at 620 degrees Celsium from three sources (chicken litter, swine solids, mixture of swine solids with rye grass). Pyrolysis of swine solids produced gas with the greatest higher heating va...

  7. Reproducible pyrolysis-gas chromatography of micro-organisms with solid stationary phases and isothermal oven temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, G L; Phillips, I; Chinn, S

    1981-08-01

    Eight solid stationary phases were examined for their suitability for pyrolysis-gas chromatography (Py-GC) of micro-organisms. With temperature programming these phases offered little advantage over the traditional liquid phase Carbowax 20M, but at an isothermal analysis temperature of 100 degrees C their use solved many technical problems. Pyrograms were produced containing small numbers of baseline-resolved peaks which eluted within 8 to 25 min. Four to six specimens per hour could be examined with two pyrolysers attached to one chromatograph oven. When a control organism was used to derive normalized results, pyrograms were reproducible with a second column and a second pyrolyser, suggesting that inter-laboratory reproducibility may be possible. Five different bacterial genera were well discriminated and some differentiation was achieved between different isolates of Streptococcus mutans, but similarity between pyrograms with was unrelated to orthodox taxonomic grouping. The best discrimination was achieved with Chromosorb 104, followed by Chromosorb 101 and Tenax-GC. With solid phases and isothermal oven temperatures Py-GC is a promising technique for microbial identification. PMID:7320702

  8. Low-temperature growth of highly crystallized transparent conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide films by intermittent spray pyrolysis deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukano, Tatsuo; Motohiro, Tomoyoshi [Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratories Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan)

    2004-05-30

    Following the procedure by Sawada et al. (Thin Solid Films 409 (2002) 46), high-quality SnO{sub 2}:F films were grown on glass substrates at relatively low temperatures of 325-340C by intermittent spray pyrolysis deposition using a perfume atomizer for cosmetics use. Even though the substrate temperature is low, as-deposited films show a high optical transmittance of 92% in the visible range, a low electric resistivity of 5.8x10{sup -4}{omega}cm and a high Hall mobility of 28cm{sup 2}/Vs. The F/Sn atomic ratio (0.0074) in the films is low in comparison with the value (0.5) in the sprayed solution. The carrier density in the film is approximately equal to the F-ion density, suggesting that most of the F-ions effectively function as active dopants. Films' transmittance and resistivity show little change after a 450C 60min heat treatment in the atmosphere, evidencing a high heat resistance. The SnO{sub 2}:F films obtained in this work remove the difficulty to improve the figure of merit at low synthesis temperatures.

  9. Deoxygenation of Plant Fatty Acid using NiSnK/ SiO2 as Catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental friendly bio-oil which offers supply reliability as a potential alternative fuel, has spurred to rapid development of bio fuels technology. Palm oil is a potential renewable energy source for bio fuels production in the future and Malaysia is one of the world largest palm oil producers. However, undesired oxygen content in the plant fatty acid that contributes to low energy density, high viscosity, and low stability, makes the palm oil not effective to be used as bio fuels directly. In the present study, the performance of silica supported trimetal catalyst, NiSnK/ SiO2, on deoxygenation of used palm oil was evaluated. In addition, the effects of operating parameters, such as reaction temperature and weight hourly space velocity were investigated. Conversion of palmitic acid as high as 90 % was achieved in deoxygenation of used palm oil at reaction temperature 350 degree Celsius. In order to have a better understanding on the deoxygenation reaction, model compound system using the major saturated fatty acid in the used palm oil, palmitic acid was also carried out. Palmitic acid was found mainly decarboxylated into n-pentadecane with some decarboxylation and isomerization products. (author)

  10. The impacts of pyrolysis temperature and feedstock type on biochar properties and the effects of biochar application on the properties of a sandy loam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, Steve; Doerr, Stefan; Street-Perrott, Alayne

    2013-04-01

    The production of biochar and its application to soil has the potential to make a significant contribution to climate change mitigation whilst simultaneously improving soil fertility, crop yield and soil water-holding capacity. Biochar is produced from various biomass feedstock materials at varying pyrolysis temperatures, but relatively little is known about how these parameters affect the properties of the resultant biochars and their impact on the properties of the soils to which they are subsequently applied. Salix viminalis, M. giganteus and Picea sitchensis feedstocks were chipped then sieved to 2 - 5 mm, oven dried to constant weight, then pyrolyzed at 350, 500, 600 and 800° C in a nitrogen-purged tube furnace. Biochar yields were measured by weighing the mass of each sample before and after pyrolysis. Biochar hydrophobicity was assessed by using a goniometer to measure water-droplet contact-angles. Cation-exchange-capacity (CEC) was measured using the ammonium acetate method. Biochars were also produced in a rotary kiln from softwood pellets at 400, 500, 600 and 700° C then ground to 0.4 - 1 mm and applied to a sandy loam at a rate of 50 g kg-1. Bulk densities of these soil-biochar mixtures were measured on a tapped, dry, basis. The water-holding-capacity (WHC) of each mixture was measured gravimetrically following saturation and free-draining. The filter paper method was used to assess how pyrolysis temperature influences the effect of biochar application on matric suction. For all feedstocks, large decreases in biochar yield were observed between the pyrolysis temperatures of 350° C and 500° C. For Salix viminalis and M. giganteus feedstocks, subsequent reductions in the yield with increasing pyrolysis temperature were much lower. There were significant differences in hydrophobicity between biochars produced from different biomass and mean biochar hydrophobicity decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature for all feedstocks. Results for CEC and WHC measurements will also be presented. With water contents of 0.04, 0.08 and 0.16 cm3 cm-3, the mean matric suctions of a sandy loam were higher when biochar was added. However, the differences were only statistically significant at a water content of 0.16 cm3 cm-3, where biochar produced at 500° C had the highest suction. Biochar additions always lowered the mean bulk density of a sandy loam, but there were significant differences in the extent to which biochars produced at different temperatures did this. Biochar yields and hydrophobicity vary according to feedstock type and decrease with increasing pyrolysis temperature. Application of biochar can significantly reduce bulk density but the extent of this effect varies according to the pyrolysis temperature at which the biochar is produced. Pyrolysis temperature can have a significant influence on how biochars affect soil suction. Acknowledgements: This study was funded by a UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Doctoral Training Grant: NE/H525154/1.

  11. Pyrolysis of Pine Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2005-01-01

    In this study, pinewood has been pyrolyzed using a fixed heating rate with a variable end-temperature. The pyrolysis process has been simulated using a mechanism with three parallel reactions for the formation of char, gas and tar. First order irreversible kinetics is assumed. This kind of model...... may predict the variation of product yield with operating conditions such as temperature and heating rate. The system of coupled differential equations describing the pyrolysis process is solved using the software DYMOLA. Various literature values for kinetic parameters have been compared with the...

  12. Temperature dependent structural, luminescent and XPS studies of CdO:Ga thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? The CdO:Ga thin films seems an alternative to traditional TCO materials used in photovoltaic applications. This work deals the effect of deposition temperature on sprayed CdO:Ga films with respect to the structural, luminescent and XPS studies. ? The crystalline quality of the GCO films improves with deposition temperature. ? The oxygen vacancies are responsible for n-type conductivity and green emission. ? The minimum resistivity, highest carrier concentration and mobility are 1.9 x 10-4 ? cm, 11.7 x 1021 cm-3 and 27.64 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. - Abstract: The structural, compositional, photoluminescent and XPS properties of CdO:Ga thin films deposited at temperatures ranging from 275 to 350 oC, using spray pyrolysis are reported. X-ray diffraction characterization of as-deposited GCO thin films reveals that films are of cubic structure with a (2 0 0) preferred orientation. The crystalline quality of the GCO films improves and the grain size increases with deposition temperature. The EDS analyses confirm oxygen deficiency present in the film and are responsible for n-type conductivity. The photoluminescence spectra demonstrated that the green emission peaks of CdO thin films are centered at 482 nm. The relative intensity of these peaks is strongly dependent on the deposition temperature. Oxygen vacancies are dominant luminescent centers for green emission in CdO thin films. The XPS measurement shows the presence of Cd, Ga, O and C elements and confirms that CdO:Ga films are cadmium-rich.

  13. Use of low-temperature nanostructured CuO thin films deposited by spray-pyrolysis in lithium cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanostructured CuO thin films were prepared by spray pyrolysis of aqueous copper acetate solutions at temperatures over 200-300 deg C range. The textural and structural properties of the films were determined by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Although the sole crystalline phase detected in the film was CuO, XPS spectra revealed a more complex surface structure due to the presence of undecomposed copper acetate that can be easily removed by Ar+ ion sputtering. The heating temperature was found to have little limited effect on the particle size and thickness of the films, which, however, increased significantly increasing deposition time. The film with the smallest grain size exhibited an excellent electrochemical response in Li battery electrodes and was capable of supplying sustained specific capacity as high as 625 A h kg-1 (50% greater than that delivered by bulk CuO and close to the theoretical capacity for the CuOCu reaction) upon extensive cycling

  14. The effect of pyrolysis temperature on the physical properties of monolithic carbons derived from solid iron bamboo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krzesinska, Marta [Institute of Chemistry and Environment Protection, Jan Dlugosz University Czestochowa, Al. Armii Krajowej 13-15, 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland); Institute of Coal Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sowinskiego 5, 44-121 Gliwice (Poland); Zachariasz, Justyna [Institute of Coal Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sowinskiego 5, 44-121 Gliwice (Poland)

    2007-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of pyrolysis temperature on the physical properties of new monolithic porous carbon materials derived from exceptional kind of bamboo characterized by solid, very strong stem, i.e., from iron bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus). Raw and carbonised bamboo (carbon content up to 82%) was characterized using various methods: elemental analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), helium gas densitometry, ultrasonic measurements, light and scanning electron microscopes. The DSC thermogram showed that the thermal decomposition of iron bamboo was characterized by T{sub 1} = 264 C and T{sub 2} = 356 C, i.e., was finished at T > 400 C. For the higher carbonisation temperatures, above 600 C, weight loss and carbon content were found to be almost constant, while the true density and the elastic parameters: the ultrasonic velocity and the dynamic elastic modulus still increased. This means that more intensive heating did not remove any compounds from stem, but there was probably reorganization of structure of carbonised iron bamboo, resulting in more compact matrix in porous carbon. (author)

  15. Lithium Content and Low-Temperature Conductivity of NiO:Li Films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garduño-Wilches, Ismael Arturo; Rodríguez-Fernández, Luis; Alonso, Juan Carlos

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this work was to quantify the amount of lithium incorporated into nickel oxide thin films and study its effects on the oxidation state of the elements and on the electrical conductivity of the films. A set of films was deposited on alumina substrate by spray pyrolysis. The lithium to nickel ratio in the sprayed solution, 0, 20, 40, and 60 at.%, determined the amount of lithium incorporated into the films. The lithium concentration was obtained by combined energy recoil detection analysis and Rutherford backscattering. The ratios of lithium to nickel atoms incorporated in the films were 0, 12.9, 27.9, and 46.9%, respectively. These results were confirmed by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, which was also used to analyze the oxidation state of the atomic species in the samples. When the electrical conductivity of selected samples was studied as a function of temperature in the range 50-450 K, kinked-linear behavior was observed; this was attributed to different conducting mechanisms activated by temperature.

  16. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-39 aluminosilicate zeolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Christpher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2013-12-17

    A new family of coherently grown composites of TUN and IMF zeotypes has been synthesized and show to be effective catalysts for catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.n+R.sub.rQ.sub.qAl.sub1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.s- ub.z where M represents zinc or a metal or metals from Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, R is an A,.OMEGA.-dihalosubstituted paraffin such as 1,4-dibromobutane, Q is a neutral amine containing 5 or fewer carbon atoms such as 1-methylpyrrolidine and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-39 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hyrdocarbons into hydrocarbons removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  17. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-39 aluminosilicate zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2014-10-07

    A new family of coherently grown composites of TUN and IMF zeotypes has been synthesized and shown to be effective catalysts for catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.n+R.sub.rQ.sub.qAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.s- ub.z where M represents zinc or a metal or metals from Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, R is an A,.OMEGA.-dihalosubstituted paraffin such as 1,4-dibromobutane, Q is a neutral amine containing 5 or fewer carbon atoms such as 1-methylpyrrolidine and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-39 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  18. Effect of pyrolysis temperatures on freely dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in sewage sludge-derived biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, Anna; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sewage sludge pyrolysis on freely dissolved (Cfree) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contents in biochars. Four sewage sludges with varying properties and PAH contents were pyrolysed at temperatures of 500 °C, 600 °C or 700 °C. Cfree PAH contents were determined using polyoxymethylene (POM). The contents of Cfree PAHs in the sludges ranged from 262 to 294 ng L(-1). Sewage sludge-derived biochars have from 2.3- to 3.4-times lower Cfree PAH contents comparing to corresponding sewage sludges. The Cfree PAH contents in the biochars ranged between 81 ng L(-1) and 126 ng L(-1). As regards agricultural use of biochar, the lower contents of Cfree PAHs in the biochars compared to the sewage sludges makes biochar a safer material than sewage sludge in terms of PAH contents. PMID:27010168

  19. Effect of ZSM-5 Acidity on Aromatic Product Selectivity during Upgrading of Pine Pyrolysis Vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engtrakul, Chaiwat; Mukarakate, Calvin; Starace, Anne K.; Magrini, Kimberly A.; Rogers, Allyson K.; Yung, Matthew M.

    2016-07-01

    The impact of catalyst acidity on the selectivity of upgraded biomass pyrolysis products was studied by passing pine pyrolysis vapors over five ZSM-5 catalysts of varying acidity at 500 degrees C. The SiO2-to-Al2O3 ratio (SAR) of the ZSM-5 zeolite was varied from 23 to 280 to control the acidity of the catalyst and the composition of upgraded products. The upgraded product stream was analyzed by GCMS. Additionally, catalysts were characterized using temperature programmed desorption, diffuse-reflectance FTIR spectroscopy, N2 physisorption, and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the biomass pyrolysis vapors were highly deoxygenated to form a slate of aromatic hydrocarbons over all of the tested ZSM-5 catalysts. As the overall acidity of the ZSM-5 increased the selectivity toward alkylated (substituted) aromatics (e.g., xylene, dimethyl-naphthalene, and methyl-anthracene) decreased while the selectivity toward unsubstituted aromatics (e.g., benzene, naphthalene, and anthracene) increased. Additionally, the selectivity toward polycyclic aromatic compounds (2-ring and 3-ring) increased as catalyst acidity increased, corresponding to a decrease in acid site spacing. The increased selectivity toward less substituted polycyclic aromatic compounds with increasing acidity is related to the relative rates of cyclization and alkylation reactions within the zeolite structure. As the acid site concentration increases and sites become closer to each other, the formation of additional cyclization products occurs at a greater rate than alkylated products. The ability to adjust product selectivity within 1-, 2-, and 3-ring aromatic families, as well as the degree of substitution, by varying ZSM-5 acidity could have significant benefits in terms creating a slate of upgraded biomass pyrolysis products to meet specific target market demands.

  20. Flash pyrolysis at high temperature of ligno-cellulosic biomass and its components - production of synthesis gas; Pyrolyse flash a haute temperature de la biomasse ligno-cellulosique et de ses composes - production de gaz de synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couhert, C

    2007-11-15

    Pyrolysis is the first stage of any thermal treatment of biomass and governs the formation of synthesis gas for the production of electricity, hydrogen or liquid fuels. The objective of this work is to establish a link between the composition of a biomass and its pyrolysis gas. We study experimental flash pyrolysis and fix the conditions in which quantities of gas are maximal, while aiming at a regime without heat and mass transfer limitations (particles about 100 {mu}m): temperature of 950 C and residence time of about 2 s. Then we try to predict gas yields of any biomass according to its composition, applicable in this situation where thermodynamic equilibrium is not reached. We show that an additivity law does not allow correlating gas yields of a biomass with fractions of cellulose, hemi-cellulose and lignin contained in this biomass. Several explanations are suggested and examined: difference of pyrolytic behaviour of the same compound according to the biomass from which it is extracted, interactions between compounds and influence of mineral matter. With the aim of industrial application, we study pyrolysis of millimetric and centimetric size particles, and make a numerical simulation of the reactions of pyrolysis gases reforming. This simulation shows that the choice of biomass affects the quantities of synthesis gas obtained. (author)

  1. Semi-Batch Deoxygenation of Canola- and Lard-Derived Fatty Acids to Diesel-Range Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, JP; Thapaliya, N; Kelly, MJ; Roberts, WL; Lamb, HH

    2013-12-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) derived via thermal hydrolysis of food-grade lard and canola oil were deoxygenated in the liquid phase using a commercially available 5 wt % Pd/C catalyst. Online quadrupole mass spectrometry and gas chromatography were used to monitor the effluent gases from the semi-batch stirred autoclave reactors. Stearic, oleic, and palmitic acids were employed as model compounds. A catalyst lifetime exceeding 2200 turnovers for oleic acid deoxygenation was demonstrated at 300 degrees C and 15 atm under 10% H-2. The initial decarboxylation rate of palmitic acid under 5% H-2 decreases sharply with increasing initial concentration; in contrast, the initial decarbonylation rate increases linearly, indicative of first-order kinetics. Scale-up of diesel-range hydrocarbon production was investigated by increasing the reactor vessel size, initial FA concentration, and FA/catalyst mass ratio. Lower CO2 selectivity and batch productivity were observed at the larger scales (600 and 5000 mL), primarily because of the higher initial FA concentration (67 wt %) employed. Because unsaturated FAs must be hydrogenated before deoxygenation can proceed at an appreciable rate, the additional batch time required for FA hydrogenation reduces the batch productivity for unsaturated feedstocks. Low-temperature hydrogenation of unsaturated feedstocks (using Pd/C or another less-expensive catalyst) prior to deoxygenation is recommended.

  2. Synthesis of Ternary Borocarbonitrides by High Temperature Pyrolysis of Ethane 1,2-Diamineborane

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrice Leardini; Lorenzo Massimi; Eduardo Flores-Cuevas; Jose Francisco Fernndez; Jose Ramon Ares; Maria Grazia Betti; Carlo Mariani

    2015-01-01

    Ethane 1,2-diamineborane (EDAB) is an alkyl-containing amine-borane adduct with improved hydrogen desorption properties as compared to ammonia borane. In this work, it is reported the high temperature thermolytic decomposition of EDAB. Thermolysis of EDAB has been investigated by concomitant thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis-mass spectrometry experiments. EDAB shows up to four H2 desorption events below 1000 C. Small fractions of CH4, C2H4 and CO/CO2 are also observed at moder...

  3. The pyrolysis of a tungsten alkyne complex as a low temperature route to tungsten carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of designed organometallic compounds and their selective activation and transformation into materials of high purity (for electronic applications), high strength and/or high temperature stability (for refractory or structural applications), represents a potential area of extreme growth in organometallic chemistry. Research in this area could provide entirely new, inexpensive, fabrication methods for common and exotic materials. In this paper, the authors develop design principles for the preparation of organometallic precursors, ''premetallics'' that can be selectively converted, in high yields, to a desired refractory metal. They also describe preliminary efforts to prepare tungsten carbides (WC/sub x/) from a prematallic

  4. Furan pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Organ, P.P.; Mackie, J.C. (University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physical Chemistry)

    1989-01-01

    Furan and its derivatives are important intermediates in the burning of low rank coals and biomass. The pyrolysis of furan was studied using single pulse shock tube techniques with the pyrolysis products being analysed by gas chromatography and FTIR. The rate of disappearance of furan was monitored by laser adsorption, enabling the rate constant for furan decomposition to be determined. The rate constant was found to be that of the unimolecular fusion of a C-O bond. A kinetic model was developed to describe the distribution of products. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Synthesis of Ternary Borocarbonitrides by High Temperature Pyrolysis of Ethane 1,2-Diamineborane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Leardini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethane 1,2-diamineborane (EDAB is an alkyl-containing amine-borane adduct with improved hydrogen desorption properties as compared to ammonia borane. In this work, it is reported the high temperature thermolytic decomposition of EDAB. Thermolysis of EDAB has been investigated by concomitant thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis-mass spectrometry experiments. EDAB shows up to four H2 desorption events below 1000 C. Small fractions of CH4, C2H4 and CO/CO2 are also observed at moderate-high temperatures. The solid-state thermolysis product has been characterized by means of different structural and chemical methods, such as X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy, Elemental analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The obtained results indicate the formation of a ternary borocarbonitride compound with a poorly-crystalline graphitic-like structure. By contrast, XPS measurements show that the surface is rich in carbon and nitrogen oxides, which is quite different to the bulk of the material.

  6. Effect of low-temperature oxidation on the pyrolysis and combustion of whole oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-temperature oxidation (LTO) of the Fosterton crude oil mixed with its reservoir sand has been investigated in a tubular reactor. Reservoir sand saturated with 15 wt% of crude oil (20.5o API gravity) was subjected to air injection at low-temperature (220 oC) for a period of time (17 h and 30 min), resulting in the formation of an oxygenated hydrocarbon fuel. The vent gases were analyzed for the content of CO, CO2, and oxygen and the residue was analyzed to determine the elemental composition and calorific value. The presence of LTO region was verified from the values of apparent H/C ratio. In addition, thermal behavior and combustion kinetics of the residue was investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TG involves both non-isothermal and isothermal analysis and kinetic data was derived from isothermal studies. The general model for nth order reaction was used to obtain the kinetic parameters of the coke oxidation reaction. The activation energy, frequency factor and order of the reactions were determined using the model.

  7. Influence of deposition temperature (T s), air flow rate (f) and precursors on cathodoluminescence properties of ZnO thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semiconducting metal oxide such as ZnO films were prepared by the spray pyrolysis technique on glass substrates. The cathodoluminescence properties of these films were investigated with respect to deposition temperature (T s) and air flow rate (f). The luminescent films had a polycrystalline hexagonal wurtzite-type structure. Cathodoluminescence intensity was critically dependent on substrate temperature and spray rate. The best films had three emissions: near ultra-violet (UV) band gap peak at 382 nm, a blue-green emission at 520 nm and a red emission at 672 nm. These films were deposited at optimum condition: T s=450 deg C and f=5 ml/min

  8. Influence of deposition temperature (T {sub s}), air flow rate (f) and precursors on cathodoluminescence properties of ZnO thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Hichou, A. [Laboratoire de Microscopies et d' Etude des Nanostructures, Universite de Reims, UFR Sciences exactes, LMEN, Equipe d' Accueil No. 3799, B.P. 138, 21 rue Clement Ader, 51685 Reims cedex2 (France) and Departement de physique, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques Gueliz, Universite Cadi Ayyad, B.P. 549 Marrakech, Marocco (Morocco)]. E-mail: elhichou@fstg-marrakech.ac.ma; Addou, M. [Lab. d' Optoelectronique et de Physico-Chimie des materiaux, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Ibn Tofail, B.P. 133, Kenitra, Marocco (Morocco); Ebothe, J. [Laboratoire de Microscopies et d' Etude des Nanostructures, Universite de Reims, UFR Sciences exactes, LMEN, Equipe d' Accueil No. 3799, B.P. 138, 21 rue Clement Ader, 51685 Reims cedex2 (France); Troyon, M. [Laboratoire de Microscopies et d' Etude des Nanostructures, Universite de Reims, UFR Sciences exactes, LMEN, Equipe d' Accueil No. 3799, B.P. 138, 21 rue Clement Ader, 51685 Reims cedex2 (France)

    2005-06-15

    Semiconducting metal oxide such as ZnO films were prepared by the spray pyrolysis technique on glass substrates. The cathodoluminescence properties of these films were investigated with respect to deposition temperature (T {sub s}) and air flow rate (f). The luminescent films had a polycrystalline hexagonal wurtzite-type structure. Cathodoluminescence intensity was critically dependent on substrate temperature and spray rate. The best films had three emissions: near ultra-violet (UV) band gap peak at 382 nm, a blue-green emission at 520 nm and a red emission at 672 nm. These films were deposited at optimum condition: T {sub s}=450 deg C and f=5 ml/min.

  9. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-44 aluminosilicate zeolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2013-12-17

    A new family of aluminosilicate zeolites designated UZM-44 has been synthesized. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.k+T.sub.tAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.sub.z where "n" is the mole ratio of Na to (Al+E), M represents a metal or metals from zinc, Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 and or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, "m" is the mole ratio of M to (Al+E), "k" is the average charge of the metal or metals M, T is the organic structure directing agent or agents, and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-44 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  10. Structure, provenance and residence time of terrestrial organic carbon: insights from Programmed temperature Pyrolysis-Combustion of river sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, X.; Galy, V.; Rosenheim, B. E.; Roe, K. M.; Williams, E. K.

    2010-12-01

    The terrestrial organic carbon (OC) represents one of the largest reservoirs of C on earth and thus plays a crucial role in the global C cycle, participating to the regulation of atmospheric chemistry. While degradation of sedimentary OC (petrogenic C) is a source of CO2 for the atmosphere, burial of biospheric C (e.g. plant debris and soil OC) is a long-term sequestration of atmospheric CO2. Over short timescales, the atmospheric CO2 level is also sensitive to variations of the residence time of carbon in continental reservoirs. Fluvial transport plays a crucial role in the organic carbon cycle, constituting the connection between the different reservoirs and promoting the transfer of C from one reservoir to the other. Moreover, thanks to the integrating effect of erosion, studying river sediments allows the spatial and temporal integration of organic carbon exchanges occurring in a given basin. OC transported by rivers (riverine OC) is known to be extremely heterogeneous in nature and reactivity, however; ranging from extremely refractory petrogenic C (e.g. graphite) to soil complex OC to labile vegetation debris. Here we use a recently developed method, a programmed-temperature pyrolysis-combustion system (PTP-CS) coupled to multiisotopic analysis, to determine the reactivity, age and nature of OC in river sediments. The method takes advantage of the wide range of reactivity and radiocarbon content of different components of riverine OC. We submitted to PTP-CS a set of river sediments from 1) the Ganges-Brahmputra river system and, 2) the lower Mississippi river. Preliminary results highlight the heterogeneous nature of riverine OC. Different components of the riverine OC pool decompose at different temperature and are characterized by extremely variable isotopic compositions. The decomposition of radiocarbon dead petrogenic C at very high temperature allows estimating the respective contribution of biospheric and petrogenic C. Moreover, biospheric OC appears to be itself composed of several components characterized by different reactivity and radiocarbon content. In sediments from the Ganges-Brahmaputra river system we identified at least two main constituents of the biospheric OC pool: 1) a labile component whose radiocarbon content agrees with that of vascular plant biomarkers and, 2) a refractory component, characterized by a very long residence time (ca. 17 Ka). Our first results indicate that PTP-CS has very promising potential to quantify the contribution and residence time of the different components of riverine OC. We expect it will permit significant advance in our understanding of the rate of exchange and flux of terrestrial OC during continental erosion.

  11. Copyrolysis of Seyitomer-lignite and safflower seed: influence of the blending ratio and pyrolysis temperature on product yields and oil characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozlem Onay; Evren Bayram; O. Mete Kockar [Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey). Porsuk Vocational School

    2007-09-15

    Pyrolytic behaviors of biomass/coal mixtures were investigated under a heating rate of 7{sup o}C min{sup -1}, over a range of pyrolysis temperatures between 400 and 700{sup o}C, and the blending ratio of coal in mixtures was varied between 0 and 100 wt %. The results indicated that considerable synergistic effects were observed during the copyrolysis in a fixed-bed reactor leading to an increase in the oil yield at lower than coal blending ratios of 33%. At the lower blending coal ratio conditions, the oil yields are higher than the expected ones, calculated as the sum of oil fractions produced by pyrolysis of each separated component. The maximum pyrolysis oil yield of 39.5% was obtained with 5% of lignite mixed with safflower seed. The obtained oils are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance, gas chromatography mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis. These findings can potentially help to understand and predict the behavior of coal/biomass blends in practical liquefaction systems. 33 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Biochar carbon stability in a clayey soil as a function of feedstock and pyrolysis temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhupinder Pal; Cowie, Annette L; Smernik, Ronald J

    2012-11-01

    The stability of biochar carbon (C) is the major determinant of its value for long-term C sequestration in soil. A long-term (5 year) laboratory experiment was conducted under controlled conditions using 11 biochars made from five C3 biomass feedstocks (Eucalyptus saligna wood and leaves, papermill sludge, poultry litter, cow manure) at 400 and/or 550 °C. The biochars were incubated in a vertisol containing organic C from a predominantly C4-vegetation source, and total CO(2)-C and associated δ(13)C were periodically measured. Between 0.5% and 8.9% of the biochar C was mineralized over 5 years. The C in manure-based biochars mineralized faster than that in plant-based biochars, and C in 400 °C biochars mineralized faster than that in corresponding 550 °C biochars. The estimated mean residence time (MRT) of C in biochars varied between 90 and 1600 years. These are conservative estimates because they represent MRT of relatively labile and intermediate-stability biochar C components. Furthermore, biochar C MRT is likely to be higher under field conditions of lower moisture, lower temperatures or nutrient availability constraints. Strong relationships of biochar C stability with the initial proportion of nonaromatic C and degree of aromatic C condensation in biochar support the use of these properties to predict biochar C stability in soil. PMID:23013285

  13. Direct Synthesis of Fe3C-Functionalized Graphene by High Temperature Autoclave Pyrolysis for Oxygen Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yang; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yunjie; Cleemann, Lars Nilausen; Xing, Wei; Bjerrum, Niels J.; Li, Qingfeng

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel approach to direct fabrication of few-layer graphene sheets with encapsulated Fe3C nanoparticles from pyrolysis of volatile non-graphitic precursors without any substrate. This one-step autoclave approach is facile and potentially scalable for production. Tested as an electroca...

  14. Influence of biochar pyrolysis temperature and post-treatment on the uptake of mercury from flue gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermal processing, or pyrolysis, of plant and animal waste under oxygen limiting conditions results in a carbonized material called biochar. Most often, the proposed application for the biochar is soil applications as a conditioner or for the purpose of carbon sequestration. In this paper we demons...

  15. Pyrolysis Strategies for Effective Utilization of Lignocellulosic and Algal Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddi, Balakrishna

    Pyrolysis is a processing technique involving thermal degradation of biomass in the absence of oxygen. The bio-oils obtained following the condensation of the pyrolysis vapors form a convenient starting point for valorizing the major components of lignocellulosic as well as algal biomass feed stocks for the production of fuels and value-added chemicals. Pyrolysis can be implemented on whole biomass or on residues left behind following standard fractionation methods. Microalgae and oil seeds predominantly consist of protein, carbohydrate and triglycerides, whereas lignocellulose is composed of carbohydrates (cellulose and hemicellulose) and lignin. The differences in the major components of these two types of biomass will necessitate different pyrolysis strategies to derive the optimal benefits from the resulting bio-oils. In this thesis, novel pyrolysis strategies were developed that enable efficient utilization of the bio-oils (and/or their vapors) from lignocellulose, algae, as well as oil seed feed stocks. With lignocellulosic feed stocks, pyrolysis of whole biomass as well as the lignin residue left behind following well-established pretreatment and saccharification (i.e., depolymerization of cellulose and hemicellulose to their monomeric-sugars) of the biomass was studied with and without catalysts. Following this, pyrolysis of (lipid-deficient) algae and lignocellulosic feed stocks, under similar reactor conditions, was performed for comparison of product (bio-oil, gas and bio-char) yields and composition. In spite of major differences in component bio-polymers, feedstock properties relevant to thermo-chemical conversions, such as overall C, H and O-content, C/O and H/C molar ratio as well as calorific values, were found to be similar for algae and lignocellulosic material. Bio-oil yields from algae and some lignocellulosic materials were similar; however, algal bio-oils were compositionally different and contained several N-compounds (most likely from protein degradation). Algal bio-char also had a significantly higher N-content. Overall, our results suggest that it is feasible to convert algal cultures deficient in lipids, such as nuisance algae obtained from natural blooms, into liquid fuels by thermochemical methods. Next, pyrolysis characteristics of each of the major components present in lignocellulosic as well as algal biomass were studied independently in a thermo-gravimetric analyzer, using model compounds. From those studies, we have established that, with algae and oil seed feed stocks, triglycerides degrade at distinctly higher temperatures (T>350 C) compared to both protein and carbohydrate fractions (T ~ 250-350 C). Similar trend was not seen for lignocellulosic biomass, where degradation temperature interval of lignin overlapped with that of carbohydrates. This unique trend observed for algal biomass (and oil seeds) can be exploited in multiple ways. First, it permits to separately collect high value triglyceride degradation products not contaminated with N-compounds from protein and oxygenates from carbohydrates; this observation formed the basis of a novel "pyrolytic fractionation technique" developed in this thesis. Second, it led to the development of a new and simple analytical method for rapid estimation of the triglyceride content of oleaginous feed stocks. Pyrolytic fractionation is a two-step pyrolysis approach that can be implemented for oleaginous feed stocks (algae and oil-seeds) to separately recover triglyceride degradation products as a "high-quality" bio-oil fraction. The first step is a low-temperature pyrolysis (T ~ 300-320 C) to produce bio-oils from degradation of protein and carbohydrate fractions. Solid residues left behind can subsequently be subjected to a second higher temperature pyrolysis (T ~ 420-430 C) to volatilize and/or degrade triglycerides to produce fatty acids and their derivatives (such as mono-, di- and tri-glycerides) and long chain hydrocarbons. Proof-of-concept micro-pyrolyser (Pyroprobe) and lab-scale fixed-bed experiments were performed using oleaginous algae (Chlorella Sp.) to establish pyrolytic fractionation technique and also to determine the yields of triglyceride-specific bio-oils. As expected, triglyceride-specific bio-oils have hydrocarbons and free fatty acids that were nearly free of water, organic acids and carbohydrate degradation products. Another unique feature of the fractional pyrolysis method is that it allows upgrading of the triglyceride-specific bio-oil vapors via in situ gas-phase hydro-deoxygenation to drop-in fuels (hydrocarbons), without the need to condense the vapors. Similarly, these vapors can also be converted to other value-added products such as fatty acid methyl esters and amides though efficient catalytic and non-catalytic in situ gas-phase conversion methods. Energy requirements for this new pyrolytic fractionation method were also assessed, using energy estimates for the individual steps obtained via differential scanning calorimetry experiments. A comparison of these energy needs against those of alternative thermal processing methods of algae (hydro-thermal processing) proposed in the literature established the viability of this new method. Finally, a new TGA-based analytical method was developed in this thesis for rapid quantification of the triglyceride content of oleaginous feed stocks, by exploiting the non-overlapping thermal degradation range of triglycerides and the other major components.

  16. Pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis experiments with organization exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrolysis may be an important pretreatment step before vitrification in a cold crucible melter (CCM). During vitrification of organic resin the carbon or other remaining residues may harm the performance of the cold crucible melter of the eventual stability of the final glass product. Hence, it is important to reduce or prevent such harmful waste from entry into the cold crucible melter. Pretreatment with pyrolysis will generally provide volume reduction resulting in less amount of solid waste that needs to be handled by the CCM; in addition, the pyrolytic processes may breakdown much of the complex organics causing release through volatilization resulting in less carbon and other harmful substances. Hence, KEPRI has undertaken studies on the pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis of organic ion exchange resin. Pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis were examined with TGA and a tube furnace. TGA results for pyrolysis with the flow of nitrogen indicate that even after pyrolyzing from room temperature to about 900 deg C, a significant mass fraction of the original cationic resin remains, approximately 46 %. The anionic resin when pyrolytically heated in a flow of nitrogen only, from room temperature to about 900 deg C, produced a final residue mass fraction of about 8 percent. Oxidation at a ratio of air to nitrogen, 1:2, reduced the cationic resin to 5.3% when heated at 5 C/min. Oxidation of anionic resin at the same ratio and same heating rate left almost no solid residue. Pyrolysis (e.g. nitrogen-only environment) in the tube furnace of larger samples relative to the TGA produced very similar results to the TGA. The differences may be attributed to the scale effects such as surface area exposure to the gas stream, temperature distributions throughout the resin, etc. (author) 7 refs., 7 figs

  17. Pyrolysis of tyres. Influence of the final temperature of the process on emissions and the calorific value of the products recovered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made of the pyrolysis of tyre particles, with the aim of determining the possibilities of using the products resulting from the process as fuel. Three final temperatures were used, determined from thermogravimetric data. The design of the experiment was a horizontal oven containing a reactor into which particles of the original tyre were placed. After the process, a solid fraction (char) remained in the reactor, while the gases generated went through a set of scrubbers where most of the condensable fraction (oils) was retained. Finally, once free of this fraction, the gases were collected in glass ampoules. Solid and liquids fractions were subjected to thermogravimetric analyses in order to study their combustibility. The gas fraction was analysed by means of gas chromatography to establish the content of CO, CO2, H2 and hydrocarbons present in the samples (mainly components of gases produced in the pyrolysis process). A special study was made of the sulphur and chlorine content of all the fractions, as the presence of these elements could be problematic if the products are used as fuel. Tyre pyrolysis engenders a solid carbon residue that concentrates sulphur and chorine, with a relatively high calorific value, although not so high as that of the original tyre. The liquid fraction produced by the process has a high calorific value, which rises with the final temperature, up to 40 MJ/kg. The chlorine content of this fraction is negligible. Over 95% of the gas fraction, regardless of the final temperature, is composed of hydrocarbons of a low molecular weight and hydrogen, this fraction also appearing to be free of chlorine

  18. Pyrolysis of tyres. Influence of the final temperature of the process on emissions and the calorific value of the products recovered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dez, C; Martnez, O; Calvo, L F; Cara, J; Morn, A

    2004-01-01

    A study was made of the pyrolysis of tyre particles, with the aim of determining the possibilities of using the products resulting from the process as fuel. Three final temperatures were used, determined from thermogravimetric data. The design of the experiment was a horizontal oven containing a reactor into which particles of the original tyre were placed. After the process, a solid fraction (char) remained in the reactor, while the gases generated went through a set of scrubbers where most of the condensable fraction (oils) was retained. Finally, once free of this fraction, the gases were collected in glass ampoules. Solid and liquids fractions were subjected to thermogravimetric analyses in order to study their combustibility. The gas fraction was analysed by means of gas chromatography to establish the content of CO, CO2, H2 and hydrocarbons present in the samples (mainly components of gases produced in the pyrolysis process). A special study was made of the sulphur and chlorine content of all the fractions, as the presence of these elements could be problematic if the products are used as fuel. Tyre pyrolysis engenders a solid carbon residue that concentrates sulphur and chorine, with a relatively high calorific value, although not so high as that of the original tyre. The liquid fraction produced by the process has a high calorific value, which rises with the final temperature, up to 40 MJ/kg. The chlorine content of this fraction is negligible. Over 95% of the gas fraction, regardless of the final temperature, is composed of hydrocarbons of a low molecular weight and hydrogen, this fraction also appearing to be free of chlorine. PMID:15120430

  19. Preparation of fluorine-doped tin oxide films at low substrate temperature by an advanced spray pyrolysis technique, and their characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indispensable fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films were prepared on glass substrates by an advanced spray pyrolysis technique at low substrate temperature, with stannic chloride (SnCl4.5H2O) and ammonium fluoride (NH4F) as precursors. The films were grown at different substrate temperatures varied in the range of 523–613 K. The influence of the substrate temperature on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of the films has been investigated. XRD studies show that all the films are polycrystalline and have a tetragonal crystal structure. The films deposited at the 613 K substrate temperature exhibit the lowest sheet resistance (17.82 Ω) with optical transmittance of ∼75% (at 550 nm). Hall-effect measurements showed that the films are heavily doped degenerate semiconductors with n-type electrical conductivity

  20. Pyrolysis of waste for vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrolysis may be an important pretreatment step before vitrification in a cold crucible melter (CCM). During vitrification of organic resin the carbon or other remaining residues may harm the performance of the cold crucible melter or the eventual stability of the final glass product. Hence, it is important to reduce or prevent such harmful waste from entry into the cold crucible melter. Pretreatment with pyrolysis will generally provide volume reduction resulting in less amount of solid waste that needs to be handled by the CCM; in addition, the pyrolytic processes may breakdown much of the complex organics causing release through volatilization resulting in less carbon and other harmful substances. Hence, KEPRI has undertaken studies on the pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis of organic ion exchange resin. Pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis were examined with TGA and a tube furnace. TGA results for pyrolysis with the flow of nitrogen indicate that even after pyrolyzing from room temperature to about 900 .deg., a significant mass fraction of the original cationic resin remains, approximately 46%. The anionic resin when pyrolytically heated in a flow of nitrogen only, from room temperature to about 900 .deg., produced a final residue mass fraction of about 8 percent. Oxidation at a ratio of air to nitrogen, 1:2, reduced the cationic resin to 5.3% when heated at 5 C/min. Oxidation of anionic resin at the same ratio and same heating rate left almost no solid residue. Pyrolysis (e.g. nitrogen-only environment) in the tube furnace of larger samples relative to the TGA produced very similar results to the TGA. The differences may be attributed to the scale effects such as surface area exposure to the gas stream, temperature distributions throughout the resin, etc

  1. Catalytic pyrolysis of biomass in a fluidized bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aho, A.

    2009-07-01

    Liquid, solid and gaseous fuels or fuel precursors can be produced from biomass through pyrolysis, which in essence is the thermal degradation of an organis material. The fuels can be used as such in stationary power plants. Upgrading of the liquid bio-oil is required for application in mobile diesel or gasoline engines. besides the use as a fuel, valuable chemicals can be extracted from the bio-oil. The thesis focuses on the upgrading of biomass derived pyrolysis vapours over various zeolite catalysis in fluidized bed reactors. Fluidized bed reactors were designed and constructed for the catalytic pyrolysis experiments. The first reactor set-up applied zeolites as a bed material in the pyrolysis reactor. In this way, the heat for the pyrolysis reactions was obtained by the preheated zeolites, simultaneously upgrading of the pyrolysis vapoursoccurred. The operation and screening of catalyst in the first reactor set-up was challenging. Therefore, a new dual-fluidized bed reactor was designed, where the two reactors, easier operation of the pyrolysis and catalytic reactor coud be established. De-oxygenation reactions of pine wood pyrolysis vapours over diverse zeolites, which are microporoous crystalline aluminosilicates, with differnt structures and acidities used in the presence of a binder and optinally functionalized with metals, were carried out in the present work. The zeolite structures of beta, Y, ZSM-5, ferrierite and mordenite were tested. Different acidities of the beta zeolite, having silica to alumina ratios of 25, 150 and 300, were also applied in the experiments. The effect of bentonite as a binder was tested for beta and ZSM-5 structure. Iron modification through ion-exchage was performed on beta, Y and ferrierite materials, which were further tested as catalysts in the pyrolysis of biomass. Besides testing different catalysts, conventional thermal pyrolysis of various biomass and model compounds was investigated. Pine wood, two types of beet pulp, cellulose and the hemicellulose galactoglucomannan were used as raw materials. The chemical composition of the bio-oil is affected to a great extent by the choice of raw material. The pine wood bio-oils had a large number of different phenolics, originating from the lignin polymer. Otherwise, the bio-oils from the different raw materials had a large number of different oxygenated organics such as furan derivatives, but also non-cyclic molecules like acetic acid and hydroxyacetone. De-oxygenation over zeolites was confirmed by an increased water formation and higher CO to CO{sub 2} ratios. The spent zeolites could be regenerated by burning away the formed coke, and the surface area and aciduty of the zeolites were regained. (orig.)

  2. Co-Pyrolysis Behaviors of the Cotton Straw/PP Mixtures and Catalysis Hydrodeoxygenation of Co-Pyrolysis Products over Ni-Mo/Al2O3 Catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Derun Hua; Yulong Wu; Yu Chen; Jian Li; Mingde Yang; Xinning Lu

    2015-01-01

    The doping of PP (polypropylene) with cotton straw improved the bio-oil yield, which showed there was a synergy in the co-pyrolysis of the cotton straw and PP at the range of 380–480 °C. In a fixed-bed reactor, model compounds and co-pyrolysis products were used for reactants of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) over Ni-Mo/Al2O3. The deoxygenation rate of model compounds decreased over Ni-Mo/Al2O3 in the following order: alcohol > aldehyde > acetic acid > ethyl acetate. The upgraded oil main...

  3. Structural and optical properties of nanostructural V2O5 thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis technique: Effect of the substrate temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    V2O5 thin films were deposited on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique. The variation in the structural and optical properties with a variation in the substrate temperature was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV–vis spectrophotometer. XRD was used to reveal the possible orientations of crystallites in the films prepared at different substrate temperatures ranging from 200 °C to 550 °C. The results showed that by increasing the temperature, the films grew along the (001) direction with an orthorhombic structure. The crystallite size was calculated using the Scherrer equation and observed that it increased with elevating the substrate temperature to 450 °C, but decreased when further increasing it. The highest transmittance was achieved when films were deposited at 550 °C. The absorption edge was estimated by using the Tauc plot. In the range 350 °C–550 °C, a shift of the absorption edge from 2.5 eV to 2.8 eV was observed due to the formation of chemical bonds at the V2O5 film–substrate interface at high substrate temperatures (>450 °C). Field emission scanning electron microscopy showed that nanorods were formed when depositing at 500 °C. We conclude that by altering the substrate temperature the size of crystallites can be well controlled. - Highlights: ► Spray pyrolysis technique was used. ► We have synthesized highly oriented nanocrystalline V2O5 films. ► By altering the substrate temperature the size of crystallites can be well controlled. ► The highest transmittance was achieved when films were deposited at 550 °C. ► Scanning electron microscopy showed that nanorods were formed when depositing at 500 °C

  4. Structural and optical properties of nanostructural V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis technique: Effect of the substrate temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irani, R. [Spray Lab, Physics Department, University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rozati, S.M., E-mail: smrozati@gmail.com [Spray Lab, Physics Department, University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Beke, S. [Department of Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy)

    2013-05-15

    V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films were deposited on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique. The variation in the structural and optical properties with a variation in the substrate temperature was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UVvis spectrophotometer. XRD was used to reveal the possible orientations of crystallites in the films prepared at different substrate temperatures ranging from 200 C to 550 C. The results showed that by increasing the temperature, the films grew along the (001) direction with an orthorhombic structure. The crystallite size was calculated using the Scherrer equation and observed that it increased with elevating the substrate temperature to 450 C, but decreased when further increasing it. The highest transmittance was achieved when films were deposited at 550 C. The absorption edge was estimated by using the Tauc plot. In the range 350 C550 C, a shift of the absorption edge from 2.5 eV to 2.8 eV was observed due to the formation of chemical bonds at the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} filmsubstrate interface at high substrate temperatures (>450 C). Field emission scanning electron microscopy showed that nanorods were formed when depositing at 500 C. We conclude that by altering the substrate temperature the size of crystallites can be well controlled. - Highlights: ? Spray pyrolysis technique was used. ? We have synthesized highly oriented nanocrystalline V{sub 2}O{sub 5} films. ? By altering the substrate temperature the size of crystallites can be well controlled. ? The highest transmittance was achieved when films were deposited at 550 C. ? Scanning electron microscopy showed that nanorods were formed when depositing at 500 C.

  5. Shock tube pyrolysis of pyridine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackie, J.C. (Univ. of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)); Colket, M.B. III (United Technologies Research Center, Hartford, CT (USA)); Nelson, P.F. (CSIRO, North Ryde, New South Wales (Australia))

    1990-05-17

    The kinetics of pyrolysis of pyridine dilute in argon have been studied in a single-pulse, shock tube, using capillary column GC together with GC/MS and FTIR spectroscopy for product determination, over the temperature range of 1,300-1,800 K and total pressures of 7-11 atm. At the lower end of the studied temperatures, cyanoacetylene was found to be the principal nitrogen-containing product. At elevated temperature hydrogen cyanide predominated. Other major products were acetylene and hydrogen. Several sources of HCN were identified in the system. An important source of HCN at high temperatures is the addition of H atoms to cyano compounds, especially cyanoacetylene, but also acetonitrile and acrylonitrile which are produced in the pyrolysis. The pyrolysis is a chain process initiated principally by C-H bond fission to form o-pyridyl. A 58-step reaction model is presented and shown to substantially fit the observed profiles of the major product species.

  6. De-oxygenation of CO2 by using Hydrogen, Carbon and Methane over Alumina-Supported Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Y. Raskar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The de-oxygenation of CO2 was explored by using hydrogen, methane, carbon etc., over alumina supported catalysts. The alumina-supported ruthenium, rhodium, platinum, molybdenum, vanadium and magnesium catalysts were first reduced in hydrogen atmosphere and then used for the de-oxygenation of CO2. Furthermore, experimental variables for the de-oxygenation of CO2 were temperature (range 50 to 650 oC, H2/CO2 mole ratios (1.0 to 5, and catalyst loading (0.5 to 10 wt %. During the de-oxygenation of CO2 with H2 or CH4 or carbon, conversion of CO2, selectivity to CO and CH4 were estimated. Moreover, 25.4 % conversion of CO2 by hydrogen was observed over 1 wt% Pt/Al2O3 catalyst at 650 oC with 33.8 % selectivity to CH4. However, 8.1 to 13.9 % conversion of CO2 was observed over 1 wt% Pt/Al2O3 catalyst at 550 oC in the presence of both H2 and CH4. Moreover, 42.8 to 79.4 % CH4 was converted with 9 to 23.1 % selectivity to CO. It was observed that the de-oxygenation of CO2 by hydrogen, carbon and methane produced carbon, CO and CH4. © 2012 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 6th February 2012; Revised: 23rd April 2012; Accepted: 24th April 2012[How to Cite: R. Y. Raskar, K. B. Kale, A. G. Gaikwad. (2011. De-oxygenation of CO2 by using Hydrogen, Carbon and Methane over Alumina-Supported Catalysts. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7 (1: 59-69.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.1.1631.59-69][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.1.1631.59-69 ] | View in 

  7. Effects of Pyrolysis Temperature on Product Yields and Energy Recovery from Co-Feeding of Cotton Gin Trash, Cow Manure, and Microalgae: A Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Muhammad Usman; Capareda, Sergio C.; Iqbal, Hamid; Arazo, Renato Ortiz; Baig, Muhammad Anwar

    2016-01-01

    The intensive search of new and cleaner energy catches interest in recent years due to huge consumption of fossil fuels coupled with the challenge of energy and environmental sustainability. Production of renewable and environmentally benign energy from locally available raw materials is coming in the frontline. In this work, conversion of the combined biomass (cotton gin trash, cow manure, and Microalgae [Nannochloropsis oculata]) through batch pyrolysis has been investigated. The effect of temperature to the production of energy fuels such as bio-oil, char, and biogas have been simulated considering the yield and energy content as responses. Result of the investigation generally revealed that the proportions of the different biomass did not significantly affect the product yield and energy recovery. Significant effect of temperature is evident in the simulation result of energy recovery whereby maximum conversion was achieved at 400°C for char (91 wt%), 600°C for syngas (22 wt%), and 551°C for bio-oil (48 wt%). Overall energy conversion efficiency of 75.5% was obtained at 589°C in which 15.6 MJ/kg of mixed biomass will be elevated to pyrolysis products. PMID:27043929

  8. Characteristics of liquid product from the pyrolysis of waste plastic mixture at low and high temperatures: Influence of lapse time of reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrolysis of a waste plastic mixture (high-density polyethylene: low-density polyethylene: polypropylene: polystyrene = 3:2:3:1) into a liquid product was carried out in a stirred semi-batch reactor at low (350 deg. C) and high (400 deg. C) temperatures. The effect of lapse time of reaction in the reactor and also degradation temperature on the characteristics of the liquid product from pyrolysis of the mixture was investigated. Liquid products were described by cumulative amount distribution, paraffin, olefin, naphthene and aromatic (PONA) distribution and molecular weight distribution. Their characteristic was quite differed with a lapse time of reaction and also at a low and high degradation temperatures, because of the different physicochemical properties of the plastic types in the mixture. With increase of lapse time of reaction, the order for the main products in PONA components obtained at 350 deg. C was firstly aromatic products and then olefin products, while at 400 deg. C the order was firstly aromatic products, then olefin products and finally paraffin products. The experiments also showed from the molecular weight distribution of liquid PONA components that the paraffin and olefin products had a wide distribution by mainly random scission of polymer, but in the case of olefin products were produced by an end-chain scission mechanism as well as random scission mechanism, as evidenced by much more light olefin products. This phenomenon was evident at a higher degradation temperature. Also, both the light olefin and naphthene products with a molecular weight of around 120, as a main product, showed a similar trend as a function of lapse time, which had a maximum fraction at 343 min (at 350 deg. C) and 83 min (at 400 deg. C). Among PONA components, the highest concentrations of aromatic products were obtained with a molecular weight of around 100 at the fastest lapse time of reaction, regardless of degradation temperature. It was concluded that the characteristics of liquid product on the pyrolysis of plastic mixtures were strongly influenced by lapse time of reaction and degradation temperature

  9. Comparison of activation media and pyrolysis temperature for activated carbons development by pyrolysis of potato peels for effective adsorption of endocrine disruptor bisphenol-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arampatzidou, Anastasia C; Deliyanni, Eleni A

    2016-03-15

    Activated carbon prepared from potato peels, a solid waste by product has been studied for the adsorption of an endocrine disruptor, Bisphenol-A, from aqueous solutions. The potato peels biomass was activated with H3PO4, KOH and ZnCl2 in order the effect of the activation agent to be evaluated. The activated biomass was carbonized at 400, 600 and/or 800°C in order the effect of carbonization temperature on the texture, surface chemistry and adsorption properties to be found. The activated carbons prepared were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, Scanning Electron Microscope, thermal analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Equilibrium adsorption data followed both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Adsorption followed second order rate kinetics. The adsorption capacity calculated from the Langmuir isotherm was found 454.62mgg(-1) at an initial pH 3 at 25°C for the phosphoric acid activated carbon carbonized at 400°C that proved to be the best adsorbent. PMID:26707777

  10. Kinetic investigation of wood pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurner, F.; Mann, U.; Beck, S. R.

    1980-06-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the kinetics of the primary reactions of wood pyrolysis. A new experimental method was developed which enabled us to measure the rate of gas, tar, and char production while taking into account the temperature variations during the wood heating up. The experimental method developed did not require any sophisticated instruments. It facilitated the collection of gas, tar and residue (unreacted wood and char) as well as accurate measurement of the temperature inside the wood sample. Expressions relating the kinetic parameters to the measured variables were derived. The pyrolysis kinetics was investigated in the range of 300 to 400/sup 0/C at atmospheric pressure and under nitrogen atmosphere. Reaction temperature and mass fractions of gas, tar, and residue were measured as a function of time. Assuming first-order reactions, the kinetic parameters were determined using differential method. The measured activation energies of wood pyrolysis to gas, tar, and char were 88.6, 112.7, and 106.5 kJ/mole, respectively. These kinetic data were then used to predict the yield of the various pyrolysis products. It was found that the best prediction was obtained when an integral-mean temperature obtained from the temperature-time curve was used as reaction temperature. The pyrolysis products were analyzed to investigate the influence of the pyrolysis conditions on the composition. The gas consisted mainly of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and C/sub 3//sup +/-compounds. The gas composition depended on reaction time as well as reactor temperature. The tar analysis indicated that the tar consisted of about seven compounds. Its major compound was believed to be levoglucosan. Elemental analysis for the char showed that the carbon content increased with increasing temperature.

  11. Controlled air pyrolysis incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An advanced controlled air pyrolysis incinerator has been researched, developed and placed into commercial operation for both radioactive and other combustible wastes. Engineering efforts cocentrated on providing an incinerator which emitted a clean, easily treatable off-gas and which produced a minimum amount of secondary waste. Feed material is continuously fed by gravity into the system's pyrolysis chamber without sorting, shredding, or other such pretreatment. Metal objects, liquids such as oil and gasoline, or solid products such as resins, blocks of plastic, tire, animal carcasses, or compacted trash may be included along with normal processed waste. The temperature of the waste is very gradually increased in a reduced oxygen atmosphere. Volatile pyrolysis gases are produced, tar-like substances are cracked and the resulting product, a relatively uniform, easily burnable material, is introduced into the combustion chamber. Steady burning is thus accomplished under easily controlled excess air conditions with the off-gasthen passing through a simple dry clean-up system. Gas temperatures are then reduced by air dilution before passing through final HEPA filters. Both commercial and nuclear installations have been operated with the most recent application being the central incinerator to service West Germany's nuclear reactors

  12. Pyrolysis processing for solid waste resource recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio, Michael A. (Inventor); Kroo, Erik (Inventor); Wojtowicz, Marek A. (Inventor); Suuberg, Eric M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Solid waste resource recovery in space is effected by pyrolysis processing, to produce light gases as the main products (CH.sub.4, H.sub.2, CO.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2O, NH.sub.3) and a reactive carbon-rich char as the main byproduct. Significant amounts of liquid products are formed under less severe pyrolysis conditions, and are cracked almost completely to gases as the temperature is raised. A primary pyrolysis model for the composite mixture is based on an existing model for whole biomass materials, and an artificial neural network models the changes in gas composition with the severity of pyrolysis conditions.

  13. Pyrolysis process for producing fuel gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio, Michael A. (Inventor); Kroo, Erik (Inventor); Wojtowicz, Marek A. (Inventor); Suuberg, Eric M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Solid waste resource recovery in space is effected by pyrolysis processing, to produce light gases as the main products (CH.sub.4, H.sub.2, CO.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2O, NH.sub.3) and a reactive carbon-rich char as the main byproduct. Significant amounts of liquid products are formed under less severe pyrolysis conditions, and are cracked almost completely to gases as the temperature is raised. A primary pyrolysis model for the composite mixture is based on an existing model for whole biomass materials, and an artificial neural network models the changes in gas composition with the severity of pyrolysis conditions.

  14. Structural and photoluminescence characterization of SnO{sub 2}: F thin films deposited by advanced spray pyrolysis technique at low substrate temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shewale, P.S. [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Electronics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (India); Ung Sim, Kyu; Kim, Ye-bin; Kim, J.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Yongbong-Dong, Buk-Gu, Gwangju 500757 (Korea, Republic of); Moholkar, A.V. [Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (India); Uplane, M.D., E-mail: mdu_eln@unishivaji.ac.in [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Electronics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (India)

    2013-07-15

    Fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates, at different substrate temperatures using advanced spray pyrolysis technique. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the crystallinity of the thin films increased with increasing substrate temperature. FESEM and AFM studies support the conclusions drawn from X-ray diffraction studies. X-ray photoelectron studies confirm oxygen deficiency in formation of the FTO nanocrystallites. The photoluminescence of the FTO films were investigated. It was found that, room temperature photoluminescence spectra are dominated by oxygen vacancies and exhibit a rich violet photoluminescence band about ?404 nm with an extensively feeble red emission about 700 nm. The Photoluminescence intensity varies with the substrate temperature. The photoemission position is observed to be independent of substrate temperature. -- Highlights: ? Photoluminescent FTO thin films were deposited at low substrate temperatures. ? Influence of substrate temperature on the PL characteristics was studied. ? The samples are polycrystalline with a cassiterite tetragonal crystal structure. ? The room temperature UV/violet PL emission was dominated by the oxygen vacancies. ? PL efficiency is optimum at 613 K substrate temperature.

  15. Effect of the substrate temperature on the physical properties of molybdenum tri-oxide thin films obtained through the spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, H.M. [Grupo de Materiales con Aplicaciones Tecnologicas, Departamento de Fisica Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Bogota (Colombia); Torres, J., E-mail: njtorress@unal.edu.co [Grupo de Materiales con Aplicaciones Tecnologicas, Departamento de Fisica Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Bogota (Colombia); Lopez Carreno, L.D. [Grupo de Materiales con Aplicaciones Tecnologicas, Departamento de Fisica Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Bogota (Colombia); Rodriguez-Garcia, M.E. [Departamento de Nanotecnologia, Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Queretaro, Qro., Mexico (Colombia)

    2013-01-15

    Polycrystalline molybdenum tri-oxide thin films were prepared using the spray pyrolysis technique; a 0.1 M solution of ammonium molybdate tetra-hydrated was used as a precursor. The samples were prepared on Corning glass substrates maintained at temperatures ranging between 423 and 673 K. The samples were characterized through micro Raman, X-ray diffraction, optical transmittance and DC electrical conductivity. The species MoO{sub 3} (H{sub 2}O){sub 2} was found in the sample prepared at a substrate temperature of 423 K. As the substrate temperature rises, the water disappears and the samples crystallize into {alpha}-MoO{sub 3}. The optical gap diminishes as the substrate temperature rises. Two electrical transport mechanisms were found: hopping under 200 K and intrinsic conduction over 200 K. The MoO{sub 3} films' sensitivity was analyzed for CO and H{sub 2}O in the temperature range 160 to 360 K; the results indicate that CO and H{sub 2}O have a reduction character. In all cases, it was found that the sensitivity to CO is lower than that to H{sub 2}O. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A low cost technique is used which produces good material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thin films are prepared using ammonium molybdate tetra hydrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The control of the physical properties of the samples could be done. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A calculation method is proposed to determine the material optical properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MoO{sub 3} thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis could be used as gas sensor.

  16. Effect of the substrate temperature on the physical properties of molybdenum tri-oxide thin films obtained through the spray pyrolysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycrystalline molybdenum tri-oxide thin films were prepared using the spray pyrolysis technique; a 0.1 M solution of ammonium molybdate tetra-hydrated was used as a precursor. The samples were prepared on Corning glass substrates maintained at temperatures ranging between 423 and 673 K. The samples were characterized through micro Raman, X-ray diffraction, optical transmittance and DC electrical conductivity. The species MoO3 (H2O)2 was found in the sample prepared at a substrate temperature of 423 K. As the substrate temperature rises, the water disappears and the samples crystallize into α-MoO3. The optical gap diminishes as the substrate temperature rises. Two electrical transport mechanisms were found: hopping under 200 K and intrinsic conduction over 200 K. The MoO3 films' sensitivity was analyzed for CO and H2O in the temperature range 160 to 360 K; the results indicate that CO and H2O have a reduction character. In all cases, it was found that the sensitivity to CO is lower than that to H2O. - Highlights: ► A low cost technique is used which produces good material. ► Thin films are prepared using ammonium molybdate tetra hydrated. ► The control of the physical properties of the samples could be done. ► A calculation method is proposed to determine the material optical properties. ► The MoO3 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis could be used as gas sensor.

  17. Influence of pyrolysis temperature on fracture response in SiOC based composites reinforced by basalt woven fabric

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chlup, Zdeněk; Černý, Martin; Strachota, Adam; Sucharda, Zbyněk; Halasová, Martina; Dlouhý, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 14 (2014), s. 3389-3398. ISSN 0955-2219 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP107/12/2445; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 ; RVO:67985891 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : Fracture behaviour * CMCs * Pyrolysis * Basalt fibre * Polysiloxane Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics; JI - Composite Materials (USMH-B); JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 2.947, year: 2014

  18. Deoxygenation of inert gas streams with methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, G.W.; Sicar, S.; Stepanoff, P.

    1989-08-22

    The patent describes a process for essentially complete removal of minor amounts of oxygen of approximately 0.1 to 10 mole% from inert gas streams. The process comprising reacting a stoichiometric amount of methanol with the oxygen at a feed gas temperature in the range of approximately 60{sup 0} to 120{sup 0}F. in the presence of a catalyst containing approximately 0.05 to 1.0 wt% palladium in the metal form with a metal surface area of at least 0.4 m/sup 2//g and a palladium dispersion of at least 30% to convert the oxygen and methanol to carbon dioxide and water without external heating of the reaction.

  19. An optically accessible pyrolysis microreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baraban, J. H.; Ellison, G. Barney [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); David, D. E. [Integrated Instrument Development Facility, CIRES, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0216 (United States); Daily, J. W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We report an optically accessible pyrolysis micro-reactor suitable for in situ laser spectroscopic measurements. A radiative heating design allows for completely unobstructed views of the micro-reactor along two axes. The maximum temperature demonstrated here is only 1300 K (as opposed to 1700 K for the usual SiC micro-reactor) because of the melting point of fused silica, but alternative transparent materials will allow for higher temperatures. Laser induced fluorescence measurements on nitric oxide are presented as a proof of principle for spectroscopic characterization of pyrolysis conditions.

  20. An optically accessible pyrolysis microreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraban, J. H.; David, D. E.; Ellison, G. Barney; Daily, J. W.

    2016-01-01

    We report an optically accessible pyrolysis micro-reactor suitable for in situ laser spectroscopic measurements. A radiative heating design allows for completely unobstructed views of the micro-reactor along two axes. The maximum temperature demonstrated here is only 1300 K (as opposed to 1700 K for the usual SiC micro-reactor) because of the melting point of fused silica, but alternative transparent materials will allow for higher temperatures. Laser induced fluorescence measurements on nitric oxide are presented as a proof of principle for spectroscopic characterization of pyrolysis conditions.

  1. An optically accessible pyrolysis microreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report an optically accessible pyrolysis micro-reactor suitable for in situ laser spectroscopic measurements. A radiative heating design allows for completely unobstructed views of the micro-reactor along two axes. The maximum temperature demonstrated here is only 1300 K (as opposed to 1700 K for the usual SiC micro-reactor) because of the melting point of fused silica, but alternative transparent materials will allow for higher temperatures. Laser induced fluorescence measurements on nitric oxide are presented as a proof of principle for spectroscopic characterization of pyrolysis conditions

  2. A calcinations temperature effect on La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 nanoparticle using simple citrate pyrolysis process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new route to synthesize nanosized crystalline of La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 perovskite type complex oxides by simple citrate pyrolysis process using a metal salts, La, Ca, Mn as starting materials. To obtain the LCMO nanoparticles the precursor is carried out at calcinations temperature of 500 deg C, 600 deg C, 700 deg C, 800 deg C for all very short time only 60 minutes. The synthesized LCMO nanoparticles were characterized by powder XRD, FTIR, TGA/DTA, SEM. The precursor could be completely decomposed into complex oxide at temperature below 500 deg C according to the TGA/DTA results. XRD demonstrates that the decomposed species is composed of perovskite-type structure at calcinations temperature of 600 deg C for 60 minutes. The crystalline size that depends on the calcinations temperature of the precursor is a range of 11-22 nm as determined by Scherrer formula. All the prepared samples have high purity perovskite structure which is orthorhombic. The chemical bonds were identified by the measurements of Infrared IR transmission spectra carried out with powder samples in which KBr is used as a carrier. The IR spectra revealed that streaking and bending modes influenced by calcinations temperature. Morphology and grain size were studied through Scanning electron microscopy. When increase calcinations temperatures imply a growth of the particles. (author)

  3. An investigation of the composition of liquid products of high temperature pyrolysis of a pentane hexane oil fraction. Issledovaniye sostava zhidkikh produktov vysokotemperaturnogo piroliza pentan-geksanovoy jraktsii nefti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliyev, S.M.; Aliyev, A.G.; Gasanov, A.I.; Kasumov, K.M.; Legon' kova, G.A.; Rezanova, G.V.; Stolonogova, V.G.

    1985-01-01

    The physicochemical characteristics and group hydrocarbon composition of liquid products of an acetyl mode of pyrolysis of a pentane and hexane oil fraction are studied. The individual hydrocarbon composition of C5 (28 to 65 degrees), C6 to C7 (65 to 130 degrees) and C8 to C9 (130 to 180 degrees) fractions of liquid products of high temperature pyrolysis of a pentane hexane fraction is studied. The reserves of individual monomers in the narrow fractions and in the starting crude oil are established. The area for using these valuable monomers and aromatic hydrocarbons (ArU) contained in these products is shown.

  4. High electron mobility thin-film transistors based on Ga2O3 grown by atmospheric ultrasonic spray pyrolysis at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on thin-film transistors based on Ga2O3 films grown by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis in ambient atmosphere at 400–450 °C. The elemental, electronic, optical, morphological, structural, and electrical properties of the films and devices were investigated using a range of complementary characterisation techniques, whilst the effects of post deposition annealing at higher temperature (700 °C) were also investigated. Both as-grown and post-deposition annealed Ga2O3 films are found to be slightly oxygen deficient, exceptionally smooth and exhibit a wide energy bandgap of ∼4.9 eV. Transistors based on as-deposited Ga2O3 films show n-type conductivity with the maximum electron mobility of ∼2 cm2/V s.

  5. High electron mobility thin-film transistors based on Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} grown by atmospheric ultrasonic spray pyrolysis at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Stuart R., E-mail: s.thomas09@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: thomas.anthopoulos@imperial.ac.uk; Lin, Yen-Hung; Faber, Hendrik; Anthopoulos, Thomas D., E-mail: s.thomas09@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: thomas.anthopoulos@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Adamopoulos, George [Department of Engineering, Engineering Building, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4YR (United Kingdom); Sygellou, Labrini [Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Processes (ICEHT), Foundation of Research and Technology Hellas (FORTH), Stadiou Strasse Platani, P.O. Box 1414, Patras GR-265 04 (Greece); Stratakis, Emmanuel [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (FORTH), Heraklion 71003 (Greece); Materials Science and Technology Department, University, of Crete, Heraklion 71003 (Greece); Pliatsikas, Nikos; Patsalas, Panos A. [Laboratory of Applied Physics, Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki GR-54124 (Greece)

    2014-09-01

    We report on thin-film transistors based on Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} films grown by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis in ambient atmosphere at 400450?C. The elemental, electronic, optical, morphological, structural, and electrical properties of the films and devices were investigated using a range of complementary characterisation techniques, whilst the effects of post deposition annealing at higher temperature (700?C) were also investigated. Both as-grown and post-deposition annealed Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} films are found to be slightly oxygen deficient, exceptionally smooth and exhibit a wide energy bandgap of ?4.9?eV. Transistors based on as-deposited Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} films show n-type conductivity with the maximum electron mobility of ?2?cm{sup 2}/V s.

  6. Catalytic Upgrading of Pinewood Fast Pyrolysis Vapors using an Integrated Auger - Packed Bed Reactor System: Effects of Acid Catalysts on Yields and Distribution of Pyrolysis Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamshi Krishna Guda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In-situ catalytic upgrading of pine wood fast pyrolysis vapors was performed using an integrated reactor set-up where fast pyrolysis of pine wood chips was carried out in an auger reactor followed by catalytic upgrading in a packed bed reactor mounted on the top of auger reactor. The pyrolysis process was carried out at 450 C under nitrogen atmosphere. The effects of catalyst composition (?-Al2O3, Si/Al, HY, HZSM5 were studied in upgrading pine wood fast pyrolysis vapors. Compared to bio-oil from non-catalytic experiments, deoxygenated products increased in all the bio-oils obtained from all the tested acid catalysts. While Si/Al and ?-Al2O3 yielded higher liquid products, the zeolites (HZSM5, HY favored the formation of aromatic hydrocarbons and higher gaseous yields. HZSM5 catalyzed bio-oil was the most deoxygenated bio-oil having lowest acid number (46.4%, lowest oxygen content (30% and high amount of phenolics among all the catalyzed bio-oils.

  7. Suspension Combustion of Wood: Influence of Pyrolysis Conditions on Char Yield, Morphology, and Reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall'Ora, Michelangelo; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2008-01-01

    Chars from pine and beech wood were produced by fast pyrolysis in an entrained flow reactor and by slow pyrolysis in a thermogravimetric analyzer. The influence of pyrolysis temperature, heating rate and particle size on char yield and morphology was investigated. The applied pyrolysis temperature...... varied in the range 673−1673 K for slow pyrolysis and between 873 and 1573 K for fast pyrolysis. The chars were oxidized in a thermogravimetric analyzer and the mass loss data were used to determine char oxidation reactivity. Char yield from fast pyrolysis (104−105 K/s) was as low as 1 to 6% on a dry ash...... free basis, whereas it was about 15−17% for slow pyrolysis (10−20 K/min); char yield decreased as pyrolysis temperature increased. During fast pyrolysis wood particles underwent melting, yet to different extents for the two investigated fuels: pine wood produced chars of porous spherical particles...

  8. Modeling CFB biomass pyrolysis reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Velden, Manon; Baeyens, Jan [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 25T (United Kingdom); Boukis, Ioannis [Helector Ltd., Kritis and Gravias 12, Agryroupolis, Athens (Greece)

    2008-02-15

    Fluidized bed-fast pyrolysis of biomass is considered as having a high commercial potential for the thermal treatment of biomass. This paper mainly presents a model developed further to improvements in the understanding of the science, and capable of predicting pyrolysis yields that are in satisfactory agreement with literature data. The kinetics and endothermicity of biomass pyrolysis are reviewed from extensive TGA and differential scanning calorimetry experiments. For most biomass species, the reaction rate constant is >0.5 s{sup -1}, corresponding to a fast reaction, so the requirement of a short reaction time for a high conversion can be met. Lab-scale batch experiments and pilot-scale CFB experiments show that an oil yield between 60 and 70 wt% can be achieved at an operating temperature of 510{+-}10 C, in line with literature data. Pyrolysis fundamentals are the basis of the developed model, applied to predict the yields of the different products as functions of process operation variables. The predictions are in fair agreement with our own conversion experiments and literature data. Finally, all findings are used and are illustrated in the design strategy of a CFB for the pyrolysis of biomass. (author)

  9. Modeling CFB biomass pyrolysis reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluidized bed-fast pyrolysis of biomass is considered as having a high commercial potential for the thermal treatment of biomass. This paper mainly presents a model developed further to improvements in the understanding of the science, and capable of predicting pyrolysis yields that are in satisfactory agreement with literature data. The kinetics and endothermicity of biomass pyrolysis are reviewed from extensive TGA and differential scanning calorimetry experiments. For most biomass species, the reaction rate constant is >0.5 s-1, corresponding to a fast reaction, so the requirement of a short reaction time for a high conversion can be met. Lab-scale batch experiments and pilot-scale CFB experiments show that an oil yield between 60 and 70 wt% can be achieved at an operating temperature of 510±10 oC, in line with literature data. Pyrolysis fundamentals are the basis of the developed model, applied to predict the yields of the different products as functions of process operation variables. The predictions are in fair agreement with our own conversion experiments and literature data. Finally, all findings are used and are illustrated in the design strategy of a CFB for the pyrolysis of biomass

  10. Modeling CFB biomass pyrolysis reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velden, Manon van de [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 25T (United Kingdom); Baeyens, Jan [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 25T (United Kingdom)], E-mail: j.baeyens@bham.ac.uk; Boukis, Ioannis [Helector Ltd., Kritis and Gravias 12, Agryroupolis, Athens (Greece)

    2008-02-15

    Fluidized bed-fast pyrolysis of biomass is considered as having a high commercial potential for the thermal treatment of biomass. This paper mainly presents a model developed further to improvements in the understanding of the science, and capable of predicting pyrolysis yields that are in satisfactory agreement with literature data. The kinetics and endothermicity of biomass pyrolysis are reviewed from extensive TGA and differential scanning calorimetry experiments. For most biomass species, the reaction rate constant is >0.5 s{sup -1}, corresponding to a fast reaction, so the requirement of a short reaction time for a high conversion can be met. Lab-scale batch experiments and pilot-scale CFB experiments show that an oil yield between 60 and 70 wt% can be achieved at an operating temperature of 510{+-}10 {sup o}C, in line with literature data. Pyrolysis fundamentals are the basis of the developed model, applied to predict the yields of the different products as functions of process operation variables. The predictions are in fair agreement with our own conversion experiments and literature data. Finally, all findings are used and are illustrated in the design strategy of a CFB for the pyrolysis of biomass.

  11. Pyrolysis of fast-growing aquatic biomass -Lemna minor (duckweed): Characterization of pyrolysis products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradov, Nazim; Fidalgo, Beatriz; Gujar, Amit C; T-Raissi, Ali

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this work was to conduct the experimental study of pyrolysis of fast-growing aquatic biomass -Lemna minor (commonly known as duckweed) with the emphasis on the characterization of main products of pyrolysis. The yields of pyrolysis gas, pyrolytic oil (bio-oil) and char were determined as a function of pyrolysis temperature and the sweep gas (Ar) flow rate. Thermogravimetric/differential thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) analyses of duckweed samples in inert (helium gas) and oxidative (air) atmosphere revealed differences in the TG/DTG patterns obtained for duckweed and typical plant biomass. The bio-oil samples produced by duckweed pyrolysis at different reaction conditions were analyzed using GC-MS technique. It was found that pyrolysis temperature had minor effect on the bio-oil product slate, but exerted major influence on the relative quantities of the individual pyrolysis products obtained. While, the residence time of the pyrolysis vapors had negligible effect on the yield and composition of the duckweed pyrolysis products. PMID:20598878

  12. FAST PYROLYSIS OF ENZYMATIC/MILD ACIDOLYSIS LIGNIN FROM MOSO BAMBOO

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Lou; Shu-bin Wu; Gao-jin Lv

    2010-01-01

    The characteristics of enzymatic/mild acidolysis lignin (EMAL) isolated from moso bamboo were investigated using pyrolysis-gas chromato-graphy/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). Pyrolysis temperature as a factor on products was studied, and the pyrolysis mechanism was inferred with respect to the dominating products. Research results showed that pyrolysis products derived from EMAL pyrolysis were mainly heterocyclic (2,3-dihydrobenzofuran), phenols, esters, and a minor amount of acetic acid. Pyrol...

  13. Four-electron deoxygenative reductive coupling of carbon monoxide at a single metal site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Joshua A.; Agapie, Theodor

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is the ultimate source of the fossil fuels that are both central to modern life and problematic: their use increases atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, and their availability is geopolitically constrained. Using carbon dioxide as a feedstock to produce synthetic fuels might, in principle, alleviate these concerns. Although many homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts convert carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, further deoxygenative coupling of carbon monoxide to generate useful multicarbon products is challenging. Molybdenum and vanadium nitrogenases are capable of converting carbon monoxide into hydrocarbons under mild conditions, using discrete electron and proton sources. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon monoxide on copper catalysts also uses a combination of electrons and protons, while the industrial Fischer-Tropsch process uses dihydrogen as a combined source of electrons and electrophiles for carbon monoxide coupling at high temperatures and pressures. However, these enzymatic and heterogeneous systems are difficult to probe mechanistically. Molecular catalysts have been studied extensively to investigate the elementary steps by which carbon monoxide is deoxygenated and coupled, but a single metal site that can efficiently induce the required scission of carbon-oxygen bonds and generate carbon-carbon bonds has not yet been documented. Here we describe a molybdenum compound, supported by a terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, that activates and cleaves the strong carbon-oxygen bond of carbon monoxide, enacts carbon-carbon coupling, and spontaneously dissociates the resulting fragment. This complex four-electron transformation is enabled by the terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, which acts as an electron reservoir and exhibits the coordinative flexibility needed to stabilize the different intermediates involved in the overall reaction sequence. We anticipate that these design elements might help in the development of efficient catalysts for converting carbon monoxide to chemical fuels, and should prove useful in the broader context of performing complex multi-electron transformations at a single metal site.

  14. Production and characterization of pyrolysis oils from Euphorbia macroclada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuncel, F.; Gercel, H.F. [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2004-07-15

    In this work, Euphorbia macroclada were pyrolyzed in a laboratory-scale fixed bed reactor. The influence of final pyrolysis temperature, heating rate, and pyrolysis atmosphere on the product yields was investigated. Pyrolysis runs were performed using reactor temperatures ranging between 400 and 700{sup o}C with heating rates of 7 and 40{sup o}C/min. The highest liquid yield was obtained at 550{sup o}C pyrolysis temperature with a heating rate of 7{sup o}C/min. The results from the pyrolysis of Euphorbia macroclada showed that the clear increments of the pyrolysis conversion in the temperature interval 500 to 550{sup o}C are due to the rapid devolatilization of cellulose and hemicelluloses. (author)

  15. Role of substrate temperature on the properties of Na-doped ZnO thin film nanorods and performance of ammonia gas sensors using nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariappan, R., E-mail: marijpr@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sri Ramakrishna Mission Vidyalaya College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore 641 020, Tamil Nadu (India); Department of Physics, Adhiyamaan College of Engineering, Hosur 635 109, Tamilnadu (India); Ponnuswamy, V.; Suresh, R. [Department of Physics, Sri Ramakrishna Mission Vidyalaya College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore 641 020, Tamil Nadu (India); Suresh, P. [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Chandra Bose, A. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620 015, Tamil Nadu (India); Ragavendar, M. [Department of Physics, KPR Institute of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore 641 407, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2014-01-05

    Highlights: • Na-doped ZnO films deposited on glass by nebulizer spray pyrolysis (NSP) method. • NSP method for large area coatings and good results as compared with other methods. • HR-SEM studies reveal the formation of Na-doped ZnO films consisting of nano-rods. • Na-doped ZnO films ensure their stability and suitability for gas sensors. -- Abstract: Sodium doped zinc oxide (Na:ZnO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates at substrate temperatures 300, 400 and 500 °C by a novel nebulizer spray method. X-ray diffraction shows that all the films are polycrystalline in nature having hexagonal structure with high preferential orientation along (0 0 2) plane. High resolution SEM studies reveal the formation of Na-doped ZnO films having uniformly distributed nano-rods over the entire surface of the substrates at 400 °C. The complex impedance of the ZnO nano-rods shows two distinguished semicircles and the diameter of the arcs got decreased in diameter as the temperature increases from 170 to 270 °C and thereafter slightly increased.

  16. Role of substrate temperature on the properties of Na-doped ZnO thin film nanorods and performance of ammonia gas sensors using nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Na-doped ZnO films deposited on glass by nebulizer spray pyrolysis (NSP) method. • NSP method for large area coatings and good results as compared with other methods. • HR-SEM studies reveal the formation of Na-doped ZnO films consisting of nano-rods. • Na-doped ZnO films ensure their stability and suitability for gas sensors. -- Abstract: Sodium doped zinc oxide (Na:ZnO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates at substrate temperatures 300, 400 and 500 °C by a novel nebulizer spray method. X-ray diffraction shows that all the films are polycrystalline in nature having hexagonal structure with high preferential orientation along (0 0 2) plane. High resolution SEM studies reveal the formation of Na-doped ZnO films having uniformly distributed nano-rods over the entire surface of the substrates at 400 °C. The complex impedance of the ZnO nano-rods shows two distinguished semicircles and the diameter of the arcs got decreased in diameter as the temperature increases from 170 to 270 °C and thereafter slightly increased

  17. Waste minimization pretreatment via pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis of organic ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, U.K.; Choi, K.; Yang, K.H.; Park, J.K.; Song, M.J. [Korea Electric Power Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Nuclear Power Generation Lab.

    1998-12-31

    Pyrolysis and/or oxidative pyrolysis of organic ion exchange resins and other combustible waste may be effective pretreatment processes before vitrification. Three different methods were examined with the TGA to pretreat the resins: pyrolysis; oxidative pyrolysis; and oxidative pyrolyses of ash remaining after the pyrolysis of resin. The latter two methods were found to provide better volume reduction than the pyrolysis-only process. Between the two types of resins, cationic and anionic, the cationic exchange resin was less volatile. Pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis of mixed resin (50% cation and 50% anion by wt.) showed volatilization at the temperatures where volatilization was observed for each of the separate resins. Because of certain limitations of the commercial TGA, tube furnace experiments were performed, generally, to examine the pyrolysis of larger quantities of cationic, anionic, and mixed resin, and to examine off-gas characteristics. The cationic resin-only and anionic resin-only gravimetric results showed good agreement with the smaller-scale TGA results. SEM pictures of the different variants of the resin (cationic, anionic, and mixed) show a different morphology for each. Off-gas data showed the presence of H{sub 2}S, SO{sub 2}, CO, and NO during the pyrolysis of cationic resin. CO was observed during the pyrolysis of anionic resin. The mixed resin trials showed the presence of the gases approximately at the temperatures where the gases would evolve if the results of the two different resins (cationic and anionic) were superimposed. However, the amount of hydrogen sulfide relative to the sulfur dioxide was found to increase significantly compared to the results of the cationic resin-only trials.

  18. Waste minimization pretreatment via pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis of organic ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrolysis and/or oxidative pyrolysis of organic ion exchange resins and other combustible waste may be effective pretreatment processes before vitrification. Three different methods were examined with the TGA to pretreat the resins: pyrolysis; oxidative pyrolysis; and oxidative pyrolyses of ash remaining after the pyrolysis of resin. The latter two methods were found to provide better volume reduction than the pyrolysis-only process. Between the two types of resins, cationic and anionic, the cationic exchange resin was less volatile. Pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis of mixed resin (50% cation and 50% anion by wt.) showed volatilization at the temperatures where volatilization was observed for each of the separate resins. Because of certain limitations of the commercial TGA, tube furnace experiments were performed, generally, to examine the pyrolysis of larger quantities of cationic, anionic, and mixed resin, and to examine off-gas characteristics. The cationic resin-only and anionic resin-only gravimetric results showed good agreement with the smaller-scale TGA results. SEM pictures of the different variants of the resin (cationic, anionic, and mixed) show a different morphology for each. Off-gas data showed the presence of H2S, SO2, CO, and NO during the pyrolysis of cationic resin. CO was observed during the pyrolysis of anionic resin. The mixed resin trials showed the presence of the gases approximately at the temperatures where the gases would evolve if the results of the two different resins (cationic and anionic) were superimposed. However, the amount of hydrogen sulfide relative to the sulfur dioxide was found to increase significantly compared to the results of the cationic resin-only trials

  19. Alveolar gas exchange, oxygen delivery and tissue deoxygenation in men and women during incremental exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltonen, Juha E; Hgglund, Harriet; Koskela-Koivisto, Tiina; Koponen, Anne S; Aho, Jyrki M; Rissanen, Antti-Pekka E; Shoemaker, J Kevin; Tiitinen, Aila; Tikkanen, Heikki O

    2013-08-15

    We investigated whether leg and arm skeletal muscle, and cerebral deoxygenation, differ during incremental cycling exercise in men and women, and if women's lower capacity to deliver O2 affects tissue deoxygenation. Men (n=10) compared to women (n=10), had greater cardiac output, which with greater hemoglobin concentration produced greater absolute (QaO2) and body size-adjusted oxygen delivery (QaO2i) at peak exercise. Despite women's lower peak QaO2, their leg muscle deoxygenation was similar at a given work rate and QaO2, but less than in men at peak exercise (?tissue saturation index -27.1 13.2% vs. -11.8 5.7%, Pexercise, oxygen uptake was associated both with QaO2 and leg muscle deoxygenation (both Pmuscle and cerebral deoxygenation did not differ between sexes at peak exercise. Thus, both high O2 delivery and severe active muscle deoxygenation are determinants of good exercise performance, and active muscle deoxygenation responses are regulated partly in a sex-specific manner with an influence of exercise capacity. PMID:23707876

  20. Effect of Solution Molarity, Substrate Temperature and Spray Time on The Structural and Optical Properties Of ZnO Thin Films Deposited By Spray Pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc oxide thin films were deposited on a glass substrate by spray pyrolysis technique using solution of zinc acetate and air as the carrier gas. Effects of solution molarity, substrate temperature and spray time on films properties were investigated. All films deposited were characterized using X-ray diffraction for structural characterization and UV-VIS transmission spectrophotometry for optical properties. According to the analytical method, the type of crystal lattice was found to be hexagonal and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that the films deposited were polycrystalline with (002) plane as preferential orientation. The values of lattice constant, grain size, micro strain and dislocation density of all samples were calculated. In addition, Optical behaviors of film samples were analyzed by obtaining transmission spectra, in the wavelength range of 350-800 nm. The UV-VIS spectroscopy shows the high transparency of ZnO films in the UV region. An optimization of the films has been carried out to determine the best preparation conditions.

  1. Structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures grown by aerosol spray pyrolysis: Candidates for room temperature methane and hydrogen gas sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the synthesis of ZnO films by aerosol spray pyrolysis method at different deposition times. The surface morphology, crystal structure and the cross-sectional analysis of the prepared ZnO films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). XRD analysis revealed that the ZnO films are polycrystalline in nature. Structural analysis exploiting cross-sectional TEM profile showed that the films composed of nano-particles and columnar structures growing perpendicular to the substrate. AFM revealed that the columnar structures have a higher surface roughness as compared to the nanoparticles. The effect of ZnO crystallite size and crystallinity on the gas sensing performance of hydrogen and methane gases was also evaluated. Sensing film based on ZnO nanoparticles has numerous advantages in terms of its reliability and high sensitivity. These sensing materials revealed an improved response to methane and hydrogen gases at room temperature due to their high surface area, indicating their possible application as a gas sensor.

  2. Orientation-dependent low field magnetic anomalies and room-temperature spintronic material – Mn doped ZnO films by aerosol spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Optical microscopy images of Mn doped ZnO films deposited for 20 min. Highlights: •Mn–ZnO films showing transparent spherical bubbles were synthesized by ASP. •LFMA phenomenon was observed for these films. •A relatively novel reversal magnetic feature to that of LFMA was observed. •Ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition due to Mn doping was observed. •Angular dependence analysis showed evidence of magnetic anisotropy present. -- Abstract: High quality un-doped and Mn-doped ZnO films deposited by a simple aerosol spray pyrolysis technique for 20 and 30 min were studied using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. EPR analysis showed novel observation of low field microwave absorption (LFMA) on the manganese (Mn) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) films at various Mn concentrations. The results showed a peculiar behavior, reversal signal to that of LFMA. These findings also demonstrated that these films contain ferromagnetism at room temperature with possible applications in spintronics. Angular dependence measurements were found to induce magnetic transition from ferromagnetism to paramagnetism. Structural analysis showed that the undertaken materials are in wurtzite structures. The light absorption edge of Mn–ZnO films red shifted which enhanced the observed ferromagnetism. The direct modulation of the band gap caused by Mn–ZnO substitution is responsible for the red shift effect in absorption edge of ZnO

  3. Orientation-dependent low field magnetic anomalies and room-temperature spintronic material Mn doped ZnO films by aerosol spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nkosi, S.S. [CSIR-National Laser Centre, 626 Meiring Naude Rd, Brummeria, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); School of Physics, University of Witwatersrand, Private Bag X3, Johannesburg 2030 (South Africa); Kortidis, I. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology, Hellas, P.O. Box 1527, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Motaung, D.E., E-mail: dmotaung@csir.co.za [DST/CSIR Nanotechnology Innovation Centre, National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Malgas, G.F. [DST/CSIR Nanotechnology Innovation Centre, National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Department of Physics, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville, 7535 (South Africa); Keartland, J.; Sideras-Haddad, E. [School of Physics, University of Witwatersrand, Private Bag X3, Johannesburg 2030 (South Africa); Forbes, A. [CSIR-National Laser Centre, 626 Meiring Naude Rd, Brummeria, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); School of Physics, University of Witwatersrand, Private Bag X3, Johannesburg 2030 (South Africa); Mwakikunga, B.W., E-mail: bmwakikunga@csir.co.za [DST/CSIR Nanotechnology Innovation Centre, National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Sinha-Ray, S. [DST/CSIR Nanotechnology Innovation Centre, National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Kiriakidis, G. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology, Hellas, P.O. Box 1527, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2013-12-05

    Graphical abstract: Optical microscopy images of Mn doped ZnO films deposited for 20 min. Highlights: MnZnO films showing transparent spherical bubbles were synthesized by ASP. LFMA phenomenon was observed for these films. A relatively novel reversal magnetic feature to that of LFMA was observed. Ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition due to Mn doping was observed. Angular dependence analysis showed evidence of magnetic anisotropy present. -- Abstract: High quality un-doped and Mn-doped ZnO films deposited by a simple aerosol spray pyrolysis technique for 20 and 30 min were studied using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. EPR analysis showed novel observation of low field microwave absorption (LFMA) on the manganese (Mn) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) films at various Mn concentrations. The results showed a peculiar behavior, reversal signal to that of LFMA. These findings also demonstrated that these films contain ferromagnetism at room temperature with possible applications in spintronics. Angular dependence measurements were found to induce magnetic transition from ferromagnetism to paramagnetism. Structural analysis showed that the undertaken materials are in wurtzite structures. The light absorption edge of MnZnO films red shifted which enhanced the observed ferromagnetism. The direct modulation of the band gap caused by MnZnO substitution is responsible for the red shift effect in absorption edge of ZnO.

  4. The influence of the pyrolysis temperature on the electrochemical behavior of carbon-rich SiCN polymer-derived ceramics as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinold, Lukas Mirko; Yamada, Yuto; Graczyk-Zajac, Magdalena; Munakata, Hirokazu; Kanamura, Kiyoshi; Riedel, Ralf

    2015-05-01

    Within this study we report on the impact of the pyrolysis temperature on the structural and electrochemical properties of the poly(phenylvinylsilylcarbodiimide) derived silicon carbonitride (SiCN) ceramic. Materials pyrolysed at 800 °C and 1300 °C, SiCN 800 and SiCN 1300, are found amorphous. Raman spectroscopy measurements indicate the increase in ordering of the free carbon phase with increasing pyrolysis temperature which leads to lower capacity recovered by SiCN 1300. Significant hysteresis is found for materials pyrolysed at 800 °C during electrochemical lithium insertion/extraction. This feature is attributed to much higher hydrogen content in SiCN 800 sample. An aging of SiCN 800 reflected by a change of elemental composition upon contact to air and a strong film formation are attenuated at a higher pyrolysis temperature. Single particle microelectrode investigation on SiCN 800 and SiCN 1300 clarify different electrochemical behavior of the materials. Much lower charge transfer resistance of SiCN 1300 in comparison to SiCN 800 explains better high currents electrochemical performance. Lithium ions diffusion coefficient Dmin ranges from 3.2 10-9 cm2s-1 to 6.4 10-11 cm2s-1 and is independent on the potential.

  5. High quality bio-oil from catalytic flash pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass over alumina-supported sodium carbonate

    KAUST Repository

    Imran, Ali

    2014-11-01

    Performance of a novel alumina-supported sodium carbonate catalyst was studied to produce a valuable bio-oil from catalytic flash pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. Post treatment of biomass pyrolysis vapor was investigated in a catalyst fixed bed reactor at the downstream of the pyrolysis reactor. In-situ catalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapor was conducted in an entrained flow pyrolysis reactor by feeding a premixed feedstock of the catalyst and biomass. Na2CO3/gamma-Al2O3 was very effective for de-oxygenation of the pyrolysis liquid and oxygen content of the bio-oil was decreased from 47.5 wt.% to 16.4 wt.%. An organic rich bio-oil was obtained with 5.8 wt.% water content and a higher heating value of 36.1 MJ/kg. Carboxylic acids were completely removed and the bio-oil had almost a neutral pH. This bio-oil of high calorific low, low water and oxygen content may be an attractive fuel precursor. In-situ catalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapor produced a very similar quality bio-oil compared to post treatment of pyrolysis vapors, and shows the possible application of Na2CO3/gamma-Al2O3 in a commercial type reactor system such as a fluidized bed reactor. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Spray pyrolysis process for preparing superconductive films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a spray pyrolysis method for preparing thin superconductive film. It comprises: preparing a spray pyrolysis solution comprising Bi,Sr,Ca and Cu metals in a solvent; heating a substrate to a first temperature; spraying the solution onto the heated substrate to form a film thereon; heating the film and substrate to a second temperature of about 700 degrees-825 degrees C, the second temperature being higher than the first temperature; heating the film and substrate to a third temperature of about 870 degrees-890 degrees C to melt the film; once the film and substrate reach the third temperature, further heat treating the film and substrate; cooling the film and substrate to ambient temperature. This patent also describes a spray pyrolysis method for preparing thin superconductive films. It comprises: preparing a spray pyrolysis solution comprising Bi, Ca and Cu metals and fluxing agent in a solvent; heating a substrate to a first temperature; spraying the solution onto the heated substrate to form a film thereon; heating the film and substrate to a second temperature about 700 degrees-825 degrees C, the second temperature being higher than the first temperature; heating the film and substrate at a third temperature about 840 degrees-860 degrees C; and cooling the film and substrate to ambient temperature

  7. Coherence length in deoxygenated (1 0 3)/(0 1 3) oriented YBCO superconductor films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camerlingo, Carlo [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' , Via Campi Flegrei 34, 80078 Pozzuoli (Italy)], E-mail: c.camerlingo@cib.na.cnr.it; Jung, Grzegorz [Department of Physics, Ben Gurion University of Negev, 84105 Beer Sheva (Israel)

    2007-09-01

    The coherence length {xi}{sub c} along c-axis direction in (1 0 3)/(0 1 3) oriented YBCO superconductor thin films has been evaluated from the temperature dependence of current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of micro-bridges in the framework of a model taking in account thermally activated magnetic flux creep in the intrinsic potential of the layered structure of the superconductor. The coherence length gradually increased from the initial value {xi}{sub c} = 0.14 nm to {xi}{sub c} = 0.33 nm in the sample subjected to subsequent annealing steps performed in air at increasing temperatures from a range T{sub a} = 190-275 deg. C. Structural modifications of deoxygenated samples were monitored by micro-Raman spectroscopy. The critical temperature T{sub c} slightly increases after the initial annealing steps while a significant T{sub c} decrease has been observed after T{sub a} = 275 deg. C stage accompanied by appearance of the tetragonal phase in the crystal structure.

  8. Fundamental Pyrolysis Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milne, T. A.; Evans, R. J.; Soltys, M. N.

    1983-03-01

    Progress on the direct mass spectrometric sampling of pyrolysis products from wood and its constituents is described for the period from June 1982 to February 1983. A brief summary and references to detailed reports, of the qualitative demonstration of our approach to the study of the separated processes of primary and secondary pyrolysis is presented. Improvements and additions to the pyrolysis and data acquisition systems are discussed and typical results shown. Chief of these are a heated-grid pyrolysis system for controlled primary pyrolysis and a sheathed flame arrangement for secondary cracking studies. Qualitative results of the secondary cracking of cellulose, lignin, and wood are shown as are comparisons with the literature for the pyrolysis spectra of cellulose, lignin, and levoglucosan. 'Fingerprints' for a number of materials are shown, with spectra taken under carefully controlled conditions so that sensitivity calibrations for different compounds, now being determined, can be applied.

  9. Stochastic state-space temperature regulation of biochar production Part II: Application to manure processing via pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: The concept of a designer biochar that targets the improvement of a specific soil property imposes the need for production processes to generate biochars with both high consistency and quality. These important production parameters can be affected by variations in process temperature tha...

  10. SIMULATION OF OLIVE PITS PYROLYSIS IN A ROTARY KILN PLANT

    OpenAIRE

    Giacobbe Braccio; Vincenzo Lorefice; Cesare Freda; Enzo Benanti; Vinod Kumar Sharma

    2011-01-01

    This work deals with the simulation of an olive pits fed rotary kiln pyrolysis plant installed in Southern Italy. The pyrolysis process was simulated by commercial software CHEMCAD. The main component of the plant, the pyrolyzer, was modelled by a Plug Flow Reactor in accordance to the kinetic laws. Products distribution and the temperature profile was calculated along reactor's axis. Simulation results have been found to fit well the experimental data of pyrolysis. Moreover, sensitivity anal...

  11. PROPERTIES OF GAS AND CHAR FROM MICROWAVE PYROLYSIS OF PINE SAWDUST

    OpenAIRE

    Xian-Hua Wang; Han-Ping Chen; Xue-Jun Ding; Hai-Ping Yang; Shi-Hong Zhang; Ying-Qiang Shen

    2009-01-01

    Pine sawdust pyrolysis was carried out respectively using microwave and conventional electrical heating at different temperatures in order to understand the properties of pyrolytic products from microwave pyrolysis of biomass. Less char material was obtained by microwave pyrolysis compared to conventional heating at the same temperature. While comparing the components of the pyrolytic gases, it was revealed that the microwave pyrolysis gas usually had higher H2 and CO contents and lower CH4...

  12. How to control the temperature of the furnace for flash pyrolysis of coal. Sekitan kyusoku netsubunkairo no roon control hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egashira, T.; Iida, H.; Kawamura, T.; Kosuiryu, H.; Hashimoto, S.

    1994-02-15

    Conventionally, the thermal decomposition of coal is done by coke oven. Recently, a research is conducted to develop the process for quickly heating thermal decomposition of coal to produce the fuel gas and the tar with a higher yield. In this process, the heat required for thermal decomposition is supplied by indirectly heating the circulation gas. The circulation of a large quantity of high temperature gas accelerates the erosion-corrosion of the refractories and increases the heat loss through the furnace wall. This invention solves the problem. A particulate collector is installed at the outlet of the thermal decomposition furnace. The collected hot char is recycled to the high temperature gas generation furnace through a feeder as the heat source for the gasification reaction. The recycle quantity is arbitrarily set above the stoichiometric quantity to the oxidizing gas for combustion. With this way, the furnace temperature can be controlled to an arbitrary level, and the expansion of the service life of the refractories as well as the reduction of heat loss can be achieved. 4 figs.

  13. Pyrolysis of waste tyres: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Pyrolysis of waste tyres produces oil, gas and char, and recovered steel. • Batch, screw kiln, rotary kiln, vacuum and fluidised-bed are main reactor types. • Product yields are influenced by reactor type, temperature and heating rate. • Pyrolysis oils are complex and can be used as chemical feedstock or fuel. • Research into higher value products from the tyre pyrolysis process is reviewed. - Abstract: Approximately 1.5 billion tyres are produced each year which will eventually enter the waste stream representing a major potential waste and environmental problem. However, there is growing interest in pyrolysis as a technology to treat tyres to produce valuable oil, char and gas products. The most common reactors used are fixed-bed (batch), screw kiln, rotary kiln, vacuum and fluidised-bed. The key influence on the product yield, and gas and oil composition, is the type of reactor used which in turn determines the temperature and heating rate. Tyre pyrolysis oil is chemically very complex containing aliphatic, aromatic, hetero-atom and polar fractions. The fuel characteristics of the tyre oil shows that it is similar to a gas oil or light fuel oil and has been successfully combusted in test furnaces and engines. The main gases produced from the pyrolysis of waste tyres are H2, C1–C4 hydrocarbons, CO2, CO and H2S. Upgrading tyre pyrolysis products to high value products has concentrated on char upgrading to higher quality carbon black and to activated carbon. The use of catalysts to upgrade the oil to a aromatic-rich chemical feedstock or the production of hydrogen from waste tyres has also been reported. Examples of commercial and semi-commercial scale tyre pyrolysis systems show that small scale batch reactors and continuous rotary kiln reactors have been developed to commercial scale

  14. Effect of gamma ray irradiation on deoxygenation by hydrazine in artificial seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the spent nuclear fuel pools in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, hydrazine has been added to reduce dissolved oxygen in the pool water containing salts. The reduction behavior of dissolved oxygen in seawater with hydrazine in the presence of radiation is unknown. The effect of gamma ray irradiation on deoxygenation by hydrazine in artificial seawater was investigated at room temperature. We placed the artificial seawater with a small amount of hydrazine under gamma ray irradiation at dose rates of 0.3-7.5 kGy/h. The concentration of dissolved oxygen in the solutions was measured before and after the irradiation. The concentration of dissolved oxygen hardly decreased in the absence of gamma radiation in a few hours, whereas it markedly decreased in the presence of gamma radiation. The concentration of dissolved oxygen decreased with irradiation time. At this moment, hydrazine concentration decreased more than twice the dissolved oxygen concentration. This shows that some gamma radiolysis products of hydrazine act as deoxidizers. The concentration of dissolved oxygen in artificial seawater could be decreased by the addition of a small amount of hydrazine in the presence of gamma radiation at room temperature. (author)

  15. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica and polypropylene over mesoporous Al-SBA-15 catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyung Won; Choi, Suek Joo; Park, Sung Hoon; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Jung, Sang-Chul; Kim, Sang Chai; Park, Young-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic co-pyrolysis of a seaweed biomass, Laminaria japonica, and a typical polymer material, polypropylene, was studied for the first time. A mesoporous material Al-SBA-15 was used as a catalyst. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted using a fixed-bed reactor and pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). BET surface area, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, and NH3 temperature programmed desorption were measured to examine the catalyst characteristics. When only L. jap...

  16. Pyrolysis of rubber gloves in integral pyrolysis test plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previously, pyrolysis of rubber gloves in laboratory study was described. In order to visualize the practical application of rubber gloves pyrolysis in terms of treating rubber gloves in medical waste, a new test plant was designed and constructed. The semi-continuous test plant was designed to accommodate rubber gloves that were not cut or shredded. The test plant has a capacity of 2kg/ hr and employed auxiliary fuel instead of the conventional electrical power for heating. The concept was based on moving bed reactor, but additional feature of sand jacket feature was also introduced in the design. Pyrolysis of the gloves was conducted at three temperatures, namely 350 degree Celsius, 400 degree Celsius and 450 degree Celsius. Oxygen presents inside of the reactor due to the combined effect of imperfect sealing and suction effect. This study addresses the performance of this test plant covering the time temperature profile, gas evolution profile and product yield. Comparison between the yield of the liquid, gas and char pyrolyzate was made against the laboratory study. It was found that the oil yield was less than the one obtained from bench scale study. Water formation was more pronounced. The presence of the oxygen also altered the tail gas composition but eliminate the sticky nature of solid residue, making it easier to handle. The chemical composition of the oil was determined and the main compounds in the oil were esters and phtalic acid. (author)

  17. PROPERTIES OF GAS AND CHAR FROM MICROWAVE PYROLYSIS OF PINE SAWDUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Hua Wang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Pine sawdust pyrolysis was carried out respectively using microwave and conventional electrical heating at different temperatures in order to understand the properties of pyrolytic products from microwave pyrolysis of biomass. Less char material was obtained by microwave pyrolysis compared to conventional heating at the same temperature. While comparing the components of the pyrolytic gases, it was revealed that the microwave pyrolysis gas usually had higher H2 and CO contents and lower CH4 and CO2 contents than those obtained by conventional pyrolysis at the same temperature. The texture analysis results of the microwave pyrolysis chars showed that the chars would melt and the pores would shrink at high temperatures, and hence, the specific surface areas of the chars decreased with increasing temperature. Similarly, the reactivity of the char was remarkably reduced when the microwave pyrolysis temperature exceeded 600C.

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions and soil properties following amendment with manure-derived biochars: Influence of pyrolysis temperature and feedstock type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Raghunath; Taupe, Natalie; Pelissetti, Simone; Petruzzelli, Laura; Bertora, Chiara; Leahy, James J; Grignani, Carlo

    2016-01-15

    Manure-derived biochars can offer a potential option for the stabilization of manure, while mitigating climate change through carbon sequestration and the attenuation of nitrous oxide emission. A laboratory incubation study was conducted to assess the effects of four different manure-derived biochars produced from different feedstocks (poultry litter and swine manure) at different temperatures (400 or 600 °C). A commonly available standard wood chip biochar, produced at a greater temperature (1000 °C), and non-amended treatments were used as references. Two different soils (sandy and silt-loam) were amended with 2% (w/w) biochar on a dry soil weight basis (corresponding to 20 Mg ha(-1)), with the soil moisture being adjusted to 75% saturation level. After a pre-incubation period (21 days), 170 kg N ha(-1) of NH4NO3 fertilizer was added. Measurements of CO2, N2O, CH4 emissions and soil N mineralisation were carried out on different days during the 85 days of incubation. The net C mineralization and N2O emissions from both soils amended with poultry litter biochar at 400 °C were significantly greater than the other biochar treatments. Nitrate availability was greater in both soils in which the manure-derived biochar was used instead of the standard biochar. All of the biochars increased the pH of the silt-loam, sub-acid soil, but failed to improve the cation exchange capacities (CEC) in either soil. Total C and N, P, K and Mg (except Ca) were significantly increased in the manure-derived biochar amended soils, compared to the Control, and were positively correlated to the biochar nutrient contents. This study indicates that the soil application of biochar engenders effects that can vary considerably according to the biochar properties, as determined on the basis of the feedstock types and process conditions. Low-temperature biochar production from manure represents a possible way of producing a soil amendment that can stabilize C while supplying a significant quantity of nutrients. PMID:26484602

  19. Effects of Biomass Feedstock on the Yield and Reactivity of Soot from Fast Pyrolysis at High Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Jensen, Peter A.; Glarborg, Peter; Garcia, Angel D. Llamas; Umeki, Kentaro; Kling, Jens; Gardini, Diego; B. Bates, Richard; Jensen, Anker D.

    This study investigated the effect of feedstock on the yield, nanostructure and reactivity of soot. Woody and herbaceous biomass were pyrolyzed at high heating rates and temperatures of 1250 and 1400°C in a drop tube furnace. The collected solid residues were structurally characterized by electron...... that of beechwood soot (from 33.2 to 102 nm) and wheat straw soot (from 11.5 to 165.3 nm). In addition, pinewood soot particles contained mainly multi-core structures at 1250°C. The potassium content played a more important role on the soot reactivity than the particle size and nanostructure....... microscopy techniques, X-ray diffraction and N2-adsorption. The reactivity of soot was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed that the reactivity of soot, generated at 1400°C was higher than that at 1250°C for all biomass types. Wood and wheat straw soot demonstrated differences with...

  20. Plasma pyrolysis of toxic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comparison of technical economic indexes of different waste treatment methods and plasma pyrolysis is presented in the paper. It testifies that plasma technologies are economically expedient for these purposes. Physical prerequisites allowing realizing plasma technologies are presented. Reliable and economical (70-120 Euro per ton of treated product) plasma generation is the basic condition of the technology realization. In this connection, various types of powerful generators of dense plasma (plasmatrons) in the range from 100 kW to 3 MW and temperature of plasma jets from 2000 to 10 000 K, and also physical processes taking place in electric-discharge chambers are examined. Differences between AC and DC electric arc plasma generators are analysed. Temperature in arcs of plasma generators varies from 6000 to 20,000 K, electron concentration is ne ∼ (1014-1019 cm-3). Specific ware of electrodes in various types of plasma generators intended for long-time operation modes is (10-7-10-4) g C-1. Physicochemical processes in plasma reactors intended for waste treatment and pyrolysis are described. Different types of technological processes on plasma treatment and pyrolysis of waste are analysed. Estimation of present situation of physical investigations and technological developments in this area and predictions for nearest future are included

  1. Plasma pyrolysis of toxic waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutberg, Ph G.

    2003-06-01

    The comparison of technical economic indexes of different waste treatment methods and plasma pyrolysis is presented in the paper. It testifies that plasma technologies are economically expedient for these purposes. Physical prerequisites allowing realizing plasma technologies are presented. Reliable and economical (70-120 Euro per ton of treated product) plasma generation is the basic condition of the technology realization. In this connection, various types of powerful generators of dense plasma (plasmatrons) in the range from 100 kW to 3 MW and temperature of plasma jets from 2000 to 10 000 K, and also physical processes taking place in electric-discharge chambers are examined. Differences between AC and DC electric arc plasma generators are analysed. Temperature in arcs of plasma generators varies from 6000 to 20 000 K, electron concentration is ne~(1014-1019 cm-3). Specific ware of electrodes in various types of plasma generators intended for long-time operation modes is (10-7-10-4) g C-1. Physicochemical processes in plasma reactors intended for waste treatment and pyrolysis are described. Different types of technological processes on plasma treatment and pyrolysis of waste are analysed. Estimation of present situation of physical investigations and technological developments in this area and predictions for nearest future are included. This article was scheduled to appear in issue 5 of Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion. To access this Special issue please follow this link: http://www.iop.org/EJ/toc/0741-3335/45/5

  2. Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dezhen, E-mail: chendezhen@tongji.edu.cn [Thermal and Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan [Thermal and Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); He, Pinjing [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • MSW pyrolysis reactors, products and environmental impacts are reviewed. • MSW pyrolysis still has to deal with flue gas emissions and products’ contamination. • Definition of standardized products is suggested to formalize MSW pyrolysis technology. • Syngas is recommended to be the target product for single MSW pyrolysis technology. - Abstract: Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested.

  3. Reprint of: Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • MSW pyrolysis reactors, products and environmental impacts are reviewed. • MSW pyrolysis still has to deal with flue gas emissions and products’ contamination. • Definition of standardized products is suggested to formalize MSW pyrolysis technology. • Syngas is recommended to be the target product for single MSW pyrolysis technology. - Abstract: Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO2 and NH3, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested

  4. Fast pyrolysis of lignin, macroalgae and sewage sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2013-01-01

    In the last twenty years, the fast pyrolysis process has been explored to produce bio-oil from biomass. Fast pyrolysis is a thermal conversion technology that is performed at a temperatures of 450 - 600 ºC, high biomass heating ratess (100 - 2000 K/s), a short gas residence time (less than 2 s) with no presence of oxygen. Fast pyrolysis can convert a large fraction of the biomass to bio-oil, and smaller fractions of char and gas. The pyrolysis centrifuge reactor (PCR) has been developed at th...

  5. CATALYTIC FAST PYROLYSIS OF CELLULOSE MIXED WITH SULFATED TITANIA TO PRODUCE LEVOGLUCOSENONE: ANALYTICAL PY-GC/MS STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang Lu; Xu-Ming Zhang,; Zhi-Bo Zhang; Ying Zhang; Xi-Feng Zhu; Chang-Qing Dong

    2012-01-01

    Sulfated titania (SO42-/TiO2) was prepared and used for catalytic fast pyrolysis of cellulose to produce levoglucosenone (LGO), a valuable anhydrosugar product. Analytical pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) technique was employed in this study to achieve the catalytic fast pyrolysis of cellulose and on-line analysis of the pyrolysis vapors. Experiments were performed to investigate the effects of several factors on the LGO production, i.e. pyrolysis temperature, cellulo...

  6. PRONOUNCED MUSCLE DEOXYGENATION DURING SUPRAMAXIMAL EXERCISE UNDER SIMULATED HYPOXIA IN SPRINT ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Oguri

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether acute hypoxia alters the deoxygenation level in vastus lateralis muscle during a 30 s Wingate test, and to compare the muscle deoxygenation level between sprint athletes and untrained men. Nine male track sprinters (athletic group, VO2max 62.5 4.1 ml/kg/min and 9 healthy untrained men (untrained group, VO2max 49.9 5.2 mlkg-1min-1 performed a 30 s Wingate test under simulated hypoxic (FIO2 = 0.164 and PIO2 = 114 mmHg and normoxic conditions. During the exercise, changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (OxyHb in the vastus lateralis were measured using near infrared continuous wave spectroscopy. Decline in OxyHb, that is muscle deoxygenation, was expressed as percent change from baseline. Percutaneous arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2, oxygen uptake (VO2, and ventilation (VE were measured continuously. In both groups, there was significantly greater muscle deoxygenation, lower SpO2, lower peakVO2, and higher peakVE during supramaximal exercise under hypoxia than under normoxia, but no differences in peak and mean power output during the exercise. Under hypoxia, the athletic group experienced significantly greater muscle deoxygenation, lower SpO2, greater decrement in peakVO2 and increment in peakVE during the exercise than the untrained group. When the athletic and untrained groups were pooled, the increment of muscle deoxygenation was strongly correlated with lowest SpO2 in the 30 s Wingate test under hypoxia. These results suggest that acute exposure to hypoxia causes a greater degree of peripheral muscle deoxygenation during supramaximal exercise, especially in sprint athletes, and this physiological response would be explained mainly by lower arterial oxygen saturation

  7. Deoxygenation of glycolaldehyde and furfural on Mo2C/Mo(100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Jesse R.; Vohs, John M.

    2014-12-01

    The desire to produce fuels and chemicals in an energy conscious, environmentally sympathetic approach has motivated considerable research on the use of cellulosic biomass feedstocks. One of the major challenges facing the utilization of biomass is finding effective catalysts for the efficient and selective removal of oxygen from the highly-oxygenated, biomass-derived platform molecules. Herein, a study of the reaction pathways for the biomass-derived platform molecule furfural and biomass-derived sugar model compound glycolaldehyde provides insight into the mechanisms of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) on a model molybdenum carbide catalyst, Mo2C/Mo(100). Using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS), it was found that the Mo2C/Mo(100) catalyst was active for selective deoxygenation of the aldehyde carbonyl by facilitating adsorption of the aldehyde in an η2(C,O) bonding configuration. Furthermore, the catalyst showed no appreciable activity for furanic ring hydrogenation, highlighting the promise of relatively inexpensive Mo2C catalysts for selective HDO chemistry.

  8. Pyrolysis of sawdust in a conical spouted-bed reactor with a HZSM-5 catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olazar, M.; Aguado, R.; Bilbao, J.; Barona, A.

    2000-05-01

    The effect was studied of using an in-situ catalyst based on a HZSM-5 zeolite in flash pyrolysis with an inert gas (N{sub 2}) of pinus insignis sawdust in a conical spouted-bed reactor in the 400--500 C range and for a gas residence time of 50 ms. The use of the catalyst increases the yield of gases and decreases the yields of liquid and char. Likewise, the yield of CO{sub 2} decreases, whereas the yield of C{sub 4{minus}} hydrocarbons increases (15.9 wt. % at 450 C). The catalyst is efficient for partial deoxygenation of the liquid product.

  9. Spray pyrolysis for high Tc superconductors films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spray pyrolysis at high temperature is reviewed and applied to the formation of epitaxial thick layers of YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO). The necessary conditions to enhance the texture quality and the critical current density are discussed. High critical current densities, over 1.0 MA cm-2 (at 77 K, self-field), are reported, making this technique very promising for low cost applications. This emphasizes the need for more comprehensive studies regarding the chemical phenomena involved in film deposition by spray pyrolysis at high temperature, especially those concerning local equilibrium and reactions occurring in the area involved in the deposition

  10. STEPWISE ISOTHERMAL FAST PYROLYSIS (SIFP) OF BIOMASS PART I. SIFP OF PINE SAWDUST

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia López Rivilli; Yranzo, Gloria I.; Jorge Daniel Pérez

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis of pine wood sawdust was carried out using stepwise isothermal fast pyrolysis (SIFP), focusing on the search of reaction conditions to obtain chemicals in good yields from biomass. SIFP consists of successive isothermal fast pyrolysis reactions, where solid products obtained in the previous isothermal fast pyrolysis become the substrate of the subsequent reaction at a higher temperature. This article reports results obtained by SIFP of pine sawdust between 200 and 600°C using 100°C ...

  11. Pyrolysis and Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Bilitewski, B.

    Pyrolysis and gasification include processes that thermally convert carbonaceous materials into products such as gas, char, coke, ash, and tar. Overall, pyrolysis generates products like gas, tar, and char, while gasification converts the carboncontaining materials (e.g. the outputs from pyrolysis....... In Europe during World War II, wood-fueled gasifiers (or ‘gas generators’) were used to power cars during shortages of oil-based fuels. Sparked by oil price crises in 1970s and 1980s, further development in gasification technologies focused mainly on coal as a fuel to substitute for oil...

  12. Pyrolysis with cyclone burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Norman W.; Duraiswamy, Kandaswamy; Lumpkin, Robert E.

    1978-07-25

    In a continuous process for recovery of values contained in a solid carbonaceous material, the carbonaceous material is comminuted and then subjected to flash pyrolysis in the presence of a particulate heat source over an overflow weir to form a pyrolysis product stream containing a carbon containing solid residue and volatilized hydrocarbons. After the carbon containing solid residue is separated from the pyrolysis product stream, values are obtained by condensing volatilized hydrocarbons. The particulate source of heat is formed by oxidizing carbon in the solid residue and separating out the fines.

  13. Pyrolysis with staged recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Norman W.; Duraiswamy, Kandaswamy; Lumpkin, Robert E.; Winter, Bruce L.

    1979-03-20

    In a continuous process for recovery of values contained in a solid carbonaceous material, the carbonaceous material is comminuted and then subjected to flash pyrolysis in the presence of a particulate heat source fed over an overflow weir to form a pyrolysis product stream containing a carbon containing solid residue and volatilized hydrocarbons. After the carbon containing solid residue is separated from the pyrolysis product stream, values are obtained by condensing volatilized hydrocarbons. The particulate source of heat is formed by oxidizing carbon in the solid residue.

  14. A characterization of the lability of particulate organic matter in the lower Mississippi-Atchafalaya River System: An application of a programmed temperature pyrolysis/combustion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, K. M.; Rosenheim, B. E.; Roberts, B. J.; Kolker, A. S.; Allison, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Mississippi-Atchafalaya River System (MARS) transports over 40% (4.0 x 109 kg) of the United States' annual input of total organic carbon (OC) from the terrestrial to the marine environment. Assessing the MARSs exact role in the global carbon cycle is challenging because of its temporal variability (i.e. high discharge events and low flow regimes) and its large and geographically diverse drainage basin. A key question regarding carbon transport in the MARS is what proportion of transported carbon is sourced from labile, fixed carbon versus more refractory, petrogenic carbon sources. Here, we investigate the spatial and temporal variability of the partitioning of labile to refractory particulate organic carbon (POC) in the lower Mississippi and Atchafalaya River Channels and at their points of discharge in the GOM during flood and near mean flow conditions in the springs of 2008 and 2009, respectively. The 2008 spring flood discharged 105 km3 of water, the maximum amount of water ever allowed out of the main channel south of the Old River Control Structure, at a maximum rate of 4.3 x 104 m3s-1. The Control Structure diverted 30% of this flow down the Atchafalaya River and the remaining 70% down the Mississippi channel. Events of this scale have occurred only nine times in the past 80 years. Additionally, during the spring 2008 flood, bedload sand and large particulate OC transport rates were observed to increase exponentially. The following spring, high discharge rates returned to near-mean values with a peak discharge of 3.6 x 103 m3s-1.Using radiocarbon (14C) content as an indicator of lability, we employ a programmed temperature pyrolysis-combustion system (PTP/CS) to generate spectra of 14C ages for the POC collected in the lower Mississippi and Atchafalaya River channels and at their points of discharge in the GOM during flood and near mean flow conditions. PTP/CS utilizes differences in thermo-chemical stability of acid insoluble OM to separate different carbon components from bulk acid insoluble. Employing PTP/CS on bulk acid insoluble OM can complement experiments measuring small proportions of total OM, such as compound specific isotopic analysis. This presentation will present technical data from this method and apply the method to constraining the complexities of the MARS and its contribution to the global carbon cycle.

  15. ISOTHERMAL PYROLYSIS OF KRAFT PULP MILL SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsudin Syamsudin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kraft pulp mill sludge cake composed of rejected wood fibers and activated sludge microorganisms. With a heating value about 14 MJ/kg (dried basis, this type of biomass had a potential as an alternative energy source. Unfortunately, it had an ash content of 27.6% and a moisture content of 80%. For reducing moisture content with minimum energy consumption, a combination of mechanical dewatering and thermal drying was studied previously. Meanwhile, experiments on isothermal pyrolysis had been carried out for further improvement on ultimate and proximate analysis of solid fuel. Final mass of char obtained from pyrolysis at 500oC was not significantly different from that of 700oC, so pyrolysis was considered to be optimum at 500oC. A char obtained from pyrolysis at temperature of 500oC had a pore surface area of 77.049 m2/g (highest among other temperatures. Kinetic of isothermal pyrolysis was well represented with a first order modified volumetric model with a frequency factor of 0.782 1/s and an activation of 34.050 kJ/mol.

  16. Biomass pyrolysis for chemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Wild, Paul de,

    2011-01-01

    Biomass Pyrolysis for Chemicals The problems associated with the use of fossil fuels demand a transition to renewable sources (sun, wind, water, geothermal, biomass) for materials and energy where biomass provides the only renewable source for chemicals. In a biorefinery, biomass is converted via different technologies into heat, power and various products. Here, pyrolysis (thermal degradation without added oxygen) of lignocellulosic biomass can play an important role, because it leads to ...

  17. FAST PYROLYSIS OF LIGNINS

    OpenAIRE

    Sedat Beis; Saikrishna Mukkamala; Nathan Hill; Jincy Joseph; Cirila Baker; Bruce Jensen; Elizabeth Stemmler; Clayton Wheeler; Brian Frederick; Adriaan van Heiningen; Alex Berg; William Joseph DeSisto

    2010-01-01

    Three lignins: Indulin AT, LignoboostTM, and Acetocell lignin, were characterized and pyrolyzed in a continuous-fed fast pyrolysis process. The physical and chemical properties of the lignins included chemical composition, heat content, ash, and water content. The distributed activation energy model (DAEM) was used to describe the pyrolysis of each lignin. Activation energy distributions of each lignin were quite different and generally covered a broad range of energies, typically found in li...

  18. Application of hierarchical MFI zeolite for the catalytic pyrolysis of Japanese larch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyu-Hong; Park, Hyun Ju; Kim, Jeongnam; Ryoo, Ryong; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Park, Junhong; Park, Young-Kwon

    2010-01-01

    The catalytic pyrolysis of Japanese larch was carried out over a hierarchical MFI zeolite (Meso MFI C16). The zeolite was synthesized using an amphiphilic organosilane as a mesopore-directing agent, and its catalytic activity was compared with that of the conventional HZSM-5 and the mesoporous material from HZSM-5 (MMZ(ZSM-5)). The effect of the hierarchical MFI zeolite on the product distribution and chemical composition of the bio-oil was also examined. The hierarchical MFI zeolite exhibited the highest activity in deoxygenation and aromatization during the catalytic pyrolysis of Japanese larch. In particular, it showed high selectivity for valuable aromatics, such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX), even though it decreased the organic fraction of bio-oil. Its higher mesoporosity resulted, however, in an increase in the coke amount and in undesirable products, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PMID:20352861

  19. Relationship between hydrous and ordinary pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, A.K.

    1993-06-01

    Pyrolysis results are reviewed briefly with the intent of drawing comparisons between open, high pressure, and hydrous pyrolysis. Empirically, the degree of pyrolysis severity to form volatile products in open pyrolysis is similar to that required to form an expelled oil phase in hydrous pyrolysis. The yields of hydrocarbons from open pyrolysis are close to those from hydrous pyrolysis, but hydrous pyrolysis tends to assist the separation of hydrocarbons from polar materials. Pressure has a small but measurable affect on the generation kinetics.

  20. Catalytic Pyrolysis and a Pyrolysis Kinetic Study of Shredded Printed Circuit Board for Fuel Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmiaton Ali

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Scrap printed circuit boards (PCBs are the most abundant wastes that can be found in the landfills in Malaysia and this disposal certainly poses serious detrimental to the environment. This research aims to investigate optimum temperature for pyrolyzing waste PCBs, find out the best catalyst to be used in accelerating PCBs pyrolysis, select suitable ratio of catalyst to PCBs for higher oil yield and examine kinetics pyrolysis of the waste PCBs decomposition. Operating temperatures ranged from 200 to 350 ?C of PCBs pyrolysis were conducted with the optimum temperature obtained was 275 ?C. Fluid cata-lytic cracking (FCC catalyst, zeolite socony mobil-5 (ZSM-5, H-Y-type zeolite and dolomite were used to accelerate PCBs pyrolysis at 275 ?C and FCC was identified as the best catalyst to be used. Differ-ent ratios of FCC to waste PCBs such as 10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60 and 50:50 were applied in the pyro-lysis at 275 ?C and ratio of 10:90 was selected as the suitable ratio to be utilized for maximum yield. The kinetic study was done through thermogravimetric analysis on waste PCBs under various heating rates and different particle sizes. The GC-MS analysis revealed that compounds detected in the pyro-oil have the potential to be used as fuel. 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 23rd July 2014; Revised: 14th August 2014; Accepted: 14th August 2014 How to Cite: Ng, C.H., Salmiaton, A., Hizam, H. (2014. Catalytic Pyrolysis and a Pyrolysis Kinetic Study of Shredded Printed Circuit Board for Fuel Recovery. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 9 (3: 224-240. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.9.3.7148.224-240 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.9.3.7148.224-240

  1. Application of pyrolysis process in processing of mixed food wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Grycová Barbora; Koutník Ivan; Pryszcz Adrian; Kaloč Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    The food industry produces large amounts of solid and also liquid wastes. Different waste materials and their mixtures were pyrolysed in the laboratory pyrolysis unit to a final temperature of 800°C with a 10 minute delay at the final temperature. After the pyrolysis process of the selected wastes a mass balance of the resulting products, off-line analysis of the pyrolysis gas and evaluation of solid and liquid products were carried out. The highest concentration of methane, hydrogen and carb...

  2. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass for liquid biofuels production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2012-01-01

    Production of 2nd-generation biofuels from biomass residues and waste feedstock is gaining great concerns worldwide. Pyrolysis, a thermochemical conversion process involving rapid heating of feedstock under oxygen-absent condition to moderate temperature and rapid quenching of intermediate products......, is an attractive way for bio-oil production. Various efforts have been made to improve pyrolysis process towards higher yield and quality of liquid biofuels and better energy efficiency. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis is one of the promising attempts, mainly due to efficient heating of feedstock by...... pretreatment to bio-oil collection. The existing efforts are summarized in a table, providing a handy overview of the activities (e.g., feedstock and pretreatment, reactor/pyrolysis conditions) and findings (e.g., pyrolysis products) of various investigations....

  3. Pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis performance of Shendong and Pingshuo coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiping Huang; Bo Wu; Yunpeng Zhao; Lijun Jin; Haoquan Hu [Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China). Institute of Coal Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of Shendong (SD) and Pingshuo (PS) coal were performed from 500 to 700{sup o}C in a fixed-bed reactor and the product distribution and gas evolution of both processes were analyzed. The results show that, the tar yields of both PS coal and SD coal reach the highest value, about 17 wt% and 13 wt% respectively at temperature 650{sup o}C for pyrolysis. However, the tar yields of PS coal get to the highest value, about 20 wt% at temperature 650{sup o}C, and the tar yields of SD coal are improving with temperature increasing, about 12 wt% at temperature 700{sup o}C for hydropyrolysis. The tar yields of PS coal are higher than those of SD coal at the same conditions for both pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis. The total gas yield of PS coal is higher than that of SD coal for pyrolysis, but lower for hydropyrolysis.

  4. Deoxygenation of Vegetable Oils over Sulfided Ni, Mo and NiMo Catalysts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubička, D.; Kaluža, Luděk

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 372, č. 2 (2010), s. 199-208. ISSN 0926-860X R&D Projects: GA MPO FT-TA3/074 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : deoxygenation * hydrodeoxygenation * biofuels Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.383, year: 2010

  5. Influence of gemfibrozil on sulfate transport in human erythrocytes during the oxygenation-deoxygenation cycle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tellone, E.; Ficarra, S.; Scatena, R.; Giardina, B.; Kotyk, Arnošt; Russo, A.; Colucci, D.; Bellocco, E.; Lagana, G.; Galtieri, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2008), s. 621-629. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1ET400110403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : gemfibrozil * sulfate transport * oxygenation-deoxygenation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.653, year: 2008

  6. Pyrolysis of scrap tyres with zeolite USY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A zeolite catalyst of ultrastable Y-type (USY) was investigated in the research of two staged pyrolysis-catalysis of scrap tyres. Scrap tyres were pyrolysed in a fixed bed reactor and the evolved pyrolysis gases were passed through a secondary catalytic reactor. The main objective of this paper was to investigate the effect of zeolite USY on the yield of products and the composition of derived oil. The influences of several parameters such as pyrolysis temperature, catalytic temperature, catalyst/tyre ratio, heating rate, etc. on the yield of the derived oil, char and gas were investigated. It showed that the increase of catalytic temperature and catalyst/tyre ratio resulted in high yield of gas at the expense of the oil yield. For example, when the catalyst/tyre ratio increased from 0.25 to 1.0, the yield of gas increased from 30.5 to 49.9 wt.%, and the oil yield decreased nearly two-fold from 31.6 to 12.7 wt.%. The concentration of light naphtha (boiling point < 160 deg. C) was also investigated in this study. And the high catalyst/tyre ratio favored to increase the concentration of light naphtha (<160 deg. C) in oil. In order to study the composition of derived oil, a distilled fraction (<280 deg. C), which was 92.5 wt.% of the oil obtained from catalytic pyrolysis of scrap tyre at a pyrolysis temperature, catalytic temperature and catalyst/tyre ratio of 500, 400 deg. C and 0.5, respectively, was analyzed with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The distillate was found to contain 1.23 wt.% benzene, 9.35 wt.% toluene, 3.68 wt.% ethylbenzene, 12.64 wt.% xylenes, 1.81 wt.% limonene and 13.89 wt.% PAHs, etc., where the single ring aromatics represented a significant potential use as chemicals

  7. Electrocatalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis oils to chemical and fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chun Ho

    The present project's aim is to liquefy biomass through fast pyrolysis and then upgrade the resulting "bio-oil" to renewable fuels and chemicals by intensifying its energy content using electricity. This choice reflects three points: (a) Liquid hydrocarbons are and will long be the most practical fuels and chemical feedstocks because of their energy density (both mass and volume basis), their stability and relative ease of handling, and the well-established infrastructure for their processing, distribution and use; (b) In the U.S., the total carbon content of annually harvestable, non-food biomass is significantly less than that in a year's petroleum usage, so retention of plant-captured carbon is a priority; and (c) Modern technologies for conversion of sunlight into usable energy forms---specifically, electrical power---are already an order of magnitude more efficient than plants are at storing solar energy in chemical form. Biomass fast pyrolysis (BFP) generates flammable gases, char, and "bio-oil", a viscous, corrosive, and highly oxygenated liquid consisting of large amounts of acetic acid and water together with hundreds of other organic compounds. With essentially the same energy density as biomass and a tendency to polymerize, this material cannot practically be stored or transported long distances. It must be upgraded by dehydration, deoxygenation, and hydrogenation to make it both chemically and energetically compatible with modern vehicles and fuels. Thus, this project seeks to develop low cost, general, scalable, robust electrocatalytic methods for reduction of bio-oil into fuels and chemicals.

  8. CATALYTIC THERMAL DECOMPOSITION OF POLYETHYLENE BY PYROLYSIS GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAN NISAR

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study of the thermal decomposition of polyethylene in an inert atmosphere has been carried out in the temperature range 300-800°C using Shimadzu PYR-2A pyrolyzer for heating the sample. The method allows the accurate control and measurement of the pyrolysis temperature. The production of hydrocarbons and the corresponding monomers of these polymeric systems were monitored. The effects of variation of temperature, sample size, pyrolysis atmosphere, residence time and catalyst on the distribution of these products were studied. As the carrier gas rapidly swept the primary products from the hot zone into the chromatographic column, so the secondary decomposition is largely eliminated and the pyrolysis products give accurate information about the nature, composition and structure of the pyrolysis material.

  9. Applications of plasma technology to the pyrolysis of hazardous wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, L.C. [Strathclyde Univ., Glasgow (United Kingdom); Copsey, M.J. [EA Technology Ltd. (United Kingdom); Stewart, M.G. [Strathclyde Univ., Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    1992-12-31

    Most modern incinerators for hazardous waste materials have raised their temperature and residence time so that waste could be decomposed with a destruction efficiency of better than 99.9999%. The trend towards higher temperatures in conventional incinerators suggests that the high temperatures associated with arc and plasma technology could be utilised for waste destruction. Studies of the thermal treatment of wastes by plasmas were investigated at a pilot plant. Pyrolysis, partial oxidation, steam pyrolysis, hydrogen pyrolysis or alkali pyrolysis were identified as the most likely chemical processes to be used in the treatment of wastes. It was shown that for any process to be environmentally acceptable the exhaust gas must be continuously monitored. On-line gas monitoring equipment was described as well as some early results of work to test the feasibility of destroying liquid chemical wastes in a three-phase AC arc plasma reactor.

  10. PYROLYSIS AND COMBUSTION OF SCRAP TIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľ. Jelemenský

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a literature review of both pyrolysis and combustion processes of scrap tires is presented. The work reports, the characteristics of materials, methods, effect of various process parameters, kinetic modelling applied to the pyrolysis and combustion of tires, characteristics of the products and emissions. From the published works results that scrap tire rubber consists of about 60 wt.% volatile organics, 30 wt.% fixed carbon and 10 wt.% ash. Elemental analysis shows that tire rubber contains approximately 80 wt.% of C, 7 wt. of H, 0.4 wt.% of N, 1.5 wt.% of S, 3 wt.% of O and 8 wt.% of ash. Thermogravimetry analysis reveals that the pyrolysis of tire rubber at atmospheric pressure starts at a temperature around 250oC and finishes at a temperature of about 550oC. Generally, more than one degradation temperature region during rubber pyrolysis is recorded. In general, by pyrolysing waste tire three fractions are obtained: solid residue (around 40 wt.%, liquid fraction (around 50 wt.% and gas fraction (around 10 wt.%. The influence of the process conditions on the amount and characteristics of individual fractions was studied by the authors only partially. The general trend is an increase in yields of liquid and gas fractions as the temperature increases. From the works devoted to tire pyrolysis, which are focussed on the generation of liquid fuel results that derived liquids are a complex mixture of organic compounds containing a lot of aromatics. This liquid can be separated into light and higher fractions. The main components of pyrolysis gases reported by various authors are as: H2, H2S, CO, CO2, CH4, C2H4, C3H6 and other light hydrocarbons. The solid residue contains carbon black, and inorganic matter. The results of kinetic modelling of scrap tire pyrolysis and combustion show large differences in the values of kinetic parameters obtained by different authors. As main pollutants from the combustion of waste tires are reported: SO2, NOx, CO and PAHs.

  11. Reductive pyrolysis of leonardite humic acids

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanova, Maia; GONSALVESH, Lenia-Nezaet; Marinov, S.P.; CZECH, Jan; Carleer, Robert; Yperman, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Leonardite humic acids from Kaz Daglari (Turkey) are studied by reductive pyrolysis. Sample is pyrolysed in a H-2 flow in the temperature range 250 degrees C divided by 950 degrees C. Volatiles are trapped in two ice-cooled Tenax tubes. Atmosphere Pressure-Temperature Programmed Reduction (AP-TPR) technique coupled "off-line" with thermal desorption gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MS) apparatus is used to specify organic compounds in the pyrolysate. During sample thermal decompo...

  12. Vacuum pyrolysis of swine manure : biochar production and characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, M. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Centre de recherche industrielle du Quebec, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Godbout, S.; Larouche, J.P.; Lemay, S.P.; Pelletier, F. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Solomatnikova, O. [Centre de recherche industrielle du Quebec, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Brar, S.K. [Inst. national de la recherche scientifique, eau, terre et environnement, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Quebec accounts for nearly 25 per cent of swine production in Canada. The issue of swine manure is addressed through land spreading and conversion into fertilizer. However, current regulations restrict the use of swine manure as fertilizer on most farmlands due to the problem of surplus phosphorus and nitrogen. Although many technologies exist to separate phosphorus and nitrogen from the organic-rich dry matter in swine manure, about 40 per cent of the treated waste matter must still be disposed in an environmentally sound manner. This study investigated the technical feasibility of pretreating the swine manure solids into biofuels on a farm-scale basis using vacuum pyrolysis process. A custom built stainless steel pressure vessel was used to carry out pyrolysis reaction of swine manure biomass at a temperature range between 200 to 600 degrees C under vacuum. The pyrolytic vapour was condensed in 2 glass condensers in series. The biochar was collected directly from the pyrolysis vessel following completion of the pyrolysis batch. The non condensable vapour and gases were considered as losses. Biochar, bio-oil, an aqueous phase and a gas mixture were the 4 products of the pyrolysis process. A thermogravimetric analysis of the swine manure samples was conducted before the pyrolysis tests. The study showed that 238 degrees C is the optimal pyrolysis temperature for biochar production.

  13. Rapid habitability assessment of Mars samples by pyrolysis-FTIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Peter R.; Sephton, Mark A.

    2016-02-01

    Pyrolysis Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (pyrolysis FTIR) is a potential sample selection method for Mars Sample Return missions. FTIR spectroscopy can be performed on solid and liquid samples but also on gases following preliminary thermal extraction, pyrolysis or gasification steps. The detection of hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon gases can reveal information on sample mineralogy and past habitability of the environment in which the sample was created. The absorption of IR radiation at specific wavenumbers by organic functional groups can indicate the presence and type of any organic matter present. Here we assess the utility of pyrolysis-FTIR to release water, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and organic matter from Mars relevant materials to enable a rapid habitability assessment of target rocks for sample return. For our assessment a range of minerals were analyzed by attenuated total reflectance FTIR. Subsequently, the mineral samples were subjected to single step pyrolysis and multi step pyrolysis and the products characterised by gas phase FTIR. Data from both single step and multi step pyrolysis-FTIR provide the ability to identify minerals that reflect habitable environments through their water and carbon dioxide responses. Multi step pyrolysis-FTIR can be used to gain more detailed information on the sources of the liberated water and carbon dioxide owing to the characteristic decomposition temperatures of different mineral phases. Habitation can be suggested when pyrolysis-FTIR indicates the presence of organic matter within the sample. Pyrolysis-FTIR, therefore, represents an effective method to assess whether Mars Sample Return target rocks represent habitable conditions and potential records of habitation and can play an important role in sample triage operations.

  14. Microwave pyrolysis of microalgae for high syngas production

    OpenAIRE

    Beneroso Vallejo, Daniel; Bermúdez Menéndez, José Miguel; Arenillas de la Puente, Ana; Menéndez Díaz, José Ángel

    2013-01-01

    [EN]The microwave induced pyrolysis of the microalga Scenedesmus almeriensis and its extraction residue was carried out at 400 and 800 ºC. The results show that it is possible to obtain a gas fraction with a high content (c.a. 50 vol.%) in H2 from both materials, regardless of the pyrolysis temperature. Furthermore, an outstanding syngas production and high gas yields were achieved. The maximum syngas concentration obtained was c.a. 94 vol.%, in the case of the pyrolysis of the...

  15. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: PYROLYSIS TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrolysis is formally defined as chemical decomposition induced in organic materials by heat in the absence of oxygen. In practice, it is not possible to achieve a completely oxygen-free atmosphere; actual pyrolytic systems are operated with less than stoichiometric quantities of...

  16. Accuracy and Potential Use of a Developed CFD-pyrolysis Model for Simulating Lab-scale Bio Oil Production

    OpenAIRE

    Mellin, Pelle; Zhang, Qinglin; Kantarelis, Efthymios; Zhou, Chunguang; Yang, Weihong

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes development of a CFD¬pyrolysis model using an Eularian-Eularian framework with an implemented pyrolysis reaction model. The CFD¬pyrolysis model is used to simulate the bubbling fluidized bed reactor integrated in a new experimental fast pyrolysis process for bio oil production. The model is compared to experiments in aspect of outlet gas composition, temperature and bed height. Tar behavior and yield of bio oil are illustrated and a parametric study investigates impact of ...

  17. Solid waste utilization: pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Mixon, W.R.; Dean, C.; Lizdas, D.J.

    1977-08-01

    As a part of the Integrated Community Energy System (ICES) Program, a number of technology evaluations are being prepared on various current and emerging sources of energy. This evaluation considers the use of pyrolysis as a method of producing energy from municipal solid waste. The energy can be in the form of a gas, oil, chars, or steam. Pyrolysis, the decomposition of organic matter in the absence of oxygen (or in an oxygen-deficient atmosphere), has been used to convert organic matter to other products or fuels. This process is also described as ''destructive distillation''. Four processes are described in detail: the ''Landgard'' System (Monsanto Environ-Chem Systems, Inc.); the Occidental Research Corporation Process (formerly the Garrett Research and Development Company; The ''Purox'' System (Union Carbide Corporation); and the ''Refu-Cycler'' (Hamilton Standard Corporation). ''Purox'' and ''Refu-Cycler'' produce a low-Btu gas; the Occidental process produces an oil, and the ''Landgard'' process produces steam using on-site auxiliary boilers to burn the fuel gases produced by the pyrolysis unit. Also included is a listing of other pyrolysis processes currently under development for which detailed information was not available. The evaluation provides information on the various process flowsheets, energy and material balances, product characteristics, and economics. Pyrolysis of municipal solid waste as an energy source can be considered a potential for the future; however little operational or economic information is available at this time.

  18. Flash pyrolysis of jatropha oil cake in electrically heated fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluidized bed flash pyrolysis experiments have been conducted on a sample of jatropha oil cake to determine particularly the effects of particle size, pyrolysis temperature and nitrogen gas flow rate on the pyrolysis yields. The particle size, nitrogen gas flow rate and temperature of jatropha oil cake were varied from 0.3 to 1.18 mm, 1.25 to 2.4 m3/h and 350 to 550 oC. The maximum oil yield of 64.25 wt% was obtained at a nitrogen gas flow rate of 1.75 m3/h, particle size of 0.7-1.0 mm and pyrolysis temperature of 500 oC. The calorific value of pyrolysis oil was found to be 19.66 MJ/kg. The pyrolysis gas can be used as a gaseous fuel.

  19. Vacuum pyrolysis of waste tires with basic additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granules of waste tires were pyrolyzed under vacuum (3.5-10 kPa) conditions, and the effects of temperature and basic additives (Na2CO3, NaOH) on the properties of pyrolysis were thoroughly investigated. It was obvious that with or without basic additives, pyrolysis oil yield increased gradually to a maximum and subsequently decreased with a temperature increase from 450 deg. C to 600 deg. C, irrespective of the addition of basic additives to the reactor. The addition of NaOH facilitated pyrolysis dramatically, as a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 48 wt% was achieved at 550 deg. C without the addition of basic additives, while a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 50 wt% was achieved at 480 deg. C by adding 3 wt% (w/w, powder/waste tire granules) of NaOH powder. The composition analysis of pyrolytic naphtha (i.b.p. (initial boiling point) ∼205 deg. C) distilled from pyrolysis oil showed that more dl-limonene was obtained with basic additives and the maximal content of dl-limonene in pyrolysis oil was 12.39 wt%, which is a valuable and widely-used fine chemical. However, no improvement in pyrolysis was observed with Na2CO3 addition. Pyrolysis gas was mainly composed of H2, CO, CH4, CO2, C2H4 and C2H6. Pyrolytic char had a surface area comparable to commercial carbon black, but its proportion of ash (above 11.5 wt%) was much higher

  20. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2016-01-25

    Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box-Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min(-1) and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry. PMID:26444486

  1. Bifunctional Nanoparticle-SILP Catalysts (NPs@SILP) for the Selective Deoxygenation of Biomass Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luska, Kylie L. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany); Julis, Jennifer [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany); Evonik Industries AG, Marl (Germany); Stavitski, Eli [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zakharov, Dmitri N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Adams, Alina [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany); Leitner, Walter [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany); Max Planck Inst. for Coal Research, Ruhr (Germany)

    2014-08-27

    We immobilized ruthenium nanoparticles onto an acidic supported ionic liquid phase (RuNPs@SILP) in the development of bifunctional catalysts for the selective deoxygenation of biomass substrates. RuNPs@SILPs possessed high catalytic activities, selectivities and recyclabilities in the hydrogenolytic deoxygenation and ring opening of C8- and C9-substrates derived from furfural or 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and acetone. When we tailor the acidity of the SILP through the ionic liquid loading provided a molecular parameter by which the catalytic activity and selectivity of the RuNPs@SILPs were controlled to provide a flexible catalyst system toward the formation of different classes of value-added products: cyclic ethers, primary alcohols or aliphatic ethers.

  2. Deoxygenation alters bacterial diversity and community composition in the ocean’s largest oxygen minimum zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beman, J. Michael; Carolan, Molly T.

    2013-10-01

    Oceanic oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) have a central role in biogeochemical cycles and are expanding as a consequence of climate change, yet how deoxygenation will affect the microbial communities that control these cycles is unclear. Here we sample across dissolved oxygen gradients in the oceans’ largest OMZ and show that bacterial richness displays a unimodal pattern with decreasing dissolved oxygen, reaching maximum values on the edge of the OMZ and decreasing within it. Rare groups on the OMZ margin are abundant at lower dissolved oxygen concentrations, including sulphur-cycling Chromatiales, for which 16S rRNA was amplified from extracted RNA. Microbial species distribution models accurately replicate community patterns based on multivariate environmental data, demonstrate likely changes in distributions and diversity in the eastern tropical North Pacific Ocean, and highlight the sensitivity of key bacterial groups to deoxygenation. Through these mechanisms, OMZ expansion may alter microbial composition, competition, diversity and function, all of which have implications for biogeochemical cycling in OMZs.

  3. Phytotoxicity of Sewage Sludge Biochars Prepared at Different Pyrolysis Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Abrego, J.; Atienza Martnez, M.; Gimeno, J.R.; Aibar Lete, Joaqun; Qulez y Sez de Viteri, Dolores; Gea, G.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytotoxicity of several biochars prepared from sewage sludge pyrolysis. Pyrolysis was carried out at three different lab-scale reactors and conditions: an Auger reactor for low temperature (300C), a stirred batch reactor and a fluidized bed reactor (530C). The starting material is anaerobically digested and thermally dried sewage sludge from a wastewater treatment plant located in Spain. Some phytotoxicity experiments were performed for biochars: f...

  4. Flash vacuum pyrolysis of lignin model compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooney, M.J.; Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III

    1997-03-01

    Despite the extensive research into the pyrolysis of lignin, the underlying chemical reactions that lead to product formation are poorly understood. Detailed mechanistic studies on the pyrolysis of biomass and lignin under conditions relevant to current process conditions could provide insight into utilizing this renewable resource for the production of chemicals and fuel. Currently, flash or fast pyrolysis is the most promising process to maximize the yields of liquid products (up to 80 wt %) from biomass by rapidly heating the substrate to moderate temperatures, typically 500{degrees}C, for short residence times, typically less than two seconds. To provide mechanistic insight into the primary reaction pathways under process relevant conditions, we are investigating the flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) of lignin model compounds that contain a {beta}-ether. linkage and {alpha}- or {gamma}-alcohol, which are key structural elements in lignin. The dominant products from the FVP of PhCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OPh (PPE), PhC(OH)HCH{sub 2}OPh, and PhCH{sub 2}CH(CH{sub 2}OH)OPh at 500{degrees}C can be attributed to homolysis of the weakest bond in the molecule (C-O bond) or 1,2-elimination. Surprisingly, the hydroxy-substituent dramatically increases the decomposition of PPE. It is proposed that internal hydrogen bonding is accelerating the reaction.

  5. Thermal decomposition and gasification of biomass pyrolysis gases using a hot bed of waste derived pyrolysis char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rahbi, Amal S; Onwudili, Jude A; Williams, Paul T

    2016-03-01

    Chars produced from the pyrolysis of different waste materials have been investigated in terms of their use as a catalyst for the catalytic cracking of biomass pyrolysis gases during the two-stage pyrolysis-gasification of biomass. The chars were produced from the pyrolysis of waste tyres, refused derived fuel and biomass in the form of date stones. The results showed that the hydrocarbon tar yields decreased significantly with all the char materials used in comparison to the non-char catalytic experiments. For example, at a cracking temperature of 800°C, the total product hydrocarbon tar yield decreased by 70% with tyre char, 50% with RDF char and 9% with biomass date stones char compared to that without char. There was a consequent increase in total gas yield. Analysis of the tar composition showed that the content of phenolic compounds decreased and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons increased in the product tar at higher char temperatures. PMID:26773946

  6. Deoxygenation of mono-oxo bis(dithiolene) Mo and W complexes by protonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Junhyeok; Williard, Paul G; Kim, Eunsuk

    2013-08-01

    Protonation-assisted deoxygenation of a mono-oxo molybdenum center has been observed in many oxotransferases when the enzyme removes an oxo group to regenerate a substrate binding site. Such a reaction is reported here with discrete synthetic mono-oxo bis(dithiolene) molybdenum and tungsten complexes, the chemistry of which had been rarely studied because of the instability of the resulting deoxygenated products. An addition of tosylic acid to an acetonitrile solution of [Mo(IV)O(S2C2Ph2)2](2-) (1) and [W(IV)O(S2C2Ph2)2](2-) (2) results in the loss of oxide with a concomitant formation of novel deoxygenated complexes, [M(MeCN)2(S2C2Ph2)2] (M = Mo (3), W (4)), that have been isolated and characterized. Whereas protonation of 1 exclusively produces 3, two different reaction products can be generated from 2; an oxidized product, [WO(S2C2Ph2)2](-), is produced with 1 equiv of acid while a deoxygenated product, [W(MeCN)2(S2C2Ph2)2] (4), is generated with an excess amount of proton. Alternatively, complexes 3 and 4 can be obtained from photolysis of [Mo(CO)2(S2C2Ph2)2] (5) and [W(CO)2(S2C2Ph2)2] (6) in acetonitrile. A di- and a monosubstituted adducts of 3, [Mo(CO)2(S2C2Ph2)2] (5) and [Mo(PPh3)(MeCN)(S2C2Ph2)2] (7) are also reported. PMID:23865493

  7. Mild partial deoxygenation of esters catalyzed by an oxazolinylborate-coordinated rhodium silylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Songchen; Boschen, Jeffery S; Biswas, Abhranil; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Pruski, Marek; Windus, Theresa L; Sadow, Aaron D

    2015-09-28

    An electrophilic, coordinatively unsaturated rhodium complex supported by borate-linked oxazoline, oxazoline-coordinated silylene, and N-heterocyclic carbene donors [{?(3)-N,Si,C-PhB(Ox(Me2))(Ox(Me2)SiHPh)Im(Mes)}Rh(H)CO][HB(C6F5)3] (, Ox(Me2) = 4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazoline; Im(Mes) = 1-mesitylimidazole) is synthesized from the neutral rhodium silyl {PhB(Ox(Me2))2Im(Mes)}RhH(SiH2Ph)CO () and B(C6F5)3. The unusual oxazoline-coordinated silylene structure in is proposed to form by rearrangement of an unobserved isomeric cationic rhodium silylene species [{PhB(Ox(Me2))2Im(Mes)}RhH(SiHPh)CO][HB(C6F5)3] generated by H abstraction. Complex catalyzes reductions of organic carbonyl compounds with silanes to give hydrosilylation products or deoxygenation products. The pathway to these reactions is primarily influenced by the degree of substitution of the organosilane. Reactions with primary silanes give deoxygenation of esters to ethers, amides to amines, and ketones and aldehydes to hydrocarbons, whereas tertiary silanes react to give 1,2-hydrosilylation of the carbonyl functionality. In contrast, the strong Lewis acid B(C6F5)3 catalyzes the complete deoxygenation of carbonyl compounds to hydrocarbons with PhSiH3 as the reducing agent. PMID:26278517

  8. A mathematical model relating cortical oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin flows and volumes to neural activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Nathan R.; Nishimura, Nozomi; Suh, Minah; Schwartz, Theodore H.; Doerschuk, Peter C.

    2015-08-01

    Objective. To describe a toolkit of components for mathematical models of the relationship between cortical neural activity and space-resolved and time-resolved flows and volumes of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin motivated by optical intrinsic signal imaging (OISI). Approach. Both blood flow and blood volume and both oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin and their interconversion are accounted for. Flow and volume are described by including analogies to both resistive and capacitive electrical circuit elements. Oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin and their interconversion are described by generalization of Kirchhoff's laws based on well-mixed compartments. Main results. Mathematical models built from this toolkit are able to reproduce experimental single-stimulus OISI results that are described in papers from other research groups and are able to describe the response to multiple-stimuli experiments as a sublinear superposition of responses to the individual stimuli. Significance. The same assembly of tools from the toolkit but with different parameter values is able to describe effects that are considered distinctive, such as the presence or absence of an initial decrease in oxygenated hemoglobin concentration, indicating that the differences might be due to unique parameter values in a subject rather than different fundamental mechanisms.

  9. Cultivation of Neochloris oleoabundans in bubble column photobioreactor with or without localized deoxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Licheng; Zhang, Zisheng; Cheng, Peiyao; Wang, Zhaohui; Lan, Christopher Q

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated long-term non-sterile cultivation of freshwater green alga Neochloris oleoabundans in a 15-liter bubble column photobioreactor (BCPBR) and the effects of a membrane-based localized oxygen remover (LOR) on deoxygenation, cell growth, and lipid production of N. oleoabundans. Batch and continuous cultivations were carried out under non-sterile conditions for 53days with no detectable protozoa or other biological contaminants, indicating successful long-term contamination-free cultivation. The results show that the BCPBR equipped with LOR (BCPBR-LOR) has enhanced deoxygenation efficiency and were able to maintain dissolved oxygen at a level of around 120% air saturation, which was 32% lower than that of the conventional BCPBR, which had no LOR. While similar biomass concentration and productivity were obtained in both systems, significantly higher lipid cell content and lipid productivity of microalgae were obtained in the latter, which was attributed to the low dO2 in culture due to enhanced deoxygenation efficiency of BCPBR-LOR. PMID:26866761

  10. Oxygen Delivery and Muscle Deoxygenation during Continuous, Long- and Short-Interval Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafeiridis, A; Kounoupis, A; Dipla, K; Kyparos, A; Nikolaidis, M G; Smilios, I; Vrabas, I S

    2015-11-01

    This study compared the O2 delivery (a central determinant of VO2) and muscle deoxygenation (reflecting a peripheral determinant of VO2) during intense continuous, long-interval, and short-interval exercise protocols. Twelve young men completed the 3 protocols with equal overall effort. Simultaneous and continuous recordings of central hemodynamics, muscle oxygenation/deoxygenation and VO2 were performed. Peak responses for stroke volume and peripheral resistance did not differ among protocols, whereas peak cardiac output and VO2 were higher in long-interval vs. continuous and short-interval protocols with inactive rest phases (pexercise (pexercise-time above 80% VO2max were also higher in continuous and long-interval vs. short-interval protocol (pMuscle de-oxygenation (??deoxyhemoglobin,??oxyhemoglobin, ?muscle O2-saturation), as well as the mismatch of O2 delivery and utilization (?deoxyhemoglobin/VO2) were remarkably alike among protocols. In conclusion, all 3 protocols resulted in a great activation of central and peripheral determinants of VO2. When performed with equal overall effort, the intense continuous and interval modalities reveal similarities in muscle O2-utilization response, but differences in central hemodynamic and VO2 responses. Intense continuous and long-interval protocols exert a more commanding role on the cardiovascular system and VO2 response compared to short-interval exercise with inactive rest phases. PMID:26140688

  11. Determination of the Deoxygenation Rates of a Residential Institution`s Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Adewumi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Empirical analysis of a residential institution`s wastewater (WW for the design parameters such as carbonaceous deoxygenation rate (K and nitrogenous deoxygenation (or nitrification rate was reported in this study. Standard laboratory procedures were used in analysing the microbial activities in incubated samples in terms of dissolved oxygen requirements for carbonaceous deoxygenation and nitrification using both the daily difference method and the dimension less Fibonacci technique respectively. The BOD removal rate for Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife`s residential institutional waste was found to be 0.23/day with standard deviation of 0.036 day. Mean of the ultimate BOD of the WW was found to be 631.2 mg L-1. Likewise, the nitrification rates were found to be in the range of 0.293-0.443 day with a mean value of 0.34 day. The results show that institutional WWs are stronger than domestic WWs but less strong than some industrial waste waters such as tannery WW.

  12. Experimental investigation of pyrolysis process of woody biomass mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosanić, Tijana R.; Ćeranić, Mirjana B.; Đurić, Slavko N.; Grković, Vojin R.; Milotić, Milan M.; Brankov, Saša D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes an experimental investigation of pyrolysis of woody biomass mixture. The mixture consists of oak, beech, fir, cherry, walnut and linden wood chips with equal mass fractions. During the experiment, the sample mass inside the reactor was 10 g with a particle diameter of 5-10 mm. The sample in the reactor was heated in the temperature range of 24-650°C. Average sample heating rates in the reactor were 21, 30 and 54 °C/min. The sample mass before, during and after pyrolysis was determined using a digital scale. Experimental results of the sample mass change indicate that the highest yield of pyrolytic gas was achieved at the temperature slightly above 650°C and ranged from 77 to 85%, while char yield ranged from 15 to 23%. Heating rate has significant influence on the pyrolytic gas and char yields. It was determined that higher pyrolysis temperatures and heating rates induce higher yields of pyrolytic gas, while the char mass reduces. Condensation of pyrolytic gas at the end of the pyrolysis process at 650°C produced 2.4-2.72 g of liquid phase. The results obtained represent a starting basis for determining material and heat balance of pyrolysis process as well as woody biomass pyrolysis equipment.

  13. Product Characterization and Kinetics of Biomass Pyrolysis in a Three-Zone Free-Fall Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Natthaya Punsuwan; Chaiyot Tangsathitkulchai

    2014-01-01

    Pyrolysis of biomass including palm shell, palm kernel, and cassava pulp residue was studied in a laboratory free-fall reactor with three separated hot zones. The effects of pyrolysis temperature (250–1050°C) and particle size (0.18–1.55 mm) on the distribution and properties of pyrolysis products were investigated. A higher pyrolysis temperature and smaller particle size increased the gas yield but decreased the char yield. Cassava pulp residue gave more volatiles and less char than those of...

  14. The Study of Kinetic Properties and Analytical Pyrolysis of Coconut Shells

    OpenAIRE

    Mahir Said; Geoffrey John; Cuthbert Mhilu; Samwel Manyele

    2015-01-01

    The kinetic properties of coconut shells during pyrolysis were studied to determine its reactivity in ground form. The kinetic parameters were determined by using thermogravimetric analyser. The activation energy was 122.780 kJ/mol. The pyrolysis products were analyzed using pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). The effects of pyrolysis temperature on the distribution of the pyrolytic products were assessed in a temperature range between 673 K and 1073 K. The set time for...

  15. Fast Pyrolysis of Four Lignins from Different Isolation Processes Using Py-GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaona Lin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis is a promising approach that is being investigated to convert lignin into higher value products including biofuels and phenolic chemicals. In this study, fast pyrolysis of four types of lignin, including milled Amur linden wood lignin (MWL, enzymatic hydrolysis corn stover lignin (EHL, wheat straw alkali lignin (AL and wheat straw sulfonate lignin (SL, were performed using pyrolysis gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA showed that the four lignins exhibited widely different thermolysis behaviors. The four lignins had similar functional groups according to the FTIR analysis. Syringyl, guaiacyl and p-hydroxyphenylpropane structural units were broken down during pyrolysis. Fast pyrolysis product distributions from the four lignins depended strongly on the lignin origin and isolation process. Phenols were the most abundant pyrolysis products from MWL, EHL and AL. However, SL produced a large number of furan compounds and sulfur compounds originating from kraft pulping. The effects of pyrolysis temperature and time on the product distributions from corn stover EHL were also studied. At 350 °C, EHL pyrolysis mainly produced acids and alcohols, while phenols became the main products at higher temperature. No obvious influence of pyrolysis time was observed on EHL pyrolysis product distributions.

  16. Pyrolysis process and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Kuei

    1983-01-01

    This invention discloses a process and apparatus for pyrolyzing particulate coal by heating with a particulate solid heating media in a transport reactor. The invention tends to dampen fluctuations in the flow of heating media upstream of the pyrolysis zone, and by so doing forms a substantially continuous and substantially uniform annular column of heating media flowing downwardly along the inside diameter of the reactor. The invention is particularly useful for bituminous or agglomerative type coals.

  17. Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith for Planetary Resource Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Malespin, Charles; ten Kate, Inge L.; Getty, Stephanie A.; Holmes, Vincent E.; Mumm, Erik; Franz, Heather B.; Noreiga, Marvin; Dobson, Nick; Southard, Adrian E.; Feng, Steven H.; Kotecki, Carl A.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Swindle, Timothy D.; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Rice, James W.; Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    The extraction and identification of volatile resources that could be utilized by humans including water, oxygen, noble gases, and hydrocarbons on the Moon, Mars, and small planetary bodies will be critical for future long-term human exploration of these objects. Vacuum pyrolysis at elevated temperatures has been shown to be an efficient way to release volatiles trapped inside solid samples. In order to maximize the extraction of volatiles, including oxygen and noble gases from the breakdown of minerals, a pyrolysis temperature of 1400 C or higher is required, which greatly exceeds the maximum temperatures of current state-of-the-art flight pyrolysis instruments. Here we report on the recent optimization and field testing results of a high temperature pyrolysis oven and sample manipulation system coupled to a mass spectrometer instrument called Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith (VAPoR). VAPoR is capable of heating solid samples under vacuum to temperatures above 1300 C and determining the composition of volatiles released as a function of temperature.

  18. Multiwall carbon nanotubes from pyrolysis of tetrahydrofuran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes have been prepared by pyrolysing tetrahydrofuran (THF) in the presence of nickelocene. Pyrolysis of the precursor mixture has been achieved at temperature as low as 600 deg. C. In this simple approach no carrier gas has been used. The yield of purified carbon nanotubes is found to be more than 65%. Characterization of the as-prepared and purified nanotubes are done by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectra

  19. Production of hydrocarbons by catalytic upgrading of a fast pyrolysis of bio-oil. Part I: conversion over various catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adjaye, J.D.; Bakhshi, N.N. [University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering Lab., Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-12-01

    The upgrading of a fast pyrolysis bio-oil was studied with different catalysts in a fixed bed micro-reactor. The catalysts were HZSM-5 (average pore size, 0.54 nm), H-Y (0.74 nm), H-mordenite (0.67 nm), silicalite (0.54 nm) and silica-alumina (3.15 nm). The experiments were carried out at atmospheric pressure, 1.8 and 3.6 weight hourly space velocity, and a temperature range of 290-410{degree}C. The products were char, coke, gas, tar, residue, water and an organic distillate fraction (ODF). The objective was to obtain high yields of hydrocarbons in the ODF. The yields of hydrocarbons (based on the amount of bio-oil fed) were 27.9 wt% with HZSM-5, 14.1 wt% with H-Y, 4.4 wt% with H-mordenite, 5 wt% with silicate and 13.2 wt% with silica-alumina. It was interesting to note that whereas HZSM-5 and H-mordenite produced more aromatic than aliphatic hydrocarbons, H-Y, silicalite and silica-alumina produced more aliphatic than aromatic hydrocarbons. The main aromatic hydrocarbons were toluene, xylenes and trimethylbenzenes. The liquid aliphatic hydrocarbon content consisted mostly of C{sub 6}-C{sub 9} hydrocarbons. Alkylated cyclopentene, cyclopropane, pentane and hexene were the main aliphatic hydrocarbons. In most of the runs, doubling the space velocity from 1.8 to 3.6 h{sup -1} resulted in decreased coke, char and gas formation and increased ODF yields. On the other hand, deoxygenation and hydrocarbon formation decreased. 31 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. On methane pyrolysis special applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toncu, D. C.; Toncu, G.; Soleimani, S.

    2015-11-01

    Methane pyrolysis represents one of the most important processes in industrial use, with applications rising from the chemical and petrochemical industry, combustion, materials and protective coatings. Despite the intense research, experimental data lack kinetic aspects, and the thermodynamics involved often leads to inaccurate results when applied to various systems. Carrying out a comparative analysis of several available data on methane pyrolysis, the paper aims to study the phenomenon of methane pyrolysis under different environments (combustion and plasma), concluding on the most possible reaction pathways involved in many of its applications. Computer simulation using different database underlines the conclusion, helping to the understanding of methane pyrolysis importance in future technologies.

  1. Environmental fatigue behaviors of wrought and cast stainless steels in 310 .deg. C Deoxygenated Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental fatigue behaviors of wrought type 316LN stainless steel and cast CF8M stainless steel were investigated. LCF tests were performed at fixed strain rate of 0.04%/s with 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%, 1.0% strain amplitudes in 310 .deg. C deoxygenated water environment. In addition, to analyze microstructure effect on fatigue behavior, low cycle fatigue tests in air environment were performed at fixed strain rate of 0.4%/s, 0.04%/s with 0.4%, 0.8% strain amplitudes. It was shown that the low cycle fatigue life of CF8M in a 310 .deg. C deoxygenated water environment was slightly longer than that of 316LN. On the other hand, the low cycle fatigue life of CF8M in a 310 .deg. C air environment was slightly shorter than that of 316LN or was similar with that of 316LN. Through OM observation and phase image analysis, it was confirmed that the ferrite content of CF8M tested in a 310 .deg. C deoxygenated water environment was larger than that of CF8M tested in a 310 .deg. C air environment. It was shown that the ferrite phase fraction of CF8M tested in 310 .deg. C deoxygenated water environment was approximately 26?28% and that of CF8M tested in air environment was approximately 10?12%. The difference of ferrite content in CF8M results in superior tensile properties as higher ferrite content. Furthermore, the difference of ferrite content in CF8M might be the cause of different result of fatigue life between CF8M and 316LN depending on environment. In this study, focused on CF8M having 26?28% ferrite content, to understand the causes of these differences in a 310 .deg. C deoxygenated water environment, fracture surface and crack morphology were observed. And material factors like microstructure, mechanical properties factors like stress behavior during fatigue life, factors by environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) like hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) and chemical compositions of both materials were analyzed. Mainly in a 310 .deg. C deoxygenated water environment, the analysis of fatigue surface was conducted at 1.0% strain amplitude, the analysis of crack sectioned area was conducted at 0.8% strain amplitude. Mainly in air environment, the analysis of fatigue surface was conducted at 0.4% strain amplitude. Through this study and analysis, it was thought that low cycle fatigue crack growth rate of CF8M would be affected by relative contribution of both barrier role of ferrite phase and acceleration role of crack linkage phenomenon or HIC. In low cycle fatigue operating relatively higher stress, it was known that the crack generally tend to avoid and propagate around hard phase. Like the preceding, this test results indicated that the barrier role such as crack avoiding is slightly greater than acceleration role such as crack linkage added HIC mechanism, resulting in slower fatigue crack growth rate by consumption of excess energy, or longer LCF lives in cast CF8M than wrought type 316LN in 310 .deg. C deoxygenated water

  2. Liquid fuel from fast pyrolysis of oil palm solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ani, F.N.; Zailani, R. [Technology Univ. of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1995-12-31

    An investigation was conducted on the potential of producing liquid fuel from oil palm solid waste, particularly the palm fruit shell, by fast pyrolysis. For this purpose, a continuous fluidized bed fast pyrolysis system has been constructed. Fast pyrolysis was performed by feeding oil palm solid waste directly into the bubbling hot sand bed at a temperature ranging from 400 to 600 degrees centigrade in an inert atmosphere. The condensed liquid product was analysed for its properties as potential fuel and compared to petroleum fuel. The fuel characteristics compared were the physical properties, heating value, elemental analysis and chemical composition. The influence of some of the process conditions on the relative proportions of the liquid product and its properties and characteristics are presented. The results show the high potential of fast pyrolysis of oil palm solid waste particularly palm shell as an attractive source of a renewable energy in the form of liquid fuel. (author). 2 tabs., 4 figs., 7 refs.

  3. Fixed-bed pyrolysis of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fixed-bed slow and fast pyrolysis experiments have been conducted on a sample of rapeseed. The experiments were performed in two different pyrolysis reactors, namely a fixed-bed Heinze and a well-swept fixed-bed tubular retort to investigate the effects of heating rate, pyrolysis temperature, particle size, sweep gas velocity on the pyrolysis product yields and chemical compositions. The maximum oil yield of 51.7% was obtained in the Heinze reactor 550 deg. C, with a particle size range of +0.6-1.8 mm (sweep gas 100 cm3 min-1 N2) at a heating rate of 30 deg. C min-1. In the well-swept fixed-bed reactor, the maximum oil yield of 68% was obtained at a heating rate of 300 deg. C min-1. Chromatographic and spectroscopic studies on the pyrolytic oil showed that the oil obtained from rapeseed could be use as a renewable fuels and chemical feedstock

  4. Pyrolysis and gasification behavior of black liquor under pressurized conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K.

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study has been to enhance the understanding of the processes involved in pressurized black liquor gasification. Gasification is known to occur in three stages: drying, pyrolysis and char gasification. The work presented here focuses on the pyrolysis and gasification stages. Experiments were carried out primarily in two laboratory-scale reactors. A pressurized grid heater was used to study black liquor pyrolysis under pressurized conditions. Char yields and the fate of elements in the liquor, as well as the degree of liquor swelling, were measured in this device. A pressurized thermogravimetric reactor was used to measure the rate of the char gasification process under different temperatures and pressures and in various gas atmospheres. Pyrolysis experiments were also carried out in this device, and data on swelling behavior, char yields and component release were obtained 317 refs.

  5. Copper-carbon nanocomposites prepared by solid-phase pyrolysis of copper phthalocyanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using solid-phase pyrolysis of copper phthalocyanine we have prepared copper nanoparticles in carbon matrices. The elemental composition, structure and morphology of nanocomposites were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis and X ray diffraction. Depending on the temperature and time of pyrolysis the sizes of copper nanoparticles can be varied from 10 nm to 400 nm. The structure of carbon matrices also strongly depends on the pyrolysis conditions, which allows to synthesize nanocomposites with given properties

  6. Biomass pyrolysis processes: performance parameters and their influence on biochar system benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Brownsort, Peter A

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on performance of biomass pyrolysis processes for use in biochar systems. Objectives are to understand the range of control of such processes and how this affects potential benefits of pyrolysis biochar systems, in particular for climate change mitigation. Slow, intermediate and fast pyrolysis processes are reviewed. Product yield distributions change depending on feedstock composition and preparation, control of temperature and material flows. These allow s...

  7. Micro-pyrolysis of technical lignins in a new modular rig and product analysis by GC-MS/FID and GC x GC-TOFMS/FID

    OpenAIRE

    Windt, Michael; Meier, Dietrich; Marsman, Jan Henk; Heeres, Hero Jan (Eric); de Koning, Sjaak

    2009-01-01

    A new offline-pyrolysis rig has been designed to allow multifunctional experiments for preparative and analytical purposes. The system conditions can be set and monitored, e.g. temperature, its gradients and heat flux. Some special features include ( I) high heating rates up to 120 degrees C/s with pyrolysis temperatures up to 850 degrees C at variable pyrolysis times and (2) the selection of different atmospheres during pyrolysis. A complete mass balance of products and reactants (gas, liqui...

  8. Thermodynamic analysis for syngas production from volatiles released in waste tire pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: Pyrolysis experiments have been conducted in a continuous auger reactor. Pyrolysis temperature influence on composition of both volatiles and char was studied. A process for syngas production has been proposed from the volatiles. Equivalence ratio down to 0.4 is a practical limit for syngas production. The results provide essential data prior to perform any experimental campaign. - Abstract: This paper shows the maximum limit on syngas composition obtained from volatiles released in waste tire pyrolysis when they are submitted to an airsteam partial oxidation process. Thus, from mass and energy balances and a stoichiometric equilibrium model, syngas composition and reaction temperature as well as some process parameters were predicted by varying both the equivalence ratio (ER) and the steam to fuel ratio (SF). In addition, pyrolysis experiments were performed using a continuous auger reactor, and the influence of pyrolysis temperature on composition of both volatiles and char was studied. Consequently, the resulting syngas characteristics were correlated with the pyrolysis temperature. The stoichiometric equilibrium model showed that an ER down to 0.4 is a practical limit to perform the airsteam partial oxidation process. When the process is carried out only with air, volatiles obtained at high pyrolysis temperature lead to lower reaction temperature and higher LHV of syngas in comparison with those found at low pyrolysis temperature. The H2 production is favored between 0.20 and 0.40 of ER and seems to be more influenced by the H/C ratio than by the water gas-shift reaction. On the other hand, the steam addition shows a more notable effect on the H2 production for volatiles obtained at the highest pyrolysis temperature (600 C) in agreement with the lower reaction temperature under these experimental conditions. This thermodynamic analysis provides essential data on the optimization of syngas production from volatiles released in waste tire pyrolysis prior to run any test

  9. The Cyclic Strain Rate Dependence on Environmentally Assisted Cracking Behaviors of SA508 Gr. 1a Low Alloy Steel in 310 .deg. C Deoxygenated Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental fatigue damage is well known as a significant degradation mechanism in nuclear power plant (NPP). So, the environmental fatigue behaviors should be cautiously considered for assessment of the integrity and the safety of NPP. In result of many researches, it is reported that the reduction in fatigue life of low alloy steels (LASs) is induced by the environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) mechanisms, such as the metal dissolution and the hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC). However, since these mechanisms are usually influenced by multiple factors, there are no clear explanations about fatigue cracking behaviors in high temperature water. In this study, low cycle fatigue (LCF) tests were conducted to investigate the fatigue life of SA508 Gr. 1a LAS in 310 .deg. C deoxygenated water. Also, the fatigue surface and sectioned area were observed for evaluation of cyclic strain rate dependent EAC mechanism in high temperature water

  10. Kinetics and Mechanism of Deoxygenation Reactions over Proton-Form and Molybdenum-Modified Zeolite Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard, Jeremy William

    The depletion of fossil fuel resources and the environmental consequences of their use have dictated the development of new sources of energy that are both sustainable and economical. Biomass has emerged as a renewable carbon feedstock that can be used to produce chemicals and fuels traditionally obtained from petroleum. The oxygen content of biomass prohibits its use without modification because oxygenated hydrocarbons are non-volatile and have lower energy content. Chemical processes that eliminate oxygen and keep the carbon backbone intact are required for the development of biomass as a viable chemical feedstock. This dissertation reports on the kinetic and mechanistic studies conducted on high and low temperature catalytic processes for deoxygenation of biomass precursors to produce high-value chemicals and fuels. Low temperature, steady state reaction studies of acetic acid and ethanol were used to identify co-adsorbed acetic acid/ethanol dimers as surface intermediates within specific elementary steps involved in the esterification of acetic acid with ethanol on zeolites. A reaction mechanism involving two dominating surface species, an inactive ethanol dimeric species adsorbed on Bronsted sites inhibiting ester formation and a co-adsorbed complex of acetic acid and ethanol on the active site reacting to produce ethyl acetate, is shown to describe the reaction rate as a function of temperature (323 -- 383 K), acetic acid (0.5 -- 6.0 kPa), and ethanol (5.0 -- 13.0 kPa) partial pressure on proton-form BEA, FER, MFI, and MOR zeolites. Measured differences in rates as a function of zeolite structure and the rigorous interpretation of these differences in terms of esterification rate and equilibrium constants is presented to show that the intrinsic rate constant for the activation of the co-adsorbed complex increases in the order FER dehydrogenation reaction sequences results instead in a two-zone, stratified bed reactor configuration consisting of upstream oxygenate/CH4 reforming and downstream CH4 dehydroaromatization. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and chemical transient experiments show that molybdenum carbide is formed inside zeolite micropores during CH4 reactions. The addition of an oxygenate co-feed causes oxidation of the active molybdenum carbide catalyst while producing CO and H2 until completely converted. Forward rates of C6H6 synthesis are unperturbed by the introduction of an oxygenate co-feed after rigorously accounting for the thermodynamic reversibility caused by the H2 produced in oxygenate reforming reactions and the fraction of the active catalyst deemed unavailable for CH 4 dehydroaromatization. All effects of co-processing C1-2 oxygenates and molecular H2 with CH4 can be interpreted in terms of an approach to equilibrium. Co-processing H2O, CO2, or light (C1-2, C/Heff reactions on catalytic surfaces.

  11. Fast pyrolysis of hardwood residues using a fixed bed drop-type pyrolyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis of rubber and Meranti wood was conducted by using a drop-type pyrolyzer. • As temperature increase, char yield decrease, but bio-oil and gas yield increase. • Maximum pyrolysis temperature for pyrolysis of RWS is 550 °C and 600 °C for MWS. • Calorific value of bio-char is very high and potential to be used as a solid fuel. • CO and CO2 are the major gas components in the non-condensable gases by-product. - Abstract: In this research, rubber wood sawdust (RWS) and Meranti wood sawdust (MWS) were pyrolyzed in a fixed bed drop-type pyrolyzer under an inert condition. The first part of the study is to determine the influence of pyrolysis temperature (450, 500, 550, 600, 650 °C) on the yield of pyrolysis products. Pyrolysis of these different residues generate an almost identical maximum amount of bio-oil close to 33 wt.%, but at different maximum temperature (550 °C for pyrolysis of RWS and 600 °C for pyrolysis of MWS). To evaluate the effect of biomass type on the composition and characterization of pyrolysis products, the second part involves the analyses of pyrolysis products from the maximum pyrolysis temperature. Acetic acid, tetrahydrofuran, and benzene were the main bio-oil components. The bio-oil contained high percentage of oxygen and hydrogen, indicating high water content in the bio-oil. High amount of water in bio-oil significantly reduced its calorific value. Under extensive heating, particle size of the bio-char from SEM images decreased due to breakage and shrinkage mechanisms. The major components of non-condensable gases were CO and CO2

  12. Carbon Nanotube Synthesis Using Coal Pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moothi, Kapil; Simate, Geoffrey S; Falcon, Rosemary; Iyuke, Sunny E; Meyyappan, M

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates carbon nanotube (CNT) production from coal pyrolysis wherein the output gases are used in a chemical vapor deposition reactor. The carbon products are similar to those using commercial coal gas as feedstock, but coal is a relatively cheaper feedstock compared to high purity source gases. A Gibbs minimization model has been developed to predict the volume percentages of product gases from coal pyrolysis. Methane and carbon monoxide were the largest carbon components of the product stream and thus formed the primary source for CNT synthesis. Both the model and the observations showed that increasing the furnace temperature led to a decrease in the absolute quantities of "useful" product gases, with the optimal temperature between 400 and 500 C. Based on the experimental data, a kinetic rate law for CNT from coal pyrolysis was derived as d[CNT]/dt = K([CO][CH4])(1/2), where K is a function of several equilibrium constants representing various reactions in the CNT formation process. PMID:26262467

  13. Time resolved pyrolysis of char

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, Helge; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    pyrolysis, and slow heating in direct combination with mass spectrometry, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and flame ionization detection, respectively. Characteristic ions derived from the flash pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry data enable the release of volatiles to be time and, hence...

  14. Microwave Heating Applied to Pyrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Yolanda; Arenillas, Ana; Menendez, J. Angel

    2011-01-01

    the MW pyrolysis as an original thermochemical process of materials is presented. This chapter comprises a general overview of the thermochemical and quantifying aspects of the pyrolysis process, including current application togethe with a compilation of the most frequently used materials

  15. Pyrolysis oil as diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros, S. [Wartsila Diesel International Ltd., Vaasa (Finland). Diesel Technology

    1996-12-31

    Wood waste pyrolysis oil is an attractive fuel alternative for diesel engine operation. The main benefit is the sustainability of the fuel. No fossil reserves are consumed. The fact that wood waste pyrolysis oil does not contribute to CO{sub 2} emissions is of utmost importance. This means that power plants utilising pyrolysis oil do not cause additional global warming. Equally important is the reduced sulphur emissions that this fuel alternative implies. The sulphur content of pyrolysis oil is extremely low. The high water content and low heating value are also expected to result in very low NO{sub x} emissions. Utilisation of wood waste pyrolysis oil in diesel engines, however, involves a lot of challenges and problems to be solved. The low heating value requires a new injection system with high capacity. The corrosive characteristics of the fluid also underline the need for new injection equipment materials. Wood waste pyrolysis oil contains solid particles which can clog filters and cause abrasive wear. Wood waste pyrolysis oil has proven to have extremely bad ignition properties. The development of a reliable injection system which is able to cope with such a fuel involves a lot of optimisation tests, redesign and innovative solutions. Successful single-cylinder tests have already been performed and they have verified that diesel operation on wood pyrolysis oil is technically possible. (orig.)

  16. Pyrolysis pretreatment of biomass for entrained-flow gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biomass for entrained-flow gasification needs to be pretreated to significantly increase its heating value and to make it more readily transportable. The pyrolysis pretreatment was conducted in a lab scale fixed-bed reactor; the reactor was heated to elevate the temperature at 5 °C/min before holding at the desired pyrolysis temperature for 1.5 h a fixed time. The effects of pyrolysis temperature on the yield, composition and heating value of the gaseous, liquid and solid products were determined. The pyrolysis removed most oxygenated constituents of rice straw while significantly increased its energy density. Meantime, it changes the physical properties of biomass powders. The results show that the angle of repose, the angle of internal friction of semi-char decrease obviously; the bulk density of semi-char is bigger than that of biomass. This could favor the feeding of biomass. Considering yield and heating value of the solid semi-char product and the feeding problem, the best pyrolysis temperature was 400 °C. The results of this study have confirmed the feasibility of employing pyrolyzed biomass for entrained-flow gasification; they are useful for the additional studies that will be necessary for designing an efficient biomass entrained-flow gasification system.

  17. Molten salt pyrolysis of milled beech wood using an electrostatic precipitator for oil collection

    OpenAIRE

    Heidi S. Nygård; Espen Olsen

    2015-01-01

    A tubular electrostatic precipitator (ESP) was designed and tested for collection of pyrolysis oil in molten salt pyrolysis of milled beech wood (0.5-2 mm). The voltage-current (V-I) characteristics were studied, showing most stable performance of the ESP when N2 was utilized as inert gas. The pyrolysis experiments were carried out in FLiNaK and (LiNaK)2CO3 over the temperature range of 450-600 ℃. The highest yields of pyrolysis oil were achieved in FLiNaK, with a maximum of 34.2 wt% at 500 ℃...

  18. Activated carbon from char obtained from vacuum pyrolysis of teak sawdust: pore structure development and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismadji, S; Sudaryanto, Y; Hartono, S B; Setiawan, L E K; Ayucitra, A

    2005-08-01

    The preparation of activated carbon from vacuum pyrolysis char of teak sawdust was studied and the results are presented in this paper. The effects of process variables such as temperature and activation time on the pore structure of activated carbons were studied. The activated carbon prepared from char obtained by vacuum pyrolysis has higher surface area and pore volume than that from atmospheric pyrolysis char. The BET surface area and pore volume of activated carbon prepared from vacuum pyrolysis char were 1150 m2/g and 0.43 cm3/g, respectively. PMID:15792584

  19. Conventional and microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass under different heating rates

    OpenAIRE

    C. Wu; Budarin, VL; Gronnow, MJ; de Bruyn, M.; Onwudili, JA; Clark, JH; Williams, PT

    2014-01-01

    Biomass was subjected to conventional and microwave pyrolysis, to determine the influence of each process on the yield and composition of the derived gas, oil and char products. The influence of pyrolysis temperature and heating rate for the conventional pyrolysis and the microwave power was investigated. Two major stages of gas release were observed during biomass pyrolysis, the first being CO/CO and the second one CH/H. This two-stage gas release was much more obvious for the conventional p...

  20. A comparison study on the deoxygenation of coal mine methane over coal gangue and coke under microwave heating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Microwave has great advantages of energy and time saving in CMM deoxygenation. • Microwave pretreatment results in graphitization of carbonaceous materials. • Coal gangue shows benefit in restricting CH4 decomposition compared to coke. • Under optimal conditions, there is no residual oxygen and CH4 is less than 2.2%. - Abstract: Microwave heating has great advantages in saving energy and time; in this study, it has been first successfully applied in the deoxidization process of coal mine methane (CMM), where carbon in coal gangue reacts with oxygen in CMM. Compared with traditional heating, microwave pretreatment resulted in rapid heating of coal gangue in CMM deoxygenation, which was attributable to the graphitization of carbonaceous materials. This prominent advantage of microwave heating can contribute to deoxygenation. In addition, deoxygenation effectiveness for both coke and coal gangue under microwave heating was investigated. It was discovered that coke acted as a catalyst to some extent to accelerate methane decomposition. However, this effect could be greatly restricted when coal gangue was used in the deoxygenation process because of its chemical inertness. Under optimal conditions (650 °C and 300 mL/min), there was no residual oxygen in the outlet gas, and methane loss was less than 2.2%

  1. Validation Results for Core-Scale Oil Shale Pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staten, Josh; Tiwari, Pankaj

    2015-03-01

    This report summarizes a study of oil shale pyrolysis at various scales and the subsequent development a model for in situ production of oil from oil shale. Oil shale from the Mahogany zone of the Green River formation was used in all experiments. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted at four scales, powdered samples (100 mesh) and core samples of 0.75”, 1” and 2.5” diameters. The batch, semibatch and continuous flow pyrolysis experiments were designed to study the effect of temperature (300°C to 500°C), heating rate (1°C/min to 10°C/min), pressure (ambient and 500 psig) and size of the sample on product formation. Comprehensive analyses were performed on reactants and products - liquid, gas and spent shale. These experimental studies were designed to understand the relevant coupled phenomena (reaction kinetics, heat transfer, mass transfer, thermodynamics) at multiple scales. A model for oil shale pyrolysis was developed in the COMSOL multiphysics platform. A general kinetic model was integrated with important physical and chemical phenomena that occur during pyrolysis. The secondary reactions of coking and cracking in the product phase were addressed. The multiscale experimental data generated and the models developed provide an understanding of the simultaneous effects of chemical kinetics, and heat and mass transfer on oil quality and yield. The comprehensive data collected in this study will help advance the move to large-scale in situ oil production from the pyrolysis of oil shale.

  2. Pyrolysis of methane by microwaves. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pyrolysis of methane and mixtures of argon-methane by microwaves (2,450 MHz) was investigated. The microwave plasma diagnostic study was performed using electrical probes, namely, the double floating probe technique. Parameters such as electric field strength and current densities were measured and from their relationship the electron temperature, electric conductivity, electron and ion densities were evaluated as function of gas pressure, microwave power input and distance of the probe from the microwave cavity. Various spectroscopic techniques were used for the measurement of temperatures in the microwave plasma; the 'reversal temperature' by measuring the intensities of the electronic vibrational bands of CN and OH molecules and 'rotational temperature' from the measured intensities of rotational OH lines. The 'rotational' as well as the 'reversal temperature' were found to be identical and this temperature was assumed to be the temperature of the gas in the microwave plasma. Energy balance calculation, based upon the electrical energy input and thermal losses, were performed in order to determine if steady state conditions existed in the microwave plasma. Emission and absorption spectroscopy were used for determining the active species formed in the pyrolysis of methane and also of mixtures of CH4-Ar, by the microwave plasma. (orig.)

  3. Muscle deoxygenation in the quadriceps during ramp incremental cycling: Deep vs. superficial heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okushima, Dai; Poole, David C; Rossiter, Harry B; Barstow, Thomas J; Kondo, Narihiko; Ohmae, Etsuko; Koga, Shunsaku

    2015-12-01

    Muscle deoxygenation (i.e., deoxy[Hb + Mb]) during exercise assesses the matching of oxygen delivery (Q?o2) to oxygen utilization (V?o2). Until now limitations in near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technology did not permit discrimination of deoxy[Hb + Mb] between superficial and deep muscles. In humans, the deep quadriceps is more highly vascularized and oxidative than the superficial quadriceps. Using high-power time-resolved NIRS, we tested the hypothesis that deoxygenation of the deep quadriceps would be less than in superficial muscle during incremental cycling exercise in eight males. Pulmonary V?o2 was measured and muscle deoxy[Hb + Mb] was determined in the superficial vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), and rectus femoris (RF-s) and the deep rectus femoris (RF-d). deoxy[Hb + Mb] in RF-d was significantly less than VL at 70% (67.2 7.0 vs. 75.5 10.7 ?M) and 80% (71.4 11.0 vs. 79.0 15.4 ?M) of peak work rate (WRpeak), but greater than VL and VM at WRpeak (87.7 32.5 vs. 76.6 17.5 and 75.1 19.9 ?M). RF-s was intermediate at WRpeak (82.6 18.7 ?M). Total hemoglobin and myoglobin concentration and tissue oxygen saturation were significantly greater in RF-d than RF-s throughout exercise. The slope of deoxy[Hb + Mb] increase (proportional to Q?o2/V?o2) in VL and VM slowed markedly above 70% WRpeak, whereas it became greater in RF-d. This divergent deoxygenation pattern may be due to a greater population of slow-twitch muscle fibers in the RF-d muscle and the differential recruitment profiles and vascular and metabolic control properties of specific fiber populations within superficial and deeper muscle regions. PMID:26404619

  4. Kinetics of scrap tyre pyrolysis under vacuum conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrap tyre pyrolysis under vacuum is attractive because it allows easier product condensation and control of composition (gas, liquid and solid). With the aim of determining the effect of vacuum on the pyrolysis kinetics, a study has been carried out in thermobalance. Two data analysis methods have been used in the kinetic study: (i) the treatment of experimental data of weight loss and (ii) the deconvolution of DTG (differential thermogravimetry) curve. The former allows for distinguishing the pyrolysis of the three main components (volatile components, natural rubber and styrene-butadiene rubber) according to three successive steps. The latter method identifies the kinetics for the pyrolysis of individual components by means of DTG curve deconvolution. The effect of vacuum in the process is significant. The values of activation energy for the pyrolysis of individual components of easier devolatilization (volatiles and NR) are lower for pyrolysis under vacuum with a reduction of 12 K in the reaction starting temperature. The kinetic constant at 503 K for devolatilization of volatile additives at 0.25 atm is 1.7 times higher than that at 1 atm, and that corresponding to styrene-butadiene rubber at 723 K is 2.8 times higher. Vacuum enhances the volatilization and internal diffusion of products in the pyrolysis process, which contributes to attenuating the secondary reactions of the repolymerization and carbonization of these products on the surface of the char (carbon black). The higher quality of carbon black is interesting for process viability. The large-scale implementation of this process in continuous mode requires a comparison to be made between the economic advantages of using a vacuum and the energy costs, which will be lower when the technologies used for pyrolysis require a lower ratio between reactor volume and scrap tyre flow rate.

  5. Pyrolysis of hardwoods residues: on kinetics and chars characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Della Rocca, P.A.; Cerrella, E.G.; Bonelli, P.R.; Cukierman, A.L. [Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina). PINMATE, Departamento de Industrias

    1999-11-01

    Evolution of chemical and textural-morphological features characterizing two native Argentinian hardwood species (Aspidosperma Quebracho Blanco Schlecht and Aspidosperma Australe), subjected to pyrolysis at different operating conditions, is analysed by several techniques. Surface areas of raw materials and pyrolysed samples are evaluated from physical adsorption measurements employing N{sub 2} at 77 K and CO{sub 2} at 298 K. The samples are also examined by optical and scanning electronic microscopy. Results point to significant feature changes, which are, in general, strongly affected by pyrolysis conditions, particularly temperature. Furthermore, kinetic measurements of wood pyrolysis are performed by non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis, from ambient temperature up to 1123 K. A deactivation model reported in the literature, which predicts an increase of activation energy with reaction extent, successfully describes kinetic data for both species over the whole range of degradation temperatures. (author)

  6. Calculated yields of ammonia in the radiolysis of deoxygenated solutions of glycylglycine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents detailed Monte Carlo simulations of physical and chemical interactions occurring within electron tracks in deoxygenated solutions of glycylglycine. Hydrated electrons produced within these tracks react with the solute to produce ammonia and a peptide secondary free radical. Calculated yields of ammonia are presented for a range of solute concentrations and electron energies. Excellent agreement is found between calculated and measured yields of ammonia in solutions irradiated by 250-kVp x-rays and 60Co gamma rays. 12 refs., 5 figs

  7. Characterizations of Bio-char from Fast Pyrolysis of Meranti Wood Sawdust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, M. A. F.; Uemura, Y.; Osman, N. B.; Yusup, S.

    2015-06-01

    In this research, Meranti wood sawdust (MWS) was pyrolyzed in a fixed bed drop- type pyrolyzer under an inert condition. The first part of the study is to determine the influence of pyrolysis temperature (450, 500 and 550 °C) on the yield of pyrolysis products. Pyrolysis of the waste MWS material generated the highest amount of bio-char with approximately 38 wt.% at pyrolysis temperature of 450 °C. Next, the char product (from pyrolysis at 450 °C) was analyzed to compare its characteristics with the raw MWS feedstock. The major component of the char is carbon element, significantly contributed to its high calorific value. TGA profile shows the MWS char could withstand high temperature of up to 400 °C. Under extensive heating, particle size of the bio-char from SEM images decreased due to breakage and shrinkage processes.

  8. Direct upgrading of fast pyrolysis lignin vapor over the HZSM-5 catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Guofeng; Le, Duy M.; Knudsen, Niels O.; Jensen, Anker D.

    2016-01-01

    Lignin has been pyrolyzed in a continuous fast pyrolysis reactor and the vapor was subsequently upgraded in situ over a downstream, close coupled HZSM-5 catalyst in a fixed bed reactor. The effect of the catalyst temperature on the HZSM-5 upgrading of lignin derived pyrolysis vapor was investigat...

  9. Optimal conditions for the catalytic and non-catalytic pyrolysis of water hyacinth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Particle size, temperature and catalyst affect greatly the water hyacinth pyrolysis. • <200 μm is the optimal particle size for water hyacinth to produce syngas. • There are more porosity, surface area and crystalline at a higher temperature. • 900 °C is the best pyrolysis temperature for water hyacinth to produce syngas. • The syngas production can be greatly promoted by catalysts, and KCl is the best one. - Abstract: Water hyacinth pyrolysis was carried out in a quartz tube reactor. Different particle sizes, pyrolysis temperatures and catalysts were tested. The product fractional yields, gaseous products, surface morphology and crystal structure were analyzed in order to obtain the optimal pyrolysis condition for producing syngas (CO + H2) from water hyacinth. The results indicated that particle size had a significant impact on water hyacinth pyrolysis and among four particle sizes in this paper dp < 200 μm was the optimal particle size for syngas production. Moreover, active surface area, porosity level and crystalline materials increased as the temperature rose and the results showed that among five temperatures in this study 900 °C was the best pyrolysis temperature for producing syngas. In addition, the syngas production levels can be improved if a suitable catalyst is used. The best catalyst was KCl, followed by CaO and MgO

  10. Slow Pyrolysis of Cassava Wastes for Biochar Production and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhidayah Mohamed Noor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of biochar from slow pyrolysis of biomass is a promising carbon negative procedure since it removes the net carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and produce recalcitrant carbon suitable for sequestration in soil. Biochar production can vary significantly with the pyrolysis parameter. This study investigated the impact of temperature and heating rate on the yield and properties of biochar derived from cassava plantations residues which are cassava stem (CS and cassava rhizome (CR. The pyrolysis temperatures ranged from 400°C to 600°C while the heating rate parameter was varied from 5°C/min to 25°C/min. The experiment was conducted using the lab scale slow pyrolysis system. The increment of temperature and heating rate of slow pyrolysis for both cassava wastes had raised the fixed carbon content of the biochar but decreased the biochar yield. More biochar was produced at lower temperature and lower heating rate. Temperature gave more influence on the biochar yield as compared to the heating rate parameter. The highest biochar yield of more than 35 mf wt. % can be obtained from both CS and CR at 400°C and heating rate of 5°C/min. From the proximate analysis, the results showed that cassava wastes contain high percentage of volatile matter which is more than 80 mf wt. %. Meanwhile, the biochar produced from cassava wastes contain high percentage of fixed carbon which is about 5−8 times higher than their raw samples. This suggested that, it is a good step to convert CS and CR into high carbon biochar via slow pyrolysis process that can substantially yield more biochar, up to 37 mf wt. % in this study. Since the fixed carbon content for both CS and CR biochar produced in any studied parameter were found to be more than 75 mf wt. %, it is suggested that biochar from cassava wastes is suitable for carbon sequestration.

  11. Alkaline deoxygenated graphene oxide for supercapacitor applications: An effective green alternative for chemically reduced graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Sanjaya D.; Mariano, Ruperto G.; Nijem, Nour; Chabal, Yves; Ferraris, John P.; Balkus, Kenneth J.

    2012-10-01

    Graphene is a promising electrode material for energy storage applications. The most successful method for preparing graphene from graphite involves the oxidation of graphite to graphene oxide (GO) and reduction back to graphene. Even though different chemical and thermal methods have been developed to reduce GO to graphene, the use of less toxic materials to generate graphene still remains a challenge. In this study we developed a facile one-pot synthesis of deoxygenated graphene (hGO) via alkaline hydrothermal process, which exhibits similar properties to the graphene obtained via hydrazine reduction (i.e. the same degree of deoxygenation found in hydrazine reduced GO). Moreover, the hGO formed freestanding, binder-free paper electrodes for supercapacitors. Coin cell type (CR2032) symmetric supercapacitors were assembled using the hGO electrodes. Electrochemical characterization of hGO was carried out using lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) and ethylmethylimidazolium bis-(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (EMITFSI) electrolytes. The results for the hGO electrodes were compared with the hydrazine reduced GO (rGO) electrode. The hGO electrode exhibits a energy density of 20 W h kg-1 and 50 W h kg-1 in LiTFSI and EMITFSI respectively, while delivering a maximum power density of 11 kW kg-1 and 14.7 kW kg-1 in LiTFSI and EMITFSI, respectively.

  12. Models and past ocean de-oxygenation: ';nice' is not a statistical measure of understanding (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgwell, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Over the past decade(s), numerical model assessment and interpretation of the increasingly temporally, spatially, and multi-proxy resolved geological record of ocean de-oxygenation has frequently claimed to have been ';successful' in reproducing the ';main' ';features' or ';patterns', as well as often the ';approximate' or ';same order' of ';magnitude', and overall obtaining ';close', ';reasonable', ';pleasing', or downright ';cute' (disclaimer: I made this last one up) fits to the data. In contrast, present-day model oceanographic circles, statistical measures have become de rigueur to the point every Powerpoint slide must legally contain at least one sectoral ';Taylor Diagram'. However, model-data approaches developed in the context of modern observations are not necessarily directly translatable to deeper time, when data constraints are more sparse with often considerable temporal and depth uncertainties and for which the proxies may not be fully quantitative, and even when they are, inherently contain large (often calibration) uncertainties. Bridging this gap is difficult, but ';paleo' must move towards embracing a more quantitative assessment of proxies with models if we are to maintain credibility to inform future projections and impacts. Here I will present some case-studies, both good and bad, of how models and data can be combined in the contact of better understanding past ocean de-oxygenation.

  13. Enhancing biochar yield by co-pyrolysis of bio-oil with biomass: impacts of potassium hydroxide addition and air pretreatment prior to co-pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veksha, Andrei; Zaman, Waheed; Layzell, David B; Hill, Josephine M

    2014-11-01

    The influence of KOH addition and air pretreatment on co-pyrolysis (600 C) of a mixture of bio-oil and biomass (aspen wood) was investigated with the goal of increasing biochar yield. The bio-oil was produced as a byproduct of the pyrolysis of biomass and recycled in subsequent runs. Co-pyrolysis of the biomass with the recycled bio-oil resulted in a 16% mass increase in produced biochar. The yields were further increased by either air pretreatment or KOH addition prior to co-pyrolysis. Air pretreatment at 220 C for 3 h resulted in the highest mass increase (32%) compared to the base case of pyrolysis of biomass only. No synergistic benefit was observed by combining KOH addition with air pretreatment. In fact, KOH catalyzed reactions that increased the bed temperature resulting in carbon loss via formation of CO and CO2. PMID:25189513

  14. Quality improvement of pyrolysis oil from waste rubber by adding sawdust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Rubber-pyrolysis oil is difficult to be fuel due to high proportion of PAHs. • The efficiency of pyrolysis was increased as the percentage of sawdust increased. • The adding of sawdust improved pyrolysis oil quality by reducing the PAHs content. • Adding sawdust reduced nitrogen/sulfur in oil and was easier to convert to diesel. - Abstract: This work was aimed at improving the pyrolysis oil quality of waste rubber by adding larch sawdust. Using a 1 kg/h stainless pyrolysis reactor, the contents of sawdust in rubber were gradually increased from 0%, 50%, 100% and 200% (wt%) during the pyrolysis process. Using a thermo-gravimetric (TG) analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of evolving products (TG–FTIR), the weight loss characteristics of the heat under different mixtures of sawdust/rubber were observed. Using the pyrolysis–gas chromatography (GC)–mass spectrometry (Py–GC/MS), the vapors from the pyrolysis processes were collected and the compositions of the vapors were examined. During the pyrolysis process, the recovery of the pyrolysis gas and its composition were measured in-situ at a reaction temperature of 450 °C and a retaining time of 1.2 s. The results indicated that the efficiency of pyrolysis was increased and the residual carbon was reduced as the percentage of sawdust increased. The adding of sawdust significantly improved the pyrolysis oil quality by reducing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrogen and sulfur compounds contents, resulting in an improvement in the combustion efficiency of the pyrolysis oil

  15. Quality improvement of pyrolysis oil from waste rubber by adding sawdust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wen-liang [MOE Key Laboratory of Wooden Material Science and Application, College of Material Science and Technology, Wood Science and Technology, Beijing Forestry University, 100083 Beijing (China); Chang, Jian-min, E-mail: cjianmin@bjfu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Wooden Material Science and Application, College of Material Science and Technology, Wood Science and Technology, Beijing Forestry University, 100083 Beijing (China); Cai, Li-ping [Mechanical and Energy Engineering Department, University of North Texas, 3940 N. Elm, Denton 72076, TX (United States); Shi, Sheldon Q., E-mail: Sheldon.Shi@unt.edu [Mechanical and Energy Engineering Department, University of North Texas, 3940 N. Elm, Denton 72076, TX (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Rubber-pyrolysis oil is difficult to be fuel due to high proportion of PAHs. • The efficiency of pyrolysis was increased as the percentage of sawdust increased. • The adding of sawdust improved pyrolysis oil quality by reducing the PAHs content. • Adding sawdust reduced nitrogen/sulfur in oil and was easier to convert to diesel. - Abstract: This work was aimed at improving the pyrolysis oil quality of waste rubber by adding larch sawdust. Using a 1 kg/h stainless pyrolysis reactor, the contents of sawdust in rubber were gradually increased from 0%, 50%, 100% and 200% (wt%) during the pyrolysis process. Using a thermo-gravimetric (TG) analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of evolving products (TG–FTIR), the weight loss characteristics of the heat under different mixtures of sawdust/rubber were observed. Using the pyrolysis–gas chromatography (GC)–mass spectrometry (Py–GC/MS), the vapors from the pyrolysis processes were collected and the compositions of the vapors were examined. During the pyrolysis process, the recovery of the pyrolysis gas and its composition were measured in-situ at a reaction temperature of 450 °C and a retaining time of 1.2 s. The results indicated that the efficiency of pyrolysis was increased and the residual carbon was reduced as the percentage of sawdust increased. The adding of sawdust significantly improved the pyrolysis oil quality by reducing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrogen and sulfur compounds contents, resulting in an improvement in the combustion efficiency of the pyrolysis oil.

  16. Characterization of bio-oil obtained from fruit pulp pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apricot pulps was pyrolyzed in a fixed-bed reactor under different pyrolysis conditions to determine the role of final temperature, sweeping gas flow rate and steam velocity on the product yields and liquid product composition with a heating rate of 5 deg. C/min. Final temperature range studied was between 300 and 700 deg. C and the highest liquid product yield was obtained at 550 deg. C. Liquid product yield increased significantly under nitrogen and steam atmospheres. For the optimum conditions, pyrolysis of peach pulp was furthermore studied. Liquid products obtained under the most suitable conditions were characterized by FTIR and 1H-NMR. In addition, gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometer was achieved on all pyrolysis oils. Characterization showed that bio-oil could be a potential source for synthetic fuels and chemical feedstock

  17. Releasing behavior of chlorine and fluorine during agricultural waste pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The releasing behavior of chlorine (Cl) and fluorine (F) during agricultural waste pyrolysis was investigated using a fixed-bed pyrolysis system with pyrohydrolytic-ion chromatography and thermodynamic equilibrium calculation. Agricultural waste contains a large amount of Cl-bearing species, among which approximately 30% is easily released with biomass drying. During biomass pyrolysis, Cl-bearing species evolve out rapidly to the gas phase, and higher temperature is favorable for the releasing. The releasing process can be divided into two ranges: the fast evaporating range (200–600 °C) and slow evaporating range (600–1000 °C). F shows similar transforming behavior. However, higher temperature is preferred for the release. Thermodynamic simulation shows that Cl mainly exists as KCl(g) at higher temperatures (>600 °C) with some HCl(g) and K2Cl2(g) as intermediate species at lower temperatures (<600 °C), whereas F mainly releases as SiF4 at higher temperatures (>500 °C) with SF5Cl being the dominant F-bearing species at lower temperatures (<500 °C). - Highlights: • The releasing behavior of fluorine during biomass pyrolysis was first studied. • The proportions of Cl and F in different products were examined. • Experiment and simulation were conducted to study the in-depth mechanism

  18. TG-FTIR study on urea-formaldehyde resin residue during pyrolysis and combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xuguang; Li, Chunyu; Chi, Yong; Yan, Jianhua

    2010-01-15

    The pyrolysis and combustion characteristics of urea-formaldehyde resin (UFR) residue were investigated by using thermogravimetric analysis, coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR). It is indicated that the pyrolysis process can be subdivided into three stages: drying the sample, fast thermal decomposition and further cracking process. The total weight loss of 90 wt.% at 950 degrees C is found in pyrolysis, while 74 wt.% of the original mass lost in the second stage is between 195 degrees C and 430 degrees C. The emissions of carbon dioxide, isocyanic acid, ammonia, hydrocyanic acid and carbon monoxide are identified in UFR residue pyrolysis, moreover, isocyanic acid emitted at low temperature is found as the most important nitrogen-containing gaseous product in UFR residue pyrolysis, and there is a large amount of hydrocyanic acid emitted at high temperature. The similar TG and emission characteristics as the first two stages during pyrolysis are found in UFR residue combustion at low temperature. The combustion process almost finishes at 600 degrees C; moreover, carbon dioxide and water are identified as the main gaseous products at high temperature. It is indicated that the UFR residue should be pyrolyzed at low temperature to remove the initial nitrogen, and the gaseous products during pyrolysis should be burnt in high temperature furnace under oxygen-rich conditions for pollutant controlling. PMID:19735979

  19. Pyrolysis and Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Bilitewski, B.

    . In Europe during World War II, wood-fueled gasifiers (or ‘gas generators’) were used to power cars during shortages of oil-based fuels. Sparked by oil price crises in 1970s and 1980s, further development in gasification technologies focused mainly on coal as a fuel to substitute for oil......-based products. Today gasification is used within a range of applications, the most important of which are conversion of coal into syngas for use as chemical feedstock or energy production; but also gasification of biomass and waste is gaining significant interest as emerging technologies for sustainable energy....... From a waste management perspective, pyrolysis and gasification are of relatively little importance as an overall management option. Today, gasification is primarily used on specific waste fractions as opposed to mixed household wastes. The main commercial activity so far has been in Japan, with only...

  20. Impact of thermal pretreatment on the fast pyrolysis conversion of Southern Pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler L. Westover; Manunya Phanphanich; Micael L. Clark; Sharna R. Rowe; Steven E. Egan; Christopher T Wright; Richard D. Boardman; Alan H. Zacher

    2013-01-01

    Background: Thermal pretreatment of biomass ranges from simple (nondestructive) drying to more severe treatments that cause devolatization, depolymerization and carbonization. These pretreatments have demonstrated promise for transforming raw biomass into feedstock material that has improved milling, handling, storage and conversion properties. In this work, southern pine material was pretreated at 120, 180, 230 and 270 degrees C, and then subjected to pyrolysis tests in a continuous-feed bubbling-fluid bed pyrolysis system. Results: High pretreatment temperatures were associated with lower specific grinding energies, higher grinding rates and lower hydrogen and oxygen contents. Higher pretreatment temperatures were also correlated with increased char production, decreased total acid number and slight decrease in the oxygen content of the pyrolysis liquid fraction. Conclusion: Thermal pretreatment has both beneficial and detrimental impacts on fast pyrolysis conversion of pine material to bio-oil, and the effect of thermal pretreatment on upgrading of pyrolysis bio-oil requires further attention.

  1. Pyrolysis of Spent Ion Exchange Resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion exchangers (IEX in international language) are used to remove radionuclides from the primary coolant in all nuclear power stations with a water cooling circuit. This is done by continuously removing a volume of coolant from the primary circuit and passing it through coolers, filters and the ion exchange beds. Cation and anion exchangers, in the form of coarse-grained resin beads in pressurized-water reactors and as finely ground powdered resins in boiling water reactors, are used. The trend for new power stations is to exploit all the possibilities for avoiding the generation of contaminated liquids and then to clean, as far as possible, the solutions that are nevertheless generated using ion exchange for it to be possible to dispose of them as non-radioactive waste. This relieves the burden on evaporator facilities, or means that these can even be dispensed with entirely. Regeneration is possible in principle, but little use is made of it. As the regeneration usual in conventional technologies is not employed in nuclear power stations, it is necessary to dispose of this material as radioactive waste. On the international level, a great number of processes are offered that are intended to meet the relevant national regulations, and these will be discussed in brief with their advantages and disadvantages. The aim is then to find a process which reduces the volume, yields an inert or mineralized product, works at temperatures of no more than approximately 600 deg. C and can be run in a simple facility. Originally, the pyrolysis process was developed to treat liquid organic waste from reprocessing. A typical application is the decomposition of spent solvent (TBP, tributyl phosphate, mixed with kerosene). In this process TBP is pyrolyzed together with calcium hydroxide in a fluidized bed facility at temperatures of around 500 deg. C, the calcium hydroxide reacts with the phosphate groups directly to form calcium pyrophosphate which contains all the radioactivity and is disposed of as medium level waste. The organic components pass into the pyrolysis gas which is burnt. The flue gas is further cleaned. TBP pyrolysis facilities have been built in France (La Hague), Belgium (Mol) and in Japan (Rokkashomura). The Belgian plant has recently ceased operating as all the TBP arising from Eurochemic operations had been successfully processed. The facility in Japan is in the commissioning stage. Many experiments have been carried out at the existing facilities, and also in corresponding pilot plants including NUKEM's own, to extend the range of waste that can be processed. Initial tests have shown that IEX can be decomposed by pyrolysis with very good results, yielding an inert and chemically resistant product. No additives are necessary. The main constituent of the product, the pyrolysate or ash, is carbon. It has been discovered that the entire radioactive inventory remains in the pyrolysate during pyrolysis of the IEX. This is achieved by relatively low process temperatures that prevent highly volatile nuclides such as the cesium nuclides from passing into the gaseous phase. Sintered metal filters in pyrolysis plant ensure that even the radioactivity bonded to the dust remains in the pyrolysate. In addition to the radionuclides, the main constituents of the residue are carbon from the original polystyrene matrix and sulphur from the functional groups. The pyrolysate occurs as a flowable solid material and not as a melt. It is thus easy to handle and can be compressed or cemented, depending on the requirements for interim and permanent storage. Any further constituents such as inorganic filter materials or even other organic materials do not interfere with the process, they are dried, calcined or also pyrolyzed. Hydrocarbons such as methane or propene, steam and low volumes of ammonia are the products in gaseous form. The pyrolysis gas generated must be burnt in a burner and then passed to the emission control system and the HEPA filters

  2. Pyrolysis of superfine pulverized coal. Part 3. Mechanisms of nitrogen-containing species formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • NH3 and NO formation mechanisms during superfine pulverized coal pyrolysis are investigated. • Influences of temperature, heating rate, particle size, atmosphere, and acid wash on the NH3 and NO formation are analyzed. • Transformations of nitrogen-containing structures in coal/char during pyrolysis are recognized through XPS observation. • Relationships among nitrogen-containing gaseous species during pyrolysis are discussed. - Abstract: With more stringent regulations being implemented, elucidating the formation mechanisms of nitrogen-containing species during the initial pyrolysis step becomes important for developing new NOx control strategies. However, there is a lack of agreement on the origins of NOx precursors during coal pyrolysis, in spite of extensive investigations. Hence, it is important to achieve a more precise knowledge of the formation mechanisms of nitrogen-contain species during coal pyrolysis. In this paper, pyrolysis experiments of superfine pulverized coal were performed in a fixed bed at low heating rates. The influences of temperature, coal type, particle size and atmosphere on the NH3 and NO evolution were discussed. There is a central theme to develop knowledge of the relationship between particle sizes and evolving behaviors of nitrogen-containing species. Furthermore, the catalytic role of inherent minerals in coal was proved to be effective on the partitioning of nitrogen during coal pyrolysis. In addition, the conversion pathways of heteroaromatic nitrogen structures in coal/char during pyrolysis were recognized through the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Large quantities of pyridinic and quanternary nitrogen functionalities were formed during the thermal degradation. Finally, the relationships among the nitrogen-containing gaseous species during coal pyrolysis were discussed. In brief, a comprehensive picture of the volatile-nitrogen partitioning during coal pyrolysis is obtained in this work, involving the formation mechanisms of the main nitrogen-containing gaseous products such as NH3, HCN, NO, NO2 and N2O

  3. Pyrolysis and volatilization of cocaine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing popularity of inhaling cocaine vapor prompted the present study, to determine cocaine's fate during this process. The free base of [3H]cocaine (1 microCi/50 mg) was added to a glass pipe, which was then heated in a furnace to simulate freebasing. Negative pressure was used to draw the vapor through a series of glass wool, ethanol, acidic, and basic traps. Air flow rate and temperature were found to have profound effects on the volatilization and pyrolysis of cocaine. At a temperature of 260 degrees C and a flow rate of 400 mL/min, 37% of the radioactivity remained in the pipe, 39% was found in the glass wool trap, and less than 1% in the remainder of the volatilization apparatus after a 10-min volatilization. Reducing the air flow rate to 100 mL/min reduced the amount of radioactivity collected in the glass wool trap to less than 10% of the starting material and increased the amount that remained in the pipe to 58%. GC/MS analysis of the contents of the glass wool trap after volatilization at 260 degrees C and a flow rate of 400 mL/min revealed that 60% of the cocaine remained intact, while approximately 6 and 2% of the starting material was recovered as benzoic acid and methylecgonidine, respectively. As the temperature was increased to 650 degrees C, benzoic acid and methylecgonidine accounted for 83 and 89% of the starting material, respectively, whereas only 2% of the cocaine remained intact. Quantitation of cocaine in the vapor during the course of volatilization revealed high concentrations during the first two min and low concentrations for the remaining time

  4. Pyrolysis of furan in a microreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urness, Kimberly N; Guan, Qi; Golan, Amir; Daily, John W; Nimlos, Mark R; Stanton, John F; Ahmed, Musahid; Ellison, G Barney

    2013-09-28

    A silicon carbide microtubular reactor has been used to measure branching ratios in the thermal decomposition of furan, C4H4O. The pyrolysis experiments are carried out by passing a dilute mixture of furan (approximately 0.01%) entrained in a stream of helium through the heated reactor. The SiC reactor (0.66 mm i.d., 2 mm o.d., 2.5 cm long) operates with continuous flow. Experiments were performed with a reactor inlet pressure of 100-300 Torr and a wall temperature between 1200 and 1600 K; characteristic residence times in the reactor are 60-150 ?s. The unimolecular decomposition pathway of furan is confirmed to be: furan (+ M) ? ?-carbene or ?-carbene. The ?-carbene fragments to CH2=C=O + HC?CH while the ?-carbene isomerizes to CH2=C=CHCHO. The formyl allene can isomerize to CO + CH3C?CH or it can fragment to H + CO + HCCCH2. Tunable synchrotron radiation photoionization mass spectrometry is used to monitor the products and to measure the branching ratio of the two carbenes as well as the ratio of [HCCCH2]/[CH3C?CH]. The results of these pyrolysis experiments demonstrate a preference for 80%-90% of furan decomposition to occur via the ?-carbene. For reactor temperatures of 1200-1400 K, no propargyl radicals are formed. As the temperature rises to 1500-1600 K, at most 10% of the decomposition of CH2=C=CHCHO produces H + CO + HCCCH2 radicals. Thermodynamic conditions in the reactor have been modeled by computational fluid dynamics and the experimental results are compared to the predictions of three furan pyrolysis mechanisms. Uncertainty in the pressure-dependency of the initiation reaction rates is a possible a source of discrepancy between experimental results and theoretical predictions. PMID:24089765

  5. A Comparative study of microwave-induced pyrolysis of lignocellulosic and algal biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Tahmasebi, Arash; Yu, Jianglong; Xu, Jing; Huang, Feng; Mamaeva, Alisa

    2015-08-01

    Microwave (MW) pyrolysis of algal and lignocellulosic biomass samples were studied using a modified domestic oven. The pyrolysis temperature was recorded continuously by inserting a thermocouple into the samples. Temperatures as high as 1170 and 1015C were achieved for peanut shell and Chlorella vulgaris. The activation energy for MW pyrolysis was calculated by Coats-Redfern method and the values were 221.96 and 214.27kJ/mol for peanut shell and C. vulgaris, respectively. Bio-oil yields reached to 27.7wt.% and 11.0wt.% during pyrolysis of C. vulgaris and peanut shell, respectively. The bio-oil samples from pyrolysis were analyzed by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Bio-oil from lignocellulosic biomass pyrolysis contained more phenolic compounds while that from microalgae pyrolysis contained more nitrogen-containing species. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis results showed that concentration of OH, CH, CO, OCH3, and CO functional groups in char samples decreased significantly after pyrolysis. PMID:25935388

  6. Relation between phase composition and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 in a sulfoxide deoxygenation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study we synthesize three TiO2 samples, TiO2-500, TiO2-750 and TiO2-850, by a sol–gel procedure varying the rutile and anatase content by calcination at different temperatures. Characterization by XRD, NIR-Raman, UV-Raman, BET, DR-UV-Vis spectroscopy and SEM points out that TiO2-500 consists mainly of anatase and TiO2-850 of rutile. TiO2-700 presents both phases on the surface that is the part of the photocatalyst interested by UV illumination. The photocatalysts are tested in the deoxygenation reaction of methyl p-tolyl sulfoxide to the corresponding sulfide using 2-propanol as hole scavenger. It is demonstrated that the presence of both anatase and rutile on the surface of TiO2-700 is responsible of the increase of the photocatalytic activity. This is likely due to a more efficient charge separation process that increases lifetime of the charges giving availability of electrons and holes for the photocatalytic reaction. Methyl p-tolyl sulfide is formed with a selectivity of 100%. - Highlights: • TiO2 samples are synthesized via sol–gel varying the rutile and anatase composition. • TiO2-700 (calcined at 700 °C) presents both anatase and rutile on the surface. • Efficient charges separation is allowed by the presence of anatase and rutile. • Spatial separation of charges renders TiO2-700 the most active photocatalyst. • Methyl p-tolyl sulfoxide is transformed in sulfide with 100% selectivity

  7. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica and polypropylene over mesoporous Al-SBA-15 catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung Won; Choi, Suek Joo; Park, Sung Hoon; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Jung, Sang-Chul; Kim, Sang Chai; Park, Young-Kwon

    2014-08-01

    The catalytic co-pyrolysis of a seaweed biomass, Laminaria japonica, and a typical polymer material, polypropylene, was studied for the first time. A mesoporous material Al-SBA-15 was used as a catalyst. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted using a fixed-bed reactor and pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). BET surface area, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, and NH3 temperature programmed desorption were measured to examine the catalyst characteristics. When only L. japonica was pyrolyzed, catalytic reforming slightly increased the gas yield and decreased the oil yield. The H2O content in bio-oil was increased by catalytic reforming from 42.03 to 50.32 wt% due to the dehydration reaction occurring on the acid sites inside the large pores of Al-SBA-15. Acids, oxygenates, mono-aromatics, poly aromatic hydrocarbons, and phenolics were the main components of the bio-oil obtained from the pyrolysis of L. japonica. Upon catalytic reforming over Al-SBA-15, the main oxygenate species 1,4-anhydro- d-galactitol and 1,5-anhydro- d-manitol were completely removed. When L. japonica was co-pyrolyzed with polypropylene, the H2O content in bio-oil was decreased dramatically (8.93 wt% in the case of catalytic co-pyrolysis), contributing to the improvement of the oil quality. A huge increase in the content of gasoline-range and diesel-range hydrocarbons in bio-oil was the most remarkable change that resulted from the co-pyrolysis with polypropylene, suggesting its potential as a transport fuel. The content of mono-aromatics with high economic value was also increased significantly by catalytic co-pyrolysis.

  8. Kinetic Study on Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Frond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soon, V. S. Y.; Chin, B. L. F.; Lim, A. C. R.

    2016-03-01

    The pyrolysis of oil palm frond is studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) equipment. The present study investigates the thermal degradation behaviour and determination of the kinetic parameters such as the activation energy (EA ) and pre-exponential factor (A) values of oil palm frond under pyrolysis condition. The kinetic data is produced based on first order rate of reaction. In this study, the experiments are conducted at different heating rates of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 K/min in the temperature range of 323-1173 K under non-isothermal condition. Argon gas is used as an inert gas to remove any entrapment of gases in the TGA equipment.

  9. Possibilities for using a temperature-controlled pyrolysis method in order to determine the bonding form of mecury in soils and sediments; Moeglichkeiten der Anwendung eines temperaturgesteuerten Pyrolyseverfahrens zur Bestimmung der Bindungsform des Quecksilbers in Boeden und Sedimenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biester, H.

    1994-12-31

    The bonding behaviour of mercury in solids was investigated by means of a temperature-controlled pyrolysis method. Starting from the special property of elemental mercury to evaporate already at room temperature, a method was developed which permits to characterize different mercury bonding forms on the basis of Hg evaporation behaviour from solids at continuously increased temperature. The method starts from the assumption that it is possible to thermally reduce compounded mercury and release it in elemental form. The focus of the work was on the study of Hg bonding behaviour in soils and sediments. The soil samples used were from the areas of two mercury deposits, different kyanizing sites, some former mirror factories, and a chlor-alkali electrolysis workshop. The investigated sediments are a collection of mercury-polluted samples from the rivers Elbe, Rhine, Murg, the Rio Sao Joao de Meriti (Brazil) and some brooks and rivers of the Saar-Nahe depression. (orig./EF) [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde das Bindungsverhalten von Quecksilber in Feststoffen mittels eines temperaturgesteuerten Pyrolyseverfahrens untersucht. Ausgehend von der besonderen Eigenschaften des elementaren Quecksilbers, bereits bei Zimmertemperatur zu verdampfen, wurde ein Verfahren entwickelt, das eine Charakterisierung verschiedener Quecksilberbindungsformen aufgrund des Abdampfverhaltens des Hg aus dem Feststoff unter kontinuierlicher Temperaturerhoehung zulaesst. Dem Verfahren liegt dabei die Annahme zugrunde, dass sich das Quecksilber in seinen Verbindungen thermisch reduzieren und in elementarer Form freisetzen laesst. Durch den kontinuierlichen Aufheizprozess erfolgt die Freisetzung des Quecksilbers in Abhaengigkeit von der Bindungsstaerke in unterschiedlichen Temperaturbereichen. Die Darstellung der Ergebnisse erfolgte in Form von Abdampfkurven, die die Extinktion in Abhaengigkeit von der Temperatur darstellen. Der Schwerpunkt dieser Arbeit lag auf der Untersuchung des Bindungsverhaltens des Quecksilbers in Boeden und Sedimenten. Die untersuchten Bodenproben stammen aus den Bereichen zweier Quecksilberlagerstaetten, verschiedener Kyanisierplaetze, einiger ehemaliger Spiegelfabriken und aus dem Bereich einer Chlor-Alkali-Elektrolyse. Die untersuchten Sedimente stellen eine Auswahl quecksilberbelasteter Proben aus Elbe, Rhein, Murg, dem Rio Sao Joao de Meriti (Brasilien) und einigen Baechen und Fluessen der Saar-Nahe-Senke dar. (orig./EF)

  10. Co-pyrolysis of lignite and sugar beet pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, worldwide studies have been undertaken on the biomass usage and co-conversion of biomass and coal to seek out alternative fuels for supplying energy in an environmental friendly way. The objective of this work is to study co-pyrolysis of lignite and sugar beet pulp in 50/50 (wt./wt.) ratio of blend pellets, to elucidate their thermal behaviour under pyrolysis conditions and to assess major decomposition products in terms of their yields. A special chamber, which has enabled very fast heating rates, was used in the pyrolysis experiments carried at 600 deg. C. The results were interpreted in the light of liquid, solid and gaseous yields, resulting from thermal decomposition, and kinetics of thermogravimetric analysis. Proximate volatile matter and ash contents of the blends were different compared to those found by using individual values. Sugar beet pulp decomposed faster within a relatively narrow temperature range than lignite and underwent a significant shrinkage during pyrolysis. It was found that the chars left behind after the flash pyrolysis of these pellets at 600 deg. C have substantial amounts of volatile matter that would evolve upon further heating.

  11. [Components of oil sludge and their influence on pyrolysis behaviors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Liu, Jian-Guo; Nie, Yong-Feng

    2008-07-01

    Based on property analysis of oil sludge and its main components (mineral oil and minerals), pyrolysis process and releasing behavior of non-condensed gas of oil sludge and its main components were studied by thermogravimetric analysis-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR) and tubular resistance furnace, respectively. The results indicated that, (1) Oil sludge was characterized as relatively high heating value (15 422.41 kJ/kg), higher mineral content (61.57%) mainly composed of quartz. Mineral oil component had good thermal conversion property and adhered close with mineral in oil sludge. (2) Pyrolysis process of oil sludge included 5 stages: water volatilization and gas desorption (50-180 degrees C), light oil volatilization (180-370 degrees C), heavy oil pyrolysis (370-500 degrees C), semi-coke charring (500-600 degrees C) and mineral decomposition (higher than 600 degrees C). (3) Minerals influenced oil pyrolysis by surface function and enhancing heating conductivity, meanwhile minor elements in mineral oil could bring mineral decomposition temperature down. (4) Minerals affected the releasing behavior of non-condensed gas from mineral oil pyrolysis and resulted in lower total production and higher H2 production. PMID:18828401

  12. Co-pyrolysis of lignite and sugar beet pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilgin, M.; Deveci Duranay, N.; Pehlivan, D. [Firat University, Chemical Engineering Department, 23279 Elazig (Turkey)

    2010-05-15

    Today, worldwide studies have been undertaken on the biomass usage and co-conversion of biomass and coal to seek out alternative fuels for supplying energy in an environmental friendly way. The objective of this work is to study co-pyrolysis of lignite and sugar beet pulp in 50/50 (wt./wt.) ratio of blend pellets, to elucidate their thermal behaviour under pyrolysis conditions and to assess major decomposition products in terms of their yields. A special chamber, which has enabled very fast heating rates, was used in the pyrolysis experiments carried at 600 C. The results were interpreted in the light of liquid, solid and gaseous yields, resulting from thermal decomposition, and kinetics of thermogravimetric analysis. Proximate volatile matter and ash contents of the blends were different compared to those found by using individual values. Sugar beet pulp decomposed faster within a relatively narrow temperature range than lignite and underwent a significant shrinkage during pyrolysis. It was found that the chars left behind after the flash pyrolysis of these pellets at 600 C have substantial amounts of volatile matter that would evolve upon further heating. (author)

  13. Spray pyrolysis technique for the deposition of superconducting films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research has been performed on the use of chemical spray pyrolysis for depositing films of YBCO. The effects of reagent concentration, deposition rate, substrate temperature and substrate type were investigated. Films from less than 2 to more than 10 microns thick were deposited on single crystal strontium titanate, polycrystalline alumina and type 304 stainless steel

  14. A Study on the Pyrolysis of Peanut Shells at Different Isothermal Conditions and Determination of the Kinetic Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    ?eyda Ta?ar; Fatih Kaya; Ahmet zer

    2015-01-01

    The pyrolysis process, which is applied for the aim of producing energy and raw materials which are implemented for the chemical industry from biomass sources, is a thermal conversion process. Determination of the pyrolysis kinetic parameters are important In order to suitable equipment and process design. In this target, in the study the pyrolysis of peanut shells was conducted in a muffle furnace at static atmosphere with temperatures ranging from 300-700 C. The effects of various paramete...

  15. Vacuum Pyrolysis and Related ISRU Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiff, Eric H.; Pomeroy, Brian R.; Banks, Ian S.; Benz, Alexis

    2007-01-01

    A number of ISRU-related techniques have been developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The focus of the team has been on development of the vacuum pyrolysis technique for the production of oxygen from the lunar regolith. However, a number of related techniques have also been developed, including solar concentration, solar heating of regolith, resistive heating of regolith, sintering, regolith boiling, process modeling, parts manufacturing, and instrumentation development. An initial prototype system was developed to vaporize regolith simulants using a approx. l square meter Fresnel lens. This system was successfully used to vaporize quantities of approx. lg, and both mass spectroscopy of the gasses produced and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of the slag were done to show that oxygen was produced. Subsequent tests have demonstrated the use of a larger system With a 3.8m diameter reflective mirror to vaporize the regolith. These results and modeling of the vacuum pyrolysis reaction have indicated that the vaporization of the oxides in the regolith will occur at lower temperature for stronger vacuums. The chemical modeling was validated by testing of a resistive heating system that vaporized quantities of approx. 10g of MLS-1A. This system was also used to demonstrate the sintering of regolith simulants at reduced temperatures in high vacuum. This reduction in the required temperature prompted the development of a small-scale resistive heating system for application as a scientific instrument as well as a proof-of principle experiment for oxygen production.

  16. Use of an Apple IIe microcomputer for pyrolysis data acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-02-01

    An Apple IIe microcomputer is being used to collect data and to control a pyrolysis system. Pyrolysis data for bitumen and kerogen are widely used to estimate source rock maturity. For a detailed analysis of kinetic parameters, however, data must be obtained more precisely than for routine pyrolysis. The authors discuss the program which controls the temperature ramp of the furnace that heats the sample, and collects data from a thermocouple in the furnace and from the flame ionization detector measuring evolved hydrocarbons. These data are stored on disk for later use by programs that display the results of the experiment or calculate kinetic parameters. The program is written in Applesoft BASIC with subroutines in Apple assembler for speed and efficiency.

  17. Bio-oil from Flash Pyrolysis of Agricultural Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Norazana

    bio-oils. Mainly the influence of feedstock type (wheat straw, rice husk and pine wood), feedstock water content and reactor temperature on the yield of char, bio-oil and gas were investigated. The storage stability of bio-oils with respect to changes in viscosity, water content and pH were...... was around 525 °C to 550 °C for all straw moisture contents. It was investigated how differences in biomass composition influence pyrolysis products yields and the composition of char and bio-oils. Details about this investigation are explained in Paper II (Chapter 3). The used pine wood had a low ash......This thesis describes the production of bio-oils from flash pyrolysis of agricultural residues, using a pyrolysis centrifugal reactor (PCR). By thermal degradation of agricultural residues in the PCR, a liquid oil, char and non-condensable gases are produced. The yield of each fraction is...

  18. A Comparison of Lignin, Macroalgae, Wood and Straw Fast Pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Knudsen, Niels Ole; Sørensen, Hanne Risbjerg; Hvilsted, Søren

    2013-01-01

    of the bio-oils were characterized with respect to higher heating value (HHV), molecular mass distribution, viscosity, pH, density, thermal behaviors, elemental concentrations, phase separation and aging. The lignin and macroalgae oil properties were different compared to those of the wood and straw......A fast pyrolysis study on lignin and macroalgae (non-conventional biomass) and wood and straw (conventional biomass) were carried out in a pyrolysis centrifugal reactor at pyrolysis temperature of 550 ºC. The product distributions and energy recoveries were measured and compared among these...... oils with respect to carbon and oxygen contents, HHV, thermal behaviors and mean molecular weight. The HHV of wood, straw, lignin and algae oils were 24.0, 23.7, 29.7 and 25.7 MJ/kg db, respectively. The distributions of metals, Cl and S in char and bio-oil were investigated for the biomasses. Almost...

  19. Pyrolysis of microalgal biomass in carbon dioxide environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seong-Heon; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jeon, Young Jae; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2015-10-01

    This work mechanistically investigated the influence of CO2 in the thermo-chemical process of microalgal biomass (Chlorella vulgaris and Microcystis aeruginosa) to achieve a fast virtuous cycle of carbon via recovering energy. This work experimentally justified that the influence of CO2 in pyrolysis of microalgal biomass could be initiated at temperatures higher than 530 C, which directly led to the enhanced generation of syngas. For example, the concentration of CO from pyrolysis of M. aeruginosa increased up to ? 3000% at 670 C in the presence of CO2. The identified universal influence of CO2 could be summarized by the expedited thermal cracking of VOCs evolved from microalgal biomass and by the unknown reaction between VOCs and CO2. This identified effectiveness of CO2 was different from the Boudouard reaction, which was independently occurred with dehydrogenation. Thus, microalgal biomass could be a candidate for the thermo-chemical process (pyrolysis and gasification). PMID:26133476

  20. Pyrolysis of a waste from the grinding of scrap tyres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernndez, A M; Barriocanal, C; Alvarez, R

    2012-02-15

    The fibres that are used to reinforce tyres can be recovered as a waste in the process of grinding of scrap tyres. In this paper beneficiation through pyrolysis is studied since the fibres are made up of polymers with a small amount of rubber because the latter is difficult to separate. The experiments were performed at three temperatures (400, 550 and 900C) in a horizontal oven. The three products - gas, oil and char - obtained from the pyrolysis were investigated. The composition of the gas was analyzed by means of gas chromatography. The oil was studied by gas chromatography and infrared spectroscopy. The char porous structure was determined by N(2) adsorption. In addition, the topography of the chars was studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The products resulting from the pyrolysis of the fibres were compared with those obtained from scrap rubber. PMID:22204837

  1. Specialists' workshop on fast pyrolysis of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This workshop brought together most of those who are currently working in or have published significant findings in the area of fast pyrolysis of biomass or biomass-derived materials, with the goal of attaining a better understanding of the dominant mechanisms which produce olefins, oxygenated liquids, char, and tars. In addition, background papers were given in hydrocarbon pyrolysis, slow pyrolysis of biomass, and techniques for powdered-feedstock preparation in order that the other papers did not need to introduce in depth these concepts in their presentations for continuity. In general, the authors were requested to present summaries of experimental data with as much interpretation of that data as possible with regard to mechanisms and process variables such as heat flux, temperatures, partial pressure, feedstock, particle size, heating rates, residence time, etc. Separate abstracts have been prepared of each presentation for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  2. Experimental investigation of flash pyrolysis oil droplet combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Norazana; Jensen, Peter A.; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Hamid, Mohd.K.A.; Kasmani, Rafiziana M.; Ali, Roshafima R.; Hasbullah, Hasrinah

    2013-01-01

    at a temperature ranging between 1000 and 1400°C with an initial gas velocity of 1.6 m/s and oxygen concentration of 3%. The evolution of combustion of bio-oil droplets was recorded by a digital video camera. It was observed that the combustion behaviour of pyrolysis oil droplet differ from the heavy......The aim of this work is to investigate and compare the combustion behaviour of a single droplet of pyrolysis oil derived from wheat straw and heavy fossil oil in a single droplet combustion chamber. The initial oil droplet diameters were in between 500 μm to 2500 μm. The experiments were performed...... oil in terms both of ignition, devolatilisation and char oxidation. The pyrolysis oil is more difficult to ignite and has a shorter devolatilisation time and a longer char oxidation time. Copyright © 2013, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l....

  3. Can nitrogen cycle feedbacks lead to runaway denitrification and deoxygenation of the ocean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, T. S.; Deutsch, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Over millennial timescales, the oceanic reservoir of fixed nitrogen (N) is regulated by a balance between N loss in sediments and low oxygen (O2) waters, and N2-fixation by diazotrophic phytoplankton. The two processes are coupled by selection for diazotrophs under N-limited conditions that arise from denitrification, although the spatial scale of this coupling is debated. A strong local coupling has been argued against because the export of newly fixed N would boost nearby denitrification rates, stimulating further N2-fixation in overlying water, resulting in runaway N loss and deoxygenation of the ocean. Using a global ocean circulation model with a prognostic ecosystem and biogeochemical cycles, we show that no such runaway feedback arises. Even when the majority of N2-fixation occurs directly above suboxic zones, N sources and sinks quickly reach a stable equilibrium without widespread N depletion. Taking a systems dynamics approach, we derive a "feedback factor" (f) for the interaction of N inputs and losses, which depends on the stoichiometry of diazotroph biomass, ventilation of the tropical thermocline, and upwelling rate of denitrified waters. Under modern conditions of ocean circulation and O2 solubility, f is much lower than 1 - the value that separates stable and runaway amplification of a system response - and the oceanic N reservoir is remarkably insensitive to spatial proximity of N sources and sinks, as might accompany the alleviation of diazotroph Fe-limitation. Based on these parameters, we identify climatic conditions that might push the system into a runaway feedback regime, allowing for periods of catastrophic N loss and deoxygenation during Earth's history.

  4. Chemistry of hydrogen gas preparation by pyrolysis for the measurement of isotope ratios in hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conventional oxidation/reduction preparation method for the determination of hydrogen isotope ratios in hydrocarbons suffers from being very time-consuming. A fast method in which the organic hydrogen is directly converted to hydrogen gas is highly desirable. This report discusses the chemistry involved in adapting high-temperature pyrolysis reactions for the direct conversion of organic hydrogen to hydrogen gas for isotope analysis. The report shows that high-temperature pyrolysis can be adapted to hydrogen isotope determinations provided that the organic matter contains only carbon and hydrogen atoms and that the pyrolysis technique is highly standardized

  5. Fast pyrolysis of rice straw, sugarcane bagasse and coconut shell in an induction-heating reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, W.T.; Chang, Y.M. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717 (Taiwan); Lee, M.K. [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717 (Taiwan)

    2006-06-01

    With the application of induction heating, a fast pyrolysis was used for producing valuable products from rice straw, sugarcane bagasse and coconut shell in an externally heated fixed-bed reactor. The effect of process parameters such as pyrolysis temperature, heating rate and holding time on the yields of pyrolysis products and their chemical compositions were investigated. The maximum yield of ca. 50% on the pyrolysis liquid product could be obtained at the proper process conditions. The chemical characterization by elemental (CHNO), calorific, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that the pyrolysis liquid products contain large amounts of water (>65wt.%), and fewer contents of oxygenated hydrocarbons composing of carbonyl groups, resulting in low pH and low heating values. The results were very similar to bio-oils obtained from other biomass materials. The residual solid (char or charcoal) was also characterized in the present study. (author)

  6. STEPWISE ISOTHERMAL FAST PYROLYSIS (SIFP. PART II. SIFP OF PEANUT SHELLS - ANTIFUNGAL PROPERTIES OF PHENOLIC FRACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Daniel Pérez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis of peanut shells was carried out using stepwise isothermal fast pyrolysis (SIFP. SIFP consists of successive isothermal fast pyrolysis reactions, where solid products obtained in the previous isothermal fast pyrolysis become the substrate of the subsequent reaction at a higher temperature. This article reports results obtained from SIFP of peanut shells between 200 and 300°C using 100°C intervals under vacuum (0.2 mm. The maximum yield of liquid products was obtained at 300°C, giving around 30% of bio-oil, which contained mainly phenols and furan derivatives. On the other hand, since previous papers have reported fungicidal activity of phenols derivatives from lingo-cellulosic biomass pyrolysis, we carried out antifungal activity tests of bio oil obtained from peanut shells SIFT at 300 °C. Results seem promising, at least on Sclerotium rolfsii.

  7. Effect of annealing temperature on the structural–microstructural and electrical characteristics of thallium bearing HTSC films prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K K Verma; R S Tiwari; O N Srivastava

    2005-04-01

    In order to get good quality reproducible films of Tl : HTSC system, we have studied the different annealing conditions to finally achieve the optimized annealing condition. In the present investigation, Tl–Ca–Ba–Cu–O superconducting films have been prepared on YSZ (100) and MgO (100) single crystal substrates via precursor route followed by thallination. The post deposition heat treatments of the precursor films were carried out for various annealing temperatures (870°C, 890°C) and durations (1 and 2 min). The optimized thallination procedure occurred at 870°C for 2 min into good quality films with c ( = 0) ∼ 103 K for YSZ and c ( = 0) ∼ 98 K for MgO substrates, respectively. Further we have correlated the structural/microstructural characteristics of the films.

  8. Development of advanced technologies for biomass pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ran

    The utilization of biomass resources as a renewable energy resource is of great importance in responding to concerns over the protection of the environment and the security of energy supply. This PhD research focuses on the investigation of the conversion of negative value biomass residues into value-added fuels through flash pyrolysis. Pyrolysis Process Study. A pilot plant bubbling fluidized bed pyrolyzer has been set up and extensively used to thermally crack various low or negative value agricultural, food and biofuel processing residues to investigate the yields and quality of the liquid [bio-oil] and solid (bio-char] products. Another novel aspect of this study is the establishment of an energy balance from which the thermal self-sustainability of the pyrolysis process can be assessed. Residues such as grape skins and mixture of grape skins and seeds, dried distiller's grains from bio-ethanol plants, sugarcane field residues (internal bagasse, external and whole plant) have been tested. The pyrolysis of each residue has been carried out at temperatures ranging from 300 to 600°C and at different vapor residence times, to determine its pyrolysis behavior including yields and the overall energy balance. The thermal sustainability of the pyrolysis process has been estimated by considering the energy contribution of the product gases and liquid bio-oll in relation to the pyrolysis heat requirements. The optimum pyrolysis conditions have been identified in terms of maximizing the liquid blo-oil yield, energy density and content of the product blo-oil, after ensuring a self-sustainable process by utilizing the product gases and part of char or bio-oil as heat sources. Adownflow pyrolyzer has also been set up. Preliminary tests have been conducted using much shorter residence times. Bio-oil Recovery. Bio-oil recovery from the pyrolysis unit includes condensation followed by demisting. A blo-oil cyclonic condensing system is designed A nearly tangential entry forces the entering vapors and gases to spin, providing good heat transfer and driving the condensed droplets to the wall through cyclonic action. This condenser design has been successfully demonstrated for the application on the pilot fluidized bed pyrolysis unit. After condensation, a stable aerosol is also typically formed which is difficult to be efficiently captured with conventional technologies. A pilot scale helicoidal rotary demister, a novel technology for removing persistent fine bio-oil droplets from gases using dynamic centrifugal forces, has been developed. The demister uses a helicoidal element, which consists of a metal sheet wound as a spiral, designed to rotate at high speeds within a cyclone body. Larger droplets are separated as they enter the cyclone housing, while the smaller droplets are carried by the gas into the helicoidal path of the rotating element, where they are centrifuged towards the outer collecting walls and, as a result of a specially designed baffle, may flow counter-currently to the gas and are drained out from the bottom of the rotating element. The mist-free gas leaves through a channel located at the center of the spiral. This unique demister design has demonstrated a high separation efficiency when tested offline with artificial submicron mist and tested online for demisting bio-oil aerosol on the pyrolysis unit. Bio-oil Upgrading: Very often, phase separation of bio-oil occurs naturally upon condensation of the bio-oil vapors, typically through the use of cyclonic condensers. The bio-oil is separated into an organic phase and an aqueous phase. Research has been conducted on the possibility to enhance the fuel properties and energy performance of the organic phase by reducing its water content, enhancing its heating value and improving its stability. Through the use of drying agents, a remarkable reduction of water content and an increase of heating value can be achieved. Moreover, the volumetric energy density can be greatly enhanced. Besides, the energy yield of the process has also been investigated. (Abstract shortened by

  9. Fast pyrolysis of sugarcane and cassava residues in a free-fall reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast pyrolysis of agricultural residues from sugarcane and cassava plantations was carried out in a laboratory-scale free-fall reactor unit. The objectives of this work were to investigate the effects of biomass types and pyroysis conditions, such as reactor temperature, condensation temperature, nitrogen flow rate and run duration, on pyrolysis product distribution, as well as to study the basic properties of the products. The results showed that all of the parameters affected the product distribution. The optimum reactor temperatures for maximising bio-oil yield were in the range of 350450 C. About 70 wt% of bio-oil yield could be obtained by pyrolysis of cassava stalk at a reactor temperature of 450 C and a primary condensation temperature of 10 C. It was also found that the minimum flow rate of nitrogen for obtaining high bio-oil yield was 1.5 l/min. The product characterisation showed that the bio-oil and char produced from the agricultural residues with the free-fall reactor unit were to a certain extent similar to those produced from different types of biomass with different types of pyrolysis reactor configurations. -- Highlights: ? Fast pyrolysis of sugarcane and cassava agricultural residues was carried out in a laboratory-scale free-fall reactor unit. ? The effects of process parameters on product yields were investigated. ? The process parameters included reactor temperature, condensation temperature, nitrogen flow rate and run duration. Basic properties of pyrolysis products were examined.

  10. Development of a high-performance, coal-fired power generating system with a pyrolysis gas and char-fired high-temperature furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high-performance power system (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined-cycle plant that will have an efficiency of at least 47 percent, based on the higher heating value of the fuel. The original emissions goal of the project was for NOx and SOx to each be below 0.15 lb/MMBtu. In the Phase 2 RFP this emissions goal was reduced to 0.06 lb/MMBtu. The ultimate goal of HIPPS is to have an all-coal-fueled system, but initial versions of the system are allowed up to 35 percent heat input from natural gas. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation is currently leading a team effort with AlliedSignal, Bechtel, Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Research-Cottrell, TRW and Westinghouse. Previous work on the project was also done by General Electric. The HIPPS plant will use a high-Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) to achieve combined-cycle operation with coal as the primary fuel. The HITAF is an atmospheric-pressure, pulverized-fuel-fired boiler/air heater. The HITAF is used to heat air for the gas turbine and also to transfer heat to the steam cycle. its design and functions are very similar to conventional PC boilers. Some important differences, however, arise from the requirements of the combined cycle operation

  11. Development of a high-performance, coal-fired power generating system with a pyrolysis gas and char-fired high-temperature furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenker, J.

    1995-11-01

    A high-performance power system (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined-cycle plant that will have an efficiency of at least 47 percent, based on the higher heating value of the fuel. The original emissions goal of the project was for NOx and SOx to each be below 0.15 lb/MMBtu. In the Phase 2 RFP this emissions goal was reduced to 0.06 lb/MMBtu. The ultimate goal of HIPPS is to have an all-coal-fueled system, but initial versions of the system are allowed up to 35 percent heat input from natural gas. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation is currently leading a team effort with AlliedSignal, Bechtel, Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Research-Cottrell, TRW and Westinghouse. Previous work on the project was also done by General Electric. The HIPPS plant will use a high-Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) to achieve combined-cycle operation with coal as the primary fuel. The HITAF is an atmospheric-pressure, pulverized-fuel-fired boiler/air heater. The HITAF is used to heat air for the gas turbine and also to transfer heat to the steam cycle. its design and functions are very similar to conventional PC boilers. Some important differences, however, arise from the requirements of the combined cycle operation.

  12. Co-pyrolysis of coal with organic solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straka, P.; Buchtele, J. [Inst. of Rock Structure and Mechanics, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    The co-pyrolysis of high volatile A bituminous coal with solid organic materials (proteins, cellulose, polyisoprene, polystyrene, polyethylene-glycolterephtalate-PEGT) at a high temperature conditions was investigated. Aim of the work was to evaluate, firstly, the changes of the texture and of the porous system of solid phase after high temperature treatment in presence of different types of macromolecular solids, secondly, properties and composition of the tar and gas. Considered organic solids are important waste components. During their co-pyrolysis the high volatile bituminous coal acts as a hydrogen donor in the temperature rank 220-480{degrees}C. In the rank 500- 1000{degrees}C the solid phase is formed. The co-pyrolysis was carried out at heating rate 3 K/min. It was found that an amount of organic solid (5-10%) affects important changes in the optical texture forms of solid phase, in the pore distribution and in the internal surface area. Transport large pores volume decreases in presence of PEGT, polystyrene and cellulose and increases in presence of proteins and polyisoprene. (image analysis measurements show that the tendency of coal to create coarse pores during co-pyrolysis is very strong and increases with increasing amount of organic solid in blend). An addition of considered materials changes the sorption ability (methylene blue test, iodine adsorption test), moreover, the reactivity of the solid phase.

  13. Flash pyrolysis fuel oil: bio-pok

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gust, S. [Neste Oy, Porvoo (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Samples of flash pyrolysis liquid produced by Union Fenosa, Spain from pine and straw and samples produced by Ensyn of Canada from mixed hardwoods were combusted with simple pressure atomization equipment commonly used with light fuel oils in intermediate size (0.1-1 MW) boilers. With a number of modifications to the combustion system, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) could be reduced to acceptable levels: CO < 30 ppm and NO{sub x} < 140 ppm. Particulate emissions which were initially very high (Bacharach 4-5) were reduced (Bach. 2-3) by system improvements but are still higher than from light fuel oil (Bach. <1). The modifications to the combustion system were: refractory section between burner and boiler, acid resistant progressive cavity pump, higher liquid preheat temperature and higher pressure than for light fuel oils. The main problems with pyrolysis liquids concerns their instability or reactivity. At temperatures above 100 deg C they begin to coke, their viscosity increases during storage and oxygen from air causes skin formation. This requires that special handling procedures are developed for fuel storage, delivery and combustion systems. (orig.)

  14. Silane Neutral Chemistry in Discharges and Pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Robert Mccormick

    Photovoltaic devices made with amorphous silicon thin films are emerging as an important energy technology. Progress on making efficient devices and understanding the material properties has resulted from research done in the last ten years, while the understanding of the deposition process has seen less progress until recently. Results on two deposition processes are reported here: for dc discharges where electrical energy is used to initiate the chemical reactions that cause deposition, and for pyrolysis where thermal energy is utilized. The dc discharges in low pressures of silane or silane-inert gas mixtures were studied by mass spectrometer observations of stable and radical gas species at varying discharge conditions. A threshold ionization technique was used that allowed the radicals to be observed with high sensitivity. All of the monosilicon radicals SiH(,n) (n pyrolysis of silane was studied first through pressure change rates in a static-gas vessel at pressures and temperatures typically used to make amorphous silicon films. Two mass spectrometer experiments (a flowing-gas oven and a filament experiment) were then done under conditions of low pressure and higher temperatures to verify the results from the static vessel. The dominant initial reaction under our conditions was measured and shown to be due to a surface reaction. A model for the surface reaction is proposed in which the rate limiting step is the associative desorption of two hydrogen atoms, leaving behind two reactive surface sites that quickly react with silane. (Abstract shortened with permission of author.).

  15. Fast pyrolysis of oil palm shell (OPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nurhayati; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Aliasak, Zalila

    2015-04-01

    Biomass is an important renewable source of energy. Residues that are obtained from harvesting and agricultural products can be utilised as fuel for energy generation by conducting any thermal energy conversion technology. The conversion of biomass to bio oil is one of the prospective alternative energy resources. Therefore, in this study fast pyrolysis of oil palm shell was conducted. The main objective of this study was to find the optimum condition for high yield bio-oil production. The experiment was conducted using fixed-bed fluidizing pyrolysis system. The biomass sample was pyrolysed at variation temperature of 450°C - 650°C and at variation residence time of 0.9s - 1.35s. The results obtained were further discussed in this paper. The basic characteristic of the biomass sample was also presented here. The experiment shows that the optimum bio-oil yield was obtained at temperature of 500°C at residence time 1.15s.

  16. Valorization of raspberry seed cake by flash and slow pyrolysis: Product yield and characterization of the liquid and solid fraction

    OpenAIRE

    Smets, Koen; SCHREURS, Sonja; Carleer, Robert; Yperman, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The valorization of raspberry seed cake by flash and slow pyrolysis is investigated in this study. During flash pyrolysis, temperature significantly affects the yield and properties of the products. The highest liquid yield (53.6 wt%) is found at 450 degrees C. This liquid has a water content (26.2 wt%), a HHV (18.6 MJ/kg) and a pH-value (3.2) that are comparable to those of pyrolysis liquids produced by flash pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. In terms of added-value chemicals, levoglucos...

  17. Bio-Fuel Production Assisted with High Temperature Steam Electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Hawkes; James O' Brien; Michael McKellar

    2012-06-01

    Two hybrid energy processes that enable production of synthetic liquid fuels that are compatible with the existing conventional liquid transportation fuels infrastructure are presented. Using biomass as a renewable carbon source, and supplemental hydrogen from high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), these two hybrid energy processes have the potential to provide a significant alternative petroleum source that could reduce dependence on imported oil. The first process discusses a hydropyrolysis unit with hydrogen addition from HTSE. Non-food biomass is pyrolyzed and converted to pyrolysis oil. The pyrolysis oil is upgraded with hydrogen addition from HTSE. This addition of hydrogen deoxygenates the pyrolysis oil and increases the pH to a tolerable level for transportation. The final product is synthetic crude that could then be transported to a refinery and input into the already used transportation fuel infrastructure. The second process discusses a process named Bio-Syntrolysis. The Bio-Syntrolysis process combines hydrogen from HTSE with CO from an oxygen-blown biomass gasifier that yields syngas to be used as a feedstock for synthesis of liquid synthetic crude. Conversion of syngas to liquid synthetic crude, using a biomass-based carbon source, expands the application of renewable energy beyond the grid to include transportation fuels. It can also contribute to grid stability associated with non-dispatchable power generation. The use of supplemental hydrogen from HTSE enables greater than 90% utilization of the biomass carbon content which is about 2.5 times higher than carbon utilization associated with traditional cellulosic ethanol production. If the electrical power source needed for HTSE is based on nuclear or renewable energy, the process is carbon neutral. INL has demonstrated improved biomass processing prior to gasification. Recyclable biomass in the form of crop residue or energy crops would serve as the feedstock for this process. A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-blown biomass gasifier.

  18. Pyrolysis oil from carbonaceous solid wastes in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The agro-industrial sector of Malaysia produces a huge amount of oil palm and paddy rice. These generate a significant amount of renewable biomass solid wastes in the forms of oil palm shell and rice husk. Apart from this a huge quantity of scrap tyre is generated from the country's faster increasing usage of transportation vehicles like motorcycle, car, bus and lorries. These wastes are producing pollution and disposal problems affecting the environment. Besides energy is not recovered efficiently from these waste resources. From the elemental composition and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) studies of the wastes, it appeared that the wastes could be used for pyrolysis liquid oil production. Pyrolysis at present is deemed to be a potential method for the conversion of carbonaceous solid wastes into upgraded liquid products which can either be tried for liquid fuel or value-added chemical. A fluidized bed bench scale fast pyrolysis system was employed for this thermochemical conversion process of solid wastes. Silica sand was used as fluidized bed material and nitrogen gas as the fluidising medium. The products obtained were liquid oil, solid char and gas. The liquid oil and solid char were collected separately while the gas was flared. The maximum liquid product yield was found to vary with feedstock material fluidized bed temperature. The maximum liquid product yield was found to be 58, 53 and 40 wt. % of biomass fed at fluidized bed temperature at 500, 525 and 4500C respectively for oil palm shell, scrap tyre and rice husk. The solid char yield was 25, 36 and 53 wt. % of biomass fed at the condition of maximum liquid product yield for oil palm shell, scrap tyre and rice husk respectively. The oil products were subjected to FTIR, GC and GC/MS analysis for their group composition and detailed chemical compositions. The pyrolysis oil from scrap tyre was found to contain highest percentage of pure hydrocarbons (25 wt. % of total feed) with esters and oxygenated hydrocarbons containing silicone. The phenols were found to be maximum in case of oil palm shell pyrolysis oil (35 wt. % of total feed) with organic acids, alcohol, ketones and hydrocarbons. The pyrolysis oil from rice husk contained a maximum. percentage of ketones (28 wt. % of total feed) with acids, aldehydes, alcohol, phenols and hydrocarbons. Thus, the compounds were found to be prospectful for fuel and chemicals. The physical properties of the pyrolysis oils were presented and compared with typical wood pyrolysis oil. (Author)

  19. Optimization of fuel recovery through the stepwise co-pyrolysis of palm shell and scrap tire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The co-pyrolysis of palm shell and scrap tire was studied. • The effect of stepwise co-pyrolysis temperature was investigated. • Co-pyrolysis successfully improved the quantity and quality of product yields. • Stepwise co-pyrolysis slightly increased oil and gas, and decreased char. • The co-pyrolysis of 50% biomass and 50% scrap tire is recommended. - Abstract: This study optimized the use of biomass waste to generate fuel through co-pyrolysis. In this paper, the effects of stepwise co-pyrolysis temperature and different ratios between palm shells and scrap tires in feedstock were studied to observe any improvements in the quantity and quality of the liquid yield and its byproduct. The ratio of palm shells and scrap tires varied at 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100. The experiment was conducted in a fixed-bed reactor. The study was divided into two scenarios. The first scenario was performed at the optimum temperature of 500 °C with a reaction time of 60 min. In the second scenario, the temperature was set at 500 °C for 60 min before the temperature was increased to 800 °C with a high heating rate. After the temperature reached 800 °C, the condition was maintained for approximately 45 min. Results showed that an increase in the liquid and gas yields was achieved when the temperature increased after optimum conditions. Increased yield was also obtained when the proportion of scrap tire was increased in the feedstock. Several other important findings are discussed in this paper, including the phases of pyrolysis oil, features of the liquid product, and characteristics of the byproducts. All products from both scenarios were analyzed by various methods to understand their fuel characteristics

  20. Bio-oil from flash pyrolysis of agricultural residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, N.B.

    2012-08-15

    This thesis describes the production of bio-oils from flash pyrolysis of agricultural residues, using a pyrolysis centrifugal reactor (PCR). It has been the objective of the present work to investigate the influence of changed operation conditions on the yield of bio-oil, char and gas; as well as to investigate the composition and storage properties of some of the produced bio-oils. Mainly the influence of feedstock type (wheat straw, rice husk and pine wood), feedstock water content and reactor temperature on the yield of char, bio-oil and gas were investigated. The storage stability of bio-oils with respect to changes in viscosity, water content and pH were investigated for straw and pine wood oil at different temperature and residence times. Temperature plays a major role in the pyrolysis process and it determines to a high degree the fate of the final product yields and also product composition. Higher temperature favors the formation of pyrolysis gas while lower temperatures increase the yield of char. Liquid oil, however increases with temperature up to certain point and thereafter it decreases at still higher temperature due to secondary cracking of the primary products. The presence of moisture in the feed stock may also influences the pyrolysis process. The influence of reaction temperature and the moisture content on the flash pyrolysis product yield has been reported in Paper I (Chapter 2). It was observed that the presence of moisture in the wheat straw with different moisture levels of 1.5 wt. %, 6.2 wt. % and 15.0 wt. % have shown no significant effect on the pyrolysis product distribution. The fraction of bio-oil, char and gases produced from pyrolysis of straw were in the range of 40-60 wt. %, 18-50 wt. % and 5-22 wt. %, respectively, regardless of the straw moisture levels. The optimal reaction temperature for the production of bio-oil was around 525 deg. C to 550 deg. C for all straw moisture contents. It was investigated how differences in biomass composition influence pyrolysis products yields and the composition of char and bio-oils. Details about this investigation are explained in Paper II (Chapter 3). The used pine wood had a low ash content (0.5 wt. %), the wheat straw an intermediate ash level (6.0 wt. %) and the rice husk a high ash level (13.6 wt. %). The highest alkali content, potassium (1.53 wt. %) are present in straw and the lowest potassium content level is observed in pine wood (0.04 wt. %). The feedstocks were pyrolyzed at reactor temperatures ranging from 475 to 575 deg. C. It was observed that the formation of char and gas is affected by the biomass alkali content. Increasing biomass alkali content caused an increased feedstock conversion at low temperature, a lower maximum liquid organic yield temperature and a lower maximum liquid organics yield. In addition, the chemical compositions of the bio-oils and the chars of the investigated feedstocks were also analyzed. The utilization of the pyrolysis oil in static combustion equipments such as boilers and turbine have shown that the suitability of the pyrolysis oil to substitute fossil fuel. However, several limitations still arise due to the instability of the pyrolysis oil that may cause problems with transport and storage. Pyrolysis oil contains more than hundred of chemical compounds and has a wide range of volatility (different boiling points). The stability and aging of bio-oils generated by bench scale pyrolysis of wheat straw and pine wood are discussed in Paper III (Chapter 4). It was found that the bio-oil from wheat straw shows better stability compared to the bio-oil from pine wood. In addition, both bio-oils are fairly stable stored in a closed container at room temperature for up to 130 days, with no phase separation and only small changes in physical properties were observed. The combustion behavior of pyrolysis oils derived from wheat straw and pine wood are investigated and discussed in Paper IV (Chapter 5). The investigation is done in two parts. In the first part, the technique of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was

  1. Kinetics of gas-phase pyrolysis of ethyl-substituted bis-arene compounds of molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinetics is studied of gas-phase pyrolysis of molybdenum individual ?-complexes: bis-diethylbenzenemolybdenum and ethylbenzenediethylbenzenemolybdenum. Pyrolysis has been studied by the manometric method under static conditions. The pyrolysis of molybdenum ?-complexes is described by the kinetic equation of the first order reaction in the temperature range of 340-400 deg and in the pressure range of 74-178 mm Hg. Homogeneous-heterogeneous type of the process is shown. The increase of a number of ethyl substituents in a ligand benzene ring lightly influence the thermostability of these compounds. The regularities of molybdenum filming by the pyrolysis of molybdenum ?-complex mixture are studied. The optimum regime of filming is found: the temperature equals 400 deg; the evaporator temperature equals 100 deg. The merits of these films in comparison with the molybdenum ones obtained during the vacuum spraying are shown

  2. Influence of Pyrolysis Parameters on the Performance of CMSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta C. Campo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon hollow fiber membranes have been prepared by pyrolysis of a P84/S-PEEK blend. Proximate analysis of the precursor was performed using thermogravimetry (TGA, and a carbon yield of approximately 40% can be obtained. This study aimed at understanding the influence of pyrolysis parameters—end temperature, quenching effect, and soaking time—on the membrane properties. Permeation experiments were performed with N2, He, and CO2. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM has been done for all carbon hollow fibers. The highest permeances were obtained for the membrane submitted to an end temperature of 750°C and the highest ideal selectivities for an end temperature of 700°C. In both cases, the membranes were quenched to room temperature.

  3. Pyrolysis of polyolefins for increasing the yield of monomers' recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaj, Pawel J; Kaminsky, W; Buzeto, F; Yang, W

    2012-05-01

    Pyrolysis of plastic waste is an alternative way of plastic recovery and could be a potential solution for the increasing stream of solid waste. The objective of this work was to increase the yield the gaseous olefins (monomers) as feedstock for polymerization process and to test the applicability of a commercial Ziegler-Natta (Z-N): TiCl(4)/MgCl(2) for cracking a mixture of polyolefins consisted of 46%wt. of low density polyethylene (LDPE), 30%wt. of high density polyethylene (HDPE) and 24%wt. of polypropylene (PP). Two sets of experiments have been carried out at 500 and 650°C via catalytic pyrolysis (1% of Z-N catalyst) and at 650 and 730°C via only-thermal pyrolysis. These experiments have been conducted in a lab-scale, fluidized quartz-bed reactor of a capacity of 1-3kg/h at Hamburg University. The results revealed a strong influence of temperature and presence of catalyst on the product distribution. The ratios of gas/liquid/solid mass fractions via thermal pyrolysis were: 36.9/48.4/15.7%wt. and 42.4/44.7/13.9%wt. at 650 and 730°C while via catalytic pyrolysis were: 6.5/89.0/4.5%wt. and 54.3/41.9/3.8%wt. at 500 and 650°C, respectively. At 650°C the monomer generation increased by 55% up to 23.6%wt. of total pyrolysis products distribution while the catalyst was added. Obtained yields of olefins were compared with the naphtha steam cracking process and other potentially attractive processes for feedstock generation. The concept of closed cycle material flow for polyolefins has been discussed, showing the potential benefits of feedstock recycling in a plastic waste management. PMID:22093704

  4. Chemistry of decomposition of freshwater wetland sedimentary organic material during ramped pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E. K.; Rosenheim, B. E.

    2011-12-01

    Ramped pyrolysis methodology, such as that used in the programmed-temperature pyrolysis/combustion system (PTP/CS), improves radiocarbon analysis of geologic materials devoid of authigenic carbonate compounds and with low concentrations of extractable authochthonous organic molecules. The approach has improved sediment chronology in organic-rich sediments proximal to Antarctic ice shelves (Rosenheim et al., 2008) and constrained the carbon sequestration potential of suspended sediments in the lower Mississippi River (Roe et al., in review). Although ramped pyrolysis allows for separation of sedimentary organic material based upon relative reactivity, chemical information (i.e. chemical composition of pyrolysis products) is lost during the in-line combustion of pyrolysis products. A first order approximation of ramped pyrolysis/combustion system CO2 evolution, employing a simple Gaussian decomposition routine, has been useful (Rosenheim et al., 2008), but improvements may be possible. First, without prior compound-specific extractions, the molecular composition of sedimentary organic matter is unknown and/or unidentifiable. Second, even if determined as constituents of sedimentary organic material, many organic compounds have unknown or variable decomposition temperatures. Third, mixtures of organic compounds may result in significant chemistry within the pyrolysis reactor, prior to introduction of oxygen along the flow path. Gaussian decomposition of the reaction rate may be too simple to fully explain the combination of these factors. To relate both the radiocarbon age over different temperature intervals and the pyrolysis reaction thermograph (temperature (C) vs. CO2 evolved (?mol)) obtained from PTP/CS to chemical composition of sedimentary organic material, we present a modeling framework developed based upon the ramped pyrolysis decomposition of simple mixtures of organic compounds (i.e. cellulose, lignin, plant fatty acids, etc.) often found in sedimentary organic material to account for changes in thermograph shape. The decompositions will be compositionally verified by 13C NMR analysis of pyrolysis residues from interrupted reactions. This will allow for constraint of decomposition temperatures of individual compounds as well as chemical reactions between volatilized moieties in mixtures of these compounds. We will apply this framework with 13C NMR analysis of interrupted pyrolysis residues and radiocarbon data from PTP/CS analysis of sedimentary organic material from a freshwater marsh wetland in Barataria Bay, Louisiana. We expect to characterize the bulk chemical composition during pyrolysis and as well as diagenetic changes with depth. Most importantly, we expect to constrain the potential and the limitations of this modeling framework for application to other depositional environments.

  5. Co-pyrolysis of low rank coals and biomass: Product distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soncini, Ryan M; Means, Nicholas C; Weiland, Nathan T

    2013-10-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification of combined low rank coal and biomass feeds are the subject of much study in an effort to mitigate the production of green house gases from integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. While co-feeding has the potential to reduce the net carbon footprint of commercial gasification operations, the effects of co-feeding on kinetics and product distributions requires study to ensure the success of this strategy. Southern yellow pine was pyrolyzed in a semi-batch type drop tube reactor with either Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal or Mississippi lignite at several temperatures and feed ratios. Product gas composition of expected primary constituents (CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) was determined by in-situ mass spectrometry while minor gaseous constituents were determined using a GC-MS. Product distributions are fit to linear functions of temperature, and quadratic functions of biomass fraction, for use in computational co-pyrolysis simulations. The results are shown to yield significant nonlinearities, particularly at higher temperatures and for lower ranked coals. The co-pyrolysis product distributions evolve more tar, and less char, CH{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, than an additive pyrolysis process would suggest. For lignite co-pyrolysis, CO and H{sub 2} production are also reduced. The data suggests that evolution of hydrogen from rapid pyrolysis of biomass prevents the crosslinking of fragmented aromatic structures during coal pyrolysis to produce tar, rather than secondary char and light gases. Finally, it is shown that, for the two coal types tested, co-pyrolysis synergies are more significant as coal rank decreases, likely because the initial structure in these coals contains larger pores and smaller clusters of aromatic structures which are more readily retained as tar in rapid co-pyrolysis.

  6. Pyrolysis of a waste from the grinding of scrap tyres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? The pyrolysis of reinforcing fibres obtained from scrap tyres has been studied. ? The results have been compared to scrap tyre granules. ? A higher temperature is needed for the total decomposition of the fibres. ? More compounds with heteroatoms (O, N) were found in the oil from the fibres. ? Chars from the fibres exhibit lower BET surface and mesopore volume. - Abstract: The fibres that are used to reinforce tyres can be recovered as a waste in the process of grinding of scrap tyres. In this paper beneficiation through pyrolysis is studied since the fibres are made up of polymers with a small amount of rubber because the latter is difficult to separate. The experiments were performed at three temperatures (400, 550 and 900 C) in a horizontal oven. The three products gas, oil and char obtained from the pyrolysis were investigated. The composition of the gas was analyzed by means of gas chromatography. The oil was studied by gas chromatography and infrared spectroscopy. The char porous structure was determined by N2 adsorption. In addition, the topography of the chars was studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The products resulting from the pyrolysis of the fibres were compared with those obtained from scrap rubber.

  7. Thermal stability of thiophene biomarkers as studied by hydrous pyrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    J.S. Sinninghe Damsté; Koopmans, M P; Lewan, M. D.; de Leeuw, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    An immature (Ro = 0.25%) sulphur-rich calcareous shale from the Gessoso-solfifera Formation (Messinian) in the Vena del Gesso Basin (northern Italy) was artificially matured by hydrous pyrolysis at constant temperatures ranging from 160 to 330°C for 72 h to study the applicability of alkylthiophenes as molecular indicators during progressive diagenesis and early catagenesis. Artificial maturation at temperatures up to 330°C generated large amounts of alkylthiophenes from the thermal degradati...

  8. Catalytic oxidative pyrolysis of spent organic ion exchange resins from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spent IX resins from nuclear power reactors are highly active solid wastes generated during operations of nuclear reactors. Catalytic oxidative pyrolysis of these resins can lead to high volume reduction of these wastes. Low temperature pyrolysis of transition metal ion loaded IX resins in presence of nitrogen was carried out in order to optimize catalyst composition to achieve maximum weight reduction. Thermo gravimetric analysis of the pyrolysis residues was carried out in presence of air in order to compare the oxidative characteristics of transition metal oxide catalysts. Copper along with iron, chromium and nickel present in the spent IX resins gave the most efficient catalyst combination for catalytic and oxidative pyrolysis of the residues. During low temperature catalytic pyrolysis, 137Cesium volatility was estimated to be around 0.01% from cationic resins and around 0.1% from anionic resins. During oxidative pyrolysis at 700 degC, nearly 10 to 40% of 137Cesium was found to be released to off gases depending upon type of resin and catalyst loaded on to it. The oxidation of pyrolytic residues at 700 degC gave weight reduction of 15% for cationic resins and 93% for anionic resins. Catalytic oxidative pyrolysis is attractive for reducing weight and volume of spent cationic resins from PHWRs and VVERs. (author)

  9. Low cycle fatigue behaviors of low alloy steels in 310 .deg. C deoxygenated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After low cycle fatigue tests of SA508 Gr.1a low alloy steel in 310 .deg. C deoxygenated water, the fatigue surface and the sectioned area of specimens were observed to understand the effect of the cyclic strain rate on the environmentally assisted cracking behaviors. From the fatigue crack morphologies of the specimen tested at a strain rate of 0.008 %/s, unclear ductile striations and blunt crack tip were observed. So, metal dissolution could be the main cracking mechanism of the material at the strain rate. On the other hand, on the fatigue surface of the specimen tested at strain rates of 0.04 and 0.4 %/s, the brittle cracks and the flat facets, which are the evidence of the hydrogen induced cracking, were observed. Also, the tendency of linkage between the main crack and micro-cracks was observed on the sectioned area. Therefore, the main cracking mechanism at the strain rates of 0.04 and 0.4 %/s could be the hydrogen induced cracking. Additionally, the evidence of the dissolved MnS inclusions was observed on the fatigue surface from energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer analyses. So, despite of the low sulfur content of the test material, the sulfides seem to contribute to environmentally assisted cracking of SA508 Gr.1a low alloy steel in 310 .deg. C deoxygenated water. Additionally, our experimental fatigue life data of SA508 Gr.1a low alloy steel (heat A) showed a consistent difference with statistical model produced in argon national laboratory. So, additional low cycle fatigue tests of other heat SA508 Gr.1a (heat B) and SA508 Gr.3 low alloy steels were performed to investigate the effect of material variability on fatigue behaviors of low alloy steels in 310 .deg. C deoxygenated water. In results, the fatigue lives of three low alloy steels were increased following order: SA508 Gr.1a low alloy steel - heat A, SA508 Gr.3 low alloy steel, and SA508 Gr.1a low alloy steel - heat B. From microstructure observation, the fatigue surface of SA508 Gr.1a low alloy steel - heat A showed ductile striations in ferrite phase. Also, secondary and surface crack of SA508 Gr.1a low alloy steel - heat A grew into ferrite phase and ferrite - pearlite phase boundaries. The increase in stress intensity at the pearlite crack tip by restricted strain may contribute to fatigue crack propagation along ferrite - pearlite phase boundaries. On the other hand, the fatigue surfaces of SA508 Gr.1a - heat B and SA508 Gr.3 low alloy steels showed relatively less striations due to their homogeneous carbides. And the secondary and surface cracks of SA508 Gr.1a low alloy steel - heat B and SA508 Gr.3 low alloy steel grew into ferrite phase between carbides. The homogeneous carbides could more effectively decrease the crack growth rate. Therefore, the fatigue crack growth rate in SA508 Gr.1a low alloy steel - heat A could be higher than those in SA508 Gr.1a low alloy steel - heat B and SA508 Gr.3 low alloy steel. Also, the fatigue crack growth rate of SA508 Gr.3 low alloy steel may be shorter than that SA508 Gr.1a low alloy steel - heat B due to its low ductility and high yield strength

  10. Exploratory studies on fast pyrolysis oil upgrading

    OpenAIRE

    Mahfud, Farchad Husein

    2007-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil is a dark brown liquid which can be produced in high yield from different kind of biomass sources by means of fast pyrolysis. Pyrolysis oil is considered as a promising second generation energy carrier and may play an important role in the future of "biobased economies". The energy content of pyrolysis oil is approximately half of fossil crude. Just like for crude oil, further reprocessing is necessary to arranged pyrolysis oil as fuel in e.g. combustion engines. This thesis des...

  11. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

    2010-05-03

    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  12. Methods and apparatuses for preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandvold, Timothy A; Baird, Lance Awender; Frey, Stanley Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Methods and apparatuses for preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil are provided herein. In an embodiment, a method of preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil includes providing a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream having an original oxygen content. The biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream is hydrodeoxygenated under catalysis in the presence of hydrogen to form a hydrodeoxygenated pyrolysis oil stream comprising a cyclic paraffin component. At least a portion of the hydrodeoxygenated pyrolysis oil stream is dehydrogenated under catalysis to form the upgraded pyrolysis oil.

  13. Production, properties and utilisation of pyrolysis oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K.; Oasmaa, A.; Arpiainen, V.; Solantausta, Y.; Leppaemaeki, E.; Kuoppala, E.; Levander, J.; Kleemola, J.; Saarimaeki, P. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-01

    In this project VTT Energy co-ordinates the EU JOULE Project `Biofuel oil for power plants and boilers` supporting the development projects of Finnish enterprises, and participates in the Pyrolysis Project of IEA Bioenergy Agreement. Presently two pyrolysis devices with capacities of 150 g/h and 1 kg/h are used for the project. Hot gas filtering tests by using one ceramic candle equipment have been carried out with the 1 kg/h device for pyrolysis oil. The solids and alkali contents of the product oil were reduced clearly. Suitable conditions are being defined for continuous hot gas filtering. A PDU device of 20 kg/h is being commissioned. The main aim of the chemical characterisation of pyrolysis oil was to develop as simple a method as possible for differentiating pyrolysis oils and for finding correlations between the characteristics and behaviour of pyrolysis oils. Pyrolysis oils produced from various raw materials (hardwood, pine, straw) were analysed and compared with each other. VTT Energy participates in the pyrolysis network (EU/PYNE) of EU, the aim of which is to collect and disseminate research results of pyrolysis studies, i.e., through a journal with a wide circulation. VTT also participates in the pyrolysis activity of IEA (PYRA), the other partners being Great Britain, EU, Canada and the United States. I.e., quality criteria and improvement, occupational safety and pyrolysis kinetics are discussed in IEA/PYRA

  14. Physical deoxygenation of graphene oxide paper surface and facile in situ synthesis of graphene based ZnO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-situ sputtering ZnO films on graphene oxide (GO) paper are used to fabricate graphene based ZnO films. Crystal structure and surface chemical states are investigated. Results indicated that GO paper can be effectively deoxygenated by in-situ sputtering ZnO on them without adding any reducing agent. Based on the principle of radio frequency magnetron sputtering, we propose that during magnetron sputtering process, plasma streams contain large numbers of electrons. These electrons not only collide with argon atoms to produce secondary electrons but also they are accelerated to bombard the substrates (GO paper) resulting in effective deoxygenation of oxygen-containing functional groups. In-situ sputtering ZnO films on GO paper provide an approach to design graphene-semiconductor nanocomposites

  15. Physical deoxygenation of graphene oxide paper surface and facile in situ synthesis of graphene based ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Jijun; Wang, Minqiang, E-mail: mqwang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Zhang, Xiangyu; Ran, Chenxin [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education, School of Electronic and Information Engineering, International Centers for Dielectric Research, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Shao, Jinyou; Ding, Yucheng [State Key Laboratory of Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2014-12-08

    In-situ sputtering ZnO films on graphene oxide (GO) paper are used to fabricate graphene based ZnO films. Crystal structure and surface chemical states are investigated. Results indicated that GO paper can be effectively deoxygenated by in-situ sputtering ZnO on them without adding any reducing agent. Based on the principle of radio frequency magnetron sputtering, we propose that during magnetron sputtering process, plasma streams contain large numbers of electrons. These electrons not only collide with argon atoms to produce secondary electrons but also they are accelerated to bombard the substrates (GO paper) resulting in effective deoxygenation of oxygen-containing functional groups. In-situ sputtering ZnO films on GO paper provide an approach to design graphene-semiconductor nanocomposites.

  16. Deactivation in Continuous Deoxygenation of C18-Fatty Feedstock over Pd/Sibunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Rozmysłowicz, Bartosz; Mäki-Arvela, Päivi; Simakova, Irina L.; Eränen, Kari; Murzin, Dmitry Yu.; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    Catalytic continuous deoxygenation of stearic acid, ethyl stearate and tristearin without any solvents was investigated using Pd/Sibunit as a catalyst in a trickle bed reactor at 300 °C. The main emphasis was to investigate the effect of gas atmosphere and catalyst deactivation. In addition to...... relative ratios between stearic acid, ethyl stearate and tristearin conversions to alkanes after 3 days time-on-stream were 2.8/2.3/1.0, respectively using 5 % H2/Ar as a gas atmosphere, whereas rapid catalyst deactivation occurred with all substrates under H2-lacking atmosphere. The spent catalyst......’s specific surface area profile along the downward reactor was maximum in the middle of the catalyst beds with the highest pore shrinking in the beginning and at the end of the reactor catalyst segments in the case of stearic acid and tristearin deoxygenation whereas that decreased consecutively as ethyl...

  17. Phosphorus catalysis in the pyrolysis behaviour of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowakowski, Daniel J.; Woodbridge, Charles R.; Jones, Jenny M. [Energy and Resources Research Institute, School of Process, Environmental and Materials Engineering (SPEME), University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2008-11-15

    Phosphorus is a key plant nutrient and as such, is incorporated into growing biomass in small amounts. This paper examines the influence of phosphorus, present in either acid (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}) or salt ((NH{sub 4}){sub 3}PO{sub 4}) form, on the pyrolysis behaviour of both Miscanthus x giganteus, and its cell wall components, cellulose, hemicellulose (xylan) and lignin (Organosolv). Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PY-GC-MS) is used to examine the pyrolysis products during thermal degradation, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) is used to examine the distribution of char and volatiles. Phosphorus salts are seen to catalyse the pyrolysis and modify the yields of products, resulting in a large increase in char yield for all samples, but particularly for cellulose and Miscanthus. The thermal degradation processes of cellulose, xylan and Miscanthus samples occur in one step and the main pyrolysis step is shifted to lower temperature in the presence of phosphorus. A small impact of phosphorus was observed in the case of lignin char yields and the types of pyrolysis decomposition products produced. Levoglucosan is a major component produced in fast pyrolysis of cellulose. Furfural and levoglucosenone become more dominant products upon P-impregnation pointing to new rearrangement and dehydration routes. The P-catalysed xylan decomposition route leads to a much simpler mixture of products, which are dominated by furfural, 3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one and one other unconfirmed product, possibly 3,4-dihydro-2-methoxy-2H-pyran or 4-hydroxy-5,6-dihydro-(2H)-pyran-2-one. Phosphorus-catalysed lignin decomposition also leads to a modified mixture of tar components and desaspidinol as well as other higher molecular weight component become more dominant relative to the methoxyphenyl phenols, dimethoxy phenols and triethoxy benzene. Comparison of the results for Miscanthus lead to the conclusion that the understanding of the fast pyrolysis of biomass can, for the most part, be gained through the study of the individual cell wall components, provided consideration is given to the presence of catalytic components such as phosphorus. (author)

  18. Catalytic pyrolysis of olive mill wastewater sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellaoui, Hamza

    From 2008 to 2013, an average of 2,821.4 kilotons/year of olive oil were produced around the world. The waste product of the olive mill industry consists of solid residue (pomace) and wastewater (OMW). Annually, around 30 million m3 of OMW are produced in the Mediterranean area, 700,000 m3 year?1 in Tunisia alone. OMW is an aqueous effluent characterized by an offensive smell and high organic matter content, including high molecular weight phenolic compounds and long-chain fatty acids. These compounds are highly toxic to micro-organisms and plants, which makes the OMW a serious threat to the environment if not managed properly. The OMW is disposed of in open air evaporation ponds. After evaporation of most of the water, OMWS is left in the bottom of the ponds. In this thesis, the effort has been made to evaluate the catalytic pyrolysis process as a technology to valorize the OMWS. The first section of this research showed that 41.12 wt. % of the OMWS is mostly lipids, which are a good source of energy. The second section proved that catalytic pyrolysis of the OMWS over red mud and HZSM-5 can produce green diesel, and 450 °C is the optimal reaction temperature to maximize the organic yields. The last section revealed that the HSF was behind the good fuel-like properties of the OMWS catalytic oils, whereas the SR hindered the bio-oil yields and quality.

  19. Spray pyrolysis of CZTS nanoplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exarhos, S; Bozhilov, K N; Mangolini, L

    2014-10-01

    We demonstrate that copper-zinc-tin-sulphide nanoplatelets can be directly grown onto a molybdenum-coated substrate using spray pyrolysis starting from a mixture of metal thiocarbamates precursors. The structure and phase purity of the nanoplatelets is discussed in detail. PMID:25119262

  20. Features of carborane-4 pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A phenomenological mathematical model, describing experiments on carborane disappearance and formation of condensate at 900-1700 K, was suggested. The concept of pyrolysis as interaction of electron-deficient carborane isomers and its derivatives was substantiated. The structure of electron-deficient isomer of carborane-4 was ascertained

  1. Making Activated Carbon by Wet Pressurized Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John W.; Pisharody, Suresh; Wignarajah, K.; Moran, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A wet pressurized pyrolysis (wet carbonization) process has been invented as a means of producing activated carbon from a wide variety of inedible biomass consisting principally of plant wastes. The principal intended use of this activated carbon is room-temperature adsorption of pollutant gases from cooled incinerator exhaust streams. Activated carbon is highly porous and has a large surface area. The surface area depends strongly on the raw material and the production process. Coconut shells and bituminous coal are the primary raw materials that, until now, were converted into activated carbon of commercially acceptable quality by use of traditional production processes that involve activation by use of steam or carbon dioxide. In the wet pressurized pyrolysis process, the plant material is subjected to high pressure and temperature in an aqueous medium in the absence of oxygen for a specified amount of time to break carbon-oxygen bonds in the organic material and modify the structure of the material to obtain large surface area. Plant materials that have been used in demonstrations of the process include inedible parts of wheat, rice, potato, soybean, and tomato plants. The raw plant material is ground and mixed with a specified proportion of water. The mixture is placed in a stirred autoclave, wherein it is pyrolized at a temperature between 450 and 590 F (approximately between 230 and 310 C) and a pressure between 1 and 1.4 kpsi (approximately between 7 and 10 MPa) for a time between 5 minutes and 1 hour. The solid fraction remaining after wet carbonization is dried, then activated at a temperature of 500 F (260 C) in nitrogen gas. The activated carbon thus produced is comparable to commercial activated carbon. It can be used to adsorb oxides of sulfur, oxides of nitrogen, and trace amounts of hydrocarbons, any or all of which can be present in flue gas. Alternatively, the dried solid fraction can be used, even without the activation treatment, to absorb oxides of nitrogen.

  2. Pyrolysis, combustion and gasification characteristics of miscanthus and sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis, combustion and gasification characteristics of miscanthus and sewage sludge. • We evaluate the temperature range for different process. • Product gas compositions during gasification at different temperature ranges. • Appropriate temperature range assessed for gasification with efficient carbon conversion. • Kinetic constant estimation using Friedman and Coats and Redfern method. - Abstract: The energetic conversion of biomass into syngas is considered as reliable energy source. In this context, biomass (miscanthus) and sewage sludge have been investigated. A simultaneous thermal analyzer and mass spectrometer was used for the characterization of samples and identified the volatiles evolved during the heating of the sample up to 1100 °C under combustion and gasification conditions. The TG and DTA results were discussed in argon, oxygen, steam and steam blended gas atmospheres. Different stages of pyrolysis, combustion and gasification of the samples have been examined. It was shown that the combustion and gasification of char were occurred in two different temperature zones. The DTA–MS profile of the sample gives information on combustion and gasification process of the samples (ignition, peak combustion and burnout temperatures) and gases released (H2, O2, CO and CO2). The results showed that the different processes were mainly dependent on temperature. The evolution of the gas species was consistent with the weight loss of the samples during pyrolysis, combustion and gasification process. The effect of the ambiences during pyrolysis, combustion and gasification of the samples were reported. The appropriate temperature range to the sludge and miscanthus gasification was evaluated. The kinetic parameters of the biomass and sewage sludge were estimated for TGA using two models based on first-order reactions with distributed activation energies. The presence of ash in the biomass char was more influential during the gasification process

  3. Ischemic preconditioning accelerates muscle deoxygenation dynamics and enhances exercise endurance during the work-to-work test

    OpenAIRE

    Kido, Kohei; Suga, Tadashi; Tanaka, Daichi; Honjo, Toyoyuki; Homma, Toshiyuki; Fujita, Satoshi; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Isaka, Tadao

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) improves maximal exercise performance. However, the potential mechanism(s) underlying the beneficial effects of IPC remain unknown. The dynamics of pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2) and muscle deoxygenation during exercise is frequently used for assessing O2 supply and extraction. Thus, this study examined the effects of IPC on systemic and local O2 dynamics during the incremental step transitions from low- to moderate- and from moderate- to severe-intensity exercis...

  4. Deoxygenation of some ?-dicarbonyl compounds by tris(diethylamino)phosphine in the presence of fullerene C60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, Irina P; Bogdanov, Andrey V; Mironov, Vladimir F; Shaikhutdinova, Gulnara R; Larionova, Olga A; Latypov, Shamil K; Balandina, Alsu A; Yakhvarov, Dmitry G; Gubaidullin, Aidar T; Saifina, Alina F; Sinyashin, Oleg G

    2011-04-15

    The reactions of such cyclic ?-diketones as acenaphthenequinone, aceanthrenequinone, and N-alkylisatins, with hexaethyltriaminophosphine in the presence of the fullerene C(60), lead to the formation of methanofullerene derivatives under mild conditions. This process proceeds via deoxygenation of the dicarbonyl compound by the P(III) derivative and is likely to involve the intermediate formation of ?-ketocarbenes. The structure of some methanofullerenes has been confirmed by NMR and XRD. The electrochemical behavior of the methanofullerenes was also investigated. PMID:21391680

  5. Tuning the Selectivity in Deoxygenation of Triglycerides Aimed at the production of Renewable Feedstocks for Ethylene Production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubička, D.; Horáček, J.; Kaluža, Luděk

    Jerusalem : -, 2009, s. 424. ISBN N. [EuropaCat IX: "Catalysis for Sustainable World". Salamanca (ES), 30.08.2009-04.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA MPO FT-TA3/074 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : deoxygenation * NiMo catalysts * biofuel Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry http://www.certh.gr/577CC7CC.en.aspx

  6. Microwave pyrolysis for conversion of materials to energy : A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The disposal of wastes in Malaysia is becoming a serious problem in many industrialized and public sectors. This is due to the high production of waste such as municipal solid waste, sludge from waste water treatment plants, agricultural waste and other used non-biodegradable products such as plastics and tyres. These wastes although are reused as compost, fuel, recycled and so on, there are still abundant left. These leftovers pose problems such as heavy metal leaching, leachates, green house gas emissions and mosquito breeding grounds. The disposal cost of these wastes sometimes can be costly at up to RM 2,200/ ton such as petroleum sludge by Kualiti Alam. Several methods have been used to convert these residues to energy via thermal treatment such as combustion, incineration and gasification. However, pyrolysis becomes one of the popular methods as the alternative to the wastes disposal recently. Not only energy (as gas) is produced, by-products such as chemical feedstock and solid absorbent can be produced. The use of microwave for pyrolysis, although relatively new for waste treatment, has several advantages compared to conventional heating. This includes easy control of the heating process, time saving, higher heating efficiency, etc. Tyre microwave pyrolysis plant in UK is known as the earliest plant using microwave technology to breakdown polymer in used tyres. Since 1990s, there are many patents for microwave pyrolysis. The processes are based on microwave pyrolysis of waste include coffee hulls, wood, coal, sewage sludge, hospital waste, plastic wastes, corn cobs and rice straw. The most important factors influencing the yield of product during the pyrolysis is temperature in range from 500 to 1000 degree Celsius according to product preference. High temperature favors gas products; whereas lower temperature favors liquid products. Comparatively, microwave pyrolysis produced gas with higher hydrogen and carbon monoxide (syngas) content compared to conventional heating. Liquid product also showed considerable decrease in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) production which is of known carcinogenic. Vitrification of heavy metals in solid product has also been proven. (author)

  7. Fluidised bed pyrolysis of Moroccan oil shales using the hamburg pyrolysis process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadiki, A.; Halim, H. [Faculty of Sciences, Chemistry Department, Mohamed V University, Rabat (Morocco); Kaminsky, W. [Institute of Technical and Macromolecular Chemistry, Hamburg (Germany); Bekri, O. [Chapem Consultants, Rabat (Morocco)

    2003-12-01

    In the present work, the pyrolysis of the Moroccan Timahdit oil shale was studied, using a fluidised bed process. Four experiments were carried out at different temperatures between 520 and 630C. By mass balance could be shown that in relation to the kerogen content up to 60 wt.% of oil and 25 wt.% of gas are obtained. These are 40% higher yields compared with the Fischer assay. It was shown that the carbon in the residue, which is much lower (only 12 wt.%) than in the Fischer assay (26 wt.%), explains this difference.

  8. The structure of a deoxygenated 400 kDa haemoglobin reveals ternary- and quaternary-structural changes of giant haemoglobins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numoto, Nobutaka; Nakagawa, Taro; Ohara, Ryota; Hasegawa, Tomoyo; Kita, Akiko; Yoshida, Takao; Maruyama, Tadashi; Imai, Kiyohiro; Fukumori, Yoshihiro; Miki, Kunio

    2014-07-01

    The quaternary structures of invertebrate haemoglobins (Hbs) are quite different from those of vertebrate Hbs. The extracellular giant Hbs of molecular masses of about 400 and 3600?kDa are composed of a dome-shaped dodecameric subassembly which consists of four individual globin subunits. Several crystal structures of 400?kDa Hbs from annelids have been reported, including structures in oxygenated and partially unliganded states, but the structure of the fully deoxygenated state has not been reported. In the present study, crystal structures of V2Hb from the tube worm Lamellibrachia satsuma have been determined in both the fully oxygenated and deoxygenated states. A glycosylation site and novel metal-binding sites for divalent cations were clearly observed with no intersubunit interactions in V2Hb. A comparison of the oxygenated and the deoxygenated forms of V2Hb reveals that the ternary- and quaternary-structural changes occur in a manner that maintains the molecular D3 symmetry. These structures suggest that the mechanisms of quaternary-structural changes between the oxy and deoxy states for the giant Hbs are identical across species. PMID:25004960

  9. Correlation Between Pyrolysis Atmosphere and Carbon Molecular Sieve Membrane Performance Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Kiyono, Mayumi

    2011-01-01

    Carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membranes have attractive separation performance properties, greatly exceeding an "upper bound" trade-off curve of polymeric membrane performance. CMS membranes are prepared by pyrolyzing polymers, well above their glass transition temperatures. Multiple factors, such as polymer precursor and pyrolysis protocol, are known to affect the separation performance. In this study, a correlation observed between pyrolysis atmosphere and CMS separation performance properties is discussed. Specifically, oxygen exposure during the pyrolysis process is the focus. The theory and details of the oxygen exposure and development of a new CMS preparation method using oxygen as a "dopant" will be described with a strong correlation observed with separation performance for CMS membranes prepared with various polymer precursors. In addition, study of possible mass transfer limitations on the oxygen "doping" process will be described to clarify the basis for the equilibrium-based interpretation of doping data. The method is also explored by changing the pyrolysis temperature. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Kinetics governing Michigan Antrim oil shale. I. Pyrolysis. II. Oxidation of carbonaceous residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostam-Abadi, M.

    1982-01-01

    The intrinsic reaction rate kinetics for the pyrolysis of Michigan Antrim oil shale and the oxidation of the carbonaceous residue of this shale have been determined. The effect of heating rate, and oil shale minerals, particularly iron pyrite on the pyrolysis reaction was also investigated. As a part of the combustion process, the oxidation reactivity of carbonaceous residue prepared at several final pyrolysis temperatures, and the kinetics of chemisorption of oxygen on carbonaceous residue have been determined. Thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric techniques were employed in this research. The kinetics of the pyrolysis reaction were determined from both isothermal and nonisothermal rate data. No evidence of any reaction among the oil shale mineral constituents was observed at temperatures below 1173/sup 0/K. However, it was found that the presence of pyrite in oil shale reduces the primary devolatization rates of kerogen and increases the amount of residual char in the spent shale.

  11. Quantification of ischemic muscle deoxygenation by near infrared time-resolved spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaoka, Takatumi; Katsumura, Toshihito; Murase, Norio; Nishio, Shinya; Osada, Takuya; Sako, Takayuki; Higuchi, Hiroyuki; Kurosawa, Yuko; Shimomitsu, Teruichi; Miwa, Mitsuharu; Chance, Britton

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify muscle deoxygenation in human skeletal muscles using near infrared time-resolved spectroscopy (NIRTRS) and compare NIRTRS indicators and blood saturation. The forearm muscles of five healthy males (aged 27 - 32 yrs.) were monitored for changes in hemoglobin saturation (SO2) during 12 min of arterial occlusion and recovery. SO2 was determined by measuring the temporal profile of photon diffusion at 780 and 830 nm using NIRTRS, and was defined as SO2-TRS. Venous blood samples were also obtained for measurements of SvO2, and PvO2. Interstitial PO2(PintO2) was monitored by placing an O2 electrode directly into the muscle tissue. Upon the initiation of occlusion, all parameters fell progressively until reaching a plateau in the latter half of occlusion. It was observed at the end of occlusion that SO2-TRS (24.1 +/- 5.6%) agreed with SvO2 (26.2 +/- 6.4) and that PintO2 (14.7 +/- 1.0 Torr) agreed with PvO2 (17.3 +/- 2.2 Torr). The resting O2 store (oxygenated hemoglobin) and O2 consumption rate were 290 (mu) M and 0.82 (mu) Ms-1, respectively, values which reasonably agree with the reported results. These results indicate that there was no O2 gradient between vessels and interstisium at the end of occlusion.

  12. Sex-related differences in muscle deoxygenation during ramp incremental exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murias, Juan M; Keir, Daniel A; Spencer, Matthew D; Paterson, Donald H

    2013-12-01

    Sex-specific differences in the temporal profiles of fractional O2 extraction during incremental cycling were examined using changes in near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-derived muscle deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration (?[HHb]) and breath-by-breath pulmonary O2 uptake ( .VO2p ) measurements. Subject's (men: n=10; women: n=10) ?[HHb] data were normalized to 100% of the response, plotted as a function ( .VO2p, % .VO2p), power output (PO), and % PO, and fit with a piecewise double-linear regression model. The slope of the first segment of the double linear model was significantly greater in women compared to men when %?[HHb] was plotted as a function of .VO2p, % .VO2p and PO (p<0.05). Both sexes displayed a near-plateau in the %?[HHb] which occurred at an exercise intensity near the respiratory compensation point. Thus, young women display a poorer ability to deliver O2 to the exercising tissue compared to men and oxidative demands must be supplemented by a greater fractional O2 extraction. PMID:23994824

  13. Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) grown in Nigeria: In vitro antisickling activity on deoxygenated erythrocyte cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adejumo, Olufunmilayo E.; Kolapo, Adelodun L.; Folarin, Akintomiwa O.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Traditional medicine, which is more available and affordable for the poor uses medicinal plants for the treatment and management of various ailments, including the sickle cell disease (SCD). About 24 million Nigerians are carriers of this sickled cell gene, while approximately 2.4 million are SCD patients. Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) possesses high nutritional value and has been used in folklore medicine to treat various ailments related to pain and inflammation. Chemical, pharmacological and pharmacognostical applications of Moringa oleifera have been reported. Objective: This study investigated the antisickling potential of polar and non-polar extracts of the seed, flower and leaf of Moringa oleifera for the first time. Materials and Methods: Using crude methanol extract, aqueous extract, ethyl acetate and butanol, the in vitro antisickling activities of Moringa oleifera fractions, were evaluated using erythrocyte cells deoxygenated with 2% sodium metabisulphite. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid and normal saline were employed as positive and negative controls. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, free anthraquinones, and alkaloids. Extracts of the seed and flower demonstrated a higher (PMoringa oleifera may play a role in the management of SCD, by incorporation of its fractions into recipes. More extensive biological evaluations and further studies will be necessary for the chemical characterization of the antisickling principles. PMID:22557922

  14. Pure 2D vortex-glass phase transition with Tg=0 K in deoxygenated YBa2Cu3O6.4 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-linear I-V characteristics have been measured on high-quality deoxygenated YBa2Cu3O6.4 thin films, in magnetic fields up to 8 T. Critical scaling analysis of the current-voltage data demonstrates the existence of a pure two-dimensional vortex-glass transition with Tg = 0 for high magnetic fields (7, 8 T). The validity of the pure 2D vortex-glass model in our samples is checked with the linear resistivity term and the non-linear current density. The linear resistivity ρlin(T)∝exp[-(T0/T)p] from resistivity vs. temperature and current-voltage measurements, produces the parameters p (p = 0.78 for H = 7 T, p = 0.73 for H = 8 T) and T0 (230 K) used for the scaling analysis. The non-linear current density jnl exhibits a power law temperature dependence jnl(T)∝T3 suggesting ν2D = 2 as predicted by the 2D vortex-glass theory. The values of the exponent p obtained in this study are in good agreement with the (orig.)

  15. Pyrolysis of thermally thick wood particles - experiments and mathematical modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller Andersen, S.; Thaaning Pedersen, S.; Goebel, B.; Houbak, N.; Henriksen, Ulrik [MEK - DTU, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Dall Bentzen, J. [COWI a/s, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2005-07-01

    A simple, dynamic, l-dimensional model describing heating, drying and pyrolysis of thermally thick wood particles with a l-dimensional geometry has been developed and implemented. The model output is the dynamic evolution of both the char yield and the amount of volatiles. The model is developed in such a simple and accessible way, that it easily can be implemented in a larger model for dimensioning and optimisation of applications where pyrolysis is a part of the overall process as for instance gasification. Experiments using a Thermo Gravimetric Analyser (TGA), built so pieces of wood can be fed into a hot atmosphere instantaneously, have been used to observe the influence of various parameters like temperature and size and wood types on the pyrolysis process. Results from the model have been compared with results from the experiments. The comparison showed good accordance when both wood particles with a well-defined geometry (a cylinder) and when beds of wood chips and wood pellets, respectively, were pyrolyzed. The model has proven that transport of heat to the wood; internal transport and accumulation of heat inside the wood and kinetics of pyrolysis are all important parameters. (au)

  16. Fixed bed pyrolysis of Euphorbia rigida with different catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since Euphorbia rigida is a celluloid plant with low fat content, the oil yields of previous fixed bed pyrolysis studies were low. In order to increase the oil yield, biomass pyrolysis experiments were performed in a fixed bed reactor with two selected commercial catalysts, namely Criterion-534 and activated alumina, and natural zeolite (klinoptilolite). Experiments were conducted in a static atmosphere with a heating rate of 7 deg. C min-1, pyrolysis temperature of 550 deg. C and mean particle size of 0.55 mm. In the experiments, all the catalysts were used with various percentages, and the effects of the variable catalysts on the yields and chemical composition of the oils obtained were investigated. Oil yield reached 27.5% with the use of natural zeolite, 31% with Criterion-534 and 28.1% with activated alumina, while it was only 21.6% without a catalyst. The pyrolysis oils were examined by using spectroscopic and chromatographic analysis techniques, and the obtained results were compared with the results of similar experiments achieved without a catalyst

  17. Research into fine powder and large particle tyre pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ningbo; Li, Aimin; Li, Wanjing

    2009-05-01

    This paper investigates the kinetics of the pyrolysis of scrap tyre using thermogravimetry and a small batch laboratory-scale externally heated fixed-bed. Five particle sizes (20-40, 40-60, 60-80, 80-100, 100-200 mesh) and five heating rates (5, 10, 15, 20, 40 K min(-1)) were investigated. The results show that there is no obvious distinction on weight loss for different sizes. With increasing heating rate the weight loss regions shift to a higher temperature range and the weight loss rate increases. The activation energy (E) and pre-exponential factor constant (A) were calculated using the Arrhenius type kinetic model. The heat value of pyrolysis gases is in the range of 12 to 22 MJ Nm(-3). The yields of solid, liquid and gas of pyrolysis scrap tyre and tyre cube at 800 degrees C were investigated, the ratio of pyrolysis production composition of scrap tyre and tyre cube for gas, oil and char is found to be 35 : 23 : 42 and 10 : 31 : 59, respectively. PMID:19423576

  18. Fixed bed pyrolysis of Euphorbia rigida with different catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funda Ates; Putun, A.E. [Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Ersan Putun [Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Material Science and Engineering

    2005-02-01

    Since Euphorbia rigida is a celluloid plant with low fat content, the oil yields of previous fixed bed pyrolysis studies were low. In order to increase the oil yield, biomass pyrolysis experiments were performed in a fixed bed reactor with two selected commercial catalysts, namely Criterion-534 and activated alumina, and natural zeolite (klinoptilolite). Experiments were conducted in a static atmosphere with a heating rate of 7{sup o}C min{sup -1}, pyrolysis temperature of 550{sup o}C and mean particle size of 0.55 mm. In the experiments, all the catalysts were used with various percentages, and the effects of the variable catalysts on the yields and chemical composition of the oils obtained were investigated. Oil yield reached 27.5% with the use of natural zeolite, 31% with Criterion-534 and 28.1% with activated alumina, while it was only 21.6% without a catalyst. The pyrolysis oils were examined by using spectroscopic and chromatographic analysis techniques, and the obtained results were compared with the results of similar experiments achieved without a catalyst. (author)

  19. Fixed bed pyrolysis of Euphorbia rigida with different catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ates, Funda; Puetuen, Ayse E.; Puetuen, Ersan E-mail: eputun@anadolu.edu.tr

    2005-02-01

    Since Euphorbia rigida is a celluloid plant with low fat content, the oil yields of previous fixed bed pyrolysis studies were low. In order to increase the oil yield, biomass pyrolysis experiments were performed in a fixed bed reactor with two selected commercial catalysts, namely Criterion-534 and activated alumina, and natural zeolite (klinoptilolite). Experiments were conducted in a static atmosphere with a heating rate of 7 deg. C min{sup -1}, pyrolysis temperature of 550 deg. C and mean particle size of 0.55 mm. In the experiments, all the catalysts were used with various percentages, and the effects of the variable catalysts on the yields and chemical composition of the oils obtained were investigated. Oil yield reached 27.5% with the use of natural zeolite, 31% with Criterion-534 and 28.1% with activated alumina, while it was only 21.6% without a catalyst. The pyrolysis oils were examined by using spectroscopic and chromatographic analysis techniques, and the obtained results were compared with the results of similar experiments achieved without a catalyst.

  20. Supercritical pyrolysis of the endothermic fuels methylcyclohexane, decalin, and tetralin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John Francis

    The pyrolysis of the potential endothermic fuels methylcyclohexane, decahydronaphthalene (decalin), and tetrahydronaphthalene (tetralin) under supercritical conditions can be of great import and is the focus of this dissertation. Supercritical fluids, essentially gases with a liquid-like density, are a unique environment for chemical kinetic studies. Because the solvent properties of a supercritical fluid vary strongly with pressure (unlike liquids or gases), elementary reactions in a supercritical environment can have strong pressure dependence. The influence of these solute/solvent interactions on kinetic rates can have important implications in the context of the fuel-fouling problem. Supercritical methylcyclohexane pyrolysis was investigated in a specially constructed silica-lined flow reactor. Experiments in which the temperature and pressure were varied independently revealed a product distribution substantially different from numerous higher temperature gas-phase pyrolysis studies. Major products identified at 820 K and 45 atm included methane, ethane, propene, ethene, dimethylcyclopentane, propane, 1-methyl-1-cyclohexene, and ethylcyclopentane. As pressure was increased at 782 K, the selectivity of dimethylcyclopentane increased and was consistent with a mechanism that incorporated caging effects. Some observations related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and solid formation were a natural extension of this research effort. PAH products observed included indene, methylnaphthalenes, dimethylnaphthalenes, fluorene, pyrene, methylanthracene, and benzo[ghi]perylene. A gas-phase model of methylcyclohexane pyrolysis was constructed and compared with experimental data from a sister effort in this laboratory. This model, along with two others currently being developed at Princeton, is the first elementary-reaction-based cycloalkane decomposition model ever created. Excellent agreement was found between the gas-phase model and experimental data for the major products observed. Preliminary steps were taken to extend this model to supercritical conditions through detailed consideration of the solute/solvent interactions present in the supercritical fluid and modifications made to the ideal gas model. Supercritical pyrolysis mechanisms of decalin and tetralin were also investigated. Major products of supercritical decalin pyrolysis included light alkanes and alkenes, methylhexahydroindane, indene, methylcyclohexenes, and indane. Major products of supercritical tetralin pyrolysis included: naphthalene, methylindane, ethane, methane, ethene, and phenylbutane. Quantification of the major products indicated that C6 to C5 ring contraction was found to occur preferentially with increasing pressure, consistent with the caging hypothesis.

  1. Molten salt pyrolysis of milled beech wood using an electrostatic precipitator for oil collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi S. Nygård

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A tubular electrostatic precipitator (ESP was designed and tested for collection of pyrolysis oil in molten salt pyrolysis of milled beech wood (0.5-2 mm. The voltage-current (V-I characteristics were studied, showing most stable performance of the ESP when N2 was utilized as inert gas. The pyrolysis experiments were carried out in FLiNaK and (LiNaK2CO3 over the temperature range of 450-600 ℃. The highest yields of pyrolysis oil were achieved in FLiNaK, with a maximum of 34.2 wt% at 500 ℃, followed by a decrease with increasing reactor temperature. The temperature had nearly no effect on the oil yield for pyrolysis in (LiNaK2CO3 (19.0-22.5 wt%. Possible hydration reactions and formation of HF gas during FLiNaK pyrolysis were investigated by simulations (HSC Chemistry software and measurements of the outlet gas (FTIR, but no significant amounts of HF were detected.

  2. Reductive pyrolysis study of biodesulfurized subbituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.P. Marinov; L. Gonsalvesha; M. Stefanova; Y. Yueeriem; A.G. Dumanli; N. Kolankaya; M. Sam; R. Carleer; G. Reggers; J. Yperman [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Institute of Organic Chemistry

    2007-07-01

    Biodesulfurization is one of the perspective methods for production of friendly fuels. Reductive pyrolysis in mode of atmospheric pressure temperature programmed reduction (AP-TPR) combined with varied detection systems gave us possibility to obtain more satisfactory explanation of biodesulfurization effects. AP-TPR coupled 'on-line' and 'off-line' with potentiometry, mass spectrometry and GC/MS analysis with inner sulfur standards for quantification were applied. Subbituminous coal from 'Pirin' basin, Bulgaria was treated by three different types of microorganisms with maximal desulfurization effect for total (26%) and organic sulfur (13%). Namely, two types white rot fungi - 'Trametes Versicolor', 'Phanerochaeta Chrysosporium' and one mixed bacterial culture were used. Improved sulfur balance determination was registered. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  3. Comparison of petroleum generation kinetics by isothermal hydrous and nonisothermal open-system pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewan, M.D.; Ruble, T.E.

    2002-01-01

    This study compares kinetic parameters determined by open-system pyrolysis and hydrous pyrolysis using aliquots of source rocks containing different kerogen types. Kinetic parameters derived from these two pyrolysis methods not only differ in the conditions employed and products generated, but also in the derivation of the kinetic parameters (i.e., isothermal linear regression and non-isothermal nonlinear regression). Results of this comparative study show that there is no correlation between kinetic parameters derived from hydrous pyrolysis and open-system pyrolysis. Hydrous-pyrolysis kinetic parameters determine narrow oil windows that occur over a wide range of temperatures and depths depending in part on the organic-sulfur content of the original kerogen. Conversely, open-system kinetic parameters determine broad oil windows that show no significant differences with kerogen types or their organic-sulfur contents. Comparisons of the kinetic parameters in a hypothetical thermal-burial history (2.5 ??C/my) show open-system kinetic parameters significantly underestimate the extent and timing of oil generation for Type-US kerogen and significantly overestimate the extent and timing of petroleum formation for Type-I kerogen compared to hydrous pyrolysis kinetic parameters. These hypothetical differences determined by the kinetic parameters are supported by natural thermal-burial histories for the Naokelekan source rock (Type-IIS kerogen) in the Zagros basin of Iraq and for the Green River Formation (Type-I kerogen) in the Uinta basin of Utah. Differences in extent and timing of oil generation determined by open-system pyrolysis and hydrous pyrolysis can be attributed to the former not adequately simulating natural oil generation conditions, products, and mechanisms.

  4. Study of mobilization and speciation of trace elements in coal pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various types of coal contain high levels of a number of trace elements. Little is known of the fates of these trace elements during the conversion of coal to liquid and gaseous products. Studies were undertaken of mobilization and speciation of trace elements in coal pyrolysis, one of the major coal conversion processes. The bituminous coal was pyrolyzed to produce liquid and gaseous products. The pyrolysis products were collected in traps in an inert gas stream. In addition mildly hydrogenated coal was prepared by mixing with tetralin, a hydrogen donor solvent, at boiling temperature. In order to characterize each element specifically during pyrolysis, base samples of coal and mildly hydrogenated coal (H-coal) were spiked with heavy metal sulfides, trace metals bound to partially oxidized coal (coal humates), and halide salts prior to carrying out pyrolysis. Eight elements were investigated in this research. They are As, Br, Cl, Co, Cr, Mn, Se, and V. Pre-spiked hydrogenated coal, i.e., pulverized coal spiked with halide salts and heavy metal sulfides then hydrogenated with tetralin, was prepared and studied for the fates of these elements during pyrolysis. Chlorinated and brominated coals were also prepared to compare the volatility differences between organically and inorganically bound halogens during the pyrolysis reaction. These products and the coal char residues were analyzed for the spiked elements mainly by neutron activation analysis for the spiked elements to determine their degree of volatility. Volatility and recovery (mass balance) will be discussed for those elements that appeared highly volatile during pyrolysis. In order to understand the halogenated compounds in the pyrolysis products, gas chromatograms were taken to the collected pyrolysis products of coal, hydrogenated coal, NaCl spiked coal, NaBr spiked coal, chlorinated coal, and brominated coal

  5. Construction of a Labview controlled pyrolysis unit for coupling to a Pyrola 85 pyrolysis chamber

    OpenAIRE

    Östman, Marcus; Näsström, Elin

    2012-01-01

    Pyrolysis is the process of molecular decomposition in an inert environment using heat. It is possible to fragment large molecules, such as polymers, by pyrolysis and separate the fragments directly in a GC. This makes it possible to form complex sample fingerprints that can be used in various applications, for example in forensic science. In this project, a malfunctioning Pyrola 85 pyrolysis unit was fixed by measuring the voltage signals from the photo diode during pyrolysis in a Labview pr...

  6. Effect of combination of irradiation and zeolite on pyrolysis of polymer materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fo0r recycling of waste polymers, degradation behavior of polypropylene (PP) and polyoxymethylene (POM) was studied by a combination of radiolysis and thermolysis methods. The results revealed that thermal degradation temperature of PP was significantly reduced when PP was irradiated in the presence of zeolite. Irradiation induced temperature reduction depended on zeolite structure and composition as well as on the morphology of the mixture. In the presence of zeolite, a series of oxidized products were formed. Initial temperature for the pyrolysis of POM was depressed by irradiation and the irradiated POM had lower final temperature of pyrolysis in the presence of zeolite

  7. Biomass pyrolysis/gasification. Bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography covers a variety of topics relating directly and indirectly to biomass gasification. Direct topics include pyrolysis/gasification chemistry, fundamental research papers, process development, state-of-the-art engineering studies, economic analysis, and general theory. Indirectly related topics include catalysis, fluidization, gas purification, energy farming, industrial applications for producer gas, combustion, hydrogenation, digestion, biomass potential, etc. A topical index is included in the appendix. All literature is on file at the Forintek Canada Corp., Energy Division.

  8. Evaluation of pyrolysis curves for volatile elements in aqueous standards and carbon-containing matrices in electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A. F.; Welz, B.; de Loos-Vollebregt, M. T. C.

    2008-07-01

    Pyrolysis curves in electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET AAS) and electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS) have been compared for As, Se and Pb in lobster hepatopancreas certified reference material using Pd/Mg as the modifier. The ET AAS pyrolysis curves confirm that the analytes are not lost from the graphite furnace up to a pyrolysis temperature of 800 °C. Nevertheless, a downward slope of the pyrolysis curve was observed for these elements in the biological material using ETV-ICP-MS. This could be related to a gain of sensitivity at low pyrolysis temperatures due to the matrix, which can act as carrier and/or promote changes in the plasma ionization equilibrium. Experiments with the addition of ascorbic acid to the aqueous standards confirmed that the higher intensities obtained in ETV-ICP-MS are related to the presence of organic compounds in the slurry. Pyrolysis curves for As, Se and Pb in coal and coal fly ash were also investigated using the same Pd/Mg modifier. Carbon intensities were measured in all samples using different pyrolysis temperatures. It was observed that pyrolysis curves for the three analytes in all slurry samples were similar to the corresponding graphs that show the carbon intensity for the same slurries for pyrolysis temperatures from 200 °C up to 1000 °C.

  9. Advances in Modeling and Simulation of Biomass Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Prakash

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The various aspects of modeling and simulation work carried out so far in biomass pyrolysis since 1946 have been extensively reviewed in the present study. Biomass pyrolysis, one of the few non conventional energy routes, is highly promising and capable of handling the current energy crisis successfully for the present and in the near future. Pyrolysis as a stand alone or as the core of biomass gasification process is complex in nature, the understanding and knowledge of this multifaceted phenomenon can heavily influence the efficiency and effectiveness of the whole gasification process. Even though, the modeling of biomass pyrolysis process was initiated during 1940`s gradual changes, improvements and alternates have been carried out throughout these years. All these years, various modeling approaches were adopted, different kinetic schemes were proposed, diverse numerical schemes were followed and range of parameters were implemented, all these have developed a baffling picture over the subject. The complexity of the process, as such the large number of components involved in the intermediates and end products; the dependency of the process over numerous parameters namely the temperature, space and time dependent physical, thermodynamic and transport properties, the particle shape, size, shrinkage factors and moisture content all these justify even today the necessity and requirement of research for further improvement and enrichment in the modeling and simulation fronts of this process. This study sums up the work carried out in literature on modeling and simulation of wood pyrolysis and suggests new research directions and approaches necessarily to be made up in future.

  10. Coal pyrolysis under synthesis gas, hydrogen and nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ariunaa, A.; Li Bao-Qing; Li Wen; Purevsuren, B. (and others) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China)

    2007-02-15

    Chinese Xundian, Mongolian Shiveeovoo lignites and Khoot oil shale are pyrolyzed under synthesis gas (SG) at temperature range from 400 to 800{sup o}C for lignite and from 300 to 600{sup o}C for oil shale with heating rate of 10{sup o}C/min in a fixed bed reactor. The results were compared with those obtained by pyrolysis under hydrogen and nitrogen. The results showed that unlike pyrolysis at high pressure, there are only slight different in the yields of char and tar among pyrolyses under various gases at room pressure for lignite, while higher liquid yield with lower yields of char and gas was obtained in pyrolysis of oil shale under SG and H{sub 2} than under N{sub 2}. It is found that the pyrite S can be easily removed to partially convert to organic S under various gaseous atmosphere and the total sulfur removal for oil shale is much less than lignite, which might be related to its high ash content. The higher total sulfur removal and less organic S content in the presence of SG in comparison with those under N{sub 2} and even under H{sub 2} in pyrolysis of Xundian lignite might result from the action of CO in SG. However, CO does not show its function in pyrolysis of Khoot oil shale, which might also be related to the high ash content. The results reported show the possibility of using synthesis gas instead of pure hydrogen as the reactive gas for coal hydropyrolysis. 11 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Pyrolysis of polyolefins for increasing the yield of monomers’ recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of mixed polyolefins in fluidized bed has been studied. ► We tested applicability of a commercial Ziegler–Natta catalyst (Z–N: TiCl4/MgCl2). ► The catalyst has a strong influence on product distribution, increasing gas fraction. ► At 650 °C the monomer generation increased by 55% when the catalyst was used. ► We showed the concept of treatment of mixed polyolefins without a need of separation. - Abstract: Pyrolysis of plastic waste is an alternative way of plastic recovery and could be a potential solution for the increasing stream of solid waste. The objective of this work was to increase the yield the gaseous olefins (monomers) as feedstock for polymerization process and to test the applicability of a commercial Ziegler–Natta (Z–N): TiCl4/MgCl2 for cracking a mixture of polyolefins consisted of 46% wt. of low density polyethylene (LDPE), 30% wt. of high density polyethylene (HDPE) and 24% wt. of polypropylene (PP). Two sets of experiments have been carried out at 500 and 650 °C via catalytic pyrolysis (1% of Z–N catalyst) and at 650 and 730 °C via only-thermal pyrolysis. These experiments have been conducted in a lab-scale, fluidized quartz-bed reactor of a capacity of 1–3 kg/h at Hamburg University. The results revealed a strong influence of temperature and presence of catalyst on the product distribution. The ratios of gas/liquid/solid mass fractions via thermal pyrolysis were: 36.9/48.4/15.7% wt. and 42.4/44.7/13.9% wt. at 650 and 730 °C while via catalytic pyrolysis were: 6.5/89.0/4.5% wt. and 54.3/41.9/3.8% wt. at 500 and 650 °C, respectively. At 650 °C the monomer generation increased by 55% up to 23.6% wt. of total pyrolysis products distribution while the catalyst was added. Obtained yields of olefins were compared with the naphtha steam cracking process and other potentially attractive processes for feedstock generation. The concept of closed cycle material flow for polyolefins has been discussed, showing the potential benefits of feedstock recycling in a plastic waste management.

  12. Spray pyrolysis of CuInS{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzouita, H.; Bouguila, N.; Dhouib, A. [ENIT Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et de Materiaux Semiconductors, Tunis (Tunisia)

    1999-05-01

    Spray pyrolysis is a low-cost method of depositing thin films and is economically more attractive than other methods that have been used to produce stable CuInS{sub 2} thin films The electrical, optical and structural properties of the films, as prepared, are presented together with their evolution and with a variation of some fabrication parameters which are the fabrication temperature T{sub S}, and the ionic ratio R Cu:In:S in the solution. (author)

  13. Competition Between Hydrotreating and Polymerization Reactions During Pyrolysis Oil Hydrodeoxygenation

    OpenAIRE

    Mercader, F. De Miguel; Koehorst, P. J. J.; Heeres, H. J.; Kersten, S. R. A.; Hogendoorn, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of pyrolysis oil is an upgrading step that allows further coprocessing of the oil product in (laboratory-scale) standard refinery units to produce advanced biofuels. During HDO, desired hydrotreating reactions are in competition with polymerization reactions that can lead to unwanted product properties. To suppress this polymerization, a low-temperature HDO step, referred to as stabilization, is typically used. Small batch autoclaves have been used to study at near is...

  14. Modelling solid-convective flash pyrolysis of straw and wood in the Pyrolysis Centrifuge Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Niels; Larsen, Morten Boberg; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    Pyrolysis Centrifuge Reactor, a novel solid-convective flash pyrolysis reactor. The model relies on the original concept for ablative pyrolysis of particles being pyrolysed through the formation of an intermediate liquid compound which is further degraded to form liquid organics, char, and gas. To describe...

  15. Characterizing the profile of muscle deoxygenation during ramp incremental exercise in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Matthew D; Murias, Juan M; Paterson, Donald H

    2012-09-01

    This study characterized the profile of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-derived muscle deoxygenation (?[HHb]) and the tissue oxygenation index (TOI) as a function of absolute (PO(ABS)) and normalized power output (%PO) or oxygen consumption (%VO(2)) during incremental cycling exercise. Eight men (24 5 year) each performed two fatigue-limited ramp incremental cycling tests (20 W min(-1)), during which pulmonary VO(2), ?[HHb] and TOI were measured continuously. Responses from the two tests were averaged and the TOI (%) and normalized ?[HHb] (%?[HHb]) were plotted against %VO(2), %PO and PO(ABS). The overall responses were modelled using a sigmoid regression (y = f ( 0 ) + A/(1 + e(-(-c+dx)))) and piecewise 'double-linear' function of the predominant adjustment of %?[HHb] or TOI observed throughout the middle portion of exercise and the 'plateau' that followed. In ~85% of cases, the corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AIC(C)) was smaller (suggesting one model favoured) for the 'double-linear' compared with the sigmoid regression for both %?[HHb] and TOI. Furthermore, the f ( 0 ) and A estimates from the sigmoid regressions of %?[HHb] yielded unrealistically large projected peak (f ( 0 ) + A) values (%VO(2p) 114.3 17.5; %PO 113.3 9.5; PO(ABS) 113.5 9.8), suggesting that the sigmoid model does not accurately describe the underlying physiological responses in all subjects and thus may not be appropriate for comparative purposes. Alternatively, the present study proposes that the profile of %?[HHb] and TOI during ramp incremental exercise may be more accurately described as consisting of three distinct phases in which there is little adjustment early in the ramp, the predominant increase in %?[HHb] (decrease in TOI) is approximately linear and an approximately linear 'plateau' follows. PMID:22270488

  16. An ill-posed parabolic evolution system for dispersive deoxygenation-reaeration in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaïez, M.; Ben Belgacem, F.; Hecht, F.; Le Bot, C.

    2014-01-01

    We consider an inverse problem that arises in the management of water resources and pertains to the analysis of surface water pollution by organic matter. Most physically relevant models used by engineers derive from various additions and corrections to enhance the earlier deoxygenation-reaeration model proposed by Streeter and Phelps in 1925, the unknowns being the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations. The one we deal with includes Taylor’s dispersion to account for the heterogeneity of the contamination in all space directions. The system we obtain is then composed of two reaction-dispersion equations. The particularity is that both Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions are available on the DO tracer while the BOD density is free of any conditions. In fact, for real-life concerns, measurements on the DO are easy to obtain and to save. On the contrary, collecting data on the BOD is a sensitive task and turns out to be a lengthy process. The global model pursues the reconstruction of the BOD density, and especially of its flux along the boundary. Not only is this problem plainly worth studying for its own interest but it could also be a mandatory step in other applications such as the identification of the location of pollution sources. The non-standard boundary conditions generate two difficulties in mathematical and computational grounds. They set up a severe coupling between both equations and they are the cause of the ill-posed data reconstruction problem. Existence and stability fail. Identifiability is therefore the only positive result one can search for; it is the central purpose of the paper. Finally, we have performed some computational experiments to assess the capability of the mixed finite element in missing data recovery.

  17. Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of plastic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Almeida

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The amount of plastic waste is growing every year and with that comes an environmental concern regarding this problem. Pyrolysis as a tertiary recycling process is presented as a solution. Pyrolysis can be thermal or catalytical and can be performed under different experimental conditions. These conditions affect the type and amount of product obtained. With the pyrolysis process, products can be obtained with high added value, such as fuel oils and feedstock for new products. Zeolites can be used as catalysts in catalytic pyrolysis and influence the final products obtained.

  18. Biocrude Production through Pyrolysis of Used Tyres

    OpenAIRE

    Osayi, Julius I.; Sunny Iyuke; Ogbeide, Samuel E.

    2014-01-01

    A review of the pyrolysis process of used tyre as a method of producing an alternative energy source is presented in this paper. The study reports the characteristics of used tyre materials and methods of recycling, types and principles of pyrolysis, the pyrolysis products and their composition, effects of process parameters, and kinetic models applied to pyrolysis. From publications, the proximate analysis of tyre rubber shows that it is composed of about 28.6 wt.% fixed carbon, 62 wt.% vola...

  19. CO-PYROLYSIS OF POLYPROPYLENE WITH PETROLEUM OF BACIA DE CAMPOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DE ASSUMPÇÃO, Luiz Carlos Fonte Nova; MARQUES, Mônica Regina da Costa; CARBONELL, Montserrat Motas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the process of co-pyrolysis of polypropylene (PP residues with gas-oil was evaluated, varying thetemperature and the amount of polypropylene fed to the reactor. The polypropylene samples and gas-oil weresubmitted to the thermal co-pyrolysis in an inert atmosphere, varying the temperature and the amount of PP.The influence of the gas-oil was evaluated carrying the co-pyrolysis in the absence of PP. The pyrolysed liquidsproduced by this thermal treatment were characterized by modified gaseous chromatography in order toevaluate the yield in the range of distillation of diesel. As a result, the increase of PP amount lead to a reductionin the yield of the pyrolytic liquid and to an increase of the amount of solid generated. The effect of temperatureincrease showed an inverse result. The results show that plastic residue co-pyrolysys is a potential method forchemical recycling of plastic products.

  20. Validation of the integral model for the pyrolysis of charring materials with a moving grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuns, E.; Vierendeels, J.; Vandevelde, P.

    2004-07-01

    For the pyrolysis of charring materials a new one dimensional moving grid model is developed. The solid is divided by a pyrolysis front into a char and a virgin layer. Only when the virgin material reaches a critical temperature it starts to pyrolyse. The progress of the pyrolysis front determines the release of combustible volatiles. Since the model is used here as a stand-alone model, the external heat flux that heats up the solid, is assumed to be known. The char and virgin grid move along with the pyrolysis front. Calculations are done on uniform and nonuniform grids for the virgin layer. In the char layer only a uniform grid is used. Calculations done with a non-uniform grid are about 3 times faster than with a uniform grid. The moving grid model is used to validate the approximate integral model. This revealed that the integral model gives significant errors when there are sudden changes in the boundary conditions.

  1. Fixed-bed hydrogen pyrolysis of rapeseed: product yields and compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fixed-bed hydro pyrolysis tests have been conducted on a sample of rapeseed to investigate the effect of hydro pyrolysis on the yields and chemical structures of bio-oils, with a view to improving overall product quality. A ammonium dioxydithiomolybdenate catalyst has been used in some tests to further increase conversion. The maximum bio-oil yield of 84% was obtained in hydrogen atmosphere (with catalyst) at hydrogen pressure of 15 MPa, hydrogen flow rate of 10 dm3min-1, hydro pyrolysis temperature of 520 degree C, and heating rate of 5 oCmin-1. Then this bio-oil was characterized by elemental analysis and some spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. And finally, this bio-oil yield and chemical composition compared with oil obtained from fast pyrolysis condition

  2. Model-free pyrolysis kinetics of sunflower seed and its de-oiled cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunflower seed wastes from oil production are a potential biomass source for bio- energy production due to extensive and excessive oil production from sunflower seeds. Considering global energy requirement, pyrolysis seems a promising route for utilisation of such industrial biomass wastes. To develop, scale-up and operate pyrolysis plants efficiently, a fundamental understanding of pyrolysis behaviour and kinetics is essential. In this study, sunflower seeds and their waste cakes after extraction were evaluated as a potential biomass feedstock in pyrolysis process. In order to enlighten pyrolytic degradation behaviours, samples were pyrolysed under dynamic conditions from room temperature to 1000 °C using multiple heating rates. The main degradation regimes of the structures were characterized by high weight loss rates. Reaction kinetics was investigated with respect to conversion degree. It is anticipated that this study will be beneficial in optimizing the thermochemical processes, which may be utilize industrial biomass wastes. (full text)

  3. Modelling of pyrolysis of peat and biomass under combustion and gasification; Pyrolyysimalli turpeen ja biomassan poltolle ja kaasutukselle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raiko, R.; Haukka, P.; Vehmaan-Kreula, M. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Energy and Process Technology

    1997-10-01

    In the model developed during the research the chemical kinetics of pyrolysis is described with `the two competing reactions model`. Heat transfer in particle consists of convection and conduction. With the help of the model all the kinetic parameters of the two pyrolysis reactions are fitted with measured values. Also simple correlations for pyrolysis of peat under fluidized bed and pulverised flame conditions are given. The effect of the heating rate can be taken into account by using two competing Arrhenius-type reactions. In this model pyrolysis is modelled by using two reactions; one for the low temperature level and the other for the high temperature level. Both of these reactions consume the same unreacted fuel and this model is able to describe the pyrolysis at different temperature levels. Pyrolysis takes place in the heating stage of the particle before heterogeneous combustion and therefore temperature and density profiles inside the particle have to be solved simultaneously. The energy and mass balance equations of the particle form a set of partial differential equations (PDE), which is solved numerically by using so called method of lines, by converting PDE into a set of ordinary differential equations (ODE). The final solution of ODEs is received by using LSODE algorithm of Hindmash. An user friendly interface for the pyrolysis model is programmed by using Visual Basic enabling convenient variation of the conditions and observation of the results

  4. Multisteps Global Kinetic Analysis of MSW Slow Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Aries Himawanto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to find relationships between single components slow pyrolysis characteristics and mixed component slow pyrolysis characteristics of segregated municipal solid wastes (MSW. The material of this research consists of organic wastes (bamboo wastes and banana leaves wastes and inorganic wastes (styrofoam wastes and snack wrapping wastes. The materials which used to study were the unprosessing waste. The samples were collected, dried and crushed until passing 20 mesh shieves then characterized in self manufactured macro balance. The thermogravimetry analyses were done to find the MSW slow pyrolysis characteristics. The 20 gram sample was placed in the furnace whose temperature is increased with 10 0C/min heating rate until reached 400 0 final temperature and held for 30 minutes before the sample is cooled into room temperature. One hundred ml/min nitrogen introduced from the bottom of furnace as a swept gas. The results of the research show that the global kinetic method could be used to predict the MSW single component activation energy but it should be modified to calculate the mixed sample activation energy . The predictive activation energy values which calculated based on weighed sum of single component have 18.5 % deviations if compared with experimental result.

  5. Thermal and chemical effects of turkey feathers pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluska, Jacek; Kardaś, Dariusz; Heda, Łukasz; Szumowski, Mateusz; Szuszkiewicz, Jarosław

    2016-03-01

    This study examines the thermal and chemical effects of the pyrolysis of turkey feathers. Research of feathers pyrolysis is important because of their increasing production and difficulties of their utilization. The experiments were carried out by means of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and two pyrolytic reactors. The experimental investigation indicated that the feather material liquefies at temperatures between 210 and 240°C. This liquefaction together with the agglomeration of various dispersed and porous elements of the feathers into larger droplets leads to the volume reduction. Moreover, this work presents characteristics of the composition of the solid, liquid and gaseous products of turkey feathers pyrolysis at different temperatures. The higher heating value (HHV) of gaseous products in temperature 900°C equals 19.28MJ/Nm(3) making the gases suitable for use as a fuel. The thermochemical conversion of turkey feathers leads to the formation of poisonous compounds such as hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in the liquid (0.13%) and gaseous (88mg/Nm(3)) products. The phenomenon of liquefaction of feathers is important because it can lead to rapid degradation of the walls of reactors, and the formation of deposits. PMID:26783100

  6. Application of pyrolysis process in processing of mixed food wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grycová Barbora

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The food industry produces large amounts of solid and also liquid wastes. Different waste materials and their mixtures were pyrolysed in the laboratory pyrolysis unit to a final temperature of 800°C with a 10 minute delay at the final temperature. After the pyrolysis process of the selected wastes a mass balance of the resulting products, off-line analysis of the pyrolysis gas and evaluation of solid and liquid products were carried out. The highest concentration of methane, hydrogen and carbon monoxide were analyzed during the 4th gas sampling at a temperature of approx. 720–780°C. The concentration of hydrogen was measured in the range from 22 to 40 vol.%. The resulting iodine numbers of samples CHFO, DS, DSFW reach values that indicate the possibility of using them to produce the so-called “disposable sorbents” in wastewater treatment. The WC condensate can be directed to further processing and upgrading for energy use.

  7. Characteristics and mechanism study of analytical fast pyrolysis of poplar wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Analytical PyGC/MS technique is employed for fast pyrolysis of poplar wood. ? The products include anhydrosugars, furans, phenols, linear carbonyls, etc. ? The formation characteristics of the individual pyrolytic products are revealed. ? We propose and discuss the possible pathways for the formation of major products. - Abstract: Analytical pyrolysisgas chromatography/mass spectrometry (PyGC/MS) was applied to achieve fast pyrolysis of poplar wood and on-line analysis of the pyrolysis vapors. Experiments were conducted to reveal the distribution of pyrolytic products under different pyrolysis temperatures (3001000 C) and times (530 s). During the fast pyrolysis process, the poplar wood started decomposition to form organic volatile products at the set temperature of 300 C, and reached the maximum volatile product yield at around 550 C. The products included various anhydrosugars, furans, phenolic compounds, linear carbonyls, linear acids, hydrocarbons, and so on. They exhibited different formation characteristics. Based on the experimental results, we discussed the possible pyrolytic pathways for the generation of the major products.

  8. Effects of coal drying on the pyrolysis and in-situ gasification characteristics of lignite coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Effect of coal drying on lignite pyrolysis was studied by TG-MS and a novel reactor. • Coal type, final temperature and heating method had key effects during pyrolysis. • We developed a new method to study morphological changes during char gasification. • It initially showed shrinking particle mode, and then changed to shrinking core mode. • Insignificant steam deactivation of char was verified by the active sites mechanism. - Abstract: Pyrolysis behaviors of two lignite coals with different drying conditions were determined by a thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with mass spectrometer (TG-MS) and a high-frequency furnace. An in-situ heating stage microscope was adopted to observe the morphological changes during char-CO2 gasification process. It is concluded that the effects of moisture contents in coals on the gaseous release process during coal pyrolysis mainly depend on coal type, final pyrolysis temperature and heating method. The in-situ heating stage experiments indicate that the shrinking particle mode is suitable to illustrate the gasification reaction mechanism in the initial and midterm reaction stages of all the lignite char samples. Although drying conditions have significant effects on coal pyrolysis process under rapid heating, these dewatering conditions result in little noticeable reactivity loss of the char during the subsequent char-CO2 gasification reaction. The measuring results of catalytic active sites can well explain the similar reactivity of lignite coals with different drying conditions

  9. Mechanistic investigation into the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the pyrolysis of plant steroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III; Kidder, M.M.; Owens, C.; Ammann, J.R.; Skeen, J.T.; Luo, L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical and Analytical Sciences

    2001-10-09

    There have been many studies on the pyrolysis of biomass model compounds but most have not been performed under the high heating rate, short residence time conditions currently used in the thermochemical conversion of biomass. In this investigation, the pyrolysis of plant steroids is investigated by flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) and flow pyrolysis at residence times of 0.1-2.0 s and temperatures of 550-800{degree}C to determine if the native cyclic ring structure in the steroid leads to the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) or whether PAHs are formed by pyrosynthesis. FVP of stigmasterol stigmasterol acetate, {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasta-3,5-diene at 700{degree}C showed that PAHs, such as acenaphthylene, phenanthrene, anthracene, pyrene, chrysene, benz(a)anthracene, and their monomethylated derivatives were formed in the absence of bimolecular reactions, and the yield of PAHs was dependent of the structure of the steroid. Similar products were found in the flow pyrolysis of stigmasterol, and the yields of PAHs were found to increase with increasing temperature and residence time. Thermochemical kinetic estimates were used to postulate pathways for the formation of the primary pyrolysis products. 66 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Fast microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis of sewage sludge for bio-oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qinglong; Peng, Peng; Liu, Shiyu; Min, Min; Cheng, Yanling; Wan, Yiqin; Li, Yun; Lin, Xiangyang; Liu, Yuhuan; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2014-11-01

    In this study, fast microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis of sewage sludge was investigated for bio-oil production, with HZSM-5 as the catalyst. Pyrolysis temperature and catalyst to feed ratio were examined for their effects on bio-oil yield and composition. Experimental results showed that microwave is an effective heating method for sewage sludge pyrolysis. Temperature has great influence on the pyrolysis process. The maximum bio-oil yield and the lowest proportions of oxygen- and nitrogen-containing compounds in the bio-oil were obtained at 550C. The oil yield decreased when catalyst was used, but the proportions of oxygen- and nitrogen-containing compounds were significantly reduced when the catalyst to feed ratio increased from 1:1 to 2:1. Essential mineral elements were concentrated in the bio-char after pyrolysis, which could be used as a soil amendment in place of fertilizer. Results of XRD analyses demonstrated that HZSM-5 catalyst exhibited good stability during the microwave-assisted pyrolysis of sewage sludge. PMID:25260179

  11. Catalytic pyrolysis of microalgae to high-quality liquid bio-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pyrolytic conversion of chlorella algae to liquid fuel precursor in presence of a catalyst (Na2CO3) has been studied. Thermal decomposition studies of the algae samples were performed using TGA coupled with MS. Liquid oil samples were collected from pyrolysis experiments in a fixed-bed reactor and characterized for water content and heating value. The oil composition was analyzed by GC-MS. Pretreatment of chlorella with Na2CO3 influences the primary conversion of chlorella by shifting the decomposition temperature to a lower value. In the presence of Na2CO3, gas yield increased and liquid yield decreased when compared with non-catalytic pyrolysis at the same temperatures. However, pyrolysis oil from catalytic runs carries higher heating value and lower acidity. Lower content of acids in the bio-oil, higher aromatics, combined with higher heating value show promise for production of high-quality bio-oil from algae via catalytic pyrolysis, resulting in energy recovery in bio-oil of 40%. -- Highlights: → The pyrolytic catalytic conversion of chlorella algae to liquid fuel precursor. → Na2CO3 as a catalyst for the primary conversion of chlorella. → Pyrolysis oil from catalytic runs carries higher heating value and lower acidity. → High-quality bio-oil from algae via catalytic pyrolysis with energy recovery in bio-oil of 40%.

  12. A Novel Energy-Efficient Pyrolysis Process: Self-pyrolysis of Oil Shale Triggered by Topochemical Heat in a Horizontal Fixed Bed

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, You-Hong; Bai, Feng-Tian; Lü, Xiao-Shu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Yu-min; Guo, Ming-Yi; Guo, Wei; Liu, Bao-Chang

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel energy-efficient oil shale pyrolysis process triggered by a topochemical reaction that can be applied in horizontal oil shale formations. The process starts by feeding preheated air to oil shale to initiate a topochemical reaction and the onset of self-pyrolysis. As the temperature in the virgin oil shale increases (to 250–300°C), the hot air can be replaced by ambient-temperature air, allowing heat to be released by internal topochemical reactions to complete the ...

  13. Initial Stages of the Pyrolysis of Polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Konstantin V; Knyazev, Vadim D

    2015-12-10

    An experimental study of the kinetics of the initial stages of the pyrolysis of high-density polyethylene (PE) was performed. Quantitative yields of gas-phase products (C1-C8 alkanes and alkenes) and functional groups within the remaining polyethylene melt (methyl, vinyl, vinylene, vinylidene, and branching sites) were obtained as a function of time (0-20 min) at five temperatures in the 400-440 °C range. Gas chromatography and NMR ((1)H and (13)C) were used to detect the gas- and condensed-phase products, respectively. Modeling of polyethylene pyrolysis was performed, with the primary purpose of determining the rate constants of several critical reaction types important at the initial pyrolysis stages. Detailed chemical mechanisms were created (short and extended mechanisms) and used with both the steady-state approximation and numerical integration of the differential kinetic equations. Rate constants of critical elementary reactions (C-C backbone scission, two kinds of H-atom transfer, radical addition to the double bond, and beta-scission of tertiary alkyl radicals) were adjusted, resulting in an agreement between the model and the experiment. The values of adjusted rate constants are in general agreement with those of cognate reactions of small molecules in the gas phase, with the exception of the rate constants of the backbone C-C scission, which is found to be approximately 1-2 orders of magnitude lower. This observation provides tentative support to the hypothesis that congested PE melt molecular environment impedes the tumbling motions of separating fragments in C-C bond scission, thus resulting in less "loose" transition state and lower rate constant values. Sensitivity of the calculations to selected uncertainties in model properties was studied. Values and estimated uncertainties of four combinations of rate constants are reported as derived from the experimental results via modeling. The dependence of the diffusion-limited rate constant for radical recombination on the changing molecular mass of polyethylene was explicitly quantified and included in the extended kinetic mechanism, which appears critical for the agreement between modeling and experiment, particularly the agreement between the experimental and the calculated activation energies for product formation rates. Calculations were performed to estimate the contribution to the overall rate of radical recombination of the "reaction diffusion" phenomenon, where recombination is driven not by the actual motion of the recombining radical sites but rather by the migration of the radical site through PE melt due to rapid hydrogen transfer; this contribution was shown to be negligible for the conditions of the current work. PMID:26503638

  14. Thermochemical conversion of Phellinus pomaceus via supercritical fluid extraction and pyrolysis processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Phellinus pomaceus were converted to liquid and gas products. • Supercritical fluid extraction and pyrolysis processes were used in this research. • 60, 72 and 90 different types of compounds were identified by GC–MS. - Abstract: Thermochemical conversion processes such as supercritical fluid extraction and pyrolysis are used for producing biofuel from biomass. Supercritical fluid extraction process under supercritical conditions is the thermally disruption process of the lignocellulose or other organic materials at 250–400 °C temperature range under high pressure (4–5 MPa). Pyrolysis method is the process of decomposition of the organic materials with heat in the inert atmosphere or vacuum nature between high temperatures (350–800 °C). Two thermochemical processes, supercritical fluid extraction and slow pyrolysis, were used to produce bio-oils and biochars from Phellinus pomaceus. Supercritical fluid extraction trials were performed in a cylindrical reactor (75 mL) in organic solvents (acetone, ethanol) under supercritical conditions with (calcium hydroxide, sodium carbonate) and without catalyst at the temperatures of 250, 270 and 290 °C. Pyrolysis experiments were performed in a fixed-bed tubular reactor without and with same catalysts used in liquefaction at the temperatures of 400, 500 and 600 °C with constant heating rate (40 °C/min). The effects of process variables including temperature and catalyst on product yields were investigated. Product yields and composition of bio-oils were evaluated and compared for supercritical fluid extraction and pyrolysis. The produced liquids at 290 °C in supercritical liquefaction and at 500 °C in pyrolysis were analyzed and characterized by elemental, GC–MS and FT-IR. 60 and 72 different types of compounds that were identified by GC–MS obtained in acetone and ethanol respectively whereas pyrolysis liquids had 90 different types of compounds. Bio-oils from supercritical liquefaction were composed from various organics including aromatics, nitrogenated and oxygenated compounds while phenolics were major compounds in pyrolysis liquids. Bio-oils obtained from supercritical liquefaction were found to have higher heating values and superior fuel properties compared to pyrolysis bio-oils

  15. Aromatics and phenols from catalytic pyrolysis of Douglas fir pellets in microwave with ZSM-5 as a catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lu; Lei, Hanwu; Ren, Shoujie; Bu, Quan; Liang, Jing; Wei, Yi; Liu, Yupeng; Lee, Guo-Shuh J.; Chen, Shulin; Tang, Juming; Zhang, Qin; Ruan, Roger

    2012-11-04

    Microwave assisted catalytic pyrolysis was investigated to convert Douglas fir pellets to bio-oils by a ZSM-5 Zeolite catalyst. A central composite experimental design (CCD) was used to optimize the catalytic pyrolysis process. The effects of reaction time, temperature and catalyst to biomass ratio on the bio-oil, syngas, and biochar yields were determined. GC/MS analysis results showed that the bio-oil contained a series of important and useful chemical compounds. Phenols, guaiacols, and aromatic hydrocarbons were the most abundant compounds which were about 50-82 % in bio-oil depending on the pyrolysis conditions. Comparison between the bio-oils from microwave pyrolysis with and without catalyst showed that the catalyst increased the content of aromatic hydrocarbons and phenols. A reaction pathway was proposed for microwave assisted catalyst pyrolysis of Douglas fir pellets.

  16. Production of phenol-rich bio-oil during catalytic fixed-bed and microwave pyrolysis of palm kernel shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoriyekomwan, Joy Esohe; Tahmasebi, Arash; Yu, Jianglong

    2016-05-01

    Catalytic fixed-bed and microwave pyrolysis of palm kernel shell using activated carbon (AC) and lignite char (LC) as catalysts and microwave receptors are investigated. The effects of process parameters including temperature and biomass:catalyst ratio on the yield and composition of pyrolysis products were studied. The addition of catalyst increased the bio-oil yield, but decreased the selectivity of phenol in fixed-bed. Catalytic microwave pyrolysis of PKS significantly enhanced the selectivity of phenol production. The highest concentration of phenol in bio-oil of 64.58 %(area) and total phenolics concentration of 71.24 %(area) were obtained at 500°C using AC. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results indicated that concentration of OH, CH, CO and CO functional groups in char samples decreased after pyrolysis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis clearly indicated the development of liquid phase in biomass particles during microwave pyrolysis, and the mechanism is also discussed. PMID:26890793

  17. Production and Characterization of Bio-Char from the Pyrolysis of Empty Fruit Bunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad A. Sukiran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The palm oil industry generates an abundance of oil palm biomass such as the Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB, shell, frond, trunk and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME. For 88 million tones of Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB processed in 2008, the amount of oil palm biomass was more than 26 million tones. Studies about production of bio-char from oil palm biomass are still lacking in Malaysia. So, this study was aimed to: (i determine the effect of pyrolysis temperatures on bio-char yield (ii characterize the bio-char obtained under different pyrolysed temperatures. Approach: In this study, pyrolysis of EFB was conducted using a fluidized fixed bed reactor. The effect of pyrolysis temperatures on bio-char yield was investigated. The pyrolysis temperature used ranged from 300-700°C. The elemental analysis, calorific value, surface area and total pore volume of the bio-char were determined. Results: The highest bio char yield of 41.56% was obtained at an optimum pyrolysis temperature of 300°C with particle size of 91-106 μm and the heating rate of 30°C min-1. The calorific values of bio-char ranged from 23-26 MJ kg-1. Conclusion: It was found that the bio-char products can be characterized as carbon rich, high calorific value and potential solid biofuels.

  18. Pyrolysis of Softwood Carbohydrates in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitry Yu. Murzin; Tapio Salmi; Mikko Hupa; Bjarne Holmbom; Kari Eränen; Narendra Kumar; Atte Aho

    2008-01-01

    In the present work pyrolysis of pure pine wood and softwood carbohydrates, namely cellulose and galactoglucomannan (the major hemicellulose in coniferous wood), was conducted in a batch mode operated fluidized bed reactor. Temperature ramping (5°C/min) was applied to the heating until a reactor temperature of 460 °C was reached. Thereafter the temperature was kept until the release of non-condensable gases stopped. The different raw materials gave significantly different bio-oils. Levo...

  19. Pyrolysis of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Suresh P.; Bair, Wilford G.

    1992-01-01

    A method for mild gasification of crushed coal in a single vertical elongated reaction vessel providing a fluidized bed reaction zone, a freeboard reaction zone, and an entrained reaction zone within the single vessel. Feed coal and gas may be fed separately to each of these reaction zones to provide different reaction temperatures and conditions in each reaction zone. The reactor and process of this invention provides for the complete utilization of a coal supply for gasification including utilization of caking and non-caking or agglomerating feeds in the same reactor. The products may be adjusted to provide significantly greater product economic value, especially with respect to desired production of char having high surface area.

  20. CATALYTIC FAST PYROLYSIS OF CELLULOSE MIXED WITH SULFATED TITANIA TO PRODUCE LEVOGLUCOSENONE: ANALYTICAL PY-GC/MS STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Lu,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated titania (SO42-/TiO2 was prepared and used for catalytic fast pyrolysis of cellulose to produce levoglucosenone (LGO, a valuable anhydrosugar product. Analytical pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS technique was employed in this study to achieve the catalytic fast pyrolysis of cellulose and on-line analysis of the pyrolysis vapors. Experiments were performed to investigate the effects of several factors on the LGO production, i.e. pyrolysis temperature, cellulose/catalyst ratio, TiO2 crystal type, and pyrolysis time. The results indicated that the SO42-/TiO2 catalyst lowered the initial cellulose decomposition temperature and altered the pyrolytic product significantly. Levoglucosan (LG was the most abundant product in the non-catalytic process, while levoglucosenone (LGO was the major product in the catalytic process. The maximal LGO yield was obtained at the set pyrolysis temperature of 400 °C, while the highest LGO content was obtained at 350 °C, with the peak area% over 50%. In addition, the SO42-/TiO2 (anatase was confirmed the best catalyst for the LGO production.

  1. Pyrolysis of two different biomass samples in a fixed-bed reactor combined with two different catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funda Ates; Ayse E. Putun; Ersan Putun [Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey). Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture

    2006-09-15

    Pyrolysis of Euphorbia rigida and sesame stalk biomass samples with two selected commercial catalyst, namely DHC-32 and HC-K 1.3Q, have been conducted in a fixed-bed reactor. The effect of different catalysts and their ratio (5, 10 and 20% w/w) and pyrolysis temperature (500 and 750{sup o}C) on the pyrolysis product yields were investigated and the obtained results were compared with similar experiments without catalyst. Bio-oil yield was increased comparing with non-catalytic experiments, at final pyrolysis temperature of 500{sup o}C for both biomass samples and catalysts. In the catalytic experiments; when the temperature reached to 750{sup o}C, although bio-oil product yield was reduced, the gas product yield was increased comparing with non-catalytic experiments. The pyrolysis oils were examined using spectroscopic and chromatographic analyses and then fractioned by column chromatography. Although the aliphatic and aromatic fractions were decreased and polar fraction was increased with catalytic pyrolysis of E. rigida; an opposite trend was observed in the sesame stalk pyrolysis oil, comparing with non-catalytic results. Obtained results were compared with petroleum fractions and determined the possibility of being a potential source of renewable fuels. 35 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. A study of paint sludge deactivation by pyrolysis reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muniz L.A.R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of large quantities of paint sludge is a serious environmental problem. This work evaluates the use of pyrolysis reaction as a process for deactivating paint sludge that generates a combustible gas phase, a solvent liquid phase and an inert solid phase. These wastes were classified into three types: water-based solvent (latex resin and solvents based on their resins (alkyd and polyurethane. An electrically heated stainless steel batch reactor with a capacity of 579 mL and a maximum pressure of 30 atm was used. Following the reactor, a flash separator, which was operated at atmospheric pressure, partially condensed and separated liquid and gas products. Pressure and temperature were monitored on-line by a control and data acquisition system, which adjusted the heating power supplied to the pyrolysis reactor. Reactions followed an experimental design with two factors (reaction time and temperature and three levels (10, 50 and 90 minutes; 450, 550 and 650degreesC. The response variables were liquid and solid masses and net heat of combustion. The optimal operational range for the pyrolysis process was obtained for each response variable. A significant reduction in total mass of solid waste was obtained.

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF BIO-OIL FROM PALM KERNEL SHELL PYROLYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis of palm kernel shell in a fixed-bed reactor was studied in this paper. The objectives were to investigate the effect of pyrolysis temperature and particle size on the products yield and to characterize the bio-oil product. In order to get the optimum pyrolysis parameters on bio-oil yield, temperatures of 350, 400, 450, 500 and 550 °C and particle sizes of 212–300 µm, 300–600 µm, 600µm–1.18 mm and 1.18–2.36 mm under a heating rate of 50 °C min-1 were investigated. The maximum bio-oil yield was 38.40% at 450 °C with a heating rate of 50 °C min-1 and a nitrogen sweep gas flow rate of 50 ml min-1. The bio-oil products were analysed by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR and gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GCMS. The FTIR analysis showed that the bio-oil was dominated by oxygenated species. The phenol, phenol, 2-methoxy- and furfural that were identified by GCMS analysis are highly suitable for extraction from the bio-oil as value-added chemicals. The highly oxygenated oils need to be upgraded in order to be used in other applications such as transportation fuels.

  4. Pyrolysis of humic and fulvic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wershaw, R. L.; Bohner, G.E., Jr.

    1969-01-01

    Pyrolysis of humic and fulvic acids isolated from a North Carolina soil yields a variety of aromatic, heterocyclic and straight chain organ compounds. The pyrolysis products identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry indicate that humic and fulvic acids have aromatic and polysaccharide structures in their molecules. ?? 1969.

  5. Rotor for a pyrolysis centrifuge reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a rotor for a pyrolysis centrifuge reactor, said rotor comprising a rotor body having a longitudinal centre axis, and at least one pivotally mounted blade being adapted to pivot around a pivot axis under rotation of the rotor body around the longitudinal centre axis....... Moreover, the present invention relates to a pyrolysis centrifuge reactor applying such a rotor....

  6. Element and PAH constituents in the residues and liquid oil from biosludge pyrolysis in an electrical thermal furnace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hung-Lung; Lin, Kuo-Hsiung; Lai, Nina; Shieh, Zhu-Xin

    2014-05-15

    Biosludge can be pyrolyzed to produce liquid oil as an alternative fuel. The content of five major elements, 22 trace elements and 16 PAHs was investigated in oven-dried raw material, pyrolysis residues and pyrolysis liquid products. Results indicated 39% carbon, 4.5% hydrogen, 4.2% nitrogen and 1.8% sulfur were in oven dried biosludge. Biosludge pyrolysis, carried out at temperatures from 400 to 800C, corresponded to 34-14% weight in pyrolytic residues, 32-50% weight in liquid products and 31-40% weight in the gas phase. The carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen decreased and the sulfur content increased with an increase in the pyrolysis temperature at 400-800C. NaP (2 rings) and AcPy (3 rings) were the major PAHs, contributing 86% of PAHs in oven-dried biosludge. After pyrolysis, the PAH content increased with the increase of pyrolysis temperature, which also results in a change in the PAH species profile. In pyrolysis liquid oil, NaP, AcPy, Flu and PA were the major species, and the content of the 16 PAHs ranged from 1.6 to 19 ?g/ml at pyrolysis temperatures ranging from 400 to 800C. Ca, Mg, Al, Fe and Zn were the dominant trace elements in the raw material and the pyrolysis residues. In addition, low toxic metal (Cd, V, Co, and Pb) content was found in the liquid oil, and its heat value was 7,800-9,500 kcal/kg, which means it can be considered as an alternative fuel. PMID:24631616

  7. Plutonium recovery from combustible wastes treated by incineration and pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The factors affecting the recovery of plutonium from incineration and pyrolysis residues have been investigated. In order to examine the leachability of plutonium from the residues, trial incinerations and pyrolyses have been carried out in a specially constructed furnace. A range of contaminated wastes have been treated and the relationship between waste type, plutonium contaminant and incinerator/pyrolysis conditions examined. The optimum conditions for dissolution of plutonium have been identified. The incineration temperature and the types of inorganic fillers present in the combustible materials have been shown to be the key parameters. Chemical flowsheets for the treatment of the ash leach solutions have been investigated. Solvent extraction with tributylphosphate/kerosene has been employed under low acid/high nitrate conditions to extract plutonium and americium. Conditioning of the leach solution prior to partial neutralisation is the key stage in the process. (orig.)

  8. Pyrolysis of epoxies used for thermal-battery headers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Thornberg, S.M.; Campbell-Domme, B.

    1995-08-01

    Thermally activated batteries use an epoxy for encapsulation of the electrical feedthroughs in the header of the battery. When the thermal battery is thermally abused, the encapsulant can pyrolyze and generate large internal pressures. This causes the battery to vent in extreme cases. The nature of these gases has never been adequately documented. Therefore, a study was undertaken to address this deficiency. The pyrolysis of various encapsulants that have been used, or are being considered for use, in thermally activated batteries was studied over a temperature range of 155 to 455 C. The composition of the pyrolysis decomposition products was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GS/MS). This determination is helpful in assessing the potential environmental and health effect for personnel exposed to such gases. In addition, the thermal stability of the various epoxies was measured by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

  9. Phenol and phenolics from lignocellulosic biomass by catalytic microwave pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu, Quan; Lei, Hanwu; Ren, Shoujie; Wang, Lu; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Zhang, Qin; Tang, Juming; Ruan, Roger

    2011-07-01

    Catalytic microwave pyrolysis of biomass using activated carbon was investigated to determine the effects of pyrolytic conditions on the yields of phenol and phenolics. The high concentrations of phenol (38.9%) and phenolics (66.9%) were obtained at the temperature of 589 K, catalyst-to-biomass ratio of 3:1 and retention time of 8 min. The increase of phenol and its derivatives compared to pyrolysis without catalysts has a close relationship with the decomposition of lignin under the performance of activated carbon. The concentration of esters was also increased using activated carbon as a catalyst. The high content of phenols obtained in this study can be used either directly as fuel after upgrading or as feedstock of biobased phenols for chemical industry.

  10. Co-pyrolysis characteristic of biomass and bituminous coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuaidan; Chen, Xueli; Liu, Aibin; Wang, Li; Yu, Guangsuo

    2015-03-01

    Co-pyrolysis characteristics of biomass and bituminous coal have been studied in this work. The temperature was up to 900C with the heating rates of 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30C/min. Rice straw, saw dust, microcrystalline cellulose, lignin and Shenfu bituminous coal were chosen as samples. Six different biomass ratios were used. The individual thermal behavior of each sample was obtained. The experimental weight fractions of the blended samples and the calculated values were compared. The results show that the weight fractions of the blended samples behave differently with calculated ones during the co-pyrolysis process. With the increasing biomass ratio, relative deviations between experimental weight fractions and calculated ones are larger. H/C molar ratio, heat transfer properties of biomass would affect to the interaction between biomass and coal. The maximum degradation rates are slower than the calculated ones. The activation energy distributions also changed by adding some biomass into coal. PMID:25553573

  11. Syngas production by two-stage method of biomass catalytic pyrolysis and gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qinglong; Kong, Sifang; Liu, Yangsheng; Zeng, Hui

    2012-04-01

    A two-stage technology integrated with biomass catalytic pyrolysis and gasification processes was utilized to produce syngas (H(2)+CO). In the presence of different nickel based catalysts, effects of pyrolysis temperature and gasification temperature on gas production were investigated. Experimental results showed that more syngas and char of high quality could be obtained at a temperature of 750°C in the stage of pyrolysis, and in the stage of gasification, pyrolysis char (produced at 750°C) reacted with steam and the maximum yield of syngas was obtained at 850°C. Syngas yield in this study was greatly increased compared with previous studies, up to 3.29Nm(3)/kg biomass. The pyrolysis process could be well explained by Arrhenius kinetic first-order rate equation. XRD analyses suggested that formation of Mg(0.4)Ni(0.6)O and increase of Ni(0) crystallite size were two main reasons for the deactivation of nickel based catalysts at higher temperature. PMID:22342084

  12. Energy recovery from pyrolysis and gasification of mangrove

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The increase in reactor temperature increased the hydrogen yield and energy yield. ► The increase in reactor temperature increased the peak value of syngas flow rate. ► Cumulative yield of energy was calculated based on the time dependent results. ► Higher reactor temperatures shortened the time duration for 99% release of syngas. ► Gasification yielded more hydrogen and energy than that obtained from pyrolysis. -- Abstract: Mangrove is a biomass material that grows in wetland sea waters and is often used to produce charcoal due to its unique characteristics of long and sustained burning and negligible residue. High temperature pyrolysis has been conducted for mangrove biomass in a laboratory scale semi-batch reactor. The effect of reactor temperature on syngas yield and syngas characteristics has been investigated. Reactor temperature was varied from 600 to 900 °C in 100 °C intervals. The increase in reactor temperature resulted in increased syngas yield, hydrogen yield and energy yield. Evolutionary behavior of the syngas characteristics has also been investigated. The increase in reactor temperature increased the peak value of syngas flow rate, hydrogen flow rate and output power. The increase in reactor temperature decreased the time duration of pyrolysis. Cumulative yield of syngas, hydrogen and energy was calculated based on the time dependent relationship. Higher reactor temperatures shortened the time duration required for 99% release of syngas, hydrogen and energy. For example, time duration required for 99% yield of hydrogen was approximately 73 min at 600 °C and only about 26 min at 900 °C. Required time duration for 99% yield of energy was ∼62 min at 600 °C and ∼15 min at 900 °C. The gasification of the same material at 900 °C has been carried out to determine the role of gasifying agent on the fate of material and resulting syngas properties. The results showed gasification yielded more syngas, hydrogen and energy than that obtained from pyrolysis.

  13. PLASMA PYROLYSIS OF BROWN COAL

    OpenAIRE

    Plotczyk, W.; Resztak, A.; Szymanski, A.

    1990-01-01

    The specific energy of the substrate is defined as the ratio of the plasma jet energy to the mass of the coal. The influence of the specific energy of the brown coal (10 - 35 MJ/kg) on the yield and selectivity of the gaseous products formation was determined. The pyrolysis was performed in d.c. arc hydrogen plasma jet with the 25 kW power delivered to it. The higher specific energies of coal correlated to the higher conversion degrees of the substrates to C2H2 and CO as well as to the higher...

  14. Recycling of polymers by pyrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminsky, W.

    1993-01-01

    The pyrolysis of plastic waste, scrap tires and other polymeric materials in a fluidized bed has been carried out based on a scale up program (laboratory plants 70 g/h, 500 g/h, 3000 g/h, and pilot plant 20-50 kg/h). The fluidized bed shows short residence times and high heat and mass transfers, and is heated indirectly up to 600 - 800C. In the case of poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) or polystyrene as feedstock up to 97 wt.% of the monomer can be recovered. Other polymers give a more unspeci...

  15. SPHERICAL CALCIA STABILIZED ZIRCONIA POWDERS OBTAINED BY SPRAY PYROLYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E Esparza-Ponce

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical and chemical properties of ceramic powders are highly dependent on the morphology and chemical composition of the precursor powders. Therefore, properties of ceramic powders are expecting to be improved by controlling the most important parameters of morphology such as composition of precursors, temperature and airflow. Promising techniques to produce ceramic powders with controlled morphology are sol-gel, coprecipitation, and pyrolysis. Among these techniques, spray pyrolysis is one of the most suitable to control the morphology and the chemical composition of the particles, because the spray pyrolysis technique integrates the evaporation, precipitation, decomposition and sintering stage of powder synthesis into a single continuos process. Spherical powders were prepared from acetylacetonate of zirconium and acetate calcium hydrated solutions by pneumatic spray pyrolysis. The morphology and size of the powders change with variation of airflow, temperature, and solution concentration.Las propiedades fsicas y qumicas de los polvos cermicos dependen grandemente de la morfologa y de la composicin qumica de las soluciones precursoras. Por lo tanto, las propiedades de los polvos cermicos estn esperando ser mejoradas controlando los parmetros que ms influyen en la morfologa como son la composicin de las soluciones precursoras, temperatura y flujo de aire. Algunas de las tcnicas que ofrecen producir polvos cermicos con morfologa controlada son: sol gel, coprecipitacin y pirlisis. Dentro de estas tcnicas la aspersin piroltica es una de las ms adecuadas para el control de la morfologa y la composicin qumica de las partculas, ya que la aspersin piroltica integra la evaporacin, precipitacin, descomposicin y estado de sinterizacin para la sntesis de polvos en un slo proceso continuo. En este trabajo, los polvos obtenidos son esfricos y han sido preparados a partir de acetilacetonato de circonio y acetato de calcio en solucin; mediante la tcnica de aspersin piroltica utilizando un aspersor neumtico. La morfologa y el tamao de partcula cambian con las variaciones del flujo de aire, temperatura y la concentracin molar de la solucin.

  16. Production of bran castor biochar through slow pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pissinati de Rezende, E. I.; Mangrich, A. S.; Batista, M. G. F.; Toledo, J. M. S.; Novotny, E. H.

    2012-04-01

    Pyrolysis is a thermal process of great importance in the present context, since it constitutes a significant alternative to adequate use of organic waste. The principal products obtained in the pyrolysis of discarded biomass are bio-oil, biogas and biochar. Biochar, in turn, may play a relevant role when applied to the soil to sequester carbon and as a soil conditioner, a material comparable to organic matter of Indians Black Earths from the Amazon Region [1]. Seeking to determine the best methods of preparation of biochar, we studied the pyrolysis of bran castor residue of the Brazilian biodiesel industry. Eight samples, from FM1 to FM8, were prepared in a factorial design 23 using two temperature (300 and 350 °C), two heating velocity (5 and 10 °C min-1) and two period of heating (30 and 60 min). The eight samples were studied using the spectroscopy: EPR, FTIR, RMN, XPS, and elemental analysis. By elemental analysis, the samples that keep for lower temperature of pyrolysis, 300 °C, showed H/C and N/C ratios greater than the samples of 350 °C. That higher value can be attributed to chemical structure more aliphatic than aromatic mainly in the FM7 sample (V = 10 °C min-1, T = 300 °C, P = 30 min). The greater N/C ratio correlated with a superior amount of nitrogenous functions, presenting by both FM7 and FM4 samples, as determined by 13C NMR spectroscopy with absorptions in 175 ppm (amide) and 55 ppm (N-alkyl).

  17. Pyrolysis and gasification of typical components in wastes with macro-TGA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Aihong; Chen, Shen; Long, Yanqiu; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Yanguo; Li, Qinghai

    2015-12-01

    The pyrolysis and gasification of typical components of solid waste, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) were performed and compared in a macro thermogravimetric analyzer (macro-TGA). Three model biomasses, poplar stem, orange peel and Chinese cabbage, were applied to pyrolysis and gasification simulation by their components based on TG curves. Compared to those from TGA, peaks temperature of the differential thermogravimetric (DTG) curves of each samples pyrolysis on macro-TGA delayed 30-55°C due to heat transferring effect. CO2 promoted the thermal decomposition of hemicellulose, lignin, starch, pectin and model biomasses significantly by Boudouard reaction, and enhanced slightly the decomposition of PET. The activation energy (AE) of biomass components pyrolysis on macro-TGA was 167-197 kJ/mol, while that of plastic samples was 185-235 kJ/mol. The activation energy of 351-377 kJ/mol was corresponding to the Boudouard reaction in CO2 gasification. All overlap ratios in pseudo-components simulation were higher than 0.98 to indicate that pseudo-components model could be applied to both pyrolysis and CO2 gasification, and the mass fractions of components derived from pyrolysis and gasification were slightly different but not brought in obvious difference in simulating curves when they were applied across. PMID:26318422

  18. STEPWISE ISOTHERMAL FAST PYROLYSIS (SIFP OF BIOMASS PART I. SIFP OF PINE SAWDUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Lpez Rivilli

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis of pine wood sawdust was carried out using stepwise isothermal fast pyrolysis (SIFP, focusing on the search of reaction conditions to obtain chemicals in good yields from biomass. SIFP consists of successive isothermal fast pyrolysis reactions, where solid products obtained in the previous isothermal fast pyrolysis become the substrate of the subsequent reaction at a higher temperature. This article reports results obtained by SIFP of pine sawdust between 200 and 600C using 100C intervals under vacuum (0.2 mm, using nitrogen as carrier gas. Both sets of reactions made it possible to obtain most of the compounds that have been previously described in conventional fast pyrolysis experiments; however this system produces a smaller number of chemical compounds in each isothermal FP, making it easier to obtain determined chemicals with industrial or research value. Maximum yield of liquid products occurred at 300C, giving around 30% of bio-oil, which contained mainly phenols and furan derivatives. Liquid-Liquid extraction led to a rich mixture of phenol derivatives. Results showed that SIFP is an interesting technique to obtain enriched fractions of products derived from biomass pyrolysis.

  19. TG study on pyrolysis of biomass and its three components under syngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gang Wang; Wen Li; Baoqing Li; Haokan Chen [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion

    2008-04-15

    Pyrolysis of sawdust and its three components (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) were performed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA92) under syngas and hydrogen. The effect of different heating rates (5, 10, 15 and 20{sup o}C/min) on the pyrolysis of these samples were examined. The pyrolysis tests of the synthesized samples (a mixture of the three components with different ratios) were also done under syngas. The distributed activation energy model (DAEM) was used to study the pyrolysis kinetics. It is found that syngas could replace hydrogen in hydropyrolysis process of biomass. Among the three components, hemicellulose would be the easiest one to be pyrolyzed and then would be cellulose, while lignin would be the most difficult one. Heating rate could not only affect the temperature at which the highest weight loss rate reached, but also affect the maximum value of weight loss rate. Both lignin and hemicellulose used in the experiments could affect the pyrolysis characteristic of cellulose while they could not affect each other obviously in the pyrolysis process. Values of k{sub 0} (frequency factor) change very greatly with different E (activation energy) values. The E values of sawdust range from 161.9 to 202.3 kJ/mol, which is within the range of activation energy values for cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. 22 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Thermo-Catalytic Pyrolysis of Waste Plastics from End of Life Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miskolczi Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis of waste plastics is widely used recycling method. Owing to the end-of-life vehicles regulations, 95% of passenger cars and vehicles must reused/recovered after the dismantling. Pyrolysis of waste polyethylene and polypropylene obtained from end-of-life vehicles was investigated in a continuously stirred batch reactor using 500 and 600°C temperatures. To ensure the pyrolysis reactions the tested catalysts (5% of ZSM-5, HZSM-5, Ni-ZSM-5 and Fe-ZSM-5 were added directly to the mixtures of raw materials. Products of pyrolysis were separated into gases, pyrolysis oil and heavy oil, which was further analyzed by gas-chromatography, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and other standardized methods. Based on the results it was concluded, that the catalysts significantly increase the yields of volatile products, and modify their composition. Especially the alkane/alkene ratio, the methane concentration and the concentration of branched hydrocarbon could be affected by the applied catalysts. Ni-ZSM-5 catalyst had the highest activity in methane production, while HZSM-5 catalyst proved effective in isomerization reactions. Using H-ZSM-5, Ni-ZSM-5, and Fe-ZSM-5 catalyst notably decreased average molecular weight of pyrolysis oils and significantly higher aromatic content was observed.

  1. Study on pyrolysis kinetics of pine park, rice straw and bamboo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.; Liu, L. [Changsha Univ. of Science and Technology, Changsha (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering

    2008-07-01

    This paper examined the pyrolysis kinetics of biomass in order to optimize reaction conditions in biomass plants. A WCT-2 high temperature thermogravimetric analysis was conducted on heated samples of pine bark, rice straw, and bamboo with different granularities at heating rates of 10 K, 20 K, and 30 K per min in a nitrogen atmosphere. The study investigated the influence of heating rates, biomass composition, and catalysts on the biomass pyrolysis. Reaction kinetics and activation energy parameters were also evaluated. The study showed that thermogravimetry and DTC curves increased when heating rates increased. Ash content was higher, and maximum pyrolysis velocity was lower. The content of volatile matter was higher, and maximum pyrolysis velocity was higher. Heating rates were not significantly influenced by the granularity of the biomass samples. It was concluded that ash and volatile matter in the samples have a significant influence on pyrolysis. Results of the study were used to design a biomass pyrolysis kinetics model. 9 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  2. The characterization of eight maceral concentrates by means of Curie point pyrolysis-gas chromatography and Curie point pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nip, Margriet; De Leeuw, J. W.; Schenck, P. A.

    1988-03-01

    In order to study the relationships between the chemical structures of coals, coal macerals and their precursors (plant tissues), eight coal macerals originating from the Yorkshire coal basin (U.K.) were studied by Curie point pyrolysis-gas chromatography and Curie point pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The samples were selected on the basis of a previous study of a large set of macerals. The macerals were studied in order to relate structural moieties of the macerals, as reflected by their pyrolysis products, to structural elements of their likely precursors, plant tissues. The maceral pyrolysates mainly consist of alkylbenzenes, alkylnaphthalenes, alkylphenols and series of straight-chain alk-l-enes and alkanes over a wide molecular weight range. The relative contribution of the (hydroxy)aromatic pyrolysis products and of the straight-chain alk-l-enes and alkanes to each maceral pyrolysate was calculated, although the internal distribution patterns of the alkyl derivatives of these pyrolysis products exhibited to a certain extent dissimilarities. Differences between the relative contributions of these pyrolysis products to the pyrolysates of different macerals with the same coal rank and to those of similar macerals with different coal rank depend on differences in precursor material and the chemical modification of these precursors upon increasing coalification. Multivariate data treatment by means of factor analysis was chosen to compare the pyrolysis data - represented by these histograms - with the petrographic data and the proximate and ultimate analysis values of the macerals. In addition, similar analyses was performed on the macerals using such a low Curie temperature (358°C), that from some of the macerals "thermal extracts" were obtained, containing a series of n-alkanes and some isoprenoids such as pristane and phytane. Although these thermal extracts represent only a low percentage by weight of the maceral samples, their existence probably will affect both the chemical and physical properties of the macerals, although they are in fact no pan of the coal structure itself.

  3. FAST PYROLYSIS – EFFECT OF WOOD DRYING ON THE YIELD AND PROPERTIES OF BIO-OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriks Samulis

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The composition and properties of the products of fast pyrolysis of hardwood, obtained in a two-chamber (drying and pyrolytic ablation type reactor in the temperature range 450-600ºС, were investigated. It has been found that, upon the additional drying of wood at 200ºС and subsequent pyrolysis, the quality of bio-oil is improved owing to the decrease in the amount of water and acids. It has been shown that the increase of the drying temperature to 240ºС decreases the yield of the main product. Optimum parameters of the drying conditions and the temperature of the pyrolysis of wood, at which the bio-oil yield exceeds 60% and its calorific value makes up 17-20 МJ/kg, have been determined.

  4. Study on condensation of biomass pyrolysis gas by spray bio-oil droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Kun; Cheng, Wen-Long [University of Science and Technology of China (China)], email: wlcheng@ustc.edu.cn; Chen, Jing [Anhui Electric Power Design Institute (China); Shi, Wen-Jing [Anhui Heli Co., Ltd (China)

    2011-07-01

    This is a study of bio-oil generated by fast pyrolysis; a biomass feedstock is heated to pyrolyze at a rapid rate, the gas pyrolyzed is then condensed rapidly. The interesting result is a potential alternative fuel oil. An analysis was made of the effects of the initial pyrolysis gas temperatures, the initial bio-oil droplets temperatures and diameters, and the flow ratio of the gas and the liquid droplets on the heat and mass transfer between the gas and the liquid droplets. A few criterion equations were achieved with respect to the spray condenser. This paper established the gas-liquid phase equilibrium of an aqueous multi-composition system and the spray condensation model coupling heat and mass transfer. Model calculation and analysis showed that: spray condensation can effectively cool the high-temperature pyrolysis gas quickly; with gas liquid flowing, mass transfer rate reduces; and the relationship of gas and liquid flow ratio can achieve good accuracy.

  5. Liquid-phase processing of fast pyrolysis bio-oil using platinum/HZSM-5 catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Bjorn Sanchez

    Recent developments in converting biomass to bio-chemicals and liquid fuels provide a promising sight to an emerging biofuels industry. Biomass can be converted to energy via thermochemical and biochemical pathways. Thermal degradation processes include liquefaction, gasification, and pyrolysis. Among these biomass technologies, pyrolysis (i.e. a thermochemical conversion process of any organic material in the absence of oxygen) has gained more attention because of its simplicity in design, construction and operation. This research study focuses on comparative assessment of two types of pyrolysis processes and catalytic upgrading of bio-oil for production of transportation fuel intermediates. Slow and fast pyrolysis processes were compared for their respective product yields and properties. Slow pyrolysis bio-oil displayed fossil fuel-like properties, although low yields limit the process making it uneconomically feasible. Fast pyrolysis, on the other hand, show high yields but produces relatively less quality bio-oil. Catalytic transformation of the high-boiling fraction (HBF) of the crude bio-oil from fast pyrolysis was therefore evaluated by performing liquid-phase reactions at moderate temperatures using Pt/HZSM-5 catalyst. High yields of upgraded bio-oils along with improved heating values and reduced oxygen contents were obtained at a reaction temperature of 200°C and ethanol/HBF ratio of 3:1. Better quality, however, was observed at 240 °C even though reaction temperature has no significant effect on coke deposition. The addition of ethanol in the feed has greatly attenuated coke deposition in the catalyst. Major reactions observed are esterification, catalytic cracking, and reforming. Overall mass and energy balances in the conversion of energy sorghum biomass to produce a liquid fuel intermediate obtained sixteen percent (16 wt.%) of the biomass ending up as liquid fuel intermediate, while containing 26% of its initial energy.

  6. Green tide to green fuels: TG–FTIR analysis and kinetic study of Ulva prolifera pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Distributed Activation Energy Model applied to Ulva prolifera pyrolysis. • Model and experimental data in good agreement to predict activation energy. • Ulva prolifera shows relatively low activation energy compared to other macroalgae. • Evolved gas analysis shows CO2 emission decreasing with temperature. • Methane evolution increases with temperature, peaks at 800 °C. - Abstract: The world grapples with identifying renewable replacements for fossil fuels. Ulva prolifera, a macroalgae species that has caused green tides in China and Europe, represents a possible source of renewable energy. Given its low lipid content, thermochemical conversion techniques such as pyrolysis may be more suitable than biochemical techniques. We apply the Distributed Activation Energy Model to determine the activation energy of pyrolysis of U. prolifera from thermogravimetric data with combined evolved gas analysis via FTIR. Correlation coefficients for the DAEM were greater than 0.98 at each conversion; the apparent activation energy ranged from 130 to 152 kJ/mol, in good accord with the literature. Three stages of decomposition were noted over the entire temperature range; below 110 °C mass loss due to moisture removal. The largest stage of pyrolysis occurred between 190 and 400 °C with peak mass loss conversion rates up to 8.1 wt% per minute at 20 °C/min. The concentration of CO2 in the evolved gas peaked along with mass loss rate at 242.7 °C. Stage III of pyrolysis saw a slow mass loss rate and a significant amount of methane from the macroalgae. Given its low energy, nutrient, land and maintenance requirements to grow, tolerance to a variety of environmental conditions, and low pyrolysis activation energies (as compared to other macroalgae), thermochemical conversion via pyrolysis is a viable way to extract energy from this seaweed species

  7. The Spatial Distribution of Absolute Skeletal Muscle Deoxygenation During Ramp-Incremental Exercise Is Not Influenced by Hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, T Scott; Koga, Shunsaku; Amano, Tatsuro; Kondo, Narihiko; Rossiter, Harry B

    2016-01-01

    Time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (TRS-NIRS) allows absolute quantitation of deoxygenated haemoglobin and myoglobin concentration ([HHb]) in skeletal muscle. We recently showed that the spatial distribution of peak [HHb] within the quadriceps during moderate-intensity cycling is reduced with progressive hypoxia and this is associated with impaired aerobic energy provision. We therefore aimed to determine whether reduced spatial distribution of skeletal muscle [HHb] was associated with impaired aerobic energy transfer during exhaustive ramp-incremental exercise in hypoxia. Seven healthy men performed ramp-incremental cycle exercise (20W/min) to exhaustion at 3 fractional inspired O2 concentrations (FIO2): 0.21, 0.16, 0.12. Pulmonary O2 uptake ([Formula: see text]) was measured using a flow meter and gas analyser system. Lactate threshold (LT) was estimated non-invasively. Absolute muscle deoxygenation was quantified by multichannel TRS-NIRS from the rectus femoris and vastus lateralis (proximal and distal regions). [Formula: see text] and LT were progressively reduced (p?hypoxia. There was a significant effect (p?exercise in hypoxia. While regional [HHb] quantified by TRS-NIRS at exhaustion was greater in hypoxia, the spatial distribution of [HHb] was unaffected. Interestingly, peak [Hbtot] was reduced at the tolerable limit in hypoxia implying a vasodilatory reserve may exist in conditions with reduced FIO2. PMID:26782190

  8. Catalytic pyrolysis of wheat bran for hydrocarbons production in the presence of zeolites and noble-metals by using TGA-FTIR method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazdovica, K; Liepina, L; Kampars, V

    2016-05-01

    Pyrolysis of wheat bran with or without catalysts was investigated using TGA-FTIR method in order to determine the influence of zeolite and noble metal catalysts on the evolution profile and relative yield of the volatile compounds. The addition of all catalysts decreased the volatile matter of wheat bran from 76.3% to 75.9%, 73.9%, 73.5%, 69.7% and increased the solid residue from 18.0% to 18.4%, 20.4%, 20.8%, 24.6% under the catalyst of ZSM-5, 5% Pd/C, MCM-41, and 5% Pt/C. Noble-metal catalysts had higher activity for deoxygenation of compounds containing carbonyl, carboxyl, and hydroxyl groups than zeolites. Degradation of nitrogen containing compounds atom proceeded better in presence of zeolites. Noble-metal catalysts promoted formation of aromatics and changed the profiles of evolved compounds whereas zeolites advanced formation of aliphatics and olefins. PMID:26874441

  9. Analytical pyrolysis of humic substances: pitfalls, limitations, and possible solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Sáiz-Jiménez, Cesáreo

    1994-01-01

    Analytical pyrolysis is a technique currently used for investigating structural features of complex macromolecular materials. However, pitfalls appear to be widespread in pyrolysis studies ofhumic substances, and serious limitations can be experienced during the analytical procedure due to thermal reactions and configuration of the pyrolysis units and chromatographic systems. Pyrolysis presents inconsistencies for chemical studies, and the interpretation of the chemica...

  10. Application of pyrolysis process to remove and recover liquid crystal and films from waste liquid crystal display glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Pyrolysis process can recycle the liquid crystal and films from liquid crystal display glass successfully. ► The removal of organic parts from the liquid crystal glass reached 87.87 wt%. ► The mechanism analysis of pyrolysis process explains the whole pyrolysis process perfect. ► All pyrolysis products can be tilized by a reasonable way. - Abstract: Liquid crystal display (LCD) glass mainly consists of polarizing film, liquid crystal and glass substrate. Removing and recovering the liquid crystal and films from the LCD glass effectively has important significance for recovering the other parts. This study proposed a pyrolysis process to recover the organic parts from LCD glass. Through thermal gravimetric analysis, the pyrolysis temperature of the LCD glass could be chosen at 850 K. The removal rate of organic parts from LCD glass reached 87.87 wt%. Pyrolysis products consisted of 66.82 wt% oils, 21.01 wt% gaseous and 12.13 wt% residues. In addition, the oils contained 46.27 wt% acetic acid and 32.94 wt% triphenyl phosphate. Then, the pyrolysis mechanisms and products sources of the liquid crystal glass have been analyzed based on the information of bonds energy. The pyrolysis mechanism analysis proved that the products mainly consisted of acetic acid, triphenyl phosphate and C, which is consistent to the results of GC–MS analysis. A reasonable way has been put forward to recycle the pyrolysis products: acetic acid and triphenyl phosphate can be collected by distillation, the rest oils and gases can be used as fuel and the remained glass can be used to extract indium and to produce building materials.

  11. Application of pyrolysis process to remove and recover liquid crystal and films from waste liquid crystal display glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Rixin; Ma, En [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pyrolysis process can recycle the liquid crystal and films from liquid crystal display glass successfully. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The removal of organic parts from the liquid crystal glass reached 87.87 wt%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanism analysis of pyrolysis process explains the whole pyrolysis process perfect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All pyrolysis products can be tilized by a reasonable way. - Abstract: Liquid crystal display (LCD) glass mainly consists of polarizing film, liquid crystal and glass substrate. Removing and recovering the liquid crystal and films from the LCD glass effectively has important significance for recovering the other parts. This study proposed a pyrolysis process to recover the organic parts from LCD glass. Through thermal gravimetric analysis, the pyrolysis temperature of the LCD glass could be chosen at 850 K. The removal rate of organic parts from LCD glass reached 87.87 wt%. Pyrolysis products consisted of 66.82 wt% oils, 21.01 wt% gaseous and 12.13 wt% residues. In addition, the oils contained 46.27 wt% acetic acid and 32.94 wt% triphenyl phosphate. Then, the pyrolysis mechanisms and products sources of the liquid crystal glass have been analyzed based on the information of bonds energy. The pyrolysis mechanism analysis proved that the products mainly consisted of acetic acid, triphenyl phosphate and C, which is consistent to the results of GC-MS analysis. A reasonable way has been put forward to recycle the pyrolysis products: acetic acid and triphenyl phosphate can be collected by distillation, the rest oils and gases can be used as fuel and the remained glass can be used to extract indium and to produce building materials.

  12. Characterization of products obtained from pyrolysis and steam gasification of wood waste, RDF, and RPF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In-Hee; Kobayashi, Jun; Kawamoto, Katsuya

    2014-02-01

    Pyrolysis and steam gasification of woody biomass chip (WBC) obtained from construction and demolition wastes, refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and refuse paper and plastic fuel (RPF) were performed at various temperatures using a lab-scale instrument. The gas, liquid, and solid products were examined to determine their generation amounts, properties, and the carbon balance between raw material and products. The amount of product gas and its hydrogen concentration showed a considerable difference depending on pyrolysis and steam gasification at higher temperature. The reaction of steam and solid product, char, contributed to an increase in gas amount and hydrogen concentration. The amount of liquid products generated greatly depended on temperature rather than pyrolysis or steam gasification. The compositions of liquid product varied relying on raw materials used at 500C but the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons became the major compounds at 900C irrespective of the raw materials used. Almost fixed carbon (FC) of raw materials remained as solid products under pyrolysis condition whereas FC started to decompose at 700C under steam gasification condition. For WBC, both char utilization by pyrolysis at low temperature (500C) and syngas recovery by steam gasification at higher temperature (900C) might be practical options. From the results of carbon balance of RDF and RPF, it was confirmed that the carbon conversion to liquid products conspicuously increased as the amount of plastic increased in the raw material. To recover feedstock from RPF, pyrolysis for oil recovery at low temperature (500C) might be one of viable options. Steam gasification at 900C could be an option but the method of tar reforming (e.g. catalyst utilization) should be considered. PMID:24246576

  13. Material challenges in ethylene pyrolysis furnace heater service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarra, S.

    1980-02-01

    Operating temperatures of pyrolysis furnaces are sometimes in excess of 2000/sup 0/F (1100/sup 0/C). These temperatures are very detrimental to the life of the typical HK-40 furnace tubes which normally have a three to five year life in the hot section of these furnaces. Short life is attributed to rapid carburization of ID surfaces which subjects tubes to higher than normal stresses and results in creep cracking of furnace tubes. As an aid to understanding the materials problems the ethylene process will be presented, along with data on the carburization of furnace tubes.

  14. Photoluminescence of spray pyrolysis deposited ZnO nanorods

    OpenAIRE

    Mikli Valdek; Kärber Erki; Raadik Taavi; Dedova Tatjana; Krustok Jüri; Mere Arvo; Krunks Malle

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Photoluminescence of highly structured ZnO layers comprising well-shaped hexagonal rods is presented. The ZnO rods (length 500-1,000 nm, diameter 100-300 nm) were grown in air onto a preheated soda-lime glass (SGL) or ITO/SGL substrate by low-cost chemical spray pyrolysis method using zinc chloride precursor solutions and growth temperatures in the range of 450-550°C. We report the effect of the variation in deposition parameters (substrate type, growth temperature, spray rate, ...

  15. A facile synthesis of MInSe2 (M = Cu, Ag) via low temperature pyrolysis of single source molecular precursors, [(R3P)2MIn(SeCOAr)4

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shamik Ghoshal; Liladhar B Kumbhare; Vimal K Jain; Gautam K Dey

    2007-04-01

    The reaction of KSeCOAr with InCl3 and [MCl(PR3)2] in benzene afforded bimetallic complexes, [(R3P)2MIn(SeCOAr)4] (PR3 = PEt3 or PPh3; M = Cu or Ag; Ar = –C6H5 (phenyl) or 4-MeC6H4 (tolyl)). The triethylphosphine complexes decomposed rapidly when M = Ag while slowly when M = Cu. All these complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-VIS, NMR (1H, 31P) spectral data. Pyrolysis in a furnace at 300°C gave tetragonal MInSe2 (M = Cu, Ag) structure. Solvothermal decomposition of [(PPh3)2CuIn(SeCOAr)4] in boiling ethylene glycol gave nanorods of CuInSe2 which were characterized by XRD, EDAX, SEM and TEM.

  16. High-speed pyrolysis with circulating heat carriers; Schnell-Pyrolyse mit zirkulierenden Waermetraegern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmalfeld, J.; Albrecht, J.; Solmaz, S.; Zentner, U. [Lurgi Energie und Umwelt GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Yields and product compositions of pyrolysis reactions depend on the mode of heat supply, the temperature level, and the time of residue at reaction temperature. Using hot circulating granular materials mixed with solid or liquid materials (e.g. biogenic or hydrocarbon-rich residues and waste materials or refinery residues), the following important processes can be investigated: Separation of pyrolysis reaction and heat supply - accurate, optimal temperature levels for pyrolysis, e.g. between 5000 and 850 degrees centigrade - undiluted, unmixed pyrolysis gas - short times of residue of the pyrolysis gas for suppression of secondary reactions. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ausbeuten und Produktzusammensetzung von Pyrolyse-Reaktionen werden weitestgehend durch die Art und Weise der Waermezufuhr, das Temperaturniveau und die Verweilzeit bei Reaktionstemperatur bestimmt. Mit Hilfe des Prinzips heisser, umlaufender, koerniger Waermetraeger in Vermischung - fuer die Pyrolyse-Reaktion - mit festen oder fluessigen Einsatzstoffen (z.B. biogene oder kohlenwasserstoffreiche Rest-/Abfallstoffe, Raffinerie-Rueckstaende) lassen sich folgende wichtige, haeufig gewuenschte Vorgaenge realisieren: - Trennung von Pyrolyse-Reaktion und Waermeversorgung - Temperaturgenaue Pyrolyse-Reaktion auf gewuenschtem, optimalem Niveau waehlbar zwischen z.B. 5000 C und 850 C - Erhalt eines unverduennten, unvermischten Pyrolysegases - Kurze Verweilzeiten des Pyrolysegases zur Unterdrueckung von Sekundaerreaktionen. (orig.)

  17. The Investigation of Reducing PAHs Emission from Coal Pyrolysis by Gaseous Catalytic Cracking

    OpenAIRE

    Yulong Wang; Ruifang Zhao; Chun Zhang; Guanlong Li; Jing Zhang; Fan Li

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic cracking method of PAHs for the pyrolysis gaseous products is proposed to control their pollution to the environment. In this study, the Py-GC-MS is used to investigate in situ the catalytic effect of CaO and Fe2O3 on the 16 PAHs from Pingshuo coal pyrolysis under different catalytic temperatures and catalyst particle sizes. The results demonstrate that Fe2O3 is effective than that of CaO for catalytic cracking of 16 PAHs and that their catalytic temperature corresponding to the...

  18. Characterization of the different fractions obtained from the pyrolysis of rope industry waste

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Marta; Parra Soto, José Bernardo; Haro Remón, Marta; Mestre, Ana S.; Carvalho, A. P.; Ovín Ania, María Concepción

    2012-01-01

    A study of the possibilities of pyrolysis for recovering wastes of the rope's industry has been carried out. The pyrolysis of this lignocellulosic residue started at 250 °C, with the main region of decomposition occurring at temperatures between 300 and 350 °C. As the reaction temperature increased, the yields of pyrolyzed gas and oil increased, yielding 22 wt.% of a carbonaceous residue, 50 wt.% tars and a gas fraction at 800 °C. The chemical composition and textural characterization of the ...

  19. FAST PYROLYSIS EFFECT OF WOOD DRYING ON THE YIELD AND PROPERTIES OF BIO-OIL

    OpenAIRE

    Eriks Samulis; Valdis Kampars; Aleksandr Volpert; Igors Urbanovich; Galina Dobele

    2007-01-01

    The composition and properties of the products of fast pyrolysis of hardwood, obtained in a two-chamber (drying and pyrolytic) ablation type reactor in the temperature range 450-600?, were investigated. It has been found that, upon the additional drying of wood at 200? and subsequent pyrolysis, the quality of bio-oil is improved owing to the decrease in the amount of water and acids. It has been shown that the increase of the drying temperature to 240? decreases the yield of the main produ...

  20. The Evritania (Greece) demonstration plant of biomass pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabaniotou, A.A.; Karabela, A.J. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute

    1999-06-01

    This paper is focused on describing the Evritania demonstration plant for pyrolysis of forestry biomass. This plant was constructed in the village of Voulpi, district of Evritania, in central Greece, in 1995, with a threefold purpose; development of know-how, forest fire prevention and rural development. The products are charcoal and bio-oil. The plant capacity is 1200-1450 kg/h of wet biomass and the pyrolysis temperature is approx. 400 deg C. The raw material used is Arbutus unedo, which is an evergreen broad-leaf tree which covers the area. Other agricultural waste could also be used, such as olive pits and cuttings, almond shells and cotton kernels. The paper includes the conceptual process flow sheet, the changes and improvements made during the trial phase, data from the start-up phase, and product characteristics. Comparison of the process with the Alten process is presented. Additionally, comparisons are made of product characteristics with those from other pyrolysis processes. In general, the results obtained are encouraging even though several improvements of the pilot plant are required. (author)

  1. Catalytic pyrolysis of car tire waste using expanded perlite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Y

    2011-08-01

    In this study, the non-catalytic and catalytic pyrolysis experiments were conducted on the sample of tire waste using expanded perlite as an additive material to determine especially the effect of temperature and catalyst-to-tire ratio on the products yields and the compositions and qualities of pyrolytic oils (NCPO and CPO). Non-catalytic studies, which were carried out under the certain conditions (a nitrogen flow of 100mL/min and a heating rate of 10°C/min), showed that the highest yield of pyrolytic oil (NCPO) was 60.02wt.% at 425°C. Then, the catalytic pyrolysis studies were carried out at catalyst-to-tire ratio range of 0.05-0.25 and the highest catalytic pyrolytic oil (CPO) yield was 65.11wt.% at the ratio of 0.10 with the yield increase of 8.48wt.% compared with the non-catalytic pyrolysis. Lastly, the pyrolytic oils were characterized with applying a various techniques such as elemental analyses and various chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques (GC-MS, (1)H NMR, FT-IR, etc.). The characterization results revealed that the pyrolytic oils which were complex mixtures of C(5)-C(15) organic compounds (predominantly aromatic compounds) and also the CPO compared to the NCPO was more similar to conventional fuels in view of the certain fuel properties. PMID:21543218

  2. Catalytic pyrolysis of cellulose in ionic liquid [bmim]OTf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Guangfei; He, Weiwei; Cai, Yingying; Huang, Xi; Ning, Ping

    2016-09-01

    This study discussed the catalytic cracking process of cellulose in ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([bmim]OTF) under 180°C, 240°C and 340°C, found that [bmim]OTF is an effective catalyst which can effectively reduce the pyrolysis temperature(nearly 200°C) of the cellulose. FRIR, XRD and SEM were used to analyze the structure characterization of fiber before and after the cracking; GC-MS was used for liquid phase products analysis; GC was used to analyze gas phase products. The results showed that the cellulose pyrolysis in [bmim]OTf mainly generated CO2, CO and H2, also generated 2-furfuryl alcohol, 2,5-dimethyl-1,5-diallyl-3-alcohol, 1,4-butyrolactone, 5-methyl furfural, 4-hydroxy butyric acid, vinyl propionate, 1-acetoxyl group-2-butanone, furan formate tetrahydrofuran methyl ester liquid product, and thus simulated the evolution mechanism of cellulose pyrolysis products based on the basic model of cellulose monomer. PMID:27185153

  3. Fast pyrolysis of lignin, macroalgae and sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung

    ) with no presence of oxygen. Fast pyrolysis can convert a large fraction of the biomass to bio-oil, and smaller fractions of char and gas. The pyrolysis centrifuge reactor (PCR) has been developed at the CHEC center at DTU Department of Chemical Engineering. The reactor is a compact design that uses a...... properties were relatively different to those of the straw or wood bio-oils with respect to oxygen content, viscosity, HHV and mean molecular mass. The HHV of the lignin, sewage sludge and macroalgae oils were 29.7, 25.7 and 25.5 MJ/kg db respectively, and that are higher than that of typical bioiv oil from...... conventional biomasses (23-24 MJ/kg db). Almost all metals feedstock contents were contained in the chars at temperatures of 550 - 575 °C for lignin, sewage sludge and macroalgae PCR pyrolysis. Therefore the bio-oils obtained low metal concentrations (especially alkali contents less than 0.09 wt%). Due to high...

  4. Production of sugar and sugar derivatives by pyrolysis of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafizadeh, F.

    1983-01-01

    Thermochemical conversion of biomass to sugar and sugar derivatives is hindered by the inhomogeneity of the substrate and the low specificity of the pyrolytic reactions. Recent analysis and investigation of these reactions have shown that they could be controlled and catalyzed to minimize the side reactions and increase the yield of individual compounds. These compounds include levoglucosan which could be obtained in high yields within the temperature range of 350-400/sup 0/C when the substrate has undergone previous acid treatment or a trace amount of acid is present. This phenomenon has been used for production of sugars from softwood and hardwood based on prehydrolysis and subsequent pyrolysis to a tar that could be posthydrolyzed to sugars. Acid-catalyzed pyrolysis of cellulosic materials, particularly waste paper, gives a pyrolyzate containing mainly levoglucosenone which has proved to be a highly reactive compound for production of a variety of carbohydrate derivatives. Pyrolysis of carbohydrates also provides several other furan and pyran derivatives that could be used as synthetic intermediates. 28 references, 22 figures, 11 tables.

  5. Pyrolysis of petroleum fractions on an indium oxide catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented for the pyrolysis of individual hydrocarbons (hexane and cyclohexane), a mixture of n-paraffins boiling in the 100 to 3000 range, and straight-run gasoline fractions with indium oxide as a catalyst. It was found that optimum dilution of the petroleum fraction with steam occurred at a molar ratio of 1:1. The presence of the indium catalyst was found to increase the yield of low molecular weight olefins under the selected experimental conditions by about 20% when compared with the pyrolysis without an active component catalyst. Kinetic studies of the catalytic reaction indicated that under conditions of pyrolysis, indium oxide takes part in a redox type reaction; also, oxidation which requires the higher temperature is the limiting stage of redox conversions. X-ray studies confirmed the possibility of redox transformation of indium oxide under pyrolytic conditions and the consequent variations in catalytic behavior. Further, an isotope tracer method was used to study the reaction mechanism in the interaction of RH type hydrocarbons and water

  6. Scaling heat and mass flow through porous media during pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Julien; Muggeridge, Ann H.; Jackson, Matthew D.; Quintard, Michel; Lapene, Alexandre

    2015-03-01

    The modelling of heat and mass flow through porous media in the presence of pyrolysis is complex because various physical and chemical phenomena need to be represented. In addition to the transport of heat by conduction and convection, and the change of properties with varying pressure and temperature, these processes involve transport of mass by convection, evaporation, condensation and pyrolysis chemical reactions. Examples of such processes include pyrolysis of wood, thermal decomposition of polymer composite and in situ upgrading of heavy oil and oil shale. The behaviours of these systems are difficult to predict as relatively small changes in the material composition can significantly change the thermophysical properties. Scaling reduces the number of parameters in the problem statement and quantifies the relative importance of the various dimensional parameters such as permeability, thermal conduction and reaction constants. This paper uses inspectional analysis to determine the minimum number of dimensionless scaling groups that describe the decomposition of a solid porous material into a gas in one dimension. Experimental design is then used to rank these scaling groups in terms of their importance in describing the outcome of two example processes: the thermal decomposition of heat shields formed from polymer composites and the in situ upgrading of heavy oils and oil shales. A sensitivity analysis is used to divide these groups into three sets (primary, secondary and insignificant), thus identifying the combinations of solid and fluid properties that have the most impact on the performance of the different processes.

  7. Pore Scale Analysis of Oil Shale/Sands Pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chen-Luh; Miller, Jan

    2011-03-01

    There are important questions concerning the quality and volume of pore space that is created when oil shale is pyrolyzed for the purpose of producing shale oil. In this report, 1.9 cm diameter cores of Mahogany oil shale were pyrolyzed at different temperatures and heating rates. Detailed 3D imaging of core samples was done using multiscale X-ray computed tomography (CT) before and after pyrolysis to establish the pore structure. The pore structure of the unreacted material was not clear. Selected images of a core pyrolyzed at 400oC were obtained at voxel resolutions from 39 microns (?m) to 60 nanometers (nm). Some of the pore space created during pyrolysis was clearly visible at these resolutions and it was possible to distinguish between the reaction products and the host shale rock. The pore structure deduced from the images was used in Lattice Boltzmann simulations to calculate the permeability in the pore space. The permeabilities of the pyrolyzed samples of the silicate-rich zone were on the order of millidarcies, while the permeabilities of the kerogen-rich zone after pyrolysis were very anisotropic and about four orders of magnitude higher.

  8. Modeling the pyrolysis of wet wood using FireFOAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Authors improve the pyrolysis model of wet wood considering oxidation and flame. • A simple one-step nth-order Arrhenius pyrolysis expression is employed. • The predicted results agree well with Shen et al.’s measured values in cone. • The gas mass fluxes are analyzed as a function of thickness and radiation flux. • The fitting correlations among the above three variables are obtained. - Abstract: A wet wood pyrolysis model was developed involving the combined influence of moisture, char oxidation, flame radiation and chemical reaction kinetics. Especially instead of multiple parallel reactions, a simple one-step nth-order Arrhenius expression for dry wood pyrolysis was combined with moisture drying reaction, which aimed at reducing the difficulty of obtaining kinetic and thermophysical parameters of intermediate solids. Code validation shows that the predicted surface temperature and total solid conversion ratio agree well with Shen et al.’s measured values in cone calorimeter under air atmosphere. The mass fluxes of water vapor and pyrolysate are analyzed as a function of wet wood thickness under various external radiation heat fluxes. The thickness has no effect on the maximum mass flux of vapor. The thickness of 8 mm is found to be the critical value with two peaks appearing simultaneously at pyrolysate mass flux profiles under 40 kW m−2. For the cases with two peaks of pyrolysate mass flux, the thickness has little effect on the time and value at the first peak of pyrolysate. However, those at second peak vary obviously with thickness. The fitting correlations of vapor duration and second pyrolysate flux peak time were also obtained

  9. Pyrolysis of Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) wastes in a screw reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Medium Density Fiberboard wastes were pirolized in an auger reactor. • Experiments were carried out at two reaction temperatures and three solid residence times. • Yields were influenced by pyrolysis temperature, as well as by solid residence time. • Higher temperature produced more bio-oil rather than char generation. • Chars superficial area were compatibles with those of commercial activated carbons. - Abstract: Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) wastes were undergoes via a thermal treatment through of a pyrolysis process. Pyrolysis was carried out in a pilot scale reactor with screw conveyor at two reaction temperatures (450 and 600 °C) and, for each one, three solid residence times (9, 15 and 34 min) were evaluated. Products (char/bio-oil/fuel gas) of the pyrolysis process were characterized and quantified. Results revealed that the products yields were influenced by pyrolysis temperature, as well as by solid residence time. Char yield ranged between 17.3 and 39.7 (wt.%), the bio-oil yield ranged between 23.9 and 40.0 (wt.%), while the fuel gas yield ranged between 34.6 and 50.7 (wt.%). The samples surface area at 450 and 600 °C in 15-min residence time were surprisingly high, 415 and 593 m2 g−1, respectively, which are compatible with the superficial area of commercial activated carbons. Energetic efficiency of process was estimated from energetic content present in the reaction products and the energetic content of MDF wastes, and the following results were obtained: 41.4% (fuel gas), 35.5% (char) and 29.2% (bio-oil). The contribution of this work is the development of a detailed study of the MDF pyrolysis in a pilot reactor with screw conveyor that supports the biorefineries concept

  10. Co-pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of coal and plastic blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Co-pyrolysis behaviors of different plastics (high density polyethylene, low density polyethylene and polypropylene), low volatile coal (LVC) and their mixtures were investigated by TGA. Experiments were conducted under N2 atmosphere at heating rate of 20 deg. C/min from room temperature to 750 deg. C. The results showed that the thermal degradation temperature range of plastic was 438-521 deg. C, while that of coal (LVC) was 174-710 deg. C. Plastics showed similar pyrolysis characteristics due to similar chemical bonds in their molecular structures. The overlapping degradation temperature interval between coal and plastic provide an opportunity for free radicals from coal pyrolysis to participate in the reactions of plastic decomposition. The difference of weight loss percent (ΔW) between experimental and theoretical ones, calculated as an algebraic sum of those from each separated component, ΔW is 2.0-2.7% at the pyrolysis temperature higher than 530 deg. C, which indicates that the synergistic effect during pyrolysis occurs mainly in the high temperature region. The kinetic studies were performed according to Coats and Redfern method for first-order reaction. It was found that for plastics (HDPE, LDPE and PP), the pyrolysis process can be described by one first-order reaction. However, for LVC and LVC/plastic blends, this process can be described by three and four consecutive first-order reactions, respectively. The estimated kinetic parameters viz., activation energies and pre-exponential factors for coal, plastic and their blends, were found to be in the range of 35.7-572.8 kJ/mol and 27-1.7 x 1038 min-1, respectively

  11. Catalytic pyrolysis of tars. A kinetic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faundez, J.; Garcia, X.; Gordon, A. [Universidad de Concepcion (Chile). Dept. de Ingeniera Quimica

    1997-12-31

    A kinetic model to describe the catalytic pyrolysis of tars is proposed and validated through pyrolysis of two tars of different characteristics and origin. Calcinated limestone (11 m{sup 2}/g) was used as catalyst. The model assumes that tars are composed of two pseudo-components: (i) heavy tar, and (ii) light tar. Tar pyrolysis is described by two simultaneous chemical reactions; catalyst deactivation due to carbon deposition is also considered. After mathematical resolution, expressions for product`s concentration as functions of residence time, selectivity and the deactivation were obtained. (orig.)

  12. Thermal/Pyrolysis Gas Flow Analysis of Carbon Phenolic Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, J. Louie

    2001-01-01

    Provided in this study are predicted in-depth temperature and pyrolysis gas pressure distributions for carbon phenolic materials that are externally heated with a laser source. Governing equations, numerical techniques and comparisons to measured temperature data are also presented. Surface thermochemical conditions were determined using the Aerotherm Chemical Equilibrium (ACE) program. Surface heating simulation used facility calibrated radiative and convective flux levels. Temperatures and pyrolysis gas pressures are predicted using an upgraded form of the SINDA/CMA program that was developed by NASA during the Solid Propulsion Integrity Program (SPIP). Multispecie mass balance, tracking of condensable vapors, high heat rate kinetics, real gas compressibility and reduced mixture viscosity's have been added to the algorithm. In general, surface and in-depth temperature comparisons are very good. Specie partial pressures calculations show that a saturated water-vapor mixture is the main contributor to peak in-depth total pressure. Further, for most of the cases studied, the water-vapor mixture is driven near the critical point and is believed to significantly increase the local heat capacity of the composite material. This phenomenon if not accounted for in analysis models may lead to an over prediction in temperature response in charring regions of the material.

  13. Catalytic partial oxidation of pyrolysis oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennard, David Carl

    2009-12-01

    This thesis explores the catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) of pyrolysis oils to syngas and chemicals. First, an exploration of model compounds and their chemistries under CPO conditions is considered. Then CPO experiments of raw pyrolysis oils are detailed. Finally, plans for future development in this field are discussed. In Chapter 2, organic acids such as propionic acid and lactic acid are oxidized to syngas over Pt catalysts. Equilibrium production of syngas can be achieved over Rh-Ce catalysts; alternatively mechanistic evidence is derived using Pt catalysts in a fuel rich mixture. These experiments show that organic acids, present in pyrolysis oils up to 25%, can undergo CPO to syngas or for the production of chemicals. As the fossil fuels industry also provides organic chemicals such as monomers for plastics, the possibility of deriving such species from pyrolysis oils allows for a greater application of the CPO of biomass. However, chemical production is highly dependent on the originating molecular species. As bio oil comprises up to 400 chemicals, it is essential to understand how difficult it would be to develop a pure product stream. Chapter 3 continues the experimentation from Chapter 2, exploring the CPO of another organic functionality: the ester group. These experiments demonstrate that equilibrium syngas production is possible for esters as well as acids in autothermal operation with contact times as low as tau = 10 ms over Rh-based catalysts. Conversion for these experiments and those with organic acids is >98%, demonstrating the high reactivity of oxygenated compounds on noble metal catalysts. Under CPO conditions, esters decompose in a predictable manner: over Pt and with high fuel to oxygen, non-equilibrium products show a similarity to those from related acids. A mechanism is proposed in which ethyl esters thermally decompose to ethylene and an acid, which decarbonylates homogeneously, driven by heat produced at the catalyst surface. Chapter 4 details the catalytic partial oxidation of glycerol without preheat: droplets of glycerol are sprayed directly onto the top of the catalyst bed, where they react autothermally with contact times on the order of tau ≈ 30 ms. The reactive flash volatilization of glycerol results in equilibrium syngas production over Rh-Ce catalysts. In addition, water can be added to the liquid glycerol, resulting in true autothermal reforming. This highly efficient process can increase H2 yields and alter the H2 to CO ratio, allowing for flexibility in syngas quality depending on the purpose. Chapter 5 details the results of a time on stream experiment, in which optimal syngas conditions are chosen. Although conversion is 100% for 450 hours, these experiments demonstrate the deactivation of the catalyst over time. Deactivation is exhibited by decreases in H2 and CO 2 production accompanied by a steady increase in CO and temperature. These results are explained as a loss of water-gas shift equilibration. SEM images suggest catalyst sintering may play a role; EDS indicates the presence of impurities on the catalyst. In addition, the instability of quartz in the reactor is demonstrated by etching, resulting in a hole in the reactor tube at the end of the experiment. These results suggest prevaporization may be desirable in this application, and that quartz is not a suitable material for the reactive flash volatilization of oxygenated fuels. In Chapter 6, pyrolysis oil samples from three sources - poplar, pine, and hardwoods - are explored in the context of catalytic partial oxidation. Lessons derived from the tests with model compounds are applied to reactor design, resulting in the reactive flash vaporization of bio oils. Syngas is successfully produced, though deactivation due to coke and ash deposition keeps H2 below equlibrium. Coke formation is observed on the reactor walls, but is avoided between the fuel injection site and catalyst by increasing the proximity of these in the reactor design. Low temperatures are maintained in the fuel delivery system utilizing a water-jacketed nebulizer, which allows for the delivery of bio oil into a furnace at 800°C. The addition of methane to the reactor environment enhances reactor performance, likely by promoting transport of gaseous fuel to the catalyst to sustain reaction. In several configurations, the catalytic partial oxidation of bio oil to syngas is achieved autothermally with contact times of tau = 30 ms. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  14. Investigation of a process for the pyrolysis of plutonium contaminated combustible solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrolysis offers an attractive first-stage alternative to incineration as a means of weight and volume reduction of solide combustible waste P.C.M, if it is required to recover plutonium from the final product. The avoidance of turbulent conditions associated with incineration should lead to less carry-over of particulates, and the lower operating temperature approximately 7000C should be most advantageous to the choice of constructional materials and to plant life. The char product from pyrolysis may be oxidised to a final ash at similarly acceptable low temperatures by passing air over a stirred bed of materials. The recently received draft designs for a cyclone after-burner (plus associated scrubbers and filters etc) offer an attractive method of dispensing of the volatile products of pyrolysis

  15. Analysis of cherat coal by pyrolysis gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flash pyrolysis of four representative coal samples from Cherat coal mines was studied in flowing nitrogen using quartz tubular reactor coupled to gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector. This techniques allows the on line monitoring of volatile organics released from coal during pyrolysis. The major products detected are CH/sub 4/, C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ + C/sub 2/H/sub 6/, C/sub 3/H sub 6/ + C/sub 3/H/sub 8, C/sub 4/H/sub 10 and C/sub 5/H/sub 12/. Ratios of total hydrocarbons obtained are at 700 degree C from A-5, A-4, B1 and B-6 coal samples are 3.25:2.49:3.53:1 respectively, and are characteristic of each coal. The effect of temperature on the total amount of hydrocarbons was studied over temperature range 500-800 degree C,. For all the coal samples the total amount of hydrocarbons increased with an increase in temperature and passed through a maximum. For B-6 coal samples the temperature of the maximum is 650 degree C, while for A-5, A-4 and B-1 coals, it has raised to 750 degree C. To measure the effect of inherent mineral matters on the production of hydrocarbons, pyrolysis experiments were performed at 700 degree C using raw and de-mineralized coal. Removal of inherent mineral matter showed variable effect on the total amount of observed hydrocarbon products. For coal samples A-5, A-4 and B-1 the removal of inherent mineral decrease the products yield by 15 %, 23.5% and 21.5% respectively, while for B-6 samples the acid treatment of raw coal has no effect on the products yield. (author)

  16. Semivolatile and volatile compounds from the pyrolysis and combustion of polyvinyl chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Aracil Sáez, Ignacio; Font Montesinos, Rafael; Conesa Ferrer, Juan Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Emissions evolved from the pyrolysis and combustion of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were studied at four different temperatures (500, 700, 850 and 1000 °C) in a horizontal laboratory tubular quartz reactor in order to analyse the influence of both temperature and reaction atmosphere on the final products from thermal and oxidative reactions. It was observed that the CO2/CO ratio increased with temperature. Methane was the only light hydrocarbon whose yield increased with temperature up t...

  17. Thermal and kinetic behaviors of biomass and plastic wastes in co-pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Co-pyrolysis of biomass together with the plastic wastes in thermogravimetric analyzer. • Investigations into thermal and kinetic behaviors at high temperature regions. • Determination of the kinetic parameters. - Abstract: In this study, co-pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of biomass-plastic blends were investigated. Cotton stalk, hazelnut shell, sunflower residue, and arid land plant Euphorbia rigida, were blended in definite ratio (1:1, w/w) with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Experiments were conducted with a heating rate of 10 °C min−1 from room temperature to 800 °C in the presence of N2 atmosphere with a flow rate of 100 cm3 min−1. After thermal decomposition in TGA, a kinetic analysis was performed to fit thermogravimetric data and a detailed discussion of co-pyrolysis mechanism was achieved. Experimental results demonstrated that the structural differences between biomass and plastics directly affect their thermal decomposition behaviors. Biomass pyrolysis generally based on three main steps while plastic material’s pyrolysis mechanism resulted in two steps for PET and three steps for PVC. Also, the required activation energies needed to achieve the thermal degradation for plastic were found higher than the biomass materials. In addition, it can be concluded that the evaluation of plastic materials together with biomass created significant changes not only for the thermal behaviors but also for the kinetic behaviors

  18. Mathematical modelling of slow pyrolysis of a particle of treated wood waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, J; Marias, F; Vaxelaire, J; Bernada, P

    2009-10-30

    Low-temperature pyrolysis is a possible method for the disposal of wood waste treated with chromated copper arsenic (CCA). A mathematical model (heat and mass transfer) including chemical reactions of the thermal degradation of a particle of wood is presented. A spherical particle is heated by a convective nitrogen flow. The progress of the pyrolysis process is characterized by three main steps: (1) drying of the wet sample; (2) heating of the sample until ignition of pyrolysis reactions; (3) pyrolysis and subsequent production of char and volatiles. The mathematical model is based on the volume averaging concept and it uses Shafizadeh and Chin [F. Shafizadeh, P.S. Chin, Thermal deterioration of wood, wood technology: chemical aspects, ACS Symposium Series 43 (1977) 57-81] pyrolysis model to describe the reaction pathway. It is solved by the line method, taking time as the preferred variable. Our model predicts intra-particle profiles for several variables (temperature, moisture content, concentration of wood). Simulations are presented with a spherical particle of 1cm radius. PMID:19535204

  19. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans' waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans' waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city's limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city's waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city's ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  20. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans` waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans` waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city`s limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city`s waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city`s ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.