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Sample records for temperature pyrolysis deoxygen

  1. Methods for deoxygenating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baird, Lance Awender; Brandvold, Timothy A.

    2015-06-30

    Methods for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. A method for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil comprising the steps of combining a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream with a heated low-oxygen-pyoil diluent recycle stream to form a heated diluted pyoil feed stream is provided. The heated diluted pyoil feed stream has a feed temperature of about 150.degree. C. or greater. The heated diluted pyoil feed stream is contacted with a first deoxygenating catalyst in the presence of hydrogen at first hydroprocessing conditions effective to form a low-oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil effluent.

  2. Apparatuses and methods for deoxygenating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalnes, Tom N.

    2015-12-29

    Apparatuses and methods for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided herein. In one example, the method comprises of dividing a feedstock stream into first and second feedstock portions. The feedstock stream comprises the biomass-derived pyrolysis oil and has a temperature of about 60.degree. C. or less. The first feedstock portion is combined with a heated organic liquid stream to form a first heated diluted pyoil feed stream. The first heated diluted pyoil feed stream is contacted with a first deoxygenating catalyst in the presence of hydrogen to form an intermediate low-oxygen pyoil effluent. The second feedstock portion is combined with the intermediate low-oxygen pyoil effluent to form a second heated diluted pyoil feed stream. The second heated diluted pyoil feed stream is contacted with a second deoxygenating catalyst in the presence of hydrogen to form additional low-oxygen pyoil effluent.

  3. Methods for deoxygenating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandvold, Timothy A.

    2015-07-14

    Methods for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. A method comprising the steps of diluting the biomass-derived pyrolysis oil with a phenolic-containing diluent to form a diluted pyoil-phenolic feed is provided. The diluted pyoil-phenolic feed is contacted with a deoxygenating catalyst in the presence of hydrogen at hydroprocessing conditions effective to form a low-oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil effluent.

  4. Methods and apparatuses for deoxygenating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baird, Lance Awender; Brandvold, Timothy A.

    2015-10-20

    Embodiments of methods and apparatuses for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. In one example, a method comprises the steps of separating a low-oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil effluent into a low-oxygen-pyoil organic phase stream and an aqueous phase stream. Phenolic compounds are removed from the aqueous phase stream to form a phenolic-rich diluent recycle stream. A biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream is diluted and heated with the phenolic-rich diluent recycle stream to form a heated diluted pyoil feed stream. The heated diluted pyoil feed stream is contacted with a deoxygenating catalyst in the presence of hydrogen to deoxygenate the heated diluted pyoil feed stream.

  5. Pt/Al?O?-catalytic deoxygenation for upgrading of Leucaena leucocephala-pyrolysis oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payormhorm, Jiraporn; Kangvansaichol, Kunn; Reubroycharoen, Presert; Kuchonthara, Prapan; Hinchiranan, Napida

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the quality of bio-oil produced from the pyrolysis of Leucaena leucocephala trunks via catalytic deoxygenation using Pt/Al2O3 (Pt content=1.32% (w/w)). The minimum molar ratio of oxygen/carbon (O/C) at 0.14 was achieved when the amount of catalyst was 10% (w/w, bio-oil) and was applied under 4 bar of initial nitrogen pressure at 340°C for 1h. The reaction mechanism of the catalytic deoxygenation, in terms of reforming, water-gas shift and dehydration reactions, was proposed. To consider the effect of different biomass types on the efficiency of catalytic deoxygenation, the bio-oils obtained from the pyrolysis of sawdust, rice straw and green microalgae were likewise evaluated for direct comparison. PMID:23648762

  6. EPR study of deoxygenated high-temperature superconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R J Singh; P K Sharma; Shakeel Khan

    2002-05-01

    High-$T_{c}$ superconductors are EPR silent but on a little deoxygenation of the high-$T_{c}$ materials and their constituents, they yield rich but complex spectra. Spectra of (1) CuO, (2) BaCuO2, (3) CaCuO2, (4) Y2Cu2O5, (5) La2CuO4, (6) La$_{2-x}_{x}$CuO4 (M = Sr, Ba), (7) Y based-123, (8) Bi based-2201, 2212, 2223, (9) Tl based-2223 and (10) Hg based-1212,1223 have been studied. One thing common to all these materials is the CuO2 plane which gets fragmented on deoxygenation and the inherent antiferromagnetic coupling is partially destroyed which results in the appearance of the spectra. The spectra recorded have been identi?ed to be due to (1) Cu-monomer, (2) Cu-dimer, (3) Cutetramer, (4) Cu-octamer and (5) one signal at very low ?eld which could not be identi?ed because there was no structure in it and may be due to fragments higher than octamers. Very big fragments do not give any spectra because the original AF order probably remains intact in them. It is expected that when the fragments become magnetically isolated from the bulk, they produce EPR spectra. Most of the spectra have been analyzed and their spin-Hamiltonian parameters determined. The spectra of these species vary a little in terms of g-value and ?ne-structure splitting constant from sample to sample or even in the same sample and this may be attributed to some extra oxygen attachments retained with these species. Most frequently occurring species is the Cu-tetramer, (CuO)4. As (CuO)4 represents the unit cell of the all important two-dimensional CuO2 plane of the high-$T_{c}$ materials, its spectra have been argued to provide some clue to the mechanism of high-$T_{c}$ superconductivity. The tetramer (CuO)4 is a four one-half spin system and is essentially 16-fold degenerate by Heisenberg isotropic exchange, it is split into 6 components: one pentet, three triplets and two singlets. In superconductors the pentet appears to be the ground state and in the non-superconducting constituents the singlets seem to form the ground state as revealed by the temperature variation studies. In the case of La1.854Sr0.146CuO4 we have found the signature of quantum stripe formation. The high-$T_{c}$ superconductivity theories involving spin bag, antiferromagnetic spin ?uctuations and magnons can be explained on the basis of Cu-tetramers.

  7. Pyrolysis of biomass. Rapid pyrolysis at high temperature. Slow pyrolysis for active carbon preparation.

    OpenAIRE

    Zanzi, Rolando

    2001-01-01

    Pyrolysis of biomass consists of heating solid biomass inthe absence of air to produce solid, liquid and gaseous fuels.In the first part of this thesis rapid pyrolysis of wood(birch) and some agricultural residues (olive waste, sugarcanebagasse and wheat straw in untreated and in pelletized form) athigh temperature (800ºC?1000ºC) is studied ina free fall reactor at pilot scale. These conditions are ofinterest for gasification in fluidized beds. Of main interestare the gas and char yields and ...

  8. Effect of temperature on pyrolysis product of empty fruit bunches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Aizuddin Abdul; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Abdullah, Nurhayati [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Pyrolysis of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was performed in a fixed bed reactor equipped with liquid collecting system. Pyrolysis process was conducted by varying the terminal pyrolysis temperature from 300 to 500°C under heating rate of 10°C/min for at least 2 hours. Char yield was obtained highest at 300°C around 55.88 wt%, and started to decrease as temperature increase. The maximum yield of pyrolysis liquid was obtained around 54.75 wt% as pyrolysis temperature reach 450°C. For gas yield percentage, the yield gained as temperature was increased from 300 to 500°C, within the range between 8.44 to 19.32 wt%. The char obtained at 400°C has great potential as an alternative solid fuel, due to its high heating value of 23.37 MJ/kg, low in volatile matter and ash content which are approximately around 40.32 and 11.12 wt%, respectively. The collected pyrolysis liquid within this temperature range found to have high water content of around 16.15 to 18.20 wt%. The high aqueous fraction seemed to cause the pyrolysis liquid to have low HHV which only ranging from 10.81 to 12.94 MJ/kg. These trends of results showed that necessary enhancement should be employ either on the raw biomass or pyrolysis products in order to approach at least the minimum quality of common hydrocarbon solid or liquid fuel. For energy production, both produced bio-char and pyrolysis liquid are considered as sustainable sources of bio-energy since they contained low amounts of nitrogen and sulphur, which are considered as environmental friendly solid and liquid fuel.

  9. Effect of temperature on pyrolysis product of empty fruit bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrolysis of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was performed in a fixed bed reactor equipped with liquid collecting system. Pyrolysis process was conducted by varying the terminal pyrolysis temperature from 300 to 500°C under heating rate of 10°C/min for at least 2 hours. Char yield was obtained highest at 300°C around 55.88 wt%, and started to decrease as temperature increase. The maximum yield of pyrolysis liquid was obtained around 54.75 wt% as pyrolysis temperature reach 450°C. For gas yield percentage, the yield gained as temperature was increased from 300 to 500°C, within the range between 8.44 to 19.32 wt%. The char obtained at 400°C has great potential as an alternative solid fuel, due to its high heating value of 23.37 MJ/kg, low in volatile matter and ash content which are approximately around 40.32 and 11.12 wt%, respectively. The collected pyrolysis liquid within this temperature range found to have high water content of around 16.15 to 18.20 wt%. The high aqueous fraction seemed to cause the pyrolysis liquid to have low HHV which only ranging from 10.81 to 12.94 MJ/kg. These trends of results showed that necessary enhancement should be employ either on the raw biomass or pyrolysis products in order to approach at least the minimum quality of common hydrocarbon solid or liquid fuel. For energy production, both produced bio-char and pyrolysis liquid are considered as sustainable sources of bio-energy since they contained low amounts of nitrogen and sulphur, which are considered as environmental friendly solid and liquid fuel

  10. Effect of temperature on pyrolysis product of empty fruit bunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Aizuddin Abdul; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Abdullah, Nurhayati

    2015-04-01

    Pyrolysis of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was performed in a fixed bed reactor equipped with liquid collecting system. Pyrolysis process was conducted by varying the terminal pyrolysis temperature from 300 to 500°C under heating rate of 10°C/min for at least 2 hours. Char yield was obtained highest at 300°C around 55.88 wt%, and started to decrease as temperature increase. The maximum yield of pyrolysis liquid was obtained around 54.75 wt% as pyrolysis temperature reach 450°C. For gas yield percentage, the yield gained as temperature was increased from 300 to 500°C, within the range between 8.44 to 19.32 wt%. The char obtained at 400°C has great potential as an alternative solid fuel, due to its high heating value of 23.37 MJ/kg, low in volatile matter and ash content which are approximately around 40.32 and 11.12 wt%, respectively. The collected pyrolysis liquid within this temperature range found to have high water content of around 16.15 to 18.20 wt%. The high aqueous fraction seemed to cause the pyrolysis liquid to have low HHV which only ranging from 10.81 to 12.94 MJ/kg. These trends of results showed that necessary enhancement should be employ either on the raw biomass or pyrolysis products in order to approach at least the minimum quality of common hydrocarbon solid or liquid fuel. For energy production, both produced bio-char and pyrolysis liquid are considered as sustainable sources of bio-energy since they contained low amounts of nitrogen and sulphur, which are considered as environmental friendly solid and liquid fuel.

  11. Theoretical Study of the Thermal Decomposition of Carboxylic Acids at Pyrolysis Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, J. M.; Robichaud, D. J.; Nimlos, M. R.

    2013-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are important in the processing of biomass into renewable fuels and chemicals. They are formed from the pretreatment and pyrolysis of hemicellulose biopolymers and are released from the decomposition of sugars. They result from the deconstruction of polyhydroxyalkanoates (bacterial carbon storage polymers) from fatty acids derived from algae, bacteria, and oil crops. The thermal deoxygenation of carboxylic acids is an important step in the conversion of biomass into aliphatic hydrocarbons suitable for use in renewable biofuels and as petrochemical replacements. Decarboxylation, a primary decomposition pathway under pyrolysis conditions, represents an ideal conversion process, because it eliminates two atoms of oxygen for every carbon atom removed. Problematically, additional deoxygenation processes exist (e.g. dehydration) that are in direct competition with decarboxylation and result in the formation of reactive and more fragmented end products. To better understand the competition between decarboxylation and other deoxygenation processes and to gain insight into possible catalysts that would favor decarboxylation, we have investigated the mechanisms and thermochemistry of the various unimolecular and bimolecular deoxygenation pathways for a family of C1-C4 organic acids using electronic structure calculations at the M06-2X/6-311++G(2df,p) level of theory.

  12. Routine employment of the high temperature pyrolysis technology - An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The high temperature pyrolysis technology (HTP) for the quantitative conversion of hydrogen and oxygen is used since some years in different laboratories for the isotope measurement. The HTP technology is an advancement of the elementary analyzer technology. The principle of this technique is the oxidation and/or pyrolysis reaction from the sample to the analyses products by higher temperature. Typical for the elemental analysis is a temperature range from 1020 to 1100 deg. C. The temperature for the HTP is increased to 1350-1500 deg. C. Three kinds of samples will be discussed: organic substances, some inorganic substances and water. The focus in this discussion will be the daily laboratory program with the HTP technology. Different plans for the reactor design, for the injectors and for different autosampler are discussed. Examples of usable reference materials, the calibration of the raw data against international scales and some sources of error are represented and discussed. (author)

  13. Low Temperature Pyrolysis of Graptolite Argillite (Dictyonema Shale in Autoclaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Sharayeva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of the systematic experimental study obtained in this work on the effects of temperature (340–420 °C and exposure time (0–8h at nominal temperature on the yield of pyrolysis products from Estonian graptolite argillite (GA generated in autoclaves without any solvent are described. The yields of solid residue (SR, gas, pyrogenetic water (W and extractable with benzenemix ofthermobitumen and oil (TBO were estimated. The compound groups of TBO were assessed. The highest yield of TBO, 2.18% on dry GA basis and 13.2% of organic matter (OM was obtained at temperature of 420 °C and duration 0.5 h. The main compound groups in TBO obtained at 400 ?C are polar hetero-atomic compounds and polycyclic hydrocarbons surpassing 45% and 30% of TBO. The shares of aliphatic and monocyclic hydrocarbons are below 15% of TBO. The yield of W from GA is – about 10-15% of OM. The quantity of OM left in SR after pyrolysis is high, about 65% of OM. The yield of pyrolysis products from GA and the composition of its TBO are compared with those obtained under similar conditions from different oil shales: Estonian Kukersite, US Utah Green River, and Jordanian Attarat.

  14. Catalytic pyrolysis of tyres: influence of catalyst temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, P.T.; Brindle, A.J. [University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom). Department of Fuel and Energy

    2002-12-01

    Two stage pyrolysis catalysis of used tyres was undertaken to upgrade the derived oil to a highly aromatic oil suitable to be used as a chemical feedstock rather than a liquid fuel. The tyres were pyrolysed in a fixed bed reactor and the evolved pyrolysis gases were passed through a secondary fixed bed reactor containing zeolite catalyst. The pyrolysis reactor was maintained at 500{degree}C and the influence of catalyst temperature between 430 and 600{degree}C on the yield and composition of the derived oils was examined. Two zeolite catalysts were examined; a Y-type zeolite catalyst and zeolite ZSM-5 catalyst of differing pore size and surface activity. The influence of the catalyst was to reduce the yield of oil with a consequent increase in the gas yield and formation of coke on the catalyst. Single ring aromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, toluene and xylenes present in the oils showed a marked increase in the presence of the catalyst. Naphthalene and alkylated naphthalenes were also analysed and showed a similar marked increase in the concentration when a catalyst was present. The Y-type zeolite catalyst of larger pore size and higher surface activity was found to produce higher concentrations of aromatic compounds compared to the ZSM-5 catalyst. Increasing the catalyst temperature resulted in significant changes in the concentration of benzene, toluene, xylenes, naphthalene and the alkylated naphthalenes. 23 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Catalytic pyrolysis of palm kernel shell waste in a fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Won; Koo, Bon Seok; Lee, Dong Hyun

    2014-09-01

    The catalytic pyrolysis of palm kernel shell was investigated in a fluidized bed with zsm-5 and equilibrium FCC (Ecat) catalysts. Catalytic pyrolysis oil yields were remarkably reduced and gas yields were increased due to the higher catalytic reaction of primary volatiles compared to non-catalytic pyrolysis. Char yields were affected by temperature and the pore structure of the catalysts. The pyrolysis oil was characterized by lower H/C and O/C molar ratios due to aromatization and deoxygenation of volatiles by the catalysts. The catalytic pyrolysis oils contained more oxygen and nitrogen and less sulfur than petroleum oils. The oils had a high concentration of nitriles, with a carbon number distribution similar to fatty acids. The catalytic pyrolysis oils featured high nitriles yield with Ecat and high aromatics yield in the light fraction with zsm-5, due to characteristics of the catalyst. The catalytic pyrolysis oils showed potentials as feedstocks for bio-diesel and chemicals. PMID:25006017

  16. Effect of pyrolysis temperature and air flow on toxicity of gases from a polycarbonate polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Brick, V. E.; Brauer, D. P.

    1978-01-01

    A polycarbonate polymer was evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases generated at various temperatures without forced air flow and with 1 L/min air flow, using the toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. Time to various animal responses decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature over the range from 500 C to 800 C. There appeared to be no significant toxic effects at 400 C and lower temperatures.

  17. Formate-assisted pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSisto, William Joseph; Wheeler, Marshall Clayton; van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

    2015-03-17

    The present invention provides, among other thing, methods for creating significantly deoxygenated bio-oils form biomass including the steps of providing a feedstock, associating the feedstock with an alkali formate to form a treated feedstock, dewatering the treated feedstock, heating the dewatered treated feedstock to form a vapor product, and condensing the vapor product to form a pyrolysis oil, wherein the pyrolysis oil contains less than 30% oxygen by weight.

  18. Yield and Characteristics of Pyrolysis Products Obtained from Schizochytrium limacinum under Different Temperature Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Renjie Dong; Benu Adhikari; Li Tian; Zonghu Ma; Ying Liu; Fang Ji; Yuguang Zhou; Gang Li

    2013-01-01

    Pyrolysis-gas chromatographic mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) was used to determine the yield and chemical composition of the pyrolysis products of Schizochytrium limacinum. The pyrolysis was carried out by varying the temperature from 300 °C to 800 °C. It was found that the main decomposition temperature of Schizochytrium limacinum was 428.16 °C, at which up to 66.5% of the mass was lost. A further 18.7% mass loss then occurred in a relatively slow pace until 760.2 °C due to complete decomposit...

  19. Microwave and Conventional Pyrolysis of Coffee Hulls at Different Temperatures for a Hydrogen Rich Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Menendez, Angel; Fernandez, Yolanda; Dominguez, Antonio; Pis, Juan; Valente Nabais, Joao; Carrott, Peter; Carrott, Manuela

    2006-01-01

    Microwave and Conventional Pyrolysis of Coffee Hulls at Different Temperatures for a Hydrogen Rich Gas. The paper reports the comparison of using a microwave and a conventional furnace to do the pysolysis of the coffee hulls.

  20. Catalytic pyrolysis of biomass: Effects of pyrolysis temperature, sweeping gas flow rate and MgO catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puetuen, Ersan [Anadolu University, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, iki Eyluel Campus, 26470 Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2010-07-15

    Cotton seed, as a biomass source, is pyrolysed in a tubular fixed-bed reactor under various sweeping gas (N{sub 2}) flow rates at different pyrolysis temperatures. In the non-catalytic work, the maximum bio-oil yield was attained as 48.30% at 550 C with a sweeping gas flow rate of 200 mL min{sup -1}. At the optimum conditions, catalytic pyrolysis of biomass samples was performed with various amounts of MgO catalyst (5, 10, 15, and 20 wt.% of raw material). Catalyst addition decreased the quantity of bio-oil yet increased the quality of bio-oil in terms of calorific value, hydrocarbon distribution and removal of oxygenated groups. It was observed that increasing the amount of catalyst used, decreased the oil yields while increased the gas and char yields. Bio-oils obtained at the optimum conditions were separated into aliphatic, aromatic and polar sub-fractions. After the application of column chromatography, bio-oils were subjected into elemental, FT-IR and {sup 1}H NMR analyses. Aliphatic sub-fractions of bio-oils were analyzed by GC-MS. It was deduced that the fuel obtained via catalytic pyrolysis mainly consisted of lower weight hydrocarbons in the diesel range. Finally, obtained results were compared with petroleum fractions and evaluated as a potential source for liquid fuels. (author)

  1. Catalytic pyrolysis of biomass: Effects of pyrolysis temperature, sweeping gas flow rate and MgO catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton seed, as a biomass source, is pyrolysed in a tubular fixed-bed reactor under various sweeping gas (N2) flow rates at different pyrolysis temperatures. In the non-catalytic work, the maximum bio-oil yield was attained as 48.30% at 550 oC with a sweeping gas flow rate of 200 mL min-1. At the optimum conditions, catalytic pyrolysis of biomass samples was performed with various amounts of MgO catalyst (5, 10, 15, and 20 wt.% of raw material). Catalyst addition decreased the quantity of bio-oil yet increased the quality of bio-oil in terms of calorific value, hydrocarbon distribution and removal of oxygenated groups. It was observed that increasing the amount of catalyst used, decreased the oil yields while increased the gas and char yields. Bio-oils obtained at the optimum conditions were separated into aliphatic, aromatic and polar sub-fractions. After the application of column chromatography, bio-oils were subjected into elemental, FT-IR and 1H NMR analyses. Aliphatic sub-fractions of bio-oils were analyzed by GC-MS. It was deduced that the fuel obtained via catalytic pyrolysis mainly consisted of lower weight hydrocarbons in the diesel range. Finally, obtained results were compared with petroleum fractions and evaluated as a potential source for liquid fuels.

  2. Pyrolysis Oil from the Fruit and Cake of Jatropha curcas Produced Using a Low Temperature Conversion (LTC) Process: Analysis of a Pyrolysis Oil-Diesel Blend

    OpenAIRE

    Monique Kort-Kamp Figueiredo; Gilberto Alves Romeiro; Raquel Vieira Santana Silva; Priscila Alvares Pinto; Raimundo Nonato Damasceno; Luiz Antonio d`Avila; Amanda P. Franco

    2011-01-01

    Background: The LTC process is a technique that consists of heating solid residues at a temperature of 380oC - 420oC in an inert atmosphere and their products are evaluated individually: these products include pyrolysis oil, pyrolytic char, gas and water. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of the use of oils obtained by pyrolysis of Jatropha curcas as an additive for diesel in different proportions. Results: A Low Temperature C...

  3. A review of the toxicity of biomass pyrolysis liquids formed at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diebold, J P [Thermalchemie, Inc., Lakewood, CO (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The scaleup of biomass fast pyrolysis systems to large pilot and commercial scales will expose an increasingly large number of personnel to potential health hazards, especially during the evaluation of the commercial use of the pyrolysis condensates. Although the concept of fast pyrolysis to optimize liquid products is relatively new, low-temperature pyrolysis processes have been used over the aeons to produce charcoal and liquid by-products, e.g., smoky food flavors, food preservatives, and aerosols containing narcotics, e.g., nicotine. There are a number of studies in the historical literature that concern the hazards of acute and long-term exposure to smoke and to the historical pyrolysis liquids formed at low temperatures. The reported toxicity of smoke, smoke food flavors, and fast pyrolysis oils is reviewed. The data found for these complex mixtures suggest that the toxicity may be less than that of the individual components. It is speculated that there may be chemical reactions that take place that serve to reduce the toxicity during aging. 81 refs.

  4. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on chemical and surface properties of biochar of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angin, Dilek; Sensöz, Sevgi

    2014-01-01

    The biochar is an important carbon-rich product that is generated from biomass sources through pyrolysis. Biochar (charcoal) can be both used directly as a potential source of solid biofuels and as soil amendments for barren lands. The aim of this study was investigate influence of pyrolysis temperature on the physicochemical properties and structure of biochar. The biochars were produced by pyrolysis of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) using a fixed-bed reactor at different pyrolysis temperatures (400-700 degrees C). The produced biochars were characterized by proximate and elemental analysis, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, particle size distributions, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results showed that both chemical and surface properties of the biochars were significantly affected by the pyrolysis temperature. Aromatic hydrocarbons, hydroxyl and carbonyl compounds were the majority components of the biochar. The biochar obtained at 700 degrees C had a high fixed carbon content (66.16%) as well as a high heating value, and therefore it could be used as solid fuel, precursor in the activated carbons manufacture (specific surface area until 25.38 m(2) g(-1)), or to obtain category-A briquettes. PMID:24933878

  5. Selective deoxygenation of aldehydes and alcohols on molybdenum carbide (Mo2C) surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ke; Yu, Weiting; Chen, Jingguang G.

    2014-12-01

    The selective deoxygenation of aldehydes and alcohols without cleaving the Csbnd C bond is crucial for upgrading bio-oil and other biomass-derived molecules to useful fuels and chemicals. In this work, propanal, 1-propanol, furfural and furfuryl alcohol were selected as probe molecules to study the deoxygenation of aldehydes and alcohols on molybdenum carbide (Mo2C) prepared over a Mo(1 1 0) surface. The reaction pathways were investigated using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS). The deoxygenation of propanal and 1-propanol went through a similar intermediate (propoxide or ?2(C,O)-propanal) to produce propene. The deoxygenation of furfural and furfuryl alcohol produced a surface intermediate similar to adsorbed 2-methylfuran. The comparison of these results revealed the promising deoxygenation performance of Mo2C, as well as the effect of the furan ring on the selective deoxygenation of the Cdbnd O and Csbnd OH bonds.

  6. Release of volatile sulfur compounds during low temperature pyrolysis of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarra, J.V.; Bonet, A.J.; Moliner, R. (Instituto de Carboquimica, Zaragoza (Spain))

    1994-06-01

    The behaviour of sulfur structures in coal during low temperature pyrolysis has been studied. Nine low rank coals with high organic and pyritic sulfur contents were heated in a swept fixed bed reactor (N[sub 2]) up to 850[degree]C, and the evolved sulfur compounds were determined by sulfide electrode (H[sub 2]S) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-i.r.) spectroscopy (SO[sub 2], COS). Evolution of H[sub 2]S as a function of temperature passes through two peaks between 500-560[degree]C and 630-700[degree]C, related to the decomposition of organic and pyritic sulfur, respectively. Assignment of organic sulfur structures and pyritic sulfur to the two observed peaks of H[sub 2]S evolution were tested using float-sink fractions with different mineral matter and pyrite contents (0.3-33 wt%). An important role of coal organic matter in pyrite decomposition to H[sub 2]S was found. The evolution of COS with pyrolysis temperature, followed a trend similar to that for H[sub 2]S. The evolved SO[sub 2] was related to the decomposition of iron sulfate from weathering of pyrite, but also with the presence of oxidation reactions during pyrolysis. The amount of sulfur removed from coal by pyrolysis varied from 35 to 64% of the total sulfur content for the assayed samples. Pyrolysis temperatures below 700[degree]C were sufficient to obtain desulfurization levels close to 90% of the total amount of sulfur which can be removed by pyrolysis. 19 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Influence of fast pyrolysis temperature on biochar labile fraction and short-term carbon loss in a loamy soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Esben; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Ibrahim, Norazana; Egsgaard, Helge; Ambus, Per; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Production of bio-oil, gas and biochar from pyrolysis of biomass is considered a promising technology for combined production of bioenergy and recalcitrant carbon (C) suitable for sequestration in soil. Using a fast pyrolysis centrifuge reactor (PCR) the present study investigated the relation between fast pyrolysis of wheat straw at different reactor temperatures and the short-term degradability of biochar in soil. After 115 days incubation 3–12% of the added biochar-C had been emitted as CO2. ...

  8. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on the composition of the oils obtained from sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewage sludge was pyrolysed in a quartz reactor at 350, 450, 550 and 950 oC. The pyrolysis oils from the sewage sludge were characterized in detail by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Changes in the composition of the oils related to the process conditions were assessed by normalizing the areas of the peaks. It was demonstrated that, as the temperature of pyrolysis increased from 350 to 950 oC, the concentration of mono-aromatic hydrocarbons in the oils also increased. Conversely, phenol and its alkyl derivatives showed a strong decrease in their concentration as temperature rose. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with two to three rings passed through a maximum at a pyrolysis temperature of 450 oC. PAHs with 4-5 rings also presented a major increase as temperature increased up to 450 oC, the concentration at 950 oC being slightly higher than that at 450 oC. Quantification of the main compounds showed that sewage sludge pyrolysis oils contain significant quantities of potentially high-value hydrocarbons such as mono-aromatic hydrocarbons and phenolic compounds. The oils also contain substantial concentrations of PAHs, even at the lowest temperature of 350 oC. The pathway to PAH formation is believed to be via the Diels-Alder reaction and also via secondary reactions of oxygenated compounds such as phenols.

  9. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on the composition of the oils obtained from sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, M.E.; Martinez, O.; Calvo, L.F. [Natural Resources Institute, University of Leon, Avda. de Portugal 41, 24071 Leon (Spain); Menendez, J.A.; Dominguez, A.; Pis, J.J. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain); Bernad, P.L. [Department of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Oviedo (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    Sewage sludge was pyrolysed in a quartz reactor at 350, 450, 550 and 950 C. The pyrolysis oils from the sewage sludge were characterized in detail by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Changes in the composition of the oils related to the process conditions were assessed by normalizing the areas of the peaks. It was demonstrated that, as the temperature of pyrolysis increased from 350 to 950 C, the concentration of mono-aromatic hydrocarbons in the oils also increased. Conversely, phenol and its alkyl derivatives showed a strong decrease in their concentration as temperature rose. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with two to three rings passed through a maximum at a pyrolysis temperature of 450 C. PAHs with 4-5 rings also presented a major increase as temperature increased up to 450 C, the concentration at 950 C being slightly higher than that at 450 C. Quantification of the main compounds showed that sewage sludge pyrolysis oils contain significant quantities of potentially high-value hydrocarbons such as mono-aromatic hydrocarbons and phenolic compounds. The oils also contain substantial concentrations of PAHs, even at the lowest temperature of 350 C. The pathway to PAH formation is believed to be via the Diels-Alder reaction and also via secondary reactions of oxygenated compounds such as phenols. (author)

  10. Preparation of Organic/Inorganic Membrane by PDMS Low-temperature Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Jiao-Zhu, LI Lin, JIN Xin, DING Ling-Hua, WANG Tong-Hua

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The organic/inorganic membranes were prepared via low-temperature pyrolysis of polymers. Firstly, polymeric membranes were prepared by dip-coating method using PDMS as the precursor and stainless steel as the support. Then they were pyrolyzed at 350-480°C under inert atmosphere. The effects of preparation conditions on the gas separation performance of the organic/inorganic membranes were investigated. Chemical structure changes of PDMS in the pyrolysis process were studied by TG and FT-IR. The morphology of organic/inorganic membrane was characterized by SEM. The results showed that the organic/inorganic membranes with good gas separation performance could be successfully prepared by low-temperature pyrolysis of PDMS. The membrane retains part flexibility of PDMS, and presents good thermostability and high gas permselectivity. The gas separation performance and membrane layer structure of organic/inorganic membranes are greatly affected by the preparation conditions such as the PDMS concentration, coating times, pyrolysis temperature and properties of support. The gas separation performances prepared under the optimum condition are that the O2 permeation flux of 21.2 GPU(1 GPU=7.501×10-12m3(STP/(m2?s?Pa and O2/N2 selectivity of 2.28.

  11. Selective deoxygenation of aldehydes and alcohols on molybdenum carbide (Mo2C) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Mo2C surface can deoxygenate propanal and 1-propanol to produce propene through a similar intermediate (propoxide or ?2(C,O)-propanal). • Mo2C surface can deoxygenate furfural and furfuryl alcohol to make 2-methylfuran through a 2-methylfuran-like intermediate. • The presence of furan ring modifies the selectivity between deoxygenation and hydrogenation/dehydrogenation pathways. - Abstract: The selective deoxygenation of aldehydes and alcohols without cleaving the C-C bond is crucial for upgrading bio-oil and other biomass-derived molecules to useful fuels and chemicals. In this work, propanal, 1-propanol, furfural and furfuryl alcohol were selected as probe molecules to study the deoxygenation of aldehydes and alcohols on molybdenum carbide (Mo2C) prepared over a Mo(1 1 0) surface. The reaction pathways were investigated using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS). The deoxygenation of propanal and 1-propanol went through a similar intermediate (propoxide or ?2(C,O)-propanal) to produce propene. The deoxygenation of furfural and furfuryl alcohol produced a surface intermediate similar to adsorbed 2-methylfuran. The comparison of these results revealed the promising deoxygenation performance of Mo2C, as well as the effect of the furan ring on the selective deoxygenation of the C=O and C-OH bonds

  12. Selective deoxygenation of aldehydes and alcohols on molybdenum carbide (Mo{sub 2}C) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Ke [Catalysis Center for Energy Innovation, Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Yu, Weiting [Chemical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Chen, Jingguang G., E-mail: jgchen@columbia.edu [Chemical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2014-12-30

    Highlights: • Mo{sub 2}C surface can deoxygenate propanal and 1-propanol to produce propene through a similar intermediate (propoxide or ?{sup 2}(C,O)-propanal). • Mo{sub 2}C surface can deoxygenate furfural and furfuryl alcohol to make 2-methylfuran through a 2-methylfuran-like intermediate. • The presence of furan ring modifies the selectivity between deoxygenation and hydrogenation/dehydrogenation pathways. - Abstract: The selective deoxygenation of aldehydes and alcohols without cleaving the C-C bond is crucial for upgrading bio-oil and other biomass-derived molecules to useful fuels and chemicals. In this work, propanal, 1-propanol, furfural and furfuryl alcohol were selected as probe molecules to study the deoxygenation of aldehydes and alcohols on molybdenum carbide (Mo{sub 2}C) prepared over a Mo(1 1 0) surface. The reaction pathways were investigated using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS). The deoxygenation of propanal and 1-propanol went through a similar intermediate (propoxide or ?{sup 2}(C,O)-propanal) to produce propene. The deoxygenation of furfural and furfuryl alcohol produced a surface intermediate similar to adsorbed 2-methylfuran. The comparison of these results revealed the promising deoxygenation performance of Mo{sub 2}C, as well as the effect of the furan ring on the selective deoxygenation of the C=O and C-OH bonds.

  13. Diesel-like fuel obtained by pyrolysis of vegetable oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Daniela G.; Soares, Valerio C.D.; Ribeiro, Eric B.; Cardoso, Erika C.V.; Rassi, Flavia C.; Mundim, Kleber C.; Rubim, Joel C.; Suarez, Paulo A.Z. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Brasilia, CP 4478, 70919-970 Brasilia-DF (Brazil); Carvalho, Daniel A. [CEPAT-ANP, Brasilia-DF (Brazil)

    2004-06-01

    The pyrolysis reactions of soybean, palm tree, and castor oils were studied. The pyrolytic products were analyzed by CG-FID, CG-MS, and FTIR, showing the formation of olefins, paraffins, carboxylic acids, and aldehydes. The adequate choice of distillation temperature (DT) ranges made it possible to isolate fuels with physical-chemical properties comparable to those specified for petroleum based fuels. The catalytic upgrading of the soybean pyrolytic fuel over HZSM-5 zeolite at 400C was also studied and has shown a partial deoxygenation of the pyrolytic products.

  14. Influence of the Pyrolysis Temperature on Sewage Sludge Product Distribution, Bio-Oil, and Char Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2013-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis may be used for sewage sludge treatment with the advantages of a significant reduction of solid waste volume and production of a bio-oil that can be used as fuel. A study of the influence of the reaction temperature on sewage sludge pyrolysis has been carried out using a pyrolysis centrifugel reactor (PCR) at 475, 525, 575, and 625 °C. Maxima of both organic oil yield of 41 wt % on a dry ash free feedstock basis (daf) and a sludge oil energy recovery of 50% were obtained at 575 °C. The water-insoluble fraction, molecular-weight distribution, higher heating value (HHV), and thermal behaviors of sludge oils were found to be considerably influenced by the applied pyrolysis temperatures. The sludge oil properties obtained at the optimal temperature of 575 °C were a HHV of 25.5 MJ/kg, a water-insoluble fraction of 18.7 wt %, a viscosity of 43.6 mPa s at 40 °C, a mean molecular weight of 392 g/mol, and metal concentrations lower than 0.14 wt % on a dry basis (db). Less optimal oil properties with respect to industrial applications were observed for oil samples obtained at 475 and 625 °C. Char properties of the 575 °C sample were an ash content of 81 wt % and a HHV of 6.1 MJ/kg db. A total of 95% of the sewage sludge phosphorus content was recovered in the char. The solid waste amount (char compared to sludge) was reduced to 52% on a bulk volume basis at the pyrolysis temperature of 575 °C.

  15. Effects of inherent alkali and alkaline earth metallic species on biomass pyrolysis at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Song; Jiang, Long; Wang, Yi; Su, Sheng; Sun, Lushi; Xu, Boyang; He, Limo; Xiang, Jun

    2015-09-01

    This work aimed to investigate effects of inherent alkali and alkaline earth metallic species (AAEMs) on biomass pyrolysis at different temperatures. The yield of CO, H2 and C2H4 was increased and that of CO2 was suppressed with increasing temperature. Increasing temperature could also promote depolymerization and aromatization reactions of active tars, forming heavier polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, leading to decrease of tar yields and species diversity. Diverse performance of inherent AAEMs at different temperatures significantly affected the distribution of pyrolysis products. The presence of inherent AAEMs promoted water-gas shift reaction, and enhanced the yield of H2 and CO2. Additionally, inherent AAEMs not only promoted breakage and decarboxylation/decarbonylation reaction of thermally labile hetero atoms of the tar but also enhanced thermal decomposing of heavier aromatics. Inherent AAEMs could also significantly enhance the decomposition of levoglucosan, and alkaline earth metals showed greater effect than alkali metals. PMID:26005925

  16. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature on Rice Husk Char Characteristics and Its Tar Adsorption Capability

    OpenAIRE

    Anchan Paethanom; Kunio Yoshikawa

    2012-01-01

    A biomass waste, rice husk, was inspected by thermoanalytical investigation to evaluate its capability as an adsorbent medium for tar removal. The pyrolysis process has been applied to the rice husk material at different temperatures 600, 800 and 1000 °C with 20 °C/min heating rate, to investigate two topics: (1) influence of temperature on characterization of rice husk char and; (2) adsorption capability of rice husk char for tar removal. The results showed that subsequent ...

  17. PYROLYSIS OF EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES: INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON THE YIELDS AND COMPOSITION OF GASEOUS PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Azri Sukiran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing concern on fossil fuel depletion and environmental problems, the utilization of renewable biomass resources is expected to play an important role in the future. Biomass can be converted into a variety of fuels and chemicals by different processes; one of which is pyrolysis that has been subjected to extensive research in recent years. In this study, pyrolysis of oil palm Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB was investigated using a quartz fluidised-fixed bed reactor. The effects of pyrolysis temperatures on the yields and composition of gaseous products were investigated. The temperatures of pyrolysis used were in the range of 300-600°C. The gaseous products from pyrolysis of (EFB were analyzed using a dual-channel micro-GC with Thermal Conductivity Detector (TCD. The highest and lowest gas yields obtained were 42.98 and 31.55% at 600 and 300°C, respectively. The gases detected were Carbon Monoxide (CO, carbon dioxide (CO2, Methane (CH4, Ethane (C2H6 and Ethylene (C2H4. At 300 and 400°C, the gas mixture comprised mainly CO2 (20% and CO (20%. Other gases such as CH4, C2H4 and C2H6 only evolved at higher temperature starting from 400°C with the yield of the latter two gases in very low concentration.

  18. Evaluating the effects of temperature on pressurized pyrolysis of Nannochloropsis oculata based on products yields and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • N. oculata is a suitable feedstock for pyrolysis due to high volatile matter. • Temperature effects on product yields and properties during pressurized pyrolysis. • Algal bio-oil has high energy content and has similar composition as diesel fuel. • Suitability of char as a fuel was based on Van Krevelen diagram. • Gas from pyrolysis of N. oculata has high percentage of combustible hydrocarbons. - Abstract: Biofuels derived from pyrolysis of microalgae can be potential alternatives for petroleum-derived fuels. Pyrolysis is an easily controllable thermochemical conversion process that yields energy fuels such as bio-oil, char and combustible gases. Microalgae is a very promising feedstock for this process since it has high lipid content, grows faster than lignocellulosic biomass, has high productivity and high photosynthetic efficiency. Several reaction parameters including temperature could affect the yield and quality of biofuels from pyrolysis. This paper aimed to evaluate the effect of temperature during pyrolysis of Nannochloropsis oculata using a pressurized fixed-bed batch-type reactor. Based on the results, the distribution of the products significantly varied with pyrolysis temperature, and the pyrolysis process can be manipulated to favor one of its products. Bio-oil with high heating value (HHV) of about 38 MJ/kg, due to its high carbon (76wt%) and hydrogen (11wt%) contents, and low oxygen content (7wt%), can be produced from N. oculata. It also consists mainly of saturated (34.95%) and unsaturated aliphatics (34.43%), and aromatics (14.19%) ranging from C8 to C21, which is comparable to diesel fuel. The HHV of the char (27 MJ/kg) and gas (27 MJ/m3) were also relatively high. Based on their heating values (HHV) and compositions, the char, bio-oil and gas produced from pyrolysis of N. oculata can be potentially used as alternative sources of energy. Mass and energy conversion efficiencies of the process were also estimated to be approximately equal to 76% and 68%, respectively

  19. Effect of final pyrolysis temperature on the mechanical and thermal properties of carbon foams reinforced by aluminosilicate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xiaowen, E-mail: xwwu@cugb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Fang, Minghao; Mei, Lefu; Luo, Bingcheng [School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Carbon foams with phenolic resin as precursor and aluminosilicate as reinforcement were prepared at different final pyrolysis temperatures. The microstructures, mechanical and thermal properties of the foams were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, mechanical testing and the laser flash method, respectively. The results show that the cells are mainly open with incomplete cell membranes, and the alumninosilicate particles are located in cell walls. The surface of cell openings becomes rougher as the final pyrolysis temperature increases. The ultimate compressive strength increases from 0.45 to 1.74 MPa when increasing the final pyrolysis temperature from 1100 to 1550 Degree-Sign C. The thermal conductivity ranged from 0.37 to 0.52 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1} at room temperature and decreases with increasing the final pyrolysis temperature. The occurrence of the mullite phase plays a key role in the changes of the mechanical properties and thermal conductivity of the foams.

  20. Tar-free fuel gas production from high temperature pyrolysis of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • High temperature pyrolysis of sewage sludge was efficient for producing tar-free fuel gas. • Complete tar removal and volatile matter release were at elevated temperature of 1300 °C. • Sewage sludge was converted to residual solid with high ash content. • 72.60% of energy conversion efficiency for gas production in high temperature pyrolysis. • Investment and costing for tar cleaning were reduced. - Abstract: Pyrolysis of sewage sludge was studied in a free-fall reactor at 1000–1400 °C. The results showed that the volatile matter in the sludge could be completely released to gaseous product at 1300 °C. The high temperature was in favor of H2 and CO in the produced gas. However, the low heating value (LHV) of the gas decreased from 15.68 MJ/N m3 to 9.10 MJ/N m3 with temperature increasing from 1000 °C to 1400 °C. The obtained residual solid was characterized by high ash content. The energy balance indicated that the most heating value in the sludge was in the gaseous product

  1. Tar-free fuel gas production from high temperature pyrolysis of sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Leguan; Xiao, Bo; Hu, Zhiquan; Liu, Shiming, E-mail: Zhangping101@yeah.net; Cheng, Gong; He, Piwen; Sun, Lei

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • High temperature pyrolysis of sewage sludge was efficient for producing tar-free fuel gas. • Complete tar removal and volatile matter release were at elevated temperature of 1300 °C. • Sewage sludge was converted to residual solid with high ash content. • 72.60% of energy conversion efficiency for gas production in high temperature pyrolysis. • Investment and costing for tar cleaning were reduced. - Abstract: Pyrolysis of sewage sludge was studied in a free-fall reactor at 1000–1400 °C. The results showed that the volatile matter in the sludge could be completely released to gaseous product at 1300 °C. The high temperature was in favor of H{sub 2} and CO in the produced gas. However, the low heating value (LHV) of the gas decreased from 15.68 MJ/N m{sup 3} to 9.10 MJ/N m{sup 3} with temperature increasing from 1000 °C to 1400 °C. The obtained residual solid was characterized by high ash content. The energy balance indicated that the most heating value in the sludge was in the gaseous product.

  2. Biomass Pyrolysis: Comments on Some Sources of Confusions in the Definitions of Temperatures and Heating Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Lédé

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomass pyrolysis is usually characterized on the basis of temperature and heating rate. Unfortunately, these parameters are badly defined in processing reactors as well as in laboratory devices. From the results of simplified models, the present paper points out the significant mistakes that can be made when assuming that the actual temperature and heating rate of reacting biomass particles are the same as those of the external heating medium. The difficulties in defining these two parameters are underlined in both cases of a heat source temperature supposed to be constant or to increase with time.

  3. Influence of pyrolysis temperature on composted sewage sludge biochar priming effect in a loamy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, A; Tarquis, A M; Saa-Requejo, A; Guerrero, F; Gascó, G

    2013-10-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich solid product obtained by the pyrolysis of organic materials. The carbon stability of biochar allows that it can be applied to soil for long-term carbon storage. This carbon stability is greatly influenced by the pyrolysis temperature and the raw material used for biochar production. The aim of the present work is to study the soil carbon sequestration after the application of biochar from sewage sludge (SL) pyrolysis at two different temperatures (400 and 600 °C). For this purpose, soil CO2 emissions were measured for 80 d in an incubation experiment after soil amendment with the SL and each biochar at a dosage of 8 wt%. Biochar reduced the CO2 emissions during incubation between 11% and 32% relative to the SL treatment. The CO2 data were fit to a dual exponential model, and the CO2 emissions were simulated at different times (1, 5 and 10 yr). Additionally, the kinetics of the CO2 evolution from SL, two biochar samples, soil and amended soil were well fit to a dual first-order kinetic model with correlation coefficients greater than 0.93. The simulation of CO2 emissions from the soil by applying the proposed double first-order kinetic model (kg CO2-C ha(-1)) showed a reduction of CO2 emissions between 301 and 932 kg CO2-C ha(-1)with respect to the direct application of raw sewage sludge after 10 yr. PMID:23891257

  4. Influence of Biomass Pyrolysis Temperature, Heating Rate and Type of Biomass on Produced Char in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Toshiyuki Iwasaki; Seiichi Suzuki; Toshinori Kojima

    2014-01-01

    Biomass pyrolysis experiments were carried out in a fluidized bed reactor (FBR) and produced char yields were measured for 3 kinds of softwoods, 3 kinds of hardwoods, 2 kinds of herbaceous plants and 3 kinds of agricultural residues. Pyrolysis temperature range was between 300 °C and 1200 °C, and heating rate was fast (100–1000 °C/s) or slow (10 °C/min). After the pyrolysis, produced char was collected with bed particles and only the char was separated from bed particles by sieving. Surface o...

  5. Microstructure development of chars derived from high-temperature pyrolysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) hulls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.A. Boateng; P.H. Cooke; K.B. Hicks [US Department of Agriculture, Wyndmoor, PA (United States). Agriculture Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center

    2007-03-15

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass is a thermochemical conversion process that provides an economic production of pyrolysis oils/bio-oils. The process also results in a residual solid residue, char, that comprises carbon and mineral ash that can be a potential source of fuel or a valuable co-product. Depending on the exposure time and temperature, pyrolysis can increase the interfacial surface areas of the residual char thereby enhancing its absorptive capacity. Char residues can be used for physical or chemical absorption and as catalyst support or base material for fertilizers. The reactions that occur during char combustion or gasification are heterogeneous hence the reaction rates are microstructure dependent. Ashes from biomass derived chars can be high either in calcium or silica with the latter exceeding 90% levels in certain grain hull residues. Depending on the microstructural transformations which occur during thermal degradation of the biomass, silica-laden ashes can be a potential source of pozzolan for the construction industry. In this study, the microstructure of the chars derived from fast pyrolysis of barley-hull was studied using environmental scanning electron microscopy under low vacuum conditions. The results indicate a gradual increase in convoluted microstructure related to the superficial organization of epidermal cells, including stomata and trichomes that eventually assume the form of various morphotypes of phytoliths. Characterization of the temporal events of high temperature evolution of the hull microstructure provides practical implications of its combustion reactivities and also provides information useful for predicting potential masonry applications for the resulting ash. 18 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Pyrolysis characteristics of integrated circuit boards at various particle sizes and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pyrolysis method was employed to recycle the metals and brominated compounds blended into printed circuit boards. This research investigated the effect of particle size and process temperature on the element composition of IC boards and pyrolytic residues, liquid products, and water-soluble ionic species in the exhaust, with the overall goal being to identify the pyrolysis conditions that will have the least impact on the environment. Integrated circuit (IC) boards were crushed into 5-40 mesh (0.71-4.4 mm), and the crushed particles were pyrolyzed at temperatures ranging from 200 to 500 deg. C. The thermal decomposition kinetics were measured by a thermogravimetric (TG) analyzer. The composition of pyrolytic residues was analyzed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (EDS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES) and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). In addition, the element compositions of liquid products were analyzed by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. Pyrolytic exhaust was collected by a water-absorption system in an ice-bath cooler, and IC analysis showed that the absorbed solution comprised 11 ionic species. Based on the pyrolytic kinetic parameters of TG analysis and pyrolytic residues at various temperatures for 30 min, the effect of particle size was insignificant in this study, and temperature was the key factor for the IC board pyrolysis. Two stages of decomposition were found for IC board pyrolysis under nitrogen atmosphere. The activation energy was 38-47 kcal/mol for the first-stage reaction and 5.2-9.4 kcal/mol for the second-stage reaction. Metal content was low in the liquid by-product of the IC board pyrolysis process, which is an advantage in that the liquid product could be used as a fuel. Brominate and ammonium were the main water-soluble ionic species of the pyrolytic exhaust. A plan for their safe and effective disposal must be developed if the pyrolytic recycling process is to be applied to IC boards

  7. Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2012-12-11

    A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

  8. Screening acidic zeolites for catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass and its components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeolites have been shown to effectively promote cracking reactions during pyrolysis resulting in highly deoxygenated and hydrocarbon-rich compounds and stable pyrolysis oil product. Py/GC-MS was employed to study the catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass samples comprising oak, corn...

  9. Toluene pyrolysis studies and high temperature reactions of propargyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, R.D.; Chen, H.; Qin, Z. [Univ. of New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The main focus of this program is to investigate the thermal decompositions of fuels that play an important role in the pre-particle soot formation process. It has been demonstrated that the condition of maximum soot yield is established when the reaction conditions of temperature and pressure are sufficient to establish a radical pool to support the production of polyaromatic hydrocarbon species and the subsequent formation of soot particles. However, elevated temperatures result in lower soot yields which are attributed to thermolyses of aromatic ring structures and result in the bell-shaped dependence of soot yield on temperature. The authors have selected several acyclic hydrocarbons to evaluate the chemical thermodynamic and kinetic effects attendant to benzene formation. To assess the thermal stability of the aromatic ring, the authors have studied the pyrolyses of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, chlorobenzene and pyridine. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF) is employed to analyze the reaction zone behind reflected shock waves. Reaction time histories of the reactants, products, and intermediates are constructed and mechanisms are formulated to model the experimental data. The TOF work is often performed with use of laser schlieren densitometry (LS) to measure density gradients resulting from the heats of various reactions involved in a particular pyrolytic system. The two techniques, TOF and LS, provide independent and complementary information about ring formation and ring rupture reactions.

  10. Effect of Fast Pyrolysis Conditions on Structural Transformation and Reactivity of Herbaceous Biomasses at High Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Jensen, Anker D.; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Glarborg, Peter; Spliethoff, Hartmut; Steibel, Markus; Hofmann Larsen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis of wheat straw and rice husks was carried out in an entrained-flow reactor (EFR) and compared with the results from the wire-mesh reactor (WMR) in terms of the char yield at high-temperatures (1000-1500°C) to study the effect of heating rate, final temperature, ash content and particle size on the char yield. X-ray diffractometry (XRD), N-adsorption (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), particle size analysis (CAMSIZER XT), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (29Si NMR; 1...

  11. Influence of pyrolysis temperature on characteristics and heavy metal adsorptive performance of biochar derived from municipal sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tan; Zhang, Yaxin; Wang, Hongtao; Lu, Wenjing; Zhou, Zeyu; Zhang, Yuancheng; Ren, Lulu

    2014-07-01

    To investigate systematically the influence of pyrolysis temperature on properties and heavy metal adsorption potential of municipal sludge biochar, biophysical dried sludge was pyrolyzed under temperature varying from 500°C to 900°C. The biochar yield decreased with the increase in pyrolysis temperature, while the ash content retained mostly, thus transforming the biochars into alkaline. The structure became porous as the temperature increased, and the concentrations of surface functional group elements remained low. Despite the comparatively high content of heavy metal in the biochar, the leaching toxicity of biochars was no more than 20% of the Chinese standard. In the batch experiments of cadmium(II) adsorption, the removal capacity of biochars improved under higher temperature, especially at 800°C and 900°C even one order of magnitude higher than that of the commercial activated carbon. For both energy recovery and heavy metal removal, the optimal pyrolysis temperature is 900°C. PMID:24835918

  12. Influence of fast pyrolysis temperature on biochar labile fraction and short-term carbon loss in a loamy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production of bio-oil, gas and biochar from pyrolysis of biomass is considered a promising technology for combined production of bioenergy and recalcitrant carbon (C) suitable for sequestration in soil. Using a fast pyrolysis centrifuge reactor (PCR) the present study investigated the relation between fast pyrolysis of wheat straw at different reactor temperatures and the short-term degradability of biochar in soil. After 115 days incubation 3-12% of the added biochar-C had been emitted as CO2. On average, 90% of the total biochar-C loss occurred within the first 20 days of the experiment, emphasizing the importance of knowing the biochar labile fraction when evaluating a specific biochars C sequestration potential. The pyrolysis temperature influenced the outputs of biochar, bio-oil and syngas significantly, as well as the stability of the biochar produced. Contrary to slow pyrolysis a fast pyrolysis process may result in incomplete conversion of biomass due to limitations to heat transfer and kinetics. In our case chemical analysis of the biochars revealed unconverted cellulosic and hemicellulosic fractions, which in turn were found to be proportional with the short-term biochar degradation in soil. As these labile carbohydrates are rapidly mineralized, their presence lowers the biochar-C sequestration potential. By raising the pyrolysis temperature, biochar with none or low contents of these fractions can be produced, but this will be on the expense of the biochar quantity. The yield of CO2 neutral bio-oil is the other factor to optimize when adjusting the pyrolysis temperature settings to give the overall greatest climate change mitigation effect.

  13. Influence of fast pyrolysis temperature on biochar labile fraction and short-term carbon loss in a loamy soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Esben; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Production of bio-oil, gas and biochar from pyrolysis of biomass is considered a promising technology for combined production of bioenergy and recalcitrant carbon (C) suitable for sequestration in soil. Using a fast pyrolysis centrifuge reactor (PCR) the present study investigated the relation between fast pyrolysis of wheat straw at different reactor temperatures and the short-term degradability of biochar in soil. After 115 days incubation 3–12% of the added biochar-C had been emitted as CO2. On average, 90% of the total biochar-C loss occurred within the first 20 days of the experiment, emphasizing the importance of knowing the biochar labile fraction when evaluating a specific biochars C sequestration potential. The pyrolysis temperature influenced the outputs of biochar, bio-oil and syngas significantly, as well as the stability of the biochar produced. Contrary to slow pyrolysis a fast pyrolysis process may result in incomplete conversion of biomass due to limitations to heat transfer and kinetics. In our case chemical analysis of the biochars revealed unconverted cellulosic and hemicellulosic fractions, which in turn were found to be proportional with the short-term biochar degradation in soil. As these labile carbohydrates are rapidly mineralized, their presence lowers the biochar-C sequestration potential. By raising the pyrolysis temperature, biochar with none or low contents of these fractions can be produced, but this will be on the expense of the biochar quantity. The yield of CO2 neutral bio-oil is the other factor to optimize when adjusting the pyrolysis temperature settings to give the overall greatest climate change mitigation effect.

  14. Effects of temperature and composite alumina on pyrolysis of sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Jin, Baosheng; Wu, Wei; Zuo, Wu; Zhang, Ya; Zhang, Yong; Huang, Yaji

    2015-04-01

    An interactive dual-circulating fluidized bed system has been proposed in which the pyrolysis of sewage sludge (SS) and incineration of biomass proceed simultaneously, and alumina is used as the bed material and heat carrier. The alumina coated with biomass ash would mix with sewage sludge in the pyrolysis reactor of this device. It is important to know the influence of composite alumina (CA) on the pyrolysis progress. Sewage sludge was pyrolyzed in a fixed bed reactor from 400 to 600°C using CA as catalyst. The effects of temperature and CA additive ratio on the products were investigated. The product yields and component distribution of non-condensable gas were more sensitive to the change of temperature, and the maximum liquid yield of 48.44 wt.% and maximum Useable Energy of Liquid of 3871 kJ/kg sludge were observed at 500°C with 1/5 CA/SS (mass ratio). The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry results showed that the increase of temperature enhanced devolatilization of organic matter and promoted cyclization and aromatization of aliphatics. The presence of CA could strengthen secondary cracking and interaction among primary products from different organic compounds, such as acid-amine condensation, and reduce the content of oxygenated compounds. When the CA additive amount exceeded a certain proportion, the aromatization was clearly strengthened. The effects of CA on decomposition of fatty acids and formation of aromatics were similar to that of temperature. This means that the reaction temperature could be lowered by introducing CA, which has a positive effect on reducing energy consumption. PMID:25872704

  15. The stabilization of tannery sludge and the character of humic acid-like during low temperature pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongrui; Gao, Mao; Hua, Li; Chao, Hao; Xu, Jing

    2015-11-01

    Tannery sludge contained plenty of organic matter, and the organic substance stability had direct impact on its derived chars' utilization. In this paper, the stabilization of tannery sludge and the variation of humic acid-like (HAL) extracted by different methods were investigated in a magnetic stirring reactor under low temperature pyrolysis of 100-400 °C. Results showed that the aromatic structure of pyrolysis chars increased with the increase of temperature and time. The char contained highly aromatic structure and relatively small dissolved organic matters (DOM) at 300 °C. The similar behaviors appeared in two HAL series by different extraction methods. The N content, H/C value, and aliphatic structures of HAL decreased with the increase of pyrolysis temperature, while the C/N value and aromatic structures increased with the rise of pyrolysis temperature. The composition and functional groups of HAL were similar with the purchased humic acid (HA). The fluorescence spectra revealed that two main peaks were found at Ex/Em?=?239/363-368 nm and 283/359-368 nm in each HAL series from raw and 100 °C pyrolysis tannery sludge, representing a protein-like matter. The new peak appeared at Ex/Em?=?263-283/388 nm in each HAL series from 200 °C pyrolysis tannery sludge-represented humic acid-like matter. The fluorescence intensity increased strongly compared to the other two peak intensity. Therefore, the humification of organic matter was increased by pyrolyzing. Notably, the HAL from 200 °C pyrolysis tannery sludge contained simple molecular structure, and the polycondensation increased but with a relative lower humification degree compared to soil HAL and purchased HA. Therefore, the sludge needs further oxidation. The humic substance was negligible by direct extraction when the temperature was 300 and 400 °C. PMID:26092361

  16. Nitrogen enrichment potential of biochar in relation to pyrolysis temperature and feedstock quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassal, Rachhpal S; Johnson, Mark S; Molodovskaya, Marina; Black, T Andrew; Jollymore, Ashlee; Sveinson, Kelly

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) enrichment of biochar from both inorganic and organic waste N sources has the potential to add economic and environmental value through its use as a slow release N fertilizer. We investigated the sorption of N by, and its release from, biochar made at pyrolysis temperatures of 400, 500 and 600 °C from three feedstocks: poultry litter (PL with a carbon (C) to N ratio (C:N) of 14), softwood chips of spruce-pine-fir (SPF with a C:N of 470), and a 50:50 mixture of PL and SPF (PL/SPF). The prepared biochars were enriched with ammonium nitrate (AN) and urea ammonium nitrate (UAN). PL biochars had the lowest C content (50-56% C), but the highest pH (9.3-9.9), electrical conductivity (EC, 780-960 dS m(-1)), cation exchange capacity (CEC, 40-46 cmol kg(-1)), and N content (3.3-4.5%). While N content and hydrogen (H) to C atomic ratio (H:C) decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature irrespective of the feedstock used, both pH and EC slightly increased with pyrolysis temperature for all feedstocks. The PL and SPF biochars showed similar H:C and also similar N sorption and N release at all pyrolysis temperatures. These biochars sorbed up to 5% N by mass, irrespective of the source of N. However, PL/SPF biochar performed poorly in sorbing N from either AN or UAN. Biochar H:C was found to be unrelated to N sorption rates, suggesting that physical adsorption on active surfaces was the main mechanism of N sorption in these biochars. There were minor differences between N sorbed from NO3-N and NH4-N among different biochars. Very small amounts of sorbed N (0.2-0.4 mg N g(-1) biochar) was released when extracted with 1 M KCl solution, indicating that the retained N was strongly held in complex bonds, more so for NH4-N because the release of NO3-N was 3-4 times greater than that of NH4-N. NH4-N sorption far exceeded the effective CEC of the biochars, thereby suggesting that most of the sorption may be due to physical entrapment of NH4(+) in biochar pores. The results of this study suggest that biochar can be used to remove excess N from poultry and dairy manure and be a good mitigation option for reducing N leaching and gaseous losses. PMID:25621388

  17. Multi-species time-history measurements during high-temperature acetone and 2-butanone pyrolysis

    KAUST Repository

    Lam, Kingyiu

    2013-01-01

    High-temperature acetone and 2-butanone pyrolysis studies were conducted behind reflected shock waves using five species time-history measurements (ketone, CO, CH3, CH4 and C2H4). Experimental conditions covered temperatures of 1100-1600 Kat 1.6 atm, for mixtures of 0.25-1.5% ketone in argon. During acetone pyrolysis, the CO concentration time-history was found to be strongly sensitive to the acetone dissociation rate constant ?1 (CH3COCH3 ? CH3 + CH3CO), and this could be directly determined from the CO time-histories, yielding ?1(1.6 atm) = 2.46 × 1014 exp(-69.3 [kcal/mol]/RT) s-1 with an uncertainty of ±25%. This rate constant is in good agreement with previous shock tube studies from Sato and Hidaka (2000) [3] and Saxena et al. (2009) [4] (within 30%) at temperatures above 1450 K, but is at least three times faster than the evaluation from Sato and Hidaka at temperatures below 1250 K. Using this revised ?1 value with the recent mechanism of Pichon et al. (2009) [5], the simulated profiles during acetone pyrolysis show excellent agreement with all five species time-history measurements. Similarly, the overall 2-butanone decomposition rate constant ?tot was inferred from measured 2-butanone time-histories, yielding ? tot(1.5 atm) = 6.08 × 1013 exp(-63.1 [kcal/mol]/RT) s -1 with an uncertainty of ±35%. This rate constant is approximately 30% faster than that proposed by Serinyel et al. (2010) [11] at 1119 K, and approximately 100% faster at 1412 K. Using the measured 2-butanone and CO time-histories and an O-atom balance analysis, a missing removal pathway for methyl ketene was identified. The rate constant for the decomposition of methyl ketene was assumed to be the same as the value for the ketene decomposition reaction. Using the revised ?tot value and adding the methyl ketene decomposition reaction to the Serinyel et al. mechanism, the simulated profiles during 2-butanone pyrolysis show good agreement with the measurements for all five species. © 2012 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of inherent minerals and pyrolysis temperature on the yield of pyrolysates of some Pakistani coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Tauqeer; Awan, Iftikhar A.; Nisar, Jan [National Center of Excellence in Physical Chemistry, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25120 (Pakistan); Ahmad, Imtiaz [Institute of Chemical Sciences, University of Peshawar, Peshawar (Pakistan)

    2009-05-15

    An analytical method has been developed to quantize tar, liquids and gaseous products resulting from the flash pyrolysis of sub-bituminous Makarwal coal. The method involves the thermal decomposition of 200 mg of 85-mesh size coal at 690 C under the flow of nitrogen using Shimadzu PYR-2A open tubular pyrolyzer. The resulting tar and liquid fractions were separated using two traps at the exit of the pyrolyzer while the gaseous products leaving the traps were on line injected to gas chromatograph equipped with porapak Q column and flame ionization detector for the analysis. Effect of demineralization on the yields of products was investigated by treating raw samples with 2 M HCl. Removal of inherent minerals from coal by acid wash decreased the yield of total volatiles indicating catalytic properties of mineral under the condition used in present study. The influence of pyrolysis temperature on the yield of pyrolysates and hydrocarbon gases, resulting from raw coal samples, was studied over the temperature range of 500-770 C. (author)

  19. Substitution of fossil fuels by using low temperature pyrolysis of agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Externally heated rotary kiln pyrolysis reactor is used as a new process technology for the conversion of biomass into useful primary energy products. A 3 MW pyrolysis pilot plant is being operated for a period of two years using agricultural residues. Several analytical methods are applied to provide an insight into the complex process of pyrolysis. Fundamentals for an advanced pyrolysis model approach will be obtained by the results of the pilot plant. (author)

  20. RELATION BETWEEN MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND PYROLYSIS TEMPERATURE OF PHENOL FORMALDEHYDE RESIN FOR GAS SEPARATION MEMBRANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONIKA ŠUPOVÁ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper has been to characterize the relation between the pyrolysis temperature of phenol-formaldehyde resin, the development of a porous structure, and the mechanical properties for the application of semipermeable membranes for gas separation. No previous study has dealt with this problem in its entirety. Phenol-formaldehyde resin showed an increasing trend toward micropore porosity in the temperature range from 500 till 1000°C, together with closure of mesopores and macropores. Samples cured and pyrolyzed at 1000°C pronounced hysteresis of desorption branch. The ultimate bending strength was measured using a four-point arrangement that is more suitable for measuring of brittle materials. The chevron notch technique was used for determination the fracture toughness. The results for mechanical properties indicated that phenol-formaldehyde resin pyrolyzates behaved similarly to ceramic materials. The data obtained for the material can be used for calculating the technical design of gas separation membranes.

  1. Fluidised bed catalytic pyrolysis of scrap tyres: influence of catalyst:tyre ratio and catalyst temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul T; Brindle, Alexander J

    2002-12-01

    Pyrolysis with on-line Zeolite catalysis of scrap tyres was undertaken in a fluidised bed reactor with the aim of maximising the production of higher value single ring aromatic hydrocarbons in the derived oil. Experiments were carried out in relation to the ratio of the catalyst to tyre feedstock and the temperature of the catalyst bed. Two Zeolite catalysts were examined, a Y-type Zeolite catalyst and Zeolite ZSM-5 catalyst of differing pore size and surface activity. The composition of the oils derived from the uncatalysed fluidised bed pyrolysis of tyres showed that benzene concentration was 0.2 wt%, toluene concentration was 0.8 wt%, o-xylene was 0.3 wt%, m/p-xylenes were 1.8 wt% and limonene was 4.3 wt%. Benzene, toluene and xylenes present in the oils showed a significant increase in the presence of both of the catalysts. The maximum concentrations of these chemicals for the Y-Zeolite (CBV-400) catalyst was 1 wt% for benzene, 8wt% for toluene, 3 wt% for o-xylene and 8.5 wt% for m/p-xylenes, produced at a catalyst:tyre ratio of 1.5. There was less influence of catalyst temperature on the yield of benzene, toluene and xylenes, however, increasing the temperature of the catalyst resulted in a marked decrease in limonene concentration. The Y-type Zeolite catalyst produced significantly higher concentrations of benzene, toluene and xylenes which was attributed to the larger pore size and higher surface acidity of the Y-Zeolite catalyst compared to the Zeolite ZSM-5 catalyst. PMID:12549667

  2. Indium oxide thin-film transistors processed at low temperature via ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    KAUST Repository

    Faber, Hendrik

    2015-01-14

    The use of ultrasonic spray pyrolysis is demonstrated for the growth of polycrystalline, highly uniform indium oxide films at temperatures in the range of 200-300 °C in air using an aqueous In(NO3)3 precursor solution. Electrical characterization of as-deposited films by field-effect measurements reveals a strong dependence of the electron mobility on deposition temperature. Transistors fabricated at ?250 °C exhibit optimum performance with maximum electron mobility values in the range of 15-20 cm2 V -1 s-1 and current on/off ratio in excess of 106. Structural and compositional analysis of as-grown films by means of X-ray diffraction, diffuse scattering, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveal that layers deposited at 250 °C are denser and contain a reduced amount of hydroxyl groups as compared to films grown at either lower or higher temperatures. Microstructural analysis of semiconducting films deposited at 250 °C by high resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy reveals that as-grown layers are extremely thin (?7 nm) and composed of laterally large (30-60 nm) highly crystalline In2O3 domains. These unique characteristics of the In2O3 films are believed to be responsible for the high electron mobilities obtained from transistors fabricated at 250 °C. Our work demonstrates the ability to grow high quality low-dimensional In2O3 films and devices via ultrasonic spray pyrolysis over large area substrates while at the same time it provides guidelines for further material and device improvements.

  3. Flash pyrolysis at high temperature of ligno-cellulosic biomass and its components - production of synthesis gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrolysis is the first stage of any thermal treatment of biomass and governs the formation of synthesis gas for the production of electricity, hydrogen or liquid fuels. The objective of this work is to establish a link between the composition of a biomass and its pyrolysis gas. We study experimental flash pyrolysis and fix the conditions in which quantities of gas are maximal, while aiming at a regime without heat and mass transfer limitations (particles about 100 ?m): temperature of 950 C and residence time of about 2 s. Then we try to predict gas yields of any biomass according to its composition, applicable in this situation where thermodynamic equilibrium is not reached. We show that an additivity law does not allow correlating gas yields of a biomass with fractions of cellulose, hemi-cellulose and lignin contained in this biomass. Several explanations are suggested and examined: difference of pyrolytic behaviour of the same compound according to the biomass from which it is extracted, interactions between compounds and influence of mineral matter. With the aim of industrial application, we study pyrolysis of millimetric and centimetric size particles, and make a numerical simulation of the reactions of pyrolysis gases reforming. This simulation shows that the choice of biomass affects the quantities of synthesis gas obtained. (author)

  4. Modulated molecular beam mass spectrometric studies of the high temperature pyrolysis of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.D.

    1979-07-01

    The pyrolysis products of benzene and toluene were studied as functions of temperature (up to 2000/sup 0/C) and pressure. Above 1400/sup 0/C, most of the larger species are unstable; above 1700/sup 0/C, no species heavier than C/sub 6/H/sub 6/ are observed at any pressure. Above 1500/sup 0/C and at higher pressures, the products are dominated by species containing even numbers of carbon atoms (C/sub 2/ to C/sub 12/). While polyacetylenes up to C/sub 8/H/sub 2/ were observed, they are present in low abundances, with the max concentrations occurring at 1350/sup 0/C. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are formed readily. 6 figures. (DLC)

  5. Evaluation of Integrated Time-Temperature Effect in Pyrolysis Process of Historically Contaminated Soils with Cadmium (Cd and Lead (Pb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulm?u C

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available It is already known that heavy metals pollution causes important concern to human and ecosystem health. Heavy metals in soils at the European level represents 37.3% between main contaminates affecting soils (EEA, 2007. This paper illustrates results obtained in the framework of laboratory experiments concerning the evaluation of integrated time-temperature effect in pyrolysis process applied to contaminated soil by two different ways: it is about heavy metals historically contaminated soil from one of the most polluted areas within Romania, and artificially contaminated with PCB-containing transformer oil. In particular, the authors focused on a recent evaluation of pyrolysis efficiency on removing lead (Pb and cadmium (Cd from the contaminated soil. The experimental study evaluated two important parameters related to the studied remediation methodology: thermal process temperature and the retention time in reactor of the contaminated soils. The remediation treatments were performed in a rotary kiln reactor, taking into account three process temperatures (400°C, 600°C and 800°C and two retention times: 30 min. and 60 min. Completed analyses have focused on pyrolysis solids and gas products. Consequently, both ash and gas obtained after pyrolysis process were subjected to chemical analyses.

  6. Effect of biochar produced at different pyrolysis temperature on the soil respiration of abandoned mine soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Seong; Kim, Juhee; Hwang, Wonjae; Hyun, Seunghun

    2015-04-01

    Contaminated soils near an abandoned mine site included the high acidic mine tailing have received great interest due to potential risk to human health, because leachable elements in low pH continuously release from mine site soil with ground water and precipitation event. Biochar, which is the obtained pyrolysis process of biomass, is used as a soil amendments and carbon storage. Especially, many researchers report that the biochar application to soil show increasing soil pH, CEC, adsorption capacity of various elements, as well as, enhanced microbial activity. Therefore, biochar application to contaminated soil near abandoned mine site is expected to have a positive effects on management of these site and soils through the decreased leachability of contaminants. However, effects of biochar application to these site on the soil respiration, as a common measure of soil health, are poorly understood. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of biochar application to abandoned mine site soil on the microbial activity with soil respiration test. Biochar was obtained from giant Miscanthus in a slow pyrolysis process (heating rate of 10° C min-1 and N2 gas flow rate of 1.2 L min-1) at the temperature of 400° C (BC4) and 700° C (BC7), respectively. All biochar samples were prepared with grinding and sieving for particle size control (150~500?m). Soil sample was collected from abandoned mine site at Korea (36° 58'N, 128° 10'E). Main contaminants of this soil were As (12.5 g kg-1), Pb (7.3 g kg-1), and Zn (1.1 g kg-1). Biochars were applied (5% by dry weight) to the soil (final mixture weight were 800g), and then moisture contents were adjusted to 100% field capacity (-0.33 bar) in the respirometer with vacuum pump. CO2 efflux of each samples was continuously assessed using continuous aeration system (air flow rate 25 cc min-1) using air cylinder during 130hr (at 20° C and darkness condition). The CO2 emitted from the samples were carried to the infrared gas sensor, and these data were sent to a data logger. During the measuring periods, the cumulative CO2 emission were similar between the control (516.8 mg-CO2 kg-1-soil) and BC4 5% mixture (519.3 mg-CO2 kg-1-soil), while BC7 5% mixture was significantly decreased (356.1 mg-CO2 kg-1-soil) compared to other treatment and control. Because the degradation rate of biochar generally increased with decreasing pyrolysis temperature, this result suggest that the soil respiration rates of biochar amended soils are affected by physico-chemical properties of biochar during early incubation periods (about 1 weeks), For example, surface properties of used biochars, which are related to adsorption of soil organic matter and CO2, have different properties with pyrolysis temperature such as specific surface area (BC4=5.08 m2g-1; BC7=260.75 m2 g-1, respectively), average pore diameter (BC4=4,673 nm; BC7=2,606 nm, respectively), and functional groups of biochar surface. However, there was not clear evidence of biochar-mine soil interaction process, because of the short observation periods. Future work should focus on the adsorption of CO2 and soil organic matter of biochar and soil-biochar interaction with long time periods and various biological test.

  7. Investigations into catalyst selection for hydrogenation of tar from low-temperature pyrolysis of brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surygala, J.; Kubacki, A.

    1984-01-01

    The performance is comparatively evaluated of catalysts produced in Poland, the USA and the Federal Republic of Germany during hydrogenation of tar from low-temperature pyrolysis of brown coal from the Konin deposit in Poland. Hydrogenation conditions were following: reaction temperature 455 C, initial hydrogen pressure 130 MPa, reaction time 120 min, tar weight 100 g, catalyst weight 20 g, catalyst grain size 1x1 mm, time for temperature increase to reaction temperature 50 min, cooling time to 200 C about 90 min. Evaluations were aimed at determining high-performance catalysts for production of hydrogenation products low in aromatic polynuclear hydrocarbons accompanied by low yields of coke and gaseous products. Comparative evaluations showed that 10 catalysts used in tests were suitable for deep tar conversion to liquid products with a low content of aromatic polynuclear hydrocarbons. Proportion of hydrogenation residue and coke did not exceed 5%. Liquid hydrogenation products were characterized by low carbon content in aromatic structures (from 10 to 16%). From among the 10 catalysts (cobalt-molybdenum, nickel-cobalt-molybdenum, nickel-molybdenum, iron-molybdenum), 2 catalysts were superior to others: the HDS-2A catalyst (CoMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) produced by the Cyanamid Co. (USA) and the G-3 catalyst CoMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) produced in Poland by the ZCh. Oswiecim plant. 32 references.

  8. Deoxygenation in surface water of lotic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzi Mari Brandelero

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical models are gaining increasing importance in the evaluation and comparison of alternative management of natural water bodies. One of the difficulties of using models of water quality for oxygen is the absence of data on kinetic parameters of reactions of biochemical processes. This study aimed to evaluate the processes of temporal processing of oxygen in surface water of lotic environment. The study was conducted in the Meia Ponte River, Goiás, one of the main rivers of the state. Water samples were collected in the urban area of Goiânia, Goiânia New District 2, which shows apparent anthropogenic interference with the natural environment. After corrected to the standard temperature of 20°C, the BOD varied between 4.11 and 21.24 mg L-1 and during the process of biological oxidation, the deoxygenation coefficient (Kd20 varied from 0.12 to 1.05 d- 1, and an increase of organic matter in the dry season was observed.

  9. Tailoring biochars from different feedstock and produced at different temperature and time of pyrolysis for their use as soil amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zornoza, Raul; Moreno, Fabian; Acosta, Jose A.; Gomez Lopez, Maria Dolores; Faz, Angel

    2015-04-01

    Biochar used as a soil amendment to improve soil quality and fertility and increase soil carbon sequestration has been the focus of much research in the recent past. Unlike most conventional soil organic materials, which are readily decomposed, the recalcitrant nature of biochar increases its potential value as a soil amending material for the longer term. However, many biochars can be hydrophobic, and added to soil can aggravate water availability in areas where water scarcity is a major limiting factor for agriculture or forestry. It has been shown that biochar characteristics are influenced by production variables, especially feedstock, pyrolysis temperature and time of pyrolysis. Although there have been different studies characterizing biochars prepared from different sources, there are few studies comparing different types of biochar produced from domestic residues, manures or crop residues pyrolysis; there are, in addition, fewer studies dealing with the hydrophobic properties of the biochars. The different feedstock can have different properties which would result into different biochars even produced at the same operational factors. The main objective of this experiment was to study the influence of feedstock properties and pyrolysis temperature and time on nutrient contents, heavy metals, recalcitrance, thermal stability and hydrophobicity of biochars from cotton crop residues (CR), pig manure (PM) and domestic waste (DW). Biochars were obtained by pyrolysis under oxygen-limited conditions in a muffle furnace. The temperature was increased at 5°C min-1 to 300°C, 400°C, 500°C and 700°C and then maintained for 1h, 2h, 4 and 5 h at this temperature. All biochar properties were strongly influenced by feedstock source except for pH, the recalcitrance index and hydrophobicity. Nutrient contents were normally higher in the PM biochar, except for Cu and Ca which were higher in the DW biochar and B in the CR biochar. Heavy metal contents were significantly higher in the DW biochar. Biochar yield was higher in the DW biochar owing to the higher content of ashes. The temperature of pyrolysis did not significantly influence the level of nutrients. However, biochar yield decreased with increasing temperature, while pH increased with increasing temperature. All biochars produced at 300°C and 400°C were highly hydrophobic. Hydrophobicity totally disappeared in all biochars produced over 500°C at 2 h. Thermal stability was highly influenced by pyrolysis temperature, increasing with increasing temperature. Biochar produced at 300°C and 400°C showed presence of different pools of labile and recalcitrant pools, while biochar produced over 500°C showed an acute recalcitrant phase, with low content of labile pools. The disappearance of hydrophobicity was associated with the decreased in the labile pools of the biochar and increased thermal stability. No significant influence of the pyrolysis time was observed in any of the properties studied except for hydrophobicity, which tended to decrease with decreasing the time of pyrolysis. Our results showed that biochars can be tailored for different purposes in terms of the needs of specific nutrients, C sequestration, reduction of the content of toxic heavy metals, or absence of hydrophobicity to avoid negative hydrological processes in the soil. Acknowledgements: This work has been funded by the Programme Young Leaders in Research from Fundación Séneca (Agency of Science and Technology of the Region of Murcia, Spain) through the Project 18920/JLI/13.

  10. Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinangeli, Richard; Brandvold, Timothy A; Kocal, Joseph A

    2013-08-27

    Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing them from carbonaceous biomass feedstock are provided. The carbonaceous biomass feedstock is pyrolyzed in the presence of a catalyst comprising base metal-based catalysts, noble metal-based catalysts, treated zeolitic catalysts, or combinations thereof to produce pyrolysis gases. During pyrolysis, the catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction whereby at least a portion of the oxygenated hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis gases are converted into hydrocarbons. The oxygen is removed as carbon oxides and water. A condensable portion (the vapors) of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  11. Kinetics of petroleum generation by programmed-temperature closed- versus open-system pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenk, H.J.; Horsfield, B. (Juelich Research Centre (Germany))

    1993-02-01

    Bulk petroleum generation by programmed-temperature pyrolysis of immature (R[sub r] = 0.48%) Posidonia (Toarcian) Shale samples at heating rates of 0.1, 0.7, and 5.0 K/min has been studied comparatively under open- and closed-system conditions, using the microscale sealed vessel (MSSV) technique in the latter case. The comparison of formation rates required a differentiation (vs. temperature) of closed-system cumulative product evolution profiles. The kinetic analysis assuming twenty-five first order parallel reactions with activation energies regularly spaced between 46 and 70 kcal/mol and a single pre-exponential factor A yielded the same value of A = 1.08[center dot]10[sup 16] min[sup [minus]1] and very similar petroleum potential vs. activation energy distributions centered around 54 kcal/mol in both cases. In particular, both approaches turned out to be in excellent agreement with respect to predicting temperature ranges of oil and gas formation under geological heating conditions. This is in contrast to the case of petroleum yield assessment which appears to be more system-dependent. 67 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons toxicity and sorption behaviour of biochars prepared by pyrolysis of paper mill effluent treatment plant sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Parmila; Saroha, Anil K

    2015-09-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) toxicity and sorption behaviour of biochars prepared from pyrolysis of paper mill effluent treatment plant (ETP) sludge in temperature range 200-700 °C was studied. The sorption behaviour was found to depend on the degree of carbonization where the fractions of carbonized and uncarbonized organic content in the biochar act as an adsorption media and partition media, respectively. The sorption and partition fractions were quantified by isotherm separation method and isotherm parameters were correlated with biochar properties (aromaticity, polarity, surface area, pore volume and ash content). The risk assessment for the 16 priority EPA PAHs present in the biochar matrix was performed and it was found that the concentrations of the PAHs in the biochar were within the permissible limits prescribed by US EPA (except BC400 and BC500 for high molecular weight PAHs). PMID:26048085

  13. Evaluation of Integrated Time-Temperature Effect in Pyrolysis Process of Historically Contaminated Soils with Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb)

    OpenAIRE

    Bulm?u C; Cocâr?? D. M.; Re?etar-Deac A. M.

    2013-01-01

    It is already known that heavy metals pollution causes important concern to human and ecosystem health. Heavy metals in soils at the European level represents 37.3% between main contaminates affecting soils (EEA, 2007). This paper illustrates results obtained in the framework of laboratory experiments concerning the evaluation of integrated time-temperature effect in pyrolysis process applied to contaminated soil by two different ways: it is about heavy metals historically contaminated soil f...

  14. Short-Term Effect of Feedstock and Pyrolysis Temperature on Biochar Characteristics, Soil and Crop Response in Temperate Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria Nelissen; Greet Ruysschaert; Dorette Müller-Stöver; Samuel Bodé; Jason Cook; Frederik Ronsse; Simon Shackley; Pascal Boeckx; Henrik Hauggaard-Nielsen

    2014-01-01

    At present, there is limited understanding of how biochar application to soil could be beneficial to crop growth in temperate regions and which biochar types are most suitable. Biochar’s (two feedstocks: willow, pine; three pyrolysis temperatures: 450 °C, 550 °C, 650 °C) effect on nitrogen (N) availability, N use efficiency and crop yield was studied in northwestern European soils using a combined approach of process-based and agronomic experiments. Biochar labile carbon (C) fractions were de...

  15. Short-Term Effect of Feedstock and Pyrolysis Temperature on Biochar Characteristics, Soil and Crop Response in Temperate Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Nelissen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, there is limited understanding of how biochar application to soil could be beneficial to crop growth in temperate regions and which biochar types are most suitable. Biochar’s (two feedstocks: willow, pine; three pyrolysis temperatures: 450 °C, 550 °C, 650 °C effect on nitrogen (N availability, N use efficiency and crop yield was studied in northwestern European soils using a combined approach of process-based and agronomic experiments. Biochar labile carbon (C fractions were determined and a phytotoxicity test, sorption experiment, N incubation experiment and two pot trials were conducted. Generally, biochar caused decreased soil NO3? availability and N use efficiency, and reduced biomass yields compared to a control soil. Soil NO3? concentrations were more reduced in the willow compared to the pine biochar treatments and the reduction increased with increasing pyrolysis temperatures, which was also reflected in the biomass yields. Woody biochar types can cause short-term reductions in biomass production due to reduced N availability. This effect is biochar feedstock and pyrolysis temperature dependent. Reduced mineral N availability was not caused by labile biochar C nor electrostatic NH4+/NO3? sorption. Hence, the addition of fresh biochar might in some cases require increased fertilizer N application to avoid short-term crop growth retardation.

  16. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on the properties of carbon/nickel nanocomposites prepared by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, N. Ben; Najeh, I.; Mansouri, S.; El Mir, L.

    2015-05-01

    Carbon-nickel nanocomposites (C/Ni) were prepared by sol-gel method after the incorporation of nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles in organic matrix based on pyrogallol-formaldehyde (PF). The nanocomposites heated under inert atmosphere have been characterized by various techniques such as X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and electrical analysis. The XRD spectra exhibited the presence of NiO or metallic Ni phase in amorphous carbon matrix at low pyrolysis temperature, while at 1000 °C the graphite structure line was observed. The TEM images indicate the presence of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNT) around Ni nanoparticles for the sample treated at high pyrolysis temperature. The AC conductance shows that our nanocomposites have two behaviors: semiconductor and metal, depending on the pyrolysis temperature. The voltage-current V(I) characteristics of the compound show two different regions: an Ohmic region at low current and a negative differential resistance (NDR) region at higher current. This switching phenomenal behavior has been explained by an electrothermal model.

  17. Characteristics of maize biochar with different pyrolysis temperatures and its effects on organic carbon, nitrogen and enzymatic activities after addition to fluvo-aquic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiubin; Zhou, Wei; Liang, Guoqing; Song, Dali; Zhang, Xiaoya

    2015-12-15

    In this study, the characteristics of maize biochar produced at different pyrolysis temperatures (300, 450 and 600°C) and its effects on organic carbon, nitrogen and enzymatic activities after addition to fluvo-aquic soil were investigated. As pyrolysis temperature increased, ash content, pH, electrical conductivity, surface area, pore volume and aromatic carbon content of biochar increased while yield, ratios of oxygen:carbon and hydrogen: carbon and alkyl carbon content decreased. During incubation, SOC, total N, and ammonium-N contents increased in all biochar-amended treatments compared with the urea treatment; however, soil nitrate-N content first increased and then decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature of the applied biochar. Extracellular enzyme activities associated with carbon transformation first increased and then decreased with biochars pyrolyzed at 450 and 600°C. Protease activity markedly increased with increased pyrolysis temperatures, whereas pyrolysis temperature had limited effect on soil urease activity. The results indicated that the responses of extracellular enzymes to biochar were dependent on the pyrolysis temperature, the enzyme itself and incubation time as well. PMID:26298256

  18. PYROLYSIS OF EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES: INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON THE YIELDS AND COMPOSITION OF GASEOUS PRODUCT

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Azri Sukiran; Loh Soh Kheang; Nasrin Abu Bakar; Choo Yuen May

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing concern on fossil fuel depletion and environmental problems, the utilization of renewable biomass resources is expected to play an important role in the future. Biomass can be converted into a variety of fuels and chemicals by different processes; one of which is pyrolysis that has been subjected to extensive research in recent years. In this study, pyrolysis of oil palm Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB) was investigated using a quartz fluidised-fixed bed reactor. The effects of p...

  19. Evaluation of phosphorus adsorption capacity of sesame straw biochar on aqueous solution: influence of activation methods and pyrolysis temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J H; Ok, Y S; Kim, S H; Cho, J S; Heo, J S; Delaune, R D; Seo, D C

    2015-12-01

    The phosphorus (P) adsorption characteristic of sesame straw biochar prepared with different activation agents and pyrolysis temperatures was evaluated. Between 0.109 and 0.300 mg L(-1) in the form of inorganic phosphate was released from raw sesame straw biochar in the first 1 h. The release of phosphate was significantly enhanced from 62.6 to 168.2 mg g(-1) as the pyrolysis temperature increased. Therefore, sesame straw biochar cannot be used as an adsorbent for P removal without change in the physicochemical characteristics. To increase the P adsorption of biochar in aqueous solution, various activation agents and pyrolysis temperatures were applied. The amount of P adsorbed from aqueous solution by biochar activated using different activation agents appeared in the order ZnCl2 (9.675 mg g(-1)) > MgO (8.669 mg g(-1)) ? 0.1N-HCl > 0.1N-H2SO4 > K2SO4 ? KOH ? 0.1N-H3PO4, showing ZnCl2 to be the optimum activation agent. Higher P was adsorbed by the biochar activated using ZnCl2 under different pyrolysis temperatures in the order 600 °C > 500 °C > 400 °C > 300 °C. Finally, the amount of adsorbed P by activated biochar at different ratios of biochar to ZnCl2 appeared in the order 1:3 ? 1:1 > 3:1. As a result, the optimum ratio of biochar to ZnCl2 and pyrolysis temperature were found to be 1:1 and 600 °C for P adsorption, respectively. The maximum P adsorption capacity by activated biochar using ZnCl2 (15,460 mg kg(-1)) was higher than that of typical biochar, as determined by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Therefore, the ZnCl2 activation of sesame straw biochar was suitable for the preparation of activated biochar for P adsorption. PMID:26040973

  20. Hydrogen-rich gas production from waste plastics by pyrolysis and low-temperature steam reforming over a ruthenium catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operating conditions for low-temperature pyrolysis and steam reforming of plastics over a ruthenium catalyst were investigated. In the range studied, the highest gas and lowest coke fractions for polystyrene (PS) with a 60 g h-1 scale, continuous-feed, two-stage gasifier were obtained with a pyrolyzer temperature of 673 K, steam reforming temperature of 903 K, and weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 0.10 g-sample g-catalyst-1 h-1. These operating conditions are consistent with optimum conditions reported previously for polypropylene. Our results indicate that at around 903 K, the activity of the ruthenium catalyst was high enough to minimize the difference between the rates of the steam reforming reactions of the pyrolysates from polystyrene and polypropylene. The proposed system thus has the flexibility to compensate for differences in chemical structures of municipal waste plastics. In addition, the steam reforming temperature was about 200 K lower than the temperature used in a conventional Ni-catalyzed process for the production of hydrogen. Low-temperature steam reforming allows for lower thermal input to the steam reformer, which results in an increase in thermal efficiency in the proposed process employing a Ru catalyst. Because low-temperature steam reforming can be also expected to reduce thermal degradation rates of the catalyst, the pyrolysis-steam reforming process with a Ru catalyst has the potential for use in small-scale production of hydrogen-rich gas from waste plastics that can be used for power generation.

  1. Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Performance of SnO2 Thin Film Transistors Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, XinAn; Zhai, JunXia; Yu, XianKun; Zhu, RuiJuan; Zhang, WeiFeng

    2015-08-01

    We fabricated SnO2 thin film transistors on thermally oxidized p-type silicon substrates by low-cost spray pyrolysis. The effect of annealing temperatures on electrical characteristics of SnO2 thin film transistors were investigated. Thermal annealing at higher temperatures induced a negative shift of the threshold voltage (VT) and an increase in the saturation mobility. It was found that the device annealed at 450 °C exhibited a good electrical performance with the field-effect mobility of 0.19 cm2/Vs, the threshold voltage of 2.5 V, and the on/off current ratio of 10(3). PMID:26369222

  2. Temperature dependent grain-size and microstrain of CdO thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B G Jeyaprakash; K Kesavan; R Ashok Kumar; S Mohan; A Amalarani

    2011-07-01

    CdO thin films on glass substrate were prepared by home built spray pyrolysis unit from aqueous solution of Cd(CH3COO)2.2H2O at different substrate temperatures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies indicate the formation of polycrystalline cubic CdO phase with preferential orientation along (111) plane. X-ray line broadening technique is adopted to study the effect of substrate temperature on microstructural parameters such as grain size and microstrain. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the film prepared at 250°C consists of spherical shape grains with size in nanometer range and is comparable with the XRD studies.

  3. The effect of temperature and heating rate on char properties obtained from solar pyrolysis of beech wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Kuo; Minh, Doan Pham; Gauthier, Daniel; Weiss-Hortala, Elsa; Nzihou, Ange; Flamant, Gilles

    2015-04-01

    Char samples were produced from pyrolysis in a lab-scale solar reactor. The pyrolysis of beech wood was carried out at temperatures ranging from 600 to 2000°C, with heating rates from 5 to 450°C/s. CHNS, scanning electron microscopy analysis, X-ray diffractometry, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller adsorption were employed to investigate the effect of temperature and heating rate on char composition and structure. The results indicated that char structure was more and more ordered with temperature increase and heating rate decrease (higher than 50°C/s). The surface area and pore volume firstly increased with temperature and reached maximum at 1200°C then reduced significantly at 2000°C. Besides, they firstly increased with heating rate and then decreased slightly at heating rate of 450°C/s when final temperature was no lower than 1200°C. Char reactivity measured by TGA analysis was found to correlate with the evolution of char surface area and pore volume with temperature and heating rate. PMID:25686544

  4. Pyrolysis of Table Sugar

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Bulut; Selhan Karagöz

    2013-01-01

    Table sugars were pyrolyzed at different temperatures (300, 400, and 500°C) in a fixed-bed reactor. The effect of pyrolysis temperature on yields of liquid, solid, and gaseous products was investigated. As expected the yield of liquid products gradually increased and the yield of solid products gradually decreased when the pyrolysis temperature was raised. The yield of liquid products was greatest (52?wt%) at 500°C. The composition of bio-oils extracted with diethyl ether was identified by me...

  5. Wettability of poultry litter biochars at variable pyrolysis temperatures and their impact on soil wettability and water retention relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, S. C.; Witt, B.; Guo, M.; Chiu, P.; Imhoff, P. T.

    2012-12-01

    To reduce the impact of poultry farming on greenhouse gas emissions, poultry farming waste - poultry litter - can be converted to biofuel and biochar through slow-pyrolysis, with the biochar added to agricultural soil for nutrient enrichment and carbon sequestration. While biochars from source materials other than poultry litter have been shown to sequester carbon and increase soil fertility, there is considerable variability in biochar behavior - even with biochars created from the same source material. This situation is exacerbated by our limited understanding of how biochars alter physical, chemical, and biological processes in agricultural soils. The focus of this work is to develop a mechanistic understanding of how poultry litter (PL) biochars affect the hydrology, microbial communities, N2O emissions, and nitrogen cycling in agricultural soils. The initial focus is on the impact of PL biochar on soil hydrology. PL from Perdue AgriRecycle, LLC (Seaford, Delaware) was used to produce biochars at pyrolysis temperatures from 300°C to 600°C. To explore the impact of these biochars on soil wettability, the PL biochars were mixed with a 30/40 Accusand in mass fractions from 0% to 100%. The water contact angle was then measured using a goniometer on these sand/biochar mixtures using the sessile drop method and a single layer of sample particles. The PL biochars produced at temperatures between 300°C to 400°C were hydrophobic, while those pyrolized at > 400°C were hydrophilic. Water contact angles for samples with 100% biochar varied systematically with pyrolysis temperature, decreasing from 101.12° to 20.57° as the pyrolysis temperature increased from 300 to 600°C. Even for small amounts of hydrophobic biochar added to the hydrophilic sand, the contact angle of the mixture was altered: for sand/biochar mixtures containing only 2% hydrophobic PL biochar by weight, the contact angle of the mixture increased from ~ 8° (0% biochar) to 20° (2% biochar). For higher mass fractions, the impact of hydrophobic PL biochar on the sand/mixture contact angle was more dramatic: for a sand/biochar mixture with 15% PL biochar, the contact angle was 40.12°. Water drop penetration tests were also performed on these samples, and results were consistent with contact angles measured with the sessile drop method. To further explore the cause of the varying contact angle with pyrolysis temperature, the PL biochars were vigorously rinsed with deionized water or heated for 24 hours at 105°C, and the contact angle measurements repeated. Both rinsing and heating samples rendered hydrophobic PL biochar hydrophilic. Rinsate samples were analyzed for total organic carbon and with GC-MS. These data suggest that bio-oils produced during slow-pyrolysis at temperatures < 400°C condensed on biochar and caused hydrophobicity. These bio-oils could be removed through vigorous washing with deionized water or heating to 105°C. The implication of these changes in water contact angle from PL biochar addition on water retention relationships for soil and on water distribution within pores will be discussed.

  6. Pyrolysis temperature-dependent changes in dissolved phosphorus speciation of plant and manure biochars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrolysis of plant and animal wastes produces a complex mixture of phosphorus species in amorphous, semi-crystalline, and crystalline inorganic phases, organic (char) components, and within organo-mineral complexes. In order to understand the solubility of different phosphorus species, plant (cotto...

  7. Effects of Biochar Feedstock and Pyrolysis Temperature on Growth of Corn, Soybean, Lettuce and Carrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar, the carbon-rich material remaining after pyrolysis (low oxygen) of cellulosic feedstocks, has the potential as a soil amendment to sequester carbon, improve soil water-holding capacity, and increase nutrient retention thereby enhancing soil conditions to benefit plant gr...

  8. Sustainable valorization of plastic wastes for energy with environmental safety via High-Temperature Pyrolysis (HTP) and High-Temperature Steam Gasification (HTSG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study the energetic valorization of electric cable shredder residues (mixed plastics) has been investigated. Thermochemical conversion by means of High-Temperature Steam Gasification (HTSG) and High-Temperature Pyrolysis (HTP) was studied. The effects of temperature and reaction time - process parameters - were investigated. Comparison of the results showed that HTSG seems a more suitable process in terms of produced syngas quality (64%, v/v and 13 MJ/Nm3) than HTP because of higher H2 yield and lower tar content.

  9. Pyrolysis of the tetra pak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study deals with pyrolysis of tetra pak which is widely used as an aseptic beverage packaging material. Pyrolysis experiments were carried out under inert atmosphere in a batch reactor at different temperatures and by different pyrolysis modes (one- and two-step). The yields of char, liquid and gas were quantified. Pyrolysis liquids produced were collected as three separate phases; aqueous phase, tar and polyethylene wax. Characterization of wax and the determination of the total amount of phenols in aqueous phase were performed. Chemical compositions of gas and char products relevant to fuel applications were determined. Pure aluminum can be also recovered by pyrolysis.

  10. Pyrolysis of Pine Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2005-01-01

    In this study, pinewood has been pyrolyzed using a fixed heating rate with a variable end-temperature. The pyrolysis process has been simulated using a mechanism with three parallel reactions for the formation of char, gas and tar. First order irreversible kinetics is assumed. This kind of model may predict the variation of product yield with operating conditions such as temperature and heating rate. The system of coupled differential equations describing the pyrolysis process is solved using th...

  11. Interactive effects of biochar ageing in soils related to feedstock, pyrolysis temperature, and historic charcoal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitkötter, Julian; Marschner, Bernd

    2015-04-01

    Biochar is suggested for soil amelioration and carbon sequestration, based on its assumed role as the key factor for the long-term fertility of Terra preta soils. Several studies have shown that certain biochar properties can undergo changes through ageing processes, especially regarding charge characteristics. However, only a few studies determined the changes of different biochars under the same incubation conditions and in different soils. The objective of this study was to characterize the changes of pine chip (PC)- and corn digestate (CD)-derived biochars pyrolyzed at 400 or 600 °C during 100 days of laboratory incubation in a historical kiln soil and an adjacent control soil. Separation between soil and biochar was ensured by using mesh bags. Especially, changes in charge characteristics depended on initial biochar properties affected by feedstock and pyrolysis temperature and on soil properties affected by historic charcoal production. While the cation exchange capacity (CEC) markedly increased for both CD biochars during incubation, PC biochars showed no or only slight increases in CEC. Corresponding to the changes in CEC, ageing of biochars also increased the amount of acid functional groups with increases being in average about 2-fold higher in CD biochars than in PC biochars. Further and in contrast to other studies, the surface areas of biochars increased during ageing, likely due to ash leaching and degradation of tar residues. Changes in CEC and surface acidity of CD biochars were more pronounced after incubation in the control soil, while surface area increase was higher in the kiln soil. Since the two acidic forest soils used in this this study did not greatly differ in physical or chemical properties, the main process for inducing these differences in the buried biochar most likely is related to the differences in dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Although the kiln soil contained about 50% more soil organic carbon due to the presence of charcoal particles, extractable DOC was lower and less aromatic than in the adjacent control soil, likely due to strong sorption of dissolved organic matter (DOM) onto charcoal particles. We suggest that higher sorption of DOM onto the surface of biochar in the control soil provided additional acid functional groups and thus increased the surface charge to a greater extent than in the DOC poorer kiln soil. Hence, biochars incubated in the kiln soil showed less changes in CEC and surface acidity. Higher availability of DOM in the control soil could also stimulate microbial activity to a larger extent, resulting in higher oxidation rates of biochars incubated in the control soil.

  12. Arsenic speciation in solid biological specimens by temperature-controlled pyrolysis and NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pyrolysis - neutron activation analysis procedure was developed and applied to the speciation of arsenic in solid biological samples. The method, developed with the aid of radiochemically labelled arsenic compounds, was applied to the determination of the ratio of inorganic to organic arsenic species in commercial shrimps and in NBS standard reference materials such as oysters and orchard leaves. The results show different relative amounts of inorganic arsenic content in the samples analyzed. (author) 13 refs.; 5 tables

  13. Bio-oil and bio-char from low temperature pyrolysis of spent grains using activated alumina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Aimaro; Li, Sujing; Linforth, Rob; Smart, Katherine A; Andrésen, John M

    2011-11-01

    The pyrolysis of wheat and barley spent grains resulting from bio-ethanol and beer production respectively was investigated at temperatures between 460 and 540 °C using an activated alumina bed. The results showed that the bio-oil yield and quality depend principally on the applied temperature where pyrolysis at 460 °C leaves a bio-oil with lower nitrogen content in comparison with the original spent grains and low oxygen content. The viscosity profile of the spent grains indicated that activated alumina could promote liquefaction and prevent charring of the structure between 400 and 460 °C. The biochar contains about 10-12% of original carbon and 13-20% of starting nitrogen resulting very attractive as a soil amendment and for carbon sequestration. Overall, value can be added to the spent grains opening a new market in bio-fuel production without the needs of external energy. The bio-oil from spent grains could meet about 9% of the renewable obligation in the UK. PMID:21930374

  14. Bitumen pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past bitumen was a preferred matrix for the embedding of low and intermediate level radioactive waste: its geological history promised long term stability in final repositories. A great variety of waste has been embedded: technological waste, spent ion exchange resins, concrete, rubble, etc. Liquid waste like evaporator concentrates can be dried and embedded simultaneously in extruders, allowing simple processes and equipment. Unfortunately, during long term intermediate storage the bituminized waste drums proved out being not as stable as expected: a significant number turned out to be no longer acceptable for final disposal, and some of them even needed repacking to enable further intermediate storage. A method to rework such drums with bituminized radioactive waste seems to be urgently needed. Pyrolysis and pyro-hydrolysis (= pyrolysis with water steam added) have a long history for the treatment of organic waste: spent solvent (TBP), spent ion exchange resins, alpha waste (predominantly PVC), etc. Due to its low process temperature and the endothermic character, such processes offer significant safety advantages, as compared to incineration or dissolving in organic solvents. Results of lab-scale investigations and concepts for facilities are presented. (authors)

  15. Study of hydrazine deoxygenation in neutral aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of hydrazine deoxygenation added catalyst in the neutral aqueous solution is discussed. The test conditions are selected at temperatures of 10 degree C, 20 degree C and 30 degree C, the initial dissolved oxygen concentration of 10.0-10.8mg/L(10 degree C), 8.2-8.6mg/L(20 degree C) and 7.0-7.4mg/L(30 degree C), and the hydrazine dosages are 6 and 3 times of the initial dissolved oxygen concentration. The results show that the dissolved oxygen concentration can be decreased to be 100 ?g/L when the catalyst dosage is within 600 ?g/L-50?g/L. (authors)

  16. Pyrolysis of tyre wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Fernández, Ana M.ª; Díez Díaz-Estébanez, M.ª Antonia; Álvarez García, Ramón; Barriocanal Rueda, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    Two products obtained from the mechanical grinding of scrap tyres are the subject of the present study: granulated rubber and textile fibres used as tyre reinforcement. The two wastes were subjected to pyrolysis in a thermobalance and pyrolysis in a horizontal oven up to two final temperatures (550 °C and 900 °C) in order to obtain a char, condensable products (oil) and a gas. The oil and the gas were analysed by gas chromatography.

  17. Effects of pyrolysis temperature on soybean stover- and peanut shell-derived biochar properties and TCE adsorption in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mahtab; Lee, Sang Soo; Dou, Xiaomin; Mohan, Dinesh; Sung, Jwa-Kyung; Yang, Jae E; Ok, Yong Sik

    2012-08-01

    Conversion of crop residues into biochars (BCs) via pyrolysis is beneficial to environment compared to their direct combustion in agricultural field. Biochars developed from soybean stover at 300 and 700 °C (S-BC300 and S-BC700, respectively) and peanut shells at 300 and 700 °C (P-BC300 and P-BC700, respectively) were used for the removal of trichloroethylene (TCE) from water. Batch adsorption experiments showed that the TCE adsorption was strongly dependent on the BCs properties. Linear relationships were obtained between sorption parameters (K(M) and S(M)) and molar elemental ratios as well as surface area of the BCs. The high adsorption capacity of BCs produced at 700 °C was attributed to their high aromaticity and low polarity. The efficacy of S-BC700 and P-BC700 for removing TCE from water was comparable to that of activated carbon (AC). Pyrolysis temperature influencing the BC properties was a critical factor to assess the removal efficiency of TCE from water. PMID:22721877

  18. Influence of pyrolysis temperature and heating rate on the production of bio-oil and char from safflower seed by pyrolysis, using a well-swept fixed-bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onay, Ozlem [Porsuk Vocational School, Anadolu University, 26470 Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2007-05-15

    In this study, fast pyrolysis of safflower seed (Carthamus tinctorius L.) was investigated with the aim to study the product distribution and their chemical compositions and to identify optimum process conditions for maximizing the bio-oil yield. Experiments were performed in a well-swept resistively heated fixed-bed reactor under nitrogen atmosphere. The maximum oil yield of 54% was obtained at the final pyrolysis temperature of 600 C, sweeping gas flow rate of 100 cm{sup 3} min{sup -} {sup 1} and heating rate of 300 C min{sup -} {sup 1} in a fixed-bed reactor. The elemental analysis and calorific value of the bio-oil were determined and compared with diesel fuel and then the chemical composition of the bio-oil was investigated using chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques (IR, GC/MS, simulated distillation). The char was characterized by elemental, BET surface area and SEM analyses. (author)

  19. Speciation of Iron (III) Oxide Nanoparticles and Other Paramagnetic Intermediates during High-Temperature Oxidative Pyrolysis of 1-Methylnaphthalene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Michael P.; Khachatryan, Lavrent; Dellinger, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Low Temperature Matrix Isolation - Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (LTMI-EPR) Spectroscopy was utilized to identify the species of iron oxide nanoparticles generated during the oxidative pyrolysis of 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN). The otherwise gas-phase reactions of 1--MN were impacted by a polypropylenimine tetra-hexacontaamine dendrimer complexed with iron (III) nitrate nonahydrate diluted in air under atmospheric conditions. The EPR fine structure of Fe (III)2O3 nanoparticles clusters, characterized by g-factors of 2.00, 2.28, 3.76 and 4.37 were detected on a cold finger maintained at 77 K after accumulation over a multitude of experiments. Additionally, a high valence Fe (IV) paramagnetic intermediate and superoxide anion-radicals, O2•? adsorbed on nanoparticle surfaces in the form of Fe (IV) --- O2•? were detected from the quenching area of Zone 1 in the gas-phase. PMID:26413257

  20. Structural evolution and optical characterization of indium doped cadmium sulfide thin films obtained by spray pyrolysis for different substrate temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta, Dwight R.; Magana, Carlos R.; Martinez, Arturo I. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Mexico City (Mexico); Maldonado, Arturo [CINVESTAV, Dept. de Ingenieria Electrica, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2004-05-01

    Indium doped cadmium sulfide thin films were prepared by spray pyrolysis on glass substrates at different temperatures ranging from 300 deg C to 450 deg C in 25 deg C steps, using aqueous solution of copper chloride and thiourea salts. We used In(COOH){sub 3} as the dopant. Structural characterization was carried out by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy and high resolution electron microscopy were used together with atomic force microscopy (AFM) to follow the evolution of structural and morphological parameters of the films with substrate temperature (T{sub s}), At least two preferential growth, (1 1 2) for samples with T{sub s} between 325 deg C and 400 deg C and (0 0 2) for T{sub s} between 400 deg C and 450 deg C, respectively were detected. For the films obtained at higher substrate temperatures, HREM micrographs revealed the presence of a large number of structural defects together with nanostructured configurations. AFM revealed surface modifications of CdS:In grains at higher substrate temperature. The substrate temperature is directly related with the shift detected in the band gap values derived from optical of parameters. (Author)

  1. Pyrolysis oil from fast pyrolysis of maize stalk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Ji-Lu [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, 75, DaXue Street, Zhengzhou, Henan Province 450052 (China)]|[Zheng Zhou YaXing Energy Co., Ltd., FuHua Building, 59, Dong Street, Zhengzhou, Henan Province 450000 (China)

    2008-11-15

    Maize stalk was fast pyrolysed at temperatures between 420 C and 580 C in a fluidized-bed, and the main product of pyrolysis oil was obtained. The experimental results showed that the highest pyrolysis oil yield of 66 wt.% was obtained at 500 C for maize stalk. Chemical composition of the pyrolysis oil acquired was analyzed by GC-MS and its heat value, stability, miscibility and corrosion characteristics were determined. These results showed that the pyrolysis oil could be directly used as a fuel oil for combustion in a boiler or a furnace without any upgrading. Alternatively, the fuel could be refined to be used by vehicles. (author)

  2. Thermoelectric Power of (Bi-Pb) SrCaCuO:. Before and after Deoxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, B.; Dey, T. K.

    2000-09-01

    The temperature dependence of thermoelectric power (TEP) of deoxygenated Bi1.6Pb0.4Sr2Ca2Cu3O10+? samples is reported along with the well annealed sample. Tco of the samples is found to decrease with increasing hour of deoxygenation from 102K to 45K. The TEP of all the samples were found to be positive and to increase almost linearly with decrease in temperature down to 120K, before falling to zero. The results are analysed on the basis of two theoretical models and it is concluded that the measured TEP data could be explained extremely well (within 1%) using the modified two-band model proposed by Forro et al.

  3. Nannochloropsis algae pyrolysis with ceria-based catalysts for production of high-quality bio-oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aysu, Tevfik; Sanna, Aimaro

    2015-10-01

    Pyrolysis of Nannochloropsis was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor with newly prepared ceria based catalysts. The effects of pyrolysis parameters such as temperature and catalysts on product yields were investigated. The amount of bio-char, bio-oil and gas products, as well as the compositions of the resulting bio-oils was determined. The results showed that both temperature and catalyst had significant effects on conversion of Nannochloropsis into solid, liquid and gas products. The highest bio-oil yield (23.28 wt%) and deoxygenation effect was obtained in the presence of Ni-Ce/Al2O3 as catalyst at 500°C. Ni-Ce/Al2O3 was able to retain 59% of the alga starting energy in the bio-oil, compared to only 41% in absence of catalyst. Lower content of acids and oxygen in the bio-oil, higher aliphatics (62%), combined with HHV show promise for production of high-quality bio-oil from Nannochloropsis via Ni-Ce/Al2O3 catalytic pyrolysis. PMID:26188553

  4. Effect of gamma-ray irradiation on the deoxygenation of salt-containing water using hydrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spent fuel pools at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, hydrazine was added to salt-containing water in order to reduce dissolved oxygen. Hydrazine is known to reduce dissolved oxygen in high-temperature pure water, but its deoxygenation behavior in salt-containing water at ambient temperature in the presence of radiation is unknown. Deoxygenation using hydrazine in salt-containing water was thus investigated using a 60Co gamma-ray source and artificial seawater at room temperature. Water samples containing a small amount of hydrazine were irradiated at dose rates of 100 - 10,000 Gy/h. The concentration of dissolved oxygen in the water samples was measured before and after irradiation. Notably, a decrease in the dissolved oxygen was only observed after irradiation, and the dissolved oxygen concentration decreased with increasing dose rate and irradiation time. The rate of decrease in the amount of dissolved oxygen using hydrazine was slow in the presence of salts. Kinetic considerations suggested that the deoxygenation of the salt-containing water exposed to gamma-ray irradiation using hydrazine was suppressed by chloride ions. (author)

  5. Low-temperature growth of highly crystallized transparent conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide films by intermittent spray pyrolysis deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukano, Tatsuo; Motohiro, Tomoyoshi [Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratories Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan)

    2004-05-30

    Following the procedure by Sawada et al. (Thin Solid Films 409 (2002) 46), high-quality SnO{sub 2}:F films were grown on glass substrates at relatively low temperatures of 325-340C by intermittent spray pyrolysis deposition using a perfume atomizer for cosmetics use. Even though the substrate temperature is low, as-deposited films show a high optical transmittance of 92% in the visible range, a low electric resistivity of 5.8x10{sup -4}{omega}cm and a high Hall mobility of 28cm{sup 2}/Vs. The F/Sn atomic ratio (0.0074) in the films is low in comparison with the value (0.5) in the sprayed solution. The carrier density in the film is approximately equal to the F-ion density, suggesting that most of the F-ions effectively function as active dopants. Films' transmittance and resistivity show little change after a 450C 60min heat treatment in the atmosphere, evidencing a high heat resistance. The SnO{sub 2}:F films obtained in this work remove the difficulty to improve the figure of merit at low synthesis temperatures.

  6. High-temperature pyrolysis of blended animal manures for producing renewable energy and value-added biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we used a commercial pilot-scale, skid-mounted pyrolysis reactor system to produce combustible gas and biochar at 620ºC from three sources (chicken litter, swine solids, mixture of swine solids with rye grass). Pyrolysis of swine solids produced gas with the greatest higher heating va...

  7. High-temperature pyrolysis of blended animal manures for producing renewable energy and value-added biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we used a commercial pilot-scale pyrolysis reactor system to produce combustible gas and biochar at 620 degrees Celsium from three sources (chicken litter, swine solids, mixture of swine solids with rye grass). Pyrolysis of swine solids produced gas with the greatest higher heating va...

  8. Catalytic pyrolysis of waste rice husk over mesoporous materials

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Mi-Jin; Kim, Seung-Soo; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Park, Sung Hoon; Kim, Ji Man; Sohn, Jung Min; Lee, See-Hoon; Park, Young-Kwon

    2012-01-01

    Catalytic fast pyrolysis of waste rice husk was carried out using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry [Py-GC/MS]. Meso-MFI zeolite [Meso-MFI] was used as the catalyst. In addition, a 0.5-wt.% platinum [Pt] was ion-exchanged into Meso-MFI to examine the effect of Pt addition. Using a catalytic upgrading method, the activities of the catalysts were evaluated in terms of product composition and deoxygenation. The structure and acid site characteristics of the catalysts were analyzed b...

  9. Deoxygenation of Plant Fatty Acid using NiSnK/ SiO2 as Catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental friendly bio-oil which offers supply reliability as a potential alternative fuel, has spurred to rapid development of bio fuels technology. Palm oil is a potential renewable energy source for bio fuels production in the future and Malaysia is one of the world largest palm oil producers. However, undesired oxygen content in the plant fatty acid that contributes to low energy density, high viscosity, and low stability, makes the palm oil not effective to be used as bio fuels directly. In the present study, the performance of silica supported trimetal catalyst, NiSnK/ SiO2, on deoxygenation of used palm oil was evaluated. In addition, the effects of operating parameters, such as reaction temperature and weight hourly space velocity were investigated. Conversion of palmitic acid as high as 90 % was achieved in deoxygenation of used palm oil at reaction temperature 350 degree Celsius. In order to have a better understanding on the deoxygenation reaction, model compound system using the major saturated fatty acid in the used palm oil, palmitic acid was also carried out. Palmitic acid was found mainly decarboxylated into n-pentadecane with some decarboxylation and isomerization products. (author)

  10. Efficient Synthesis of Cladribine via the Metal-Free Deoxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ran; Chen, Lei-Shan

    2015-10-01

    The efficient synthesis of cladribine via the metal-free deoxygenation was developed. Using (Bu4N)2S2O8/HCO2Na instead of Bu3SnH/AIBN as deoxygenation system, cladribine could be obtained with good yield and even on tens of grams scales. The intermediates and product could be purified by simple work-up process and chromatography was avoided, which showed the good future for industrial applications. PMID:26397025

  11. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-39 aluminosilicate zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas, Christpher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2013-12-17

    A new family of coherently grown composites of TUN and IMF zeotypes has been synthesized and show to be effective catalysts for catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.n+R.sub.rQ.sub.qAl.sub1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.s- ub.z where M represents zinc or a metal or metals from Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, R is an A,.OMEGA.-dihalosubstituted paraffin such as 1,4-dibromobutane, Q is a neutral amine containing 5 or fewer carbon atoms such as 1-methylpyrrolidine and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-39 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hyrdocarbons into hydrocarbons removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  12. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-39 aluminosilicate zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2014-10-07

    A new family of coherently grown composites of TUN and IMF zeotypes has been synthesized and shown to be effective catalysts for catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.n+R.sub.rQ.sub.qAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.s- ub.z where M represents zinc or a metal or metals from Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, R is an A,.OMEGA.-dihalosubstituted paraffin such as 1,4-dibromobutane, Q is a neutral amine containing 5 or fewer carbon atoms such as 1-methylpyrrolidine and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-39 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  13. Lithium Content and Low-Temperature Conductivity of NiO:Li Films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garduño-Wilches, Ismael Arturo; Rodríguez-Fernández, Luis; Alonso, Juan Carlos

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this work was to quantify the amount of lithium incorporated into nickel oxide thin films and study its effects on the oxidation state of the elements and on the electrical conductivity of the films. A set of films was deposited on alumina substrate by spray pyrolysis. The lithium to nickel ratio in the sprayed solution, 0, 20, 40, and 60 at.%, determined the amount of lithium incorporated into the films. The lithium concentration was obtained by combined energy recoil detection analysis and Rutherford backscattering. The ratios of lithium to nickel atoms incorporated in the films were 0, 12.9, 27.9, and 46.9%, respectively. These results were confirmed by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, which was also used to analyze the oxidation state of the atomic species in the samples. When the electrical conductivity of selected samples was studied as a function of temperature in the range 50-450 K, kinked-linear behavior was observed; this was attributed to different conducting mechanisms activated by temperature.

  14. Use of low-temperature nanostructured CuO thin films deposited by spray-pyrolysis in lithium cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanostructured CuO thin films were prepared by spray pyrolysis of aqueous copper acetate solutions at temperatures over 200-300 deg C range. The textural and structural properties of the films were determined by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Although the sole crystalline phase detected in the film was CuO, XPS spectra revealed a more complex surface structure due to the presence of undecomposed copper acetate that can be easily removed by Ar+ ion sputtering. The heating temperature was found to have little limited effect on the particle size and thickness of the films, which, however, increased significantly increasing deposition time. The film with the smallest grain size exhibited an excellent electrochemical response in Li battery electrodes and was capable of supplying sustained specific capacity as high as 625 A h kg-1 (50% greater than that delivered by bulk CuO and close to the theoretical capacity for the CuOCu reaction) upon extensive cycling

  15. Preconversion catalytic deoxygenation of phenolic functional groups. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubiak, C.P.

    1992-11-01

    Aryl carbon-oxygen bond cleavage is a chemical transformation of importance in coal liquefaction and the upgrading of coal liquids as well as in the synthesis of natural products. There have been numerous attempts to discover general methods for the cleavage of aryl carbon-oxygen bonds. All the stoichiometric organic methods for phenol deoxygenation have limited applications and involve expensive reagents. Catalytic method, for the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of phenols involve supported transition metal oxides, such as Mo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ni-MO/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Co-Mo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2}. Typical phenol hydrodeoxygenation conditions involve hydrogen pressures in excess of 100 atm and temperatures in excess of 200{degrees}C. Under these conditions arene ring hydrogenation is generally found to compete with phenol deoxygenation; and the coproduct water is found to impair the activity of the catalysts. This proposed research offers the possibility of effecting the selective catalytic deoxygenation of phenolic functional groups using CO. The deoxygenation of phenols by carbon monoxide mediated by Ir(triphos)OAr has provided us with a catalytic Phenol deoxygenation pathway, through the elimination of CO{sub 2} and formation of a benzyne intermediate. Although the [Pt(triphos)(O-Ph-Me)]PF{sub 6} system is not expected to be as efficient a catalyst as some of the other transition metals systems we are currently exploring, it will provide more information about the deoxygenation mechanism in these triphos complexes. This is due to the presence of the structurally sensitive {sup 3l}P--{sup 195}Pt coupling constant and comparisons to the extensively studied Pt(dppe)(O-Ph){sub 2} systems.

  16. Fast Pyrolysis of Lignin Using a Pyrolysis Centrifuge Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Sárossy, Zsuzsa; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Knudsen, Niels Ole; Sørensen, Hanne Risbjerg; Egsgaard, Helge

    2013-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis of lignin from an ethanol plant was investigated on a lab scale pyrolysis centrifuge reactor (PCR) with respect to pyrolysis temperature, reactor gas residence time, and feed rate. A maximal organic oil yield of 34 wt % dry basis (db) (bio-oil yield of 43 wt % db) is obtained at temperatures of 500?550 °C, reactor gas residence time of 0.8 s, and feed rate of 5.6 g/min. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry and size-exclusion chromatography were used to characterize the Chemical pr...

  17. Catalytic pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica over nanoporous catalysts using Py-GC/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung Won; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Park, Sung Hoon; Jeong, Kwang-Eun; Chae, Ho-Jeong; Park, Young-Kwon

    2011-08-01

    The catalytic pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica was carried out over a hierarchical meso-MFI zeolite (Meso-MFI) and nanoporous Al-MCM-48 using pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). The effect of the catalyst type on the product distribution and chemical composition of the bio-oil was examined using Py-GC/MS. The Meso-MFI exhibited a higher activity in deoxygenation and aromatization during the catalytic pyrolysis of L. japonica. Meanwhile, the catalytic activity of Al-MCM-48 was lower than that of Meso-MFI due to its weak acidity.

  18. Catalytic pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica over nanoporous catalysts using Py-GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeon Jong-Ki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The catalytic pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica was carried out over a hierarchical meso-MFI zeolite (Meso-MFI and nanoporous Al-MCM-48 using pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS. The effect of the catalyst type on the product distribution and chemical composition of the bio-oil was examined using Py-GC/MS. The Meso-MFI exhibited a higher activity in deoxygenation and aromatization during the catalytic pyrolysis of L. japonica. Meanwhile, the catalytic activity of Al-MCM-48 was lower than that of Meso-MFI due to its weak acidity.

  19. Catalytic pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica over nanoporous catalysts using Py-GC/MS

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyung Won; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Park, Sung Hoon; Jeong, Kwang-Eun; Chae, Ho-Jeong; Park, Young-Kwon

    2011-01-01

    The catalytic pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica was carried out over a hierarchical meso-MFI zeolite (Meso-MFI) and nanoporous Al-MCM-48 using pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). The effect of the catalyst type on the product distribution and chemical composition of the bio-oil was examined using Py-GC/MS. The Meso-MFI exhibited a higher activity in deoxygenation and aromatization during the catalytic pyrolysis of L. japonica. Meanwhile, the catalytic activity of Al-MCM-4...

  20. Improved superconducting properties of MgB2 thin films fabricated by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakinci, M. Eyyuphan; Yakinci, Z. Deniz; Aksan, M. Ali; Balci, Yakup

    2012-12-01

    High quality MgB2 superconducting thin films have been successfully prepared by 2.4 MHz ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) system on single crystal Al2O3 (0 0 1) substrates. The microstructure, electrical and magnetic properties of approximately 500-600 nm thick films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in conjunction with the energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), resistance versus temperature (R-T) and magnetization measurements (M-H) under different magnetic fields and transport critical current density (Jc). Films were first heat treated in situ in the spraying chamber with an extra Mg powder during deposition to compensate excess evaporation of Mg from the films and then additionally heat treated in Ar atmosphere at 700 °C for a short time. According to the results obtained, orientation on any particular direction for the crystal growth was not seen. Homogeneous, highly dense and highly smooth surface morphology and low resistance have been achieved under optimum conditions. Optimally treated films exhibited relatively high transport critical current density of 2.37 × 105 A cm-2. These results have been also compared with the Jcmag results calculated from the M-H curves. The electrical resistance property of the best samples was obtained to be 39.5 and 37.4 K for Tc and Tzero, respectively.

  1. Flash pyrolysis at high temperature of ligno-cellulosic biomass and its components - production of synthesis gas; Pyrolyse flash a haute temperature de la biomasse ligno-cellulosique et de ses composes - production de gaz de synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couhert, C

    2007-11-15

    Pyrolysis is the first stage of any thermal treatment of biomass and governs the formation of synthesis gas for the production of electricity, hydrogen or liquid fuels. The objective of this work is to establish a link between the composition of a biomass and its pyrolysis gas. We study experimental flash pyrolysis and fix the conditions in which quantities of gas are maximal, while aiming at a regime without heat and mass transfer limitations (particles about 100 {mu}m): temperature of 950 C and residence time of about 2 s. Then we try to predict gas yields of any biomass according to its composition, applicable in this situation where thermodynamic equilibrium is not reached. We show that an additivity law does not allow correlating gas yields of a biomass with fractions of cellulose, hemi-cellulose and lignin contained in this biomass. Several explanations are suggested and examined: difference of pyrolytic behaviour of the same compound according to the biomass from which it is extracted, interactions between compounds and influence of mineral matter. With the aim of industrial application, we study pyrolysis of millimetric and centimetric size particles, and make a numerical simulation of the reactions of pyrolysis gases reforming. This simulation shows that the choice of biomass affects the quantities of synthesis gas obtained. (author)

  2. Temperature-dependent benzoic acid elimination mechanisms in pyrolysis of (-)-cocaine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Michal, Novák.

    Full Text Available The thermal elimination of benzoic acid from (-)-cocaine is shown to be temperature-dependent. In the temperature range of 200-500 °C only a trans-elimination is observed leading to methylecgonidine. Above ca. 500 °C a second mechanism, the cis-elimination, comes up yielding a novel alkaloid methyli [...] soecgonidine which has been characterized by means of mass spectrometry. At 600 °C the cis-elimination predominates. The trans-elimination is postulated a two-step process consisting of a 1,7- and a 1,5-hydrogen shift. The chemistry of cocaine base smoking is explained using the theory of chemical activation.

  3. Characterization of the pyrolysis oil produced in the slow pyrolysis of sunflower-extracted bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yorgun, S.; Sensoz, S. [Osmangazi Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Kockar, O.M. [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2001-07-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.)-extracted bagasse pyrolysis experiments were performed in a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of heating rate, final pyrolysis temperature, particle size and pyrolysis atmosphere on the pyrolysis product yields and chemical compositions have been investigated. The maximum oil yield of 23% was obtained in N{sub 2} atmosphere at a pyrolysis temperature of 550 {sup o}C and a heating rate of 7 {sup o}C min {sup -1}. The chemical characterisation has shown that the oil obtained from sunflower-extracted bagasse may be potentially valuable as fuel and chemical feedstocks. (Author)

  4. Semi-Batch Deoxygenation of Canola- and Lard-Derived Fatty Acids to Diesel-Range Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, JP; Thapaliya, N; Kelly, MJ; Roberts, WL; Lamb, HH

    2013-12-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) derived via thermal hydrolysis of food-grade lard and canola oil were deoxygenated in the liquid phase using a commercially available 5 wt % Pd/C catalyst. Online quadrupole mass spectrometry and gas chromatography were used to monitor the effluent gases from the semi-batch stirred autoclave reactors. Stearic, oleic, and palmitic acids were employed as model compounds. A catalyst lifetime exceeding 2200 turnovers for oleic acid deoxygenation was demonstrated at 300 degrees C and 15 atm under 10% H-2. The initial decarboxylation rate of palmitic acid under 5% H-2 decreases sharply with increasing initial concentration; in contrast, the initial decarbonylation rate increases linearly, indicative of first-order kinetics. Scale-up of diesel-range hydrocarbon production was investigated by increasing the reactor vessel size, initial FA concentration, and FA/catalyst mass ratio. Lower CO2 selectivity and batch productivity were observed at the larger scales (600 and 5000 mL), primarily because of the higher initial FA concentration (67 wt %) employed. Because unsaturated FAs must be hydrogenated before deoxygenation can proceed at an appreciable rate, the additional batch time required for FA hydrogenation reduces the batch productivity for unsaturated feedstocks. Low-temperature hydrogenation of unsaturated feedstocks (using Pd/C or another less-expensive catalyst) prior to deoxygenation is recommended.

  5. Influence of deposition temperature (T s), air flow rate (f) and precursors on cathodoluminescence properties of ZnO thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semiconducting metal oxide such as ZnO films were prepared by the spray pyrolysis technique on glass substrates. The cathodoluminescence properties of these films were investigated with respect to deposition temperature (T s) and air flow rate (f). The luminescent films had a polycrystalline hexagonal wurtzite-type structure. Cathodoluminescence intensity was critically dependent on substrate temperature and spray rate. The best films had three emissions: near ultra-violet (UV) band gap peak at 382 nm, a blue-green emission at 520 nm and a red emission at 672 nm. These films were deposited at optimum condition: T s=450 deg C and f=5 ml/min

  6. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-44 aluminosilicate zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2014-04-29

    A new family of aluminosilicate zeolites designated UZM-44 has been synthesized. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.k+T.sub.tAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.sub.z where "n" is the mole ratio of Na to (Al+E), M represents a metal or metals from zinc, Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 and or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, "m" is the mole ratio of M to (Al+E), "k" is the average charge of the metal or metals M, T is the organic structure directing agent or agents, and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-44 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  7. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-44 aluminosilicate zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2013-12-17

    A new family of aluminosilicate zeolites designated UZM-44 has been synthesized. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.k+T.sub.tAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.sub.z where "n" is the mole ratio of Na to (Al+E), M represents a metal or metals from zinc, Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 and or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, "m" is the mole ratio of M to (Al+E), "k" is the average charge of the metal or metals M, T is the organic structure directing agent or agents, and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-44 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  8. Copyrolysis of Seyitomer-lignite and safflower seed: influence of the blending ratio and pyrolysis temperature on product yields and oil characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozlem Onay; Evren Bayram; O. Mete Kockar [Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey). Porsuk Vocational School

    2007-09-15

    Pyrolytic behaviors of biomass/coal mixtures were investigated under a heating rate of 7{sup o}C min{sup -1}, over a range of pyrolysis temperatures between 400 and 700{sup o}C, and the blending ratio of coal in mixtures was varied between 0 and 100 wt %. The results indicated that considerable synergistic effects were observed during the copyrolysis in a fixed-bed reactor leading to an increase in the oil yield at lower than coal blending ratios of 33%. At the lower blending coal ratio conditions, the oil yields are higher than the expected ones, calculated as the sum of oil fractions produced by pyrolysis of each separated component. The maximum pyrolysis oil yield of 39.5% was obtained with 5% of lignite mixed with safflower seed. The obtained oils are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance, gas chromatography mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis. These findings can potentially help to understand and predict the behavior of coal/biomass blends in practical liquefaction systems. 33 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Effect of the substrate temperature on the physical properties of molybdenum tri-oxide thin films obtained through the spray pyrolysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycrystalline molybdenum tri-oxide thin films were prepared using the spray pyrolysis technique; a 0.1 M solution of ammonium molybdate tetra-hydrated was used as a precursor. The samples were prepared on Corning glass substrates maintained at temperatures ranging between 423 and 673 K. The samples were characterized through micro Raman, X-ray diffraction, optical transmittance and DC electrical conductivity. The species MoO3 (H2O)2 was found in the sample prepared at a substrate temperature of 423 K. As the substrate temperature rises, the water disappears and the samples crystallize into ?-MoO3. The optical gap diminishes as the substrate temperature rises. Two electrical transport mechanisms were found: hopping under 200 K and intrinsic conduction over 200 K. The MoO3 films' sensitivity was analyzed for CO and H2O in the temperature range 160 to 360 K; the results indicate that CO and H2O have a reduction character. In all cases, it was found that the sensitivity to CO is lower than that to H2O. - Highlights: ? A low cost technique is used which produces good material. ? Thin films are prepared using ammonium molybdate tetra hydrated. ? The control of the physical properties of the samples could be done. ? A calculation method is proposed to determine the material optical properties. ? The MoO3 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis could be used as gas sensor.

  10. Pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis experiments with organization exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrolysis may be an important pretreatment step before vitrification in a cold crucible melter (CCM). During vitrification of organic resin the carbon or other remaining residues may harm the performance of the cold crucible melter of the eventual stability of the final glass product. Hence, it is important to reduce or prevent such harmful waste from entry into the cold crucible melter. Pretreatment with pyrolysis will generally provide volume reduction resulting in less amount of solid waste that needs to be handled by the CCM; in addition, the pyrolytic processes may breakdown much of the complex organics causing release through volatilization resulting in less carbon and other harmful substances. Hence, KEPRI has undertaken studies on the pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis of organic ion exchange resin. Pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis were examined with TGA and a tube furnace. TGA results for pyrolysis with the flow of nitrogen indicate that even after pyrolyzing from room temperature to about 900 deg C, a significant mass fraction of the original cationic resin remains, approximately 46 %. The anionic resin when pyrolytically heated in a flow of nitrogen only, from room temperature to about 900 deg C, produced a final residue mass fraction of about 8 percent. Oxidation at a ratio of air to nitrogen, 1:2, reduced the cationic resin to 5.3% when heated at 5 C/min. Oxidation of anionic resin at the same ratio and same heating rate left almost no solid residue. Pyrolysis (e.g. nitrogen-only environment) in the tube furnace of larger samples relative to the TGA produced very similar results to the TGA. The differences may be attributed to the scale effects such as surface area exposure to the gas stream, temperature distributions throughout the resin, etc. (author) 7 refs., 7 figs

  11. Pyrolysis of sunflower press bagasse: heating values and energy distribution of the pyrolysis products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yorgun, S. [Osmangazi University (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Tulbentc, H.S.G. [Istanbul Technical University (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    2003-08-01

    Fixed-bed pyrolysis experiments have been conducted on sunflower press bagasse to determine the possibility of being a potential source of renewable fuels. The effects of final pyrolysis temperature, heating rate, and pyrolysis atmosphere on the pyrolysis product yields have been investigated. The maximum bio-oil yield of 40.1% was obtained in a N{sub 2} atmosphere at a final pyrolysis temperature of 450{sup o}C and a heating rate of 7{sup o}C/min. The heating values of pyrolysis products were determined and then the percentage distributions of energy in the pyrolysis products were calculated. The results were also compared to some solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels. (author)

  12. Influence of biochar pyrolysis temperature and post-treatment on the uptake of mercury from flue gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermal processing, or pyrolysis, of plant and animal waste under oxygen limiting conditions results in a carbonized material called biochar. Most often, the proposed application for the biochar is soil applications as a conditioner or for the purpose of carbon sequestration. In this paper we demons...

  13. Pyrolysis of waste for vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrolysis may be an important pretreatment step before vitrification in a cold crucible melter (CCM). During vitrification of organic resin the carbon or other remaining residues may harm the performance of the cold crucible melter or the eventual stability of the final glass product. Hence, it is important to reduce or prevent such harmful waste from entry into the cold crucible melter. Pretreatment with pyrolysis will generally provide volume reduction resulting in less amount of solid waste that needs to be handled by the CCM; in addition, the pyrolytic processes may breakdown much of the complex organics causing release through volatilization resulting in less carbon and other harmful substances. Hence, KEPRI has undertaken studies on the pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis of organic ion exchange resin. Pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis were examined with TGA and a tube furnace. TGA results for pyrolysis with the flow of nitrogen indicate that even after pyrolyzing from room temperature to about 900 .deg., a significant mass fraction of the original cationic resin remains, approximately 46%. The anionic resin when pyrolytically heated in a flow of nitrogen only, from room temperature to about 900 .deg., produced a final residue mass fraction of about 8 percent. Oxidation at a ratio of air to nitrogen, 1:2, reduced the cationic resin to 5.3% when heated at 5 C/min. Oxidation of anionic resin at the same ratio and same heating rate left almost no solid residue. Pyrolysis (e.g. nitrogen-only environment) in the tube furnace of larger samples relative to the TGA produced very similar results to the TGA. The differences may be attributed to the scale effects such as surface area exposure to the gas stream, temperature distributions throughout the resin, etc

  14. Preparation and characterization of nanostructures of in-doped ZnO films deposited by chemically spray pyrolysis: Effect of substrate temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhaliliba, M.; Benouis, C. E.; Mouffak, Z.; Ocak, Y. S.; Tiburcio-Silver, A.; Aida, M. S.; Garcia, A. A.; Tavira, A.; Sanchez Juarez, A.

    2013-11-01

    We deposited undoped (ZnO) and indium-doped ZnO (IZO) films onto glass substrate via ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. The variation in structural, surface morphology, electrical, optical and photoluminescent properties as a function of substrate temperature is investigated. X-rays pattern confirms that as-synthesized IZO phase is grown along a (002) preferential plane. Nanosized grains (IZO films grown at 400 °C. The photoluminescence analysis demonstrates strong yellow (2.1 eV) and blue (2.8 eV) light and weak green (2.3 eV) emissions.

  15. Catalytic pyrolysis of biomass in a fluidized bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aho, A.

    2009-07-01

    Liquid, solid and gaseous fuels or fuel precursors can be produced from biomass through pyrolysis, which in essence is the thermal degradation of an organis material. The fuels can be used as such in stationary power plants. Upgrading of the liquid bio-oil is required for application in mobile diesel or gasoline engines. besides the use as a fuel, valuable chemicals can be extracted from the bio-oil. The thesis focuses on the upgrading of biomass derived pyrolysis vapours over various zeolite catalysis in fluidized bed reactors. Fluidized bed reactors were designed and constructed for the catalytic pyrolysis experiments. The first reactor set-up applied zeolites as a bed material in the pyrolysis reactor. In this way, the heat for the pyrolysis reactions was obtained by the preheated zeolites, simultaneously upgrading of the pyrolysis vapoursoccurred. The operation and screening of catalyst in the first reactor set-up was challenging. Therefore, a new dual-fluidized bed reactor was designed, where the two reactors, easier operation of the pyrolysis and catalytic reactor coud be established. De-oxygenation reactions of pine wood pyrolysis vapours over diverse zeolites, which are microporoous crystalline aluminosilicates, with differnt structures and acidities used in the presence of a binder and optinally functionalized with metals, were carried out in the present work. The zeolite structures of beta, Y, ZSM-5, ferrierite and mordenite were tested. Different acidities of the beta zeolite, having silica to alumina ratios of 25, 150 and 300, were also applied in the experiments. The effect of bentonite as a binder was tested for beta and ZSM-5 structure. Iron modification through ion-exchage was performed on beta, Y and ferrierite materials, which were further tested as catalysts in the pyrolysis of biomass. Besides testing different catalysts, conventional thermal pyrolysis of various biomass and model compounds was investigated. Pine wood, two types of beet pulp, cellulose and the hemicellulose galactoglucomannan were used as raw materials. The chemical composition of the bio-oil is affected to a great extent by the choice of raw material. The pine wood bio-oils had a large number of different phenolics, originating from the lignin polymer. Otherwise, the bio-oils from the different raw materials had a large number of different oxygenated organics such as furan derivatives, but also non-cyclic molecules like acetic acid and hydroxyacetone. De-oxygenation over zeolites was confirmed by an increased water formation and higher CO to CO{sub 2} ratios. The spent zeolites could be regenerated by burning away the formed coke, and the surface area and aciduty of the zeolites were regained. (orig.)

  16. Catalytic pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica over nanoporous catalysts using Py-GC/MS

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon Jong-Ki; Jeong Kwang-Eun; Chae Ho-Jeong; Park Sung Hoon; Lee Hyung Won; Park Young-Kwon

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The catalytic pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica was carried out over a hierarchical meso-MFI zeolite (Meso-MFI) and nanoporous Al-MCM-48 using pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). The effect of the catalyst type on the product distribution and chemical composition of the bio-oil was examined using Py-GC/MS. The Meso-MFI exhibited a higher activity in deoxygenation and aromatization during the catalytic pyrolysis of L. japonica. Meanwhile, the catalytic activity of...

  17. Structural and optical properties of nanostructural V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis technique: Effect of the substrate temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irani, R. [Spray Lab, Physics Department, University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rozati, S.M., E-mail: smrozati@gmail.com [Spray Lab, Physics Department, University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Beke, S. [Department of Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy)

    2013-05-15

    V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films were deposited on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique. The variation in the structural and optical properties with a variation in the substrate temperature was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV–vis spectrophotometer. XRD was used to reveal the possible orientations of crystallites in the films prepared at different substrate temperatures ranging from 200 °C to 550 °C. The results showed that by increasing the temperature, the films grew along the (001) direction with an orthorhombic structure. The crystallite size was calculated using the Scherrer equation and observed that it increased with elevating the substrate temperature to 450 °C, but decreased when further increasing it. The highest transmittance was achieved when films were deposited at 550 °C. The absorption edge was estimated by using the Tauc plot. In the range 350 °C–550 °C, a shift of the absorption edge from 2.5 eV to 2.8 eV was observed due to the formation of chemical bonds at the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} film–substrate interface at high substrate temperatures (>450 °C). Field emission scanning electron microscopy showed that nanorods were formed when depositing at 500 °C. We conclude that by altering the substrate temperature the size of crystallites can be well controlled. - Highlights: ? Spray pyrolysis technique was used. ? We have synthesized highly oriented nanocrystalline V{sub 2}O{sub 5} films. ? By altering the substrate temperature the size of crystallites can be well controlled. ? The highest transmittance was achieved when films were deposited at 550 °C. ? Scanning electron microscopy showed that nanorods were formed when depositing at 500 °C.

  18. Structural and optical properties of nanostructural V2O5 thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis technique: Effect of the substrate temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    V2O5 thin films were deposited on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique. The variation in the structural and optical properties with a variation in the substrate temperature was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV–vis spectrophotometer. XRD was used to reveal the possible orientations of crystallites in the films prepared at different substrate temperatures ranging from 200 °C to 550 °C. The results showed that by increasing the temperature, the films grew along the (001) direction with an orthorhombic structure. The crystallite size was calculated using the Scherrer equation and observed that it increased with elevating the substrate temperature to 450 °C, but decreased when further increasing it. The highest transmittance was achieved when films were deposited at 550 °C. The absorption edge was estimated by using the Tauc plot. In the range 350 °C–550 °C, a shift of the absorption edge from 2.5 eV to 2.8 eV was observed due to the formation of chemical bonds at the V2O5 film–substrate interface at high substrate temperatures (>450 °C). Field emission scanning electron microscopy showed that nanorods were formed when depositing at 500 °C. We conclude that by altering the substrate temperature the size of crystallites can be well controlled. - Highlights: ? Spray pyrolysis technique was used. ? We have synthesized highly oriented nanocrystalline V2O5 films. ? By altering the substrate temperature the size of crystallites can be well controlled. ? The highest transmittance was achieved when films were deposited at 550 °C. ? Scanning electron microscopy showed that nanorods were formed when depositing at 500 °C

  19. Influence of pyrolysis temperature on fracture response in SiOC based composites reinforced by basalt woven fabric.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chlup, Zden?k; ?erný, Martin; Strachota, Adam; Sucharda, Zbyn?k; Halasová, Martina; Dlouhý, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 34, ?. 14 (2014), s. 3389-3398. ISSN 0955-2219 R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP107/12/2445; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 ; RVO:67985891 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : Fracture behaviour * CMCs * Pyrolysis * Basalt fibre * Polysiloxane Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics; JI - Composite Materials (USMH-B); JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 2.947, year: 2014

  20. Pine Pyrolysis Vapor Phase Upgrading Over ZSM-5 Catalyst: Effect of Temperature, Hot Gas Filtration, and Hydrogen Donor Molecule on the Rate of Deactivation of Catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukarakate, C.; Zhang, X.; Nimlos, M.; Robichaud, D.; Donohoe, B.

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of primary vapors from pine pyrolysis over a ZSM-5 catalyst was characterized using a micro-reactor coupled to a molecular beam mass spectrometer (MBMS) to allow on-line measurement of the upgraded vapors. This micro-reacor-MBMS system was used to investigate the effects of hot gas filtration, temperature and hydrogen donor molecules on the rate of deactivation of the UPV2 catalyst. Our results show that the life of catalyst is significantly improved by using better filtration. Temperature had an effect on both product distribution and catalyst deactivation. The hydrogen donor molecules (HDM) used in this study show better reduction in catalyst deactivation rates at high temperatures.

  1. Biomass pyrolysis and combustion integral and differential reaction heats with temperatures using thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiacheng; Igathinathane, C; Yu, Manlu; Pothula, Anand Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Integral reaction heats of switchgrass, big bluestem, and corn stalks were determined using thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC). Iso-conversion differential reaction heats using TGA/DSC pyrolysis and combustion of biomass were not available, despite reports available on heats required and released. A concept of iso-conversion differential reaction heats was used to determine the differential reaction heats of each thermal characteristics segment of these materials. Results showed that the integral reaction heats were endothermic from 30 to 700°C for pyrolysis of switchgrass and big bluestem, but they were exothermic for corn stalks prior to 587°C. However, the integral reaction heats for combustion of the materials followed an endothermic to exothermic transition. The differential reaction heats of switchgrass pyrolysis were predominantly endothermic in the fraction of mass loss (0.0536-0.975), and were exothermic for corn stalks (0.0885-0.850) and big bluestem (0.736-0.919). Study results provided better insight into biomass thermal mechanism. PMID:25756207

  2. Pyrolysis process for producing fuel gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio, Michael A. (Inventor); Kroo, Erik (Inventor); Wojtowicz, Marek A. (Inventor); Suuberg, Eric M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Solid waste resource recovery in space is effected by pyrolysis processing, to produce light gases as the main products (CH.sub.4, H.sub.2, CO.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2O, NH.sub.3) and a reactive carbon-rich char as the main byproduct. Significant amounts of liquid products are formed under less severe pyrolysis conditions, and are cracked almost completely to gases as the temperature is raised. A primary pyrolysis model for the composite mixture is based on an existing model for whole biomass materials, and an artificial neural network models the changes in gas composition with the severity of pyrolysis conditions.

  3. Pyrolysis processing for solid waste resource recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio, Michael A. (Inventor); Kroo, Erik (Inventor); Wojtowicz, Marek A. (Inventor); Suuberg, Eric M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Solid waste resource recovery in space is effected by pyrolysis processing, to produce light gases as the main products (CH.sub.4, H.sub.2, CO.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2O, NH.sub.3) and a reactive carbon-rich char as the main byproduct. Significant amounts of liquid products are formed under less severe pyrolysis conditions, and are cracked almost completely to gases as the temperature is raised. A primary pyrolysis model for the composite mixture is based on an existing model for whole biomass materials, and an artificial neural network models the changes in gas composition with the severity of pyrolysis conditions.

  4. Structural and photoluminescence characterization of SnO{sub 2}: F thin films deposited by advanced spray pyrolysis technique at low substrate temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shewale, P.S. [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Electronics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (India); Ung Sim, Kyu; Kim, Ye-bin; Kim, J.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Yongbong-Dong, Buk-Gu, Gwangju 500757 (Korea, Republic of); Moholkar, A.V. [Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (India); Uplane, M.D., E-mail: mdu_eln@unishivaji.ac.in [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Electronics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (India)

    2013-07-15

    Fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates, at different substrate temperatures using advanced spray pyrolysis technique. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the crystallinity of the thin films increased with increasing substrate temperature. FESEM and AFM studies support the conclusions drawn from X-ray diffraction studies. X-ray photoelectron studies confirm oxygen deficiency in formation of the FTO nanocrystallites. The photoluminescence of the FTO films were investigated. It was found that, room temperature photoluminescence spectra are dominated by oxygen vacancies and exhibit a rich violet photoluminescence band about ?404 nm with an extensively feeble red emission about 700 nm. The Photoluminescence intensity varies with the substrate temperature. The photoemission position is observed to be independent of substrate temperature. -- Highlights: ? Photoluminescent FTO thin films were deposited at low substrate temperatures. ? Influence of substrate temperature on the PL characteristics was studied. ? The samples are polycrystalline with a cassiterite tetragonal crystal structure. ? The room temperature UV/violet PL emission was dominated by the oxygen vacancies. ? PL efficiency is optimum at 613 K substrate temperature.

  5. Spray pyrolysis growth of a high figure of merit, nano-crystalline, p-type transparent conducting material at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, L.; Norton, E.; O'Dowd, B. J.; Caffrey, D.; Shvets, I. V.; Fleischer, K.

    2015-07-01

    In this letter, we demonstrate a low temperature (?345 °C) growth method for Cu deficient CuCrO2 performed by spray pyrolysis using metal-organic precursors and a simple air blast nozzle. Smooth films were grown on glass substrates with a highest conductivity of 12 S/cm. The most conductive samples retain transparencies above 55% resulting in a figure of merit as high as 350 ?S, which is the best performing p-type transparent conducting material grown by solution methods to date. Remarkably, despite the nano-crystallinity of the films, properties comparable with crystalline CuCrO2 are observed. No postannealing of the films is required in contrast to previous reports on crystalline material. The low processing temperature of this method means that the material can be deposited on flexible substrates. As this is a solution based technique, it is more attractive to industry as physical vapour deposition methods are slow and costly in comparison.

  6. Influence of catalyst weight/biomass flow rate ratio on gas production in the catalytic pyrolysis of pine sawdust at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, L.; Salvador, M.L.; Arauzo, J.; Bilbao, R. [Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

    1998-10-01

    Pine sawdust catalytic pyrolysis has been studied in a fluidized bed at temperatures of 650 and 700 C. The experimental work was carried out in a bench-scale plant based on Waterloo Fast Pyrolysis Process (WFPP) technology. The Ni-Al catalyst used was prepared by coprecipitation with a molar ratio 1:2 (NI-Al) and calcined at 750 C for 3 h. The catalyst was not reduced prior to the biomass reaction. The influence of the catalyst weight/biomass flow rate ratio (W/mb) on the product distribution and on the quality of the gas product obtained was analyzed. An increase of the W/mb ratio increases the total gas yield and diminishes the liquid yield. When the W/mb ratio increases, H{sub 2} and CO yields increase while CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and C{sub 2} yields decrease. For W/mb ratios {ge} 0.4 h, no significant modifications are observed on the initial yields of different gases, and it is confirmed that under these conditions the initial gas composition is similar to that for thermodynamic equilibrium. For W/mb ratios < 0.4 h, a simple first-order kinetic equation has been suggested for H{sub 2} and CO formation.

  7. Direct synthesis of Fe3 C-functionalized graphene by high temperature autoclave pyrolysis for oxygen reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yunjie; Cleemann, Lars N; Xing, Wei; Bjerrum, Niels J; Li, Qingfeng

    2014-08-01

    We present a novel approach to direct fabrication of few-layer graphene sheets with encapsulated Fe3 C nanoparticles from pyrolysis of volatile non-graphitic precursors without any substrate. This one-step autoclave approach is facile and potentially scalable for production. Tested as an electrocatalyst, the graphene-based composite exhibited excellent catalytic activity towards the oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline solution with an onset potential of ca. 1.05 V (vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode) and a half-wave potential of 0.83 V, which is comparable to the commercial Pt/C catalyst. PMID:24925166

  8. Direct Synthesis of Fe3C-Functionalized Graphene by High Temperature Autoclave Pyrolysis for Oxygen Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yang; Jensen, Jens Oluf

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel approach to direct fabrication of few-layer graphene sheets with encapsulated Fe3C nanoparticles from pyrolysis of volatile non-graphitic precursors without any substrate. This one-step autoclave approach is facile and potentially scalable for production. Tested as an electrocatalyst, the graphene-based composite exhibited excellent catalytic activity towards the oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline solution with an onset potential of ca. 1.05 V (vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode) and a half-wave potential of 0.83 V, which is comparable to the commercial Pt/C catalyst.

  9. Spatial heterogeneity of quadriceps muscle deoxygenation kinetics during cycle exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Shunsaku; Poole, David C; Ferreira, Leonard F; Whipp, Brian J; Kondo, Narihiko; Saitoh, Tadashi; Ohmae, Etsuko; Barstow, Thomas J

    2007-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that, during exercise, substantial heterogeneity of muscle hemoglobin and myoglobin deoxygenation [deoxy(Hb + Mb)] dynamics exists and to determine whether such heterogeneity is associated with the speed of pulmonary O(2) uptake (pVo(2)) kinetics, we adapted multi-optical fibers near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to characterize the spatial distribution of muscle deoxygenation kinetics at exercise onset. Seven subjects performed cycle exercise transitions from unloaded to moderate [GET) work rates and the relative changes in deoxy(Hb + Mb), at 10 sites in the quadriceps, were sampled by NIRS. At exercise onset, the time delays in muscle deoxy(Hb + Mb) were spatially inhomogeneous [intersite coefficient of variation (CV), 3~56% for GET]. The primary component kinetics (time constant) of muscle deoxy(Hb + Mb) reflecting increased O(2) extraction were also spatially inhomogeneous (intersite CV, 6~48% for GET) and faster (P < 0.05) than those of phase 2 pVo(2). However, the degree of dynamic intersite heterogeneity in muscle deoxygenation did not correlate significantly with phase 2 pVo(2) kinetics. In conclusion, the dynamics of quadriceps microvascular oxygenation demonstrates substantial spatial heterogeneity that must arise from disparities in the relative kinetics of Vo(2) and O(2) delivery increase across the regions sampled. PMID:17885024

  10. PYROLYSIS OF TOBACCO RESIDUE: PART 1. THERMAL

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet K. Akalin; Selhan Karagöz

    2011-01-01

    The pyrolysis of two types of tobacco residue was carried out at different pyrolysis temperatures between 300 and 600 °C and a residence time of 1 h in a nitrogen atmosphere. The effect of pyrolysis temperature on the product distributions was investigated and the composition of the bio-oils identified. The variation in product distribution depended on both the temperature and the type of tobacco residues. The maximum liquid yields were obtained at 400°C for one sample and at 500°C for the ot...

  11. An investigation of the composition of liquid products of high temperature pyrolysis of a pentane hexane oil fraction. Issledovaniye sostava zhidkikh produktov vysokotemperaturnogo piroliza pentan-geksanovoy jraktsii nefti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliyev, S.M.; Aliyev, A.G.; Gasanov, A.I.; Kasumov, K.M.; Legon' kova, G.A.; Rezanova, G.V.; Stolonogova, V.G.

    1985-01-01

    The physicochemical characteristics and group hydrocarbon composition of liquid products of an acetyl mode of pyrolysis of a pentane and hexane oil fraction are studied. The individual hydrocarbon composition of C5 (28 to 65 degrees), C6 to C7 (65 to 130 degrees) and C8 to C9 (130 to 180 degrees) fractions of liquid products of high temperature pyrolysis of a pentane hexane fraction is studied. The reserves of individual monomers in the narrow fractions and in the starting crude oil are established. The area for using these valuable monomers and aromatic hydrocarbons (ArU) contained in these products is shown.

  12. Potential method for gas production: high temperature co-pyrolysis of lignite and sewage sludge with vacuum reactor and long contact time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Yuan, Chengyong; Xu, Jiao; Zhang, Weijiang

    2015-03-01

    Lignite and sewage sludge were co-pyrolyzed in a vacuum reactor with high temperature (900°C) and long contact time (more than 2h). Beneficial synergetic effect on gas yield was clearly observed. Gas yield of blend fuel was evidently higher than that of both parent fuels. The gas volume yield, gas lower heating value (LHV), fixed carbon conversion and H2/CO ratio were 1.42 Nm(3)/kg(blend fuel), 10.57 MJ/Nm(3), 96.64% and 0.88% respectively, which indicated this new method a feasible one for gas production. It was possible that sewage sludge acted as gasification agents (CO2 and H2O) and catalyst (alkali and alkaline earth metals) provider during co-pyrolysis, promoting CO2-char and H2O-char gasification which, as a result, invited the improvement of gas volume yield, gas lower heating value and fixed carbon conversion. PMID:25542402

  13. High electron mobility thin-film transistors based on Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} grown by atmospheric ultrasonic spray pyrolysis at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Stuart R., E-mail: s.thomas09@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: thomas.anthopoulos@imperial.ac.uk; Lin, Yen-Hung; Faber, Hendrik; Anthopoulos, Thomas D., E-mail: s.thomas09@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: thomas.anthopoulos@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Adamopoulos, George [Department of Engineering, Engineering Building, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4YR (United Kingdom); Sygellou, Labrini [Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Processes (ICEHT), Foundation of Research and Technology Hellas (FORTH), Stadiou Strasse Platani, P.O. Box 1414, Patras GR-265 04 (Greece); Stratakis, Emmanuel [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (FORTH), Heraklion 71003 (Greece); Materials Science and Technology Department, University, of Crete, Heraklion 71003 (Greece); Pliatsikas, Nikos; Patsalas, Panos A. [Laboratory of Applied Physics, Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki GR-54124 (Greece)

    2014-09-01

    We report on thin-film transistors based on Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} films grown by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis in ambient atmosphere at 400–450?°C. The elemental, electronic, optical, morphological, structural, and electrical properties of the films and devices were investigated using a range of complementary characterisation techniques, whilst the effects of post deposition annealing at higher temperature (700?°C) were also investigated. Both as-grown and post-deposition annealed Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} films are found to be slightly oxygen deficient, exceptionally smooth and exhibit a wide energy bandgap of ?4.9?eV. Transistors based on as-deposited Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} films show n-type conductivity with the maximum electron mobility of ?2?cm{sup 2}/V s.

  14. FAST PYROLYSIS OF ENZYMATIC/MILD ACIDOLYSIS LIGNIN FROM MOSO BAMBOO

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Lou; Shu-bin Wu; Gao-jin Lv

    2010-01-01

    The characteristics of enzymatic/mild acidolysis lignin (EMAL) isolated from moso bamboo were investigated using pyrolysis-gas chromato-graphy/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). Pyrolysis temperature as a factor on products was studied, and the pyrolysis mechanism was inferred with respect to the dominating products. Research results showed that pyrolysis products derived from EMAL pyrolysis were mainly heterocyclic (2,3-dihydrobenzofuran), phenols, esters, and a minor amount of acetic acid. Pyrol...

  15. Production and characterization of pyrolysis oils from Euphorbia macroclada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuncel, F.; Gercel, H.F. [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2004-07-15

    In this work, Euphorbia macroclada were pyrolyzed in a laboratory-scale fixed bed reactor. The influence of final pyrolysis temperature, heating rate, and pyrolysis atmosphere on the product yields was investigated. Pyrolysis runs were performed using reactor temperatures ranging between 400 and 700{sup o}C with heating rates of 7 and 40{sup o}C/min. The highest liquid yield was obtained at 550{sup o}C pyrolysis temperature with a heating rate of 7{sup o}C/min. The results from the pyrolysis of Euphorbia macroclada showed that the clear increments of the pyrolysis conversion in the temperature interval 500 to 550{sup o}C are due to the rapid devolatilization of cellulose and hemicelluloses. (author)

  16. Pyrolysis and Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Bilitewski, B.

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification include processes that thermally convert carbonaceous materials into products such as gas, char, coke, ash, and tar. Overall, pyrolysis generates products like gas, tar, and char, while gasification converts the carboncontaining materials (e.g. the outputs from pyrolysis) into a mainly gaseous output. The specific output composition and relative amounts of the outputs greatly depend on the input fuel and the overall process configuration. Although pyrolysis processes i...

  17. Study of rapid pyrolysis of brown coal dusts and preliminary results of properties of the pyrolysis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karcz, H.; Standa, J.; Effenberger, H. (Technische Universitaet, Wroclaw (Poland). Institut fuer Waermetechnik und Stroemungsmechanik)

    1992-09-01

    Evaluates laboratory experiments on rapid pyrolysis of brown coal dust. Pyrolysis temperatures varied between 500 and 1,600 K, using low-grade brown coal and xylite with a dust grain size of 60 to 80 mm. Fuel supply was 5 to 100 g/min. The yield of pyrolysis gas in relation to pyrolysis temperature is analyzed. Components of the gas produced are CO, CO[sub 2], H[sub 2], CH[sub 4], C[sub 2]H[sub 2], C[sub 2]H[sub 4], C[sub 2]H[sub 6], O[sub 2] and soot. At temperatures higher than 1,300 K, 90% of pyrolysis gas consisted of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Pyrolysis gas produced in the 950 to 1,100 K temperature range had the highest calorific value. 4 refs.

  18. Role of substrate temperature on the properties of Na-doped ZnO thin film nanorods and performance of ammonia gas sensors using nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Na-doped ZnO films deposited on glass by nebulizer spray pyrolysis (NSP) method. • NSP method for large area coatings and good results as compared with other methods. • HR-SEM studies reveal the formation of Na-doped ZnO films consisting of nano-rods. • Na-doped ZnO films ensure their stability and suitability for gas sensors. -- Abstract: Sodium doped zinc oxide (Na:ZnO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates at substrate temperatures 300, 400 and 500 °C by a novel nebulizer spray method. X-ray diffraction shows that all the films are polycrystalline in nature having hexagonal structure with high preferential orientation along (0 0 2) plane. High resolution SEM studies reveal the formation of Na-doped ZnO films having uniformly distributed nano-rods over the entire surface of the substrates at 400 °C. The complex impedance of the ZnO nano-rods shows two distinguished semicircles and the diameter of the arcs got decreased in diameter as the temperature increases from 170 to 270 °C and thereafter slightly increased

  19. High quality bio-oil from catalytic flash pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass over alumina-supported sodium carbonate

    KAUST Repository

    Imran, Ali

    2014-11-01

    Performance of a novel alumina-supported sodium carbonate catalyst was studied to produce a valuable bio-oil from catalytic flash pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. Post treatment of biomass pyrolysis vapor was investigated in a catalyst fixed bed reactor at the downstream of the pyrolysis reactor. In-situ catalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapor was conducted in an entrained flow pyrolysis reactor by feeding a premixed feedstock of the catalyst and biomass. Na2CO3/gamma-Al2O3 was very effective for de-oxygenation of the pyrolysis liquid and oxygen content of the bio-oil was decreased from 47.5 wt.% to 16.4 wt.%. An organic rich bio-oil was obtained with 5.8 wt.% water content and a higher heating value of 36.1 MJ/kg. Carboxylic acids were completely removed and the bio-oil had almost a neutral pH. This bio-oil of high calorific low, low water and oxygen content may be an attractive fuel precursor. In-situ catalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapor produced a very similar quality bio-oil compared to post treatment of pyrolysis vapors, and shows the possible application of Na2CO3/gamma-Al2O3 in a commercial type reactor system such as a fluidized bed reactor. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The influence of the pyrolysis temperature on the electrochemical behavior of carbon-rich SiCN polymer-derived ceramics as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinold, Lukas Mirko; Yamada, Yuto; Graczyk-Zajac, Magdalena; Munakata, Hirokazu; Kanamura, Kiyoshi; Riedel, Ralf

    2015-05-01

    Within this study we report on the impact of the pyrolysis temperature on the structural and electrochemical properties of the poly(phenylvinylsilylcarbodiimide) derived silicon carbonitride (SiCN) ceramic. Materials pyrolysed at 800 °C and 1300 °C, SiCN 800 and SiCN 1300, are found amorphous. Raman spectroscopy measurements indicate the increase in ordering of the free carbon phase with increasing pyrolysis temperature which leads to lower capacity recovered by SiCN 1300. Significant hysteresis is found for materials pyrolysed at 800 °C during electrochemical lithium insertion/extraction. This feature is attributed to much higher hydrogen content in SiCN 800 sample. An aging of SiCN 800 reflected by a change of elemental composition upon contact to air and a strong film formation are attenuated at a higher pyrolysis temperature. Single particle microelectrode investigation on SiCN 800 and SiCN 1300 clarify different electrochemical behavior of the materials. Much lower charge transfer resistance of SiCN 1300 in comparison to SiCN 800 explains better high currents electrochemical performance. Lithium ions diffusion coefficient Dmin ranges from 3.2 10-9 cm2s-1 to 6.4 10-11 cm2s-1 and is independent on the potential.

  1. Optimization of the pyrolysis temperature of active carbon-CoTMPP catalysts for air electrodes in alkaline media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliev, I.; Gamburzev, S.; Kaisheva, A.

    Catalysts prepared from active carbon impregnated with CoTMPP, and then heat treated in argon at temperatures between 200 and 1200 °C were investigat It was found that heating the catalyst at temperatures between 460 and 810 °C improved the initial polarization characteristics of air electrodes. Th

  2. An investigation on substrate temperature and copper to sulphur molar ratios on optical and electrical properties of nanostructural CuS thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelifard, Mehdi [Department of Physics, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood 316-36155 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Eshghi, Hosein, E-mail: h_eshghi@shahroodut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood 316-36155 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohagheghi, Mohamad Mehdi Bagheri [School of Physics, Damghan University, Damghan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Copper sulphide (CuS) thin films have been deposited on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis method using an aqueous solutions of copper (II) acetate and thiourea with different Cu to S molar ratios (0.33 and 0.43) at various substrate temperatures of 260, 285 and 310 Degree-Sign C. The structural, optical and electrical characterizations have been carried out using XRD, UV-Vis. transmittance/reflectance, PL spectra and Hall effect measurements. These characterizations indicated the formation of a CuS single phase (covellite) with polycrystalline nature with preferred orientation along (1 0 2) plane, except one with amorphous nature. Optical studies showed that the deposited layers have a relatively high absorption coefficient (5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} to 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} cm{sup -1}) in the visible range, with an effective optical band gap of {approx}2.4-2.6 eV. The Hall effect data showed that all the grown samples have a degenerate p-type conductivity with a hole concentration of {approx}1.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} to 1.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3}.

  3. An investigation on substrate temperature and copper to sulphur molar ratios on optical and electrical properties of nanostructural CuS thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copper sulphide (CuS) thin films have been deposited on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis method using an aqueous solutions of copper (II) acetate and thiourea with different Cu to S molar ratios (0.33 and 0.43) at various substrate temperatures of 260, 285 and 310 °C. The structural, optical and electrical characterizations have been carried out using XRD, UV-Vis. transmittance/reflectance, PL spectra and Hall effect measurements. These characterizations indicated the formation of a CuS single phase (covellite) with polycrystalline nature with preferred orientation along (1 0 2) plane, except one with amorphous nature. Optical studies showed that the deposited layers have a relatively high absorption coefficient (5 × 104 to 1 × 105 cm-1) in the visible range, with an effective optical band gap of ?2.4-2.6 eV. The Hall effect data showed that all the grown samples have a degenerate p-type conductivity with a hole concentration of ?1.8 × 1020 to 1.7 × 1021 cm-3.

  4. Effect of Solution Molarity, Substrate Temperature and Spray Time on The Structural and Optical Properties Of ZnO Thin Films Deposited By Spray Pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc oxide thin films were deposited on a glass substrate by spray pyrolysis technique using solution of zinc acetate and air as the carrier gas. Effects of solution molarity, substrate temperature and spray time on films properties were investigated. All films deposited were characterized using X-ray diffraction for structural characterization and UV-VIS transmission spectrophotometry for optical properties. According to the analytical method, the type of crystal lattice was found to be hexagonal and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that the films deposited were polycrystalline with (002) plane as preferential orientation. The values of lattice constant, grain size, micro strain and dislocation density of all samples were calculated. In addition, Optical behaviors of film samples were analyzed by obtaining transmission spectra, in the wavelength range of 350-800 nm. The UV-VIS spectroscopy shows the high transparency of ZnO films in the UV region. An optimization of the films has been carried out to determine the best preparation conditions.

  5. Orientation-dependent low field magnetic anomalies and room-temperature spintronic material – Mn doped ZnO films by aerosol spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Optical microscopy images of Mn doped ZnO films deposited for 20 min. Highlights: •Mn–ZnO films showing transparent spherical bubbles were synthesized by ASP. •LFMA phenomenon was observed for these films. •A relatively novel reversal magnetic feature to that of LFMA was observed. •Ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition due to Mn doping was observed. •Angular dependence analysis showed evidence of magnetic anisotropy present. -- Abstract: High quality un-doped and Mn-doped ZnO films deposited by a simple aerosol spray pyrolysis technique for 20 and 30 min were studied using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. EPR analysis showed novel observation of low field microwave absorption (LFMA) on the manganese (Mn) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) films at various Mn concentrations. The results showed a peculiar behavior, reversal signal to that of LFMA. These findings also demonstrated that these films contain ferromagnetism at room temperature with possible applications in spintronics. Angular dependence measurements were found to induce magnetic transition from ferromagnetism to paramagnetism. Structural analysis showed that the undertaken materials are in wurtzite structures. The light absorption edge of Mn–ZnO films red shifted which enhanced the observed ferromagnetism. The direct modulation of the band gap caused by Mn–ZnO substitution is responsible for the red shift effect in absorption edge of ZnO

  6. Fast Pyrolysis of Lignin Using a Pyrolysis Centrifuge Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2013-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis of lignin from an ethanol plant was investigated on a lab scale pyrolysis centrifuge reactor (PCR) with respect to pyrolysis temperature, reactor gas residence time, and feed rate. A maximal organic oil yield of 34 wt % dry basis (db) (bio-oil yield of 43 wt % db) is obtained at temperatures of 500?550 °C, reactor gas residence time of 0.8 s, and feed rate of 5.6 g/min. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry and size-exclusion chromatography were used to characterize the Chemical properties of the lignin oils. Acetic acid, levoglucosan, guaiacol, syringols, and p-vinylguaiacol are found to be major chemical components in the lignin oil. The maximal yields of 0.62, 0.67, and 0.38 wt % db were obtained for syringol, p-vinylguaiacol, and guaiacol, respectively. The reactor temperature effect was investigated in a range of 450?600 °C and has a considerable effect on the observed chemical components and molecular mass distribution of the lignin oils. The obtained lignin oil has a very different components composition when compared to a beech wood oil.

  7. PROPERTIES OF GAS AND CHAR FROM MICROWAVE PYROLYSIS OF PINE SAWDUST

    OpenAIRE

    Xian-Hua Wang; Han-Ping Chen; Xue-Jun Ding; Hai-Ping Yang; Shi-Hong Zhang; Ying-Qiang Shen

    2009-01-01

    Pine sawdust pyrolysis was carried out respectively using microwave and conventional electrical heating at different temperatures in order to understand the properties of pyrolytic products from microwave pyrolysis of biomass. Less char material was obtained by microwave pyrolysis compared to conventional heating at the same temperature. While comparing the components of the pyrolytic gases, it was revealed that the microwave pyrolysis gas usually had higher H2 and CO contents and lower CH4...

  8. SIMULATION OF OLIVE PITS PYROLYSIS IN A ROTARY KILN PLANT

    OpenAIRE

    Giacobbe Braccio; Vincenzo Lorefice; Cesare Freda; Enzo Benanti; Vinod Kumar Sharma

    2011-01-01

    This work deals with the simulation of an olive pits fed rotary kiln pyrolysis plant installed in Southern Italy. The pyrolysis process was simulated by commercial software CHEMCAD. The main component of the plant, the pyrolyzer, was modelled by a Plug Flow Reactor in accordance to the kinetic laws. Products distribution and the temperature profile was calculated along reactor's axis. Simulation results have been found to fit well the experimental data of pyrolysis. Moreover, sensitivity anal...

  9. Organic iron compounds as catalyst precursors in pitch pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, M.W.; Hoffmann, W.R.; Huettinger, K.J. [Universitaet Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany). Institut fuer Chemische Technik

    1995-07-01

    The influence of ferrocene, iron benzoate, iron naphthoate and iron acetylacetonate on the pyrolysis of Ashland A240 petroleum pitch was investigated. The additives are catalyst precursors for iron-catalysed pyrolysis with the following aims: (1) acceleration of the pyrolysis reactions; (2) production of pitches with improved coke yield-glass transition temperature relationship; and (3) conversion of organically to inorganically bound sulfur, which is less critical for coke puffing. 19 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica and polypropylene over mesoporous Al-SBA-15 catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyung Won; Choi, Suek Joo; Park, Sung Hoon; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Jung, Sang-Chul; Kim, Sang Chai; Park, Young-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic co-pyrolysis of a seaweed biomass, Laminaria japonica, and a typical polymer material, polypropylene, was studied for the first time. A mesoporous material Al-SBA-15 was used as a catalyst. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted using a fixed-bed reactor and pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). BET surface area, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, and NH3 temperature programmed desorption were measured to examine the catalyst characteristics. When only L. jap...

  11. Pyrolysis and Gasification

    OpenAIRE

    Astrup, Thomas; Bilitewski, B.

    2010-01-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification include processes that thermally convert carbonaceous materials into products such as gas, char, coke, ash, and tar. Overall, pyrolysis generates products like gas, tar, and char, while gasification converts the carboncontaining materials (e.g. the outputs from pyrolysis) into a mainly gaseous output. The specific output composition and relative amounts of the outputs greatly depend on the input fuel and the overall process configuration. Although pyroly...

  12. Pyrolysis of waste tyres: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Pyrolysis of waste tyres produces oil, gas and char, and recovered steel. • Batch, screw kiln, rotary kiln, vacuum and fluidised-bed are main reactor types. • Product yields are influenced by reactor type, temperature and heating rate. • Pyrolysis oils are complex and can be used as chemical feedstock or fuel. • Research into higher value products from the tyre pyrolysis process is reviewed. - Abstract: Approximately 1.5 billion tyres are produced each year which will eventually enter the waste stream representing a major potential waste and environmental problem. However, there is growing interest in pyrolysis as a technology to treat tyres to produce valuable oil, char and gas products. The most common reactors used are fixed-bed (batch), screw kiln, rotary kiln, vacuum and fluidised-bed. The key influence on the product yield, and gas and oil composition, is the type of reactor used which in turn determines the temperature and heating rate. Tyre pyrolysis oil is chemically very complex containing aliphatic, aromatic, hetero-atom and polar fractions. The fuel characteristics of the tyre oil shows that it is similar to a gas oil or light fuel oil and has been successfully combusted in test furnaces and engines. The main gases produced from the pyrolysis of waste tyres are H2, C1–C4 hydrocarbons, CO2, CO and H2S. Upgrading tyre pyrolysis products to high value products has concentrated on char upgrading to higher quality carbon black and to activated carbon. The use of catalysts to upgrade the oil to a aromatic-rich chemical feedstock or the production of hydrogen from waste tyres has also been reported. Examples of commercial and semi-commercial scale tyre pyrolysis systems show that small scale batch reactors and continuous rotary kiln reactors have been developed to commercial scale

  13. Pyrolysis of rubber gloves in integral pyrolysis test plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previously, pyrolysis of rubber gloves in laboratory study was described. In order to visualize the practical application of rubber gloves pyrolysis in terms of treating rubber gloves in medical waste, a new test plant was designed and constructed. The semi-continuous test plant was designed to accommodate rubber gloves that were not cut or shredded. The test plant has a capacity of 2kg/ hr and employed auxiliary fuel instead of the conventional electrical power for heating. The concept was based on moving bed reactor, but additional feature of sand jacket feature was also introduced in the design. Pyrolysis of the gloves was conducted at three temperatures, namely 350 degree Celsius, 400 degree Celsius and 450 degree Celsius. Oxygen presents inside of the reactor due to the combined effect of imperfect sealing and suction effect. This study addresses the performance of this test plant covering the time temperature profile, gas evolution profile and product yield. Comparison between the yield of the liquid, gas and char pyrolyzate was made against the laboratory study. It was found that the oil yield was less than the one obtained from bench scale study. Water formation was more pronounced. The presence of the oxygen also altered the tail gas composition but eliminate the sticky nature of solid residue, making it easier to handle. The chemical composition of the oil was determined and the main compounds in the oil were esters and phtalic acid. (author)

  14. CATALYTIC FAST PYROLYSIS OF CELLULOSE MIXED WITH SULFATED TITANIA TO PRODUCE LEVOGLUCOSENONE: ANALYTICAL PY-GC/MS STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang Lu; Xu-Ming Zhang,; Zhi-Bo Zhang; Ying Zhang; Xi-Feng Zhu,; Chang-Qing Dong

    2012-01-01

    Sulfated titania (SO42-/TiO2) was prepared and used for catalytic fast pyrolysis of cellulose to produce levoglucosenone (LGO), a valuable anhydrosugar product. Analytical pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) technique was employed in this study to achieve the catalytic fast pyrolysis of cellulose and on-line analysis of the pyrolysis vapors. Experiments were performed to investigate the effects of several factors on the LGO production, i.e. pyrolysis temperature, cellulo...

  15. Molecular products and radicals from pyrolysis of lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibet, J; Khachatryan, L; Dellinger, B

    2012-12-01

    Thermal degradation of lignin under two reaction regimes (pyrolysis in N(2) and oxidative pyrolysis in 4% O(2) in N(2)) has been investigated in a tubular, isothermal, flow-reactor over the temperature range 200-900 °C at a residence time of 0.2 s. Two experimental protocols were adopted: (1) Partial pyrolysis in which the same lignin sample was continuously pyrolyzed at each temperature and (2) conventional pyrolysis, in which new lignin samples were pyrolyzed at each pyrolysis temperature. The results identified common relationships between the two modes of experiments, as well as some differences. The majority of products from partial pyrolysis peaked between 300 and 500 °C, whereas for conventional pyrolysis reaction products peaked between 400 and 500 °C. The principal products were syringol (2,6-dimethoxy phenol), guaiacol (2-methoxy phenol), phenol, and catechol. Of the classes of compounds analyzed, the phenolic compounds were the most abundant, contributing over 40% of the total compounds detected. Benzene, styrene, and p-xylene were formed in significant amounts throughout the entire temperature range. Interestingly, six ringed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were formed during partial pyrolysis. Oxidative pyrolysis did not result in large differences from pyrolysis; the main products still were syringol, guaiacol, phenol, the only significant difference being the product distribution peaked between 200 and 400 °C. For the first time, low temperature matrix isolation electron paramagnetic resonance was successfully interfaced with the pyrolysis reactor to elucidate the structures of the labile reaction intermediates. The EPR results suggested the presence of methoxyl, phenoxy, and substituted phenoxy radicals as precursors for formation of major products; syringol, guaiacol, phenols, and substituted phenols. PMID:23131040

  16. FAST PYROLYSIS OF ENZYMATIC/MILD ACIDOLYSIS LIGNIN FROM MOSO BAMBOO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Lou

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of enzymatic/mild acidolysis lignin (EMAL isolated from moso bamboo were investigated using pyrolysis-gas chromato-graphy/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS. Pyrolysis temperature as a factor on products was studied, and the pyrolysis mechanism was inferred with respect to the dominating products. Research results showed that pyrolysis products derived from EMAL pyrolysis were mainly heterocyclic (2,3-dihydrobenzofuran, phenols, esters, and a minor amount of acetic acid. Pyrolysis temperature had a distinct impact on yields of pyrolysis products. As pyrolysis temperature increased, the yield of 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran rapidly decreased; however, yields of phenols increased smoothly. It can be obtained that, at the low temperatures (250-400oC, pyrolysis products were mainly 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran, and the highest yield was 66.26% at 320oC; at the high temperatures (400-800oC, pyrolysis products were mainly phenols, and yields hit their highest level of 56.43% at 600 oC. A minor amount of acetic acid only emerged at 800°C. Knowledge of pyrolysis products releasing from EMAL and the pyrolysis mechanism could be basic and essential to the understanding of thermochemical conversion of EMAL to chemicals or high-grade energy.

  17. Fast pyrolysis of lignin, macroalgae and sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung

    2013-01-01

    In the last twenty years, the fast pyrolysis process has been explored to produce bio-oil from biomass. Fast pyrolysis is a thermal conversion technology that is performed at a temperatures of 450 - 600 ºC, high biomass heating ratess (100 - 2000 K/s), a short gas residence time (less than 2 s) with no presence of oxygen. Fast pyrolysis can convert a large fraction of the biomass to bio-oil, and smaller fractions of char and gas. The pyrolysis centrifuge reactor (PCR) has been developed at the C...

  18. Characterization of pyrolysis products from a biodiesel phenolic urethane binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujue; Cannon, Fred S; Salama, Magda; Fonseca, Dania A; Giese, Scott

    2009-03-01

    Analytical pyrolysis was conducted to identify and quantify the major pyrolysis products of a biodiesel phenolic urethane binder as a function of temperature. This biodiesel binder has been used in U.S. foundries recently to replace conventional phenolic urethane binders for making sand cores. Flash pyrolysis and thermogravimetric analytical (TGA) slow pyrolysis were conducted for the core samples to simulate some key features of the heating conditions that the core binders would experience during metal casting. Pyrolysis products from flash and TGA pyrolysis were analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame ionization detection/thermal conductivity detection. The evolution profiles of the pyrolysis products during TGA slow pyrolysis were also monitored via thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry (TG-MS). The combination of TG-MS and TGA pyrolysis emission data facilitated a quantification of gaseous pyrolysis products of the biodiesel binder as a function of temperature. The major monitored carbonaceous pyrolysis products of the biodiesel binder included CO, CO2, CH4, and a variety of methyl esters such as dimethyl glutarate, dimethyl adipate, and methyl oleate. These latter species were the components of the biodiesel binder's solvent Pyrolysis of the biodiesel binder also generated a variety of hazardous air pollutants listed by the U.S. EPA, with benzene, toluene, xylene, phenol, and cresols being the prominent species. A considerable fraction of the binder's released mass did not appear as exhausted volatile carbonaceous species, but rather recondensed before they exhausted from the TGA. This represented mass that could likewise recondense within a green sand molding system during full-scale operations, as an environmentally favorable containment of air emissions. PMID:19350935

  19. Effect of gamma ray irradiation on deoxygenation by hydrazine in artificial seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the spent nuclear fuel pools in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, hydrazine has been added to reduce dissolved oxygen in the pool water containing salts. The reduction behavior of dissolved oxygen in seawater with hydrazine in the presence of radiation is unknown. The effect of gamma ray irradiation on deoxygenation by hydrazine in artificial seawater was investigated at room temperature. We placed the artificial seawater with a small amount of hydrazine under gamma ray irradiation at dose rates of 0.3-7.5 kGy/h. The concentration of dissolved oxygen in the solutions was measured before and after the irradiation. The concentration of dissolved oxygen hardly decreased in the absence of gamma radiation in a few hours, whereas it markedly decreased in the presence of gamma radiation. The concentration of dissolved oxygen decreased with irradiation time. At this moment, hydrazine concentration decreased more than twice the dissolved oxygen concentration. This shows that some gamma radiolysis products of hydrazine act as deoxidizers. The concentration of dissolved oxygen in artificial seawater could be decreased by the addition of a small amount of hydrazine in the presence of gamma radiation at room temperature. (author)

  20. Pyrolysis system evaluation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of two different pyrolysis concepts which recover energy from solid waste was conducted in order to determine the merits of each concept for integration into a Integrated Utility System (IUS). The two concepts evaluated were a Lead Bath Furnace Pyrolysis System and a Slagging Vertical Shaft, Partial Air Oxidation Pyrolysis System. Both concepts will produce a fuel gas from the IUS waste and sewage sludge which can be used to offset primary fuel consumption in addition to the sanitary disposal of the waste. The study evaluated the thermal integration of each concept as well as the economic impact on the IUS resulting from integrating each pyrolysis concepts. For reference, the pyrolysis concepts were also compared to incineration which was considered the baseline IUS solid waste disposal system.

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions and soil properties following amendment with manure-derived biochars: Influence of pyrolysis temperature and feedstock type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Raghunath; Taupe, Natalie; Pelissetti, Simone; Petruzzelli, Laura; Bertora, Chiara; Leahy, James J; Grignani, Carlo

    2016-01-15

    Manure-derived biochars can offer a potential option for the stabilization of manure, while mitigating climate change through carbon sequestration and the attenuation of nitrous oxide emission. A laboratory incubation study was conducted to assess the effects of four different manure-derived biochars produced from different feedstocks (poultry litter and swine manure) at different temperatures (400 or 600 °C). A commonly available standard wood chip biochar, produced at a greater temperature (1000 °C), and non-amended treatments were used as references. Two different soils (sandy and silt-loam) were amended with 2% (w/w) biochar on a dry soil weight basis (corresponding to 20 Mg ha(-1)), with the soil moisture being adjusted to 75% saturation level. After a pre-incubation period (21 days), 170 kg N ha(-1) of NH4NO3 fertilizer was added. Measurements of CO2, N2O, CH4 emissions and soil N mineralisation were carried out on different days during the 85 days of incubation. The net C mineralization and N2O emissions from both soils amended with poultry litter biochar at 400 °C were significantly greater than the other biochar treatments. Nitrate availability was greater in both soils in which the manure-derived biochar was used instead of the standard biochar. All of the biochars increased the pH of the silt-loam, sub-acid soil, but failed to improve the cation exchange capacities (CEC) in either soil. Total C and N, P, K and Mg (except Ca) were significantly increased in the manure-derived biochar amended soils, compared to the Control, and were positively correlated to the biochar nutrient contents. This study indicates that the soil application of biochar engenders effects that can vary considerably according to the biochar properties, as determined on the basis of the feedstock types and process conditions. Low-temperature biochar production from manure represents a possible way of producing a soil amendment that can stabilize C while supplying a significant quantity of nutrients. PMID:26484602

  2. Synthesis and characterizations of composite particles for solid oxide fuel cell anodes by spray pyrolysis and intermediate temperature cell performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Mitsunobu; Hashino, Koji; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Inagaki, Toru [Energy Use R and D Center, The Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., 11-20 Nakoji 3-chome, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-0974 (Japan); Ijichi, Hiroshi [Kanden Power-tech Co. Ltd., 2-1-1800, Benten 1-chome, Minato-ku, Osaka 552-0007 (Japan); Takahashi, Seiji; Suda, Seiichi [Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 4-1 Mutsuno 2-chome, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 456-8587 (Japan)

    2005-12-01

    NiO-Ce{sub 0.8}Sm{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9} (SDC) composite particles were synthesized using starting solutions containing the components for NiO-SDC and various amounts of nitric acid. It was found that the particles had a different surface morphology and specific surface area depending on the pH values of the starting solutions. SOFC single cell using the composite particles as an anode electrode was examined at an intermediate temperature to clarify the relationship between particle morphology and cell performance. High and consistent cell performance was obtained when the composite particles were synthesized using the solutions containing large amounts of nitric acid. It was considered that the morphology and the specific surface area of NiO-SDC composite particles played an important role realizing a high cell performance anode. (author)

  3. Pyrolysis of sawdust in a conical spouted-bed reactor with a HZSM-5 catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olazar, M.; Aguado, R.; Bilbao, J.; Barona, A.

    2000-05-01

    The effect was studied of using an in-situ catalyst based on a HZSM-5 zeolite in flash pyrolysis with an inert gas (N{sub 2}) of pinus insignis sawdust in a conical spouted-bed reactor in the 400--500 C range and for a gas residence time of 50 ms. The use of the catalyst increases the yield of gases and decreases the yields of liquid and char. Likewise, the yield of CO{sub 2} decreases, whereas the yield of C{sub 4{minus}} hydrocarbons increases (15.9 wt. % at 450 C). The catalyst is efficient for partial deoxygenation of the liquid product.

  4. STEPWISE ISOTHERMAL FAST PYROLYSIS (SIFP). PART II. SIFP OF PEANUT SHELLS - ANTIFUNGAL PROPERTIES OF PHENOLIC FRACTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Daniel Pérez; Guadalupe L. Isasmendi; Rosana Alarcón; Patricia López Rivilli

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis of peanut shells was carried out using stepwise isothermal fast pyrolysis (SIFP). SIFP consists of successive isothermal fast pyrolysis reactions, where solid products obtained in the previous isothermal fast pyrolysis become the substrate of the subsequent reaction at a higher temperature. This article reports results obtained from SIFP of peanut shells between 200 and 300°C using 100°C intervals under vacuum (0.2 mm). The maximum yield of liquid products was obtained at 300°C, giv...

  5. Pyrolysis of phenolic impregnated carbon ablator (PICA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessire, Brody K; Lahankar, Sridhar A; Minton, Timothy K

    2015-01-28

    Molar yields of the pyrolysis products of thermal protection systems (TPSs) are needed in order to improve high fidelity material response models. The volatile chemical species evolved during the pyrolysis of a TPS composite, phenolic impregnated carbon ablator (PICA), have been probed in situ by mass spectrometry in the temperature range 100 to 935 °C. The relative molar yields of the desorbing species as a function of temperature were derived by fitting the mass spectra, and the observed trends are interpreted in light of the results of earlier mechanistic studies on the pyrolysis of phenolic resins. The temperature-dependent product evolution was consistent with earlier descriptions of three stages of pyrolysis, with each stage corresponding to a temperature range. The two main products observed were H2O and CO, with their maximum yields occurring at ?350 °C and ?450 °C, respectively. Other significant products were CH4, CO2, and phenol and its methylated derivatives; these products tended to desorb concurrently with H2O and CO, over the range from about 200 to 600 °C. H2 is presumed to be the main product, especially at the highest pyrolysis temperatures used, but the relative molar yield of H2 was not quantified. The observation of a much higher yield of CO than CH4 suggests the presence of significant hydroxyl group substitution on phenol prior to the synthesis of the phenolic resin used in PICA. The detection of CH4 in combination with the methylated derivatives of phenol suggests that the phenol also has some degree of methyl substitution. The methodology developed is suitable for real-time measurements of PICA pyrolysis and should lend itself well to the validation of nonequilibrium models whose aim is to simulate the response of TPS materials during atmospheric entry of spacecraft. PMID:25490209

  6. Pyrolysis of cellulose and lignin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haensel, T.; Comouth, A.; Lorenz, P.; Ahmed, S. I.-U.; Krischok, S.; Zydziak, N.; Kauffmann, A.; Schaefer, J. A.

    2009-06-01

    X-ray and UV-induced photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and UPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been performed to characterise the pyrolysis of cellulose and lignin and their interaction with methanol. Clean highly oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) was also analysed as a reference material. Asymmetric C1s core level fits and valence band XPS of the samples indicate a graphitic-like structure after the pyrolysis at 1200 °C. Due to the low polar contents in pyrolysed cellulose and lignin, an interaction with methanol under high vacuum conditions could not be identified. From a technical viewpoint a temperature of 1200 °C is attainable without high costs. Therefore, the pyrolysis of wood-based polymers containing high amounts of cellulose and lignin are potential low-cost materials for various applications. If it is possible to generate graphite in complex structures made of wood-based polymers, a cheap and energy-efficient method will become available for producing bipolar plates for fuel cells. Technical problems like form instability and foaming are discussed as well as further development and possible modifications of the ground material to achieve optimal compositions.

  7. Pyrolysis of cellulose and lignin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray and UV-induced photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and UPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been performed to characterise the pyrolysis of cellulose and lignin and their interaction with methanol. Clean highly oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) was also analysed as a reference material. Asymmetric C1s core level fits and valence band XPS of the samples indicate a graphitic-like structure after the pyrolysis at 1200 deg. C. Due to the low polar contents in pyrolysed cellulose and lignin, an interaction with methanol under high vacuum conditions could not be identified. From a technical viewpoint a temperature of 1200 deg. C is attainable without high costs. Therefore, the pyrolysis of wood-based polymers containing high amounts of cellulose and lignin are potential low-cost materials for various applications. If it is possible to generate graphite in complex structures made of wood-based polymers, a cheap and energy-efficient method will become available for producing bipolar plates for fuel cells. Technical problems like form instability and foaming are discussed as well as further development and possible modifications of the ground material to achieve optimal compositions.

  8. PRONOUNCED MUSCLE DEOXYGENATION DURING SUPRAMAXIMAL EXERCISE UNDER SIMULATED HYPOXIA IN SPRINT ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Oguri

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether acute hypoxia alters the deoxygenation level in vastus lateralis muscle during a 30 s Wingate test, and to compare the muscle deoxygenation level between sprint athletes and untrained men. Nine male track sprinters (athletic group, VO2max 62.5 ± 4.1 ml/kg/min and 9 healthy untrained men (untrained group, VO2max 49.9 ± 5.2 ml·kg-1·min-1 performed a 30 s Wingate test under simulated hypoxic (FIO2 = 0.164 and PIO2 = 114 mmHg and normoxic conditions. During the exercise, changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (OxyHb in the vastus lateralis were measured using near infrared continuous wave spectroscopy. Decline in OxyHb, that is muscle deoxygenation, was expressed as percent change from baseline. Percutaneous arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2, oxygen uptake (VO2, and ventilation (VE were measured continuously. In both groups, there was significantly greater muscle deoxygenation, lower SpO2, lower peakVO2, and higher peakVE during supramaximal exercise under hypoxia than under normoxia, but no differences in peak and mean power output during the exercise. Under hypoxia, the athletic group experienced significantly greater muscle deoxygenation, lower SpO2, greater decrement in peakVO2 and increment in peakVE during the exercise than the untrained group. When the athletic and untrained groups were pooled, the increment of muscle deoxygenation was strongly correlated with lowest SpO2 in the 30 s Wingate test under hypoxia. These results suggest that acute exposure to hypoxia causes a greater degree of peripheral muscle deoxygenation during supramaximal exercise, especially in sprint athletes, and this physiological response would be explained mainly by lower arterial oxygen saturation

  9. Modelling of pyrolysis of large wood particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukhan, Anup Kumar; Gupta, Parthapratim; Saha, Ranajit Kumar

    2009-06-01

    A fully transient mathematical model has been developed to describe the pyrolysis of large biomass particles. The kinetic model consists of both primary and secondary reactions. The heat transfer model includes conductive and internal convection within the particle and convective and radiative heat transfer between the external surface and the bulk. An implicit Finite Volume Method (FVM) with Tridiagonal Matrix Algorithm (TDMA) is employed to solve the energy conservation equation. Experimental investigations are carried out for wood fines and large wood cylinder and sphere in an electrically heated furnace under inert atmosphere. The model predictions for temperature and mass loss histories are in excellent agreement with experimental results. The effect of internal convection and particle shrinkage on pyrolysis behaviour is investigated and found to be significant. Finally, simulation studies are carried out to analyze the effect of bulk temperature and particle size on total pyrolysis time and the final yield of char. PMID:19231172

  10. Deoxygenation of glycolaldehyde and furfural on Mo2C/Mo(100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Jesse R.; Vohs, John M.

    2014-12-01

    The desire to produce fuels and chemicals in an energy conscious, environmentally sympathetic approach has motivated considerable research on the use of cellulosic biomass feedstocks. One of the major challenges facing the utilization of biomass is finding effective catalysts for the efficient and selective removal of oxygen from the highly-oxygenated, biomass-derived platform molecules. Herein, a study of the reaction pathways for the biomass-derived platform molecule furfural and biomass-derived sugar model compound glycolaldehyde provides insight into the mechanisms of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) on a model molybdenum carbide catalyst, Mo2C/Mo(100). Using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS), it was found that the Mo2C/Mo(100) catalyst was active for selective deoxygenation of the aldehyde carbonyl by facilitating adsorption of the aldehyde in an ?2(C,O) bonding configuration. Furthermore, the catalyst showed no appreciable activity for furanic ring hydrogenation, highlighting the promise of relatively inexpensive Mo2C catalysts for selective HDO chemistry.

  11. Deoxygenation in surface water of lotic environment (doi:10.4136/ambi-agua.127 (Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Queija de Siqueira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical models are gaining increasing importance in the evaluation and comparison of alternative management of natural water bodies. One of the difficulties of using models of water quality for oxygen is the absence of data on kinetic parameters of reactions of biochemical processes. This study aimed to evaluate the processes of temporal processing of oxygen in surface water of lotic environment. The study was conducted in the Meia Ponte River, Goiás, one of the main rivers of the state. Water samples were collected in the urban area of Goiânia, Goiânia New District 2, which shows apparent anthropogenic interference with the natural environment. After corrected to the standard temperature of 20°C, the BOD varied between 4.11 and 21.24 mg L-1 and during the process of biological oxidation, the deoxygenation coefficient (Kd20 varied from 0.12 to 1.05 d- 1, and an increase of organic matter in the dry season was observed.

  12. ISOTHERMAL PYROLYSIS OF KRAFT PULP MILL SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsudin Syamsudin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kraft pulp mill sludge cake composed of rejected wood fibers and activated sludge microorganisms. With a heating value about 14 MJ/kg (dried basis, this type of biomass had a potential as an alternative energy source. Unfortunately, it had an ash content of 27.6% and a moisture content of 80%. For reducing moisture content with minimum energy consumption, a combination of mechanical dewatering and thermal drying was studied previously. Meanwhile, experiments on isothermal pyrolysis had been carried out for further improvement on ultimate and proximate analysis of solid fuel. Final mass of char obtained from pyrolysis at 500oC was not significantly different from that of 700oC, so pyrolysis was considered to be optimum at 500oC. A char obtained from pyrolysis at temperature of 500oC had a pore surface area of 77.049 m2/g (highest among other temperatures. Kinetic of isothermal pyrolysis was well represented with a first order modified volumetric model with a frequency factor of 0.782 1/s and an activation of 34.050 kJ/mol.

  13. CATALYTIC THERMAL DECOMPOSITION OF POLYETHYLENE BY PYROLYSIS GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY

    OpenAIRE

    JAN NISAR; MUKHTIAR ALI; IFTIKHAR AHMAD AWAN

    2011-01-01

    An experimental study of the thermal decomposition of polyethylene in an inert atmosphere has been carried out in the temperature range 300-800°C using Shimadzu PYR-2A pyrolyzer for heating the sample. The method allows the accurate control and measurement of the pyrolysis temperature. The production of hydrocarbons and the corresponding monomers of these polymeric systems were monitored. The effects of variation of temperature, sample size, pyrolysis atmosphere, residence time and catalyst o...

  14. CHARACTERISTICS OF CORN STALK HEMICELLULOSE PYROLYSIS IN A TUBULAR REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao-Jin Lv

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis characteristics of corn stalk hemicellulose were investigated in a tubular reactor at different temperatures, with focus mainly on the releasing profiles and forming behaviors of pyrolysis products (gas, char, and tar. The products obtained were further identified using various approaches (including GC, SEM, and GC-MS to understand the influence of temperature on product properties and compositions. It was found that the devolatilization of hemicellulose mainly occurred at low temperatures

  15. Biomass pyrolysis for chemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Wild, Paul de,

    2011-01-01

    Biomass Pyrolysis for Chemicals The problems associated with the use of fossil fuels demand a transition to renewable sources (sun, wind, water, geothermal, biomass) for materials and energy where biomass provides the only renewable source for chemicals. In a biorefinery, biomass is converted via different technologies into heat, power and various products. Here, pyrolysis (thermal degradation without added oxygen) of lignocellulosic biomass can play an important role, because it leads to ...

  16. FAST PYROLYSIS OF LIGNINS

    OpenAIRE

    Sedat Beis; Saikrishna Mukkamala; Nathan Hill; Jincy Joseph; Cirila Baker; Bruce Jensen; Elizabeth Stemmler; Clayton Wheeler; Brian Frederick; Adriaan van Heiningen; Alex Berg; William Joseph DeSisto

    2010-01-01

    Three lignins: Indulin AT, LignoboostTM, and Acetocell lignin, were characterized and pyrolyzed in a continuous-fed fast pyrolysis process. The physical and chemical properties of the lignins included chemical composition, heat content, ash, and water content. The distributed activation energy model (DAEM) was used to describe the pyrolysis of each lignin. Activation energy distributions of each lignin were quite different and generally covered a broad range of energies, typically found in li...

  17. Kinetics and Mechanism of Deoxygenation Reactions over Proton-Form and Molybdenum-Modified Zeolite Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard, Jeremy William

    The depletion of fossil fuel resources and the environmental consequences of their use have dictated the development of new sources of energy that are both sustainable and economical. Biomass has emerged as a renewable carbon feedstock that can be used to produce chemicals and fuels traditionally obtained from petroleum. The oxygen content of biomass prohibits its use without modification because oxygenated hydrocarbons are non-volatile and have lower energy content. Chemical processes that eliminate oxygen and keep the carbon backbone intact are required for the development of biomass as a viable chemical feedstock. This dissertation reports on the kinetic and mechanistic studies conducted on high and low temperature catalytic processes for deoxygenation of biomass precursors to produce high-value chemicals and fuels. Low temperature, steady state reaction studies of acetic acid and ethanol were used to identify co-adsorbed acetic acid/ethanol dimers as surface intermediates within specific elementary steps involved in the esterification of acetic acid with ethanol on zeolites. A reaction mechanism involving two dominating surface species, an inactive ethanol dimeric species adsorbed on Bronsted sites inhibiting ester formation and a co-adsorbed complex of acetic acid and ethanol on the active site reacting to produce ethyl acetate, is shown to describe the reaction rate as a function of temperature (323 -- 383 K), acetic acid (0.5 -- 6.0 kPa), and ethanol (5.0 -- 13.0 kPa) partial pressure on proton-form BEA, FER, MFI, and MOR zeolites. Measured differences in rates as a function of zeolite structure and the rigorous interpretation of these differences in terms of esterification rate and equilibrium constants is presented to show that the intrinsic rate constant for the activation of the co-adsorbed complex increases in the order FER renewable biomass sources. This research addresses these challenges at fundamental and applied levels as it offers t

  18. Pyrolysis of metal ions exchanged coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awan, I.A.; Nisar, J.; Yamin, A.; Mahmood, T. [University of Peshawar, Peshawar (Pakistan)

    2003-06-01

    The influence of cations (Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 3+}, Al{sup 3+}, Cu{sup 2+} and Ba{sup 2+}) on the pyrolysis behavior of high volatile bituminous coal from middle seam Kost-Sharigh-Harnai coalfield Baluchistan under flash heating conditions was investigated using open tubular type pyrolyzer. Initial pyrolysis experiments were performed with de-mineralized and ion exchanged coal samples at 650 T. The production of methane, ethane, ethylene, propylene + propane, 1-butene, n-butane, 1-pentene, n-pentane and benzene was monitored by gas chromatography. The addition of metal ions showed variable effect on the yield of pyrolysis products. The yield of benzene increased 5-6 fold for Ca and Mg exchanged coal compared to de-mineralized coal. Effect of temperature on the yield of benzene was explored over the temperature range 500-800{sup o}C for the pyrolysis of Ca and Mg exchanged coal. The yield of benzene was higher than the de-mineralized coal at all temperatures and showed a decrease with increase in temperature.

  19. Relationship between hydrous and ordinary pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, A.K.

    1993-06-01

    Pyrolysis results are reviewed briefly with the intent of drawing comparisons between open, high pressure, and hydrous pyrolysis. Empirically, the degree of pyrolysis severity to form volatile products in open pyrolysis is similar to that required to form an expelled oil phase in hydrous pyrolysis. The yields of hydrocarbons from open pyrolysis are close to those from hydrous pyrolysis, but hydrous pyrolysis tends to assist the separation of hydrocarbons from polar materials. Pressure has a small but measurable affect on the generation kinetics.

  20. Catalytic Pyrolysis and a Pyrolysis Kinetic Study of Shredded Printed Circuit Board for Fuel Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmiaton Ali

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Scrap printed circuit boards (PCBs are the most abundant wastes that can be found in the landfills in Malaysia and this disposal certainly poses serious detrimental to the environment. This research aims to investigate optimum temperature for pyrolyzing waste PCBs, find out the best catalyst to be used in accelerating PCBs’ pyrolysis, select suitable ratio of catalyst to PCBs for higher oil yield and examine kinetics pyrolysis of the waste PCBs’ decomposition. Operating temperatures ranged from 200 to 350 ?C of PCB’s pyrolysis were conducted with the optimum temperature obtained was 275 ?C. Fluid cata-lytic cracking (FCC catalyst, zeolite socony mobil-5 (ZSM-5, H-Y-type zeolite and dolomite were used to accelerate PCB’s pyrolysis at 275 ?C and FCC was identified as the best catalyst to be used. Differ-ent ratios of FCC to waste PCBs such as 10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60 and 50:50 were applied in the pyro-lysis at 275 ?C and ratio of 10:90 was selected as the suitable ratio to be utilized for maximum yield. The kinetic study was done through thermogravimetric analysis on waste PCBs under various heating rates and different particle sizes. The GC-MS analysis revealed that compounds detected in the pyro-oil have the potential to be used as fuel. © 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 23rd July 2014; Revised: 14th August 2014; Accepted: 14th August 2014 How to Cite: Ng, C.H., Salmiaton, A., Hizam, H. (2014. Catalytic Pyrolysis and a Pyrolysis Kinetic Study of Shredded Printed Circuit Board for Fuel Recovery. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 9 (3: 224-240. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.9.3.7148.224-240 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.9.3.7148.224-240

  1. Catalytic pyrolysis of biomass by novel nanostructured catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Phuong T.; Le, Hy G.; Pham, Giang T. T.; Vu, Hông T. M.; Nguyen, Kien T.; Dao, Canh D.; Le, Giang H.; Hoang, Thuy T. T.; Tran, Hoa T. K.; Nguyen, Quang K.; Vu, Tuan A.

    2013-12-01

    Nanostructured catalysts were successfully prepared by acidification of diatomites and the regeneration of used FCC catalysts. The obtained samples were characterized by IR, XRD, SEM, EDX, MAS-NMR (27Al and 29Si), NH3-TPD and tested in catalytic pyrolysis of biomass (rice straw). The results showed that the similar bio-oil yield of 41,4% can be obtained by pyrolysis in presence of catalysts at 450°C as compared to that of the pyrolysis without catalyst at 550°C. The bio-oil yield reached a maximum of 42,55 % at the pyrolysis temperature of 500°C with catalytic content of 20%. Moreover, by catalytic pyrolysis, bio-oil quality was better as reflected in higher ratio of H/C, lower ratio of O/C. This clearly indicated high application potential of these new nanostructured catalysts in the production of bio-oil with low oxygenated compounds.

  2. Preparation of solid nickel nanoparticles by large-scale spray pyrolysis of Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O precursor: Effect of temperature and nickel acetate on the particle morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kyeong Youl [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kongju National University, 182, Shinkwan-dong, Kongju, Chungnam 314-701 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: kyjung@kongju.ac.kr; Lee, Jong Ho [Materials R and D Group, Electronic Device Division, Samsung Electro-Mechanics Co., Ltd., 314, Maetan3-Dong, Yeongtong-Gu, Gyunggi-Do, Suwon 442-743 (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Hye Young [Department of Chemical Engineering, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Yun Chan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seung Bin [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-401 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-25

    Spherical nickel nanoparticles were prepared by a large-scale spray pyrolysis process with two continuous reactors and were investigated in terms of particle-formation mechanism, surface property, particle shape, and size with changing the temperature of two continuous reactors and the type of precursor. When nickel nitrate was used as a precursor and the second reactor temperature was over 1200 deg. C, solid Ni particles were obtained, but many ultra-fine particles of less than tens nanometer were simultaneously formed via a gas-to-particle conversion mechanism. The formation of such ultra-fine particles was reduced by making hollow particles in the first reactor at 500 deg. C and thereafter densifying them in the second reactor at 1400 deg. C, but could not completely prevent. The addition of about 5-10 mol% nickel acetate instead nitrate precursor was found to be very effective to avoid the formation of such ultra-fine particles as well as producing solid particles with clean and smooth surface. On the basis of the results obtained, a mechanism of particle formation in the large-scale spray pyrolysis was proposed. Finally, spherical and solid nickel nanoparticles, which had clean surface and high density (larger than 8.4 g/cm{sup 3}), were prepared from the mixed precursor (nitrate/acetate) at a residence time of about 3 s without any chemical additive.

  3. Preparation of solid nickel nanoparticles by large-scale spray pyrolysis of Ni(NO3)2.6H2O precursor: Effect of temperature and nickel acetate on the particle morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spherical nickel nanoparticles were prepared by a large-scale spray pyrolysis process with two continuous reactors and were investigated in terms of particle-formation mechanism, surface property, particle shape, and size with changing the temperature of two continuous reactors and the type of precursor. When nickel nitrate was used as a precursor and the second reactor temperature was over 1200 deg. C, solid Ni particles were obtained, but many ultra-fine particles of less than tens nanometer were simultaneously formed via a gas-to-particle conversion mechanism. The formation of such ultra-fine particles was reduced by making hollow particles in the first reactor at 500 deg. C and thereafter densifying them in the second reactor at 1400 deg. C, but could not completely prevent. The addition of about 5-10 mol% nickel acetate instead nitrate precursor was found to be very effective to avoid the formation of such ultra-fine particles as well as producing solid particles with clean and smooth surface. On the basis of the results obtained, a mechanism of particle formation in the large-scale spray pyrolysis was proposed. Finally, spherical and solid nickel nanoparticles, which had clean surface and high density (larger than 8.4 g/cm3), were prepared from the mixed precursor (nitrate/acetate) at a residence time of about 3 s without any chemical additive

  4. Syngas yield during pyrolysis and steam gasification of paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main characteristics of gaseous yield from steam gasification have been investigated experimentally. Results of steam gasification have been compared to that of pyrolysis. The temperature range investigated were 600-1000 °C in steps of 100 °C. Results have been obtained under pyrolysis conditions at same temperatures. For steam gasification runs, steam flow rate was kept constant at 8.0 g/min. Investigated characteristics were evolution of syngas flow rate with time, hydrogen flow rate and chemical composition of syngas, energy yield and apparent thermal efficiency. Residuals from both processes were quantified and compared as well. Material destruction, hydrogen yield and energy yield is better with gasification as compared to pyrolysis. This advantage of the gasification process is attributed mainly to char gasification process. Char gasification is found to be more sensitive to the reactor temperature than pyrolysis. Pyrolysis can start at low temperatures of 400 °C; however char gasification starts at 700 °C. A partial overlap between gasification and pyrolysis exists and is presented here. This partial overlap increases with increase in temperature. As an example, at reactor temperature 800 °C this overlap represents around 27% of the char gasification process and almost 95% at reactor temperature 1000 °C.

  5. CHARACTERISTICS OF CORN STALK HEMICELLULOSE PYROLYSIS IN A TUBULAR REACTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Gao-Jin Lv; Shu-Bin Wu; Rui Lou

    2010-01-01

    Pyrolysis characteristics of corn stalk hemicellulose were investigated in a tubular reactor at different temperatures, with focus mainly on the releasing profiles and forming behaviors of pyrolysis products (gas, char, and tar). The products obtained were further identified using various approaches (including GC, SEM, and GC-MS) to understand the influence of temperature on product properties and compositions. It was found that the devolatilization of hemicellulose mainly occurred at low tem...

  6. Pyrolysis of scrap tyres with zeolite USY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A zeolite catalyst of ultrastable Y-type (USY) was investigated in the research of two staged pyrolysis-catalysis of scrap tyres. Scrap tyres were pyrolysed in a fixed bed reactor and the evolved pyrolysis gases were passed through a secondary catalytic reactor. The main objective of this paper was to investigate the effect of zeolite USY on the yield of products and the composition of derived oil. The influences of several parameters such as pyrolysis temperature, catalytic temperature, catalyst/tyre ratio, heating rate, etc. on the yield of the derived oil, char and gas were investigated. It showed that the increase of catalytic temperature and catalyst/tyre ratio resulted in high yield of gas at the expense of the oil yield. For example, when the catalyst/tyre ratio increased from 0.25 to 1.0, the yield of gas increased from 30.5 to 49.9 wt.%, and the oil yield decreased nearly two-fold from 31.6 to 12.7 wt.%. The concentration of light naphtha (boiling point < 160 deg. C) was also investigated in this study. And the high catalyst/tyre ratio favored to increase the concentration of light naphtha (<160 deg. C) in oil. In order to study the composition of derived oil, a distilled fraction (<280 deg. C), which was 92.5 wt.% of the oil obtained from catalytic pyrolysis of scrap tyre at a pyrolysis temperature, catalytic temperature and catalyst/tyre ratio of 500, 400 deg. C and 0.5, respectively, was analyzed with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The distillate was found to contain 1.23 wt.% benzene, 9.35 wt.% toluene, 3.68 wt.% ethylbenzene, 12.64 wt.% xylenes, 1.81 wt.% limonene and 13.89 wt.% PAHs, etc., where the single ring aromatics represented a significant potential use as chemicals

  7. Fractionated condensation of pyrolysis vapours from ablative flash pyrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Conrad, Stefan; Apfelbacher, Andreas; Schulzke, Tim

    2014-01-01

    The thermal conversion process pyrolysis converts biomass in the absence of air into 2 primary products: a solid residue (pyrolysis char) and a gaseous vapour (pyrolysis vapor). By cooling the primary vapours the condensable fraction can be separated as liquid phase from the permanent gases. The ablative flash pyrolysis, where heat transfer to the biomass particles happens in direct contact with a hot surface by mechanical force, aims at maximizing the liquid yield. By means of this thermoche...

  8. Electrocatalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis oils to chemical and fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chun Ho

    The present project's aim is to liquefy biomass through fast pyrolysis and then upgrade the resulting "bio-oil" to renewable fuels and chemicals by intensifying its energy content using electricity. This choice reflects three points: (a) Liquid hydrocarbons are and will long be the most practical fuels and chemical feedstocks because of their energy density (both mass and volume basis), their stability and relative ease of handling, and the well-established infrastructure for their processing, distribution and use; (b) In the U.S., the total carbon content of annually harvestable, non-food biomass is significantly less than that in a year's petroleum usage, so retention of plant-captured carbon is a priority; and (c) Modern technologies for conversion of sunlight into usable energy forms---specifically, electrical power---are already an order of magnitude more efficient than plants are at storing solar energy in chemical form. Biomass fast pyrolysis (BFP) generates flammable gases, char, and "bio-oil", a viscous, corrosive, and highly oxygenated liquid consisting of large amounts of acetic acid and water together with hundreds of other organic compounds. With essentially the same energy density as biomass and a tendency to polymerize, this material cannot practically be stored or transported long distances. It must be upgraded by dehydration, deoxygenation, and hydrogenation to make it both chemically and energetically compatible with modern vehicles and fuels. Thus, this project seeks to develop low cost, general, scalable, robust electrocatalytic methods for reduction of bio-oil into fuels and chemicals.

  9. Catalytic pyrolysis-GC/MS of lignin from several sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullen, Charles A.; Boateng, Akwasi A. [Eastern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, 600 E. Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Lignin from four different sources, extracted by various methods, were pyrolyzed at 650 C using analytical pyrolysis methods (Py-GC/MS). Pyrolysis was carried out in the absence and presence of two heterogeneous catalysts, an acidic zeolite (HZSM-5) catalyst and a mixed metal oxide catalyst (CoO/MoO{sub 3}). Non-catalytic Py-GC/MS was used to identify the lignin as characterized by their H-, G- or S-lignin makeup and also served as the control basis to evaluate the effect of the said catalysts on the production of aromatic hydrocarbons from these lignin sources. Experiments show that the selectivity to particular aromatic hydrocarbons varies with the composition of the lignin for both catalysts. The major pathway for hydrocarbon production over HZSM-5 is likely increased depolymerization efficiency that releases and converts the aliphatic linkers of lignin to olefins followed by aromatization. Simple phenols produced from the deconstruction of the lignin polymer are likely to be a source of zeolite deactivation. The CoO/MoO{sub 3} is likely to produce aromatic hydrocarbons through a direct deoxygenation of methoxyphenol units. (author)

  10. CATALYTIC THERMAL DECOMPOSITION OF POLYETHYLENE BY PYROLYSIS GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAN NISAR

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study of the thermal decomposition of polyethylene in an inert atmosphere has been carried out in the temperature range 300-800°C using Shimadzu PYR-2A pyrolyzer for heating the sample. The method allows the accurate control and measurement of the pyrolysis temperature. The production of hydrocarbons and the corresponding monomers of these polymeric systems were monitored. The effects of variation of temperature, sample size, pyrolysis atmosphere, residence time and catalyst on the distribution of these products were studied. As the carrier gas rapidly swept the primary products from the hot zone into the chromatographic column, so the secondary decomposition is largely eliminated and the pyrolysis products give accurate information about the nature, composition and structure of the pyrolysis material.

  11. CATALYTIC THERMAL DECOMPOSITION OF POLYETHYLENE BY PYROLYSIS GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JAN, NISAR; MUKHTIAR, ALI; IFTIKHAR, AHMAD AWAN.

    Full Text Available An experimental study of the thermal decomposition of polyethylene in an inert atmosphere has been carried out in the temperature range 300-800°C using Shimadzu PYR-2A pyrolyzer for heating the sample. The method allows the accurate control and measurement of the pyrolysis temperature. The productio [...] n of hydrocarbons and the corresponding monomers of these polymeric systems were monitored. The effects of variation of temperature, sample size, pyrolysis atmosphere, residence time and catalyst on the distribution of these products were studied. As the carrier gas rapidly swept the primary products from the hot zone into the chromatographic column, so the secondary decomposition is largely eliminated and the pyrolysis products give accurate information about the nature, composition and structure of the pyrolysis material.

  12. The influence of catalyst type on the composition of upgraded biomass pyrolysis oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T.; Horne, Patrick A. [Department of Fuel and Energy, The University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    1995-02-01

    The composition of oils derived from the on-line, low pressure upgrading of biomass pyrolysis oils from a fluidised bed pyrolysis unit have been investigated in relation to catalyst type. Na-ZSM-5 (partially exchanged), H-ZSM-5 and Y type zeolite catalysts, and activated alumina were used. In addition, a blank run was undertaken in which the catalyst bed was replaced by a bed of stainless steel ball-bearings to determine the influence of thermal cracking. The composition of the oils before catalysis and after catalyst upgrading were analysed by liquid chromatography fractionation, followed by coupled gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of each fraction. In particular, the aromatic and oxygenated aromatic species were identified and quantified. There were only small differences in the product yields and compositions from the catalysis of biomass derived pyrolysis oils for the Na-ZSM-5 and H-ZSM-5 catalysts. All of the catalysts were effective in deoxygenating the biomass pyrolysis oils; however, there were still significant concentrations of oxygenated compounds in the upgraded oils. The ZSM-5 catalysts gave the highest yields of hydrocarbon products when compared to the Y-zeolite and activated alumina catalysts. Significant concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were formed by all the catalysts. Some of the PAH have been shown to be carcinogenic in biological studies. The formation of coke was increased for Y-zeolite and alumina compared to the Na-ZSM-5 and H-ZSM-5 catalysts

  13. PYROLYSIS AND COMBUSTION OF SCRAP TIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?. Jelemenský

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a literature review of both pyrolysis and combustion processes of scrap tires is presented. The work reports, the characteristics of materials, methods, effect of various process parameters, kinetic modelling applied to the pyrolysis and combustion of tires, characteristics of the products and emissions. From the published works results that scrap tire rubber consists of about 60 wt.% volatile organics, 30 wt.% fixed carbon and 10 wt.% ash. Elemental analysis shows that tire rubber contains approximately 80 wt.% of C, 7 wt. of H, 0.4 wt.% of N, 1.5 wt.% of S, 3 wt.% of O and 8 wt.% of ash. Thermogravimetry analysis reveals that the pyrolysis of tire rubber at atmospheric pressure starts at a temperature around 250oC and finishes at a temperature of about 550oC. Generally, more than one degradation temperature region during rubber pyrolysis is recorded. In general, by pyrolysing waste tire three fractions are obtained: solid residue (around 40 wt.%, liquid fraction (around 50 wt.% and gas fraction (around 10 wt.%. The influence of the process conditions on the amount and characteristics of individual fractions was studied by the authors only partially. The general trend is an increase in yields of liquid and gas fractions as the temperature increases. From the works devoted to tire pyrolysis, which are focussed on the generation of liquid fuel results that derived liquids are a complex mixture of organic compounds containing a lot of aromatics. This liquid can be separated into light and higher fractions. The main components of pyrolysis gases reported by various authors are as: H2, H2S, CO, CO2, CH4, C2H4, C3H6 and other light hydrocarbons. The solid residue contains carbon black, and inorganic matter. The results of kinetic modelling of scrap tire pyrolysis and combustion show large differences in the values of kinetic parameters obtained by different authors. As main pollutants from the combustion of waste tires are reported: SO2, NOx, CO and PAHs.

  14. Influence of gemfibrozil on sulfate transport in human erythrocytes during the oxygenation-deoxygenation cycle.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tellone, E.; Ficarra, S.; Scatena, R.; Giardina, B.; Kotyk, Arnošt; Russo, A.; Colucci, D.; Bellocco, E.; Lagana, G.; Galtieri, A.

    2008-01-01

    Ro?. 57, ?. 4 (2008), s. 621-629. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R(CZ) 1ET400110403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : gemfibrozil * sulfate transport * oxygenation-deoxygenation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.653, year: 2008

  15. Deoxygenation of Vegetable Oils over Sulfided Ni, Mo and NiMo Catalysts.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubi?ka, D.; Kaluža, Lud?k

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 372, ?. 2 (2010), s. 199-208. ISSN 0926-860X R&D Projects: GA MPO FT-TA3/074 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : deoxygenation * hydrodeoxygenation * biofuels Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.383, year: 2010

  16. Accuracy and Potential Use of a Developed CFD-pyrolysis Model for Simulating Lab-scale Bio Oil Production

    OpenAIRE

    Mellin, Pelle; Zhang, Qinglin; Kantarelis, Efthymios; Zhou, Chunguang; Yang, Weihong

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes development of a CFD¬pyrolysis model using an Eularian-Eularian framework with an implemented pyrolysis reaction model. The CFD¬pyrolysis model is used to simulate the bubbling fluidized bed reactor integrated in a new experimental fast pyrolysis process for bio oil production. The model is compared to experiments in aspect of outlet gas composition, temperature and bed height. Tar behavior and yield of bio oil are illustrated and a parametric study investigates impact of ...

  17. Pyrolysis and Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Bilitewski, B.

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification include processes that thermally convert carbonaceous materials into products such as gas, char, coke, ash, and tar. Overall, pyrolysis generates products like gas, tar, and char, while gasification converts the carboncontaining materials (e.g. the outputs from pyrolysis) into a mainly gaseous output. The specific output composition and relative amounts of the outputs greatly depend on the input fuel and the overall process configuration. Although pyrolysis processes in many cases also occur in gasification (however prior to the gasification processes), the overall technology may often be described as gasification only. Pyrolysis, however, can also be employed without proceeding with gasification. Gasification is by no means a novel process; in the 19th century so-called ‘town gas’ was produced by the gasification of coal and for example used for illumination purposes. In Europe during World War II, wood-fueled gasifiers (or ‘gas generators’) were used to power cars during shortagesof oil-based fuels. Sparked by oil price crises in 1970s and 1980s, further development in gasification technologies focused mainly on coal as a fuel to substitute for oil-based products. Today gasification is used within a range of applications, the most important of which are conversion of coal into syngas for use as chemical feedstock or energy production; but also gasification of biomass and waste is gaining significant interest as emerging technologies for sustainable energy. From a waste management perspective, pyrolysis and gasification are of relatively little importance as an overall management option. Today, gasification is primarily used on specific waste fractions as opposed to mixed household wastes. The main commercial activity so far has been in Japan, with only limited success in Europe and North America (Klein et al., 2004). However, pyrolysis and gasification of waste are generally expected to become more widely used in the future. A main reason for this is that public perceptions of waste incineration in some countries is a major obstacle for installing new incineration capacity, but also a better ability of gasification over incineration to preserve the chemical energy of the waste is important. This chapter provides an overview of pyrolysis and gasification processes related to waste, the technology involved, energy recovery options, and important environmental aspects.

  18. Pyrolysis and hydrolysis of mixed polymer waste comprising polyethyleneterephthalate and polyethylene to sequentially recover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert J. (Lakewood, CO); Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO)

    1998-01-01

    A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and support for treating said feed streams with said catalyst to effect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said temperature program range; differentially heating said feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents; selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said plastic waste and differentially heating the feedstream at the higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of the different high value monomeric constituent; and separating the different high value monomeric constituent.

  19. The influence of catalyst regeneration on the composition of zeolite-upgraded biomass pyrolysis oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, P.T.; Horne, P.A. [University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Fuel and Energy

    1995-12-01

    The composition of oils derived from the on-line, low pressure zeolite upgrading of biomass pyrolysis oils from a fluidized bed pyrolysis unit have been investigated in relation to the regeneration of the zeolite catalyst. The catalyst used was H-ZSM-5 zeolite. The gases were analysed by packed column gas chromatography. The composition of the oils before catalysis and after catalyst upgrading were analysed by liquid chromatography fractionation, followed by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of each fraction. Before catalysis the biomass pyrolysis oil was highly oxygenated, but after catalysis a highly aromatic oil was formed with high concentrations of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In addition, significant concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were formed. Regeneration of the zeolite catalyst showed that continued regeneration reduced the effectiveness of the catalyst in converting biomass pyrolysis oils to an aromatic product. Elemental analysis of the upgraded oils showed an increase in the oxygen content of the oil with increasing regeneration of the catalyst. The overall effect of increasing catalyst regeneration was a decrease in the concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons and PAH. The oxygenated aromatic species in the oil before catalysis were mainly phenols and benzenediols and their alkylated homologues. After catalysis some of the oxygenated species were reduced and some increased in concentration. A dual mechanistic route is suggested for the formation of aromatics and PAH during the catalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis oils: (1) the formation of low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons on the catalyst which then undergo aromatization reactions to produce aromatic hydrocarbons and PAH; (2) deoxygenation of oxygenated compounds found in the non-phenolic fraction of the pyrolysis oils which directly form aromatic compounds. 45 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: PYROLYSIS TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrolysis is formally defined as chemical decomposition induced in organic materials by heat in the absence of oxygen. In practice, it is not possible to achieve a completely oxygen-free atmosphere; actual pyrolytic systems are operated with less than stoichiometric quantities of...

  1. Bio-oil from Flash Pyrolysis of Agricultural Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Norazana

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes the production of bio-oils from flash pyrolysis of agricultural residues, using a pyrolysis centrifugal reactor (PCR). By thermal degradation of agricultural residues in the PCR, a liquid oil, char and non-condensable gases are produced. The yield of each fraction is influenced by the reaction temperature and by feedstock ash composition. It have been the objective of the present work to investigate the influence of changed operation conditions on the yield of bio-oil, char...

  2. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass for liquid biofuels production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2012-01-01

    Production of 2nd-generation biofuels from biomass residues and waste feedstock is gaining great concerns worldwide. Pyrolysis, a thermochemical conversion process involving rapid heating of feedstock under oxygen-absent condition to moderate temperature and rapid quenching of intermediate products, is an attractive way for bio-oil production. Various efforts have been made to improve pyrolysis process towards higher yield and quality of liquid biofuels and better energy efficiency. Microwave-as...

  3. Slow Pyrolysis of Cassava Wastes for Biochar Production and Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Nurhidayah Mohamed Noor; Adilah Shariff; Nurhayati Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Production of biochar from slow pyrolysis of biomass is a promising carbon negative procedure since it removes the net carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and produce recalcitrant carbon suitable for sequestration in soil. Biochar production can vary significantly with the pyrolysis parameter. This study investigated the impact of temperature and heating rate on the yield and properties of biochar derived from cassava plantations residues which are cassava stem (CS) and cassava rhizome (CR). The...

  4. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2016-01-25

    Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box-Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570°C, nitrogen flow rate is 6Lmin(-1) and the particle size is 0.5mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry. PMID:26444486

  5. Preconversion catalytic deoxygenation of phenolic functional groups. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubiak, C.P.

    1992-08-01

    The deoxygenation of phenols is a conceptually simple, but unusually difficult chemical transformation to achieve. The phenolic C-O bond energy of 103 kcal/mol is as strong as a benzene C-H bond and over a 10 kcal/mol stronger than the C-O bonds of methanol and ethanol. The consequence of this is that the hydrogenation/deoxygenation methods in current use require severe conditions and give low selectivities. The ongoing research described herein is based on the unprecedented, but thermodynamically promising, use of carbon monoxide as the oxygen atom acceptor for the catalytic deoxygenation of phenols.

  6. Influence of mineral matter on pyrolysis of palm oil wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Haiping; Chen, Hanping; Zheng, Chuguang [National Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (People' s Republic of China); Yan, Rong; Lee, Dong Ho; Liang, David Tee [Institute of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Innovation Center, Block 2, Unit 237, 18 Nanyang Drive (637723 Singapore)

    2006-09-15

    The influence of mineral matter on pyrolysis of biomass (including pure biomass components, synthesized biomass, and natural biomass) was investigated using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). First, the mineral matter, KCl, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, CaMg(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, was mixed respectively with the three main biomass components (hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin) at a weight ratio (C/W) of 0.1 and its pyrolysis characteristics were investigated. Most of these mineral additives, except for K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, demonstrated negligible influence. Adding K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} inhibited the pyrolysis of hemicellulose by lowering its mass loss rate by 0.3 wt%/{sup o}C, while it enhanced the pyrolysis of cellulose by shifting the pyrolysis to a lower temperature. With increased K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} added, the weight loss of cellulose in the lower temperature zone (200-315 {sup o}C) increased greatly, and the activation energies of hemicellulose and cellulose pyrolysis decreased notably from 204 to 42 kJ/mol. Second, studies on the synthetic biomass of hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (as a representative of minerals) indicated that peaks of cellulose and hemicellulose pyrolysis became overlapped with addition of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (at C/W=0.05-0.1), due to the catalytic effect of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} lowering cellulose pyrolysis to a lower temperature. Finally, a local representative biomass--palm oil waste (in the forms of original material and material pretreated through water washing or K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} addition)--was studied. Water washing shifted pyrolysis of palm oil waste to a higher temperature by 20 {sup o}C, while K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} addition lowered the peak temperature of pyrolysis by {approx}50{sup o}C. It was therefore concluded that the obvious catalytic effect of adding K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} might be attributed to certain fundamental changes in terms of chemical structure of hemicellulose or decomposition steps of cellulose in the course of pyrolysis. (author)

  7. Thiophenic Sulfur Compounds Released During Coal Pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Mengwen; Kong, Jiao; Dong, Jie; Jiao, Haili; Li, Fan

    2013-06-01

    Thiophenic sulfur compounds are released during coal gasification, carbonization, and combustion. Previous studies indicate that thiophenic sulfur compounds degrade very slowly in the environment, and are more carcinogenic than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogenous compounds. Therefore, it is very important to study the principle of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal conversion, in order to control their emission and promote clean coal utilization. To realize this goal and understand the formation mechanism of thiophenic sulfur compounds, this study focused on the release behavior of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal pyrolysis, which is an important phase for all coal thermal conversion processes. The pyrolyzer (CDS-5250) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Focus GC-DSQII) were used to analyze thiophenic sulfur compounds in situ. Several coals with different coal ranks and sulfur contents were chosen as experimental samples, and thiophenic sulfur compounds of the gas produced during pyrolysis under different temperatures and heating rates were investigated. Levels of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene were obtained during pyrolysis at temperatures ranging from 200°C to 1300°C, and heating rates ranging from 6°C/ms to 14°C/ms and 6°C/s to 14°C/s. Moreover, the relationship between the total amount of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene released during coal pyrolysis and the organic sulfur content in coal was also discussed. This study is beneficial for understanding the formation and control of thiophenic sulfur compounds, since it provides a series of significant results that show the impact that operation conditions and organic sulfur content in coal have on the amount and species of thiophenic sulfur compounds produced during coal pyrolysis. PMID:23781126

  8. Improved Li-storage performance of Li4Ti5O12 coated with C-N compounds derived from pyrolysis of urea through a low-temperature approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huilin; Zhao, Liang; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Li, Hong; Chen, Liquan

    2012-03-12

    A uniform and thin amorphous layer of a C-N compound was coated on porous Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) by pyrolysis of urea on its surface at a rather low temperature of 400 °C in an Ar atmosphere. Such a C-N coating layer greatly improved the electrochemical performance of Li(4)Ti(5)O(12). After coating, Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) showed good rate and excellent cycling performance. Reversible capacities for the coated sample of 134 and 105 mAh g(-1) were obtained at current rates of 5C and 10C, respectively, in the voltage range of 1-2.2 V, which is approximately two and five times higher than those of pristine Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) at the same current rates. Excellent capacity retention of 95.8 % was achieved for the coated sample after 2000 cycles in a half cell at a 2C rate. PMID:22147683

  9. Chicken manure pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fransham, P. [Advanced Biorefinery Inc., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Montreal, C. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Strategic Policy Branch

    2006-07-01

    The Advanced Biorefinery Inc. (ABRI) has been developing pyrolysis systems since 1988. This presentation provided details of the the 50-100 TPD model developed by the company, which uses pyrolysis to refine biomass fuels. Pyrolysis is the chemical change caused by heat in an oxygen-reduced or oxygen-free environment. Pyrolysis can be used to shatter biomass polymers to liquid, char or ash, or a medium BTU combustible gas. There are 3 liquid phases in pyrolysis: light aqueous; heavy 1 cyclic compounds; and heavy 2 aliphatics. With the 50-100 TPD model, part of the char is combusted to provide heat for drying and for reactions, and the remainder is used as a soil conditioner. Syngas is used to provide additional heat for electricity generation. The model is a centralized plant where manure is transported off the farm to a complex. Manure is processed into the highest value added products and residuals are returned to the farm for energy purposes. Advantages of the system include the fact that it is not capital intensive; provides on-site nutrient management; possible mortality disposal; pathogen containment, and energy self-sufficiency. The use of a central plant offers better economics and is more efficient for chemical separation. The payback period is estimated at under 5 years, with an estimated capital cost of $100,000. A monthly natural gas and electricity price forecast was presented. It was concluded that that the model may provide significant benefits to the environment, as nutrients are concentrated in char/ash and can be economically transported out of high intensity farming regions. Studies have suggested that the carbon content in char may also enhance soils and promote growth. refs., tabs., figs.

  10. Solid waste utilization: pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Mixon, W.R.; Dean, C.; Lizdas, D.J.

    1977-08-01

    As a part of the Integrated Community Energy System (ICES) Program, a number of technology evaluations are being prepared on various current and emerging sources of energy. This evaluation considers the use of pyrolysis as a method of producing energy from municipal solid waste. The energy can be in the form of a gas, oil, chars, or steam. Pyrolysis, the decomposition of organic matter in the absence of oxygen (or in an oxygen-deficient atmosphere), has been used to convert organic matter to other products or fuels. This process is also described as ''destructive distillation''. Four processes are described in detail: the ''Landgard'' System (Monsanto Environ-Chem Systems, Inc.); the Occidental Research Corporation Process (formerly the Garrett Research and Development Company; The ''Purox'' System (Union Carbide Corporation); and the ''Refu-Cycler'' (Hamilton Standard Corporation). ''Purox'' and ''Refu-Cycler'' produce a low-Btu gas; the Occidental process produces an oil, and the ''Landgard'' process produces steam using on-site auxiliary boilers to burn the fuel gases produced by the pyrolysis unit. Also included is a listing of other pyrolysis processes currently under development for which detailed information was not available. The evaluation provides information on the various process flowsheets, energy and material balances, product characteristics, and economics. Pyrolysis of municipal solid waste as an energy source can be considered a potential for the future; however little operational or economic information is available at this time.

  11. Fast pyrolysis of oil palm shell (OPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nurhayati; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Aliasak, Zalila

    2015-04-01

    Biomass is an important renewable source of energy. Residues that are obtained from harvesting and agricultural products can be utilised as fuel for energy generation by conducting any thermal energy conversion technology. The conversion of biomass to bio oil is one of the prospective alternative energy resources. Therefore, in this study fast pyrolysis of oil palm shell was conducted. The main objective of this study was to find the optimum condition for high yield bio-oil production. The experiment was conducted using fixed-bed fluidizing pyrolysis system. The biomass sample was pyrolysed at variation temperature of 450°C - 650°C and at variation residence time of 0.9s - 1.35s. The results obtained were further discussed in this paper. The basic characteristic of the biomass sample was also presented here. The experiment shows that the optimum bio-oil yield was obtained at temperature of 500°C at residence time 1.15s.

  12. Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith for Planetary Resource Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Malespin, Charles; ten Kate, Inge L.; Getty, Stephanie A.; Holmes, Vincent E.; Mumm, Erik; Franz, Heather B.; Noreiga, Marvin; Dobson, Nick; Southard, Adrian E.; Feng, Steven H.; Kotecki, Carl A.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Swindle, Timothy D.; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Rice, James W.; Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    The extraction and identification of volatile resources that could be utilized by humans including water, oxygen, noble gases, and hydrocarbons on the Moon, Mars, and small planetary bodies will be critical for future long-term human exploration of these objects. Vacuum pyrolysis at elevated temperatures has been shown to be an efficient way to release volatiles trapped inside solid samples. In order to maximize the extraction of volatiles, including oxygen and noble gases from the breakdown of minerals, a pyrolysis temperature of 1400 C or higher is required, which greatly exceeds the maximum temperatures of current state-of-the-art flight pyrolysis instruments. Here we report on the recent optimization and field testing results of a high temperature pyrolysis oven and sample manipulation system coupled to a mass spectrometer instrument called Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith (VAPoR). VAPoR is capable of heating solid samples under vacuum to temperatures above 1300 C and determining the composition of volatiles released as a function of temperature.

  13. Fuel-N Evolution during the Pyrolysis of Industrial Biomass Wastes with High Nitrogen Content

    OpenAIRE

    Kunio Yoshikawa; Guangwen Xu; Hongfang Chen; Yin Wang

    2012-01-01

    In this study, sewage sludge and mycelial waste from antibiotic production were pyrolyzed in a batch scale fixed-bed reactor as examples of two kinds of typical industrial biomass wastes with high nitrogen content. A series of experiments were conducted on the rapid pyrolysis and the slow pyrolysis of these wastes in the temperature range from 500–800 °C to investigate the Fuel-N transformation behavior among pyrolysis products. The results showed that Fuel-N conversion to ...

  14. Biomass pyrolysis processes: performance parameters and their influence on biochar system benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Brownsort, Peter A

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on performance of biomass pyrolysis processes for use in biochar systems. Objectives are to understand the range of control of such processes and how this affects potential benefits of pyrolysis biochar systems, in particular for climate change mitigation. Slow, intermediate and fast pyrolysis processes are reviewed. Product yield distributions change depending on feedstock composition and preparation, control of temperature and material flows. These allow s...

  15. Effect of Operating Conditions on Product Distributions and Bio-oil Ageing in Biomass Pyrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Somrang, Yatika

    2012-01-01

    Alternatives to petroleum-derived fuels are receiving significant interest in order to reduce dependence on finite resources of fossil fuels and to lower fossil-derived CO2 emissions. The present study addresses the production of bio-oil from biomass pyrolysis, one of the potential renewable substitutes to petroleum-derived fuels. The first objective of this work was to investigate the effect of pyrolysis operating parameters, i.e. temperature, heating rate and pyrolysis time, ...

  16. Fixed-bed pyrolysis of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fixed-bed slow and fast pyrolysis experiments have been conducted on a sample of rapeseed. The experiments were performed in two different pyrolysis reactors, namely a fixed-bed Heinze and a well-swept fixed-bed tubular retort to investigate the effects of heating rate, pyrolysis temperature, particle size, sweep gas velocity on the pyrolysis product yields and chemical compositions. The maximum oil yield of 51.7% was obtained in the Heinze reactor 550 deg. C, with a particle size range of +0.6-1.8 mm (sweep gas 100 cm3 min-1 N2) at a heating rate of 30 deg. C min-1. In the well-swept fixed-bed reactor, the maximum oil yield of 68% was obtained at a heating rate of 300 deg. C min-1. Chromatographic and spectroscopic studies on the pyrolytic oil showed that the oil obtained from rapeseed could be use as a renewable fuels and chemical feedstock

  17. Pyrolysis and gasification behavior of black liquor under pressurized conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K.

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study has been to enhance the understanding of the processes involved in pressurized black liquor gasification. Gasification is known to occur in three stages: drying, pyrolysis and char gasification. The work presented here focuses on the pyrolysis and gasification stages. Experiments were carried out primarily in two laboratory-scale reactors. A pressurized grid heater was used to study black liquor pyrolysis under pressurized conditions. Char yields and the fate of elements in the liquor, as well as the degree of liquor swelling, were measured in this device. A pressurized thermogravimetric reactor was used to measure the rate of the char gasification process under different temperatures and pressures and in various gas atmospheres. Pyrolysis experiments were also carried out in this device, and data on swelling behavior, char yields and component release were obtained 317 refs.

  18. Distribution of sulphur into products from waste tire pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tire pyrolysis is getting growing attention as an effective waste tire disposal method in comparison to environmentally less friendly methods like dumping or incineration. But the scrap tire sulphur content can be a potential obstacle to scrap tire utilization as a fuel. In this paper the distribution of sulphur into tire pyrolysis yields, solid (char) and liquid (tar), was investigated. The pyrolysis experiments were carried out under different conditions to determine the partitioning of sulphur into pyrolysis products. The influence of different temperatures and reaction times was investigated in a laboratory flow reactor under nitrogen atmosphere. Solid and liquid residues were collected and analyzed by elemental analysis. The sulphur content in residual char and tar was determined using an elemental analyzer and the sulphur forms in tar were characterized by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). (Authors)

  19. A Comparison of Lignin, Macroalgae, Wood and Straw Fast Pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2013-01-01

    A fast pyrolysis study on lignin and macroalgae (non-conventional biomass) and wood and straw (conventional biomass) were carried out in a pyrolysis centrifugal reactor at pyrolysis temperature of 550 ºC. The product distributions and energy recoveries were measured and compared among these biomasses. The fast pyrolysis of macroalgae showed a promising result with a bio-oil yield of 65 wt% dry ash free basis (daf) and 76 % energy recovery in the bio-oil while the lignin fast pyrolysis provides a bio-oil yield of 47 wt% daf and energy recovery in bio-oil of 45 %. The physiochemical properties of the bio-oils were characterized with respect to higher heating value (HHV), molecular mass distribution, viscosity, pH, density, thermal behaviors, elemental concentrations, phase separation and aging. The lignin and macroalgae oil properties were different compared to those of the wood and straw oils with respect to carbon and oxygen contents, HHV, thermal behaviors and mean molecular weight. The HHV of wood, straw, lignin and algae oils were 24.0, 23.7, 29.7 and 25.7 MJ/kg db, respectively. The distributions of metals, Cl and S in char and bio-oil were investigated for the biomasses. Almost all the metals (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P and Si) were contained in the chars at the pyrolysis temperature of 550 ºC. The char properties were characterized and their potential applications are discussed.

  20. A Membrane De-Oxygenator for the Study of Anoxic Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arcangeli, Jean-Pierre; Arvin, Erik

    1995-01-01

    A membrane reactor for the elimination of oxygen in an anoxic medium for microbial growth has been studied. The reactor consists of a reservoir containing a solution of sulfite and cobalt salt where silicone tubing, through which the medium flows, is immersed. Silicone is highly permeable to gases, so oxygen diffuses through the silicone membrane and is absorbed in the sulfite solution. The maximum oxygen removal rate was 1.1 g m?2 d?1 at 15°C. The advantage of this de-oxygenator is its low cost and the ease with which it can be handled. A calculation method is discussed in relation to the design of the membrane de-oxygenator.

  1. Pyrolysis of polystyrene - polyphenylene oxide to recover styrene and useful products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert J. (Lakewood, CO); Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO)

    1995-01-01

    A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide plastic waste to a given polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature range to cause pyrolysis of given polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide and its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and a support and treating the feed stream with the catalyst to affect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of high value monomeric constituent of styrene from polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide in the first temperature range; differentially heating the feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of the high value monomeric constituent of styrene from polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomer constituent of styrene; selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis to a different derived high value product of polyphenylene oxide from the plastic waste and differentially heating the feed stream at the higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of the plastic into a polyphenylene oxide derived product; and separating the different derived high value polyphenylene oxide product.

  2. Unprecedented deoxygenation at C-7 of the ansamitocin core during mutasynthetic biotransformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Knobloch

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe the unprecedented formation of six ansamitocin derivatives that are deoxygenated at C-7 of the ansamitocin core, obtained during fermentation experiments by employing a variety of Actinosynnema pretiosum mutants and mutasynthetic approaches. We suggest that the formation of these derivatives is based on elimination at C-7/C-8 followed by reduction(s of the intermediate enone. In bioactivity tests, only ansamitocin derivatives bearing an ester side chain at C-3 showed strong antiproliferative activity.

  3. On methane pyrolysis special applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toncu, D. C.; Toncu, G.; Soleimani, S.

    2015-11-01

    Methane pyrolysis represents one of the most important processes in industrial use, with applications rising from the chemical and petrochemical industry, combustion, materials and protective coatings. Despite the intense research, experimental data lack kinetic aspects, and the thermodynamics involved often leads to inaccurate results when applied to various systems. Carrying out a comparative analysis of several available data on methane pyrolysis, the paper aims to study the phenomenon of methane pyrolysis under different environments (combustion and plasma), concluding on the most possible reaction pathways involved in many of its applications. Computer simulation using different database underlines the conclusion, helping to the understanding of methane pyrolysis importance in future technologies.

  4. Thermodynamic analysis for syngas production from volatiles released in waste tire pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis experiments have been conducted in a continuous auger reactor. • Pyrolysis temperature influence on composition of both volatiles and char was studied. • A process for syngas production has been proposed from the volatiles. • Equivalence ratio down to 0.4 is a practical limit for syngas production. • The results provide essential data prior to perform any experimental campaign. - Abstract: This paper shows the maximum limit on syngas composition obtained from volatiles released in waste tire pyrolysis when they are submitted to an air–steam partial oxidation process. Thus, from mass and energy balances and a stoichiometric equilibrium model, syngas composition and reaction temperature as well as some process parameters were predicted by varying both the equivalence ratio (ER) and the steam to fuel ratio (SF). In addition, pyrolysis experiments were performed using a continuous auger reactor, and the influence of pyrolysis temperature on composition of both volatiles and char was studied. Consequently, the resulting syngas characteristics were correlated with the pyrolysis temperature. The stoichiometric equilibrium model showed that an ER down to 0.4 is a practical limit to perform the air–steam partial oxidation process. When the process is carried out only with air, volatiles obtained at high pyrolysis temperature lead to lower reaction temperature and higher LHV of syngas in comparison with those found at low pyrolysis temperature. The H2 production is favored between 0.20 and 0.40 of ER and seems to be more influenced by the H/C ratio than by the water gas-shift reaction. On the other hand, the steam addition shows a more notable effect on the H2 production for volatiles obtained at the highest pyrolysis temperature (600 °C) in agreement with the lower reaction temperature under these experimental conditions. This thermodynamic analysis provides essential data on the optimization of syngas production from volatiles released in waste tire pyrolysis prior to run any test

  5. Quality improvement of pyrolysis oil from waste rubber by adding sawdust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-liang; Chang, Jian-min; Cai, Li-ping; Shi, Sheldon Q

    2014-12-01

    This work was aimed at improving the pyrolysis oil quality of waste rubber by adding larch sawdust. Using a 1 kg/h stainless pyrolysis reactor, the contents of sawdust in rubber were gradually increased from 0%, 50%, 100% and 200% (wt%) during the pyrolysis process. Using a thermo-gravimetric (TG) analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of evolving products (TG-FTIR), the weight loss characteristics of the heat under different mixtures of sawdust/rubber were observed. Using the pyrolysis-gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), the vapors from the pyrolysis processes were collected and the compositions of the vapors were examined. During the pyrolysis process, the recovery of the pyrolysis gas and its composition were measured in-situ at a reaction temperature of 450 °C and a retaining time of 1.2s. The results indicated that the efficiency of pyrolysis was increased and the residual carbon was reduced as the percentage of sawdust increased. The adding of sawdust significantly improved the pyrolysis oil quality by reducing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrogen and sulfur compounds contents, resulting in an improvement in the combustion efficiency of the pyrolysis oil. PMID:25223439

  6. A mathematical model relating cortical oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin flows and volumes to neural activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Nathan R.; Nishimura, Nozomi; Suh, Minah; Schwartz, Theodore H.; Doerschuk, Peter C.

    2015-08-01

    Objective. To describe a toolkit of components for mathematical models of the relationship between cortical neural activity and space-resolved and time-resolved flows and volumes of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin motivated by optical intrinsic signal imaging (OISI). Approach. Both blood flow and blood volume and both oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin and their interconversion are accounted for. Flow and volume are described by including analogies to both resistive and capacitive electrical circuit elements. Oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin and their interconversion are described by generalization of Kirchhoff's laws based on well-mixed compartments. Main results. Mathematical models built from this toolkit are able to reproduce experimental single-stimulus OISI results that are described in papers from other research groups and are able to describe the response to multiple-stimuli experiments as a sublinear superposition of responses to the individual stimuli. Significance. The same assembly of tools from the toolkit but with different parameter values is able to describe effects that are considered distinctive, such as the presence or absence of an initial decrease in oxygenated hemoglobin concentration, indicating that the differences might be due to unique parameter values in a subject rather than different fundamental mechanisms.

  7. Oxygen Delivery and Muscle Deoxygenation during Continuous, Long- and Short-Interval Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafeiridis, A; Kounoupis, A; Dipla, K; Kyparos, A; Nikolaidis, M G; Smilios, I; Vrabas, I S

    2015-10-01

    This study compared the O2 delivery (a central determinant of VO2) and muscle deoxygenation (reflecting a peripheral determinant of VO2) during intense continuous, long-interval, and short-interval exercise protocols. Twelve young men completed the 3 protocols with equal overall effort. Simultaneous and continuous recordings of central hemodynamics, muscle oxygenation/deoxygenation and VO2 were performed. Peak responses for stroke volume and peripheral resistance did not differ among protocols, whereas peak cardiac output and VO2 were higher in long-interval vs. continuous and short-interval protocols with inactive rest phases (pVO2max were also higher in continuous and long-interval vs. short-interval protocol (p<0.05). Muscle de-oxygenation (??deoxyhemoglobin,??oxyhemoglobin, ?muscle O2-saturation), as well as the mismatch of O2 delivery and utilization (?deoxyhemoglobin/VO2) were remarkably alike among protocols. In conclusion, all 3 protocols resulted in a great activation of central and peripheral determinants of VO2. When performed with equal overall effort, the intense continuous and interval modalities reveal similarities in muscle O2-utilization response, but differences in central hemodynamic and VO2 responses. Intense continuous and long-interval protocols exert a more commanding role on the cardiovascular system and VO2 response compared to short-interval exercise with inactive rest phases. PMID:26140688

  8. Pyrolysis of EVA and its application in recycling of photovoltaic modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, De-Wen; Born, Manfred; Wambach, Karsten

    2004-01-01

    The basic pyrolysis behaviour of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer, which is often used as a lamination agent in solar modules, was investigated in thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis(DTA) and thermovolumetry. The TG analysis showed that the EVA pyrolysis can be accelerated under the partial oxidizing atmosphere but the end pyrolysis temperature must be higher than in nitrogen, to eliminate the coke formed. Meanwhile, a strong exothermal peak occurs at about 450 degrees C under the air condition and gets weaker obviously at the oxygen content lower than 10 vol. %. The mass balance of EVA pyrolysis was given through the thermovolumetry with the output of 10 wt. % permanent gas, 89.9 wt. % condensate and 0.1% residual coke. Besides, the composition of the permanent gas and condensate at different pyrolysis stages were analysed and interpreted on the known pyrolysis mechanism. PMID:15900714

  9. Pyrolysis pretreatment of biomass for entrained-flow gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biomass for entrained-flow gasification needs to be pretreated to significantly increase its heating value and to make it more readily transportable. The pyrolysis pretreatment was conducted in a lab scale fixed-bed reactor; the reactor was heated to elevate the temperature at 5 °C/min before holding at the desired pyrolysis temperature for 1.5 h a fixed time. The effects of pyrolysis temperature on the yield, composition and heating value of the gaseous, liquid and solid products were determined. The pyrolysis removed most oxygenated constituents of rice straw while significantly increased its energy density. Meantime, it changes the physical properties of biomass powders. The results show that the angle of repose, the angle of internal friction of semi-char decrease obviously; the bulk density of semi-char is bigger than that of biomass. This could favor the feeding of biomass. Considering yield and heating value of the solid semi-char product and the feeding problem, the best pyrolysis temperature was 400 °C. The results of this study have confirmed the feasibility of employing pyrolyzed biomass for entrained-flow gasification; they are useful for the additional studies that will be necessary for designing an efficient biomass entrained-flow gasification system.

  10. Validation Results for Core-Scale Oil Shale Pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staten, Josh; Tiwari, Pankaj

    2015-03-01

    This report summarizes a study of oil shale pyrolysis at various scales and the subsequent development a model for in situ production of oil from oil shale. Oil shale from the Mahogany zone of the Green River formation was used in all experiments. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted at four scales, powdered samples (100 mesh) and core samples of 0.75”, 1” and 2.5” diameters. The batch, semibatch and continuous flow pyrolysis experiments were designed to study the effect of temperature (300°C to 500°C), heating rate (1°C/min to 10°C/min), pressure (ambient and 500 psig) and size of the sample on product formation. Comprehensive analyses were performed on reactants and products - liquid, gas and spent shale. These experimental studies were designed to understand the relevant coupled phenomena (reaction kinetics, heat transfer, mass transfer, thermodynamics) at multiple scales. A model for oil shale pyrolysis was developed in the COMSOL multiphysics platform. A general kinetic model was integrated with important physical and chemical phenomena that occur during pyrolysis. The secondary reactions of coking and cracking in the product phase were addressed. The multiscale experimental data generated and the models developed provide an understanding of the simultaneous effects of chemical kinetics, and heat and mass transfer on oil quality and yield. The comprehensive data collected in this study will help advance the move to large-scale in situ oil production from the pyrolysis of oil shale.

  11. Characterizations of Bio-char from Fast Pyrolysis of Meranti Wood Sawdust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, M. A. F.; Uemura, Y.; Osman, N. B.; Yusup, S.

    2015-06-01

    In this research, Meranti wood sawdust (MWS) was pyrolyzed in a fixed bed drop- type pyrolyzer under an inert condition. The first part of the study is to determine the influence of pyrolysis temperature (450, 500 and 550 °C) on the yield of pyrolysis products. Pyrolysis of the waste MWS material generated the highest amount of bio-char with approximately 38 wt.% at pyrolysis temperature of 450 °C. Next, the char product (from pyrolysis at 450 °C) was analyzed to compare its characteristics with the raw MWS feedstock. The major component of the char is carbon element, significantly contributed to its high calorific value. TGA profile shows the MWS char could withstand high temperature of up to 400 °C. Under extensive heating, particle size of the bio-char from SEM images decreased due to breakage and shrinkage processes.

  12. Microwave Heating Applied to Pyrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Yolanda; Arenillas, Ana; Menéndez, J. Ángel

    2011-01-01

    the MW pyrolysis as an original thermochemical process of materials is presented. This chapter comprises a general overview of the thermochemical and quantifying aspects of the pyrolysis process, including current application togethe with a compilation of the most frequently used materials

  13. Pyrolysis oil as diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros, S. [Wartsila Diesel International Ltd., Vaasa (Finland). Diesel Technology

    1996-12-31

    Wood waste pyrolysis oil is an attractive fuel alternative for diesel engine operation. The main benefit is the sustainability of the fuel. No fossil reserves are consumed. The fact that wood waste pyrolysis oil does not contribute to CO{sub 2} emissions is of utmost importance. This means that power plants utilising pyrolysis oil do not cause additional global warming. Equally important is the reduced sulphur emissions that this fuel alternative implies. The sulphur content of pyrolysis oil is extremely low. The high water content and low heating value are also expected to result in very low NO{sub x} emissions. Utilisation of wood waste pyrolysis oil in diesel engines, however, involves a lot of challenges and problems to be solved. The low heating value requires a new injection system with high capacity. The corrosive characteristics of the fluid also underline the need for new injection equipment materials. Wood waste pyrolysis oil contains solid particles which can clog filters and cause abrasive wear. Wood waste pyrolysis oil has proven to have extremely bad ignition properties. The development of a reliable injection system which is able to cope with such a fuel involves a lot of optimisation tests, redesign and innovative solutions. Successful single-cylinder tests have already been performed and they have verified that diesel operation on wood pyrolysis oil is technically possible. (orig.)

  14. Pyrolysis of low-rank coals in presence of complex catalyst: esr study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvachko, Y.N.; Bubnovskaya, L.M.; Maksimova, N.E.; Shkoller, M.B. [Eastern Coal Chemistry Institute, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Pyrolysis products of low-rank coal and its blends with coke dust, pyrite and copper oxide were investigated by the CW X-band esr method. The effect of temperature on esr spin concentration and linewidth for pyrolysis products with and without catalyst was observed. The mechanism of coke manufacture and complex catalyst interaction are discussed. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Pyrolysis and hydrolysis of mixed polymer waste comprising polyethylene-terephthalate and polyethylene to sequentially recover [monomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R.J.; Chum, H.L.

    1998-10-13

    A process is described for using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feed stream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and support for treating said feed streams with said catalyst to effect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said temperature program range; differentially heating said feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents; selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said plastic waste and differentially heating the feed stream at the higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of the different high value monomeric constituent; and separating the different high value monomeric constituent. 83 figs.

  16. Controlled catalytic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of phenolic resin containing waste streams to sequentially recover monomers and chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO); Evans, Robert J. (Lakewood, CO)

    1992-01-01

    A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a waste phenolic resin containing feedstreams in a manner such that pyrolysis of said resins and a given high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolyses of the resins in other monomeric components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said resin and a given high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other monomeric components; selecting, if desired, a catalyst and a support and treating said feedstreams with said catalyst to effect acid or basic catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said first temperature program range to utilize reactive gases such as oxygen and steam in the pyrolysis process to drive the production of specific products; differentially heating said feedstreams at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantity of said high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other monomeric components therein; separating said high value monomeric constituent; selecting a second higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said phenolic resins waste and differentially heating said feedstreams at said higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said different high value monomeric constituent; and separating said different high value monomeric constituent.

  17. Fast pyrolysis of biomass: a handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridgwater, A.; Czernik, S.; Diebold, J.; Meier, D.; Oasmaa, A.; Peacocke, C.; Piskorz, J.; Radlein, D.

    1999-05-01

    This handbook is based on the final report of the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Bioenergy sponsored Pyrolysis Activity. Topics reviewed cover the fast pyrolysis of biomass for producing fuels and chemicals; the IEA pyrolysis fundamentals review; the nature and properties of biomass pyrolysis materials; storage and handling of flash pyrolysis oil; testing standard methods; new methods for chemical and physical characterisation and Round Robin testing; proposed specifications for various grades of pyrolysis oils; the determination of biodegradation rates of bio-oil by respirometry; environment, health and safety issues; and the toxicity of biomass pyrolysis liquids.

  18. Slow Pyrolysis of Cassava Wastes for Biochar Production and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhidayah Mohamed Noor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of biochar from slow pyrolysis of biomass is a promising carbon negative procedure since it removes the net carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and produce recalcitrant carbon suitable for sequestration in soil. Biochar production can vary significantly with the pyrolysis parameter. This study investigated the impact of temperature and heating rate on the yield and properties of biochar derived from cassava plantations residues which are cassava stem (CS and cassava rhizome (CR. The pyrolysis temperatures ranged from 400°C to 600°C while the heating rate parameter was varied from 5°C/min to 25°C/min. The experiment was conducted using the lab scale slow pyrolysis system. The increment of temperature and heating rate of slow pyrolysis for both cassava wastes had raised the fixed carbon content of the biochar but decreased the biochar yield. More biochar was produced at lower temperature and lower heating rate. Temperature gave more influence on the biochar yield as compared to the heating rate parameter. The highest biochar yield of more than 35 mf wt. % can be obtained from both CS and CR at 400°C and heating rate of 5°C/min. From the proximate analysis, the results showed that cassava wastes contain high percentage of volatile matter which is more than 80 mf wt. %. Meanwhile, the biochar produced from cassava wastes contain high percentage of fixed carbon which is about 5?8 times higher than their raw samples. This suggested that, it is a good step to convert CS and CR into high carbon biochar via slow pyrolysis process that can substantially yield more biochar, up to 37 mf wt. % in this study. Since the fixed carbon content for both CS and CR biochar produced in any studied parameter were found to be more than 75 mf wt. %, it is suggested that biochar from cassava wastes is suitable for carbon sequestration.

  19. Fuel-N Evolution during the Pyrolysis of Industrial Biomass Wastes with High Nitrogen Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Yoshikawa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, sewage sludge and mycelial waste from antibiotic production were pyrolyzed in a batch scale fixed-bed reactor as examples of two kinds of typical industrial biomass wastes with high nitrogen content. A series of experiments were conducted on the rapid pyrolysis and the slow pyrolysis of these wastes in the temperature range from 500–800 °C to investigate the Fuel-N transformation behavior among pyrolysis products. The results showed that Fuel-N conversion to Char-N intimately depended on the pyrolysis temperature and the yield of Char-N reduced with the increase of the pyrolysis temperature. Under the same pyrolysis conditions, Tar-N production mainly depended on complex properties of the different biomasses, including volatile matter, nitrogen content and biomass functional groups. HCN was the predominant NOx precursor in the rapid pyrolysis of biomass, whereas in the slow pyrolysis of mycelial waste, more NH3 was produced than HCN due to the additional NH3 formation through the hydrogenation reaction of Char-N, HCN and H radicals. At the same time, some part of the char was analyzed by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR to get more information on the nitrogen functionality changes and the tar was also characterized by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (GCMS to identify typical nitrogenous tar compounds. Finally, the whole nitrogen distribution in products was discussed.

  20. Thermal Pyrolysis of Polyethylene: Kinetic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Khaghanikavkani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA was used to measure the kinetic parameters of high density polyethylene in different operating conditions i.e. heating rate and nitrogen flow rate in a non isothermal condition. The Coats-Redfern method was used to calculate the kinetic parameters. An effort was made to investigate the effect of metal particles on plastic during pyrolysis. The results suggested that aluminum powder accelerates the pyrolysis reaction by enhancing the heat transfer. In addition, the kinetic reaction of pyrolysis was studied using a semi-batch reactor in a nitrogen atmosphere under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. A first-order decomposition reaction was assumed and the rate constant was determined using an integral method. The rate constant was measured at different temperatures and was used to calculate the apparent activation energy and the pre-exponential factor of the reaction in an isothermal condition. Kinetic parameters were measured for individual compounds with carbon numbers ranging from C9 to C50 using the semi batch reactor under isothermal condition.

    Key words: Kinetic; High density polyethylene; Isothermal; Non isothermal; TGA; Semi batch reactor

  1. Norms and standards for fast pyrolysis liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oasmaa, Anja [VTT Processes, P.O. Box 1601, 02044 VTT, Jyvaskyla (Finland); Meier, Dietrich [Federal Research Centre for Forestry and Forest Products, Institute for Wood Chemistry and Chemical Technology of Wood, P.O. Box 800209, D-21002 Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-06-15

    The International Energy Agency-European Union (IEA-EU) round robin test in 2000 was carried out by learning from earlier round robin tests and by employing improved analytical methods. In general, the accuracy of all physical analyses was good for homogenous pyrolysis liquids. For heterogeneous liquids, erroneous results were obtained, especially for kinematic viscosity and stability index. Good laboratory practice, such as proper calibration of equipment, and good background knowledge of the analysis sample, prevents systematic errors. The main conclusions were: Karl-Fischer titration is recommended for analysing water in pyrolysis liquids. the solids content determined as ethanol insolubles is accurate for white wood (stem wood, no bark or needles) liquids, while a more powerful solvent, like a mixture of methanol and dichloromethane (1:1vol.%), is required for extractive-rich liquids from feedstocks such as forest residues. for elemental analysis at least triplicates are recommended due to the small sample size. Special attention should be paid to nitrogen standards. They should have a similar range of nitrogen as the sample. Kinematic viscosity is an accurate method at 40{sup o}C for pyrolysis liquids. Rotating viscotesters with a cover at low temperatures (|50{sup o}C) can also be used. Stability index needs more specific instructions. Results of chemical characterisation were not very consistent. Proper standard solutions have to be used with known amounts of compounds for quantitative analyses.

  2. Flash pyrolysis fuel oil: BIO-POK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gust, S. [Neste Oy, Porvoo (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Flash pyrolysis oil from Ensyn Tech., Canada and Union Fenosa, Spain was combusted with simple pressure atomisation equipment commonly used with light fuel oils in intermediate size (0.1-1 MW) boilers. With a number of modifications to the combustion system, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) could be reduced to acceptable levels: CO < 30 ppm and NO{sub x} < 140 ppm. Particulate emissions which were initially very high (Bacharach 4-5) were reduced (Bach. 2-3) by system changes but are still higher than from light fuel oil (Bach. <1). The modifications to the combustion system were: acid resistant progressive cavity pump, higher oil preheat temperature and higher oil pressure than for light fuel oils, refractory section between burner and boiler warmed up to at least 800 deg C. In addition, it was necessary to store pyrolysis oil samples under inert conditions to prevent oxidation and to rinse nozzles with alcohol after shutdown to prevent coking. The complexity and cost of these system modifications are considered to be too great for current grades of flash pyrolysis oil to be sold as a light fuel oil replacement. Improvements to fuel quality will be necessary. The main improvements are lowering of viscosity and improving of stability

  3. TG-FTIR study on urea-formaldehyde resin residue during pyrolysis and combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xuguang; Li, Chunyu; Chi, Yong; Yan, Jianhua

    2010-01-15

    The pyrolysis and combustion characteristics of urea-formaldehyde resin (UFR) residue were investigated by using thermogravimetric analysis, coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR). It is indicated that the pyrolysis process can be subdivided into three stages: drying the sample, fast thermal decomposition and further cracking process. The total weight loss of 90 wt.% at 950 degrees C is found in pyrolysis, while 74 wt.% of the original mass lost in the second stage is between 195 degrees C and 430 degrees C. The emissions of carbon dioxide, isocyanic acid, ammonia, hydrocyanic acid and carbon monoxide are identified in UFR residue pyrolysis, moreover, isocyanic acid emitted at low temperature is found as the most important nitrogen-containing gaseous product in UFR residue pyrolysis, and there is a large amount of hydrocyanic acid emitted at high temperature. The similar TG and emission characteristics as the first two stages during pyrolysis are found in UFR residue combustion at low temperature. The combustion process almost finishes at 600 degrees C; moreover, carbon dioxide and water are identified as the main gaseous products at high temperature. It is indicated that the UFR residue should be pyrolyzed at low temperature to remove the initial nitrogen, and the gaseous products during pyrolysis should be burnt in high temperature furnace under oxygen-rich conditions for pollutant controlling. PMID:19735979

  4. Releasing behavior of chlorine and fluorine during agricultural waste pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The releasing behavior of chlorine (Cl) and fluorine (F) during agricultural waste pyrolysis was investigated using a fixed-bed pyrolysis system with pyrohydrolytic-ion chromatography and thermodynamic equilibrium calculation. Agricultural waste contains a large amount of Cl-bearing species, among which approximately 30% is easily released with biomass drying. During biomass pyrolysis, Cl-bearing species evolve out rapidly to the gas phase, and higher temperature is favorable for the releasing. The releasing process can be divided into two ranges: the fast evaporating range (200–600 °C) and slow evaporating range (600–1000 °C). F shows similar transforming behavior. However, higher temperature is preferred for the release. Thermodynamic simulation shows that Cl mainly exists as KCl(g) at higher temperatures (>600 °C) with some HCl(g) and K2Cl2(g) as intermediate species at lower temperatures (<600 °C), whereas F mainly releases as SiF4 at higher temperatures (>500 °C) with SF5Cl being the dominant F-bearing species at lower temperatures (<500 °C). - Highlights: • The releasing behavior of fluorine during biomass pyrolysis was first studied. • The proportions of Cl and F in different products were examined. • Experiment and simulation were conducted to study the in-depth mechanism

  5. Methodological validation of the dynamic heterogeneity of muscle deoxygenation within the quadriceps during cycle exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Shunsaku; Poole, David C; Fukuoka, Yoshiyuki; Ferreira, Leonardo F; Kondo, Narihiko; Ohmae, Etsuko; Barstow, Thomas J

    2011-08-01

    The conventional continuous wave near-infrared spectroscopy (CW-NIRS) has enabled identification of regional differences in muscle deoxygenation following onset of exercise. However, assumptions of constant optical factors (e.g., path length) used to convert the relative changes in CW-NIRS signal intensity to values of relative concentration, bring the validity of such measurements into question. Furthermore, to justify comparisons among sites and subjects, it is essential to correct the amplitude of deoxygenated hemoglobin plus myoglobin [deoxy(Hb+Mb)] for the adipose tissue thickness (ATT). We used two time-resolved NIRS systems to measure the distribution of the optical factors directly, thereby enabling the determination of the absolute concentrations of deoxy(Hb+Mb) simultaneously at the distal and proximal sites within the vastus lateralis (VL) and the rectus femoris muscles. Eight subjects performed cycle exercise transitions from unloaded to heavy work rates (>gas exchange threshold). Following exercise onset, the ATT-corrected amplitudes (A(p)), time delay (TD(p)), and time constant (?(p)) of the primary component kinetics in muscle deoxy(Hb + Mb) were spatially heterogeneous (intersite coefficient of variation range for the subjects: 10-50 for A(p), 16-58 for TD(p), 14-108% for ?(p)). The absolute and relative amplitudes of the deoxy(Hb+Mb) responses were highly dependent on ATT, both within subjects and between measurement sites. The present results suggest that regional heterogeneity in the magnitude and temporal profile of muscle deoxygenation is a consequence of differential matching of O(2) delivery and O(2) utilization, not an artifact caused by changes in optical properties of the tissue during exercise or variability in the overlying adipose tissue. PMID:21632845

  6. The contribution of high-temperature pyrolysis to industrial development after World War II. From coal chemistry to petrochemistry; Der Beitrag des Hochtemperatur-Pyrolyse-Verfahrens zu dieser Entwicklung nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg. Der Wandel von der Kohlen- zur Petrochemie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, W.

    2001-03-01

    After the Second World War when the base of raw materials had changed from coal to petrol, the chemical industry was confronted with crucial technological problems: Whilst acetylen derived from coal had, due to the increased cost of coal and energy, turned to be more and more non-profitable ethylen as a crack-product of naphta succeeded in being steadily produced in a more profitable way and therefore came to be the most important base-product for aliphatic and macro-molecular chemistry. In Germany, however, to begin with, hydrocarbon fractions for producing ethylen were not available in sufficient quantities: Moreover there were no chemical procedures in order to manufacture derivates based on ethylen. This economical situation led to the development of a petrochemical procedure simultaneously producing acetylen as well as ethylen: The so-called 'High-temperature-pyrolysis' ('HTP') with a capacity of 82,000 tons p.a. including both monomeres. The report takes into consideration thermodynamical aspects of the cracking reaction, describes the procedure and its historical development and ends in viewing the efforts of that time to transfer the HTP-principle to the cracking of crude oil. (orig.)

  7. Catalytic Deoxygenation of Renewable Chemicals   – Structure?Performance Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malcho, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    Generation of chemicals from a viable feedstock is an increasingly interesting field. One of the major issues is the high oxygen ratios in biomass. There are a multitude of ways to remove oxygen from organic molecules. This thesis deals with two topics: The dehydration of glucose into HMF and the decarbonylation of aldehydes both heterogeneous and in ionic liquids. Chapter 1 provides a walkthrough of areas such as green chemistry, ionic liquids, biomass, dehydration of glucose in ionic liquids and decarbonylation. The topics are all taking into account the current research and is subjectively chosen to provide a broad platform for the following chapters. Furthermore, the objectives for the thesis are listed here. Chapter 2 deals with the synthetic preparation of the catalysts and the catalytic setups. Chapter 3 deals with the dehydration of glucose into HMF in ionic liquids. The system was investigated thouroughly via several spectroscopic techniques. This was done in order to obtain novel information in regard to the catalytically active sites. EXAFS results showed that during the catalytic reaction, a species of the form CrCl4O2 was formed from CrCl6 in the solution. These are the predominant chromium containing species in the solution. EPR results showed the presence of a S= 1/2 spin system, and the only possible choice is radical formation. Optical absorption spectroscopy showed a change in the ligand field around the chromium. Chapter 3 also deals with the homogeneous decarbonylation of aldehydes. The investigation of the effects of the ionic liquids in the catalytically active species is investigated in depth and the system [Rh(dppp)2]Cl in BMImCl was shown to be the most active combination. The reusability of the system showed great potential. The system showed a potential to decarbonylate both aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes. Finally Chapter 3 looks at the heterogeneous decarbonylation of aldehydes, focussing on a continuous flow setup. The catalytic effect of oxidation state and ligandsphere is investigated. And the effects of temperature, solvent and substrate were under scrutiny. The catalyst decomposition was pictured by the aid of TEM and the formation of nanoparticles explained. Chapter 4 concerns the summation of the results as well as the future perspectives for the respective applications and scientific developments.

  8. Experimental Research of Pyrolysis Gases Cracking on Surface of Charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosov, Valentin; Kosov, Vladimir; Zaichenko, Victor

    For several years, in the Joint Institute for High Temperatures of Russian Academy of Sciences, two-stage technology of biomass processing has been developing [1]. The technology is based on pyrolysis of biomass as the first stage. The second stage is high-temperature conversion of liquid fraction of the pyrolysis on the surface of porous charcoal matrix. Synthesis gas consisted of carbon monoxide and hydrogen is the main products of the technology. This gas is proposed to be used as fuel for gas-engine power plant. For practical implementation of the technology it is important to know the size of hot char filter for full cracking of the pyrolysis gases on the surface of charcoal. Theoretical determination of the cracking parameters of the pyrolysis gases on the surface of coal is extremely difficult because the pyrolysis gases include tars, whose composition and structure is complicated and depends on the type of initial biomass. It is also necessary to know the surface area of the char used in the filter, which is also a difficult task. Experimental determination of the hot char filter parameters is presented. It is shown that proposed experimental method can be used for different types of biomass.

  9. Studies on Catalytic Pyrolysis of Mustard Press Cake with NaCl

    OpenAIRE

    Aparna Sarkar1; Ranjana Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Under this present investigation, non-catalytic and catalytic pyrolysis of mustard press cake (MPC) was conducted in a 50 mm diameter and 640 mm long semi-batch pyrolyser in the temperature range of 673K to 1173K in a nitrogen atmosphere. Effects of temperature on yields of products, namely, char, pyro-oil and gas obtained from primary pyrolysis of MPC have been investigated. The kinetic rate constants of volatiles and char formations were determined in the temperature range u...

  10. H2-driven deoxygenation of epoxides and diols to alkenes catalyzed by methyltrioxorhenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Jeanette E; Zdilla, Michael J; Evans, Andrew J; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M

    2009-11-01

    Catalytic deoxygenation of epoxides and diols is underdeveloped. This reaction is appealing in the context of making value-added organics from biomass. Methyltrioxorhenium (MTO) catalyzes the conversion of epoxides and vicinal diols to olefins with dihydrogen (H(2)) as the reductant under reasonably mild conditions (150 degrees C and 80-300 psi). The only reaction byproduct is water. The reaction is selective for cis cyclic diols, signaling a mechanism of alkene extrusion from a coordinated epoxide via a metallaoxetane intermediate. PMID:19807132

  11. Radicals from the gas-phase pyrolysis of catechol. 2. Comparison of the pyrolysis of catechol and hydroquinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachatryan, Lavrent; Asatryan, Rubik; McFerrin, Cheri; Adounkpe, Julien; Dellinger, Barry

    2010-09-23

    Formation of radicals from the pyrolysis of catechol (CT) and hydroquinone (HQ) over a temperature range of 350-900 °C was studied using low-temperature matrix isolation electron paramagnetic resonance (LTMI EPR) spectroscopy. Comparative analysis of the pyrolysis mechanisms of these isomeric compounds was performed, and the role of semiquinone-type carrier radicals was studied. Pathways of unimolecular decomposition of intermediate radicals and molecular products were identified from the examination of the potential energy surface of catechol calculated at B3LYP hybrid density functional theory and composite CBS-QB3 levels. The results were compared with the experimental observations and mechanistic pathways previously developed for the pyrolysis of hydroquinone. PMID:20731470

  12. Pyrolysis of Spent Ion Exchange Resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion exchangers (IEX in international language) are used to remove radionuclides from the primary coolant in all nuclear power stations with a water cooling circuit. This is done by continuously removing a volume of coolant from the primary circuit and passing it through coolers, filters and the ion exchange beds. Cation and anion exchangers, in the form of coarse-grained resin beads in pressurized-water reactors and as finely ground powdered resins in boiling water reactors, are used. The trend for new power stations is to exploit all the possibilities for avoiding the generation of contaminated liquids and then to clean, as far as possible, the solutions that are nevertheless generated using ion exchange for it to be possible to dispose of them as non-radioactive waste. This relieves the burden on evaporator facilities, or means that these can even be dispensed with entirely. Regeneration is possible in principle, but little use is made of it. As the regeneration usual in conventional technologies is not employed in nuclear power stations, it is necessary to dispose of this material as radioactive waste. On the international level, a great number of processes are offered that are intended to meet the relevant national regulations, and these will be discussed in brief with their advantages and disadvantages. The aim is then to find a process which reduces the volume, yields an inert or mineralized product, works at temperatures of no more than approximately 600 deg. C and can be run in a simple facility. Originally, the pyrolysis process was developed to treat liquid organic waste from reprocessing. A typical application is the decomposition of spent solvent (TBP, tributyl phosphate, mixed with kerosene). In this process TBP is pyrolyzed together with calcium hydroxide in a fluidized bed facility at temperatures of around 500 deg. C, the calcium hydroxide reacts with the phosphate groups directly to form calcium pyrophosphate which contains all the radioactivity and is disposed of as medium level waste. The organic components pass into the pyrolysis gas which is burnt. The flue gas is further cleaned. TBP pyrolysis facilities have been built in France (La Hague), Belgium (Mol) and in Japan (Rokkashomura). The Belgian plant has recently ceased operating as all the TBP arising from Eurochemic operations had been successfully processed. The facility in Japan is in the commissioning stage. Many experiments have been carried out at the existing facilities, and also in corresponding pilot plants including NUKEM's own, to extend the range of waste that can be processed. Initial tests have shown that IEX can be decomposed by pyrolysis with very good results, yielding an inert and chemically resistant product. No additives are necessary. The main constituent of the product, the pyrolysate or ash, is carbon. It has been discovered that the entire radioactive inventory remains in the pyrolysate during pyrolysis of the IEX. This is achieved by relatively low process temperatures that prevent highly volatile nuclides such as the cesium nuclides from passing into the gaseous phase. Sintered metal filters in pyrolysis plant ensure that even the radioactivity bonded to the dust remains in the pyrolysate. In addition to the radionuclides, the main constituents of the residue are carbon from the original polystyrene matrix and sulphur from the functional groups. The pyrolysate occurs as a flowable solid material and not as a melt. It is thus easy to handle and can be compressed or cemented, depending on the requirements for interim and permanent storage. Any further constituents such as inorganic filter materials or even other organic materials do not interfere with the process, they are dried, calcined or also pyrolyzed. Hydrocarbons such as methane or propene, steam and low volumes of ammonia are the products in gaseous form. The pyrolysis gas generated must be burnt in a burner and then passed to the emission control system and the HEPA filters

  13. Environmental Fatigue Behaviors of CF8M Stainless Steel in 310 .deg. C Deoxygenated Water - Effects of Hydrogen and Microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of environment and microstructure on low cycle fatigue (LCF) behaviors of CF8M stainless steels containing 11% of ferrites were investigated in a 310 .deg. C deoxygenated water environment. The reduction of LCF life of CF8M in a 310 .deg. C deoxygenated water was smaller than 316LN stainless steels. Based on the microstructure and fatigue surface analyses, it was confirmed that the hydrogen induced cracking contributed to the reduction in LCF life for CF8M as well as for 316LN. However, many secondary cracks were found on the boundaries of ferrite phases in CF8M, which effectively reduced the stress concentration at the crack tip. Because of the reduced stress concentration, the accelerated fatigue crack growth by hydrogen induced cracking was less significant, which resulted in the smaller environmental effects for CF8M than 316LN in a 310 .deg. C deoxygenated water

  14. Gas phase temperature measurements in the liquid and particle regime of a flame spray pyrolysis process using O2-based pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Sascha R; Koegler, Andreas F; Gao, Yi; Kilian, Daniel; Voigt, Michael; Seeger, Thomas; Peukert, Wolfgang; Leipertz, Alfred

    2012-09-01

    For the production of oxide nanoparticles at a commercial scale, flame spray processes are frequently used where mostly oxygen is fed to the flame if high combustion temperatures and thus small primary particle sizes are desired. To improve the understanding of these complex processes in situ, noninvasive optical measurement techniques were applied to characterize the extremely turbulent and unsteady combustion field at those positions where the particles are formed from precursor containing organic solvent droplets. This particle-forming regime was identified by laser-induced breakdown detection. The gas phase temperatures in the surrounding of droplets and particles were measured with O(2)-based pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). Pure rotational CARS measurements benefit from a polarization filtering technique that is essential in particle and droplet environments for acquiring CARS spectra suitable for temperature fitting. Due to different signal disturbing processes only the minority of the collected signals could be used for temperature evaluation. The selection of these suitable signals is one of the major problems to be solved for a reliable evaluation process. Applying these filtering and signal selection steps temperature measurements have successfully been conducted. Time-resolved, single-pulse measurements exhibit temperatures between near-room and combustion temperatures due to the strongly fluctuating and flickering behavior of the particle-generating flame. The mean flame temperatures determined from the single-pulse data are decreasing with increasing particle concentrations. They indicate the dissipation of large amounts of energy from the surrounding gas phase in the presence of particles. PMID:22945152

  15. Pyrolysis of high sulfur Indian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.P. Baruah; Puja Khare [RRL Jorhat, Assam (India). Coal Chemistry Division

    2007-12-15

    Pyrolysis experiments under laboratory conditions for five numbers of high sulfur coal samples from the states of Meghalaya and Nagaland, India, were carried out at temperatures of 450, 600, 850, and 1000{sup o}C, respectively. The yield of products and thermal release of sulfur from these coals are investigated. The distribution of sulfur in the pyrolyzed products, i.e., char/coke, gas, and tar, is also reported. Hydrocarbon and sulfurous gases released at different temperatures were analyzed by a gas chromatograph (GC) with an FID (flame ionized detector) and an FPD (flame photometric detector), respectively. H{sub 2}S evolution during coal pyrolysis was found to be a function of temperature up to 850{sup o}C. The low concentration of SO{sub 2} detected for some of the samples is due to decomposition of inorganic sulphates present. Evolution of methane for the coals tested increases with the increase of temperature. Maximum sulfur release was found in the range of 600-850{sup o}C and has a decreasing tendency from 850-1000{sup o}C, which might be due to the incorporation of sulfur released into the coal matrix. Activation energies for sulfur release were found in the range of 38-228 kJ mol{sup -1}, which were higher than the reported activation energies for lignites and bituminous coals mainly due to highly stable organic sulfur functionalities. 52 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. A Comparative study of microwave-induced pyrolysis of lignocellulosic and algal biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Tahmasebi, Arash; Yu, Jianglong; Xu, Jing; Huang, Feng; Mamaeva, Alisa

    2015-08-01

    Microwave (MW) pyrolysis of algal and lignocellulosic biomass samples were studied using a modified domestic oven. The pyrolysis temperature was recorded continuously by inserting a thermocouple into the samples. Temperatures as high as 1170 and 1015°C were achieved for peanut shell and Chlorella vulgaris. The activation energy for MW pyrolysis was calculated by Coats-Redfern method and the values were 221.96 and 214.27kJ/mol for peanut shell and C. vulgaris, respectively. Bio-oil yields reached to 27.7wt.% and 11.0wt.% during pyrolysis of C. vulgaris and peanut shell, respectively. The bio-oil samples from pyrolysis were analyzed by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Bio-oil from lignocellulosic biomass pyrolysis contained more phenolic compounds while that from microalgae pyrolysis contained more nitrogen-containing species. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis results showed that concentration of OH, CH, CO, OCH3, and CO functional groups in char samples decreased significantly after pyrolysis. PMID:25935388

  17. Oxidative pyrolysis of solid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senneca, Osvalda; Chirone, Riccardo [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione, C.N.R., P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Salatino, Piero [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2004-06-01

    This study addresses the dependence of the rate and pattern of pyrolysis of solid fuels from the oxidizing versus inert nature of the gaseous atmosphere. A selection of four solid fuels is considered in the study, namely two plastics (polyethylene and polyethylene terephthalate), one lignocellulosic material (Robinia Pseudoacacia) and a South African bituminous coal. Fuels are pyrolyzed in a thermogravimetric apparatus at different heating rates, under inert conditions or in the presence of oxygen at different concentration.Results indicate that the action exerted by oxygen during pyrolysis depends on the nature of the fuel and on the process conditions such as heating rate and oxygen concentration. Larger heating rates and larger oxygen concentration may indeed emphasize differences between inert and oxidative pyrolysis. Further analysis is directed to check the adequacy of a power low kinetic expression to describe the dependence of the rate of oxidative pyrolysis from the level of oxygen concentration.

  18. Pyrolysis and volatilization of cocaine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing popularity of inhaling cocaine vapor prompted the present study, to determine cocaine's fate during this process. The free base of [3H]cocaine (1 microCi/50 mg) was added to a glass pipe, which was then heated in a furnace to simulate freebasing. Negative pressure was used to draw the vapor through a series of glass wool, ethanol, acidic, and basic traps. Air flow rate and temperature were found to have profound effects on the volatilization and pyrolysis of cocaine. At a temperature of 260 degrees C and a flow rate of 400 mL/min, 37% of the radioactivity remained in the pipe, 39% was found in the glass wool trap, and less than 1% in the remainder of the volatilization apparatus after a 10-min volatilization. Reducing the air flow rate to 100 mL/min reduced the amount of radioactivity collected in the glass wool trap to less than 10% of the starting material and increased the amount that remained in the pipe to 58%. GC/MS analysis of the contents of the glass wool trap after volatilization at 260 degrees C and a flow rate of 400 mL/min revealed that 60% of the cocaine remained intact, while approximately 6 and 2% of the starting material was recovered as benzoic acid and methylecgonidine, respectively. As the temperature was increased to 650 degrees C, benzoic acid and methylecgonidine accounted for 83 and 89% of the starting material, respectively, whereas only 2% of the cocaine remained intact. Quantitation of cocaine in the vapor during the course of volatilization revealed high concentrations during the first two min and low concentrations for the remaining time

  19. Alkaline deoxygenated graphene oxide for supercapacitor applications: An effective green alternative for chemically reduced graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Sanjaya D.; Mariano, Ruperto G.; Nijem, Nour; Chabal, Yves; Ferraris, John P.; Balkus, Kenneth J.

    2012-10-01

    Graphene is a promising electrode material for energy storage applications. The most successful method for preparing graphene from graphite involves the oxidation of graphite to graphene oxide (GO) and reduction back to graphene. Even though different chemical and thermal methods have been developed to reduce GO to graphene, the use of less toxic materials to generate graphene still remains a challenge. In this study we developed a facile one-pot synthesis of deoxygenated graphene (hGO) via alkaline hydrothermal process, which exhibits similar properties to the graphene obtained via hydrazine reduction (i.e. the same degree of deoxygenation found in hydrazine reduced GO). Moreover, the hGO formed freestanding, binder-free paper electrodes for supercapacitors. Coin cell type (CR2032) symmetric supercapacitors were assembled using the hGO electrodes. Electrochemical characterization of hGO was carried out using lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) and ethylmethylimidazolium bis-(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (EMITFSI) electrolytes. The results for the hGO electrodes were compared with the hydrazine reduced GO (rGO) electrode. The hGO electrode exhibits a energy density of 20 W h kg-1 and 50 W h kg-1 in LiTFSI and EMITFSI respectively, while delivering a maximum power density of 11 kW kg-1 and 14.7 kW kg-1 in LiTFSI and EMITFSI, respectively.

  20. Characterization of fiber/matrix bonding strenth during the pyrolysis of CFRP to C/C composites

    OpenAIRE

    Sha, J.; Wu, G.; Dai, J.; Zhang, Y; Hausherr, J.-M.; Konschak, A.; Krenkel, W.

    2011-01-01

    The fiber/matrix bonding strength during the pyrolysis of CFRP to C/C composite was measured by single fiber push-out test with a microindentation method. The composites in their polymeric state show a high fiber/matrix bonding strength. After pyrolysis at elevated temperatures the fiber/matrix bonding strength decreases. Such result would be beneficial to the understanding of microstructure evolution mechanism during the pyrolysis of CFRP to C/C composites.

  1. Catalyst for the pyrolysis of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boteanu, S.; Ivanus, G.; Pop, E.; Pop, G.; Tomi, P.

    1982-11-30

    A catalyst is claimed for the catalytic pyrolysis of hydrocarbons to olefins and diolefins at temperatures in the range of 600/sup 0/-750/sup 0/C and pressures of 0.1 to 20 atmospheres. It is a bifunctional synthetic modified mordenite zeolite of the formula (Yh.Zm.Una) O.Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/SiO/sub 2/ wherein M is Cu, Ag or Co/2 and u+y+z approach or equal 2. Good yields of ethylene and propylene are obtained from hydrocarbon feedstocks having boiling points up to 550/sup 0/C.

  2. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica and polypropylene over mesoporous Al-SBA-15 catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung Won; Choi, Suek Joo; Park, Sung Hoon; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Jung, Sang-Chul; Kim, Sang Chai; Park, Young-Kwon

    2014-08-01

    The catalytic co-pyrolysis of a seaweed biomass, Laminaria japonica, and a typical polymer material, polypropylene, was studied for the first time. A mesoporous material Al-SBA-15 was used as a catalyst. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted using a fixed-bed reactor and pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). BET surface area, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, and NH3 temperature programmed desorption were measured to examine the catalyst characteristics. When only L. japonica was pyrolyzed, catalytic reforming slightly increased the gas yield and decreased the oil yield. The H2O content in bio-oil was increased by catalytic reforming from 42.03 to 50.32 wt% due to the dehydration reaction occurring on the acid sites inside the large pores of Al-SBA-15. Acids, oxygenates, mono-aromatics, poly aromatic hydrocarbons, and phenolics were the main components of the bio-oil obtained from the pyrolysis of L. japonica. Upon catalytic reforming over Al-SBA-15, the main oxygenate species 1,4-anhydro- d-galactitol and 1,5-anhydro- d-manitol were completely removed. When L. japonica was co-pyrolyzed with polypropylene, the H2O content in bio-oil was decreased dramatically (8.93 wt% in the case of catalytic co-pyrolysis), contributing to the improvement of the oil quality. A huge increase in the content of gasoline-range and diesel-range hydrocarbons in bio-oil was the most remarkable change that resulted from the co-pyrolysis with polypropylene, suggesting its potential as a transport fuel. The content of mono-aromatics with high economic value was also increased significantly by catalytic co-pyrolysis.

  3. ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE PRODUCTS FROM THE SLOW PYROLYSIS OF COAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study of the evolution of volatile matter from coals of various rank during fixed-and fluid-bed pyrolysis. The pyrolyses were performed at temperatures ranging from 400 to 1000 C and with heating rates ranging from 1.5 to 6.0 C/s. Effects of equilibr...

  4. Microstructure and mechanical properties at high temperature of SiC-matrix by electrophoretic deposition and polymer infiltration and pyrolysis process

    OpenAIRE

    De Juan Mangas, Teresa; Tejado Garrido, Elena Maria; Ivekovic, Aljaz; Novak, Sasa; Pastor Caño, Jose Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    The EFDA-ITER programme for materials wants to develop new structural materials for future nuclear magnetic fusion reactors. In this context, special attention must be paid in the development of new composite materials that could support the hard working conditions of the nuclear fusion reactors: high temperature, high stresses, and high radiation.

  5. Co-pyrolysis of lignite and sugar beet pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, worldwide studies have been undertaken on the biomass usage and co-conversion of biomass and coal to seek out alternative fuels for supplying energy in an environmental friendly way. The objective of this work is to study co-pyrolysis of lignite and sugar beet pulp in 50/50 (wt./wt.) ratio of blend pellets, to elucidate their thermal behaviour under pyrolysis conditions and to assess major decomposition products in terms of their yields. A special chamber, which has enabled very fast heating rates, was used in the pyrolysis experiments carried at 600 deg. C. The results were interpreted in the light of liquid, solid and gaseous yields, resulting from thermal decomposition, and kinetics of thermogravimetric analysis. Proximate volatile matter and ash contents of the blends were different compared to those found by using individual values. Sugar beet pulp decomposed faster within a relatively narrow temperature range than lignite and underwent a significant shrinkage during pyrolysis. It was found that the chars left behind after the flash pyrolysis of these pellets at 600 deg. C have substantial amounts of volatile matter that would evolve upon further heating.

  6. [Components of oil sludge and their influence on pyrolysis behaviors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Liu, Jian-Guo; Nie, Yong-Feng

    2008-07-01

    Based on property analysis of oil sludge and its main components (mineral oil and minerals), pyrolysis process and releasing behavior of non-condensed gas of oil sludge and its main components were studied by thermogravimetric analysis-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR) and tubular resistance furnace, respectively. The results indicated that, (1) Oil sludge was characterized as relatively high heating value (15 422.41 kJ/kg), higher mineral content (61.57%) mainly composed of quartz. Mineral oil component had good thermal conversion property and adhered close with mineral in oil sludge. (2) Pyrolysis process of oil sludge included 5 stages: water volatilization and gas desorption (50-180 degrees C), light oil volatilization (180-370 degrees C), heavy oil pyrolysis (370-500 degrees C), semi-coke charring (500-600 degrees C) and mineral decomposition (higher than 600 degrees C). (3) Minerals influenced oil pyrolysis by surface function and enhancing heating conductivity, meanwhile minor elements in mineral oil could bring mineral decomposition temperature down. (4) Minerals affected the releasing behavior of non-condensed gas from mineral oil pyrolysis and resulted in lower total production and higher H2 production. PMID:18828401

  7. Vacuum Pyrolysis and Related ISRU Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiff, Eric H.; Pomeroy, Brian R.; Banks, Ian S.; Benz, Alexis

    2007-01-01

    A number of ISRU-related techniques have been developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The focus of the team has been on development of the vacuum pyrolysis technique for the production of oxygen from the lunar regolith. However, a number of related techniques have also been developed, including solar concentration, solar heating of regolith, resistive heating of regolith, sintering, regolith boiling, process modeling, parts manufacturing, and instrumentation development. An initial prototype system was developed to vaporize regolith simulants using a approx. l square meter Fresnel lens. This system was successfully used to vaporize quantities of approx. lg, and both mass spectroscopy of the gasses produced and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of the slag were done to show that oxygen was produced. Subsequent tests have demonstrated the use of a larger system With a 3.8m diameter reflective mirror to vaporize the regolith. These results and modeling of the vacuum pyrolysis reaction have indicated that the vaporization of the oxides in the regolith will occur at lower temperature for stronger vacuums. The chemical modeling was validated by testing of a resistive heating system that vaporized quantities of approx. 10g of MLS-1A. This system was also used to demonstrate the sintering of regolith simulants at reduced temperatures in high vacuum. This reduction in the required temperature prompted the development of a small-scale resistive heating system for application as a scientific instrument as well as a proof-of principle experiment for oxygen production.

  8. Pyrolysis of microalgal biomass in carbon dioxide environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seong-Heon; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jeon, Young Jae; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2015-10-01

    This work mechanistically investigated the influence of CO2 in the thermo-chemical process of microalgal biomass (Chlorella vulgaris and Microcystis aeruginosa) to achieve a fast virtuous cycle of carbon via recovering energy. This work experimentally justified that the influence of CO2 in pyrolysis of microalgal biomass could be initiated at temperatures higher than 530 °C, which directly led to the enhanced generation of syngas. For example, the concentration of CO from pyrolysis of M. aeruginosa increased up to ? 3000% at 670 °C in the presence of CO2. The identified universal influence of CO2 could be summarized by the expedited thermal cracking of VOCs evolved from microalgal biomass and by the unknown reaction between VOCs and CO2. This identified effectiveness of CO2 was different from the Boudouard reaction, which was independently occurred with dehydrogenation. Thus, microalgal biomass could be a candidate for the thermo-chemical process (pyrolysis and gasification). PMID:26133476

  9. Experimental investigation of flash pyrolysis oil droplet combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Norazana; Jensen, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate and compare the combustion behaviour of a single droplet of pyrolysis oil derived from wheat straw and heavy fossil oil in a single droplet combustion chamber. The initial oil droplet diameters were in between 500 ?m to 2500 ?m. The experiments were performed at a temperature ranging between 1000 and 1400°C with an initial gas velocity of 1.6 m/s and oxygen concentration of 3%. The evolution of combustion of bio-oil droplets was recorded by a digital video camera. It was observed that the combustion behaviour of pyrolysis oil droplet differ from the heavy oil in terms both of ignition, devolatilisation and char oxidation. The pyrolysis oil is more difficult to ignite and has a shorter devolatilisation time and a longer char oxidation time. Copyright © 2013, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l.

  10. Specialists' workshop on fast pyrolysis of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This workshop brought together most of those who are currently working in or have published significant findings in the area of fast pyrolysis of biomass or biomass-derived materials, with the goal of attaining a better understanding of the dominant mechanisms which produce olefins, oxygenated liquids, char, and tars. In addition, background papers were given in hydrocarbon pyrolysis, slow pyrolysis of biomass, and techniques for powdered-feedstock preparation in order that the other papers did not need to introduce in depth these concepts in their presentations for continuity. In general, the authors were requested to present summaries of experimental data with as much interpretation of that data as possible with regard to mechanisms and process variables such as heat flux, temperatures, partial pressure, feedstock, particle size, heating rates, residence time, etc. Separate abstracts have been prepared of each presentation for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  11. STEPWISE ISOTHERMAL FAST PYROLYSIS (SIFP. PART II. SIFP OF PEANUT SHELLS - ANTIFUNGAL PROPERTIES OF PHENOLIC FRACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Daniel Pérez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis of peanut shells was carried out using stepwise isothermal fast pyrolysis (SIFP. SIFP consists of successive isothermal fast pyrolysis reactions, where solid products obtained in the previous isothermal fast pyrolysis become the substrate of the subsequent reaction at a higher temperature. This article reports results obtained from SIFP of peanut shells between 200 and 300°C using 100°C intervals under vacuum (0.2 mm. The maximum yield of liquid products was obtained at 300°C, giving around 30% of bio-oil, which contained mainly phenols and furan derivatives. On the other hand, since previous papers have reported fungicidal activity of phenols derivatives from lingo-cellulosic biomass pyrolysis, we carried out antifungal activity tests of bio oil obtained from peanut shells SIFT at 300 °C. Results seem promising, at least on Sclerotium rolfsii.

  12. Thermovolumetrical studies on C/sub 1/ to C/sub 3/ hydrocarbon formation during pyrolysis of low rank fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karcz, A.; Palian, E.

    1986-01-01

    Laboratory pyrolysis results are presented from 6 types of brown coal (xylite, soft and hard brown coals). Pyrolysis gas was analyzed by gas chromatography on yield of methane and C/sub 2/ and C/sub 3/ hydrocarbons. Graphs for the gas yield in relation to pyrolysis temperature are provided. Experiments showed that methane yield could be increased two- to fourfold by pyrolysis with hydrogen gas at high temperatures of up to 900 C. Methane formation at lower temperatures, however, was not influenced by hydrogen gas. Maximum hydrocarbon formation velocity was observed in the 430 to 480 C temperature range. Kinetic parameters of pyrolysis reactions were further determined using formulae of H. Juentgen and K.H. van Heek. 8 refs.

  13. Abuse of smoking methamphetamine mixed with tobacco: II. The formation mechanism of pyrolysis products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, H; Nakahara, Y

    1990-05-01

    The pyrolysis products of smoking methamphetamine mixed with tobacco were determined by gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods. The mainstream smoke contained methamphetamine (14.5% of the initial methamphetamine), phenylacetone (3.1%). N-cyanomethylmethamphetamine (1.9%), trans-beta-methylstyrene (1.7%), N-formylmethamphetamine (1.5%), and other products (each less than 1%). The amount of each pyrolysis product in the sidestream smoke was less than that in the mainstream smoke by a factor of over 5, except for methamphetamine (10.5%) and N-formylmethamphetamine (1.4%). The formation mechanism of these products was investigated, by use of a pyrolyzer, from the standpoint of the material, pyrolysis temperature, and pyrolysis atmosphere. Although several products (for example, dimethylamphetamine and trans-beta-methylstyrene) were formed by thermal self-decomposition of methamphetamine alone, most of the products, except N-cyanomethylmethamphetamine, were formed chiefly by the thermal reaction of methamphetamine with cigarette components. The formation of N-cyanomethylmethamphetamine required air and a high pyrolysis temperature. Air and a high pyrolysis temperature generally accelerated the formation of the pyrolysis products. PMID:2348176

  14. Co-pyrolysis of coal with organic solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straka, P.; Buchtele, J. [Inst. of Rock Structure and Mechanics, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    The co-pyrolysis of high volatile A bituminous coal with solid organic materials (proteins, cellulose, polyisoprene, polystyrene, polyethylene-glycolterephtalate-PEGT) at a high temperature conditions was investigated. Aim of the work was to evaluate, firstly, the changes of the texture and of the porous system of solid phase after high temperature treatment in presence of different types of macromolecular solids, secondly, properties and composition of the tar and gas. Considered organic solids are important waste components. During their co-pyrolysis the high volatile bituminous coal acts as a hydrogen donor in the temperature rank 220-480{degrees}C. In the rank 500- 1000{degrees}C the solid phase is formed. The co-pyrolysis was carried out at heating rate 3 K/min. It was found that an amount of organic solid (5-10%) affects important changes in the optical texture forms of solid phase, in the pore distribution and in the internal surface area. Transport large pores volume decreases in presence of PEGT, polystyrene and cellulose and increases in presence of proteins and polyisoprene. (image analysis measurements show that the tendency of coal to create coarse pores during co-pyrolysis is very strong and increases with increasing amount of organic solid in blend). An addition of considered materials changes the sorption ability (methylene blue test, iodine adsorption test), moreover, the reactivity of the solid phase.

  15. Development of advanced technologies for biomass pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ran

    The utilization of biomass resources as a renewable energy resource is of great importance in responding to concerns over the protection of the environment and the security of energy supply. This PhD research focuses on the investigation of the conversion of negative value biomass residues into value-added fuels through flash pyrolysis. Pyrolysis Process Study. A pilot plant bubbling fluidized bed pyrolyzer has been set up and extensively used to thermally crack various low or negative value agricultural, food and biofuel processing residues to investigate the yields and quality of the liquid [bio-oil] and solid (bio-char] products. Another novel aspect of this study is the establishment of an energy balance from which the thermal self-sustainability of the pyrolysis process can be assessed. Residues such as grape skins and mixture of grape skins and seeds, dried distiller's grains from bio-ethanol plants, sugarcane field residues (internal bagasse, external and whole plant) have been tested. The pyrolysis of each residue has been carried out at temperatures ranging from 300 to 600°C and at different vapor residence times, to determine its pyrolysis behavior including yields and the overall energy balance. The thermal sustainability of the pyrolysis process has been estimated by considering the energy contribution of the product gases and liquid bio-oll in relation to the pyrolysis heat requirements. The optimum pyrolysis conditions have been identified in terms of maximizing the liquid blo-oil yield, energy density and content of the product blo-oil, after ensuring a self-sustainable process by utilizing the product gases and part of char or bio-oil as heat sources. Adownflow pyrolyzer has also been set up. Preliminary tests have been conducted using much shorter residence times. Bio-oil Recovery. Bio-oil recovery from the pyrolysis unit includes condensation followed by demisting. A blo-oil cyclonic condensing system is designed A nearly tangential entry forces the entering vapors and gases to spin, providing good heat transfer and driving the condensed droplets to the wall through cyclonic action. This condenser design has been successfully demonstrated for the application on the pilot fluidized bed pyrolysis unit. After condensation, a stable aerosol is also typically formed which is difficult to be efficiently captured with conventional technologies. A pilot scale helicoidal rotary demister, a novel technology for removing persistent fine bio-oil droplets from gases using dynamic centrifugal forces, has been developed. The demister uses a helicoidal element, which consists of a metal sheet wound as a spiral, designed to rotate at high speeds within a cyclone body. Larger droplets are separated as they enter the cyclone housing, while the smaller droplets are carried by the gas into the helicoidal path of the rotating element, where they are centrifuged towards the outer collecting walls and, as a result of a specially designed baffle, may flow counter-currently to the gas and are drained out from the bottom of the rotating element. The mist-free gas leaves through a channel located at the center of the spiral. This unique demister design has demonstrated a high separation efficiency when tested offline with artificial submicron mist and tested online for demisting bio-oil aerosol on the pyrolysis unit. Bio-oil Upgrading: Very often, phase separation of bio-oil occurs naturally upon condensation of the bio-oil vapors, typically through the use of cyclonic condensers. The bio-oil is separated into an organic phase and an aqueous phase. Research has been conducted on the possibility to enhance the fuel properties and energy performance of the organic phase by reducing its water content, enhancing its heating value and improving its stability. Through the use of drying agents, a remarkable reduction of water content and an increase of heating value can be achieved. Moreover, the volumetric energy density can be greatly enhanced. Besides, the energy yield of the process has also been investigated. (Abstract shortened by

  16. Pyrolysis Characteristics and Kinetics of Phoenix Tree Residues as a Potential Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available By using a thermogravimetric analyser under argon atmosphere, the pyrolysis process and the kinetic model of phoenix tree residues (the little stem, middle stem, and leaf at a 30 °C min?1 heating rate and the phoenix tree mix at three different heating rates (10 °C min?1, 30 °C min?1, and 50 °C min?1 were examined. The catalyst and the co-pyrolysis samples were at a 30 °C min?1 heating rate. The catalysts were Na2CO3, ZnCl2 and CaO in a mass fraction of 5 %. The experimental results revealed that the phoenix tree residues pyrolysis process consisted of three stages: dehydration stage, main pyrolysis stage, and the slow decomposition of residues. As the heating rate increased, the pyrolysis characteristic temperature of the phoenix tree grew, there was a backward-shift of the pyrolysis rate curve, and the mass loss rate gradually increased. The phoenix tree residues’ activation energy changed throughout the whole pyrolysis process, and the pyrolysis temperature ranges of the three main components (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin existed in overlapping phenomenon. As compared to the little stem, middle stem, and leaf, the phoenix tree mix was more likely to be pyrolysed under the same heating rate. Different catalysts had a different impact on the pyrolysis: ZnCl2 moved the start point of the reaction to the lower temperatures, but did not speed up the reaction; Na2CO3 speeded up the reaction without changing the start point of the reaction; CaO speeded up the reaction, moved the start point of the reaction to higher temperatures.

  17. Fast pyrolysis of lignin, macroalgae and sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinh, N.T.

    2013-04-15

    Non-conventional biomass feedstock may also be applicable for fast pyrolysis processes. Among the forms of non-conventional biomasses, macroalgae, lignin (industrial residue) and sewage sludge may be attractive materials due to their low price, non-competitiveness with food crops and the possible utilization of solid wastes. Besides, a fast pyrolysis process can be used as a process to densify the biomass and produce bioslurry, a mixture of bio-oil and pyrolytic char. The bioslurry is found to be a possible feedstock for pressurized gasification plants. Thus, the aims of this project are to investigate fast pyrolysis properties of lignin, sewage sludge and macroalgae on a lab scale PCR and characterize their bio-oil properties. Bioslurry properties with respect to use as a feedstock for pressurized gasification is also investigated. Lignin and sewage sludge PCR pyrolysis provided bio-oil yields of 47 and 54 wt% daf, and oil energy recovery of 45 and 50 %, respectively. While the macroalgae PCR pyrolysis showed promising results with an organic oil yield of 65 wt% daf and an oil energy recovery of 76 %. The HHV of the lignin, sewage sludge and macroalgae oils were 29.7, 25.7 and 25.5 MJ/kg db respectively, and that are higher than that of typical bioiv oil from conventional biomasses (23-24 MJ/kg db). Almost all metals feedstock contents were contained in the chars at temperatures of 550 - 575 deg. C for lignin, sewage sludge and macroalgae PCR pyrolysis. Due to high feedstock nitrogen and sulfur contents, also a high level of nitrogen and sulfur of macroalgae and sewage sludge oils were observed compared to conventional bio-oil and this may limit their further industrial applications. The lignin char had a high proportion of small size particles, a HHV of 21 MJ/kg db and were almost free of chloride and sulfur, thus it is considered as a promising fuel for gasification or combustion; whereas macroalgae and sewage sludge chars containing high amounts of macronutrients as N, P, K, S, Mg and Ca and this could make the chars most valuable as raw materials for fertilizer production. The sewage sludge waste bulk volume (the char compared to the sludge) was reduced with 52 % by pyrolysis at 575 deg. C. It is seen that the fast pyrolysis process provides a promising method to reduce cost for landfilling and produce a bio-oil that can be used as a fuel. The pyrolysis temperature has a considerable effect on the product distributions of the lignin and sewage sludge PCR pyrolysis, as well as their bio-oil properties with respect to molecular mass distribution, identified GC-MS component compositions, water-insoluble fraction, viscosity, and HHV. A maximum of organic oil yields of lignin and sewage sludge PCR pyrolysis were obtained at optimal temperatures of 550 - 575 deg. C. In this work, the behaviors of slurry samples of wood, char and grinded char with respect to phase transitions, rheological properties, elemental composition, and energy density were investigated. Also pumping properties were investigated at temperatures of 25, 40 and 60 deg. C and the solids loading of 0 - 20 wt%. The bioslurries obtained a volume energy density of 21-23 GJ/m{sup 3} and an energy densification factor of 4.5 - 5 (when compared to beech wood). Their apparent viscosities were significantly influenced by the solid loading levels (0 - 20 wt %) and temperatures (25 - 60 deg. C). The slurry samples with 10 wt% char (having d80 of 276 {mu}m) and 20 wt% grinded char (having d80 of 118 {mu}m) were successfully pumped into a pressurized chamber (0 - 6 bar). (LN)

  18. Effect of support-active phase interactions on the catalyst activity and selectivity in deoxygenation of triglycerides.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubi?ka, D.; Horá?ek, J.; Setni?ka, M.; Bulánek, R.; Zukal, Arnošt; Kubi?ková, I.

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 145, FEB 2014 (2014), s. 101-107. ISSN 0926-3373 R&D Projects: GA ?R GBP106/12/G015 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Deoxygenation * Vegetable oils * Effect of support Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 7.435, year: 2014

  19. COMPARISON OF OSCILLATIONS OF SKIN BLOOD FLOW AND DEOXYGENATION IN VASTUS LATERALIS IN LIGHT EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yano

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to compare oscillation of skin blood flow with that of deoxygenation in muscle during light exercise in order to determine the physiological significance of oscillations in deoxygenation. Prolonged exercise with 50% of peak oxygen uptake was performed for 60 min. Skin blood flow (SBF was measured using a laser blood flow meter on the right vastus lateralis muscle. Deoxygenated haemoglobin/myoglobin (DHb/Mb concentration in the left vastus lateralis were measured using a near-infrared spectroscopy system. SBF and DHb/Mb during exercise were analysed by fast Fourier transform. We classified frequency bands according to previous studies (Kvernmo et al. 1999, Kvandal et al. 2006 into phase I (0.005-0.0095 and 0.0095-0.02 Hz, phase II (0.02-0.06 Hz: phase II and phase III (0.06-0.16 Hz. The first peak of power spectra density (PSD in SBF appeared at 0.0078 Hz in phase I. The second peak of PSD in SBF appeared at 0.035 Hz. The third peak of PSD in SBF appeared at 0.078 Hz. The first peak of PSD in DHb/Mb appeared at 0.0039 Hz, which was out of phase I. The second peak of PSD in DHb/Mb appeared at 0.016 Hz. The third peak of PSD in DHb/Mb appeared at 0.035 Hz. The coefficient of cross correlation was very low. Cross power spectra density showed peaks of 0.0039, 0.016 and 0.035 Hz. It is concluded that a peak of 0.016 Hz in oscillations of DHb/Mb observed in muscle during exercise is associated with endothelium-dependent vasodilation (phase I and that a peak of 0.035 Hz in DHb/Mb is associated with sympathetic nerve activity (phase II. It is also confirmed that each peak of SBF oscillations is observed in each phase.

  20. Bio-Fuel Production Assisted with High Temperature Steam Electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Hawkes; James O' Brien; Michael McKellar

    2012-06-01

    Two hybrid energy processes that enable production of synthetic liquid fuels that are compatible with the existing conventional liquid transportation fuels infrastructure are presented. Using biomass as a renewable carbon source, and supplemental hydrogen from high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), these two hybrid energy processes have the potential to provide a significant alternative petroleum source that could reduce dependence on imported oil. The first process discusses a hydropyrolysis unit with hydrogen addition from HTSE. Non-food biomass is pyrolyzed and converted to pyrolysis oil. The pyrolysis oil is upgraded with hydrogen addition from HTSE. This addition of hydrogen deoxygenates the pyrolysis oil and increases the pH to a tolerable level for transportation. The final product is synthetic crude that could then be transported to a refinery and input into the already used transportation fuel infrastructure. The second process discusses a process named Bio-Syntrolysis. The Bio-Syntrolysis process combines hydrogen from HTSE with CO from an oxygen-blown biomass gasifier that yields syngas to be used as a feedstock for synthesis of liquid synthetic crude. Conversion of syngas to liquid synthetic crude, using a biomass-based carbon source, expands the application of renewable energy beyond the grid to include transportation fuels. It can also contribute to grid stability associated with non-dispatchable power generation. The use of supplemental hydrogen from HTSE enables greater than 90% utilization of the biomass carbon content which is about 2.5 times higher than carbon utilization associated with traditional cellulosic ethanol production. If the electrical power source needed for HTSE is based on nuclear or renewable energy, the process is carbon neutral. INL has demonstrated improved biomass processing prior to gasification. Recyclable biomass in the form of crop residue or energy crops would serve as the feedstock for this process. A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-blown biomass gasifier.

  1. The pyrolysis process of sewage sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosov, V. F.; Umnova, O. M.; Zaichenko, V. M.

    2015-11-01

    The experimental investigations of pyrolysis process sewage sludge at different conditions are presented. As a result of executed investigations it was shown that syngas (mixrure of CO and H2) used in gas engine can be obtained in pyrolysis process.

  2. Lignin depolymerization and upgrading via fast pyrolysis and electrocatalysis for the production of liquid fuels and value-added products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garedew, Mahlet

    The production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass is needed to replace fossil fuels, which are decreasing in supply at an unsustainable rate. Renewable fuels also address the rising levels of greenhouse gases, an issue for which the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change implicated humanity in 2013. In response, the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) mandates the production of 21 billion gallons of advanced biofuels by 2022. Biomass fast pyrolysis (BFP) uses heat (400-600 °C) without oxygen to convert biomass to liquids fuel precursors offering an alternative to fossil fuels and a means to meet the EISA mandate. The major product, bio-oil, can be further upgraded to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, while biochar can serve as a solid fuel or soil amendment. The combustible gas co-product is typically burned for process heat. Though the most valuable of the pyrolysis products, the liquid bio-oil is highly oxygenated, corrosive, low in energy content and unstable during storage. As a means of improving bio-oil properties, electrocatalytic hydrogenation (ECH) is employed to reduce and deoxygenate reactive compounds. This work specifically focuses on lignin as a feed material for BFP. As lignin comprises up to 30% of the mass and 40% of the energy stored in biomass, it offers great potential for the production of liquid fuels and value-added products by utilizing fast pyrolysis as a conversion method coupled with electrocatalysis as an upgrading method.

  3. Flash pyrolysis fuel oil: bio-pok

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gust, S. [Neste Oy, Porvoo (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Samples of flash pyrolysis liquid produced by Union Fenosa, Spain from pine and straw and samples produced by Ensyn of Canada from mixed hardwoods were combusted with simple pressure atomization equipment commonly used with light fuel oils in intermediate size (0.1-1 MW) boilers. With a number of modifications to the combustion system, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) could be reduced to acceptable levels: CO < 30 ppm and NO{sub x} < 140 ppm. Particulate emissions which were initially very high (Bacharach 4-5) were reduced (Bach. 2-3) by system improvements but are still higher than from light fuel oil (Bach. <1). The modifications to the combustion system were: refractory section between burner and boiler, acid resistant progressive cavity pump, higher liquid preheat temperature and higher pressure than for light fuel oils. The main problems with pyrolysis liquids concerns their instability or reactivity. At temperatures above 100 deg C they begin to coke, their viscosity increases during storage and oxygen from air causes skin formation. This requires that special handling procedures are developed for fuel storage, delivery and combustion systems. (orig.)

  4. Effect of annealing temperature on the structural–microstructural and electrical characteristics of thallium bearing HTSC films prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K K Verma; R S Tiwari; O N Srivastava

    2005-04-01

    In order to get good quality reproducible films of Tl : HTSC system, we have studied the different annealing conditions to finally achieve the optimized annealing condition. In the present investigation, Tl–Ca–Ba–Cu–O superconducting films have been prepared on YSZ (100) and MgO (100) single crystal substrates via precursor route followed by thallination. The post deposition heat treatments of the precursor films were carried out for various annealing temperatures (870°C, 890°C) and durations (1 and 2 min). The optimized thallination procedure occurred at 870°C for 2 min into good quality films with c ( = 0) ? 103 K for YSZ and c ( = 0) ? 98 K for MgO substrates, respectively. Further we have correlated the structural/microstructural characteristics of the films.

  5. Nanocrystalline Chalcopyrite Materials (CuInS2 and CuInSe2) via Low-Temperature Pyrolysis of Molecular Single-Source Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Stephanie L.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Banger, Kulbinder K.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2003-01-01

    Nanometer sized particles of the chalcopyrite compounds CuInS2 and CuInSe2 were synthesized by thermal decomposition of molecular single-source precursors (PPh3)2CuIn(SEt)4 and (PPh3)2CuIn(SePh)4, respectively, in the non-coordinating solvent dioctyl phthalate at temperatures between 200 and 300 C. The nanoparticles range in size from 3 - 30 nm and are aggregated to form roughly spherical clusters of about 500 nm in diameter. X-ray diffraction of the nanoparticle powders shows greatly broadened lines indicative of very small particle sizes, which is confirmed by TEM. Peaks present in the XRD can be indexed to reference patterns for the respective chalcopyrite compounds. Optical spectroscopy and elemental analysis by energy dispersive spectroscopy support the identification of the nanoparticles as chalcopyrites.

  6. Phenols from pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of tobacco biomass components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibet, Joshua K; Khachatryan, Lavrent; Dellinger, Barry

    2015-11-01

    Phenol and its derivatives (phenol, o-, m-, p-cresols, catechol, hydroquinone, methoxy substituted phenols, etc. referred to as phenolic compounds or phenols) are well-known toxicants that exist in the environment and affect both human and natural ecosystems. This study explores quantitatively the yields of phenolic compounds from the thermal degradation (pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis) of common tobacco biomass components (lignin, tyrosine, ethyl cellulose, sodium alginate, and laminarin) as well as some mixtures (lignin/tyrosine, ethyl cellulose/tyrosine and sodium alginate/tyrosine) considered important in high temperature cooking, tobacco smoking, and forest fires. Special attention has been given to binary mixtures including those containing tyrosine-pyrolysis of binary mixtures of tyrosine with lignin and ethyl cellulose results in significant reductions in the yields of majority phenols relative to those from the thermal degradation of tyrosine. These results imply that the significant reductions of phenol yields in mixtures are not only dependent upon the mass fractions of the components but also the synergetic inhibition effect of biomass components on the thermal degradation of tyrosine. A mechanistic description of this phenomenon is suggested. The results may also be implied in tobacco industry that the cigarette paper (as ethyl cellulose derivative) may play a critical role in reducing the concentration of phenolic compounds released during tobacco burning. PMID:26091866

  7. Bio-oil from Flash Pyrolysis of Agricultural Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Norazana

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes the production of bio-oils from flash pyrolysis of agricultural residues, using a pyrolysis centrifugal reactor (PCR). By thermal degradation of agricultural residues in the PCR, a liquid oil, char and non-condensable gases are produced. The yield of each fraction is influenced by the reaction temperature and by feedstock ash composition. It have been the objective of the present work to investigate the influence of changed operation conditions on the yield of bio-oil, char and gas; as well as to investigate the composition and storage properties of some of the produced bio-oils. Mainly the influence of feedstock type (wheat straw, rice husk and pine wood), feedstock water content and reactor temperature on the yield of char, bio-oil and gas were investigated. The storage stability of bio-oils with respect to changes in viscosity, water content and pH were investigated for straw and pine wood oil at different temperature and residence times. Temperature plays a major role in the pyrolysis process and it determines to a high degree the fate of the final product yields and also product composition. Higher temperature favors the formation of pyrolysis gas while lower temperatures increase the yield of char. Liquid oil, however increases with temperature up to certain point and thereafter it decreases at still higher temperature due to secondary cracking of the primary products. The presence of moisture in the feed stock may also influences the pyrolysis process. The influence of reaction temperature and the moisture content on the flash pyrolysis product yield has been reported in Paper I (Chapter 2). It was observed that the presence of moisture in the wheat straw with different moisture levels of 1.5 wt. %, 6.2 wt. % and 15.0 wt. % have shown no significant effect on the pyrolysis product distribution. The fraction of bio-oil, char and gases produced from pyrolysis of straw were in the range of 40-60 wt. %, 18-50 wt. % and 5-22 wt. %, respectively, regardless of the straw moisture levels. The optimal reaction temperature for the production of bio-oil was around 525 °C to 550 °C for all straw moisture contents. It was investigated how differences in biomass composition influence pyrolysis products yields and the composition of char and bio-oils. Details about this investigation are explained in Paper II (Chapter 3). The used pine wood had a low ash content (0.5 wt. %), the wheat straw an intermediate ash level (6.0 wt. %) and the rice husk a high ash level (13.6 wt. %). The highest alkali content, potassium (1.53 wt. %) are present in straw and the lowest potassium content level is observed in pine wood (0.04 wt. %). The feedstocks were pyrolyzed at reactor temperatures ranging from 475 to 575 oC. It was observed that the formation of char and gas is affected by the biomass alkali content. Increasing biomass alkali content caused an increased feedstock conversion at low temperature, a lower maximum liquid organic yield temperature and a lower maximum liquid organics yield. In addition, the chemical compositions of the bio-oils and the chars of the investigated feedstocks were also analyzed. The utilization of the pyrolysis oil in static combustion equipments such as boilers and turbine have shown that the suitability of the pyrolysis oil to substitute fossil fuel. However, several limitations still arise due to the instability of the pyrolysis oil that may cause problems with transport and storage. Pyrolysis oil contains more than hundred of chemical compounds and has a wide range of volatility (different boiling points). The stability and aging of bio-oils generated by bench scale pyrolysis of wheat straw and pine wood are discussed in Paper III (Chapter 4). It was found that the bio-oil from wheat straw shows better stability compared to the bio-oil from pine wood. In addition, both bio-oils are fairly stable stored in a closed container at room temperature for up to 130 days, with no phase separation and only small changes in physical properties were observed. The combustion behavior of pyrolysis

  8. A Novel Energy-Efficient Pyrolysis Process: Self-pyrolysis of Oil Shale Triggered by Topochemical Heat in a Horizontal Fixed Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, You-Hong; Bai, Feng-Tian; Lü, Xiao-Shu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Yu-Min; Guo, Ming-Yi; Guo, Wei; Liu, Bao-Chang

    2015-02-01

    This paper proposes a novel energy-efficient oil shale pyrolysis process triggered by a topochemical reaction that can be applied in horizontal oil shale formations. The process starts by feeding preheated air to oil shale to initiate a topochemical reaction and the onset of self-pyrolysis. As the temperature in the virgin oil shale increases (to 250-300°C), the hot air can be replaced by ambient-temperature air, allowing heat to be released by internal topochemical reactions to complete the pyrolysis. The propagation of fronts formed in this process, the temperature evolution, and the reaction mechanism of oil shale pyrolysis in porous media are discussed and compared with those in a traditional oxygen-free process. The results show that the self-pyrolysis of oil shale can be achieved with the proposed method without any need for external heat. The results also verify that fractured oil shale may be more suitable for underground retorting. Moreover, the gas and liquid products from this method were characterised, and a highly instrumented experimental device designed specifically for this process is described. This study can serve as a reference for new ideas on oil shale in situ pyrolysis processes.

  9. A novel energy-efficient pyrolysis process: self-pyrolysis of oil shale triggered by topochemical heat in a horizontal fixed bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, You-Hong; Bai, Feng-Tian; Lü, Xiao-Shu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Yu-Min; Guo, Ming-Yi; Guo, Wei; Liu, Bao-Chang

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel energy-efficient oil shale pyrolysis process triggered by a topochemical reaction that can be applied in horizontal oil shale formations. The process starts by feeding preheated air to oil shale to initiate a topochemical reaction and the onset of self-pyrolysis. As the temperature in the virgin oil shale increases (to 250-300°C), the hot air can be replaced by ambient-temperature air, allowing heat to be released by internal topochemical reactions to complete the pyrolysis. The propagation of fronts formed in this process, the temperature evolution, and the reaction mechanism of oil shale pyrolysis in porous media are discussed and compared with those in a traditional oxygen-free process. The results show that the self-pyrolysis of oil shale can be achieved with the proposed method without any need for external heat. The results also verify that fractured oil shale may be more suitable for underground retorting. Moreover, the gas and liquid products from this method were characterised, and a highly instrumented experimental device designed specifically for this process is described. This study can serve as a reference for new ideas on oil shale in situ pyrolysis processes. PMID:25656294

  10. A Novel Energy-Efficient Pyrolysis Process: Self-pyrolysis of Oil Shale Triggered by Topochemical Heat in a Horizontal Fixed Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, You-Hong; Bai, Feng-Tian; Lü, Xiao-Shu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Yu-Min; Guo, Ming-Yi; Guo, Wei; Liu, Bao-Chang

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel energy-efficient oil shale pyrolysis process triggered by a topochemical reaction that can be applied in horizontal oil shale formations. The process starts by feeding preheated air to oil shale to initiate a topochemical reaction and the onset of self-pyrolysis. As the temperature in the virgin oil shale increases (to 250–300°C), the hot air can be replaced by ambient-temperature air, allowing heat to be released by internal topochemical reactions to complete the pyrolysis. The propagation of fronts formed in this process, the temperature evolution, and the reaction mechanism of oil shale pyrolysis in porous media are discussed and compared with those in a traditional oxygen-free process. The results show that the self-pyrolysis of oil shale can be achieved with the proposed method without any need for external heat. The results also verify that fractured oil shale may be more suitable for underground retorting. Moreover, the gas and liquid products from this method were characterised, and a highly instrumented experimental device designed specifically for this process is described. This study can serve as a reference for new ideas on oil shale in situ pyrolysis processes. PMID:25656294

  11. Pyrolysis oil from carbonaceous solid wastes in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The agro-industrial sector of Malaysia produces a huge amount of oil palm and paddy rice. These generate a significant amount of renewable biomass solid wastes in the forms of oil palm shell and rice husk. Apart from this a huge quantity of scrap tyre is generated from the country's faster increasing usage of transportation vehicles like motorcycle, car, bus and lorries. These wastes are producing pollution and disposal problems affecting the environment. Besides energy is not recovered efficiently from these waste resources. From the elemental composition and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) studies of the wastes, it appeared that the wastes could be used for pyrolysis liquid oil production. Pyrolysis at present is deemed to be a potential method for the conversion of carbonaceous solid wastes into upgraded liquid products which can either be tried for liquid fuel or value-added chemical. A fluidized bed bench scale fast pyrolysis system was employed for this thermochemical conversion process of solid wastes. Silica sand was used as fluidized bed material and nitrogen gas as the fluidising medium. The products obtained were liquid oil, solid char and gas. The liquid oil and solid char were collected separately while the gas was flared. The maximum liquid product yield was found to vary with feedstock material fluidized bed temperature. The maximum liquid product yield was found to be 58, 53 and 40 wt. % of biomass fed at fluidized bed temperature at 500, 525 and 4500C respectively for oil palm shell, scrap tyre and rice husk. The solid char yield was 25, 36 and 53 wt. % of biomass fed at the condition of maximum liquid product yield for oil palm shell, scrap tyre and rice husk respectively. The oil products were subjected to FTIR, GC and GC/MS analysis for their group composition and detailed chemical compositions. The pyrolysis oil from scrap tyre was found to contain highest percentage of pure hydrocarbons (25 wt. % of total feed) with esters and oxygenated hydrocarbons containing silicone. The phenols were found to be maximum in case of oil palm shell pyrolysis oil (35 wt. % of total feed) with organic acids, alcohol, ketones and hydrocarbons. The pyrolysis oil from rice husk contained a maximum. percentage of ketones (28 wt. % of total feed) with acids, aldehydes, alcohol, phenols and hydrocarbons. Thus, the compounds were found to be prospectful for fuel and chemicals. The physical properties of the pyrolysis oils were presented and compared with typical wood pyrolysis oil. (Author)

  12. Influence of Pyrolysis Parameters on the Performance of CMSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta C. Campo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon hollow fiber membranes have been prepared by pyrolysis of a P84/S-PEEK blend. Proximate analysis of the precursor was performed using thermogravimetry (TGA, and a carbon yield of approximately 40% can be obtained. This study aimed at understanding the influence of pyrolysis parameters—end temperature, quenching effect, and soaking time—on the membrane properties. Permeation experiments were performed with N2, He, and CO2. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM has been done for all carbon hollow fibers. The highest permeances were obtained for the membrane submitted to an end temperature of 750°C and the highest ideal selectivities for an end temperature of 700°C. In both cases, the membranes were quenched to room temperature.

  13. Bio-oil from flash pyrolysis of agricultural residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, N.B.

    2012-08-15

    This thesis describes the production of bio-oils from flash pyrolysis of agricultural residues, using a pyrolysis centrifugal reactor (PCR). It has been the objective of the present work to investigate the influence of changed operation conditions on the yield of bio-oil, char and gas; as well as to investigate the composition and storage properties of some of the produced bio-oils. Mainly the influence of feedstock type (wheat straw, rice husk and pine wood), feedstock water content and reactor temperature on the yield of char, bio-oil and gas were investigated. The storage stability of bio-oils with respect to changes in viscosity, water content and pH were investigated for straw and pine wood oil at different temperature and residence times. Temperature plays a major role in the pyrolysis process and it determines to a high degree the fate of the final product yields and also product composition. Higher temperature favors the formation of pyrolysis gas while lower temperatures increase the yield of char. Liquid oil, however increases with temperature up to certain point and thereafter it decreases at still higher temperature due to secondary cracking of the primary products. The presence of moisture in the feed stock may also influences the pyrolysis process. The influence of reaction temperature and the moisture content on the flash pyrolysis product yield has been reported in Paper I (Chapter 2). It was observed that the presence of moisture in the wheat straw with different moisture levels of 1.5 wt. %, 6.2 wt. % and 15.0 wt. % have shown no significant effect on the pyrolysis product distribution. The fraction of bio-oil, char and gases produced from pyrolysis of straw were in the range of 40-60 wt. %, 18-50 wt. % and 5-22 wt. %, respectively, regardless of the straw moisture levels. The optimal reaction temperature for the production of bio-oil was around 525 deg. C to 550 deg. C for all straw moisture contents. It was investigated how differences in biomass composition influence pyrolysis products yields and the composition of char and bio-oils. Details about this investigation are explained in Paper II (Chapter 3). The used pine wood had a low ash content (0.5 wt. %), the wheat straw an intermediate ash level (6.0 wt. %) and the rice husk a high ash level (13.6 wt. %). The highest alkali content, potassium (1.53 wt. %) are present in straw and the lowest potassium content level is observed in pine wood (0.04 wt. %). The feedstocks were pyrolyzed at reactor temperatures ranging from 475 to 575 deg. C. It was observed that the formation of char and gas is affected by the biomass alkali content. Increasing biomass alkali content caused an increased feedstock conversion at low temperature, a lower maximum liquid organic yield temperature and a lower maximum liquid organics yield. In addition, the chemical compositions of the bio-oils and the chars of the investigated feedstocks were also analyzed. The utilization of the pyrolysis oil in static combustion equipments such as boilers and turbine have shown that the suitability of the pyrolysis oil to substitute fossil fuel. However, several limitations still arise due to the instability of the pyrolysis oil that may cause problems with transport and storage. Pyrolysis oil contains more than hundred of chemical compounds and has a wide range of volatility (different boiling points). The stability and aging of bio-oils generated by bench scale pyrolysis of wheat straw and pine wood are discussed in Paper III (Chapter 4). It was found that the bio-oil from wheat straw shows better stability compared to the bio-oil from pine wood. In addition, both bio-oils are fairly stable stored in a closed container at room temperature for up to 130 days, with no phase separation and only small changes in physical properties were observed. The combustion behavior of pyrolysis oils derived from wheat straw and pine wood are investigated and discussed in Paper IV (Chapter 5). The investigation is done in two parts. In the first part, the technique of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was

  14. Modelling solid-convective flash pyrolysis of straw and wood in the Pyrolysis Centrifuge Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Niels; Larsen, Morten Boberg; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Less than a handful of solid-convective pyrolysis reactors for the production of liquid fuel from biomass have been presented and for only a single reactor a detailed mathematical model has been presented. In this article we present a predictive mathematical model of the pyrolysis process in the Pyrolysis Centrifuge Reactor, a novel solid-convective flash pyrolysis reactor. The model relies on the original concept for ablative pyrolysis of particles being pyrolysed through the formation of an in...

  15. Chemistry of decomposition of freshwater wetland sedimentary organic material during ramped pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E. K.; Rosenheim, B. E.

    2011-12-01

    Ramped pyrolysis methodology, such as that used in the programmed-temperature pyrolysis/combustion system (PTP/CS), improves radiocarbon analysis of geologic materials devoid of authigenic carbonate compounds and with low concentrations of extractable authochthonous organic molecules. The approach has improved sediment chronology in organic-rich sediments proximal to Antarctic ice shelves (Rosenheim et al., 2008) and constrained the carbon sequestration potential of suspended sediments in the lower Mississippi River (Roe et al., in review). Although ramped pyrolysis allows for separation of sedimentary organic material based upon relative reactivity, chemical information (i.e. chemical composition of pyrolysis products) is lost during the in-line combustion of pyrolysis products. A first order approximation of ramped pyrolysis/combustion system CO2 evolution, employing a simple Gaussian decomposition routine, has been useful (Rosenheim et al., 2008), but improvements may be possible. First, without prior compound-specific extractions, the molecular composition of sedimentary organic matter is unknown and/or unidentifiable. Second, even if determined as constituents of sedimentary organic material, many organic compounds have unknown or variable decomposition temperatures. Third, mixtures of organic compounds may result in significant chemistry within the pyrolysis reactor, prior to introduction of oxygen along the flow path. Gaussian decomposition of the reaction rate may be too simple to fully explain the combination of these factors. To relate both the radiocarbon age over different temperature intervals and the pyrolysis reaction thermograph (temperature (°C) vs. CO2 evolved (?mol)) obtained from PTP/CS to chemical composition of sedimentary organic material, we present a modeling framework developed based upon the ramped pyrolysis decomposition of simple mixtures of organic compounds (i.e. cellulose, lignin, plant fatty acids, etc.) often found in sedimentary organic material to account for changes in thermograph shape. The decompositions will be compositionally verified by 13C NMR analysis of pyrolysis residues from interrupted reactions. This will allow for constraint of decomposition temperatures of individual compounds as well as chemical reactions between volatilized moieties in mixtures of these compounds. We will apply this framework with 13C NMR analysis of interrupted pyrolysis residues and radiocarbon data from PTP/CS analysis of sedimentary organic material from a freshwater marsh wetland in Barataria Bay, Louisiana. We expect to characterize the bulk chemical composition during pyrolysis and as well as diagenetic changes with depth. Most importantly, we expect to constrain the potential and the limitations of this modeling framework for application to other depositional environments.

  16. Stabilization of biomass-derived pyrolysis oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venderbosch, R.H. [BTG Biomass Technology Group BV, Enschede (Netherlands); Ardiyanti, A.R.; Heeres, H.J.; Wildschut, J. [Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Groningen, (Netherlands); Oasmaa, A. [VTT, Espoo (Finland)

    2010-05-15

    Biomass is the only renewable feedstock containing carbon, and therefore the only alternative to fossil-derived crude oil derivatives. However, the main problems concerning the application of biomass for biofuels and bio-based chemicals are related to transport and handling, the limited scale of the conversion process and the competition with the food industry. To overcome such problems, an integral processing route for the conversion of (non-feed) biomass (residues) to transportation fuels is proposed. It includes a pretreatment process by fast pyrolysis, followed by upgrading to produce a crude-oil-like product, and finally co-refining in traditional refineries. This paper contributes to the understanding of pyrolysis oil upgrading. The processes include a thermal treatment step and/or direct hydroprocessing. At temperatures up to 250C (in the presence of H2 and catalyst) parallel reactions take place including re-polymerization (water production), decarboxylation (limited CO2 production) and hydrotreating. Water is produced in small quantities (approx. 10% extra), likely caused by repolymerization. This repolymerization takes place faster (order of minutes) than the hydrotreating reactions (order of tens of minutes, hours). In hydroprocessing of bio-oils, a pathway is followed by which pyrolysis oils are further polymerized if H2 and/or catalyst is absent, eventually to char components, or, with H2/catalyst, to stabilized components that can be further upgraded. Results of the experiments suggest that specifically the cellulose-derived fraction of the oil needs to be transformed first, preferably into alcohols in a 'mild hydrogenation' step. This subsequently allows further dehydration and hydrogenation.

  17. Development of a high-performance, coal-fired power generating system with a pyrolysis gas and char-fired high-temperature furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high-performance power system (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined-cycle plant that will have an efficiency of at least 47 percent, based on the higher heating value of the fuel. The original emissions goal of the project was for NOx and SOx to each be below 0.15 lb/MMBtu. In the Phase 2 RFP this emissions goal was reduced to 0.06 lb/MMBtu. The ultimate goal of HIPPS is to have an all-coal-fueled system, but initial versions of the system are allowed up to 35 percent heat input from natural gas. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation is currently leading a team effort with AlliedSignal, Bechtel, Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Research-Cottrell, TRW and Westinghouse. Previous work on the project was also done by General Electric. The HIPPS plant will use a high-Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) to achieve combined-cycle operation with coal as the primary fuel. The HITAF is an atmospheric-pressure, pulverized-fuel-fired boiler/air heater. The HITAF is used to heat air for the gas turbine and also to transfer heat to the steam cycle. its design and functions are very similar to conventional PC boilers. Some important differences, however, arise from the requirements of the combined cycle operation

  18. Development of a high-performance, coal-fired power generating system with a pyrolysis gas and char-fired high-temperature furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenker, J.

    1995-11-01

    A high-performance power system (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined-cycle plant that will have an efficiency of at least 47 percent, based on the higher heating value of the fuel. The original emissions goal of the project was for NOx and SOx to each be below 0.15 lb/MMBtu. In the Phase 2 RFP this emissions goal was reduced to 0.06 lb/MMBtu. The ultimate goal of HIPPS is to have an all-coal-fueled system, but initial versions of the system are allowed up to 35 percent heat input from natural gas. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation is currently leading a team effort with AlliedSignal, Bechtel, Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Research-Cottrell, TRW and Westinghouse. Previous work on the project was also done by General Electric. The HIPPS plant will use a high-Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) to achieve combined-cycle operation with coal as the primary fuel. The HITAF is an atmospheric-pressure, pulverized-fuel-fired boiler/air heater. The HITAF is used to heat air for the gas turbine and also to transfer heat to the steam cycle. its design and functions are very similar to conventional PC boilers. Some important differences, however, arise from the requirements of the combined cycle operation.

  19. Mild pyrolysis of P3HB/Switchgrass blends for the production of bio-oil enriched with crotonic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mild pyrolysis of switchgrass/poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB) blends that mimic P3HB-producing switchgrass lines was studied in a pilot scale fluidized bed reactor with the goal of simultaneously producing crotonic acid and switchgrass-based bio-oil. Factors such as pyrolysis temperature, residenc...

  20. Pyrolysis of propane in the presence of 14C2H4 studied by the kinetic isotope method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetic isotope method was used to explain the role of ethylene in the pyrolysis of propane. The influence of the temperature on the behaviour of ethylene in the pyrolysis of propane was studied. The mechanism of the radioactivity appearance in methane and propylene is proposed. (author)

  1. Co-pyrolysis of low rank coals and biomass: Product distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soncini, Ryan M; Means, Nicholas C; Weiland, Nathan T

    2013-10-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification of combined low rank coal and biomass feeds are the subject of much study in an effort to mitigate the production of green house gases from integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. While co-feeding has the potential to reduce the net carbon footprint of commercial gasification operations, the effects of co-feeding on kinetics and product distributions requires study to ensure the success of this strategy. Southern yellow pine was pyrolyzed in a semi-batch type drop tube reactor with either Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal or Mississippi lignite at several temperatures and feed ratios. Product gas composition of expected primary constituents (CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) was determined by in-situ mass spectrometry while minor gaseous constituents were determined using a GC-MS. Product distributions are fit to linear functions of temperature, and quadratic functions of biomass fraction, for use in computational co-pyrolysis simulations. The results are shown to yield significant nonlinearities, particularly at higher temperatures and for lower ranked coals. The co-pyrolysis product distributions evolve more tar, and less char, CH{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, than an additive pyrolysis process would suggest. For lignite co-pyrolysis, CO and H{sub 2} production are also reduced. The data suggests that evolution of hydrogen from rapid pyrolysis of biomass prevents the crosslinking of fragmented aromatic structures during coal pyrolysis to produce tar, rather than secondary char and light gases. Finally, it is shown that, for the two coal types tested, co-pyrolysis synergies are more significant as coal rank decreases, likely because the initial structure in these coals contains larger pores and smaller clusters of aromatic structures which are more readily retained as tar in rapid co-pyrolysis.

  2. Modeling, simulation and estimation of optimum parameters in pyrolysis of biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrolysis is a process by which a biomass feedstock is thermally degraded in the absence of air/oxygen. It is used for the production of solid (charcoal), liquid (tar and other organics) and gaseous products. The present work involves the estimation of optimum parameters in the pyrolysis of biomass for both non-isothermal and isothermal conditions. The modeling equations are solved numerically using the fourth order Runge-Kutta method over a wide range of heating rates (25-360 K/s) and temperatures (773-1773 K). The simulated results are compared with those reported in the literature and found to be in good agreement qualitatively in the range of operating conditions covered, but some very interesting trends are found, especially with respect to the effect of net heating rate and temperature on final pyrolysis time. The final pyrolysis time first decreases at lower values of net heating rate or temperature and then increases as net heating rate or temperature is further increased, providing an optimum value of net heating rate or temperature at which final pyrolysis time is minimum. This interesting phenomenon, which was not reported by investigators earlier, is well explained by means of the pyrolysis kinetics

  3. Catalytic oxidative pyrolysis of spent organic ion exchange resins from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spent IX resins from nuclear power reactors are highly active solid wastes generated during operations of nuclear reactors. Catalytic oxidative pyrolysis of these resins can lead to high volume reduction of these wastes. Low temperature pyrolysis of transition metal ion loaded IX resins in presence of nitrogen was carried out in order to optimize catalyst composition to achieve maximum weight reduction. Thermo gravimetric analysis of the pyrolysis residues was carried out in presence of air in order to compare the oxidative characteristics of transition metal oxide catalysts. Copper along with iron, chromium and nickel present in the spent IX resins gave the most efficient catalyst combination for catalytic and oxidative pyrolysis of the residues. During low temperature catalytic pyrolysis, 137Cesium volatility was estimated to be around 0.01% from cationic resins and around 0.1% from anionic resins. During oxidative pyrolysis at 700 degC, nearly 10 to 40% of 137Cesium was found to be released to off gases depending upon type of resin and catalyst loaded on to it. The oxidation of pyrolytic residues at 700 degC gave weight reduction of 15% for cationic resins and 93% for anionic resins. Catalytic oxidative pyrolysis is attractive for reducing weight and volume of spent cationic resins from PHWRs and VVERs. (author)

  4. Pyrolysis of a waste from the grinding of scrap tyres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? The pyrolysis of reinforcing fibres obtained from scrap tyres has been studied. ? The results have been compared to scrap tyre granules. ? A higher temperature is needed for the total decomposition of the fibres. ? More compounds with heteroatoms (O, N) were found in the oil from the fibres. ? Chars from the fibres exhibit lower BET surface and mesopore volume. - Abstract: The fibres that are used to reinforce tyres can be recovered as a waste in the process of grinding of scrap tyres. In this paper beneficiation through pyrolysis is studied since the fibres are made up of polymers with a small amount of rubber because the latter is difficult to separate. The experiments were performed at three temperatures (400, 550 and 900 °C) in a horizontal oven. The three products – gas, oil and char – obtained from the pyrolysis were investigated. The composition of the gas was analyzed by means of gas chromatography. The oil was studied by gas chromatography and infrared spectroscopy. The char porous structure was determined by N2 adsorption. In addition, the topography of the chars was studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The products resulting from the pyrolysis of the fibres were compared with those obtained from scrap rubber.

  5. Shock-tube pyrolysis of chlorinated hydrocarbons - Formation of soot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenklach, M.; Hsu, J. P.; Miller, D. L.; Matula, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Soot formation in pyrolysis of chlorinated methanes, their mixtures with methane, and chlorinated ethylenes were studied behind reflected shock waves by monitoring the attenuation of an He-Ne laser beam. An additional single-pulse shock-tube study was conducted for the pyrolysis of methane, methyl chloride, and dichloromethane. The experiments were performed at temperatures 1300-3000 K, pressures of 0.4-3.6 bar, and total carbon atom concentrations of 1-5 x 10 to the 17th atoms cu cm. The amounts of soot produced in the pyrolysis of chlorinated hydrocarbons are larger than that of their nonchlorinated counterparts. The sooting behavior and product distribution can be generally explained in terms of chlorine-catalyzed chemical reaction mechanisms. The pathway to soot from chlorinated methanes and ethylenes with high H:Cl ratio proceeds via the formation of C2H, C2H2, and C2H3 species. For chlorinated hydrocarbons with low H:Cl ratio, the formation of C2 and its contribution to soot formation at high temperatures becomes significant. There is evidence for the importance of CHCl radical and its reactions in the pyrolysis of dichloromethane.

  6. Experiments and stochastic simulations of lignite coal during pyrolysis and gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Lignite pyrolysis and gasification has been conducted in a semi batch reactor. ? The objective is to understand mechanism of syngas evolution during pyrolysis. ? Stochastic simulations of lignite pyrolysis were conducted using Gillespie algorithm. ? First order, single step mechanism failed to fit cumulative yield of hydrogen. ? Evolution of hydrogen via pyrolysis of gaseous hydrocarbon following bridges scission. -- Abstract: Lignite pyrolysis and gasification has been conducted in a semi batch reactor at reactor temperatures of 800–950 °C in 50 °C intervals. CO2 has been used as the gasifying agent for gasification experiments. The objective of this investigation is to understand the mechanism of syngas evolution during pyrolysis and to unravel the effect of CO2 on pyrolysis mechanism. Stochastic simulations of lignite pyrolysis have been conducted using Gillespie algorithm. Two reaction mechanisms have been used in the simulations; first order, single step mechanism and the FLASHCHAIN mechanism. The first order single step mechanism was successful in fitting cumulative yield of CO2, CO, CH4 and other hydrocarbons (CnHm). The first order, single step failed to fit the cumulative yield of hydrogen, which suggests a more complex mechanism for hydrogen evolution. Evolution of CO2, CO, CH4, CnHm and H2 flow rates has been monitored. The only effect of CO2 on pyrolysis mechanism is promotion of reverse water gas shift reaction for the experiments described here. Methane evolution extended for slightly longer time than other hydrocarbons and hydrogen evolution extended for a slightly longer time than methane. This indicated the evolution of hydrogen via further pyrolysis of aliphatic hydrocarbon. It is also suggested that this step occurs in series after aliphatic hydrocarbons evolution by bridges scission.

  7. Extreme warming, photic zone euxinia and sea level rise during the Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum on the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain; connecting marginal marine biotic signals, nutrient cycling and ocean deoxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluijs, A.; van Roij, L.; Harrington, G. J.; Schouten, S.; Sessa, J. A.; LeVay, L. J.; Reichart, G.-J.; Slomp, C. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ~56 Ma) was a ~200 kyr episode of global warming, associated with massive injections of 13C-depleted carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system. Although climate change during the PETM is relatively well constrained, effects on marine oxygen and nutrient cycling remain largely unclear. We identify the PETM in a sediment core from the US margin of the Gulf of Mexico. Biomarker-based paleotemperature proxies (MBT/CBT and TEX86) indicate that continental air and sea surface temperatures warmed from 27-29 °C to ~35 °C, although variations in the relative abundances of terrestrial and marine biomarkers may have influenced the record. Vegetation changes as recorded from pollen assemblages supports profound warming. Lithology, relative abundances of terrestrial vs. marine palynomorphs as well as dinoflagellate cyst and biomarker assemblages indicate sea level rise during the PETM, consistent with previously recognized eustatic rise. The recognition of a maximum flooding surface during the PETM changes regional sequence stratigraphic interpretations, which allows us to exclude the previously posed hypothesis that a nearby fossil found in PETM-deposits represents the first North American primate. Within the PETM we record the biomarker isorenieratane, diagnostic of euxinic photic zone conditions. A global data compilation indicates that deoxygenation occurred in large regions of the global ocean in response to warming, hydrological change, and carbon cycle feedbacks, particularly along continental margins, analogous to modern trends. Seafloor deoxygenation and widespread anoxia likely caused phosphorus regeneration from suboxic and anoxic sediments. We argue that this fuelled shelf eutrophication, as widely recorded from microfossil studies, increasing organic carbon burial along continental margins as a negative feedback to carbon input and global warming. If properly quantified with future work, the PETM offers the opportunity to assess the biogeochemical effects of enhanced phosphorus regeneration, as well as the time-scales on which this feedback operates in view of modern and future ocean deoxygenation.

  8. An investigation of the transformations of the catalyst in catalytic pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telyashev, E.G.; Galiakbarov, M.F.; Khatymov, R.Kh.; Mindiyarov, Kh.G.; Valitov, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    The change in the state of an iron-chromium-potassium catalyst under the conditions of the catalytic pyrolysis of vacuum gas oil in steam has been investigated. The state of the catalyst and the structure of the coke deposits depend on the treatment of the catalyst and the duration of catalytic pyrolysis. An increase in the time of pyrolysis leads to an ordering of the structure of the coke on the catalyst and a rise in the temperature of its complete burning off.

  9. Controlled catalytic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of mixed polymer waste streams to sequentially recover monomers or other high value products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert J. (Lakewood, CO); Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO)

    1994-01-01

    A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and support for treating said feed streams with said catalyst to effect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said temperature program range; differentially heating said feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents, selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said plastic waste and differentially heating the feedstream at the higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of the different high value monomeric constituent; and separating the different high value monomeric constituent.

  10. Methods and apparatuses for preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandvold, Timothy A; Baird, Lance Awender; Frey, Stanley Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Methods and apparatuses for preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil are provided herein. In an embodiment, a method of preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil includes providing a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream having an original oxygen content. The biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream is hydrodeoxygenated under catalysis in the presence of hydrogen to form a hydrodeoxygenated pyrolysis oil stream comprising a cyclic paraffin component. At least a portion of the hydrodeoxygenated pyrolysis oil stream is dehydrogenated under catalysis to form the upgraded pyrolysis oil.

  11. Pyrolysis, combustion and gasification characteristics of miscanthus and sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis, combustion and gasification characteristics of miscanthus and sewage sludge. • We evaluate the temperature range for different process. • Product gas compositions during gasification at different temperature ranges. • Appropriate temperature range assessed for gasification with efficient carbon conversion. • Kinetic constant estimation using Friedman and Coats and Redfern method. - Abstract: The energetic conversion of biomass into syngas is considered as reliable energy source. In this context, biomass (miscanthus) and sewage sludge have been investigated. A simultaneous thermal analyzer and mass spectrometer was used for the characterization of samples and identified the volatiles evolved during the heating of the sample up to 1100 °C under combustion and gasification conditions. The TG and DTA results were discussed in argon, oxygen, steam and steam blended gas atmospheres. Different stages of pyrolysis, combustion and gasification of the samples have been examined. It was shown that the combustion and gasification of char were occurred in two different temperature zones. The DTA–MS profile of the sample gives information on combustion and gasification process of the samples (ignition, peak combustion and burnout temperatures) and gases released (H2, O2, CO and CO2). The results showed that the different processes were mainly dependent on temperature. The evolution of the gas species was consistent with the weight loss of the samples during pyrolysis, combustion and gasification process. The effect of the ambiences during pyrolysis, combustion and gasification of the samples were reported. The appropriate temperature range to the sludge and miscanthus gasification was evaluated. The kinetic parameters of the biomass and sewage sludge were estimated for TGA using two models based on first-order reactions with distributed activation energies. The presence of ash in the biomass char was more influential during the gasification process

  12. Exploratory studies on fast pyrolysis oil upgrading

    OpenAIRE

    Mahfud, Farchad Husein,

    2007-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil is a dark brown liquid which can be produced in high yield from different kind of biomass sources by means of fast pyrolysis. Pyrolysis oil is considered as a promising second generation energy carrier and may play an important role in the future of "biobased economies". The energy content of pyrolysis oil is approximately half of fossil crude. Just like for crude oil, further reprocessing is necessary to arranged pyrolysis oil as fuel in e.g. combustion engines. This thesis des...

  13. Microwave pyrolysis for conversion of materials to energy : A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The disposal of wastes in Malaysia is becoming a serious problem in many industrialized and public sectors. This is due to the high production of waste such as municipal solid waste, sludge from waste water treatment plants, agricultural waste and other used non-biodegradable products such as plastics and tyres. These wastes although are reused as compost, fuel, recycled and so on, there are still abundant left. These leftovers pose problems such as heavy metal leaching, leachates, green house gas emissions and mosquito breeding grounds. The disposal cost of these wastes sometimes can be costly at up to RM 2,200/ ton such as petroleum sludge by Kualiti Alam. Several methods have been used to convert these residues to energy via thermal treatment such as combustion, incineration and gasification. However, pyrolysis becomes one of the popular methods as the alternative to the wastes disposal recently. Not only energy (as gas) is produced, by-products such as chemical feedstock and solid absorbent can be produced. The use of microwave for pyrolysis, although relatively new for waste treatment, has several advantages compared to conventional heating. This includes easy control of the heating process, time saving, higher heating efficiency, etc. Tyre microwave pyrolysis plant in UK is known as the earliest plant using microwave technology to breakdown polymer in used tyres. Since 1990s, there are many patents for microwave pyrolysis. The processes are based on microwave pyrolysis of waste include coffee hulls, wood, coal, sewage sludge, hospital waste, plastic wastes, corn cobs and rice straw. The most important factors influencing the yield of product during the pyrolysis is temperature in range from 500 to 1000 degree Celsius according to product preference. High temperature favors gas products; whereas lower temperature favors liquid products. Comparatively, microwave pyrolysis produced gas with higher hydrogen and carbon monoxide (syngas) content compared to conventional heating. Liquid product also showed considerable decrease in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) production which is of known carcinogenic. Vitrification of heavy metals in solid product has also been proven. (author)

  14. Making Activated Carbon by Wet Pressurized Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John W.; Pisharody, Suresh; Wignarajah, K.; Moran, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A wet pressurized pyrolysis (wet carbonization) process has been invented as a means of producing activated carbon from a wide variety of inedible biomass consisting principally of plant wastes. The principal intended use of this activated carbon is room-temperature adsorption of pollutant gases from cooled incinerator exhaust streams. Activated carbon is highly porous and has a large surface area. The surface area depends strongly on the raw material and the production process. Coconut shells and bituminous coal are the primary raw materials that, until now, were converted into activated carbon of commercially acceptable quality by use of traditional production processes that involve activation by use of steam or carbon dioxide. In the wet pressurized pyrolysis process, the plant material is subjected to high pressure and temperature in an aqueous medium in the absence of oxygen for a specified amount of time to break carbon-oxygen bonds in the organic material and modify the structure of the material to obtain large surface area. Plant materials that have been used in demonstrations of the process include inedible parts of wheat, rice, potato, soybean, and tomato plants. The raw plant material is ground and mixed with a specified proportion of water. The mixture is placed in a stirred autoclave, wherein it is pyrolized at a temperature between 450 and 590 F (approximately between 230 and 310 C) and a pressure between 1 and 1.4 kpsi (approximately between 7 and 10 MPa) for a time between 5 minutes and 1 hour. The solid fraction remaining after wet carbonization is dried, then activated at a temperature of 500 F (260 C) in nitrogen gas. The activated carbon thus produced is comparable to commercial activated carbon. It can be used to adsorb oxides of sulfur, oxides of nitrogen, and trace amounts of hydrocarbons, any or all of which can be present in flue gas. Alternatively, the dried solid fraction can be used, even without the activation treatment, to absorb oxides of nitrogen.

  15. Bio-oil production through pyrolysis of blue-green algae blooms (BGAB): Product distribution and bio-oil characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrolysis experiments of blue-green algae blooms (BGAB) were carried out in a fixed-bed reactor to determine the effects of pyrolysis temperature, particle size and sweep gas flow rate on pyrolysis product yields and bio-oil properties. The pyrolysis temperature, particle size and sweep gas flow rate were varied in the ranges of 300–700 °C, below 0.25–2.5 mm and 50–400 mL min?1, respectively. The maximum oil yield of 54.97% was obtained at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C, particle size below 0.25 mm and sweep gas flow rate of 100 mL min?1. The elemental analysis and calorific value of the oil were determined, and the chemical composition of the oil was investigated using gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS) technique. The analysis of bio-oil composition showed that bio-oil from BGAB could be a potential source of renewable fuel with a heating value of 31.9 MJ kg?1. - Highlights: ? Bio-oil production from pyrolysis of blue-green algae blooms in fixed bed reactor. ? Effects of pyrolysis conditions on product distribution were investigated. ? The maximum bio-oil yield reached 54.97 wt %. ? The bio-oil has high heating value and may be suitable as renewable fuel. ? Pyrolysis of algal biomass beneficial for energy recovery, eutrophication control

  16. Fast pyrolysis of sunflower-pressed bagasse: effects of sweeping gas flow rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gercel, H.F.; Putun, E.

    2002-05-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.)-pressed bagasse pyrolysis experiments were performed in a fixed-bed tubular reactor. The effects of nitrogen flow rate and final pyrolysis temperature on the pyrolysis product yields and chemical compositions have been investigated. The maximum bio-oil yield of 52.85 wt% was obtained in a nitrogen atmosphere and a nitrogen flow rate of 50 cm{sup 3} min{sup -1} and at a pyrolysis temperature of 550{sup o}C and heating rate of 5{sup o}C s{sup -1}. The chemical characterization has shown that the oil obtained from sunflower-pressed bagasse may be potentially valuable as fuel and chemical feedstocks. (author)

  17. The production and evaluation of bio-oils from the pyrolysis of sunflower-oil cake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gercel, Hasan Ferdi [Anadolu Univ., Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2002-10-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.)-oil cake pyrolysis experiments were achieved in a fixed-bed tubular reactor. The effects of nitrogen flow rate and final pyrolysis temperature on the pyrolysis product yields and chemical compositions have been investigated. The maximum bio-oil yield of 48.69 wt% was obtained in nitrogen atmosphere with nitrogen flow rate of 100 cm{sup 3} min{sup -1} and at a pyrolysis temperature of 550 deg C with a heating rate of 5 deg Cs{sup -1}. Chromatographic and spectroscopic studies on the pyrolytic oil showed that the oil obtained from sunflower-oil cake can be used as a renewable fuel and chemical feedstocks. (Author)

  18. Production and characterization of pyrolysis liquids from sunflower-pressed bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gercel, H.F. [Anadolu University (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2002-11-01

    Pyrolysis experiments on sunflower (Helianthus annus L.)-pressed bagasse were performed in a fixed-bed tubular reactor. The effects of nitrogen flow rate and final pyrolysis temperature on the pyrolysis product yields and chemical compositions were investigated. The maximum bio-oil yield of 52.10 wt.% was obtained in a nitrogen atmosphere with flow rate of 50 ml min{sup -1} and at a pyrolysis temperature of 550{sup o}C with a heating rate of 5{sup o}C s{sup -1}. The chemical characterization results showed that the oil obtained from sunflower-pressed bagasse may be a potentially valuable source as fuel or chemical feedstocks. (author)

  19. Production, properties and utilisation of pyrolysis oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K.; Oasmaa, A.; Arpiainen, V.; Solantausta, Y.; Leppaemaeki, E.; Kuoppala, E.; Levander, J.; Kleemola, J.; Saarimaeki, P. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-01

    In this project VTT Energy co-ordinates the EU JOULE Project `Biofuel oil for power plants and boilers` supporting the development projects of Finnish enterprises, and participates in the Pyrolysis Project of IEA Bioenergy Agreement. Presently two pyrolysis devices with capacities of 150 g/h and 1 kg/h are used for the project. Hot gas filtering tests by using one ceramic candle equipment have been carried out with the 1 kg/h device for pyrolysis oil. The solids and alkali contents of the product oil were reduced clearly. Suitable conditions are being defined for continuous hot gas filtering. A PDU device of 20 kg/h is being commissioned. The main aim of the chemical characterisation of pyrolysis oil was to develop as simple a method as possible for differentiating pyrolysis oils and for finding correlations between the characteristics and behaviour of pyrolysis oils. Pyrolysis oils produced from various raw materials (hardwood, pine, straw) were analysed and compared with each other. VTT Energy participates in the pyrolysis network (EU/PYNE) of EU, the aim of which is to collect and disseminate research results of pyrolysis studies, i.e., through a journal with a wide circulation. VTT also participates in the pyrolysis activity of IEA (PYRA), the other partners being Great Britain, EU, Canada and the United States. I.e., quality criteria and improvement, occupational safety and pyrolysis kinetics are discussed in IEA/PYRA

  20. Catalytic pyrolysis of olive mill wastewater sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellaoui, Hamza

    From 2008 to 2013, an average of 2,821.4 kilotons/year of olive oil were produced around the world. The waste product of the olive mill industry consists of solid residue (pomace) and wastewater (OMW). Annually, around 30 million m3 of OMW are produced in the Mediterranean area, 700,000 m3 year?1 in Tunisia alone. OMW is an aqueous effluent characterized by an offensive smell and high organic matter content, including high molecular weight phenolic compounds and long-chain fatty acids. These compounds are highly toxic to micro-organisms and plants, which makes the OMW a serious threat to the environment if not managed properly. The OMW is disposed of in open air evaporation ponds. After evaporation of most of the water, OMWS is left in the bottom of the ponds. In this thesis, the effort has been made to evaluate the catalytic pyrolysis process as a technology to valorize the OMWS. The first section of this research showed that 41.12 wt. % of the OMWS is mostly lipids, which are a good source of energy. The second section proved that catalytic pyrolysis of the OMWS over red mud and HZSM-5 can produce green diesel, and 450 °C is the optimal reaction temperature to maximize the organic yields. The last section revealed that the HSF was behind the good fuel-like properties of the OMWS catalytic oils, whereas the SR hindered the bio-oil yields and quality.

  1. Spray pyrolysis of CZTS nanoplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exarhos, S; Bozhilov, K N; Mangolini, L

    2014-10-01

    We demonstrate that copper-zinc-tin-sulphide nanoplatelets can be directly grown onto a molybdenum-coated substrate using spray pyrolysis starting from a mixture of metal thiocarbamates precursors. The structure and phase purity of the nanoplatelets is discussed in detail. PMID:25119262

  2. H2CAP - Hydrogen assisted catalytic biomass pyrolysis for green fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndal, Trine Marie Hartmann; Høj, Martin; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Gabrielsen, Jostein; Studt, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Pyrolysis of biomass produces a high yield of condensable oil at moderate temperature and low pressure.This bio-oil has adverse properties such as high oxygen and water contents, high acidity and immiscibility with fossil hydrocarbons. Catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) is a promising technology that can be used to upgrade the crude bio-oil to fuel-grade oil. The development of the HDO process is challenged by rapid catalyst deactivation, instability of the pyrolysis oil, poorly investigated rea...

  3. On-Line Analysis and Kinetic Behavior of Arsenic Release during Coal Combustion and Pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fenghua; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Zhen; Dai, Jinxin

    2015-11-17

    The kinetic behavior of arsenic (As) release during coal combustion and pyrolysis in a fluidized bed was investigated by applying an on-line analysis system of trace elements in flue gas. This system, based on inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), was developed to measure trace elements concentrations in flue gas quantitatively and continuously. Obvious variations of arsenic concentration in flue gas were observed during coal combustion and pyrolysis, indicating strong influences of atmosphere and temperature on arsenic release behavior. Kinetic laws governing the arsenic release during coal combustion and pyrolysis were determined based on the results of instantaneous arsenic concentration in flue gas. A second-order kinetic law was determined for arsenic release during coal combustion, and the arsenic release during coal pyrolysis followed a fourth-order kinetic law. The results showed that the arsenic release rate during coal pyrolysis was faster than that during coal combustion. Thermodynamic calculations were carried out to identify the forms of arsenic in vapor and solid phases during coal combustion and pyrolysis, respectively. Ca3(AsO4)2 and Ca(AsO2)2 are the possible species resulting from As-Ca interaction during coal combustion. Ca(AsO2)2 is the most probable species during coal pyrolysis. PMID:26488499

  4. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

    2010-05-03

    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  5. Catalytic partial oxidation of pyrolysis oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennard, David Carl

    2009-12-01

    This thesis explores the catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) of pyrolysis oils to syngas and chemicals. First, an exploration of model compounds and their chemistries under CPO conditions is considered. Then CPO experiments of raw pyrolysis oils are detailed. Finally, plans for future development in this field are discussed. In Chapter 2, organic acids such as propionic acid and lactic acid are oxidized to syngas over Pt catalysts. Equilibrium production of syngas can be achieved over Rh-Ce catalysts; alternatively mechanistic evidence is derived using Pt catalysts in a fuel rich mixture. These experiments show that organic acids, present in pyrolysis oils up to 25%, can undergo CPO to syngas or for the production of chemicals. As the fossil fuels industry also provides organic chemicals such as monomers for plastics, the possibility of deriving such species from pyrolysis oils allows for a greater application of the CPO of biomass. However, chemical production is highly dependent on the originating molecular species. As bio oil comprises up to 400 chemicals, it is essential to understand how difficult it would be to develop a pure product stream. Chapter 3 continues the experimentation from Chapter 2, exploring the CPO of another organic functionality: the ester group. These experiments demonstrate that equilibrium syngas production is possible for esters as well as acids in autothermal operation with contact times as low as tau = 10 ms over Rh-based catalysts. Conversion for these experiments and those with organic acids is >98%, demonstrating the high reactivity of oxygenated compounds on noble metal catalysts. Under CPO conditions, esters decompose in a predictable manner: over Pt and with high fuel to oxygen, non-equilibrium products show a similarity to those from related acids. A mechanism is proposed in which ethyl esters thermally decompose to ethylene and an acid, which decarbonylates homogeneously, driven by heat produced at the catalyst surface. Chapter 4 details the catalytic partial oxidation of glycerol without preheat: droplets of glycerol are sprayed directly onto the top of the catalyst bed, where they react autothermally with contact times on the order of tau ? 30 ms. The reactive flash volatilization of glycerol results in equilibrium syngas production over Rh-Ce catalysts. In addition, water can be added to the liquid glycerol, resulting in true autothermal reforming. This highly efficient process can increase H2 yields and alter the H2 to CO ratio, allowing for flexibility in syngas quality depending on the purpose. Chapter 5 details the results of a time on stream experiment, in which optimal syngas conditions are chosen. Although conversion is 100% for 450 hours, these experiments demonstrate the deactivation of the catalyst over time. Deactivation is exhibited by decreases in H2 and CO 2 production accompanied by a steady increase in CO and temperature. These results are explained as a loss of water-gas shift equilibration. SEM images suggest catalyst sintering may play a role; EDS indicates the presence of impurities on the catalyst. In addition, the instability of quartz in the reactor is demonstrated by etching, resulting in a hole in the reactor tube at the end of the experiment. These results suggest prevaporization may be desirable in this application, and that quartz is not a suitable material for the reactive flash volatilization of oxygenated fuels. In Chapter 6, pyrolysis oil samples from three sources - poplar, pine, and hardwoods - are explored in the context of catalytic partial oxidation. Lessons derived from the tests with model compounds are applied to reactor design, resulting in the reactive flash vaporization of bio oils. Syngas is successfully produced, though deactivation due to coke and ash deposition keeps H2 below equlibrium. Coke formation is observed on the reactor walls, but is avoided between the fuel injection site and catalyst by increasing the proximity of these in the reactor design. Low temperatures are maintained in the fuel delivery system utilizing a water-

  6. Fixed bed pyrolysis of Euphorbia rigida with different catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since Euphorbia rigida is a celluloid plant with low fat content, the oil yields of previous fixed bed pyrolysis studies were low. In order to increase the oil yield, biomass pyrolysis experiments were performed in a fixed bed reactor with two selected commercial catalysts, namely Criterion-534 and activated alumina, and natural zeolite (klinoptilolite). Experiments were conducted in a static atmosphere with a heating rate of 7 deg. C min-1, pyrolysis temperature of 550 deg. C and mean particle size of 0.55 mm. In the experiments, all the catalysts were used with various percentages, and the effects of the variable catalysts on the yields and chemical composition of the oils obtained were investigated. Oil yield reached 27.5% with the use of natural zeolite, 31% with Criterion-534 and 28.1% with activated alumina, while it was only 21.6% without a catalyst. The pyrolysis oils were examined by using spectroscopic and chromatographic analysis techniques, and the obtained results were compared with the results of similar experiments achieved without a catalyst

  7. Fixed bed pyrolysis of Euphorbia rigida with different catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funda Ates; Putun, A.E. [Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Ersan Putun [Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Material Science and Engineering

    2005-02-01

    Since Euphorbia rigida is a celluloid plant with low fat content, the oil yields of previous fixed bed pyrolysis studies were low. In order to increase the oil yield, biomass pyrolysis experiments were performed in a fixed bed reactor with two selected commercial catalysts, namely Criterion-534 and activated alumina, and natural zeolite (klinoptilolite). Experiments were conducted in a static atmosphere with a heating rate of 7{sup o}C min{sup -1}, pyrolysis temperature of 550{sup o}C and mean particle size of 0.55 mm. In the experiments, all the catalysts were used with various percentages, and the effects of the variable catalysts on the yields and chemical composition of the oils obtained were investigated. Oil yield reached 27.5% with the use of natural zeolite, 31% with Criterion-534 and 28.1% with activated alumina, while it was only 21.6% without a catalyst. The pyrolysis oils were examined by using spectroscopic and chromatographic analysis techniques, and the obtained results were compared with the results of similar experiments achieved without a catalyst. (author)

  8. Fixed bed pyrolysis of Euphorbia rigida with different catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ates, Funda; Puetuen, Ayse E.; Puetuen, Ersan E-mail: eputun@anadolu.edu.tr

    2005-02-01

    Since Euphorbia rigida is a celluloid plant with low fat content, the oil yields of previous fixed bed pyrolysis studies were low. In order to increase the oil yield, biomass pyrolysis experiments were performed in a fixed bed reactor with two selected commercial catalysts, namely Criterion-534 and activated alumina, and natural zeolite (klinoptilolite). Experiments were conducted in a static atmosphere with a heating rate of 7 deg. C min{sup -1}, pyrolysis temperature of 550 deg. C and mean particle size of 0.55 mm. In the experiments, all the catalysts were used with various percentages, and the effects of the variable catalysts on the yields and chemical composition of the oils obtained were investigated. Oil yield reached 27.5% with the use of natural zeolite, 31% with Criterion-534 and 28.1% with activated alumina, while it was only 21.6% without a catalyst. The pyrolysis oils were examined by using spectroscopic and chromatographic analysis techniques, and the obtained results were compared with the results of similar experiments achieved without a catalyst.

  9. Supercritical pyrolysis of the endothermic fuels methylcyclohexane, decalin, and tetralin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John Francis

    The pyrolysis of the potential endothermic fuels methylcyclohexane, decahydronaphthalene (decalin), and tetrahydronaphthalene (tetralin) under supercritical conditions can be of great import and is the focus of this dissertation. Supercritical fluids, essentially gases with a liquid-like density, are a unique environment for chemical kinetic studies. Because the solvent properties of a supercritical fluid vary strongly with pressure (unlike liquids or gases), elementary reactions in a supercritical environment can have strong pressure dependence. The influence of these solute/solvent interactions on kinetic rates can have important implications in the context of the fuel-fouling problem. Supercritical methylcyclohexane pyrolysis was investigated in a specially constructed silica-lined flow reactor. Experiments in which the temperature and pressure were varied independently revealed a product distribution substantially different from numerous higher temperature gas-phase pyrolysis studies. Major products identified at 820 K and 45 atm included methane, ethane, propene, ethene, dimethylcyclopentane, propane, 1-methyl-1-cyclohexene, and ethylcyclopentane. As pressure was increased at 782 K, the selectivity of dimethylcyclopentane increased and was consistent with a mechanism that incorporated caging effects. Some observations related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and solid formation were a natural extension of this research effort. PAH products observed included indene, methylnaphthalenes, dimethylnaphthalenes, fluorene, pyrene, methylanthracene, and benzo[ghi]perylene. A gas-phase model of methylcyclohexane pyrolysis was constructed and compared with experimental data from a sister effort in this laboratory. This model, along with two others currently being developed at Princeton, is the first elementary-reaction-based cycloalkane decomposition model ever created. Excellent agreement was found between the gas-phase model and experimental data for the major products observed. Preliminary steps were taken to extend this model to supercritical conditions through detailed consideration of the solute/solvent interactions present in the supercritical fluid and modifications made to the ideal gas model. Supercritical pyrolysis mechanisms of decalin and tetralin were also investigated. Major products of supercritical decalin pyrolysis included light alkanes and alkenes, methylhexahydroindane, indene, methylcyclohexenes, and indane. Major products of supercritical tetralin pyrolysis included: naphthalene, methylindane, ethane, methane, ethene, and phenylbutane. Quantification of the major products indicated that C6 to C5 ring contraction was found to occur preferentially with increasing pressure, consistent with the caging hypothesis.

  10. Molten salt pyrolysis of milled beech wood using an electrostatic precipitator for oil collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi S. Nygård

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A tubular electrostatic precipitator (ESP was designed and tested for collection of pyrolysis oil in molten salt pyrolysis of milled beech wood (0.5-2 mm. The voltage-current (V-I characteristics were studied, showing most stable performance of the ESP when N2 was utilized as inert gas. The pyrolysis experiments were carried out in FLiNaK and (LiNaK2CO3 over the temperature range of 450-600 ?. The highest yields of pyrolysis oil were achieved in FLiNaK, with a maximum of 34.2 wt% at 500 ?, followed by a decrease with increasing reactor temperature. The temperature had nearly no effect on the oil yield for pyrolysis in (LiNaK2CO3 (19.0-22.5 wt%. Possible hydration reactions and formation of HF gas during FLiNaK pyrolysis were investigated by simulations (HSC Chemistry software and measurements of the outlet gas (FTIR, but no significant amounts of HF were detected.

  11. Low cycle fatigue behaviors of low alloy steels in 310 .deg. C deoxygenated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Hun

    2008-02-15

    After low cycle fatigue tests of SA508 Gr.1a low alloy steel in 310 .deg. C deoxygenated water, the fatigue surface and the sectioned area of specimens were observed to understand the effect of the cyclic strain rate on the environmentally assisted cracking behaviors. From the fatigue crack morphologies of the specimen tested at a strain rate of 0.008 %/s, unclear ductile striations and blunt crack tip were observed. So, metal dissolution could be the main cracking mechanism of the material at the strain rate. On the other hand, on the fatigue surface of the specimen tested at strain rates of 0.04 and 0.4 %/s, the brittle cracks and the flat facets, which are the evidence of the hydrogen induced cracking, were observed. Also, the tendency of linkage between the main crack and micro-cracks was observed on the sectioned area. Therefore, the main cracking mechanism at the strain rates of 0.04 and 0.4 %/s could be the hydrogen induced cracking. Additionally, the evidence of the dissolved MnS inclusions was observed on the fatigue surface from energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer analyses. So, despite of the low sulfur content of the test material, the sulfides seem to contribute to environmentally assisted cracking of SA508 Gr.1a low alloy steel in 310 .deg. C deoxygenated water. Additionally, our experimental fatigue life data of SA508 Gr.1a low alloy steel (heat A) showed a consistent difference with statistical model produced in argon national laboratory. So, additional low cycle fatigue tests of other heat SA508 Gr.1a (heat B) and SA508 Gr.3 low alloy steels were performed to investigate the effect of material variability on fatigue behaviors of low alloy steels in 310 .deg. C deoxygenated water. In results, the fatigue lives of three low alloy steels were increased following order: SA508 Gr.1a low alloy steel - heat A, SA508 Gr.3 low alloy steel, and SA508 Gr.1a low alloy steel - heat B. From microstructure observation, the fatigue surface of SA508 Gr.1a low alloy steel - heat A showed ductile striations in ferrite phase. Also, secondary and surface crack of SA508 Gr.1a low alloy steel - heat A grew into ferrite phase and ferrite - pearlite phase boundaries. The increase in stress intensity at the pearlite crack tip by restricted strain may contribute to fatigue crack propagation along ferrite - pearlite phase boundaries. On the other hand, the fatigue surfaces of SA508 Gr.1a - heat B and SA508 Gr.3 low alloy steels showed relatively less striations due to their homogeneous carbides. And the secondary and surface cracks of SA508 Gr.1a low alloy steel - heat B and SA508 Gr.3 low alloy steel grew into ferrite phase between carbides. The homogeneous carbides could more effectively decrease the crack growth rate. Therefore, the fatigue crack growth rate in SA508 Gr.1a low alloy steel - heat A could be higher than those in SA508 Gr.1a low alloy steel - heat B and SA508 Gr.3 low alloy steel. Also, the fatigue crack growth rate of SA508 Gr.3 low alloy steel may be shorter than that SA508 Gr.1a low alloy steel - heat B due to its low ductility and high yield strength.

  12. Physical deoxygenation of graphene oxide paper surface and facile in situ synthesis of graphene based ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Jijun; Wang, Minqiang, E-mail: mqwang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Zhang, Xiangyu; Ran, Chenxin [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education, School of Electronic and Information Engineering, International Centers for Dielectric Research, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Shao, Jinyou; Ding, Yucheng [State Key Laboratory of Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2014-12-08

    In-situ sputtering ZnO films on graphene oxide (GO) paper are used to fabricate graphene based ZnO films. Crystal structure and surface chemical states are investigated. Results indicated that GO paper can be effectively deoxygenated by in-situ sputtering ZnO on them without adding any reducing agent. Based on the principle of radio frequency magnetron sputtering, we propose that during magnetron sputtering process, plasma streams contain large numbers of electrons. These electrons not only collide with argon atoms to produce secondary electrons but also they are accelerated to bombard the substrates (GO paper) resulting in effective deoxygenation of oxygen-containing functional groups. In-situ sputtering ZnO films on GO paper provide an approach to design graphene-semiconductor nanocomposites.

  13. Physical deoxygenation of graphene oxide paper surface and facile in situ synthesis of graphene based ZnO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-situ sputtering ZnO films on graphene oxide (GO) paper are used to fabricate graphene based ZnO films. Crystal structure and surface chemical states are investigated. Results indicated that GO paper can be effectively deoxygenated by in-situ sputtering ZnO on them without adding any reducing agent. Based on the principle of radio frequency magnetron sputtering, we propose that during magnetron sputtering process, plasma streams contain large numbers of electrons. These electrons not only collide with argon atoms to produce secondary electrons but also they are accelerated to bombard the substrates (GO paper) resulting in effective deoxygenation of oxygen-containing functional groups. In-situ sputtering ZnO films on GO paper provide an approach to design graphene-semiconductor nanocomposites

  14. Co-pyrolysis and Catalytic Co-pyrolysis of Waste Tyres with Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Shredded Waste Tyres (SWT and Shredded Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches (SOPEFB were pyrolysed in a fixed bed reactor at 500C with a ratio of 1:1. SWT and impregnated SOPEFB with 10% w/w of cobalt catalyst solution were then pyrolysed in the same reactor at 500oC. The pyrolysed oils were collected in an ice/water condenser. The aim of this work is to study the effects of the addition of cobalt catalyst with direct impregnation into the SOPEFB fibers with respect to the liquid yields. The reactor was externally heated by means of electrical resistance, the heating rate being approximately 30C min-1. Once the required temperature obtained, it was maintained for 2 h. Three phases were obtained after pyrolysis : solid, liquid and gas. Highest yield of liquid product obtained with catalytic co-pyrolysis of SWT and SOPEFB as compared to co-pyrolysis of SWT and SOPEFB. It can be concluded that the catalytic co-pyrolysis using cobalt as catalyst resulted in higher of liquid yield.

  15. Tuning the Selectivity in Deoxygenation of Triglycerides Aimed at the production of Renewable Feedstocks for Ethylene Production.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubi?ka, D.; Horá?ek, J.; Kaluža, Lud?k

    Jerusalem : -, 2009, s. 424. ISBN N. [EuropaCat IX: "Catalysis for Sustainable World". Salamanca (ES), 30.08.2009-04.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA MPO FT-TA3/074 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : deoxygenation * NiMo catalysts * biofuel Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry http://www.certh.gr/577CC7CC.en.aspx

  16. Acute survivorship of the deep-sea coral Lophelia pertusa from the Gulf of Mexico under acidification, warming, and deoxygenation

    OpenAIRE

    Lunden, Jay J.; McNicholl, Conall G.; Sears, Christopher R.; Morrison, Cheryl L.; Cordes, Erik E.

    2014-01-01

    Changing global climate due to anthropogenic emissions of CO2 are driving rapid changes in the physical and chemical environment of the oceans via warming, deoxygenation, and acidification. These changes may threaten the persistence of species and populations across a range of latitudes and depths, including species that support diverse biological communities that in turn provide ecological stability and support commercial interests. Worldwide, but particularly in the North Atlantic and deep ...

  17. Deactivation in Continuous Deoxygenation of C18-Fatty Feedstock over Pd/Sibunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Rozmys?owicz, Bartosz

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic continuous deoxygenation of stearic acid, ethyl stearate and tristearin without any solvents was investigated using Pd/Sibunit as a catalyst in a trickle bed reactor at 300 °C. The main emphasis was to investigate the effect of gas atmosphere and catalyst deactivation. In addition to liquid-phase analysis made offline by GC, also online gas-phase analysis with IR were performed. The main liquid-phase product coming from all reactants was n-heptadecane. In addition to deoxygenation, which was observed for all substrates, also C18 and C16 alkanes were formed from tristearin. The relative ratios between stearic acid, ethyl stearate and tristearin conversions to alkanes after 3 days time-on-stream were 2.8/2.3/1.0, respectively using 5 % H2/Ar as a gas atmosphere, whereas rapid catalyst deactivation occurred with all substrates under H2-lacking atmosphere. The spent catalyst’s specific surface area profile along the downward reactor was maximum in the middle of the catalyst beds with the highest pore shrinking in the beginning and at the end of the reactor catalyst segments in the case of stearic acid and tristearin deoxygenation whereas that decreased consecutively as ethyl stearate passed through the reactor.

  18. Reductive pyrolysis study of biodesulfurized subbituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.P. Marinov; L. Gonsalvesha; M. Stefanova; Y. Yueeriem; A.G. Dumanli; N. Kolankaya; M. Sam; R. Carleer; G. Reggers; J. Yperman [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Institute of Organic Chemistry

    2007-07-01

    Biodesulfurization is one of the perspective methods for production of friendly fuels. Reductive pyrolysis in mode of atmospheric pressure temperature programmed reduction (AP-TPR) combined with varied detection systems gave us possibility to obtain more satisfactory explanation of biodesulfurization effects. AP-TPR coupled 'on-line' and 'off-line' with potentiometry, mass spectrometry and GC/MS analysis with inner sulfur standards for quantification were applied. Subbituminous coal from 'Pirin' basin, Bulgaria was treated by three different types of microorganisms with maximal desulfurization effect for total (26%) and organic sulfur (13%). Namely, two types white rot fungi - 'Trametes Versicolor', 'Phanerochaeta Chrysosporium' and one mixed bacterial culture were used. Improved sulfur balance determination was registered. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  19. Modelling of pyrolysis of peat and biomass under combustion and gasification; Pyrolyysimalli turpeen ja biomassan poltolle ja kaasutukselle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raiko, R.; Haukka, P.; Vehmaan-Kreula, M. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Energy and Process Technology

    1997-10-01

    In the model developed during the research the chemical kinetics of pyrolysis is described with `the two competing reactions model`. Heat transfer in particle consists of convection and conduction. With the help of the model all the kinetic parameters of the two pyrolysis reactions are fitted with measured values. Also simple correlations for pyrolysis of peat under fluidized bed and pulverised flame conditions are given. The effect of the heating rate can be taken into account by using two competing Arrhenius-type reactions. In this model pyrolysis is modelled by using two reactions; one for the low temperature level and the other for the high temperature level. Both of these reactions consume the same unreacted fuel and this model is able to describe the pyrolysis at different temperature levels. Pyrolysis takes place in the heating stage of the particle before heterogeneous combustion and therefore temperature and density profiles inside the particle have to be solved simultaneously. The energy and mass balance equations of the particle form a set of partial differential equations (PDE), which is solved numerically by using so called method of lines, by converting PDE into a set of ordinary differential equations (ODE). The final solution of ODEs is received by using LSODE algorithm of Hindmash. An user friendly interface for the pyrolysis model is programmed by using Visual Basic enabling convenient variation of the conditions and observation of the results

  20. Flame spray pyrolysis synthesis and aerosol deposition of nanoparticle films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tricoli, Antonio; Elmøe, Tobias Dokkedal

    2012-01-01

    The assembly of nanoparticle films by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) synthesis and deposition on temperature?controlled substrates (323–723 K) was investigated for several application?relevant conditions. An exemplary SnO2 nanoparticle aerosol was generated by FSP and its properties (e.g., particle size distribution), and deposition dynamics were studied in details aiming to a simple correlation between process settings and film growth rate. At high precursor concentrations (0.05–0.5·mol/L), typica...

  1. Graphite film prepared by pyrolysis of bacterial cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Katsumi; Matsuoka, Ryuichi; Nogami, Kou; Yamanaka, Shigeru; Watanabe, Kunihiko; Takahashi, Mitsuo; Honma, Masao

    1990-08-01

    A new route of preparation of high quality of graphitized films has been demonstrated. Highly graphitized films with electrical conductivity as high as 6×103 S/cm have been prepared by pyrolysis of bacterial cellulose films at 2900 °C. These films can be well intercalated with acceptors and donors such as FeCl3 and K, resulting in the enhancement of conductivity. Temperature dependencies of thermoelectric power and electrical conductivity are similar to those of soft carbon.

  2. Fast pyrolysis of lignin, macroalgae and sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung

    2013-01-01

    In the last twenty years, the fast pyrolysis process has been explored to produce bio-oil from biomass. Fast pyrolysis is a thermal conversion technology that is performed at a temperatures of 450 - 600 ºC, high biomass heating ratess (100 - 2000 K/s), a short gas residence time (less than 2 s) with no presence of oxygen. Fast pyrolysis can convert a large fraction of the biomass to bio-oil, and smaller fractions of char and gas. The pyrolysis centrifuge reactor (PCR) has been developed at the CHEC center at DTU Department of Chemical Engineering. The reactor is a compact design that uses a low flow rate of carrier gas, pyrolyse biomass without a heat carrier and obtain a biomass particle heating rate of 1000 - 1500 K/s by a high centrifugal force. The reactor can be constructed at a size that could be applicable locally at waste water treatment plants or pulp and paper plants, bio-ethanol plants or can constructed as a mobile unit of a tractor-propelled vehicle that is used on straw fields. A lot of work on PCR straw and wood pyrolysis with respect to pyrolysis conditions, moisture feedstock content, bio-oil properties, and PCR modelling is done before this PhD project. The bio-oil yields of approximately 68 and 60 wt% daf are obtained for wood and straw PCR pyrolysis, respectively and the bio-oils properties are similar to those of wood and straw pyrolysis from fluidized-bed reactors. Wood and straw, conventional biomasses, are extensively investigated and knowledge of wood and straw fast pyrolysis is available in the literature. Nonconventional biomass feedstock may also be applicable for fast pyrolysis processes. Among the forms of nonconventional biomasses: macroalgae, lignin (industrial residue) and sewage sludge may be attractive materials due to their low price, non-competitiveness with food crops and the possible utilization of solid wastes. Besides, a fast pyrolysis process can be used as a process to densify the biomass and produce bioslurry, a mixture of bio-oil and pyrolytic char. The bioslurry is found to be a possible feedstock for pressurized gasification plants. Thus, the aims of this project are to investigate fast pyrolysis properties of lignin, sewage sludge and macroalgae on a lab scale PCR and characterize their bio-oil properties. Bioslurry properties with respect to use as a feedstock for pressurized gasification is also investigated. Lignin and sewage sludge PCR pyrolysis provided bio-oil yields of 47 and 54 wt% daf, and oil energy recovery of 45 and 50 %, respectively. While the macroalgae PCR pyrolysis showed promising results with an organic oil yield of 65 wt% daf and an oil energy recovery of 76 %. The lignin, macroalgae and sewage sludge bio-oil properties were relatively different to those of the straw or wood bio-oils with respect to oxygen content, viscosity, HHV and mean molecular mass. The HHV of the lignin, sewage sludge and macroalgae oils were 29.7, 25.7 and 25.5 MJ/kg db respectively, and that are higher than that of typical bioiv oil from conventional biomasses (23-24 MJ/kg db). Almost all metals feedstock contents were contained in the chars at temperatures of 550 - 575 °C for lignin, sewage sludge and macroalgae PCR pyrolysis. Therefore the bio-oils obtained low metal concentrations (especially alkali contents less than 0.09 wt%). Due to high feedstock nitrogen and sulfur contents, also a high level of nitrogen and sulfur of macroalgae and sewage sludge oils were observed compared to conventional bio-oil and this may limit their further industrial applications. The lignin char had a high proportion of small size particles, a HHV of 21 MJ/kg db and were almost free of chloride and sulfur, thus it is considered as a promising fuel for gasification or combustion; whereas macroalgae and sewage sludge chars containing high amounts of macronutrients as N, P, K, S, Mg and Ca and this could make the chars most valuable as raw materials for fertilizer production. The sewage sludge waste bulk volume (the char compared to the sludge) was reduced with 52 % by pyrolysis at 575 °C. It is s

  3. Advances in Modeling and Simulation of Biomass Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Prakash

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The various aspects of modeling and simulation work carried out so far in biomass pyrolysis since 1946 have been extensively reviewed in the present study. Biomass pyrolysis, one of the few non conventional energy routes, is highly promising and capable of handling the current energy crisis successfully for the present and in the near future. Pyrolysis as a stand alone or as the core of biomass gasification process is complex in nature, the understanding and knowledge of this multifaceted phenomenon can heavily influence the efficiency and effectiveness of the whole gasification process. Even though, the modeling of biomass pyrolysis process was initiated during 1940`s gradual changes, improvements and alternates have been carried out throughout these years. All these years, various modeling approaches were adopted, different kinetic schemes were proposed, diverse numerical schemes were followed and range of parameters were implemented, all these have developed a baffling picture over the subject. The complexity of the process, as such the large number of components involved in the intermediates and end products; the dependency of the process over numerous parameters namely the temperature, space and time dependent physical, thermodynamic and transport properties, the particle shape, size, shrinkage factors and moisture content all these justify even today the necessity and requirement of research for further improvement and enrichment in the modeling and simulation fronts of this process. This study sums up the work carried out in literature on modeling and simulation of wood pyrolysis and suggests new research directions and approaches necessarily to be made up in future.

  4. Fixed-bed hydrogen pyrolysis of rapeseed: product yields and compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fixed-bed hydro pyrolysis tests have been conducted on a sample of rapeseed to investigate the effect of hydro pyrolysis on the yields and chemical structures of bio-oils, with a view to improving overall product quality. A ammonium dioxydithiomolybdenate catalyst has been used in some tests to further increase conversion. The maximum bio-oil yield of 84% was obtained in hydrogen atmosphere (with catalyst) at hydrogen pressure of 15 MPa, hydrogen flow rate of 10 dm3min-1, hydro pyrolysis temperature of 520 degree C, and heating rate of 5 oCmin-1. Then this bio-oil was characterized by elemental analysis and some spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. And finally, this bio-oil yield and chemical composition compared with oil obtained from fast pyrolysis condition

  5. Model-free pyrolysis kinetics of sunflower seed and its de-oiled cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunflower seed wastes from oil production are a potential biomass source for bio- energy production due to extensive and excessive oil production from sunflower seeds. Considering global energy requirement, pyrolysis seems a promising route for utilisation of such industrial biomass wastes. To develop, scale-up and operate pyrolysis plants efficiently, a fundamental understanding of pyrolysis behaviour and kinetics is essential. In this study, sunflower seeds and their waste cakes after extraction were evaluated as a potential biomass feedstock in pyrolysis process. In order to enlighten pyrolytic degradation behaviours, samples were pyrolysed under dynamic conditions from room temperature to 1000 °C using multiple heating rates. The main degradation regimes of the structures were characterized by high weight loss rates. Reaction kinetics was investigated with respect to conversion degree. It is anticipated that this study will be beneficial in optimizing the thermochemical processes, which may be utilize industrial biomass wastes. (full text)

  6. Improved lignin pyrolysis for phenolics production in a bubbling bed reactor--Effect of bed materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongbing; Briens, Cedric; Berruti, Franco

    2015-08-01

    Lignin pyrolysis was studied in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor equipped with a fractional condensation train, using nitrogen as the fluidization gas. The effect of different bed materials (silica sand, lignin char, activated lignin char, birch bark char, and foamed glass beads) on bio-oil yield and quality was investigated for a pyrolysis temperature of 550 °C. Results how that a bed of activated lignin char is preferable to the commonly used silica sand: pyrolysis of Kraft lignin with a bed of activated lignin char not only provides a pure char product, but also a higher dry bio-oil yield (with a relative increase of 43%), lower pyrolytic water production, and better bio-oil quality. The bio-oil obtained from Kraft lignin pyrolysis with a bed of activated lignin char has a lower average molecular weight, less tar, more phenolics, and less acidity than when sand is used as bed material. PMID:25863324

  7. CO-PYROLYSIS OF POLYPROPYLENE WITH PETROLEUM OF BACIA DE CAMPOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DE ASSUMPÇÃO, Luiz Carlos Fonte Nova; MARQUES, Mônica Regina da Costa; CARBONELL, Montserrat Motas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the process of co-pyrolysis of polypropylene (PP residues with gas-oil was evaluated, varying thetemperature and the amount of polypropylene fed to the reactor. The polypropylene samples and gas-oil weresubmitted to the thermal co-pyrolysis in an inert atmosphere, varying the temperature and the amount of PP.The influence of the gas-oil was evaluated carrying the co-pyrolysis in the absence of PP. The pyrolysed liquidsproduced by this thermal treatment were characterized by modified gaseous chromatography in order toevaluate the yield in the range of distillation of diesel. As a result, the increase of PP amount lead to a reductionin the yield of the pyrolytic liquid and to an increase of the amount of solid generated. The effect of temperatureincrease showed an inverse result. The results show that plastic residue co-pyrolysys is a potential method forchemical recycling of plastic products.

  8. Construction of a Labview controlled pyrolysis unit for coupling to a Pyrola 85 pyrolysis chamber

    OpenAIRE

    Östman, Marcus; Näsström, Elin

    2012-01-01

    Pyrolysis is the process of molecular decomposition in an inert environment using heat. It is possible to fragment large molecules, such as polymers, by pyrolysis and separate the fragments directly in a GC. This makes it possible to form complex sample fingerprints that can be used in various applications, for example in forensic science. In this project, a malfunctioning Pyrola 85 pyrolysis unit was fixed by measuring the voltage signals from the photo diode during pyrolysis in a Labview pr...

  9. Pyrolysis of polyolefins for increasing the yield of monomers’ recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of mixed polyolefins in fluidized bed has been studied. ? We tested applicability of a commercial Ziegler–Natta catalyst (Z–N: TiCl4/MgCl2). ? The catalyst has a strong influence on product distribution, increasing gas fraction. ? At 650 °C the monomer generation increased by 55% when the catalyst was used. ? We showed the concept of treatment of mixed polyolefins without a need of separation. - Abstract: Pyrolysis of plastic waste is an alternative way of plastic recovery and could be a potential solution for the increasing stream of solid waste. The objective of this work was to increase the yield the gaseous olefins (monomers) as feedstock for polymerization process and to test the applicability of a commercial Ziegler–Natta (Z–N): TiCl4/MgCl2 for cracking a mixture of polyolefins consisted of 46% wt. of low density polyethylene (LDPE), 30% wt. of high density polyethylene (HDPE) and 24% wt. of polypropylene (PP). Two sets of experiments have been carried out at 500 and 650 °C via catalytic pyrolysis (1% of Z–N catalyst) and at 650 and 730 °C via only-thermal pyrolysis. These experiments have been conducted in a lab-scale, fluidized quartz-bed reactor of a capacity of 1–3 kg/h at Hamburg University. The results revealed a strong influence of temperature and presence of catalyst on the product distribution. The ratios of gas/liquid/solid mass fractions via thermal pyrolysis were: 36.9/48.4/15.7% wt. and 42.4/44.7/13.9% wt. at 650 and 730 °C while via catalytic pyrolysis were: 6.5/89.0/4.5% wt. and 54.3/41.9/3.8% wt. at 500 and 650 °C, respectively. At 650 °C the monomer generation increased by 55% up to 23.6% wt. of total pyrolysis products distribution while the catalyst was added. Obtained yields of olefins were compared with the naphtha steam cracking process and other potentially attractive processes for feedstock generation. The concept of closed cycle material flow for polyolefins has been discussed, showing the potential benefits of feedstock recycling in a plastic waste management.

  10. Fast microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis of sewage sludge for bio-oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qinglong; Peng, Peng; Liu, Shiyu; Min, Min; Cheng, Yanling; Wan, Yiqin; Li, Yun; Lin, Xiangyang; Liu, Yuhuan; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2014-11-01

    In this study, fast microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis of sewage sludge was investigated for bio-oil production, with HZSM-5 as the catalyst. Pyrolysis temperature and catalyst to feed ratio were examined for their effects on bio-oil yield and composition. Experimental results showed that microwave is an effective heating method for sewage sludge pyrolysis. Temperature has great influence on the pyrolysis process. The maximum bio-oil yield and the lowest proportions of oxygen- and nitrogen-containing compounds in the bio-oil were obtained at 550°C. The oil yield decreased when catalyst was used, but the proportions of oxygen- and nitrogen-containing compounds were significantly reduced when the catalyst to feed ratio increased from 1:1 to 2:1. Essential mineral elements were concentrated in the bio-char after pyrolysis, which could be used as a soil amendment in place of fertilizer. Results of XRD analyses demonstrated that HZSM-5 catalyst exhibited good stability during the microwave-assisted pyrolysis of sewage sludge. PMID:25260179

  11. Biomass pyrolysis/gasification for product gas production: the overall investigation of parametric effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conventional biomass pyrolysis/gasification process for production of medium heating value gas for industrial or civil applications faces two disadvantages, i.e. low gas productivity and the accompanying corrosion of downstream equipment caused by the high content of tar vapour contained in the gas phase. The objective of this paper is to overcome these disadvantages, and therefore, the effects of the operating parameters on biomass pyrolysis are investigated in a laboratory setup based on the principle of keeping the heating value of the gas almost unchanged. The studied parameters include reaction temperature, residence time of volatile phase in the reactor, physico-chemical pretreatment of biomass particles, heating rate of the external heating furnace and improvement of the heat and mass transfer ability of the pyrolysis reactor. The running temperature of a separate cracking reactor and the geometrical configuration of the pyrolysis reactor are also studied. However, due to time limits, different types of catalysts are not used in this work to determine their positive influences on biomass pyrolysis behaviour. The results indicate that product gas production from biomass pyrolysis is sensitive to the operating parameters mentioned above, and the product gas heating value is high, up to 13-15 MJ/N m3

  12. A Novel Energy-Efficient Pyrolysis Process: Self-pyrolysis of Oil Shale Triggered by Topochemical Heat in a Horizontal Fixed Bed

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, You-Hong; Bai, Feng-Tian; Lü, Xiao-Shu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Yu-Min; Guo, Ming-Yi; Guo, Wei; Liu, Bao-Chang

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel energy-efficient oil shale pyrolysis process triggered by a topochemical reaction that can be applied in horizontal oil shale formations. The process starts by feeding preheated air to oil shale to initiate a topochemical reaction and the onset of self-pyrolysis. As the temperature in the virgin oil shale increases (to 250–300°C), the hot air can be replaced by ambient-temperature air, allowing heat to be released by internal topochemical reactions to complete the ...

  13. Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore Dickerson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic pyrolysis is a promising thermochemical conversion route for lignocellulosic biomass that produces chemicals and fuels compatible with current, petrochemical infrastructure. Catalytic modifications to pyrolysis bio-oils are geared towards the elimination and substitution of oxygen and oxygen-containing functionalities in addition to increasing the hydrogen to carbon ratio of the final products. Recent progress has focused on both hydrodeoxygenation and hydrogenation of bio-oil using a variety of metal catalysts and the production of aromatics from bio-oil using cracking zeolites. Research is currently focused on developing multi-functional catalysts used in situ that benefit from the advantages of both hydrodeoxygenation and zeolite cracking. Development of robust, highly selective catalysts will help achieve the goal of producing drop-in fuels and petrochemical commodities from wood and other lignocellulosic biomass streams. The current paper will examine these developments by means of a review of existing literature.

  14. Multisteps Global Kinetic Analysis of MSW Slow Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Aries Himawanto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to find relationships between single components slow pyrolysis characteristics and mixed component slow pyrolysis characteristics of segregated municipal solid wastes (MSW. The material of this research consists of organic wastes (bamboo wastes and banana leaves wastes and inorganic wastes (styrofoam wastes and snack wrapping wastes. The materials which used to study were the unprosessing waste. The samples were collected, dried and crushed until passing 20 mesh shieves then characterized in self manufactured macro balance. The thermogravimetry analyses were done to find the MSW slow pyrolysis characteristics. The 20 gram sample was placed in the furnace whose temperature is increased with 10 0C/min heating rate until reached 400 0 final temperature and held for 30 minutes before the sample is cooled into room temperature. One hundred ml/min nitrogen introduced from the bottom of furnace as a swept gas. The results of the research show that the global kinetic method could be used to predict the MSW single component activation energy but it should be modified to calculate the mixed sample activation energy . The predictive activation energy values which calculated based on weighed sum of single component have 18.5 % deviations if compared with experimental result.

  15. Aromatics and phenols from catalytic pyrolysis of Douglas fir pellets in microwave with ZSM-5 as a catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lu; Lei, Hanwu; Ren, Shoujie; Bu, Quan; Liang, Jing; Wei, Yi; Liu, Yupeng; Lee, Guo-Shuh J.; Chen, Shulin; Tang, Juming; Zhang, Qin; Ruan, Roger

    2012-11-04

    Microwave assisted catalytic pyrolysis was investigated to convert Douglas fir pellets to bio-oils by a ZSM-5 Zeolite catalyst. A central composite experimental design (CCD) was used to optimize the catalytic pyrolysis process. The effects of reaction time, temperature and catalyst to biomass ratio on the bio-oil, syngas, and biochar yields were determined. GC/MS analysis results showed that the bio-oil contained a series of important and useful chemical compounds. Phenols, guaiacols, and aromatic hydrocarbons were the most abundant compounds which were about 50-82 % in bio-oil depending on the pyrolysis conditions. Comparison between the bio-oils from microwave pyrolysis with and without catalyst showed that the catalyst increased the content of aromatic hydrocarbons and phenols. A reaction pathway was proposed for microwave assisted catalyst pyrolysis of Douglas fir pellets.

  16. Catalytic pyrolysis of black-liquor lignin by co-feeding with different plastics in a fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiyan; Xiao, Rui; Nie, Jianlong; Jin, Baosheng; Shao, Shanshan; Xiao, Guomin

    2015-09-01

    Catalytic co-pyrolysis of black-liquor lignin and waste plastics (polyethylene, PE; polypropylene PP; polystyrene, PS) was conducted in a fluidized bed. The effects of temperature, plastic to lignin ratio, catalyst and plastic types on product distributions were studied. Both aromatic and olefin yields increased with increasing PE proportion. Petrochemical yield of co-pyrolysis of PE and lignin was LOSA-1 > spent FCC > Gamma-Al2O3 > sand. The petrochemical yield with LOSA-1 is 43.9% which is more than two times of that without catalyst. The feedstock for co-pyrolysis with lignin is polystyrene > polyethylene > polypropylene. Catalytic co-pyrolysis of black-liquor lignin with PS produced the maximum aromatic yield (55.3%), while co-pyrolysis with PE produced the maximum olefin yield (13%). PMID:26011693

  17. Production and Characterization of Bio-Char from the Pyrolysis of Empty Fruit Bunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad A. Sukiran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The palm oil industry generates an abundance of oil palm biomass such as the Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB, shell, frond, trunk and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME. For 88 million tones of Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB processed in 2008, the amount of oil palm biomass was more than 26 million tones. Studies about production of bio-char from oil palm biomass are still lacking in Malaysia. So, this study was aimed to: (i determine the effect of pyrolysis temperatures on bio-char yield (ii characterize the bio-char obtained under different pyrolysed temperatures. Approach: In this study, pyrolysis of EFB was conducted using a fluidized fixed bed reactor. The effect of pyrolysis temperatures on bio-char yield was investigated. The pyrolysis temperature used ranged from 300-700°C. The elemental analysis, calorific value, surface area and total pore volume of the bio-char were determined. Results: The highest bio char yield of 41.56% was obtained at an optimum pyrolysis temperature of 300°C with particle size of 91-106 μm and the heating rate of 30°C min-1. The calorific values of bio-char ranged from 23-26 MJ kg-1. Conclusion: It was found that the bio-char products can be characterized as carbon rich, high calorific value and potential solid biofuels.

  18. Initial Stages of the Pyrolysis of Polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Konstantin V; Knyazev, Vadim D

    2015-12-10

    An experimental study of the kinetics of the initial stages of the pyrolysis of high-density polyethylene (PE) was performed. Quantitative yields of gas-phase products (C1-C8 alkanes and alkenes) and functional groups within the remaining polyethylene melt (methyl, vinyl, vinylene, vinylidene, and branching sites) were obtained as a function of time (0-20 min) at five temperatures in the 400-440 °C range. Gas chromatography and NMR ((1)H and (13)C) were used to detect the gas- and condensed-phase products, respectively. Modeling of polyethylene pyrolysis was performed, with the primary purpose of determining the rate constants of several critical reaction types important at the initial pyrolysis stages. Detailed chemical mechanisms were created (short and extended mechanisms) and used with both the steady-state approximation and numerical integration of the differential kinetic equations. Rate constants of critical elementary reactions (C-C backbone scission, two kinds of H-atom transfer, radical addition to the double bond, and beta-scission of tertiary alkyl radicals) were adjusted, resulting in an agreement between the model and the experiment. The values of adjusted rate constants are in general agreement with those of cognate reactions of small molecules in the gas phase, with the exception of the rate constants of the backbone C-C scission, which is found to be approximately 1-2 orders of magnitude lower. This observation provides tentative support to the hypothesis that congested PE melt molecular environment impedes the tumbling motions of separating fragments in C-C bond scission, thus resulting in less "loose" transition state and lower rate constant values. Sensitivity of the calculations to selected uncertainties in model properties was studied. Values and estimated uncertainties of four combinations of rate constants are reported as derived from the experimental results via modeling. The dependence of the diffusion-limited rate constant for radical recombination on the changing molecular mass of polyethylene was explicitly quantified and included in the extended kinetic mechanism, which appears critical for the agreement between modeling and experiment, particularly the agreement between the experimental and the calculated activation energies for product formation rates. Calculations were performed to estimate the contribution to the overall rate of radical recombination of the "reaction diffusion" phenomenon, where recombination is driven not by the actual motion of the recombining radical sites but rather by the migration of the radical site through PE melt due to rapid hydrogen transfer; this contribution was shown to be negligible for the conditions of the current work. PMID:26503638

  19. Pyrolysis of two different biomass samples in a fixed-bed reactor combined with two different catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funda Ates; Ayse E. Putun; Ersan Putun [Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey). Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture

    2006-09-15

    Pyrolysis of Euphorbia rigida and sesame stalk biomass samples with two selected commercial catalyst, namely DHC-32 and HC-K 1.3Q, have been conducted in a fixed-bed reactor. The effect of different catalysts and their ratio (5, 10 and 20% w/w) and pyrolysis temperature (500 and 750{sup o}C) on the pyrolysis product yields were investigated and the obtained results were compared with similar experiments without catalyst. Bio-oil yield was increased comparing with non-catalytic experiments, at final pyrolysis temperature of 500{sup o}C for both biomass samples and catalysts. In the catalytic experiments; when the temperature reached to 750{sup o}C, although bio-oil product yield was reduced, the gas product yield was increased comparing with non-catalytic experiments. The pyrolysis oils were examined using spectroscopic and chromatographic analyses and then fractioned by column chromatography. Although the aliphatic and aromatic fractions were decreased and polar fraction was increased with catalytic pyrolysis of E. rigida; an opposite trend was observed in the sesame stalk pyrolysis oil, comparing with non-catalytic results. Obtained results were compared with petroleum fractions and determined the possibility of being a potential source of renewable fuels. 35 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. CATALYTIC FAST PYROLYSIS OF CELLULOSE MIXED WITH SULFATED TITANIA TO PRODUCE LEVOGLUCOSENONE: ANALYTICAL PY-GC/MS STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Lu,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated titania (SO42-/TiO2 was prepared and used for catalytic fast pyrolysis of cellulose to produce levoglucosenone (LGO, a valuable anhydrosugar product. Analytical pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS technique was employed in this study to achieve the catalytic fast pyrolysis of cellulose and on-line analysis of the pyrolysis vapors. Experiments were performed to investigate the effects of several factors on the LGO production, i.e. pyrolysis temperature, cellulose/catalyst ratio, TiO2 crystal type, and pyrolysis time. The results indicated that the SO42-/TiO2 catalyst lowered the initial cellulose decomposition temperature and altered the pyrolytic product significantly. Levoglucosan (LG was the most abundant product in the non-catalytic process, while levoglucosenone (LGO was the major product in the catalytic process. The maximal LGO yield was obtained at the set pyrolysis temperature of 400 °C, while the highest LGO content was obtained at 350 °C, with the peak area% over 50%. In addition, the SO42-/TiO2 (anatase was confirmed the best catalyst for the LGO production.

  1. Element and PAH constituents in the residues and liquid oil from biosludge pyrolysis in an electrical thermal furnace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hung-Lung; Lin, Kuo-Hsiung; Lai, Nina; Shieh, Zhu-Xin

    2014-05-15

    Biosludge can be pyrolyzed to produce liquid oil as an alternative fuel. The content of five major elements, 22 trace elements and 16 PAHs was investigated in oven-dried raw material, pyrolysis residues and pyrolysis liquid products. Results indicated 39% carbon, 4.5% hydrogen, 4.2% nitrogen and 1.8% sulfur were in oven dried biosludge. Biosludge pyrolysis, carried out at temperatures from 400 to 800°C, corresponded to 34-14% weight in pyrolytic residues, 32-50% weight in liquid products and 31-40% weight in the gas phase. The carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen decreased and the sulfur content increased with an increase in the pyrolysis temperature at 400-800°C. NaP (2 rings) and AcPy (3 rings) were the major PAHs, contributing 86% of PAHs in oven-dried biosludge. After pyrolysis, the PAH content increased with the increase of pyrolysis temperature, which also results in a change in the PAH species profile. In pyrolysis liquid oil, NaP, AcPy, Flu and PA were the major species, and the content of the 16 PAHs ranged from 1.6 to 19 ?g/ml at pyrolysis temperatures ranging from 400 to 800°C. Ca, Mg, Al, Fe and Zn were the dominant trace elements in the raw material and the pyrolysis residues. In addition, low toxic metal (Cd, V, Co, and Pb) content was found in the liquid oil, and its heat value was 7,800-9,500 kcal/kg, which means it can be considered as an alternative fuel. PMID:24631616

  2. Modeling and simulation of combined pyrolysis and reduction zone for a downdraft biomass gasifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper simulates the behavior of a global fixed bed biomass gasification reactor. The pyrolysis zone and reduction zone models are combined to simulate the global process of biomass gasification. The volatiles and gases released from the pyrolysis zone were assumed to crack into equivalent amounts of CO, CH4 and H2O. It is considered that the volatiles and gases leave the pyrolysis zone instantaneously and enter the reduction zone as initial gas concentrations. The numerical method applied is a Runge-Kutta fourth order method for solution of the pyrolysis zone model and finite differences for the reduction zone model to solve numerically the coupled ordinary differential equations. Simulations are performed for the varying pyrolysis temperature with a heating rate of 25 K/min and constant temperature of 1400 K as the initial reduction zone temperature at the same time. The simulation results for the temperature and concentrations of the gaseous species are in good agreement with published experimental data

  3. A study of paint sludge deactivation by pyrolysis reactions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.A.R., Muniz; A.R., Costa; E., Steffani; A.J., Zattera; K., Hofsetz; K., Bossardi; L., Valentini.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of large quantities of paint sludge is a serious environmental problem. This work evaluates the use of pyrolysis reaction as a process for deactivating paint sludge that generates a combustible gas phase, a solvent liquid phase and an inert solid phase. These wastes were classified in [...] to three types: water-based solvent (latex resin) and solvents based on their resins (alkyd and polyurethane). An electrically heated stainless steel batch reactor with a capacity of 579 mL and a maximum pressure of 30 atm was used. Following the reactor, a flash separator, which was operated at atmospheric pressure, partially condensed and separated liquid and gas products. Pressure and temperature were monitored on-line by a control and data acquisition system, which adjusted the heating power supplied to the pyrolysis reactor. Reactions followed an experimental design with two factors (reaction time and temperature) and three levels (10, 50 and 90 minutes; 450, 550 and 650°C). The response variables were liquid and solid masses and net heat of combustion. The optimal operational range for the pyrolysis process was obtained for each response variable. A significant reduction in total mass of solid waste was obtained.

  4. A study of paint sludge deactivation by pyrolysis reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muniz L.A.R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of large quantities of paint sludge is a serious environmental problem. This work evaluates the use of pyrolysis reaction as a process for deactivating paint sludge that generates a combustible gas phase, a solvent liquid phase and an inert solid phase. These wastes were classified into three types: water-based solvent (latex resin and solvents based on their resins (alkyd and polyurethane. An electrically heated stainless steel batch reactor with a capacity of 579 mL and a maximum pressure of 30 atm was used. Following the reactor, a flash separator, which was operated at atmospheric pressure, partially condensed and separated liquid and gas products. Pressure and temperature were monitored on-line by a control and data acquisition system, which adjusted the heating power supplied to the pyrolysis reactor. Reactions followed an experimental design with two factors (reaction time and temperature and three levels (10, 50 and 90 minutes; 450, 550 and 650degreesC. The response variables were liquid and solid masses and net heat of combustion. The optimal operational range for the pyrolysis process was obtained for each response variable. A significant reduction in total mass of solid waste was obtained.

  5. Modelling and experimental studies on pyrolysis of biomass particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadhukhan, Anup Kumar; Gupta, Parthapratim [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur 713 209, W.B. (India); Saha, Ranajit Kumar [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302, W.B. (India)

    2008-03-15

    A simple mathematical model has been developed to describe the pyrolysis of a single biomass particle. A fully transient analysis involving a kinetic model coupled with heat transfer model has been presented. The kinetic model consists of both primary and secondary pyrolysis reactions while the heat transfer model includes diffusive, convective and radiative modes of heat transfer. Fourth-order Runge-Kutta-Gill method is used to solve the kinetic model, while implicit Finite Volume Method (FVM) with Tri-Diagonal Matrix Algorithm (TDMA) is employed to solve the heat transfer model. The kinetic parameters and heat of reaction are estimated by Levenberg Marquardt nonlinear optimization technique. A general-purpose FORTRAN program is developed to solve the model equations and estimation of parameters. Experimental investigations are carried out for wood fines and cylinders in an electrically heated reactor. The model predictions for temperature and mass loss histories are in excellent agreement with the experimental results. The model is also validated with published experimental results. Finally, the effects of temperature and particle size on pyrolysis time and yield of final char have been analyzed with model simulation. (author)

  6. Method of producing pyrolysis gases from carbon-containing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudge, Lyle K. (Richland, WA); Brown, Michael D. (West Richland, WA); Wilcox, Wayne A. (Kennewick, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA)

    1989-01-01

    A gasification process of improved efficiency is disclosed. A dual bed reactor system is used in which carbon-containing feedstock materials are first treated in a gasification reactor to form pyrolysis gases. The pyrolysis gases are then directed into a catalytic reactor for the destruction of residual tars/oils in the gases. Temperatures are maintained within the catalytic reactor at a level sufficient to crack the tars/oils in the gases, while avoiding thermal breakdown of the catalysts. In order to minimize problems associated with the deposition of carbon-containing materials on the catalysts during cracking, a gaseous oxidizing agent preferably consisting of air, oxygen, steam, and/or mixtures thereof is introduced into the catalytic reactor at a high flow rate in a direction perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the reactor. This oxidizes any carbon deposits on the catalysts, which would normally cause catalyst deactivation.

  7. An ill-posed parabolic evolution system for dispersive deoxygenation-reaeration in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaïez, M.; Ben Belgacem, F.; Hecht, F.; Le Bot, C.

    2014-01-01

    We consider an inverse problem that arises in the management of water resources and pertains to the analysis of surface water pollution by organic matter. Most physically relevant models used by engineers derive from various additions and corrections to enhance the earlier deoxygenation-reaeration model proposed by Streeter and Phelps in 1925, the unknowns being the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations. The one we deal with includes Taylor’s dispersion to account for the heterogeneity of the contamination in all space directions. The system we obtain is then composed of two reaction-dispersion equations. The particularity is that both Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions are available on the DO tracer while the BOD density is free of any conditions. In fact, for real-life concerns, measurements on the DO are easy to obtain and to save. On the contrary, collecting data on the BOD is a sensitive task and turns out to be a lengthy process. The global model pursues the reconstruction of the BOD density, and especially of its flux along the boundary. Not only is this problem plainly worth studying for its own interest but it could also be a mandatory step in other applications such as the identification of the location of pollution sources. The non-standard boundary conditions generate two difficulties in mathematical and computational grounds. They set up a severe coupling between both equations and they are the cause of the ill-posed data reconstruction problem. Existence and stability fail. Identifiability is therefore the only positive result one can search for; it is the central purpose of the paper. Finally, we have performed some computational experiments to assess the capability of the mixed finite element in missing data recovery.

  8. An ill-posed parabolic evolution system for dispersive deoxygenation–reaeration in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider an inverse problem that arises in the management of water resources and pertains to the analysis of surface water pollution by organic matter. Most physically relevant models used by engineers derive from various additions and corrections to enhance the earlier deoxygenation–reaeration model proposed by Streeter and Phelps in 1925, the unknowns being the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations. The one we deal with includes Taylor’s dispersion to account for the heterogeneity of the contamination in all space directions. The system we obtain is then composed of two reaction-dispersion equations. The particularity is that both Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions are available on the DO tracer while the BOD density is free of any conditions. In fact, for real-life concerns, measurements on the DO are easy to obtain and to save. On the contrary, collecting data on the BOD is a sensitive task and turns out to be a lengthy process. The global model pursues the reconstruction of the BOD density, and especially of its flux along the boundary. Not only is this problem plainly worth studying for its own interest but it could also be a mandatory step in other applications such as the identification of the location of pollution sources. The non-standard boundary conditions generate two difficulties in mathematical and computational grounds. They set up a severe coupling between both equations and they are the cause of the ill-posed data reconstruction problem. Existence and stability fail. Identifiability is therefore the only positive result one can search for; it is the central purpose of the paper. Finally, we have performed some computational experiments to assess the capability of the mixed finite element in missing data recovery. (paper)

  9. Cohesive coal grain bonding during pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biryukov, Yu.V.; Slyn' ko, V.P.; Ol' fert, A.I.; Malevich, V.K.; Latypov, R.T.

    1988-08-01

    Coal grain adhesion during pyrolysis was investigated under laboratory conditions. An iron rod was heated to 850 C. A hot iron rod was indented 50 mm deep into a mixture of coal grains crushed to below 3 mm. Rate of coal grain buildup (adhesion) on the iron rod was analyzed considering coal type and additive. The following coal groups were used: G6, Zh21, K14 and OS6. Coal blends consisting of one coal type only, and coal mixtures with or without petroleum additives were used. Coal type influenced coal grain buildup (reflecting adhesion of coal grains bonded by caking), reaching a maximum for fat coal. Increasing iron rod temperature influenced coal grain bonding. In the case of gas coal, the bonding was regular within the whole temperature range; in the case of lean caking coal and coking coal, grain bonding was more intensive at higher temperatures. Use of binary mixtures increased the bonding rate. Use of petroleum products as binders significantly increased coal grain bonding. 5 refs.

  10. Pyrolysis and gasification of typical components in wastes with macro-TGA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Aihong; Chen, Shen; Long, Yanqiu; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Yanguo; Li, Qinghai

    2015-12-01

    The pyrolysis and gasification of typical components of solid waste, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) were performed and compared in a macro thermogravimetric analyzer (macro-TGA). Three model biomasses, poplar stem, orange peel and Chinese cabbage, were applied to pyrolysis and gasification simulation by their components based on TG curves. Compared to those from TGA, peaks temperature of the differential thermogravimetric (DTG) curves of each samples pyrolysis on macro-TGA delayed 30-55°C due to heat transferring effect. CO2 promoted the thermal decomposition of hemicellulose, lignin, starch, pectin and model biomasses significantly by Boudouard reaction, and enhanced slightly the decomposition of PET. The activation energy (AE) of biomass components pyrolysis on macro-TGA was 167-197kJ/mol, while that of plastic samples was 185-235kJ/mol. The activation energy of 351-377kJ/mol was corresponding to the Boudouard reaction in CO2 gasification. All overlap ratios in pseudo-components simulation were higher than 0.98 to indicate that pseudo-components model could be applied to both pyrolysis and CO2 gasification, and the mass fractions of components derived from pyrolysis and gasification were slightly different but not brought in obvious difference in simulating curves when they were applied across. PMID:26318422

  11. Pyrolysis of superfine pulverized coal. Part 1. Mechanisms of methane formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • CH4 formation mechanisms during superfine pulverized coal pyrolysis are investigated. • The overlapped CH4 evolution curves are resolved applying the deconvolution method. • Five constituent reaction complexes induced by different functional groups are recognized. • CH4 formation mechanisms initiated from thermal decompositions of different functionalities are concluded. - Abstract: The superfine pulverized coal has a greater potential for reducing NOx emissions in the staged and oxy-fuel combustion technologies. The compositions and evolving processes of the volatile species during coal pyrolysis are important for understanding the pyrolysis mechanisms and pollution control strategies. In spite of numerous works focused on the description of coal thermal decomposition, the mechanism of formation reactions for particular gaseous products of coal pyrolysis like CH4 remains unclear. In this paper, the mechanisms of CH4 formation during superfine pulverized coal pyrolysis in N2 and CO2 atmospheres are investigated under non-isothermal conditions in a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of coal type, particle size and temperature on the evolved CH4 and its formation mechanisms are analyzed. In addition, the total overlapped CH4 evolution curves are resolved applying the deconvolution method through numerical analysis. Five constituent reaction complexes induced by different functional groups are recognized. Five CH4 precursors involving in the CH4 revolution during coal pyrolysis are confirmed, applying the solid-state 13C NMR analysis. Different CH4 formation mechanisms initiated from the thermal decomposition of the functionalities are concluded, with the products competing for the donatable hydrogen for stabilization

  12. STEPWISE ISOTHERMAL FAST PYROLYSIS (SIFP OF BIOMASS PART I. SIFP OF PINE SAWDUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia López Rivilli

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis of pine wood sawdust was carried out using stepwise isothermal fast pyrolysis (SIFP, focusing on the search of reaction conditions to obtain chemicals in good yields from biomass. SIFP consists of successive isothermal fast pyrolysis reactions, where solid products obtained in the previous isothermal fast pyrolysis become the substrate of the subsequent reaction at a higher temperature. This article reports results obtained by SIFP of pine sawdust between 200 and 600°C using 100°C intervals under vacuum (0.2 mm, using nitrogen as carrier gas. Both sets of reactions made it possible to obtain most of the compounds that have been previously described in conventional fast pyrolysis experiments; however this system produces a smaller number of chemical compounds in each isothermal FP, making it easier to obtain determined chemicals with industrial or research value. Maximum yield of liquid products occurred at 300°C, giving around 30% of bio-oil, which contained mainly phenols and furan derivatives. Liquid-Liquid extraction led to a rich mixture of phenol derivatives. Results showed that SIFP is an interesting technique to obtain enriched fractions of products derived from biomass pyrolysis.

  13. Preparation of brightness stabilization agent for lignin containing pulp from biomass pyrolysis oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agblevor, Foster A. (Blacksburg, VA); Besler-Guran, Serpil (Flemington, NJ)

    2001-01-01

    A process for producing a brightness stabilization mixture of water-soluble organic compounds from biomass pyrolysis oils comprising: a) size-reducing biomass material and pyrolyzing the size-reduced biomass material in a fluidized bed reactor; b) separating a char/ash component while maintaining char-pot temperatures to avoid condensation of pyrolysis vapors; c) condensing pyrolysis gases and vapors, and recovering pyrolysis oils by mixing the oils with acetone to obtain an oil-acetone mixture; d) evaporating acetone and recovering pyrolysis oils; e) extracting the pyrolysis oils with water to obtain a water extract; f) slurrying the water extract with carbon while stirring, and filtering the slurry to obtain a colorless filtrate; g) cooling the solution and stabilizing the solution against thermally-induced gelling and solidification by extraction with ethyl acetate to form an aqueous phase lower layer and an organic phase upper layer; h) discarding the upper organic layer and extracting the aqueous layer with ethyl acetate, and discarding the ethyl acetate fraction to obtain a brown-colored solution not susceptible to gelling or solidification upon heating; i) heating the solution to distill off water and other light components and concentrating a bottoms fraction comprising hydroxyacetaldehyde and other non-volatile components having high boiling points; and j) decolorizing the stabilized brown solution with activated carbon to obtain a colorless solution.

  14. Catalytic pyrolysis of peat with additions of oil-slime and polymeric waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulman, E.; Kosivtsov, Yu.; Sulman, M.; Alfyorov, V.; Lugovoy, Yu.; Chalov, K.; Misnikov, O.; Afanasjev, A.; Kumar, N.; Murzin, D.

    2012-09-01

    In this work the influence of natural and synthetic aluminosilicates, metal chlorides of iron subgroup on the peat low-temperature pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of peat with oil-slime and polymeric waste was studied in variety of conditions (t = 350-650?C, catalyst loading: from 1 up to 30 % (wt.)). The use of bentonite clay (30 % (wt.)) at 460?C as a catalyst in peat pyrolysis resulted in increase of weight of gaseous and liquid products from 23 up to 30 % (wt.) and from 32 up to 45 % (wt.), respectively. Co-pyrolysis of peat and oil-slime in the presence of bentonite clay resulted in increase of gaseous product weight from 18 up to 26 % (wt.) and liquid fraction yield - from 45 up to 55 % (wt.) in comparison with precalculated value. The use of metal chlorides of iron subgroup (2 % (wt.) concentration) at 500 ?C in the co-pyrolysis of peat and polymeric waste led to optimal conversion of substrate in desired products, 15 % increase of total weight of gaseous and liquid products formed during the pyrolysis process and simultaneous decrease of char formation.

  15. FAST PYROLYSIS – EFFECT OF WOOD DRYING ON THE YIELD AND PROPERTIES OF BIO-OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriks Samulis

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The composition and properties of the products of fast pyrolysis of hardwood, obtained in a two-chamber (drying and pyrolytic ablation type reactor in the temperature range 450-600º?, were investigated. It has been found that, upon the additional drying of wood at 200º? and subsequent pyrolysis, the quality of bio-oil is improved owing to the decrease in the amount of water and acids. It has been shown that the increase of the drying temperature to 240º? decreases the yield of the main product. Optimum parameters of the drying conditions and the temperature of the pyrolysis of wood, at which the bio-oil yield exceeds 60% and its calorific value makes up 17-20 ?J/kg, have been determined.

  16. SPHERICAL CALCIA STABILIZED ZIRCONIA POWDERS OBTAINED BY SPRAY PYROLYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E Esparza-Ponce

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical and chemical properties of ceramic powders are highly dependent on the morphology and chemical composition of the precursor powders. Therefore, properties of ceramic powders are expecting to be improved by controlling the most important parameters of morphology such as composition of precursors, temperature and airflow. Promising techniques to produce ceramic powders with controlled morphology are sol-gel, coprecipitation, and pyrolysis. Among these techniques, spray pyrolysis is one of the most suitable to control the morphology and the chemical composition of the particles, because the spray pyrolysis technique integrates the evaporation, precipitation, decomposition and sintering stage of powder synthesis into a single continuos process. Spherical powders were prepared from acetylacetonate of zirconium and acetate calcium hydrated solutions by pneumatic spray pyrolysis. The morphology and size of the powders change with variation of airflow, temperature, and solution concentration.Las propiedades físicas y químicas de los polvos cerámicos dependen grandemente de la morfología y de la composición química de las soluciones precursoras. Por lo tanto, las propiedades de los polvos cerámicos están esperando ser mejoradas controlando los parámetros que más influyen en la morfología como son la composición de las soluciones precursoras, temperatura y flujo de aire. Algunas de las técnicas que ofrecen producir polvos cerámicos con morfología controlada son: sol gel, coprecipitación y pirólisis. Dentro de estas técnicas la aspersión pirolítica es una de las más adecuadas para el control de la morfología y la composición química de las partículas, ya que la aspersión pirolítica integra la evaporación, precipitación, descomposición y estado de sinterización para la síntesis de polvos en un sólo proceso continuo. En este trabajo, los polvos obtenidos son esféricos y han sido preparados a partir de acetilacetonato de circonio y acetato de calcio en solución; mediante la técnica de aspersión pirolítica utilizando un aspersor neumático. La morfología y el tamaño de partícula cambian con las variaciones del flujo de aire, temperatura y la concentración molar de la solución.

  17. Production of bran castor biochar through slow pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pissinati de Rezende, E. I.; Mangrich, A. S.; Batista, M. G. F.; Toledo, J. M. S.; Novotny, E. H.

    2012-04-01

    Pyrolysis is a thermal process of great importance in the present context, since it constitutes a significant alternative to adequate use of organic waste. The principal products obtained in the pyrolysis of discarded biomass are bio-oil, biogas and biochar. Biochar, in turn, may play a relevant role when applied to the soil to sequester carbon and as a soil conditioner, a material comparable to organic matter of Indians Black Earths from the Amazon Region [1]. Seeking to determine the best methods of preparation of biochar, we studied the pyrolysis of bran castor residue of the Brazilian biodiesel industry. Eight samples, from FM1 to FM8, were prepared in a factorial design 23 using two temperature (300 and 350 °C), two heating velocity (5 and 10 °C min-1) and two period of heating (30 and 60 min). The eight samples were studied using the spectroscopy: EPR, FTIR, RMN, XPS, and elemental analysis. By elemental analysis, the samples that keep for lower temperature of pyrolysis, 300 °C, showed H/C and N/C ratios greater than the samples of 350 °C. That higher value can be attributed to chemical structure more aliphatic than aromatic mainly in the FM7 sample (V = 10 °C min-1, T = 300 °C, P = 30 min). The greater N/C ratio correlated with a superior amount of nitrogenous functions, presenting by both FM7 and FM4 samples, as determined by 13C NMR spectroscopy with absorptions in 175 ppm (amide) and 55 ppm (N-alkyl).

  18. Liquid-phase processing of fast pyrolysis bio-oil using platinum/HZSM-5 catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Bjorn Sanchez

    Recent developments in converting biomass to bio-chemicals and liquid fuels provide a promising sight to an emerging biofuels industry. Biomass can be converted to energy via thermochemical and biochemical pathways. Thermal degradation processes include liquefaction, gasification, and pyrolysis. Among these biomass technologies, pyrolysis (i.e. a thermochemical conversion process of any organic material in the absence of oxygen) has gained more attention because of its simplicity in design, construction and operation. This research study focuses on comparative assessment of two types of pyrolysis processes and catalytic upgrading of bio-oil for production of transportation fuel intermediates. Slow and fast pyrolysis processes were compared for their respective product yields and properties. Slow pyrolysis bio-oil displayed fossil fuel-like properties, although low yields limit the process making it uneconomically feasible. Fast pyrolysis, on the other hand, show high yields but produces relatively less quality bio-oil. Catalytic transformation of the high-boiling fraction (HBF) of the crude bio-oil from fast pyrolysis was therefore evaluated by performing liquid-phase reactions at moderate temperatures using Pt/HZSM-5 catalyst. High yields of upgraded bio-oils along with improved heating values and reduced oxygen contents were obtained at a reaction temperature of 200°C and ethanol/HBF ratio of 3:1. Better quality, however, was observed at 240 °C even though reaction temperature has no significant effect on coke deposition. The addition of ethanol in the feed has greatly attenuated coke deposition in the catalyst. Major reactions observed are esterification, catalytic cracking, and reforming. Overall mass and energy balances in the conversion of energy sorghum biomass to produce a liquid fuel intermediate obtained sixteen percent (16 wt.%) of the biomass ending up as liquid fuel intermediate, while containing 26% of its initial energy.

  19. Kinetics of muscle deoxygenation and microvascular PO(2) during contractions in rat: comparison of optical spectroscopy and phosphorescence-quenching techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Shunsaku; Kano, Yutaka; Barstow, Thomas J; Ferreira, Leonardo F; Ohmae, Etsuko; Sudo, Mizuki; Poole, David C

    2012-01-01

    The overarching presumption with near-infrared spectroscopy measurement of muscle deoxygenation is that the signal reflects predominantly the intramuscular microcirculatory compartment rather than intramyocyte myoglobin (Mb). To test this hypothesis, we compared the kinetics profile of muscle deoxygenation using visible light spectroscopy (suitable for the superficial fiber layers) with that for microvascular O(2) partial pressure (i.e., Pmv(O(2)), phosphorescence quenching) within the same muscle region (0.5?1 mm depth) during transitions from rest to electrically stimulated contractions in the gastrocnemius of male Wistar rats (n = 14). Both responses could be modeled by a time delay (TD), followed by a close-to-exponential change to the new steady level. However, the TD for the muscle deoxygenation profile was significantly longer compared with that for the phosphorescence-quenching Pmv(O(2)) [8.6 ± 1.4 and 2.7 ± 0.6 s (means ± SE) for the deoxygenation and Pmv(O(2)), respectively; P < 0.05]. The time constants (?) of the responses were not different (8.8 ± 4.7 and 11.2 ± 1.8 s for the deoxygenation and Pmv(O(2)), respectively). These disparate (TD) responses suggest that the deoxygenation characteristics of Mb extend the TD, thereby increasing the duration (number of contractions) before the onset of muscle deoxygenation. However, this effect was insufficient to increase the mean response time. Somewhat differently, the muscle deoxygenation response measured using near-infrared spectroscopy in the deeper regions (?5 mm depth) (?50% type I Mb-rich, highly oxidative fibers) was slower (? = 42.3 ± 6.6 s; P < 0.05) than the corresponding value for superficial muscle measured using visible light spectroscopy or Pmv(O(2)) and can be explained on the basis of known fiber-type differences in Pmv(O(2)) kinetics. These data suggest that, within the superficial and also deeper muscle regions, the ? of the deoxygenation signal may represent a useful index of local O(2) extraction kinetics during exercise transients. PMID:21979807

  20. Characterization of products obtained from pyrolysis and steam gasification of wood waste, RDF, and RPF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In-Hee; Kobayashi, Jun; Kawamoto, Katsuya

    2014-02-01

    Pyrolysis and steam gasification of woody biomass chip (WBC) obtained from construction and demolition wastes, refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and refuse paper and plastic fuel (RPF) were performed at various temperatures using a lab-scale instrument. The gas, liquid, and solid products were examined to determine their generation amounts, properties, and the carbon balance between raw material and products. The amount of product gas and its hydrogen concentration showed a considerable difference depending on pyrolysis and steam gasification at higher temperature. The reaction of steam and solid product, char, contributed to an increase in gas amount and hydrogen concentration. The amount of liquid products generated greatly depended on temperature rather than pyrolysis or steam gasification. The compositions of liquid product varied relying on raw materials used at 500°C but the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons became the major compounds at 900°C irrespective of the raw materials used. Almost fixed carbon (FC) of raw materials remained as solid products under pyrolysis condition whereas FC started to decompose at 700°C under steam gasification condition. For WBC, both char utilization by pyrolysis at low temperature (500°C) and syngas recovery by steam gasification at higher temperature (900°C) might be practical options. From the results of carbon balance of RDF and RPF, it was confirmed that the carbon conversion to liquid products conspicuously increased as the amount of plastic increased in the raw material. To recover feedstock from RPF, pyrolysis for oil recovery at low temperature (500°C) might be one of viable options. Steam gasification at 900°C could be an option but the method of tar reforming (e.g. catalyst utilization) should be considered. PMID:24246576

  1. Application of pyrolysis process to remove and recover liquid crystal and films from waste liquid crystal display glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Pyrolysis process can recycle the liquid crystal and films from liquid crystal display glass successfully. ? The removal of organic parts from the liquid crystal glass reached 87.87 wt%. ? The mechanism analysis of pyrolysis process explains the whole pyrolysis process perfect. ? All pyrolysis products can be tilized by a reasonable way. - Abstract: Liquid crystal display (LCD) glass mainly consists of polarizing film, liquid crystal and glass substrate. Removing and recovering the liquid crystal and films from the LCD glass effectively has important significance for recovering the other parts. This study proposed a pyrolysis process to recover the organic parts from LCD glass. Through thermal gravimetric analysis, the pyrolysis temperature of the LCD glass could be chosen at 850 K. The removal rate of organic parts from LCD glass reached 87.87 wt%. Pyrolysis products consisted of 66.82 wt% oils, 21.01 wt% gaseous and 12.13 wt% residues. In addition, the oils contained 46.27 wt% acetic acid and 32.94 wt% triphenyl phosphate. Then, the pyrolysis mechanisms and products sources of the liquid crystal glass have been analyzed based on the information of bonds energy. The pyrolysis mechanism analysis proved that the products mainly consisted of acetic acid, triphenyl phosphate and C, which is consistent to the results of GC–MS analysis. A reasonable way has been put forward to recycle the pyrolysis products: acetic acid and triphenyl phosphate can be collected by distillation, the rest oils and gases can be used as fuel and the remained glass can be used to extract indium and to produce building materials.

  2. Application of pyrolysis process to remove and recover liquid crystal and films from waste liquid crystal display glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Rixin; Ma, En [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pyrolysis process can recycle the liquid crystal and films from liquid crystal display glass successfully. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The removal of organic parts from the liquid crystal glass reached 87.87 wt%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanism analysis of pyrolysis process explains the whole pyrolysis process perfect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All pyrolysis products can be tilized by a reasonable way. - Abstract: Liquid crystal display (LCD) glass mainly consists of polarizing film, liquid crystal and glass substrate. Removing and recovering the liquid crystal and films from the LCD glass effectively has important significance for recovering the other parts. This study proposed a pyrolysis process to recover the organic parts from LCD glass. Through thermal gravimetric analysis, the pyrolysis temperature of the LCD glass could be chosen at 850 K. The removal rate of organic parts from LCD glass reached 87.87 wt%. Pyrolysis products consisted of 66.82 wt% oils, 21.01 wt% gaseous and 12.13 wt% residues. In addition, the oils contained 46.27 wt% acetic acid and 32.94 wt% triphenyl phosphate. Then, the pyrolysis mechanisms and products sources of the liquid crystal glass have been analyzed based on the information of bonds energy. The pyrolysis mechanism analysis proved that the products mainly consisted of acetic acid, triphenyl phosphate and C, which is consistent to the results of GC-MS analysis. A reasonable way has been put forward to recycle the pyrolysis products: acetic acid and triphenyl phosphate can be collected by distillation, the rest oils and gases can be used as fuel and the remained glass can be used to extract indium and to produce building materials.

  3. Recycling of polymers by pyrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminsky, W (Walter)

    1993-01-01

    The pyrolysis of plastic waste, scrap tires and other polymeric materials in a fluidized bed has been carried out based on a scale up program (laboratory plants 70 g/h, 500 g/h, 3000 g/h, and pilot plant 20-50 kg/h). The fluidized bed shows short residence times and high heat and mass transfers, and is heated indirectly up to 600 - 800°C. In the case of poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) or polystyrene as feedstock up to 97 wt.% of the monomer can be recovered. Other polymers give a more unspeci...

  4. High-speed pyrolysis with circulating heat carriers; Schnell-Pyrolyse mit zirkulierenden Waermetraegern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmalfeld, J.; Albrecht, J.; Solmaz, S.; Zentner, U. [Lurgi Energie und Umwelt GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Yields and product compositions of pyrolysis reactions depend on the mode of heat supply, the temperature level, and the time of residue at reaction temperature. Using hot circulating granular materials mixed with solid or liquid materials (e.g. biogenic or hydrocarbon-rich residues and waste materials or refinery residues), the following important processes can be investigated: Separation of pyrolysis reaction and heat supply - accurate, optimal temperature levels for pyrolysis, e.g. between 5000 and 850 degrees centigrade - undiluted, unmixed pyrolysis gas - short times of residue of the pyrolysis gas for suppression of secondary reactions. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ausbeuten und Produktzusammensetzung von Pyrolyse-Reaktionen werden weitestgehend durch die Art und Weise der Waermezufuhr, das Temperaturniveau und die Verweilzeit bei Reaktionstemperatur bestimmt. Mit Hilfe des Prinzips heisser, umlaufender, koerniger Waermetraeger in Vermischung - fuer die Pyrolyse-Reaktion - mit festen oder fluessigen Einsatzstoffen (z.B. biogene oder kohlenwasserstoffreiche Rest-/Abfallstoffe, Raffinerie-Rueckstaende) lassen sich folgende wichtige, haeufig gewuenschte Vorgaenge realisieren: - Trennung von Pyrolyse-Reaktion und Waermeversorgung - Temperaturgenaue Pyrolyse-Reaktion auf gewuenschtem, optimalem Niveau waehlbar zwischen z.B. 5000 C und 850 C - Erhalt eines unverduennten, unvermischten Pyrolysegases - Kurze Verweilzeiten des Pyrolysegases zur Unterdrueckung von Sekundaerreaktionen. (orig.)

  5. Photoluminescence of spray pyrolysis deposited ZnO nanorods

    OpenAIRE

    Mikli Valdek; Kärber Erki; Raadik Taavi; Dedova Tatjana; Krustok Jüri; Mere Arvo; Krunks Malle

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Photoluminescence of highly structured ZnO layers comprising well-shaped hexagonal rods is presented. The ZnO rods (length 500-1,000 nm, diameter 100-300 nm) were grown in air onto a preheated soda-lime glass (SGL) or ITO/SGL substrate by low-cost chemical spray pyrolysis method using zinc chloride precursor solutions and growth temperatures in the range of 450-550°C. We report the effect of the variation in deposition parameters (substrate type, growth temperature, spray rate, ...

  6. Controlled catalytic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of polymer waste comprising nylon 6 and a polyolefin or mixtures of polyolefins to sequentially recover monomers or other high value products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert J. (Lakewood, CO); Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO)

    1994-01-01

    A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and support for treating said feed streams with said catalyst to effect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said temperature program range; differentially heating said feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents; selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said plastic waste and differentially heating the feedstream at the higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of the different high value monomeric constituent; and separating the different high value monomeric constituent.

  7. Coal pyrolysis and char combustion under oxy-fuel conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Makhadmeh, Leema

    2009-07-01

    Carbon dioxide emissions will continue to be a major environmental concern due to the fact that coal will remain a major fossil-fuel energy resource during the next few decades. Various CO{sub 2} capture and storage strategies have been considered for coal-fired power-generation plants to mitigate CO{sub 2} emissions. These technologies include pre-combustion or fuel decarbonisation, post-combustion, and oxy-fuel technology. In oxy-fuel combustion, fuel is combusted in oxygen rather than air and the oxygen stream is usually diluted by recycled flue gas to control the flame temperature and ensure a proper heat transfer without major changes in the layout of the boiler. In this thesis, oxy-fuel combustion technology is investigated to evaluate the effect of the O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} environment on coal combustion. Coal combustion can be regarded as taking place in two steps: coal devolatilization followed by solid char combustion. In this thesis, the effect of oxy-fuel conditions on coal combustion is evaluated by investigation coal devolatilization and char combustion separately. Coal pyrolysis in 100% N{sub 2} and 100% CO{sub 2} environments was performed in an electrically entrained-flow reactor. Pyrolysis experiments were performed at different temperatures ranging from 700 C to 1150 C with high heating rates of (5.3-8.4) x 10{sup 3} K/s and residence times between 1-1.5 s. Chars were collected at 1150 C and residence time of 1 s for combustion experiments. Char combustion was performed in a once-through 20 kW test facility with a residence time of around 4.2 s. Two coals were handled in this thesis: Klein Kopje coal from South Africa, a medium-rank coal and Lausitz coal from Germany, a low-rank coal. A commercial Rhenish char was also used for char combustion. The results of the investigations are of high value because the link between coal pyrolysis and char combustion, the parameter study, and the scale of the test set up are an extremely good approach. Conclusions are drawn with respect to a CO{sub 2}-rich environment, temperature, residence time, and coal rank for pyrolysis. On the other hand, char-combustion conclusions with respect to a CO{sub 2}-rich environment, O{sub 2} partial pressure, temperature, and char quality are drawn. It was found that the CO{sub 2} environment has an important effect on coal pyrolysis and char combustion. During pyrolysis, the CO{sub 2} environment enhances the mass release as the temperature and residence time of pyrolysis increase through Boudouard reaction. It was found that the CO{sub 2} environment enhances the mass release during coal pyrolysis above 850 C by approximately 10% for Klein Kopje coal and 11-14% for Lausitz coal. In addition, the CO{sub 2} environment has a significant effect on the pyrolysis gas speciation. Carbon monoxide concentration is higher during pyrolysis in the CO{sub 2} environment than in the N{sub 2} environment for both coals especially above 850 C due to Boudouard reaction and homogeneous water gas shift reaction. This finding could explain why higher CO concentrations during coal combustion under oxy-fuel conditions are measured in the burner zone. On the other hand, for char combustion, it was found that the O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} atmosphere has a retardation effect on char burnout and O{sub 2} consumption compared to O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} combustion, especially at 15% O{sub 2}. Moreover, the CO peak is shifted in 15% O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} combustion compared to 15% O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} combustion. However, the O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} atmosphere has a significant effect on the CO concentration near the burner zone during char combustion; the maximum CO concentration O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} is significantly higher than in O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} combustion. Coal rank has a significant effect on coal pyrolysis and char combustion. The mass release for Lausitz coal is approximately 40-50% higher than for Klein Kopje coal in both environments. Klein Kopje coal and Lausitz coal behave differently during pyrolysis: Klein Kopje coal exhibits swelling in both environments, while Lausitz

  8. Analytical pyrolysis of humic substances: pitfalls, limitations, and possible solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Sáiz-Jiménez, Cesáreo

    1994-01-01

    Analytical pyrolysis is a technique currently used for investigating structural features of complex macromolecular materials. However, pitfalls appear to be widespread in pyrolysis studies ofhumic substances, and serious limitations can be experienced during the analytical procedure due to thermal reactions and configuration of the pyrolysis units and chromatographic systems. Pyrolysis presents inconsistencies for chemical studies, and the interpretation of the chemica...

  9. Pyrolysis of ethane propylene mixes using an indium oxide catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egiazarov, Iu.G.; Krut' ko, N.P.; Trokhimets, A.I.

    1981-01-01

    The pyrolysis of ethane propylene mixes with an indium oxide catalyst and quartz is studied. It is shown that the velocity of the decomposition of ethane and propylene with the indium oxide catalyst is greater than with thermal pyrolysis. Data were obtained on the inhibition of the decomposition of ethane, attesting to the radical link mechanism of the catalytic pyrolysis. It was established that for the attainment of catalytic pyrolysis, it is necessary to have a larger amount of indium than with thermal pyrolysis. With this, the velocity of the inhibited reaction of catalytic pyrolysis is greater than with thermal pyrolysis.

  10. Pyrolysis of petroleum fractions on an indium oxide catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yegiazarov, Y.G.; Cherches, B.K.; Krut' ko, N.P.; Trokhimets, A.I.; Paushkin, Y.M.

    1979-01-01

    Results are presented for the pyrolysis of individual hydrocarbons (hexane and cyclohexane), a mixture of n-paraffins boiling in the 100 to 300/sup 0/ range, and straight-run gasoline fractions with indium oxide as a catalyst. It was found that optimum dilution of the petroleum fraction with steam occurred at a molar ratio of 1:1. The presence of the indium catalyst was found to increase the yield of low molecular weight olefins under the selected experimental conditions by about 20% when compared with the pyrolysis without an active component catalyst. Kinetic studies of the catalytic reaction indicated that under conditions of pyrolysis, indium oxide takes part in a redox type reaction; also, oxidation which requires the higher temperature is the limiting stage of redox conversions. X-ray studies confirmed the possibility of redox transformation of indium oxide under pyrolytic conditions and the consequent variations in catalytic behavior. Further, an isotope tracer method was used to study the reaction mechanism in the interaction of RH type hydrocarbons and water. (BLM)

  11. Pore Scale Analysis of Oil Shale/Sands Pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chen-Luh; Miller, Jan

    2011-03-01

    There are important questions concerning the quality and volume of pore space that is created when oil shale is pyrolyzed for the purpose of producing shale oil. In this report, 1.9 cm diameter cores of Mahogany oil shale were pyrolyzed at different temperatures and heating rates. Detailed 3D imaging of core samples was done using multiscale X-ray computed tomography (CT) before and after pyrolysis to establish the pore structure. The pore structure of the unreacted material was not clear. Selected images of a core pyrolyzed at 400oC were obtained at voxel resolutions from 39 microns (?m) to 60 nanometers (nm). Some of the pore space created during pyrolysis was clearly visible at these resolutions and it was possible to distinguish between the reaction products and the host shale rock. The pore structure deduced from the images was used in Lattice Boltzmann simulations to calculate the permeability in the pore space. The permeabilities of the pyrolyzed samples of the silicate-rich zone were on the order of millidarcies, while the permeabilities of the kerogen-rich zone after pyrolysis were very anisotropic and about four orders of magnitude higher.

  12. Scaling heat and mass flow through porous media during pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Julien; Muggeridge, Ann H.; Jackson, Matthew D.; Quintard, Michel; Lapene, Alexandre

    2015-03-01

    The modelling of heat and mass flow through porous media in the presence of pyrolysis is complex because various physical and chemical phenomena need to be represented. In addition to the transport of heat by conduction and convection, and the change of properties with varying pressure and temperature, these processes involve transport of mass by convection, evaporation, condensation and pyrolysis chemical reactions. Examples of such processes include pyrolysis of wood, thermal decomposition of polymer composite and in situ upgrading of heavy oil and oil shale. The behaviours of these systems are difficult to predict as relatively small changes in the material composition can significantly change the thermophysical properties. Scaling reduces the number of parameters in the problem statement and quantifies the relative importance of the various dimensional parameters such as permeability, thermal conduction and reaction constants. This paper uses inspectional analysis to determine the minimum number of dimensionless scaling groups that describe the decomposition of a solid porous material into a gas in one dimension. Experimental design is then used to rank these scaling groups in terms of their importance in describing the outcome of two example processes: the thermal decomposition of heat shields formed from polymer composites and the in situ upgrading of heavy oils and oil shales. A sensitivity analysis is used to divide these groups into three sets (primary, secondary and insignificant), thus identifying the combinations of solid and fluid properties that have the most impact on the performance of the different processes.

  13. Catalytic pyrolysis of car tire waste using expanded perlite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Y

    2011-08-01

    In this study, the non-catalytic and catalytic pyrolysis experiments were conducted on the sample of tire waste using expanded perlite as an additive material to determine especially the effect of temperature and catalyst-to-tire ratio on the products yields and the compositions and qualities of pyrolytic oils (NCPO and CPO). Non-catalytic studies, which were carried out under the certain conditions (a nitrogen flow of 100mL/min and a heating rate of 10°C/min), showed that the highest yield of pyrolytic oil (NCPO) was 60.02wt.% at 425°C. Then, the catalytic pyrolysis studies were carried out at catalyst-to-tire ratio range of 0.05-0.25 and the highest catalytic pyrolytic oil (CPO) yield was 65.11wt.% at the ratio of 0.10 with the yield increase of 8.48wt.% compared with the non-catalytic pyrolysis. Lastly, the pyrolytic oils were characterized with applying a various techniques such as elemental analyses and various chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques (GC-MS, (1)H NMR, FT-IR, etc.). The characterization results revealed that the pyrolytic oils which were complex mixtures of C(5)-C(15) organic compounds (predominantly aromatic compounds) and also the CPO compared to the NCPO was more similar to conventional fuels in view of the certain fuel properties. PMID:21543218

  14. A facile synthesis of MInSe2 (M = Cu, Ag) via low temperature pyrolysis of single source molecular precursors, [(R3P)2MIn(SeCOAr)4

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shamik Ghoshal; Liladhar B Kumbhare; Vimal K Jain; Gautam K Dey

    2007-04-01

    The reaction of KSeCOAr with InCl3 and [MCl(PR$_{3})_{2}$] in benzene afforded bimetallic complexes, [(R3P)2MIn(SeCOAr)4] (PR3 = PEt3 or PPh3; M = Cu or Ag; Ar = –C6H5 (phenyl) or 4-MeC6H4 (tolyl)). The triethylphosphine complexes decomposed rapidly when M = Ag while slowly when M = Cu. All these complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-VIS, NMR (1H, 31P) spectral data. Pyrolysis in a furnace at 300°C gave tetragonal MInSe2 (M = Cu, Ag) structure. Solvothermal decomposition of [(PPh$_{3})_{2}$CuIn(SeCOAr)4] in boiling ethylene glycol gave nanorods of CuInSe2 which were characterized by XRD, EDAX, SEM and TEM.

  15. FT-i. r. investigation on char formation during the early stages of coal pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarra, J.V.; Moliner, R.; Bonet, A.J. (Instituto de Carboquimica, Zaragoza (Spain))

    1994-06-01

    The transformation of coal into char during low-temperature pyrolysis was studied by Fourier transform infrared (FT-i.r.) spectroscopy and solvent swelling measurements. Pyrolysis was carried out in a nitrogen-swept fixed-bed reactor at temperatures of 300-600[degree]C. Three Spanish coals varying in rank from lignite to bituminous were studied. The samples show very different cross-linking behaviour, related to CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2]O evolution at low temperatures, and to methane release at higher temperatures. The FT-i.r. examination shows that the aliphatic structures and the oxygen-containing functional groups (carboxyl and hydroxyl) are easily removed from chars, while aromatic hydrogen tends to increase with increasing pyrolysis temperature. Curve-fitting analyses for the 3000-2700 and 900-700 cm[sup -1] regions permit the variations in the distribution of methyl and methylene groups and in the degree of aromatic substitution and condensation, respectively, to be evaluated as a function of temperature. Several structural parameters based on FT-i.r. data have been calculated for the chars. These structural parameters provide evidence of the loss of aromatic substituents and the process of hydrogen transfer to aromatic structures during pyrolysis. 23 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Dynamic and simultaneous analyses of gaseous sulfur and hydrocarbon compounds released during pyrolysis of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Long; Yang, Jianli; Li, Yunmei; Liu, Zhenyu [State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 165, Taiyuan 030001 (China)

    2004-06-01

    A flame ionization detector (FID) and a flame photometric detector (FPD) with a sulfur filter are coupled with a fixed-bed micro-reactor for temperature-programmed decomposition (TPD), TPD-FPD and FID, to allow simultaneously analysis of gaseous sulfur compounds and gaseous hydrocarbons released during pyrolysis of coals. As an example, a Chinese bituminous coal is used. Detailed experimental and quantification procedures are discussed. The results, mass of gaseous sulfur compounds and mass of gaseous hydrocarbons released as functions of pyrolysis temperature, can be used to analyze pyrolysis behavior and characteristics of sulfur and organic matrix in the coal. The results show that the method is reproducible with high accuracy in a wide range of experimental conditions, and the total amounts of sulfur determined by the FPD measurements are highly comparable to that obtained using a standard wet chemistry method.

  17. Investigation of a process for the pyrolysis of plutonium contaminated combustible solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrolysis offers an attractive first-stage alternative to incineration as a means of weight and volume reduction of solide combustible waste P.C.M, if it is required to recover plutonium from the final product. The avoidance of turbulent conditions associated with incineration should lead to less carry-over of particulates, and the lower operating temperature approximately 7000C should be most advantageous to the choice of constructional materials and to plant life. The char product from pyrolysis may be oxidised to a final ash at similarly acceptable low temperatures by passing air over a stirred bed of materials. The recently received draft designs for a cyclone after-burner (plus associated scrubbers and filters etc) offer an attractive method of dispensing of the volatile products of pyrolysis

  18. Pyrolysis of rapeseed in a free fall reactor for production of bio-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozlem Onay; O. Mete Kockar [Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey). Porsuk Vocational School

    2006-09-15

    Pyrolysis experiments of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) were performed in a free fall reactor at atmospheric pressure under nitrogen atmosphere. The effects of final pyrolysis temperature, particle size and sweep gas flow rate on the yields of products were investigated. The temperature of pyrolysis, particle size and sweep gas flow rate were varied in the ranges of 400 700{sup o}C, -0.224 to 1.8 mm and 50-400 cm{sup 3} min{sup -1}, respectively. The elemental analysis and calorific value of the bio-oil were determined, and compared with diesel fuel and then the chemical composition of the bio-oil was investigated using chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques ({sup 1}H NMR, IR, column chromatography and GC/MS). The chemical characterization has shown that the bio-oil obtained from rapeseed could be use as diesel fuel and chemical feeedstock. 23 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Thermogravimetric study of interactions in the pyrolysis of blends of coal with radiata pine sawdust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulloa, C.A. [Centro de Ciencias Ambientales EULA (Chile); Gordon, A.L.; Garcia, X.A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Correo 3, Concepcion (Chile)

    2009-04-15

    The co-pyrolysis of coal-biomass blends were studied by using thermogravimetric analysis to look for thermal events indicating interactions that could cause synergic or inhibitory effects during the first stage in the co-combustion of these materials. Two coals from different rank were selected for the study and combined with radiata pine sawdust, the selected biomass compound. Pyrolysis assays were carried out on the individual components and the binary coal-sawdust blends (50% p/p) at different heating rates (10, 30, 50 C/min) until reaching a maximum temperature of 1200 C. The individual components behaved as expected and as is widely described in the specialized literature. Interactions detected in the blends resulted in greater-than-expected volatile yield values. These interactions were produced at pyrolysis temperatures over 400 C, when most of the components in the blend are devolatilized, and are attributed to secondary reactions that inhibit the formation of char. (author)

  20. Hazardous air pollutant formation from pyrolysis of typical Chinese casting materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujue; Zhang, Ying; Su, Lu; Li, Xiangyu; Duan, Lei; Wang, Chengwen; Huang, Tianyou

    2011-08-01

    Analytical pyrolysis was conducted to evaluate the major hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions from pyrolysis of bituminous coal and a furan binder, which are the two most commonly used casting materials for making green sand and furan no-bake molds in Chinese foundries. These two materials were flash pyrolyzed in a Curie-point pyrolyzer at 920 °C and slowly pyrolyzed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) from ambient temperature to 1000 °C with a heating rate of 30 °C/min. The emissions from Curie-point and TGA pyrolysis were analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer/flame ionization detector. Thirteen HAP species were identified and quantified in the pyrolysis emissions of the two materials. The prominent HAP emissions were cresols, benzene, toluene, phenol, and naphthalene for the bituminous coal, whereas they were m,p,o-xylenes for the furan binder. Xylenesulfonic acid, the acidic catalyst in furan binder, was found to be the major source of xylene emissions. Thermogravimetry-mass spectrometer monitored the evolution of HAP emissions during TGA pyrolysis. For both of the casting materials, most of the emissions were released in the temperature range of 350-700 °C. PMID:21714543

  1. Thermal and kinetic behaviors of biomass and plastic wastes in co-pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Co-pyrolysis of biomass together with the plastic wastes in thermogravimetric analyzer. • Investigations into thermal and kinetic behaviors at high temperature regions. • Determination of the kinetic parameters. - Abstract: In this study, co-pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of biomass-plastic blends were investigated. Cotton stalk, hazelnut shell, sunflower residue, and arid land plant Euphorbia rigida, were blended in definite ratio (1:1, w/w) with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Experiments were conducted with a heating rate of 10 °C min?1 from room temperature to 800 °C in the presence of N2 atmosphere with a flow rate of 100 cm3 min?1. After thermal decomposition in TGA, a kinetic analysis was performed to fit thermogravimetric data and a detailed discussion of co-pyrolysis mechanism was achieved. Experimental results demonstrated that the structural differences between biomass and plastics directly affect their thermal decomposition behaviors. Biomass pyrolysis generally based on three main steps while plastic material’s pyrolysis mechanism resulted in two steps for PET and three steps for PVC. Also, the required activation energies needed to achieve the thermal degradation for plastic were found higher than the biomass materials. In addition, it can be concluded that the evaluation of plastic materials together with biomass created significant changes not only for the thermal behaviors but also for the kinetic behaviors

  2. Mathematical modelling of slow pyrolysis of a particle of treated wood waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, J; Marias, F; Vaxelaire, J; Bernada, P

    2009-10-30

    Low-temperature pyrolysis is a possible method for the disposal of wood waste treated with chromated copper arsenic (CCA). A mathematical model (heat and mass transfer) including chemical reactions of the thermal degradation of a particle of wood is presented. A spherical particle is heated by a convective nitrogen flow. The progress of the pyrolysis process is characterized by three main steps: (1) drying of the wet sample; (2) heating of the sample until ignition of pyrolysis reactions; (3) pyrolysis and subsequent production of char and volatiles. The mathematical model is based on the volume averaging concept and it uses Shafizadeh and Chin [F. Shafizadeh, P.S. Chin, Thermal deterioration of wood, wood technology: chemical aspects, ACS Symposium Series 43 (1977) 57-81] pyrolysis model to describe the reaction pathway. It is solved by the line method, taking time as the preferred variable. Our model predicts intra-particle profiles for several variables (temperature, moisture content, concentration of wood). Simulations are presented with a spherical particle of 1cm radius. PMID:19535204

  3. Catalytic action of CuAlS2 microparticles and nanoparticles in cellulose pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaki, Sunil H.; Mahato, Kanchan S.; Deshpande, M. P.

    2015-04-01

    This paper explores the catalytic action of as-synthesized CuAlS2 microparticles and nanoparticles on cellulose pyrolysis. The CuAlS2 microparticles were synthesized by heating precursor elements at high temperatures in an evacuated quartz ampoule. CuAlS2 nanoparticles were synthesized at ambient temperature by using a simple wet chemical technique. Before using the microparticles and nanoparticles for catalytic study, they were comprehensively characterized. The thermal analysis, including catalytic study of both the CuAlS2 microparticles and nanoparticles on cellulose pyrolysis, was carried out by thermogravimetric (TG), differential thermogravimetric (DTG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) techniques. Prior to studying their role as catalysts in cellulose pyrolysis, the CuAlS2 microparticles and nanoparticles were characterized by thermal analysis in an inert N2 atmosphere. The TG analysis of as-synthesized CuAlS2 microparticles and nanoparticles showed three and five steps of decomposition, with total weight losses of 6.89% and 53.37%, respectively. The TG analysis of pure cellulose and cellulose mixed with 10%, 5% and 2.5% CuAlS2 microparticles and nanoparticles demonstrated that the nanoparticles are better catalysts in cellulose pyrolysis than the microparticles. The TG analysis results of cellulose pyrolysis have been supported by the DTA and DTG curves recorded simultaneously. The obtained results are explored in detail.

  4. Boron-Catalyzed Regioselective Deoxygenation of Terminal 1,2-Diols to 2-Alkanols Enabled by the Strategic Formation of a Cyclic Siloxane Intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosos, Nikolaos; Morandi, Bill

    2015-07-20

    The selective deoxygenation of polyols is a frontier in our ability to harness the stereochemical and structural complexity of natural and synthetic feedstocks. Herein, we describe a highly active and selective boron-based catalytic system for the selective deoxygenation of terminal 1,2-diols at the primary position, a process that is enabled by the transient formation of a cyclic siloxane. The method provides an ideal complement to well-known catalytic asymmetric reactions to prepare synthetically challenging chiral 2-alkanols in nearly perfect enantiomeric excess, as illustrated in a short synthesis of the anti-inflammatory drug (R)-lisofylline. PMID:26089307

  5. Recycling of organic materials and solder from waste printed circuit boards by vacuum pyrolysis-centrifugation coupling technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yihui; Wu, WenBiao; Qiu, Keqiang

    2011-12-01

    Here, we focused on the recycling of waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) using vacuum pyrolysis-centrifugation coupling technology (VPCT) aiming to obtain valuable feedstock and resolve environmental pollution. The two types of WPCBs were pyrolysed at 600°C for 30 min under vacuum condition. During the pyrolysis process, the solder of WPCBs was separated and recovered when the temperature range was 400-600°C, and the rotating drum was rotated at 1000 rpm for 10 min. The type-A of WPCBs pyrolysed to form an average of 67.91 wt.% residue, 27.84 wt.% oil, and 4.25 wt.% gas; and pyrolysis of the type-B of WPCBs led to an average mass balance of 72.22 wt.% residue, 21.57 wt.% oil, and 6.21 wt.% gas. The GC-MS and FT-IR analyses showed that the two pyrolysis oils consisted mainly of phenols and substituted phenols. The pyrolysis oil can be used for fuel or chemical feedstock for further processing. The recovered solder can be recycled directly and it can also be a good resource of lead and tin for refining. The pyrolysis residues contained various metals, glass fibers and other inorganic materials, which could be recovered after further treatment. The pyrolysis gases consisted mainly of CO, CO(2), CH(4), and H(2), which could be collected and recycled. PMID:21840196

  6. Catalytic pyrolysis of tars. A kinetic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faundez, J.; Garcia, X.; Gordon, A. [Universidad de Concepcion (Chile). Dept. de Ingeniera Quimica

    1997-12-31

    A kinetic model to describe the catalytic pyrolysis of tars is proposed and validated through pyrolysis of two tars of different characteristics and origin. Calcinated limestone (11 m{sup 2}/g) was used as catalyst. The model assumes that tars are composed of two pseudo-components: (i) heavy tar, and (ii) light tar. Tar pyrolysis is described by two simultaneous chemical reactions; catalyst deactivation due to carbon deposition is also considered. After mathematical resolution, expressions for product`s concentration as functions of residence time, selectivity and the deactivation were obtained. (orig.)

  7. Kinetics of pyrolysis and combustion of spherical wood particles in a fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • H2, CO2, CO and CH4 released during wood pyrolysis were experimentally monitored. • CO2 formed by burning the residual tar/char mixture was experimentally determined. • The kinetics of species production was reproduced with two simplified models. • The increase of the bed reactor temperature statistically enhanced the gas yield. • The pyrolysis time is statistically reduced by decreasing the particle size. - Abstract: The kinetics of wood pyrolysis and combustion of residual fuel at different particle diameters and temperatures was investigated. A known mass of wooden spheres was fed at the top of a fluidized bed reactor filled with olivine particles and fluidized with nitrogen. The concentration of H2, CO2, CO and CH4 was on-line monitored with gas analyzers. An irreversible first order reaction was applied to describe the biomass pyrolysis. The rate constant was dependent on the average temperature of wood particle, obtained by solving the transient one-dimensional problem of heat conduction in a sphere. The rate for an irreversible second order reaction between the residual fuel and oxygen at the fluid–solid interface, which takes a finite resistance to mass transfer into account, was adopted to describe the combustion. The semi-empirical kinetic models for pyrolysis and combustion were able to describe, with certain limitations inherent to model simplifications, the experimental transient results of molar flow rates of major released species. A statistical model based on the results of the factorial design of experiments (32) confirmed a statistical significant effect of temperature and wood particle diameter on the gas yield and time of pyrolysis, respectively

  8. Bio-oil production from pyrolysis of corncob (Zea mays L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrolysis experiments have been conducted on a sample of corncob to determine the effects of pyrolysis temperature, heating rate and sweep gas flow rate on the pyrolysis product yields and their chemical compositions. The temperature of pyrolysis, heating rate and sweep gas flow rate were varied in the ranges of 400–550 °C, 7–40 °C min?1 and 50–200 cm3 min?1, respectively. The maximum oil yield of 26.44 wt.% was obtained at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C, heating rate of 40 °C min?1 and sweeping gas flow rate of 100 cm3 min?1. The elemental analysis and calorific value of the oil were determined, and the chemical composition of the oil was investigated using chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques (column chromatography, FTIR, 1H-NMR). Chromatographic and spectroscopic studies on the bio-oil showed that the bio-oil obtained from corncob could be used as a renewable fuel and chemical feedstock with a calorific value of 26.22 MJ kg?1 and empirical formula of CH1.34O0.28N0.01. -- Highlights: ? Pyrolysis of corncob was performed in a fixed-bed reactor under different conditions. ? The yield of 26.44% was obtained at a temperature of 500 °C, a heating rate of 40 °C/min and gas flow rate of 100 cm3/min. ? The oil is a mixture of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons having an empirical formula of CH1.34O0.28N0.01. ? The higher calorific value of the oil is 26.22 MJ/kg, which is very close to those of petroleum fractions. ? FTIR analysis showed that the oil composition was dominated by oxygenated species.

  9. Effect of Catalytic Pyrolysis Conditions Using Pulse Current Heating Method on Pyrolysis Products of Wood Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Honma, Sensho; Hata, Toshimitsu; Watanabe, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The influence of catalysts on the compositions of char and pyrolysis oil obtained by pyrolysis of wood biomass with pulse current heating was studied. The effects of catalysts on product compositions were analyzed using GC-MS and TEM. The compositions of some aromatic compounds changed noticeably when using a metal oxide species as the catalyst. The coexistence or dissolution of amorphous carbon and iron oxide was observed in char pyrolyzed at 800°C with Fe3O4. Pyrolysis oil compositions chan...

  10. Fuel production based on catalytic pyrolysis of waste tires as an optimized model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Multi-variates experimental design of catalytic tire pyrolysis for optimizing oil, gas, and char products. • Modeling of the pyrolytic products based on the process parameters. • Satisfactory evaluation of fuel properties and sulfur content of oil, and char activating. - Abstract: Recently, the pyrolysis of wastes has been considered as a promising alternative for dealing with this issue. In this study, pyrolysis of waste tire was conducted using MgCl2 as catalyst in a batch reactor under atmosphere of argon. The experiments of pyrolysis were designed by response surface modeling of process parameters, including particle size of waste tire slices, flow rate of argon gas, amount of catalyst, and time and temperature of pyrolysis, related to the corresponding yields of oil, gas, and char. As objectives of this work, influences of parameters and their interactions were examined to maximize oil, and minimize gas and char. The oil product was maximized using the conditions, including pyrolysis temperature of 407.3 °C, pyrolysis time of 1800 s, flow rate of 133.7 mL min?1, particle size of 12.5 mm, and 11.5 wt% of catalyst. Additionally, the highest gaseous product was also obtained when the temperature of pyrolysis, feed size, flow rate of argon, amount of catalyst, and pyrolysis time were 475.0 °C, 5.0 mm, 250.0 mL min?1, 0.1 wt%, and 5009 s, respectively. Moreover, the pyrolytic char was converted to activated one with the specific surface area and activating yield of 1296 m2 g?1 and 16.3 wt%, respectively, using steam activation unit. Furthermore, the physical properties of the final oil product, including cetane number, density, viscosity, and flash point were compared with other commercial diesel fuels. These quality factors were obtained 47, 847 kg m?3, 2.4 mm2 s?1, and 48 °C, respectively. At last, using of MgCl2 declined the sulfur content of final oil to 0.38 wt%

  11. Biomass pyrolysis in a fixed-bed reactor: Effects of pyrolysis parameters on product yields and characterization of products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slow pyrolysis of eastern giant fennel (Ferula orientalis L.) stalks has been performed in a fixed-bed tubular reactor with (ZnO, Al2O3) and without catalyst at six different temperatures ranging from 350 °C to 600 °C with heating rates of 15, 30, 50 °C/min. The amounts of bio-char, bio-oil and gas produced, as well as the compositions of the resulting bio-oils were determined by FT-IR and GC–MS. The effects of pyrolysis parameters such as temperature, catalyst and ratio of catalyst, particle size (Dp) and sweeping gas flow rate on product yields were investigated. According to results, temperature and catalyst seem to be the main factors effecting the conversion of F. orientalis L. into solid, liquid and gaseous products. The highest liquid yield (45.22%) including water was obtained with 15% zinc oxide catalyst at 500 °C temperature at a heating rate of 50 °C/min when 0.224 > Dp > 0.150 mm particle size raw material and 100 cm3/min of sweeping gas flow rate were used. - Highlights: • Ferula orientalis L. stalks were converted to solid, liquid and gaseous products. • Effects of various parameters on product yields were investigated. • 500 °C of temperature, heating rate of 50 °C/min and zinc oxide provide the optimum conditions for bio-oil formation. • 81 different compounds were identified by GC–MS in the bio-oils obtained at 500 °C

  12. An economic analysis of mobile pyrolysis for northern New Mexico forests.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Patrick D.; Brown, Alexander L.; Mowry, Curtis Dale; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus, III

    2011-12-01

    In the interest of providing an economically sensible use for the copious small-diameter wood in Northern New Mexico, an economic study is performed focused on mobile pyrolysis. Mobile pyrolysis was selected for the study because transportation costs limit the viability of a dedicated pyrolysis plant, and the relative simplicity of pyrolysis compared to other technology solutions lends itself to mobile reactor design. A bench-scale pyrolysis system was used to study the wood pyrolysis process and to obtain performance data that was otherwise unavailable under conditions theorized to be optimal given the regional problem. Pyrolysis can convert wood to three main products: fixed gases, liquid pyrolysis oil and char. The fixed gases are useful as low-quality fuel, and may have sufficient chemical energy to power a mobile system, eliminating the need for an external power source. The majority of the energy content of the pyrolysis gas is associated with carbon monoxide, followed by light hydrocarbons. The liquids are well characterized in the historical literature, and have slightly lower heating values comparable to the feedstock. They consist of water and a mix of hundreds of hydrocarbons, and are acidic. They are also unstable, increasing in viscosity with time stored. Up to 60% of the biomass in bench-scale testing was converted to liquids. Lower ({approx}550 C) furnace temperatures are preferred because of the decreased propensity for deposits and the high liquid yields. A mobile pyrolysis system would be designed with low maintenance requirements, should be able to access wilderness areas, and should not require more than one or two people to operate the system. The techno-economic analysis assesses fixed and variable costs. It suggests that the economy of scale is an important factor, as higher throughput directly leads to improved system economic viability. Labor and capital equipment are the driving factors in the viability of the system. The break-even selling price for the baseline assumption is about $11/GJ, however it may be possible to reduce this value by 20-30% depending on other factors evaluated in the non-baseline scenarios. Assuming a value for the char co-product improves the analysis. Significantly lower break-even costs are possible in an international setting, as labor is the dominant production cost.

  13. Fast pyrolysis of microalgae in a falling solids reactor: Effects of process variables and zeolite catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-catalytic and catalytic pyrolysis of microalgae were carried out to generate an organic liquid fuel precursor. The impacts of several process variables on the fast pyrolysis in a falling solids reactor are reported, including temperature, particle size, flow rate, and atmosphere (N2, H2O and CO2). Experiments were carried out with duckweed as the biomass to provide some comparison. The speciated organic phase product data were classified according to the different compound types including hydrocarbons, alcohols, oxygenates, and nitrogenates. In-situ catalytic pyrolysis produced an organic phase with an increased fraction of hydrocarbons and decreased fraction of oxygenates, evidence for carbon removal chemistries such as decarboxylation and decarbonylation. The noncatalytic pyrolysis gave the highest total liquid yield while catalytic pyrolysis resulted in the highest yield of the desired hydrocarbon fraction. A comparison of four exchanged ZSM-5 catalysts (H-, Fe-, Cu-, and Ni-) indicates that the protonated zeolite provided the largest enhancement among the catalysts of the liquid product yield and composition: H-ZSM-5 increased the yield of the hydrocarbon fraction in the organic phase from 21% to 43%, a 100% relative increase, and exhibited the least coking. The effects of biomass weight hourly space velocity, and comparisons between H-ZSM5 powder and monolithic catalysts are also reported. The implications of the findings for the conversion of microalgae to liquid fuels are discussed. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Pyrolysis of microalgae and duckweed in falling solids reactor. ? Effect of process variables on product yields and compositions determined. ? Catalytic pyrolysis enhances bio-oil composition. ? Shape selective ZSM-5 catalysts enhance hydrocarbon yield.

  14. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans` waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans` waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city`s limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city`s waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city`s ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  15. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans' waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans' waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city's limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city's waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city's ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  16. Surface Pyrolysis of High Energy Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Deluca

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available The Arrhenius zero-order phenomenological pyrolysis law, commonly used in conjunction with the Vieille ballistic law to study pressure-driven burning of energetic materials, is revisited. Motivated by experimental and theoretical work performed in 1984 in this Laboratory , a relationship among several interplaying parameters is found under steady-state conditions. This relationship corresponds to the Jacobian of the pyrolysis sensitivity parameters used in the Zeldovich-Novozhilov approach. The Arrhenius pyrolysis is still expressed in terms of a global surface activation energy, but consistency with the experimental ballistic law may require an explicit pressure dependence as well. This conclusion is supported by a variety of arguments drawn from different areas. The linear dependence of the pre-exponential factor on surface activation energy (known as kinetic compensation is proved and extended to the pressure exponent, for any given experimental data set under steady burning. Experimental results are reported for about a dozen solid propellants of different nature. The effects of surface pyrolysis explicit pressure dependence, although modest on steady-state burning, are potentially far-reaching for unsteady regime and/or unstable burning. The paper is mainly focussed on pressure-driven burning and Arrhenius pyrolysis, but the implemented method is believed to apply in general. Thus, enforcing KTSS zero-order phenomenological pyrolysis with the Vieille ballistic law yields similar results and requires an explicit pressure dependence. In case, the Zeldovich ballistic law is enforced instead of the classical Vieille law, no explicit pressure dependence is required. The unifying concept for these different trends is the pyrolysis Jacobian as a consistency requirement between the implemented steady pyrolysis and ballistic laws."

  17. Test plan for ISV laboratory-pyrolysis testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAtee, R.E.

    1991-09-01

    The objective of the laboratory-pyrolysis studies is to obtain information on the high temperature (< 1200{degree}C) degradation and alteration of organic chemicals and materials similar to those found in the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Pit 9. This test plan describes experimental procedures, sampling and analysis strategy, sampling procedures, sample control, and document management. It addresses safety issues in the experimental apparatus and procedures, personal training, and hazardous waste disposal. Finally, it describes the data quality objectives using the EPA tiered approach to treatability studies to define where research/scoping tests fit into these studies and the EPA analytical levels required for the tests.

  18. Synthesis of Ruthenium Carbonyl Complexes with Phosphine or Substituted Cp Ligands, and Their Activity in the Catalytic Deoxygenation of 1,2-Propanediol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A ruthenium hydride with a bulky tetra-substituted Cp ligand, (CpiPr4)Ru(CO)2H (CpiPr4 = C5(i-C3H7)4H) was prepared from the reaction of Ru3(CO)12 with 1,2,3,4-tetraisopropylcyclopentadiene. The molecular structure of (CpiPr4)Ru(CO)2H was determined by X-ray crystallography. The ruthenium hydride complex (C5Bz5)Ru(CO)2H (Bz = CH2Ph) was similarly prepared. The Ru-Ru bonded dimer, ((1,2,3-trimethylindenyl)Ru(CO)2)2, was produced from the reaction of 1,2,3-trimethylindene with Ru3(CO)12, and protonation of this dimer with HOTf gives {((1,2,3-trimethylindenyl)Ru(CO)2)2-(?-H)}+OTf-. A series of ruthenium hydride complexes CpRu(CO)(L)H (L = P(OPh)3, PCy3, PMe3, P(p-C6H4F)3) were prepared by reaction of Cp(CO)2RuH with added L. Protonation of (CpiPr4)Ru(CO)2H, Cp*Ru(CO)2H, or CpRu(CO)(P-(OPh)3)H by HOTf at -80 C led to equilibria with the cationic dihydrogen complexes, but H2 was released at higher temperatures. Protonation of CpRu(P(OPh)3)2H with HOTf gave an observable dihydrogen complex, {CpRu(P-(OPh)3)2(?2-H2)}+OTf- that was converted at -20 C to the dihydride complex {CpRu(P(OPh)3)2(H)2}+OTf-. These Ru complexes serve as catalyst precursors for the catalytic deoxygenation of 1,2-propanediol to give n-propanol. The catalytic reactions were carried out in sulfolane solvent with added HOTf under H2 (750 psi) at 110 C.

  19. Deoxygenation and the blood volume signals in the flexor carpi ulnaris and radialis muscles obtained during the execution of the Mirallas's test of judo athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdaguer-Codina, Joan; Mirallas, Jaume A.

    1996-12-01

    The technique of execution of any movement in Judo is extremely important. The coaches want tests and tools easy to use and cheaper, to evaluate the progress of a judoist in the tatame. In this paper we present a test developed by Mirallas, which has his name 'Test of Mirallas' to evaluate the maximal power capacity of the judoist. The near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signals were obtained to have a measurement of the metabolic work of the flexor carpi ulnaris and radialis muscles, during the execution of the ippon-seoi-nage movement, allowing this measurement to assess by NIRS the maximal oxygen uptake. Also obtained were tympanic, skin forehead, and biceps brachii temperatures during the test time and recovery phase to study the effects of ambient conditions and the post-exercise oxygen consumption. The deoxygenation and blood volume signals obtained gave different results, demonstrating the hypothesis of the coaches that some judoist do the execution of the ippon-seoi-nage movement correctly and the rest didn't. The heart rate frequency obtained in the group of judoist was between 190-207 bpm, and in the minute five of post-exercise was 114-137 bpm; the time employed in the MIrallas's test were from 7 feet 14 inches to 13 feet 49 inches, and the total of movements were from 199 to 409. The data obtained in the skin forehead, and skin biceps brachii confirms previous works that the oxygen consumption remains after exercise in the muscle studied. According to the results, the test developed by Mirallas is a good tool to evaluate the performance of judoist any time, giving better results compared with standard tests.

  20. Site-Specific Pyrolysis Induced Cleavage at Aspartic Acid Residue in Peptides and Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shaofeng; Basile, Franco

    2007-01-01

    A simple and site-specific non-enzymatic method based on pyrolysis has been developed to cleave peptides and proteins. Pyrolytic cleavage was found to be specific and rapid as it induced a cleavage at the C-terminal side of aspartic acid in the temperature range of 220–250 °C in 10 seconds. Electrospray Ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem-MS (MS/MS) were used to characterize and identify pyrolysis cleavage products, confirming that sequence information is conserved after the py...

  1. Experimental Flash Pyrolysis of High Density PolyEthylene under Hybrid Propulsion Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Gascoin, Nicolas; Fau, Guillaume; Gillard, Philippe; Mangeot, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    The inert and oxidative flash pyrolysis of High Density Poly-Ethylene (HDPE) is studied up to 20 000 K.s-1, under pressure up to 3.0 MPa and at temperature ranging from 1000 K to 1500 K. These conditions are considered to represent those waited onboard a hybrid rocket engine using HDPE as solid fuel. Recycling applications may also find some interest. The pyrolysis products are quantified by Gas Chromatograph, Flame Ionisation Detector and Mass Spectrometer to determine the effects of each ph...

  2. Recovery of hydrocarbon liquid from waste high density polyethylene by thermal pyrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sachin Kumar; R. K. Singh

    2011-01-01

    Thermal degradation of waste plastics in an inert atmosphere has been regarded as a productive method, because this process can convert waste plastics into hydrocarbons that can be used either as fuels or as a source of chemicals. In this work, waste high-density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic was chosen as the material for pyrolysis. A simple pyrolysis reactor system has been used to pyrolyse waste HDPE with the objective of optimizing the liquid product yield at a temperature range of 400ºC to...

  3. Co-pyrolysis of Chinese lignite and biomass in a vacuum reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Yuan, Chengyong; Xu, Jiao; Zhang, Weijiang

    2014-12-01

    A vacuum fixed bed reactor was applied to pyrolyze lignite, biomass (rice husk) and their blend with high temperature (900 °C) and low heating rate (10 °C/min). Pyrolytic products were kept in the vacuum reactor during the whole pyrolysis process, guaranteeing a long contact time (more than 2 h) for their interactions. Remarkable synergetic effects were observed. Addition of biomass obviously influenced the tar and char yields, gas volume yield, gas composition, char structure and tar composition during co-pyrolysis. It was highly possible that char gasification, gaseous phase interactions, and secondary tar cracking were facilitated when lignite and biomass were co-pyrolyzed. PMID:25277348

  4. Pyrolysis of Sawdust, Rice Husk and Sugarcane Bagasse: Kinetic Modeling and Estimation of Kinetic Parameters using Different Optimization Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khonde, Ruta Dhanram; Chaurasia, Ashish Subhash

    2015-04-01

    The present study provides the kinetic model to describe the pyrolysis of sawdust, rice-husk and sugarcane bagasse as biomass. The kinetic scheme used for modelling of primary pyrolysis consisting of the two parallel reactions giving gaseous volatiles and solid char. Estimation of kinetic parameters for pyrolysis process has been carried out for temperature range of 773-1,173 K. As there are serious issues regarding non-convergence of some of the methods or solutions converging to local-optima, the proposed kinetic model is optimized to predict the best values of kinetic parameters for the system using three approaches—Two-dimensional surface fitting non-linear regression technique, MS-Excel Solver Tool and COMSOL software. The model predictions are in agreement with experimental data over a wide range of pyrolysis conditions. The estimated value of kinetic parameters are compared with earlier researchers and found to be matching well.

  5. High-performance PdNi alloy structured in situ on monolithic metal foam for coalbed methane deoxygenation via catalytic combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiaofei; Wu, Xin-Ping; Zhao, Guofeng; Li, Yakun; Wang, Chunzheng; Liu, Ye; Gong, Xue-Qing; Lu, Yong

    2015-08-14

    A monolithic Ni-foam@PdNi(alloy) catalyst is tailored for coalbed methane deoxygenation via galvanically depositing Pd nanoparticles on a Ni-foam surface followed by in situ activation. Experimental and theoretical studies unanimously reveal that the in situ formed PdNi alloy contributes to high activity/selectivity, good stability and oscillation elimination. PMID:26158722

  6. Pyrolysis of superfine pulverized coal. Part 2. Mechanisms of carbon monoxide formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • CO formation mechanisms during superfine pulverized coal pyrolysis are investigated. • The overlapped CO evolution curves are resolved applying the deconvolution method. • Five constituent reaction complexes induced by different functional groups and reactions are recognized. • Different CO formation mechanisms initiated from three distinctive channels are concluded. - Abstract: The oxygen-containing gases released during coal pyrolysis comprise more than a half of the devolatilization products, especially the noncondensible species. The mechanisms of CO formation reactions remain problematic, particularly the identity of the functional group precursors for low-temperature CO. In this paper, pyrolysis experiments of superfine pulverized coal were carried out in the N2 and CO2 atmosphere under non-isothermal conditions, applying a fixed-bed reactor. The CO formation mechanisms were investigated from a functional-group standpoint. The deconvolution method via numerical analysis was adopted to resolve the multi-component envelop profiles of CO evolution. Five constituent reaction complexes induced by different oxygenated groups and reactions are recognized, combining the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. In addition, the effects of coal type, particle size, pyrolysis atmosphere and heating rate on the CO evolution were analyzed. Finally, different CO formation mechanisms initiated from the primary decomposition of distinctive oxygenated functionalities, secondary pyrolysis reactions of tars, and gasification reactions of chars are summarized

  7. Synthesis of advanced materials for bio-oil production from rice straw by pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bio-oil from rice straw is produced by pyrolysis with and without solid acid catalysts. Solid acid catalysts used in rice straw pyrolysis synthesis were the diatomite acidified by an 'atomic implantation method' and nano-sized porous Al-SBA1 -15. Catalysts were characterized by a field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), N2 adsorption/desorption, differential thermal analysis/thermogravimetric analysis (DTA/TGA) and NH3 temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD). The obtained results revealed that a similar bio-oil yield (liquid product) of 44–48% can be reached by pyrolysis in the presence of solid acid catalysts at 450?°C compared to that of pyrolysis without catalyst at 550?°C. Moreover, a low yield of gas product was observed. These results show significant potential applications of solid acid catalysts for the improvement of bio-oil yield in the pyrolysis of rice straw

  8. Effect of pyrolysis pressure and heating rate on radiata pine char structure and apparent gasification reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Cetin; R. Gupta; B. Moghtaderi [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). Discipline of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, School of Engineering

    2005-07-01

    The knowledge of biomass char gasification kinetics has considerable importance in the design of advanced biomass gasifiers, some of which operate at high pressure. The char gasification kinetics themselves are influenced by char structure. In this study, the effects of pyrolysis pressure and heating rate on the char structure were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, digital cinematography, and surface area analysis. Char samples were prepared at pressures between 1 and 20 bar, temperatures ranging from 800 to 1000{degree}C, and heating rates between 20 and 500{degree}C/s. Our results indicate that pyrolysis conditions have a notable impact on the biomass char morphology. Pyrolysis pressure, in particular, was found to influence the size and the shape of char particles while high heating rates led to plastic deformation of particles (i.e. melting) resulting in smooth surfaces and large cavities. The global gasification reactivities of char samples were also determined using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) technique. Char reactivities were found to increase with increasing pyrolysis heating rates and decreasing pyrolysis pressure. 22 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Kinetic Study of the Pyrolysis of Waste Printed Circuit Boards Subject to Conventional and Microwave Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyuan Ma

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a kinetic study of the decomposition of waste printed circuit boards (WPCB under conventional and microwave-induced pyrolysis conditions. We discuss the heating rates and the influence of the pyrolysis on the thermal decomposition kinetics of WPCB. We find that the thermal degradation of WPCB in a controlled conventional thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA occurred in the temperature range of 300 °C–600 °C, where the main pyrolysis of organic matter takes place along with an expulsion of volumetric volatiles. The corresponding activation energy is decreased from 267 kJ/mol to 168 kJ/mol with increased heating rates from 20 °C/min to 50 °C/min. Similarly, the process of microwave-induced pyrolysis of WPCB material manifests in only one stage, judging by experiments with a microwave power of 700 W. Here, the activation energy is determined to be only 49 kJ/mol, much lower than that found in a conventional TGA subject to a similar heating rate. The low activation energy found in microwave-induced pyrolysis suggests that the adoption of microwave technology for the disposal of WPCB material and even for waste electronic and electrical equipment (WEEE could be an attractive option.

  10. Evaluation of the production potential of bio-oil from Vietnamese biomass resources by fast pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural activities in Vietnam generate about 62 million tonnes of biomass (rice straw, rice husk, bagasse, corn cob, corn stover, etc.) annually. In this work, four different types of biomass from Vietnam, namely rice straw, rice husk, factory bagasse, and corn cob, have been studied as potential raw materials to produce bio-oil by fast pyrolysis technology. Test runs were conducted in a fluidized-bed reactor at a temperature of 500 °C and residence time less than 2 s. Size and moisture content of the feed were less than 2 mm and 2%, respectively. It was found that yields of bio-oil as a liquid product obtained from pyrolysis of these feedstocks were more than 50% and that obtained from the bagasse was the highest. Bio-oil quality from Vietnamese biomass resources satisfies ASTM D7544-12 standard for pyrolysis liquid biofuels. These results showed the potential of using biomass in Vietnam to produce bio-oil which could be directly used as a combustion fuel or upgraded into transportation fuels and chemicals. - Highlights: • Four types of Vietnamese biomass were firstly analyzed in detail. • Optimal conditions for fast pyrolysis reaction for Vietnamese biomass types. • Bio-oil product adapted to the standard specification for pyrolysis liquid biofuel

  11. Application of Gamma Radiation on Bio-oil Produced from Pyrolysis of Soybean Cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soybean cake residue from soy milk making can be pyrolysed to produce pyrolysis liquid or bio-oil which has potency to be used as liquid fuel. Pyrolysis of soybean cake residue with the application of gamma irradiation was investigated in a batch reactor at 450°C for 1.5 hr under nitrogen flow 250 cc/min. Feed of soybean cake residue was exposed to gamma radiation at the doses of 200 to 1,000 kGy before pyrolysing. It was found that pyrolysis liquid yield increased significantly by 12.9 to 19.3 % at the irradiation doses of 400 kGy and higher. The increment was mainly due to the increasing of aqueous phase in the pyrolysis liquid. The heating value of organic phase in the pyrolysis liquid was 7,890 kcal/kg. The organic phase from the unexposed feed was also irradiated at 20-100 kGy. The viscosity of irradiated organic phase was found to increase with the increasing irradiation dose. Irradiated organic phase was distilled at temperatures 200 and 250°C. It was found that the first distilled fraction (<200°C) corresponding to gasoline fraction increased with the increasing irradiation dose while the second distilled fraction (200-250°C) corresponding to kerosene fraction seems to decrease. The composition of organic phase was also determined by GC-MS.

  12. Synthesis of advanced materials for bio-oil production from rice straw by pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong Dang, Tuyet; Le, Gia Hy; Thu Giang Pham, Thi; Kien Nguyen, Trung; Canh Dao, Duc; Vu, Thi Minh Hong; Thu Thuy Hoang, Thi; Hoa Tran, Thi Kim; Vu, Anh Tuan

    2011-12-01

    Bio-oil from rice straw is produced by pyrolysis with and without solid acid catalysts. Solid acid catalysts used in rice straw pyrolysis synthesis were the diatomite acidified by an 'atomic implantation method' and nano-sized porous Al-SBA1SBA: Santa Barbara Amorphous type mesoporous silica.-15. Catalysts were characterized by a field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), N2 adsorption/desorption, differential thermal analysis/thermogravimetric analysis (DTA/TGA) and NH3 temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD). The obtained results revealed that a similar bio-oil yield (liquid product) of 44-48% can be reached by pyrolysis in the presence of solid acid catalysts at 450?°C compared to that of pyrolysis without catalyst at 550?°C. Moreover, a low yield of gas product was observed. These results show significant potential applications of solid acid catalysts for the improvement of bio-oil yield in the pyrolysis of rice straw.

  13. Pyrolysis treatment of oil sludge and model-free kinetics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianguo; Jiang, Xiumin; Zhou, Lingsheng; Han, Xiangxin; Cui, Zhigang

    2009-01-30

    Pyrolysis of tank bottom oil sludge was investigated to summarize the pyrolysis characteristics through analyzing the change of mass loss, pyrolysis gas compositions in heating process. For this propose, various approaches including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), CNHS/O elemental analysis, electrically heated fixed bed quartz reactor coupled with Vario Plus emission monitoring system, and oil-gas evaluation workstation (OGE-II) equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID) were used. The pyrolysis reaction is significant in the range of 473-773 K where multi-peak DTG curves can be gained. Higher heating rate increases the carbon (C) and sulfur (S) contents but decreases hydrogen (H) content in solid residues. The major gaseous products excluding N(2) are CHs (Hydrocarbons), CO(2), H(2), CO. The yield of CHs is significant in the range of 600-723 K. Higher heating rate causes the peak intensity of CHs evolution to increase and the CHs evolution to move towards a high-temperature region. Around 80% of total organic carbon content (TOC) in oil sludge can be converted into CHs in pyrolysis process. The CHs data were used for kinetic analysis by Vyazovkin model-free iso-conversion approach. Dependences of the activation energy on the degree of conversion obtained from different methods were compared. PMID:18514401

  14. Pyrolysis treatment of oil sludge and model-free kinetics analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrolysis of tank bottom oil sludge was investigated to summarize the pyrolysis characteristics through analyzing the change of mass loss, pyrolysis gas compositions in heating process. For this propose, various approaches including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), CNHS/O elemental analysis, electrically heated fixed bed quartz reactor coupled with Vario Plus emission monitoring system, and oil-gas evaluation workstation (OGE-II) equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID) were used. The pyrolysis reaction is significant in the range of 473-773 K where multi-peak DTG curves can be gained. Higher heating rate increases the carbon (C) and sulfur (S) contents but decreases hydrogen (H) content in solid residues. The major gaseous products excluding N2 are CHs (Hydrocarbons), CO2, H2, CO. The yield of CHs is significant in the range of 600-723 K. Higher heating rate causes the peak intensity of CHs evolution to increase and the CHs evolution to move towards a high-temperature region. Around 80% of total organic carbon content (TOC) in oil sludge can be converted into CHs in pyrolysis process. The CHs data were used for kinetic analysis by Vyazovkin model-free iso-conversion approach. Dependences of the activation energy on the degree of conversion obtained from different methods were compared

  15. Change of physical and chemical properties of the solid phase during biomass pyrolysis; Aenderung der physikalisch-chemischen Eigenschaften des Feststoffs waehrend der Biomassepyrolyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klose, Wolfgang [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Energietechnik; Rincon, Sonia; Gomez, Alexander [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia). Dept. de Ingenieria Mecanica y Mecatronica

    2009-01-15

    The effects of the final pyrolysis temperature on the development of the chemical composition and on the porosity of biomass undergoing pyrolysis are investigated through experiments in a thermobalance at laboratory scale of grams. Changes in the grain size of individual particles of biomass during pyrolysis are also investigated as a function of temperature in a microscope equipped with heating and camera. Oil palm shells are selected as raw materials due to their availability as biomass residue and their physical and chemical characteristics. These experiments are important for reactor design purposes in the field of thermochemical conversion, offering important information for the mathematical modelling of the processes. (orig.)

  16. Kinetic study of pyrolysis gasoline hydrogenation over supported palladium catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Ying-Ming; Chang, Jen-Ray; Wu, Jung-Chung

    1986-07-15

    The hydrogenation of pyrolysis gasoline was carried out over a supported palladium catalyst. Some of the operation variables which showed the effects on catalyst reduction and pyrolysis gasoline hydrogenation were discussed. The reduction conditions were studied by TPR technique and verified by the hydrogenation reaction. The supported palladium oxide could be reduced to palladium completely in less than one hour at 100 C and 4.5 atm of H/sub 2/. The sintering of palladium became significant when the reduction temperature was above 300 C. The reaction temperature which gave the maximum pseudo rate constant of hydrogenation increased with increasing pressure. The kinetics of hydrogenation of model compounds, isoprene and styrene, were also studied in a semibatch basket reactor. The increase in hydrogen pressure not only enhances the rate of hydrogenation but also depresses the polymerization of dienes. It can be concluded that the reaction temperature and pressure should be compromised in order to obtain the optimum operation for hydrogenation of diene to monoolefin.

  17. Most sensitive parameters in pyrolysis of shrinking biomass particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, the impact of shrinking and non-shrinking biomass particles on pyrolysis is studied employing a kinetic model coupled with a heat transfer model using a practically significant kinetic scheme consisting of physically measurable parameters. The numerical model is used to predict the effects of the most important physical and thermal properties (thermal conductivity, heat transfer coefficient, emissivity, reactor temperature and heat of reaction number) considering cylindrical geometry. A finite difference pure implicit scheme utilizing the tri-diagonal matrix algorithm (TDMA) is employed for solving the heat transfer model equation. The Runge-Kutta 4th order method is used for the chemical kinetics model equations. The computer simulations are performed for wide ranges of particle size and temperatures. The results obtained are in excellent agreement with many experimental studies, much better than the agreement with earlier models reported in the literature. The most dominant design variable is reactor temperature and exothermic reaction. The applications of these findings are important and useful for optimum design of biomass gasifiers and pyrolysis reactors

  18. Pyrolysis of biomass and refuse-derived fuel performance in laboratory scale batch reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kluska Jacek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of pyrolysis of pine chips and refuse derived fuel fractions are presented. The experiments were carried out in a pilot pyrolysis reactor. The feedstock was analyzed by an elemental analyzer and the X-ray fluorescence spectrometer to determine the elemental composition. To find out optimum conditions for pyrolysis and mass loss as a function of temperature the thermogravimetric analysis was applied. Gases from the thermogravimetric analysis were directed to the infrared spectrometer using gas-flow cuvette to online analysis of gas composition. Chemical composition of the produced gas was measured using gas chromatography with a thermal conductivity detector and a flame ionization detector. The product analysis also took into account the mass balance of individual products.

  19. Pyrolysis of biomass and refuse-derived fuel performance in laboratory scale batch reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluska, Jacek; Klein, Marek; Kazimierski, Pawe?; Karda?, Dariusz

    2014-03-01

    The results of pyrolysis of pine chips and refuse derived fuel fractions are presented. The experiments were carried out in a pilot pyrolysis reactor. The feedstock was analyzed by an elemental analyzer and the X-ray fluorescence spectrometer to determine the elemental composition. To find out optimum conditions for pyrolysis and mass loss as a function of temperature the thermogravimetric analysis was applied. Gases from the thermogravimetric analysis were directed to the infrared spectrometer using gas-flow cuvette to online analysis of gas composition. Chemical composition of the produced gas was measured using gas chromatography with a thermal conductivity detector and a flame ionization detector. The product analysis also took into account the mass balance of individual products.

  20. Validation of a high-power, time-resolved, near-infrared spectroscopy system for measurement of superficial and deep muscle deoxygenation during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Shunsaku; Barstow, Thomas J; Okushima, Dai; Rossiter, Harry B; Kondo, Narihiko; Ohmae, Etsuko; Poole, David C

    2015-06-01

    Near-infrared assessment of skeletal muscle is restricted to superficial tissues due to power limitations of spectroscopic systems. We reasoned that understanding of muscle deoxygenation may be improved by simultaneously interrogating deeper tissues. To achieve this, we modified a high-power (?8 mW), time-resolved, near-infrared spectroscopy system to increase depth penetration. Precision was first validated using a homogenous optical phantom over a range of inter-optode spacings (OS). Coefficients of variation from 10 measurements were minimal (0.5-1.9%) for absorption (?a), reduced scattering, simulated total hemoglobin, and simulated O2 saturation. Second, a dual-layer phantom was constructed to assess depth sensitivity, and the thickness of the superficial layer was varied. With a superficial layer thickness of 1, 2, 3, and 4 cm (?a = 0.149 cm(-1)), the proportional contribution of the deep layer (?a = 0.250 cm(-1)) to total ?a was 80.1, 26.9, 3.7, and 0.0%, respectively (at 6-cm OS), validating penetration to ?3 cm. Implementation of an additional superficial phantom to simulate adipose tissue further reduced depth sensitivity. Finally, superficial and deep muscle spectroscopy was performed in six participants during heavy-intensity cycle exercise. Compared with the superficial rectus femoris, peak deoxygenation of the deep rectus femoris (including the superficial intermedius in some) was not significantly different (deoxyhemoglobin and deoxymyoglobin concentration: 81.3 ± 20.8 vs. 78.3 ± 13.6 ?M, P > 0.05), but deoxygenation kinetics were significantly slower (mean response time: 37 ± 10 vs. 65 ± 9 s, P ? 0.05). These data validate a high-power, time-resolved, near-infrared spectroscopy system with large OS for measuring the deoxygenation of deep tissues and reveal temporal and spatial disparities in muscle deoxygenation responses to exercise. PMID:25840439

  1. Rates and Mechanisms of Oil Shale Pyrolysis: A Chemical Structure Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, Thomas; Pugmire, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Three pristine Utah Green River oil shale samples were obtained and used for analysis by the combined research groups at the University of Utah and Brigham Young University. Oil shale samples were first demineralized and the separated kerogen and extracted bitumen samples were then studied by a host of techniques including high resolution liquid-state carbon-13 NMR, solid-state magic angle sample spinning 13C NMR, GC/MS, FTIR, and pyrolysis. Bitumen was extracted from the shale using methanol/dichloromethane and analyzed using high resolution 13C NMR liquid state spectroscopy, showing carbon aromaticities of 7 to 11%. The three parent shales and the demineralized kerogens were each analyzed with solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy. Carbon aromaticity of the kerogen was 23-24%, with 10-12 aromatic carbons per cluster. Crushed samples of Green River oil shale and its kerogen extract were pyrolyzed at heating rates from 1 to 10 K/min at pressures of 1 and 40 bar and temperatures up to 1000°C. The transient pyrolysis data were fit with a first-order model and a Distributed Activation Energy Model (DAEM). The demineralized kerogen was pyrolyzed at 10 K/min in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure at temperatures up to 525°C, and the pyrolysis products (light gas, tar, and char) were analyzed using 13C NMR, GC/MS, and FTIR. Details of the kerogen pyrolysis have been modeled by a modified version of the chemical percolation devolatilization (CPD) model that has been widely used to model coal combustion/pyrolysis. This refined CPD model has been successful in predicting the char, tar, and gas yields of the three shale samples during pyrolysis. This set of experiments and associated modeling represents the most sophisticated and complete analysis available for a given set of oil shale samples.

  2. The Effect of Material Variability on Fatigue Behaviors of Low Alloy Steels in 310 .deg. C Deoxygenated Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Hun; Jang, Changheui; Kim, Insup [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyunchul [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction Co., Ltd., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    As environmental fatigue damage is one of the main crack initiation mechanisms in nuclear power plants (NPPs), it is most important factor to assess the integrity and safety of NPPs. So, based on extensive researches, argon nation laboratory (ANL) suggested the statistical model to predict fatigue life of low alloy steels (LASs) which are widely used as structural material in NPPs. Also, we reported the environmental fatigue behaviors of SA508 Gr.1a LAS. However, from comparison between our experimental fatigue data and ANL's statistical model, our fatigue life data showed poor agreement with the ANL's statistical model. In this regard, the additional low cycle fatigue (LCF) tests were performed in 310 .deg. C deoxygenated water, and compared with ANL's statistical model to evaluate reliability of the data. And then, the effect of material variability on the fatigue life of LASs was investigated through microstructure analysis.

  3. In-line deoxygenation for organic carbon detections in seawater using a marine microbial fuel cell-biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, Soon Bee; Cheng, Liang; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) is a key predictor for membrane biofouling in seawater desalination reverse osmosis (SWRO). Microbial fuel cells have been considered as biosensors for the detection of biodegradable organics. However, the presence of dissolved oxygen (DO) is known to completely suppress the signal production (i.e., current) of a typical MFC. This study describes AOC detection in normal oxygenated seawater by coupling an electrochemical cell for DO removal with a MFC-biosensor for AOC detection. The electrochemical deoxygenation for oxygen removal caused no interference in the AOC detection. A linear relationship (R(2)=0.991) between the AOC concentration and current production from the MFC biosensor was achieved. The coupling of an electrochemical cell with a MFC-biosensor can be effectively used as an online, rapid and inexpensive measure of AOC concentrations and hence as an indicator for biofouling potential of seawater. PMID:25679497

  4. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Changjun; Wang, Huamin; Karim, Ayman M.; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-11-21

    Increasing energy demand, especially in the transportation sector, and soaring CO2 emissions necessitate the exploitation of renewable sources of energy. Despite the large variety of new energy Q3 carriers, liquid hydrocarbon still appears to be the most attractive and feasible form of transportation fuel taking into account the energy density, stability and existing infrastructure. Biomass is an abundant, renewable source of energy; however, utilizing it in a cost-effective way is still a substantial challenge. Lignocellulose is composed of three major biopolymers, namely cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Fast pyrolysis of biomass is recognized as an efficient and feasible process to selectively convert lignocellulose into a liquid fuel—bio-oil. However bio-oil from fast pyrolysis contains a large amount of oxygen, distributed in hundreds of oxygenates. These oxygenates are the cause of many negative properties, such as low heating values, high corrosiveness, high viscosity, and instability; they also greatly Q4 limit the application of bio-oil particularly as transportation fuel. Hydrocarbons derived from biomass are most attractive because of their high energy density and compatibility with the existing infrastructure. Thus, converting lignocellulose into transportation fuels via catalytic fast pyrolysis has attracted much attention. Many studies related to catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass have been published. The main challenge of this process is the development of active and stable catalysts that can deal with a large variety of decomposition intermediates from lignocellulose. This review starts with the current understanding of the chemistry in fast pyrolysis of lignocellulose and focuses on the development of catalysts in catalytic fast pyrolysis. Recent progress in the experimental studies on catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass is also summarized with the emphasis on bio-oil yields and quality.

  5. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changjun; Wang, Huamin; Karim, Ayman M; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-11-21

    Increasing energy demand, especially in the transportation sector, and soaring CO2 emissions necessitate the exploitation of renewable sources of energy. Despite the large variety of new energy carriers, liquid hydrocarbon still appears to be the most attractive and feasible form of transportation fuel taking into account the energy density, stability and existing infrastructure. Biomass is an abundant, renewable source of energy; however, utilizing it in a cost-effective way is still a substantial challenge. Lignocellulose is composed of three major biopolymers, namely cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Fast pyrolysis of biomass is recognized as an efficient and feasible process to selectively convert lignocellulose into a liquid fuel-bio-oil. However bio-oil from fast pyrolysis contains a large amount of oxygen, distributed in hundreds of oxygenates. These oxygenates are the cause of many negative properties, such as low heating value, high corrosiveness, high viscosity, and instability; they also greatly limit the application of bio-oil particularly as transportation fuel. Hydrocarbons derived from biomass are most attractive because of their high energy density and compatibility with the existing infrastructure. Thus, converting lignocellulose into transportation fuels via catalytic fast pyrolysis has attracted much attention. Many studies related to catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass have been published. The main challenge of this process is the development of active and stable catalysts that can deal with a large variety of decomposition intermediates from lignocellulose. This review starts with the current understanding of the chemistry in fast pyrolysis of lignocellulose and focuses on the development of catalysts in catalytic fast pyrolysis. Recent progress in the experimental studies on catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass is also summarized with the emphasis on bio-oil yields and quality. PMID:24801125

  6. Recovery of hydrocarbon liquid from waste high density polyethylene by thermal pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Kumar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal degradation of waste plastics in an inert atmosphere has been regarded as a productive method, because this process can convert waste plastics into hydrocarbons that can be used either as fuels or as a source of chemicals. In this work, waste high-density polyethylene (HDPE plastic was chosen as the material for pyrolysis. A simple pyrolysis reactor system has been used to pyrolyse waste HDPE with the objective of optimizing the liquid product yield at a temperature range of 400ºC to 550ºC. Results of pyrolysis experiments showed that, at a temperature of 450ºC and below, the major product of the pyrolysis was oily liquid which became a viscous liquid or waxy solid at temperatures above 475ºC. The yield of the liquid fraction obtained increased with the residence time for waste HDPE. The liquid fractions obtained were analyzed for composition using FTIR and GC-MS. The physical properties of the pyrolytic oil show the presence of a mixture of different fuel fractions such as gasoline, kerosene and diesel in the oil.

  7. Recovery of hydrocarbon liquid from waste high density polyethylene by thermal pyrolysis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sachin, Kumar; R. K., Singh.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal degradation of waste plastics in an inert atmosphere has been regarded as a productive method, because this process can convert waste plastics into hydrocarbons that can be used either as fuels or as a source of chemicals. In this work, waste high-density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic was chos [...] en as the material for pyrolysis. A simple pyrolysis reactor system has been used to pyrolyse waste HDPE with the objective of optimizing the liquid product yield at a temperature range of 400ºC to 550ºC. Results of pyrolysis experiments showed that, at a temperature of 450ºC and below, the major product of the pyrolysis was oily liquid which became a viscous liquid or waxy solid at temperatures above 475ºC. The yield of the liquid fraction obtained increased with the residence time for waste HDPE. The liquid fractions obtained were analyzed for composition using FTIR and GC-MS. The physical properties of the pyrolytic oil show the presence of a mixture of different fuel fractions such as gasoline, kerosene and diesel in the oil.

  8. Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly Regeneration Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlen, Amber; Abney, Morgan B.; Miller, Lee A.

    2011-01-01

    In April 2010 the Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) was delivered to the International Space Station (ISS). This technology requires hydrogen to recover oxygen from carbon dioxide. This results in the production of water and methane. Water is electrolyzed to provide oxygen to the crew. Methane is vented to space resulting in a loss of valuable hydrogen and unreduced carbon dioxide. This is not critical for ISS because of the water resupply from Earth. However, in order to have enough oxygen for long-term missions, it will be necessary to recover the hydrogen to maximize oxygen recovery. Thus, the Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) was designed to recover hydrogen from methane. During operation, the PPA produces small amounts of carbon that can ultimately reduce performance by forming on the walls and windows of the reactor chamber. The carbon must be removed, although mechanical methods are highly inefficient, thus chemical methods are of greater interest. The purpose of this effort was to determine the feasibility of chemically removing the carbon from the walls and windows of a PPA reactor using a pure carbon dioxide stream.

  9. Pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of ?-cyclodextrin and its two derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Guangyong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD and its derivatives have been widely used to prepare inclusion complexes. However, systematic research on their thermal stabilities, pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics has rarely been reported. In this paper, thermogravimetric analysis was employed to investigate ?-cyclodextrin and its two derivatives, 2-Hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD and monochlorotriazinyl-?-cyclodextrin (MCT-?-CD. The pyrolysis characteristics and kinetic parameters were obtained. The results show that three stages can be distinguished during the heating process of the above three samples. The temperature of initial decomposition of HP-?-CD (309.5°C is higher than that of ?-CD (297.8°C, while the temperature of initial decomposition of MCT-?-CD (231.4°C is lower than that of ?-CD. For the three cyclodextrins, the thermal stability in descending order is HP-?-CD, ?-CD and MCT-HP-?-CD. The activation energy values are 350.6, 303.3 and 113.9 KJ/mol, and the pre-exponential factor values are 1.11×1031, 1.37×1026 and 1.39×1010 for ?-CD, HP-?-CD and MCT-?-CD respectively.

  10. Aerosol spray pyrolysis & solution phase synthesis of nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongwang

    This dissertation focuses on the synthesis of nanomaterials by both solution phase and gas phase methods. By the solution phase method, we demonstrate the synthesis of Au/CdS binary hybrid nanoparticles and the Au-induced growth of CdS nanorods. At higher reaction temperature, extremely uniform CdS nanorods were obtained. The size of the Au seed nanoparticles has an important influence on the length and diameter of the nanorods. In addition, preparation of peanut-like FePt-CdS hybrid nanoparticles by spontaneous epitaxial nucleation and growth of CdS onto FePt-seed nanoparticles in high-temperature organic solution is reported. The FePt-CdS hybrid nanoparticles reported here are an example of a bifunctional nanomaterial that combines size-dependent magnetic and optical properties. In the gas phase method, a spray pyrolysis aerosol synthesis method was used to produce tellurium dioxide nanoparticles and zinc sulfide nanoparticles. Tellurite glasses (amorphous TeO2 based materials) have two useful optical properties, high refractive index and high optical nonlinearity, that make them attractive for a range of applications. In the work presented here, TeO2 nanoparticles were prepared by spray pyrolysis of an aqueous solution of telluric acid, Te(OH)6. This laboratory-scale process is capable of producing up to 80 mg/hr of amorphous TeO2-nanoparticles with primary particle diameters from 10 to 40 nm, and allows their synthesis in significant quantities from an inexpensive and environmentally friendly precursor. Furthermore, both Er3+ doped and Er3+ and Yb3+ co-doped tellurium dioxide nanoparticles were synthesized by spray pyrolysis of an aqueous mixture of telluric acid with erbium/ytterbium salts, which exhibit the infrared to green visible upconversion phenomena. ZnS nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by spray pyrolysis using zinc diethyldithiocarbamate as a single-source precursor. The home-built scanning mobility particle spectrometer (SMPS) is a useful tool for online measurement of the as-produced nanoparticle size distribution in the gas phase. These SMPS results show clearly the transition of precursor aerosol from liquid to vapor phase and that nanoparticle production in the reactor occurs via gas-to-particle conversion. Applicable characterization methods were employed to characterize and to investigate the optical properties of the various materials described in this dissertation.

  11. Photocatalytic Desulfurization of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napida Hinchiranan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste tire pyrolysis oil has high potential to replace conventional fossil liquid fuels due to its high calorific heating value. However, the large amounts of sulfurous compounds in this oil hinders its application. Thus, the aim of this research was to investigate the possibility to apply the photo-assisted oxidation catalyzed by titanium dioxide (TiO2, Degussa P-25 to partially remove sulfurous compounds in the waste tire pyrolysis oil under milder reaction conditions without hydrogen consumption. A waste tire pyrolysis oil with 0.84% (w/w of sulfurous content containing suspended TiO2 was irradiated by using a high-pressure mercury lamp for 7 h. The oxidized sulfur compounds were then migrated into the solvent-extraction phase. A maximum % sulfur removal of 43.6% was achieved when 7 g/L of TiO2 was loaded into a 1/4 (v/v mixture of pyrolysis waste tire oil/acetonitrile at 50 °C in the presence of air. Chromatographic analysis confirmed that the photo-oxidized sulfurous compounds presented in the waste tire pyrolysis oil had higher polarity, which were readily dissolved and separated in distilled water. The properties of the photoxidized product were also reported and compared to those of crude oil.

  12. Exhaust constituent emission factors of printed circuit board pyrolysis processes and its exhaust control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Recycling of waste printed circuit boards is an important issue. • Pyrolysis is an emerging technology for PCB treatment. • Emission factors of VOCs are determined for PCB pyrolysis exhaust. • Iron-Al2O3 catalyst was employed for the exhaust control. -- Abstract: The printed circuit board (PCB) is an important part of electrical and electronic equipment, and its disposal and the recovery of useful materials from waste PCBs (WPCBs) are key issues for waste electrical and electronic equipment. Waste PCB compositions and their pyrolysis characteristics were analyzed in this study. In addition, the volatile organic compound (VOC) exhaust was controlled by an iron-impregnated alumina oxide catalyst. Results indicated that carbon and oxygen were the dominant components (hundreds mg/g) of the raw materials, and other elements such as nitrogen, bromine, and copper were several decades mg/g. Exhaust constituents of CO, H2, CH4, CO2, and NOx, were 60–115, 0.4–4.0, 1.1–10, 30–95, and 0–0.7 mg/g, corresponding to temperatures ranging from 200 to 500 °C. When the pyrolysis temperature was lower than 300 °C, aromatics and paraffins were the major species, contributing 90% of ozone precursor VOCs, and an increase in the pyrolysis temperature corresponded to a decrease in the fraction of aromatic emission factors. Methanol, ethylacetate, acetone, dichloromethane, tetrachloromethane and acrylonitrile were the main species of oxygenated and chlorinated VOCs. The emission factors of some brominated compounds, i.e., bromoform, bromophenol, and dibromophenol, were higher at temperatures over 400 °C. When VOC exhaust was flowed through the bed of Fe-impregnated Al2O3, the emission of ozone precursor VOCs could be reduced by 70–80%

  13. Characterization of pyrolytic oil obtained from pyrolysis of TDF (Tire Derived Fuel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? We pyrolyzed Tire Derived Fuel (TDF) at different heating rates and temperatures. ? We determine convenient pyrolysis temperature for pyrolytic oil. ? The product can be used as fuel for combustion system in industry. ? TDF pyrolysis is advisable recycling system because of low hazardous constituents. - Abstract: In recent years, waste utilization before disposing to the land is the most important point about waste management. Due to the increasing emphasis on recycling, related to the two European Commission Directives (EC End of Life Vehicle Directive, EC Waste Landfill Directive) affecting the management of waste tires, there is interest in the development of alternative technologies for recycling waste tires. One of them is pyrolysis. For this purpose, a fixed bed reactor was used to pyrolysis of Tire Derived Fuel (TDF) at the temperatures of 350, 400, 450, 500, 550 and 600 °C with the heating rates of 5 and 35 °C/min. The maximum pyrolytic oil yield (38.8 wt.%) was obtained at 400 °C with 5 °C/min heating rate. The yield of pyrolytic oil decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperatures whereas the yield of gases increased. The fuel properties of the pyrolytic oil including higher heating value (HHV), elemental composition, flash point, viscosity, distillation and density were determined. Pyrolytic oil was characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) and gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS) techniques and also, the amount of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) and congener distribution characteristics were studied for determination of environmental effects. It was seen that the pyrolytic oils have similar fuel properties with the diesel. It was also found that pyrolytic oil contained 0.00118 I-TEQs/g at very low level. Finally, the pyrolytic oil can be evaluated for energy recovery according to Regulation on Control of Waste Oils in Turkey.

  14. Exhaust constituent emission factors of printed circuit board pyrolysis processes and its exhaust control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Hung-Lung, E-mail: hlchiang@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Health Risk Management, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Kuo-Hsiung [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Recycling of waste printed circuit boards is an important issue. • Pyrolysis is an emerging technology for PCB treatment. • Emission factors of VOCs are determined for PCB pyrolysis exhaust. • Iron-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was employed for the exhaust control. -- Abstract: The printed circuit board (PCB) is an important part of electrical and electronic equipment, and its disposal and the recovery of useful materials from waste PCBs (WPCBs) are key issues for waste electrical and electronic equipment. Waste PCB compositions and their pyrolysis characteristics were analyzed in this study. In addition, the volatile organic compound (VOC) exhaust was controlled by an iron-impregnated alumina oxide catalyst. Results indicated that carbon and oxygen were the dominant components (hundreds mg/g) of the raw materials, and other elements such as nitrogen, bromine, and copper were several decades mg/g. Exhaust constituents of CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, and NOx, were 60–115, 0.4–4.0, 1.1–10, 30–95, and 0–0.7 mg/g, corresponding to temperatures ranging from 200 to 500 °C. When the pyrolysis temperature was lower than 300 °C, aromatics and paraffins were the major species, contributing 90% of ozone precursor VOCs, and an increase in the pyrolysis temperature corresponded to a decrease in the fraction of aromatic emission factors. Methanol, ethylacetate, acetone, dichloromethane, tetrachloromethane and acrylonitrile were the main species of oxygenated and chlorinated VOCs. The emission factors of some brominated compounds, i.e., bromoform, bromophenol, and dibromophenol, were higher at temperatures over 400 °C. When VOC exhaust was flowed through the bed of Fe-impregnated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the emission of ozone precursor VOCs could be reduced by 70–80%.

  15. Modeling Initial Stage of Ablation Material Pyrolysis: Graphitic Precursor Formation and Interfacial Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Tapan G.; Lawson, John W.; Keblinski, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    Reactive molecular dynamics simulations are used to study initial stage of pyrolysis of ablation materials and their composites with carbon nanotubes and carbon fibers. The products formed during pyrolysis are characterized and water is found as the primary product in all cases. The water formation mechanisms are analyzed and the value of the activation energy for water formation is estimated. A detailed study on graphitic precursor formation reveals the presence of two temperature zones. In the lower temperature zone (less than 2000 K) polymerization occurs resulting in formation of large, stable graphitic precursors, and in the high temperature zone (greater than 2000 K) polymer scission results in formation of short polymer chains/molecules. Simulations performed in the high temperature zone on the phenolic resin composites (with carbon nanotubes and carbon fibers) shows that the presence of interfaces had no substantial effect on the chain scission rate or the activation energy value for water formation.

  16. Catalytic pyrolysis of biomass in inert and steam atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersan Putun; Funda Ates; Ayse Eren Putun [Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey). Department of Materials Science and Engineering

    2008-05-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate thermal conversion of a perennial shrub, Euphorbia rigida biomass sample with catalyst in inert (N{sub 2}) and steam atmospheres. Experimental studies were conducted in a well swept fixed bed reactor with a heating rate of 7{sup o}C/min to a final pyrolysis temperature of 550{sup o}C and with a mean particle size of 0.55 mm in order to determine the effect of different atmospheres with various catalyst ratios on pyrolysis yields and characteristics. The catalyst ratios were 5%, 10% and 20% (w/w) under nitrogen atmosphere with flow rates of 50, 100, 200 and 400 cm{sup 3}/min and steam atmosphere with well-swept velocities of 12, 25 and 52 cm{sup 3}/min. The optimum oil yield was obtained as 32.1% at the nitrogen flow rate of 200 cm{sup 3}/min, while it was obtained as 38.6% at steam flow rate of 25 cm{sup 3}/min when a 10% catalyst by weight according to the biomass was used. Higher oil yields were observed when biomass sample was treated in steam atmosphere than in inert (N{sub 2}) atmosphere. The oil composition was then analysed by elemental analyses techniques such as IR and GC-MS. The oil products were also fractionated by column chromatography. The bio-oils obtained at both atmospheres contain mainly n-alkanes and alkenes, aromatic compounds; mainly benzene and derivatives and PAHs, nitrogenated compounds and ketones, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, phenols and triterpenoid compounds. More oxygenated compounds and less substituted alkanes and alkenes were obtained in catalytic pyrolysis of E. rigida in the steam atmosphere. The experimental and chemical characterisation results showed that the oil obtained from perennial shrub, E. rigida can be used as a potential source of renewable fuel and chemical feedstock. 39 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Nanocrystalline SnO2 by liquid pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morante, J. R.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Liquid pyrolysis is presented as a new production method of SnO2 nanocrystalline powders suitable for gas sensor devices. The method is based on a pyrolytic reaction of high tensioned stressed drops of an organic solution of SnCl4•5(H2O. The main advantages of the method are its capability to produce SnO2 nanopowders with high stability, its accurate control over the grain size and other structural characteristics, its high level of repeatability and its low industrialization implementation cost. The characterization of samples of SnO2 nanoparticles obtained by liquid pyrolysis in the range between 200ºC and 900ºC processing temperature is carried out by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Results are analyzed and discussed so as to validate the advantages of the liquid pyrolysis method.La pirólisis líquida se presenta como un nuevo método para producir SnO2 nanocristalino en polvo ideal para sensores de gas. El método se basa en una reacción pirolítica de gotas altamente tensionadas procedentes de una solución orgánica de SnCl4•5(H2O. Las principales ventajas del método son la capacidad para producir nanopartículas de SnO2 con una gran estabilidad, el preciso control sobre el tamaño de grano y sobre otras características estructurales, el alto nivel de repetibilidad y el bajo coste en su implementación industrial.La caracterización de las muestras de las nanopartículas de SnO2 obtenidas por pirólisis líquida en un rango de temperatura de procesado que va de 200ºC a 900ºC se ha realizado mediante difracción de rayos X, microscopía electrónica de transmisión, espectroscopía Raman y espectroscopía fotoelectrónica de rayos X. Los resultados se han analizado y discutido. Éstos validan las ventajas del método de la pirólisis líquida.

  18. Catalytic effect of KF-846 on the reforming of the primary intermediates from the co-pyrolysis of pubescens and LDPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Reforming reactions were inhibited by H2, decrease of acidity and low temperature. • There was a synergistic effect on producing hydrogen between Ni and Mo. • The lattice oxygen over catalyst employed might transfer into the intermediates. • Co-pyrolysis, low temperature and N2 could restrain oxygen transfer to some extent. - Abstract: Co-pyrolysis is regarded as an effective approach to upgrade the quality of pyrolysis products. In this work the activity of KF-846 was evaluated by co-pyrolysis of pubescens and low density polyethylene under different experimental conditions including catalytic mode, pyrolytic atmosphere and temperature, etc. The results showed that the fresh KF-846 exerted strong effects of cyclization, aromatization, hydrogen transfer and vapor-catalytic reforming reactions on the primary intermediates from the co-pyrolysis. The hydrogen-rich gases indicated a synergistic effect between Ni and Mo over KF-846 on producing hydrogen. More importantly, the reforming reactions might be inhibited to some extent by H2 atmosphere, the low temperature and the decrease of acidity over catalyst. Furthermore, it was deduced that the oxygen over the lattice of catalyst or some intermediates might transfer into other intermediates, possibly resulting in more products with high oxygen content, but it was presumed that the low temperature, co-pyrolysis process and N2 atmosphere could repress the trend to a certain degree. The mass and energy balance of co-pyrolysis were analyzed, and the main reaction pathways were also proposed. The interference in pyrolysis by regulating the catalytic mode, pyrolytic atmosphere and temperature, acidity over catalyst might posses a certain guiding significance for the pyrolytic technology and the design/selection of catalysts employed

  19. Liquid oil and residual characteristics of printed circuit board recycle by pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Kuo-Hsiung [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Hung-Lung, E-mail: hlchiang@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Health Risk Management, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis is a technology for recycling of the non-metal fraction of PCBs. • Liquid product constituents were analyzed for PCB pyrolysis. • Water-soluble ionic species were determined for PCB pyrolysis exhaust. - Abstract: Non-metal fractions of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) were thermally treated (200–500 °C) under nitrogen atmosphere. Carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen were determined by elemental analyzer, bromine by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), phosphorus by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), and 29 trace elements by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for raw material and pyrolysis residues. Organic compositions of liquid oil were identified by GC (gas chromatography)–MS, trace element composition by ICP system, and 12 water-soluble ions by IC (ionic chromatography). Elemental content of carbon was >450 mg/g, oxygen 300 mg/g, bromine and hydrogen 60 mg/g, nitrogen 30 mg/g, and phosphorus 28 mg/g. Sulfur was trace in PCBs. Copper content was 25–28 mg/g, iron 1.3–1.7 mg/g, tin 0.8–1.0 mg/g and magnesium 0.4–1.0 mg/g; those were the main metals in the raw materials and pyrolytic residues. In the liquid products, carbon content was 68–73%, hydrogen was 10–14%, nitrogen was 4–5%, and sulfur was less than 0.05% at pyrolysis temperatures from 300 to 500 °C. Phenol, 3-bromophenol, 2-methylphenol and 4-propan-2-ylphenol were major species in liquid products, accounting for >50% of analyzed organic species. Bromides, ammonium and phosphate were the main species in water sorption samples for PCB pyrolysis exhaust.

  20. Liquid oil and residual characteristics of printed circuit board recycle by pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis is a technology for recycling of the non-metal fraction of PCBs. • Liquid product constituents were analyzed for PCB pyrolysis. • Water-soluble ionic species were determined for PCB pyrolysis exhaust. - Abstract: Non-metal fractions of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) were thermally treated (200–500 °C) under nitrogen atmosphere. Carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen were determined by elemental analyzer, bromine by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), phosphorus by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), and 29 trace elements by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for raw material and pyrolysis residues. Organic compositions of liquid oil were identified by GC (gas chromatography)–MS, trace element composition by ICP system, and 12 water-soluble ions by IC (ionic chromatography). Elemental content of carbon was >450 mg/g, oxygen 300 mg/g, bromine and hydrogen 60 mg/g, nitrogen 30 mg/g, and phosphorus 28 mg/g. Sulfur was trace in PCBs. Copper content was 25–28 mg/g, iron 1.3–1.7 mg/g, tin 0.8–1.0 mg/g and magnesium 0.4–1.0 mg/g; those were the main metals in the raw materials and pyrolytic residues. In the liquid products, carbon content was 68–73%, hydrogen was 10–14%, nitrogen was 4–5%, and sulfur was less than 0.05% at pyrolysis temperatures from 300 to 500 °C. Phenol, 3-bromophenol, 2-methylphenol and 4-propan-2-ylphenol were major species in liquid products, accounting for >50% of analyzed organic species. Bromides, ammonium and phosphate were the main species in water sorption samples for PCB pyrolysis exhaust

  1. Structural Properties of Magnesium Oxide Thin Films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyachenko A.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, structural properties of magnesium oxide films have studied by X-ray diffraction methods. MgO obtained by spray pyrolysis technique at the different substrate temperatures on the glass substrates. The 0.2 M magnesium chloride hexahydrate aqueous solution was selected as a precursor in the solution. The influence of substrate temperature on the phase composition, texture quality, coherent scattering domain size and lattice constant of the material was investigated.

  2. Structural Properties of Magnesium Oxide Thin Films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Dyachenko A.; Opanasuyk A.; Kurbatov D.; Bolshanina S.; Kuznetsov V

    2014-01-01

    In this work, structural properties of magnesium oxide films have studied by X-ray diffraction methods. MgO obtained by spray pyrolysis technique at the different substrate temperatures on the glass substrates. The 0.2 M magnesium chloride hexahydrate aqueous solution was selected as a precursor in the solution. The influence of substrate temperature on the phase composition, texture quality, coherent scattering domain size and lattice constant of the material was investigated.

  3. Characteristics of pyrobitumen and oil obtained from Green River oil shale pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrobitumens and oils generated from the isothermal pyrolysis of Green River oil shale at 4000, 4250, and 4400C for different times were characterized. Elemental contents, average molecular weights, and hydrocarbon contents were determined for the pyrobitumens and oils. The pyrobitumens, a major initial pyrolysis product, had an average molecular weight exceeding 1200 and contained about 85% polars. The atomic hydrogen-to-carbon ratio, nitrogen content, and average molecular weight of the pyrobitumens changed with pyrolysis temperatures and times. The variable composition of the pyrobitumens suggests that pyrobitumen should not be considered as a single intermediate for kerogen decomposition. In contrast, oils contained 60% hydrocarbons and had a constant atomic hydrogen-to-carbon ratio and average molecular weight of about 250. However, the nitrogen content of the oils increased with increasing reaction time. The ratios of normal heptadecane/pristane and normal octadecane/phytane, and odd-even predominance of oils were sensitive to pyrolysis temperatures and times. The rate constants, frequency factors, and activation energies of the formations of the total hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and aromatic hydrocarbons of the oils were calculated

  4. Pyrolysis of municipal sewage sludges in a slowly heating and gas sweeping fixed-bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A fixed-bed reactor with sweeping gas was used to mitigate secondary reactions. • The pyrolysis products reflected the original structures of sludge compositions. • The slow pyrolysis produced high yields of liquid. • The oxygen-containing and nitrogenated compounds were the main liquid products. • The gas and liquid yields correlated with the volatile matter contents in the sludges. - Abstract: The pyrolysis of three municipal sewage sludges was carried out using a slowly heating and gas sweeping fixed-bed reactor in the temperature range between 300 °C and 700 °C. The study was aimed to characterize the gaseous and liquid products derived from three different sewage sludges and mainly to discuss the varieties of sewage sludges on the yields and compositions of the gaseous and liquid products. The pyrolysis in this reactor was observed to produce high yields of liquid (above 40 wt.% at 700 °C) that contained high proportions of oxygen-containing compounds and nitrogenated compounds, with minor monoaromatics and aliphatic compounds. The gas and liquid yields correlated with the volatile matter contents in the sludges. For all three sewage sludges, the oxygenated compounds were the principal liquid compounds which could be produced at a low temperature of 300 °C, while more of nitrogenated compounds and other compounds were formed at 700 °C depending on the varieties of sewage sludges

  5. Characteristics of palm bark pyrolysis experiment oriented by central composite rotatable design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rotatable design was applied for directing pyrolysis experiment of palm bark with the variation of retention time and reaction temperature. Based on the regression equations, the optimal operating conditions were extrapolated at 13.2 min, 459 °C and 15.7 min, 475 °C. The gas product comprised mainly C1–C4 hydrocarbons with the content up to 58.2 wt% while the liquid product was a complex mixture composed of mostly oxygenated compounds. Owing to using the high pressure condition as in tubing reactor, the reaction characteristics were different from those at normal pressure, thus possibly resulting in the high selectivity for liquid product. The analysis result of solid residue after reaction showed that the oxygen content was decreased noticeably to 25.4 wt% as compared to that of raw biomass due to pyrolysis. - Highlights: • Pyrolysis of palm kernel cake in a tubing reactor. • Apply the central composite rotatable design. • Effect of namely retention time, reaction temperature and mass of sample on product yields. • Analysis of bio-oils from the pyrolysis of palm bark

  6. Catalyzed pyrolysis of grape and olive bagasse. Influence of catalyst type and chemical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Encinar, J.M.; Beltran, F.J.; Ramiro, A.; Gonzalez, J.F. [Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica

    1997-10-01

    Catalyzed pyrolysis of grape and olive bagasse under different experimental conditions has been studied. Variables investigated were temperature and type and concentration of catalysts. Experiments were carried out in an isothermal manner. Products of pyrolysis are gases (H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4}), liquids (methanol, acetone, furfurylic alcohol, phenol, furfural, naphthalene, and o-cresol), and solids (chars). Temperature is a significant variable, yielding increases of fixed carbon content, gases, and to a lesser extent, ash percentage. Catalyst presence also yields increases of solid phase content, but the amount of liquid components decrease. Among catalysts applied those of Fe and Zn are the most advisable to obtain gases. Chemical treatment of bagasses with sulfuric or phosphoric acid washing leads to lower char yields, although fixed carbon content is higher and ash presence diminishes with respect to catalyst pyrolysis without chemical pretreatment. A pyrolysis kinetic study based on gas generation from thermal decomposition of residues has been carried out. From the model proposed, rate constants for the formation of each gas, reaction order of the catalyst, and activation energies were determined.

  7. Bio-oils from Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad A. Sukiran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: The palm oil industry generates an abundance of oil palm biomass such as the mesocarp fibre, shell, empty fruit bunch (EFB, frond, trunk and palm oil mill effluent (POME. For 80 million tonnes of fresh fruit bunch (FFB processed last year, the amount of oil palm biomass was more than 25 million tones. The objectives of this study were to: (i Determine the effect of various pyrolysis parameters on product yields and (ii Characterise liquid product obtained under different condition. Approach: In this study, pyrolysis of oil palm Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB was investigated using quartz fluidized fixed bed reactor. The effects of pyrolysis temperatures, particle sizes and heating rates on the yield of the products were investigated. The temperature of pyrolysis and heating rate were varied in the range 300-700 °C and 10-100 °C min1 respectively. The particle size was varied in the range of Results: Under the experimental conditions, the maximum bio-oil yield was 42.28% obtained at 500 ºC, with a heating rate of 100 ºC min-1 and particle size of 91-106 µm. The calorific values of bio-oil ranged from 20-21 MJ kg-1. A great range of functional groups of phenol, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes and carboxylic acids were indicated in FTIR spectrum. Conclusion: The chemical characterisation results showed that the bio-oil obtained from oil palm EFB maybe a potentially valuable source as fuel or chemical feedstocks.

  8. Study on delacquer used beverage cans by vacuum pyrolysis for recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Qiu, Keqiang

    2013-10-15

    So far, conventional processes that have been employed to delacquer the paints decorated on used beverage cans (UBCs) are less than satisfactory in economic and environmental effect. Therefore, a new method combining vacuum pyrolysis with dilute sulfuric acid leaching to delacquer the paints was investigated. The results of vacuum pyrolysis showed that the decoating rate increased with the increase of temperature and the paints were almost 100% removed from UBCs under the following conditions: temperature of 650 °C, holding time of 20 min, and residual gas pressure lower than 0.1 kPa. The pyrolysis oil was mainly composed of phenol and 2-methy-phenol analyzed by GC-MS. The delacquered UBCs were subsequently leached with 5% H2SO4 for 60 s and TiO2 was recovered by calcining the residuals in muffle furnace at 450 °C for 15 min. This innovative technology offers an effective method to delacquer paints from UBCs, which obtains excellent stripping effect and avoids the production of toxic substances generated in direct combustion process. Furthermore, the pyrolysis oil can be reused as chemical feedstock in other fields. PMID:24070094

  9. An Euler–Euler approach to modeling biomass fast pyrolysis in fluidized-bed reactors – Focusing on the gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A developed 3D Euler–Euler CFD model, with an integrated pyrolysis model, is proposed as a way of predicting vapor phase dynamics and product distributions in the fluidized bed process for biomass fast pyrolysis. The main interest in this work is the gases resulting from the pyrolysis mixed with the fluidizing gas. We propose therefore a simple rendering of the solid material while directing attention to the vapor phase. At the same time the required computational resources for reaching stabilized conditions in the reactor are reduced. Temperature profile, velocity profile and pyrolysis products are predicted and globally verified by a series of parallel cases, which are compared to experimental measurements and known trends of liquid, solid and gas yields. The comparison of experimental measurements and model predictions satisfy the accuracy of the model and on a quantitative basis, the product yields agree with commonly known trends of bio oil versus temperature and residence time. -- Highlights: • A 3-D CFD model for fast pyrolysis in fluidized beds has been developed. • Focus is on the vapor phase which permits a simplified rendering of the solids. • Predicted results largely agree with measured temperature, pressure, and bed height

  10. Application of nanostuctured materials as acid-catalysts in rice straw pyrolysis for bio-oil production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Phuong T.; Le, Hy G.; Dinh, Thang C.; Hoang, Thang V.; Bui, Linh H. T.; Hoang, Yen; Tran, Hoa K. T.; Vu, Tuan A.

    2008-12-01

    Rice straw, a waste agro-byproduct, which is abundant lignocellulose products from rice production, is a renewable energy sources in Vietnam. Bio-oil from rice straw is produced by thermal and catalytic pyrolysis using a fixed-bed reactor with heating rate 15oC/min, nitrogen as sweeping gas with flow rate 120ml/min. Final temperature of the pyrolysis reaction is a significantly influence on product yield. The gas yield increased and the solid yield decreased as the pyrolysis temperature increasing from 400oC to 600oC. The bio-oil yield reached a maximum of 48.3 % at the pyrolysis temperature of 550oC. Mesoporous Al-SBA-15 was used as acid catalyst in pyrolysis of rice straw. The obtained results showed that, in the presence of catalyst, yield of gas products increased, whereas liquid yield decreased and solid product remained the same as compared to the non-catalytic experiments. The effect of nanostructured catalysts on the product yields and distribution was investigated.

  11. Pyrolysis of Pinus pinaster in a two-stage gasifier: Influence of processing parameters and thermal cracking of tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fassinou, Wanignon Ferdinand; Toure, Siaka [Laboratoire d' Energie Solaire-UFR-S.S.M.T. Universite de Cocody, 22BP582 Abidjan 22 (Ivory Coast); Van de Steene, Laurent; Volle, Ghislaine; Girard, Philippe [CIRAD-Foret, TA 10/16, 73, avenue J.-F. Breton, 34398 Montpellier, Cedex 5 (France)

    2009-01-15

    A new two-stage gasifier with fixed-bed has recently been installed on CIRAD facilities in Montpellier. The pyrolysis and the gasifier units are removable. In order to characterise the pyrolysis products before their gasification, experiments were carried out, for the first time only with the pyrolysis unit and this paper deals with the results obtained. The biomass used is Pinus pinaster. The parameters investigated are: temperature, residence time and biomass flow rate. It has been found that increasing temperature and residence time improve the cracking of tars, gas production and char quality (fixed carbon rate more than 90%, volatile matter rate less than 4%). The increase of biomass flow rate leads to a bad char quality. The efficiency of tar cracking, the quality and the heating value of the charcoal and the gases, indicate that: temperature between 650 C and 750 C, residence time of 30 min, biomass flow rate between 10 and 15 kg/h should be the most convenient experimental conditions to get better results from the experimental device and from the biomass pyrolysis process. The kinetic study of charcoal generation shows that the pyrolysis process, in experimental conditions, is a first-order reaction. The kinetic parameters calculated are comparable with those found by other researchers. (author)

  12. Fuel oil quality of pyrolysis liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oasmaa, A.; Sipilae, K. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Gust, S. [Neste Oyj, Porvoo (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    Pyrolysis research at VTT includes activities from fuel production to its utilisation and involves various analytical work: Quality follow-up of the liquids from PDU (20 kg/h), 1 Age, and 100 g/h units at VTT, and from Union Fenosa (150 kg/h) and ENEL (650 kg/h) within EU-JOULE Project Quality of upgraded liquids (hot-filtration, solvent addition, catalytic, microemulsions). Testing of standard fuel oil analyses and development of new methods. Sampling, storage, and specifications. Pyrolysis work at Haste focuses on combustion characteristics and fuel improvements.

  13. Novel sorbent materials for environmental remediation via Pyrolysis of biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabaniotou, Anastasia

    2013-04-01

    One of the major challenges facing society at this moment is the transition from a non-sustainable, fossil resources-based economy to a sustainable bio-based economy. By producing multiple products, a biorefinery can take advantage of the differences in biomass components and intermediates and maximize the value derived from the biomass feedstock. The high-value products enhance profitability, the high-volume fuel helps meet national energy needs, and the power production reduces costs and avoids greenhouse-gas emissions From pyrolysis, besides gas and liquid products a solid product - char, is derived as well. This char contains the non converted carbon and can be used for activated carbon production and/or as additive in composite material production. Commercially available activated carbons are still considered expensive due to the use of non-renewable and relatively expensive starting material such as coal. The present study describes pyrolysis as a method to produce high added value carbon materials such as activated carbons (AC) from agricultural residues pyrolysis. Olive kernel has been investigated as the precursor of the above materials. The produced activated carbon was characterized by proximate and ultimate analyses, BET method and porosity estimation. Furthermore, its adsorption of pesticide compound in aqueous solution by was studied. Pyrolysis of olive kernel was conducted at 800 oC for 45min in a fixed reactor. For the production of the activated carbon the pyrolytic char was physically activated under steam in the presence of CO2 at 970oC for 3 h in a bench scale reactor. The active carbons obtained from both scales were characterized by N2 adsorption at 77 K, methyl-blue adsorption (MB adsorption) at room temperature and SEM analysis. Surface area and MB adsorption were found to increase with the degree of burn-off. The surface area of the activated carbons was found to increase up to 1500 m2/g at a burn-off level of 60-65wt.%, while SEM analysis showed the appearance of micropores to mesopores in the produced tire active carbons. Activated carbon prepared from olive kernel is a super active carbon and used as an adsorbent for the removal of pesticide from aqueous solutions (Bromopropylate). The higher removal achieved was 100% in 60 min. The produced activated carbon from agricultural residue was proved to be very effective for gas and water stream purification. Biomass can give a wide spectrum of fuels and materials in the integrated concept of biorefinery

  14. Processes for converting lignocellulosics to reduced acid pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocal, Joseph Anthony; Brandvold, Timothy A

    2015-01-06

    Processes for producing reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. In a process, lignocellulosic material is fed to a heating zone. A basic solid catalyst is delivered to the heating zone. The lignocellulosic material is pyrolyzed in the presence of the basic solid catalyst in the heating zone to create pyrolysis gases. The oxygen in the pyrolysis gases is catalytically converted to separable species in the heating zone. The pyrolysis gases are removed from the heating zone and are liquefied to form the reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil.

  15. A review on co-pyrolysis of biomass: An optional technique to obtain a high-grade pyrolysis oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The discussion emphasizes the use of biomass wastes in the co-pyrolysis process. • The co-pyrolysis can significantly improve the quantity and quality of pyrolysis oil. • Co-pyrolysis technique is more profitable than the pyrolysis of biomass alone. • By using this method, the volume of biomass wastes can be easily controlled. - Abstract: The oil produced by the pyrolysis of biomass has potential for use as a substitute for fossil fuels. However, the oil needs to be upgraded since it contains high levels of oxygen, which causes low caloric value, corrosion problems, and instability. Generally, upgrading the pyrolysis oil involves the addition of a catalyst, solvent and large amount hydrogen, which can cost more than the oil itself. In this regard, the co-pyrolysis technique offers simplicity and effectiveness in order to produce a high-grade pyrolysis oil. Co-pyrolysis is a process which involves two or more materials as feedstock. Many studies have shown that the use of co-pyrolysis is able to improve the characteristics of pyrolysis oil, e.g. increase the oil yield, reduce the water content, and increase the caloric value of oil. Besides, the use of this technique also contributed to reduce the production cost and solve some issues on waste management. This article tried to review the co-pyrolysis process through several points of view, including the process mechanism, feedstock, the exploration on co-pyrolysis studies, co-pyrolysis phenomena, characteristics of byproducts, and economic assessment. Additionally, several outlooks based on studies in the literature are also presented in this paper

  16. Influence of calcination and reduction conditions on the catalyst performance in the pyrolysis process of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, L.; Salvador, M.L.; Bilbao, R.; Arauzo, J. [University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

    1998-01-01

    The influence of several preparation parameters on the performance of a coprecipitated nickel alumina catalyst for use in the pyrolysis of lignocellulosic residues has been studied. The variables considered were calcination temperature (750 and 850{degree}C), reduction time (1,2, and 3 h), and hydrogen flow in the reduction step (1740 and 3080 cm{sup 3} (STP/min)). The catalyst performance was evaluated on a bench scale plant equipped with a continuous fluidized-bed reactor using the Waterloo fast pyrolysis process (WFPP) technology. The biomass used was pine sawdust and the reaction temperature was 650{degree}C. The results show that when the higher calcination temperature is applied, more severe operating conditions on the reduction process must also be applied, but catalyst sintering can appear when very severe reduction conditions are used. 22 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Characterization of corncob-derived biochar and pyrolysis kinetics in comparison with corn stalk and sawdust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Zhang, Yang; Li, Zifu; Feng, Rui; Zhang, Yaozhong

    2014-10-01

    In this study, thermal and physicochemical characterization results of corncob (CC) and its derived biochars were analyzed and differentiated from sawdust (SD) and cornstalk (CS). The pyrolysis temperature shows the largest effect on the yield of biochar produced compare with residing time, heating rate, and feedstock particle size. The CC-derived biochars produced at temperatures ranging from 300 to 600°C were analyzed. The CC was thermochemically altered to a stable biochar when the pyrolysis temperature was set to over 500°C. To deduce the reaction mechanism of the CC during the major thermal decomposition stage, 16 mechanisms in solid-state reactions were applied. The reaction order and nucleation mechanisms described the thermal decomposition of the CC. By using the best-fitted mechanisms, the kinetic parameters were calculated. The weight active energy of the CC was 122.42kJ/mol, which was the lowest value compared to those of CS and SD. PMID:25125195

  18. Renewable energy source from pyrolysis of solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia is blessed with a significant renewable energy resource base such as solar energy and biomass. To continue with its industrial development, Malaysia must manages energy supply its c prudently in order to avoid becoming an energy importer supply. Most significantly renewable energy from biomass such as rice husks, wood wastes, oil palm wastes, rubber wastes and other agricultural wastes. Beside rice and timber. Malaysia produces a huge amount of palm oil and natural rubber. These generate a significant amount of solid wastes in the forms of oil palm shell and rubber. These wastes are producing pollution and emission problems in Malaysia which is causing an environmental issue. Besides energy is not recovered efficiently from these waste resources. From the elemental composition and thermogravimetric studies of the wastes, it appeared that the wastes could be used as an alternative value-added source of energy. For this purpose a fast pyrolysis of 300 mi-n lone, and 50 mm diameter stainless-steel reactor was designed and fabricated. The grounded, sieved and dried solid feed particles underwent pyrolysis reactor at moderate temperature and were converted into pyrolytic oil, solid char and cas. Oil and char were collected while the cas was flared. The oil was characterised by GC-MS technique. Detailed analysis of the oil showed that there was no concentration of biologically active polycyclic aromatic species in the oil. The fuel properties of the derived oils were also analysed and compared to diesel fuel. (Author)

  19. Bio-methane via fast pyrolysis of biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Pyrolysis gases can efficiently be upgraded to bio-methane. ? The integration can increase energy efficiency and provide a renewable vehicle fuel. ? The biomass to bio-methane conversion efficiency is 83% (HHV). ? The efficiency is higher compared to bio-methane produced via gasification. ? Competitive alternative to other alternatives of bio-oil upgrading. - Abstract: Bio-methane, a renewable vehicle fuel, is today produced by anaerobic digestion and a 2nd generation production route via gasification is under development. This paper proposes a poly-generation plant that produces bio-methane, bio-char and heat via fast pyrolysis of biomass. The energy and material flows for the fuel synthesis are calculated by process simulation in Aspen Plus®. The production of bio-methane and bio-char amounts to 15.5 MW and 3.7 MW, when the total inputs are 23 MW raw biomass and 1.39 MW electricity respectively (HHV basis). The results indicate an overall efficiency of 84% including high-temperature heat and the biomass to bio-methane yield amounts to 83% after allocation of the biomass input to the final products (HHV basis). The overall energy efficiency is higher for the suggested plant than for the gasification production route and is therefore a competitive route for bio-methane production

  20. Selective and Efficient Deoxygenation of Amine-N-Oxides with CeCl3·7H2O/Zinc System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of methods have been developed for the deoxygenation of amine-N-oxides, including agents such as low-valent titanium, Zn/HCOONH4, InCl3, tributyltin hydride, Pd/C, tetrathiomolybdate, SmI2, indium/NH4Cl, and Mo(CO)6, Cu(I)-Zn or Cu(I)-Al,11 RuCl3·xH2O, Zn/Cu-triflates. In conclusion, we have discovered that CeCl3·7H2O/Zn system mediates a selective and efficient deoxygenation of amine-N-oxides to the corresponding amines. Although the scope and limitations have not been fully established, the present procedure offers an attractive alternative to the conventional methods with its mildness and chemoselectivity as well as high yields. Further investigations of more useful applications with this system are currently in progress