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Sample records for synthesized pendant armed

  1. Mn2+ complexes of 1-oxa-4,7-diazacyclononane based ligands with acetic, phosphonic and phosphinic acid pendant arms: stability and relaxation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drahoš, Bohuslav; Pniok, Miroslav; Havlí?ková, Jana; Kotek, Jan; Císa?ová, Ivana; Hermann, Petr; Lukeš, Ivan; Tóth, Eva

    2011-10-21

    A new class of macrocyclic ligands based on 1-oxa-4,7-diazacyclononane was synthesized and their Mn(2+) complexes were investigated with respect to stability and relaxation properties. Each ligand has two pendant arms involving carboxylic (H(2)L(1)--1-oxa-4,7-diazacyclononane-4,7-diacetic acid), phosphonic (H(4)L(2)--1-oxa-4,7-diazacyclononane-4,7-bis(methylenephosphonic acid)), phosphinic (H(2)L(3)--1-oxa-4,7-diazacyclononane-4,7-bis(methylenephosphinic acid)) or phenylphosphinic (H(2)L(4)--1-oxa-4,7-diazacyclononane-4,7-bis[methylene(phenyl)phosphinic acid]) acid moieties. H(2)L(3) and H(2)L(4) were synthesized for the first time. The crystal structure of the Mn(2+) complex with H(2)L(4) confirmed a coordination number of 6 for Mn(2+). The protonation constants of all ligands and the stability constants of their complexes with Mn(2+) and some biologically or biomedically relevant metal ions were determined by potentiometry. The protonation sequence of H(2)L(3) was followed by (1)H and (31)P NMR titration and the second protonation step was attributed to the second macrocyclic nitrogen atom. The potentiometric data revealed a relatively low thermodynamic stability of the Mn(2+) complexes with all ligands investigated. For H(2)L(3) and H(2)L(4), full Mn(2+) complexation cannot be achieved even with 100% ligand excess. The transmetallation of MnL(1) and MnL(2) with Zn(2+) was too fast to be followed at pH 6. Variable temperature (1)H NMRD and (17)O NMR measurements have been performed on MnL(1) and MnL(2) to provide information on water exchange and rotational dynamics. The (17)O chemical shifts indicate hydration equilibrium between mono- and bishydrated species for MnL(1), while MnL(2) is monohydrated. The water exchange is considerably faster on MnL(1) (k(ex)(298) = 1.2 × 10(9) s(-1)) than on MnL(2) (k(ex)(298) = 1.2 × 10(7) s(-1)). Small endogenous anions (phosphate, carbonate, citrate) do not replace the coordinated water in either of the complexes, but they induce their slow decomposition. All Mn(2+) complexes are stable toward air-oxidation. PMID:21887440

  2. DOTASA, an Asymmetrical Derivative of DOTA Substituted at one Acetate pendant Arm: 1H NMR and Potentiometric Studies of the Ligand and its Lanthanide(III) Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    André, João P.; Brücher, Ernö; Kiraly, Robert; Carvalho, Rui A.; Mäcke, Helmut; Geraldes, Carlos F. G. C.

    2005-01-01

    The ligand H5dotasa (=(alphaRS)-alpha-(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) is a H4dota-like macrocyclic ligand with a carboxymethyl CH2COOH substituent moiety at the C(alpha) atom of one of the four acetate pendant arms of H4dota (=1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid), present as a racemic mixture of (alphaR) and (alphaS) enantiomers. The protonation constants of the ligand were determined by potentiometry, giving values close to H4dot...

  3. Uranyl complexes formed with a para-t-butylcalix[4]arene bearing phosphinoyl pendant arms on the lower rim. Solid and solution studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, F. de M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac (Mexico). Dept. de Quimica; Varbanov, S. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. of Organic Chemistry with Center of Phytochemistry; Buenzli, J.C.G. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) (Switzerland). Inst. of Chemical Sciences and Engineering; Rivas-Silva, J.F.; Ocana-Bribiesca, M.A. [Instituto de Fisica de la BUAP, Puebla (Mexico); Cortes-Jacome, M.A.; Toledo-Antonio, J.A. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo/Programa de Ingenieria Molecular (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    The current interest in functionalized calixarenes with phosphorylated pendant arms resides in their coordination ability towards f elements and capability towards actinide/rare earth separation. Uranyl cation forms 1:1 and 1:2 (M:L) complexes with a tetra-phosphinoylated p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene, B{sub 4}bL{sup 4}: UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(B{sub 4}bL{sup 4}){sub n} . xH{sub 2}O (n = 1, x = 2, 1; n = 2, x = 6, 2). Spectroscopic data point to the inner coordination sphere of 1 containing one monodentate nitrate anion, one water molecule and the four phosphinoylated arms bound to UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} while in 2, uranyl is only coordinated to calixarene ligands. In both cases the U(VI) ion is 8-coordinate. Uranyl complexes display enhanced metal-centred luminescence due to energy transfer from the calixarene ligands; the luminescence decays are bi-exponential with associated lifetimes in the ranges 220 {mu}s < {tau}{sub s} < 250 {mu}s and 630 {mu}s < {tau}{sub L} < 640 {mu}s, pointing to the presence of two species with differently coordinated calixarene, as substantiated by a XPS study of U(4f{sub 5/2,7/2}), O(1s) and P(2p) levels on solid state samples. The extraction study of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} cation and trivalent rare-earth (Y, La, Eu) ions from acidic nitrate media by B{sub 4}bL{sup 4} in chloroform shows the uranyl cation being much more extracted than rare earths. (orig.)

  4. Le volontariat armé au sein des milices nationalistes pendant la Guerre civile espagnole, 1936-1939 El voluntariado armado en las milicias nacionalistas durante la Guerra Civil Española

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Ségalas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available La guerre civile espagnole fut le fruit d’une conjonction de nombreux éléments, mais il fallut l’échec d’un coup d’État organisé par une partie de l’armée pour la faire éclater. Cette tentative de coup d’État « survient après une phase de politisation des masses sans équivalent antérieur, même pendant la Révolution de 1868 ». Cette politisation massive, alliée à une radicalisation de la vie politique espagnole durant la seconde République, peut expliquer en partie l’engagement de nombreux Esp...

  5. Synthesis and characterization of Ni(II, Cu(II and Co(III complexes with polyamine-containing macrocycles bearing an aminoethyl pendant arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. SIDDIQI

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Reaction of [M(ppn2]X2 (where M = Cu(II, Ni(II, Co(II and ppn = 1,3-diaminopropane with formaldehyde and ethylenediamine in methanol results in the ready formation of a 16-membered macrocyclic complex. The complexes were characterized by elemental anlysis, IR, EPR, electronic spectral data, magnetic moments and conductance measurements. The Cu(II, Ni(II and Co(III complexes are coordinated axially with both pendant groups of the hexadentate macrocycle. These pendant donors are attached to the macrocycle by a carbon chain. The electrical conductivities of the Cu(II and Ni(II chelates indicated them to be 1:2 electrolytes whilst those of Co(III is a 1:3 electrolyte in DMSO. The EPR spectrum of the copper complex exhibited G at 3.66, which indicates a considerable exchange interaction in the complex. Spectroscopic evidence suggests that in all of the complexes the metal ion is in an octahedral environment.

  6. Reduction of N-Cyanomethyl Groups on a Macrocyclic Nickel(II) Complex Using Sodium Borohydride: Synthesis of a Complex Bearing Two N-(2-Aminoethyl) Pendant Arms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyunja; Lee, Ji Young; Kang, Shingeol [Daegu Univ., Gyeonggsan (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Cheehun [Sunchon National Univ., Sunchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    The stepwise protonation constants for [NiL2]2+ were determined by a spectrophotometric titration.17 The approximate pKa1 value (ca. 3.6) was found to be somewhat larger than the pKa2 value (ca. 2.4), as usual. The low pKa1 and pKa2 values may be result from the relatively strong interactions between the functional groups and the central metal of the complex. NaBH4 is an efficient reagent for the reduction of [NiL1]2+ in the presence of methanol, even though the N-CH2CN groups are not involved in coordination. The stepwise protonation constants for [NiL2]2+ indicate that the pendant amino groups-central metal interactions are relatively strong.

  7. Reduction of N-Cyanomethyl Groups on a Macrocyclic Nickel(II) Complex Using Sodium Borohydride: Synthesis of a Complex Bearing Two N-(2-Aminoethyl) Pendant Arms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stepwise protonation constants for [NiL2]2+ were determined by a spectrophotometric titration.17 The approximate pKa1 value (ca. 3.6) was found to be somewhat larger than the pKa2 value (ca. 2.4), as usual. The low pKa1 and pKa2 values may be result from the relatively strong interactions between the functional groups and the central metal of the complex. NaBH4 is an efficient reagent for the reduction of [NiL1]2+ in the presence of methanol, even though the N-CH2CN groups are not involved in coordination. The stepwise protonation constants for [NiL2]2+ indicate that the pendant amino groups-central metal interactions are relatively strong

  8. H5dotasa (=(alphaRS)-alpha-(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid), an Asymmetrical Derivative of H4dota (=1,4,7,10-Tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic Acid) Substituted at One Acetate Pendant Arm: 1H-NMR and Potentiometric Studies of the Ligand and Its Lanthanide(III) Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    André, João P.; Brücher, Ernö; Kiraly, Robert; Carvalho, Rui A.; Mäcke, Helmut; Geraldes, Carlos F. G. C.

    2005-01-01

    The ligand H5dotasa (=(alphaRS)-alpha-(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) is a H4dota-like macrocyclic ligand with a carboxymethyl CH2COOH substituent at the C(alpha) atom of one of the four acetate pendant arms of H4dota (=1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid), present as a racemic mixture of (alphaR) and (alphaS) enantiomers. The protonation constants of the ligand were determined by potentiometry, giving values close to those of H4d...

  9. 5 and 6 - cyclic -perimeter hydrocarbon platinum group metal complexes of 3-(2-pyridyl)pyrazole derived ligands with a pendant nitrile group: Syntheses, spectral and structural studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gloria Sairem; Venkateswara Rao Anna; Peng Wang; Bbulal Das; Mohan Rao Kollipara

    2012-03-01

    Reaction of two equivalents 4-{(3-(pyridine-2-yl) 1H-pyrazole-1-yl}methyl benzonitrile (L1) and 3-{(3-(pyridine-2-yl)1H-pyrazole-1-yl}methyl benzonitrile (L2) with one equivalent of [(6-arene)Ru(- Cl)Cl]2 and [Cp∗M(-Cl)Cl]2 in methanol yielded mononuclear complexes of the formulae [(6-arene)Ru(L1/L2)Cl]BF4{arene =C6H6 (1, 6); C10H14 (2, 7); C6Me6 (3, 8)} and [Cp∗M(L1/L2)Cl]PF6/BF4 {Cp∗= 5-C5Me5, M=Rh (4, 8); Ir (5, 10)}. These complexes are characterized by IR, 1H NMR and identities of the structure are established by single crystal XRD studies of some of the representative complexes. It is confirmed from the spectral studies that the nitrile group is not taking part in complexation; instead it remains as a free pendant group only.

  10. Carbon-13 and cadmium-113 nuclear magnetic resonance evidence for a novel transannular oscillation of cadmium(II) in the pendant arm macrocyclic complex (1,4,8,11-tetrakis(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane)cadmium(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, P.; Hounslow, A.M.; Lincoln, S.F. (Univ. of Adelaide, South Australia (Australia)); Keough, R.A.; Wainwright, K.P. (Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park (Australia))

    1990-05-16

    A {sup 13}C NMR study of (1,4,8,11-tetrakis(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane)cadmium(II), (Cd(THEC)){sup 2+}, in CD{sub 3}OD shows that the most probable structure for (Cd(THEC)){sup 2+} incorporates the 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane ring in the trans III configuration. In this structure Cd(II) is above the tetraaza plane and is trigonal-prismatically coordinated by four ring nitrogens and two hydroxyethyl pendant arms attached to either end of the same 1,3-diaminopropane moiety. The {sup 13}C CPMAS NMR spectrum of solid (Cd(THEC)){sup 2+} is also consistent with this structure. Dynamic {sup 13}C NMR studies of natural abundance (Cd(THEC)){sup 2+} and of (Cd(THEC)){sup 2+} in which both carbons of each of the hydroxyethyl arms are 99 atom % enriched in {sup 13}C are consistent with a rapid oscillation of Cd(II) through the macrocyclic annulus of THEC. The {sup 13}C-enriched hydroxyethyl arms are characterized by {sup 13}C AB quartets under conditions of slow exchange but show a novel coalescence to a singlet under fast-exchange conditions consistent with the relative chemical shifts of the methylene carbons of the hydroxyethyl arm being reversed when it changes from the mono- to the bidentate coordination state. The pairwise exchange of the hydroxyethyl arm between the monodentate and bidentate environments is characterized by k(298.2 K) = 34,200 {plus minus} 1,800 s{sup {minus}1}, {Delta}H{double dagger} = 44.00 {plus minus} 0.56 kJ mol{sup {minus}1}, and {Delta}S{double dagger} = {minus}10.6 {plus minus} 2.2 J K{sup {minus}1} mol{sup {minus}1}. {sup 13}C and {sup 113}Cd NMR spectra show that intermolecular THEC and Cd(II) exchange on (Cd(THEC)){sup 2+} is a much slower process. 29 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Hg2+ detection by new anthracene pendant-arm derivatives of mixed N/S- and N/S/O-donor macrocycles: fluorescence, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and density functional theory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameli, Marta; Lippolis, Vito; Caltagirone, Claudia; Capelo, José Luis; Faza, Olalla Nieto; Lodeiro, Carlos

    2010-09-20

    The optical response of four new anthracenylmethyl pendant-arm derivatives (L1-L4) of the macrocyclic ligands [12]aneNS(3), [12]aneNS(2)O, [15]aneNS(2)O(2), and [12]aneN(2)SO toward the metal ions Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Pb(2+), Cu(2+), Hg(2+), Ag(+), Fe(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Mn(2+), Ca(2+), Na(+), Mg(2+), and K(+) was investigated in 1:1 (v/v) MeCN/H(2)O solutions. A strong chelation enhancement of quenching effect was observed on the fluorescent emission intensity of L2 as a consequence of the host-guest interaction with Hg(2+) and the formation of a 1:2 metal-to-ligand complex. Density functional theory calculations confirmed the formation of a sandwich-type complex between L2 and Hg(2+) as a favorable process. A matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry study using the four ligands as active MALDI probes was also performed. L1-L4 have also been explored as fluorescence chemosensors in microsamples using NANODROP technology. PMID:20715769

  12. Zinc phyllosilicates containing amino pendant groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new zinc silicate hybrids were synthesized via sol-gel process from the reaction of zinc ions with trialkoxyaminesilanes in aqueous basic medium at room temperature and at 373 K. The inorganic-organic hybrids obtained, named SILZn (x=1 or 2) are related to 3-aminopropyl- and N-propylethylenediaminetrimethoxysilane, respectively. From nitrogen content, the number of pendant moles of organic groups in the matrices SILZnx (x=1 to 2) were determined as 5.14 and 3.25 mmol g-1, respectively. The thermogravimetric curves showed mass losses of 50.7% and 58.0% for the same sequence of hybrids, to give the oxides as residue. X-ray diffraction patterns gave basal distances of 2065 and 2814 pm for SILZnx (x=1, 2), with well-formed particles of irregular shapes and sizes, as a characteristic of such material obtained from sol-gel process. The infrared spectra confirmed the attachment of the organic moieties on siloxane groups on the inorganic framework

  13. Well-defined (co)polypeptides bearing pendant alkyne groups

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Wei

    2016-03-18

    A novel metal-free strategy, using hydrogen-bonding catalytic ring opening polymerization of acetylene-functionalized N-carboxy anhydrites of α-amino acids, was developed for the synthesis of well-defined polypeptides bearing pendant alkyne groups. This method provides an efficient way to synthesize novel alkyne-functionalized homopolypeptides (A) and copolypeptides, such as AB diblock (B: non-functionalized), ABA triblock and star-AB diblock, as well as linear and star random copolypeptides, precursors of a plethora complex macromolecular architectures by click chemistry.

  14. Synthesis and ATRP of novel fluorinated aromatic monomer with pendant sulfonate group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Novel, fluorinated monomer with pendant sulfonate group was synthesized utilizing a two-step derivatization of 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorostyrene (FS). The first step was a nucleophilic substitution of the fluorine atom in para position by hydroxyl group followed by sulfopropylation. The monomer was po...

  15. Photo- or EB-induced cross-linking reaction of the polymers containing pendant epoxide or vinyl ether groups from glycidyl vinyl ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymers containing pendant epoxide or vinyl ether groups were synthesized by radical copolymerization of glycidyl vinyl ether (GVE) with N-phenylmaleimide (NPM) and N-phenoxycarbonyloxymaleimide (NPCM), or by ring-opening alternating copolymerization of GVE with phthalic anhydride (PAn). In the photo-induced cross-linking reaction, the pendant vinyl ether groups in poly(GVE-PAn) showed higher reactivity than the pendant epoxide groups in poly(GVE-NPM), and poly(GVE-PAn) was readily cross-linked by various dithiols with or without benzophenone. In the electron beam (EB)-induced cross-linking reaction, the sensitivity of poly(GVE-NPCM), which has pendant epoxide and carbonate groups, was higher than that of poly(GVE-NPM) containing only pendant epoxide groups. Furthermore, the EB-sensitivity of poly(GVE-PAn) was even higher than that of poly(GVE-NPM) or poly(GVE-NPCM). (author)

  16. Synthesis and Reactivity of Tripodal Complexes Containing Pendant Bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blacquiere, Johanna M.; Pegis, Michael L.; Raugei, Simone; Kaminsky, Werner; Forget, Amelie; Cook, Sarah; Taguchi, Taketo; Borovik, Andrew S.; Mayer, James M.

    2014-09-02

    The synthesis of a new tripodal ligand family is reported, with tertiary-amine groups in the second-coordination sphere. The ligands are tris(amido)amine derivatives, with the pendant amines attached via a peptide coupling strategy. They were designed to be used in new catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), in which the pendant acid/base group could improve catalyst performance. Two members of the new ligand family were each metallated with Co(II) and Zn(II) to afford trigonal monopyramidal complexes. Reaction of the cobalt complexes, [Co(L)]-, with dioxygen reversibly generates a small amount of a Co(III)-superoxo species, which was characterized by EPR. Protonation of the zinc complex Zn[N{CH2CH2NC(O)CH2N(CH2Ph)2}3)-– ([Zn(TNBn)]-) with one equivalent of acid occurs with displacement and dissociation of an amide ligand. Addition of excess acid to the any of the complexes [M(L)]- results in complete proteolysis and formation of the ligands H3L. This decomposition limits the use of these complexes as catalysts for the ORR. An alternative ligand with two pyridyl arms was also prepared but could not be metallated. These studies highlight the importance of stability of the primary-coordination sphere of ORR electrocatalysts to both oxidative and acidic conditions. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  17. Syntheses, structural variations and fluorescence studies of two dinuclear zinc(II) complexes of a Schiff base ligand with an extended carboxylate side arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shit, Shyamapada; Sasmal, Ashok; Dhal, Piu; Rizzoli, Corrado; Mitra, Samiran

    2016-03-01

    A potentially tetradentate Schiff base ligand containing carboxylic acid group, HL, (E)-2-((pyridin-2-yl)methyleneamino)-5-chlorobenzoic acid is synthesized and characterized. Reaction of HL with hydrated zinc(II) trichloroacetate and zinc(II) trifluoroacetate under similar reaction condition yields two discrete dinuclear complexes, [Zn(L)(Cl)]2 (1) and [Zn(L)(CF3COO)]2 (2) and characterized by different physicochemical methods. Single crystal X-ray structural characterization reveals different ligating properties of the coordinated anionic ligand (L-) in its zinc(II) complexes. The side arm carboxylate of L- shows μ1,3-carboxylato-bridging mode in 1 and connects zinc(II) atoms in syn-anti fashion while it exhibits a μ1,1-carboxylato-bridging mode in 2. The metal ions display distorted square pyramidal geometries in both the structures and associated with different degrees of distortions. The fluorescence spectra of HL and its zinc(II) complexes recorded in methanol at room temperature which reveal the enhancement of emission intensity for the complexes compared to that of the free ligand. Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) reveal high thermal stabilities of the complexes.

  18. Traumatisme, réinsertion psychosociale et résilience chez des femmes victimes de viol pendant les conflits armés en Côte d’Ivoire/Trauma, psychosocial rehabilitation, resilience among women victims of rape during armed conflicts in Ivory Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opadou Koudou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Questo studio si è posto due obiettivi: uno è stato quello di valutare gli effetti delle violenze sessuali legate ai conflitti armati, l’altro è stato quello di identificare i fattori in grado di favorire i processi di resilienza di queste vittime che si trovano in situazioni di reinserimento psicosociale. Dal punto di vista metodologico, si precisa che hanno partecipato alla ricerca 23 donne vittimizzate durante periodi legati ai conflitti armati in Costa d’Avorio (2002-2003 e situazione di crisi post-elettorale dal 2010 al 2011. Esse hanno risposto a due set di questionari di autovalutazione psicologica, l’IES-R (Impact of Events-Scale Revised e il GHQ-28 (General Health Questionnaire-28. Inoltre, sono state effettuate delle interviste semi-strutturate rivolte a queste donne, ai membri delle loro famiglie o delle loro comunità di appartenenza, agli operatori dei servizi di victim support e ai leader delle loro comunità. Con riferimento all’analisi dei dati, si è utilizzata l’analisi fenomenologica che ha permesso di mettere in evidenza che, sul piano psicologico, fisico e socio-economico, le donne che hanno subito delle violenze sessuali sono state profondamente colpite dal punto di vista affettivo. Tuttavia, lo studio fa emergere alcuni casi di resilienza e indica che, malgrado le avversità, queste donne sono riuscite a superare il loro handicap o il trauma reinserendosi nel tessuto socio-economico. Cette étude poursuit deux objectifs : évaluer les effets des violences sexuelles liées aux conflits armés sur les femmes victimes de violences sexuelles et déceler des facteurs susceptibles de favoriser la résilience de ces victimes en situation de réinsertion psychosociale. Au plan méthodologique, ce sont vingt-trois femmes victimes de violences sexuelles liées aux conflits armés en Côte d’Ivoire (2002-2003 et la crise post-électorale de 2010 à 2011 qui ont participé à l’enquête. Celles-ci ont été soumises à deux séries de questionnaires d’autoévaluation psychologique, l’IES-R (Impact of Events-Scale Revised et le GHQ-28 (General Health Questionnaire-28. Aussi, des entretiens semidirectifs ont été administrés à ces femmes, aux membres de leur famille ou communauté, aux agents de la structure de services de prise en charge des victimes de violences sexuelles et aux leaders communautaires. Du point de vue de l’analyse des données, nous avons eu recours à l’analyse phénoménologique. Celle-ci a montré au plan psychologique, physique et socio-économique que les femmes qui ont subies des violences sexuelles ont été profondément marquées négativement. Toutefois, l’étude met en relief des cas de résilience parmi ces femmes traumatisées. Il ressort que malgré l’adversité, ces femmes ont réussi par un processus de résilience à surmonter leur handicap ou traumatisme pour se réinsérer dans le tissu socio-économique. This study has two objectives: to assess the effects of sexual violence related to armed conflict on women victims of sexual violence and identify the factors that promote resilience of the victims in situations of psychosocial rehabilitation. Methodologically, twenty-three women victims of sexual violence related to the armed conflict in Côte d'Ivoire (2002-2003 and the post-election crisis of 2010 to 2011 who participated in the survey. They were subjected to two sets of questionnaires psychological self, IES-R (Impact of Events-Scale Revised and GHQ-28 (General Health Questionnaire-28. Also, semi-structured interviews were administered to these women, members of their family or community, the agents of the structure of support services for victims of sexual violence and community leaders. From the perspective of data analysis, we used the phenomenological analysis. This showed the psychological, physical and socio-economic women who have suffered sexual violence were deeply affected negatively. However, the study highlights cases of resilience among these traumatized women. It appears that despite the adversity these women succeeded by a process of resilience to overcome their disability or trauma to reintegrate into the socioeconomic fabric.

  19. Thermally Stable Perfluorinated Polyimides with Pendant Perfluorinated Aromatic Unit for Photonic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Kyu; Song, Bok Ju; Lee, Dong-Hun; Song, Young-Bae; Oh, Jae Buem; Hong, Ji-Sook; Kim, Hwan Kyu

    We have designed and synthesized novel thermally stable perfluorinated polyimides with pendant perfluorinated aromatic unit for photonic applications. At first, we developed a new synthetic route to a perfluorinated aromatic diamine by protecting-deprotecting as well as by nucleophilic bromine displacement reactions, affording a new diamine with a pendant perfluorinated aromatic unit. Its chemical structure was identified by 1H-, 19F- and 13C-NMR spectroscopies as well as mass spectrometry. Novel fluorinated polyimides were prepared by condensation polymerization of the present fluorinated diamine with various dianhydrides. The resultant polyimides are thermally stable over 400°C. The refractive index and birefringence of the resultant polyimides are 1.5844 ~ 1.5040 and 0.01 ~ 0.03 at 633 nm, respectively.

  20. Phosphoric acid doped polysulfone membranes with aminopyridine pendant groups and imidazole cross-links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hink, Steffen; Elsøe, Katrine; Cleemann, Lars Nilausen; Henkensmeier, Dirk; Jang, Jong Hyun; Kim, Hyoung Juhn; Han, Jonghee; Nam, Suk Woo; Li, Qingfeng

    2015-01-01

    Udel polysulfone based membranes with 4-aminopyridine pendant groups and cross-linking imidazole units are synthesized in a simple two step reaction. The ratio of 4-aminopyridine and imidazole is varied and the materials are extensively characterized. The average phosphoric acid uptake (in 85 wt......% PA) ranges between 90 wt% and 452 wt% depending on the ratio of 4-aminopyridine and imidazole and the membranes show good proton conductivity of up to 65 mS cm-1 at 160 °C under non-humidified conditions. The applicability of these materials as a polymer electrolyte membrane was proven by single cell...

  1. Remote Neural Pendants In A Welding-Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venable, Richard A.; Bucher, Joseph H.

    1995-01-01

    Neural network integrated circuits enhance functionalities of both remote terminals (called "pendants") and communication links, without necessitating installation of additional wires in links. Makes possible to incorporate many features into pendant, including real-time display of critical welding parameters and other process information, capability for communication between technician at pendant and host computer or technician elsewhere in system, and switches and potentiometers through which technician at pendant exerts remote control over such critical aspects of welding process as current, voltage, rate of travel, flow of gas, starting, and stopping. Other potential manufacturing applications include control of spray coating and of curing of composite materials. Potential nonmanufacturing uses include remote control of heating, air conditioning, and lighting in electrically noisy and otherwise hostile environments.

  2. Facile synthesis and characterization of novel biodegradable amphiphilic block copolymers bearing pendant hydroxyl groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel amphiphilic block copolymers bearing pendant hydroxyl groups polylactide-b–poly(3,3-bis(Hydroxymethyl–triazolylmethyl) oxetane)-b–polylactide (PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA) were synthesized via a facile and efficient method. First, the block copolymer intermediates polylactide-b–poly(3,3-Diazidomethyloxetane)-b–polylactide (PLA-b–PBAMO-b–PLA) were synthesized through ring-opening polymerization of lactide using PBAMO as a macroinitiator. Following “Click” reaction of PLA-b–PBAMO-b–PLA with propargyl alcohol provided the targeted amphiphilic block copolymers PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA with pendant hydroxyl groups. The composition and structure of prepared copolymers were characterized by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The self-assembly behavior of the copolymers in water was investigated by transmission electron microscope (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and static light scattering (SLS). The results showed that the novel copolymers PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA self-assembled into spherical micelles with diameters ranging from 100 nm to 200 nm in aqueous solution. These copolymers also exhibited low critical micellar concentrations (CMC: 6.9 × 10−4 mg/mL and 3.9 × 10−5 mg/mL, respectively). In addition, the in vitro cytotoxicity of these copolymers was determined in the presence of L929 cells. The results showed that the block copolymers PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA exhibited better biocompatibility. Therefore, these well-defined copolymers are expected to find some applications in drug delivery or tissue engineering. - Highlights: • The method to synthesize PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA is relatively facile and efficient. • PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA self-assembles into spherical micelles with low CMC in water. • PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA exhibits better biocompatibility and biodegradability

  3. Facile synthesis and characterization of novel biodegradable amphiphilic block copolymers bearing pendant hydroxyl groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Gaicen; Fan, Xiaoshan; Xu, Bingcan; Zhang, Delong; Hu, Zhiguo, E-mail: zghu@htu.cn

    2014-10-01

    Novel amphiphilic block copolymers bearing pendant hydroxyl groups polylactide-b–poly(3,3-bis(Hydroxymethyl–triazolylmethyl) oxetane)-b–polylactide (PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA) were synthesized via a facile and efficient method. First, the block copolymer intermediates polylactide-b–poly(3,3-Diazidomethyloxetane)-b–polylactide (PLA-b–PBAMO-b–PLA) were synthesized through ring-opening polymerization of lactide using PBAMO as a macroinitiator. Following “Click” reaction of PLA-b–PBAMO-b–PLA with propargyl alcohol provided the targeted amphiphilic block copolymers PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA with pendant hydroxyl groups. The composition and structure of prepared copolymers were characterized by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The self-assembly behavior of the copolymers in water was investigated by transmission electron microscope (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and static light scattering (SLS). The results showed that the novel copolymers PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA self-assembled into spherical micelles with diameters ranging from 100 nm to 200 nm in aqueous solution. These copolymers also exhibited low critical micellar concentrations (CMC: 6.9 × 10{sup −4} mg/mL and 3.9 × 10{sup −5} mg/mL, respectively). In addition, the in vitro cytotoxicity of these copolymers was determined in the presence of L929 cells. The results showed that the block copolymers PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA exhibited better biocompatibility. Therefore, these well-defined copolymers are expected to find some applications in drug delivery or tissue engineering. - Highlights: • The method to synthesize PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA is relatively facile and efficient. • PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA self-assembles into spherical micelles with low CMC in water. • PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA exhibits better biocompatibility and biodegradability.

  4. Ionic polymer cluster energetics: Computational analysis of pendant chain stiffness and charge imbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Lisa Mauck; Leo, Donald J.

    2005-06-01

    In recent years there has been considerable study of the potential mechanisms underlying the electromechanical response of ionic-polymer-metal composites. The most recent models have been based on the response of the ion-containing clusters that are formed when the material is synthesized. Most of these efforts have employed assumptions of uniform ion distribution within spherical cluster shapes. This work investigates the impact of dispensing with these assumptions in order to better understand the parameters that impact cluster shape, size, and ion transport potential. A computational micromechanics model applying Monte Carlo methodology is employed to predict the equilibrium state of a single cluster of a solvated ionomeric polymer. For a constant solvated state, the model tracks the position of individual ions within a given cluster in response to ion-ion interaction, mechanical stiffness of the pendant chain, cluster surface energy, and external electric-field loading. Results suggest that cluster surface effects play a significant role in the equilibrium cluster state, including ion distribution; pendant chain stiffness also plays a role in ion distribution but to a lesser extent. Moreover, ion pairing is rarely complete even in cation-rich clusters; this in turn supports the supposition of the formation of anode and cathode boundary layers.

  5. Protonation Studies of a Tungsten Dinitrogen Complex Supported by a Diphosphine Ligand Containing a Pendant Amine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Charles J.; Egbert, Jonathan D.; Chen, Shentan; Helm, Monte L.; Bullock, R. Morris; Mock, Michael T.

    2014-05-12

    Treatment of trans-[W(N2)2(dppe)(PEtNMePEt)] (dppe = Ph2PCH2CH2PPh2; PEtNMePEt = Et2PCH2N(Me)CH2PEt2) with three equivalents of tetrafluoroboric acid (HBF4⋅Et2O) at -78 °C generated the seven-coordinate tungsten hydride trans-[W(N2)2(H)(dppe)(PEtNMePEt)][BF4]. Depending on the temperature of the reaction, protonation of a pendant amine is also observed, affording trans-[W(N2)2(H)(dppe)(PEtNMe(H)PEt)][BF4]2, with formation of the hydrazido complex, [W(NNH2)(dppe)(PEtNMe(H)PEt)][BF4]2, as a minor product. Similar product mixtures were obtained using triflic acid (HOTf). Upon acid addition to the carbonyl analogue, cis-[W(CO)2(dppe)(PEtNMePEt)], the seven-coordinate carbonyl-hydride complex, trans-[W(CO)2(H)(dppe)(PEtN(H)MePEt)][OTf]2 was generated. The mixed diphosphine complex without the pendant amine in the ligand backbone, trans-[W(N2)2(dppe)(depp)] (depp = Et2P(CH2)3PEt2), was synthesized and treated with HBF4⋅Et2O, selectively generating a hydrazido complex, [W(NNH2)(F)(dppe)(depp)][BF4]. Computational analysis was used to probe proton affinity of three sites of protonation, the metal, pendant amine, and N2 ligand in these complexes. Room temperature reactions with 100 equivalents of HOTf produced NH4+ from reduction of the N2 ligand (electrons come from W). The addition of 100 equivalents HOTf to trans-[W(N2)2(dppe)(PEtNMePEt)] afforded 0.88 ± 0.02 equivalents NH4+, while 0.36 ± 0.02 equivalents of NH4+was formed upon treatment of trans-[W(N2)2(dppe)(depp)], the complex without the pendant amine. This work was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Computational resources were provided by the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE.

  6. Novel poly (arylene-ether-ether-ketone)s containing preformed imide unit and pendant long chain alkyl group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies were carried out to get preformed imide unit containing PEEKs and Co-PEEKs with pendant long chain alkyl group. Thus two new bisphenols; N,N'-bis (4-hydroxy 2-pentadecyl phenyl) pyromellitimide (HPI) (I) and N,N'-bis (4-hydroxy 2-pentadecyl phenyl 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic imide (HBI) (II) containing imide unit, pendant C-15 alkyl substituents were synthesized, characterized by spectral data and polycondensed with 4,4'-difluorobenzophenone (DFB) to yield several PEEK and Co-PEEKs. The polymers were characterized by FTIR, inherent viscosity, solubility, and XRD. The polymers were obtained in good yields and had inherent viscosities up to 0.65 dL/g in NMP. Polymerization of mixture of two bisphenols; [(I) and BPA]; and [(II) and BPA] in various mol%, with DFB gave number of the copolymers viz. Co-PEEK-BPAPI and Co-PEEK-BPABI. Many of the Co-PEEKs had good solubility in polar solvents. The solubility of PEEK containing bulky pendant alkyl substituents did not much improve probably due to simultaneous presence of rigid imide structures. XRD analysis indicated that PEEK and Co-PEEKs were partially crystalline or amorphous depending on the nature and % content of imide-bisphenol. These new PEEK materials can be used as high performance films, coatings, gas separation membranes, in aerospace and nuclear industries.

  7. Water-Dispersible Cationic Polyurethanes Containing Pendant Trialkylphosphoniums

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Musan; Hemp, Sean T.; Zhang, MingQiang; Allen, Michael H.; Carmean, Richard N.; Moore, Robert B.; Long, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Novel trialkylphosphonium ionic liquids chain extenders enabled the successful synthesis of poly(ethylene glycol)-based, cationic polyurethanes with pendant phosphoniums in the hard segments (HS). Aqueous size exclusion chromatography (SEC) confirmed the charged polyurethanes, which varied the phosphonium alkyl substituent length (ethyl and butyl) and cationic HS content (25, 50, 75 mol%), achieved high absolute molecular weights. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) demonstrated the triethylpho...

  8. A Route to Aliphatic Poly(ester)s with Thiol Pendant Groups: From Monomer Design to Editable Porous Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuoco, Tiziana; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Pappalardo, Daniela

    2016-04-11

    Biodegradable aliphatic polyesters such as poly(lactide) and poly(ε-caprolactone), largely used in tissue engineering applications, lack suitable functional groups and biological cues to enable interactions with cells. Because of the ubiquity of thiol groups in the biological environment and the pliability of thiol chemistry, we aimed to design and synthesize poly(ester) chains bearing pendant thiol-protected groups. To achieve this, 3-methyl-6-(tritylthiomethyl)-1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione, a lactide-type monomer possessing a pendant thiol-protected group, was synthesized. This molecule, when used as a monomer in controlled ring-opening polymerization in combination with lactide and ε-caprolactone, appeared to be a convenient "building block" for the preparation of functionalized aliphatic copolyesters, which were easily modified further. A polymeric sample bearing pyridyl disulfide groups, able to bind a cysteine-containing peptide, was efficiently obtained from a two-step modification reaction. Porous scaffolds were then prepared by blending this latter copolymer sample with poly(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) followed by salt leaching. A further disulfide exchange reaction performed in aqueous medium formed porous scaffolds with covalently linked arginine-glycine-aspartic acid sequences. The scaffolds were characterized by thermal and mechanical tests, and scanning electron microscopy surface images revealed a highly porous morphology. Moreover, a cytotoxicity test indicated good cell viability. PMID:26915640

  9. Incorporation of Cyclotriphosphazene as Pendant Groups to the Sago Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyclotriphosphazene-incorporated sago wastes as pendant groups have been prepared and structurally characterized using FT-IR and SEM. The chemically modified sago wastes composite was applied with binders and developed as sound absorbing panels. These panels are a class of organic-inorganic based materials that exhibit excellent fire retardant properties. Sound absorbance test has given a higher value at 250, 500 and 2000 Hz, which indicates the suitability of the panel for used in medium frequency. The panel was 51 % lighter compared to fiber board. The function and basic manufacturing of sound absorbers products was aligned with the present products in the market. (author)

  10. 3D Printing A Pendant with A Logo

    OpenAIRE

    Aboufadel, Edward F.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this short paper is to describe a project to manufacture a 3D-print of a pendant that includes a logo. The methods described in this paper involve processing the image of the logo through a Mathematica script. These methods can be applied to many logos and other images. With the Mathematica script, a STereoLithography (.stl) file is created that can be used by a 3D printer. Finally, the object is created on a 3D printer. We assume that the reader is familiar with the basics of ...

  11. Poly(arylene ether ketone) carrying hyperquaternized pendants: Preparation, stability and conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kunzhi; Zhang, Zhenpeng; Zhang, Haibo; Pang, Jinhui; Jiang, Zhenhua

    2015-08-01

    A new strategy to synthesize comb-shaped poly(arylene ether ketone) ionomers with hyperquaternized pendants was detailed in this work. Poly(arylene ether ketone) with electron-rich phenyl rings on the side chain was copolymerized. These electron-rich phenyl rings which could be chloromethylated and serve as precursors to cationic sites, are introduced during monomer synthesis. After chloromethylation and quaternization on the side chain, these resulting anion exchange membranes exhibit high conductivities and good dimensional stability, which benefit from the side chain type structure. The highest chloride conductivity of 0.047 S cm-1 was observed in PAEK-QTPM-30 (IEC = 1.58 mmol g-1) and swelling ratio is 31.7% at 80 °C. The structural properties of the synthesized poly(arylene ether ketone)s were investigated by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The anion exchange membranes showed excellent thermal stability up to 200 °C under nitrogen and good chemical stability for high conductivity after treating in alkaline condition up to 30 days. These membranes were studied by IEC, water uptake, dimensional stability. The nano-phase separation from ionic aggregation was confirmed by SAXS. This work implies a viable strategy to improve the performance of anion exchange membranes.

  12. Designed pendant chain covalently bonded to silica gel for cation removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The precursor 1,4-bis(3-aminopropyl)piperazine organofunctionalized silica gel reacted with methylacrylate to yield a new inorganic-organic chelating material, by adopting a heterogeneous and divergent synthetic approach. The synthesized materials were characterized through elemental analyses and spectroscopic techniques such as infrared, nuclear magnetic nuclei of carbon-13 and silicon-29. Due to the increment of basic centers attached to the pendant chains the metal adsorption capability of the final chelating material, was found to be higher than its precursor. The adsorption of metal ions from aqueous solution followed the order Cu2+ > Ni2+ > Co2+. Both Langmuir and Freundlich models were found to be applicable for the adsorption of copper, with the equilibrium parameter value within zero to one. The competitive sorption behavior, with variation of pH, was favorable for the separation of copper from binary mixtures with nickel and cobalt. When sodium, potassium and magnesium cations are present in the medium little effects on adsorption were observed, thus suggesting that the synthesized material can be useful for removal of toxic/heavy metal ions from natural and wastewater systems

  13. Donor-?-bridge-acceptor type polymeric materials with pendant electron-withdrawing groups for electrochromic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Donor-?-bridge-acceptor copolymers with different electrophilic groups were synthesized. • Electrochromic devices composed of PBDTTPAs layers, as the working electrode, and vanadium pentoxide, as the counter electrode, were fabricated and evaluated. • The PBDTTPA-CHO film and device show multicolor electrochromic behavior which exhibited vivid yellow, green, and gray with better electrochromic performance than PBDTTPA-COOH. - Abstract: A novel donor-?-bridge-acceptor copolymer, PBDTTPA-CHO, containing 4-(Bis(4-bromophenyl)-amino)benzaldehyde (TPA-CHO) and 4,8-bis-(2-ethyl- hexyloxy)-oxybenzo-[1,2-b:3,4-b’]dithiophene (BDT), was successfully synthesized using Stille coupling polymerization, and the pendant aldehyde group was modified with cyanoacetic acid to synthesize another polymer, PBDTTPA-COOH. Each of these new polymers are soluble in organic solvents and can be cast onto rigid or flexible substrates. The polymers with different electrophilic groups exhibit different electrochromic behaviors, including different colors, driving voltages and transmittances. The polymer film of PBDTTPA-CHO manifests reversible electrochemical oxidation and reduction accompanied by multicolor changes from its yellow neutral state to a highly absorbent green semi-oxidized state and a gray fully oxidized state, its transmittance change at 601 nm is 43%. PBDTTPA-COOH switches between orange and light green. We fabricated and evaluated electrochromic devices using a PBDTTPA layer as the working electrode and vanadium pentoxide as the counter electrode. With the contribution of counter electrodes, devices of both polymers show similar color changes but higher transmittance than their films

  14. Gravity model and structural implications of the Goddard Pendant, Sierra Nevada, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bray, E.A.; Oliver, H.W.

    1981-01-01

    A subsurface model for the Goddard pendant is constructed from a residual gravity high of about 7mGal over the pendant. The model, which is the simplest and most geologically reasonable possibility, shows a metamorphic block that tapers with depth and extends about 3.5km below the surface. The structures in the Goddard pendant are similar in style and orientation to those in other Sierra Nevada pendants, indicating that the country rock was neither deformed nor rotated during pluton emplacement. Consequently, emplacement must have been a passive rather than a forceful process. The pendant itself represents a piece of country rock trapped between plutons which are dome shaped in cross section. -Authors

  15. On the Odd Gracefulness of Cyclic Snakes With Pendant Edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Badr

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Graceful and odd gracefulness of a graph are two entirely different concepts. A graph may posses one orboth of these or neither. We present four new families of odd graceful graphs. In particular we show an oddgraceful labeling of the linear kC4 − snake e mK1 and therefore we introduce the odd graceful labeling of4 1 kC − snake e mK ( for the general case . We prove that the subdivision of linear 3 kC − snake is oddgraceful. We also prove that the subdivision of linear 3 kC − snake with m-pendant edges is odd graceful.Finally, we present an odd graceful labeling of the crown graph n 1 P e mK .

  16. Synthesis, properties, and light-induced shape memory effect of multiblock polyesterurethanes containing biodegradable segments and pendant cinnamamide groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Linbo; Jin, Chunli; Sun, Xiangying

    2011-01-10

    Novel multiblock polyesterurethanes containing crystalline hard and amorphous soft segments and pendant cinnamamide moieties were designed and synthesized via a two-step polyaddition reaction using N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl) cinnamamide (BHECA), biodegradable poly(l,l-lactide) (PLLA), and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) diols as raw materials and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) as coupling agent and characterized by (1)H NMR, FTIR, UV, DSC, tensile and photomechanical tests, and so on. The copolymers behaved as typical thermoplastic elastomers and showed satisfactory thermal and mechanical properties. They also exhibited light-induced shape memory effect (LSME) at room temperature on exposure to light stimuli. The pendant cinnamamide groups work as photoresponsive molecular switches and provide the polymer with LSME via reversible [2 + 2] cycloaddition cross-linking. The strain fixity (R(f)) increases with the content of BHECA and the strain recovery (R(r)) increases with the content of PLLA. The R(f) reaches 50% at a BHECA content of 20 wt % and the R(r) reaches >95% at PLLA content of 50 wt %. PMID:21125994

  17. Electroluminescent and photophysical properties of near-infrared luminescent lanthanide(III) monoporphyrinate complexes and pendant polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Garry Brian

    The photoluminescent and electroluminescent properties of substituted lanthanide monoporphyrinate complexes were investigated. The lanthanide complexes consisted of a lanthanide (Yb3+) coordinated to a substituted porphyrin, 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP), 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(3,4, 5-trimethoxyphenyl)porphyrin(TMPP), 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-pyridyl)porphyrin (TPyP), or 5,10,15,20-tetra(4(2'-ethylhexyloxy)porphyrin (TPP_OEH) and a capping ligand, L. The capping ligand was either an tris-pyrazoylborate (TP), (cyclopentadienyl)tris(diethoxyphosphito-P)cobaltate (L(OEt)3) or quinolinato (Q) anion. The complexes were synthesized to influence the electronic properties of the complex. The optical absorption and emission of these complexes resembled previously studied lanthanide porphyrin complexes, with photoluminescent yields ranging from 0.01 to 0.04. Electroluminescence was observed for the porphyrin complexes blended into polystyrene. External quantum efficiencies were typically 10-4, suggesting that changes to the porphyrin structure have little effect on the electronic nature of the complex. Blending the electron transporting AlQ3 into the device improved the external quantum efficiencies by an order of magnitude, suggesting that carrier transport is the culprit for poor device performance. Conjugated polyacetylenes containing a Zinc porphyrin pendant were synthesized by an insertion type polymerization using [Rh(NBD)Cl]2. The homopolymer (poly(ZnETPP) and copolymers of ethynyl benzene (poly(ZnETPP)-co-(PE)), an oxadiazole containing group (poly(ZnETPP)-co-(PEOXAD), or 1-ethynyl-3,5-trifluoromethylbenzene (poly(ZnETPP)-co-(3,5CF3PE) were synthesized. The optical properties were studied and it was found that the homopolymer exhibited excitonic coupling due to the overlap of the porphyrin pendants. Substitution of other co-monomers reduced this coupling allowing the return of typical ZnTPP optical properties. Neither absorption nor emission from the polyacetylene backbone was identified. A thermally induced cis to trans isomerization was observed for the homopolymer, poly(ZnETPP), with the emergence of polyacetylene backbone emission. Electroluminescent devices were fabricated using the polymers neat or in a blend with polystyrene. The electroluminescent performance of the homopolymer was poor with a maximum external quantum efficiency of 10-6. Addition of polystyrene increased the efficiency 10-fold. The copolymers with PE also showed similar characteristics. The copolymers with either PEOXAD or 3,5CF3PE further increased the external efficiency by an order of magnitude. This suggest that adding hole blocking/electron transporting pendants to the polymer further enhances carrier transport, allowing for more efficient devices.

  18. Robotic arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube is disclosed. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel. 23 figs

  19. Robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwech, Horst

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel.

  20. Multicolor electrochromic performance of electroactive poly(amic acid) containing pendant oligoaniline, azobenzene and sulfonic acid groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel electroactive poly(amic acid) (EDA-CON-EPAA) containing oligoaniline pendants, azobenzene and sulfonic acid groups was synthesized by copolymerization. The synergistic interplay of these three distinct functional groups results in a number of interesting and novel properties. The polymer showed photoisomerization induce by irradiation with ultraviolet light and visible light by virtue of azobenzene groups, and also revealed excellent electroactivity in acid, neutral and even in alkaline solutions (pH = 12) due to self-doping between oligoaniline and sulfonic acid (and/or carboxylic acid) groups. Moreover, EDA-CON-EPAA displayed acceptable electrochromic performance even in alkaline solutions and multiple colors attributed to the complementary effects of the two chromophores, which greatly enlarged the range of the electrochromic application. The coloration efficiency could still reach 93.8 cm2/C (at 700 nm) even at pH = 10

  1. Removal and recovery of toxic metal ions from aqueous waste sites using polymer pendant ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the use of polymer pendant ligand technology to remove and recover toxic metal ions from DOE aqueous waste sites. Polymer pendant lgiands are organic ligands, anchored to crosslinked, modified divinylbenzene-polystyrene beads, that can selectively complex metal ions. The metal ion removal step usually occurs through a complexation or ion exchange phenomena, thus recovery of the metal ions and reuse of the beads is readily accomplished.

  2. Controlled Synthesis of Fluorinated Copolymers with Pendant Sulfonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Novel fluorinated copolymers of different architectures and bearing sulfopropyl groups were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of aromatic fluorinated monomers and two modification reactions performed on the polymer chain - demethylation followed by sulfopropylation. As a...... result two types of fluorinated copolymers were obtained. The first one was synthesized by ATRP of2,3,5,6-tetraflouro4- methoxystyrene (TFMS). Copolymers with different amounts of randomly distributed along the backbone sulfopropyl groups were obtained after the chemical modifications mentioned above...

  3. Les trotskystes grecs pendant la seconde guerre Mondiale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Hen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Comment les deux courants du trotskysme grec, pourchassés dès les années 30, ont-ils réagi face à l'occupation de leur pays et à la résistance d'obédience communiste ?Les trotskystes en Grèce étaient divisés, malgré des discussions d’unification dans les camps de Metaxas. Ils refusèrent de soutenir la Grèce contre l’intervention italo-allemande en 1940-1941 et s’opposèrent aux illusions dans les démocraties alliées. Fin 1942 ils reprirent une activité clandestine, refusant de se joindre à la Résistance mais aussi de choisir un côté militaire dans les affrontements avec l’occupant et ses supplétifs. En octobre 1944, les trotskystes s'agitèrent contre les Britanniques pendant que l’EAM les laissait entrer dans Athènes. Le KKE exécuta des dizaines de trotskystes. Ceux-ci restèrent neutres dans la guerre civile de décembre 1944. Leur sectarisme contribua à les stériliser lorsque, après les accords de Varkiza en février 1945, la direction du KKE était vulnérable aux accusations qu’elle avait conduit la révolution à la défaite.Trotskyists in Greece were divided, despite unification discussions in Metaxas’ concentration camps. They refused to support Greece against the 1940-41 Italo-German intervention and opposed illusions in Allied democracies. At the end of 1942 they resumed underground activity, refusing to join the Resistance but also to take a military side in the fighting against the occupiers and their local proxy forces. In October 1944 the Trotskyists agitated against the British while the EAM let them into Athens. The KKE executed dozens of Trotskyists. The Trotskyists remained neutral in the December 1944 civil war. Their sectarianism contributed to sterilize them when, after the February 1945 Varkiza Agreement, the KKE leadership was vulnerable to accusations of having led the revolution to defeat.

  4. A new DRAM-type memory devices based on polymethacrylate containing pendant 2-methylbenzothiazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The devices fabricated with 75 nm and 45 nm thick pBVMA films were both found to exhibit DRAM type memory behaviors, which may indicate that the Al nanoparticles had no penetration into the thin film during the vacuum-deposition process. Highlights: ► The side-functional moieties of pBVMA regularly arranged in film state. ► The device exhibits volatile memory behavior with an ON/OFF current ratio up to 105. ► The film thickness has nothing to do with the device's memory behavior. ► Physical theoretical models and molecular simulation supported the memory mechanism. - Abstract: A polymethacrylate containing pendant 2-methylbenzothiazole (pBVMA) with good thermal stability was synthesized by free radical polymerization. The devices based on pBVMA possess a sandwich structure comprising bottom indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrode and top Al electrode. The as-fabricated device exhibits the dynamic random access memory (DRAM) behavior with an ON/OFF current ratio up to 105 and can endure 108 read cycles under −1 V pulse voltage. The effect of the film thickness on the device performance was investigated and the devices fabricated with 75 nm and 45 nm thick pBVMA films were both found to exhibit DRAM type memory behaviors, which may indicate that the Al nanoparticles had no penetration into the thin film during the vacuum-deposition process. The molecular simulation and physical theoretical models were analyzed and the mechanism of the DRAM performance may be attributed to the weak electron withdrawing ability of the molecule.

  5. Mechanical characterization of the Varian Exact-arm and R-arm support systems for eight aS500 electronic portal imaging devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the positioning accuracy at different gantry angles of two electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) support arm systems by using EPID difference images as a measure for displacement. This work presents a comparison of the mechanical performance of eight Varian aS500 (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) EPIDs, mounted using either the Varian Exact-arm or R-arm. Methods: The mechanical performance of the two arm systems was compared by investigating the variation in sensitivity with gantry angle, both before and after the EPID position was adjusted after gantry rotation. Positional errors were investigated by subtracting images from a reference image taken at gantry 0 deg., and the amplitude of the peaks and troughs at the field edges for longitudinal (radial) and lateral (transverse) profiles across the resulting image was related to the distance of displacement. Calibration curves based on a pixel-by-pixel shift were generated for each EPID and the Varian hand pendant accuracy was compared to the calibration data. Results: The response of the EPIDs was found to change with gantry rotation, with the largest difference at 180 deg. The Exact-arm was found to correct well for any displacement, while the R-arm tended to overcorrect following repositioning using the hand pendant. The calibration curves were consistent within each set of matched linacs, and the hand pendant accuracy was similar for both arm systems, although generally in different directions. With respect to gantry rotation effects, the mechanical performance of the Exact-arm systems was found to be much better than that of the R-arm systems. At gantry positions 90 deg., 270 deg., and 180 deg. the average misalignment in the longitudinal direction was +4.2±0.2, +1.8±1.6, and +7.4±0.5 mm for the R-arms, and +2.9±0.2, +2.1±0.8, and +4.9±0.7 mm for the Exact-arms. In the lateral direction the average positional errors were +2.1±0.4, -4.7±0.4, and -2.5±0.5 mm for the R-arms, and -0.3±0.3, -0.5±0.3, and -0.4±0.2 mm for the Exact-arms. The hand pendant correction had minimal impact in the lateral direction for both arm systems. However in the longitudinal direction the mean errors for the R-arms were +3.4±0.7, +1.5±0.6, and +4.6±0.7 mm at gantry angles 90 deg., 270 deg., and 180 deg., and the equivalent Exact-arm errors were +0.9±0.3, +1.2±0.3, and +1.9±0.9 mm, respectively. Conclusions: The performance of the EPIDs demonstrate that the Exact-arm system provides a more reproducible position and better agreement with the EPID position as indicated on the EPID pendant at all gantry angles than the R-arm.

  6. The Intersection of All Maximum Stable Sets of a Tree and its Pendant Vertices

    OpenAIRE

    Vadim E. Levit; Mandrescu, Eugen

    2000-01-01

    A stable set in a graph G is a set of mutually non-adjacent vertices, alpha(G) is the size of a maximum stable set of G, and core(G) is the intersection of all its maximum stable sets. In this paper we demonstrate that in a tree T, of order n greater than 1, any stable set of size greater or equal to n/2 contains at least one pendant vertex. Hence, we deduce that any maximum stable set in a tree contains at least one pendant vertex. Our main finding is the theorem claiming that if T does not ...

  7. Synthesis of hydronaphthalenes through coupling of enyne carbonyl compounds that contain pendant alkene groups with Fischer carbene complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar-Patti, Rajesh; Duan, Shaofeng; Camacho-Davila, Alejandro; Waynant, Kris; Dunn, Kenneth A.; Herndon, James W.

    2010-01-01

    The coupling of enyne carbonyl compounds that contain pendant alkene groups with Fischer carbene complexes to afford furans that contain pendant alkene groups is described. Subsequent intramolecular Diels-Alder reactions are effective in select cases, resulting in hydronaphthalene systems after dehydration. Although the Diels-Alder event is thermodynamically unfavorable, the overall transformation of alkene-furans to dihydronaphthalenes is a favorable process.

  8. Telescope arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the telescope arm consisting of several elements which can be moved against one another, measuring- and control-devices can be moved into the space between pressure vessel and wall. The telscope elements are driven by a convex metallic tape which is fixed at the telescope front element and conducted by rolls at the other telescope elements. The steel tape is wrapped upon a coil. (DG)

  9. Comparison of the lateral retention forces on sessile and pendant water drops on a solid surface

    CERN Document Server

    de la Madrid, Rafael; Irwin, George

    2015-01-01

    We present a simple experiment that demonstrates how a water drop hanging from a Plexiglas surface (pendant drop) experiences a lateral retention force that is comparable to, and in some cases larger than, the lateral retention force on a drop resting on top of the surface (sessile drop). The experiment also affords a simple demonstration of the Coriolis effect in two dimensions.

  10. Copper(II) and zinc(II) complexes with C-glycoside-pendant dipicolylamine (DPA)-amino acid conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikata, Yuji; Fujii, Shoko; Naemura, Masami; Takahashi, Kyoko; Noguchi, Yuka

    2009-12-14

    A series of dipicolylamine (DPA)-functionalized amino acid ligands with a pendant C-glycosyl amide has been synthesized and complexed with Cu(II) and Zn(II). Amino acid derivatives equipped with a DPA unit were conjugated with C-glycosylamine prepared from acetobromoglucose in 4 steps. These ligands bind to metal ions as a N(3) or N(3)O chelate utilizing three DPA nitrogens and carbamoyl oxygen atoms. In the crystal structures of copper(II) and zinc(II) complexes of AcL1 (2-(N',N'-bis(2'''-pyridylmethyl)amino)-N-(2'-(2'',3'',4'',6''-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)ethyl)acetamide, carbamoyl oxygen binds to the metal centre, however, NMR analysis reveals that AcL1 acts as a tridentate ligand in solution. The CD spectrum of the copper(II) complex with glycine-based AcL1 at the d-d transition region indicates that the chirality at the sugar moiety does not induce an asymmetric metal coordination environment. In contrast, the chirality at the amino acid moiety for alanine and phenylalanine derivatives, AcL2 and AcL3, respectively, induces characteristic Cotton effect in the 500-800 nm region depending on the nature of the alpha-carbon substituent of the amino acid moiety. PMID:19921066

  11. Activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis with concomitant induction of cellular immune responses by a tetraaza-macrocycle with acetate pendant arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, S; Ordway, D; Arroz, M J; Costa, J; Delgado, R

    2001-01-01

    The novel tetraaza-macrocyclic compound 3,7,11-tris(carboxymethyl)-3,7,11,17-tetraaza-bicyclo[11.3.1]heptadeca-1(17),13,15-triene, abbreviated as ac3py14, was investigated for its activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and for induction of protective cellular immune responses. Perspective results show that ac3py14 and its Fe3+ 1:1 complex, [Fe(ac3py14)], inhibited radiometric growth of several strains of M. tuberculosis. Inhibition with 25 microg/mL varied from 99% for H37Rv to 80% and above for multiple drug-resistant clinical isolates. The capacity of ac3py14 to elicit a beneficial immune response without cellular apoptosis was assessed and compared to the effects of virulent M. tuberculosis. The present study produces evidence that after stimulation with ac3py14 there was significant production of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), whereas the production of interleukin-5 (IL-5) remained low, and there was development of a memory population (CD45RO). The level of binding of Annexin V, a marker of apoptosis, was not sufficient to result in toxic effects toward alphabeta and gammadelta T cells and CD14+ macrophages. This preliminary study is the first report of a compound that simultaneously exerts an inhibitory effect against M. tuberculosis and induces factors associated with protective immune responses. PMID:11501675

  12. Determination of cerium ion by polymeric membrane and coated graphite electrode based on novel pendant armed macrocycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasticized membranes using 2,3,4:12,13,14-dipyridine-1,3,5,8,11,13,15,18-octaazacycloicosa-2,12-diene (L1) and 2,3,4:12,13,14-dipyridine-1,5,8,11,15,18-hexamethylacrylate- 1,3,5,8,11,13,15,18-octaazacycloicosa-2,12-diene (L2) have been prepared and explored as Ce(III) selective sensors. Effect of various plasticizers viz. dibutylphthalate (DBP), tri-n-butylphthalate (TBP), o-nitrophenyloctylether (o-NPOE), dioctylphthalate (DOP), benzylacetate (BA) and anion excluders, sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) and potassium tetrakis p-(chlorophenyl) borate was studied in detail and improved performance was observed. Optimum performance was observed for the membrane sensor having a composition of L2:PVC:o-NPOE:KTpClPB in the ratio of 6:34:58:2 (w/w, mg). The performance of the membrane based on L2 was compared with polymeric membrane electrode (PME) as well as with coated graphite electrode (CGE). The electrodes exhibit Nernstian slope for Ce(III) ions with limits of detection of 8.3 x 10-8 mol L-1 for PME and 7.7 x 10-9 mol L-1 for CGE. The response time for PME and CGE was found to be 12 s and 10 s respectively. The potentiometric responses are independent of the pH of the test solution in the pH range 3.5-7.5 for PME and 2.5-8.5 for CGE. The CGE could be used for a period of 5 months. The practical utility of the CGE has been demonstrated by its usage as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of oxalate and fluoride ions with Ce(III) solution. The proposed electrode was also successfully applied to the determination of fluoride ions in mouthwash solution and oxalate ions in real samples.

  13. A silver complex with an N,S,S-macrocyclic ligand bearing an anthracene pendant arm for optical ethylene monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitomi, Yutaka; Nagai, Toshiyuki; Kodera, Masahito

    2012-10-28

    We have synthesised a silver(I) complex with a metal-arene interaction, where the anthracene ring of the ligand sidearm is positioned above the silver(I) ion. The interaction is disrupted by ethylene coordination to the silver(I). The reversible interconversion between the metal-arene and metal-ethylene interactions allowed us to monitor the presence of ethylene. PMID:22992754

  14. Catalytic Oxidation of Alcohol via Nickel Phosphine Complexes with Pendant Amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Charles J.; Das, Partha Pratim; Higgins, Deanna LM; Helm, Monte L.; Appel, Aaron M.

    2014-09-05

    Nickel complexes were prepared with diphosphine ligands that contain pendant amines, and these complexes catalytically oxidize primary and secondary alcohols to their respective aldehydes and ketones. Kinetic and mechanistic studies of these prospective electrocatalysts were performed to understand what influences the catalytic activity. For the oxidation of diphenylmethanol, the catalytic rates were determined to be dependent on the concentration of both the catalyst and the alcohol. The catalytic rates were found to be independent of the concentration of base and oxidant. The incorporation of pendant amines to the phosphine ligand results in substantial increases in the rate of alcohol oxidation with more electron-donating substituents on the pendant amine exhibiting the fastest rates. We thank Dr. John C. Linehan, Dr. Elliott B. Hulley, Dr. Jonathan M. Darmon, and Dr. Elizabeth L. Tyson for helpful discussions. Research by CJW, PD, DLM, and AMA was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Research by MLH was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle.

  15. Use of the pendant drop method to measure interfacial tension between molten polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Y. Arashiro

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the pendant drop method to measure interfacial tension between molten polymers is reviewed. A typical pendant drop apparatus is presented. The algorithms used to infer interfacial tension from the geometrical profile of the pendant drop are described in details, in particular a new routine to evaluate correctly the value of the radius at the apex of the drop, necessary to the calculation of interfacial tension is presented. The method was evaluated for the possibility of measuring the interfacial tension between polyethylene and polystyrene. It is shown that the method is unsuitable for the measurement of interfacial tension between high density polyethylene and polystyrene due possibly to a too small difference of density between the two polymers. Values of interfacial tension between low density polyethylene (LDPE and polystyrene (PS as a function of the molecular weight of PS are presented. It was shown that the interfacial tension between LDPE and PS increased as a function of molecular weight of PS up to values of molecular weight of roughly 40,000 g/mol, value for which entanglements occur.

  16. The influence of pendant carboxylic acid loading on surfaces of statistical poly(4-hydroxystyrene)-co-styrene)s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hvilsted, Søren

    2008-01-01

    synthesis with propargyl bromide and the copolymers were functionalized with pendant aliphatic or aromatic carboxylic acids by click chemistry. Differential scanning calorimetry of the copolymers demonstrates the large influence on Tg ofthe different functional groups and the backbone composition. In...

  17. La France et le problème des nationalités pendant la guerre de 1914-1918: Le cas de la Serbie

    OpenAIRE

    Soutou Georges-Henri

    2014-01-01

    Paris a suivi pendant la Première guerre mondiale à l’égard de la Serbie une politique beaucoup plus complexe qu’on ne le croit en général. Bien sûr, on soutenait par principe la Serbie, victime de l’agression austro-allemande. En même temps, à plusieurs reprises pendant le conflit des considérations d’opportunité stratégiques ou diplomatiques déterminèrent la position française bien plus que le soutien à la Serbie. A la fin de la guerre, tout en acceptant ...

  18. Facile Synthesis, Characterization, and In Vitro Antimicrobial and Anticancer Activities of Biscoumarin Copolyester Bearing Pendant 3-(Trifluoromethyl)Styrene

    OpenAIRE

    Kandaswamy, Narendran; Raveendiran, Nanthini

    2014-01-01

    Synthesis of random biscoumarin copolyester bearing pendant 3-(trifluoromethyl)styrene was prepared by the reaction of biscoumarin monomer 3 and hydroquinone 5 with azeloyl chloride. The influence of pendant 3-(trifluoromethyl)styrene unit on the properties of copolyester such as inherent viscosity, solubility, and thermal stability was investigated and compared in detail. The inherent viscosity and polydispersity index of the copolyester were found to be 0.15?dL/g and 1.36, respectively. The...

  19. Nano-anisotropic surface coating based on drug immobilized pendant polymer to suppress macrophage adhesion response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaladhar, K; Renz, H; Sharma, C P

    2015-04-01

    Exploring drug molecules for material design, to harness concepts of nano-anisotropy and ligand-receptor interactions, are rather elusive. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the bottom-up design of a single-step and bio-interactive polymeric surface coating, based on drug based pendant polymer. This can be applied on to polystyrene (PS) substrates, to suppress macrophage adhesion and spreading. The drug molecule is used in this coating for two purposes. The first one is drug as a "pendant" group, to produce nano-anisotropic properties that can enable adhesion of the coatings to the substrate. The second purpose is to use the drug as a "ligand", to produce ligand-receptor interaction, between the bound ligand and receptors of albumin, to develop a self-albumin coat over the surface, by the preferential binding of albumin in biological environment, to reduce macrophage adhesion. Our in silico studies show that, diclofenac (DIC) is an ideal drug based "ligand" for albumin. This can also act as a "pendant" group with planar aryl groups. The combination of these two factors can help to harness, both nano-anisotropic properties and biological functions to the polymeric coating. Further, the drug, diclofenac (DIC) is immobilized to the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), to develop the pendant polymer (PVA-DIC). The interaction of bound DIC with the albumin is a ligand-receptor based interaction, as per the studies by circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry, and SDS-PAGE. The non-polar π-π* interactions are regulating; the interactions between PVA bound DIC-DIC interactions, leading to "nano-anisotropic condensation" to form distinct "nano-anisotropic segments" inside the polymeric coating. This is evident from, the thermo-responsiveness and uniform size of nanoparticles, as well as regular roughness in the surface coating, with similar properties as that of nanoparticles. In addition, the hydrophobic DIC-polystyrene (PS) interactions, between the PVA-DIC coating and PS-substrate produce improved coating stability. Subsequently, the PVA-DIC coated substrate has the maximum capacity to suppress the macrophage (RAW 264.7 cell line) adhesion and spreading, which is partly due to wavy-surface topography of hydrophilic PVA and preferential albumin binding capacity of PVA bound DIC. Our result shows that, such surfaces suppress the macrophages, even under stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The modified tissue culture plates can be used as an in vitro tool, to study the macrophage response under low spatial cues. PMID:25723344

  20. Œdème vulvaire massif pendant la grossesse: à propos d'un cas

    OpenAIRE

    El Hassani, Moulay Elmehdi; Kassidi, Farid; Benabdejlil, Youssef; Kouach, Jaouad; Moussaoui, Driss Rahali; Dehayni, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    L’œdème vulvaire massif est rare pendant la grossesse, mais requiert une attention particulière car il peut se greffer de complications maternelles et fœtales. Il peut être associé à plusieurs pathologies spécifiques ou non spécifiques à la grossesse dont le diagnostic fait appel obligatoirement à un interrogatoire et un examen clinique minutieux, puis à un bilan biologique standard. Le traitement doit être étiologique chaque fois que possible à coté du traitement symptomatique. Cette situati...

  1. Analysis of the polar crane pendant cable from Three Mile Island - Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pendant cable to the polar crane in Three Mile Island - Unit 2 (TMI-2) was suspended near the center of the containment during the March 1979 accident. It sustained considerable thermal damage from the hydrogen burn that occurred. The cable was removed from TMI-2 and cut into sections, which were then analyzed to assess the extent of damage and learn as much as possible about the accident environment (by studying its effect on the cable). Both electrical and materials tests were employed in the analyses, which produced information about the hydrogen burn and contamination levels in containment. 10 refs., 24 figs

  2. Design and Engineering of a Chess-Robotic Arm

    CERN Document Server

    Elouafiq, Ali

    2012-01-01

    In the scope of the "Chess-Bot" project, this study's goal is to choose the right model for the robotic arm that the "the Chess-Bot" will use to move the pawn from a cell to another. In this paper, there is the definition and the structure of a robot arm. Also, the different engineering and kinematics fundamentals of the robot and its components will be detailed. Furthermore, the different structures of robotic arms will be presented and compared based on different criteria. Finally, a model for "the Chess-Bot" arm will be synthesized based on accurate algorithms and equations.

  3. Bifunctional cyclam-based ligands with phosphorus acid pendant moieties for radiocopper separation: thermodynamic and kinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paúrová, Monika; Havlíčková, Jana; Pospíšilová, Aneta; Vetrík, Miroslav; Císařová, Ivana; Stephan, Holger; Pietzsch, Hans-Jürgen; Hrubý, Martin; Hermann, Petr; Kotek, Jan

    2015-03-16

    Two macrocyclic ligands based on cyclam with trans-disposed N-methyl and N-(4-aminobenzyl) substituents as well as two methylphosphinic (H2L1) or methylphosphonic (H4L2) acid pendant arms were synthesised and investigated in solution. The ligands form stable complexes with transition metal ions. Both ligands show high thermodynamic selectivity for divalent copper over nickel(II) and zinc(II)-K(CuL) is larger than K(Ni/ZnL) by about seven orders of magnitude. Complexation is significantly faster for the phosphonate ligand H4L2, probably due to the stronger coordination ability of the more basic phosphonate groups, which efficiently bind the metal ion in an "out-of-cage" complex and thus accelerate its "in-cage" binding. The rate of Cu(II) complexation by the phosphinate ligand H2L1 is comparable to that of cyclam itself and its derivatives with non-coordinating substituents. Acid-assisted decomplexation of the copper(II) complexes is relatively fast (τ1/2 = 44 and 42 s in 1 M aq. HClO4 at 25 °C for H2L1 and H4L2, respectively). This combination of properties is convenient for selective copper removal/purification. Thus, the title ligands were employed in the preparation of ion-selective resins for radiocopper(II) separation. Glycidyl methacrylate copolymer beads were modified with the ligands through a diazotisation reaction. The separation ability of the modified polymers was tested with cold copper(II) and non-carrier-added (64)Cu in the presence of a large excess of both nickel(II) and zinc(II). The experiments exhibited high overall separation efficiency leading to 60-70% recovery of radiocopper with high selectivity over the other metal ions, which were originally present in 900-fold molar excess. The results showed that chelating resins with properly tuned selectivity of their complexing moieties can be employed for radiocopper separation. PMID:25649310

  4. Molybdenum Hydride and Dihydride Complexes Bearing Diphosphine Ligands with a Pendant Amine: Formation of Complexes With Bound Amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shaoguang; Bullock, R. Morris

    2015-07-06

    CpMo(CO)(PNP)H complexes (PNP = (R2PCH2)2NMe, R = Et or Ph) were synthesized by displacement of two CO ligands of CpMo(CO)3H by the PNP ligand; these complexes were characterized by IR and variable temperature 1H and 31P NMR spectroscopy. CpMo(CO)(PNP)H complexes are formed as mixture of cis and trans-isomers. Both cis-CpMo(CO)(PEtNMePEt)H and trans-CpMo(CO)(PPhNMePPh)H were analyzed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Electrochemical oxidation of CpMo(CO)(PEtNMePEt)H and CpMo(CO)(PPhNMePPh)H in CH3CN are both irreversible at slow scan rates and quasi-reversible at higher scan rates, with E1/2 = -0.36 V (vs. Cp2Fe+/0) for CpMo(CO)(PEtNMePEt)H and E1/2 = -0.18 V for CpMo(CO)(PPhNMePPh)H. Hydride abstraction from CpMo(CO)(PNP)H with [Ph3C]+[A]- (A = B(C6F5)4 or BArF4; [ArF = 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]) afforded “tuck-in” [CpMo(CO)(?3-PNP)]+ complexes that feature the amine bound to the metal. Displacement of the ?3 Mo-N bond by CD3CN gives [CpMo(CO)(PNP)(CD3CN)]+. The kinetics of this reaction were studied by NMR spectroscopy, providing the activation parameters ?H‡ = 22.1 kcal/mol, ?S‡ = 1.89 cal/(mol·K), Ea = 22.7 kcal/mol. Protonation of CpMo(CO)(PEtNMePEt)H affords [CpMo(CO)(?2-PEtNMePEt)(H)2]+ as a Mo dihydride complex, which loses H2 to generate [CpMo(CO)(?3-PEtNMePEt)]+ at room temperature. CpMo(CO)(dppp)H (dppp = 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane) was studied as a Mo diphosphine analogue without a pendant amine, and the product of protonation of this complex gives [CpMo(CO)(dppp)(H)2]+. Our results show that the pendant amine has a strong driving force to form stable “tuck-in” [CpMo(CO)(?3-PNP)]+ complexes, and also promotes hydrogen elimination from [CpMo(CO)(PNP)(H)2]+ complexes by formation of Mo-N dative bond. We thank the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences for support. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy. We thank Monte Helm, Elliott Hulley and Deanna Miller for help on the crystallography, and Ming Fang for assistance on the electrochemical experiments.

  5. Des femmes dans la France combattante pendant la Deuxième Guerre mondiale : Le Corps des Volontaires Françaises et le Groupe Rochambeau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Jauneau

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cet article aborde la question de l’engagement des femmes dans l’Armée française pendant la Deuxième Guerre Mondiale grâce aux traces écrites qu’elles ont laissés.Dès 1940, plusieurs centaines de femmes rejoignent les rangs des FFL à Londres, mais aussi en Afrique du Nord (Algérie, Maroc, Tunisie. Elles s’engagent dans les trois corps d’Armée et sont présentes dans la plupart des services. Souvent dénigrées par les hommes, sous-estimées aussi, ces femmes accomplissent pourtant des tâches essentielles entre 1940 et 1945. Cet engagement moral, physique et souvent idéologique dans l’Armée de la Libération, devient pour la plupart d’entre elles un tournant définitif dans leur vie. Nombreuses sont celles qui ont éprouvé le besoin de raconter cette période si « particulière » de leur vie. La lecture des témoignages et des souvenirs permet de comprendre quand et comment s’est déroulé leur engagement. Car, contrairement aux idées reçues, elles n’étaient pas toutes dans les transmissions ou dans les services de santé. Elles n’étaient pas non plus « que » des AFAT (Auxiliaires féminines de l’Armée de Terre. Grâce à un panel d’autobiographies et de souvenirs de guerre, les points abordés ici seront donc ceux du contexte et des motivations de l’engagement, des postes occupés par ces femmes, ainsi que du regard que les libérateurs ont porté sur elles pendant mais surtout après la Libération.This article uses women’s writings to examine women’s voluntary enlistment in the French Army during World War II. As early as 1940, several hundred women joined the Free French Army’s ranks in London, but also in North Africa (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia. They enlisted in the three army corps and were present in most services. These women carried out essential jobs between 1940 and 1945, although men often denigrated and underestimated their contributions. This moral, physical, and often ideological engagement in the Liberation Army became for most of them a permanent turning point in their lives. Many felt the need to write about this particular period of their lives. Their testimonies and memories reveal the context and motivations surrounding their decision to enlist. Contrary to general opinion, they were not just « AFAT » (Land Army’s Female Auxiliaries nor did they only serve in transmission or health services. The article then examines the nature of women’s jobs and the ways French soldiers described them during and after the Liberation.

  6. Arm Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of muscles, joints, tendons and other connective tissue. Injuries to any of these parts of the arm ... a fall or an accident. Types of arm injuries include Tendinitis and bursitis Sprains Dislocations Broken bones ...

  7. Dynamics of sessile and pendant drop excited by surface acoustic waves: gravity effects and correlation between oscillatory and translational motions

    CERN Document Server

    Bussonière, Adrien; Brunet, Philippe; Matar, Olivier Bou

    2016-01-01

    When sessile droplets are excited by ultrasonic traveling surface acoustic waves (SAWs), they undergo complex dynamics with both oscillations and translational motion. While the nature of the Rayleigh-Lamb quadrupolar drop oscillations has been identified, their origin and their influence on the drop mobility remains unexplained. Indeed the physics behind this peculiar dynamics is complex with nonlinearities involved both at the excitation level (acoustic streaming and radiation pressure) and in the droplet response (nonlinear oscillations and contact line dynamics). In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of sessile and pendant drops excited by SAWs. For pendant drops, so-far unreported dynamics are observed close to the drop detachment threshold with the suppression of the translational motion. Away from this threshold, the comparison between pendant and sessile drop dynamics allows us to identify the role played by gravity or more generally by an initial or dynamically induced stretching of the drop. In...

  8. Most Correlated Arms Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Che-Yu; Bubeck, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    We study the problem of finding the most mutually correlated arms among many arms. We show that adaptive arms sampling strategies can have significant advantages over the non-adaptive uniform sampling strategy. Our proposed algorithms rely on a novel correlation estimator. The use of this accurate estimator allows us to get improved results for a wide range of problem instances.

  9. The arms race control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Written in 1961, this paper presents the content of a book entitled 'The arms race control' where the author outlined the difference between disarmament and arms control, described the economic and moral role of arms race, the importance of force balance for international security. He wandered whether arms control could ensure this balance and whether nuclear balance meant force balance. Force balance then appears to be a precarious and unsteady component of international security. He commented the challenges of disarmament, recalled some arguments for a nuclear disarmament. Then he discussed what would be an arms control with or without disarmament (either nuclear or conventional)

  10. Powered manipulator control arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A remote operated control arm for powered manipulators is described. It includes an assembly allowing several movements with position sensors for each movement. The number of possible arm movements equals the number of possible manipulator movements. The control systems may be interrupted as required. One part of the arm is fitted with a system to lock it with respect to another part of the arm without affecting the other movements, so long as the positions of the manipulator and the arm have not been brought into complete coincidence. With this system the locking can be ended when complete concordance is achieved

  11. Effects of Arm Number and Arm Length on Thermal Properties of Linear and Star-shaped Poly(D,L-lactides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yodthong Baimark

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Influences of arm number and arm length of poly(D,L-lactides (PDLLs on their thermal properties were investigated. The PDLLs with linear (1 arm and star (4, 6 and 16 arms shapes were synthesized via ring-opening polymerization of DLL monomer in bulk at 130°C for 24 h under nitrogen atmosphere. Stannous octoate was used as a catalyst. Initiators containing hydroxyl end groups of 1, 4, 6 and 16 were chosen as core molecules for synthesizing 1-, 4-, 6- and 16-armed PDLLs, respectively. Thermal properties of the PDLLs observed from their differential scanning calorimetric and thermogravimetric thermograms strongly depended upon their arm numbers and arm lengths. For the same DLL/initiator ratio (208/1 by mole, glass transition temperatures (Tg and temperatures of maximum decomposition rate (Td, max of the PDLLs decreased when the arm length decreased (or arm number increased. For similar PDLL arm lengths (4,500 and 4,900 g moL-1 for 6-armed star-shaped and 1-armed linear PDLLs, respectively, the Tg and Td, max of star-shaped PDLL was higher than that of the linear PDLL.

  12. Development of electrochemical sensors for nano scale Tb(III) ion determination based on pendant macrocyclic ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two macrocyclic pendant ligands 3,4,5:12,13,14-dipyridine-2,6,11, 15-tetramethyl-1,7,10,16-tetramethylacrylate -1,4,7,10,13, 16-hexaazacyclooctadeca-3,13-di ene (L1) and 3,4,5:12,13,14-dipyridine-2,6,11,15-tetramethyl-1,7,10,16-tetra(2-cyano ethane)-1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaazacyclooctadeca-3,13-diene (L2) have been synthesized and explored as neutral ionophores for preparing poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) based membrane sensors selective to Tb(III) ions. Effects of various plasticizers and anion excluders were studied in detail and improved performance was observed. The best performance was obtained for the membrane sensor having a composition of L1: PVC:1-CN:NaTPB in the ratio of 6: 32: 58: 4 (w/w; mg). The performance of the membrane based on L1 was compared with polymeric membrane electrode (PME) as well as with coated graphite electrode (CGE). The electrodes exhibit Nernstian slope for Tb3+ ions with limits of detection of 3.4 x 10-8 mol L-1 for PME and 5.7 x 10-9 mol L-1 for CGE. The response time for PME and CGE was found to be 10 s and 8 s, respectively. The potentiometric responses are independent of the pH of the test solution in the pH range 3.0-7.5 for PME and 2.0-8.5 for CGE. The CGE has found to work satisfactorily in partially non-aqueous media upto 30% (v/v) content of methanol, ethanol and 20% (v/v) content of acetonitrile and could be used for a period of 5 months. The CGE was used as indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Tb3+ ions with EDTA and in determination of fluoride ions in various samples. It can also be used in direct determination of Tb3+ ions in tap water and various binary mixtures with quantitative results

  13. Reduction of Oxygen Catalyzed by Nickel Diphosphine Complexes with Positioned Pendant Amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel(II) bis(diphosphine) complexes that contain positioned bases in the second coordination sphere have been found to catalyze the reduction of O2 with H2 to selectively form water. The complexes also serve as electrocatalysts for the reduction of O2 with the addition of a weak acid. In contrast, a closely related nickel diphosphine complex without the positioned bases is catalytically inactive for O2 reduction. These results indicate that pendant bases in synthetic catalysts for O2 reduction can play a similar role to proton relays in enzymes, and that such relays should be considered in the design of catalysts for multi-electron and multi-proton reactions.

  14. Textures projectives à calques dépendantes du point de vue

    OpenAIRE

    Reche, Alex; Drettakis, George

    2003-01-01

    La capture et le rendu des scènes réelles dans le contexte des environnements virtuels immersifs sont encore des tâches très difficiles. Nous présentons une nouvelle approche, en utilisant des textures projectives dépendantes du point de vue, de haute qualité et avec un faible coût en mémoire texture. Dans un premier temps, des photographies de la scène réelle sont utilisées pour créer un modèle 3D avec des outils standards. Notre méthode ordonne automatiquement la géométrie en groupes à nive...

  15. ABOUT PRISMATIC ANTLER PENDANTS FROM SÂNTANA DE MUREŞ-CERNJACHOV CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciucălău Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In Sântana de Mureș-Cernjachov culture we distinguish numerous influences that have targeted not only the material aspects of daily life but also the spiritual life of its different ethnic components. Since the IVth century are signaled in the graves of women and children  a series of prismatic pendants made of antlers decorated with circles, which were seen by some scholars, such as J. Werner and I. Ionita as replicas of type Herkuleskeule amulets.  They were adopted in the Germanic world as symbols of the god Thor / Donau.  In this article we make a presentation of this type of amulets discovered in some of the cemeteries datated in the IVth century researched in Romania and Republic of Moldova.

  16. Œdème vulvaire massif pendant la grossesse: à propos d'un cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hassani, Moulay Elmehdi; Kassidi, Farid; Benabdejlil, Youssef; Kouach, Jaouad; Moussaoui, Driss Rahali; Dehayni, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    L’œdème vulvaire massif est rare pendant la grossesse, mais requiert une attention particulière car il peut se greffer de complications maternelles et fœtales. Il peut être associé à plusieurs pathologies spécifiques ou non spécifiques à la grossesse dont le diagnostic fait appel obligatoirement à un interrogatoire et un examen clinique minutieux, puis à un bilan biologique standard. Le traitement doit être étiologique chaque fois que possible à coté du traitement symptomatique. Cette situation peut nécessiter un accouchement par césarienne. En dehors du risque potentiel de nécrose tissulaire et du risque exceptionnel de décès maternel associé à l’œdème vulvaire massif du post-partum l’évolution est favorable sous traitement bien conduit. PMID:25922627

  17. Pendant thiol groups-attached Pd(II) for initiating metal deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new activation method has been developed for initiating electroless metal deposition on silicon substrates without SnCl2 sensitization and roughening condition. Silicon wafers are first coated with thiol-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), and then catalyzed with a stable tin-free Pd(II)-based colloidal solution. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the step-by-step surfaces and study the binding mechanism of Pd(II) with SAMs onto surfaces. Results show that Pd(II) oligomer particles are chemisorbed on pendant thiol surfaces through S-Pd bonds. This process involves fewer steps than the conventional Sn/Pd combined activation one. Furthermore, the chemical bound initiator possesses longevity and can be stored for a long time before metallization

  18. Pendant thiol groups-attached Pd(II) for initiating metal deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Lina; Liao Jianhui; Huang Lan; Gu Ning; Zhang Haiqian; Liu Juzheng

    2003-04-30

    A new activation method has been developed for initiating electroless metal deposition on silicon substrates without SnCl{sub 2} sensitization and roughening condition. Silicon wafers are first coated with thiol-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), and then catalyzed with a stable tin-free Pd(II)-based colloidal solution. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the step-by-step surfaces and study the binding mechanism of Pd(II) with SAMs onto surfaces. Results show that Pd(II) oligomer particles are chemisorbed on pendant thiol surfaces through S-Pd bonds. This process involves fewer steps than the conventional Sn/Pd combined activation one. Furthermore, the chemical bound initiator possesses longevity and can be stored for a long time before metallization.

  19. Measurement of interfacial tension by use of pendant drop video techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herd, M.D.; Thomas, C.P.; Bala, G.A.; Lassahn, G.D.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes an instrument to measure the interfacial tension (IFT) of aqueous surfactant solutions and crude oil. The method involves injection of a drop of fluid (such as crude oil) into a second immiscible phase to determine the IFT between the two phases. The instrument is composed of an AT-class computer, optical cell, illumination, video camera and lens, video frame digitizer board, monitor, and software. The camera displays an image of the pendant drop on the monitor, which is then processed by the frame digitizer board and non-proprietary software to determine the IFT. Several binary and ternary phase systems were taken from the literature and used to measure the precision and accuracy of the instrument in determining IFTs. A copy of the software program is included in the report. A copy of the program on diskette can be obtained from the Energy Science and Technology Software Center, P.O. Box 1020, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-1020. The accuracy and precision of the technique and apparatus presented is very good for measurement of IFTs in the range from 72 to 10{sup {minus}2} mN/m, which is adequate for many EOR applications. With modifications to the equipment and the numerical techniques, measurements of ultralow IFTs (<10{sup {minus}3} mN/m) should be possible as well as measurements at reservoir temperature and pressure conditions. The instrument has been used at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to support the research program on microbial enhanced oil recovery. Measurements of IFTs for several bacterial supernatants and unfractionated acid precipitates of microbial cultures containing biosurfactants against medium to heavy crude oils are reported. These experiments demonstrate that the use of automated video imaging of pendant drops is a simple and fast method to reliably determine interfacial tension between two immiscible liquid phases, or between a gas and a liquid phase.

  20. Effects of wake dynamics on infrared measurements of particle cloud temperatures in the superheater pendant region of utility boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turbulent particle cloud temperatures in the superheater pendant region are critical in coal-fired utility boilers not only for the interactions between turbulence and radiative heat transfer, but also for the ash deposit slagging and fouling on superheater tubes. The false infrared particle temperature fluctuations due to the pendant wake dynamics may cause large errors in modeling of the radiation transport. This paper presents a model to theoretically analyze the effects of wake dynamics on the false infrared particle cloud temperature fluctuations in the superheater pendant region. The preferred frequency in the power spectra and the root mean square temperature fluctuations are predicted theoretically and the effects of utility boiler operating conditions are analyzed. The preferred frequency is twice the vortex shedding frequency and is proportional to the flue gas velocity, and inversely proportional to the superheater tube diameter. The root mean square temperature fluctuations are proportional to the initial particle volume fraction and inversely proportional to the 1.04 power of the particle mass weighted mean diameter. -- Highlights: ? Superheater pendant wake causes the false infrared particle temperature fluctuations. ? Infrared particle temperatures fluctuate at twice the vortex shedding frequency. ? Root mean square temperature fluctuation is proportional to particle volume fraction. ? The present model predicts using only the utility boiler operating conditions

  1. Mikrowellenassistierte Synthese von Organosilanen

    OpenAIRE

    Bleuel, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Der Einsatz von Mikrowellen zur Synthese von Organosilicioumverbindungen ist bislang nicht beschrieben und wird mit der vorliegenden Arbeit eingeführt. Dazu wurde eine Haushaltsmikrowelle durch Öffnen des Sicherheitskäfigs und entsprechender Abschirmung so modifiziert, dass mit den üblichen Labormaterialien gearbeitet werden konnte. Exemplarische Reaktionen in flüssiger Phase, wie die Synthese von Silatranen und silatrananalogen Verbindungen, können gegenüber der klassischen Reaktionsführung ...

  2. Reaction with glutathione. A possible mechanism involved in rodent brain retention of a 99mTc SNS/S complex containing a pendant ester functionality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis, characterization of MvO([CH3CH2N(CH2CH2S)2](p-S-Ph-COOCH2-CH3)) (M:99mTc: I, Re: II) is presented in this work, where a pendant ester function is attached to the monothiolate ligand. Chemical structure of I is established after chromatographic comparison with II, synthesized in macroscopic amounts. Complex II is fully characterized by classical methods of analysis showing that the compound adopts a distorted trigonal bipyramidal configuration around the metal. The two sulfur atoms of the tridentate ligand and the oxo group form the basal plane, while the remaining nitrogen atom of the tridentate ligand and the sulfur atom of the monothiolate ligand occupy the apices of the bipyramid. In vitro challenge experiments with glutathione (GSH) in neutral aqueous medium demonstrate, that I suffers nucleophilic attack by GSH and thereby transformation to a more hydrophilic daughter metal compound. Formation of the latter depends on time and GSH concentration. Tissue distribution in mice shows minor retention in brain. As rodent brain presents no esterases to hydrolyze the ester group of I, while the intracerebral content in GSH amounts to 2 mM, the above described mechanism is suspected for the observed brain retention. However, in primate brain cells retention of I may additionally involve the hydrolysis of the ester function to the corresponding acid, as already revealed by preliminary in vitro experiments using esterase incubates. (author)

  3. Modelling of bionic arm

    OpenAIRE

    Amartya Ganguly

    2010-01-01

    The bionic arm is a prosthesis which will allow the amputees to control it with the help of their own brain instead of depending upon the mechanical functions of the artificial limbs which are at present available in the market. A complex design of control systems is embedded in the bionic arm which will receive and analyze the signals from the brain and convert the electrical energy to mechanical energy, making the bionic arm move.

  4. Evolution of robotic arms

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    The foundation of surgical robotics is in the development of the robotic arm. This is a thorough review of the literature on the nature and development of this device with emphasis on surgical applications. We have reviewed the published literature and classified robotic arms by their application: show, industrial application, medical application, etc. There is a definite trend in the manufacture of robotic arms toward more dextrous devices, more degrees-of-freedom, and capabilities beyond th...

  5. PULSE SYNTHESIZING GENERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Q.A.

    1963-08-01

    >An electronlc circuit for synthesizing electrical current pulses having very fast rise times includes several sinewave generators tuned to progressively higher harmonic frequencies with signal amplitudes and phases selectable according to the Fourier series of the waveform that is to be synthesized. Phase control is provided by periodically triggering the generators at precisely controlled times. The outputs of the generators are combined in a coaxial transmission line. Any frequency-dependent delays that occur in the transmission line can be readily compensated for so that the desired signal wave shape is obtained at the output of the line. (AEC)

  6. Green syntheses, v.1

    CERN Document Server

    Tundo, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to the Green Syntheses SeriesPietro Tundo and John AndraosApplication of Material Efficiency Metrics to Assess Reaction Greenness-Illustrative Case Studies from Organic SynthesesJohn AndraosReaction 1: Synthesis of 3-Benzyl-5-Methyleneoxazolidin-2-one from N-Benzylprop-2-yn-1-Amine and CO2Qing-Wen Song and Liang-Nian HeReaction 2: Synthesis of the 5-Membered Cyclic Carbonates from Epoxides and CO2Qing-Wen Song, Liang-Nian HePart I: Green Methods for the Epoxidation of

  7. ARM Mentor Selection Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisterson, D. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was created in 1989 with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop several highly instrumented ground stations to study cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer. In 2003, the ARM Program became a national scientific user facility, known as the ARM Climate Research Facility. This scientific infrastructure provides for fixed sites, mobile facilities, an aerial facility, and a data archive available for use by scientists worldwide through the ARM Climate Research Facility—a scientific user facility. The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as lead mentors. Lead mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They must also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets. The ARM Climate Research Facility is seeking the best overall qualified candidate who can fulfill lead mentor requirements in a timely manner.

  8. Managing new arms races

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of new arms races in the region of Asia-Pacific includes considerations of weapons trade and transfer in the region, with an emphasis on nuclear weapons proliferation. It deals with the problem of controlling the arms trade and the efforts to control conventional weapons and underlines the possible role and influence of Conference on Cooperation and Security in Europe (CSCE)

  9. Wisdom, Intelligence & Creativity Synthesized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    How is it that smart administrators who want to do a good job often find themselves in situations that degenerate into confrontation and, ultimately, termination? In this article, the author discusses why in terms of a model of leadership--which he refers to it as WICS, an acronym for wisdom, intelligence and creativity synthesized. He describes…

  10. Nanofabrication of Block Copolymers of PDMS/Polyamide having Trichlorogermyl Pendant Using LbL Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block copolymers (AB)x type of aminopropyl-terminated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (NH2- PDMS) and polyamides trichlorogermyl pendant group were prepared by a solution phase one pot polycondensation method. The prepared block copolymers were assembled with polyethylene-alt- (maleic) anhydride (PEMA) as multilayered thin film assembly through covalently linked Layer by Layer (LbL) technique using dipping method. The prepared thin films had thickness in the range of 15 to 20 nm as measured on an ellipsometers. In the systems where quartz was used as substrate, film growth after each deposition was monitored through UV-Vis spectrophotometer, which substantiated the multilayer film build-up. Atomic Force Microscopic (AFM) images showed homogeneous and robust film, which were strong enough to endure the force of 400 nN. As the block copolymers are thermally stable and have the capacity to absorb water, so their prepared robust ultra-thin films can show potential of thermally resistant nano thin films, protective hydrophilic coatings in addition to separation membranes. (author)

  11. Prévalence de la prise d'alcool pendant la grossesse à Lubumbashi, République Démocratique du Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabamba, Arsène Tshikongo; Shamashanga, Laurent Kwete; Longanga, Albert Otshudi; Lukumwena, Zet Kalala

    2014-01-01

    En dépit de l'ampleur du risque sur le foetus, l'alcool est sans cesse consommé par les femmes enceintes. L'objectif de ce travail est d’étudier l'usage de l'alcool chez la femme enceinte dans la ville de Lubumbashi, d'examiner les dangers potentiels encourus par le foetus, et enfin de faire des recommandations éventuelles en vue de sécuriser la grossesse et la femme enceinte. Du 22 Août au 11 septembre 2012, 145 femmes enceintes suivies en consultation prénatale à l'Hôpital SENDWE ont été invitées à remplir un formulaire reprenant les informations les concernant, le type d'alcool consommé et la période de consommation. 26,2% des femmes interrogées reconnaissent avoir consommé l'alcool et principalement au deuxième et au troisième trimestre de la grossesse pour diverses raisons. Cette étude montre que des efforts restent encore à déployer à Lubumbashi et particulièrement par le personnel soignant de l'Hôpital SENDWE afin de combattre l'utilisation de l'alcool chez la femme enceinte. Elle met également en exergue l'importance de l'information que le corps médical devrait véhiculer auprès des femmes enceintes sur les effets secondaires liés à la consommation de l'alcool pendant la grossesse. PMID:25419273

  12. Dynamics of sessile and pendant drops excited by surface acoustic waves: Gravity effects and correlation between oscillatory and translational motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussonnière, A.; Baudoin, M.; Brunet, P.; Matar, O. Bou

    2016-05-01

    When sessile droplets are excited by ultrasonic traveling surface acoustic waves (SAWs), they undergo complex dynamics with both oscillations and translational motion. While the nature of the Rayleigh-Lamb quadrupolar drop oscillations has been identified, their origin and their influence on the drop mobility remains unexplained. Indeed, the physics behind this peculiar dynamics is complex with nonlinearities involved both at the excitation level (acoustic streaming and radiation pressure) and in the droplet response (nonlinear oscillations and contact line dynamics). In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of sessile and pendant drops excited by SAWs. For pendant drops, so-far unreported dynamics are observed close to the drop detachment threshold with the suppression of the translational motion. Away from this threshold, the comparison between pendant and sessile drop dynamics allows us to identify the role played by gravity or, more generally, by an initial or dynamically induced stretching of the drop. In turn, we elucidate the origin of the resonance frequency shift, as well as the origin of the strong correlation between oscillatory and translational motion. We show that for sessile drops, the velocity is mainly determined by the amplitude of oscillation and that the saturation observed is due to the nonlinear dependence of the drop response frequency on the dynamically induced stretching.

  13. Research synthese Geweld verslagen

    OpenAIRE

    Knaap, L. van der; Bogaerts, S.

    2006-01-01

    Dit is een kort overzicht van de belangrijkste bevindingen uit het onderzoeksrappport 'Geweld verslagen?' waarin verslag wordt gedaan van een synthese van 48 studies naar de effecten van preventie van geweld in het publieke en semi-publieke domein. Het volledige rapport is te vinden via het vak 'Links' aan de rechterkant. Deze uitgave is verschenen in de nieuwe reeks Fact sheet (nr. 2006-23).

  14. MVACS Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitz, R.; Slostad, J.; Bon, B.; Braun, D.; Brill, R.; Buck, C.; Fleischner, R.; Haldeman, A.; Herman, J.; Hertzel, M.; Noon, D.; Pixler, G.; Schenker, P.; Ton, T.; Tucker, C.; Zimmerman, W.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Robotic Arm is to support to the other MVACS science instruments by digging trenches in the Martian soil; acquiring and dumping soil samples into the thermal evolved gas analyzer (TEGA); positioning the Soil Temperature Probe (STP) in the soil: positioning the Robotic Arm Air Temperature Sensor (RAATS) at various heights above the surface, and positioning the Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) for taking images of the surface, trench, soil samples, magnetic targets and other objects of scientific interest within its workspace.

  15. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness.

  16. Remote control handling arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention concerns a remote control arm, of the type comprising an articulated assembly connecting a handling component to a support. This articulated assembly is made up from standard and separate components interconnected by an articulation allowing for the transmission of an independent movement to produce a pre-determined movement of this handling component with respect to the said support. Such handling arms are fully described in French patent No. 1459250, in which, incidentally, one of the inventors mentioned is the same person as in this application. One of the most important uses of such handling arms is in the fitting of power remote handling devices for hot nuclear laboratories

  17. Nouvelle Structure d’Estimateurs à Horizon Glissant. Application à l’Estimation de Trajectoires de Débris Spatiaux pendant la Rentrée Atmosphérique

    OpenAIRE

    Suwantong, Rata,

    2014-01-01

    L’estimation de trajectoires de débris spatiaux pendant la rentrée atmosphérique est un défi majeur pour les prochaines années, renforcé par plusieurs projets liés à l'enlèvement de débris établis par plusieurs agences spatiales. Cependant, ce problème s’avère complexe du fait des erreurs de modèle et des difficultés d’initialisation des algorithmes d’estimation induites par une mauvaise connaissance de la dynamique des débris suite à leur désintégration pendant la phase de rentrée atmosphéri...

  18. Nouvelle Structure d’Estimateurs à Horizon Glissant.Application à l’Estimation de Trajectoires de Débris SpatiauxPendant la Rentrée Atmosphérique

    OpenAIRE

    Suwantong, Rata,

    2014-01-01

    L’estimation de trajectoires de débris spatiaux pendant la rentrée atmosphérique est un défi majeur pour les prochaines années, renforcé par plusieurs projets liés à l'enlèvement de débris établis par des agences spatiales de plusieurs pays. Cependant, ce problème s’avère complexe du fait des erreurs de modèle et des difficultés d’initialisation des algorithmes d’estimation induites par une mauvaise connaissance de la dynamique des débris suite à leur désintégration pendant la phase de rentré...

  19. An Elastica Arm Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Bosi, F; Corso, F Dal; Bigoni, D

    2015-01-01

    The concept of 'deformable arm scale' (completely different from a traditional rigid arm balance) is theoretically introduced and experimentally validated. The idea is not intuitive, but is the result of nonlinear equilibrium kinematics of rods inducing configurational forces, so that deflection of the arms becomes necessary for the equilibrium, which would be impossible for a rigid system. In particular, the rigid arms of usual scales are replaced by a flexible elastic lamina, free of sliding in a frictionless and inclined sliding sleeve, which can reach a unique equilibrium configuration when two vertical dead loads are applied. Prototypes realized to demonstrate the feasibility of the system show a high accuracy in the measure of load within a certain range of use. It is finally shown that the presented results are strongly related to snaking of confined beams, with implications on locomotion of serpents, plumbing, and smart oil drilling.

  20. Hello to Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This image highlights the hidden spiral arms (blue) that were discovered around the nearby galaxy NGC 4625 by the ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The image is composed of ultraviolet and visible-light data, from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer and the California Institute of Technology's Digitized Sky Survey, respectively. Near-ultraviolet light is colored green; far-ultraviolet light is colored blue; and optical light is colored red. As the image demonstrates, the lengthy spiral arms are nearly invisible when viewed in optical light while bright in ultraviolet. This is because they are bustling with hot, newborn stars that radiate primarily ultraviolet light. The youthful arms are also very long, stretching out to a distance four times the size of the galaxy's core. They are part of the largest ultraviolet galactic disk discovered so far. Located 31 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici, NGC 4625 is the closest galaxy ever seen with such a young halo of arms. It is slightly smaller than our Milky Way, both in size and mass. However, the fact that this galaxy's disk is forming stars very actively suggests that it might evolve into a more massive and mature galaxy resembling our own. The armless companion galaxy seen below NGC 4625 is called NGC 4618. Astronomers do not know why it lacks arms but speculate that it may have triggered the development of arms in NGC 4625.

  1. Dinuclear rhenium complexes as redox-active pendants in a novel electrodeposited polycyclopentadithiophene material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopio, Elsa Quartapelle; Bonometti, Valentina; Panigati, Monica; Mercandelli, Pierluigi; Mussini, Patrizia R; Benincori, Tiziana; D'Alfonso, Giuseppe; Sannicolò, Francesco

    2014-10-20

    The novel [Re2(?-H)(?-OOC-CPDT)(CO)6(?-3-Me-pydz)] complex (1; OOC-CPDT = 4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophene-4-carboxylate, 3-Me-pydz = 3-methylpyridazine) has been prepared and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, density functional theory (DFT), and time-dependent DFT computations, UV-vis absorption and emission spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The measured properties indicate the lack of electronic communication in the ground state between the CPDT and the rhenium diazine moieties. Oxidative electropolymerization of 1, achieved by repeated potential cycling (-0.4 to +1.0 V vs Fc(+)/Fc, in acetonitrile) with different supporting electrolytes, on different electrodes, afforded an electroactive and stable metallopolymer (poly-1). In situ measurements of the mass of the growing film (on a gold electrode, with an electrochemical quartz microbalance) confirmed the regularity of the polymerization process. The polymer exhibits two reversible oxidation peaks of the thiophene chain and a broad irreversible reduction peak (-1.4 V, quite close to that observed for the reduction of monomer 1), associated with a remarkably delayed sharp return peak, of comparable associated charge, appearing in close proximity (+0.3 V) to the first oxidation peak of the neutral polythiophene chain. This charge-trapping effect can be observed upon repeated cycles of p and n doping, and the negative charge is maintained even if the charged electrode is removed from the solution for many hours. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that the main CV oxidation peak corresponds to facile charge transfer, combined with very fast diffusion of both electrons and ions within the polymer. In summary, poly-1 provides a new example of a metallopolymer, in which the conductive properties of the ?-conjugated system are added to the redox behavior of the pendant-isolated complexes. PMID:25285663

  2. Armed conflict and child health

    OpenAIRE

    Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti

    2011-01-01

    Summary Armed conflict has a major impact on child health throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark contrast to the effect on children, the international arms trade results in huge profits for the large corporations involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions. Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important health issue that should be prevented.

  3. SYNTH: A spectrum synthesizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer code has been written at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to synthesize the results of typical gamma ray spectroscopy experiments. The code, dubbed SYNTH, allows a user to specify physical characteristics of a gamma ray source, the quantity of the nuclides producing the radiation, the source-to-detector distance and the presence of absorbers, the type and size of the detector, and the electronic set up used to gather the data. In the process of specifying the parameters needed to synthesize a spectrum, several interesting intermediate results are produced, including a photopeak transmission function versus energy, a detector efficiency curve, and a weighted list of gamma and x rays produced from a set of nuclides. All of these intermediate results are available for graphical inspection and for printing. SYNTH runs on personal computers. It is menu driven and can be customized to user specifications. SYNTH contains robust support for coaxial germanium detectors and some support for sodium iodide detectors. SYNTH is not a finished product. A number of additional developments are planned. However, the existing code has been compared carefully to spectra obtained from National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) certified standards with very favorable results. Examples of the use of SYNTH and several spectral results are presented

  4. SYNTH: A spectrum synthesizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer code has been written at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to synthesize the results of typical gamma-ray spectroscopy experiments. The code, dubbed SYNTH, allows a use r to specify physical characteristics of a gamma-ray source, the quantity of the nuclides producing the radiation, the source-to-detector distance and the type and thickness of absorbers, the size and composition of the detector (Ge or NaI), and the electronic set up used to gather the data. In the process of specifying the parameters needed to synthesize a spectrum, several interesting intermediate results are produced, including a photopeak transmission function vs energy, a detector efficiency curve, and a weighted list of gamma and x rays produced from a set of nuclides. All of these intermediate results are available for graphical inspection and for printing. SYNTH runs on personal computers. It is menu driven and can be customized to user specifications. SYNTH contains robust support for coaxial germanium detectors and some support for sodium iodide detectors. SYNTH is not a finished product. A number of additional developments are planned. However, the existing code has been compared carefully to spectra obtained from National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) certified standards with very favorable results. Examples of the use of SYNTH and several spectral results will be presented

  5. Synthesis of Ethylene or Propylene/1,3-Butadiene Copolymers Possessing Pendant Vinyl Groups with Virtually No Internal Olefins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Michiue

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In general, ethylene/1,3-butadiene copolymerizations provides copolymers possessing both pendant vinyls and vinylenes as olefinic moieties. We, at MCI, studied the substituent effects of C2-symmetric zirconocene complexes, rac-[Me2Si(Indenyl’2]ZrCl2 (Indenyl’ = generic substituted indenyl, after activation on the ratio of the pendant vinyls and vinylenes of the resultant copolymers. Complexes examined in this study were rac-dimethylsilylbis (1-indenylzirconium dichloride (1, rac-dimethylsilyl-bis[1-(2-methyl-4,5-benzoindenyl] zirconium dichloride (2, rac-dimethylsilyl-bis[l-(2-methyl -4-phenylindenyl]zirconium dichloride (3, rac-dimethy1si1y1- bis(2-ethyl-4-phenylindenyl zirconium dichloride (4, rac-dimethylsilyl-bis[l-(2-n-propyl -4-(1-naphthylindenyl]zirconium dichloride (5, rac-dimethylsilyl-[1-(2-ethyl-4-(5-(2,2-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-cyclopenta [a]naphthalenylindenyl][1-(2-n-propyl-4-(5-(2,2-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-cyclopenta[a] naphthalenylindenyl]zirconium dichloride (6, rac-dimethylsilyl-bis[1-(2-ethyl-4-(9-phenanthrylindenyl]zirconium dichloride (7, and rac-dimethylsilyl-bis[l-(2-n-propyl-4-(9-phenanthrylindenyl]zirconium dichloride (8. We found that the ratio of the pendant vinyls and vinylenes is strongly affected by the bulkiness of the substituent on the complexes examined. The vinyl content increased linearly in the following order, 8 > 7 > 6 > 5 > 4 > 3 > 2 > 1. Notably, complex 8/DMAO formed ethylene/1,3-butadiene copolymers possessing predominant vinyl groups, which can be crucial precursors for functionalized polyolefins. Likewise, complex 8/DMAO afforded propylene/1,3-butadiene copolymers with predominant vinyl groups.

  6. Arming ethnic conflict

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karp, A.

    1993-09-01

    One of the more interesting side effects of the end of the Cold War has been the increased international awareness of the dangers posed by the continuing flood of conventional weapons worldwide. Until recently, debates over the arms trade were merely a sideshow; most attention was focused on international security and arms control. Yet even as the international community begins to take a closer and more serious look at the arms trade, one of its most deadly and anarchic aspects - the transfer of weapons to sub-state groups - is being overlooked. Discussions tend to focus on major conventional weapons such as combat aircraft, naval vessels, armored vehicles and long-range missiles - weapons that symbolize international warfare. Greater control over the trade in major conventional armaments is essential to building regional peace and security. But these controls will have little effect on the weapons most likely to be used in war.

  7. THE INTERNATIONAL ARMS TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Japhet

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Everyone is aware of the existence of the arms trade but few have any idea of the nature of its workings or of its implications, both actual and potential. Some information as to the methods employed in the sale of arms was made available via the Lockheed and Northrop scandals, but by and large this was information that could not be evaluated in terms of all the elements of the system. It is the aim of this article to provide some insight into the various facets that go together to make up the arms trade, in this way by no means giving an all-embracing account but merely providing some interesting facts and figures.

  8. Arm To Arm Interface Using Embedded C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanraj.C

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Embedded systems are the most emerging field in these recent years. In this paper a different number of ARM processors (LPC2148 and LPC2378 are interconnected using C for distributed services. N numbers of processors are connected as the network and each processing devices are interlinked with each other, so that the each data that is processed by the devices and it can be used by the other device to activate their entire process. All the processed data’s are communicated to other device through Xbee interface card. LPC2148 and LPC2378 ARM processors are used in this prototype and winXtalk is used as a software terminal window. In this paper, the ultimate benefits of multiple processor interactions related to the embedded applications and design issues of processor interconnection are discussed. The features of multiple processor interaction in inter process communication and executions of embedded multitasking are also discussed. In modern embedded computing platform, embedded processor used in various applications like home automation, industrial control, medical system, access control, etc. In this paper, using embedded processor interactions, the several data communication is established.

  9. Robotic Arm Unwrapped

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken shortly after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander touched down on the surface of Mars, shows the spacecraft's robotic arm in its stowed configuration, with its biobarrier successfully unpeeled. The 'elbow' of the arm can be seen at the top center of the picture, and the biobarrier is the shiny film seen to the left of the arm. The biobarrier is an extra precautionary measure for protecting Mars from contamination with any bacteria from Earth. While the whole spacecraft was decontaminated through cleaning, filters and heat, the robotic arm was given additional protection because it is the only spacecraft part that will directly touch the ice below the surface of Mars. Before the arm was heated, it was sealed in the biobarrier, which is made of a trademarked film called Tedlar that holds up to baking like a turkey-basting bag. This ensures that any new bacterial spores that might have appeared during the final steps before launch and during the journey to Mars will not contact the robotic arm. After Phoenix landed, springs were used to pop back the barrier, giving it room to deploy. The base of the lander's Meteorological Station can be seen in this picture on the upper left. Because only the base of the station is showing, this image tells engineers that the instrument deployed successfully. The image was taken on landing day, May 25, 2008, by the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. THE INTERNATIONAL ARMS TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    M. Japhet

    2012-01-01

    Everyone is aware of the existence of the arms trade but few have any idea of the nature of its workings or of its implications, both actual and potential. Some information as to the methods employed in the sale of arms was made available via the Lockheed and Northrop scandals, but by and large this was information that could not be evaluated in terms of all the elements of the system. It is the aim of this article to provide some insight into the various facets that go together to make up th...

  11. A modular synthesis of dithiocarbamate pendant unnatural α-amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnatural α-amino acids containing dithiocarbamate side chains were synthesized by a one-pot reaction of in-situ generated dithiocarbamate anions with sulfamidates. A wide range of these anions participated in the highly regio- and stereo-selective ring opening of sulfamidates to...

  12. Synthesizing Exoplanet Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clanton, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of thousands of exoplanets has revealed a large diversity of systems, the majority of which look nothing like our own. On the theoretical side, we are able to make ab initio calculations that make predictions about the properties of exoplanets. However, in order to link these predictions with observations, we must construct a statistical census of exoplanet demographics over as broad a range of parameters as possible. Current constraints on exoplanet demographics are typically constructed using the results of individual surveys using a single detection technique, and thus are incomplete. The only way to derive a statistically-complete census that samples a wide region of exoplanet parameter space is to synthesize the results from surveys employing all of the different discovery methods at our disposal. I present the first studies to demonstrate that this is actually possible, and describe a (mostly) de-biased exoplanet census that is constructed from the synthesis of results from microlensing, radial velocity, and direct imaging surveys. I will also discuss future work that will include the results of transit surveys (in particular, Kepler discoveries) to complete the census of exoplanets in our Galaxy, and describe the application of this census to develop the most comprehensive, observationally-constrained models of planet formation and evolution that have been derived to date.

  13. COMPARING PUMA ROBOT ARM WITH THE HUMAN ARM MOVEMENTS; AN ALTERNATIVE ROBOTIC ARM SHOULDER DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa BOZDEMÄ°R

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Using the robotic arms instead of human power becomes increasingly widespread nowadays. Widening of the robotic arms usage field is parallel to improvement of movement capability of it. In this study PUMA Robotic Arm System that is a developed system of the robotic arms was compared with a human arm due to movement. A new joint was added to PUMA Robotic Arm System to have the movements similar to the human shoulder joint. Thus, a shoulder was designed that can make movements through the sides in addition to fore and back movement.

  14. COMPARING PUMA ROBOT ARM WITH THE HUMAN ARM MOVEMENTS; AN ALTERNATIVE ROBOTIC ARM SHOULDER DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa BOZDEMİR; Esat ADIGÜZEL

    1999-01-01

    Using the robotic arms instead of human power becomes increasingly widespread nowadays. Widening of the robotic arms usage field is parallel to improvement of movement capability of it. In this study PUMA Robotic Arm System that is a developed system of the robotic arms was compared with a human arm due to movement. A new joint was added to PUMA Robotic Arm System to have the movements similar to the human shoulder joint. Thus, a shoulder was designed that can make movements through the sides...

  15. Bis(alkyl) rare-earth complexes supported by a new tridentate amidinate ligand with a pendant diphenylphosphine oxide group. Synthesis, structures and catalytic activity in isoprene polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolpygin, Aleksei O; Glukhova, Tatyana A; Cherkasov, Anton V; Fukin, Georgy K; Aleksanyan, Diana V; Cui, Dongmei; Trifonov, Alexander A

    2015-10-01

    A new tridentate amidine 2-[Ph2P(O)]C6H4NHC(tBu)[double bond, length as m-dash]N(2,6-Me2C6H3) (1) bearing a side chain pendant Ph2P[double bond, length as m-dash]O group was synthesized and proved to be a suitable ligand for coordination to rare-earths ions. Bis(alkyl) complexes {2-[Ph2P(O)]C6H4NC(tBu)N(2,6-Me2C6H3)}Ln(CH2SiMe3)2(THF)n (Ln = Y, n = 1 (3), Ln = Er, n = 1 (4), Ln = Lu, n = 0 (5)) were prepared using alkane elimination reactions of and Ln(CH2SiMe3)3(THF)2 (Ln = Y, Er, Lu) in hexane and were isolated in 50, 70 and 75% yields respectively. The X-ray studies revealed that complexes 2-5 feature intramolecular coordination of P[double bond, length as m-dash]O groups to metal ions. The lutetium complex 5 proved to be rather stable: at 20 °C its half-life time is 1155 h, while for the yttrium analogue the half-life time was found to be 63 h. Complexes 3-5 were evaluated as precatalysts for isoprene polymerization. The systems Ln/borate/AliBu3 (Ln = 3-5, borate = [PhNHMe2][B(C6F5)4], [Ph3C][B(C6F5)4]) turned out to be highly efficient in isoprene polymerization and enable complete conversion of 1000-10,000 equivalents of monomer into polymer at 20 °C within 0.5-2.5 h affording polyisoprenes with a very high content of 1,4-cis units (up to 96.6%) and from narrow (1.49) to moderate (3.54) polydispersities. A comparative study of catalytic performance of the related bis(alkyl) yttrium complexes supported by amidinate ligands of different denticities and structures [tBuC(N-2,6iPr2C6H4)2](-), [tBuC(N-2,6-iPr2C6H4)(N-2-MeOC6H4)](-) and {2-[Ph2P(O)]C6H4NC(tBu)N(2,6-Me2C6H3)}(-) demonstrated that the introduction of a pendant donor group (2-MeOC6H4 or Ph2P(O)) into a side chain of amidinate scaffolds results in a significant increase in catalytic activity. The amidinate ligand bearing a Ph2P(O)-group provides a high isoprene polymerization rate along with excellent control over regio- and stereoselectivities and allows us to obtain polyisoprenes with a reasonable molecular weight distribution. PMID:26314896

  16. Modernization of African Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Concept paper framing the debate at the Dakar Forum Workshop on Modernization of Armed forces in Africa.......Concept paper framing the debate at the Dakar Forum Workshop on Modernization of Armed forces in Africa....

  17. Kiikuv maja / Anu Arm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arm, Anu

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia esimese kursuse arhitektuuriüliõpilaste II semestri töö. Juhendaja arhitekt Andres Alver, ehitamise Pedaspeale organiseeris suvepraktika juhendaja arhitekt Jaan Tiidemann. Autor Anu Arm, kaasa töötasid ja valmis ehitasid: Ott Alver, Maarja Elm, Mari Hunt, Alvin Järving, Marten Kaevats, Riho Kerge, Reedik Poopuu, Anu Põime, Helen Rebane, Kaisa Saarva, Martin Tago, Reet Volt. Valmis: 19. VIII 2006

  18. Robotic Arm End Effector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Image illustrates the tools on the end of the arm that are used to acquire samples, image the contents of the scoop, and perform science experiments. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Cyclam Derivatives with a Bis(phosphinate) or a Phosphinato-Phosphonate Pendant Arm: Ligands for Fast and Efficient Copper(II) Complexation for Nuclear Medical Applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    David, T.; Kubíček, V.; Gutten, Ondrej; Lubal, P.; Kotek, J.; Pietzsch, H.-J.; Rulíšek, Lubomír; Hermann, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 24 (2015), s. 11751-11766. ISSN 0020-1669 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31419S Grant ostatní: COST(XE) TD1004 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : cyclam derivatives * radiolabelling * quantum chemical calculations * copper(II) chelation Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.762, year: 2014

  20. The Arm Lie Group Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Arm, Boris

    2013-01-01

    We developp the Arm-Lie group theory which is a theory based onthe exponential of a changing of matrix variable u(X). We de ne a corresponding u-adjoint action, the corresponding commutation relations in the Arm-Lie algebra and the u-Jacobi identity. Throught the exponentiation, Arm-Lie algebras become Arm-Lie groups. We give the example of p p so(2) and p p su(2).

  1. Wearable pendant device monitoring using new wavelet-based methods shows daily life and laboratory gaits are different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Matthew A D; Coppens, Milou J M; Lord, Stephen R; Lovell, Nigel H; Gschwind, Yves J; Redmond, Stephen J; Del Rosario, Michael Benjamin; Wang, Kejia; Sturnieks, Daina L; Persiani, Michela; Delbaere, Kim

    2016-04-01

    Morbidity and falls are problematic for older people. Wearable devices are increasingly used to monitor daily activities. However, sensors often require rigid attachment to specific locations and shuffling or quiet standing may be confused with walking. Furthermore, it is unclear whether clinical gait assessments are correlated with how older people usually walk during daily life. Wavelet transformations of accelerometer and barometer data from a pendant device worn inside or outside clothing were used to identify walking (excluding shuffling or standing) by 51 older people (83 ± 4 years) during 25 min of 'free-living' activities. Accuracy was validated against annotated video. Training and testing were separated. Activities were only loosely structured including noisy data preceding pendant wearing. An electronic walkway was used for laboratory comparisons. Walking was classified (accuracy ≥97 %) with low false-positive errors (≤1.9 %, κ ≥ 0.90). Median free-living cadence was lower than laboratory-assessed cadence (101 vs. 110 steps/min, p < 0.001) but correlated (r = 0.69). Free-living step time variability was significantly higher and uncorrelated with laboratory-assessed variability unless detrended. Remote gait impairment monitoring using wearable devices is feasible providing new ways to investigate morbidity and falls risk. Laboratory-assessed gait performances are correlated with free-living walks, but likely reflect the individual's 'best' performance. PMID:26245255

  2. Robotic Arm of Rover 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    JPL engineers examine the robotic arm of Mars Exploration Rover 1. The arm is modeled after a human arm, complete with joints, and holds four devices on its end, the Rock Abrasion Tool which can grind into Martian rocks, a microscopic imager, and two spectrometers for elemental and iron-mineral identification.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Well-Defined Regular Star Polyisoprenes with 3, 4, 6 and 8 Arms

    KAUST Repository

    Ratkanthwar, Kedar R.

    2013-01-01

    Three series of regular well-defined star polyisoprenes (PIs) with 3, 4 and 6 arms (each series: same arm molecular weight) have been synthesized by anionic polymerization high vacuum techniques and chlorosilane chemistry. In addition, three linear PIs with practically the double arm molecular weight of the corresponding series (2-arm star PIs) have been synthesized, as well as one 8-arm star PI. All intermediate (arms) and final (stars) products have been characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), SEC-multi-angle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The Tg of the star PIs was determined by differential scanning calorimetry. These model polymeric materials are essential for polymer physics and polymer physical chemistry in order to establish the structure/property relationships.

  4. ARM User Survey Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, LR

    2010-06-22

    The objective of this survey was to obtain user feedback to, among other things, determine how to organize the exponentially growing data within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, and identify users’ preferred data analysis system. The survey findings appear to have met this objective, having received approximately 300 responses that give insight into the type of work users perform, usage of the data, percentage of data analysis users might perform on an ARM-hosted computing resource, downloading volume level where users begin having reservations, opinion about usage if given more powerful computing resources (including ability to manipulate data), types of tools that would be most beneficial to them, preferred programming language and data analysis system, level of importance for certain types of capabilities, and finally, level of interest in participating in a code-sharing community.

  5. Robot arm apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1992-01-01

    A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

  6. Coat of Arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bryan

    1998-01-01

    Describes an activity, the "coat of arms," that can serve as an ice-breaker or warm-up for the first day of an English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language class, as a motivating start to the week, or act as an innovative segue between skill lessons. The technique can be adapted for students ranging from elementary school to adult language learners of all…

  7. Kiikuv maja / Anu Arm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arm, Anu

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia esimese kursuse arhitektuuriüliõpilaste II semestri töö. Juhendaja arhitekt Andres Alver, ehitamise Pedaspeale organiseeris suvepraktika juhendaja arhitekt Jaan Tiidemann. Autor Anu Arm, kaasa töötasid ja valmis ehitasid: Ott Alver, Maarja Elm, Mari Hunt, Alvin Järving, Marten Kaevats, Riho Kerge, Reedik Poopuu, Anu Põime, Helen Rebane, Kaisa Saarva, Martin Tago, Reet Volt. Valmis: 19. VIII 2006

  8. Phoenix Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    A vital instrument on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander is the robotic arm, which will dig into the icy soil and bring samples back to the science deck of the spacecraft for analysis. In September 2006 at a Lockheed Martin Space Systems clean room facility near Denver, spacecraft technician Billy Jones inspects the arm during the assembly phase of the mission. Using the robotic arm -- built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena -- the Phoenix mission will study the history of water and search for complex organic molecules in the ice-rich soil. The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of novel polyamide-ethers based on bis-imidazole containing bulky aryl pendant groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mahdi Saadati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel polyamide-ethers (PAEs based on bis-imidazole containing bulky aryl pendant groups was prepared by direct polycondensation of a diamine, 4-(1-(4-(4-(2-(4-aminophenyl-4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazol-1-ylphenoxyphenyl-4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazol-2-ylbenzenamine (DABI, and various dicarboxylic acids. All the resulting polyamide-ethers were amorphous with inherent viscosities ranged from 0.52 to 0.61 dL/g and were readily soluble in many organic solvents which could be solution-cast into transparent and tough films. The glass transition temperatures (Tg of these polymers were affected considerably by their chemical structure and ranged from 230 to 310 ºC. They had useful levels of thermal stability associated with relatively high temperatures of 10% weight loss (T10 in the range of 329-399 ºC in air atmosphere.

  10. Etude des interactions plasma–surface pendant la gravure du silicium dans des plasmas HBr/Cl2/O2

    OpenAIRE

    Kogelschatz, Martin

    2004-01-01

    L'objectif de ce travail est de comprendre les interactions plasma-surface pendant la gravure du silicium dans des chimies HBr/Cl2/O2. Dans ces procédés, une couche se dépose sur les parois du réacteur et mène à la dérive du procédé. La nature chimique et les mécanismes de formation de cette couche ont été étudiés par sa gravure ultérieure avec un plasma Ar/SF6 et l'analyse résolue en temps des produits de gravure par les diagnostics d'émission optique et de spectrométrie de masse. Il a été m...

  11. Protonation Studies of a Mono-Dinitrogen Complex of Chromium Supported by a 12-Membered Phosphorus Macrocycle Containing Pendant Amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mock, Michael T.; Pierpont, Aaron W.; Egbert, Jonathan D.; O' Hagan, Molly J.; Chen, Shentan; Bullock, R. Morris; Dougherty, William G.; Kassel, W. S.; Rousseau, Roger J.

    2015-05-18

    The first example of a mono-dinitrogen Cr0 complex, Cr(N2)(dmpe)(PPh3NBn3), 2(N2), (PPh3NBn3 = 1,5,9-tribenzyl-3,7,11-triphenyl-1,5,9-triaza-3,7,11-triphosphacyclododecane; dmpe = 1,2-bis(dimethylphosphino)ethane) containing a pentaphosphine coordination environment is described. 2(N2) is supported by a unique facially coordinating 12-membered phosphorus macrocycle containing pendant amine groups in the second coordination sphere. Treatment of 2(N2) at -78 °C with 1 equiv of [H(OEt2)2][B(C6F5)4] results in protonation of the metal center, generating the 7-coordinate Cr(II)-N2 hydride complex, [Cr(H)(N2)(dmpe)(PPh3NBn3)][B(C6F5)4], [2(H)(N2)]+. Treatment of 2(15N2) with excess triflic acid at -50 °C afforded a trace amount of 15NH4+ from the reduction of the coordinated 15N2 ligand (electrons originate from Cr). Augmenting the acid reactivity studies, electronic structure calculations evaluated the pKa values of three sites of 2(N2) (metal center, pendant amine, and N2 ligand) to elucidate possible Cr-NxHy intermediates involved in the N2 reduction pathways from the protonation of 2(N2). This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Computational resources provided by the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  12. Synthetic strategies for efficient conjugation of organometallic complexes with pendant protein reactive markers

    KAUST Repository

    Jantke, Dominik

    2013-11-01

    Site-directed conjugation of metal centers to proteins is fundamental for biological and bioinorganic applications of transition metals. However, methods for the site-selective introduction of metal centers remain scarce. Herein, we present broadly applicable synthetic strategies for the conjugation of bioactive molecules with a range of organometallic complexes. Following three different synthetic strategies, we were able to synthesize a small library of metal conjugated protein markers featuring different types of protein reactive sites (epoxides, phenylphosphonates, fluorosulfonates and fluorophosphonate groups) as well as different late transition metals (iron, ruthenium, rhodium, palladium and platinum). The products were isolated in moderate to excellent yields and high purity. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction of the metalated protein markers corroborates structural integrity of the metal complex and the protein reactive site. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Pendant triazole ring assisted mesogen containing side chain liquid crystalline polymethacrylates: Synthesis and characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Palani; C Saravanan; P Kannan

    2011-01-01

    Two series of click chemistry assisted alkoxymethyl-1H-[1,2,3]-triazol-1-yl containing sidechain liquid-crystalline polymethacrylates were synthesized by free radical polymerization technique. Mesogen was linked to backbone through various spacer units. Monomers and polymers were characterized by FT-IR, 1H and 13C-NMR spectral techniques. Thermal stability of polymers was confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis. Mesomorphic property and phase transition temperature of polymers were analysed by differential scanning calorimetry and polarized optical microscopy. Phase transition temperature and mesomorphic property of polymers with respect to insertion of polar alkoxy group on terminal triazole ring and spacer length between backbone and mesogen were investigated. Polymers exhibited grainy like textures under polarized optical microscopy. Spacer length between mesogen and backbone alters phase transition temperature of the polymers.

  14. Polythiophenes based on pyrene as pendant group: Synthesis, structural characterization and luminescent properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Juárez, E.; Güizado-Rodríguez, M.; Barba, V.; Melgoza-Ramírez, M.; Rodríguez, M.; Ramos-Ortíz, G.; Maldonado, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Novel polythiophenes (PTs) derived from 3-alkylthiophenes (R = hexyl, octyl) and a thiophene functionalized with pyrene chromophore were synthesized. A homopolymer and copolymers were obtained by using different stoichiometric ratios, and their photophysical properties were investigated. Physicochemically characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, UV-vis, DSC-TGA and GPC as well as fluorescence spectroscopy, the new PTs reached moderate molecular weight distributions, exhibited good thermal properties and were easily processable for depositing films of satisfactory optical quality with third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities of approximately 10-12 esu. The new PTs showed absorption and emission bands ranging from 346 to 430 nm, and from 450 to 570 nm, respectively, with quantum yields between 0.07 and 0.25. In addition, nanoparticles were obtained from the PTs by using the mini-emulsion technique. Their spectroscopic characteristics and morphology were determined by means of UV-vis spectroscopy and SEM analysis.

  15. Anionic polymerization and polyhomologation: An ideal combination to synthesize polyethylene-based block copolymers

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, H.

    2013-08-07

    A novel one-pot methodology combining anionic polymerization and polyhomologation, through a "bridge" molecule (BF3OEt 2), was developed for the synthesis of polyethylene (PE)-based block copolymers. The anionically synthesized macroanion reacts with the "bridge" molecule to afford a 3-arm star (trimacromolecular borane) which serves as an initiator for the polyhomologation. 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  16. Phoenix Robotic Arm Rasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This photograph shows the rasp protruding from the back of the scoop on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm engineering model in the Payload Interoperability Testbed at the University of Arizona, Tucson. This is the position the rasp will assume when it drills into the Martian soil to acquire an icy soil sample for analysis. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Removable molar power arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Attachment of force elements from the gingival hook of maxillary molar tubes during the retraction of the anterior teeth is very common in orthodontic practice. As the line of force passes below the center of resistance (CR of molar, it results its mesial tipping and also anchorage loss. To overcome this problem, the line of force should pass along the CR of molar. This article highlights a method to overcome this problem by attaching a removable power arm to the headgear tube of molar tube during the retraction of the anterior teeth.

  18. Disarmament and arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses how far science and technology can provide methods of making arms control and disarmament agreements more controlable in an objective way. Two case studies have been considered, the test ban treaty and the verification of the number of strategic nuclear weapons. These lead to the conclusion that both science and politics are closely interwoven and that within what appear to be scientific arguments, political positions are being defended. Consequently scientists and technologists and the contexts in which they work, play a prominent role. (C.F.)

  19. Fully automated parallel oligonucleotide synthesizer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lebl, M.; Burger, Ch.; Ellman, B.; Heiner, D.; Ibrahim, G.; Jones, A.; Nibbe, M.; Thompson, J.; Mudra, Petr; Pokorný, Vít; Poncar, Pavel; Ženíšek, Karel

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 8 (2001), s. 1299-1314. ISSN 0010-0765 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : automated oligonucleotide synthesizer Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.778, year: 2001

  20. Assistant template and co-template agents in modeling mesoporous silicas and post-synthesizing organofunctionalizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Vaeudo V. [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, PO Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Airoldi, Claudio, E-mail: airoldi@iqm.unicamp.br [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, PO Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-12-15

    Mesoporous SBA-16 silicas were synthesized through a direct methodology using the template (F127) combined with co-templates (ethanol and n-butanol), with tetraethylorthosilicate as the silica source. These ordered mesoporous silica were characterized by elemental analyses, infrared spectroscopy, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance for {sup 13}C (CP/MAS) and {sup 29}Si (HP/DEC) nuclei, nitrogen sorption/desorption processes, small angle X-ray analyses (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). SAXS and TEM results confirmed the space group Im3m and cubic 3D symmetry, typical for highly ordered SBA-16. The sorption/desorption data for SBA-16 and when functionalized gave type IV isotherms, with hysteresis loop H2. Surface areas of 836; 657 and 618 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and average pore diameters of 7.99; 8.10 and 9.85 nm, for SBA-16A, SBA-16B and SBA-16C were obtained, respectively. When functionalized the silicas presented a reduction in surface area, pore volume and pore diameter due to the pendant chains that interfere with nitrogen sorption in these measurements. The co-template ethanol favors the ordered mesopores with highest wall thicknesses. - Graphical Abstract: The mesoporous SBA-16 can be synthesized from binary (F127/TEOS) or ternary (F127/alcohol/TEOs) systems to give well-ordered mesoporous silicas. The co-templates ethanol or butanol gave the final material with highest wall thickness, mainly with ethanol. After these syntheses the pores were successfully organofunctionalized to give a good incorporation of the silylating agents. The final silicas presented of well-arranged solid characteristics as expressing by three distinct peaks, as indexed by the corresponding planes. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Syntheses of mesoporous silicas by using ternary (F127/agent/TEOS) and binary (F127/TEOS) systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use of co-templates to synthesize mesoporous silicas with larger wall thicknesses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Immobilization of pendant chains inside the porous silicas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ordered mesoposous silicas as new materials for possible applications on sorption and delivering drug systems.

  1. La evolución de la relación salarial durante la post convertibilidad L’évolution du rapport salarial pendant la post-convertibilité The evolution of the labor-wage nexus during the post-convertibility phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Neffa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este capítulo constituye una síntesis de trabajos realizados conjuntamente con Robert Boyer durante la década pasada y tiene como objetivo mostrar los cambios y la evolución de la relación salarial durante el periodo de la post-convertibilidad, es decir desde 2002 hasta fines de 2011, así como las principales restricciones que debe enfrentar el nuevo modo de desarrollo desde la crisis de los subprimes, que se manifiestan con fuerza desde el inicio del Segundo Mandato de la Dra. Cristina Fernández de Kirchner.Ce chapitre est une synthèse des travaux réalisés pendant la décennie dernière. Il analyse les changements du rapport salarial après l'abandon de la convertibilité, c´est-à-dire depuis 2002 et jusqu´à la fin de 2011. Il explicite ensuite les principales contraintes qui s'imposent au nouveau mode de développement depuis la crise des subprimes et limitent sa viabilité. Ces tensions se manifestent avec force dès le début du deuxième mandat de la présidente Cristina Fernández de Kirchner.This contribution synthesizes a decade of research. It analyses the dynamics of the wage-labor nexus after the convertibility period, i.e. from 2002 until the end of 2011. It also scrutinizes the most salient constraints arising in the development mode after the subprime crisis that limit its viability. These problems are becoming more obvious since the beginning of President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner second term.

  2. RAMESES publication standards: realist syntheses

    OpenAIRE

    Wong Geoff; Greenhalgh Trish; Westhorp Gill; Buckingham Jeanette; Pawson Ray

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background There is growing interest in realist synthesis as an alternative systematic review method. This approach offers the potential to expand the knowledge base in policy-relevant areas - for example, by explaining the success, failure or mixed fortunes of complex interventions. No previous publication standards exist for reporting realist syntheses. This standard was developed as part of the RAMESES (Realist And MEta-narrative Evidence Syntheses: Evolving Standards) project. Th...

  3. X-Armed Bandits

    CERN Document Server

    Bubeck, Sébastien; Stoltz, Gilles; Szepesvari, Csaba

    2010-01-01

    We consider a generalization of stochastic bandits where the set of arms, $\\cX$, is allowed to be a generic measurable space and the mean-payoff function is "locally Lipschitz" with respect to a dissimilarity function that is known to the decision maker. Under this condition we construct an arm selection policy, called HOO hierarchical optimistic optimization), with improved regret bounds compared to previous results for a large class of problems. In particular, our results imply that if $\\cX$ is the unit hypercube in a Euclidean space and the mean-payoff function has a finite number of global maxima around which the behavior of the function is locally H\\"older continuous with a known exponent, then the expected of HOO regret is bounded up to a logarithmic factor by $\\sqrt{n}$, i.e., the rate of growth of the regret is independent of the dimension of the space. We also prove the minimax optimality of our algorithm when the dissimilarity is a metric.

  4. RAMESES publication standards: realist syntheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing interest in realist synthesis as an alternative systematic review method. This approach offers the potential to expand the knowledge base in policy-relevant areas - for example, by explaining the success, failure or mixed fortunes of complex interventions. No previous publication standards exist for reporting realist syntheses. This standard was developed as part of the RAMESES (Realist And MEta-narrative Evidence Syntheses: Evolving Standards project. The project's aim is to produce preliminary publication standards for realist systematic reviews. Methods We (a collated and summarized existing literature on the principles of good practice in realist syntheses; (b considered the extent to which these principles had been followed by published syntheses, thereby identifying how rigor may be lost and how existing methods could be improved; (c used a three-round online Delphi method with an interdisciplinary panel of national and international experts in evidence synthesis, realist research, policy and/or publishing to produce and iteratively refine a draft set of methodological steps and publication standards; (d provided real-time support to ongoing realist syntheses and the open-access RAMESES online discussion list so as to capture problems and questions as they arose; and (e synthesized expert input, evidence syntheses and real-time problem analysis into a definitive set of standards. Results We identified 35 published realist syntheses, provided real-time support to 9 on-going syntheses and captured questions raised in the RAMESES discussion list. Through analysis and discussion within the project team, we summarized the published literature and common questions and challenges into briefing materials for the Delphi panel, comprising 37 members. Within three rounds this panel had reached consensus on 19 key publication standards, with an overall response rate of 91%. Conclusion This project used multiple sources to develop and draw together evidence and expertise in realist synthesis. For each item we have included an explanation for why it is important and guidance on how it might be reported. Realist synthesis is a relatively new method for evidence synthesis and as experience and methodological developments occur, we anticipate that these standards will evolve to reflect further methodological developments. We hope that these standards will act as a resource that will contribute to improving the reporting of realist syntheses. To encourage dissemination of the RAMESES publication standards, this article is co-published in the Journal of Advanced Nursing and is freely accessible on Wiley Online Library (http://www.wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/jan. Please see related article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/20 and http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/22

  5. The polymer electrolyte based on polysiloxane containing both alkyl cyanide and oligo ethylene oxide pendants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monomers (3-cyanopropyl) methylsiloxane cyclics (D4CN) and (3-(2-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxy)propyl) methylsiloxane cyclics (D4TEG) were prepared by a hydrosilylation reaction of 2,4,6,8-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4H) with allyl cyanide and tri(ethylene glycol) methyl allyl ether (allyl TEG), respectively, in toluene using a platinum(0)-1,3-divinyl-1,1,3,3-tetramethyl disiloxane complex as the catalyst. The new crosslinkable polymers with alkyl cyanide and ethylene oxide groups as the pendent were synthesized by ring opening polymerization and characterized by GPC and 1H NMR. And then, the crosslinked solid polymer electrolyte was prepared by UV radiation curing. The conductivities of samples were measured by impedance spectroscopy using an indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrode. As the results, the maximum ionic conductivities of the polymer were 1.15 x 10-5 S cm-1 at 20 deg. C and 1 x 10-4 S cm-1 at 60 deg. C. The electrolyte was stable electrochemically to 5 V versus Li+/Li at room temperature

  6. Synthesis, properties and controlled release behaviors of hydrogel networks using cyclodextrin as pendant groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Yang; Fan, Xiao-Dong

    2005-11-01

    Based on inclusion character of beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) with drug molecule and low glass transition temperature of poly(2-hydroxyethyl acrylate) (PHEA), a series of hydrogels with different compositions were synthesized by the copolymerization of a monovinyl cyclodexrin monomer with 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA). The structure and properties of the hydrogels were characterized by FTIR, DSC, TGA and swelling measurements. It is found that swelling ratios of these beta-CD hydrogels can keep a relative stability in the range of pH from 1.4 to 7.4, and are not sensitive to change in NaCl concentration. Using drug N-acety-5-methoxytryptamine (melatonin, MEL) as a model molecule, the controlled drug release behaviors of these hydrogels were investigated. The results indicate that the diffusion and permeation of MEL from the hydrogels may be a dominant factor for its release. Owing to the formation of MEL/beta-CD retarding diffusion rate of MEL, a sustained release of MEL from hydrogel with high content of beta-CD can be obtained compared with hydrogel PHEA without beta-CD. PMID:15913774

  7. Nuclear arms cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Soviet Union's demise five years ago brought an end to the Cold War, the 45-year arms race between the Soviet superpower and the United States. The euphoria that greeted the end of this bloodless conflict has dampened somewhat, however, as U.S. officials and their counterparts in the former Soviet republics come to grips with its legacy: thousands of highly toxic and politically destabilizing nuclear weapons. With no more perceived need for much of their vast arsenals, the governments have agreed to dismantle large numbers of nuclear warheads. But the agencies involved in this task face a daunting technical and political problem: what to do with the thousands of tons of plutonium and uranium that are the main ingredients of nuclear weapons

  8. Robotic Arm Biobarrier Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on the 14th Martian day of the mission (June 7, 2008), shows the cable that held the Robotic Arm's biobarrier in place during flight has snapped. The cable's springs retracted to release the biobarrier right after landing. To the lower right of the image a spring is visible. Extending from that spring is a length of cable that snapped during the biobarrier's release. A second spring separated from the cable when it snapped and has been photographed on the ground under the lander near one of the legs. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. Les infirmières-visiteuses pendant l’entre-deux-guerres en Haute-Normandie : entre professionnalisme officiel et bénévolat officieux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Henry

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Marginale avant 1914, révélée pendant la Première Guerre mondiale, adulée ou décriée pendant l’entre-deux-guerres, l’évolution de la profession d’infirmière-visiteuse est étrangement commune à l’évolution de la place des femmes dans le travail salarié. En effet, même si une législation est venue encadrer ce nouveau corps de femmes au début des années vingt, force est de constater, au travers des exemples des départements de Seine-Inférieure et de l’Eure, que celui-ci a gardé de nombreux attributs propres au bénévolat. D’ailleurs, bien que les dirigeants de l’action antituberculeuse, Albert Calmette en tête, aient régulièrement encensé la profession, ils ont néanmoins cherché à l’encadrer strictement, redoutant des envies trop fortes d’autonomie. À cette professionnalisation toute relative se sont ajoutées des conditions de travail particulièrement rudes pour ces jeunes femmes novices, finalement peu préparées à côtoyer une misère insoupçonnée. Ainsi, si la fonction d’infirmière-visiteuse correspond à un virage non négligeable dans l’acceptation du travail qualifié des femmes par la société, son efficacité dans le cadre des luttes contre les fléaux sociaux (tuberculose et mortalité infantile reste tout de même mesurée dans les faits.The evolutions of the status of the visiting nurse echo the evolution in women's position within the workforce: marginal prior to 1914, revealed during the First World War, idolized or disparaged in the inter-war years. Despite legislation governing this new corps of women nurses in the early twenties, examples from the departments of the Seine-Inférieure and  the Eure make clear that it retained many attributes of volunteer work. Moreover, although the leaders of the war against tuberculosis, such as Albert Calmette, regularly praised the profession, they nonetheless sought to regulate it strictly, fearing a move toward excessive autonomy. The article considers the nature of this relative professionalization as well as the particularly difficult working conditions of these novice women professionals, who were ultimately ill-equipped to handle the misery they encountered.  Thus, while the emergence of the visiting nurse represented a major shift in the acceptance of women’s skilled work in French society, the ability of these women to exert their skills effectively in the context of struggles against social scourges (tuberculosis and infant mortality was limited in practice.

  10. X-Band PLL Synthesizer

    OpenAIRE

    P. Kutin; Vagner, P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with design and realization of a PLL synthesizer for the microwave X−band. The synthesizer is intended for use as a local oscillator in a K−band downconverter. The design goal was to achieve very low phase noise and spurious free signal with a sufficient power level. For that purpose a low phase noise MMIC VCO was used in phase locked loop. The PLL works at half the output frequency, therefore there is a frequency doubler at the output of the PLL. The output signal ...

  11. Cobalt Complexes Containing Pendant Amines in the Second Coordination Sphere as Electrocatalysts for H2 Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Ming; Wiedner, Eric S.; Dougherty, William G.; Kassel, W. S.; Liu, Tianbiao L.; DuBois, Daniel L.; Bullock, R. Morris

    2014-10-27

    A series of heteroleptic 17e- cobalt complexes, [CpCoII(PtBu2NPh2)](BF4), [CpC6F5CoII(PtBu2NPh2)](BF4), [CpC5F4NCoII(PtBu2NPh2)](BF4), [where P2tBuN2Ph = 1,5-diphenyl-3,7-di(tert-butyl)-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane, CpC6F5 = C5H4(C6F5), and CpC5F4N = C5H4(C5F4N)] were synthesized, and structures of all three were determined by X-ray crystallography. Electrochemical studies showed that the CoIII/II couple of [CpC5F4NCoII(PtBu2NPh2)]+ appears 250 mV positive of the CoIII/II couple of [CpCoII(PtBu2NPh2)] as a result of the strongly electron-withdrawing perfluorpyridyl substituent on the Cp ring. Reduction of these paramagnetic CoII complexes by KC8 led to the diamagnetic 18e- complexes CpICo(PtBu2NPh2), CpC6F5CoI(PtBu2NPh2), CpC5F4NCoI(PtBu2NPh2), which were also characterized by crystallography. Protonation of these neutral CoI complexes led to the cobalt hydrides [CpCoIII(PtBu2NPh2)H](BF4), [CpC6F5CoIII(PtBu2NPh2)H](BF4), and [CpC5F4NCoIII(PtBu2NPh2)H](BF4). The cobalt hydride with the most electron-withdrawing Cp ligand, [CpC5F4NCoIII(PtBu2NPh2)H]+ is an electrocatalyst for production of H2 using 4-MeOC6H4NH3BF4 (pKaMeCN = 11.86) with a turnover frequency of 350 s-1 and an overpotential of 0.75 V. Experimental measurement of thermochemical data provided further insights into the thermodynamics of H2 elimination. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  12. Method of synthesizing pyrite nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadia, Cyrus; Wu, Yue

    2013-04-23

    A method of synthesizing pyrite nanocrystals is disclosed which in one embodiment includes forming a solution of iron (III) diethyl dithiophosphate and tetra-alkyl-ammonium halide in water. The solution is heated under pressure. Pyrite nanocrystal particles are then recovered from the solution.

  13. Polymeric Gene Carriers Bearing Pendant β-Cyclodextrin: The Relevance of Glycoside Permethylation on the "In Vitro" Cell Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, Juan Alfonso; Martínez-Campos, Enrique; Plet, Laetitia; Pérez-Perrino, Mónica; Navarro, Rodrigo; Corrales, Guillermo; Pandit, Abhay; Reinecke, Helmut; Gallardo, Alberto; López-Lacomba, José Luis; Fernández-Mayoralas, Alfonso; Elvira, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    The incorporation of cyclodextrins (CDs) to nonviral cationic polymer vectors is very attractive due to recent studies that report a clear improvement of their cytocompatibility and transfection efficiency. However, a systematic study on the influence of the CD derivatization is still lacking. In this work, the relevance of β-CD permethylation has been addressed by preparing and evaluating two series of copolymers of the cationic N-ethyl pyrrolidine methacrylamide (EPA) and styrenic units bearing pendant hydroxylated and permethylated β-CDs (HCDSt and MeCDSt, respectively). For both cell lines, CDs permethylation shows a strong influence on plasmid DNA complexation, "in vitro" cytocompatibility and transfection efficiency of the resulting copolymers over two murine cell lines. While the incorporation of the hydroxylated CD moiety increased the cytotoxicity of the copolymers in comparison with their homopolycationic counterpart, the permethylated copolymers have shown full cytocompatibility as well as superior transfection efficiency than the controls. This behavior has been related to the different chemical nature of both units and tentatively to a different distribution of units along the polymeric chains. Cellular internalization analysis with fluorescent copo-lymers supports this behavior. PMID:26833583

  14. Novel sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) with pendant benzimidazole groups as a proton exchange membrane for direct methanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yang; Shao, Ke; Zhao, Chengji; Zhang, Gang; Li, Hongtao; Fu, Tiezhu; Na, Hui [Alan G MacDiarmid Institute, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Qianjin Street 2699, Changchun 130012, Jilin (China)

    2009-10-20

    A series of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)s bearing pendant carboxylic acid groups (C-SPEEKs) have been prepared and subsequently react with 1,2-diaminobenzene to obtain sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)s with pendant benzimidazole groups (BI-SPEEKs). The expected structures of the sulfonated copolymers are confirmed by {sup 1}H NMR. The resulting copolymers all show good thermal and mechanical properties. It should be noted that the introduction of benzimidazole groups into the copolymer improves its thermal and oxidative stability obviously. Meanwhile, compared to C-SPEEK, BI-SPEEK membranes show much lower water uptake and methanol permeability with the same sulfonation degree (DS). In order to study morphological changes of C-SPEEK and BI-SPEEK membranes, hydrophilic domains sizes from an atomic force microscopy (AFM) are investigated. (author)

  15. Les inhibiteurs spécifiques du recaptage de la sérotonine pendant la grossesse et l’issue du nourrisson

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferies, Ann L

    2011-01-01

    Il est très important de bien soigner la dépression pendant la grossesse pour la santé de la mère, du fœtus, puis du nouveau-né. Les inhibiteurs sélectifs du recaptage de la sérotonine (ISRS) sont souvent utilisés comme antidépresseurs. D’après une étude américaine, environ 7 % des femmes enceintes se sont fait prescrire des ISRS en 2004–2005. L’utilisation d’ISRS pendant le premier trimestre, dans leur ensemble, risque peu d’accroître le risque de malformations congénitales. La paroxétine pe...

  16. ARM Lead Mentor Selection Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisterson, DL

    2013-03-13

    The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as Instrument Mentors. Instrument Mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets.

  17. International security and arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The end of the cold war also ended the focus on the bilateral approach to arms control and disarmament. Key concepts of security needed to be revisited, along with their implications for the disarmament and arms control agenda. Though there is currently a unipolar global security environment, there remain important tasks on the multilateral arms control agenda. The major task is that of reducing and eliminating weapons of mass destruction, especially nuclear weapons. The author contends that maintaining reliance on the nuclear-weapons option makes little sense in a time when the major Powers are strengthening their partnerships in economics, trade, peacemaking and building. (author)

  18. Design of Robotic Arm Control System Mimics Human Arm Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Salam Al-Ammri, A; Ghaith .A .Taki

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a control system to make the robotic hand mimic human hand motion in real time and offline mode. The human hand tracking system is a wearable sensing arm (potentiometers) used to determine the position in space and to sense the grasping task of human hand. The maskable sensing arm was designed with same geometrical arrangement of robotic hand that needs to be controlled. The control software of a robot was implemented using Visual Basic and supported with graphical user in...

  19. Experimental validation of dual/modified dual arm locking for LISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The laser frequency stabilization subsystem is one of the most significant parts within the interferometric measurement system of LISA. Arm locking as a proposed frequency stabilization technique synthesizes an adequately filtered linear combination of the interferometry signals as a frequency reference. Until now all the benchtop experiments on arm locking verified only the basic single arm locking configuration with unrealistic short signal travel times. At the University of Florida we developed the hardware-based University of Florida LISA Interferometer Simulator (UFLIS) to study and verify laser frequency noise reduction and suppression techniques under realistic LISA-like conditions. These conditions include the Doppler shifts between the spacecraft, LISA-like signal travel times, realistic laser frequency and timing noise. In this paper we will report about preliminary experiments on advanced arm locking schemes including dual arm locking and modified dual arm locking with realistic 33 s light travel times. In our experiments the implementation of a dual/modified dual arm locking sensor and controller is realized using several digital signal processing boards. We demonstrated the closed-loop stability of arm locking setup and measured the noise suppression in these experiments.

  20. ARM Soc Based Enotebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranita C Bawankar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, electronic media has grown very fast replacing papers, tape devices, books, etc. The new technologies provide large number of data into single device, fast searching options and more readability than ever. As eBooks are replacing books; we are proposing ENotebook system in which user can write as he did in notebook, save, searches and then reread content. This paper presents design and development of ENotebook using ARM7. The system uses touch screen to get input data and operations like save, delete, open & close of data file. All data sensed by touch screen is digitized by internal ADCs of LPC2148 microcontroller which gives low power platform with fast execution. The output is shown on graphical LCD. Whatever user writes on screen it may need to save for future use. The content of such hand written data will be in graphical/pictorial form hence required large of memory for storage. We can provide external memory using pen drive, memory card, EEPROM etc. in this system we are using SD card interfacing through SPI port.

  1. Keeping disease at arm's length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    2015-01-01

    Many older people live with a range of chronic diseases. However, these diseases do not necessarily impede an active lifestyle. In this article the author analyses the relation between the active ageing discourse and the way older people at two Danish activity centres handle disease. How does...... active ageing change everyday life with chronic disease, and how do older people combine an active life with a range of chronic diseases? The participants in the study use activities to keep their diseases at arm’s length, and this distancing of disease at the same time enables them to engage in social...... and physical activities at the activity centre. In this way, keeping disease at arm’s length is analysed as an ambiguous health strategy. The article shows the importance of looking into how active ageing is practised, as active ageing seems to work well in the everyday life of the older people by not...

  2. ARM Standards Policy Committee Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cialella, A; Jensen, M; Koontz, A; McFarlane, S; McCoy, R; Monroe, J; Palanisamy, G; Perez, R; Sivaraman, C

    2012-09-19

    Data and metadata standards promote the consistent recording of information and are necessary to ensure the stability and high quality of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility data products for scientific users. Standards also enable automated routines to be developed to examine data, which leads to more efficient operations and assessment of data quality. Although ARM Infrastructure agrees on the utility of data and metadata standards, there is significant confusion over the existing standards and the process for allowing the release of new data products with exceptions to the standards. The ARM Standards Policy Committee was initiated in March 2012 to develop a set of policies and best practices for ARM data and metadata standards.

  3. Torque-Wrench Extension Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacala, T. J.; Trujillo, D. D.; Laudenslager, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    Torque-wrench extension arm makes possible to apply torque to bolt, screw, or nut inaccessible to conventional wrenches or in areas where wrench cannot be manipulated. Used in narrow pockets and behind panels and walls.

  4. Changing patterns of arms transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three factors in the international system have been of importance for the trade of arms: the role of the main actors on the supply side and since 1970 on the demand side, the permanently increasing importance of economics, and the balance trade, industrial capacity and jobs in supplier countries and purchasing power of potential importers. Two political events in 1991 had lasting effect on the development of the trade in arms: the dissolution of Soviet Union and the Gulf War

  5. Robotic Arm for Remote Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Dinger, Steven; Dickens, John; Pantanowitz, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in telecommunications have enabled surgeons to operate remotely on patients with the use of robotics. The investigation and testing of remote surgery using a robotic arm is presented. The robotic arm is designed to have four degrees of freedom that track the surgeon's x, y, z positions and the rotation angle of the forearm {\\theta}. The system comprises two main subsystems viz. the detecting and actuating systems. The detection system uses infrared light-emitting diodes, a ret...

  6. Phosphorylcholine substituted polyolefins: New syntheses, solution assemblies, and polymer vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Katrina A.

    This thesis describes the synthesis and applications of a new series of amphiphilic homopolymers and copolymers consisting of hydrophobic polyolefin backbone and hydrophilic phosphorylcholine (PC) pendant groups. These polymers are synthesized by ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of a novel PC- cyclooctene monomer, and copolymerization of various functionalized cyclooctene comonomers. Incorporation of different comonomers into the PC-polyolefin backbone affords copolymers with different functionalities, including crosslinkers, fluorophores, and other reactive groups, that tune the range of applications of these polymers, and their hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance. The amphiphilic nature of PC-polyolefins was exploited in oil-water interfacial assembly, providing robust polymer capsules to encapsulate and deliver nanoparticles to damaged regions of a substrate in a project termed `repair-and-go.' In repair-and-go, a flexible microcapsule filled with a solution of nanoparticles probes an imperfection-riddled substrate as it rolls over the surface. The thin capsule wall allows the nanoparticles to escape the capsules and enter into the cracks, driven in part by favorable interactions between the nanoparticle ligands and the cracked surface (i.e., hydrophobic-hydrophobic interactions). The capsules then continue their transport along the surface, filling more cracks and depositing particles into them. The amphiphilic nature of PC-polyolefins was also exploited in aqueous assembly, forming novel polymer vesicles in water. PC-polyolefin vesicles ranged in size from 50 nm to 30 µm. The mechanical properties of PC-polyolefin vesicles were measured by micropipette aspiration techniques, and found to be more robust than conventional liposomes or polymersomes prepared from block copolymers. PC-polyolefin vesicles have potential use in drug delivery; it was found that the cancer drug doxorubicin could be encapsulated efficiently in PC-polyolefin vesicles. In another application, PC-polyolefins were used as antifouling coatings for ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) water purification membranes. These polymers were found to reduce surface fouling in both UF and RO membranes. Finally, PC-substituted ruthenium benzylidene catalysts were synthesized and evaluated for ROMP in water. PC-substituted catalysts proved effective towards productive metathesis of water soluble cyclic olefins including PEG-substituted oxanorbornene.

  7. Catalytic method for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapienza, Richard S.; Sansone, Michael J.; Slegeir, William A. R.

    1984-01-01

    A method for synthesizing hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen by contacting said gases with a slurry of a catalyst composed of palladium or platinum and cobalt supported on a solid phase is disclosed. The catalyst is prepared by heating a heterogeneous component of the palladium or platinum deposited on the solid support in a solution of cobalt carbonyl or precursors thereof. The catalyst exhibits excellent activity, stability in air, and produces highly desirable product fractions even with dilute gaseous reactants.

  8. Solid phase syntheses of oligoureas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, K.; Linthicum, D.S.; Russell, D.H.; Shin, H.; Shitangkoon, A.; Totani, R.; Zhang, A.J.; Ibarzo, J. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1997-02-19

    Isocyanates 7 were formed from monoprotected diamines 3 or 6, which in turn can be easily prepared from commercially available N-BOC- or N-FMOC-protected amino acid derivatives. Isocyanates 7, formed in situ, could be coupled directly to a solid support functionalized with amine groups or to amino acids anchored on resins using CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} as solvent and an 11 h coupling time at 25 {degree}C. Such couplings afforded peptidomimetics with an N-phthaloyl group at the N-terminus. The optimal conditions identified for removal of the N-phthaloyl group were to use 60% hydrazine in DMF for 1-3 h. Several sequences of amino acids coupled to ureas (`peptidic ureas`) and of sequential urea units (`oligoureas`) were prepared via solid phase syntheses and isolated by HPLC. Partition coefficients were measured for two of these peptidomimetics, and their water solubilities were found to be similar to the corresponding peptides. A small library of 160 analogues of the YGGFL-amide sequence was prepared via Houghten`s tea bag methodology. This library was tested for binding to the anti-{beta}-endorphin monoclonal antibody. Overall, this paper describes methodology for solid phase syntheses of oligourea derivatives with side chains corresponding to some of the protein amino acids. The chemistry involved is ideal for high-throughput syntheses and screening operations. 51 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. POSS with eight imidazolium iodide arms for efficient solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Li, Juan; Jiang, Shenghui; Wang, Zhong-Sheng

    2014-02-18

    Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane functionalized with eight imidazolium iodide arms has been designed and synthesized for use as solid-state electrolytes in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells, which exhibits a power conversion efficiency of 7.11% under one sun illumination and good long-term stability under one sun soaking. PMID:24394690

  10. Femtosecond laser comb based subterahertz synthesizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, D. S.; Tretyakov, M. Yu.; Shkaev, A. P.; Kiselev, A. M.; Stepanov, A. N.; Parshin, V. V.

    2014-08-01

    Functioning layout of a frequency comb-based subterahertz synthesizer is demonstrated. A primary subterahertz oscillator was phase-locked against the Ti:Sapphire femtosecond laser frequency comb down-converted to the subterahertz range by the semiconductor mixer. Synthesizer operation is demonstrated through Fabri-Perot resonator response curve recording experiment. Spectral purity of the synthesizer was estimated. The advantage of the comb-based synthesizer over the synthesizer based on the Agilent E8257D device was shown.

  11. Arm locking for space-based laser interferometry gravitational wave observatories

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Yinan; Mueller, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Laser frequency stabilization is a critical part of the interferometry measurement system of space-based gravitational wave observatories such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). Arm locking as a proposed frequency stabilization technique, transfers the stability of the long arm lengths to the laser frequency. The arm locking sensor synthesizes an adequately filtered linear combination of the inter-spacecraft phase measurements to estimate the laser frequency noise, which can be used to control the laser frequency. At the University of Florida we developed the hardware-based University of Florida LISA Interferometer Simulator (UFLIS) to study and verify laser frequency noise reduction and suppression techniques under realistic LISA-like conditions. These conditions include the variable Doppler shifts between the spacecraft, LISA-like signal travel times, optical transponders, realistic laser frequency and timing noise. We review the different types of arm locking sensors and discuss their expect...

  12. Design of Robotic Arm Control System Mimics Human Arm Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Salam Al-Ammri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a control system to make the robotic hand mimic human hand motion in real time and offline mode. The human hand tracking system is a wearable sensing arm (potentiometers used to determine the position in space and to sense the grasping task of human hand. The maskable sensing arm was designed with same geometrical arrangement of robotic hand that needs to be controlled. The control software of a robot was implemented using Visual Basic and supported with graphical user interface (GUI. The control algorithm depends on joint to joint mapping method to match between the motions at each joint of portable sensing arm with corresponding joint of a robot in order to make the robot mimic the motion.

  13. Method of synthesizing tungsten nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Steven G; Anderson, Travis M

    2013-02-12

    A method to synthesize tungsten nanoparticles has been developed that enables synthesis of nanometer-scale, monodisperse particles that can be stabilized only by tetrahydrofuran. The method can be used at room temperature, is scalable, and the product concentrated by standard means. Since no additives or stabilizing surfactants are required, this method is particularly well suited for producing tungsten nanoparticles for dispersion in polymers. If complete dispersion is achieved due to the size of the nanoparticles, then the optical properties of the polymer can be largely maintained.

  14. Living cationic polymerization and polyhomologation: an ideal combination to synthesize functionalized polyethylene–polyisobutylene block copolymers

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Hefeng

    2015-12-17

    A series of hydroxyl-terminated polyisobutylene-b-polyethylene (PIB-b-PE-OH) copolymers were synthesized by combining living cationic polymerization and polyhomologation. Allyl-terminated PIBs, synthesized by living cationic polymerization, were hydroborated with BH3·THF to produce 3-arm boron-linked stars, PIB3B, which served as macroinitiators for the in situ polyhomologation of dimethylsulfoxonium methylide. The resulting 3-arm star block copolymers, (PIB-b-PE)3B, were oxidized/hydrolysed to afford PIB-b-PE-OH. Characterization of all intermediates and final products by high temperature gel permeation chromatography (HT-GPC) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) revealed the well-defined character of the copolymers. The thermal properties of the copolymers were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

  15. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Naasz, Bo; Cichy, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a robotic mission to visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, and redirect it into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts will explore the boulder and return to Earth with samples. This Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is part of NASA’s plan to advance the technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. Subsequent human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cislunar space. Although ARM is primarily a capability demonstration mission (i.e., technologies and associated operations), there exist significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, asteroidal resources and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and capability and technology demonstrations. In order to maximize the knowledge return from the mission, NASA is organizing an ARM Investigation Team, which is being preceded by the Formulation Assessment and Support Team. These teams will be comprised of scientists, technologists, and other qualified and interested individuals to help plan the implementation and execution of ARM. An overview of robotic and crewed segments of ARM, including the mission requirements, NEA targets, and mission operations, will be provided along with a discussion of the potential opportunities associated with the mission.

  16. Ristripatsid Eesti 12.–13. sajandi laibakalmistutes: kas ehted või usu tunnused? / The cross-shaped pendants of inhumation burials in 12th-13th century Estonia: adornments or signs of belief?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuuli Kurisoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-shaped pendants are one of the most discussed symbolically laden artefacts among Estonian archaeological material. The beginning of the distribution of cross-shaped pendants dates back to 11th century when the artefacts, though scarce, appear. The number of such pendants increases noticeably at the very end of the Iron Age. Due to the ambiguous entity of cross and time context, cross-pendants have been interpreted either as symbols of Christian faith, as pieces of adornment not affiliated with Christianity, or as objects with magical qualities. In this paper I study pendants found in the inhumation cemeteries of Estonia. Only those provide us with an archaeological context which shows precisely who could have worn them and how. The analyzed cross-pendants were found at Pada, Kaberla, Kukruse, Haimre and Tammiku cemeteries and from the early burials in Viru-Nigula churchyard. As artefacts, the cross pendants are more or less stylized Greek crosses. In most cases the pendants were either used as a part of jewellery or worn singularly around the neck area. From the total of 48 analyzed cross-pendants one fourth could be interpreted as locally produced items. Of local origin are probably lead pendants from Pada cemetery, heads of decorative pins worn as cross-shaped pendants from Viru-Nigula and Kaberla cemeteries, and obvious scrap and unfinished pendant crosses. In addition, I would like to draw attention that cross-pendants from inhumation burials do not contain many widespread forms, such as ‘Scandinavian’ and some other widespread Russian origin types, which have been found in hoards, from hill-forts and cremation burials. This observation could confirm that cross pendants from 12th–13th century inhumation burials were communally recognized and some of them were locally manufactured. As the next stage of my investigation I studied different occurrence contexts of cross pendants in cemeteries and burials: the location of burials with cross-pendants in a cemetery, their orientation, grave goods, pendants with symbolic meaning and reference to other cross-symbolism. It appears that concerning general burial rituals, burials with cross-pendants do not differ from other contemporary burials. In the case of people being buried with crosses, family and/or community traditions may have been considered primary in the funeral rite. On an individual level it resulted in cross-pendants appearing in the graves of males, females or children; as a part of a necklace, as grave goods, etc.; either one or several. Finally, I took into account the data which I gained from contextual analyses and connected it with common interpretations. The research indicates that it is not reasonable to exclude interpretations in which crosses are seen only as adornments. After analyzing archaeological contexts, it appears that they probably had a symbolic meaning. The ambiguous nature of other interpretations made it difficult to connect them with archaeological evidence. Creating criteria in favour of one and/or another interpretation is artificial, because archaeological evidence from the inhumation burials is not univocally understandable. Burials with and without crosses do not differ considerably. Thus we should not interpret 12th–13th century inhumation burials through strict definitions; rather we should take into account a pluralistic world-view, enriched with multifarious symbolic language. Therefore, previously separated interpretations can be connected. The cross pendant could have a symbolic meaning and the definition of an amulet connects well with a Christian artefact of the Late Iron Age. For the owner it could have been both a symbol of Christianity and/or a good luck charm. In conclusion it seems that based on contextual analysis it is more likely that cross-shaped pendants were used as indicators of belief rather than just pieces of adornment. In addition it appears that the impulse for the appearance of cross-shaped pendants in inhumation burials in Estonia came from the general dissemination of these

  17. Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N; Johnson, K

    2012-06-18

    The scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) is a polarimetric Doppler radar consisting of three different radar designs based on operating frequency. These are designated as follows: (1) X-band SACR (X-SACR); (2) Ka-band SACR (Ka-SACR); and (3) W-band SACR (W-SACR). There are two SACRs on a single pedestal at each site where SACRs are deployed. The selection of the operating frequencies at each deployed site is predominantly determined by atmospheric attenuation at the site. Because RF attenuation increases with atmospheric water vapor content, ARM's Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites use the X-/Ka-band frequency pair. The Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites field the Ka-/W-band frequency pair. One ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) has a Ka/W-SACR and the other (AMF2) has a X/Ka-SACR.

  18. LAWS ENFORCING AGENCIES -ARMED FORCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathwardhan Rathod

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The horrendous shooting down of 32 students and faculty in cold blood by a student at Virginia Tech University has once again highlighted the high price America is playing for the proliferation of small arms. The tragedy comes as the April 30 deadline nears for United Nations member states to submit their views to the Secretary General on the feasibility and parameters for a legally binding Arms Trade Treaty. This is a follow up to the historic meeting of the General Assembly on December 6,2006, when 153 member states overwhelmingly voted in favour of working out such a treaty.

  19. Iron Complexes Bearing Diphosphine Ligands with Positioned Pendant Amines as Electrocatalysts for the Oxidation of H2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tianbiao L.; Liao, Qian; O' Hagan, Molly J.; Hulley, Elliott; DuBois, Daniel L.; Bullock, R. Morris

    2015-06-22

    The synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of CpC5F4NFe(PtBu2NBn2)Cl, [3-Cl] (where C5F4N is the tetrafluorpyridyl substituent and PtBu2NBn2 = 1,5-di(tert-butyl)-3,7-di(benzyl)-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane) are reported. Complex 3-Cl and previously reported [CpC5F4NFe(PtBu2NtBu2)Cl], 4-Cl, are precursors to intermediates in the catalytic oxidation of H2, including CpC5F4NFe(PtBu2NBn2)H (3-H), CpC5F4NFe(PtBu2NtBu2)H (4-H), [CpC5F4NFe(PtBu2NBn2)]BArF4 ([3](BArF4), [CpC5F4NFe(PtBu2NtBu2)]BArF4 ([4](BArF4), [CpC5F4NFe(PtBu2NBn2)(H2)]BArF4 ([3-H2]BArF4), and [CpC5F4NFe(PtBu2NtBu2H)H]BArF4 ([4-FeH(NH)]BArF4). All of these complexes were characterized by spectroscopic and electrochemical studies; 3-Cl, 3-H and 4-Cl were also characterized by single crystal diffraction studies. 3-H and 4-H are electrocatalysts for H2 (1.0 atm) oxidation in the presence of a excess of the amine base N-methylpyrrolidine, with turnover frequencies at 22 °C of 2.5 s-1 and 0.5 s-1, and overpotentials at Ecat/2 of 235 mV and 95 mV, respectively. Studies of individual chemical and/or electrochemical reactions of the various intermediates provide important insights into the factors governing the overall catalytic activity for H2 oxidation, and provide important insights into the role of the pendant base of the [FeFe] hydrogenase active site. This work was supported by the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  20. Synthesizing Customized Planners from Specifications

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, B

    1998-01-01

    Existing plan synthesis approaches in artificial intelligence fall into two categories -- domain independent and domain dependent. The domain independent approaches are applicable across a variety of domains, but may not be very efficient in any one given domain. The domain dependent approaches need to be (re)designed for each domain separately, but can be very efficient in the domain for which they are designed. One enticing alternative to these approaches is to automatically synthesize domain independent planners given the knowledge about the domain and the theory of planning. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of using existing automated software synthesis tools to support such synthesis. Specifically, we describe an architecture called CLAY in which the Kestrel Interactive Development System (KIDS) is used to derive a domain-customized planner through a semi-automatic combination of a declarative theory of planning, and the declarative control knowledge specific to a given domain, to semi-autom...

  1. RF SYNTHESIZER WITH DIRECT DIGITAL SYNTHESIZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Murav’iov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A synthesizer of frequencies with direct digital synthesis and a frequency multiplier on PLL are developed. Phase noises of an output signal of the synthesizer, noise of a loop of PLL, level of collateral radiations on outputs of the digital synthesizer (frequency of 100 MHz and the frequency multiplier output on a loop of PLL (frequency of 8 GHz are probed.

  2. RF SYNTHESIZER WITH DIRECT DIGITAL SYNTHESIZ

    OpenAIRE

    V. V. Murav’iov; S. A. Korenevsky; N. M. Naumovich; A. A. Stanul

    2015-01-01

    A synthesizer of frequencies with direct digital synthesis and a frequency multiplier on PLL are developed. Phase noises of an output signal of the synthesizer, noise of a loop of PLL, level of collateral radiations on outputs of the digital synthesizer (frequency of 100 MHz) and the frequency multiplier output on a loop of PLL (frequency of 8 GHz) are probed.

  3. MOBILE ARM RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (MARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The power point presentation included an overview of the Mobile Arm Retreival System (MARS) including background information, schedule and design strategy, and described the sound tank system, assumed leaking tank system, key technical issues, the design progress, and the fabrication process

  4. The Arm Prime Factors Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Arm, Boris

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the Arm prime factors decomposition which is the equivalent of the Taylor formula for decomposition of integers on the basis of prime numbers. We make the link between this decomposition and the p-adic norm known in the p-adic numbers theory. To see how it works, we give examples of these two

  5. Nuclear physicist, arms control advocate

    CERN Multimedia

    Chang, K

    2002-01-01

    Victor F. Weisskopf, a nuclear physicist who worked on the Manhattan Project to build the first atomic bomb in World War II and later became an ardent advocate of arms control, died Monday at his home in Newton, MA, USA. He was 93 (1 page).

  6. Spirality: Spiral arm pitch angle measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Douglas W.; Boe, Benjamin; Pfountz, Casey; Davis, Benjamin L.; Hartley, Matthew; Pour Imani, Hamed; Slade, Zac; Kennefick, Daniel; Kennefick, Julia

    2015-12-01

    Spirality measures spiral arm pitch angles by fitting galaxy images to spiral templates of known pitch. Written in MATLAB, the code package also includes GenSpiral, which produces FITS images of synthetic spirals, and SpiralArmCount, which uses a one-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform to count the spiral arms of a galaxy after its pitch is determined.

  7. Balancing Loads Among Robotic-Manipulator Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutz, Kenneth K.; Lokshin, Anatole

    1990-01-01

    Paper presents rigorous mathematical approach to control of multiple robot arms simultaneously grasping one object. Mathematical development focuses on relationship between ability to control degrees of freedom of configuration and ability to control forces within grasped object and robot arms. Understanding of relationship leads to practical control schemes distributing load more equitably among all arms while grasping object with proper nondamaging forces.

  8. Performance of arm locking in LISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Kirk; Spero, Robert E.; Shaddock, Daniel A.

    2009-11-01

    For the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) to reach its design sensitivity, the coupling of the free-running laser frequency noise to the signal readout must be reduced by more than 14 orders of magnitude. One technique employed to reduce the laser frequency noise will be arm locking, where the laser frequency is locked to the LISA arm length. In this paper we detail an implementation of arm locking. We investigate orbital effects (changing arm lengths and Doppler frequencies), the impact of errors in the Doppler knowledge that can cause pulling of the laser frequency, and the noise limit of arm locking. Laser frequency pulling is examined in two regimes: at lock acquisition and in steady state. The noise performance of arm locking is calculated with the inclusion of the dominant expected noise sources: ultrastable oscillator (clock) noise, spacecraft motion, and shot noise. We find that clock noise and spacecraft motion limit the performance of dual arm locking in the LISA science band. Studying these issues reveals that although dual arm locking [A. Sutton and D. A. Shaddock, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 78, 082001 (2008)10.1103/PhysRevD.78.082001] has advantages over single (or common) arm locking in terms of allowing high gain, it has disadvantages in both laser frequency pulling and noise performance. We address this by proposing a modification to the dual arm-locking sensor, a hybrid of common and dual arm-locking sensors. This modified dual arm-locking sensor has the laser frequency pulling characteristics and low-frequency noise coupling of common arm locking, but retains the control system advantages of dual arm locking. We present a detailed design of an arm-locking controller and perform an analysis of the expected performance when used with and without laser prestabilization. We observe that the sensor phase changes beneficially near unity-gain frequencies of the arm-locking controller, allowing a factor of 10 more gain than previously believed, without degrading stability. With a time-delay error of 3 ns (equivalent of 1 m interspacecraft ranging error), time-delay interferometry (TDI) is capable of suppressing 300Hz/Hz of laser frequency noise to the required level. We show that if no interspacecraft laser links fail, arm locking alone surpasses this noise performance for the entire mission. If one interspacecraft laser link fails, arm locking alone will achieve this performance for all but approximately 1 h per year, when the arm length mismatch of the two remaining arms passes through zero. Therefore, the LISA sensitivity can be realized with arm locking and time-delay interferometry only, without any form of prestabilization.

  9. Selective binding and extraction of aqueous dihydrogen phosphate solutions via three-armed thiourea receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beletskiy, Evgeny V; Kass, Steven R

    2015-10-14

    A series of neutral anion receptors with one to three thiourea arms were synthesized and their binding to tetrabutylammonium chloride, acetate, and dihydrogen phosphate salts in aqueous DMSO mixtures was examined. The three-armed thiourea host was found to strongly and selectively bind H2PO4(-) even in DMSO solutions containing up to 30% water. This enabled the dihydrogen phosphate salt to be extracted from water into chloroform in its dibasic form despite the high heat of the hydration of HPO4(2-). PMID:26282934

  10. Linear versus dendritic molecular binders for hydrogel network formation with clay nanosheets: studies with ABA triblock copolyethers carrying guanidinium ion pendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamesue, Shingo; Ohtani, Masataka; Yamada, Kuniyo; Ishida, Yasuhiro; Spruell, Jason M; Lynd, Nathaniel A; Hawker, Craig J; Aida, Takuzo

    2013-10-16

    ABA-triblock copolyethers 1a-1c as linear polymeric binders, in combination with clay nanosheets (CNSs), afford high-water-content moldable supramolecular hydrogels with excellent mechanical properties by constructing a well-developed crosslinked network in water. The linear binders carry in their terminal A blocks guanidinium ion (Gu(+)) pendants for adhesion to the CNS surface, while their central B block comprises poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) that serves as a flexible linker for adhered CNSs. Although previously reported dendritic binder 2 requires multistep synthesis and purification, the linear binders can be obtained in sizable quantities from readily available starting materials by controlled polymerization. Together with dendritic reference 2, the modular nature of compounds 1a-1c with different numbers of Gu(+) pendants and PEO linker lengths allowed for investigating how their structural parameters affect the gel network formation and hydrogel properties. The newly obtained hydrogels are mechanically as tough as that with 2, although the hydrogelation takes place more slowly. Irrespective of which binder is used, the supramolecular gel network has a shape memory feature upon drying followed by rewetting, and the gelling water can be freely replaced with ionic liquids and organic fluids, affording novel clay-reinforced iono- and organogels, respectively. PMID:24050260

  11. Sensibilité des œufs de truite arc-en-ciel aux chocs mécaniques pendant la phase de durcissement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BILLARD R.

    1976-10-01

    Full Text Available Des œufs de Truite arc-en-ciel en provenance de plusieurs femelles ont été transférés en eau douce après insémination et soumis à une agitation mécanique pendant une heure. Généralement on observe après 30 mn d'agitation une diminution du pourcentage d'œufs embryonnés qui est significative (P < 0,001 et P < 0,05. Cependant dans le cas d'une femelle la diminution n'était pas significative (fig. 1. Si l'agitation est appliquée seulement entre la 30e et la 60e minute après le transfert en eau douce, il n'y a pas de diminution du pourcentage d'œufs embryonnés (fig. 3. Il n'y a donc pas de phases plus sensibles que d'autres ; la durée totale d'agitation étant le facteur le plus important. La manipulation des œufs pendant une heure après leur transfert en eau douce apparaît au moins dans certains cas préjudiciable au développement embryonnaire et doit donc être évitée

  12. Bioinspired Design and Computational Prediction of Iron Complexes with Pendant Amines for the Production of Methanol from CO2 and H2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangyang; Yang, Xinzheng

    2016-03-17

    Inspired by the active site structure of [FeFe]-hydrogenase, we built a series of iron dicarbonyl diphosphine complexes with pendant amines and predicted their potentials to catalyze the hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol using density functional theory. Among the proposed iron complexes, [(P(tBu)2N(tBu)2H)FeH(CO)2(COOH)](+) (5COOH) is the most active one with a total free energy barrier of 23.7 kcal/mol. Such a low barrier indicates that 5COOH is a very promising low-cost catalyst for high-efficiency conversion of CO2 and H2 to methanol under mild conditions. For comparison, we also examined Bullock's Cp iron diphosphine complex with pendant amines, [(P(tBu)2N(tBu)2H)FeHCp(C5F4N)](+) (5Cp-C5F4N), as a catalyst for hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol and obtained a total free energy barrier of 27.6 kcal/mol, which indicates that 5Cp-C5F4N could also catalyze the conversion of CO2 and H2 to methanol but has a much lower efficiency than our newly designed iron complexes. PMID:26937854

  13. Les Arméniens communistes en France, une histoire oubliée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrig Atamian

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Si le nom de Manouchian, immortalisé par l’Affiche rouge, résonne bien au delà de la communauté arménienne, rares sont ceux parmi les Arméniens à connaître son parcours et celui de ses camarades dans la France de l’entre-deux-guerres. Dans un ouvrage récent sur les Arméniens de Vienne (dans l’Isère, Anahide Ter Minassian affirme que « dans le milieu ouvrier viennois […], les communistes arméniens ont été influents avant, pendant, et après la Seconde Guerre mondiale »1. Comment expliquer alors que parmi les travaux sur les Arméniens en France, aucun ne s’appesantit sur eux ? Il semblerait en effet que la communauté arménienne ait souvent été envisagée comme un tout homogène ne portant pas de dissensions politiques ou sociales. Les Arméniens eux-mêmes, soucieux de ne pas raviver les querelles d’hier, et cherchant à offrir un interlocuteur unique aux élus de la République, ont cédé au « mythe de l’unité ». Mais ne serait-on pas tenté de voir, dans cet oubli du rôle des communistes, le sort réservé au groupe des « vaincus », eux qui pendant des décennies s’étaient montrés hostiles à l’idée d’une Arménie indépendante ?Si bien el nombre de Manouchian, inmortalizado por «el Afiche Rojo», resuena bastante mas allá que en la sola comunidad de los armenios, son escasos en cambio los armenios que conocen su trayectoria así como la de sus camaradas en la Francia del periodo situado entre las dos guerras mundiales. En un texto reciente sobre los armenios de Viena (Isère-Francia, Anahide Ter Minassian afirma que «en los medios obreros de Viena […] los comunistas armenios fueron influyentes, antes, durante y después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial». Entonces, ¿cómo explicar que entre los trabajos sobre los armenios de Francia nadie lo mencione? La comunidad armenia parece haber sido considerada como un todo homogéneo en el que no hay lugar para disenciones políticas o sociales. Los armenios, ellos mismos, preocupados por no atizar las peleas de antaño y deseosos de presentar un interlocutor único ante las autoridades, hicieron una concesión al «mito de la unidad». Por consiguiente, cabe preguntarse si ese olvido del papel desempeñado por los comunistas, no corresponde a la suerte reservada a la fracción de los «vencidos» que, durante decenios, se opuso a la Independencia de Armenia.If the name Manouchian, immortalized by the “L’Affiche rouge” (“The Red Poster”, echoes well beyond the Armenian community, few amongst Armenians themselves actually know Manouchian’s story, or that of his comrades, in interwar France. The fact that a part of the Armenian “colony” in France participated in the Communist movement is often ignored. In her recent book on the Armenians of Vienne (Isère, Anahide Ter Minassian asserts that amongst the “Viennese workers […], Armenian communists where influent before, after, and during the Second World War”. However, how can one explain that none of the works concerning Armenians in France investigate this phenomenon in detail? It seems that the Armenian community is often perceived as a homogeneous group, without social or political dissent. Armenians themselves, anxious not to revive past conflicts, and to offer the powers to be a single interlocutor, have given in to this “myth of unity”. But wouldn’t one be tempted to see, in this oblivion of the role of Communists, the fate reserved to the “defeated”, those who during decades where hostile to the independence of Armenia?

  14. Digital Construction Platform: A Compound Arm Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Spielberg, Nathan A.; Klein, John; Oxman, Neri; Keating, Steven John

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a novel large-scale Digital Construction Platform (DCP) for on-site sensing, analysis, and fabrication. The DCP is an in-progress research project consisting of a compound robotic arm system comprised of a 5-axis Altec hydraulic mobile boom arm attached to a 6-axis KUKA robotic arm. Akin to the biological model of human shoulder and hand this compound system utilizes the large boom arm for gross positioning and the small robotic arm for fine positioning and oscillation correction...

  15. Synthesizing Diamond from Liquid Feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Yonhua

    2005-01-01

    A relatively economical method of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been developed for synthesizing diamond crystals and films. Unlike prior CVD methods for synthesizing diamond, this method does not require precisely proportioned flows of compressed gas feedstocks or the use of electrical discharges to decompose the feedstocks to obtain free radicals needed for deposition chemical reactions. Instead, the feedstocks used in this method are mixtures of common organic liquids that can be prepared in advance, and decomposition of feedstock vapors is effected simply by heating. The feedstock used in this method is a solution comprising between 90 and 99 weight percent of methanol and the balance of one or more other oxyhydrocarbons that could include ethanol, isopropanol, and/or acetone. This mixture of compounds is chosen so that dissociation of molecules results in the desired proportions of carbon-containing radicals (principally, CH3) and of OH, H, and O radicals. Undesirably, the CVD temperature and pressure conditions thermodynamically favor the growth of graphite over the growth of diamond. The H radicals are desirable because they help to stabilize the growing surface of diamond by shifting the thermodynamic balance toward favoring the growth of diamond. The OH and O radicals are desirable because they preferentially etch graphite and other non-diamond carbon, thereby helping to ensure the net deposition of pure diamond. The non-methanol compounds are included in the solution because (1) methanol contains equal numbers of C and O atoms; (2) an excess of C over O is needed to obtain net deposition of diamond; and (3) the non-methanol molecules contain multiple carbon atoms for each oxygen atom and thus supply the needed excess carbon A typical apparatus used in this method includes a reservoir containing the feedstock liquid and a partially evacuated stainless-steel reaction chamber. The reservoir is connected to the chamber via tubing and a needle valve or other suitable flow controller. When the liquid enters the low-pressure environment inside the chamber, it evaporates to form a vapor mixture of the same chemical composition. In addition to the inlet for the feedstock liquid, the chamber is fitted with an outlet connected to a vacuum pump (not shown) through a throttle valve (also not shown) that is automatically controlled to keep the pressure at or near the required value throughout the deposition process. Inside the chamber, a spiral filament made of tungsten, tantalum, graphite, or other high-melting-temperature material is electrically heated to a temperature >2,000 C high enough to cause dissociation of vapor molecules into the aforementioned radicals. A deposition substrate typically, a diamond-polished silicon wafer about 2.5 cm square is positioned about 2 cm away from the filament. The exact location of the substrate is chosen so that the substrate becomes heated by the filament to a deposition temperature in the approximate range of 800 to 1,000 C.

  16. Control of flexible robotic arms, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic characteristics and control method of a flexible robotic arm of first degrees of freedom system are shown modelling a flexible arm as an elastic beam. Vibrations of the arm in positioning can be suppressed by the dynamic compensation with consideration of the arm flexibility, of which current robotic arms have more or less in manipulating payloads. Subsequently, a control method of a SCARA type of a second degree of freedom system is shown based on the local feedback with variable adaptive gains to suppress vibrations in positioning control. In case of arm collisions against other objects, a control method to recover the state before collision is also shown as an application. The control methods proposed here are not limited to this type of robotic arms, but also applicable in more general cases. (author)

  17. Control of flexible robotic arms, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic characteristics and control methods of a flexible robotic arm of first degree of freedom system are shown based on modelling a flexible arm as an elastic beam. Vibrations of the arm in positioning can be suppressed by the dynamic compensation with consideration of the arm flexibility, which current robotic arms have more or less in manipulating payloads. Subsequently, a control method of a SCARA type of a second degree of freedom system is shown based on the local feedback with variable adaptive gains to suppress vibrations in positioning control. In case of arm collisions against other objects, a control method to recover the state before collision is also shown as an application. The control methods proposed here are not limited to this special type of robotic arms, but also more general cases. (author)

  18. Mesomorphic properties of chiral three-arm liquid crystals containing 1,2,4-butanetriol as core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Mei; Wu, Shuang-jie; Tian, Xiao-Wei; Yao, Dan-Shu; Li, Chong-Liang; Hu, Jian-She; Zhang, Bao-Yan

    2016-03-01

    A series of symmetric and asymmetric three-arm liquid crystals (TALCs) of which the molecular structure with a central core of 1, 2, 4-butanetriol attached by three rod-like mesogenic moieties have successfully been synthesized. The rod-like mesogenic side arms are 4‧-(4-(trifluoromethyl) benzoyloxy) biphenyl-4-carboxylic acid (TFBA) and 4‧-(4-(allyloxy) benzoyloxy) biphenyl-4-carboxylic acid (AOBA), respectively. BTA0 and BTA3 are symmetric TALCs with three TFBA or three AOBA as LC side arms, respectively. BTA1 is an asymmetric TALC with one AOBA and two TFBA as side arms. BTA2 is an asymmetric TALC with two AOBA and one TFBA as side arms. The chemical structures and LC properties of the LC side arms and TALCs were characterised by FTIR, 1H NMR, elemental analysis, DSC, TG, POM and X-ray diffractometer. TFBA displayed smectic B (SmB) phase, AOBA exhibited nematic (N) phase. The TALCs all displayed chiral mesophase properties. BTA0 displayed chiral smectic C (SmC∗) mesophase. BTA1, BTA2 and BTA3 exhibited cholesteric (ch) mesophase. In addition, a chiral smectic A (SmA∗) mesophase was observed for BTA1. The results indicated that the 1, 2, 4-butanetriol is vital in inducing chiral mesophase of the TALCs. The side arms also played an important role in the mesophase type and mesogenic region. The TALCs displayed cholesteric mesophase when nematic LC side arm AOBA was introduced into the chiral core. The mesogenic region of the TALCs increased with the content of the wide-mesophase-region LC side arm AOBA introduced into the TALCs increasing. The melting temperature and the clear temperature of the TALCs were lower than those of the LC side arms (TFBA and AOBA). The mesophase regions of the TALCs were wider than those of the LC side arms.

  19. Telescopic arm with automatic advance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of the telescopic arm TV cameras, tools or the like can be moved in and out of reactor pressure vessels. For pressure and traction driving element a curved steel band is used which is guided in the central axis of the telescopic arm by means of one adapting element each per telescopic member. On advancing the steel band, which can absorb considerable bending moments, is drawn out of a cartridge with a spool, by meanes of friction rollers. A nozzle-shaped device in front of the cartridge is flattering the steel band before winding it up. The free buckling length of the stell band is never greater than the distance between two adapting elements (part in the shape of a parallelpiped with a slot for guiding the steel band) resp. the length of a telescopic member. (UWI)

  20. Dual arm master controller concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. 6 references, 3 figures

  1. Dual arm master controller concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented

  2. Hand-arm vibration syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelmear, P L; Taylor, W

    1994-02-01

    The hand-arm vibration syndrome affects workers who perform tasks that generate vibration. Raynaud's phenomenon and sensory impairment of the fingers are the predominant effects. A history of hand-arm vibration (HAV) exposure in a patient with these symptoms should alert the physician to the diagnosis. Referral to a special clinic or hospital department for multiple clinical tests is required to confirm the diagnosis and, using the Stockholm classification, to grade the severity in each hand. The assessment permits the patient to be monitored either for progression of or recovery from the syndrome. Avoidance of further vibration exposure is recommended, together with the prescription of a slow-release calcium channel blocker to improve peripheral circulation. Hand-arm vibration syndrome should be distinguished from carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), which may have similar symptomatology but requires different treatments. Surgery is contraindicated in the former and should be the last resort for carpal tunnel syndrome in a worker requiring good grip-strength in future employment. PMID:8185734

  3. Arms export controls, subsidies and the WTO exemption

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Alonso, Maria D C; Levine, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Owing to the World Trade Organization (WTO) exemption that allows governments to subsidize arms exports, the arms trade is one of the few remaining areas of trade where we observe export subsidies. This paper examines the effect of arms controls, in the form of licensing delays, on the incentives to subsidize arms exports and conversely the effect of the WTO arms trade exemption on the incentives to break arms control agreements. Our main result is that arms controls and free trade commitment...

  4. Synthesis, conformational and spectroscopic characterization of monomeric styrene derivatives having pendant p-substituted benzylic ether groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinar, Mehmet; Ozcan, Levent; Karabacak, Mehmet; Erol, Ibrahim

    2013-07-01

    Three derivatives of styrene monomer, 4-chlorophenyl-4-vinylbenzyl ether (I), 4-methoxyphenyl-4-vinylbenzyl ether (II) and 4-ethylphenyl-4-vinylbenzyl ether (III) were synthesized. The synthesized two novel compounds (I and III) and one with undefined structural features were identified by experimental spectroscopic techniques and density functional approach. The optimized geometrical structure, vibrational and electronic transitions along with chemical shifts of those compounds were presented in this study. The vibrational spectra of investigated compounds were recorded in solid state with FT-IR spectrometry in the range of 4000-400 cm-1. The computational vibrational wavenumbers and also ground state equilibrium conformations were carried out by using density functional method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. Assignments of the fundamental vibrational modes were examined on the basis of the measured data and total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanical (SQM) method. Isotropic chemical shift of hydrogen and carbon nuclei were investigated via observed 1H and 13C NMR spectra in deuterated DMSO solution and predicted data applied with gauge-invariant atomic orbitals (GIAOs) method. The UV absorption spectra of monomers were observed in the range of 200-800 nm in ethanol, and time dependent DFT method was used to obtain the electronic properties. A detailed description of spectroscopic behaviors of compound was given based on the comparison of experimental measurements and theoretical computations.

  5. 52-GHz Millimetre-Wave PLL Synthesizer

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ja-Yol; Yu, Hyun-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, we design and fabricate a 52GHz frequency synthesizer for 60GHz dualconversion receiver using SiGe BiCMOS process technology. The designed PLL-based frequency synthesizer consists of a 26-GHz PLL and a 52-GHz frequency doubler. In the

  6. Transport dépendant du spin et couplage d'échange : de la jonction tunnel au capteur magnétique intégré

    OpenAIRE

    Malinowski, Grégory

    2004-01-01

    Dans une première partie, les propriétés cristallographiques et magnétiques de couches minces X/IrMn et X/IrMn/Y (X,Y= Co et/ou Py) sont présentées. Le magnétisme est expliqué à l'aide de modèles micromagnétiques. La différence de couplage d'échange aux interfaces X/IrMn et IrMn/Y est indépendante de la microstructure et uniquement liée à l'ordre d'empilement des couches. Il est démontré que déposer une couche antiferromagnétique sur une couche ferromagnétique est totalement différent d'un po...

  7. Metal-Chelating Polymers (MCPs) with Zwitterionic Pendant Groups Complexed to Trastuzumab Exhibit Decreased Liver Accumulation Compared to Polyanionic MCP Immunoconjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Boyle, Amanda J; Lu, Yijie; Adams, Jarrett; Chi, Yuechuan; Reilly, Raymond M; Winnik, Mitchell A

    2015-11-01

    Metal-chelating polymers (MCPs) can amplify the radioactivity delivered to cancer cells by monoclonal antibodies or their Fab fragments. We focus on trastuzumab (tmAb), which is used to target cancer cells that overexpress human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). We report the synthesis and characterization of a biotin (Bi) end-capped MCP, Bi-PAm(DET-DTPA)36, a polyacrylamide with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) groups attached as monoamides to the polymer backbone by diethylenetriamine (DET) pendant groups. We compared its behavior in vivo and in vitro to a similar MCP with ethylenediamine (EDA) pendant groups (Bi-PAm(EDA-DTPA)40). These polymers were complexed to a streptavidin-modified Fab fragment of tmAb, then labeled with (111)In to specifically deliver multiple copies of (111)In to HER2+ cancer cells. Upon decay, (111)In emits γ-rays that can be used in single-photon emission computed tomography radioimaging, as well as Auger electrons that cause lethal double strand breakage of DNA. Our previous studies in Balb/c mice showed that radioimmunoconjugates (RICs) containing the Bi-PAm(EDA-DTPA)40 polymer had extremely short blood circulation time and high liver uptake and were, thus, unsuitable for in vivo studies. The polymer Bi-PAm(EDA-DTPA)40 carries negative charges on each pendant group at neutral pH and a net charge of (-1) on each pendant group when saturated with stable In(3+). To test our hypothesis that charge associated with the polymer repeat unit is a key factor affecting its biodistribution profile, we examined the biodistribution of RICs containing Bi-PAm(DET-DTPA)36. While this polymer is also negatively charged at neutral pH, it becomes a zwitterionic MCP upon saturation of the DTPA groups with stable In(3+) ions. In both nontumor bearing Balb/c mice and athymic mice implanted with HER2+ SKOV-3 human ovarian cancer tumors, we show that the zwitterionic MCP has improved biodistribution, higher blood levels of radioactivity, lower levels of normal tissue uptake, and higher tumor uptake. Surface plasmon resonance experiments employing the extracellular domain of HER2 show that the MCP immunoconjugates retain high affinity antigen recognition, with dissociation constants in the low nM range. In vitro studies with SKOV-3 cells for both MCP immunoconjugates show a combination of specific binding that can be completed in the presence of excess tmAb IgG and nonspecific binding (NSB) that persists in the presence of tmAb IgG. We conclude that zwitterionic MCPs represent a much better choice than polymers with charges along the backbone for in vivo delivery of RICs to HER2+ cancer cells. PMID:26469142

  8. Signature électromagnétique de la dynamique corticale pendant l'éveil et le sommeil chez l'homme

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghani, Nima

    2012-01-01

    L'analyse de la fonction cérébrale à de multiples échelles est une étape nécessaire pour comprendre ses complexités. Dans ce travail de thèse, nous avons étudié cet aspect aux niveaux microscopiques et macroscopiques en utilisant des enregistrements invasifs et non-invasifs. Nous avons utilisé une série d'outils d'analyse communicationnels et de corrélation pour étudier l'activité cérébrale pendant l'éveil et le sommeil. Dans une première étude, nous avons analyse les enregistrements simultan...

  9. Thermoresponsive Poly(2-oxazoline) Molecular Brushes by Living Ionic Polymerization: Kinetic Investigations of Pendant Chain Grafting and Cloud Point Modulation by Backbone and Side Chain Length Variation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ning

    2012-04-17

    Molecular brushes of poly(2-oxazoline)s were prepared by living anionic polymerization of 2-iso-propenyl-2-oxazoline to form the backbone and subsequent living cationic ring-opening polymerization of 2-n- or 2-iso-propyl-2-oxazoline for pendant chain grafting. In situ kinetic studies indicate that the initiation efficiency and polymerization rates are independent from the number of initiator functions per initiator molecule. This was attributed to the high efficiency of oxazolinium salt and the stretched conformation of the backbone, which is caused by the electrostatic repulsion of the oxazolinium moieties along the macroinitiator. The resulting molecular brushes showed thermoresponsive properties, that is, having a defined cloud point (CP). The dependence of the CP as a function of backbone and side chain length as well as concentration was studied. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. ToF‐SIMS analysis of a polymer microarray composed of poly(meth)acrylates with C6 derivative pendant groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scurr, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Surface analysis plays a key role in understanding the function of materials, particularly in biological environments. Time‐of‐flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF‐SIMS) provides highly surface sensitive chemical information that can readily be acquired over large areas and has, thus, become an important surface analysis tool. However, the information‐rich nature of ToF‐SIMS complicates the interpretation and comparison of spectra, particularly in cases where multicomponent samples are being assessed. In this study, a method is presented to assess the chemical variance across 16 poly(meth)acrylates. Materials are selected to contain C6 pendant groups, and ten replicates of each are printed as a polymer microarray. SIMS spectra are acquired for each material with the most intense and unique ions assessed for each material to identify the predominant and distinctive fragmentation pathways within the materials studied. Differentiating acrylate/methacrylate pairs is readily achieved using secondary ions derived from both the polymer backbone and pendant groups. Principal component analysis (PCA) is performed on the SIMS spectra of the 16 polymers, whereby the resulting principal components are able to distinguish phenyl from benzyl groups, mono‐functional from multi‐functional monomers and acrylates from methacrylates. The principal components are applied to copolymer series to assess the predictive capabilities of the PCA. Beyond being able to predict the copolymer ratio, in some cases, the SIMS analysis is able to provide insight into the molecular sequence of a copolymer. The insight gained in this study will be beneficial for developing structure–function relationships based upon ToF‐SIMS data of polymer libraries. © 2016 The Authors Surface and Interface Analysis Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Coating morphology and surface composition of acrylic terpolymers with pendant catechol, OEG and perfluoroalkyl groups in varying ratio and the effect on protein adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jun; Ji, Hua; Duan, Jiang; Tu, Haiyang; Zhang, Aidong

    2016-04-01

    This work aims at developing versatile low-biofouling polymeric coatings by using acrylic terpolymers (DOFs) that bear pendant catechol (D), oligo(ethylene glycol) (O), and perfluoroalkyl (F) groups in varying ratios. The polymers were endowed with the ability to form firmly coatings on virtually any surfaces and undergo surface microphase separation and self-assembly, as revealed by the surface enrichment of F pendants and the morphology variation from irregular solid domains to discrete crater-type aggregates of different size. The effect on protein adsorption was investigated using bovine serum albumin (BSA) and adhesive fibrinogen (Fib) as model proteins. The coating of DOF164 (low F content), which has morphology of discrete crater-type aggregates of ∼400nm in size, adsorbed a least amount of protein but with a highest protein unit activity as determined by SPR and immunosorbent assay; whereas the coating of DOF1612 (high F content) showed a 12.3-fold higher adsorption capacity toward Fib. Interestingly, a 2.2-fold lower adsorption amount but with a 1.8-fold higher unit activity was found for Fib adsorbed on the DOF164 surface than on DOF250 (without F fraction), whose OEG segments being a widely recognized protein compatible material. The features of the DOF164 terpolymer presenting a robust coating ability and a minimal protein adsorption capacity while with a high protein unit activity suggest its potential application as a non-fouling surface-modifier for medical antifouling coatings and as a matrix material for selective protein immobilization and activity preservation in biosensor construction. PMID:26764109

  12. Authenticating users through their arm movement patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh KUMAR; Phoha, Vir V; Raina, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose four continuous authentication designs by using the characteristics of arm movements while individuals walk. The first design uses acceleration of arms captured by a smartwatch's accelerometer sensor, the second design uses the rotation of arms captured by a smartwatch's gyroscope sensor, third uses the fusion of both acceleration and rotation at the feature-level and fourth uses the fusion at score-level. Each of these designs is implemented by using four classifier...

  13. Introduction to Reading and Visualizing ARM Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, James [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2014-02-18

    Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program standard data format is NetCDF 3 (Network Common Data Form). The object of this tutorial is to provide a basic introduction to NetCDF with an emphasis on aspects of the ARM application of NetCDF. The goal is to provide basic instructions for reading and visualizing ARM NetCDF data with the expectation that these examples can then be applied to more complex applications.

  14. Lever arm dysfunction in cerebral palsy gait

    OpenAIRE

    Theologis, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal structures act as lever arms during walking. Muscle activity and the ground reaction against gravity exert forces on the skeleton, which generate torque (moments) around joints. These lead to the sequence of movements which form normal human gait. Skeletal deformities in cerebral palsy (CP) affect the function of bones as lever arms and compromise gait. Lever arm dysfunction should be carefully considered when contemplating treatment to improve gait in children with CP.

  15. Arms Trade Offsets and Cases of Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Platzgummer

    2014-01-01

    Because of a lack of transparency and the high complexity of administrative processes, arms acquisition is an area with a high risk of corruption. The aim of this paper is: 1) to provide a typology of cases of corruption in compensatory trade agreements, so called arms trade offsets, that have become integral parts of most arms trades; and 2) to analyze tools possessed by government agencies concerned to prevent or detect corruption. Based on an analysis of all major English-speaking newspape...

  16. Preventing Interstate Armed Conflict : whose responsibility?

    OpenAIRE

    Otunba, Ganiyu

    2010-01-01

    This is a study of interstate armed conflict prevention. The concept of conflict, armed conflict and conflict prevention is defined and explained in order to be able to investigate if there is any single institution saddled with the responsibility of preventing interstate armed conflict and also to verify if adequate efforts are been put in this area which is of importance to mankind. The relationship between conflict prevention, conflict management and conflict resolution is also discussed s...

  17. Theory of Robotics Arm Control with PLC

    OpenAIRE

    Safdar, Bilal

    2015-01-01

    This thesis was commissioned for Saimaa University of Applied Sciences with the aim of understanding the control system for a robotic arm. The Robotic Arm in this case was from Saimaa University of Applied Sciences. The main objective of this thesis was to understand a control system for the Robotic Arm using a programmable logic controller (PLC) along with gripper. The control system consisted of the electronic components (the PLC, a motor controller, a voltage regulator, a control pende...

  18. MODELING AND SIMULATION OF ROBOTIC HUMANOID ARM

    OpenAIRE

    RANJEET RANJAN; DR. ARBIND KUMAR; DR. PRAVEEN DHYANI

    2012-01-01

    In this paper block model and machine model of Robotic humanoid arm has been generated Using MATLAB Simulink. Equations of Kinematics are derived by using D-H notation. By this equation and inverse kinematicsparameters for the motion trajectory have been determined. Kinematic parameters are divided into two groups namely, link parameters and joint parameters. Geometric model and motion of robotic humanoid arm with two link model with 3 Degree of freedom and arm with palm and fingers with 18 d...

  19. Design Lower Arm Using Optimum Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Adel Mahmoud Bash

    2011-01-01

    In the automotive industry, the riding comfort and handling qualities of an automobile are greatly affected by the suspension system. This paper presents the robust design of vehicle suspension arm using stochastic design improvement (SDI) technique based on Monte Carlo simulation. The main goal of this study is to determine the optimum design for the suspension arm. The structural model of the suspension arm was utilizing the Solid works and aluminum alloys (AA7075-T6) are selected as a susp...

  20. Dual arm master controller development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advanced servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. This work was performed as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  1. Ordnance and small arms design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.L. Jenkins

    1952-01-01

    Full Text Available At the mention of Ordnance and Small Arms the Royal' Ordnance Factories in England invariably flash through the mind due to their pre-eminent position in this sphere. It is a matter for regret that the ordnance Factories in India are not so widely known. But in view of the excellent class of workmanship that is to be seen in the products of their manufacturing is the Writers  hope that in the near future  now that the Ordnance Factories are forging ahead on projects that will make India self supporting, the Indian Ordnance Factories will command a similar fine opinion.

  2. MODELING AND SIMULATION OF ROBOTIC HUMANOID ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RANJEET RANJAN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper block model and machine model of Robotic humanoid arm has been generated Using MATLAB Simulink. Equations of Kinematics are derived by using D-H notation. By this equation and inverse kinematicsparameters for the motion trajectory have been determined. Kinematic parameters are divided into two groups namely, link parameters and joint parameters. Geometric model and motion of robotic humanoid arm with two link model with 3 Degree of freedom and arm with palm and fingers with 18 degree of freedom has been realized. Virtual simulation of the arm is also first step in actually controlling the mechanical structure.

  3. Preparation and characterization of proton exchange poly (ether sulfone)s membranes grafted propane sulfonic acid on pendant phenyl groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly(ether sulfone)s containing hexaphenyl (PHP) was prepared by 1,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3,4,5,6-tetraphenylbenzene, 4,4-hydroxyphenylsulfone, and 4,4-fluorophenylsulfone, followed bromination on phenyl groups to produce brominated PHP (Br-PHP). Grafted sulfonated poly(ether sulfone)s containing hexaphenyl (GSPHP) were prepared from Br-PHP and 3-bromopropane sulfonic acid with potassium salt and copper powder. The salt form was converted to free acid using 1 M sulfuric acid solution. All these membranes were cast from dimethylacetamide (DMAc). The structural properties of the synthesized polymers were investigated by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The membranes were studied with regard to ion exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake, Fenton test, and proton conductivity. These grafted polymer membranes were compared with normal sulfonated poly(ether sulfone)s and Nafion

  4. Cortical Spiking Network Interfaced with Virtual Musculoskeletal Arm and Robotic Arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura-Bernal, Salvador; Zhou, Xianlian; Neymotin, Samuel A; Przekwas, Andrzej; Francis, Joseph T; Lytton, William W

    2015-01-01

    Embedding computational models in the physical world is a critical step towards constraining their behavior and building practical applications. Here we aim to drive a realistic musculoskeletal arm model using a biomimetic cortical spiking model, and make a robot arm reproduce the same trajectories in real time. Our cortical model consisted of a 3-layered cortex, composed of several hundred spiking model-neurons, which display physiologically realistic dynamics. We interconnected the cortical model to a two-joint musculoskeletal model of a human arm, with realistic anatomical and biomechanical properties. The virtual arm received muscle excitations from the neuronal model, and fed back proprioceptive information, forming a closed-loop system. The cortical model was trained using spike timing-dependent reinforcement learning to drive the virtual arm in a 2D reaching task. Limb position was used to simultaneously control a robot arm using an improved network interface. Virtual arm muscle activations responded to motoneuron firing rates, with virtual arm muscles lengths encoded via population coding in the proprioceptive population. After training, the virtual arm performed reaching movements which were smoother and more realistic than those obtained using a simplistic arm model. This system provided access to both spiking network properties and to arm biophysical properties, including muscle forces. The use of a musculoskeletal virtual arm and the improved control system allowed the robot arm to perform movements which were smoother than those reported in our previous paper using a simplistic arm. This work provides a novel approach consisting of bidirectionally connecting a cortical model to a realistic virtual arm, and using the system output to drive a robotic arm in real time. Our techniques are applicable to the future development of brain neuroprosthetic control systems, and may enable enhanced brain-machine interfaces with the possibility for finer control of limb prosthetics. PMID:26635598

  5. Offset between stellar spiral arms and gas arms of the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, L. G.; Han, J. L.

    2015-11-01

    Spiral arms shown by different components may not be spatially coincident, which can constrain formation mechanisms of spiral structure in a galaxy. We reassess the spiral arm tangency directions in the Milky Way through identifying the bump features in the longitude plots of survey data for infrared stars, radio recombination lines (RRLs), star formation sites, CO, high-density regions in clouds, and H I. The bump peaks are taken as indications for arm tangencies, which are close to the real density peaks near the spiral arm tangency point but often have ˜1° offset to the interior of spiral arms. The arm tangencies identified from the longitude plots for RRLs, H II regions, methanol masers, CO, high-density gas regions, and H I gas appear nearly the same Galactic longitude, and therefore there is no obvious offset for spiral arms traced by different gas components. However, we find obvious displacements of 1.3°-5.8° of gaseous bump peaks from the directions of the maximum density of old stars near the tangencies of the Scutum-Centaurus Arm, the northern part of the Near 3 kpc Arm, and maybe also the Sagittarius Arm. The offsets between the density peaks of gas and old stars for spiral arms are comparable with the arm widths, which is consistent with expectations for quasi-stationary density wave in our Galaxy.

  6. Nanosponge formation from organocatalytically-synthesized poly(carbonate) copoplymers

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, David M.; Tempelaar, Sarah; Dove, Andrew P.; Harth, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Advanced organocatalytic synthesis methods were employed to prepare linear poly(carbonate)s with control over functional group incorporation and molecular weight. Pendant allyl or epoxide groups served as reaction partners in thiol-ene click or epoxide–amine reactions with ethylene oxide-containing crosslinking groups to form a panel of six novel poly(carbonate) nanosponges with crosslinking densities ranging from 5%, 10% and 20% via an intermolecular chain-crosslinking approach.

  7. Use of snake arm robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish Ringhals nuclear power station is the most powerful nuclear power plant in Sweden, with an installed cumulated power of the four units of 3,560 MW. Ringhals 1 is an 830 MW boiling water reactor by ABB; the other three units are pressurized water reactors. In the revision in summer of 2003, Ringhals 1 showed a leakage in one of the scram rods. The operator decided to continue plant operation at a reduced power level and develop concepts for repair, should this become necessary. The technical challenge was posed by rhe repair of the second bank of control rods. A section of the shroud of the defective scram rod had to be replaced. After examination of the bids, the contract was awarded to the Swedish Uddcomb Engineering AB, which cooperated with OC-Robotics and Climax Machine Tools Inc. The consortium proposed to perform the necessary repair work by means of 2 so-called snake arm robots. Repair was completed successfully in the course of the 2004 revision outage. Both snake arm robots fully met all expectations. The entire process, pipe repair included, was carried out within the scheduled period of three days. (orig.)

  8. Sensory-Feedback Exoskeletal Arm Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Bin; Massie, Thomas H.; Vayner, Vladimir

    2004-01-01

    An electromechanical exoskeletal arm apparatus has been designed for use in controlling a remote robotic manipulator arm. The apparatus, called a force-feedback exoskeleton arm master (F-EAM) is comfortable to wear and easy to don and doff. It provides control signals from the wearer s arm to a robot arm or a computer simulator (e.g., a virtual-reality system); it also provides force and torque feedback from sensors on the robot arm or from the computer simulator to the wearer s arm. The F-EAM enables the wearer to make the robot arm gently touch objects and finely manipulate them without exerting excessive forces. The F-EAM features a lightweight design in which the motors and gear heads that generate force and torque feedback are made smaller than they ordinarily would be: this is achieved by driving the motors to power levels greater than would ordinarily be used in order to obtain higher torques, and by providing active liquid cooling of the motors to prevent overheating at the high drive levels. The F-EAM (see figure) includes an assembly that resembles a backpack and is worn like a backpack, plus an exoskeletal arm mechanism. The FEAM has five degrees of freedom (DOFs) that correspond to those of the human arm: 1. The first DOF is that of the side-to-side rotation of the upper arm about the shoulder (rotation about axis 1). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 1 via drum 1 and a planar four-bar linkage. 2. The second DOF is that of the up-and-down rotation of the arm about the shoulder. The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 2 via drum 2. 3. The third DOF is that of twisting of the upper arm about its longitudinal axis. This DOF is implemented in a cable remote-center mechanism (CRCM). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 3, which drives the upper-arm cuff and the mechanism below it. A bladder inflatable by gas or liquid is placed between the cuff and the wearer s upper arm to compensate for misalignment between the exoskeletal mechanism and the shoulder. 4. The fourth DOF is that of flexion and extension of the elbow. The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 4 and drum 4, which are mounted on a bracket that can slide longitudinally by a pin-and-slot engagement with the upper-arm cuff to compensate for slight variations in the position of the kinematic center of the elbow. Attached to drum 4 is an adapter plate to which is attached a CRCM for the lower arm. 5. The lower-arm CRCM implements the fifth DOF, which is the twist of the forearm about its longitudinal axis. Motor 5 provides the reflected torque for this DOF by driving the lower-arm cuff. A rod transmits twist and torsion between the lower-arm cuff and the hand cuff. With this system, the motion of the wearer s joints and the reflected torques applied to these joints can be measured and controlled in a relatively simple manner. This is because the anthropomorphic design of the mechanism imitates the kinematics of the human arm, eliminating the need for kinematic conversion of joint-torque and joint-angle data.

  9. Syntheses and Functional Properties of Phthalocyanines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi Sakamoto

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Metal phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acids, metal phthalocyanine octacarboxylic acids, metal octakis(hexyloxymethylphthalocyanines, and metal anthraquinocyanines have been synthesized. Then, zinc bis(1,4-didecylbenzo-bis(3,4-pyridoporphyrazines, the cyclotetramerization products of a 1:1 mixture of 3,6-didecylphthalonitrile and 3,4-dicyanopyridine, were synthesized. Futher, subphthalocyanine and its derivatives, with substituents such as thiobutyl and thiophenyl moieties were synthesized. Electrochemical measurements were performed on the abovementioned phthalocyanine derivatives and analogues in order to examine their electron transfer abilities and electrochemical reaction mechanisms in an organic solvent. Moreover, 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octakis(thiophenylmethyl phthalocyanes were synthesized. The Q-bands of the latter compounds appeared in the near-infrared region. Furthermore, non-colored transparent films in the visible region can be produced.

  10. Enantioselective total syntheses of cyathane diterpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Masahisa

    2014-08-01

    A Personal Account describing the enantioselective total syntheses of cyathane diterpenoids achieved in the Nakada group. A convergent approach to the cyathane scaffold, the [5-6-7] tricyclic carbon skeleton commonly found in cyathane diterpenoids, has been developed using the catalytic asymmetric intramolecular cyclopropanation (CAIMCP) and baker's yeast reduction. This approach has been successfully applied for the enantioselective total syntheses of (+)-allocyathin B2 , (-)-erinacine B, and (-)-erinacine E. The total synthesis of (-)-erinacine E has been achieved via the acyl group migratory intramolecular aldol reaction, which prevents the retro-aldol reaction and allows the construction of the strained structure. The highly efficient and stereoselective total syntheses of (-)-scabronines G, A, D, and (-)-episcabronine A have been achieved via the oxidative dearomatization/inverse electron demand Diels-Alder reaction cascade. Cascade reactions comprising three and five consecutive reactions were employed for the highly efficient total syntheses of (-)-scabronine A and (-)-episcabronine A, respectively. PMID:25065736

  11. Freestanding doped silicon nanocrystals synthesized by plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Zhenyi; Pi, Xiaodong; Ali, Muhammad; Zhou, Shu; Nozaki, Tomohiro; Yang, Deren

    2015-08-01

    Freestanding silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) have recently gained great popularity largely due to their easily accessible surface and flexible incorporation into device structures. In the past decade plasmas have been increasingly employed to synthesize freestanding Si NCs. As freestanding Si NCs move closer to applications in a variety of fields such as electronics, thermoelectrics and lithium-ion batteries, doping becomes more imperative. Such a context explains the current great interest in plasma-synthesized doped freestanding Si NCs. In this work we review the synthesis of freestanding doped Si NCs by plasma. Doping-induced structural, electronic, optical and oxidation properties of Si NCs are discussed. We also review the applications of plasma-synthesized doped freestanding Si NCs that have been demonstrated so far. The development of freestanding doped Si NCs synthesized by plasma in the future is envisioned.

  12. Nonlinear adaptive control of an elastic robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. N.

    1986-01-01

    An approach to control of a class of nonlinear flexible robotic systems is presented. For simplicity, a robot arm (PUMA-type) with three rotational joints is considered. The third link is assumed to be elastic. An adaptive torquer control law is derived for controlling the joint angles. This controller includes a dynamic system in the feedback path, requires only joint angle and rate for feedback, and asymptotically decomposes the elastic dynamics into two subsystems representing the transverse vibrations of the elastic link in two orthogonal planes. To damp out the elastic vibration, a force control law using modal feedback is synthesized. The combination of the torque and force control laws accomplishes joint angle control and elastic mode stabilization.

  13. Arm 7 Based Robotic Arm Control By Electronic Gesture Recognition Unit Using Mems

    OpenAIRE

    K.Brahmani#1 , K.S.Roy#2 , Mahaboob Ali

    2013-01-01

    Mechatronics is one of the present trends in the era of computing in today’s system automation industry and control. The proposed project is one such attempt of implementing an accelerometer based system to communicate with an industrial robotic arm wirelessly. This project comprises of controlling of robotic arm powered with ARM7 based LPC1768 core. The LC1768 core has to be interfaced with DC motors of robotic arm to control the movements of robotic arm. MEMS is a three dimensional accelero...

  14. The dynamics of stars around spiral arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, Robert J. J.; Kawata, Daisuke; Cropper, Mark

    2012-04-01

    Spiral density wave theory attempts to describe the spiral pattern in spiral galaxies in terms of a long-lived wave structure with a constant pattern speed in order to avoid the winding dilemma. The pattern is consequently a rigidly rotating, long-lived feature. We run N-body simulations of a giant disc galaxy consisting of a pure stellar disc and a static dark matter halo, and find that the spiral arms are transient features whose pattern speeds decrease with radius in such a way that the pattern speed is almost equal to the rotation curve of the galaxy. We trace particle motion around the spiral arms. We show that particles from behind and in front of the spiral arm are drawn towards and join the arm. Particles move along the arm in the radial direction and we find a clear trend that they migrate towards the outer (inner) radii on the trailing (leading) side of the arm. Our simulations demonstrate that because the spiral arm feature is corotating, the particles continue to be accelerated (decelerated) by the spiral arm for long periods, which leads to strong and efficient migration, at all radii in the disc.

  15. Gender Integration and the Swedish Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Daniel Marcus Sunil

    This paper discusses different gender aspects of the Swedish Armed Forces with specific references to sexual harassment and prostitution. By using the concept of Hegemonic Masculinity, sexual harassment of the women in the Swedish Armed Forces is explained in terms of a need of the men within the...

  16. Stress analysis for robot arm version 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of a robot needs to be analyzed to ensure the specification and requirement by the user is full filled. Therefore, stress analysis has been performed on the robot arm version 2 after its complete fabrication. This paper discusses the result of the analysis and proposed measures to improve the future design of robot arm. (author)

  17. Design of a biomimetic robotic octopus arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the rationale and design of a robotic arm, as inspired by an octopus arm. The octopus arm shows peculiar features, such as the ability to bend in all directions, to produce fast elongations, and to vary its stiffness. The octopus achieves these unique motor skills, thanks to its peculiar muscular structure, named muscular hydrostat. Different muscles arranged on orthogonal planes generate an antagonistic action on each other in the muscular hydrostat, which does not change its volume during muscle contractions, and allow bending and elongation of the arm and stiffness variation. By drawing inspiration from natural skills of octopus, and by analysing the geometry and mechanics of the muscular structure of its arm, we propose the design of a robot arm consisting of an artificial muscular hydrostat structure, which is completely soft and compliant, but also able to stiffen. In this paper, we discuss the design criteria of the robotic arm and how this design and the special arrangement of its muscular structure may bring the building of a robotic arm into being, by showing the results obtained by mathematical models and prototypical mock-ups

  18. Effort, success, and nonuse determine arm choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweighofer, Nicolas; Xiao, Yupeng; Kim, Sujin; Yoshioka, Toshinori; Gordon, James; Osu, Rieko

    2015-07-01

    How do humans choose one arm or the other to reach single targets in front of the body? Current theories of reward-driven decisionmaking predict that choice results from a comparison of "action values," which are the expected rewards for possible actions in a given state. In addition, current theories of motor control predict that in planning arm movements, humans minimize an expected motor cost that balances motor effort and endpoint accuracy. Here, we test the hypotheses that arm choice is determined by comparison of action values comprising expected effort and expected task success for each arm, as well as a handedness bias. Right-handed subjects, in either a large or small target condition, were first instructed to use each hand in turn to shoot through an array of targets and then to choose either hand to shoot through the same targets. Effort was estimated via inverse kinematics and dynamics. A mixed-effects logistic-regression analysis showed that, as predicted, both expected effort and expected success predicted choice, as did arm use in the preceding trial. Finally, individual parameter estimation showed that the handedness bias correlated with mean difference between right- and left-arm success, leading to overall lower use of the left arm. We discuss our results in light of arm nonuse in individuals' poststroke. PMID:25948869

  19. 21 CFR 890.3640 - Arm sling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arm sling. 890.3640 Section 890.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3640 Arm sling. (a) Identification....

  20. Design of a biomimetic robotic octopus arm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laschi, C; Cianchetti, M [Advanced Robotics Technology and Systems Laboratory, Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Pisa (Italy); Mazzolai, B; Dario, P [Italian Institute of Technology, Genova (Italy); Mattoli, V [Centre of Research in Microengineering Laboratory, Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: cecilia.laschi@sssup.it

    2009-03-01

    This paper reports the rationale and design of a robotic arm, as inspired by an octopus arm. The octopus arm shows peculiar features, such as the ability to bend in all directions, to produce fast elongations, and to vary its stiffness. The octopus achieves these unique motor skills, thanks to its peculiar muscular structure, named muscular hydrostat. Different muscles arranged on orthogonal planes generate an antagonistic action on each other in the muscular hydrostat, which does not change its volume during muscle contractions, and allow bending and elongation of the arm and stiffness variation. By drawing inspiration from natural skills of octopus, and by analysing the geometry and mechanics of the muscular structure of its arm, we propose the design of a robot arm consisting of an artificial muscular hydrostat structure, which is completely soft and compliant, but also able to stiffen. In this paper, we discuss the design criteria of the robotic arm and how this design and the special arrangement of its muscular structure may bring the building of a robotic arm into being, by showing the results obtained by mathematical models and prototypical mock-ups.

  1. New Mixer Used in Direct Frequency Synthesizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Stork

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequency synthesizers are an essential part of any modern transceiver system. They generate clock and oscillator signals needed for up and down conversion. Today’s communication standards demand both high frequency accuracy and fast frequency settling. The fine frequency resolution, low spurious signals, accuracy and stability are most important for these devices. In this paper, the new frequency synthesizer architecture based on direct synthesis and coincidence mixer is presented. The simulation results are also shown.

  2. Raman assisted lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    We present a Lightwave Synthesized Frequency Sweeper comprising a Raman amplifier for loss compensation. The generated pulse train contains 123 pulses and has a flat signal level as well as a low noise level.......We present a Lightwave Synthesized Frequency Sweeper comprising a Raman amplifier for loss compensation. The generated pulse train contains 123 pulses and has a flat signal level as well as a low noise level....

  3. Total syntheses of (-)-spirooliganones A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lin; Xiao, Mingxing; Xie, Zhixiang

    2014-05-16

    The enantioselective syntheses of (-)-spirooliganones A and B have been accomplished in eight steps from commercially available starting materials. Noteworthy transformations include a three-component hetero-Diels-Alder cycloaddition to construct the tetracyclic core of spirooliganones, a Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation, and a tandem oxidative dearomatization/cyclization to build the oxa-spiro cyclohexadienone skeleton. The straightforward syntheses were performed without protecting groups. PMID:24787364

  4. Design And Implementation Of Anthropomorphic Robotic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The report focuses on the design and demonstration of an anthropomorphic robotic arm with seven degrees of freedom using readily available low-cost components to perform different real time human hand applications. The robotic arm consists of a shoulder, elbow, wrist and a five-finger gripper. It can perform different gripping actions, such as lateral, spherical, cylindrical and tip-holding gripping actions; each finger has three movable links. The actuator used for the robotic arm is a high torque dc servo motor and the five-finger gripper consists of five cables placed like tendons in the human arm. Implementation is done using a human hand glove which senses the motion from sensor technology to produce a proportional analog voltage, digitized via the microcontroller Atmel ATmega32. The microcontroller then through the processed signal controls the mechanical structure that is the robotic arm. Keywords –

  5. Quantification of branching in model three-arm star polyethylene

    KAUST Repository

    Ramachandran, Ramnath

    2012-01-24

    The versatility of a novel scaling approach in quantifying the structure of model well-defined 3-arm star polyethylene molecules is presented. Many commercial polyethylenes have long side branches, and the nature and quantity of these branches varies widely among the various forms. For instance, low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is typically a highly branched structure with broad distributions in branch content, branch lengths and branch generation (in hyperbranched structures). This makes it difficult to accurately quantify the structure and the inherent structure-property relationships. To overcome this drawback, model well-defined hydrogenated polybutadiene (HPB) structures have been synthesized via anionic polymerization and hydrogenation to serve as model analogues to long-chain branched polyethylene. In this article, model 3-arm star polyethylene molecules are quantified using the scaling approach. Along with the long-chain branch content in polyethylene, the approach also provides unique measurements of long-chain branch length and hyperbranch content. Such detailed description facilitates better understanding of the effect of branching on the physical properties of polyethylene. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  6. ICRESH-ARMS 2015 Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmadi, Alireza; Verma, Ajit; Varde, Prabhakar

    2016-01-01

    Containing selected papers from the ICRESH-ARMS 2015 conference in Lulea, Sweden, collected by editors with years of experiences in Reliability and maintenance modeling, risk assessment, and asset management, this work maximizes reader insights into the current trends in Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety (RAMS) and Risk Management. Featuring a comprehensive analysis of the significance of the role of RAMS and Risk Management in the decision making process during the various phases of design, operation, maintenance, asset management and productivity in Industrial domains, these proceedings discuss key issues and challenges in the operation, maintenance and risk management of complex engineering systems and will serve as a valuable resource for those in the field.

  7. Fully Oxidized and Mixed-Valent Polyoxomolybdates Structured by Bisphosphonates with Pendant Pyridine Groups: Synthesis, Structure and Photochromic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Oms

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid organic-inorganic polyoxometalates (POMs were synthesized in water by the reaction of a MoVI precursor with bisphosphonate ligands functionalized by pyridine groups. The fully oxidized POM [(MoVI3O82(O(O3PC(O(C3H6NH2CH2C5H4NHPO32]4− has been isolated as water insoluble pure Na salt (NaMo6(Ale-4Py2 or mixed Na/K salt (NaKMo6(Ale-4Py2 and their structure solved using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The mixed-valent complex [(MoV2O4(MoVI2O62{O3PC(O(C3H6N(CH2C5H4N2(MoVIO3PO3}2]8− was obtained as an ammonium salt (NH4Mo6(AlePy2Mo2, in the presence of a reducing agent (hydrazine. 31P NMR spectroscopic studies in aqueous media have allowed determining the pH stability domain of NH4Mo6(AlePy2Mo2. NaMo6(Ale-4Py2 and NaKMo6(Ale-4Py2 exhibit remarkable solid-state photochromic properties in ambient conditions. Under UV excitation, they develop a very fast color-change from white to deep purple and proved to be the fastest photochromic organoammonium/POM systems. The coloration kinetics has been fully quantified for both salts and is discussed in light of the hydrogen-bonding networks.

  8. Robotic Arm Comprising Two Bending Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehling, Joshua S.; Difler, Myron A.; Ambrose, Robert O.; Chu, Mars W.; Valvo, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    The figure shows several aspects of an experimental robotic manipulator that includes a housing from which protrudes a tendril- or tentacle-like arm 1 cm thick and 1 m long. The arm consists of two collinear segments, each of which can be bent independently of the other, and the two segments can be bent simultaneously in different planes. The arm can be retracted to a minimum length or extended by any desired amount up to its full length. The arm can also be made to rotate about its own longitudinal axis. Some prior experimental robotic manipulators include single-segment bendable arms. Those arms are thicker and shorter than the present one. The present robotic manipulator serves as a prototype of future manipulators that, by virtue of the slenderness and multiple- bending capability of their arms, are expected to have sufficient dexterity for operation within spaces that would otherwise be inaccessible. Such manipulators could be especially well suited as means of minimally invasive inspection during construction and maintenance activities. Each of the two collinear bending arm segments is further subdivided into a series of collinear extension- and compression-type helical springs joined by threaded links. The extension springs occupy the majority of the length of the arm and engage passively in bending. The compression springs are used for actively controlled bending. Bending is effected by means of pairs of antagonistic tendons in the form of spectra gel spun polymer lines that are attached at specific threaded links and run the entire length of the arm inside the spring helix from the attachment links to motor-driven pulleys inside the housing. Two pairs of tendons, mounted in orthogonal planes that intersect along the longitudinal axis, are used to effect bending of each segment. The tendons for actuating the distal bending segment are in planes offset by an angle of 45 from those of the proximal bending segment: This configuration makes it possible to accommodate all eight tendons at the same diameter along the arm. The threaded links have central bores through which power and video wires can be strung (1) from a charge-coupled-device camera mounted on the tip of the arms (2) back along the interior of the arm into the housing and then (3) from within the housing to an external video monitor.

  9. Evaluating template bias when synthesizing population averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Blake L.; Christensen, Gary E.; Johnson, Hans J.; Vannier, Michael W.

    2001-07-01

    Establishing the average shape and spatial variability for a set of similar anatomical objects is important for detecting and discriminating morphological differences between populations. This may be done using deformable templates to synthesize a 3D CT/MRI image of the average anatomy from a set of CT/MRI images collected from a population of similar anatomical objects. This paper investigates the error associated with the choice of template selected from the population used to synthesize the average population shape. Population averages were synthesized for a population of five infant skulls with sagittal synostosis and a population of six normal adult brains using a consistent linear-elastic image registration algorithm. Each data set from the populations was used as the template to synthesize a population average. This resulted in five different population averages for the skull population and six different population averages for the brain population. The displacement variance distance from a skull within the population to the other skulls in the population ranged from 5.5 to 9.9 mm2 while the displacement variance distance from the synthesized average skulls to the population ranged from 2.2 to 2.7 mm2. The displacement variance distance from a brain within the population to the other brains in the population ranged from 9.3 to 14.2 mm2 while the displacement variance distance from the synthesized average brains to the population ranged from 3.2 to 3.6 mm2. These results suggest that there was no significant difference between the choice of template with respect to the shape of the synthesized average data set for these two populations.

  10. Arm-to-arm variation when evaluating neuromuscular block: an analysis of the precision and the bias and agreement between arms when using mechanomyography or acceleromyography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudius, C; Skovgaard, L T; Viby-Mogensen, J

    2010-01-01

    Studies comparing acceleromyography and mechanomyography indicate that the two methods cannot be used interchangeably. However, it is uncertain to what extent differences in precision between the methods and the naturally occurring arm-to-arm variation have influenced the results of these studies....... Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to examine the precision and the arm-to-arm variation, when the same method is used on both of the arms....

  11. Effect of pendant isophthalic acid moieties on the adsorption properties of light hydrocarbons in HKUST-1-like tbo -MOFs: Application to methane purification and storage

    KAUST Repository

    Belmabkhout, Youssef

    2014-01-01

    Equilibrium adsorption of methane (CH4), C2+ gases (ethane (C2H6), ethylene (C2H4), propane (C3H8), and propylene (C3H6)), and carbon dioxide (CO2) was measured on a series of tbo-MOFs (topological analogues of the prototypical MOF, HKUST-1, correspondingly dubbed tbo-MOF-1), which were developed via the supermolecular building layer (SBL) pillaring strategy. Specifically, tbo-MOF-2 and its isoreticular, functionalized analogue, tbo-MOF-2-{CH2O[Ph(CO2H)2]}2 (or tbo-MOF-3), which is characterized by pendant isophthalic acid moieties freely pointing into the cavities, were evaluated on the basis of potential use in methane storage and C2+/CH4 separation. The parent, tbo-MOF-2, showed high gravimetric and volumetric CH4 uptake, close to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) target for methane storage at 35 bar and room temperature. Though the presence of the pendant isophthalic acid moiety in the analogous compound, tbo-MOF-3, led to a decrease in total CH4 uptake, due mainly to the reduced size of the cavities, interestingly, it increased the affinity of the SBL-based tbo-MOF platform for propane, propene, ethane, and ethylene at low pressures compared with CH4, due additionally to the enhanced interactions of the highly polarizable light hydrocarbons with the isophthalic acid moiety. Using Ideal Adsorption Solution Theory (IAST), the predicted mixture adsorption equilibria for the C3H8/CH4, C3H6/CH4, C2H6/CH4, C2H4/CH4, and C3H8/CO2 systems showed high adsorption selectivity for C2+ over methane for tbo-MOF-3 compared with tbo-MOF-2. The high working storage capacity of tbo-MOF-2 and the high affinity of tbo-MOF-3 for C2+ over CH4 and CO2 make tbo-MOF an ideal platform for studies in gas storage and separation.

  12. The dynamics of stars around spiral arms

    CERN Document Server

    Grand, Robert J J; Cropper, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Spiral density wave theory attempts to describe the spiral pattern in spiral galaxies in terms of a long-lived wave structure with a constant pattern speed in order to avoid the winding dilemma. The pattern is consequently a rigidly rotating, long-lived feature. We run N-body simulations of a giant disc galaxy consisting of a pure stellar disc and a static dark matter halo, and find that the spiral arms are transient features whose pattern speeds decrease with radius, in such a way that the pattern speed is almost equal to the rotation curve of the galaxy. We trace particle motion around the spiral arms. We show that particles from behind and in front of the spiral arm are drawn towards and join the arm. Particles move along the arm in the radial direction and we find a clear trend that they migrate toward the outer (inner) radii on the trailing (leading) side of the arm. Our simulations demonstrate that because the spiral arm feature is co-rotating, the particles continue to be accelerated (decelerated) by t...

  13. VCO PLL Frequency Synthesizers for Spacecraft Transponders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott; Mysoor, Narayan; Lux, James; Cook, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Two documents discuss a breadboard version of advanced transponders that, when fully developed, would be installed on future spacecraft to fly in deep space. These transponders will be required to be capable of operation on any deepspace- communications uplink frequency channel between 7,145 and 7,235 MHz, and any downlink frequency channel between 8,400 and 8,500 MHz. The document focuses on the design and operation of frequency synthesizers for the receiver and transmitter. Heretofore, frequency synthesizers in deep-space transponders have been based on dielectric resonator oscillators (DROs), which do not have the wide tuning bandwidth necessary to tune over all channels in the uplink or downlink frequency bands. To satisfy the requirement for tuning bandwidth, the present frequency synthesizers are based on voltage-controlled-oscillator (VCO) phase-locked loops (PLLs) implemented by use of monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) implemented using inGaP heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) technology. MMIC VCO PLL frequency synthesizers similar to the present ones have been used in commercial and military applications but, until now, have exhibited too much phase noise for use in deep-space transponders. The present frequency synthesizers contain advanced MMIC VCOs, which use HBT technology and have lower levels of flicker (1/f) phase noise. When these MMIC VCOs are used with high-speed MMIC frequency dividers, it becomes possible to obtain the required combination of frequency agility and low phase noise.

  14. Passive detection of nuclear-armed SLCMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective procedures have been developed, using national technical measures (photoreconnaissance satellites, radiointercept stations, etc.), for verification of reductions in land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles, such as marine-based ballistic missiles, and strategic bombers. However, there is agreement on procedures for verifying limitations of numbers of long-range nuclear-armed cruise missiles. The difficulties in developing such procedures are sometimes regarded (by opponents of nuclear disarmament) as a reason why cruise missiles based on ships and submarines ought not to be limited by future arms-reduction treaties. This paper considers the detectability of nuclear-armed cruise missiles through the penetrating radiation emitted spontaneously from their warheads

  15. Pitch angle of galactic spiral arms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michikoshi, Shugo [Department of Environmental Systems Science, Doshisha University, Tatara Miyakodani 1-3, Kyotanabe City, Kyoto 610-0394 (Japan); Kokubo, Eiichiro, E-mail: michiko@mail.doshisha.ac.jp, E-mail: kokubo@th.nao.ac.jp [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    One of the key parameters that characterizes spiral arms in disk galaxies is a pitch angle that measures the inclination of a spiral arm to the direction of galactic rotation. The pitch angle differs from galaxy to galaxy, which suggests that the rotation law of galactic disks determines it. In order to investigate the relation between the pitch angle of spiral arms and the shear rate of galactic differential rotation, we perform local N-body simulations of pure stellar disks. We find that the pitch angle increases with the epicycle frequency and decreases with the shear rate and obtain the fitting formula. This dependence is explained by the swing amplification mechanism.

  16. ARM Climate Research Facility Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Voyles

    2005-12-31

    Through the ARM Program, the DOE funded the development of several highly instrumented ground stations for studying cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer, and for measuring other parameters that determine the radiative properties of the atmosphere. This scientific infrastructure, and resultant data archive, is a valuable national and international asset for advancing scientific knowledge of Earth systems. In fiscal year (FY) 2003, the DOE designated ARM sites as a national scientific user facility: the ARM Climate Research (ACRF). The ACRF has enormous potential to contribute to a wide range interdisciplinary science in areas such as meteorology, atmospheric aerosols, hydrology, biogeochemical cycling, and satellite validation, to name only a few.

  17. Universal Controller Design Using Arm Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsin A. Bandi, Mr. Naimesh B. Mehta

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, different control strategies are discussed and design of universal (process controller on ARM embedded platform is proposed. The same controller support feedback, cascade, ratio and feed forward control strategy. The LPC2148 kit (ARM7 controller is used for the application which has many features which are also discussed in the paper.MODBUS RTU protocol is used for communication.GUI is developed in Wonderware In touch (SCADA software. Keil µvision 4 IDE is used for programming ARM controller

  18. Arms control, nonproliferation, and US national security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continuation of the arms race and the failure of arms control and disarmament negotiations lend support to the belief that US and Soviet power, prestige, and security depend upon nuclear weapons. Therefore, the argument goes, the non-nuclear-weapon states (particularly those that are not allied with nuclear-weapon states and do not share their nuclear shield) may conclude that they would be well served by possession of these weapons. In this sense, the failure of nuclear arms reductions could create incentives for further proliferation

  19. Pitch angle of galactic spiral arms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the key parameters that characterizes spiral arms in disk galaxies is a pitch angle that measures the inclination of a spiral arm to the direction of galactic rotation. The pitch angle differs from galaxy to galaxy, which suggests that the rotation law of galactic disks determines it. In order to investigate the relation between the pitch angle of spiral arms and the shear rate of galactic differential rotation, we perform local N-body simulations of pure stellar disks. We find that the pitch angle increases with the epicycle frequency and decreases with the shear rate and obtain the fitting formula. This dependence is explained by the swing amplification mechanism.

  20. High pressure syntheses of carbonates. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ternary carbonates TlLn(CO3)2 with Ln = La to Lu and Y are synthesized at 3500C by dehydration of the carbonates TlLn(CO3)2xxH2O or at 5000C by reaction of Tl2CO3 and Ln2(C2O4)3xyH2O under 3000 bar CO2. X-ray and IR investigations show the existence of five different structures. The compound Tl5La(CO3)4 is synthesized and X-ray and IR investigations were performed. (author)

  1. Youth Armed Groups in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Dale

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For the many years of Colombia’s civil war, youth have been trying to find their way in complicated and dangerous situations. A central component of this is their relationship with armed groups, something that has evolved considerably over the past ten years. This practice note examines the context within which these connections are formed and the implications this has for self/social identity and meaningful resistance. The ideas in this practice note are based on consultations with young Colombians, particularly those displaced from 2000-2013. These sessions included art activities, focus groups and individual interviews. Art activities involved descriptive and expressive projects so that participants could explore their feelings and memories of situations and experiences. This provided a base for group discussions where youth exchanged information and debated issues. A total of 34 workshops were held over a twelve year period. These consultations revealed how war flows all over young people, touching every aspect of their identity. The boundaries between the personal and political no longer exist in today’s civil wars, if indeed they every truly did. Young people growing up inside Colombia’s war understand this at a deep level. An acknowledgement of this pain – showing the connections between the personal and political dimensions of war – is, they would maintain, the basis for their personal healing as well as an important tool for the building of sustainable peace.

  2. The spiral arms of the Milky Way: The relative location of each different arm tracer within a typical spiral arm width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the Sun's location in the Galactic disk, different arm tracers (CO, H I, hot dust, etc.) have been employed to locate a tangent to each spiral arm. Using all various and different observed spiral arm tracers (as published elsewhere), we embark on a new goal, namely the statistical analysis of these published data (data mining) to statistically compute the mean location of each spiral arm tracer. We show for a typical arm cross-cut, a separation of 400 pc between the mid-arm and the dust lane (at the inner edge of the arm, toward the Galactic center). Are some arms major and others minor? Separating arms into two sets, as suggested by some, we find the same arm widths between the two sets. Our interpretation is that we live in a multiple (four-arm) spiral (logarithmic) pattern (around a pitch angle of 12°) for the stars and gas in the Milky Way, with a sizable interarm separation (around 3 kpc) at the Sun's location and the same arm width for each arm (near 400 pc from mid-arm to dust lane).

  3. Science team participation in the ARM program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report discusses the Science Team participation in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program for the period of October 31, 1992 to November 1, 1993. This report summarized the research accomplishments of six papers

  4. Nonlinear feedback control of multiple robot arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarn, T. J.; Yun, X.; Bejczy, A. K.

    1987-01-01

    Multiple coordinated robot arms are modeled by considering the arms: (1) as closed kinematic chains, and (2) as a force constrained mechanical system working on the same object simultaneously. In both formulations a new dynamic control method is discussed. It is based on a feedback linearization and simultaneous output decoupling technique. Applying a nonlinear feedback and a nonlinear coordinate transformation, the complicated model of the multiple robot arms in either formulation is converted into a linear and output decoupled system. The linear system control theory and optimal control theory are used to design robust controllers in the task space. The first formulation has the advantage of automatically handling the coordination and load distribution among the robot arms. In the second formulation, by choosing a general output equation, researchers can superimpose the position and velocity error feedback with the force-torque error feedback in the task space simultaneously.

  5. Arming and firing system for DISTANT RUNNER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia A and F systems Division 1132 provided arming and firing support for the DISTANT RUNNER Test Program at White Sands Missile Range. This report describes the field support and the firing system that was used

  6. Serpentine Robot Arm Contains Electromagnetic Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Israel A.; Studer, Philip A.

    1994-01-01

    Identical modules assembled into flexible robot arm configured in serpentlike fashion to manipulate objects while avoiding obstacles. Each module includes integral electromagnetic actuators energized selectively to produce variety of motions, stationary configurations, and combinations thereof.

  7. MiniSAR composite gimbal arm development.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klarer, Paul Richard; Winscott, Mark (Orion International, Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-01-01

    An exploratory effort in the application of carbon epoxy composite structural materials to a multi-axis gimbal arm design is described. An existing design in aluminum was used as a baseline for a functionally equivalent redesigned outer gimbal arm using a carbon epoxy composite material. The existing arm was analyzed using finite element techniques to characterize performance in terms of strength, stiffness, and weight. A new design was virtually prototyped. using the same tools to produce a design with similar stiffness and strength, but reduced overall weight, than the original arm. The new design was prototyped using Rapid Prototyping technology, which was subsequently used to produce molds for fabricating the carbon epoxy composite parts. The design tools, process, and results are discussed.

  8. Dynamic analysis of the Schilling Titan 7F robotic arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A seven degree of freedom hydraulically actuated robotic arm is modeled using DADS. The low level control system for the arm is included in the model, as is the hydraulic system, and model results are compared with experimental results for the arm. Vane type rotary actuators are used in this arm, and a method for modeling them with DADS elements is presented. 10 figs

  9. Force Sensor for Large Robot Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Primus, H. C.; Scheinman, V. D.

    1985-01-01

    Modified Maltese-cross force sensor larger and more sensitive than earlier designs. Measures inertial forces and torques exerted on large robot arms during free movement as well as those exerted by claw on manipulated objects. Large central hole of sensor allows claw drive mounted inside arm instead of perpendicular to its axis, eliminating potentially hazardous projection. Originally developed for Space Shuttle, sensor finds applications in large industrial robots.

  10. Optimal Best Arm Identification with Fixed Confidence

    OpenAIRE

    Garivier, Aurélien; Kaufmann, Emilie

    2016-01-01

    We provide a complete characterization of the complexity of best-arm identification in one-parameter bandit problems. We prove a new, tight lower bound on the sample complexity. We propose the 'Track-and-Stop' strategy, which is proved to be asymptotically optimal. It consists in a new sampling rule (which tracks the optimal proportions of arm draws highlighted by the lower bound) and in a stopping rule named after Chernoff, for which we give a new analysis.

  11. MOMENT ARMS OF THE HUMAN DIGITAL FLEXORS

    OpenAIRE

    Franko, Orrin I.; Winters, Taylor M.; Tirrell, Timothy F.; Hentzen, Eric R.; Lieber, Richard L

    2011-01-01

    For the extrinsic hand flexors (flexor digitorum profundus, FDP; flexor digitorum superficialis, FDS; flexor pollicis longus, FPL), moment arm corresponds to the tendon’s distance from the center of the metacarpalphalangeal (MP), proximal interphalangeal (PIP), or distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint. The clinical value of establishing accurate moment arms has been highlighted for biomechanical modeling, the development of robotic hands, designing rehabilitation protocols, and repairing flexor ...

  12. Colour Sensing Based Robotic Arm Control

    OpenAIRE

    Shashikant,; Divane Priyanka; Khese Swati; Shilpa Kanse

    2015-01-01

    The robot arm is an ongoing computer vision project for which many enhancements have been done during the last years, The aim of the paper is to present a system for controlling a robot arm, based on image processing and recognition. In the frame of this system, an important stage is the calibration. The presentation is focused on a new selfcalibration algorithm based on video motion and color detection. The algorithm proves to be general enough to be employed in other similar com...

  13. Accounting for complex entities: implications for ARMS

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, Charles B.; Klinefelter, Danny A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of accounting for complex organizational forms on data collection with the Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS). Design/methodology/approach – This research reviews the literature from accounting theory along with the goals of data collection for policy analysis to draw conclusions about the applicability of accounting pronouncements. Findings – Historically, the financial data collected in ARMS were based on financial ...

  14. Design And Implementation Of Anthropomorphic Robotic Arm

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Sharma; Kelvin Lewis

    2014-01-01

    The report focuses on the design and demonstration of an anthropomorphic robotic arm with seven degrees of freedom using readily available low-cost components to perform different real time human hand applications. The robotic arm consists of a shoulder, elbow, wrist and a five-finger gripper. It can perform different gripping actions, such as lateral, spherical, cylindrical and tip-holding gripping actions; each finger has three movable links. The actuator used for the roboti...

  15. Computational Simplification of Robot-Arm Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Lee, S.

    1986-01-01

    Report presents two general methods for reducing mathematical complexities of state equations of robot-arm dynamics. Robot arms contain both rotary and linear joints. Both methods start with homogenous coordinates and Lagrangian formulation of mechanics briefly summarized in report. First method uses matrix-analysis techniques; second, vector-analysis techniques. Vector-analysis method includes new differential-vector representation of centripetal and Coriolis forces.

  16. Highly Efficient Syntheses of Hyaluronic Acid Oligosaccharides

    OpenAIRE

    Lijun HUANG; Huang, Xuefei

    2007-01-01

    Highly efficient syntheses of hyaluronic acid oligosaccharides have been accomplished through the pre-activation based iterative one-pot strategy. A series of oligosaccharides ranging from di- to hexasaccharides were rapidly assembled using only near stoichiometric amounts of the building blocks without aglycon adjustment or purifications of intermediate oligosaccharides. Deprote...

  17. Arm & Interarm Star Formation in Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Foyle, Kelly; Walter, Fabian; Leroy, Adam

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between spiral arms and star formation in the grand-design spirals NGC 5194 and NGC 628 and in the flocculent spiral NGC 6946. Filtered maps of near-IR (3.6 micron) emission allow us to identify "arm regions" that should correspond to regions of stellar mass density enhancements. The two grand-design spirals show a clear two-armed structure, while NGC 6946 is more complex. We examine these arm and interarm regions, looking at maps that trace recent star formation - far-ultraviolet (GALEX NGS) and 24 micron emission (Spitzer, SINGS) - and cold gas - CO (Heracles) and HI (Things). We find the star formation tracers and CO more concentrated in the spiral arms than the stellar 3.6 micron flux. If we define the spiral arms as the 25% highest pixels in the filtered 3.6 micron images, we find that the majority (60%) of star formation tracers occurs in the interarm regions; this result persists qualitatively even when considering the potential impact of finite data resolution and diffu...

  18. Modal kinematics for multisection continuum arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godage, Isuru S; Medrano-Cerda, Gustavo A; Branson, David T; Guglielmino, Emanuele; Caldwell, Darwin G

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a novel spatial kinematic model for multisection continuum arms based on mode shape functions (MSF). Modal methods have been used in many disciplines from finite element methods to structural analysis to approximate complex and nonlinear parametric variations with simple mathematical functions. Given certain constraints and required accuracy, this helps to simplify complex phenomena with numerically efficient implementations leading to fast computations. A successful application of the modal approximation techniques to develop a new modal kinematic model for general variable length multisection continuum arms is discussed. The proposed method solves the limitations associated with previous models and introduces a new approach for readily deriving exact, singularity-free and unique MSF's that simplifies the approach and avoids mode switching. The model is able to simulate spatial bending as well as straight arm motions (i.e., pure elongation/contraction), and introduces inverse position and orientation kinematics for multisection continuum arms. A kinematic decoupling feature, splitting position and orientation inverse kinematics is introduced. This type of decoupling has not been presented for these types of robotic arms before. The model also carefully accounts for physical constraints in the joint space to provide enhanced insight into practical mechanics and impose actuator mechanical limitations onto the kinematics thus generating fully realizable results. The proposed method is easily applicable to a broad spectrum of continuum arm designs. PMID:25969947

  19. ARM assembly language with hardware experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Elahi, Ata

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a hands-on approach to learning ARM assembly language with the use of a TI microcontroller. The book starts with an introduction to computer architecture and then discusses number systems and digital logic. The text covers ARM Assembly Language, ARM Cortex Architecture and its components, and Hardware Experiments using TILM3S1968. Written for those interested in learning embedded programming using an ARM Microcontroller. ·         Introduces number systems and signal transmission methods   ·         Reviews logic gates, registers, multiplexers, decoders and memory   ·         Provides an overview and examples of ARM instruction set   ·         Uses using Keil development tools for writing and debugging ARM assembly language Programs   ·         Hardware experiments using a Mbed NXP LPC1768 microcontroller; including General Purpose Input/Output (GPIO) configuration, real time clock configuration, binary input to 7-segment display, creating ...

  20. Synthesis and characterization of three-arm polyamide 6-polyurethane block copolymer by monomer casting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three-arm polyamide 6-polyurethane (PA 6-PU) block copolymers were synthesized using ε-caprolactam as a monomer, caprolactam sodium as a catalyst, and a three-arm carbamyl caprolactam terminated polyurethane (PU) prepolymer as macroactivator. The three-arm PU prepolymer was formed from polyether glycerol (PPG) and diphenyl methane-4,4' diisocyanate (MDI). The block copolymers were obtained using the monomer casting process (MC) of ε-caprolactam at different content of three-arm PU prepolymer (5-20%). In increasing the content of the soft phase, in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), a displacement was observed in the band at 1637 cm-1, which is assigned to the amide I of polyamide 6 (PA 6) shifted to a higher wavenumber. This suggested an interaction between the amide group of the PA 6 and the urethane group of the PU. The effects of the PU prepolymer content on the mechanical properties of the block copolymers were investigated. The results showed that the impact strength of the block copolymers at 25 oC and -50 oC temperature could be significantly improved. The crystallization and melting behaviors, structure and thermal properties and morphological characteristic of the block copolymers were studied using the different techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMTA) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM).

  1. Dual Arm Work Module Development and Appplications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noakes, M.W.

    1999-04-25

    The dual arm work module (DAWM) was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by the Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP) as a development test bed to study issues related to dual arm manipulation, including platform cotilguration, controls, automation, operations, and tooling. The original platform was based on two Schilling Titan II manipulators mounted to a 5-degree-of- freedom (DOF) base fabricated by RedZone Robotics, Inc. The 5-DOF articulation provided a center torso rotation, linear actuation to change the separation between the arms, and arm base rotation joints to provide "elbows up," elbows down," or "elbows out" orientation. A series of tests were conducted on operations, tooling, and task space scene analysis (TSSA)-driven robotics for overhead transporter- mounted and crane hook-deployed scenarios. A concept was developed for DAWM deployment from a large remote work vehicle, but the project was redirected to support dismantlement of the Chicago Pile #5 (CP-5) reactor at Argonne National Laboratory in fiscal year (FY) 1997. Support of CP-5 required a change in focus of the dual arm technology from that of a development test bed to a system focussed for a specific end user. ORNL teamed with the Idaho National Environmental ,Engineering Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, and the Savannah River Technology Center to deliver a crane-deployed derivative of the DAWM, designated the dual arm work platform (DAWP). RTDP staff supported DAWP at CP-5 for one FY; Argonne staff continued operation through to dismantlement of the reactor internals. Lessons learned from this interaction were extensive. Beginning in FY 1999, dual arm development activities are again being pursued in the context of those lessons learned. This paper describes the progression of philosophy of the DAWM from initial test bed to lessons learned through interaction at CP-5 and to the present investigation of telerobotic assist of teleoperation and TSSA- driven robotics.

  2. Cortical spiking network interfaced with virtual musculoskeletal arm and robotic arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Dura-Bernal

    2015-11-01

    This work provides a novel approach consisting of bidirectionally connecting a cortical model to a realistic virtual arm, and using the system output to drive a robotic arm in real time. Our techniques are applicable to the future development of brain neuro-prosthetic control systems, and may enable enhanced brain-machine interfaces with the possibility for finer control of limb prosthetics.

  3. Syntheses and studies of organosilicon compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, R.

    1999-02-12

    The syntheses of polycarbosilanes and polysilanes as silicon carbide ceramic precursors have been active research areas in the Barton Research Group. In this thesis, the work is focused on the preparation of polycarbosilanes and polysilanes as stoichiometric silicon carbide precursor polymers. The syntheses of the precursor polymers are discussed and the conversions of these precursors to silicon carbide via pyrolysis are reported. The XRD pattern and elemental analyses of the resulting silicon carbide ceramics are presented. Silicon monoxide is an important intermediate in the production of silicon metal. The existence of silicon monoxide in gap phase has been widely accepted. In the second part of this thesis, the generation of gaseous silicon monoxide in four different reactors and the reactions of gaseous silicon monoxide towards organic compounds are discussed.

  4. The potential of transferrin-pendant-type polyethyleneglycol liposomes encapsulating decahydrodecaborate-1B (GB-10) as 1B-carriers for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate GB-10-encapsulating transferrin (TF)-pendant-type polyethyleneglycol (PEG) liposomes as tumor-targeting 1B-carriers for boron neutron capture therapy. Methods and Materials: A free mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate-1B (BSH) or decahydrodecaborate-1B (GB-10) solution, bare liposomes, PEG liposomes, or TF-PEG liposomes were injected into SCC VII tumor-bearing mice, and 1B concentrations in the tumors and normal tissues were measured by γ-ray spectrometry. Meanwhile, tumor-bearing mice were continuously given 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label all intratumor proliferating cells, then injected with these 1B-carriers containing BSH or GB-10 in the same manner. Right after thermal neutron irradiation, the response of quiescent (Q) cells was assessed in terms of the micronucleus frequency using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. The frequency in the total tumor cells was determined from the BrdU nontreated tumors. Results: Transferrin-PEG liposomes showed a prolonged retention in blood circulation, low uptake by reticuloendothelial system, and the most enhanced accumulation of 1B in solid tumors. In general, the enhancing effects were significantly greater in total cells than Q cells. In both cells, the enhancing effects of GB-10-containing 1B-carriers were significantly greater than BSH-containing 1B-carriers, whether loaded in free solution or liposomes. In both cells, whether BSH or GB-10 was employed, the greatest enhancing effect was observed with TF-PEG liposomes followed in decreasing order by PEG liposomes, bare liposomes, and free BSH or GB-10 solution. In Q cells, the decrease was remarkable between PEG and bare liposomes. Conclusions: In terms of biodistribution characteristics and tumor cell-killing effect as a whole, including Q cells, GB-10 TF-PEG liposomes were regarded as promising 1B-carriers

  5. Synthese von cyclischen Disacchariden durch intramolekulare Glycosylierung

    OpenAIRE

    Claude, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Organic chemists have always confronted the difficult task of synthesizing carbohydrates of with regio- and sterospecific specific glycosydic linkages, some of them frequently found in nature, with exert significant biological activities. To overcome this hurdle, they introduced an ingenuous synthetic method called "Intramolecular Glycosylation". Intramolecular glycosylation is the reaction between a glycosyl donor and acceptor that are both linked to a tether. The tether can be a tempora...

  6. Spurious in PLL-DDS frequency synthesizers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kroupa, Věnceslav František; Štursa, Jarmil

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2002), s. 48-51. ISSN 1335-8243. [Digital Signal Processing and Multimedia Communications DSP-MCOM 2001 /5./. Košice, 27.11.2001-29.11.2001] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/00/0958 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : frequency synthesizers * phase locked loops * direct digital synthesis Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  7. High pressure syntheses of carbonates. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ternary carbonates NaLn(CO3)2 with Ln = La to Lu and Y are synthesized by dehydration of NaLn(CO3)2.xH2O or by reaction of Na2CO3 with Ln2(C2O4)3.xH2O under 3000 bar CO2 and 350 - 500 0C. Two structures are found, characterized by IR and X-ray investigations and by thermal decomposition. (author)

  8. SYNTHESES OF METHYLENEDIANILINES OVER THE ZEOLITE CATALYSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Trejbal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Syntheses of methylenedianilines over zeolites with various structures were studied. It was foundout that the most selective catalyst for the synthesis of 4,4´-methylenedianiline isomer was zeoliteY. Further, the kinetic data showed that initial N,N´-diphenylmethylenediamine reacted over zeolitecatalysts by even one order of magnitude faster that the intermediate product 4-amino-N-benzylaniline.The most suitable temperature range

  9. Magnesioferrite synthesized from magnesian-magnetites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Hidemassa Anami

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Magnesioferrite is an important mineral due to its use in different scientific fields and by the fact that the soil through the action of weathering, can be a source of nutrients essential for plant development by the fact that in the soil. Its use in pure form or associated with other minerals is only possible through the synthesis in laboratory conditions. This study aimed to synthesize magnesioferrite and hematite from magnesian-magnetite by a co-precipitation procedure. The methodology used is an adaptation of the method of synthesis of pure magnetite, partially replacing the soluble salts of iron with soluble magnesium salts in the proportion of 30.0 mol% of Fe for Mg. The characterization of the synthetic minerals used x-rays diffraction, total chemical analysis and mass specific magnetic susceptibility. The results showed that besides the magnesian-magnetite an unprecedented muskoxita was synthesized, which upon annealing was converted to magnesioferrite and hematite and in the proportion of 93.1% and 6.9% respectively. The isomorphous substitution of Fe for Mg enhanced the thermal stability of the ferrimagnetic mineral synthesized.

  10. Template Syntheses, Crystal Structures and Supramolecular Assembly of Hexaaza Macrocyclic Copper(II) Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taehyung; Kim, Ju Chang [Pukyong National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lough, Alan J. [Univ. of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    2013-06-15

    Two new hexaaza macrocyclic copper(II) complexes were prepared by a template method and structurally characterized. In the solid state, they were self-assembled by intermolecular interactions to form the corresponding supramolecules 1 and 2, respectively. In the structure of 1, the copper(II) macrocycles are bridged by a tp ligand to form a macrocyclic copper(II) dimer. The dimer extends its structure by intermolecular forces such as hydrogen bonds and C-H···π interactions, resulting in the formation of a double stranded 1D supramolecule. In 2, the basic structure is a monomeric copper(II) macrocycle with deprotonated imidazole pendants. An undulated 1D hydrogen bonded array is achieved through hydrogen bonds between imidazole pendants and secondary amines, where the imidazole pendants act as a hydrogen bond acceptor. The 1D hydrogen bonded supramolecular chain is supported by C-H···π interactions between the methyl groups of acetonitrile ligands and imidazole pendants of the copper(II) macrocycles. In both complexes, the introduction of imidazoles to the macrocycle as a pendant plays an important role for the formation of supramolecules, where they act as intermolecular hydrogen bond donors and/or acceptors, C-H···π and π-π interactions.

  11. ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements (ARM-ACME) and ARM-ACME 2.5 Final Campaign Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biraud, S. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tom, M. S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sweeney, C. [NOAA Earth Systems Research Lab., Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We report on a 5-year multi-institution and multi-agency airborne study of atmospheric composition and carbon cycling at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, with scientific objectives that are central to the carbon-cycle and radiative-forcing goals of the U.S. Global Change Research Program and the North American Carbon Program (NACP). The goal of these measurements is to improve understanding of 1) the carbon exchange of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) SGP region; 2) how CO2 and associated water and energy fluxes influence radiative-forcing, convective processes, and CO2 concentrations over the ARM SGP region, and 3) how greenhouse gases are transported on continental scales.

  12. Two new helical compounds based on Keggin clusters and N-donor multidentate ligand: Syntheses, structures and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shi [Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalates Science of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); College of Chemistry, Jilin Normal University, Siping 136000 (China); Liu, Bo [College of Chemistry, Jilin Normal University, Siping 136000 (China); Li, Xiao-Min; Shi, Tian [Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalates Science of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Chen, Ya-Guang, E-mail: chenyg146@nenu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalates Science of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Two isostructural polyoxometalate-based inorganic–organic hybrids with 1D helical chain, [CuH{sub 3}L{sub 2}(GeMo{sub 12}O{sub 40})]·2H{sub 2}O (1) and [CuH{sub 3}L{sub 2}(SiMo{sub 12}O{sub 40})]·2H{sub 2}O (2), where L=2,4,5-tri(4-pyridyl)-imidazole have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. It is the first time to use the L ligand to synthesis the Keggin-type polyoxometalate-based inorganic–organic hybrids. The two compounds possess the left- and right-handed helical chains and the POMs as pendants attach in the helical chains through Cu–O bonds. The two compounds have been characterized by elemental analyses, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and photoluminescent spectroscopy. Moreover, nitrogen adsorption−desorption measurement, electrochemical and photocatalysis properties for degradation of methylene blue (MB) upon a UV irradiation of compound 1 have been examined. - Graphical abstract: Two new compounds, [CuH{sub 3}L{sub 2}(GeMo{sub 12}O{sub 40})]·2H{sub 2}O (1) and [CuH{sub 3}L{sub 2}(SiMo{sub 12}O{sub 40})]·2H{sub 2}O (2) have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The two compounds possess the left- and right-handed helical chains. - Highlights: • The tridentate L ligand is first used to synthesis Keggin-type polyoxometalates. • The two compounds possess the left- and right-handed Cu–L helical chains. • Relationship between surface properties and photocatalytic activity was studied. • Two compounds exhibit photoluminescence of ligand-to-metal charge transfer.

  13. Stellar Motion around Spiral Arms: Gaia Mock Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, D.; Hunt, J. A. S.; Grand, R. J. J.; Siebert, A.; Pasetto, S.; Cropper, M.

    2014-07-01

    We compare the stellar motion around a spiral arm created in two different scenarios, transient/co-rotating spiral arms and density-wave-like spiral arms. We generate Gaia mock data from snapshots of the simulations following these two scenarios using our stellar population code, SNAPDRAGONS, which takes into account dust extinction and the expected Gaia errors. We compare the observed rotation velocity around a spiral arm similar in position to the Perseus arm, and find that there is a clear difference in the velocity features around the spiral arm between the co-rotating spiral arm and the density-wave-like spiral arm. Our result demonstrates that the volume and accuracy of the Gaia data are sufficient to clearly distinguish these two scenarios of the spiral arms.

  14. Stellar Motion around Spiral Arms: Gaia Mock Data

    CERN Document Server

    Kawata, D; Grand, R J J; Siebert, A; Pasetto, S; Cropper, M

    2015-01-01

    We compare the stellar motion around a spiral arm created in two different scenarios, transient/co-rotating spiral arms and density-wave-like spiral arms. We generate Gaia mock data from snapshots of the simulations following these two scenarios using our stellar population code, SNAPDRAGONS, which takes into account dust extinction and the expected Gaia errors. We compare the observed rotation velocity around a spiral arm similar in position to the Perseus arm, and find that there is a clear difference in the velocity features around the spiral arm between the co-rotating spiral arm and the density-wave-like spiral arm. Our result demonstrates that the volume and accuracy of the Gaia data are sufficient to clearly distinguish these two scenarios of the spiral arms.

  15. Thermoelectric n-type silicon germanium synthesized by unidirectional solidification in microgravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Thermoelectric n-type SiGe was synthesized by unidirectional solidification. ► SiGe had dendrite structure aligned along the solidification direction. ► SiGe solidified unidirectionally in microgravity had crystalline orientation. ► Anisotropy of electric conductivity was seen in orthogonal solidification directions. ► ZT of Si0.7Ge0.3-1at%P solidified in microgravity at 1000 K was 1.19. - Abstract: Thermoelectric n-type Si0.2Ge0.8 and Si0.7Ge0.3 added 1at%P for Si–Ge were synthesized by unidirectional solidification in microgravity. Microgravity with ±10−2 g for 0.46 s was obtained in free fall using a 2 m-drop tower. The microstructure of the sample solidified in microgravity and 1 g was dendrite on the surface that contacted a Cu chill block. The microstructure of the cross section along the cooling direction was dendrite and the columnar dendrite structure was mainly aligned along the solidification direction. The dendrite became larger with depth from the surface that contacted the Cu chill block, and the width of the primary dendrite arm solidified in microgravity exceeded that in 1 g. Ge was segregated to the secondary arm of columnar dendrite. The Si/Ge atomic ratio in the primary and secondary arm of Si0.7Ge0.3-1at%P solidified in 1 g and microgravity was slightly higher than that of solidified Si0.8Ge0.2-1at%P in 1 g and microgravity. The secondary arm of solidified Si0.7Ge0.3-1at%P was wider than that of solidified Si0.8Ge0.2-1at%P. P was distributed uniformly in Si–Ge solidified in microgravity. The electrical conductivities of Si0.8Ge0.2-1at%P and Si0.7Ge0.3-1at%P were anisotropic in directions along and perpendicular to the solidification direction. The dimensionless Figure of Merit, ZT, of the direction along the solidification direction at 1000 K was estimated from thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity adjusted by the anisotropy, and the Seebeck coefficient in 1 g and microgravity. The ZT of the sample solidified in microgravity at 1000 K along the solidification direction was 1.19.

  16. Working End of Robotic Arm on Phoenix

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version This illustration shows some of the components on and near the end of the robotic arm on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. Primary and secondary blades on the scoop will aid in the collection of soil samples. A powered rasp will allow the arm to sample an icy layer expected to be about as hard as concrete. The thermal and electrical conductivity probe, which is one part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer, will assess how heat and electrons move through the soil from one spike to another of a four-spike electronic fork that will be pushed into the soil at different stages of digging by the arm.

  17. Systems Approach to Arms Control Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, K; Neimeyer, I; Listner, C; Stein, G; Chen, C; Dreicer, M

    2015-05-15

    Using the decades of experience of developing concepts and technologies for verifying bilateral and multilateral arms control agreements, a broad conceptual systems approach is being developed that takes into account varying levels of information and risk. The IAEA has already demonstrated the applicability of a systems approach by implementing safeguards at the State level, with acquisition path analysis as the key element. In order to test whether such an approach could also be implemented for arms control verification, an exercise was conducted in November 2014 at the JRC ITU Ispra. Based on the scenario of a hypothetical treaty between two model nuclear weapons states aimed at capping their nuclear arsenals at existing levels, the goal of this exercise was to explore how to use acquisition path analysis in an arms control context. Our contribution will present the scenario, objectives and results of this exercise, and attempt to define future workshops aimed at further developing verification measures that will deter or detect treaty violations.

  18. Fractures of the humerus during arm wrestling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bumbaširevi? Marko Ž.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Humeral shaft fractures may occur as a result of arm wrestling. The aim of this study was to present our treatment of humerus fracture sustained during arm wrestling. Methods. A total of six patients, aged 22 to 48, were treated at our department form January 2008 to January 2010 with open reduction and internal fixation and with hanging arm casts. A review of all the relevant literature on the subject was also presented. Results. In all the cases, the fractures healed and function returned to normal. No patient had any neural or vascular compromise. Conclusion. Closed and operative treatments were equally successful in all reported cases. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175-095

  19. ARM Cloud Retrieval Ensemble Data Set (ACRED)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, C; Xie, S; Klein, SA; McCoy, R; Comstock, JM; Delanoë, J; Deng, M; Dunn, M; Hogan, RJ; Jensen, MP; Mace, GG; McFarlane, SA; O’Connor, EJ; Protat, A; Shupe, MD; Turner, D; Wang, Z

    2011-09-12

    This document describes a new Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) data set, the ARM Cloud Retrieval Ensemble Data Set (ACRED), which is created by assembling nine existing ground-based cloud retrievals of ARM measurements from different cloud retrieval algorithms. The current version of ACRED includes an hourly average of nine ground-based retrievals with vertical resolution of 45 m for 512 layers. The techniques used for the nine cloud retrievals are briefly described in this document. This document also outlines the ACRED data availability, variables, and the nine retrieval products. Technical details about the generation of ACRED, such as the methods used for time average and vertical re-grid, are also provided.

  20. Characterizing spiral arm and interarm star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Kreckel, K; Schinnerer, E; Groves, B; Adamo, A; Hughes, A; Meidt, S

    2016-01-01

    Interarm star formation contributes significantly to a galaxy's star formation budget, and provides an opportunity to study stellar birthplaces unperturbed by spiral arm dynamics. Using optical integral field spectroscopy of the nearby galaxy NGC 628 with VLT/MUSE, we identify 391 HII regions at 35pc resolution over 12 kpc^2. Using tracers sensitive to the underlying gravitational potential, we associate HII regions with either arm (271) or interarm (120) environments. We find that most HII region physical properties (luminosity, size, metallicity, ionization parameter) are independent of environment. We calculate the fraction of Halpha luminosity due to the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) background contaminating each HII region, and find the DIG surface brightness to be higher within HII regions compared to the surroundings, and slightly higher within arm HII regions. Use of the temperature sensitive [SII]/Halpha line ratio map instead of the Halpha surface brightness to identify HII region boundaries does not ch...

  1. Adaptive Control Strategies for Flexible Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialasiewicz, Jan T.

    1996-01-01

    The control problem of a flexible robotic arm has been investigated. The control strategies that have been developed have a wide application in approaching the general control problem of flexible space structures. The following control strategies have been developed and evaluated: neural self-tuning control algorithm, neural-network-based fuzzy logic control algorithm, and adaptive pole assignment algorithm. All of the above algorithms have been tested through computer simulation. In addition, the hardware implementation of a computer control system that controls the tip position of a flexible arm clamped on a rigid hub mounted directly on the vertical shaft of a dc motor, has been developed. An adaptive pole assignment algorithm has been applied to suppress vibrations of the described physical model of flexible robotic arm and has been successfully tested using this testbed.

  2. Influence of swimming speed on inter-arm coordination in competitive unilateral arm amputee front crawl swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborough, Conor D; Payton, Carl J; Daly, Daniel J

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the effect of swimming speed on inter-arm coordination and the inter-relationships between swimming speed, inter-arm coordination, and other stroke parameters, in a group of competitive unilateral arm amputee front crawl swimmers. Thirteen highly-trained swimmers were filmed underwater during a series of 25-m front crawl trials of increasing speed. Arm coordination for both arms was quantified using an adapted version of the Index of Coordination. Inter-arm coordination of the amputee swimmers did not change as swimming speed was increased up to maximum. Swimmers showed significantly more catch-up coordination of their affected-arm compared to their unaffected-arm. When sprinting, the fastest swimmers used higher stroke frequencies and less catch-up of their affected-arm than the slower swimmers. Unilateral arm-amputees used an asymmetrical strategy for coordinating their affected-arm relative to their unaffected-arm to maintain the stable repetition of their overall arm stroke cycle. When sprinting, the attainment of a high stroke frequency is influenced mainly by the length of time the affected-arm is held in a stationary position in front of the body before pulling. Reducing this time delay appears to be beneficial for successful swimming performance. PMID:20800914

  3. Context-dependent arm pointing adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidler, R. D.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Stelmach, G. E.

    2001-01-01

    We sought to determine the effectiveness of head posture as a contextual cue to facilitate adaptive transitions in manual control during visuomotor distortions. Subjects performed arm pointing movements by drawing on a digitizing tablet, with targets and movement trajectories displayed in real time on a computer monitor. Adaptation was induced by presenting the trajectories in an altered gain format on the monitor. The subjects were shown visual displays of their movements that corresponded to either 0.5 or 1.5 scaling of the movements made. Subjects were assigned to three groups: the head orientation group tilted the head towards the right shoulder when drawing under a 0.5 gain of display and towards the left shoulder when drawing under a 1.5 gain of display; the target orientation group had the home and target positions rotated counterclockwise when drawing under the 0.5 gain and clockwise for the 1.5 gain; the arm posture group changed the elbow angle of the arm they were not drawing with from full flexion to full extension with 0.5 and 1.5 gain display changes. To determine if contextual cues were associated with display alternations, the gain changes were returned to the standard (1.0) display. Aftereffects were assessed to determine the efficacy of the head orientation contextual cue compared to the two control cues. The head orientation cue was effectively associated with the multiple gains. The target orientation cue also demonstrated some effectiveness while the arm posture cue did not. The results demonstrate that contextual cues can be used to switch between multiple adaptive states. These data provide support for the idea that static head orientation information is a crucial component to the arm adaptation process. These data further define the functional linkage between head posture and arm pointing movements.

  4. Offset between stellar spiral arms and gas arms of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, L G

    2015-01-01

    Spiral arms shown by different components may not be spatially coincident, which can constrain formation mechanisms of spiral structure in a galaxy. We reassess the spiral arm tangency directions in the Milky Way through identifying the bump features in the longitude plots of survey data for infrared stars, radio recombination lines (RRLs), star formation sites, CO, high density regions in clouds, and HI. The bump peaks are taken as indications for arm tangencies, which are close to the real density peaks near the spiral arm tangency point but often have $\\sim$ 1$^\\circ$ offset to the interior of spiral arms. The arm tangencies identified from the longitudes plots for RRLs, HII regions, methanol masers, CO, high density gas regions, and HI gas appear nearly the same Galactic longitude, and therefore there is no obvious offset for spiral arms traced by different gas components. However, we find obvious displacements of 1.3$^\\circ-$ 5.8$^\\circ$ between gaseous bump peaks from the directions of the maximum densi...

  5. Parameter identification for a robotic manipulator arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, D. W.; Gibson, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    The development is described of a nonlinear dynamic model for large oscillations of a robotic manipulator arm about a single joint. Optimization routines are formulated and implemented for the identification of electrical and physical parameters from dynamic data taken from an industrial robot arm. Special attention is given to the role of sensitivity in the formulation of robust models of this motion. The importance of actuator effects in the reduction of sensitivity is established and used to develop an electromechanical model of the manipulator system.

  6. Homosexuality in the Dutch Armed Forces 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Adolfsen; Saskia Keuzenkamp; m.m.v. Linda Mans

    2006-01-01

    Original title: Uniform uit de kast. This study looks at the attitudes of defence personnel to homosexuality. How do members of the military view homosexual colleagues? Can gays and lesbians working in the armed forces be open about their sexual preferences? Do they regard the armed forces as a gay-friendly workplace, or do they have lots of negative experiences? At the request of the State Secretary for Defence, the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP carried out a study on the acc...

  7. The ARM unpiloted aerospace vehicle (UAV) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowle, D. [Mission Research Corporation, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Unmanned aerospace vehicles (UAVs) are an important complement to the DOE`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. ARM is primarily a ground-based program designed to extensively quantify the radiometric and meteorological properties of an atmospheric column. There is a need for airborne measurements of radiative profiles, especially flux at the tropopause, cloud properties, and upper troposphere water vapor. There is also a need for multi-day measurements at the tropopause; for example, in the tropics, at 20 km for over 24 hours. UAVs offer the greatest potential for long endurance at high altitudes and may be less expensive than piloted flights. 2 figs.

  8. Phoenix Robotic Arm connects with `Alice'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm comes into contact with a rock informally named 'Alice' near the 'Snow White' trench. This image was acquired by Phoenix's NASA's Surface Stereo Imager on July 13 during the 48th Martian day, or sol, since Phoenix landed. For scale, the width of the scoop at the end of the arm is about 8.5 centimeters (3.3 inches). The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. Martian Soil Inside Phoenix's Robotic Arm Scoop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) shows material from the Martian surface captured by the Robotic Arm (RA) scoop during its first test dig and dump on the seventh Martian day of the mission, or Sol 7 (June 1, 2008). The test sample shown was taken from the digging area informally known as 'Knave of Hearts.' The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Testing the Robotic Arm Rasp on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Members of NASA Phoenix Mars Mission's Robotic Arm engineering team test the arm's motorized rasp in the Payload Interoperability Testbed at the University of Arizona, Tucson. The testbed has a near-duplicate of the Phoenix lander for use in developing techniques to be used on Mars and for checking commands planned for the lander. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Simulations of tidally induced spiral arms

    CERN Document Server

    Semczuk, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    The origin of grand design spiral structure in galaxies is still under debate but one of promising scenarios involves tidal interactions. We use N-body simulations to study the evolution of a Milky Way-size galaxy in a Virgo-like cluster. The galaxy is placed on a typical eccentric orbit and evolved for 10 Gyr. We find that grand design spiral arms are triggered by pericenter passages and later on they wind up and dissipate. The arms formed in the simulations are approximately logarithmic, but are also dynamic, transient and recurrent.

  12. Phoenix Deploying its Robotic Arm Elbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This animated gif is compiled of images from Phoenix's Stereo Surface Imager (SSI) taken on Sol 3. It shows the stair-step motion used to unstow the arm from a protective covering called the biobarrier. The last two moves allow the arm to stand straight up. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. Report synthesizes findings from International Polar Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-04-01

    The International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2008 "was an outstanding success," according to a National Research Council (NRC) report released 3 April. The report, Lessons and Legacies of the International Polar Year 2007-2008, synthesized reports from the thousands of scientists who participated in IPY. IPY was a coordinated international field campaign of observations, research, and analysis. Scientific observing and monitoring infrastructure was expanded, and scientists from more than 60 countries in a wide range of fields, including glaciology, atmospheric science, geoscience, space science, oceanography, biology, ecology, and the social sciences, participated in IPY activities.

  14. Monodisperse carbon microspheres synthesized from asphaltene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xiaomin [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology (China) and Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials of Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024 (China)], E-mail: xiaomin1031@126.com; Guo Junjie [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology (China); Yang Xiaowei [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials of Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Xu Bingshe [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology (China); Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials of Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024 (China)

    2009-02-15

    Carbon microspheres were synthesized from asphaltene by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and Raman spectroscopy method. The results indicated the monodispersed spheres were almost curving graphitic structure with diameters from 300 to 400 nm. G mode centre of carbon microspheres had shifted upward compared with graphite. As an efficient precursor, asphaltenes were metastable structures at higher temperature. The aromatic carbon rings of asphaltenes promoted the formation of closed cage graphitic structures. The results provide a new perspective for the application of asphaltene.

  15. Monodisperse carbon microspheres synthesized from asphaltene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon microspheres were synthesized from asphaltene by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and Raman spectroscopy method. The results indicated the monodispersed spheres were almost curving graphitic structure with diameters from 300 to 400 nm. G mode centre of carbon microspheres had shifted upward compared with graphite. As an efficient precursor, asphaltenes were metastable structures at higher temperature. The aromatic carbon rings of asphaltenes promoted the formation of closed cage graphitic structures. The results provide a new perspective for the application of asphaltene

  16. Biocompatibility of poly allylamine synthesized by plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the electric and hydrophilic properties of poly allylamine (PAI) synthesized by plasma whose structure contains N-H, C-H, C-O and O-H bonds is presented, that promote the biocompatibility with the human body. To study the PAI hydrolytic affinity, solutions of salt concentration similar to those of the human body were used. The results indicate that the solutions modify the charge balance in the surfaces reducing the hydrophobicity in the poly allylamine whose contact angle oscillates among 10 and 16 degrees and the liquid-solid surface tension between 4 and 8 dina/cm. (Author)

  17. Synthese stereoskopischer Sequenzen aus 2-dimensionalen Videoaufnahmen

    OpenAIRE

    Knorr, Sebastian

    2008-01-01

    Die rasante Entwicklung der 3D-Technologie führt derzeit zu einer verstärkten Nachfrage nach 3D-Spielen, 3D-Filmen, 3D-Präsentationen und interaktiven 3D-Inhalten. Von der Motiviation getrieben, alte Filme als Neuauflage in 3D zu erleben, beschäftigt sich die vorliegende Dissertation mit der automatischen Konvertierung von Videosequenzen von 2D in stereoskopisch 3D. Zur Umsetzung dieses Ziels wird ein neues Verfahren zur realistischen Synthese stereoskopischer Ansichten (RSVS) aus monokularen...

  18. Recent Advances in Chemoenzymatic Peptide Syntheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenjiro Yazawa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemoenzymatic peptide synthesis is the hydrolase-catalyzed stereoselective formation of peptide bonds. It is a clean and mild procedure, unlike conventional chemical synthesis, which involves complicated and laborious protection-deprotection procedures and harsh reaction conditions. The chemoenzymatic approach has been utilized for several decades because determining the optimal conditions for conventional synthesis is often time-consuming. The synthesis of poly- and oligopeptides comprising various amino acids longer than a dipeptide continues to pose a challenge owing to the lack of knowledge about enzymatic mechanisms and owing to difficulty in optimizing the pH, temperature, and other reaction conditions. These drawbacks limit the applications of the chemoenzymatic approach. Recently, a variety of enzymes and substrates produced using recombinant techniques, substrate mimetics, and optimal reaction conditions (e.g., frozen aqueous media and ionic liquids have broadened the scope of chemoenzymatic peptide syntheses. In this review, we highlight the recent advances in the chemoenzymatic syntheses of various peptides and their use in developing new materials and biomedical applications.

  19. Biogenic synthesized nanoparticles and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhijeet; Sharma, Madan Mohan

    2016-05-01

    In the present scenario, there are growing concerns over the potential impacts of bioengineered nanoparticles in the health sector. However, our understanding of how bioengineered nanoparticles may affect organisms within natural ecosystems, lags far behind our rapidly increasing ability to engineer novel nanoparticles. To date, research on the biological impacts of bioengineered nanoparticles has primarily consisted of controlled lab studies of model organisms with single species in culture media. Here, we described a cost effective and environment friendly technique for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from 1 mM AgNO3 via a green synthesis process using leaf extract as reducing as well as capping agent. Nanoparticles were characterized with the help of UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and TEM analysis which revealed the size of nanoparticles of 30-40 nm size. Further the nanoparticles synthesized by green route are found highly toxic against pathogenic bacteria and plant pathogenic fungi viz. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas syringae and Sclerotiniasclerotiorum. The most important outcome of this work will be the development of value-added products and protection of human health from pathogens viz., bacteria, virus, fungi etc.

  20. Does computer use affect the incidence of distal arm pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Lassen, Christina Funch; Vilstrup, Imogen; Kryger, Ann Isabel; Brandt, Lars Peter Andreas; Thomsen, Jane Frølund; Gerster, Mette; Grimstrup, Søren; Andersen, Johan Hviid

    2012-01-01

    To study how objectively recorded mouse and keyboard activity affects distal arm pain among computer workers.......To study how objectively recorded mouse and keyboard activity affects distal arm pain among computer workers....

  1. A Robotic arm for optical and gamma radwaste inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, L.; Cosentino, L.; Pappalardo, A.; Piscopo, M.; Scirè, C.; Scirè, S.; Vecchio, G.; Muscato, G.; Finocchiaro, P.

    2014-12-01

    We propose Radibot, a simple and cheap robotic arm for remote inspection, which interacts with the radwaste environment by means of a scintillation gamma detector and a video camera representing its light (arm by means of a standard videogame joypad.

  2. Analytical forms of chaotic spiral arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsoula, M.; Efthymiopoulos, C.; Contopoulos, G.

    2016-04-01

    We develop an analytical theory of chaotic spiral arms in galaxies. This is based on the Moser theory of invariant manifolds around unstable periodic orbits. We apply this theory to the chaotic spiral arms, that start from the neighborhood of the Lagrangian points L1 and L2 at the end of the bar in a barred-spiral galaxy. The series representing the invariant manifolds starting at the Lagrangian points L1, L2, or unstable periodic orbits around L1 and L2, yield spiral patterns in the configuration space. These series converge in a domain around every Lagrangian point, called "Moser domain" and represent the orbits that constitute the chaotic spiral arms. In fact, these orbits are not only along the invariant manifolds, but also in a domain surrounding the invariant manifolds. We show further that orbits starting outside the Moser domain but close to it converge to the boundary of the Moser domain, which acts as an attractor. These orbits stay for a long time close to the spiral arms before escaping to infinity.

  3. Colleges Grapple with the "Behavioral Broken Arm"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Eric

    2008-01-01

    After the fatal shootings at Virginia Tech last April, colleges went shopping for hardware. They bought sirens, mass-messaging systems, surveillance cameras, and door locks. Some colleges armed their police departments for the first time. Others added assault rifles to their arsenals. "Active shooter" drills happened everywhere. As administrators…

  4. Automation Using Robotic Arm in Rotor Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOPU G.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Till date automation in small and medium scale industries has not enjoyed the same rate of growth as in other information technology sectors, lagging significantly behind automation in large batch production .The use of LabVIEW interfaced with micro-controller in controlling a robotic arm is a latest technique which is being implemented in this project. In medium scale industries packaging of rotors is done manually. This Process is time consuming and also requires manpower. Through this project our efforts are to increase the efficiency by building an automated system which would employ and also reduces manpower. It involves the use of a robotic arm which would identify the rotors positioning, pick it and then place it in the desired location. With the use of this system the process of packaging can be done effectively without any manpower and also does not require constant monitoring and guidance. The DC gear motors are used in actuating the robotic arm. Electromagnetic gripper is employed at the end of the arm which picks and places the helical rotor of weight 1.5 kg in the desired position for packaging and this mechanism is automated and controlled using LabVIEW. The complete set up is compact and versatile.

  5. Verification and transparency in future arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, J.F.

    1996-09-01

    Verification`s importance has changed dramatically over time, although it always has been in the forefront of arms control. The goals and measures of verification and the criteria for success have changed with the times as well, reflecting such factors as the centrality of the prospective agreement to East-West relations during the Cold War, the state of relations between the United States and the Soviet Union, and the technologies available for monitoring. Verification`s role may be declining in the post-Cold War period. The prospects for such a development will depend, first and foremost, on the high costs of traditional arms control, especially those associated with requirements for verification. Moreover, the growing interest in informal, or non-negotiated arms control does not allow for verification provisions by the very nature of these arrangements. Multilateral agreements are also becoming more prominent and argue against highly effective verification measures, in part because of fears of promoting proliferation by opening sensitive facilities to inspectors from potential proliferant states. As a result, it is likely that transparency and confidence-building measures will achieve greater prominence, both as supplements to and substitutes for traditional verification. Such measures are not panaceas and do not offer all that we came to expect from verification during the Cold war. But they may be the best possible means to deal with current problems of arms reductions and restraints at acceptable levels of expenditure.

  6. Molecular machines: Molecules bearing robotic arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprahamian, Ivan

    2016-02-01

    Mass production at the nanoscale requires molecular machines that can control, with high fidelity, the spatial orientation of other reactive species. The demonstration of a synthetic system in which a molecular robotic arm can be used to manipulate the position of a chemical cargo is a significant step towards achieving this goal.

  7. Kinematics and trajectory generation for MIRADAS arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater, J.; Gómez, J. M.; Torra, J.; López, M.; Raines, S. N.; Eikenberry, S. S.

    2015-05-01

    The Mid-resolution InfRAreD Astronomical Spectrograph (MIRADAS) is a NIR multi-object spectrograph for the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). The instrument has a multiplexing system (MXS) that enables the simultaneous observation of twenty objects located within its field of view. These user selected targets are acquired by twenty deployable robotic probe arms with pickoff mirror optics operating at cryogenic temperatures. The MIRADAS probe arm is a close-loop mechanism designed with optics simplicity in mind, presenting good stability when it is operated upside down. Calculating optimum collision-free trajectories requires a good knowledge of the MIRADAS arm behavior based on its geometry and its mechanical constraints. This study introduces a geometric model for the two degree-of-freedom (DoF) mechanism, including solutions for the forward and inverse kinematics problem. The concepts of zone-of-avoidance (ZoA), workspace and envelope of MIRADAS arm are presented and studied. Finally, the paper proposes two different patrolling approaches that can be exploited when planning trajectories.

  8. Light Duty Utility Arm Software Test Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plan describes how validation testing of the software will be implemented for the integrated control and data acquisition system of the Light Duty Utility Arm System (LDUA). The purpose of LDUA software validation testing is to demonstrate and document that the LDUA software meets its software requirements specification

  9. Light duty utility arm software requirements specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document defines the software requirements for the integrated control and data acquisition system of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System. It is intended to be used to guide the design of the application software, to be a basis for assessing the application software design, and to establish what is to be tested in the finished application software product

  10. Arms and the man - or child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After almost half a century of remote technology research the telerobotic arm is still less dexterous than the nuclear industry might wish. The authors review R and D in this area of man-machine interfacing, and take a look down the road ahead. (author)

  11. Légitimer la participation des femmes à l’effort de guerre en zone nationale pendant la guerre d’Espagne : vers la notion de « guerre totale »

    OpenAIRE

    Marie-Aline Barrachina

    2011-01-01

    Pendant la guerre civile espagnole, l’urgence sanitaire et sociale conduit les femmes de la zone nationale à se mobiliser derrière des associations confessionnelles ou partisanes afin de  participer à l’effort de guerre. Or les forces qui soutenaient le soulèvement antirépublicain fondaient leur conception de l’Etat et de la société sur une stricte répartition des espaces privés et public, ce dernier étant exclusivement réservé aux hommes. Il convenait donc de dépoussiérer ces principes afin ...

  12. Is the evaporation from phreatic aquifers in arid zones independent of the soil characteristics ? / L'évaporation des nappes phréatiques sous climat aride est-elle indépendante de la nature du sol ?

    OpenAIRE

    Coudrain-Ribstein, Anne; Pratx, Bruno; Talbi, A.; Jusserand, Claude

    1998-01-01

    The approximatly 20 pulished data based on isotopic profiles of the unsaturated zone lead us to express the evaporative flx as an inverse power function of the piezometric depth below the soil surface, independently of the soil characteristics. (...) Les données d'une vingtaine de profils isotopiques de la zone non saturée conduit à une expression du flux évaporatoire des aquifères qui est fonction de l'inverse de la profondeur du niveau piézométrique, et qui apparait indépendante de la natur...

  13. Kinematic decomposition and classification of octopus arm movements

    OpenAIRE

    Ido Zelman; Shlomi Hanassy

    2013-01-01

    The octopus arm is a muscular hydrostat and due to its deformable and highly flexible structure it is capable of a rich repertoire of motor behaviors. Its motor control system uses planning principles and control strategies unique to muscular hydrostats. We previously reconstructed a data set of octopus arm movements from records of natural movements using a sequence of 3D curves describing the virtual backbone of arm configurations. Here we describe a novel representation of octopus arm move...

  14. Simulation of Octopus Arm Based on Coupled CPGs

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Tian; Qiang Lu

    2015-01-01

    The octopus arm has attracted many researchers’ interests and became a research hot spot because of its amazing features. Several dynamic models inspired by an octopus arm are presented to realize the structure with a large number of degrees of freedom. The octopus arm is made of a soft material introducing high-dimensionality, nonlinearity, and elasticity, which makes the octopus arm difficult to control. In this paper, three coupled central pattern generators (CPGs) are built and a 2-dimens...

  15. Embedded ARM Control Robotic Arm using BoaWeb server – a Survey

    OpenAIRE

    V.Sirisha; V. Sachin Kumar

    2015-01-01

    In today’s market, the competing microprocessors are ARM (Advanced Risc Microprocessor), Intel, AMD. ARM is preferred since it has been powering portable devices for decades and has simple architecture to keep the energy waste to be minimum. The electronics advancements and embedded technology advancements have become a challenging field in today’s techno world. In paper, the diligent features of embedded systems are introduced. It deals about how a robot is controlled using embed...

  16. Cortical spiking network interfaced with virtual musculoskeletal arm and robotic arm

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador Dura-Bernal; Xianlian Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Embedding computational models in the physical world is a critical step towards constraining their behavior and building practical applications. Here we aim to drive a realistic musculoskeletal arm model using a biomimetic cortical spiking model, and make a robot arm reproduce the same trajectories in real time. Our cortical model consisted of a 3-layered cortex, composed of several hundred spiking model-neurons, which display physiologically realistic dynamics. We interconnected the cortical...

  17. The Arm’s Length Principle and Distortions to Multinational Firm Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Keuschnigg; Michael P. Devereux

    2013-01-01

    To prevent profit shifting by manipulation of transfer prices, tax authorities typically apply the arm's length principle in corporate taxation and use comparable market prices to ‘correctly’ assess the value of intracompany trade and royalty income of multinationals. We develop a model of firms subject to financing frictions and offshoring of intermediate inputs. We find that arm's length prices systematically differ from prices set by independent agents. Application of the princip...

  18. Overview of ARM observations during the ARM MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, S. A.; Long, C. N.; Feng, Z.; Comstock, J. M.; Sivaraman, C.; Bharadwaj, N.; Johnson, K. L.; Orr, B. W.; Ritsche, M.; Collis, S. M.; Schumacher, C.; Ellis, S.; Powell, S.

    2012-12-01

    The US Department of Energy funded Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE) was performed in association with the DYNAMO (Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation) and CINDY-2011 (Cooperative Indian Ocean experiment on intraseasonal variability in the Year 2011) campaigns to study MJO initiation in the Indian Ocean. AMIE included measurements with the second ARM mobile facility (AMF2) on Addu City, the Maldives, and measurements at the permanent ARM site on Manus Island, Papua New Guinea. The dual-pronged nature of the AMIE experiment allowed observation of both MJO convective initiation in the Indian Ocean (at the Maldives site) and the mature phase of the MJO as it passed over the maritime continent (at the Manus site). The AMF2 consists of a full suite of atmospheric instrumentation including surface meteorological instruments, broadband radiometers, microwave radiometers, vertically pointing ceilometer, cloud radar and lidar, scanning cloud radar, and a 2D video disdrometer. At Manus, a similar suite of instruments, including a C-band precipitation radar, is available at the permanent ARM facility. A key aspect of the AMIE deployment was 8/day radiosonde launches at both the Maldives and Manus sites to document the evolution of the thermodynamic structure with the passage of the MJO over the sites. In this presentation, we give an overview of the available ARM thermodynamic, cloud, and precipitation observations during AMIE; show some preliminary ARM value added products; and present some initial comparisons of the ARM and DYNAMO radars.aily cloud frequency observed by the Ka ARM Zenith Radar (KAZR) at the Gan site during AMIE.

  19. Arm motion planning based on space-time constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dengming; Wang, Zhaoqi; Huang, He; Shi, Min

    2004-03-01

    Controlling 3D virtual human arm to achieve given tasks is a challenging goal for computer animators. In this paper, a new approach is proposed to plan the arm trajectory in three-dimensional space, which is an extended minimum hand jerk model based on spacetime constraints. Experimental results show that natural arm motion could be obtained by it.

  20. Scrape on Endeavour's robotic arm during oxygen leak repairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Robotic arm experts get ready for ultrasound testing on Endeavour's robotic arm. A scrape of the honeycomb shell around the arm occurred while work platforms were being installed to gain access to repair the oxygen leak in the Shuttle's mid-body. Launch of Endeavour on mission STS-113 has been postponed until no earlier than Nov. 22.

  1. Dynamics of Non-Steady Spiral Arms in Disk Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Baba, Junichi; Wada, Keiichi

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the physical mechanisms underlying non-steady stellar spiral arms in disk galaxies, we analyzed the growing and damping phases of their spiral arms using three-dimensional $N$-body simulations. We confirmed that the spiral arms are formed due to a swing amplification mechanism that reinforces density enhancement as a seeded wake. In the damping phase, the Coriolis force exerted on a portion of the arm surpasses the gravitational force that acts to shrink the portion. Consequently, the stars in the portion escape from the arm, and subsequently they form a new arm at a different location. The time-dependent nature of the spiral arms are originated in the continual repetition of this non-linear phenomenon. Since a spiral arm does not rigidly rotate, but follows the galactic differential rotation, the stars in the arm rotate at almost the same rate as the arm. In other words, every single position in the arm can be regarded as the co-rotation point. Due to interaction with their host arms, ...

  2. Establishing effective relations between government and its arm’s length bodies requires that they learn to live together

    OpenAIRE

    Rutter, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Central controls have limited the managerial freedoms of both departments and their arm’s length bodies (ALBs). Jill Rutter argues that their relationship needs to be built on mutual trust and respect

  3. Embedded ARM Control Robotic Arm using BoaWeb server – a Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Sirisha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In today’s market, the competing microprocessors are ARM (Advanced Risc Microprocessor, Intel, AMD. ARM is preferred since it has been powering portable devices for decades and has simple architecture to keep the energy waste to be minimum. The electronics advancements and embedded technology advancements have become a challenging field in today’s techno world. In paper, the diligent features of embedded systems are introduced. It deals about how a robot is controlled using embedded operating system and ARM. Based on the combination of ARM, DSP and ARM Linux, the robot is controlled. The paper introduces development of embedded robot control system using Wi-Fi and also IOT. The embedded control system design includes four aspects. i.e., system structure, functions, hardware design and software design. By using these aspects (hardware and software adjustments, many robotic applications can be developed. Due to the fast execution speed and reasonable Ethernet speed in ARM processor, this system can be used in industrial oriented applications where there is very much necessity of safety and security.

  4. Enantioselective catalytic syntheses of alpha-branched chiral amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brase, S.; Baumann, T.; Dahmen, S.; Vogt, Henning

    Chiral amines play a pivotal role in fine chemical and natural product syntheses and the design of novel materials.......Chiral amines play a pivotal role in fine chemical and natural product syntheses and the design of novel materials....

  5. Simplification of Methods for PET Radiopharmaceutical Syntheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilbourn, Michael, R.

    2011-12-27

    In an attempt to develop simplified methods for radiochemical synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals useful in Positron Emission Tomography (PET), current commercially available automated synthesis apparati were evaluated for use with solid phase synthesis, thin-film techniques, microwave-accelerated chemistry, and click chemistry approaches. Using combinations of these techniques, it was shown that these automated synthesis systems can be simply and effectively used to support the synthesis of a wide variety of carbon-11 and fluorine-18 labeled compounds, representing all of the major types of compounds synthesized and using all of the common radiochemical precursors available. These techniques are available for use to deliver clinically useful amounts of PET radiopharmaceuticals with chemical and radiochemical purities and high specific activities, suitable for human administration.

  6. Structure of the enzymatically synthesized fructan inulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyer, A.G.; Schroeer, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Molekulare Pflanzenphysiologie, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 25, 14476 Golm (Germany); Radosta, S. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Angewandte Polymerforschung, Postfach 126, 14504 Teltow (Germany); Wolff, D.; Czapla, S.; Springer, J. [Technische Universitaet Berlin, FG Makromolekulare Chemie, Str. des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    1998-12-15

    Construction, purification and characterization of a fusion protein of maltose-binding protein of Escherichia coli and the fructosyltransferase of Streptococcus mutans is described. With the purified protein, in vitro synthesis of inulin was performed. The obtained polysaccharide was characterized by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) and static light scattering (SLS) in dilute aqueous and dimethyl sulfoxide solution. For all samples very high molecular weights between 60x10{sup 6} and 90x10{sup 6} g/mol and a remarkable small polydispersity index of 1.1 have been determined. Small root-mean-square radii of gyration point to a compact conformation in dilute solution. No difference between native and enzymatically synthesized inulin was observed by X-ray powder diffraction and thermoanalysis of solid samples. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  7. PZT Powders Synthesized by Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Kong-Jun, ZHU Ren-Qiang, DONG Na-Na, GU Hong-Hui, QIU Jin-Hao, JI Hong-Li

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) powders with single―phase, cubic morphology and average size of 1 μm were synthesized using hydrothermal methods. Effects of KOH concentration, hydrothermal treatment time and Pb excess were investigated. The results show that KOH concentration has an important influence on the solid solubility of Pb ion in A―site of PZT perovskite structure. The concentration of Pb2+ vacancies increased with the increase of OH― concentration. However, this kind of deficiency could be compensated by adding more Pb ions in the raw materials, and more Pb ions were needed to add with higher alkaline concentration in the starting solution. But excessive compensation of Pb ions would result in the appearance of the second phase.

  8. Structure of the enzymatically synthesized fructan inulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Construction, purification and characterization of a fusion protein of maltose-binding protein of Escherichia coli and the fructosyltransferase of Streptococcus mutans is described. With the purified protein, in vitro synthesis of inulin was performed. The obtained polysaccharide was characterized by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) and static light scattering (SLS) in dilute aqueous and dimethyl sulfoxide solution. For all samples very high molecular weights between 60x106 and 90x106 g/mol and a remarkable small polydispersity index of 1.1 have been determined. Small root-mean-square radii of gyration point to a compact conformation in dilute solution. No difference between native and enzymatically synthesized inulin was observed by X-ray powder diffraction and thermoanalysis of solid samples. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  9. Recent Syntheses of Frog Alkaloid Epibatidine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ronaldo E. de, Oliveira Filho; Alvaro T., Omori.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many natives from Amazon use poison secreted by the skin of some colorful frogs (Dendrobatidae) on the tips of their arrows to hunt. This habit has generated interest in the isolation of these toxins. Among the over 500 isolated alkaloids, the most important is undoubtedly (-)-epibatidine. First iso [...] lated in 1992, by Daly from Epipedobates tricolor, this compound is highly toxic (LD50 about 0.4 µg per mouse). Most remarkably, its non-opioid analgesic activity was found to be about 200 times stronger than morphine. Due to its scarcity, the limited availability of natural sources, and its intriguing biological activity, more than 100 synthetic routes have been developed since the epibatidine structure was assigned. This review presents the recent formal and total syntheses of epibatidine since the excellent review published in 2002 by Olivo et al.1 Mainly, this review is summarized by the method used to obtain the azabicyclic core.

  10. Syntheses and thermal analyses of curium trichloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curium trichloride was synthesized by the solid state reaction of curium nitride with cadmium chloride heated up to 748 K in a dynamic vacuum. The product was hexagonal 244CmCl3, of which lattice parameters were determined to be a = 0.7385 ± 0.0005 and c = 0.4201 ± 0.0005 nm. The melting temperature of the 244CmCl3 sample was determined to be 970 ± 3 K by differential thermal analyses using a gold crucible. These values are close to those reported in literature. The results show that mg-scale CmCl3 samples for thermochemical measurements were prepared from the purified oxide sample without the use of corrosive reagents. (author)

  11. High pressure syntheses of carbonates. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ternary carbonates LiLn(CO3)2 with Ln = La to Lu and Y are synthesized from mixtures of Li2CO3 and Ln2(C2O4)3 . xH2O under 2000 bar CO2 and 500 0C. Two monoclinic types are found. They are characterized by IR and X-ray investigation and thermal decomposition. With the pressure of 200 bar and 550 0C one gets oxide-carbonates LiLnOCO3 with Ln = Sm to Lu and Y. All substances are of the same monoclinic type. Again they are characterized by IR and X-ray investigations and by thermal decomposition. The influence of the CO2 pressure and of the temperature on the formation of either LiLn(CO3)2 or LiLnOCO3 is investigated. (author)

  12. Method and apparatus for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

    1983-06-21

    A method and apparatus for synthesizing a mixture of hydrocarbons having five carbons or less is disclosed. An equal molar ratio of CO and H/sub 2/ gases is caused to pass through a ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a surface area of about 80 to 125 m/sup 2//g. The catalyst further includes Na present as a substitutional cation in an amount of about 5 to 10 atom %. At a temperature of about 340 to 360/sup 0/C, and at pressures of about 20 to 50 atm, CH/sub 3/OH is produced in an amount of about 90 wt % of the total hydrocarbon mixture, and comprised 1 mole % of the effluent gas.

  13. Nanostructured bismuth ferrites synthesized by solvothermal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Well-crystallized bismuth ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized using the solvothermal method without the help of any mineralizer. The shape of the particles was changed by changing the synthesis temperature during solvothermal process. The as-prepared samples were characterized by an X-ray powder diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermal analyzer and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). It was observed that the change in solvent also led to the variation of the shape of the particles. Spindle, plate, cylindrical and hexagonal shapes were obtained. The particles showed antiferromagnetic nature within the measured temperature range of 80 K ? T ? 300 K. The hexagonal shaped particles showed a marked difference in coercivity at room temperature compared to the other samples.

  14. National Gas Survey. Synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The supply-Technical Advisory Task Force-Synthesized Gaseous Hydrocarbon Fuels considered coal, hydrocarbon liquids, oil shales, tar sands, and bioconvertible materials as potential feedstocks for gaseous fuels. Current status of process technology for each feedstock was reviewed, economic evaluations including sensitivity analysis were made, and constraints for establishment of a synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels industry considered. Process technology is presently available to manufacture gaseous hydrocarbon fuels from each of the feedstocks. In 1975 there were eleven liquid feedstock SNG plants in the United States having a capacity of 1.1 billion SCFD. There can be no contribution of SNG before 1982 from plants using feedstocks other than liquids because there are no plants in operation or under construction as of 1977. Costs for SNG are higher than current regulated prices for U.S. natural gas. Because of large reserves, coal is a prime feedstock candidate although there are major constraints in the area of coal leases, mining and water permits, and others. Commercial technology is available and several new gasification processes are under development. Oil shale is also a feedstock in large supply and commercial process technology is available. There are siting and permit constraints, and water availability may limit the ultimate size of an oil shale processing industry. Under projected conditions, bioconvertible materials are not expected to support the production of large quantities of pipeline quality gas during the next decade. Production of low or medium Btu gas from municipal solid wastes can be expected to be developed in urban areas in conjunction with savings in disposal costs. In the economic evaluations presented, the most significant factor for liquid feedstock plants is the anticipated cost of feedstock and fuel. The economic viability of plants using other feedstocks is primarily dependent upon capital requirements.

  15. Porous oxides synthesized by the combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The result of this work, seeks to be a contribution for the treatment of radioactive wastes, with base to the sorption properties that present those porous oxides, synthesized by a method that allows to increase the sorption capacity. The main objective of the present investigation has been the modification of the structural characteristics of the oxides of Fe, Mg and Zn to increase its capacity of sorption of 60 Co in particular. It was studied the effect of the synthesis method by combustion in the inorganic oxides; the obtained solids were characterized using the following techniques: X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), semiquantitative elementary analysis by Dispersive energy spectroscopy (EDS) and determination of surface area by the Brunauner-Emmett-Teller method (BET). Also was carried out batch type experiments for the sorption of Co2+, with the purpose of studying the sorption capacity of each one of the prepared oxides. In accordance with that previously exposed, the working plan that was carried out in this investigation is summarized in the following stages: 1. Preparation of inorganic oxides by two different methods, studying the effect of the temperature in the synthesis process. 2. Characterization of the inorganic oxides by XRD, by means of which those were chosen the solids with better properties. 3. Characterization of the inorganic oxides by SEM and EDS where it was studied the morphology of the synthesized materials and the semiquantitative elemental composition. 4. Realization of a sorption experiment type Batch with non radioactive Co2+ to simulate the sorption of 60 Co and determination of the sorption capacity by means of neutron activation of the non radioactive cobalt. 5. Determination of the surface area by the (BET) technique of the inorganic oxides with better sorption properties. (Author)

  16. A Global Obstacle-avoidance Map for Anthropomorphic Arms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Fang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available More and more humanoid robots are used in human society, and they face a wide variety of complicated manipulation tasks, which are mainly to be achieved by their anthropomorphic arms. Obstacle avoidance for the anthropomorphic arm must be a fundamental consideration to guarantee the successful implementation of these tasks. Different from traditional methods searching for feasible or optimal collision-free solutions for the anthropomorphic arm, a global obstacle- avoidance map for the whole arm is proposed to indicate the complete set of feasible solutions. In this map, the motion of the arm can be appropriately planned to intuitively control the configuration of the arm in motion. First, the cubic spline function is adopted to interpolate some well-chosen path points to generate a smooth collision-free path for the wrist of the anthropomorphic arm. Second, based on the path function of the wrist, the time and the self-rotation angle of the arm about the “shoulder-wrist” axis are used to parameterize all possible configurations of the arm so that a global two- dimensional map considering the obstacle avoidance can be established. Subsequently, a collision-free self-rotation angle profile of the arm can be well planned. Finally, the joint trajectories of a specific anthropomorphic arm, which correspond to the planned path of the wrist and self-rotation angle profile of the arm, can be solved on the basis of the general kinematic analysis of the anthropomorphic arm, and the specific structure. Several simulations are conducted to verify that the proposed collision-free motion planning method for anthropomorphic arms has some advantages and can be regarded as a convenient and intuitive tool to control the configuration of the anthropomorphic arm in motion, without collision with obstacles in its surroundings.

  17. ARM Core Unit Design of a Remote Video Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Jinbiao Hou

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we have a analysis of the ARM core unit design of a remote video monitoring system. An important aspect of a remote video monitoring system is that the image information stored in the monitoring system is transmitted to a remote PC through the GSM/GPRS network. There into the application of the ARM core unit is one part of the design of the entire remote video monitoring system. An ARM core unit is designed based on ARM architecture and ARM chips. It includes hardware and softw...

  18. Diaminoalkane as Spacer Arm between Polystyrene and ?- Cylodextrin in Affinity Chromatography for ?-Amylase Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Widarti* ,

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Stationary phase design in affinity chromatography has to fulfill at least two requirements: non-specific interaction between solid support and or spacer arm and protein target or others is minimal and specific interaction between ligand and protein target is maximal. In this study, stationary phases that consist of polystyrene (PS as solid support, diaminoalkane as spacer arm and with and without ?CD as a ligand are performed in ?-amylase separation. Therefore, the research was carried out in two steps; stationary phase preparation and adsorption parameter determination towards ?-amylase. Stationary phases that consist of PS, 1,6-diaminohexane and ?CD (PS–DAH–?CD and without ?CD (PS–DAH were synthesized. Stationary phase structure was confirmed by FTIR, 13C NMR solid, 13C dan 1H NMR liquid spectroscopy. Other stationary phases, PS–DAP–?CD and PS–DAP that consist of 1,2-diaminopropane (DAP as spacer arm was synthesized in the previous research. Dynamic ?-amylase adsorption isotherm on PS–DAP and PS–DAH shows that both of them did not fix any adsorption isotherm model. The average binding capacity are 0.071 and 0.31 mg/0.1 g resin, respectively. In another hand, PS–DAP–?CD and PS–DAH–?CD fix isotherm adsorption Langmuir model and the adsorption parameters; the maximum binding capacity (qm are 5.5 and 2.1 mg/0.1 g resin, adsorption equilibrium constant (KA are 0.01965 and 0.01925 ?L—1 and desorption rate constant (k2 are 0.201 and 0.774 mg s—1 , respectively. Due to adsorption parameters, PS–DAP–?CD offer the best adsorption capacity and selectivity as stationary phase in affinity chromatography for ?-amylase separation.

  19. Effects of age, sex and arm on the precision of arm position sense—left-arm superiority in healthy right-handers

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Lena; Depper, Lena; Kerkhoff, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Position sense is an important proprioceptive ability. Disorders of arm position sense (APS) often occur after unilateral stroke, and are associated with a negative functional outcome. In the present study we assessed horizontal APS by measuring angular deviations from a visually defined target separately for each arm in a large group of healthy subjects. We analyzed the accuracy and instability of horizontal APS as a function of age, sex and arm. Subjects were required to specify verbally th...

  20. Effects of age, sex and arm on the accuracy of arm position sense – Left-arm superiority in healthy right-handers

    OpenAIRE

    Lena Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    Position sense is an important proprioceptive ability. Disorders of arm position sense (APS) often occur after unilateral stroke, and are associated with a negative functional outcome. In the present study we assessed horizontal APS by measuring angular deviations from a visually defined target separately for each arm in a large group of healthy subjects. We analyzed the accuracy and instability of horizontal APS as a function of age, sex and arm. Subjects were required to specify verbally th...

  1. The effects of N-pendants and electron-rich amidine motifs in 2-(p-alkoxyphenyl)-2-imidazolines on mild steel corrosion in CO2-saturated 0.5 M NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A novel class of electron-rich imidazolines has been prepared. • The amidine motifs in imidazolines is in conjugation with alkoxyphenyl groups. • Inhibition of mild steel corrosion by the imidazolines in NaCl–CO2 is compared. • Imidazolines cover most of the metal surface before reaching their CMCs. • At 40 °C (1 atm) and 120 °C (10 bar), imidazolines provided very good inhibition. - Abstract: A novel series of diethylenetetramine-(I), and tetraethylenepentamine-derived imidazolines (II) having p-octyloxy-, dodecyloxy and octadecyloxy-phenyl pendants as hydrophobes, have imparted very good inhibition of mild steel corrosion in CO2–0.5 M NaCl (40 °C, 1 atm; 120 °C, 10 bar). Pendants to the ring-nitrogen of I and II showed no change in inhibition efficiencies, while the presence of electron-rich aromatic ring in conjugation with the amidine motifs and increasing hydrophobe chain lengths imparted increasing corrosion inhibition. The formation of an imidazoline film covering the metal surface is corroborated by an XPS study. The imidazolines cover the metal surface before reaching their critical molar concentrations

  2. The Norma arm region Chandra survey catalog: X-ray populations in the spiral arms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornasini, Francesca M. [Astronomy Department, University of California, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Tomsick, John A.; Bodaghee, Arash; Krivonos, Roman A. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); An, Hongjun [Department of Physics, McGill University, Rutherford Physics Building, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Rahoui, Farid [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Gotthelf, Eric V. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Bauer, Franz E. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Stern, Daniel, E-mail: f.fornasini@berkeley.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 169-506, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We present a catalog of 1415 X-ray sources identified in the Norma Arm Region Chandra Survey (NARCS), which covers a 2° × 0.°8 region in the direction of the Norma spiral arm to a depth of ?20 ks. Of these sources, 1130 are point-like sources detected with ?3? confidence in at least one of three energy bands (0.5-10, 0.5-2, and 2-10 keV), five have extended emission, and the remainder are detected at low significance. Since most sources have too few counts to permit individual classification, they are divided into five spectral groups defined by their quantile properties. We analyze stacked spectra of X-ray sources within each group, in conjunction with their fluxes, variability, and infrared counterparts, to identify the dominant populations in our survey. We find that ?50% of our sources are foreground sources located within 1-2 kpc, which is consistent with expectations from previous surveys. Approximately 20% of sources are likely located in the proximity of the Scutum-Crux and near Norma arm, while 30% are more distant, in the proximity of the far Norma arm or beyond. We argue that a mixture of magnetic and nonmagnetic cataclysmic variables dominates the Scutum-Crux and near Norma arms, while intermediate polars and high-mass stars (isolated or in binaries) dominate the far Norma arm. We also present the cumulative number count distribution for sources in our survey that are detected in the hard energy band. A population of very hard sources in the vicinity of the far Norma arm and active galactic nuclei dominate the hard X-ray emission down to f{sub X} ? 10{sup –14} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}, but the distribution curve flattens at fainter fluxes. We find good agreement between the observed distribution and predictions based on other surveys.

  3. The Norma arm region Chandra survey catalog: X-ray populations in the spiral arms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a catalog of 1415 X-ray sources identified in the Norma Arm Region Chandra Survey (NARCS), which covers a 2° × 0.°8 region in the direction of the Norma spiral arm to a depth of ?20 ks. Of these sources, 1130 are point-like sources detected with ?3? confidence in at least one of three energy bands (0.5-10, 0.5-2, and 2-10 keV), five have extended emission, and the remainder are detected at low significance. Since most sources have too few counts to permit individual classification, they are divided into five spectral groups defined by their quantile properties. We analyze stacked spectra of X-ray sources within each group, in conjunction with their fluxes, variability, and infrared counterparts, to identify the dominant populations in our survey. We find that ?50% of our sources are foreground sources located within 1-2 kpc, which is consistent with expectations from previous surveys. Approximately 20% of sources are likely located in the proximity of the Scutum-Crux and near Norma arm, while 30% are more distant, in the proximity of the far Norma arm or beyond. We argue that a mixture of magnetic and nonmagnetic cataclysmic variables dominates the Scutum-Crux and near Norma arms, while intermediate polars and high-mass stars (isolated or in binaries) dominate the far Norma arm. We also present the cumulative number count distribution for sources in our survey that are detected in the hard energy band. A population of very hard sources in the vicinity of the far Norma arm and active galactic nuclei dominate the hard X-ray emission down to fX ? 10–14 erg cm–2 s–1, but the distribution curve flattens at fainter fluxes. We find good agreement between the observed distribution and predictions based on other surveys.

  4. Redox-cleavable star cationic PDMAEMA by arm-first approach of ATRP as a nonviral vector for gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Fengying; Sun, Peng; Liu, Yongjie; Liu, Wenguang

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we synthesized a star cationic polymer(s-PDMAEMA) consisting of cleavable poly[N,N-bis(acryloyl) cystamine](PBAC) crosslinked core and poly(N,N-dimethyl-ethylamine methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) arms by atomic transfer radical polymerization using one-pot "arm first" method. The s-PDMAEMA that was degradable in a mimic intracellular redox environment was more efficient in condensing DNA. It was shown that s-PDMAEMA achieved higher gene transfection levels relative to their linear precursors and s-PDMAEMA200 with longer and more arms exhibited superior transfection efficiencies and lower cytotoxicity compared to PEI25K. The buffer capacities were examined by acid-base titration; the pH-dependent morphological evolution and enzyme stability of PDMAEMA/DNA complexes were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, respectively. The results indicated that the star polymers exhibited a stronger buffering ability than their linear precursors due to the increased inner osmotic pressure. By decreasing the pH from 7.4 to 5.0, the linear PDMEMA/DNA complexes became more compact; in contrast, s-PDMAEMA200/DNA complex adopted a loose morphology due to the steric barrier of inter-arms and outward extension of positively charged arms. Analysis of the fluorescence life times of free and intercalated ethidium bromide unveiled more effective protection of DNA afforded by s-PDMAEMA. The effect of medium pH on the star PDMAEMA system was smaller owing to the ability of densely tertiary amino groups along multiple arms to absorb more protons, which was favorable for endosomolytic escape of complexes. PMID:19796806

  5. Methyltriethoxysilane: New precursor for synthesizing silica aerogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditionally, silica aerogels are synthesized using three silicon alkoxides, namely, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) and methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) for various applications in science as well as in technology. Among all these precursors, only MTMS-based silica aerogels are inherently superhydrophobic with so far reported, the highest contact angle of 173 deg. In the present paper, we reported a new precursor, namely, methyltriethoxysilane (MTES) for synthesizing the silica aerogels having the novel properties as that of MTMS-based aerogels. The aerogels have been prepared using the MTES by two-stage acid-base catalyzed sol-gel process followed by supercritical drying. The solvent and catalysts used for the synthesis were methanol (MeOH), oxalic acid (C2H2O4) and ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH), respectively. The aerogels of different densities were obtained by varying the molar ratio of MeOH/MTES (S) from 6.45 to 19.35. In order to get good quality aerogels in terms of low density, high contact angle and less volume shrinkage, the oxalic acid (A) and NH4OH (B) concentrations were varied from 0 to 1 and from 2 to 13.36 M, respectively. Monolithic aerogels have been obtained for the values of A = 0.01 M and B = 13.36 M. Simultaneously, the aerogels are superhydrophobic with contact angle as high as 163 deg. Furthermore, the effects of molar ratio of H2O/MTES (W1), i.e. acidic water and H2O/MTES (W2), i.e. basic water on the physical properties of the aerogels have also been studied. The molar ratio of MTES:MeOH:acidic water:basic water was optimized at 1:19.35:3.57:3.57, respectively. The aerogel thermal stability was studied by TGA-DTA while the hydrophobicity was quantified in terms of the contact angle measurements and FTIR studies. The as-prepared aerogels have been characterized by bulk density, porosity, volume shrinkage, thermal conductivity, contact angle measurements, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The physical properties of the aerogels have been explained by taking into account of sol-gel reactions and the gel network formation

  6. Special Gripper for a Robotic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel SELLES

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available New structures for gripping objects in robotic manipulation processes are oriented to the new arrangement of mechanical structures using new materials and processing technologies and innovative procedures for the implementation of contact gripping element links to an object with a high degree of adaptively of applications together with the ability to alter the structure of grip and limiting the intensity of the contact stiffness variation of snap elements custody and pliability. The application of elastomeric materials and surface finishes is important. This paper presents both a new gripper design for robot arms but also the search of the selected materials to make an experimental evaluation of technical parameters that are used to assess their application potential and suitability for the targeted applications. Also the results and conclusions for gripper testing in manipulation operations with two different robot arms are presented.

  7. Colour Sensing Based Robotic Arm Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashikant

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The robot arm is an ongoing computer vision project for which many enhancements have been done during the last years, The aim of the paper is to present a system for controlling a robot arm, based on image processing and recognition. In the frame of this system, an important stage is the calibration. The presentation is focused on a new selfcalibration algorithm based on video motion and color detection. The algorithm proves to be general enough to be employed in other similar computer vision scenarios where self-calibration might be useful. Calibration gets performed in a real-time having a low complexity per processed frame of O(n*log(n

  8. Design of Embedded FMS on ARM9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Tian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There are some problems in traditional Fieldbus Technology of flexible production line, such as the high request of the total control machine configuration, the large resources cost of the configuration software, the data should be regularly cleaned. This paper introduces a new type flexible manufacturing system (FMS architecture based on ARM. The control core of the system is Samsung's S3C2440 ARM micro processor, which enhanced the reliability of the system, Join monitoring equipment and wireless communication equipment, facilitate real-time monitoring and image collection, and ensure the safety of the unattended. The numerical control processing unit is based of industrial PC and movement control card form, which enhanced the openness of the CNC system, and improved the communication function of the numerical control system. The experiment proved that this scheme overcome the problems existing in the traditional FMS.

  9. Dual arm robotic system with sensory input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozguner, U.

    1987-01-01

    The need for dual arm robots in space station assembly and satellite maintainance is of increasing significance. Such robots will be in greater demand in the future when numerous tasks will be assigned to them to relieve the direct intervention of humans in space. Technological demands from these robots will be high. They will be expected to perform high speed tasks with a certain degree of autonomy. Various levels of sensing will have to be used in a sophisticated control scheme. Ongoing research in control, sensing and real-time software to produce a two-arm robotic system than can accomplish generic assembly tasks is discussed. The control hierarchy and the specific control approach are discussed. A decentralized implementation of model-reference adaptive control using Variable Structure controllers and the incorporation of tactile feedback is considered.

  10. MAGIC: Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, ER; Wiscombe, WJ; Albrecht, BA; Bland, GL; Flagg, CN; Klein, SA; Kollias, P; Mace, G; Reynolds, RM; Schwartz, SE; Siebesma, AP; Teixeira, J; Wood, R; Zhang, M

    2012-10-03

    The second Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF2) will be deployed aboard the Horizon Lines cargo container ship merchant vessel (M/V) Spirit for MAGIC, the Marine ARM GPCI1 Investigation of Clouds. The Spirit will traverse the route between Los Angeles, California, and Honolulu, Hawaii, from October 2012 through September 2013 (except for a few months in the middle of this time period when the ship will be in dry dock). During this field campaign, AMF2 will observe and characterize the properties of clouds and precipitation, aerosols, and atmospheric radiation; standard meteorological and oceanographic variables; and atmospheric structure. There will also be two intensive observational periods (IOPs), one in January 2013 and one in July 2013, during which more detailed measurements of the atmospheric structure will be made.

  11. Parametric instabilities in the LCGT arm cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the parametric instabilities of LCGT (Japanese interferometric gravitational wave detector project) arm cavity. The number of unstable modes of LCGT is 10-times smaller than that of Advanced LIGO (USA). Since the strength of the instabilities of LCGT depends on the mirror curvature more weakly than that of Advanced LIGO, the requirement of the mirror curvature accuracy is easier to be achieved. The difference in the parametric instabilities between LCGT and Advanced LIGO is because of the thermal noise reduction methods (LCGT, cooling sapphire mirrors; Advanced LIGO, fused silica mirrors with larger laser beams), which are the main strategies of the projects. Elastic Q reduction by the barrel surface (0.2 mm thickness Ta2O5) coating is effective to suppress instabilities in the LCGT arm cavity. Therefore, the cryogenic interferometer is a smart solution for the parametric instabilities in addition to thermal noise and thermal lensing

  12. Coke Formation During Hydrocarbons Pyrolysis. Part One: Steam Cracking Formation de coke pendant la pyrolise des hydrocarbures. Première partie : vapocraquage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weill J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermal cracking is always accompanied by coke formation, which becomes deposited on the wall and limits heat transfers in the reactor while increasing pressure drops and possibly even plugging up the reactor. This review article covers undesirable coking operations in steam craking reactors. These coking reactions may take place in the gas phase and/or on the surface of the reactor, with coke being produced during pyrolysis by a complex mechanism that breaks down into a catalytic sequence and a noncatalytic sequence. After a brief description of different experimental set-ups used to measure the coke deposition, on the basis of research described in the literature, the different factors and their importance for coke formation are listed. In particular, we describe the effects of surface properties of stainless-steel and quartz reactors as well as the influence of the cracked feedstock, of temperature, of dilution, of residence time and of the conversion on coke deposition. Some findings about the morphology of coke are described and linked to formation mechanisms. To illustrate this review, some particularly interesting research is referred to concerning models developed to assess coke formation during propane steam cracking. Le craquage thermique est toujours accompagné de la formation de coke qui, en se déposant à la paroi, limite les transferts de chaleur au réacteur, augmente les pertes de charges et même peut boucher celui-ci. Cet article fait le point sur les réactions indésirables de cokage dans les réacteurs de vapocraquage. Ces réactions de cokage peuvent avoir lieu en phase gazeuse et/ou sur la surface du réacteur, le coke étant produit pendant la pyrolyse par un mécanisme complexe qui se décompose en une séquence catalytique et une séquence non catalytique. Après une brève présentation des différents montages expérimentaux utilisés pour mesurer le dépôt de coke, il est mentionné, à partir de travaux de la littérature, les différents facteurs et leur importance sur la formation du coke. On présentera en particulier les effets de propriétés de surface de réacteurs en inox et en quartz, ainsi que l'influence de la charge craquée, de la température, de la dilution, du temps de séjour et de la conversion sur les dépôts de coke. Quelques résultats sur la morphologie du coke seront présentés et reliés aux mécanismes de formation du coke. Pour illustrer ce travail, on reprendra quelques études particulièrement intéressantes sur des modèles d'évaluation de la formation de coke développés pour le vapocraquage de propane.

  13. On building methodological and theoretical frameworks to examine the interrelationships between environmental change and armed conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Hoek, J.

    2014-12-01

    Relationships between environmental change and armed conflict have long been studied. Sometimes referred to as 'warfare' or 'conflict' ecology, much of this scholarship has come in response to local-level perceptions of landscape or livelihood changes that result from regional armed conflict. However, such studies have, first, typically focused on spatiotemporally acute and readily detectable environmental change, like deforestation, to the exclusion of protracted and more subtle environmental changes, like agricultural degradation; second, been limited to situational conflicts or circumstances, thereby inhibiting broader theoretical development; and, third, often only considered the environmental consequences rather than the environmental or climatic circumstances that may contribute to conflict. As a result, there is little opportunity for methodological or theoretical cohesion between studies. In this presentation, I synthesize findings from three case studies examining the interrelationships between agricultural change and armed conflict in the semi-arid landscapes of northwest Pakistan, Palestine, and southern Syria. Using coarse through very high resolution remotely sensed imagery, socio-economic and demographic data, conflict databases, open-source programming, and building on theoretical underpinnings of political ecology and conflict studies, I present methods and modeling approaches that aid in overcoming data scarcity and disparity between scales of analysis and integrate environmental and conflict data in spatiotemporally explicit ways. Results from these case studies illuminate the interrelationships between both protracted and acute agricultural change and armed conflict, and have broad relevance for understanding the means by which environment, conflict, and livelihoods are linked, a nexus that will only become tighter with the advance of global climate change.

  14. About the principles of armed conflicts rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international instruments approved in relation to restriction of war right are studied and their relevant clauses are interpreted in the article. The author lists the principles of choosing the ways and methods of conducting the war, and states that at present one of the aspects for regulation of the armed conflicts from the international and legal standpoint is to implement the operations for protection of peace or good will operations as well

  15. The Temporal Structure of Vertical Arm Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaveau, Jérémie; Papaxanthis, Charalambos

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates how the CNS deals with the omnipresent force of gravity during arm motor planning. Previous studies have reported direction-dependent kinematic differences in the vertical plane; notably, acceleration duration was greater during a downward than an upward arm movement. Although the analysis of acceleration and deceleration phases has permitted to explore the integration of gravity force, further investigation is necessary to conclude whether feedforward or feedback control processes are at the origin of this incorporation. We considered that a more detailed analysis of the temporal features of vertical arm movements could provide additional information about gravity force integration into the motor planning. Eight subjects performed single joint vertical arm movements (45° rotation around the shoulder joint) in two opposite directions (upwards and downwards) and at three different speeds (slow, natural and fast). We calculated different parameters of hand acceleration profiles: movement duration (MD), duration to peak acceleration (D PA), duration from peak acceleration to peak velocity (D PA-PV), duration from peak velocity to peak deceleration (D PV-PD), duration from peak deceleration to the movement end (D PD-End), acceleration duration (AD), deceleration duration (DD), peak acceleration (PA), peak velocity (PV), and peak deceleration (PD). While movement durations and amplitudes were similar for upward and downward movements, the temporal structure of acceleration profiles differed between the two directions. More specifically, subjects performed upward movements faster than downward movements; these direction-dependent asymmetries appeared early in the movement (i.e., before PA) and lasted until the moment of PD. Additionally, PA and PV were greater for upward than downward movements. Movement speed also changed the temporal structure of acceleration profiles. The effect of speed and direction on the form of acceleration profiles is consistent with the premise that the CNS optimises motor commands with respect to both gravitational and inertial constraints. PMID:21765935

  16. The Indo-Pakistani Arms Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Ido Oren

    1994-01-01

    The author applies to South Asia a theory of armament that he developed in the context of the superpowers' arms rivalry. The empirical findings are consistent with the results for the superpowers' case: India and Pakistan are found to have matched high levels of armaments with low levels and vice versa. Such results are analytically similar to empirical evidence on alliances showing that states, including India and Pakistan, often ally with the stronger against the weaker side. In both cases ...

  17. Automation Using Robotic Arm in Rotor Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    G. Gopu; ARJUN SHIBY M; NAGA ARJUN M; SHASHANK R; SINAN V

    2013-01-01

    Till date automation in small and medium scale industries has not enjoyed the same rate of growth as in other information technology sectors, lagging significantly behind automation in large batch production .The use of LabVIEW interfaced with micro-controller in controlling a robotic arm is a latest technique which is being implemented in this project. In medium scale industries packaging of rotors is done manually. This Process is time consuming and also requires manpower. Through this proj...

  18. Arms-control treaties: Review and revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Non-Proliferation Treaty, which currently has 121 States as parties and comes up for review in 1985, stands among modern arms-control agreements that increasingly incorporate special legal clauses to facilitate their future adaptation to changing circumstances, conditions, and developments. This article examines, from legal and historical perspectives, what the concept of ''review'' entails and how it differs from ''revision'' as a legal instrument for peaceful change

  19. Planar Robot Arm Modelling and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández González, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    The thesis objective is to model a one link robotic arm mounted on a sliding mobile platform and to investigate different control strategies under the effect of gravity and external force disturbance. For simplicity the robotic set up can be modelled and controlled as an inverted pendulum moving on a non constant sloping surface. Firstly the control is done on level ground. This lower mathematical complexity will be taken as an advantage to approach the analysis on aspects more related with c...

  20. The extended arm of health professionals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norlyk, Annelise; Martinsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    responsibility for both the patient's well-being and for the patient's compliance with the daily regimen. Relatives were caught in a conflicting double role. They were the extended arm of the health professionals but also the caring, supporting partner. A tension arose between relatives' desire to help the......'s recovery process. From an existential perspective, this caring responsibility can be understood as ethical pain. Relatives should be seen as a distinct group with special caring needs of their own....

  1. Elastic lever arm model for myosin V

    CERN Document Server

    Vilfan, A

    2005-01-01

    We present a mechanochemical model for myosin V, a two-headed processive motor protein. We derive the properties of a dimer from those of an individual head, which we model both with a 4-state cycle (detached, attached with ADP.Pi, attached with ADP and attached without nucleotide) and alternatively with a 5-state cycle (where the power stroke is not tightly coupled to the phosphate release). In each state the lever arm leaves the head at a different, but fixed, angle. The lever arm itself is described as an elastic rod. The chemical cycles of both heads are coordinated exclusively by the mechanical connection between the two lever arms. The model explains head coordination by showing that the lead head only binds to actin after the power stroke in the trail head and that it only undergoes its power stroke after the trail head unbinds from actin. Both models (4- and 5-state) reproduce the observed hand-over-hand motion and fit the measured force-velocity relations. The main difference between the two models c...

  2. Large LED Display Design using ARM9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta G, K Satyashree

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available LED displays are widely employed for advertisements, sports, transportation, Stock markets, traffic signs in public transportation systems, shopping malls, schools, railways etc., The conventional LED display system uses traditional microcontrollers so that many problems such as poor reliability, flickering and more hardware requirement can be seen in display system. This article presents an efficient architecture for controlling LED displays which has the ability to expose monochrome movies and animations. Implementing the LED display screen using 32-bit ARM9 (S3C2440 processor reduces the hardware requirement and also provide the speed of refreshing the screen will be high so that we can avoid the flickering in the display. In this article, a new way is implemented to increase the speed of the monochrome display is by scanning 8 rows at a time(row byte scanning rather than single row(pixel by pixel. Therefore, the speed of refreshing of LED display will be increased. By allowing constant current through the LEDs in the display will increase the reliability of the display. The 8 GPIO lines of ARM processor are connected to the 8 rows of the LED display via 8 bit latches connected to implement row-byte scanning. Unlike in traditional LED display, rather than many microcontrollers a single ARM processor is enough to refresh the screen. A software tool using JAVA is present in PC to draw animations and send it to the LED display.

  3. Humanoid Robot Arm Adaptive Control: Experimental Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said G. Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a partially model based adaptive control of humanoid robot arm is presented. The aim of the adaptive control scheme is to deal with the uncertain parameters in its own dynamic model such as link masses or actuators inertias as well as to cope with changing dynamics in the tasks like passing objects between a human and a robot. The main idea here is to derive a dynamic model of the robot’s arm via a software package and parameterized it. Then, employ the adaptive control scheme to identify uncertain parameters such as link masses and actuator inertias online. This scheme will also be suitable for the tasks where robot is lifting weight and or passing an object to a human or vice versa (which is the ultimate goal of this work. The adaptive scheme is simulated and experimentally tested on the Bristol Robotics Laboratory humanoid Bristol- Elumotion-Robot-Torso (BERT Arm. Humanoid BERT robot is developed as a collaboration between Bristol Robotics Laboratory and Elumotion (a Bristol based robotic company.

  4. Monitoring and Controlling an Underwater Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, John; Todd, Brian Keith; Woodcock, Larry; Robinson, Fred M.

    2009-01-01

    The SSRMS Module 1 software is part of a system for monitoring an adaptive, closed-loop control of the motions of a robotic arm in NASA s Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory, where buoyancy in a pool of water is used to simulate the weightlessness of outer space. This software is so named because the robot arm is a replica of the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). This software is distributed, running on remote joint processors (RJPs), each of which is mounted in a hydraulic actuator comprising the joint of the robotic arm and communicating with a poolside processor denoted the Direct Control Rack (DCR). Each RJP executes the feedback joint-motion control algorithm for its joint and communicates with the DCR. The DCR receives joint-angular-velocity commands either locally from an operator or remotely from computers that simulate the flight like SSRMS and perform coordinated motion calculations based on hand-controller inputs. The received commands are checked for validity before they are transmitted to the RJPs. The DCR software generates a display of the statuses of the RJPs for the DCR operator and can shut down the hydraulic pump when excessive joint-angle error or failure of a RJP is detected.

  5. The Perseus arm in the anticenter direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monguió, M.; Grosbøl, P.; Figueras, F.

    2015-05-01

    The stellar overdensity due to the Perseus arm has been detected in the anticenter direction through individual field stars. For that purpose, a Str&{uml;o}mgren photometric survey covering 16° ^2 was developed with the Wide Field Camera at the Isaac Newton Telescope. This photometry allowed us to compute individual physical parameters for these stars using a new method based on atmospheric models and evolutionary tracks. The analysis of the surface density as a function of distance for intermediate young stars in this survey allowed us to detect an overdensity at 1.6±0.2 kpc from the Sun, that can be associated with the Perseus arm, with a surface density amplitude of ˜14%. The significance of the detection is above 4σ for all the cases. The fit for the radial scale length of the Galactic disk provided values in the range [2.9,3.5] kpc for the population of the B4-A1 stars. We also analyzed the interstellar visual absorption distribution, and its variation as a function of distance is coherent with a dust layer before the Perseus arm location.

  6. Arms control agency faces uncertain future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National security cognoscenti are busy sifting tea leaves trying to puzzle out the fate of arms control and nonproliferation policy in the new Administration. Of special concern to these policy gurus is the future of the semiautonomous Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA). ACDA's existence as a separate entity on the executive branch's organization chart is precarious. The agency has never functioned as intended since Congress created it in 1961. Its stock over the decades has ebbed and flowed, paralleling the prominence and clout of its director. And except for a few notable successes--the conclusion of the chemical weapons treaty being one--the agency's authority has plummeted in the past 14 years. Today, almost every interested party agrees that something has to be done, that the agency cannot continue as it now functions. Several recent studies have called for its rejuvenation. Still other studies have suggested that ACDA be dismantled, and those activities relevant to national security in a post-Cold War environment be shifted to and integrated into the State Department. Observers expect ACDA to evolve into an agency whose primary focus is on problems of proliferation. In a world in which tighter export controls on dual-use technologies, restraint on arms transfers, and economic assistance conditional on a recipients's security behavior will be the norm for security and stability, a role for ACDA as the U.S.'s nonproliferation nanny is not a bad one

  7. Supporting the President's Arms Control and Nonproliferation Agenda: Transparency and Verification for Nuclear Arms Reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The President's arms control and nonproliferation agenda is still evolving and the details of initiatives supporting it remain undefined. This means that DOE, NNSA, NA-20, NA-24 and the national laboratories can help define the agenda, and the policies and the initiatives to support it. This will require effective internal and interagency coordination. The arms control and nonproliferation agenda is broad and includes the path-breaking goal of creating conditions for the elimination of nuclear weapons. Responsibility for various elements of the agenda will be widely scattered across the interagency. Therefore an interagency mapping exercise should be performed to identify the key points of engagement within NNSA and other agencies for creating effective policy coordination mechanisms. These can include informal networks, working groups, coordinating committees, interagency task forces, etc. It will be important for NA-20 and NA-24 to get a seat at the table and a functional role in many of these coordinating bodies. The arms control and nonproliferation agenda comprises both mature and developing policy initiatives. The more mature elements such as CTBT ratification and a follow-on strategic nuclear arms treaty with Russia have defined milestones. However, recent press reports indicate that even the START follow-on strategic arms pact that is planned to be complete by the end of 2009 may take significantly longer and be more expansive in scope. The Russians called for proposals to count non-deployed as well as deployed warheads. Other elements of the agenda such as FMCT, future bilateral nuclear arms reductions following a START follow-on treaty, nuclear posture changes, preparations for an international nuclear security summit, strengthened international safeguards and multilateral verification are in much earlier stages of development. For this reason any survey of arms control capabilities within the USG should be structured to address potential needs across the near-term (1-4) years and longer-term (5-10) years planning horizons. Some final observations include acknowledging the enduring nature of several key objectives on the Obama Administration's arms control and nonproliferation agenda. The CTBT, FMCT, bilateral nuclear arms reductions and strengthening the NPT have been sought by successive U.S. Administrations for nearly thirty years. Efforts towards negotiated arms control, although de-emphasized by the G.W. Bush Administration, have remained a pillar of U.S. national security strategy for decades and are likely to be of enduring if not increasing importance for decades to come. Therefore revitalization and expansion of USG capabilities in this area can be a positive legacy no matter what near-term arms control goals are achieved over the next four years. This is why it is important to reconstruct integrated bureaucratic, legislative, budgetary and diplomatic strategies to sustain the arms control and nonproliferation agenda. In this endeavor some past lessons must be taken to heart to avoid bureaucratic overkill and keep interagency policy-making and implementation structures lean and effective. On the Technical side a serious, sustained multilateral program to develop, down select and performance test nuclear weapons dismantlement verification technologies and procedures should be immediately initiated. In order to make this happen the United States and Russia should join with the UK and other interested states in creating a sustained, full-scale research and development program for verification at their respective nuc1ear weapons and defense establishments. The goals include development of effective technologies and procedures for: (1) Attribute measurement systems to certify nuclear warheads and military fissile materials; (2) Chain-of-custody methods to track items after they are authenticated and enter accountability; (3) Transportation monitoring; (4) Storage monitoring; (5) Fissile materials conversion verification. The remainder of this paper focuses on transparency and verification for nuclear arms and fissile material reductions.

  8. Mechanochemically Driven Syntheses of Boride Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Richard G.

    Solid state metathesis reactions have proven to be a viable route to the production of unfunctionalized nanomaterials. However, current implementations of this approach are limited to self-propagating reactions. We have been investigating mechanically driven metathesis reactions. The use of high-energy ball mills allows control of crystallite sizes without the use of a capping group. Reinforcement materials with crystallite sizes on the order of 5-30 nm can be produced in such a manner. Borides are of particular interest due to their strength, high melting point, and electrical conductivity. The ultimate goal of this work is to prepare oxide and capping group-free nanoparticles suitable for incorporation in thermoelectric, polymer, and ceramic composites. Ultimately this work will facilitate the production of improved thermoelectric materials that will provide robust, deployable, power generation modules to supplement or replace fuel cell, Stirling, and battery-derived power sources. It will also result in scalable, bulk syntheses of tough, refractory, conductive nanomaterials for polymer composites with improved electrical properties, ceramic composites with enhanced fracture toughness, and composites with enhanced neutron reflectance and/or absorbance.

  9. Multistep sintering to synthesize fast lithium garnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Biyi; Duan, Huanan; Xia, Wenhao; Guo, Yiping; Kang, Hongmei; Li, Hua; Liu, Hezhou

    2016-01-01

    A multistep sintering schedule is developed to synthesize Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) doped with 0.2 mol% Al3+. The effect of sintering steps on phase, relative density and ionic conductivity of Al-doped LLZO has been evaluated using powder X-Ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), 27Al magic spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results show that by holding the sample at 900 °C for 6 h, the mixture of tetragonal and cubic garnet phases are obtained; by continuously holding at 1100 °C for 6 h, the tetragonal phase completely transforms into cubic phase; by holding at 1200 °C, the relative density increases without decomposition of the cubic phase. The Al-LLZO pellets after multistep sintering exhibit cubic phase, relative density of 94.25% and ionic conductivity of 4.5 × 10-4 S cm-1 at room temperature. Based on the observation, a sintering model is proposed and discussed.

  10. Efficacy of some synthesized thiazoles against dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouf, S A; Taleb, A M Abu; Tharwat, N A; Geweely, N S

    2013-12-01

    Twelve thiazoles and their fused derivatives were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Trichophyton rubrum, T. terrestre, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum gypseum. Most of the synthesized compounds were inhibitory to the tested fungi. The most effective compound was 5-(4-ethoxybenzylidene-4,5-dihydro-4-oxothiazol-2-yl)-N,3-diphenylbut-2-namide (3c) followed by 2-(4-oxo-4,5-dihydrothiazol-2-yl)-3-phenyl-but-2-enoic acid-(3-cyano-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-amide (2b). These compounds were more efficacious than terbinafine, the reference drug. The tested compounds caused variable reduction in the activity of keratinase of the dermatophytes, depending on the azole derivative and the test fungus. Thiazole derivatives (2b) and (3c) exhibited the highest efficacy in decreasing ergosterol biosynthesis of the tested dermatophytes. The treatment of guinea pigs with compound (3c) induced complete curing in the case of all the test dermatophytes 30days post-treatment. The percent curing for compounds (3c) and (2b) was better than the reference drug. PMID:24129248

  11. Copper nanocoils synthesized through solvothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanjuan; Liu, Xiaowei; Zhan, Yongjie; Fan, Haiming; Lu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Recently helical nanostructures such as nanosprings and nanocoils have drawn great interests in nanotechnology, due to their unique morphologies and physical properties, and they may be potential building blocks in sorts of electromechanical, magnetic, photoelectronic and plasmonic devices at micro/nanoscales. In this report, multi-turns copper nanocoils were synthesized through a modified solvothermal method, in which the mixture of water and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) were selected as reaction medium and copolymer poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) (PVP/VA 64E) as reductant. In the liquid solution, nanosprings could be formed from relaxed nanocoils and demonstrated high elasticity. These nanocoils and nanosprings are of single crystalline structure, with the characteristics wire diameters ranging from tens to a few hundreds of nanometers and the ring/coil diameters mostly ~10–35 microns. Their growth and deformation mechanisms were then investigated and discussed along with that of previously reported single-turn copper nanorings. This work could be of importance for researchers working on synthesis and applications of novel 1-D helical nanomaterials and their functional devices. PMID:26607386

  12. Syntheses of surfactants from oleochemical epoxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warwel Siegfried

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar-based surfactants were obtained in good yields (up to 100% under mild conditions (70°C, methanol or mixtures of methanol and water by ring-opening of terminal epoxides with aminopolyols, derived from glucose. Reaction of N-methyl glucamine with epoxides from even-numbered C4-C18 alpha-olefins or from terminal unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters leads to linear products, while corresponding reactions with N-dodecyl glucamine or glucamine yield surfactants with different Y-structures. Products obtained by conversion of omega-epoxy fatty acid methyl esters were saponificated with NaOH or hydrolyzed enzymatically to sodium salts or free acids respectively, which are amphoteric surfactants. Studies of the surfactants at different pH-values demonstrate different surface active properties in aqueous solutions. Critical micelle concentrations (c.m.c. in a range between 2 and 500mg/l and surface tensions of 25-40mN/m were measured for several of the synthesized sugar-based surfactants. The ring-opening products are rather poor foamers, whereas some of the corresponding hydrobromides show good foaming properties.

  13. Copper nanocoils synthesized through solvothermal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanjuan; Liu, Xiaowei; Zhan, Yongjie; Fan, Haiming; Lu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Recently helical nanostructures such as nanosprings and nanocoils have drawn great interests in nanotechnology, due to their unique morphologies and physical properties, and they may be potential building blocks in sorts of electromechanical, magnetic, photoelectronic and plasmonic devices at micro/nanoscales. In this report, multi-turns copper nanocoils were synthesized through a modified solvothermal method, in which the mixture of water and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) were selected as reaction medium and copolymer poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) (PVP/VA 64E) as reductant. In the liquid solution, nanosprings could be formed from relaxed nanocoils and demonstrated high elasticity. These nanocoils and nanosprings are of single crystalline structure, with the characteristics wire diameters ranging from tens to a few hundreds of nanometers and the ring/coil diameters mostly ~10-35 microns. Their growth and deformation mechanisms were then investigated and discussed along with that of previously reported single-turn copper nanorings. This work could be of importance for researchers working on synthesis and applications of novel 1-D helical nanomaterials and their functional devices. PMID:26607386

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of New Chiral Monoanionic [ON] Ancillary Phenolate Ligands

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal Binda; Leslie Glover

    2014-01-01

    Three new chiral monoanionic [ON] ancillary phenolate ligands with varying pendant arms have been synthesized in moderate to high yields (50% - 85%) via Mannich-type condensation reaction of chiral substituted phenol, formaldehyde and (+)-bis-[(R)-1-phenylethyl]amine. These new organic compounds were fully characterized via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H and 13C) and elemental analysis. The newly synthesized ligands are suitable candidates for metal-catalyzed ring-opening of lact...

  15. Bioinformatic Interrogation of 5p-arm and 3p-arm Specific miRNA Expression Using TCGA Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ting Kuo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs play important roles in cellular functions and developmental processes. They are also implicated in oncogenesis mechanisms and could serve as potential cancer biomarkers. Using high-throughput miRNA sequencing information, expression of both the 5p-arm and 3p-arm mature miRNAs were demonstrated and generated from the single miRNA hairpin precursor. However, current miRNA annotations lack comprehensive 5p-arm/3p-arm feature annotations. Among known human mature miRNAs, only half of them are annotated with arm features. This generated ambiguous results in many miRNA-Sequencing (miRNA-Seq studies. In this report, we have interrogated the TCGA (the Cancer Genome Atlas miRNA expression datasets with an improved, fully annotated human 5p-arm and 3p-arm miRNA reference list. By utilizing this comprehensive miRNA arm-feature annotations, enhanced determinations and clear annotations were achieved for the miRNA isoforms (isomiRs recognized from the sequencing reads. In the gastric cancer (STAD dataset, as an example, 32 5p-arm/3p-arm OPEN ACCESS J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4 1799 specific miRNAs were found to be down-regulated and 24 5p-arm/3p-arm specific miRNAs were found to be up-regulated. We have further extended miRNA biomarker discoveries to additional TCGA miRNA-Seq datasets and provided extensive expression information on 5p-arm/3p-arm miRNAs across multiple cancer types. Our results identified several miRNAs that could be potential common biomarkers for human cancers.

  16. Bioinformatic Interrogation of 5p-arm and 3p-arm Specific miRNA Expression Using TCGA Datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Wei-Ting; Su, Ming-Wei; Lee, Yungling Leo; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Wu, Chew-Wun; Fang, Wen-Liang; Huang, Kuo-Hung; Lin, Wen-Chang

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in cellular functions and developmental processes. They are also implicated in oncogenesis mechanisms and could serve as potential cancer biomarkers. Using high-throughput miRNA sequencing information, expression of both the 5p-arm and 3p-arm mature miRNAs were demonstrated and generated from the single miRNA hairpin precursor. However, current miRNA annotations lack comprehensive 5p-arm/3p-arm feature annotations. Among known human mature miRNAs, only half of them are annotated with arm features. This generated ambiguous results in many miRNA-Sequencing (miRNA-Seq) studies. In this report, we have interrogated the TCGA (the Cancer Genome Atlas) miRNA expression datasets with an improved, fully annotated human 5p-arm and 3p-arm miRNA reference list. By utilizing this comprehensive miRNA arm-feature annotations, enhanced determinations and clear annotations were achieved for the miRNA isoforms (isomiRs) recognized from the sequencing reads. In the gastric cancer (STAD) dataset, as an example, 32 5p-arm/3p-arm OPEN ACCESS J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4 1799 specific miRNAs were found to be down-regulated and 24 5p-arm/3p-arm specific miRNAs were found to be up-regulated. We have further extended miRNA biomarker discoveries to additional TCGA miRNA-Seq datasets and provided extensive expression information on 5p-arm/3p-arm miRNAs across multiple cancer types. Our results identified several miRNAs that could be potential common biomarkers for human cancers. PMID:26389959

  17. Optimizing Armed Forces Capabilities for Hybrid Warfare – New Challenge for Slovak Armed Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter PINDJÁK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the optimization of military capabilities of the Slovak Armed Forces for conducting operations in a hybrid conflict, which represents one of the possible scenarios of irregular warfare. Whereas in the regular warfare adversaries intend to eliminate the centers of gravity of each other, most often command and control structures, in irregular conflicts, the center of gravity shifts towards the will and cognitive perception of the target population. Hybrid warfare comprises a thoroughly planned combination of conventional military approaches and kinetic operations with subversive, irregular activities, including information and cyber operations. These efforts are often accompanied by intensified activities of intelligence services, special operation forces, and even mercenary and other paramilitary groups. The development of irregular warfare capabilities within the Slovak Armed Forces will require a progressive transformation process that may turn the armed forces into a modern and adaptable element of power, capable of deployment in national and international crisis management operations.

  18. Characteristics of Spiral Arms in Late-type Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Honig, Z N

    2014-01-01

    We have measured the positions of large numbers of H II regions in four nearly face-on, late-type, spiral galaxies: NGC 628 (M 74), NGC 1232, NGC 3184 and NGC 5194 (M 51). Fitting log-periodic spiral models to segments of each arm yields local estimates of spiral pitch angle and arm width. While pitch angles vary considerably along individual arms, among arms within a galaxy, and among galaxies, we find no systematic trend with galactocentric distance. We estimate the widths of the arm segments from the scatter in the distances of the H II regions from the spiral model. All major arms in these galaxies show spiral arm width increasing with distance from the galactic center, similar to the trend seen in the Milky Way. However, in the outer-most parts of the galaxies, where massive star formation declines, some arms reverse this trend and narrow. We find that spiral arms often appear to be composed of segments of ~5 kpc length, which join to form kinks and abrupt changes in pitch angle and arm width; these char...

  19. CHARACTERISTICS OF SPIRAL ARMS IN LATE-TYPE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honig, Z. N.; Reid, M. J., E-mail: mreid@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-02-10

    We have measured the positions of large numbers of H II regions in four nearly face-on, late-type, spiral galaxies: NGC 628 (M74), NGC 1232, NGC 3184, and NGC 5194 (M51). Fitting log-periodic spiral models to segments of each arm yields local estimates of spiral pitch angle and arm width. While pitch angles vary considerably along individual arms, among arms within a galaxy, and among galaxies, we find no systematic trend with galactocentric distance. We estimate the widths of the arm segments from the scatter in the distances of the H II regions from the spiral model. All major arms in these galaxies show spiral arm width increasing with distance from the galactic center, similar to the trend seen in the Milky Way. However, in the outermost parts of the galaxies, where massive star formation declines, some arms reverse this trend and narrow. We find that spiral arms often appear to be composed of segments of ∼5 kpc length, which join to form kinks and abrupt changes in pitch angle and arm width; these characteristics are consistent with properties seen in the large N-body simulations of D'Onghia et al. and others.

  20. Two-arm master/slave manipulator for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several kinds of one-arm manipulators have been developed for remote maintenance in nuclear facilities to reduce personnel radiation exposure and to keep plant availability as high as possible. In those maintenance tasks, however, there are many that need two arms, e.g., one arm holds the work object and the other arm cuts it with a plasma torch. To answer this need, a dexterous two-arm master/slave manipulator has been developed based on the technology for one-arm manipulators. A prototype two-arm/slave manipulator is shown. The specifications for master and slave manipulators are listed. The prototype two-arm manipulator is undergoing laboratory performance tests. Preliminary results showed the maximum static operating forces were 0.4 N for the all-direct drive (DD)-type arm and 1.1 N for the semi-DD type. The payload for each arm of the slave manipulator was confirmed as 10 kgf, using mock pieces. The decommissioning tasks of cutting pipes and steel plates were successfully carried out

  1. Study of photoconductor polymers synthesized by plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the photoconductivity in poly thiophene (PTh), poly pyrrole (PPy) and doped poly pyrrole with iodine (PPy/I) is studied, whose structures depend of the intensity of the electric field applied during the synthesis by plasma. The conjugated organic polymers possess double alternated bonds in its chemical structure that its allow the one movement of π electrons through the polymeric chains. The plasma is produced by means of splendor discharges to 13.5 MHz, resistive coupling, at one pressure that oscillates in the interval from 2 to 3x10-1 mbar, 180 min and powers of 10, 24, 40, 60, 80 and 100 W. Its were used heteroaromatic polymers like PTh and PPy/I, due to their potential applications in optoelectronics. The influence of the iodine is evaluated as dopant in PPy and it is compared with their similar one without doping in the light absorption/emission processes. The polymers synthesized by plasma can ramify or to intersect due to the energy applied during the synthesis. However, if the polymer intersects, the aromaticity can continue through the polymeric chains. The absorptions obtained by infrared spectroscopy, suggest that the polymer conserves the aromatic structure of the monomer fundamentally with substitutions that indicate inter crossing and partial fragmentation. The structure of most of the polymers spreads to be amorphous because they don't possess any classification. However, the PPy/I and PTh synthesized by this technique present crystalline segments whose intensity diminishes with the power of the discharge. In PTh, the average crystallinity diminishes from 19.8% to 9.9%, and in PPy/I of 15.9% to 13.3% in the interval of 10 to 100 W of power. In this work, however, its were crystalline arrangements in all the studied powers. The classification of the polymeric structure favors the formation of trajectories of transfer of electric loads among the chains, that which influences in the global electric conductivity of the material. In UV-vis spectroscopy it was found that the PTh absorbs light in the interval of wavelength from 300 to 600 nm and the PPy of 300 to 600 nm; however, when the polymer it was doped with iodine a displacement toward the right of 100 nm is presented. The absorption of electromagnetic radiation depends on the structure of the compound and it is related with the transition π-π* of the aromatic rings. On the other hand, the Pth, PPy/I and PPy emit light in the interval of wavelength from 453 to 463 nm, of blue coloration, related with the transition that is produced from the singlet excited state of smaller energy, S1, until the fundamental state, S0. The electrical properties of the polymers were evaluated in function of the discharge power with excitement by temperature and with UV beams and visible. The excitement with light produces significant changes in the electric response of the polymers. Without excitement, the conductivity oscillates around 10-15 S/cm, with a behavior of insulating matter. When exciting them with visible light it increases 1 order of magnitude and when exciting them with UV light it is increased until 3 orders of magnitude, behaving as photosensitive materials. (Author)

  2. Syntheses and properties of ?-phase organic superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The syntheses and physical properties of ?-(ET)2Cu[N(CN)2]X (X=Br and Cl) are summarized. The ?-(ET)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br salt is the highest Tc radical-cation based ambient pressure organic superconductor (Tc=11.6 K), and the ?-(ET)2Cu[N(CN)2]Cl salt becomes a superconductor at even higher Tc under 0.3 kbar hydrostatic pressure (Tc=12.8 K). The similarities and differences between ?-(ET)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br and ?-(ET)2Cu(NCS)2 (Tc=10.4 K) are presented. The X-ray structures at 127 K reveal that the the S hor-ellipsis S contacts shorten between ET dimers in the former compound while the S hor-ellipsis S contacts shorten within dimers in the latter. The difference in their ESR linewidth behavior is also explained in terms of the structural differences. A semiconducting compound, (ET)Cu[N(CN)2]2, isolated during ?-(ET)2Cu[N(CN)2]Cl synthesis is also reported. The ESR measurements of the ?-(ET)2Cu[N(CN)2]Cl salt indicate that the phase transition near 40 K is similar to the spin density wave transition in (TMTSF)2SbF6. A new class of organic superconductors, ?-(ET)2Cu2(CN)3 and ?-(ET)2Cu2(CN)3-?Br?, is reported with Tc's of 2.8 K (1.5 kbar) and 2.6 K (1 kbar), respectively

  3. Effects of age, sex and arm on the accuracy of arm position sense – Left-arm superiority in healthy right-handers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Schmidt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Position sense is an important proprioceptive ability. Disorders of arm position sense (APS often occur after unilateral stroke, and are associated with a negative functional outcome. In the present study we assessed horizontal APS by measuring angular deviations from a visually defined target separately for each arm in a large group of healthy subjects. We analyzed the accuracy and instability of horizontal APS as a function of age, sex and arm. Subjects were required to specify verbally the position of their unseen arm on a 0-90° circuit by comparing the current position with the target position indicated by a LED lamp, while the arm was passively moved by the examiner. Eighty-seven healthy subjects participated in the study, ranging from 20 to 77 years, subdivided into three age groups. The results revealed that APS was not a function of age or sex, but was significantly better in the non-dominant (left arm in absolute but not in constant errors across all age groups of right-handed healthy subjects. This indicates a right-hemisphere superiority for left arm position sense in right-handers and neatly fits to the more frequent and more severe left-sided body-related deficits in patients with unilateral stroke (i.e. impaired arm position sense in left spatial neglect, somatoparaphrenia or in individuals with abnormalities of the right cerebral hemisphere. These clinical issues will be discussed.

  4. Association between intramuscular fat in the arm following arm training and INSIG2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popadic Gacesa, J Z; Secher, N H; Momcilovic, M; Grujic, N G

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-induced gene 2 (INSIG2) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs7566605) is linked to lipid metabolism, and this study assessed its potential influence on fat in the upper arm following arm training. Twenty healthy sedentary volunteers (22.0 ± 1.1 years, body mass index 25.4 ± 4.0 kg/m(2...... rs7566605 is more relevant for changes in IMAT following training than for the amount of subcutaneous fat....

  5. Small Arms Proliferation and Armed Conflicts in Africa: The Case of Rwandan Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Chuka Enuka

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies of the use of small arms in the Rwandan civil wars that resulted to a spate of genocidal killings that shocked the moral conscience of mankind. Notwithstanding the importance of small arms during conflicts, analytic studies of their roles and use during intensive episodes of violence are nearly absent. Conflict studies often stress the curse of mineral wealth, but they neglect the fact that one does not kill a human being with a gallon of oil or a sparkling diamond. Without...

  6. Las armas a cambio de la libertad: Los esclavos en la guerra de independencia de Venezuela (1812-1835) / Les armes en échange de la liberté: Les esclaves pendant la guerre d'Indépendance au Venezuela (1812-1835) / Arms in exchange for freedom: slaves in Venezuela's war of independence (1812-1835)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana, Vergara.

    Full Text Available Tanto los republicanos, como los defensores del poder monárquico no preveían el impacto y la importancia de la participación esclava durante la guerra de independencia venezolana. Su inicial movilización a favor de la Justa Causa del Rey fue una de las razones de la destrucción de las dos primeras r [...] epúblicas. Su participación induce a Bolívar y demás dirigentes republicanos a reformular el programa independentista criollo; el cual no incluía, hasta el momento, un cuestionamiento del sistema esclavista, en tanto que eran beneficiarios directos del mismo y la institución formaba parte fundamental del sistema económico en que se desenvolvían. Este artículo trata abordar su participación en el conflicto a través de las experiencias relatadas por nueve esclavos en sus respectivas peticiones de libertad. Abstract in english Neither republicans nor the defenders of monarchical power foresaw the impact and importance of the participation of slaves in Venezuela's wars of independence. Their early mobilization to support the Justa Causa del Rey ("Just Cause of the King") was a key factor in the collapse of the first two Re [...] publics, while their participation led Bolívar and other republican leaders to reformulate the Creole's independence program, which up to then had never questioned the slavery system, because they were among the direct beneficiaries of that arrangement, which was also a cornerstone of the economic system in Venezuela's that had allowed them to prosper. The article examines the slave population's participation in the conflict through experiences narrated by nine slaves in their respective petitions for freedom.

  7. Présences mémorielles et carences fictionnelles : L’espace du deuil dans le cinéma indépendant new-yorkais post-11/09

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent SOULADIÉ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Alors que les majors hollywoodiennes ont observé une distance prudente à l’égard de l’évocation et de la représentation des attentats du onze septembre, plusieurs cinéastes indépendants new-yorkais ont pour leur part choisi de tourner rapidement des films dont les récits se situent explicitement dans le contexte immédiat de l’après-catastrophe et dans le décor meurtri de New York. Les films indépendants se caractérisent principalement par leur absence de contraintes artistiques imposées, par la modestie de leurs moyens, par leur liberté de ton, et par l’appartenance marquée des cinéastes à leur milieu culturel d’origine. En tenant compte de ces facteurs, intimité du tournage et intimité du récit, il importe de questionner l’orientation adoptée par le cinéma indépendant new yorkais pour traiter le sujet dramatique du onze septembre. Un corpus filmique se dégage et nous semble cristalliser des enjeux esthétiques et discursifs communs autour du onze septembre comme contexte diégétique et vecteur narratif. Lien communautaire, équilibre familial, harmonie conjugale ou quête identitaire se mesurent dans ces films à l’échelle englobante du trauma collectif.Whereas the Hollywood majors observed a careful distance in the evocation and the representation of 9/11, several filmmakers belonging to New York's independent cinema chose to rapidly direct movies set in its immediate aftermath and in the bruised landscape of New York. These movies are characterized by their low production budget, by their independent tone and their absence of exterior artistic constraint, and by the clear signs that the filmmakers 'belong' to the city. Taking into account the intimacy of both shooting and story, we will examine the orientation adopted in order to deal with the tragedy of 9/11 by New York's independent cinema. A number of movies indeed raise common aesthetic and discursive issues with regard to 9/11 as narrative context and narrative vector; in these works, the collective trauma has become the measure of community ties, family harmony and ontological quest.

  8. Kootenay Lake Fertilization Experiment, Year 15 (North Arm) and Year 3 (South Arm) (2006) Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, E.U.; Sebastian, D.; Andrusak, G.F. [Fish and Wildlife Science and Allocation, Ministry of Environment, Province of British Columbia

    2009-07-01

    This report summarizes results from the fifteenth year (2006) of nutrient additions to the North Arm of Kootenay Lake and three years of nutrient additions to the South Arm. Experimental fertilization of the lake has been conducted using an adaptive management approach in an effort to restore lake productivity lost as a result of nutrient uptake in upstream reservoirs. The primary objective of the experiment is to restore kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations, which are the main food source for Gerrard rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). The quantity of agricultural grade liquid fertilizer (10-34-0, ammonium polyphosphate and 28-0-0, urea ammonium nitrate) added to the North Arm in 2006 was 44.7 tonnes of P and 248.4 tonnes of N. The total fertilizer load added to the South Arm was 257 tonnes of nitrogen; no P was added. Kootenay Lake has an area of 395 km{sup 2}, a maximum depth of 150 m, a mean depth of 94 m, and a water renewal time of approximately two years. Kootenay Lake is a monomictic lake, generally mixing from late fall to early spring and stratifying during the summer. Surface water temperatures generally exceed 20 C for only a few weeks in July. Results of oxygen profiles were similar to previous years with the lake being well oxygenated from the surface to the bottom depths at all stations. Similar to past years, Secchi disc measurements at all stations in 2006 indicate a typical seasonal pattern of decreasing depths associated with the spring phytoplankton bloom, followed by increasing depths as the bloom gradually decreases by the late summer and fall. Total phosphorus (TP) ranged from 2-7 {micro}g/L and tended to decrease as summer advanced. Over the sampling season dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations decreased, with the decline corresponding to nitrate (the dominant component of DIN) being utilized by phytoplankton during summer stratification. Owing to the importance of epilimnetic nitrate that is required for optimal phytoplankton growth discrete depth water sampling occurred in 2006 to measure more accurately changes in the nitrate concentrations. As expected there was a seasonal decline in nitrate concentrations, thus supporting the strategy of increasing the nitrogen loading in both arms. These in-season changes emphasize the need for an adaptive management approach to ensure the nitrogen to phosphorus (N:P) ratio does not decrease below 15:1 (weight:weight) during the fertilizer application period. Phytoplankton composition determined from the integrated samples (0-20m) was dominated by diatoms, followed by cryptophytes and chrysophytes. The contribution of cryptophytes to total biomass was higher in 2006 than in 2005. Cryptophytes, considered being edible biomass for zooplankton and Daphnia spp., increased in 2006. Phytoplankton in the discrete depth samples (2, 5, 10, 15 and 20m) demonstrated a clear north to south gradient in average phytoplankton density and biomass among the three stations sampled, with highest values at the North Arm station (KLF 2) and lowest values in the most southern station in the South Arm (KLF 7). Populations were dominated by flagellates at all stations and depths in June and July, then dominated by diatoms in August and September in the North and South arms of the lake. There were no large bluegreen (cyanobacteria) populations in either arm of the lake in 2006. Seasonal average zooplankton abundance and biomass in both the main body of the lake and in the West Arm increased in 2006 compared to 2005. Zooplankton density was numerically dominated by copepods and biomass was dominated by Daphnia spp. The annual average mysid biomass data at deep stations indicated that the North Arm of Kootenay Lake was more productive than the South Arm in 2006. Mysid densities increased through the summer and declined in the winter; mean whole lake values remain within prefertilization densities. Kokanee escapement to Meadow Creek declined in 2006 to approximately 400,000 spawners. The Lardeau River escapement also declined with approximately 100,000 spawners. Escapement in the South Arm tributaries in 2006 was similar to 2005 with virtually no spawners. The mean size of female and male kokanee from Meadow Creek was larger than the past three years (24.9 cm and 25.2 cm, respectively) and larger than the long term average (25.2 cm). This is indicative of a density dependent growth response as a decline in in-lake abundance and returning spawners occurred. Spring hydroacoustic estimates indicated low densities of South Arm kokanee with most of the North Arm fry remaining at the most northerly stations. By the fall, the distribution of kokanee from the North Arm to the South Arm was fairly uniform, a normal occurrence in Kootenay Lake. Fall hydroacoustic estimates in 2006 increased to approximately 22 million kokanee.

  9. Syntheses and electronic structures of decamethylmetallocenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of decamethylmanganocene [(eta-C5(CH3)5)2Mn or (Me5Cp)2Mn)] is described. Magnetic susceptibility and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies show that (Me5Cp)2Mn is a low-spin, 17-electron compound with an orbitally degenerate, 2E/sub 2g/ [e/sub 2g/3 a/sub 1g/2] ground state. An x-ray crystallographic study of (Me5Cp)2Mn shows that it is a monomeric, D/sub 5d/ decamethylmetallocene with metal to ring carbon distances that are about 0.3 A shorter than those determined for high-spin manganocenes. The syntheses of new (Me5Cp)2M (M = Mg,V,Cr,Co, and Ni) and [(Me5Cp)2M]PF6 (M = Cr,Co, and Ni) compounds are described. In addition, a preparative route to a novel, dicationic decamethylmetallocene, [(Me5Cp)2Ni](PF6)2 is reported. Infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, magnetic susceptibility, and/or x-ray crystallographic studies indicate that all the above compounds are D/sub 5d/ or D/sub 5h/ decamethylmetallocenes with low-spin electronic configurations. Cyclic voltammetry studies verify the reversibility and the one-electron nature of the (Me5Cp)2M → [(Me5Cp)2M]+ (M = Cr,Mn,Fe,Co,Ni), [(Me5Cp)2Mn]- → (Me5Cp)2Mn and [(Me5Cp)2Ni]+ → [Me5Cp)2Ni]2+ redox reactions. These studies reveal that the neutral decamethylmetallocenes are much more easily oxidized than their metallocene counterparts. This result attests to the electron-donating properties of the ten substituent methyl groups. Proton and carbon-13 NMR data are reported for the diamagnetic Mg(II), Mn(I), Fe(II), Co(III), and Ni(IV) decamethylmetallocenes and for [(Me5Cp)2V(CO)2]+. The uv-visible absorption spectra of the 15-, 18- and 20- electron decamethylmetallocenes are also reported

  10. Syntheses and electronic structures of decamethylmetallocenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, J.L.

    1981-04-01

    The synthesis of decamethylmanganocene ((eta-C/sub 5/(CH/sub 3/)/sub 5/)/sub 2/Mn or (Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/Mn)) is described. Magnetic susceptibility and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies show that (Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/Mn is a low-spin, 17-electron compound with an orbitally degenerate, /sup 2/E/sub 2g/ (e/sub 2g//sup 3/ a/sub 1g//sup 2/) ground state. An x-ray crystallographic study of (Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/Mn shows that it is a monomeric, D/sub 5d/ decamethylmetallocene with metal to ring carbon distances that are about 0.3 A shorter than those determined for high-spin manganocenes. The syntheses of new (Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/M (M = Mg,V,Cr,Co, and Ni) and ((Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/M)PF/sub 6/ (M = Cr,Co, and Ni) compounds are described. In addition, a preparative route to a novel, dicationic decamethylmetallocene, ((Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/Ni)(PF/sub 6/)/sub 2/ is reported. Infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, magnetic susceptibility, and/or x-ray crystallographic studies indicate that all the above compounds are D/sub 5d/ or D/sub 5h/ decamethylmetallocenes with low-spin electronic configurations. Cyclic voltammetry studies verify the reversibility and the one-electron nature of the (Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/M ..-->.. ((Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/M)/sup +/ (M = Cr,Mn,Fe,Co,Ni), ((Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/Mn)/sup -/ ..-->.. (Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/Mn and ((Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/Ni)/sup +/ ..-->.. (Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/Ni)/sup 2 +/ redox reactions. These studies reveal that the neutral decamethylmetallocenes are much more easily oxidized than their metallocene counterparts. This result attests to the electron-donating properties of the ten substituent methyl groups. Proton and carbon-13 NMR data are reported for the diamagnetic Mg(II), Mn(I), Fe(II), Co(III), and Ni(IV) decamethylmetallocenes and for ((Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/V(CO)/sub 2/)/sup +/. The uv-visible absorption spectra of the 15-, 18- and 20- electron decamethylmetallocenes are also reported.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of a multi-arm poly(acrylic acid) star polymer for application in sustained delivery of cisplatin and a nitric oxide prodrug

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Shaofeng; Cai, Shuang; Xie, Yumei; Bagby, Taryn; Ren, Shenqiang; Forrest, M. Laird

    2012-01-01

    Functionalized polymeric nanocarriers have been recognized as drug delivery platforms for delivering therapeutic concentrations of chemotherapies. Of this category, star-shaped multiarm polymers are emerging candidates for targeted delivery of anti-cancer drugs, due to their compact structure, narrow size distribution, large surface area and high water solubility. In this study, we synthesized a multi-arm poly(acrylic acid) star polymer via MADIX/RAFT polymerization and characterized it using...

  12. Magnetic navigation versus mobile C-Arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate differences in radiation protection aspects between the use of a digital cardio angiography system with magnetic navigation (Artis Axiom dFcM + Stereotaxis NIOBE (registered) Magnetic Navigation System) and a standard mobile X-ray device with C-arm for electrophysiological procedures. Radiation exposure to staff and patients were analyzed and used for comparison. The time distribution of cardiology procedures for one physician is shown to introduce work of electrophysiology section. The records of procedures were used as information and as a data source for this study. These records include written operation as well as printed exam protocols. This study shows time course of procedures using the electro anatomical mapping system 'CARTO'. A single physicians performance has been used for this comparison to avoid possible differences between operators. The exposure time and air kerma product (PKA) values have been compared for both devices. Median value of exposure time, for each group of 20 patients, was reduced from 27.1 minutes to 20.0 minutes and radiation exposure from 12468 cGycm2 to 9078 cGycm2 PKA values. There is also scattered radiation in the operation area for C-Arm and the new technology presented. Magnetic navigation and replacing C-Arm by cardio angiography system reduces the personal dose by nearly one third, this fact was traced from personal monitoring reports. The main reason for saving time is the necessity to operate the catheter by joystick on a control panel from an adjacent room. These new technologies bring more effectiveness into interventional procedures, especially in cases of complicated examination, and reduce radiation exposure to patients and staff significantly. (author)

  13. Limitation and reduction of conventional arms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are living at a time when war between East and West---not only nuclear but also conventional war--- is totally senseless. It cannot solve any problem---political, economic, or other. From the military point of view, war between East and West is madness. Calculations show that after 20 days of conventional warfare Europe could become another Hiroshima. Therefore we must work out forms of long-term cooperation. Before it is too late, we must radically reduce our military potentials and rethink our military doctrines. The reduction by 500,000 men is for the USSR no simple solution. But that step may become a model for further actions by East and West. The West's proposal that armed forces should be reduced to the level of 95 percent of NATO's armed forces is not a solution. Both sides---the Warsaw Treaty Organization and NATO---must be deprived of the capacity to launch a sudden attack; they must be deprived of their attack potential. The USSR initiative shows the true way toward that goal. What is happening in connection with our decision is not always correctly interpreted in the West, and so I should like to draw attention to some distinctive features of the Soviet armed forces reductions and, first of all, their scale (equivalent to the Bundeswehr of the Federal Republic of Germany). With respect to Europe, Soviet troops are to be reduced in the German Democratic Republic, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, and the European part of the Soviet Union---a total of 240,000 men, 10,000 tanks, 9,500 artillery systems, and 800 combat aircraft

  14. Teeth clenching reduces arm abduction force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hajime; Kawano, Tsutomu; Saito, Mitsuru; Toyoda, Hiroki; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Türker, Kemal Sitki; Kang, Youngnam

    2014-07-01

    It has been reported that the 90° arm abduction force counteracting external adduction loads appeared to be smaller under teeth clenching condition than under non-clenching condition. To elucidate the physiological mechanism underlying the possible inhibitory effect of teeth clenching on the arm abduction, we have attempted to quantify the difference in the force induced against the fast and slow ramp load between the arm abductions under teeth non-clenching and clenching conditions. When the load of adduction moment was linearly increased, the abductor force increased to a maximal isometric contraction force (MICF) and further increased to a maximal eccentric contraction force (MECF) with forced adduction. The MICF measured under teeth clenching was significantly lower than that under non-clenching, despite no significant difference in the MECF between the two conditions. The reduction in MICF caused by teeth clenching was enhanced by increasing the velocity of the load. These results suggest that clenching inhibits abduction force only during isometric contraction phase. The invariability of MECF would indicate the lack of involvement of fatigue in such inhibitory effects of clenching. To discover the source of the inhibition, we have examined the effects of teeth clenching on the stretch reflex in the deltoid muscle. The stretch reflex of deltoid muscles was inhibited during clenching, contrary to what was expected from the Jendrassik maneuver. Taken together, our results suggest that the teeth clenching reduced the MICF by depressing the recruitment of deltoid motoneurones presumably via the presynaptic inhibition of spindle afferent inputs onto those motoneurones. PMID:24687460

  15. Design and Analysis of Rotating Bucket Arm of Excavator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikash Rai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an attempt has been made to design and analyze the rotating bucket of the excavator along with the stick and the bucket arm. This paper focuses on the joint design by using the geared motor for angular rotation of the bucket arm and studies the effect of digging, torsional force and bending stresses developed on the joint. Study the motion of the bucket arm

  16. A Global Obstacle-avoidance Map for Anthropomorphic Arms

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng Fang; Xilun Ding

    2014-01-01

    More and more humanoid robots are used in human society, and they face a wide variety of complicated manipulation tasks, which are mainly to be achieved by their anthropomorphic arms. Obstacle avoidance for the anthropomorphic arm must be a fundamental consideration to guarantee the successful implementation of these tasks. Different from traditional methods searching for feasible or optimal collision-free solutions for the anthropomorphic arm, a global obstacle- avoidance map for the whole a...

  17. ARM Operations and Engineering Procedure Mobile Facility Site Startup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, Jimmy W

    2015-05-01

    This procedure exists to define the key milestones, necessary steps, and process rules required to commission and operate an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF), with a specific focus toward on-time product delivery to the ARM Data Archive. The overall objective is to have the physical infrastructure, networking and communications, and instrument calibration, grooming, and alignment (CG&A) completed with data products available from the ARM Data Archive by the Operational Start Date milestone.

  18. Improvements to GOES Twilight Cloud Detection over the ARM SGP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, c. R.; Trepte, Q.; Khaiyer, M. M.; Palikonda, R.; Nguyen, L.

    2007-01-01

    The current ARM satellite cloud products derived from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) data provide continuous coverage of many cloud properties over the ARM Southern Great Plains domain. However, discontinuities occur during daylight near the terminator, a time period referred to here as twilight. This poster presentation will demonstrate the improvements in cloud detection provided by the improved cloud mask algorithm as well as validation of retrieved cloud properties using surface observations from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains (ARM SGP) site.

  19. Robotic Retroperitoneal Partial Nephrectomy: A Four-Arm Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Feliciano, Joseph; Stifelman, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Robotic partial nephrectomy is an effective alternative to laparoscopic partial nephrectomy. The 3-arm and 4-arm transperitoneal robotic approaches are well described in the literature. However, a retroperitoneal robotic technique has yet to be fully described. We report our technique and initial experience with robotic retroperitoneal partial nephrectomy with a novel 4-arm approach. Materials and Methods: We reviewed our current experience with the robotic retroperitoneal appro...

  20. Regulating the Arms Trade - The Potential of International Criminal Law

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Tomas Francis Barton

    2015-01-01

    Existing transnational regulation of the arms trade fails to adequately control the conduct of individual State officials, corporate officers and sole-trading shipping agents and brokers, who supply arms that assist in the commission of international crimes. The limitations of existing regulation are manifold. At the domestic level, arms export regulations vary greatly between different States, they tend not to address “Third State Brokering”, and often lack harsh criminal penalties to deter ...

  1. Controlling a Robotic Arm manipulator with a PLC

    OpenAIRE

    Lama, Bhim

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT This thesis was commissioned for HAMK University of Applied Sciences with the aim of designing a control system for a robotic arm. The Robotic Arm in this case was from HAMK’s Laboratory for Automation, Riihimäki which was designed by Nicolas Mustaka (an exchange student from Greece, 2009). The main objective of this thesis was to design a control system for the Robotic Arm using a programmable logic controller (PLC) and to construct a gripper. The control system design con...

  2. Risk-Aversion in Multi-armed Bandits

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Stochastic multi-armed bandits solve the Exploration-Exploitation dilemma and ultimately maximize the expected reward. Nonetheless, in many practical problems, maximizing the expected reward is not the most desirable objective. In this paper, we introduce a novel setting based on the principle of risk-aversion where the objective is to compete against the arm with the best risk-return trade-off. This setting proves to be intrinsically more difficult than the standard multi-arm bandit setting ...

  3. Risk-Aversion in Multi-armed Bandits

    OpenAIRE

    Sani, Amir; Lazaric, Alessandro; Munos, Rémi

    2012-01-01

    Stochastic multi--armed bandits solve the Exploration--Exploitation dilemma and ultimately maximize the expected reward. Nonetheless, in many practical problems, maximizing the expected reward is not the most desirable objective. In this paper, we introduce a novel setting based on the principle of risk--aversion where the objective is to compete against the arm with the best risk--return trade--off. This setting proves to be intrinsically more difficult than the standard multi-arm bandit set...

  4. The Determinants of Arms Spending in South America

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge M. Battaglino; University Torcuato Di Tella

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, South America has witnessed a large increase in arms purchases. Nonetheless, there are important intraregional differences in terms of the allocation of resources for weapons acquisitions. How can we account for these disparities? Mainstream literature suggests that levels of arms importation depend on either the size of the defense budget or the perception of threat. In contrast, this article contends that the level of spending on arms is mainly determined by: (a) the expans...

  5. Synthesizing Smart Polymeric and Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chaokun

    Smart materials have been widely investigated to explore new functionalities unavailable to traditional materials or to mimic the multifunctionality of biological systems. Synthetic polymers are particularly attractive as they already possess some of the attributes required for smart materials, and there are vast room to further enhance the existing properties or impart new properties by polymer synthesis or composite formulation. In this work, three types of smart polymer and composites have been investigated with important new applications: (1) healable polymer composites for structural application and healable composite conductor for electronic device application; (2) conducting polymer polypyrrole actuator for implantable medical device application; and (3) ferroelectric polymer and ceramic nanoparticles composites for electrocaloric effect based solid state refrigeration application. These application entail highly challenging materials innovation, and my work has led to significant progress in all three areas. For the healable polymer composites, well known intrinsically healable polymer 2MEP4F (a Diels-Alder crosslinked polymer formed from a monomer with four furan groups and another monomer with two maleimide groups) was first chosen as the matrix reinforced with fiber. Glass fibers were successfully functionalized with maleimide functional groups on their surface. Composites from functionalized glass fibers and 2MEP4F healable polymer were made to compare with composites made from commercial carbon fibers and 2MEP4F polymer. Dramatically improved short beam shear strength was obtained from composite of functionalized glass fibers and 2MEP4F polymer. The high cost of 2MEP4F polymer can potentially limit the large-scale application of the developed healable composite, we further developed a new healable polymer with much lower cost. This new polymer was formed through the Diels-Alder crosslinking of poly(furfuryl alcohol) (PFA) and 1,1'-(Methylenedi-4,1-phenylene)bismaleimide (MDPB). It showed the same healing ability as 2MEP4F while all starting materials are cheaper and commercially available. To further improve the mechanical strength of the PFA-MDPB healable polymer, epoxy as a strengthening component was mixed with PFA-MDPB healable polymer. The PFA, MDPB and epoxy composite polymers were further reinforced by carbon fiber as done with 2MEP4F matrix and the final composites were proved to have higher short beam shear strength than 2MEP4F while exhibiting a similar healing efficiency. Healable polymer MDPB (a two maleimide groups monomer) -- FGEEDR (a four furan groups monomer) was also designed and synthesized for transparent healable polymer. The MDPB-FGEEDR healable polymer was composited with silver nanowires (AgNWs) to afford healable transparent composite conductor. Razer blade cuts in the composite conductor could heal upon heating to recover the mechanical strength and electrical conductivity of the composite. The healing could be repeated for multiple times on the same cut location. The healing process was as fast as 3 minutes for conductivity to recover 97% of the original value. For electroactive polymer polypyrrole, the fast volume change upon electrical field change due to electrochemical oxidization or reduction was studied for actuation targeting toward a robotic application. The flexibility of polypyrrole was improved via copolymerization with pyrrole derivatives. Actuator devices are fabricated that more suitable for implantable medical device application than pyrrole homopolymer. The change of dipole re-orientation and thus dielectric constant of ferroelectric polymers and ceramics upon electrical field may be exploited for electrocaloric effect (ECE) and solid state refrigeration. For ferroelectric ceramics, we synthesized a series of Ba1-xSrxTiO3 nanoparticles with diameter ranging from 8-12 nm and characterized their dielectric and ferroelectric properties through hysteresis measurement. It was found that 8 nm BaTiO3 nanocrystals are stable at cubic crystal structure without ferroelectric character. Ba1-xSrxTiO3 nanoparticles with larger crystalline size (40nm) provide near room temperature transition temperature which could be the Curie temperature. We carefully studied the electrocaloric effect of ferroelectric polymers P(VDF-TrFE) and P(VDF-TrFE-CFE). The nanocomposite of Ba1-xSrxTiO 3 nanoparticles dispersed in P(VDF-TrFE-CFE) was fabricated and studied by hysteresis measurement to estimate the electrocaloric effect of the composite. The interdigitated electrode samples were successfully infiltrated with terpolymer and the multilayers ECE device showed 0.01 C/m2 displacement at 70MV/m. Free-standing monolayer ECE devices made from the terpolymer gave 3.4°C temperature change measured via an infrared camera.

  6. HS06 benchmark for an ARM server

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We benchmarked an ARM cortex-A9 based server system with a four-core CPU running at 1.1 GHz. The system used Ubuntu 12.04 as operating system and the HEPSPEC 2006 (HS06) benchmarking suite was compiled natively with gcc-4.4 on the system. The benchmark was run for various settings of the relevant gcc compiler options. We did not find significant influence from the compiler options on the benchmark result. The final HS06 benchmark result is 10.4.

  7. ARM CLASIC ER2 CRS/EDOP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Heymsfield

    2010-12-20

    Data was taken with the NASA ER-2 aircraft with the Cloud Radar System and other instruments in conjunction with the DOE ARM CLASIC field campaign. The flights were near the SGP site in north Central Oklahoma and targeted small developing convection. The CRS is a 94 GHz nadir pointing Doppler radar. Also on board the ER-2 was the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL). Seven science flights were conducted but the weather conditions did not cooperate in that there was neither developing convection, or there was heavy rain.

  8. The Illusion of Owning a Third Arm

    OpenAIRE

    Guterstam, Arvid; Petkova, Valeria I.; Ehrsson, H. Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Could it be possible that, in the not-so-distant future, we will be able to reshape the human body so as to have extra limbs? A third arm helping us out with the weekly shopping in the local grocery store, or an extra artificial limb assisting a paralysed person? Here we report a perceptual illusion in which a rubber right hand, placed beside the real hand in full view of the participant, is perceived as a supernumerary limb belonging to the participant's own body. This effect was supported b...

  9. Terrorism, Armed Conflict and Foreign Aid

    OpenAIRE

    Lis Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Armed conflict, and to a lesser extent terrorism, have detrimental effect on economic and social development through destruction of human and physical capital and ensuing disruption to economic activity. There is also likely to be an indirect effect of political instability through its impact on foreign aid. The net effect is not obvious; violence may discourage aid donors and hence lead to a fall in received aid on the one hand, but it may well lead to an increase in foreign aid as donors of...

  10. ARM assembly language fundamentals and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Hohl, William

    2009-01-01

    Written by the director of ARM's worldwide academic program, this volume gives computer science professionals and students an edge, regardless of their preferred coding language. For those with some basic background in digital logic and high-level programming, the book examines code relevant to hardware and peripherals found on today's microcontrollers and looks at situations all programmers will eventually encounter. The book's carefully chosen examples teach easily transferrable skills that will help readers optimize routines and significantly streamline coding, especially in the embedded sp

  11. Computing Arm Movements with a Monkey Brainet

    OpenAIRE

    Arjun Ramakrishnan; Peter J. Ifft; Miguel Pais-Vieira; Yoon Woo Byun; Zhuang, Katie Z; Lebedev, Mikhail A; Miguel A. L. Nicolelis

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) extract motor commands from a single brain to control the movements of artificial devices. Here, we introduce a Brainet that utilizes very-large-scale brain activity (VLSBA) from two (B2) or three (B3) nonhuman primates to engage in a common motor behaviour. A B2 generated 2D movements of an avatar arm where each monkey contributed equally to X and Y coordinates; or one monkey fully controlled the X-coordinate and the other controlled the Y-coord...

  12. HS06 Benchmark for an ARM Server

    CERN Document Server

    Kluth, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    We benchmarked an ARM cortex-A9 based server system with a four-core CPU running at 1.1 GHz. The system used Ubuntu 12.04 as operating system and the HEPSPEC 2006 (HS06) benchmarking suite was compiled natively with gcc-4.4 on the system. The benchmark was run for various settings of the relevant gcc compiler options. We did not find significant influence from the compiler options on the benchmark result. The final HS06 benchmark result is 10.4.

  13. HS06 Benchmark for an ARM Server

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluth, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    We benchmarked an ARM cortex-A9 based server system with a four-core CPU running at 1.1 GHz. The system used Ubuntu 12.04 as operating system and the HEPSPEC 2006 (HS06) benchmarking suite was compiled natively with gcc-4.4 on the system. The benchmark was run for various settings of the relevant gcc compiler options. We did not find significant influence from the compiler options on the benchmark result. The final HS06 benchmark result is 10.4.

  14. Keeping the lid on nuclear arms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In November 1990 Brazil and Argentina agreed not to produce nuclear weapons and to allow mutual inspections of their secret nuclear sites. This exciting move towards nuclear arms control may form the basis of a model of international inspection which other countries may seek to follow. However, neither country will yet unconditionally accept the verification scale proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The IAEA seeks to ensure that civilian nuclear materials are not diverted for military use. Military authorities in both countries oppose the plan. It is anticipated that existing difficulties will be overcome. (UK)

  15. Rasp Tool on Phoenix Robotic Arm Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This close-up photograph taken at the Payload Interoperability Testbed at the University of Arizona, Tucson, shows the motorized rasp protruding from the bottom of the scoop on the engineering model of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm. The rasp will be placed against the hard Martian surface to cut into the hard material and acquire an icy soil sample for analysis by Phoenix's scientific instruments. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Critical configurations of planar robot arms

    CERN Document Server

    Khimshiashvili, G; Siersma, D; Zhukova, A

    2012-01-01

    It is known that a closed polygon P is a critical point of the oriented area function if and only if P is a cyclic polygon, that is, $P$ can be inscribed in a circle. Moreover, there is a short formula for the Morse index. Going further in this direction, we extend these results to the case of open polygonal chains, or robot arms. We introduce the notion of the oriented area for an open polygonal chain, prove that critical points are exactly the cyclic configurations with antipodal endpoints and derive a formula for the Morse index of a critical configuration.

  17. 'Great power' intervention in African armed conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2015-01-01

    This paper asks why the United States (US), China and the European Union (EU) have intervened in a number of armed conflicts in Africa in the twenty-first century. Scrutiny and comparison of the motivations and interests of the three non-African actors in intervening in African crises are assumed...... to contribute to understanding the changing geopolitical environment and the current conditions for conflict management in Africa. The focus is not on trade and aid. The paper launches the hypothesis that the explanations why the US, China and the EU have intervened are basically identical. In spite...

  18. Robot Arms with 3D Vision Capabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Borangiu, Theodor; Alexandru DUMITRACHE

    2010-01-01

    This chapter presented two applications of 3D vision in industrial robotics. The first one allows 3D reconstruction of decorative objects using a laser-based profile scanner mounted on a 6-DOF industrial robot arm, while the scanned part is placed on a rotary table. The second application uses the same profile scanner for 3D robot guidance along a complex path, which is learned automatically using the laser sensor and then followed using a physical tool. While the laser sensor is an expensive...

  19. Robotic Arm-The Ball Catcher

    OpenAIRE

    J.C.Titarmare; M.D.Katkar; A. J. Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Catching a thrown ball with a hand is not easy – neither for humans nor for robots. It demands for a tight interplay of skills in mechanics, control, planning and visual sensing to reach the necessary precision in space and time. Because of this, ball catching has been used for almost 20 years now as a challenging benchmark system to develop and test robotics key technologies. Here we propose a high speed and intelligent robotic arm set up which will capable enough to catch the short range th...

  20. Telerobotics with whole arm collision avoidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelmsen, K.; Strenn, S.

    1993-09-01

    The complexity of teleorbotic operations in a cluttered environment is exacerbated by the need to present collision information to the operator in an understandable fashion. In addition to preventing movements which will cause collisions, a system providing some form of virtual force reflection (VFR) is desirable. With this goal in mind, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has installed a kinematically master/slave system and developed a whole arm collision avoidance system which interacts directly with the telerobotic controller. LLNL has also provided a structure to allow for automated upgrades of workcell models and provide collision avoidance even in a dynamically changing workcell.

  1. Worldwide report: Arms control, [February 21, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-02-21

    This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts on arms control. Titles include: SDI Brainchild of Military-Industrial Complex, Not Reagan; More Polish Coverage of SDI Debate in FRG; France`s Gen. Gallois on USSR Modernization Plan; Soviet Naval Journal, Trident Has First-Strike Roll; Dutch Party Leader on Cruise Treaty, Elections; Soviet Training Methods Against Chemical Weapons; USSR Views Disarmament Conference Session Held in Geneva; Time `Running Out` for Moratorium Decision; Nordic Labor Unions Urge New Nuclear Free Zone Conference; Goals of Geneva Disarmament Meeting; and others.

  2. ARM9 Based Embedded E-Documentation

    OpenAIRE

    Sachin S.; , Sachin D. Anap, Amruta M. Kulkarni, Mahesh D. Nirmal, T.A.More,Taware, Sanjay G. Galande

    2012-01-01

    Among the huge population of India many people facing the headache of the government documents. Unwillingly they have to pay extra money and extra time for these documents though it is our basic right to get it free and urgent! This project is proposed to achieve the main goals of anti-corruption system for government documents needed for common people in day to day life. Our project basically includes four main parts, a fingerprint detector, ARM-9 control unit, PC with touch screen GUI and i...

  3. Nuclear disarmament or survival of nuclear arms?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    START II has not yet been ratified by the US or Russian parliaments. Doubts may be raised over whether it will ever be. In the best case there will be more than 20,000 nuclear warheads in the arsenals of these two countries by the year 2003. All five nuclear states consider that nuclear weapons are an essential component of their national defense. It might sound childish but, the whole story is is so often childish: the five powers refuse to break their nuclear toys. They take even all possible measures to maintain and improve them and to ensure the survivability of their arsenals. To prepare for the next arms race..

  4. System For Research On Multiple-Arm Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Paul G.; Hayati, Samad; Tso, Kam S.; Hayward, Vincent

    1991-01-01

    Kali system of computer programs and equipment provides environment for research on distributed programming and distributed control of coordinated-multiple-arm robots. Suitable for telerobotics research involving sensing and execution of low level tasks. Software and configuration of hardware designed flexible so system modified easily to test various concepts in control and programming of robots, including multiple-arm control, redundant-arm control, shared control, traded control, force control, force/position hybrid control, design and integration of sensors, teleoperation, task-space description and control, methods of adaptive control, control of flexible arms, and human factors.

  5. Modelling and Control of 5 dof Robotic Arm

    OpenAIRE

    Nurettin Gökhan Adar; Hüseyin Ören; Recep Kozan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, dynamic modeling of a 5 DOF Robotic Arm was carried out. The Robotic Arm totally had 5 DOF spatial articulated arm which consist of 3 parts. The modeling of dynamic equations of motion were based on Lagrange-Euler equations. The equations were taked into matrix-vector form. The parts of Robotic Arm had been in free fall to see the accuracy of the equations of motion and each joint graphs were obtained. A control algorithm was designed to achieve the position of the joint corres...

  6. Pre-LBA Amazonian Region Micrometeorological Experiment (ARME) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Amazonian Region Micrometeorological Experiment (ARME) data contain micrometeorological data (climate, interception of precipitation, mircometeorology and soil...

  7. Pre-LBA Amazonian Region Micrometeorological Experiment (ARME) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The Amazonian Region Micrometeorological Experiment (ARME) data contain micrometeorological data (climate, interception of precipitation, mircometeorology...

  8. Pre-LBA Amazonian Region Micrometeorological Experiment (ARME) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Amazonian Region Micrometeorological Experiment (ARME) data contain micrometeorological data (climate, interception of precipitation, mircometeorology and soil...

  9. Experimental validation of flexible robot arm modeling and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulsoy, A. Galip

    1989-01-01

    Flexibility is important for high speed, high precision operation of lightweight manipulators. Accurate dynamic modeling of flexible robot arms is needed. Previous work has mostly been based on linear elasticity with prescribed rigid body motions (i.e., no effect of flexible motion on rigid body motion). Little or no experimental validation of dynamic models for flexible arms is available. Experimental results are also limited for flexible arm control. Researchers include the effects of prismatic as well as revolute joints. They investigate the effect of full coupling between the rigid and flexible motions, and of axial shortening, and consider the control of flexible arms using only additional sensors.

  10. Manipulator arm for a nuclear reactor vessel inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A manipulator arm for a reactor vessel in-service inspection apparatus is adapted to transport a transducer array for ultrasonic examination of welds at any point in the vessel. The removal of the inspection device from the reactor vessel in an emergency presents a problem where a relatively long manipulator arm is used. This invention provides an improved arm with means for changing the normal orientation of the arm to a shorter one to permit safe removal of the inspection device from the reactor vessel. (author)

  11. ANOMALOUS BRANCHES OF MEDIAN NERVE IN THE ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishita Ghosh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dissection of right and left upper limbs and demonstration of the origin and the course of median nerve. Result: Median nerve in the right upper limb is formed normally but it supplies brachialis muscle and both head of the biceps in the arm which is anomalous. In the left arm of the patient the course and supply of median nerve is normal. Conclusion: The patient has unilateral anomalous supply of median nerve in the arm – this can result in trauma to this nerve while undergoing any surgery in right arm.

  12. Adaptive control strategies for cooperative dual-arm manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, H.

    1987-01-01

    Three strategies for adaptive control of cooperative dual-arm robots are discussed. Implementation of these adaptive controllers does not require the use of complex mathematical models of the arm dynamics or knowledge of the arm dynamic parameters or load parameters. These strategies have simple structures, and are computationally fast for on-line implementation with high sampling rates. In all three cases, the coupling effects between the arms through the load are treated as disturbances which are rejected by the adaptive controllers while following desired commands in a common frame of reference. Simulation results demonstrate the usefulness of the controllers.

  13. Méthodologie et modèle d'analyse de la vulnérabilité et du risque des systèmes critiques interdépendants (regular paper)

    OpenAIRE

    Kamissoko, Daouda; Pérès, François; Zaraté, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    Le travail présenté dans ce papier a pour objectif l'analyse des réseaux interdépendants, en vue de modéliser la vulnérabilité et le risque. Les concepts de Système et de composant critique sont définis. Une approche de modélisation des réseaux est présentée. Cette modélisation compatible avec la théorie des graphes, est basée sur l'analyse des interdépendances et des influences du milieu extérieur. Une démarche pour quantifier la vulnérabilité et le risque est également présentée. Celle-ci s...

  14. Poly(glycolide multi-arm star polymers: Improved solubility via limited arm length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian K. Wolf

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the low solubility of poly(glycolic acid (PGA, its use is generally limited to the synthesis of random copolyesters with other hydroxy acids, such as lactic acid, or to applications that permit direct processing from the polymer melt. Insolubility is generally observed for PGA when the degree of polymerization exceeds 20. Here we present a strategy that allows the preparation of PGA-based multi-arm structures which significantly exceed the molecular weight of processable oligomeric linear PGA (<1000 g/mol. This was achieved by the use of a multifunctional hyperbranched polyglycerol (PG macroinitiator and the tin(II-2-ethylhexanoate catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of glycolide in the melt. With this strategy it is possible to combine high molecular weight with good molecular weight control (up to 16,000 g/mol, PDI = 1.4–1.7, resulting in PGA multi-arm star block copolymers containing more than 90 wt % GA. The successful linkage of PGA arms and PG core via this core first/grafting from strategy was confirmed by detailed NMR and SEC characterization. Various PG/glycolide ratios were employed to vary the length of the PGA arms. Besides fluorinated solvents, the materials were soluble in DMF and DMSO up to an average arm length of 12 glycolic acid units. Reduction in the Tg and the melting temperature compared to the homopolymer PGA should lead to simplified processing conditions. The findings contribute to broadening the range of biomedical applications of PGA.

  15. Version of the galaxy spiral structure model with opposite-directed arms and inter-arm links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt is made to explain some peculiarities of the local spiral structure and large-scale distribution of HII regions in the Galaxy by coexistence of the trailing and leading arm systems of different power and development. The existence of opposite-directed arms and inter-arm links in the circular zone (5-15 kpc) is analysed from the point of view of different Galaxy models

  16. Porting Android on Arm Based Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KALPIK M. PATEL, CHIRAG K. PATEL

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Today Android operating system (OS is HOT in market for entertainment devices like mobile phones and tablet and TV and industry is exploring the ability of Android within other embedded platforms. Some industries replace with exiting operating system with Android because main reason is open source operating system (OS. Today industries select Android OS reason behind this big application market and easy to available to application development tools and also available many on-line group to resolve your issue. In this paper, we will explain the concept of porting android to any arm based devices. We will explain the basics of kernel, how to make android specific, how to compile kernel for ARM. In Android section, we will explain architecture of Android, how to compile android for specific board. For understanding, we will use Linux 2.6.32 kernel version and android 2.3.7 (Gingerbread. We will port android to d2plug board which is product of Marvell Semiconductor.

  17. ARM Climate Research Facility Annual Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, J.

    2004-12-31

    Like a rock that slowly wears away beneath the pressure of a waterfall, planet earth?s climate is almost imperceptibly changing. Glaciers are getting smaller, droughts are lasting longer, and extreme weather events like fires, floods, and tornadoes are occurring with greater frequency. Why? Part of the answer is clouds and the amount of solar radiation they reflect or absorb. These two factors clouds and radiative transfer represent the greatest source of error and uncertainty in the current generation of general circulation models used for climate research and simulation. The U.S. Global Change Research Act of 1990 established an interagency program within the Executive Office of the President to coordinate U.S. agency-sponsored scientific research designed to monitor, understand, and predict changes in the global environment. To address the need for new research on clouds and radiation, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. As part of the DOE?s overall Climate Change Science Program, a primary objective of the ARM Program is improved scientific understanding of the fundamental physics related to interactions between clouds and radiative feedback processes in the atmosphere.

  18. Double arm handling device for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention concerns a machine which, inside a liquid sodium cooled reactor, makes it possible to transfer fuel assemblies forming the core, between the positions that these assemblies fill inside the core to a storage position for these fuel assemblies inside the vessel. These operations are carried out when the reactor plug is in position and when the vessel is filled with liquid sodium, hence they are carried out without being seen. The improved charging system enables the handling time to be cut to a minimum and to diminish the number of positioning operations of the handling system inside the reactor vessel to effect the various charging and discharging operations. It includes a vertically positioned drum of which the top end crosses the plug; a first truck guided in vertical translation by guiding facilities integral with the drum and a second truck guided in vertical translation by other guiding facilities also integral with the drum, each truck being fitted with a horizontal arm at the free end of which is placed a grab hook for holding the fuel assemblies, the guiding facilities being such that the arms remain parallel to each other; gear for moving the trucks vertically and separately; facilities for controlling the opening and closing of the grabs and gear for turning the drum vertically about its centre line

  19. Robotic Arm-The Ball Catcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C.Titarmare

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Catching a thrown ball with a hand is not easy – neither for humans nor for robots. It demands for a tight interplay of skills in mechanics, control, planning and visual sensing to reach the necessary precision in space and time. Because of this, ball catching has been used for almost 20 years now as a challenging benchmark system to develop and test robotics key technologies. Here we propose a high speed and intelligent robotic arm set up which will capable enough to catch the short range thrown ball in specified environment. The main technique used is a stereo vision system to tracks the ball and predicts the balls trajectory then the point and time required to reach at destination point, and in which orientation the robot should intercept the ball on its trajectory, is determined. Once robots calculate the desired parameters it will try to catch the ball. Expected outcome of the proposed system is to catch the ball by calculating the coming ball path using computer vision techniques and move the robotic arm in order to catch the ball

  20. The Phoenix Mars Lander Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitz, Robert; Shiraishi, Lori; Robinson, Matthew; Carsten, Joseph; Volpe, Richard; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Chu, P. C.; Wilson, J. J.; Davis, K. R.

    2009-01-01

    The Phoenix Mars Lander Robotic Arm (RA) has operated for over 150 sols since the Lander touched down on the north polar region of Mars on May 25, 2008. During its mission it has dug numerous trenches in the Martian regolith, acquired samples of Martian dry and icy soil, and delivered them to the Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) and the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA). The RA inserted the Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) into the Martian regolith and positioned it at various heights above the surface for relative humidity measurements. The RA was used to point the Robotic Arm Camera to take images of the surface, trenches, samples within the scoop, and other objects of scientific interest within its workspace. Data from the RA sensors during trenching, scraping, and trench cave-in experiments have been used to infer mechanical properties of the Martian soil. This paper describes the design and operations of the RA as a critical component of the Phoenix Mars Lander necessary to achieve the scientific goals of the mission.

  1. Europe, arms control and American security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    What has come to be called the Revolution of 1989 has swept away longstanding political and economic arrangements in Eastern Europe. Perhaps more important, it has also called into question the fundamental underpinnings of European security created during the nonpeace that followed World War II. In June 1990, the Warsaw Treaty Organization abandoned the notion that NATO was the ideological enemy. At the same time, NATO ministers agreed at Tunberry, Scotland, to consider defining the Atlantic Alliance as more of a partner of the Soviet Union than as an enemy. The Washington summit of May 1990 between president Mikhail Gorbachev and president George Bush further highlighted the recent changes in the Soviet Union and its former satellites. Issues going to the heart of the viability of the Soviet Union and the communist system of political and economic organization competed with German reunification as central themes. Arms control issues, particularly as they pertain in European military stability, became contingent and dependent on the development of a broader political and economic framework for a new Europe. Whether this framework is viable remains an open question as Gorbachev's role is challenged more and more within the Soviet Union. This paper deals with European arms control issues from the point of view of the United States and its own security interests. The United States involved its security inextricably with that of Western Europe as a conscious decision in the turmoil following World War II

  2. ARM 7 BASED MP3 PLAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiq V Mehta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available MP3 is a patented encoding format for digital audio which uses a form of lossy data compression. It is a common audio format for consumer audio streaming or storage, as well as a de facto standard of digital audio compression for the transfer and playback of music on most digital audio players. Since the MPEG-1 Layer III encoding technology is nowadays widely used it might be interesting to gain knowledge of how this powerful compression/decompression scheme actually functions. The MPEG-1 Layer III is capable of reducing the bit rate with a factor of 12 without almost any audible degradation. Arm7 lpc2148 is arm7tdmi-s core board microcontroller that uses 16/32-bit 64 pin (lqfp microcontroller no.lpc2148 from Philips (nxp.The hardware system of lpc2148 includes the necessary devices within only one mcu has such as usb, adc, dac, timer/counter, pwm, capture, i2c, spi, uart, and etc.

  3. The politics of arms control treaty ratification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents a critical examination of executive-congressional relations and the domestic politics of arms control treaty ratification within the United States during the twentieth century. The staring point of this study is the hypothesis that the politics of treaty ratification can be as important as the negotiations leading up to agreements. Benefits to international peace and security sought in years of painstaking diplomatic effort can be lost without Senate consent, as was the case with the Treaty of Versailles and the second treaty arising from the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT II). The authors of the case studies were requested to present first a brief, historical introduction to the case indicating why the case was important, the background concerning the origins of the treaty, and the treaty's major provisions. The purpose of the introduction to the case was not to provide a complete picture of the negotiating record but to set the stage for a more in-depth discussion of the events that followed after the treaty was signed. The authors address five substantive areas: the international political context of the treaty, the domestic political context, the role of the president, executive-congressional relations, and public opinion and the role of interest groups. The questions and issues concerning each of these areas are briefly summarized

  4. Bioinformatic Interrogation of 5p-arm and 3p-arm Specific miRNA Expression Using TCGA Datasets

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Ting Kuo; Ming-Wei Su; Yungling Leo Lee; Chien-Hsiun Chen; Chew-Wun Wu; Wen-Liang Fang; Kuo-Hung Huang; Wen-chang Lin

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in cellular functions and developmental processes. They are also implicated in oncogenesis mechanisms and could serve as potential cancer biomarkers. Using high-throughput miRNA sequencing information, expression of both the 5p-arm and 3p-arm mature miRNAs were demonstrated and generated from the single miRNA hairpin precursor. However, current miRNA annotations lack comprehensive 5p-arm/3p-arm feature annotations. Among known human mature miRNAs, only ...

  5. Syntheses of (±-Romucosine and (±-Cathafiline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surachai Nimgirawath

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The structures previously assigned to (--romucosine and (+-cathafiline, N-(methoxycarbonyl aporphine alkaloids from Rollina mucosa (Annonaceae and Cassytha filiformis (Lauraceae respectively, have been confirmed by total syntheses of the racemic substances. The key step of the syntheses involved formation of ring C of the aporphines by a radical-initiated cyclisation.

  6. The development of [18F]FDG synthesizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The automatic system for [18F]FDG production using for the diagnosis of cancer has been developed. This automation system was consisted of a synthesizer module, a PLC based controller and a PMU for graphic user interface. By this system, the radiochemical purity was over 98%, the production yield was over 30% after synthesize and elapsed time was 35 minute

  7. The Electronic Music Synthesizer and the Physics of Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, W. M.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the principal modules of analog electronic music synthesizers and discusses some ways that a synthesizer has been used in demonstrations, in psychophysical experiments, and in an undergraduate laboratory course in the physics of music and acoustics. Considers the synthesis of both steady and transitory auditory phenomena. (Author/MLH)

  8. Low noise frequency synthesizer of a centimeter range wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Tsvelikh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A highly stable, low noise 10.7 GHz frequency synthesizer for radio-relay link transceiver is presented. The basic elements of synthesizer are electrically tuned 5.35 GHz dielectric ring oscillator and transistor frequency doubler.

  9. Synthesis of a poly-pendant 1-D chain based on 'trans-vanadium' bicapped, Keggin-type vanadtungstate and its photocatalytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Qing; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Li, Yang-Guang; Lu, Ying; Wang, En-Bo

    2014-11-21

    A vanadtungstate cluster-based organic-inorganic hybrid material [NiL4V(IV)W(VI)10W(V)2O40(V(IV)O)2] (1, L = 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene) was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectra, thermal gravimetric analysis, and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Structural analysis reveals that compound 1 contains a transition metal-centered, bicapped Keggin-type {VW12O40(VO)2} core, connected by nickel linkers into a 1-D chain. These 1D chains interdigitated with each other, achieving an interdigitated 3D supermolecular architecture. Photocatalytic studies indicate that compound 1 exhibits not only active photocatalytic degradation of dye molecules, but also selective photocatalytic activity for degradation of cationic dyes in aqueous solution. Further, this photocatalyst is stable and easily separated from the photocatalytic system for reuse as well. PMID:25113738

  10. Octopus-inspired multi-arm robotic swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfakiotakis, M; Kazakidi, A; Tsakiris, D P

    2015-06-01

    The outstanding locomotor and manipulation characteristics of the octopus have recently inspired the development, by our group, of multi-functional robotic swimmers, featuring both manipulation and locomotion capabilities, which could be of significant engineering interest in underwater applications. During its little-studied arm-swimming behavior, as opposed to the better known jetting via the siphon, the animal appears to generate considerable propulsive thrust and rapid acceleration, predominantly employing movements of its arms. In this work, we capture the fundamental characteristics of the corresponding complex pattern of arm motion by a sculling profile, involving a fast power stroke and a slow recovery stroke. We investigate the propulsive capabilities of a multi-arm robotic system under various swimming gaits, namely patterns of arm coordination, which achieve the generation of forward, as well as backward, propulsion and turning. A lumped-element model of the robotic swimmer, which considers arm compliance and the interaction with the aquatic environment, was used to study the characteristics of these gaits, the effect of various kinematic parameters on propulsion, and the generation of complex trajectories. This investigation focuses on relatively high-stiffness arms. Experiments employing a compliant-body robotic prototype swimmer with eight compliant arms, all made of polyurethane, inside a water tank, successfully demonstrated this novel mode of underwater propulsion. Speeds of up to 0.26 body lengths per second (approximately 100 mm s(-1)), and propulsive forces of up to 3.5 N were achieved, with a non-dimensional cost of transport of 1.42 with all eight arms and of 0.9 with only two active arms. The experiments confirmed the computational results and verified the multi-arm maneuverability and simultaneous object grasping capability of such systems. PMID:25970151

  11. New SNS/S and SNN/S Mixed Ligand Oxorhenium and Oxotechnetium Complexes Carrying a Pendant Nitro Group on the Monothiolate Moiety as Hypoxia Tissue Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of our project to develop small size, neutral, mixed ligand oxotechnetium and oxorhenium complexes of the general formula MOL1L2, we have synthesized and characterized four novel complexes of general formula MO[EtN(CH2CH2S)2][p-O2N-C6H4S] and MO [(Et2NCH2CH2NCH2CH2S)(p-O2N-C6H4S)] where M=Re (complex 1 and complex 2) or M=Tc (complex 3 and complex 4) as a new approach for hypoxia or ischemic tissue organ imaging. Complex 1 and 2 have been synthesized by exchange reaction in equimolar quantities of the tridentate and the monodentate ligand on ReOC13(PPh3). Only the syn isomer have been isolated and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-vis, and 1H NMR. Crystal datas reveal a trigonal bipyramidal geometry around the metal for complex 1 and square pyramidal geometry around the metal for complex 2. Complex 3 is prepared by exchange reaction using Tc-99m-glucoheptonate as precursor and equimolar quantities of two ligands; EtN(CH2CH2SH)2 and p-O2N-C6H4SH while complex 4 is prepared by simultaneously reacting the Et2NCH2CH2NHCH2CH2SH and p-O2N-C6H4SH ligands with the 99Tc gluconate precursor in equimolar amount in MeOH. It may be concluded that the result of SNS/S and SNN/S mixed ligand of oxotechnetium is comfirmed by comparative HPLC studies with complex 1 and complex 2, since rhenium is a surrogate of technetium

  12. The start of the Sagittarius spiral arm (Sagittarius origin) and the start of the Norma spiral arm (Norma origin) - model-computed and observed arm tangents at galactic longitudes -20 degrees < l < +23 degrees

    CERN Document Server

    Vallee, Jacques P

    2016-01-01

    Here we fitted a 4-arm spiral structure to the more accurate data on global arm pitch angle and arm longitude tangents, to get the start of each spiral arm near the Galactic nucleus. We find that the tangent to the 'start of the Sagittarius' spiral arm (arm middle) is at l= -17 degrees +/- 0.5 degree, while the tangent to the 'start of the Norma' spiral arm (arm middle) is at l= +20 degrees +/- 0.5 degree. Earlier, we published a compilation of observations and analysis of the tangent to each spiral arm tracer, from longitudes +23 degrees to +340 degrees; here we cover the arm tracers in the remaining longitudes +340 degrees (=- 20 degrees) to +23 degrees. Our model arm tangents are confirmed through the recent observed masers data (at the arm's inner edge). Observed arm tracers in the inner Galaxy show an offset from the mid-arm; this was also found elsewhere in the Milky Way disk (Vallee 2014c). In addition, we collated the observed tangents to the so-called '3-kpc-arm' features; here they are found statist...

  13. Modelling and control of two coordinated robot arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarn, T. J.; Yun, X.; Bejczy, A. K.

    1988-01-01

    Two coordinated robot arms are modeled by considering the two arms as working on the same object simultaneously and as a closed kinematic chain. In both formulations, a novel dynamic control method is used which is based on feedback linearization and simultaneous output decoupling.

  14. Why and how the EU should act on armed drones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bruno Oliveira; Backhaus, Benedikt

    2015-01-01

    This article systematizes the reasons that demand EU action on the issue of armed drones. It argues that a clear positioning of Brussels is required due to consistency with former practices in similar events and fundamental vectors of EU foreign and security policy, as well as legal and strategic...... position itself in the international debate on the regulation of armed drones....

  15. 32 CFR 1624.9 - Induction into the Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Induction into the Armed Forces. 1624.9 Section... INDUCTIONS § 1624.9 Induction into the Armed Forces. Registrants in classes 1-A and 1-A-0, who have been ordered for induction and found qualified under standards prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, will...

  16. Satellite data sets for the atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, L.; Bernstein, R.L. [SeaSpace Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    This abstract describes the type of data obtained from satellite measurements in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. The data sets have been widely used by the ARM team to derive cloud-top altitude, cloud cover, snow and ice cover, surface temperature, water vapor, and wind, vertical profiles of temperature, and continuoous observations of weather needed to track and predict severe weather.

  17. 48 CFR 225.7702 - Acquisition of small arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Operations in Iraq or Afghanistan 225.7702 Acquisition of small arms. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, when acquiring small arms for assistance to the Army of Iraq, the Army of Afghanistan, the Iraqi Police Forces, the Afghani Police Forces, or other Iraqi or Afghani...

  18. Dynamic Coordination Of A Two-Arm Robotic Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sukhan; Kim, Sungbok

    1994-01-01

    Report presents study of dynamical and kinematical considerations guiding selection of configuration of self-reconfigurable, two-arm robotic manipulator. Two multiple-link arms cooperate in manipulating single object, reconfiguring their mutual, cooperative structure according to changing task requirements.

  19. Stellar dynamics around transient co-rotating spiral arms

    CERN Document Server

    Kawata, Daisuke; Cropper, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Spiral density wave theory attempts to describe the spiral pattern in spiral galaxies in terms of a long-lived wave structure with a constant pattern speed in order to avoid the winding dilemma. The pattern is consequently a rigidly rotating, long-lived feature. We run an N-body/SPH simulation of a Milky Way-sized barred disk, and find that the spiral arms are transient features whose pattern speeds decrease with radius, in such a way that the pattern speed is almost equal to the rotation curve of the galaxy. We trace particle motion around the spiral arms. We show that particles from behind and in front of the spiral arm are drawn towards and join the arm. Particles move along the arm in the radial direction and we find a clear trend that they migrate toward the outer (inner) radii on the trailing (leading) side of the arm. Our simulations demonstrate that at all radii where there is a co-rotating spiral arm the particles continue to be accelerated (decelerated) by the spiral arm for long periods, which lead...

  20. Stellar dynamics around transient co-rotating spiral arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, D.; Grand, R. J. J.; Cropper, M.

    2012-02-01

    Spiral density wave theory attempts to describe the spiral pattern in spiral galaxies in terms of a long-lived wave structure with a constant pattern speed in order to avoid the winding dilemma. The pattern is consequently a rigidly rotating, long-lived feature. We run an N-body/SPH simulation of a Milky Way-sized barred disk, and find that the spiral arms are transient features whose pattern speeds decrease with radius, in such a way that the pattern speed is almost equal to the rotation curve of the galaxy. We trace particle motion around the spiral arms. We show that particles from behind and in front of the spiral arm are drawn towards and join the arm. Particles move along the arm in the radial direction and we find a clear trend that they migrate toward the outer (inner) radii on the trailing (leading) side of the arm. Our simulations demonstrate that tat all radii where there is a co-rotating spiral arm the particles continue to be accelerated (decelerated) by the spiral arm for long periods, which leads to strong migration.

  1. DNA prism structures constructed by folding of multiple rectangular arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Masayuki; Hidaka, Kumi; Kato, Takayuki; Namba, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    Novel multiarm DNA structures were designed using two-dimensional DNA origami scaffolds, and these structures were folded into hollow three-dimensional (3D) structures by introducing connection strands into the arms. The opening of the prism structures was examined by high-speed AFM imaging, which showed the dissociation of the connecting arms in the 3D structures. PMID:19824672

  2. Robotic Arms. A Contribution to the Curriculum. An Occasional Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, W. F.; Carpenter, C. J.

    This report examines ways of providing technician training in the operating principles of robotic devices. The terms "robotics" and "robotic arms" are first defined. Some background information on the principal features of robotic arms is given, including their geometric arrangement, type of actuator used, control method, and software and teaching…

  3. ARM tõestab, et ka analüütikud eksivad / Fredy-Edwin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Esse, Fredy-Edwin

    2011-01-01

    Apple'i iPadidele ja iPhone'idele kiipe tootva Suurbritannia firma ARM Holdings aktsia on kõige suurem tõusja Londoni FTSE 100 indeksi kuue kuu, 12 kuu, 18 kuu, kahe aasta ja kolme aasta lõikes, samas on analüütikud kõigist indeksi aktsiatest kõige negatiivsemalt meelestatud just ARM Holdingsi suhtes. Graafik

  4. Kinematic feedback control laws for generating natural arm movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a stochastic optimal feedback control law for generating natural robot arm motions. Our approach, inspired by the minimum variance principle of Harris and Wolpert (1998 Nature 394 780–4) and the optimal feedback control principles put forth by Todorov and Jordan (2002 Nature Neurosci. 5 1226–35) for explaining human movements, differs in two crucial respects: (i) the endpoint variance is minimized in joint space rather than Cartesian hand space, and (ii) we ignore the dynamics and instead consider only the second-order differential kinematics. The feedback control law generating the motions can be straightforwardly obtained by backward integration of a set of ordinary differential equations; these equations are obtained exactly, without any linear–quadratic approximations. The only parameters to be determined a priori are the variance scale factors, and for both the two-DOF planar arm and the seven-DOF spatial arm, a table of values is constructed based on the given initial and final arm configurations; these values are determined via an optimal fitting procedure, and consistent with existing findings about neuromuscular motor noise levels of human arm muscles. Experiments conducted with a two-link planar arm and a seven-DOF spatial arm verify that the trajectories generated by our feedback control law closely resemble human arm motions, in the sense of producing nearly straight-line hand trajectories, having bell-shaped velocity profiles, and satisfying Fitts Law. (paper)

  5. 27 CFR 479.193 - Arms Export Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arms Export Control Act... CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Other Laws Applicable § 479.193 Arms Export Control Act. For provisions relating to the registration and licensing of persons engaged in the business of manufacturing, importing...

  6. A software radio platform based on ARM and FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xin.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid rise in computational performance offered by computer systems has greatly increased the number of practical software radio applications. A scheme presented in this paper is a software radio platform based on ARM and FPGA. FPGA works as the coprocessor together with the ARM, which serves as the core processor. ARM is used for digital signal processing and real-time data transmission, and FPGA is used for synchronous timing control and serial-parallel conversion. A SPI driver for real-time data transmission between ARM and FPGA under ARM-Linux system is provided. By adopting modular design, the software radio platform is capable of implementing wireless communication functions and satisfies the requirements of real-time signal processing platform for high security and broad applicability.

  7. The European Union and armed drones: framing the debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bruno Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Armed drones are an issue extremely relevant for the EU. The recent emergence of targeted killings as a common counter-terrorism technique, the existence of several EU member states using armed and surveillance drones in military scenarios, the presence of member states troops in areas where armed...... drones have been active, the US use of European-originated intelligence to execute targeted killings, and the broader status of international law, are developments that illustrate the importance of the topic. Yet, the EU still does not have an official position on armed drones. In 2014 the European...... Parliament recognized that this is problematic, adopting a Resolution that expressed “grave concern over the use of armed drones outside the international legal framework” and that urged the EU to “develop an appropriate policy response at both European and global level”. This Forum answers to the European...

  8. A Unified Approach for Reporting ARM Measurement Uncertainties Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, E [Argonne National Laboratory; Sisterson, DL [Argonne National Laboratory

    2015-10-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility is observationally based, and quantifying the uncertainty of its measurements is critically important. With over 300 widely differing instruments providing over 2,500 datastreams, concise expression of measurement uncertainty is quite challenging. The ARM Facility currently provides data and supporting metadata (information about the data or data quality) to its users through a number of sources. Because the continued success of the ARM Facility depends on the known quality of its measurements, the Facility relies on instrument mentors and the ARM Data Quality Office (DQO) to ensure, assess, and report measurement quality. Therefore, an easily-accessible, well-articulated estimate of ARM measurement uncertainty is needed.

  9. Documenting the Effects of Armed Conflict on Population Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2016-03-18

    War and other forms of armed conflict have profound adverse effects on population health. It is important to document these effects to inform the general public and policy makers about the consequences of armed conflict, provide services to meet the needs of affected populations, protect human rights and document violations of international humanitarian law, and help to prevent future armed conflict. Documentation can be accomplished with surveillance, epidemiological surveys, and rapid assessment. Challenges include inadequate or absent data systems, social breakdown, forced migration, reporting biases, and the fog of war. The adverse effects of the Iraq War on population health demonstrate how the effects of armed conflict on population health can be documented. We recommend the establishment of an independent mechanism, operated by the United Nations or a multilateral organization, to investigate and document the effects of armed conflict on population health. PMID:26989827

  10. Guest Editorial: Research update: VA study to optimize DEKA Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Resnik, PT, PhD

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA announced its Revolutionizing Prosthetics program and funded the development of the DEKA prosthetic arm. The DEKA Arm System incorporates major technological advances such as flexible socket design, innovative control features, software, and hardware that together enable enhanced functionality that promises to surpass any currently available prosthetic device. In 2008, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA entered into an agreement with DARPA to conduct clinical evaluations of the prototype DEKA Arm System, a prosthetic device system still under development and not yet available commercially. Studies of the DEKA Arm System have been underway at VA sites since late 2008, with the first subject fitted with a DEKA Arm in early 2009.

  11. Effect of Shim Arm Depletion in the NBSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson A. H.; Brown N.; Diamond, D.J.

    2013-02-22

    The cadmium shim arms in the NBSR undergo burnup during reactor operation and hence, require periodic replacement. Presently, the shim arms are replaced after every 25 cycles to guarantee they can maintain sufficient shutdown margin. Two prior reports document the expected change in the 113Cd distribution because of the shim arm depletion. One set of calculations was for the present high-enriched uranium fuel and the other for the low-enriched uranium fuel when it was in the COMP7 configuration (7 inch fuel length vs. the present 11 inch length). The depleted 113Cd distributions calculated for these cores were applied to the current design for an equilibrium low-enriched uranium core. This report details the predicted effects, if any, of shim arm depletion on the shim arm worth, the shutdown margin, power distributions and kinetics parameters.

  12. The European Union and armed drones: framing the debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bruno Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Armed drones are an issue extremely relevant for the EU. The recent emergence of targeted killings as a common counter-terrorism technique, the existence of several EU member states using armed and surveillance drones in military scenarios, the presence of member states troops in areas where armed...... drones have been active, the US use of European-originated intelligence to execute targeted killings, and the broader status of international law, are developments that illustrate the importance of the topic. Yet, the EU still does not have an official position on armed drones. In 2014 the European...... Parliament recognized that this is problematic, adopting a Resolution that expressed “grave concern over the use of armed drones outside the international legal framework” and that urged the EU to “develop an appropriate policy response at both European and global level”. This Forum answers to the European...

  13. Well ARMed and FiRM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kourosh Marjani; Zenios, Stavros A.

    2007-01-01

    Individual homeowners are offered today a wide range of mortgage options for financing the purchase of a house. Usually, homeowners are also granted an option to repay the mortgage loan, and in some countries - such as Denmark - it is particularly efficient to do so as market conditions change or...... the homeowner's situation warrants it. And while, traditionally, a single mortgage loan would serve borrower needs, today it appears that a portfolio of loans may satisfy much better the mortgage needs of the individual and his or her appetite for risk. In this paper we develop a model for the...... diversification of mortgage loans of a homeowner and apply it to data from the Danish market. Even in the presence of mortgage origination costs it is shown that most risk averse homeowners will do well to consider a diversified portfolio of both fixed (FRM) and adjustable (ARM) rate mortgages. This is...

  14. ARM i inbyggt system : med prototyp

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulhadi, Sami

    2009-01-01

    Inbyggda system blir allt vanligare i dagens samhälle. De inbyggda systemen finns i nästan allt nuförtiden, från diverse fordon till leksaker för barn. Dagens teknik innebär bland annat att gårdagens lösningar kan realiseras på en bråkdel av den tidigare ytan. Allt mer blir ytmonterat med mindre och mer komplexa kretsar. Detta är inte alltid till utvecklarnas fördel då montering av prototypkort blir en svår och/eller dyr process. Målet är att ta fram ett inbyggt system med en ARM-processor. S...

  15. The Filled Arm Fizeau Telescope (FFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synnott, S. P.

    1991-01-01

    Attention is given to the design of a Mills Cross imaging interferometer in which the arms are fully filled with mirror segments of a Ritchey-Chretien primary and which has sensitivity to 27th magnitude per pixel and resolution a factor of 10 greater than Hubble. The optical design, structural configuration, thermal disturbances, and vibration, material, control, and metrology issues, as well as scientific capabilities are discussed, and technology needs are identified. The technologies under consideration are similar to those required for the development of the other imaging interferometers that have been proposed over the past decade. A comparison of the imaging capabilities of a 30-m diameter FFT, an 8-m telescope with a collecting area equal to that of the FFT, and the HST is presented.

  16. Wireless Control & Monitoring of Robotic Arm (SWORDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Kadu,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Robot warriors have already seen action in Iraq, and the US Army plans to replace one-third of its armored vehicles and weapons with robots by 2015. These killing machines may one day come equipped with an artificial conscience even to the extent of disobeying immoral orders. The US Army's latest recruits are 1 meter (about 3 feet tall, wear desert camouflage and are armed with black M249 machine guns. They also move on caterpillar tracks and thanks to five camera eyes can even see in the dark. The fearless fighters are three robot soldiers who, unnoticed by the general public, were deployed in Iraq in mid-June, charged with hunting down insurgents. As if guided by an unseen hand, they hone in on their targets and fire at them with their machine guns.

  17. Age and disease at an arms length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    old age, but this does not mean that you give up or accept decreased quality of life. Ends change as new means emerge . The technological and medical abilities change the reflexive longevity. One expects to live a long and healthy life. Thus, technology can be conceived as a world-changing mediation...... of life. A new ethics is emerging, focused on longevity and spreading through healthcare policies and technologies . At activity centres active elderly talk about health in old age, share experiences with health technologies and reflect on longevity, while working out. Chronic diseases are common in...... from a chronic (previously fatal) disease. The active elderly often stick to their image of themselves as active, youthful and energetic in spite of a chronic disease. Old age and disease is not what they identify with and seems to be conceived at an arms length. In the paper the author explores how...

  18. Phoenix Robotic Arm's Workspace After 90 Sols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    During the first 90 Martian days, or sols, after its May 25, 2008, landing on an arctic plain of Mars, NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander dug several trenches in the workspace reachable with the lander's robotic arm. The lander's Surface Stereo Imager camera recorded this view of the workspace on Sol 90, early afternoon local Mars time (overnight Aug. 25 to Aug. 26, 2008). The shadow of the the camera itself, atop its mast, is just left of the center of the image and roughly a third of a meter (one foot) wide. The workspace is on the north side of the lander. The trench just to the right of center is called 'Neverland.' The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Cloud and Star Formation in Spiral Arms

    CERN Document Server

    Dobbs, Clare

    2014-01-01

    We present the results from simulations of GMC formation in spiral galaxies. First we discuss cloud formation by cloud-cloud collisions, and gravitational instabilities, arguing that the former is prevalent at lower galactic surface densities and the latter at higher. Cloud masses are also limited by stellar feedback, which can be effective before clouds reach their maximum mass. We show other properties of clouds in simulations with different levels of feedback. With a moderate level of feedback, properties such as cloud rotations and virial parameters agree with observations. Without feedback, an unrealistic population of overly bound clouds develops. Spiral arms are not found to trigger star formation, they merely gather gas into more massive GMCs. We discuss in more detail interactions of clouds in the ISM, and argue that these are more complex than early ideas of cloud-cloud collisions. Finally we show ongoing work to determine whether the Milky Way is a flocculent or grand design spiral.

  20. Study on the collision detection method between the 2-arm drill rig arms and the roadway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuxiang ZHANG

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve the automation drilling of the improved CMJ2-27 drill, kinematic analysis of the drill rig is conducted aiming the collision between the arms and the roadway during the operation process. By suing the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H method, the transformation matrix of coordinate system is obtained, then the coordinates of each joint and the ends are derived. The collision detection approach between the arm and the roadway is given. Theoretical calculation and the motion simulation experiment are conducted by using the detection method for a 88-hole drilling program for a mine. The research results show that the method is feasible and has the characteristics of simple procedures and high efficiency.