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Sample records for synthesized pendant armed

  1. Synthesis, structural studies, and oxidation catalysis of the late-first-row-transition-metal complexes of a 2-pyridylmethyl pendant-armed ethylene cross-bridged cyclam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Donald G; Wilson, Kevin R; Cannon-Smith, Desiray J; Shircliff, Anthony D; Zhang, Zhan; Chen, Zhuqi; Prior, Timothy J; Yin, Guochuan; Hubin, Timothy J

    2015-03-01

    The first 2-pyridylmethyl pendant-armed ethylene cross-bridged cyclam ligand has been synthesized and successfully complexed to Mn(2+), Fe(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), and Zn(2+) cations. X-ray crystal structures were obtained for all six complexes and demonstrate pentadentate binding of the ligand with the requisite cis-V configuration of the cross-bridged cyclam ring in all cases, leaving a potential labile binding site cis to the pyridine donor for interaction of the complex with oxidants and/or substrates. The electronic properties of the complexes were evaluated using solid-state magnetic moment determination and acetonitrile solution electronic spectroscopy, which both agree with the crystal structure determination of high-spin divalent metal complexes in all cases. Cyclic voltammetry in acetonitrile revealed reversible redox processes in all but the Ni(2+) complex, suggesting that catalytic reactivity involving electron-transfer processes is possible for complexes of this ligand. Kinetic studies of the dissociation of the ligand from the copper(II) complex under strongly acidic conditions and elevated temperatures revealed that the pyridine pendant arm actually destabilizes the complex compared to the parent cross-bridged cyclam complex. Screening for oxidation catalysis using hydrogen peroxide as the terminal oxidant for the most biologically relevant Mn(2+), Fe(2+), and Cu(2+) complexes identified the Mn(2+) complex as a potential mild oxidation catalyst worthy of continued development. PMID:25671291

  2. Cyclam Derivatives with a Bis(phosphinate) or a Phosphinato-Phosphonate Pendant Arm: Ligands for Fast and Efficient Copper(II) Complexation for Nuclear Medical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Tomáš; Kubí?ek, Vojt?ch; Gutten, Ondrej; Lubal, P?emysl; Kotek, Jan; Pietzsch, Hans-Jürgen; Rulíšek, Lubomír; Hermann, Petr

    2015-12-21

    Cyclam derivatives bearing one geminal bis(phosphinic acid), -CH2PO2HCH2PO2H2 (H2L(1)), or phosphinic-phosphonic acid, -CH2PO2HCH2PO3H2 (H3L(2)), pendant arm were synthesized and studied as potential copper(II) chelators for nuclear medical applications. The ligands showed good selectivity for copper(II) over zinc(II) and nickel(II) ions (log KCuL = 25.8 and 27.7 for H2L(1) and H3L(2), respectively). Kinetic study revealed an unusual three-step complex formation mechanism. The initial equilibrium step leads to out-of-cage complexes with Cu(2+) bound by the phosphorus-containing pendant arm. These species quickly rearrange to an in-cage complex with cyclam conformation II, which isomerizes to another in-cage complex with cyclam conformation I. The first in-cage complex is quantitatively formed in seconds (pH ?5, 25 °C, Cu:L = 1:1, cM ? 1 mM). At pH >12, I isomers undergo nitrogen atom inversion, leading to III isomers; the structure of the III-[Cu(HL(2))] complex in the solid state was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. In an alkaline solution, interconversion of the I and III isomers is mutual, leading to the same equilibrium isomeric mixture; such behavior has been observed here for the first time for copper(II) complexes of cyclam derivatives. Quantum-chemical calculations showed small energetic differences between the isomeric complexes of H3L(2) compared with analogous data for isomeric complexes of cyclam derivatives with one or two methylphosphonic acid pendant arm(s). Acid-assisted dissociation proved the kinetic inertness of the complexes. Preliminary radiolabeling of H2L(1) and H3L(2) with (64)Cu was fast and efficient, even at room temperature, giving specific activities of around 70 GBq of (64)Cu per 1 ?mol of the ligand (pH 6.2, 10 min, ca. 90 equiv of the ligand). These specific activities were much higher than those of H3nota and H4dota complexes prepared under identical conditions. The rare combination of simple ligand synthesis, very fast copper(II) complex formation, high thermodynamic stability, kinetic inertness, efficient radiolabeling, and expected low bone tissue affinity makes such ligands suitably predisposed to serve as chelators of copper radioisotopes in nuclear medicine. PMID:26615961

  3. Antibacterial, DNA interaction and cytotoxic activities of pendant-armed polyamine macrocyclic dinuclear nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthi, P.; Haleel, A.; Srinivasan, P.; Prabhu, D.; Arulvasu, C.; Kalilur Rahiman, A.

    2014-08-01

    A series of dinuclear nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes (1-6) of hexaaza macrocycles of 2,6-diformyl-4-methylphenol with three different benzoyl pendant-arms, 2,2?-benzoyliminodi(ethylamine) trihydrochloride (L), 2,2?-4-nitrobenzoyliminodi(ethylamine) trihydrochloride (L?) and 2,2?-3,5-dinitrobenzoyliminodi(ethylamine) trihydrochloride (L?) have been synthesized and characterized by spectral methods. The electrochemical studies of these complexes depict two irreversible one electron reduction processes around E1pc = -0.62 to -0.76 V and E2pc = -1.21 to -1.31, and nickel(II) complexes (1-3) exhibit two irreversible one electron oxidation processes around E1pa = 1.08 to 1.14 V and E2pa = 1.71 to 1.74 V. The room temperature magnetic moment values (?eff, 1.52-1.54 BM) indicate the presence of an antiferromagnetic interaction in the binuclear copper(II) complexes (4-6) which is also observed from the broad ESR spectra with a g value of 2.14-2.15. The synthesized complexes (1-6) were screened for their antibacterial activity. The results of DNA interaction studies indicate that the dinuclear complexes can bind to calf thymus DNA by intercalative mode and display efficient cleavage of plasmid DNA. Further, the cytotoxic activity of complexes 2, 5 and 6 on human liver adenocarcinoma (HepG2) cell line has been examined. Nuclear-chromatin cleavage has also been observed with PI staining and comet assays.

  4. Synthesis, characterization, biological evaluation and docking studies of macrocyclic binuclear manganese(II) complexes containing 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl pendant arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthi, P.; Shobana, S.; Srinivasan, P.; Mitu, L.; Kalilur Rahiman, A.

    2015-05-01

    A series of bis(phenoxo) bridged binuclear manganese(II) complexes of the type [Mn2L1-3](ClO4)2 (1-3) containing 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl pendant-arms have been synthesized by cyclocondensation of 2,6-diformyl-4-R-phenols (where R = sbnd CH3, sbnd C(CH3)3 or sbnd Br) with 2,2?-3,5-dinitrobenzoyliminodi(ethylamine) trihydrochloride in the presence of manganese(II) perchlorate. The IR spectra of complexes indicate the presence of uncoordinated perchlorate anions. The UV-Vis spectra of complexes suggest the distorted octahedral geometry around manganese(II) nuclei. The EPR spectra of Mn(II) complexes show a broad signal with g value 2.03-2.04, which is characteristic for octahedral high spin Mn2+ complex. The observed room temperature magnetic moment values of the Mn(II) complexes (5.60-5.62 B.M.) are less than the normal value (5.92 B.M.), indicating weak antiferromagnetic coupling interaction between the two metal ions. Electrochemical studies of the complexes show two distinct quasi-reversible one electron transfer processes in the cathodic (E1pc = -0.73 to -0.76 V, E2pc = -1.30 to -1.36 V), and anodic (E1pa = 1.02-1.11 V, E2pa = 1.32-1.79 V) potential regions. Antibacterial efficacy of complexes have been screened against four Gram (-ve) and two Gram (+ve) bacterial strains. The DNA interaction studies suggest that these complexes bind with CT-DNA by intercalation, giving the binding affinity in the order 1 > 2 > 3. All the complexes display significant cleavage activity against circular plasmid pBR322 DNA. Docking simulation was performed to insert complexes into the crystal structure of EGFR tyrosine kinase and B-DNA at active site to determine the probable binding mode.

  5. Mn2+ complexes of 1-oxa-4,7-diazacyclononane based ligands with acetic, phosphonic and phosphinic acid pendant arms: stability and relaxation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drahoš, Bohuslav; Pniok, Miroslav; Havlí?ková, Jana; Kotek, Jan; Císa?ová, Ivana; Hermann, Petr; Lukeš, Ivan; Tóth, Eva

    2011-10-21

    A new class of macrocyclic ligands based on 1-oxa-4,7-diazacyclononane was synthesized and their Mn(2+) complexes were investigated with respect to stability and relaxation properties. Each ligand has two pendant arms involving carboxylic (H(2)L(1)--1-oxa-4,7-diazacyclononane-4,7-diacetic acid), phosphonic (H(4)L(2)--1-oxa-4,7-diazacyclononane-4,7-bis(methylenephosphonic acid)), phosphinic (H(2)L(3)--1-oxa-4,7-diazacyclononane-4,7-bis(methylenephosphinic acid)) or phenylphosphinic (H(2)L(4)--1-oxa-4,7-diazacyclononane-4,7-bis[methylene(phenyl)phosphinic acid]) acid moieties. H(2)L(3) and H(2)L(4) were synthesized for the first time. The crystal structure of the Mn(2+) complex with H(2)L(4) confirmed a coordination number of 6 for Mn(2+). The protonation constants of all ligands and the stability constants of their complexes with Mn(2+) and some biologically or biomedically relevant metal ions were determined by potentiometry. The protonation sequence of H(2)L(3) was followed by (1)H and (31)P NMR titration and the second protonation step was attributed to the second macrocyclic nitrogen atom. The potentiometric data revealed a relatively low thermodynamic stability of the Mn(2+) complexes with all ligands investigated. For H(2)L(3) and H(2)L(4), full Mn(2+) complexation cannot be achieved even with 100% ligand excess. The transmetallation of MnL(1) and MnL(2) with Zn(2+) was too fast to be followed at pH 6. Variable temperature (1)H NMRD and (17)O NMR measurements have been performed on MnL(1) and MnL(2) to provide information on water exchange and rotational dynamics. The (17)O chemical shifts indicate hydration equilibrium between mono- and bishydrated species for MnL(1), while MnL(2) is monohydrated. The water exchange is considerably faster on MnL(1) (k(ex)(298) = 1.2 × 10(9) s(-1)) than on MnL(2) (k(ex)(298) = 1.2 × 10(7) s(-1)). Small endogenous anions (phosphate, carbonate, citrate) do not replace the coordinated water in either of the complexes, but they induce their slow decomposition. All Mn(2+) complexes are stable toward air-oxidation. PMID:21887440

  6. Uranyl complexes formed with a para-t-butylcalix[4]arene bearing phosphinoyl pendant arms on the lower rim. Solid and solution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current interest in functionalized calixarenes with phosphorylated pendant arms resides in their coordination ability towards f elements and capability towards actinide/rare earth separation. Uranyl cation forms 1:1 and 1:2 (M:L) complexes with a tetra-phosphinoylated p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene, B4bL4: UO2(NO3)2(B4bL4)n . xH2O (n = 1, x = 2, 1; n = 2, x = 6, 2). Spectroscopic data point to the inner coordination sphere of 1 containing one monodentate nitrate anion, one water molecule and the four phosphinoylated arms bound to UO22+ while in 2, uranyl is only coordinated to calixarene ligands. In both cases the U(VI) ion is 8-coordinate. Uranyl complexes display enhanced metal-centred luminescence due to energy transfer from the calixarene ligands; the luminescence decays are bi-exponential with associated lifetimes in the ranges 220 ?s s L 5/2,7/2), O(1s) and P(2p) levels on solid state samples. The extraction study of UO22+ cation and trivalent rare-earth (Y, La, Eu) ions from acidic nitrate media by B4bL4 in chloroform shows the uranyl cation being much more extracted than rare earths. (orig.)

  7. The Influence of the Combination of Carboxylate and Phosphinate Pendant Arms in 1,4,7-Triazacyclononane-Based Chelators on Their 68Ga Labelling Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Máté

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare the coordination properties of 1,4,7-triazacyclononane (tacn derivatives bearing varying numbers of phosphinic/carboxylic acid pendant groups towards 68Ga, 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-7-acetic-1,4-bis(methylenephosphinic acid (NOPA and 1,4,7- triazacyclononane-4,7-diacetic-1-[methylene(2-carboxyethylphosphinic] acid (NO2AP were synthesized using Mannich reactions with trivalent or pentavalent forms of H-phosphinic acids as phosphorus components. Stepwise protonation constants logK1–3 12.06, 3.90 and 1.95, and stability constants with GaIII and CuII, logKGaL 24.01 and logKCuL 16.66, were potentiometrically determined for NOPA. Both ligands were labelled with 68Ga and compared with NOTA (tacn-N,N?,N?-triacetic acid and NOPO, a TRAP-type [tacn-N,N?,N?- tris(methylenephosphinic acid] chelator. At pH 3, NOPO and NOPA showed higher labelling efficiency (binding with lower ligand excess at both room temperature and 95 °C, compared to NO2AP and NOTA. Labelling efficiency at pH = 0–3 correlated with a number of phosphinic acid pendants: NOPO >> NOPA > NO2AP >> NOTA; however, it was more apparent at 95 °C than at room temperature. By contrast, NOTA was found to be labelled more efficiently at pH > 4 compared to the ligands with phosphinic acids. Overall, replacement of a single phosphinate donor with a carboxylate does not challenge 68Ga labelling of TRAP-type chelators. However, the presence of carboxylates facilitates labelling at neutral or weakly acidic pH.

  8. Uranyl complexes formed with a para-t-butylcalix[4]arene bearing phosphinoyl pendant arms on the lower rim. Solid and solution studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, F. de M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac (Mexico). Dept. de Quimica; Varbanov, S. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. of Organic Chemistry with Center of Phytochemistry; Buenzli, J.C.G. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) (Switzerland). Inst. of Chemical Sciences and Engineering; Rivas-Silva, J.F.; Ocana-Bribiesca, M.A. [Instituto de Fisica de la BUAP, Puebla (Mexico); Cortes-Jacome, M.A.; Toledo-Antonio, J.A. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo/Programa de Ingenieria Molecular (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    The current interest in functionalized calixarenes with phosphorylated pendant arms resides in their coordination ability towards f elements and capability towards actinide/rare earth separation. Uranyl cation forms 1:1 and 1:2 (M:L) complexes with a tetra-phosphinoylated p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene, B{sub 4}bL{sup 4}: UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(B{sub 4}bL{sup 4}){sub n} . xH{sub 2}O (n = 1, x = 2, 1; n = 2, x = 6, 2). Spectroscopic data point to the inner coordination sphere of 1 containing one monodentate nitrate anion, one water molecule and the four phosphinoylated arms bound to UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} while in 2, uranyl is only coordinated to calixarene ligands. In both cases the U(VI) ion is 8-coordinate. Uranyl complexes display enhanced metal-centred luminescence due to energy transfer from the calixarene ligands; the luminescence decays are bi-exponential with associated lifetimes in the ranges 220 {mu}s < {tau}{sub s} < 250 {mu}s and 630 {mu}s < {tau}{sub L} < 640 {mu}s, pointing to the presence of two species with differently coordinated calixarene, as substantiated by a XPS study of U(4f{sub 5/2,7/2}), O(1s) and P(2p) levels on solid state samples. The extraction study of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} cation and trivalent rare-earth (Y, La, Eu) ions from acidic nitrate media by B{sub 4}bL{sup 4} in chloroform shows the uranyl cation being much more extracted than rare earths. (orig.)

  9. Spectroscopic investigations of Eu3+-complexes with ligands containing multiple diglycolamide pendant arms in a room temperature ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to study the complexation of different ligands containing multiple diglycolamide (DGA) pendent arms such as T-DGA (tripodal diglycolamide), C4DGA (upper rim functionalized calix [4] arene with four DGA moieties), and C8DGA (both side functionalized calix [4] arene with eight DGA moieties) with Eu3+ in ionic liquids such as C4mimNTf2 and C8mimNTf2 (1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulphonyl)imide). Mainly five sets of emission profiles were observed in all the spectra (1st set at?580 nm assigned as the 5D0?7F0 transition, 2nd set at?593 nm assigned as the 5D0?7F1 transition, 3rd set at?613 nm assigned as the 5D0?7F2 transition, 4th set at?650 nm assigned as the 5D0?7F3 transition, and 5th set at?700 nm assigned as the 5D0?7F4 transition). The difference in the spectral features revealed that the nature of the complexes differs significantly from one another. Judd–Offelt constant ?2, which is a measure of the covalency of the metal–ligand bond, follows the order Eu3+–C4DGA (C8mimNTf2)>Eu3+–C8DGA (C8mimNTf2)>Eu3+–TODGA (C4mimNTf2)>Eu3+–T-DGA (C4mimNTf2)>Eu3+aq. The high intensity of the 5D0?7F2 transitions in all complexes suggests that Eu3+ resides in a highly asymmetric environment. From the splitting patterns of the transitions, the local site symmetry around Eu3+ was found to be C2V for the Eu3+–T-DGA complex in both C4mimNTf2 and a 1:5 acetonitrile–water mixture, C4V for Eu3+–C8DGA and Eu3+–TODGA complexes, and either C1, C2, or CS for the Eu3+–C4DGA complex. A linear relationship between the 5D0–7F1 splitting vs E(5D0–7F0) and E(5D0–7F0) vs E(5D0–7F1) was observed. The crystal field parameters in the different complexes follow the trend Eu3+–C4DGA>Eu3+–TODGA>Eu3+–T-DGA in C4mimNTf2?Eu3+–C8DGA>Eu3+–T-DGA in 5:1 acetonitrile-water mixture. - Highlights: • J–O parameters were obtained from luminescence data of Eu3+ –DGA complexes. • The studies involved ionic liquid extracts or those in acetonitrile–water mixture. • Local site symmetry around Eu3+–DGA complexes was found out. • The crystal field parameters in different complexes were calculated

  10. Reduction of N-Cyanomethyl Groups on a Macrocyclic Nickel(II) Complex Using Sodium Borohydride: Synthesis of a Complex Bearing Two N-(2-Aminoethyl) Pendant Arms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stepwise protonation constants for [NiL2]2+ were determined by a spectrophotometric titration.17 The approximate pKa1 value (ca. 3.6) was found to be somewhat larger than the pKa2 value (ca. 2.4), as usual. The low pKa1 and pKa2 values may be result from the relatively strong interactions between the functional groups and the central metal of the complex. NaBH4 is an efficient reagent for the reduction of [NiL1]2+ in the presence of methanol, even though the N-CH2CN groups are not involved in coordination. The stepwise protonation constants for [NiL2]2+ indicate that the pendant amino groups-central metal interactions are relatively strong

  11. Spectroscopic investigations of Eu{sup 3+}-complexes with ligands containing multiple diglycolamide pendant arms in a room temperature ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, Arijit [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Mohapatra, Prasanta K., E-mail: mpatra@barc.gov.in [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Iqbal, Mudassir; Huskens, Jurriaan; Verboom, Willem [Laboratory of Molecular Nanofabrication, MESA" + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P. O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2014-10-15

    Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to study the complexation of different ligands containing multiple diglycolamide (DGA) pendent arms such as T-DGA (tripodal diglycolamide), C4DGA (upper rim functionalized calix [4] arene with four DGA moieties), and C8DGA (both side functionalized calix [4] arene with eight DGA moieties) with Eu{sup 3+} in ionic liquids such as C{sub 4}mimNTf{sub 2} and C{sub 8}mimNTf{sub 2} (1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulphonyl)imide). Mainly five sets of emission profiles were observed in all the spectra (1st set at?580 nm assigned as the {sup 5}D{sub 0}?{sup 7}F{sub 0} transition, 2nd set at?593 nm assigned as the {sup 5}D{sub 0}?{sup 7}F{sub 1} transition, 3rd set at?613 nm assigned as the {sup 5}D{sub 0}?{sup 7}F{sub 2} transition, 4th set at?650 nm assigned as the {sup 5}D{sub 0}?{sup 7}F{sub 3} transition, and 5th set at?700 nm assigned as the {sup 5}D{sub 0}?{sup 7}F{sub 4} transition). The difference in the spectral features revealed that the nature of the complexes differs significantly from one another. Judd–Offelt constant ?{sub 2}, which is a measure of the covalency of the metal–ligand bond, follows the order Eu{sup 3+}–C4DGA (C{sub 8}mimNTf{sub 2})>Eu{sup 3+}–C8DGA (C{sub 8}mimNTf{sub 2})>Eu{sup 3+}–TODGA (C{sub 4}mimNTf{sub 2})>Eu{sup 3+}–T-DGA (C{sub 4}mimNTf{sub 2})>Eu{sup 3+}{sub aq}. The high intensity of the {sup 5}D{sub 0}?{sup 7}F{sub 2} transitions in all complexes suggests that Eu{sup 3+} resides in a highly asymmetric environment. From the splitting patterns of the transitions, the local site symmetry around Eu{sup 3+} was found to be C{sub 2V} for the Eu{sup 3+}–T-DGA complex in both C{sub 4}mimNTf{sub 2} and a 1:5 acetonitrile–water mixture, C{sub 4V} for Eu{sup 3+}–C8DGA and Eu{sup 3+}–TODGA complexes, and either C{sub 1}, C{sub 2}, or C{sub S} for the Eu{sup 3+}–C4DGA complex. A linear relationship between the {sup 5}D{sub 0}–{sup 7}F{sub 1} splitting vs E({sup 5}D{sub 0}–{sup 7}F{sub 0}) and E({sup 5}D{sub 0}–{sup 7}F{sub 0}) vs E({sup 5}D{sub 0}–{sup 7}F{sub 1}) was observed. The crystal field parameters in the different complexes follow the trend Eu{sup 3+}–C4DGA>Eu{sup 3+}–TODGA>Eu{sup 3+}–T-DGA in C{sub 4}mimNTf{sub 2}?Eu{sup 3+}–C8DGA>Eu{sup 3+}–T-DGA in 5:1 acetonitrile-water mixture. - Highlights: • J–O parameters were obtained from luminescence data of Eu{sup 3+} –DGA complexes. • The studies involved ionic liquid extracts or those in acetonitrile–water mixture. • Local site symmetry around Eu{sup 3+}–DGA complexes was found out. • The crystal field parameters in different complexes were calculated.

  12. 5 and 6 - cyclic -perimeter hydrocarbon platinum group metal complexes of 3-(2-pyridyl)pyrazole derived ligands with a pendant nitrile group: Syntheses, spectral and structural studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gloria Sairem; Venkateswara Rao Anna; Peng Wang; Bbulal Das; Mohan Rao Kollipara

    2012-03-01

    Reaction of two equivalents 4-{(3-(pyridine-2-yl) 1H-pyrazole-1-yl}methyl benzonitrile (L1) and 3-{(3-(pyridine-2-yl)1H-pyrazole-1-yl}methyl benzonitrile (L2) with one equivalent of [(6-arene)Ru(- Cl)Cl]2 and [Cp∗M(-Cl)Cl]2 in methanol yielded mononuclear complexes of the formulae [(6-arene)Ru(L1/L2)Cl]BF4{arene =C6H6 (1, 6); C10H14 (2, 7); C6Me6 (3, 8)} and [Cp∗M(L1/L2)Cl]PF6/BF4 {Cp∗= 5-C5Me5, M=Rh (4, 8); Ir (5, 10)}. These complexes are characterized by IR, 1H NMR and identities of the structure are established by single crystal XRD studies of some of the representative complexes. It is confirmed from the spectral studies that the nitrile group is not taking part in complexation; instead it remains as a free pendant group only.

  13. Mono-, di- and tetra-zinc complexes derived from an amino-benzotriazole phenolate ligand containing a bulkier N-alkyl pendant arm: synthesis, structure and catalysis for ring-opening polymerization of cyclic esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Han; Tsai, Chen-Yen; Su, Jing-Kai; Huang, Bor-Hunn; Lin, Chu-Chieh; Ko, Bao-Tsan

    2015-07-21

    Zinc complexes constructed from the amino-modified benzotriazole phenol pro-ligand, 2-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-6-((diisopropylamino)methyl)-4-(2,4,4-trimethylpentan-2-yl)phenol ((C8DIA)BTP-H, 1), were synthesized stepwise and structurally characterized. The reaction of (C8DIA)BTP-H (1) with one equivalent of diethyl zinc (ZnEt2) generates a dimeric and four-coordinated zinc complex, [(?-(C8DIA)BTP)ZnEt]2 (2), which is doubly bridged by two phenolate groups of C8DIABTP ligands. Further reaction of 2 with benzyl alcohol (BnOH) in stoichiometric proportions affords a tetranuclear zinc benzylalkoxide complex [(?-OBn)((C8DIA)BTP)Zn]4 (3) that possesses a saddle-shaped core with four ?2-bridging benzylalkoxy groups upon four Zn centres. Interestingly, the di-nuclear Zn alkoxide [(?-OBn)((C8DIA)BTP)Zn(DMAP)]2 (4) could be prepared by treatment of 3 with a stoichiometric amount of 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine (DMAP). ZnEt2 reacts with two equivalents of 1 in the presence of DMAP (1.0 mol equiv.) to yield a five-coordinated mononuclear zinc complex, [((C8DIA)BTP)2Zn(DMAP)] (5). All complexes adopt an N,O-bidentate coordination mode from the phenoxy oxygen atom and benzotriazole nitrogen atom, in which the nitrogen atom of the pendent arm substituent is not coordinated to the zinc centre. Ring-opening polymerization of ?-caprolactone and ?-butyrolactone catalysed by 2 and 3 was investigated. PMID:25727459

  14. Hg2+ detection by new anthracene pendant-arm derivatives of mixed N/S- and N/S/O-donor macrocycles: fluorescence, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and density functional theory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameli, Marta; Lippolis, Vito; Caltagirone, Claudia; Capelo, José Luis; Faza, Olalla Nieto; Lodeiro, Carlos

    2010-09-20

    The optical response of four new anthracenylmethyl pendant-arm derivatives (L1-L4) of the macrocyclic ligands [12]aneNS(3), [12]aneNS(2)O, [15]aneNS(2)O(2), and [12]aneN(2)SO toward the metal ions Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Pb(2+), Cu(2+), Hg(2+), Ag(+), Fe(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Mn(2+), Ca(2+), Na(+), Mg(2+), and K(+) was investigated in 1:1 (v/v) MeCN/H(2)O solutions. A strong chelation enhancement of quenching effect was observed on the fluorescent emission intensity of L2 as a consequence of the host-guest interaction with Hg(2+) and the formation of a 1:2 metal-to-ligand complex. Density functional theory calculations confirmed the formation of a sandwich-type complex between L2 and Hg(2+) as a favorable process. A matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry study using the four ligands as active MALDI probes was also performed. L1-L4 have also been explored as fluorescence chemosensors in microsamples using NANODROP technology. PMID:20715769

  15. Zinc phyllosilicates containing amino pendant groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new zinc silicate hybrids were synthesized via sol-gel process from the reaction of zinc ions with trialkoxyaminesilanes in aqueous basic medium at room temperature and at 373 K. The inorganic-organic hybrids obtained, named SILZn (x=1 or 2) are related to 3-aminopropyl- and N-propylethylenediaminetrimethoxysilane, respectively. From nitrogen content, the number of pendant moles of organic groups in the matrices SILZnx (x=1 to 2) were determined as 5.14 and 3.25 mmol g-1, respectively. The thermogravimetric curves showed mass losses of 50.7% and 58.0% for the same sequence of hybrids, to give the oxides as residue. X-ray diffraction patterns gave basal distances of 2065 and 2814 pm for SILZnx (x=1, 2), with well-formed particles of irregular shapes and sizes, as a characteristic of such material obtained from sol-gel process. The infrared spectra confirmed the attachment of the organic moieties on siloxane groups on the inorganic framework

  16. Well-defined (co)polypeptides bearing pendant alkyne groups

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Wei

    2016-03-18

    A novel metal-free strategy, using hydrogen-bonding catalytic ring opening polymerization of acetylene-functionalized N-carboxy anhydrites of α-amino acids, was developed for the synthesis of well-defined polypeptides bearing pendant alkyne groups. This method provides an efficient way to synthesize novel alkyne-functionalized homopolypeptides (A) and copolypeptides, such as AB diblock (B: non-functionalized), ABA triblock and star-AB diblock, as well as linear and star random copolypeptides, precursors of a plethora complex macromolecular architectures by click chemistry.

  17. Synthesis and ATRP of novel fluorinated aromatic monomer with pendant sulfonate group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Jankova Atanasova, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Novel, fluorinated monomer with pendant sulfonate group was synthesized utilizing a two-step derivatization of 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorostyrene (FS). The first step was a nucleophilic substitution of the fluorine atom in para position by hydroxyl group followed by sulfopropylation. The monomer was polymerized under aqueous ATRP conditions to yield phenyl-fluorinated aromatic homopolymer bearing pendant sulfonates on each repeating unit. Furthermore, this polymer was used as macroinitiator for the ATRP of poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate. The polymers were characterized by 1H NMR, SEC and FTIR analyses. Their thermal properties were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry and thermal gravimetric analyses.

  18. Electronic and steric influences of pendant amine groups on the protonation of molybdenum bis (dinitrogen) complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labios, Liezel A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Heiden, Zachariah M. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Mock, Michael T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-04

    The synthesis of a series of PEtPNRR' (PEtPNRR' = Et?PCH?CH?P(CH?NRR')?, R = H, R' = Ph or 2,4-difluorophenyl; R = R' = Ph or iPr) diphosphine ligands containing mono- and disubstituted pendant amine groups, and the preparation of their corresponding molybdenum bis(dinitrogen) complexes trans-Mo(N?)?(PMePh?)?(PEtPNRR') is described. In situ IR and multinuclear NMR spectroscopic studies monitoring the stepwise addition of (HOTf) to trans-Mo(N?)?(PMePh?)?(PEtPNRR') complexes in THF at -40 °C show that the electronic and steric properties of the R and R' groups of the pendant amines influence whether the complexes are protonated at Mo, a pendant amine, a coordinated N2 ligand, or a combination of these sites. For example, complexes containing mono-aryl substituted pendant amines are protonated at Mo and pendant amine to generate mono- and dicationic Mo–H species. Protonation of the complex containing less basic diphenyl-substituted pendant amines exclusively generates a monocationic hydrazido (Mo(NNH?)) product, indicating preferential protonation of an N? ligand. Addition of HOTf to the complex featuring more basic diisopropyl amines primarily produces a monocationic product protonated at a pendant amine site, as well as a trace amount of dicationic Mo(NNH?) product that contain protonated pendant amines. In addition, trans-Mo(N?)?(PMePh?)?(depe) (depe = Et?PCH?CH?PEt?) without a pendant amine was synthesized and treated with HOTf, generating a monocationic Mo(NNH?) product. Protonolysis experiments conducted on select complexes in the series afforded trace amounts of NH??. Computational analysis of the series of trans-Mo(N?)?(PMePh?)?(PEtPNRR') complexes provides further insight into the proton affinity values of the metal center, N? ligand, and pendant amine sites to rationalize the differing reactivity profiles. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Computational resources provided by the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  19. ADSORPTION OF CELLOBIOSE-PENDANT POLYMERS TO A CELLULOSE MATRIX DETERMINED BY QUARTZ CRYSTAL MICROBALANCE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Shingo Yokota; Takefumi Ohta; Takuya Kitaoka; Hiroyuki Wariishi

    2009-01-01

    Cellobiose-pendant polymers were synthesized by radical polymerization and their affinity for a cellulose matrix was investigated by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). A 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethylureido cellobiose (MOU-Cel) macromer was synthesized by coupling cellobiosylamine with 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl isocyanate followed by polymerization in an aqueous radical reaction system. The interaction of the resulting poly(MOU-Cel) with a pure cellulose matrix in water was evaluated by QCM analys...

  20. Synthesis and Reactivity of Tripodal Complexes Containing Pendant Bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blacquiere, Johanna M.; Pegis, Michael L.; Raugei, Simone; Kaminsky, Werner; Forget, Amelie; Cook, Sarah; Taguchi, Taketo; Borovik, Andrew S.; Mayer, James M.

    2014-09-02

    The synthesis of a new tripodal ligand family is reported, with tertiary-amine groups in the second-coordination sphere. The ligands are tris(amido)amine derivatives, with the pendant amines attached via a peptide coupling strategy. They were designed to be used in new catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), in which the pendant acid/base group could improve catalyst performance. Two members of the new ligand family were each metallated with Co(II) and Zn(II) to afford trigonal monopyramidal complexes. Reaction of the cobalt complexes, [Co(L)]-, with dioxygen reversibly generates a small amount of a Co(III)-superoxo species, which was characterized by EPR. Protonation of the zinc complex Zn[N{CH2CH2NC(O)CH2N(CH2Ph)2}3)-– ([Zn(TNBn)]-) with one equivalent of acid occurs with displacement and dissociation of an amide ligand. Addition of excess acid to the any of the complexes [M(L)]- results in complete proteolysis and formation of the ligands H3L. This decomposition limits the use of these complexes as catalysts for the ORR. An alternative ligand with two pyridyl arms was also prepared but could not be metallated. These studies highlight the importance of stability of the primary-coordination sphere of ORR electrocatalysts to both oxidative and acidic conditions. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  1. 55Cobalt complexes with pendant carbohydrates as potential PET imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bis-ligand cobalt(II) complexes of four 3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone ligands with pendant carbohydrates were synthesized and examined for their potential as radiopharmaceuticals. Non-radioactive complexes were prepared on the macroscopic scale and characterized by elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, IR and UV/visible spectroscopy. Facile radiolabeling produced the 55Co complexes in high radiochemical yields (>95%). Identification of the radiolabeled compounds was accomplished by HPLC comparison with the corresponding non-radioactive complexes

  2. Nanopod Formation through Gold Nanoparticle Templated and Catalyzed Cross-linking of Polymers Bearing Pendant Propargyl Ethers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, K.; Cutler, J. I.; Zhang, J. A.; Zheng, D.; Auyeung, E.; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2010-11-03

    A novel method for synthesizing polymer nanopods from a linear polymer bearing pendant propargyl ether groups, using gold nanoparticles as both the template and the catalyst for the cross-linking reaction, is reported. The transformations involved in the cross-linking process are unprecedented on the surface of a gold particle. A tentative cross-linking mechanism is proposed.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of novel liquid crystalline polymers containing cholesteryl pendant groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jui-Hsiang, E-mail: jhliu@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Feng-Ming [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2009-12-15

    In order to investigate the chiral effect of cholesteryl pendant groups on the induction of the cholesteric phase, a new cholesteryl-containing liquid crystalline monomer was synthesized and copolymerized with an achiral comonomer in various molar ratios. The layer-like arrangement of the smectic mesophase with different monomeric compositions of copolymers was investigated using an X-ray diffraction analysis. The cholesteric liquid phase was induced by the chiral segments; the dependence of the reciprocal central reflection wavelength on the mole fraction of the chiral monomer for copolymers was investigated. This paper demonstrates the effect of chiral pendant groups on the induction of the cholesteric phase and layered molecular arrangement of side-chain liquid crystalline polymers.

  4. Metal-Organic Frameworks Incorporating Various Alkoxy Pendant Groups: Hollow Tubular Morphologies, X-ray Single-Crystal Structures, and Selective Carbon Dioxide Adsorption Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Thazhe Kootteri; Suh, Myunghyun Paik

    2015-10-01

    Eight porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) incorporating various alkoxy pendant groups (-OCn H2n+1 ; n=1-8) in the channels have been synthesized. All MOFs have macrosized, hollow, single-crystal morphologies independent of the type of alkoxy pendant groups. The X-ray single-crystal structures indicate that the MOFs have doubly interpenetrated 3D frameworks that generate clover-shaped 1D channels, the window sizes of which reduce as the length of the alkoxy pendant groups increases from -OCH3 to -OC8 H17 . The hollow axes of the tubular crystals are parallel to the 1D channels of the MOFs, which suggests that the hollow crystal is grown by the unidirectional addition of pillar ligands to the 2D network. Among the activated MOFs, only the MOFs with methoxy and ethoxy pendant groups show selective CO2 adsorption over N2 and CH4 , whereas those with longer alkoxy pendant groups barely adsorb CO2 at room temperature, which implies that the pendant doors of the MOFs should have an appropriate length for selective CO2 capture. PMID:26111357

  5. Phosphoric acid doped polysulfone membranes with aminopyridine pendant groups and imidazole cross-links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hink, Steffen; Elsøe, Katrine; Cleemann, Lars Nilausen; Henkensmeier, Dirk; Jang, Jong Hyun; Kim, Hyoung Juhn; Han, Jonghee; Nam, Suk Woo; Li, Qingfeng

    2015-01-01

    Udel polysulfone based membranes with 4-aminopyridine pendant groups and cross-linking imidazole units are synthesized in a simple two step reaction. The ratio of 4-aminopyridine and imidazole is varied and the materials are extensively characterized. The average phosphoric acid uptake (in 85 wt......% PA) ranges between 90 wt% and 452 wt% depending on the ratio of 4-aminopyridine and imidazole and the membranes show good proton conductivity of up to 65 mS cm-1 at 160 °C under non-humidified conditions. The applicability of these materials as a polymer electrolyte membrane was proven by single cell...

  6. Remote Neural Pendants In A Welding-Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venable, Richard A.; Bucher, Joseph H.

    1995-01-01

    Neural network integrated circuits enhance functionalities of both remote terminals (called "pendants") and communication links, without necessitating installation of additional wires in links. Makes possible to incorporate many features into pendant, including real-time display of critical welding parameters and other process information, capability for communication between technician at pendant and host computer or technician elsewhere in system, and switches and potentiometers through which technician at pendant exerts remote control over such critical aspects of welding process as current, voltage, rate of travel, flow of gas, starting, and stopping. Other potential manufacturing applications include control of spray coating and of curing of composite materials. Potential nonmanufacturing uses include remote control of heating, air conditioning, and lighting in electrically noisy and otherwise hostile environments.

  7. Facile synthesis and characterization of novel biodegradable amphiphilic block copolymers bearing pendant hydroxyl groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Gaicen; Fan, Xiaoshan; Xu, Bingcan; Zhang, Delong; Hu, Zhiguo, E-mail: zghu@htu.cn

    2014-10-01

    Novel amphiphilic block copolymers bearing pendant hydroxyl groups polylactide-b–poly(3,3-bis(Hydroxymethyl–triazolylmethyl) oxetane)-b–polylactide (PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA) were synthesized via a facile and efficient method. First, the block copolymer intermediates polylactide-b–poly(3,3-Diazidomethyloxetane)-b–polylactide (PLA-b–PBAMO-b–PLA) were synthesized through ring-opening polymerization of lactide using PBAMO as a macroinitiator. Following “Click” reaction of PLA-b–PBAMO-b–PLA with propargyl alcohol provided the targeted amphiphilic block copolymers PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA with pendant hydroxyl groups. The composition and structure of prepared copolymers were characterized by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The self-assembly behavior of the copolymers in water was investigated by transmission electron microscope (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and static light scattering (SLS). The results showed that the novel copolymers PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA self-assembled into spherical micelles with diameters ranging from 100 nm to 200 nm in aqueous solution. These copolymers also exhibited low critical micellar concentrations (CMC: 6.9 × 10{sup −4} mg/mL and 3.9 × 10{sup −5} mg/mL, respectively). In addition, the in vitro cytotoxicity of these copolymers was determined in the presence of L929 cells. The results showed that the block copolymers PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA exhibited better biocompatibility. Therefore, these well-defined copolymers are expected to find some applications in drug delivery or tissue engineering. - Highlights: • The method to synthesize PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA is relatively facile and efficient. • PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA self-assembles into spherical micelles with low CMC in water. • PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA exhibits better biocompatibility and biodegradability.

  8. Modulation des propriétés électroniques de groupes pendants par l'intermédiaire des polymères conducteurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangeney, C.; Lacroix, J. C.; Aeiyach, S.; Jouini, M.; Chane-Ching, K. I.; Lacaze, P. C.

    1998-06-01

    In order to study the influence of the oxidation state of a conductive polymer on the electronic properties of its substituents, two monomers have been polymerized electrochemically: one of them has an electropolymerizable group conjugated with the substituent (N-phenylpyrrole) while the other one has an insulating link between the two functional groups ( N-benzylpyrrole). The films synthesized were analysed in situ by FTIR after polarisation at different potentials. In the case of N-phenylpyrrole, the intensities of the infrared absorptions characteristic of the substituants depend on the potential applied. For the N-benzylpyrrole, we don't observe any evolution of these vibrational bands with the potential applied. Afin d'étudier l'influence de l'état d'oxydation d'un polymère conducteur sur les propriétés électroniques de ses substituants, nous avons polymérisÕ par voie électrochimique deux monomères: l'un comportant un groupe pendant conjugué au motif électropolymèrisable, le N-phénylpyrrole, et l'autre possÕdant un lien isolant entre ces deux groupes fonctionnels, le N- benzylpyrrole. Les films synthétisés ont été analysés in situ par IRTF après polarisation à différents potentiels. Dans le cas du N-phénylpyrrole, les bandes infrarouge caractéristiques de la présence des groupes pendants évoluent en intensité en fonction du potentiel appliqué. Pour le N-benzylpyrrole, on n'observe pas d'évolution de ces bandes avec le potentiel appliqué.

  9. Copoly(arlene ether)s containing pendant sulfonic acid groups as proton exchange membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kim, Dae Sik [CANADA NRC; Robertson, Gilles [CANADA NRC; Guiver, Michael [CANADA NRC

    2008-01-01

    A copoly(arylene ether) (PAE) with high fluorine content and a copoly(arylene ether nitrile) (PAEN) with high nitrile content, each containing pendant phenyl sulfonic acids were synthesized. The P AE and PAEN were prepared from decafluorobiphenyl (DFBP) and difluorobenzonitrile (DFBN) respectively, by polycondensation with 2-phenylhydroquinone (PHQ) by conventional aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions. The sulfonic acid groups were introduced by mild post-sulfonation exclusively on the para-position of the pendant phenyl ring in PHQ. The membrane properties of the resulting sulfonated copolymers sP AE and sP AEN were compared for fuel cell applications. The copolymers sPAE and sPAEN, each having a degree of sulfonation (DS) of 1.0 had high ion exchange capacities (IEC{sub v}(wet) (volume-based, wet state)) of 1.77 and 2.55 meq./cm{sup 3}, high proton conductivities of 135.4 and 140.1 mS/cm at 80 C, and acceptable volume-based water uptake of 44.5-51.9 vol% at 80 C, respectively, compared to Nafion. The data points of these copolymer membranes are located in the area of outstanding properties in the trade-off plot of alternative hydrocarbon polyelectrolyte membranes (PEM) for the relationship between proton conductivity versus water uptake (weight based or volume based). Furthermore, the relative selectivity derived from proton conductivity and methanol permeability is higher than that of Nafion.

  10. Protonation Studies of a Tungsten Dinitrogen Complex Supported by a Diphosphine Ligand Containing a Pendant Amine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Charles J.; Egbert, Jonathan D.; Chen, Shentan; Helm, Monte L.; Bullock, R. Morris; Mock, Michael T.

    2014-05-12

    Treatment of trans-[W(N2)2(dppe)(PEtNMePEt)] (dppe = Ph2PCH2CH2PPh2; PEtNMePEt = Et2PCH2N(Me)CH2PEt2) with three equivalents of tetrafluoroboric acid (HBF4?Et2O) at -78 °C generated the seven-coordinate tungsten hydride trans-[W(N2)2(H)(dppe)(PEtNMePEt)][BF4]. Depending on the temperature of the reaction, protonation of a pendant amine is also observed, affording trans-[W(N2)2(H)(dppe)(PEtNMe(H)PEt)][BF4]2, with formation of the hydrazido complex, [W(NNH2)(dppe)(PEtNMe(H)PEt)][BF4]2, as a minor product. Similar product mixtures were obtained using triflic acid (HOTf). Upon acid addition to the carbonyl analogue, cis-[W(CO)2(dppe)(PEtNMePEt)], the seven-coordinate carbonyl-hydride complex, trans-[W(CO)2(H)(dppe)(PEtN(H)MePEt)][OTf]2 was generated. The mixed diphosphine complex without the pendant amine in the ligand backbone, trans-[W(N2)2(dppe)(depp)] (depp = Et2P(CH2)3PEt2), was synthesized and treated with HBF4?Et2O, selectively generating a hydrazido complex, [W(NNH2)(F)(dppe)(depp)][BF4]. Computational analysis was used to probe proton affinity of three sites of protonation, the metal, pendant amine, and N2 ligand in these complexes. Room temperature reactions with 100 equivalents of HOTf produced NH4+ from reduction of the N2 ligand (electrons come from W). The addition of 100 equivalents HOTf to trans-[W(N2)2(dppe)(PEtNMePEt)] afforded 0.88 ± 0.02 equivalents NH4+, while 0.36 ± 0.02 equivalents of NH4+was formed upon treatment of trans-[W(N2)2(dppe)(depp)], the complex without the pendant amine. This work was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Computational resources were provided by the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE.

  11. Pendant-Drop Surface-Tension Measurement On Molten Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Kin Fung; Thiessen, David

    1996-01-01

    Method of measuring surface tension of molten metal based on pendant-drop method implemented in quasi-containerless manner and augmented with digital processing of image data. Electrons bombard lower end of sample rod in vacuum, generating hanging drop of molten metal. Surface tension of drop computed from its shape. Technique minimizes effects of contamination.

  12. Novel poly (arylene-ether-ether-ketone)s containing preformed imide unit and pendant long chain alkyl group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies were carried out to get preformed imide unit containing PEEKs and Co-PEEKs with pendant long chain alkyl group. Thus two new bisphenols; N,N'-bis (4-hydroxy 2-pentadecyl phenyl) pyromellitimide (HPI) (I) and N,N'-bis (4-hydroxy 2-pentadecyl phenyl 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic imide (HBI) (II) containing imide unit, pendant C-15 alkyl substituents were synthesized, characterized by spectral data and polycondensed with 4,4'-difluorobenzophenone (DFB) to yield several PEEK and Co-PEEKs. The polymers were characterized by FTIR, inherent viscosity, solubility, and XRD. The polymers were obtained in good yields and had inherent viscosities up to 0.65 dL/g in NMP. Polymerization of mixture of two bisphenols; [(I) and BPA]; and [(II) and BPA] in various mol%, with DFB gave number of the copolymers viz. Co-PEEK-BPAPI and Co-PEEK-BPABI. Many of the Co-PEEKs had good solubility in polar solvents. The solubility of PEEK containing bulky pendant alkyl substituents did not much improve probably due to simultaneous presence of rigid imide structures. XRD analysis indicated that PEEK and Co-PEEKs were partially crystalline or amorphous depending on the nature and % content of imide-bisphenol. These new PEEK materials can be used as high performance films, coatings, gas separation membranes, in aerospace and nuclear industries.

  13. A Novel Side-Bridged Hybrid Phosphonate/Acetate Pendant Cyclam: Synthesis, Characterization, and 64Cu Small Animal PET Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Boswell, C Andrew; Regino, Celeste A. S.; Kwamena E. Baidoo; Wong, Karen J.; Milenic, Diane E; Kelley, James A.; Lai, Christopher C.; Brechbiel, Martin W.

    2008-01-01

    Copper-64 (t½ = 12.7 hr; ?+: 0.653 MeV, 17.4%; ??: 0.578 MeV, 39%) is produced in a biomedical cyclotron and has applications in both imaging and therapy. Macrocyclic chelators are widely used as bifunctional chelators to bind copper radionuclides to antibodies and peptides owing to their relatively high kinetic stability. A novel side-bridged cyclam featuring both pendant acetate and phosphonate groups was synthesized using a Kabachnik-Fields approach followed by hydrobromic acid deprotectio...

  14. Copoly(arylene ether)s containing pendant sulfonic acid groups as proton exchange membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dae Sik, Kim [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yu Seung, Kim [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gilles, Robertson [CANADA-NRC; Guiver, Michael D [CANADA-NRC

    2009-01-01

    A copoly(arylene ether) (PAE) with high fluorine content and a copoly(arylene ether nitrile) (PAEN) with high nitrile content, each containing pendant phenyl sulfonic acids were synthesized. The PAE and P AEN were prepared from decafluorobiphenyl (DFBP) and difluorobenzonitrile (DFBN) respectively, by polycondensation with 2phenylhydroquinone (PHQ) by conventional aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions. sulfonic acid groups were introduced by mild post-sulfonation exclusively on the para-position of the pendant phenyl ring in PHQ. The membrane properties of the resulting sulfonated copolymers sPAE and sPAEN were compared for fuel cell applications. The copolymers sPAE and sPAEN, each having a degree of sulfonation (OS) of 1.0 had high ion exchange capacities (IEC{sub v})(wet) (volume-based, wet state) of 1.77 and 2.55 meq./cm3, high proton conductivities of 135.4 and 140.1 mS/cm at 80 C, and acceptable volume-based water uptake of 44.5 -51.9 vol% at 80 C, respectively, compared to Nafion. The data points of these copolymer membranes are located in the upper left-hand corner in the trade-off plot of alternative hydrocarbon polyelectrolyte membranes (PEM) for the relationship between proton conductivity versus water uptake (weight based or volume based), i.e., high proton conductivity and low water uptake. Furthermore, the relative selectivity derived from proton conductivity and methanol permeability is higher than that of Nafion.

  15. Use of the pendant drop method to measure interfacial tension between molten polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Arashiro Emerson Y.; Demarquette Nicole R.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the pendant drop method to measure interfacial tension between molten polymers is reviewed. A typical pendant drop apparatus is presented. The algorithms used to infer interfacial tension from the geometrical profile of the pendant drop are described in details, in particular a new routine to evaluate correctly the value of the radius at the apex of the drop, necessary to the calculation of interfacial tension is presented. The method was evaluated for the possibility of measuri...

  16. ADSORPTION OF CELLOBIOSE-PENDANT POLYMERS TO A CELLULOSE MATRIX DETERMINED BY QUARTZ CRYSTAL MICROBALANCE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Yokota

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Cellobiose-pendant polymers were synthesized by radical polymerization and their affinity for a cellulose matrix was investigated by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM. A 2-(methacryloyloxyethylureido cellobiose (MOU-Cel macromer was synthesized by coupling cellobiosylamine with 2-(methacryloyloxyethyl isocyanate followed by polymerization in an aqueous radical reaction system. The interaction of the resulting poly(MOU-Cel with a pure cellulose matrix in water was evaluated by QCM analysis. Poly(MOU-Cel was strongly adsorbed to the cellulose substrate, whereas neither cellobiose nor MOU-Cel macromer exhibited an attractive interaction with cellulose. This specific interaction was not inhibited by the presence of ionic contaminants, suggesting that multiple cellobiopyranose moieties in each polymer molecule might cooperatively enhance its affinity for cellulose. Moderate insertion of acrylamide units into the polymer backbone improved the affinity for cellulose, possibly due to an increased mobility of sugar side chains. Polymers such as these, with a high affinity for cellulose, have potential applications for the surface functionalization of cellulose-based materials, including paper products.

  17. Poly(arylene ether ketone) carrying hyperquaternized pendants: Preparation, stability and conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kunzhi; Zhang, Zhenpeng; Zhang, Haibo; Pang, Jinhui; Jiang, Zhenhua

    2015-08-01

    A new strategy to synthesize comb-shaped poly(arylene ether ketone) ionomers with hyperquaternized pendants was detailed in this work. Poly(arylene ether ketone) with electron-rich phenyl rings on the side chain was copolymerized. These electron-rich phenyl rings which could be chloromethylated and serve as precursors to cationic sites, are introduced during monomer synthesis. After chloromethylation and quaternization on the side chain, these resulting anion exchange membranes exhibit high conductivities and good dimensional stability, which benefit from the side chain type structure. The highest chloride conductivity of 0.047 S cm-1 was observed in PAEK-QTPM-30 (IEC = 1.58 mmol g-1) and swelling ratio is 31.7% at 80 °C. The structural properties of the synthesized poly(arylene ether ketone)s were investigated by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The anion exchange membranes showed excellent thermal stability up to 200 °C under nitrogen and good chemical stability for high conductivity after treating in alkaline condition up to 30 days. These membranes were studied by IEC, water uptake, dimensional stability. The nano-phase separation from ionic aggregation was confirmed by SAXS. This work implies a viable strategy to improve the performance of anion exchange membranes.

  18. Designed pendant chain covalently bonded to silica gel for cation removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The precursor 1,4-bis(3-aminopropyl)piperazine organofunctionalized silica gel reacted with methylacrylate to yield a new inorganic-organic chelating material, by adopting a heterogeneous and divergent synthetic approach. The synthesized materials were characterized through elemental analyses and spectroscopic techniques such as infrared, nuclear magnetic nuclei of carbon-13 and silicon-29. Due to the increment of basic centers attached to the pendant chains the metal adsorption capability of the final chelating material, was found to be higher than its precursor. The adsorption of metal ions from aqueous solution followed the order Cu2+ > Ni2+ > Co2+. Both Langmuir and Freundlich models were found to be applicable for the adsorption of copper, with the equilibrium parameter value within zero to one. The competitive sorption behavior, with variation of pH, was favorable for the separation of copper from binary mixtures with nickel and cobalt. When sodium, potassium and magnesium cations are present in the medium little effects on adsorption were observed, thus suggesting that the synthesized material can be useful for removal of toxic/heavy metal ions from natural and wastewater systems

  19. Incorporation of Cyclotriphosphazene as Pendant Groups to the Sago Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyclotriphosphazene-incorporated sago wastes as pendant groups have been prepared and structurally characterized using FT-IR and SEM. The chemically modified sago wastes composite was applied with binders and developed as sound absorbing panels. These panels are a class of organic-inorganic based materials that exhibit excellent fire retardant properties. Sound absorbance test has given a higher value at 250, 500 and 2000 Hz, which indicates the suitability of the panel for used in medium frequency. The panel was 51 % lighter compared to fiber board. The function and basic manufacturing of sound absorbers products was aligned with the present products in the market. (author)

  20. 3D Printing A Pendant with A Logo

    OpenAIRE

    Aboufadel, Edward F.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this short paper is to describe a project to manufacture a 3D-print of a pendant that includes a logo. The methods described in this paper involve processing the image of the logo through a Mathematica script. These methods can be applied to many logos and other images. With the Mathematica script, a STereoLithography (.stl) file is created that can be used by a 3D printer. Finally, the object is created on a 3D printer. We assume that the reader is familiar with the basics of ...

  1. Measurement of surface and interfacial tension using pendant drop tensiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Joseph D; Neeson, Michael J; Dagastine, Raymond R; Chan, Derek Y C; Tabor, Rico F

    2015-09-15

    Pendant drop tensiometry offers a simple and elegant solution to determining surface and interfacial tension - a central parameter in many colloidal systems including emulsions, foams and wetting phenomena. The technique involves the acquisition of a silhouette of an axisymmetric fluid droplet, and iterative fitting of the Young-Laplace equation that balances gravitational deformation of the drop with the restorative interfacial tension. Since the advent of high-quality digital cameras and desktop computers, this process has been automated with high speed and precision. However, despite its beguiling simplicity, there are complications and limitations that accompany pendant drop tensiometry connected with both Bond number (the balance between interfacial tension and gravitational forces) and drop volume. Here, we discuss the process involved with going from a captured experimental image to a fitted interfacial tension value, highlighting pertinent features and limitations along the way. We introduce a new parameter, the Worthington number, Wo, to characterise the measurement precision. A fully functional, open-source acquisition and fitting software is provided to enable the reader to test and develop the technique further. PMID:26037272

  2. A Quasi-Containerless Pendant Drop Method for Surface Tension Measurements of Molten Metals and Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiessen, David B.; Man, Kin F.

    1994-01-01

    A quasi-containerless pendant drop method for measuring the surface tension of molten metals and alloys is being developed. The technique involves melting the end of a high-purity metal rod by bombardment with an electron beam to form a pendant drop under ultra-high vacuum conditions to minimize surface contamination.

  3. Donor-?-bridge-acceptor type polymeric materials with pendant electron-withdrawing groups for electrochromic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Donor-?-bridge-acceptor copolymers with different electrophilic groups were synthesized. • Electrochromic devices composed of PBDTTPAs layers, as the working electrode, and vanadium pentoxide, as the counter electrode, were fabricated and evaluated. • The PBDTTPA-CHO film and device show multicolor electrochromic behavior which exhibited vivid yellow, green, and gray with better electrochromic performance than PBDTTPA-COOH. - Abstract: A novel donor-?-bridge-acceptor copolymer, PBDTTPA-CHO, containing 4-(Bis(4-bromophenyl)-amino)benzaldehyde (TPA-CHO) and 4,8-bis-(2-ethyl- hexyloxy)-oxybenzo-[1,2-b:3,4-b’]dithiophene (BDT), was successfully synthesized using Stille coupling polymerization, and the pendant aldehyde group was modified with cyanoacetic acid to synthesize another polymer, PBDTTPA-COOH. Each of these new polymers are soluble in organic solvents and can be cast onto rigid or flexible substrates. The polymers with different electrophilic groups exhibit different electrochromic behaviors, including different colors, driving voltages and transmittances. The polymer film of PBDTTPA-CHO manifests reversible electrochemical oxidation and reduction accompanied by multicolor changes from its yellow neutral state to a highly absorbent green semi-oxidized state and a gray fully oxidized state, its transmittance change at 601 nm is 43%. PBDTTPA-COOH switches between orange and light green. We fabricated and evaluated electrochromic devices using a PBDTTPA layer as the working electrode and vanadium pentoxide as the counter electrode. With the contribution of counter electrodes, devices of both polymers show similar color changes but higher transmittance than their films

  4. Synthesis, properties, and light-induced shape memory effect of multiblock polyesterurethanes containing biodegradable segments and pendant cinnamamide groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Linbo; Jin, Chunli; Sun, Xiangying

    2011-01-10

    Novel multiblock polyesterurethanes containing crystalline hard and amorphous soft segments and pendant cinnamamide moieties were designed and synthesized via a two-step polyaddition reaction using N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl) cinnamamide (BHECA), biodegradable poly(l,l-lactide) (PLLA), and poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) diols as raw materials and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) as coupling agent and characterized by (1)H NMR, FTIR, UV, DSC, tensile and photomechanical tests, and so on. The copolymers behaved as typical thermoplastic elastomers and showed satisfactory thermal and mechanical properties. They also exhibited light-induced shape memory effect (LSME) at room temperature on exposure to light stimuli. The pendant cinnamamide groups work as photoresponsive molecular switches and provide the polymer with LSME via reversible [2 + 2] cycloaddition cross-linking. The strain fixity (R(f)) increases with the content of BHECA and the strain recovery (R(r)) increases with the content of PLLA. The R(f) reaches 50% at a BHECA content of 20 wt % and the R(r) reaches >95% at PLLA content of 50 wt %. PMID:21125994

  5. On the Odd Gracefulness of Cyclic Snakes With Pendant Edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Badr

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Graceful and odd gracefulness of a graph are two entirely different concepts. A graph may posses one orboth of these or neither. We present four new families of odd graceful graphs. In particular we show an oddgraceful labeling of the linear kC4 ? snake e mK1 and therefore we introduce the odd graceful labeling of4 1 kC ? snake e mK ( for the general case . We prove that the subdivision of linear 3 kC ? snake is oddgraceful. We also prove that the subdivision of linear 3 kC ? snake with m-pendant edges is odd graceful.Finally, we present an odd graceful labeling of the crown graph n 1 P e mK .

  6. Extended arm polyphenylene dendrimers

    OpenAIRE

    Andreitchenko, Ekaterina Vladimirovna

    2006-01-01

    In order to eliminate the de Gennes packing problem, which usually limits the attainable size of dendrimers, a new branching unit containing para-tetraphenylene ethynyl arms has been synthesized and utilized in the preparation of dendrimers of the Müllen type. The divergent principle of synthesis, based on the Dilthey reaction, could be carried up to sixth generation which contains 2776 benzene rings and possesses a diameter in the 27 nm range ("exploded dendrimer"). Monodispersity and dimens...

  7. Removal and recovery of toxic metal ions from aqueous waste sites using polymer pendant ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the use of polymer pendant ligand technology to remove and recover toxic metal ions from DOE aqueous waste sites. Polymer pendant lgiands are organic ligands, anchored to crosslinked, modified divinylbenzene-polystyrene beads, that can selectively complex metal ions. The metal ion removal step usually occurs through a complexation or ion exchange phenomena, thus recovery of the metal ions and reuse of the beads is readily accomplished.

  8. Robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwech, Horst (Lake Bluff, IL)

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel.

  9. Robotic arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube is disclosed. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel. 23 figs

  10. Les trotskystes grecs pendant la seconde guerre Mondiale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Hen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Comment les deux courants du trotskysme grec, pourchassés dès les années 30, ont-ils réagi face à l'occupation de leur pays et à la résistance d'obédience communiste ?Les trotskystes en Grèce étaient divisés, malgré des discussions d’unification dans les camps de Metaxas. Ils refusèrent de soutenir la Grèce contre l’intervention italo-allemande en 1940-1941 et s’opposèrent aux illusions dans les démocraties alliées. Fin 1942 ils reprirent une activité clandestine, refusant de se joindre à la Résistance mais aussi de choisir un côté militaire dans les affrontements avec l’occupant et ses supplétifs. En octobre 1944, les trotskystes s'agitèrent contre les Britanniques pendant que l’EAM les laissait entrer dans Athènes. Le KKE exécuta des dizaines de trotskystes. Ceux-ci restèrent neutres dans la guerre civile de décembre 1944. Leur sectarisme contribua à les stériliser lorsque, après les accords de Varkiza en février 1945, la direction du KKE était vulnérable aux accusations qu’elle avait conduit la révolution à la défaite.Trotskyists in Greece were divided, despite unification discussions in Metaxas’ concentration camps. They refused to support Greece against the 1940-41 Italo-German intervention and opposed illusions in Allied democracies. At the end of 1942 they resumed underground activity, refusing to join the Resistance but also to take a military side in the fighting against the occupiers and their local proxy forces. In October 1944 the Trotskyists agitated against the British while the EAM let them into Athens. The KKE executed dozens of Trotskyists. The Trotskyists remained neutral in the December 1944 civil war. Their sectarianism contributed to sterilize them when, after the February 1945 Varkiza Agreement, the KKE leadership was vulnerable to accusations of having led the revolution to defeat.

  11. Controlled Synthesis of Fluorinated Copolymers with Pendant Sulfonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Novel fluorinated copolymers of different architectures and bearing sulfopropyl groups were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of aromatic fluorinated monomers and two modification reactions performed on the polymer chain - demethylation followed by sulfopropylation. As a result two types of fluorinated copolymers were obtained. The first one was synthesized by ATRP of2,3,5,6-tetraflouro4- methoxystyrene (TFMS). Copolymers with different amounts of randomly distributed al...

  12. Controlled Synthesis of Fluorinated Copolymers with Pendant Sulfonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Novel fluorinated copolymers of different architectures and bearing sulfopropyl groups were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of aromatic fluorinated monomers and two modification reactions performed on the polymer chain - demethylation followed by sulfopropylation. As a...... result two types of fluorinated copolymers were obtained. The first one was synthesized by ATRP of2,3,5,6-tetraflouro4- methoxystyrene (TFMS). Copolymers with different amounts of randomly distributed along the backbone sulfopropyl groups were obtained after the chemical modifications mentioned above...

  13. Mechanical characterization of the Varian Exact-arm and R-arm support systems for eight aS500 electronic portal imaging devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the positioning accuracy at different gantry angles of two electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) support arm systems by using EPID difference images as a measure for displacement. This work presents a comparison of the mechanical performance of eight Varian aS500 (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) EPIDs, mounted using either the Varian Exact-arm or R-arm. Methods: The mechanical performance of the two arm systems was compared by investigating the variation in sensitivity with gantry angle, both before and after the EPID position was adjusted after gantry rotation. Positional errors were investigated by subtracting images from a reference image taken at gantry 0 deg., and the amplitude of the peaks and troughs at the field edges for longitudinal (radial) and lateral (transverse) profiles across the resulting image was related to the distance of displacement. Calibration curves based on a pixel-by-pixel shift were generated for each EPID and the Varian hand pendant accuracy was compared to the calibration data. Results: The response of the EPIDs was found to change with gantry rotation, with the largest difference at 180 deg. The Exact-arm was found to correct well for any displacement, while the R-arm tended to overcorrect following repositioning using the hand pendant. The calibration curves were consistent within each set of matched linacs, and the hand pendant accuracy was similar for both arm systems, although generally in different directions. With respect to gantry rotation effects, the mechanical performance of the Exact-arm systems was found to be much better than that of the R-arm systems. At gantry positions 90 deg., 270 deg., and 180 deg. the average misalignment in the longitudinal direction was +4.2±0.2, +1.8±1.6, and +7.4±0.5 mm for the R-arms, and +2.9±0.2, +2.1±0.8, and +4.9±0.7 mm for the Exact-arms. In the lateral direction the average positional errors were +2.1±0.4, -4.7±0.4, and -2.5±0.5 mm for the R-arms, and -0.3±0.3, -0.5±0.3, and -0.4±0.2 mm for the Exact-arms. The hand pendant correction had minimal impact in the lateral direction for both arm systems. However in the longitudinal direction the mean errors for the R-arms were +3.4±0.7, +1.5±0.6, and +4.6±0.7 mm at gantry angles 90 deg., 270 deg., and 180 deg., and the equivalent Exact-arm errors were +0.9±0.3, +1.2±0.3, and +1.9±0.9 mm, respectively. Conclusions: The performance of the EPIDs demonstrate that the Exact-arm system provides a more reproducible position and better agreement with the EPID position as indicated on the EPID pendant at all gantry angles than the R-arm.

  14. Controlled Synthesis of Fluorinated Copolymers with Pendant Sulfonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Jankova Atanasova, Katja

    2008-01-01

    Novel fluorinated copolymers of different architectures and bearing sulfopropyl groups were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of aromatic fluorinated monomers and two modification reactions performed on the polymer chain - demethylation followed by sulfopropylation. As a result two types of fluorinated copolymers were obtained. The first one was synthesized by ATRP of2,3,5,6-tetraflouro4- methoxystyrene (TFMS). Copolymers with different amounts of randomly distributed along the backbone sulfopropyl groups were obtained after the chemical modifications mentioned above. The second type copolymers have diblock architecture with one.of the blocks being sulfopropyl~ed. They were synthesized via ATRP of 2,3,4,5,6pentafluorostyrene (FS) initiated by PTFMS-macroinitiator followed by demethylation and sulfopropylation performed on the TFMS-block (Scheme 1). The) copolymers were characterized by size-exclusion chromatography, FTIR and IH NMR spectroscopy. Their thermal properties were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and thermal gravimetric analyses.

  15. Non-Destructive investigation of a scalenohedral hematite pendant from Bahrain, c. 1800 BC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovicky, Emil; Parisatto, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    A scalenohedral hematite pendant (presumably a pseudomorph after a calcite crystal), excavated on Bahrain (ancient Dilmun) in the Persian Gulf from layers dated to c.1800 bc, was investigated using X-ray computed microtomography. The internal porosity was studied in 3D, showing a preferential concentration of small pores in the central part, where carbonate remnants might still be present, and larger, flattened, elongated voids in the subsurface portion. Part of the scalenohedron can be described as an intergrowth of platy hematite crystals. Microtomography also yielded data on pore-size distribution. Considerations are given to the genetic model and the provenance of the hematite pendant.

  16. Synthesis of hydronaphthalenes through coupling of enyne carbonyl compounds that contain pendant alkene groups with Fischer carbene complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar-Patti, Rajesh; Duan, Shaofeng; Camacho-Davila, Alejandro; Waynant, Kris; Dunn, Kenneth A.; Herndon, James W.

    2010-01-01

    The coupling of enyne carbonyl compounds that contain pendant alkene groups with Fischer carbene complexes to afford furans that contain pendant alkene groups is described. Subsequent intramolecular Diels-Alder reactions are effective in select cases, resulting in hydronaphthalene systems after dehydration. Although the Diels-Alder event is thermodynamically unfavorable, the overall transformation of alkene-furans to dihydronaphthalenes is a favorable process.

  17. Bionic arm

    OpenAIRE

    Loburenko, M.V.

    2013-01-01

    A new prosthetic arm has been developed by a researcher in Switzerland that not only provides the user with a working limb, but also lets them feel rudimentary sensations from the hand and fingers. It's being tested out on an anonymous patient later this year. The artificial limb was designed by Dr. Silvestro Micera at the Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne in Switzerland. It works by tapping directly into the median and ulnar nerves in the arm, allowing signals from the brain to rea...

  18. Comparison of the lateral retention forces on sessile and pendant water drops on a solid surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Madrid, Rafael; Whitehead, Taylor; Irwin, George M.

    2015-06-01

    We present a simple experiment that demonstrates how a water drop hanging from a Plexiglas surface (pendant drop) experiences a lateral retention force that is comparable to, and in some cases larger than, the lateral retention force on a drop resting on top of the surface (sessile drop). The experiment also affords a simple demonstration of the Coriolis effect in two dimensions.

  19. Comparison of the lateral retention forces on sessile and pendant water drops on a solid surface

    CERN Document Server

    de la Madrid, Rafael; Irwin, George

    2015-01-01

    We present a simple experiment that demonstrates how a water drop hanging from a Plexiglas surface (pendant drop) experiences a lateral retention force that is comparable to, and in some cases larger than, the lateral retention force on a drop resting on top of the surface (sessile drop). The experiment also affords a simple demonstration of the Coriolis effect in two dimensions.

  20. Synthesis and ATRP of novel fluorinated aromatic monomer with pendant sulfonate group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

    2013-01-01

    polymerized under aqueous ATRP conditions to yield phenyl-fluorinated aromatic homopolymer bearing pendant sulfonates on each repeating unit. Furthermore, this polymer was used as macroinitiator for the ATRP of poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate. The polymers were characterized by 1H NMR, SEC and FTIR...

  1. Telescope arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the telescope arm consisting of several elements which can be moved against one another, measuring- and control-devices can be moved into the space between pressure vessel and wall. The telscope elements are driven by a convex metallic tape which is fixed at the telescope front element and conducted by rolls at the other telescope elements. The steel tape is wrapped upon a coil. (DG)

  2. Comparison of the interfacial activity between homogeneous and Janus gold nanoparticles by pendant drop tensiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Rodriguez, Miguel Angel; Song, Yang; Rodríguez-Valverde, Miguel Ángel; Chen, Shaowei; Cabrerizo-Vilchez, Miguel Angel; Hidalgo-Alvarez, Roque

    2014-02-25

    The interfacial activity of 3.5 nm homogeneous (HPs) and amphiphilic Janus gold nanoparticles (JPs) was characterized by pendant drop tensiometry for water/air and water/decane interfaces. This technique requires a smaller quantity of nanoparticles than the traditional Langmuir balance technique. The direct deposition at the interface of the nanoparticles dispersed in a spreading solvent also requires smaller quantities of sample than does adsorption from the bulk. From the growing and shrinking of the pendant drops, the interfacial activity of the nanoparticles can be evaluated and compared within a wide range of area per particle. In this work, the JPs exhibited a higher interfacial activity than did the HPs in all cases. A hard disk model fits the piecewise compression isotherm of the HPs, yet this model underestimates the interactions between the JPs adsorbed at the interface. PMID:24490655

  3. La France et le problème des nationalités pendant la guerre de 1914-1918: Le cas de la Serbie

    OpenAIRE

    Soutou Georges-Henri

    2014-01-01

    Paris a suivi pendant la Première guerre mondiale à l’égard de la Serbie une politique beaucoup plus complexe qu’on ne le croit en général. Bien sûr, on soutenait par principe la Serbie, victime de l’agression austro-allemande. En même temps, à plusieurs reprises pendant le conflit des considérations d’opportunité stratégiques ou diplomatiques déterminèrent la position française bien plus que le soutien à la Serbie. A la fin de la guerre, tout en acceptant ...

  4. Facile Synthesis, Characterization, and In Vitro Antimicrobial and Anticancer Activities of Biscoumarin Copolyester Bearing Pendant 3-(Trifluoromethyl)Styrene

    OpenAIRE

    Kandaswamy, Narendran; Raveendiran, Nanthini

    2014-01-01

    Synthesis of random biscoumarin copolyester bearing pendant 3-(trifluoromethyl)styrene was prepared by the reaction of biscoumarin monomer 3 and hydroquinone 5 with azeloyl chloride. The influence of pendant 3-(trifluoromethyl)styrene unit on the properties of copolyester such as inherent viscosity, solubility, and thermal stability was investigated and compared in detail. The inherent viscosity and polydispersity index of the copolyester were found to be 0.15?dL/g and 1.36, respectively. The...

  5. Use of the pendant drop method to measure interfacial tension between molten polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Y. Arashiro

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the pendant drop method to measure interfacial tension between molten polymers is reviewed. A typical pendant drop apparatus is presented. The algorithms used to infer interfacial tension from the geometrical profile of the pendant drop are described in details, in particular a new routine to evaluate correctly the value of the radius at the apex of the drop, necessary to the calculation of interfacial tension is presented. The method was evaluated for the possibility of measuring the interfacial tension between polyethylene and polystyrene. It is shown that the method is unsuitable for the measurement of interfacial tension between high density polyethylene and polystyrene due possibly to a too small difference of density between the two polymers. Values of interfacial tension between low density polyethylene (LDPE and polystyrene (PS as a function of the molecular weight of PS are presented. It was shown that the interfacial tension between LDPE and PS increased as a function of molecular weight of PS up to values of molecular weight of roughly 40,000 g/mol, value for which entanglements occur.

  6. Catalytic Oxidation of Alcohol via Nickel Phosphine Complexes with Pendant Amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Charles J.; Das, Partha Pratim; Higgins, Deanna LM; Helm, Monte L.; Appel, Aaron M.

    2014-09-05

    Nickel complexes were prepared with diphosphine ligands that contain pendant amines, and these complexes catalytically oxidize primary and secondary alcohols to their respective aldehydes and ketones. Kinetic and mechanistic studies of these prospective electrocatalysts were performed to understand what influences the catalytic activity. For the oxidation of diphenylmethanol, the catalytic rates were determined to be dependent on the concentration of both the catalyst and the alcohol. The catalytic rates were found to be independent of the concentration of base and oxidant. The incorporation of pendant amines to the phosphine ligand results in substantial increases in the rate of alcohol oxidation with more electron-donating substituents on the pendant amine exhibiting the fastest rates. We thank Dr. John C. Linehan, Dr. Elliott B. Hulley, Dr. Jonathan M. Darmon, and Dr. Elizabeth L. Tyson for helpful discussions. Research by CJW, PD, DLM, and AMA was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Research by MLH was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle.

  7. Determination of cerium ion by polymeric membrane and coated graphite electrode based on novel pendant armed macrocycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasticized membranes using 2,3,4:12,13,14-dipyridine-1,3,5,8,11,13,15,18-octaazacycloicosa-2,12-diene (L1) and 2,3,4:12,13,14-dipyridine-1,5,8,11,15,18-hexamethylacrylate- 1,3,5,8,11,13,15,18-octaazacycloicosa-2,12-diene (L2) have been prepared and explored as Ce(III) selective sensors. Effect of various plasticizers viz. dibutylphthalate (DBP), tri-n-butylphthalate (TBP), o-nitrophenyloctylether (o-NPOE), dioctylphthalate (DOP), benzylacetate (BA) and anion excluders, sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) and potassium tetrakis p-(chlorophenyl) borate was studied in detail and improved performance was observed. Optimum performance was observed for the membrane sensor having a composition of L2:PVC:o-NPOE:KTpClPB in the ratio of 6:34:58:2 (w/w, mg). The performance of the membrane based on L2 was compared with polymeric membrane electrode (PME) as well as with coated graphite electrode (CGE). The electrodes exhibit Nernstian slope for Ce(III) ions with limits of detection of 8.3 x 10-8 mol L-1 for PME and 7.7 x 10-9 mol L-1 for CGE. The response time for PME and CGE was found to be 12 s and 10 s respectively. The potentiometric responses are independent of the pH of the test solution in the pH range 3.5-7.5 for PME and 2.5-8.5 for CGE. The CGE could be used for a period of 5 months. The practical utility of the CGE has been demonstrated by its usage as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of oxalate and fluoride ions with Ce(III) solution. The proposed electrode was also successfully applied to the determination of fluoride ions in mouthwash solution and oxalate ions in real samples.

  8. Magnetic Properties of Iron(III Complexes with Pendant-Armed Alcohols of 1, 4, 7, 10-Tetraazacyclododecane (Cyclen Ligands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd-Alhakeem H. Abu-Nawwas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic properties of the compounds [Fe{H2THED}(FeCl3]Cl (1, [Fe3(TRED2(N32]Cl.5H2O (2 and [Fe4O2(1,4-DHED2(N34] 6MeOH (3 are reported (H4THED is (1,4,7,10-tetrakis(2-hydroxyethyl-1,4,7,10- tetraazacyclododecane, (H3TRED is 1,4,7-tris (2-hydroxyethyl-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane and (H2DHED is (1,4-bis (2-hydroxyethyl-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane. Variable temperature magnetic susceptibilty measurements of 1, 3 complexes possess S = 0 spin ground states, while 2 has an S = 2 spin ground state.

  9. A silver complex with an N,S,S-macrocyclic ligand bearing an anthracene pendant arm for optical ethylene monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitomi, Yutaka; Nagai, Toshiyuki; Kodera, Masahito

    2012-10-28

    We have synthesised a silver(I) complex with a metal-arene interaction, where the anthracene ring of the ligand sidearm is positioned above the silver(I) ion. The interaction is disrupted by ethylene coordination to the silver(I). The reversible interconversion between the metal-arene and metal-ethylene interactions allowed us to monitor the presence of ethylene. PMID:22992754

  10. Reaction of Lanthanum(III) and Gadolinium(III) complexes coordinated by pendant-armed macrocyclic ligand with salicylaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the reaction of Lanthanum(III) and Gadolinium(III) complexes coordinated by the ligand 1,9-bis(2-aminoethyl)-1, 4, 6, 9, 12, 14-hexaazacyclohexadecane with salicylaldehyde, only Gd3+ was led to an unexpected complex with the ligand tris{2-(salicylideneamino)ethyl}amine. The difference of the reactivity was applied to the separation of La3+ and Gd3+. (author)

  11. Nano-anisotropic surface coating based on drug immobilized pendant polymer to suppress macrophage adhesion response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaladhar, K; Renz, H; Sharma, C P

    2015-04-01

    Exploring drug molecules for material design, to harness concepts of nano-anisotropy and ligand-receptor interactions, are rather elusive. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the bottom-up design of a single-step and bio-interactive polymeric surface coating, based on drug based pendant polymer. This can be applied on to polystyrene (PS) substrates, to suppress macrophage adhesion and spreading. The drug molecule is used in this coating for two purposes. The first one is drug as a "pendant" group, to produce nano-anisotropic properties that can enable adhesion of the coatings to the substrate. The second purpose is to use the drug as a "ligand", to produce ligand-receptor interaction, between the bound ligand and receptors of albumin, to develop a self-albumin coat over the surface, by the preferential binding of albumin in biological environment, to reduce macrophage adhesion. Our in silico studies show that, diclofenac (DIC) is an ideal drug based "ligand" for albumin. This can also act as a "pendant" group with planar aryl groups. The combination of these two factors can help to harness, both nano-anisotropic properties and biological functions to the polymeric coating. Further, the drug, diclofenac (DIC) is immobilized to the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), to develop the pendant polymer (PVA-DIC). The interaction of bound DIC with the albumin is a ligand-receptor based interaction, as per the studies by circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry, and SDS-PAGE. The non-polar ?-?* interactions are regulating; the interactions between PVA bound DIC-DIC interactions, leading to "nano-anisotropic condensation" to form distinct "nano-anisotropic segments" inside the polymeric coating. This is evident from, the thermo-responsiveness and uniform size of nanoparticles, as well as regular roughness in the surface coating, with similar properties as that of nanoparticles. In addition, the hydrophobic DIC-polystyrene (PS) interactions, between the PVA-DIC coating and PS-substrate produce improved coating stability. Subsequently, the PVA-DIC coated substrate has the maximum capacity to suppress the macrophage (RAW 264.7 cell line) adhesion and spreading, which is partly due to wavy-surface topography of hydrophilic PVA and preferential albumin binding capacity of PVA bound DIC. Our result shows that, such surfaces suppress the macrophages, even under stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The modified tissue culture plates can be used as an in vitro tool, to study the macrophage response under low spatial cues. PMID:25723344

  12. Compound pendant drop tensiometry for interfacial tension measurement at zero bond number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeson, Michael J; Chan, Derek Y C; Tabor, Rico F

    2014-12-30

    A widely used method to determine the interfacial tension between fluids is to quantify the pendant drop shape that is determined by gravity and interfacial tension forces. Failure of this method for small drops or small fluid density differences is a critical limitation in microfluidic applications and when only small fluid samples are available. By adding a small spherical particle to the interface to apply an axisymmetric deformation, both the particle density and the interfacial tension can be simultaneously and precisely determined, providing an accurate and elegant solution to a long-standing problem. PMID:25494530

  13. Analysis of the polar crane pendant cable from Three Mile Island - Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pendant cable to the polar crane in Three Mile Island - Unit 2 (TMI-2) was suspended near the center of the containment during the March 1979 accident. It sustained considerable thermal damage from the hydrogen burn that occurred. The cable was removed from TMI-2 and cut into sections, which were then analyzed to assess the extent of damage and learn as much as possible about the accident environment (by studying its effect on the cable). Both electrical and materials tests were employed in the analyses, which produced information about the hydrogen burn and contamination levels in containment. 10 refs., 24 figs

  14. Molybdenum Hydride and Dihydride Complexes Bearing Diphosphine Ligands with a Pendant Amine: Formation of Complexes With Bound Amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shaoguang; Bullock, R. Morris

    2015-07-06

    CpMo(CO)(PNP)H complexes (PNP = (R2PCH2)2NMe, R = Et or Ph) were synthesized by displacement of two CO ligands of CpMo(CO)3H by the PNP ligand; these complexes were characterized by IR and variable temperature 1H and 31P NMR spectroscopy. CpMo(CO)(PNP)H complexes are formed as mixture of cis and trans-isomers. Both cis-CpMo(CO)(PEtNMePEt)H and trans-CpMo(CO)(PPhNMePPh)H were analyzed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Electrochemical oxidation of CpMo(CO)(PEtNMePEt)H and CpMo(CO)(PPhNMePPh)H in CH3CN are both irreversible at slow scan rates and quasi-reversible at higher scan rates, with E1/2 = -0.36 V (vs. Cp2Fe+/0) for CpMo(CO)(PEtNMePEt)H and E1/2 = -0.18 V for CpMo(CO)(PPhNMePPh)H. Hydride abstraction from CpMo(CO)(PNP)H with [Ph3C]+[A]- (A = B(C6F5)4 or BArF4; [ArF = 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]) afforded “tuck-in” [CpMo(CO)(?3-PNP)]+ complexes that feature the amine bound to the metal. Displacement of the ?3 Mo-N bond by CD3CN gives [CpMo(CO)(PNP)(CD3CN)]+. The kinetics of this reaction were studied by NMR spectroscopy, providing the activation parameters ?H‡ = 22.1 kcal/mol, ?S‡ = 1.89 cal/(mol·K), Ea = 22.7 kcal/mol. Protonation of CpMo(CO)(PEtNMePEt)H affords [CpMo(CO)(?2-PEtNMePEt)(H)2]+ as a Mo dihydride complex, which loses H2 to generate [CpMo(CO)(?3-PEtNMePEt)]+ at room temperature. CpMo(CO)(dppp)H (dppp = 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane) was studied as a Mo diphosphine analogue without a pendant amine, and the product of protonation of this complex gives [CpMo(CO)(dppp)(H)2]+. Our results show that the pendant amine has a strong driving force to form stable “tuck-in” [CpMo(CO)(?3-PNP)]+ complexes, and also promotes hydrogen elimination from [CpMo(CO)(PNP)(H)2]+ complexes by formation of Mo-N dative bond. We thank the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences for support. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy. We thank Monte Helm, Elliott Hulley and Deanna Miller for help on the crystallography, and Ming Fang for assistance on the electrochemical experiments.

  15. Bifunctional cyclam-based ligands with phosphorus acid pendant moieties for radiocopper separation: thermodynamic and kinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paúrová, Monika; Havlí?ková, Jana; Pospíšilová, Aneta; Vetrík, Miroslav; Císa?ová, Ivana; Stephan, Holger; Pietzsch, Hans-Jürgen; Hrubý, Martin; Hermann, Petr; Kotek, Jan

    2015-03-16

    Two macrocyclic ligands based on cyclam with trans-disposed N-methyl and N-(4-aminobenzyl) substituents as well as two methylphosphinic (H2L1) or methylphosphonic (H4L2) acid pendant arms were synthesised and investigated in solution. The ligands form stable complexes with transition metal ions. Both ligands show high thermodynamic selectivity for divalent copper over nickel(II) and zinc(II)-K(CuL) is larger than K(Ni/ZnL) by about seven orders of magnitude. Complexation is significantly faster for the phosphonate ligand H4L2, probably due to the stronger coordination ability of the more basic phosphonate groups, which efficiently bind the metal ion in an "out-of-cage" complex and thus accelerate its "in-cage" binding. The rate of Cu(II) complexation by the phosphinate ligand H2L1 is comparable to that of cyclam itself and its derivatives with non-coordinating substituents. Acid-assisted decomplexation of the copper(II) complexes is relatively fast (?1/2 = 44 and 42?s in 1?M aq. HClO4 at 25?°C for H2L1 and H4L2, respectively). This combination of properties is convenient for selective copper removal/purification. Thus, the title ligands were employed in the preparation of ion-selective resins for radiocopper(II) separation. Glycidyl methacrylate copolymer beads were modified with the ligands through a diazotisation reaction. The separation ability of the modified polymers was tested with cold copper(II) and non-carrier-added (64)Cu in the presence of a large excess of both nickel(II) and zinc(II). The experiments exhibited high overall separation efficiency leading to 60-70% recovery of radiocopper with high selectivity over the other metal ions, which were originally present in 900-fold molar excess. The results showed that chelating resins with properly tuned selectivity of their complexing moieties can be employed for radiocopper separation. PMID:25649310

  16. Design and Engineering of a Chess-Robotic Arm

    CERN Document Server

    Elouafiq, Ali

    2012-01-01

    In the scope of the "Chess-Bot" project, this study's goal is to choose the right model for the robotic arm that the "the Chess-Bot" will use to move the pawn from a cell to another. In this paper, there is the definition and the structure of a robot arm. Also, the different engineering and kinematics fundamentals of the robot and its components will be detailed. Furthermore, the different structures of robotic arms will be presented and compared based on different criteria. Finally, a model for "the Chess-Bot" arm will be synthesized based on accurate algorithms and equations.

  17. Dynamics of sessile and pendant drop excited by surface acoustic waves: gravity effects and correlation between oscillatory and translational motions

    CERN Document Server

    Bussonière, Adrien; Brunet, Philippe; Matar, Olivier Bou

    2016-01-01

    When sessile droplets are excited by ultrasonic traveling surface acoustic waves (SAWs), they undergo complex dynamics with both oscillations and translational motion. While the nature of the Rayleigh-Lamb quadrupolar drop oscillations has been identified, their origin and their influence on the drop mobility remains unexplained. Indeed the physics behind this peculiar dynamics is complex with nonlinearities involved both at the excitation level (acoustic streaming and radiation pressure) and in the droplet response (nonlinear oscillations and contact line dynamics). In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of sessile and pendant drops excited by SAWs. For pendant drops, so-far unreported dynamics are observed close to the drop detachment threshold with the suppression of the translational motion. Away from this threshold, the comparison between pendant and sessile drop dynamics allows us to identify the role played by gravity or more generally by an initial or dynamically induced stretching of the drop. In...

  18. Sulfonated copolyimide membranes derived from a novel diamine monomer with pendant benzimidazole groups for fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Wei; Guo, Xiaoxia

    2015-01-01

    Sulfonated polyimides are among the most interesting proton exchange membrane materials with high proton conductivity and good mechanical characteristics. As a major challenge the hydrolytic instability of the polymer backbone is addressed by introducing basic moieties in the polymer main chain. A series of sulfonated copolyimides (SPI) are prepared via random copolymerizatio of 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTDA) with a new diamine monomer with pendant benzimidazole groups, 2,2'-bis(4-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)phenoxy)benzidine (BIPOB), and a sulfonated diamine monomer 4,4'-bis(4-aminophenoxy)biphenyl-3,3'-disulfonic acid (BAPBDS) at different diamine molar ratios (BAPBDS/BIPOB, 4/1, 6/1, 9/1 and 12/1). With ion exchange capacities in the range of 1.60-2.24 meq g(-1), transparent and ductile membranes are obtained by solution casting. The incorporation of benzimiclazole pendant groups significantly improves the hydrolytic stability as well as the radical oxidative stability of the membranes. In addition, the SPI membranes exhibit high proton conductivities of 0.1 S cm(-1) in the fully hydrated state at 60 degrees C and high elastic modulus and tensile strength. Preliminary fuel cell tests demonstrate the technical feasibility and stability of the materials. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Improved orthopedic arm joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, D. H.

    1971-01-01

    Joint permits smooth and easy movement of disabled arm and is smaller, lighter and less expensive than previous models. Device is interchangeable and may be used on either arm at the shoulder or at the elbow.

  20. Development of electrochemical sensors for nano scale Tb(III) ion determination based on pendant macrocyclic ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two macrocyclic pendant ligands 3,4,5:12,13,14-dipyridine-2,6,11, 15-tetramethyl-1,7,10,16-tetramethylacrylate -1,4,7,10,13, 16-hexaazacyclooctadeca-3,13-di ene (L1) and 3,4,5:12,13,14-dipyridine-2,6,11,15-tetramethyl-1,7,10,16-tetra(2-cyano ethane)-1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaazacyclooctadeca-3,13-diene (L2) have been synthesized and explored as neutral ionophores for preparing poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) based membrane sensors selective to Tb(III) ions. Effects of various plasticizers and anion excluders were studied in detail and improved performance was observed. The best performance was obtained for the membrane sensor having a composition of L1: PVC:1-CN:NaTPB in the ratio of 6: 32: 58: 4 (w/w; mg). The performance of the membrane based on L1 was compared with polymeric membrane electrode (PME) as well as with coated graphite electrode (CGE). The electrodes exhibit Nernstian slope for Tb3+ ions with limits of detection of 3.4 x 10-8 mol L-1 for PME and 5.7 x 10-9 mol L-1 for CGE. The response time for PME and CGE was found to be 10 s and 8 s, respectively. The potentiometric responses are independent of the pH of the test solution in the pH range 3.0-7.5 for PME and 2.0-8.5 for CGE. The CGE has found to work satisfactorily in partially non-aqueous media upto 30% (v/v) content of methanol, ethanol and 20% (v/v) content of acetonitrile and could be used for a period of 5 months. The CGE was used as indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Tb3+ ions with EDTA and in determination of fluoride ions in various samples. It can also be used in direct determination of Tb3+ ions in tap water and various binary mixtures with quantitative results

  1. Green syntheses, v.1

    CERN Document Server

    Tundo, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to the Green Syntheses SeriesPietro Tundo and John AndraosApplication of Material Efficiency Metrics to Assess Reaction Greenness-Illustrative Case Studies from Organic SynthesesJohn AndraosReaction 1: Synthesis of 3-Benzyl-5-Methyleneoxazolidin-2-one from N-Benzylprop-2-yn-1-Amine and CO2Qing-Wen Song and Liang-Nian HeReaction 2: Synthesis of the 5-Membered Cyclic Carbonates from Epoxides and CO2Qing-Wen Song, Liang-Nian HePart I: Green Methods for the Epoxidation of

  2. Sensitized non-coherent photon upconversion by intramolecular triplet-triplet annihilation in a diphenylanthracene pendant polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Andrew J.; Robotham, Benjamin E.; Steer, Ronald P.; Ghiggino, Kenneth P.

    2015-01-01

    Non-coherent photon upconversion by rapid intramolecular triplet-triplet annihilation has been observed following nanosecond laser excitation of Ru(dmb)3 and sequential two-fold triplet energy sensitization of a polymer containing 30 pendant diphenylanthracene groups. A global kinetic analysis of the system has been performed; the intramolecular annihilation step occurs on a sub-nanosecond time scale.

  3. Effects of wake dynamics on infrared measurements of particle cloud temperatures in the superheater pendant region of utility boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turbulent particle cloud temperatures in the superheater pendant region are critical in coal-fired utility boilers not only for the interactions between turbulence and radiative heat transfer, but also for the ash deposit slagging and fouling on superheater tubes. The false infrared particle temperature fluctuations due to the pendant wake dynamics may cause large errors in modeling of the radiation transport. This paper presents a model to theoretically analyze the effects of wake dynamics on the false infrared particle cloud temperature fluctuations in the superheater pendant region. The preferred frequency in the power spectra and the root mean square temperature fluctuations are predicted theoretically and the effects of utility boiler operating conditions are analyzed. The preferred frequency is twice the vortex shedding frequency and is proportional to the flue gas velocity, and inversely proportional to the superheater tube diameter. The root mean square temperature fluctuations are proportional to the initial particle volume fraction and inversely proportional to the 1.04 power of the particle mass weighted mean diameter. -- Highlights: ? Superheater pendant wake causes the false infrared particle temperature fluctuations. ? Infrared particle temperatures fluctuate at twice the vortex shedding frequency. ? Root mean square temperature fluctuation is proportional to particle volume fraction. ? The present model predicts using only the utility boiler operating conditions

  4. Nickel Phosphine Catalysts with Pendant Amines for Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Charles J.; Wiedner, Eric S.; Roberts, John A.; Appel, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01

    Nickel phosphine complexes with pendant amines have been found to be electrocatalysts for the oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols, with turnover frequencies as high as 3.3 s-1. These complexes are the first electrocatalysts for alcohol oxidation based on non-precious metals, which will be critical for use in fuel cells. The research by CJW, ESW, and AMA was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. The research by JASR was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  5. Œdème vulvaire massif pendant la grossesse: à propos d'un cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hassani, Moulay Elmehdi; Kassidi, Farid; Benabdejlil, Youssef; Kouach, Jaouad; Moussaoui, Driss Rahali; Dehayni, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    L’œdème vulvaire massif est rare pendant la grossesse, mais requiert une attention particulière car il peut se greffer de complications maternelles et fœtales. Il peut être associé à plusieurs pathologies spécifiques ou non spécifiques à la grossesse dont le diagnostic fait appel obligatoirement à un interrogatoire et un examen clinique minutieux, puis à un bilan biologique standard. Le traitement doit être étiologique chaque fois que possible à coté du traitement symptomatique. Cette situation peut nécessiter un accouchement par césarienne. En dehors du risque potentiel de nécrose tissulaire et du risque exceptionnel de décès maternel associé à l’œdème vulvaire massif du post-partum l’évolution est favorable sous traitement bien conduit. PMID:25922627

  6. Reduction of Oxygen Catalyzed by Nickel Diphosphine Complexes with Positioned Pendant Amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel(II) bis(diphosphine) complexes that contain positioned bases in the second coordination sphere have been found to catalyze the reduction of O2 with H2 to selectively form water. The complexes also serve as electrocatalysts for the reduction of O2 with the addition of a weak acid. In contrast, a closely related nickel diphosphine complex without the positioned bases is catalytically inactive for O2 reduction. These results indicate that pendant bases in synthetic catalysts for O2 reduction can play a similar role to proton relays in enzymes, and that such relays should be considered in the design of catalysts for multi-electron and multi-proton reactions.

  7. ABOUT PRISMATIC ANTLER PENDANTS FROM SÂNTANA DE MUREŞ-CERNJACHOV CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciucălău Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In Sântana de Mureș-Cernjachov culture we distinguish numerous influences that have targeted not only the material aspects of daily life but also the spiritual life of its different ethnic components. Since the IVth century are signaled in the graves of women and children  a series of prismatic pendants made of antlers decorated with circles, which were seen by some scholars, such as J. Werner and I. Ionita as replicas of type Herkuleskeule amulets.  They were adopted in the Germanic world as symbols of the god Thor / Donau.  In this article we make a presentation of this type of amulets discovered in some of the cemeteries datated in the IVth century researched in Romania and Republic of Moldova.

  8. Pendant thiol groups-attached Pd(II) for initiating metal deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new activation method has been developed for initiating electroless metal deposition on silicon substrates without SnCl2 sensitization and roughening condition. Silicon wafers are first coated with thiol-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), and then catalyzed with a stable tin-free Pd(II)-based colloidal solution. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the step-by-step surfaces and study the binding mechanism of Pd(II) with SAMs onto surfaces. Results show that Pd(II) oligomer particles are chemisorbed on pendant thiol surfaces through S-Pd bonds. This process involves fewer steps than the conventional Sn/Pd combined activation one. Furthermore, the chemical bound initiator possesses longevity and can be stored for a long time before metallization

  9. Pendant thiol groups-attached Pd(II) for initiating metal deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Lina; Liao Jianhui; Huang Lan; Gu Ning; Zhang Haiqian; Liu Juzheng

    2003-04-30

    A new activation method has been developed for initiating electroless metal deposition on silicon substrates without SnCl{sub 2} sensitization and roughening condition. Silicon wafers are first coated with thiol-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), and then catalyzed with a stable tin-free Pd(II)-based colloidal solution. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the step-by-step surfaces and study the binding mechanism of Pd(II) with SAMs onto surfaces. Results show that Pd(II) oligomer particles are chemisorbed on pendant thiol surfaces through S-Pd bonds. This process involves fewer steps than the conventional Sn/Pd combined activation one. Furthermore, the chemical bound initiator possesses longevity and can be stored for a long time before metallization.

  10. Textures projectives à calques dépendantes du point de vue

    OpenAIRE

    Reche, Alex; Drettakis, George

    2003-01-01

    La capture et le rendu des scènes réelles dans le contexte des environnements virtuels immersifs sont encore des tâches très difficiles. Nous présentons une nouvelle approche, en utilisant des textures projectives dépendantes du point de vue, de haute qualité et avec un faible coût en mémoire texture. Dans un premier temps, des photographies de la scène réelle sont utilisées pour créer un modèle 3D avec des outils standards. Notre méthode ordonne automatiquement la géométrie en groupes à nive...

  11. Wisdom, Intelligence & Creativity Synthesized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    How is it that smart administrators who want to do a good job often find themselves in situations that degenerate into confrontation and, ultimately, termination? In this article, the author discusses why in terms of a model of leadership--which he refers to it as WICS, an acronym for wisdom, intelligence and creativity synthesized. He describes…

  12. Reaction with glutathione. A possible mechanism involved in rodent brain retention of a 99mTc SNS/S complex containing a pendant ester functionality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis, characterization of MvO([CH3CH2N(CH2CH2S)2](p-S-Ph-COOCH2-CH3)) (M:99mTc: I, Re: II) is presented in this work, where a pendant ester function is attached to the monothiolate ligand. Chemical structure of I is established after chromatographic comparison with II, synthesized in macroscopic amounts. Complex II is fully characterized by classical methods of analysis showing that the compound adopts a distorted trigonal bipyramidal configuration around the metal. The two sulfur atoms of the tridentate ligand and the oxo group form the basal plane, while the remaining nitrogen atom of the tridentate ligand and the sulfur atom of the monothiolate ligand occupy the apices of the bipyramid. In vitro challenge experiments with glutathione (GSH) in neutral aqueous medium demonstrate, that I suffers nucleophilic attack by GSH and thereby transformation to a more hydrophilic daughter metal compound. Formation of the latter depends on time and GSH concentration. Tissue distribution in mice shows minor retention in brain. As rodent brain presents no esterases to hydrolyze the ester group of I, while the intracerebral content in GSH amounts to 2 mM, the above described mechanism is suspected for the observed brain retention. However, in primate brain cells retention of I may additionally involve the hydrolysis of the ester function to the corresponding acid, as already revealed by preliminary in vitro experiments using esterase incubates. (author)

  13. Probing the Protonation State and the Redox-Active Sites of Pendant Base Iron(II) and Zinc(II) Pyridinediimine Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Mayra; Sommer, Samantha K; Swanson, Seth P; Berger, Robert F; Seda, Takele; Zakharov, Lev N; Gilbertson, John D

    2015-08-01

    Utilizing the pyridinediimine ligand [(2,6-(i)PrC6H3)N?CMe)(N((i)Pr)2C2H4)N?CMe)C5H3N] (didpa), the zinc(II) and iron(II) complexes Zn(didpa)Cl2 (1), Fe(didpa)Cl2 (2), [Zn(Hdidpa)Cl2][PF6] (3), [Fe(Hdidpa)Cl2][PF6] (4), Zn(didpa)Br2 (5), and [Zn(Hdidpa)Br2][PF6] (6), Fe(didpa)(CO)2 (7), and [Fe(Hdidpa)(CO)2][PF6] (8) were synthesized and characterized. These complexes allowed for the study of the secondary coordination sphere pendant base and the redox-activity of the didpa ligand scaffold. The protonated didpa ligand is capable of forming metal halogen hydrogen bonds (MHHBs) in complexes 3, 4, and 6. The solution behavior of the MHHBs was probed via pKa measurements and (1)H NMR titrations of 3 and 6 with solvents of varying H-bond accepting strength. The H-bond strength in 3 and 6 was calculated in silico to be 5.9 and 4.9 kcal/mol, respectively. The relationship between the protonation state and the ligand-based redox activity was probed utilizing 7 and 8, where the reduction potential of the didpa scaffold was found to shift by 105 mV upon protonation of the reduced ligand in Fe(didpa)(CO)2. PMID:26204455

  14. Measurement of interfacial tension by use of pendant drop video techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herd, M.D.; Thomas, C.P.; Bala, G.A.; Lassahn, G.D.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes an instrument to measure the interfacial tension (IFT) of aqueous surfactant solutions and crude oil. The method involves injection of a drop of fluid (such as crude oil) into a second immiscible phase to determine the IFT between the two phases. The instrument is composed of an AT-class computer, optical cell, illumination, video camera and lens, video frame digitizer board, monitor, and software. The camera displays an image of the pendant drop on the monitor, which is then processed by the frame digitizer board and non-proprietary software to determine the IFT. Several binary and ternary phase systems were taken from the literature and used to measure the precision and accuracy of the instrument in determining IFTs. A copy of the software program is included in the report. A copy of the program on diskette can be obtained from the Energy Science and Technology Software Center, P.O. Box 1020, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-1020. The accuracy and precision of the technique and apparatus presented is very good for measurement of IFTs in the range from 72 to 10{sup {minus}2} mN/m, which is adequate for many EOR applications. With modifications to the equipment and the numerical techniques, measurements of ultralow IFTs (<10{sup {minus}3} mN/m) should be possible as well as measurements at reservoir temperature and pressure conditions. The instrument has been used at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to support the research program on microbial enhanced oil recovery. Measurements of IFTs for several bacterial supernatants and unfractionated acid precipitates of microbial cultures containing biosurfactants against medium to heavy crude oils are reported. These experiments demonstrate that the use of automated video imaging of pendant drops is a simple and fast method to reliably determine interfacial tension between two immiscible liquid phases, or between a gas and a liquid phase.

  15. Powered manipulator control arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A remote operated control arm for powered manipulators is described. It includes an assembly allowing several movements with position sensors for each movement. The number of possible arm movements equals the number of possible manipulator movements. The control systems may be interrupted as required. One part of the arm is fitted with a system to lock it with respect to another part of the arm without affecting the other movements, so long as the positions of the manipulator and the arm have not been brought into complete coincidence. With this system the locking can be ended when complete concordance is achieved

  16. The arms race control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Written in 1961, this paper presents the content of a book entitled 'The arms race control' where the author outlined the difference between disarmament and arms control, described the economic and moral role of arms race, the importance of force balance for international security. He wandered whether arms control could ensure this balance and whether nuclear balance meant force balance. Force balance then appears to be a precarious and unsteady component of international security. He commented the challenges of disarmament, recalled some arguments for a nuclear disarmament. Then he discussed what would be an arms control with or without disarmament (either nuclear or conventional)

  17. Modelling of bionic arm

    OpenAIRE

    Amartya Ganguly

    2010-01-01

    The bionic arm is a prosthesis which will allow the amputees to control it with the help of their own brain instead of depending upon the mechanical functions of the artificial limbs which are at present available in the market. A complex design of control systems is embedded in the bionic arm which will receive and analyze the signals from the brain and convert the electrical energy to mechanical energy, making the bionic arm move.

  18. Thermochemical and Mechanistic Studies of Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Production by Cobalt Complexes Containing Pendant Amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedner, Eric S.; Appel, Aaron M.; DuBois, Daniel L.; Bullock, R. Morris

    2013-12-16

    Two cobalt(tetraphosphine) complexes [Co(PnC-PPh22NPh2)(CH3CN)](BF4)2 with a tetradentate phosphine ligand (PnC-PPh22NPh2 = 1,5-diphenyl-3,7-bis((diphenylphosphino)alkyl)-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane; alkyl = (CH2)2, n = 2 (L2); (CH2)3, n = 3 (L3)) have been studied for electrocatalytic hydrogen production using 1:1 [(DMF)H]+:DMF. A turnover frequency of 980 s–1 with an overpotential of 1210 mV was measured for [CoII(L2)(CH3CN)]2+, and a turnover frequency of 980 s–1 with an overpotential of 930 mV was measured for [CoII(L3)(CH3CN)]2+. Addition of water increases the turnover frequency of [CoII(L2)(CH3CN)]2+ to 19,000 s–1. The catalytic wave for each of these complexes occurs at the reduction potential of the corresponding HCoIII complex. Comprehensive thermochemical studies of [CoII(L2)(CH3CN)]2+ and [CoII(L3)(CH3CN)]2+ and species derived from them by addition/removal of protons/electrons were carried out using values measured experimentally and calculated using DFT. Notably, HCoI(L2) and HCoI(L2) were found to be remarkably strong hydride donors, with HCoI(L2) being a better hydride donor than BH4-. Mechanistic studies of these catalysts reveal that H2 formation can occur by protonation of a HCoII intermediate, and that the pendant amines of these complexes facilitate proton delivery to the cobalt center. The rate-limiting step for catalysis is a net intramolecular isomerization of the protonated pendant amine from the non-productive exo-isomer to the productive endo isomer. We thank Dr. Shentan Chen for many helpful discussions. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Computational resources were provided at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  19. Signature électromagnétique de la dynamique corticale pendant l'éveil et le sommeil chez l'homme

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghani, Nima

    2012-01-01

    L'analyse de la fonction cérébrale à de multiples échelles est une étape nécessaire pour comprendre ses complexités. Dans ce travail de thèse, nous avons étudié cet aspect aux niveaux microscopiques et macroscopiques en utilisant des enregistrements invasifs et non-invasifs. Nous avons utilisé une série d'outils d'analyse communicationnels et de corrélation pour étudier l'activité cérébrale pendant l'éveil et le sommeil. Dans une première étude, nous avons analyse les enregistrements simultan...

  20. Nouvelle Structure d’Estimateurs à Horizon Glissant. Application à l’Estimation de Trajectoires de Débris Spatiaux pendant la Rentrée Atmosphérique

    OpenAIRE

    Suwantong, Rata,

    2014-01-01

    L’estimation de trajectoires de débris spatiaux pendant la rentrée atmosphérique est un défi majeur pour les prochaines années, renforcé par plusieurs projets liés à l'enlèvement de débris établis par plusieurs agences spatiales. Cependant, ce problème s’avère complexe du fait des erreurs de modèle et des difficultés d’initialisation des algorithmes d’estimation induites par une mauvaise connaissance de la dynamique des débris suite à leur désintégration pendant la phase de rentrée atmosphéri...

  1. Nouvelle Structure d’Estimateurs à Horizon Glissant.Application à l’Estimation de Trajectoires de Débris SpatiauxPendant la Rentrée Atmosphérique

    OpenAIRE

    Suwantong, Rata,

    2014-01-01

    L’estimation de trajectoires de débris spatiaux pendant la rentrée atmosphérique est un défi majeur pour les prochaines années, renforcé par plusieurs projets liés à l'enlèvement de débris établis par des agences spatiales de plusieurs pays. Cependant, ce problème s’avère complexe du fait des erreurs de modèle et des difficultés d’initialisation des algorithmes d’estimation induites par une mauvaise connaissance de la dynamique des débris suite à leur désintégration pendant la phase de rentré...

  2. Prévalence de la prise d'alcool pendant la grossesse à Lubumbashi, République Démocratique du Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabamba, Arsène Tshikongo; Shamashanga, Laurent Kwete; Longanga, Albert Otshudi; Lukumwena, Zet Kalala

    2014-01-01

    En dépit de l'ampleur du risque sur le foetus, l'alcool est sans cesse consommé par les femmes enceintes. L'objectif de ce travail est d’étudier l'usage de l'alcool chez la femme enceinte dans la ville de Lubumbashi, d'examiner les dangers potentiels encourus par le foetus, et enfin de faire des recommandations éventuelles en vue de sécuriser la grossesse et la femme enceinte. Du 22 Août au 11 septembre 2012, 145 femmes enceintes suivies en consultation prénatale à l'Hôpital SENDWE ont été invitées à remplir un formulaire reprenant les informations les concernant, le type d'alcool consommé et la période de consommation. 26,2% des femmes interrogées reconnaissent avoir consommé l'alcool et principalement au deuxième et au troisième trimestre de la grossesse pour diverses raisons. Cette étude montre que des efforts restent encore à déployer à Lubumbashi et particulièrement par le personnel soignant de l'Hôpital SENDWE afin de combattre l'utilisation de l'alcool chez la femme enceinte. Elle met également en exergue l'importance de l'information que le corps médical devrait véhiculer auprès des femmes enceintes sur les effets secondaires liés à la consommation de l'alcool pendant la grossesse. PMID:25419273

  3. Technetium-99m and rhenium-188 complexes with one and two pendant bisphosphonate groups for imaging arterial calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoloi, Jayanta Kumar; Berry, David; Khan, Irfan Ullah; Sunassee, Kavitha; de Rosales, Rafael Torres Martin; Shanahan, Catherine; Blower, Philip J

    2015-03-21

    The first (99m)Tc and (188)Re complexes containing two pendant bisphosphonate groups have been synthesised, based on the mononuclear M(v) nitride core with two dithiocarbamate ligands each with a pendant bisphosphonate. The structural identity of the (99)Tc and stable rhenium analogues as uncharged, mononuclear nitridobis(dithiocarbamate) complexes was determined by electrospray mass spectrometry. The (99m)Tc complex showed greater affinity for synthetic and biological hydroxyapatite, and greater stability in biological media, than the well-known but poorly-characterised and inhomogeneous bone imaging agent (99m)Tc-MDP. It gave excellent SPECT images of both bone calcification (mice and rats) and vascular calcification (rat model), but the improved stability and the availability of two pendant bisphosphonate groups conferred no dramatic advantage in imaging over the conventional (99m)Tc-MDP agent in which the bisphosphonate group is bound directly to Tc. The (188)Re complex also showed preferential uptake in bone. These tracers and the biological model of vascular calcification offer the opportunity to study the biological interpretation and clinical potential of radionuclide imaging of vascular calcification and to deliver radionuclide therapy to bone metastases. PMID:25559039

  4. Arm Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bursitis Sprains Dislocations Broken bones Some nerve problems, arthritis, or cancers can affect the entire arm and cause pain, spasms, swelling and trouble moving. You may also have problems or injure specific parts of your arm, such as your hand, wrist, elbow or shoulder.

  5. Managing new arms races

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of new arms races in the region of Asia-Pacific includes considerations of weapons trade and transfer in the region, with an emphasis on nuclear weapons proliferation. It deals with the problem of controlling the arms trade and the efforts to control conventional weapons and underlines the possible role and influence of Conference on Cooperation and Security in Europe (CSCE)

  6. Arm locking for space-based laser interferometry gravitational wave observatories

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yinan; Mitryk, Shawn; Mueller, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Laser frequency stabilization is a critical part of the interferometry measurement system of space-based gravitational wave observatories such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). Arm locking as a proposed frequency stabilization technique, transfers the stability of the long arm lengths to the laser frequency. The arm locking sensor synthesizes an adequately filtered linear combination of the inter-spacecraft phase measurements to estimate the laser frequency n...

  7. Phosphorus-nitrogen compounds: Part 28. Syntheses, structural characterizations, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities, and DNA interactions of new phosphazenes bearing vanillinato and pendant ferrocenyl groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tümer, Yasemin; Asmafiliz, Nuran; K?l?ç, Zeynel; Hökelek, Tuncer; Yasemin Koç, L.; Aç?k, Leyla; Yola, Mehmet Lütfi; Solak, Ali Osman; Öner, Ya?mur; Dündar, Devrim; Yavuz, Makbule

    2013-10-01

    The gradually Cl replacement reactions of spirocyclic mono (1 and 2) and bisferrocenyl cyclotriphosphazenes (3-5) with the potassium salt of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (potassium vanillinate) gave mono (1a-5a), geminal (gem-1b-5b), non-geminal (cis-1b, cis-5b and trans-2b-5b), tri (1c-5c) and tetra-substituted phosphazenes (1d-5d). Some phosphazenes have stereogenic P-center(s). The chirality of 4c was verified using chiral HPLC column. Electrochemical behaviors were influenced only by the number of ferrocene groups, but not the length of the amine chains and the substituent(s). The structures of the new phosphazenes were determined by FTIR, MS, 1H, 13C and 31P NMR, HSQC and HMBC spectral data. The solid-state structures of cis-1b and 4d were examined by single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The twelve phosphazene derivatives were screened for antimicrobial activity and the compounds 5a, cis-1b and 2c exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against G(+) and G(-) bacteria. In addition, it was found that overall gem-1b inhibited the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The compounds 1d, 2d and 4d were tested in HeLa cancer cell lines. Among these compounds, 2d had cytotoxic effect on HeLa cell in the first 48 h. Moreover, interactions between compounds 2a, gem-1b, gem-2b, cis-1b, 2c, 3c, 4c, 5c, 1d, 2d and 4d, and pBR322 plasmid DNA were investigated.

  8. Doclet To Synthesize UML

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Matthew R.; Osborne, Richard N.

    2005-01-01

    The RoseDoclet computer program extends the capability of Java doclet software to automatically synthesize Unified Modeling Language (UML) content from Java language source code. [Doclets are Java-language programs that use the doclet application programming interface (API) to specify the content and format of the output of Javadoc. Javadoc is a program, originally designed to generate API documentation from Java source code, now also useful as an extensible engine for processing Java source code.] RoseDoclet takes advantage of Javadoc comments and tags already in the source code to produce a UML model of that code. RoseDoclet applies the doclet API to create a doclet passed to Javadoc. The Javadoc engine applies the doclet to the source code, emitting the output format specified by the doclet. RoseDoclet emits a Rose model file and populates it with fully documented packages, classes, methods, variables, and class diagrams identified in the source code. The way in which UML models are generated can be controlled by use of new Javadoc comment tags that RoseDoclet provides. The advantage of using RoseDoclet is that Javadoc documentation becomes leveraged for two purposes: documenting the as-built API and keeping the design documentation up to date.

  9. Synthesizing Exoplanet Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clanton, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of thousands of exoplanets has revealed a large diversity of systems, the majority of which look nothing like our own. On the theoretical side, we are able to make ab initio calculations that make predictions about the properties of exoplanets. However, in order to link these predictions with observations, we must construct a statistical census of exoplanet demographics over as broad a range of parameters as possible. Current constraints on exoplanet demographics are typically constructed using the results of individual surveys using a single detection technique, and thus are incomplete. The only way to derive a statistically-complete census that samples a wide region of exoplanet parameter space is to synthesize the results from surveys employing all of the different discovery methods at our disposal. I present the first studies to demonstrate that this is actually possible, and describe a (mostly) de-biased exoplanet census that is constructed from the synthesis of results from microlensing, radial velocity, and direct imaging surveys. I will also discuss future work that will include the results of transit surveys (in particular, Kepler discoveries) to complete the census of exoplanets in our Galaxy, and describe the application of this census to develop the most comprehensive, observationally-constrained models of planet formation and evolution that have been derived to date.

  10. Dinuclear rhenium complexes as redox-active pendants in a novel electrodeposited polycyclopentadithiophene material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopio, Elsa Quartapelle; Bonometti, Valentina; Panigati, Monica; Mercandelli, Pierluigi; Mussini, Patrizia R; Benincori, Tiziana; D'Alfonso, Giuseppe; Sannicolò, Francesco

    2014-10-20

    The novel [Re2(?-H)(?-OOC-CPDT)(CO)6(?-3-Me-pydz)] complex (1; OOC-CPDT = 4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophene-4-carboxylate, 3-Me-pydz = 3-methylpyridazine) has been prepared and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, density functional theory (DFT), and time-dependent DFT computations, UV-vis absorption and emission spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The measured properties indicate the lack of electronic communication in the ground state between the CPDT and the rhenium diazine moieties. Oxidative electropolymerization of 1, achieved by repeated potential cycling (-0.4 to +1.0 V vs Fc(+)/Fc, in acetonitrile) with different supporting electrolytes, on different electrodes, afforded an electroactive and stable metallopolymer (poly-1). In situ measurements of the mass of the growing film (on a gold electrode, with an electrochemical quartz microbalance) confirmed the regularity of the polymerization process. The polymer exhibits two reversible oxidation peaks of the thiophene chain and a broad irreversible reduction peak (-1.4 V, quite close to that observed for the reduction of monomer 1), associated with a remarkably delayed sharp return peak, of comparable associated charge, appearing in close proximity (+0.3 V) to the first oxidation peak of the neutral polythiophene chain. This charge-trapping effect can be observed upon repeated cycles of p and n doping, and the negative charge is maintained even if the charged electrode is removed from the solution for many hours. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that the main CV oxidation peak corresponds to facile charge transfer, combined with very fast diffusion of both electrons and ions within the polymer. In summary, poly-1 provides a new example of a metallopolymer, in which the conductive properties of the ?-conjugated system are added to the redox behavior of the pendant-isolated complexes. PMID:25285663

  11. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness.

  12. Remote control handling arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention concerns a remote control arm, of the type comprising an articulated assembly connecting a handling component to a support. This articulated assembly is made up from standard and separate components interconnected by an articulation allowing for the transmission of an independent movement to produce a pre-determined movement of this handling component with respect to the said support. Such handling arms are fully described in French patent No. 1459250, in which, incidentally, one of the inventors mentioned is the same person as in this application. One of the most important uses of such handling arms is in the fitting of power remote handling devices for hot nuclear laboratories

  13. An Elastica Arm Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Bosi, F; Corso, F Dal; Bigoni, D

    2015-01-01

    The concept of 'deformable arm scale' (completely different from a traditional rigid arm balance) is theoretically introduced and experimentally validated. The idea is not intuitive, but is the result of nonlinear equilibrium kinematics of rods inducing configurational forces, so that deflection of the arms becomes necessary for the equilibrium, which would be impossible for a rigid system. In particular, the rigid arms of usual scales are replaced by a flexible elastic lamina, free of sliding in a frictionless and inclined sliding sleeve, which can reach a unique equilibrium configuration when two vertical dead loads are applied. Prototypes realized to demonstrate the feasibility of the system show a high accuracy in the measure of load within a certain range of use. It is finally shown that the presented results are strongly related to snaking of confined beams, with implications on locomotion of serpents, plumbing, and smart oil drilling.

  14. Hello to Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This image highlights the hidden spiral arms (blue) that were discovered around the nearby galaxy NGC 4625 by the ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The image is composed of ultraviolet and visible-light data, from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer and the California Institute of Technology's Digitized Sky Survey, respectively. Near-ultraviolet light is colored green; far-ultraviolet light is colored blue; and optical light is colored red. As the image demonstrates, the lengthy spiral arms are nearly invisible when viewed in optical light while bright in ultraviolet. This is because they are bustling with hot, newborn stars that radiate primarily ultraviolet light. The youthful arms are also very long, stretching out to a distance four times the size of the galaxy's core. They are part of the largest ultraviolet galactic disk discovered so far. Located 31 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici, NGC 4625 is the closest galaxy ever seen with such a young halo of arms. It is slightly smaller than our Milky Way, both in size and mass. However, the fact that this galaxy's disk is forming stars very actively suggests that it might evolve into a more massive and mature galaxy resembling our own. The armless companion galaxy seen below NGC 4625 is called NGC 4618. Astronomers do not know why it lacks arms but speculate that it may have triggered the development of arms in NGC 4625.

  15. Synthesis of Ethylene or Propylene/1,3-Butadiene Copolymers Possessing Pendant Vinyl Groups with Virtually No Internal Olefins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Michiue

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In general, ethylene/1,3-butadiene copolymerizations provides copolymers possessing both pendant vinyls and vinylenes as olefinic moieties. We, at MCI, studied the substituent effects of C2-symmetric zirconocene complexes, rac-[Me2Si(Indenyl’2]ZrCl2 (Indenyl’ = generic substituted indenyl, after activation on the ratio of the pendant vinyls and vinylenes of the resultant copolymers. Complexes examined in this study were rac-dimethylsilylbis (1-indenylzirconium dichloride (1, rac-dimethylsilyl-bis[1-(2-methyl-4,5-benzoindenyl] zirconium dichloride (2, rac-dimethylsilyl-bis[l-(2-methyl -4-phenylindenyl]zirconium dichloride (3, rac-dimethy1si1y1- bis(2-ethyl-4-phenylindenyl zirconium dichloride (4, rac-dimethylsilyl-bis[l-(2-n-propyl -4-(1-naphthylindenyl]zirconium dichloride (5, rac-dimethylsilyl-[1-(2-ethyl-4-(5-(2,2-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-cyclopenta [a]naphthalenylindenyl][1-(2-n-propyl-4-(5-(2,2-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-cyclopenta[a] naphthalenylindenyl]zirconium dichloride (6, rac-dimethylsilyl-bis[1-(2-ethyl-4-(9-phenanthrylindenyl]zirconium dichloride (7, and rac-dimethylsilyl-bis[l-(2-n-propyl-4-(9-phenanthrylindenyl]zirconium dichloride (8. We found that the ratio of the pendant vinyls and vinylenes is strongly affected by the bulkiness of the substituent on the complexes examined. The vinyl content increased linearly in the following order, 8 > 7 > 6 > 5 > 4 > 3 > 2 > 1. Notably, complex 8/DMAO formed ethylene/1,3-butadiene copolymers possessing predominant vinyl groups, which can be crucial precursors for functionalized polyolefins. Likewise, complex 8/DMAO afforded propylene/1,3-butadiene copolymers with predominant vinyl groups.

  16. Bis(alkyl) rare-earth complexes supported by a new tridentate amidinate ligand with a pendant diphenylphosphine oxide group. Synthesis, structures and catalytic activity in isoprene polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolpygin, Aleksei O; Glukhova, Tatyana A; Cherkasov, Anton V; Fukin, Georgy K; Aleksanyan, Diana V; Cui, Dongmei; Trifonov, Alexander A

    2015-10-01

    A new tridentate amidine 2-[Ph2P(O)]C6H4NHC(tBu)[double bond, length as m-dash]N(2,6-Me2C6H3) (1) bearing a side chain pendant Ph2P[double bond, length as m-dash]O group was synthesized and proved to be a suitable ligand for coordination to rare-earths ions. Bis(alkyl) complexes {2-[Ph2P(O)]C6H4NC(tBu)N(2,6-Me2C6H3)}Ln(CH2SiMe3)2(THF)n (Ln = Y, n = 1 (3), Ln = Er, n = 1 (4), Ln = Lu, n = 0 (5)) were prepared using alkane elimination reactions of and Ln(CH2SiMe3)3(THF)2 (Ln = Y, Er, Lu) in hexane and were isolated in 50, 70 and 75% yields respectively. The X-ray studies revealed that complexes 2-5 feature intramolecular coordination of P[double bond, length as m-dash]O groups to metal ions. The lutetium complex 5 proved to be rather stable: at 20 °C its half-life time is 1155 h, while for the yttrium analogue the half-life time was found to be 63 h. Complexes 3-5 were evaluated as precatalysts for isoprene polymerization. The systems Ln/borate/AliBu3 (Ln = 3-5, borate = [PhNHMe2][B(C6F5)4], [Ph3C][B(C6F5)4]) turned out to be highly efficient in isoprene polymerization and enable complete conversion of 1000-10,000 equivalents of monomer into polymer at 20 °C within 0.5-2.5 h affording polyisoprenes with a very high content of 1,4-cis units (up to 96.6%) and from narrow (1.49) to moderate (3.54) polydispersities. A comparative study of catalytic performance of the related bis(alkyl) yttrium complexes supported by amidinate ligands of different denticities and structures [tBuC(N-2,6iPr2C6H4)2](-), [tBuC(N-2,6-iPr2C6H4)(N-2-MeOC6H4)](-) and {2-[Ph2P(O)]C6H4NC(tBu)N(2,6-Me2C6H3)}(-) demonstrated that the introduction of a pendant donor group (2-MeOC6H4 or Ph2P(O)) into a side chain of amidinate scaffolds results in a significant increase in catalytic activity. The amidinate ligand bearing a Ph2P(O)-group provides a high isoprene polymerization rate along with excellent control over regio- and stereoselectivities and allows us to obtain polyisoprenes with a reasonable molecular weight distribution. PMID:26314896

  17. Sensibilité des œufs de truite arc-en-ciel aux chocs mécaniques pendant la phase de durcissement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BILLARD R.

    1976-10-01

    Full Text Available Des œufs de Truite arc-en-ciel en provenance de plusieurs femelles ont été transférés en eau douce après insémination et soumis à une agitation mécanique pendant une heure. Généralement on observe après 30 mn d'agitation une diminution du pourcentage d'œufs embryonnés qui est significative (P < 0,001 et P < 0,05. Cependant dans le cas d'une femelle la diminution n'était pas significative (fig. 1. Si l'agitation est appliquée seulement entre la 30e et la 60e minute après le transfert en eau douce, il n'y a pas de diminution du pourcentage d'œufs embryonnés (fig. 3. Il n'y a donc pas de phases plus sensibles que d'autres ; la durée totale d'agitation étant le facteur le plus important. La manipulation des œufs pendant une heure après leur transfert en eau douce apparaît au moins dans certains cas préjudiciable au développement embryonnaire et doit donc être évitée

  18. Wearable pendant device monitoring using new wavelet-based methods shows daily life and laboratory gaits are different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Matthew A D; Coppens, Milou J M; Lord, Stephen R; Lovell, Nigel H; Gschwind, Yves J; Redmond, Stephen J; Del Rosario, Michael Benjamin; Wang, Kejia; Sturnieks, Daina L; Persiani, Michela; Delbaere, Kim

    2016-04-01

    Morbidity and falls are problematic for older people. Wearable devices are increasingly used to monitor daily activities. However, sensors often require rigid attachment to specific locations and shuffling or quiet standing may be confused with walking. Furthermore, it is unclear whether clinical gait assessments are correlated with how older people usually walk during daily life. Wavelet transformations of accelerometer and barometer data from a pendant device worn inside or outside clothing were used to identify walking (excluding shuffling or standing) by 51 older people (83 ± 4 years) during 25 min of 'free-living' activities. Accuracy was validated against annotated video. Training and testing were separated. Activities were only loosely structured including noisy data preceding pendant wearing. An electronic walkway was used for laboratory comparisons. Walking was classified (accuracy ≥97 %) with low false-positive errors (≤1.9 %, κ ≥ 0.90). Median free-living cadence was lower than laboratory-assessed cadence (101 vs. 110 steps/min, p wearable devices is feasible providing new ways to investigate morbidity and falls risk. Laboratory-assessed gait performances are correlated with free-living walks, but likely reflect the individual's 'best' performance. PMID:26245255

  19. Coordination of multiple robot arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, L. K.; Soloway, D.

    1987-01-01

    Kinematic resolved-rate control from one robot arm is extended to the coordinated control of multiple robot arms in the movement of an object. The structure supports the general movement of one axis system (moving reference frame) with respect to another axis system (control reference frame) by one or more robot arms. The grippers of the robot arms do not have to be parallel or at any pre-disposed positions on the object. For multiarm control, the operator chooses the same moving and control reference frames for each of the robot arms. Consequently, each arm then moves as though it were carrying out the commanded motions by itself.

  20. THE INTERNATIONAL ARMS TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Japhet

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Everyone is aware of the existence of the arms trade but few have any idea of the nature of its workings or of its implications, both actual and potential. Some information as to the methods employed in the sale of arms was made available via the Lockheed and Northrop scandals, but by and large this was information that could not be evaluated in terms of all the elements of the system. It is the aim of this article to provide some insight into the various facets that go together to make up the arms trade, in this way by no means giving an all-embracing account but merely providing some interesting facts and figures.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Well-Defined Regular Star Polyisoprenes with 3, 4, 6 and 8 Arms

    KAUST Repository

    Ratkanthwar, Kedar R.

    2013-01-01

    Three series of regular well-defined star polyisoprenes (PIs) with 3, 4 and 6 arms (each series: same arm molecular weight) have been synthesized by anionic polymerization high vacuum techniques and chlorosilane chemistry. In addition, three linear PIs with practically the double arm molecular weight of the corresponding series (2-arm star PIs) have been synthesized, as well as one 8-arm star PI. All intermediate (arms) and final (stars) products have been characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), SEC-multi-angle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The Tg of the star PIs was determined by differential scanning calorimetry. These model polymeric materials are essential for polymer physics and polymer physical chemistry in order to establish the structure/property relationships.

  2. Arm To Arm Interface Using Embedded C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanraj.C

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Embedded systems are the most emerging field in these recent years. In this paper a different number of ARM processors (LPC2148 and LPC2378 are interconnected using C for distributed services. N numbers of processors are connected as the network and each processing devices are interlinked with each other, so that the each data that is processed by the devices and it can be used by the other device to activate their entire process. All the processed data’s are communicated to other device through Xbee interface card. LPC2148 and LPC2378 ARM processors are used in this prototype and winXtalk is used as a software terminal window. In this paper, the ultimate benefits of multiple processor interactions related to the embedded applications and design issues of processor interconnection are discussed. The features of multiple processor interaction in inter process communication and executions of embedded multitasking are also discussed. In modern embedded computing platform, embedded processor used in various applications like home automation, industrial control, medical system, access control, etc. In this paper, using embedded processor interactions, the several data communication is established.

  3. PHENIX Muon Arms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PHENIX Muon Arms detect muons at rapidities of |y|=(1.2-2.4) with full azimuthal acceptance. Each muon arm must track and identify muons and provide good rejection of pions and kaons (?10-3). In order to accomplish this we employ a radial field magnetic spectrometer with precision tracking (Muon Tracker) followed by a stack of absorber/low resolution tracking layers (Muon Identifier). The design, construction, testing and expected run parameters of both the muon tracker and the muon identifier are described

  4. THE INTERNATIONAL ARMS TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    M. Japhet

    2012-01-01

    Everyone is aware of the existence of the arms trade but few have any idea of the nature of its workings or of its implications, both actual and potential. Some information as to the methods employed in the sale of arms was made available via the Lockheed and Northrop scandals, but by and large this was information that could not be evaluated in terms of all the elements of the system. It is the aim of this article to provide some insight into the various facets that go together to make up th...

  5. Assistant template and co-template agents in modeling mesoporous silicas and post-synthesizing organofunctionalizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Vaeudo V. [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, PO Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Airoldi, Claudio, E-mail: airoldi@iqm.unicamp.br [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, PO Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-12-15

    Mesoporous SBA-16 silicas were synthesized through a direct methodology using the template (F127) combined with co-templates (ethanol and n-butanol), with tetraethylorthosilicate as the silica source. These ordered mesoporous silica were characterized by elemental analyses, infrared spectroscopy, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance for {sup 13}C (CP/MAS) and {sup 29}Si (HP/DEC) nuclei, nitrogen sorption/desorption processes, small angle X-ray analyses (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). SAXS and TEM results confirmed the space group Im3m and cubic 3D symmetry, typical for highly ordered SBA-16. The sorption/desorption data for SBA-16 and when functionalized gave type IV isotherms, with hysteresis loop H2. Surface areas of 836; 657 and 618 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and average pore diameters of 7.99; 8.10 and 9.85 nm, for SBA-16A, SBA-16B and SBA-16C were obtained, respectively. When functionalized the silicas presented a reduction in surface area, pore volume and pore diameter due to the pendant chains that interfere with nitrogen sorption in these measurements. The co-template ethanol favors the ordered mesopores with highest wall thicknesses. - Graphical Abstract: The mesoporous SBA-16 can be synthesized from binary (F127/TEOS) or ternary (F127/alcohol/TEOs) systems to give well-ordered mesoporous silicas. The co-templates ethanol or butanol gave the final material with highest wall thickness, mainly with ethanol. After these syntheses the pores were successfully organofunctionalized to give a good incorporation of the silylating agents. The final silicas presented of well-arranged solid characteristics as expressing by three distinct peaks, as indexed by the corresponding planes. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Syntheses of mesoporous silicas by using ternary (F127/agent/TEOS) and binary (F127/TEOS) systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use of co-templates to synthesize mesoporous silicas with larger wall thicknesses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Immobilization of pendant chains inside the porous silicas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ordered mesoposous silicas as new materials for possible applications on sorption and delivering drug systems.

  6. Anionic polymerization and polyhomologation: An ideal combination to synthesize polyethylene-based block copolymers

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, H.

    2013-08-07

    A novel one-pot methodology combining anionic polymerization and polyhomologation, through a "bridge" molecule (BF3OEt 2), was developed for the synthesis of polyethylene (PE)-based block copolymers. The anionically synthesized macroanion reacts with the "bridge" molecule to afford a 3-arm star (trimacromolecular borane) which serves as an initiator for the polyhomologation. 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  7. RAMESES publication standards: realist syntheses

    OpenAIRE

    Wong Geoff; Greenhalgh Trish; Westhorp Gill; Buckingham Jeanette; Pawson Ray

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background There is growing interest in realist synthesis as an alternative systematic review method. This approach offers the potential to expand the knowledge base in policy-relevant areas - for example, by explaining the success, failure or mixed fortunes of complex interventions. No previous publication standards exist for reporting realist syntheses. This standard was developed as part of the RAMESES (Realist And MEta-narrative Evidence Syntheses: Evolving Standards) project. Th...

  8. Study of thermodynamic and kinetic stability of transition metal and lanthanide complexes of DTPA analogues with a phosphorus acid pendant arm

    OpenAIRE

    Kotek, Jan; Kalman, Ferenc K.; Hermann, Petr; Brucher, Erno; Binnemans, Koen; Lukes, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    The thermodynamic and kinetic stabilities of the complexes of phosphonate and phenylphosphinate analogues of H(5)dtpa with selected transition- and lanthanide-metal ions are presented. Both phosphorus-containing ligands form thermodynamically very stable complexes, with stability constants comparable with or even higher than those reported for the parent H(5)dtpa. However, the kinetic inertness of their gadohnium((III)) complexes against acid- and metal-assisted decomplexations is surprisingl...

  9. The Arm Lie Group Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Arm, Boris

    2013-01-01

    We developp the Arm-Lie group theory which is a theory based onthe exponential of a changing of matrix variable u(X). We de ne a corresponding u-adjoint action, the corresponding commutation relations in the Arm-Lie algebra and the u-Jacobi identity. Throught the exponentiation, Arm-Lie algebras become Arm-Lie groups. We give the example of p p so(2) and p p su(2).

  10. Kiikuv maja / Anu Arm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arm, Anu

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia esimese kursuse arhitektuuriüliõpilaste II semestri töö. Juhendaja arhitekt Andres Alver, ehitamise Pedaspeale organiseeris suvepraktika juhendaja arhitekt Jaan Tiidemann. Autor Anu Arm, kaasa töötasid ja valmis ehitasid: Ott Alver, Maarja Elm, Mari Hunt, Alvin Järving, Marten Kaevats, Riho Kerge, Reedik Poopuu, Anu Põime, Helen Rebane, Kaisa Saarva, Martin Tago, Reet Volt. Valmis: 19. VIII 2006

  11. RAMESES publication standards: realist syntheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing interest in realist synthesis as an alternative systematic review method. This approach offers the potential to expand the knowledge base in policy-relevant areas - for example, by explaining the success, failure or mixed fortunes of complex interventions. No previous publication standards exist for reporting realist syntheses. This standard was developed as part of the RAMESES (Realist And MEta-narrative Evidence Syntheses: Evolving Standards project. The project's aim is to produce preliminary publication standards for realist systematic reviews. Methods We (a collated and summarized existing literature on the principles of good practice in realist syntheses; (b considered the extent to which these principles had been followed by published syntheses, thereby identifying how rigor may be lost and how existing methods could be improved; (c used a three-round online Delphi method with an interdisciplinary panel of national and international experts in evidence synthesis, realist research, policy and/or publishing to produce and iteratively refine a draft set of methodological steps and publication standards; (d provided real-time support to ongoing realist syntheses and the open-access RAMESES online discussion list so as to capture problems and questions as they arose; and (e synthesized expert input, evidence syntheses and real-time problem analysis into a definitive set of standards. Results We identified 35 published realist syntheses, provided real-time support to 9 on-going syntheses and captured questions raised in the RAMESES discussion list. Through analysis and discussion within the project team, we summarized the published literature and common questions and challenges into briefing materials for the Delphi panel, comprising 37 members. Within three rounds this panel had reached consensus on 19 key publication standards, with an overall response rate of 91%. Conclusion This project used multiple sources to develop and draw together evidence and expertise in realist synthesis. For each item we have included an explanation for why it is important and guidance on how it might be reported. Realist synthesis is a relatively new method for evidence synthesis and as experience and methodological developments occur, we anticipate that these standards will evolve to reflect further methodological developments. We hope that these standards will act as a resource that will contribute to improving the reporting of realist syntheses. To encourage dissemination of the RAMESES publication standards, this article is co-published in the Journal of Advanced Nursing and is freely accessible on Wiley Online Library (http://www.wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/jan. Please see related article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/20 and http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/22

  12. Synthesis, crystal structure, computational and photophysical studies of new hydrazono-thiazole derivatives decorated with N-methyl tetrahydrocarbazole pendant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Deepika; Chaudhary, R. P.

    2015-01-01

    2,3-Dihydro-1H-carbazol-4(9H)-one, obtained from 2,3-Dichloro-5,6-Dicyanobenzoquinone (DDQ) oxidation of tetrahydrocarbazole, on methylation with N, N-dimethylformamide dimethyl acetal (DMF-DMA) furnish N-methyl derivative. The thiosemicarbazone of N-methyl derivative on reaction with 2-bromopropionic acid, ethyl bromopyruvate and dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (DMAD) afford hydrazono-thiazolidin-4-one derivatives with tetrahydrocarbazole pendant. X-ray diffraction and DFT studies of (Z)-5-methyl-2-((E)-(9-methyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-carbazol-4(9H)-ylidene)hydrazono)thiazolidin-4-one 5 have been reported. The reaction with dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (DMAD) and ethyl bromopyruvate take place without any catalyst and organic solvent. The photophysical properties of these compounds were studied by means of UV/visible absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy.

  13. Nommer le conflit. Le cas de l’Alsace pendant son annexion de fait au Troisième Reich, 1940-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Ségolène Verneret

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available L’étude des comportements et opinions de la population en Alsace entre 1940 et 1945 fait appel à la nécessité de nommer une conflictualité parfois floue, ambivalente et qui évolue au cours de la période. Il convient de s’interroger sur l’adaptation des outils de définition des comportements développés en France et en Allemagne pour la situation alsacienne pendant l’annexion de fait de son territoire.   Alsace 1940-1945, oppositions au nazisme, comportements collectifsDie Erforschung des Verhaltens und der Meinung der Bevölkerung im Elsass zwischen 1940-1945 bringt die Notwendigkeit mit sich, eine zuweilen undurchsichtige, zweideutige Konfliktträchtigkeit zu benennen, die sich im Zeitraum der Annektierung zudem entwickelte. Die methodischen Werkzeuge zur Definition kollektiven Verhaltens, die in Frankreich und Deutschland für diesen elsässischen Fall entwickelt wurden, müssen hierbei angepasst werden.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of novel polyamide-ethers based on bis-imidazole containing bulky aryl pendant groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mahdi Saadati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel polyamide-ethers (PAEs based on bis-imidazole containing bulky aryl pendant groups was prepared by direct polycondensation of a diamine, 4-(1-(4-(4-(2-(4-aminophenyl-4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazol-1-ylphenoxyphenyl-4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazol-2-ylbenzenamine (DABI, and various dicarboxylic acids. All the resulting polyamide-ethers were amorphous with inherent viscosities ranged from 0.52 to 0.61 dL/g and were readily soluble in many organic solvents which could be solution-cast into transparent and tough films. The glass transition temperatures (Tg of these polymers were affected considerably by their chemical structure and ranged from 230 to 310 ºC. They had useful levels of thermal stability associated with relatively high temperatures of 10% weight loss (T10 in the range of 329-399 ºC in air atmosphere.

  15. La evolución de la relación salarial durante la post convertibilidad L’évolution du rapport salarial pendant la post-convertibilité The evolution of the labor-wage nexus during the post-convertibility phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Neffa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este capítulo constituye una síntesis de trabajos realizados conjuntamente con Robert Boyer durante la década pasada y tiene como objetivo mostrar los cambios y la evolución de la relación salarial durante el periodo de la post-convertibilidad, es decir desde 2002 hasta fines de 2011, así como las principales restricciones que debe enfrentar el nuevo modo de desarrollo desde la crisis de los subprimes, que se manifiestan con fuerza desde el inicio del Segundo Mandato de la Dra. Cristina Fernández de Kirchner.Ce chapitre est une synthèse des travaux réalisés pendant la décennie dernière. Il analyse les changements du rapport salarial après l'abandon de la convertibilité, c´est-à-dire depuis 2002 et jusqu´à la fin de 2011. Il explicite ensuite les principales contraintes qui s'imposent au nouveau mode de développement depuis la crise des subprimes et limitent sa viabilité. Ces tensions se manifestent avec force dès le début du deuxième mandat de la présidente Cristina Fernández de Kirchner.This contribution synthesizes a decade of research. It analyses the dynamics of the wage-labor nexus after the convertibility period, i.e. from 2002 until the end of 2011. It also scrutinizes the most salient constraints arising in the development mode after the subprime crisis that limit its viability. These problems are becoming more obvious since the beginning of President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner second term.

  16. Les femmes et les enfants, prisonniers politiques ou déportés à titre préventif pendant la guerre civile grecque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Alexopoulos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Les conditions et stratégies de survie des milliers de femmes condamnées ou déportées de la guerre civile grecque permettent d'établir une typologie.Pendant la guerre civile grecque (1946-1949 des milliers de personnes sont emprisonnées, déportées dans des camps de concentration ou exilées dans des îles, une population hétéroclite d’hommes et de femmes, persécutés pour leurs idées, leurs origines ou même des liens de parenté avec les communistes. Dans la présente étude, nous nous intéresserons à un groupe lui-même peu homogène, les femmes et les enfants, prisonniers politiques ou déportés à titre préventif pendant le conflit. Après un bref rappel de la pratique de la déportation et une esquisse de typologie de la réclusion, nous étudierons les conditions de détention et les stratégies de survie des femmes, souvent emprisonnées avec leurs enfants, leur statut au sein des prisonniers politiques ainsi que le sens de l'engagement politique dans leur système de valeurs.During the Greek Civil War (1946-1949 thousands of persons were imprisoned, deported to concentration camps or exiled on the islands, a heteroclite population of men and women, persecuted for their ideas, their origins or even their association with the Communists. In the present study, we are interested in a not particularly homogeneous group of women and children, political prisoners or deportees who had been detained for preventive reasons during the conflict. Following a brief summary of the practice of deportation and a typological sketch of the imprisonment, we shall study the detention conditions and the survival strategies of the women, often imprisoned with their children, their status vis-à-vis the political prisoners as well as the meaning of political commitment in their value system.

  17. Protonation Studies of a Mono-Dinitrogen Complex of Chromium Supported by a 12-Membered Phosphorus Macrocycle Containing Pendant Amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mock, Michael T.; Pierpont, Aaron W.; Egbert, Jonathan D.; O' Hagan, Molly J.; Chen, Shentan; Bullock, R. Morris; Dougherty, William G.; Kassel, W. S.; Rousseau, Roger J.

    2015-05-18

    The first example of a mono-dinitrogen Cr0 complex, Cr(N2)(dmpe)(PPh3NBn3), 2(N2), (PPh3NBn3 = 1,5,9-tribenzyl-3,7,11-triphenyl-1,5,9-triaza-3,7,11-triphosphacyclododecane; dmpe = 1,2-bis(dimethylphosphino)ethane) containing a pentaphosphine coordination environment is described. 2(N2) is supported by a unique facially coordinating 12-membered phosphorus macrocycle containing pendant amine groups in the second coordination sphere. Treatment of 2(N2) at -78 °C with 1 equiv of [H(OEt2)2][B(C6F5)4] results in protonation of the metal center, generating the 7-coordinate Cr(II)-N2 hydride complex, [Cr(H)(N2)(dmpe)(PPh3NBn3)][B(C6F5)4], [2(H)(N2)]+. Treatment of 2(15N2) with excess triflic acid at -50 °C afforded a trace amount of 15NH4+ from the reduction of the coordinated 15N2 ligand (electrons originate from Cr). Augmenting the acid reactivity studies, electronic structure calculations evaluated the pKa values of three sites of 2(N2) (metal center, pendant amine, and N2 ligand) to elucidate possible Cr-NxHy intermediates involved in the N2 reduction pathways from the protonation of 2(N2). This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Computational resources provided by the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  18. Computing Free Energy Landscapes: Application to Ni-based Electrocatalysts with Pendant Amines for H2 Production and Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shentan; Ho, Ming-Hsun; Bullock, R. Morris; DuBois, Daniel L.; Dupuis, Michel; Rousseau, Roger J.; Raugei, Simone

    2014-01-03

    A general strategy is reported for computational exploration of catalytic pathways of molecular catalysts. Our results are based on a set of linear free energy relationships derived from extensive electronic structure calculations that permit predicting the thermodynamics of intermediates, with accuracy comparable to experimental data. The approach is exemplified with the catalytic oxidation and production of H2 by [Ni(diphosphine)2]2+ electrocatalysts with pendant amines incorporated in the second coordination sphere of the metal center. The analysis focuses upon prediction of thermodynamic properties including reduction potentials, hydride donor abilities, and pKa values of both the protonated Ni center and pendant amine. It is shown that all of these chemical properties can be estimated from the knowledge of only the two redox potentials for the Ni(II)/Ni(I) and Ni(I)/Ni(0) couples of the non-protonated complex, and the pKa of the parent primary aminium ion. These three quantities are easily accessible either experimentally or theoretically. The proposed correlations reveal intimate details about the nature of the catalytic mechanism and its dependence on chemical structure and thermodynamic conditions such as applied external voltage and species concentration. This computational methodology is applied to exploration of possible catalytic pathways, identifying low and high-energy intermediates and, consequently, possibly avoiding bottlenecks associated with undesirable intermediates in the catalytic reactions. We discuss how to optimize some of the critical reaction steps in order to favor catalytically more efficient intermediates. The results of this study highlight the substantial interplay between the various parameters characterizing the catalytic activity, and form the basis needed to optimize the performance of this class of catalysts.

  19. X-Band PLL Synthesizer

    OpenAIRE

    P. Kutin; Vagner, P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with design and realization of a PLL synthesizer for the microwave X−band. The synthesizer is intended for use as a local oscillator in a K−band downconverter. The design goal was to achieve very low phase noise and spurious free signal with a sufficient power level. For that purpose a low phase noise MMIC VCO was used in phase locked loop. The PLL works at half the output frequency, therefore there is a frequency doubler at the output of the PLL. The output signal ...

  20. Robot arm apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY)

    1992-01-01

    A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

  1. Coat of Arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bryan

    1998-01-01

    Describes an activity, the "coat of arms," that can serve as an ice-breaker or warm-up for the first day of an English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language class, as a motivating start to the week, or act as an innovative segue between skill lessons. The technique can be adapted for students ranging from elementary school to adult language learners of all…

  2. Kiikuv maja / Anu Arm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arm, Anu

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia esimese kursuse arhitektuuriüliõpilaste II semestri töö. Juhendaja arhitekt Andres Alver, ehitamise Pedaspeale organiseeris suvepraktika juhendaja arhitekt Jaan Tiidemann. Autor Anu Arm, kaasa töötasid ja valmis ehitasid: Ott Alver, Maarja Elm, Mari Hunt, Alvin Järving, Marten Kaevats, Riho Kerge, Reedik Poopuu, Anu Põime, Helen Rebane, Kaisa Saarva, Martin Tago, Reet Volt. Valmis: 19. VIII 2006

  3. Synthetic strategies for efficient conjugation of organometallic complexes with pendant protein reactive markers

    KAUST Repository

    Jantke, Dominik

    2013-11-01

    Site-directed conjugation of metal centers to proteins is fundamental for biological and bioinorganic applications of transition metals. However, methods for the site-selective introduction of metal centers remain scarce. Herein, we present broadly applicable synthetic strategies for the conjugation of bioactive molecules with a range of organometallic complexes. Following three different synthetic strategies, we were able to synthesize a small library of metal conjugated protein markers featuring different types of protein reactive sites (epoxides, phenylphosphonates, fluorosulfonates and fluorophosphonate groups) as well as different late transition metals (iron, ruthenium, rhodium, palladium and platinum). The products were isolated in moderate to excellent yields and high purity. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction of the metalated protein markers corroborates structural integrity of the metal complex and the protein reactive site. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pendant triazole ring assisted mesogen containing side chain liquid crystalline polymethacrylates: Synthesis and characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Palani; C Saravanan; P Kannan

    2011-01-01

    Two series of click chemistry assisted alkoxymethyl-1H-[1,2,3]-triazol-1-yl containing sidechain liquid-crystalline polymethacrylates were synthesized by free radical polymerization technique. Mesogen was linked to backbone through various spacer units. Monomers and polymers were characterized by FT-IR, 1H and 13C-NMR spectral techniques. Thermal stability of polymers was confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis. Mesomorphic property and phase transition temperature of polymers were analysed by differential scanning calorimetry and polarized optical microscopy. Phase transition temperature and mesomorphic property of polymers with respect to insertion of polar alkoxy group on terminal triazole ring and spacer length between backbone and mesogen were investigated. Polymers exhibited grainy like textures under polarized optical microscopy. Spacer length between mesogen and backbone alters phase transition temperature of the polymers.

  5. Phosphorylcholine substituted polyolefins: New syntheses, solution assemblies, and polymer vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Katrina A.

    This thesis describes the synthesis and applications of a new series of amphiphilic homopolymers and copolymers consisting of hydrophobic polyolefin backbone and hydrophilic phosphorylcholine (PC) pendant groups. These polymers are synthesized by ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of a novel PC- cyclooctene monomer, and copolymerization of various functionalized cyclooctene comonomers. Incorporation of different comonomers into the PC-polyolefin backbone affords copolymers with different functionalities, including crosslinkers, fluorophores, and other reactive groups, that tune the range of applications of these polymers, and their hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance. The amphiphilic nature of PC-polyolefins was exploited in oil-water interfacial assembly, providing robust polymer capsules to encapsulate and deliver nanoparticles to damaged regions of a substrate in a project termed `repair-and-go.' In repair-and-go, a flexible microcapsule filled with a solution of nanoparticles probes an imperfection-riddled substrate as it rolls over the surface. The thin capsule wall allows the nanoparticles to escape the capsules and enter into the cracks, driven in part by favorable interactions between the nanoparticle ligands and the cracked surface (i.e., hydrophobic-hydrophobic interactions). The capsules then continue their transport along the surface, filling more cracks and depositing particles into them. The amphiphilic nature of PC-polyolefins was also exploited in aqueous assembly, forming novel polymer vesicles in water. PC-polyolefin vesicles ranged in size from 50 nm to 30 µm. The mechanical properties of PC-polyolefin vesicles were measured by micropipette aspiration techniques, and found to be more robust than conventional liposomes or polymersomes prepared from block copolymers. PC-polyolefin vesicles have potential use in drug delivery; it was found that the cancer drug doxorubicin could be encapsulated efficiently in PC-polyolefin vesicles. In another application, PC-polyolefins were used as antifouling coatings for ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) water purification membranes. These polymers were found to reduce surface fouling in both UF and RO membranes. Finally, PC-substituted ruthenium benzylidene catalysts were synthesized and evaluated for ROMP in water. PC-substituted catalysts proved effective towards productive metathesis of water soluble cyclic olefins including PEG-substituted oxanorbornene.

  6. Catalytic method for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); Sansone, Michael J. (Summit, NJ); Slegeir, William A. R. (Hampton Bays, NY)

    1984-01-01

    A method for synthesizing hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen by contacting said gases with a slurry of a catalyst composed of palladium or platinum and cobalt supported on a solid phase is disclosed. The catalyst is prepared by heating a heterogeneous component of the palladium or platinum deposited on the solid support in a solution of cobalt carbonyl or precursors thereof. The catalyst exhibits excellent activity, stability in air, and produces highly desirable product fractions even with dilute gaseous reactants.

  7. Synthesis, properties and controlled release behaviors of hydrogel networks using cyclodextrin as pendant groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Yang; Fan, Xiao-Dong

    2005-11-01

    Based on inclusion character of beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) with drug molecule and low glass transition temperature of poly(2-hydroxyethyl acrylate) (PHEA), a series of hydrogels with different compositions were synthesized by the copolymerization of a monovinyl cyclodexrin monomer with 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA). The structure and properties of the hydrogels were characterized by FTIR, DSC, TGA and swelling measurements. It is found that swelling ratios of these beta-CD hydrogels can keep a relative stability in the range of pH from 1.4 to 7.4, and are not sensitive to change in NaCl concentration. Using drug N-acety-5-methoxytryptamine (melatonin, MEL) as a model molecule, the controlled drug release behaviors of these hydrogels were investigated. The results indicate that the diffusion and permeation of MEL from the hydrogels may be a dominant factor for its release. Owing to the formation of MEL/beta-CD retarding diffusion rate of MEL, a sustained release of MEL from hydrogel with high content of beta-CD can be obtained compared with hydrogel PHEA without beta-CD. PMID:15913774

  8. The polymer electrolyte based on polysiloxane containing both alkyl cyanide and oligo ethylene oxide pendants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monomers (3-cyanopropyl) methylsiloxane cyclics (D4CN) and (3-(2-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxy)propyl) methylsiloxane cyclics (D4TEG) were prepared by a hydrosilylation reaction of 2,4,6,8-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4H) with allyl cyanide and tri(ethylene glycol) methyl allyl ether (allyl TEG), respectively, in toluene using a platinum(0)-1,3-divinyl-1,1,3,3-tetramethyl disiloxane complex as the catalyst. The new crosslinkable polymers with alkyl cyanide and ethylene oxide groups as the pendent were synthesized by ring opening polymerization and characterized by GPC and 1H NMR. And then, the crosslinked solid polymer electrolyte was prepared by UV radiation curing. The conductivities of samples were measured by impedance spectroscopy using an indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrode. As the results, the maximum ionic conductivities of the polymer were 1.15 x 10-5 S cm-1 at 20 deg. C and 1 x 10-4 S cm-1 at 60 deg. C. The electrolyte was stable electrochemically to 5 V versus Li+/Li at room temperature

  9. Phoenix Robotic Arm Rasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This photograph shows the rasp protruding from the back of the scoop on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm engineering model in the Payload Interoperability Testbed at the University of Arizona, Tucson. This is the position the rasp will assume when it drills into the Martian soil to acquire an icy soil sample for analysis. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Disarmament and arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses how far science and technology can provide methods of making arms control and disarmament agreements more controlable in an objective way. Two case studies have been considered, the test ban treaty and the verification of the number of strategic nuclear weapons. These lead to the conclusion that both science and politics are closely interwoven and that within what appear to be scientific arguments, political positions are being defended. Consequently scientists and technologists and the contexts in which they work, play a prominent role. (C.F.)

  11. Removable molar power arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Attachment of force elements from the gingival hook of maxillary molar tubes during the retraction of the anterior teeth is very common in orthodontic practice. As the line of force passes below the center of resistance (CR of molar, it results its mesial tipping and also anchorage loss. To overcome this problem, the line of force should pass along the CR of molar. This article highlights a method to overcome this problem by attaching a removable power arm to the headgear tube of molar tube during the retraction of the anterior teeth.

  12. Solid phase syntheses of oligoureas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, K.; Linthicum, D.S.; Russell, D.H.; Shin, H.; Shitangkoon, A.; Totani, R.; Zhang, A.J.; Ibarzo, J. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1997-02-19

    Isocyanates 7 were formed from monoprotected diamines 3 or 6, which in turn can be easily prepared from commercially available N-BOC- or N-FMOC-protected amino acid derivatives. Isocyanates 7, formed in situ, could be coupled directly to a solid support functionalized with amine groups or to amino acids anchored on resins using CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} as solvent and an 11 h coupling time at 25 {degree}C. Such couplings afforded peptidomimetics with an N-phthaloyl group at the N-terminus. The optimal conditions identified for removal of the N-phthaloyl group were to use 60% hydrazine in DMF for 1-3 h. Several sequences of amino acids coupled to ureas (`peptidic ureas`) and of sequential urea units (`oligoureas`) were prepared via solid phase syntheses and isolated by HPLC. Partition coefficients were measured for two of these peptidomimetics, and their water solubilities were found to be similar to the corresponding peptides. A small library of 160 analogues of the YGGFL-amide sequence was prepared via Houghten`s tea bag methodology. This library was tested for binding to the anti-{beta}-endorphin monoclonal antibody. Overall, this paper describes methodology for solid phase syntheses of oligourea derivatives with side chains corresponding to some of the protein amino acids. The chemistry involved is ideal for high-throughput syntheses and screening operations. 51 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Les infirmières-visiteuses pendant l’entre-deux-guerres en Haute-Normandie : entre professionnalisme officiel et bénévolat officieux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Henry

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Marginale avant 1914, révélée pendant la Première Guerre mondiale, adulée ou décriée pendant l’entre-deux-guerres, l’évolution de la profession d’infirmière-visiteuse est étrangement commune à l’évolution de la place des femmes dans le travail salarié. En effet, même si une législation est venue encadrer ce nouveau corps de femmes au début des années vingt, force est de constater, au travers des exemples des départements de Seine-Inférieure et de l’Eure, que celui-ci a gardé de nombreux attributs propres au bénévolat. D’ailleurs, bien que les dirigeants de l’action antituberculeuse, Albert Calmette en tête, aient régulièrement encensé la profession, ils ont néanmoins cherché à l’encadrer strictement, redoutant des envies trop fortes d’autonomie. À cette professionnalisation toute relative se sont ajoutées des conditions de travail particulièrement rudes pour ces jeunes femmes novices, finalement peu préparées à côtoyer une misère insoupçonnée. Ainsi, si la fonction d’infirmière-visiteuse correspond à un virage non négligeable dans l’acceptation du travail qualifié des femmes par la société, son efficacité dans le cadre des luttes contre les fléaux sociaux (tuberculose et mortalité infantile reste tout de même mesurée dans les faits.The evolutions of the status of the visiting nurse echo the evolution in women's position within the workforce: marginal prior to 1914, revealed during the First World War, idolized or disparaged in the inter-war years. Despite legislation governing this new corps of women nurses in the early twenties, examples from the departments of the Seine-Inférieure and  the Eure make clear that it retained many attributes of volunteer work. Moreover, although the leaders of the war against tuberculosis, such as Albert Calmette, regularly praised the profession, they nonetheless sought to regulate it strictly, fearing a move toward excessive autonomy. The article considers the nature of this relative professionalization as well as the particularly difficult working conditions of these novice women professionals, who were ultimately ill-equipped to handle the misery they encountered.  Thus, while the emergence of the visiting nurse represented a major shift in the acceptance of women’s skilled work in French society, the ability of these women to exert their skills effectively in the context of struggles against social scourges (tuberculosis and infant mortality was limited in practice.

  14. Des femmes dans la France combattante pendant la Deuxième Guerre mondiale : Le Corps des Volontaires Françaises et le Groupe Rochambeau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Jauneau

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cet article aborde la question de l’engagement des femmes dans l’Armée française pendant la Deuxième Guerre Mondiale grâce aux traces écrites qu’elles ont laissés.Dès 1940, plusieurs centaines de femmes rejoignent les rangs des FFL à Londres, mais aussi en Afrique du Nord (Algérie, Maroc, Tunisie. Elles s’engagent dans les trois corps d’Armée et sont présentes dans la plupart des services. Souvent dénigrées par les hommes, sous-estimées aussi, ces femmes accomplissent pourtant des tâches essentielles entre 1940 et 1945. Cet engagement moral, physique et souvent idéologique dans l’Armée de la Libération, devient pour la plupart d’entre elles un tournant définitif dans leur vie. Nombreuses sont celles qui ont éprouvé le besoin de raconter cette période si « particulière » de leur vie. La lecture des témoignages et des souvenirs permet de comprendre quand et comment s’est déroulé leur engagement. Car, contrairement aux idées reçues, elles n’étaient pas toutes dans les transmissions ou dans les services de santé. Elles n’étaient pas non plus « que » des AFAT (Auxiliaires féminines de l’Armée de Terre. Grâce à un panel d’autobiographies et de souvenirs de guerre, les points abordés ici seront donc ceux du contexte et des motivations de l’engagement, des postes occupés par ces femmes, ainsi que du regard que les libérateurs ont porté sur elles pendant mais surtout après la Libération.This article uses women’s writings to examine women’s voluntary enlistment in the French Army during World War II. As early as 1940, several hundred women joined the Free French Army’s ranks in London, but also in North Africa (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia. They enlisted in the three army corps and were present in most services. These women carried out essential jobs between 1940 and 1945, although men often denigrated and underestimated their contributions. This moral, physical, and often ideological engagement in the Liberation Army became for most of them a permanent turning point in their lives. Many felt the need to write about this particular period of their lives. Their testimonies and memories reveal the context and motivations surrounding their decision to enlist. Contrary to general opinion, they were not just « AFAT » (Land Army’s Female Auxiliaries nor did they only serve in transmission or health services. The article then examines the nature of women’s jobs and the ways French soldiers described them during and after the Liberation.

  15. Femtosecond laser comb based subterahertz synthesizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, D. S.; Tretyakov, M. Yu.; Shkaev, A. P.; Kiselev, A. M.; Stepanov, A. N.; Parshin, V. V.

    2014-08-01

    Functioning layout of a frequency comb-based subterahertz synthesizer is demonstrated. A primary subterahertz oscillator was phase-locked against the Ti:Sapphire femtosecond laser frequency comb down-converted to the subterahertz range by the semiconductor mixer. Synthesizer operation is demonstrated through Fabri-Perot resonator response curve recording experiment. Spectral purity of the synthesizer was estimated. The advantage of the comb-based synthesizer over the synthesizer based on the Agilent E8257D device was shown.

  16. X-Armed Bandits

    CERN Document Server

    Bubeck, Sébastien; Stoltz, Gilles; Szepesvari, Csaba

    2010-01-01

    We consider a generalization of stochastic bandits where the set of arms, $\\cX$, is allowed to be a generic measurable space and the mean-payoff function is "locally Lipschitz" with respect to a dissimilarity function that is known to the decision maker. Under this condition we construct an arm selection policy, called HOO hierarchical optimistic optimization), with improved regret bounds compared to previous results for a large class of problems. In particular, our results imply that if $\\cX$ is the unit hypercube in a Euclidean space and the mean-payoff function has a finite number of global maxima around which the behavior of the function is locally H\\"older continuous with a known exponent, then the expected of HOO regret is bounded up to a logarithmic factor by $\\sqrt{n}$, i.e., the rate of growth of the regret is independent of the dimension of the space. We also prove the minimax optimality of our algorithm when the dissimilarity is a metric.

  17. Hydrogen Production using Nickel Electrocatalysts with Pendant Amines: Ligand Effects on Rates and Overpotentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiese, Stefan; Kilgore, Uriah J.; Ho, Ming-Hsun; Raugei, Simone; DuBois, Daniel L.; Bullock, R. Morris; Helm, Monte L.

    2013-11-01

    A Ni-based electrocatalyst for H2 production, [Ni(8PPh2NC6H4Br)2](BF4)2, featuring eight-membered cyclic diphosphine ligands incorporating a single amine base, 1-para-bromo-phenyl-3,7-triphenyl-1-aza-3,7-diphosphacycloheptane (8PPh2NC6H4Br) has been synthesized and characterized. X-ray ?diffraction studies reveal that the cation of [Ni(8PPh2NC6H4Br)2(CH3CN)](BF4)2 has a distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry. In CH3CN [Ni(8PPh2NC6H4Br)2]2+ is an electrocatalyst for reduction of protons, and it has a maximum turnover frequency for H2 production of 800 s-1 with a 700 mV overpotential (at Ecat/2) when using [(DMF)H]OTf as the acid. Addition of H2O to acidic CH3CN solutions of [Ni(8PPh2NC6H4Br)2]2+ results in an increase of the turnover frequency for H2 production to a maximum of 3,300 s?1 with an overpotential of 760 mV at Ecat/2. Computational studies carried out on [Ni(8PPh2NC6H4Br)2]2+ indicate the observed catalytic rate is limited by formation of non-productive protonated isomers, diverting active catalyst from the catalytic cycle. The results of this research show that proton delivery from the exogenous acid to the correct position on the proton relay of the metal complex is essential for fast H2 production. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  18. Novel sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) with pendant benzimidazole groups as a proton exchange membrane for direct methanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yang; Shao, Ke; Zhao, Chengji; Zhang, Gang; Li, Hongtao; Fu, Tiezhu; Na, Hui [Alan G MacDiarmid Institute, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Qianjin Street 2699, Changchun 130012, Jilin (China)

    2009-10-20

    A series of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)s bearing pendant carboxylic acid groups (C-SPEEKs) have been prepared and subsequently react with 1,2-diaminobenzene to obtain sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)s with pendant benzimidazole groups (BI-SPEEKs). The expected structures of the sulfonated copolymers are confirmed by {sup 1}H NMR. The resulting copolymers all show good thermal and mechanical properties. It should be noted that the introduction of benzimidazole groups into the copolymer improves its thermal and oxidative stability obviously. Meanwhile, compared to C-SPEEK, BI-SPEEK membranes show much lower water uptake and methanol permeability with the same sulfonation degree (DS). In order to study morphological changes of C-SPEEK and BI-SPEEK membranes, hydrophilic domains sizes from an atomic force microscopy (AFM) are investigated. (author)

  19. Nuclear Arms Race and Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Anpeng

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a new factor, environment, into nuclear arms race model. In this model, nuclear weapons produce larger defense power compared with conventional arms, but hurt the environment meanwhile. In the global welfare maximum level, both conventional and nuclear weapons budget are zero. However, the competitive equilibrium may not achieve the optimum. I give the condition to jump out of the prisoner's dilemma.

  20. Buoyancy-driven detachment of a wall-bound pendant drop: Interface shape at pinchoff and nonequilibrium surface tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamorgese, A.; Mauri, R.

    2015-09-01

    We present numerical results from phase-field simulations of the buoyancy-driven detachment of an isolated, wall-bound pendant emulsion droplet acted upon by surface tension and wall-normal buoyancy forces alone. Our theoretical approach follows a diffuse-interface model for partially miscible binary mixtures which has been extended to include the influence of static contact angles other than 90?, based on a Hermite interpolation formulation of the Cahn boundary condition as first proposed by Jacqmin [J. Fluid Mech. 402, 57 (2000), 10.1017/S0022112099006874]. In a previous work, this model has been successfully employed for simulating triphase contact line problems in stable emulsions with nearly immiscible components, and, in particular, applied to the determination of critical Bond numbers for buoyancy-driven detachment as a function of static contact angle. Herein, the shapes of interfaces at pinchoff are investigated as a function of static contact angle and distance to the critical condition. Furthermore, we show numerical results on the nonequilibrium surface tension that help to explain the discrepancy between our numerically determined static contact angle dependence of the critical Bond number and its sharp-interface counterpart based on a static stability analysis of equilibrium shapes after numerical integration of the Young-Laplace equation. Finally, we show the influence of static contact angle and distance to the critical condition on the temporal evolution of the minimum neck radius in the necking regime of drop detachment.

  1. Optical fusions and proportional syntheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert-Vanel, Michel

    2002-06-01

    A tragic error is being made in the literature concerning matters of color when dealing with optical fusions. They are still considered to be of additive nature, whereas experience shows us somewhat different results. The goal of this presentation is to show that fusions are, in fact, of 'proportional' nature, tending to be additive or subtractive, depending on each individual case. Using the pointillist paintings done in the manner of Seurat, or the spinning discs experiment could highlight this intermediate sector of the proportional. So, let us try to examine more closely what occurs in fact, by reviewing additive, subtractive and proportional syntheses.

  2. Method of synthesizing tungsten nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Steven G; Anderson, Travis M

    2013-02-12

    A method to synthesize tungsten nanoparticles has been developed that enables synthesis of nanometer-scale, monodisperse particles that can be stabilized only by tetrahydrofuran. The method can be used at room temperature, is scalable, and the product concentrated by standard means. Since no additives or stabilizing surfactants are required, this method is particularly well suited for producing tungsten nanoparticles for dispersion in polymers. If complete dispersion is achieved due to the size of the nanoparticles, then the optical properties of the polymer can be largely maintained.

  3. Cobalt Complexes Containing Pendant Amines in the Second Coordination Sphere as Electrocatalysts for H2 Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Ming; Wiedner, Eric S.; Dougherty, William G.; Kassel, W. S.; Liu, Tianbiao L.; DuBois, Daniel L.; Bullock, R. Morris

    2014-10-27

    A series of heteroleptic 17e- cobalt complexes, [CpCoII(PtBu2NPh2)](BF4), [CpC6F5CoII(PtBu2NPh2)](BF4), [CpC5F4NCoII(PtBu2NPh2)](BF4), [where P2tBuN2Ph = 1,5-diphenyl-3,7-di(tert-butyl)-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane, CpC6F5 = C5H4(C6F5), and CpC5F4N = C5H4(C5F4N)] were synthesized, and structures of all three were determined by X-ray crystallography. Electrochemical studies showed that the CoIII/II couple of [CpC5F4NCoII(PtBu2NPh2)]+ appears 250 mV positive of the CoIII/II couple of [CpCoII(PtBu2NPh2)] as a result of the strongly electron-withdrawing perfluorpyridyl substituent on the Cp ring. Reduction of these paramagnetic CoII complexes by KC8 led to the diamagnetic 18e- complexes CpICo(PtBu2NPh2), CpC6F5CoI(PtBu2NPh2), CpC5F4NCoI(PtBu2NPh2), which were also characterized by crystallography. Protonation of these neutral CoI complexes led to the cobalt hydrides [CpCoIII(PtBu2NPh2)H](BF4), [CpC6F5CoIII(PtBu2NPh2)H](BF4), and [CpC5F4NCoIII(PtBu2NPh2)H](BF4). The cobalt hydride with the most electron-withdrawing Cp ligand, [CpC5F4NCoIII(PtBu2NPh2)H]+ is an electrocatalyst for production of H2 using 4-MeOC6H4NH3BF4 (pKaMeCN = 11.86) with a turnover frequency of 350 s-1 and an overpotential of 0.75 V. Experimental measurement of thermochemical data provided further insights into the thermodynamics of H2 elimination. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  4. Living cationic polymerization and polyhomologation: an ideal combination to synthesize functionalized polyethylene–polyisobutylene block copolymers

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Hefeng

    2015-12-17

    A series of hydroxyl-terminated polyisobutylene-b-polyethylene (PIB-b-PE-OH) copolymers were synthesized by combining living cationic polymerization and polyhomologation. Allyl-terminated PIBs, synthesized by living cationic polymerization, were hydroborated with BH3·THF to produce 3-arm boron-linked stars, PIB3B, which served as macroinitiators for the in situ polyhomologation of dimethylsulfoxonium methylide. The resulting 3-arm star block copolymers, (PIB-b-PE)3B, were oxidized/hydrolysed to afford PIB-b-PE-OH. Characterization of all intermediates and final products by high temperature gel permeation chromatography (HT-GPC) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) revealed the well-defined character of the copolymers. The thermal properties of the copolymers were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

  5. Information retrieval for ecological syntheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Helen R; Beyer, Fiona R

    2015-06-01

    Research syntheses are increasingly being conducted within the fields of ecology and environmental management. Information retrieval is crucial in any synthesis in identifying data for inclusion whilst potentially reducing biases in the dataset gathered, yet the nature of ecological information provides several challenges when compared with medicine that should be considered when planning and undertaking searches. We present ten recommendations for anyone considering undertaking information retrieval for ecological research syntheses that highlight the main differences with medicine and, if adopted, may help reduce biases in the dataset retrieved, increase search efficiency and improve reporting standards. They are as follows: (1) plan for information retrieval at an early stage, (2) identify and use sources of help, (3) clearly define the question to be addressed, (4) ensure that provisions for managing, recording and reporting the search are in place, (5) select an appropriate search type, (6) identify sources to be used, (7) identify limitations of the sources, (8) ensure that the search vocabulary is appropriate, (9) identify limits and filters that can help direct the search, and (10) test the strategy to ensure that it is realistic and manageable. These recommendations may be of value for other disciplines where search infrastructures are not yet sufficiently well developed. PMID:26099482

  6. Nuclear arms cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Soviet Union's demise five years ago brought an end to the Cold War, the 45-year arms race between the Soviet superpower and the United States. The euphoria that greeted the end of this bloodless conflict has dampened somewhat, however, as U.S. officials and their counterparts in the former Soviet republics come to grips with its legacy: thousands of highly toxic and politically destabilizing nuclear weapons. With no more perceived need for much of their vast arsenals, the governments have agreed to dismantle large numbers of nuclear warheads. But the agencies involved in this task face a daunting technical and political problem: what to do with the thousands of tons of plutonium and uranium that are the main ingredients of nuclear weapons

  7. Synthesizing Customized Planners from Specifications

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, B

    1998-01-01

    Existing plan synthesis approaches in artificial intelligence fall into two categories -- domain independent and domain dependent. The domain independent approaches are applicable across a variety of domains, but may not be very efficient in any one given domain. The domain dependent approaches need to be (re)designed for each domain separately, but can be very efficient in the domain for which they are designed. One enticing alternative to these approaches is to automatically synthesize domain independent planners given the knowledge about the domain and the theory of planning. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of using existing automated software synthesis tools to support such synthesis. Specifically, we describe an architecture called CLAY in which the Kestrel Interactive Development System (KIDS) is used to derive a domain-customized planner through a semi-automatic combination of a declarative theory of planning, and the declarative control knowledge specific to a given domain, to semi-autom...

  8. Synthesizing Robust Systems with RATSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick Bloem

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Specifications for reactive systems often consist of environment assumptions and system guarantees. An implementation should not only be correct, but also robust in the sense that it behaves reasonably even when the assumptions are (temporarily violated. We present an extension of the requirements analysis and synthesis tool RATSY that is able to synthesize robust systems from GR(1 specifications, i.e., system in which a finite number of safety assumption violations is guaranteed to induce only a finite number of safety guarantee violations. We show how the specification can be turned into a two-pair Streett game, and how a winning strategy corresponding to a correct and robust implementation can be computed. Finally, we provide some experimental results.

  9. International security and arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The end of the cold war also ended the focus on the bilateral approach to arms control and disarmament. Key concepts of security needed to be revisited, along with their implications for the disarmament and arms control agenda. Though there is currently a unipolar global security environment, there remain important tasks on the multilateral arms control agenda. The major task is that of reducing and eliminating weapons of mass destruction, especially nuclear weapons. The author contends that maintaining reliance on the nuclear-weapons option makes little sense in a time when the major Powers are strengthening their partnerships in economics, trade, peacemaking and building. (author)

  10. ARM Lead Mentor Selection Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisterson, DL

    2013-03-13

    The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as Instrument Mentors. Instrument Mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets.

  11. POSS with eight imidazolium iodide arms for efficient solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Li, Juan; Jiang, Shenghui; Wang, Zhong-Sheng

    2014-02-18

    Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane functionalized with eight imidazolium iodide arms has been designed and synthesized for use as solid-state electrolytes in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells, which exhibits a power conversion efficiency of 7.11% under one sun illumination and good long-term stability under one sun soaking. PMID:24394690

  12. Design of Robotic Arm Control System Mimics Human Arm Motion

    OpenAIRE

    A. Salam Al-Ammri; Ghaith .A .Taki

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a control system to make the robotic hand mimic human hand motion in real time and offline mode. The human hand tracking system is a wearable sensing arm (potentiometers) used to determine the position in space and to sense the grasping task of human hand. The maskable sensing arm was designed with same geometrical arrangement of robotic hand that needs to be controlled. The control software of a robot was implemented using Visual Basic and supported with graphical user in...

  13. RF SYNTHESIZER WITH DIRECT DIGITAL SYNTHESIZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Murav’iov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A synthesizer of frequencies with direct digital synthesis and a frequency multiplier on PLL are developed. Phase noises of an output signal of the synthesizer, noise of a loop of PLL, level of collateral radiations on outputs of the digital synthesizer (frequency of 100 MHz and the frequency multiplier output on a loop of PLL (frequency of 8 GHz are probed.

  14. RF SYNTHESIZER WITH DIRECT DIGITAL SYNTHESIZ

    OpenAIRE

    V. V. Murav’iov; S. A. Korenevsky; N. M. Naumovich; A. A. Stanul

    2015-01-01

    A synthesizer of frequencies with direct digital synthesis and a frequency multiplier on PLL are developed. Phase noises of an output signal of the synthesizer, noise of a loop of PLL, level of collateral radiations on outputs of the digital synthesizer (frequency of 100 MHz) and the frequency multiplier output on a loop of PLL (frequency of 8 GHz) are probed.

  15. Ristripatsid Eesti 12.–13. sajandi laibakalmistutes: kas ehted või usu tunnused? / The cross-shaped pendants of inhumation burials in 12th-13th century Estonia: adornments or signs of belief?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuuli Kurisoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-shaped pendants are one of the most discussed symbolically laden artefacts among Estonian archaeological material. The beginning of the distribution of cross-shaped pendants dates back to 11th century when the artefacts, though scarce, appear. The number of such pendants increases noticeably at the very end of the Iron Age. Due to the ambiguous entity of cross and time context, cross-pendants have been interpreted either as symbols of Christian faith, as pieces of adornment not affiliated with Christianity, or as objects with magical qualities. In this paper I study pendants found in the inhumation cemeteries of Estonia. Only those provide us with an archaeological context which shows precisely who could have worn them and how. The analyzed cross-pendants were found at Pada, Kaberla, Kukruse, Haimre and Tammiku cemeteries and from the early burials in Viru-Nigula churchyard. As artefacts, the cross pendants are more or less stylized Greek crosses. In most cases the pendants were either used as a part of jewellery or worn singularly around the neck area. From the total of 48 analyzed cross-pendants one fourth could be interpreted as locally produced items. Of local origin are probably lead pendants from Pada cemetery, heads of decorative pins worn as cross-shaped pendants from Viru-Nigula and Kaberla cemeteries, and obvious scrap and unfinished pendant crosses. In addition, I would like to draw attention that cross-pendants from inhumation burials do not contain many widespread forms, such as ‘Scandinavian’ and some other widespread Russian origin types, which have been found in hoards, from hill-forts and cremation burials. This observation could confirm that cross pendants from 12th–13th century inhumation burials were communally recognized and some of them were locally manufactured. As the next stage of my investigation I studied different occurrence contexts of cross pendants in cemeteries and burials: the location of burials with cross-pendants in a cemetery, their orientation, grave goods, pendants with symbolic meaning and reference to other cross-symbolism. It appears that concerning general burial rituals, burials with cross-pendants do not differ from other contemporary burials. In the case of people being buried with crosses, family and/or community traditions may have been considered primary in the funeral rite. On an individual level it resulted in cross-pendants appearing in the graves of males, females or children; as a part of a necklace, as grave goods, etc.; either one or several. Finally, I took into account the data which I gained from contextual analyses and connected it with common interpretations. The research indicates that it is not reasonable to exclude interpretations in which crosses are seen only as adornments. After analyzing archaeological contexts, it appears that they probably had a symbolic meaning. The ambiguous nature of other interpretations made it difficult to connect them with archaeological evidence. Creating criteria in favour of one and/or another interpretation is artificial, because archaeological evidence from the inhumation burials is not univocally understandable. Burials with and without crosses do not differ considerably. Thus we should not interpret 12th–13th century inhumation burials through strict definitions; rather we should take into account a pluralistic world-view, enriched with multifarious symbolic language. Therefore, previously separated interpretations can be connected. The cross pendant could have a symbolic meaning and the definition of an amulet connects well with a Christian artefact of the Late Iron Age. For the owner it could have been both a symbol of Christianity and/or a good luck charm. In conclusion it seems that based on contextual analysis it is more likely that cross-shaped pendants were used as indicators of belief rather than just pieces of adornment. In addition it appears that the impulse for the appearance of cross-shaped pendants in inhumation burials in Estonia came from the general dissemination of these

  16. Keeping disease at arm's length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    2015-01-01

    Many older people live with a range of chronic diseases. However, these diseases do not necessarily impede an active lifestyle. In this article the author analyses the relation between the active ageing discourse and the way older people at two Danish activity centres handle disease. How does...... active ageing change everyday life with chronic disease, and how do older people combine an active life with a range of chronic diseases? The participants in the study use activities to keep their diseases at arm’s length, and this distancing of disease at the same time enables them to engage in social...... and physical activities at the activity centre. In this way, keeping disease at arm’s length is analysed as an ambiguous health strategy. The article shows the importance of looking into how active ageing is practised, as active ageing seems to work well in the everyday life of the older people by not...

  17. Farming with an Arm Amputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farming with an Arm Amputation Farmers with upper-extremity amputations are at risk of secondary injuries because ... on data gathered by the Easter Seals Farm Family Rehabilitation Management (FaRM) Program through financial support from ...

  18. ARM Standards Policy Committee Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cialella, A; Jensen, M; Koontz, A; McFarlane, S; McCoy, R; Monroe, J; Palanisamy, G; Perez, R; Sivaraman, C

    2012-09-19

    Data and metadata standards promote the consistent recording of information and are necessary to ensure the stability and high quality of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility data products for scientific users. Standards also enable automated routines to be developed to examine data, which leads to more efficient operations and assessment of data quality. Although ARM Infrastructure agrees on the utility of data and metadata standards, there is significant confusion over the existing standards and the process for allowing the release of new data products with exceptions to the standards. The ARM Standards Policy Committee was initiated in March 2012 to develop a set of policies and best practices for ARM data and metadata standards.

  19. Changing patterns of arms transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three factors in the international system have been of importance for the trade of arms: the role of the main actors on the supply side and since 1970 on the demand side, the permanently increasing importance of economics, and the balance trade, industrial capacity and jobs in supplier countries and purchasing power of potential importers. Two political events in 1991 had lasting effect on the development of the trade in arms: the dissolution of Soviet Union and the Gulf War

  20. ARM Soc Based Enotebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranita C Bawankar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, electronic media has grown very fast replacing papers, tape devices, books, etc. The new technologies provide large number of data into single device, fast searching options and more readability than ever. As eBooks are replacing books; we are proposing ENotebook system in which user can write as he did in notebook, save, searches and then reread content. This paper presents design and development of ENotebook using ARM7. The system uses touch screen to get input data and operations like save, delete, open & close of data file. All data sensed by touch screen is digitized by internal ADCs of LPC2148 microcontroller which gives low power platform with fast execution. The output is shown on graphical LCD. Whatever user writes on screen it may need to save for future use. The content of such hand written data will be in graphical/pictorial form hence required large of memory for storage. We can provide external memory using pen drive, memory card, EEPROM etc. in this system we are using SD card interfacing through SPI port.

  1. Torsional Arming of Thiomannosyl Donors & Conformational Control of Hexahydropyridazines via pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jacob Ingemar

    The overall objective of the research presented in this PhD thesis was to investigate torsional arming of thiogalacto- and thiomannosyl donors (part 1) and to investigate the possible synthesis and attachment of a pH regulated conformational switch to an ?-cyclodextrin (part 2). Part 1: It is well...... “super-armed” thiogalactosyl and thiomannosyl donors were carried out (Chapter 2). This resulted in three model substrates of the manno stereochemistry where one was torsionally “super-armed”. These three donors were synthesized by the introduction of a cis-decaline system at O2 and O3 containing a......-membered azasugars as potential new glycosidase inhibitors. It also describes the successful synthesis of 1-deoxynojirimycin derivatives, containing a Abstract (English) The overall objective of the research presented in this PhD thesis was to investigate torsional arming of thiogalacto- and thiomannosyl donors...

  2. Arm locking for space-based laser interferometry gravitational wave observatories

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Yinan; Mueller, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Laser frequency stabilization is a critical part of the interferometry measurement system of space-based gravitational wave observatories such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). Arm locking as a proposed frequency stabilization technique, transfers the stability of the long arm lengths to the laser frequency. The arm locking sensor synthesizes an adequately filtered linear combination of the inter-spacecraft phase measurements to estimate the laser frequency noise, which can be used to control the laser frequency. At the University of Florida we developed the hardware-based University of Florida LISA Interferometer Simulator (UFLIS) to study and verify laser frequency noise reduction and suppression techniques under realistic LISA-like conditions. These conditions include the variable Doppler shifts between the spacecraft, LISA-like signal travel times, optical transponders, realistic laser frequency and timing noise. We review the different types of arm locking sensors and discuss their expect...

  3. Synthese de champs sonores adaptative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Philippe-Aubert

    La reproduction de champs acoustiques est une approche physique au probleme technologique de la spatialisation sonore. Cette these concerne l'aspect physique de la reproduction de champs acoustiques. L'objectif principal est l'amelioration de la reproduction de champs acoustiques par "synthese de champs acoustiques" ("Wave Field Synthesis", WFS), une approche connue, basee sur des hypotheses de champ libre, a l'aide du controle actif par l'ajout de capteurs de l'erreur de reproduction et d'une boucle fermee. Un premier chapitre technique (chapitre 4) expose les resultats d'appreciation objective de la WFS par simulations et mesures experimentales. L'effet indesirable de la salle de reproduction sur les qualites objectives de la WFS fut illustre. Une premiere question de recherche fut ensuite abordee (chapitre 5), a savoir s'il est possible de reproduire des champs progressifs en salle dans un paradigme physique de controle actif: cette possibilite fut prouvee. L'approche technique privilegiee, "synthese de champs adaptative" ("Adaptive Wave Field Synthesis" [AWFS]), fut definie, puis simulee (chapitre 6). Cette approche d'AWFS comporte une originalite en controle actif et en reproduction de champs acoustiques: la fonction cout quadratique representant la minimisation des erreurs de reproduction inclut une regularisation de Tikhonov avec solution a priori qui vient de la WFS. L'etude de l'AWFS a l'aide de la decomposition en valeurs singulieres (chapitre 7) a permis de comprendre les mecanismes propres a l'AWFS. C'est la deuxieme principale originalite de la these. L'algorithme FXLMS (LMS et reference filtree) est modifie pour l'AWFS (chapitre 8). Le decouplage du systeme par decomposition en valeurs singulieres est illustre dans le domaine du traitement de signal et l'AWFS basee sur le controle independant des modes de rayonnement est simulee (chapitre 8). Ce qui constitue la troisieme originalite principale de cette these. Ces simulations du traitement de signal montrent l'efficacite des algorithmes et la capacite de l'AWFS a attenuer les erreurs attribuables a des reflexions acoustiques. Le neuvieme chapitre presente des resultats experimentaux d'AWFS. L'objectif etait de valider la methode et d'evaluer les performances de l'AWFS. Un autre algorithme prometteur est aussi teste. Les resultats demontrent la bonne marche de l'AWFS et des algorithmes testes. Autant dans le cas de la reproduction de champs harmoniques que dans le cas de la reproduction de champs a large bande, l'AWFS reduit l'erreur de reproduction de la WFS et les effets indesirables causes par les lieux de reproduction.

  4. Synthesizing Diamond from Liquid Feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Yonhua

    2005-01-01

    A relatively economical method of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been developed for synthesizing diamond crystals and films. Unlike prior CVD methods for synthesizing diamond, this method does not require precisely proportioned flows of compressed gas feedstocks or the use of electrical discharges to decompose the feedstocks to obtain free radicals needed for deposition chemical reactions. Instead, the feedstocks used in this method are mixtures of common organic liquids that can be prepared in advance, and decomposition of feedstock vapors is effected simply by heating. The feedstock used in this method is a solution comprising between 90 and 99 weight percent of methanol and the balance of one or more other oxyhydrocarbons that could include ethanol, isopropanol, and/or acetone. This mixture of compounds is chosen so that dissociation of molecules results in the desired proportions of carbon-containing radicals (principally, CH3) and of OH, H, and O radicals. Undesirably, the CVD temperature and pressure conditions thermodynamically favor the growth of graphite over the growth of diamond. The H radicals are desirable because they help to stabilize the growing surface of diamond by shifting the thermodynamic balance toward favoring the growth of diamond. The OH and O radicals are desirable because they preferentially etch graphite and other non-diamond carbon, thereby helping to ensure the net deposition of pure diamond. The non-methanol compounds are included in the solution because (1) methanol contains equal numbers of C and O atoms; (2) an excess of C over O is needed to obtain net deposition of diamond; and (3) the non-methanol molecules contain multiple carbon atoms for each oxygen atom and thus supply the needed excess carbon A typical apparatus used in this method includes a reservoir containing the feedstock liquid and a partially evacuated stainless-steel reaction chamber. The reservoir is connected to the chamber via tubing and a needle valve or other suitable flow controller. When the liquid enters the low-pressure environment inside the chamber, it evaporates to form a vapor mixture of the same chemical composition. In addition to the inlet for the feedstock liquid, the chamber is fitted with an outlet connected to a vacuum pump (not shown) through a throttle valve (also not shown) that is automatically controlled to keep the pressure at or near the required value throughout the deposition process. Inside the chamber, a spiral filament made of tungsten, tantalum, graphite, or other high-melting-temperature material is electrically heated to a temperature >2,000 C high enough to cause dissociation of vapor molecules into the aforementioned radicals. A deposition substrate typically, a diamond-polished silicon wafer about 2.5 cm square is positioned about 2 cm away from the filament. The exact location of the substrate is chosen so that the substrate becomes heated by the filament to a deposition temperature in the approximate range of 800 to 1,000 C.

  5. Le volontariat armé au sein des milices nationalistes pendant la Guerre civile espagnole, 1936-1939 El voluntariado armado en las milicias nacionalistas durante la Guerra Civil Española

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Ségalas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available La guerre civile espagnole fut le fruit d’une conjonction de nombreux éléments, mais il fallut l’échec d’un coup d’État organisé par une partie de l’armée pour la faire éclater. Cette tentative de coup d’État « survient après une phase de politisation des masses sans équivalent antérieur, même pendant la Révolution de 1868 ». Cette politisation massive, alliée à une radicalisation de la vie politique espagnole durant la seconde République, peut expliquer en partie l’engagement de nombreux Esp...

  6. Design of Robotic Arm Control System Mimics Human Arm Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Salam Al-Ammri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a control system to make the robotic hand mimic human hand motion in real time and offline mode. The human hand tracking system is a wearable sensing arm (potentiometers used to determine the position in space and to sense the grasping task of human hand. The maskable sensing arm was designed with same geometrical arrangement of robotic hand that needs to be controlled. The control software of a robot was implemented using Visual Basic and supported with graphical user interface (GUI. The control algorithm depends on joint to joint mapping method to match between the motions at each joint of portable sensing arm with corresponding joint of a robot in order to make the robot mimic the motion.

  7. Iron Complexes Bearing Diphosphine Ligands with Positioned Pendant Amines as Electrocatalysts for the Oxidation of H2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tianbiao L.; Liao, Qian; O' Hagan, Molly J.; Hulley, Elliott; DuBois, Daniel L.; Bullock, R. Morris

    2015-06-22

    The synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of CpC5F4NFe(PtBu2NBn2)Cl, [3-Cl] (where C5F4N is the tetrafluorpyridyl substituent and PtBu2NBn2 = 1,5-di(tert-butyl)-3,7-di(benzyl)-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane) are reported. Complex 3-Cl and previously reported [CpC5F4NFe(PtBu2NtBu2)Cl], 4-Cl, are precursors to intermediates in the catalytic oxidation of H2, including CpC5F4NFe(PtBu2NBn2)H (3-H), CpC5F4NFe(PtBu2NtBu2)H (4-H), [CpC5F4NFe(PtBu2NBn2)]BArF4 ([3](BArF4), [CpC5F4NFe(PtBu2NtBu2)]BArF4 ([4](BArF4), [CpC5F4NFe(PtBu2NBn2)(H2)]BArF4 ([3-H2]BArF4), and [CpC5F4NFe(PtBu2NtBu2H)H]BArF4 ([4-FeH(NH)]BArF4). All of these complexes were characterized by spectroscopic and electrochemical studies; 3-Cl, 3-H and 4-Cl were also characterized by single crystal diffraction studies. 3-H and 4-H are electrocatalysts for H2 (1.0 atm) oxidation in the presence of a excess of the amine base N-methylpyrrolidine, with turnover frequencies at 22 °C of 2.5 s-1 and 0.5 s-1, and overpotentials at Ecat/2 of 235 mV and 95 mV, respectively. Studies of individual chemical and/or electrochemical reactions of the various intermediates provide important insights into the factors governing the overall catalytic activity for H2 oxidation, and provide important insights into the role of the pendant base of the [FeFe] hydrogenase active site. This work was supported by the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  8. Coke Formation During Hydrocarbons Pyrolysis. Part One: Steam Cracking Formation de coke pendant la pyrolise des hydrocarbures. Première partie : vapocraquage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weill J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermal cracking is always accompanied by coke formation, which becomes deposited on the wall and limits heat transfers in the reactor while increasing pressure drops and possibly even plugging up the reactor. This review article covers undesirable coking operations in steam craking reactors. These coking reactions may take place in the gas phase and/or on the surface of the reactor, with coke being produced during pyrolysis by a complex mechanism that breaks down into a catalytic sequence and a noncatalytic sequence. After a brief description of different experimental set-ups used to measure the coke deposition, on the basis of research described in the literature, the different factors and their importance for coke formation are listed. In particular, we describe the effects of surface properties of stainless-steel and quartz reactors as well as the influence of the cracked feedstock, of temperature, of dilution, of residence time and of the conversion on coke deposition. Some findings about the morphology of coke are described and linked to formation mechanisms. To illustrate this review, some particularly interesting research is referred to concerning models developed to assess coke formation during propane steam cracking. Le craquage thermique est toujours accompagné de la formation de coke qui, en se déposant à la paroi, limite les transferts de chaleur au réacteur, augmente les pertes de charges et même peut boucher celui-ci. Cet article fait le point sur les réactions indésirables de cokage dans les réacteurs de vapocraquage. Ces réactions de cokage peuvent avoir lieu en phase gazeuse et/ou sur la surface du réacteur, le coke étant produit pendant la pyrolyse par un mécanisme complexe qui se décompose en une séquence catalytique et une séquence non catalytique. Après une brève présentation des différents montages expérimentaux utilisés pour mesurer le dépôt de coke, il est mentionné, à partir de travaux de la littérature, les différents facteurs et leur importance sur la formation du coke. On présentera en particulier les effets de propriétés de surface de réacteurs en inox et en quartz, ainsi que l'influence de la charge craquée, de la température, de la dilution, du temps de séjour et de la conversion sur les dépôts de coke. Quelques résultats sur la morphologie du coke seront présentés et reliés aux mécanismes de formation du coke. Pour illustrer ce travail, on reprendra quelques études particulièrement intéressantes sur des modèles d'évaluation de la formation de coke développés pour le vapocraquage de propane.

  9. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Naasz, Bo; Cichy, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a robotic mission to visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, and redirect it into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts will explore the boulder and return to Earth with samples. This Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is part of NASA’s plan to advance the technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. Subsequent human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cislunar space. Although ARM is primarily a capability demonstration mission (i.e., technologies and associated operations), there exist significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, asteroidal resources and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and capability and technology demonstrations. In order to maximize the knowledge return from the mission, NASA is organizing an ARM Investigation Team, which is being preceded by the Formulation Assessment and Support Team. These teams will be comprised of scientists, technologists, and other qualified and interested individuals to help plan the implementation and execution of ARM. An overview of robotic and crewed segments of ARM, including the mission requirements, NEA targets, and mission operations, will be provided along with a discussion of the potential opportunities associated with the mission.

  10. Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N; Johnson, K

    2012-06-18

    The scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) is a polarimetric Doppler radar consisting of three different radar designs based on operating frequency. These are designated as follows: (1) X-band SACR (X-SACR); (2) Ka-band SACR (Ka-SACR); and (3) W-band SACR (W-SACR). There are two SACRs on a single pedestal at each site where SACRs are deployed. The selection of the operating frequencies at each deployed site is predominantly determined by atmospheric attenuation at the site. Because RF attenuation increases with atmospheric water vapor content, ARM's Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites use the X-/Ka-band frequency pair. The Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites field the Ka-/W-band frequency pair. One ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) has a Ka/W-SACR and the other (AMF2) has a X/Ka-SACR.

  11. LAWS ENFORCING AGENCIES -ARMED FORCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathwardhan Rathod

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The horrendous shooting down of 32 students and faculty in cold blood by a student at Virginia Tech University has once again highlighted the high price America is playing for the proliferation of small arms. The tragedy comes as the April 30 deadline nears for United Nations member states to submit their views to the Secretary General on the feasibility and parameters for a legally binding Arms Trade Treaty. This is a follow up to the historic meeting of the General Assembly on December 6,2006, when 153 member states overwhelmingly voted in favour of working out such a treaty.

  12. Linear versus dendritic molecular binders for hydrogel network formation with clay nanosheets: studies with ABA triblock copolyethers carrying guanidinium ion pendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamesue, Shingo; Ohtani, Masataka; Yamada, Kuniyo; Ishida, Yasuhiro; Spruell, Jason M; Lynd, Nathaniel A; Hawker, Craig J; Aida, Takuzo

    2013-10-16

    ABA-triblock copolyethers 1a-1c as linear polymeric binders, in combination with clay nanosheets (CNSs), afford high-water-content moldable supramolecular hydrogels with excellent mechanical properties by constructing a well-developed crosslinked network in water. The linear binders carry in their terminal A blocks guanidinium ion (Gu(+)) pendants for adhesion to the CNS surface, while their central B block comprises poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) that serves as a flexible linker for adhered CNSs. Although previously reported dendritic binder 2 requires multistep synthesis and purification, the linear binders can be obtained in sizable quantities from readily available starting materials by controlled polymerization. Together with dendritic reference 2, the modular nature of compounds 1a-1c with different numbers of Gu(+) pendants and PEO linker lengths allowed for investigating how their structural parameters affect the gel network formation and hydrogel properties. The newly obtained hydrogels are mechanically as tough as that with 2, although the hydrogelation takes place more slowly. Irrespective of which binder is used, the supramolecular gel network has a shape memory feature upon drying followed by rewetting, and the gelling water can be freely replaced with ionic liquids and organic fluids, affording novel clay-reinforced iono- and organogels, respectively. PMID:24050260

  13. Composites comprising biologically-synthesized nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Seamus; Dias, Sampath; Blau, Werner; Wang, Jun; Oremland, Ronald S; Baesman, Shaun

    2013-04-30

    The present disclosure describes composite materials containing a polymer material and a nanoscale material dispersed in the polymer material. The nanoscale materials may be biologically synthesized, such as tellurium nanorods synthesized by Bacillus selenitireducens. Composite materials of the present disclosure may have optical limiting properties and find use in optical limiting devices.

  14. 52-GHz Millimetre-Wave PLL Synthesizer

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ja-Yol; Yu, Hyun-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, we design and fabricate a 52GHz frequency synthesizer for 60GHz dualconversion receiver using SiGe BiCMOS process technology. The designed PLL-based frequency synthesizer consists of a 26-GHz PLL and a 52-GHz frequency doubler. In the

  15. Poly (ethylene glycol)-armed hyperbranched polyoxetanes for anticancer drug delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Khushboo; Zolotarskaya, Olga Yu.; Wynne, Kenneth J.; Yang, Hu

    2012-01-01

    A facile method for synthesis of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-armed hyperbranched polyoxetanes is presented as well as characterization and use in drug delivery. A series of hyperbranched polyoxetanes with multiple PEG arms were synthesized via a one-pot cationic ring-opening polymerization of 3-ethyl-3-hydroxymethyloxetane (EHMO) and its PEGylated derivative (EPMO), in which the feed mass ratio of EHMO to EPMO was 98:2, 96:4, 74:26, or 17:83. Characterization methods included NMR, DLS, FT-IR, D...

  16. Does Octopus vulgaris have preferred arms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Ruth A; Kuba, Michael J; Meisel, Daniela V; Griebel, Ulrike; Mather, Jennifer A

    2006-08-01

    Previous behavioral studies in Octopus vulgaris revealed lateralization of eye use. In this study, the authors expanded the scope to investigate arm preferences. The octopus's generalist hunting lifestyle and the structure of their arms suggest that these animals have no need to designate specific arms for specific tasks. However, octopuses also show behaviors, like exploration, in which only single or small groups of arms are involved. Here the authors show that octopuses had a strong preference for anterior arm use to reach for and explore objects, which points toward a task division between anterior and posterior arms. Four out of 8 subjects also showed a lateral bias. In addition, octopuses had a preference for a specific arm to reach into a T maze to retrieve a food reward. These findings give evidence for limb-specialization in an animal whose 8 arms were believed to be equipotential. PMID:16893257

  17. Nuclear physicist, arms control advocate

    CERN Multimedia

    Chang, K

    2002-01-01

    Victor F. Weisskopf, a nuclear physicist who worked on the Manhattan Project to build the first atomic bomb in World War II and later became an ardent advocate of arms control, died Monday at his home in Newton, MA, USA. He was 93 (1 page).

  18. The Arm Prime Factors Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Arm, Boris

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the Arm prime factors decomposition which is the equivalent of the Taylor formula for decomposition of integers on the basis of prime numbers. We make the link between this decomposition and the p-adic norm known in the p-adic numbers theory. To see how it works, we give examples of these two

  19. Spirality: Spiral arm pitch angle measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Douglas W.; Boe, Benjamin; Pfountz, Casey; Davis, Benjamin L.; Hartley, Matthew; Pour Imani, Hamed; Slade, Zac; Kennefick, Daniel; Kennefick, Julia

    2015-12-01

    Spirality measures spiral arm pitch angles by fitting galaxy images to spiral templates of known pitch. Written in MATLAB, the code package also includes GenSpiral, which produces FITS images of synthetic spirals, and SpiralArmCount, which uses a one-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform to count the spiral arms of a galaxy after its pitch is determined.

  20. Arm locking for space-based laser interferometry gravitational wave observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yinan; Mitryk, Shawn; Mueller, Guido

    2014-09-01

    Laser frequency stabilization is a critical part of the interferometry measurement system of space-based gravitational wave observatories such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). Arm locking as a proposed frequency stabilization technique transfers the stability of the long arm lengths to the laser frequency. The arm locking sensor synthesizes an adequately filtered linear combination of the interspacecraft phase measurements to estimate the laser frequency noise, which can be used to control the laser frequency. At the University of Florida we developed the hardware-based University of Florida LISA Interferometer Simulator to study and verify laser frequency noise reduction and suppression techniques under realistic LISA-like conditions. These conditions include the variable Doppler shifts among the spacecraft, LISA-like signal travel times, optical transponders, realistic laser frequency, and timing noise. We review the different types of arm locking sensors and discuss their expected performance in LISA. The presented results are supported by results obtained during experimental studies of arm locking under relevant LISA-like conditions. We measured the noise suppression as well as initial transients and frequency pulling in the presence of Doppler frequency errors. This work has demonstrated the validity and feasibility of arm locking in LISA.

  1. Metall-Katalysierte Enantioselektive Synthese von Propargylaminen und ihre Anwendungen in der Synthese

    OpenAIRE

    Gommermann, Nina

    2005-01-01

    Im Rahmen der Dissertation "Metall-katalysierte enantioselektive Synthese von Propargylaminen und ihre Anwendungen in der Synthese" wurde eine Kupfer-katalysierte enantioselektive Additionsreaktion von Alkinen an in situ generierte Iminium-Ionen untersucht. Zunächst wurde eine neuartige Eintopf-Synthese entwickelt, die eine besonders atomökonomische und synthetisch wertvolle Methode zur Darstellung der Propargylamne darstellt. Dabei wurden equimolare Mengen von terminalen Alkinen, Aldehyden ...

  2. Mesomorphic properties of chiral three-arm liquid crystals containing 1,2,4-butanetriol as core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Mei; Wu, Shuang-jie; Tian, Xiao-Wei; Yao, Dan-Shu; Li, Chong-Liang; Hu, Jian-She; Zhang, Bao-Yan

    2016-03-01

    A series of symmetric and asymmetric three-arm liquid crystals (TALCs) of which the molecular structure with a central core of 1, 2, 4-butanetriol attached by three rod-like mesogenic moieties have successfully been synthesized. The rod-like mesogenic side arms are 4?-(4-(trifluoromethyl) benzoyloxy) biphenyl-4-carboxylic acid (TFBA) and 4?-(4-(allyloxy) benzoyloxy) biphenyl-4-carboxylic acid (AOBA), respectively. BTA0 and BTA3 are symmetric TALCs with three TFBA or three AOBA as LC side arms, respectively. BTA1 is an asymmetric TALC with one AOBA and two TFBA as side arms. BTA2 is an asymmetric TALC with two AOBA and one TFBA as side arms. The chemical structures and LC properties of the LC side arms and TALCs were characterised by FTIR, 1H NMR, elemental analysis, DSC, TG, POM and X-ray diffractometer. TFBA displayed smectic B (SmB) phase, AOBA exhibited nematic (N) phase. The TALCs all displayed chiral mesophase properties. BTA0 displayed chiral smectic C (SmC?) mesophase. BTA1, BTA2 and BTA3 exhibited cholesteric (ch) mesophase. In addition, a chiral smectic A (SmA?) mesophase was observed for BTA1. The results indicated that the 1, 2, 4-butanetriol is vital in inducing chiral mesophase of the TALCs. The side arms also played an important role in the mesophase type and mesogenic region. The TALCs displayed cholesteric mesophase when nematic LC side arm AOBA was introduced into the chiral core. The mesogenic region of the TALCs increased with the content of the wide-mesophase-region LC side arm AOBA introduced into the TALCs increasing. The melting temperature and the clear temperature of the TALCs were lower than those of the LC side arms (TFBA and AOBA). The mesophase regions of the TALCs were wider than those of the LC side arms.

  3. Thermoelectric Properties of Solution Synthesized Nanostructured Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finefrock, Scott W; Yang, Haoran; Fang, Haiyu; Wu, Yue

    2015-07-24

    Thermoelectric nanocomposites made by solution synthesis and compression of nanostructured chalcogenides could potentially be low-cost, scalable alternatives to traditional solid-state synthesized materials. We review the progress in this field by comparing the power factor and/or the thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT, of four classes of materials: (Bi,Sb)2(Te,Se)3, PbTe, ternary and quaternary copper chalcogenides, and silver chalcogenides. We also discuss the thermal conductivity reduction associated with multiphased nanocomposites. The ZT of the best solution synthesized materials are, in several cases, shown to be equal to or greater than the corresponding bulk materials despite the generally reduced mobility associated with solution synthesized nanocomposites. For the solution synthesized materials with the highest performance, the synthesis and processing conditions are summarized to provide guidance for future work. PMID:25938922

  4. Raman assisted lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    We present a Lightwave Synthesized Frequency Sweeper comprising a Raman amplifier for loss compensation. The generated pulse train contains 123 pulses and has a flat signal level as well as a low noise level.

  5. Freestanding doped silicon nanocrystals synthesized by plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Zhenyi; Pi, Xiaodong; Ali, Muhammad; Zhou, Shu; Nozaki, Tomohiro; Yang, Deren

    2015-08-01

    Freestanding silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) have recently gained great popularity largely due to their easily accessible surface and flexible incorporation into device structures. In the past decade plasmas have been increasingly employed to synthesize freestanding Si NCs. As freestanding Si NCs move closer to applications in a variety of fields such as electronics, thermoelectrics and lithium-ion batteries, doping becomes more imperative. Such a context explains the current great interest in plasma-synthesized doped freestanding Si NCs. In this work we review the synthesis of freestanding doped Si NCs by plasma. Doping-induced structural, electronic, optical and oxidation properties of Si NCs are discussed. We also review the applications of plasma-synthesized doped freestanding Si NCs that have been demonstrated so far. The development of freestanding doped Si NCs synthesized by plasma in the future is envisioned.

  6. Synthesizing a color algorithm from examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbert, A C; Poggio, T A

    1988-01-29

    A lightness algorithm that separates surface reflectance from illumination in a Mondrian world is synthesized automatically from a set of examples, which consist of pairs of input (intensity signal) and desired output (surface reflectance) images. The algorithm, which resembles a new lightness algorithm recently proposed by Land, is approximately equivalent to filtering the image through a center-surround receptive field in individual chromatic channels. The synthesizing technique, optimal linear estimation, requires only one assumption, that the operator that transforms input into output is linear. This assumption is true for a certain class of early vision algorithms that may therefore be synthesized in a similar way from examples. Other methods of synthesizing algorithms from examples, or "learning," such as back-propagation, do not yield a significantly better lightness algorithm. PMID:3340834

  7. Magnetic Spiral Arms and Galactic Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Chamandy, Luke; Subramanian, Kandaswamy

    2014-01-01

    Galactic magnetic arms have been observed between the gaseous arms of some spiral galaxies; their origin remains unclear. We suggest that magnetic spiral arms can be naturally generated in the interarm regions because the galactic fountain flow or wind is likely to be weaker there than in the arms. Galactic outflows lead to two countervailing effects: removal of small-scale magnetic helicity, which helps to avert catastrophic quenching of the dynamo, and advection of the large-scale magnetic field, which suppresses dynamo action. For realistic galactic parameters, the net consequence of outflows being stronger in the gaseous arms is higher saturation large-scale field strengths in the interarm regions as compared to in the arms. By incorporating rather realistic models of spiral structure and evolution into our dynamo models, an interlaced pattern of magnetic and gaseous arms can be produced.

  8. Magnetic spiral arms and galactic outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamandy, Luke; Shukurov, Anvar; Subramanian, Kandaswamy

    2015-01-01

    Galactic magnetic arms have been observed between the gaseous arms of some spiral galaxies; their origin remains unclear. We suggest that magnetic spiral arms can be naturally generated in the interarm regions because the galactic fountain flow or wind is likely to be weaker there than in the arms. Galactic outflows lead to two countervailing effects: removal of small-scale magnetic helicity, which helps to avert catastrophic quenching of the dynamo, and advection of the large-scale magnetic field, which suppresses dynamo action. For realistic galactic parameters, the net consequence of outflows being stronger in the gaseous arms is higher saturation large-scale field strengths in the interarm regions as compared to in the arms. By incorporating rather realistic models of spiral structure and evolution into our dynamo models, an interlaced pattern of magnetic and gaseous arms can be produced.

  9. FPGA Implementation of a Parameterized Fourier Synthesizer

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Rui; Wang, J G; Clement, Benoit; Mansour, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) offers advantages for many applications, particularly where missions are complex and time performance is critical. For small-production digital acoustic synthesizers, FPGA can achieve the above-mentioned tighter system requirements with low total system costs on single chip. In this manuscript, a real-time acoustic synthesizer is implemented using Fourier series algorithm on Altera's Cyclone II FPGA chip. This work emphasizes systematic designs and paralle...

  10. SYNTHESIZED CAPITAL AND MODERNIZATION OF SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Gavkalova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available At present in Ukraine, the processes of integration and globalization are deepening, the impact of economic factors in all spheres of life has increased, and innovative investment model of development is being formed in the state. The research of issues related to the synthesized capital in the context of modernization complies with modern challenges of national scientific thought, taking into account the fact that capitalization of synthesized capital can increase its overall value and can be regarded as a means of society modernization, reflecting the importance and urgency of this work.The objective of the article is to establish the scientific and theoretical principles of synthesized capitalization as a means of society modernization.The continuous development of a country, region, an enterprise within the scope of modernization is feasible under conditions of capitalization, resulting in the processes associated with transfer of synthesized capital, increasing the relative value added. We believe that capitalization of synthesized capital should be seen as the means of modernization of society and should lead to the following:· accumulation of synthesized (human, intellectual and social capital of the country, followed by its distribution at the national level (it is about creating national and regional integrated structures, TNK and clusters which may include universities;· creation of conditions for the transformation of synthesized capital in to geo-economic capital of the country, which should ensure both efficient creation of innovative model of an enterprise development and socio-economic development of the country.The authors’ calculations along with updating capitalization of synthesized capital allows to specify the strategic directions of the development of the country towards sustainability of its socio-economic configuration of modernization.

  11. Total syntheses of (-)-spirooliganones A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lin; Xiao, Mingxing; Xie, Zhixiang

    2014-05-16

    The enantioselective syntheses of (-)-spirooliganones A and B have been accomplished in eight steps from commercially available starting materials. Noteworthy transformations include a three-component hetero-Diels-Alder cycloaddition to construct the tetracyclic core of spirooliganones, a Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation, and a tandem oxidative dearomatization/cyclization to build the oxa-spiro cyclohexadienone skeleton. The straightforward syntheses were performed without protecting groups. PMID:24787364

  12. New Mixer Used in Direct Frequency Synthesizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Stork

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequency synthesizers are an essential part of any modern transceiver system. They generate clock and oscillator signals needed for up and down conversion. Today’s communication standards demand both high frequency accuracy and fast frequency settling. The fine frequency resolution, low spurious signals, accuracy and stability are most important for these devices. In this paper, the new frequency synthesizer architecture based on direct synthesis and coincidence mixer is presented. The simulation results are also shown.

  13. Poly(?-Caprolactone)-Based Copolymers Bearing Pendant Cyclic Ketals and Reactive Acrylates for the Fabrication of Photocrosslinked Elastomers

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xiaowei; Cui, Chengzhong; Tong, Zhixiang; Sabanayagam, Chandran R.; JIA, XINQIAO

    2013-01-01

    Block copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) with chemically addressable functional groups were synthesized and characterized. Ring opening polymerization of ?-caprolactone (CL) and 1,4,8-trioxaspiro-[4,6]-9-undecanone (TSU) using ?-methoxy, ?-hydroxyl poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) as the initiator afforded a copolymer with cyclic ketals being randomly distributed in the hydrophobic PCL block. At an initiator/catalyst molar ratio of 10/1 and a TSU/CL weight ra...

  14. Thermoresponsive Poly(2-oxazoline) Molecular Brushes by Living Ionic Polymerization: Kinetic Investigations of Pendant Chain Grafting and Cloud Point Modulation by Backbone and Side Chain Length Variation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ning

    2012-04-17

    Molecular brushes of poly(2-oxazoline)s were prepared by living anionic polymerization of 2-iso-propenyl-2-oxazoline to form the backbone and subsequent living cationic ring-opening polymerization of 2-n- or 2-iso-propyl-2-oxazoline for pendant chain grafting. In situ kinetic studies indicate that the initiation efficiency and polymerization rates are independent from the number of initiator functions per initiator molecule. This was attributed to the high efficiency of oxazolinium salt and the stretched conformation of the backbone, which is caused by the electrostatic repulsion of the oxazolinium moieties along the macroinitiator. The resulting molecular brushes showed thermoresponsive properties, that is, having a defined cloud point (CP). The dependence of the CP as a function of backbone and side chain length as well as concentration was studied. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Metal-Chelating Polymers (MCPs) with Zwitterionic Pendant Groups Complexed to Trastuzumab Exhibit Decreased Liver Accumulation Compared to Polyanionic MCP Immunoconjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Boyle, Amanda J; Lu, Yijie; Adams, Jarrett; Chi, Yuechuan; Reilly, Raymond M; Winnik, Mitchell A

    2015-11-01

    Metal-chelating polymers (MCPs) can amplify the radioactivity delivered to cancer cells by monoclonal antibodies or their Fab fragments. We focus on trastuzumab (tmAb), which is used to target cancer cells that overexpress human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). We report the synthesis and characterization of a biotin (Bi) end-capped MCP, Bi-PAm(DET-DTPA)36, a polyacrylamide with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) groups attached as monoamides to the polymer backbone by diethylenetriamine (DET) pendant groups. We compared its behavior in vivo and in vitro to a similar MCP with ethylenediamine (EDA) pendant groups (Bi-PAm(EDA-DTPA)40). These polymers were complexed to a streptavidin-modified Fab fragment of tmAb, then labeled with (111)In to specifically deliver multiple copies of (111)In to HER2+ cancer cells. Upon decay, (111)In emits γ-rays that can be used in single-photon emission computed tomography radioimaging, as well as Auger electrons that cause lethal double strand breakage of DNA. Our previous studies in Balb/c mice showed that radioimmunoconjugates (RICs) containing the Bi-PAm(EDA-DTPA)40 polymer had extremely short blood circulation time and high liver uptake and were, thus, unsuitable for in vivo studies. The polymer Bi-PAm(EDA-DTPA)40 carries negative charges on each pendant group at neutral pH and a net charge of (-1) on each pendant group when saturated with stable In(3+). To test our hypothesis that charge associated with the polymer repeat unit is a key factor affecting its biodistribution profile, we examined the biodistribution of RICs containing Bi-PAm(DET-DTPA)36. While this polymer is also negatively charged at neutral pH, it becomes a zwitterionic MCP upon saturation of the DTPA groups with stable In(3+) ions. In both nontumor bearing Balb/c mice and athymic mice implanted with HER2+ SKOV-3 human ovarian cancer tumors, we show that the zwitterionic MCP has improved biodistribution, higher blood levels of radioactivity, lower levels of normal tissue uptake, and higher tumor uptake. Surface plasmon resonance experiments employing the extracellular domain of HER2 show that the MCP immunoconjugates retain high affinity antigen recognition, with dissociation constants in the low nM range. In vitro studies with SKOV-3 cells for both MCP immunoconjugates show a combination of specific binding that can be completed in the presence of excess tmAb IgG and nonspecific binding (NSB) that persists in the presence of tmAb IgG. We conclude that zwitterionic MCPs represent a much better choice than polymers with charges along the backbone for in vivo delivery of RICs to HER2+ cancer cells. PMID:26469142

  16. Dual arm master controller concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented

  17. Coating morphology and surface composition of acrylic terpolymers with pendant catechol, OEG and perfluoroalkyl groups in varying ratio and the effect on protein adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jun; Ji, Hua; Duan, Jiang; Tu, Haiyang; Zhang, Aidong

    2016-04-01

    This work aims at developing versatile low-biofouling polymeric coatings by using acrylic terpolymers (DOFs) that bear pendant catechol (D), oligo(ethylene glycol) (O), and perfluoroalkyl (F) groups in varying ratios. The polymers were endowed with the ability to form firmly coatings on virtually any surfaces and undergo surface microphase separation and self-assembly, as revealed by the surface enrichment of F pendants and the morphology variation from irregular solid domains to discrete crater-type aggregates of different size. The effect on protein adsorption was investigated using bovine serum albumin (BSA) and adhesive fibrinogen (Fib) as model proteins. The coating of DOF164 (low F content), which has morphology of discrete crater-type aggregates of ∼400nm in size, adsorbed a least amount of protein but with a highest protein unit activity as determined by SPR and immunosorbent assay; whereas the coating of DOF1612 (high F content) showed a 12.3-fold higher adsorption capacity toward Fib. Interestingly, a 2.2-fold lower adsorption amount but with a 1.8-fold higher unit activity was found for Fib adsorbed on the DOF164 surface than on DOF250 (without F fraction), whose OEG segments being a widely recognized protein compatible material. The features of the DOF164 terpolymer presenting a robust coating ability and a minimal protein adsorption capacity while with a high protein unit activity suggest its potential application as a non-fouling surface-modifier for medical antifouling coatings and as a matrix material for selective protein immobilization and activity preservation in biosensor construction. PMID:26764109

  18. Darwin curves and galaxy arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin

    2014-07-01

    In the natural world, there exists one kind of structure which is beyond the scope of human laboratorial experiment. It is the structure of galaxies which is usually composed of billions of stars. Spiral galaxies are flat disk-shaped. There are two types of spiral galaxies. The spiral galaxies with some bar-shaped pattern are called barred spirals, and the ones without the pattern are called ordinary spirals. Longer-wavelength galaxy images (infrared, for example) show that ordinary spiral galaxies are basically an axi-symmetric disk that is called exponential disk. For a planar distribution of matter, Jin He defined Darwin curves in the plane as such that the ratio of the matter densities at both sides of the curve is constant along the curve. Therefore, the arms of ordinary spiral galaxies are Darwin curves. Now an important question is that: Are the arms of barred spiral galaxies the Darwin curves too? Fortunately, Jin He designed a piece of Galaxy Anatomy graphic software. With the software, not only can people simulate the stellar density distribution of barred spiral galaxies but also can draw the Darwin curves of the simulated galaxy structure. This paper shows partial evidence that the arms of galaxy NGC 3275, 4548 and 5921 follow Darwin curves.

  19. Double-arm focusing spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The double-arm focusing spectrometer designed for study of processes of large transverse momentum particle production is described. The characteristics of a monitor system, detecting apparatus and of the spectrometer as a whole as well as experimental facility software are presented. Time-of-flight spectrometers, Cherenkov threshold counters, Cherenkov full absorption spectrometers and a muon identifier are used for charged particle identification. The electronic spectrometer equipment comprises two independent and identical parts providing the recording of events in both spectrometer arms as well as the logical scheme of a trigger of coincidences between the spectrometer arms, scheme of synchronization with accelerator cycles, the proton beam monitor system, equipment interface with HP 2100 and ES 1040 computers. Main characteristics of the spectrometer are presented. The spectrometer has been used to perform a series of experiments with hydrogen, deuterium and nuclear targets. The spectrometer operation experience has shown the correctness of basic selected solutions at its creation. For example, the presence of vertical and horizontal focusing has increased the spectrometer aperture in five times. Particle deflection of direct orientation allows using drift chambers at high intensity of proton beam

  20. Synthesis, conformational and spectroscopic characterization of monomeric styrene derivatives having pendant p-substituted benzylic ether groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinar, Mehmet; Ozcan, Levent; Karabacak, Mehmet; Erol, Ibrahim

    2013-07-01

    Three derivatives of styrene monomer, 4-chlorophenyl-4-vinylbenzyl ether (I), 4-methoxyphenyl-4-vinylbenzyl ether (II) and 4-ethylphenyl-4-vinylbenzyl ether (III) were synthesized. The synthesized two novel compounds (I and III) and one with undefined structural features were identified by experimental spectroscopic techniques and density functional approach. The optimized geometrical structure, vibrational and electronic transitions along with chemical shifts of those compounds were presented in this study. The vibrational spectra of investigated compounds were recorded in solid state with FT-IR spectrometry in the range of 4000-400 cm-1. The computational vibrational wavenumbers and also ground state equilibrium conformations were carried out by using density functional method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. Assignments of the fundamental vibrational modes were examined on the basis of the measured data and total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanical (SQM) method. Isotropic chemical shift of hydrogen and carbon nuclei were investigated via observed 1H and 13C NMR spectra in deuterated DMSO solution and predicted data applied with gauge-invariant atomic orbitals (GIAOs) method. The UV absorption spectra of monomers were observed in the range of 200-800 nm in ethanol, and time dependent DFT method was used to obtain the electronic properties. A detailed description of spectroscopic behaviors of compound was given based on the comparison of experimental measurements and theoretical computations.

  1. Evaluating template bias when synthesizing population averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Blake L.; Christensen, Gary E.; Johnson, Hans J.; Vannier, Michael W.

    2001-07-01

    Establishing the average shape and spatial variability for a set of similar anatomical objects is important for detecting and discriminating morphological differences between populations. This may be done using deformable templates to synthesize a 3D CT/MRI image of the average anatomy from a set of CT/MRI images collected from a population of similar anatomical objects. This paper investigates the error associated with the choice of template selected from the population used to synthesize the average population shape. Population averages were synthesized for a population of five infant skulls with sagittal synostosis and a population of six normal adult brains using a consistent linear-elastic image registration algorithm. Each data set from the populations was used as the template to synthesize a population average. This resulted in five different population averages for the skull population and six different population averages for the brain population. The displacement variance distance from a skull within the population to the other skulls in the population ranged from 5.5 to 9.9 mm2 while the displacement variance distance from the synthesized average skulls to the population ranged from 2.2 to 2.7 mm2. The displacement variance distance from a brain within the population to the other brains in the population ranged from 9.3 to 14.2 mm2 while the displacement variance distance from the synthesized average brains to the population ranged from 3.2 to 3.6 mm2. These results suggest that there was no significant difference between the choice of template with respect to the shape of the synthesized average data set for these two populations.

  2. Arms export controls, subsidies and the WTO exemption

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Alonso, Maria D C; Levine, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Owing to the World Trade Organization (WTO) exemption that allows governments to subsidize arms exports, the arms trade is one of the few remaining areas of trade where we observe export subsidies. This paper examines the effect of arms controls, in the form of licensing delays, on the incentives to subsidize arms exports and conversely the effect of the WTO arms trade exemption on the incentives to break arms control agreements. Our main result is that arms controls and free trade commitment...

  3. VCO PLL Frequency Synthesizers for Spacecraft Transponders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott; Mysoor, Narayan; Lux, James; Cook, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Two documents discuss a breadboard version of advanced transponders that, when fully developed, would be installed on future spacecraft to fly in deep space. These transponders will be required to be capable of operation on any deepspace- communications uplink frequency channel between 7,145 and 7,235 MHz, and any downlink frequency channel between 8,400 and 8,500 MHz. The document focuses on the design and operation of frequency synthesizers for the receiver and transmitter. Heretofore, frequency synthesizers in deep-space transponders have been based on dielectric resonator oscillators (DROs), which do not have the wide tuning bandwidth necessary to tune over all channels in the uplink or downlink frequency bands. To satisfy the requirement for tuning bandwidth, the present frequency synthesizers are based on voltage-controlled-oscillator (VCO) phase-locked loops (PLLs) implemented by use of monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) implemented using inGaP heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) technology. MMIC VCO PLL frequency synthesizers similar to the present ones have been used in commercial and military applications but, until now, have exhibited too much phase noise for use in deep-space transponders. The present frequency synthesizers contain advanced MMIC VCOs, which use HBT technology and have lower levels of flicker (1/f) phase noise. When these MMIC VCOs are used with high-speed MMIC frequency dividers, it becomes possible to obtain the required combination of frequency agility and low phase noise.

  4. Preparation and characterization of proton exchange poly (ether sulfone)s membranes grafted propane sulfonic acid on pendant phenyl groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly(ether sulfone)s containing hexaphenyl (PHP) was prepared by 1,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3,4,5,6-tetraphenylbenzene, 4,4-hydroxyphenylsulfone, and 4,4-fluorophenylsulfone, followed bromination on phenyl groups to produce brominated PHP (Br-PHP). Grafted sulfonated poly(ether sulfone)s containing hexaphenyl (GSPHP) were prepared from Br-PHP and 3-bromopropane sulfonic acid with potassium salt and copper powder. The salt form was converted to free acid using 1 M sulfuric acid solution. All these membranes were cast from dimethylacetamide (DMAc). The structural properties of the synthesized polymers were investigated by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The membranes were studied with regard to ion exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake, Fenton test, and proton conductivity. These grafted polymer membranes were compared with normal sulfonated poly(ether sulfone)s and Nafion

  5. The performance of arm locking in LISA

    CERN Document Server

    McKenzie, Kirk; Shaddock, Daniel A

    2009-01-01

    For the laser interferometer space antenna (LISA) to reach it's design sensitivity, the coupling of the free running laser frequency noise to the signal readout must be reduced by more than 14 orders of magnitude. One technique employed to reduce the laser frequency noise will be arm locking, where the laser frequency is locked to the LISA arm length. This paper details an implementation of arm locking, studies orbital effects, the impact of errors in the Doppler knowledge, and noise limits. The noise performance of arm locking is calculated with the inclusion of the dominant expected noise sources: ultra stable oscillator (clock) noise, spacecraft motion, and shot noise. Studying these issues reveals that although dual arm locking [A. Sutton & D. A Shaddock, Phys. Rev. D 78, 082001 (2008).] has advantages over single (or common) arm locking in terms of allowing high gain, it has disadvantages in both laser frequency pulling and noise performance. We address this by proposing a hybrid sensor, retaining th...

  6. ARM assembly language with hardware experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Elahi, Ata

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a hands-on approach to learning ARM assembly language with the use of a TI microcontroller. The book starts with an introduction to computer architecture and then discusses number systems and digital logic. The text covers ARM Assembly Language, ARM Cortex Architecture and its components, and Hardware Experiments using TILM3S1968. Written for those interested in learning embedded programming using an ARM Microcontroller. ·         Introduces number systems and signal transmission methods   ·         Reviews logic gates, registers, multiplexers, decoders and memory   ·         Provides an overview and examples of ARM instruction set   ·         Uses using Keil development tools for writing and debugging ARM assembly language Programs   ·         Hardware experiments using a Mbed NXP LPC1768 microcontroller; including General Purpose Input/Output (GPIO) configuration, real time clock configuration, binary input to 7-segment display, creating ...

  7. Theory of Robotics Arm Control with PLC

    OpenAIRE

    Safdar, Bilal

    2015-01-01

    This thesis was commissioned for Saimaa University of Applied Sciences with the aim of understanding the control system for a robotic arm. The Robotic Arm in this case was from Saimaa University of Applied Sciences. The main objective of this thesis was to understand a control system for the Robotic Arm using a programmable logic controller (PLC) along with gripper. The control system consisted of the electronic components (the PLC, a motor controller, a voltage regulator, a control pende...

  8. Preventing Interstate Armed Conflict : whose responsibility?

    OpenAIRE

    Otunba, Ganiyu

    2010-01-01

    This is a study of interstate armed conflict prevention. The concept of conflict, armed conflict and conflict prevention is defined and explained in order to be able to investigate if there is any single institution saddled with the responsibility of preventing interstate armed conflict and also to verify if adequate efforts are been put in this area which is of importance to mankind. The relationship between conflict prevention, conflict management and conflict resolution is also discussed s...

  9. Design Lower Arm Using Optimum Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Adel Mahmoud Bash

    2011-01-01

    In the automotive industry, the riding comfort and handling qualities of an automobile are greatly affected by the suspension system. This paper presents the robust design of vehicle suspension arm using stochastic design improvement (SDI) technique based on Monte Carlo simulation. The main goal of this study is to determine the optimum design for the suspension arm. The structural model of the suspension arm was utilizing the Solid works and aluminum alloys (AA7075-T6) are selected as a susp...

  10. Introduction to Reading and Visualizing ARM Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, James [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2014-02-18

    Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program standard data format is NetCDF 3 (Network Common Data Form). The object of this tutorial is to provide a basic introduction to NetCDF with an emphasis on aspects of the ARM application of NetCDF. The goal is to provide basic instructions for reading and visualizing ARM NetCDF data with the expectation that these examples can then be applied to more complex applications.

  11. Arms Trade Offsets and Cases of Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Platzgummer

    2014-01-01

    Because of a lack of transparency and the high complexity of administrative processes, arms acquisition is an area with a high risk of corruption. The aim of this paper is: 1) to provide a typology of cases of corruption in compensatory trade agreements, so called arms trade offsets, that have become integral parts of most arms trades; and 2) to analyze tools possessed by government agencies concerned to prevent or detect corruption. Based on an analysis of all major English-speaking newspape...

  12. MODELING AND SIMULATION OF ROBOTIC HUMANOID ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RANJEET RANJAN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper block model and machine model of Robotic humanoid arm has been generated Using MATLAB Simulink. Equations of Kinematics are derived by using D-H notation. By this equation and inverse kinematicsparameters for the motion trajectory have been determined. Kinematic parameters are divided into two groups namely, link parameters and joint parameters. Geometric model and motion of robotic humanoid arm with two link model with 3 Degree of freedom and arm with palm and fingers with 18 degree of freedom has been realized. Virtual simulation of the arm is also first step in actually controlling the mechanical structure.

  13. Cardiac C-arm computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Mory, Cyril

    2014-01-01

    A C-arm is an X-ray imaging device used for minimally invasive interventional radiology procedures. Most modern C-arm systems are capable of rotating around the patient while acquiring radiographic images, from which a 3D reconstruction can be performed. This technique is called C-arm computed tomography (C-arm CT) and is used in clinical routine to image static organs. However, its extension to imaging of the beating heart or the free-breathing thorax is still a challenging research problem....

  14. Cortical Spiking Network Interfaced with Virtual Musculoskeletal Arm and Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura-Bernal, Salvador; Zhou, Xianlian; Neymotin, Samuel A.; Przekwas, Andrzej; Francis, Joseph T.; Lytton, William W.

    2015-01-01

    Embedding computational models in the physical world is a critical step towards constraining their behavior and building practical applications. Here we aim to drive a realistic musculoskeletal arm model using a biomimetic cortical spiking model, and make a robot arm reproduce the same trajectories in real time. Our cortical model consisted of a 3-layered cortex, composed of several hundred spiking model-neurons, which display physiologically realistic dynamics. We interconnected the cortical model to a two-joint musculoskeletal model of a human arm, with realistic anatomical and biomechanical properties. The virtual arm received muscle excitations from the neuronal model, and fed back proprioceptive information, forming a closed-loop system. The cortical model was trained using spike timing-dependent reinforcement learning to drive the virtual arm in a 2D reaching task. Limb position was used to simultaneously control a robot arm using an improved network interface. Virtual arm muscle activations responded to motoneuron firing rates, with virtual arm muscles lengths encoded via population coding in the proprioceptive population. After training, the virtual arm performed reaching movements which were smoother and more realistic than those obtained using a simplistic arm model. This system provided access to both spiking network properties and to arm biophysical properties, including muscle forces. The use of a musculoskeletal virtual arm and the improved control system allowed the robot arm to perform movements which were smoother than those reported in our previous paper using a simplistic arm. This work provides a novel approach consisting of bidirectionally connecting a cortical model to a realistic virtual arm, and using the system output to drive a robotic arm in real time. Our techniques are applicable to the future development of brain neuroprosthetic control systems, and may enable enhanced brain-machine interfaces with the possibility for finer control of limb prosthetics.

  15. Ordnance and small arms design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.L. Jenkins

    1952-01-01

    Full Text Available At the mention of Ordnance and Small Arms the Royal' Ordnance Factories in England invariably flash through the mind due to their pre-eminent position in this sphere. It is a matter for regret that the ordnance Factories in India are not so widely known. But in view of the excellent class of workmanship that is to be seen in the products of their manufacturing is the Writers  hope that in the near future  now that the Ordnance Factories are forging ahead on projects that will make India self supporting, the Indian Ordnance Factories will command a similar fine opinion.

  16. Dual arm master controller development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advanced servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. This work was performed as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  17. Offset between stellar spiral arms and gas arms of the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, L. G.; Han, J. L.

    2015-11-01

    Spiral arms shown by different components may not be spatially coincident, which can constrain formation mechanisms of spiral structure in a galaxy. We reassess the spiral arm tangency directions in the Milky Way through identifying the bump features in the longitude plots of survey data for infrared stars, radio recombination lines (RRLs), star formation sites, CO, high-density regions in clouds, and H I. The bump peaks are taken as indications for arm tangencies, which are close to the real density peaks near the spiral arm tangency point but often have ˜1° offset to the interior of spiral arms. The arm tangencies identified from the longitude plots for RRLs, H II regions, methanol masers, CO, high-density gas regions, and H I gas appear nearly the same Galactic longitude, and therefore there is no obvious offset for spiral arms traced by different gas components. However, we find obvious displacements of 1.3°-5.8° of gaseous bump peaks from the directions of the maximum density of old stars near the tangencies of the Scutum-Centaurus Arm, the northern part of the Near 3 kpc Arm, and maybe also the Sagittarius Arm. The offsets between the density peaks of gas and old stars for spiral arms are comparable with the arm widths, which is consistent with expectations for quasi-stationary density wave in our Galaxy.

  18. Syntheses of arnottin I and arnottin II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschitto, Matthew J; Anthony, David R; Lewis, Chad A

    2015-03-20

    Short total syntheses of arnottin I and II were accomplished in 5 and 6 steps, respectively. A sesamol-benzyne cycloaddition with a 3-furyl-benzoate followed by regiospecific lactonization provided rapid, large-scale access to the core of arnottin I. Saponification of arnottin I and hypervalent iodide mediated spirocyclization provided an efficient and direct preparation of racemic arnottin II. PMID:25748275

  19. Highly Efficient Syntheses of Hyaluronic Acid Oligosaccharides

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Lijun; Huang, Xuefei

    2007-01-01

    Highly efficient syntheses of hyaluronic acid oligosaccharides have been accomplished through the pre-activation based iterative one-pot strategy. A series of oligosaccharides ranging from di- to hexasaccharides were rapidly assembled using only near stoichiometric amounts of the building blocks without aglycon adjustment or purifications of intermediate oligosaccharides. Deprote...

  20. Novel stereocontrolled syntheses of tashiromine and epitashiromine

    OpenAIRE

    Kiss, Loránd; Forró, Enik?; Fülöp, Ferenc

    2015-01-01

    A novel stereocontrolled approach has been developed for the syntheses of tashiromine and epitashiromine alkaloids from cyclooctene ?-amino acids. The synthetic concept is based on the azetidinone opening of a bicyclic ?-lactam, followed by oxidative ring opening through ring C–C double bond and reductive ring-closure reactions of the cis- or trans-cyclooctene ?-amino acids.

  1. Use of snake arm robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish Ringhals nuclear power station is the most powerful nuclear power plant in Sweden, with an installed cumulated power of the four units of 3,560 MW. Ringhals 1 is an 830 MW boiling water reactor by ABB; the other three units are pressurized water reactors. In the revision in summer of 2003, Ringhals 1 showed a leakage in one of the scram rods. The operator decided to continue plant operation at a reduced power level and develop concepts for repair, should this become necessary. The technical challenge was posed by rhe repair of the second bank of control rods. A section of the shroud of the defective scram rod had to be replaced. After examination of the bids, the contract was awarded to the Swedish Uddcomb Engineering AB, which cooperated with OC-Robotics and Climax Machine Tools Inc. The consortium proposed to perform the necessary repair work by means of 2 so-called snake arm robots. Repair was completed successfully in the course of the 2004 revision outage. Both snake arm robots fully met all expectations. The entire process, pipe repair included, was carried out within the scheduled period of three days. (orig.)

  2. Synthesis and Protonation Studies of Molybdenum(0) Bis(dinitrogen) Complexes Supported by Diphosphine Ligands Containing Pendant Amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labios, Liezel AN; Weiss, Charles J.; Egbert, Jonathan D.; Lense, Sheri J.; Bullock, R. Morris; Dougherty, William G.; Kassel, W. S.; Mock, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    A series of molybdenum bis(dinitrogen) complexes of the formula trans-Mo(N2)2(PEtNRPEt)2 (PEtNRPEt = Et2PCH2N(R)CH2Et2; R = phenyl (1), 2,6-difluorobenzyl (2), 3,5-difluorobenzyl (3), CH2CH2NMe2 (4), CH2-o-Py (5)) have been synthesized and characterized by NMR and IR spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography. Protonation studies with stoichiometric amounts of triflic acid (HOTf) were performed and the the protonated products were characterized by NMR and in situ IR spectroscopic methods. Protonolysis experiments with excess triflic acid were conducted to test for the formation of ammonia from reduction of the dinitrogen ligands. This work was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. S.L. was supported by the DOE Office of Science, Early Career Research Program through the Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE.

  3. Sensory-Feedback Exoskeletal Arm Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Bin; Massie, Thomas H.; Vayner, Vladimir

    2004-01-01

    An electromechanical exoskeletal arm apparatus has been designed for use in controlling a remote robotic manipulator arm. The apparatus, called a force-feedback exoskeleton arm master (F-EAM) is comfortable to wear and easy to don and doff. It provides control signals from the wearer s arm to a robot arm or a computer simulator (e.g., a virtual-reality system); it also provides force and torque feedback from sensors on the robot arm or from the computer simulator to the wearer s arm. The F-EAM enables the wearer to make the robot arm gently touch objects and finely manipulate them without exerting excessive forces. The F-EAM features a lightweight design in which the motors and gear heads that generate force and torque feedback are made smaller than they ordinarily would be: this is achieved by driving the motors to power levels greater than would ordinarily be used in order to obtain higher torques, and by providing active liquid cooling of the motors to prevent overheating at the high drive levels. The F-EAM (see figure) includes an assembly that resembles a backpack and is worn like a backpack, plus an exoskeletal arm mechanism. The FEAM has five degrees of freedom (DOFs) that correspond to those of the human arm: 1. The first DOF is that of the side-to-side rotation of the upper arm about the shoulder (rotation about axis 1). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 1 via drum 1 and a planar four-bar linkage. 2. The second DOF is that of the up-and-down rotation of the arm about the shoulder. The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 2 via drum 2. 3. The third DOF is that of twisting of the upper arm about its longitudinal axis. This DOF is implemented in a cable remote-center mechanism (CRCM). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 3, which drives the upper-arm cuff and the mechanism below it. A bladder inflatable by gas or liquid is placed between the cuff and the wearer s upper arm to compensate for misalignment between the exoskeletal mechanism and the shoulder. 4. The fourth DOF is that of flexion and extension of the elbow. The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 4 and drum 4, which are mounted on a bracket that can slide longitudinally by a pin-and-slot engagement with the upper-arm cuff to compensate for slight variations in the position of the kinematic center of the elbow. Attached to drum 4 is an adapter plate to which is attached a CRCM for the lower arm. 5. The lower-arm CRCM implements the fifth DOF, which is the twist of the forearm about its longitudinal axis. Motor 5 provides the reflected torque for this DOF by driving the lower-arm cuff. A rod transmits twist and torsion between the lower-arm cuff and the hand cuff. With this system, the motion of the wearer s joints and the reflected torques applied to these joints can be measured and controlled in a relatively simple manner. This is because the anthropomorphic design of the mechanism imitates the kinematics of the human arm, eliminating the need for kinematic conversion of joint-torque and joint-angle data.

  4. Quantification of branching in model three-arm star polyethylene

    KAUST Repository

    Ramachandran, Ramnath

    2012-01-24

    The versatility of a novel scaling approach in quantifying the structure of model well-defined 3-arm star polyethylene molecules is presented. Many commercial polyethylenes have long side branches, and the nature and quantity of these branches varies widely among the various forms. For instance, low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is typically a highly branched structure with broad distributions in branch content, branch lengths and branch generation (in hyperbranched structures). This makes it difficult to accurately quantify the structure and the inherent structure-property relationships. To overcome this drawback, model well-defined hydrogenated polybutadiene (HPB) structures have been synthesized via anionic polymerization and hydrogenation to serve as model analogues to long-chain branched polyethylene. In this article, model 3-arm star polyethylene molecules are quantified using the scaling approach. Along with the long-chain branch content in polyethylene, the approach also provides unique measurements of long-chain branch length and hyperbranch content. Such detailed description facilitates better understanding of the effect of branching on the physical properties of polyethylene. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  5. Effect of pendant isophthalic acid moieties on the adsorption properties of light hydrocarbons in HKUST-1-like tbo -MOFs: Application to methane purification and storage

    KAUST Repository

    Belmabkhout, Youssef

    2014-01-01

    Equilibrium adsorption of methane (CH4), C2+ gases (ethane (C2H6), ethylene (C2H4), propane (C3H8), and propylene (C3H6)), and carbon dioxide (CO2) was measured on a series of tbo-MOFs (topological analogues of the prototypical MOF, HKUST-1, correspondingly dubbed tbo-MOF-1), which were developed via the supermolecular building layer (SBL) pillaring strategy. Specifically, tbo-MOF-2 and its isoreticular, functionalized analogue, tbo-MOF-2-{CH2O[Ph(CO2H)2]}2 (or tbo-MOF-3), which is characterized by pendant isophthalic acid moieties freely pointing into the cavities, were evaluated on the basis of potential use in methane storage and C2+/CH4 separation. The parent, tbo-MOF-2, showed high gravimetric and volumetric CH4 uptake, close to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) target for methane storage at 35 bar and room temperature. Though the presence of the pendant isophthalic acid moiety in the analogous compound, tbo-MOF-3, led to a decrease in total CH4 uptake, due mainly to the reduced size of the cavities, interestingly, it increased the affinity of the SBL-based tbo-MOF platform for propane, propene, ethane, and ethylene at low pressures compared with CH4, due additionally to the enhanced interactions of the highly polarizable light hydrocarbons with the isophthalic acid moiety. Using Ideal Adsorption Solution Theory (IAST), the predicted mixture adsorption equilibria for the C3H8/CH4, C3H6/CH4, C2H6/CH4, C2H4/CH4, and C3H8/CO2 systems showed high adsorption selectivity for C2+ over methane for tbo-MOF-3 compared with tbo-MOF-2. The high working storage capacity of tbo-MOF-2 and the high affinity of tbo-MOF-3 for C2+ over CH4 and CO2 make tbo-MOF an ideal platform for studies in gas storage and separation.

  6. Design of a biomimetic robotic octopus arm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laschi, C; Cianchetti, M [Advanced Robotics Technology and Systems Laboratory, Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Pisa (Italy); Mazzolai, B; Dario, P [Italian Institute of Technology, Genova (Italy); Mattoli, V [Centre of Research in Microengineering Laboratory, Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: cecilia.laschi@sssup.it

    2009-03-01

    This paper reports the rationale and design of a robotic arm, as inspired by an octopus arm. The octopus arm shows peculiar features, such as the ability to bend in all directions, to produce fast elongations, and to vary its stiffness. The octopus achieves these unique motor skills, thanks to its peculiar muscular structure, named muscular hydrostat. Different muscles arranged on orthogonal planes generate an antagonistic action on each other in the muscular hydrostat, which does not change its volume during muscle contractions, and allow bending and elongation of the arm and stiffness variation. By drawing inspiration from natural skills of octopus, and by analysing the geometry and mechanics of the muscular structure of its arm, we propose the design of a robot arm consisting of an artificial muscular hydrostat structure, which is completely soft and compliant, but also able to stiffen. In this paper, we discuss the design criteria of the robotic arm and how this design and the special arrangement of its muscular structure may bring the building of a robotic arm into being, by showing the results obtained by mathematical models and prototypical mock-ups.

  7. The dynamics of stars around spiral arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, Robert J. J.; Kawata, Daisuke; Cropper, Mark

    2012-04-01

    Spiral density wave theory attempts to describe the spiral pattern in spiral galaxies in terms of a long-lived wave structure with a constant pattern speed in order to avoid the winding dilemma. The pattern is consequently a rigidly rotating, long-lived feature. We run N-body simulations of a giant disc galaxy consisting of a pure stellar disc and a static dark matter halo, and find that the spiral arms are transient features whose pattern speeds decrease with radius in such a way that the pattern speed is almost equal to the rotation curve of the galaxy. We trace particle motion around the spiral arms. We show that particles from behind and in front of the spiral arm are drawn towards and join the arm. Particles move along the arm in the radial direction and we find a clear trend that they migrate towards the outer (inner) radii on the trailing (leading) side of the arm. Our simulations demonstrate that because the spiral arm feature is corotating, the particles continue to be accelerated (decelerated) by the spiral arm for long periods, which leads to strong and efficient migration, at all radii in the disc.

  8. Design of a biomimetic robotic octopus arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the rationale and design of a robotic arm, as inspired by an octopus arm. The octopus arm shows peculiar features, such as the ability to bend in all directions, to produce fast elongations, and to vary its stiffness. The octopus achieves these unique motor skills, thanks to its peculiar muscular structure, named muscular hydrostat. Different muscles arranged on orthogonal planes generate an antagonistic action on each other in the muscular hydrostat, which does not change its volume during muscle contractions, and allow bending and elongation of the arm and stiffness variation. By drawing inspiration from natural skills of octopus, and by analysing the geometry and mechanics of the muscular structure of its arm, we propose the design of a robot arm consisting of an artificial muscular hydrostat structure, which is completely soft and compliant, but also able to stiffen. In this paper, we discuss the design criteria of the robotic arm and how this design and the special arrangement of its muscular structure may bring the building of a robotic arm into being, by showing the results obtained by mathematical models and prototypical mock-ups

  9. Effort, success, and nonuse determine arm choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweighofer, Nicolas; Xiao, Yupeng; Kim, Sujin; Yoshioka, Toshinori; Gordon, James; Osu, Rieko

    2015-07-01

    How do humans choose one arm or the other to reach single targets in front of the body? Current theories of reward-driven decisionmaking predict that choice results from a comparison of "action values," which are the expected rewards for possible actions in a given state. In addition, current theories of motor control predict that in planning arm movements, humans minimize an expected motor cost that balances motor effort and endpoint accuracy. Here, we test the hypotheses that arm choice is determined by comparison of action values comprising expected effort and expected task success for each arm, as well as a handedness bias. Right-handed subjects, in either a large or small target condition, were first instructed to use each hand in turn to shoot through an array of targets and then to choose either hand to shoot through the same targets. Effort was estimated via inverse kinematics and dynamics. A mixed-effects logistic-regression analysis showed that, as predicted, both expected effort and expected success predicted choice, as did arm use in the preceding trial. Finally, individual parameter estimation showed that the handedness bias correlated with mean difference between right- and left-arm success, leading to overall lower use of the left arm. We discuss our results in light of arm nonuse in individuals' poststroke. PMID:25948869

  10. Design And Implementation Of Anthropomorphic Robotic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The report focuses on the design and demonstration of an anthropomorphic robotic arm with seven degrees of freedom using readily available low-cost components to perform different real time human hand applications. The robotic arm consists of a shoulder, elbow, wrist and a five-finger gripper. It can perform different gripping actions, such as lateral, spherical, cylindrical and tip-holding gripping actions; each finger has three movable links. The actuator used for the robotic arm is a high torque dc servo motor and the five-finger gripper consists of five cables placed like tendons in the human arm. Implementation is done using a human hand glove which senses the motion from sensor technology to produce a proportional analog voltage, digitized via the microcontroller Atmel ATmega32. The microcontroller then through the processed signal controls the mechanical structure that is the robotic arm. Keywords –

  11. Arm locking with Doppler estimation errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the University of Florida we developed the University of Florida LISA Interferometer Simulator (UFLIS) in order to study LISA interferometry with hardware in the loop at a system level. One of the proposed laser frequency stabilization techniques in LISA is arm locking. Arm locking uses an adequately filtered linear combination of the LISA arm signals as a frequency reference. We will report about experiments in which we demonstrated arm locking using UFLIS. During these experiments we also discovered a problem associated with the Doppler shift of the return beam. The initial arm locking publications assumed that this Doppler shift can perfectly be subtracted inside the phasemeter or adds an insignificant offset to the sensor signal. However, the remaining Doppler knowledge error will cause a constant change in the laser frequency if unaccounted for. Several ways to circumvent this problem have been identified. We performed detailed simulations and started preliminary experiments to verify the performance of the proposed new controller designs.

  12. Template Syntheses, Crystal Structures and Supramolecular Assembly of Hexaaza Macrocyclic Copper(II) Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taehyung; Kim, Ju Chang [Pukyong National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lough, Alan J. [Univ. of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    2013-06-15

    Two new hexaaza macrocyclic copper(II) complexes were prepared by a template method and structurally characterized. In the solid state, they were self-assembled by intermolecular interactions to form the corresponding supramolecules 1 and 2, respectively. In the structure of 1, the copper(II) macrocycles are bridged by a tp ligand to form a macrocyclic copper(II) dimer. The dimer extends its structure by intermolecular forces such as hydrogen bonds and C-H···? interactions, resulting in the formation of a double stranded 1D supramolecule. In 2, the basic structure is a monomeric copper(II) macrocycle with deprotonated imidazole pendants. An undulated 1D hydrogen bonded array is achieved through hydrogen bonds between imidazole pendants and secondary amines, where the imidazole pendants act as a hydrogen bond acceptor. The 1D hydrogen bonded supramolecular chain is supported by C-H···? interactions between the methyl groups of acetonitrile ligands and imidazole pendants of the copper(II) macrocycles. In both complexes, the introduction of imidazoles to the macrocycle as a pendant plays an important role for the formation of supramolecules, where they act as intermolecular hydrogen bond donors and/or acceptors, C-H···? and ?-? interactions.

  13. Enzymatic synthesizing of phytosterol oleic esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xinxin; Chen, Biqiang; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Xinzhi; Zhul, Biyun; Tan, Tianwei

    2012-09-01

    A method of synthesizing the phytosterol esters from oleic acid and sterols was studied, using immobilized lipase Candida sp. 99-125 as catalyst. Molar ratio (oleic acid/phytosterols), temperature, reaction period, organic solvents, catalyst, and silica-gel drier were optimized, and the result showed that 93.4% of the sterols had been esterified under the optimal synthetic condition: the molar ratio of oleic acid/phytosterol is 1:1 in 10 mL iso-octane, immobilized lipase (w, 140% of the sterols), incubated in an orbital shaker (200 rpm) at a temperature of 45 °C for 24 h. The immobilized lipase could be reused for at least 13 times with limited loss of esterification activity. The conversion still maintained up to 86.6%. Hence, this developed process for synthesizing phytosterol esters could be considered as simple and low-energy consumption compared to existing chemical processes. PMID:21822658

  14. Syntheses and studies of organosilicon compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, R.

    1999-02-12

    The syntheses of polycarbosilanes and polysilanes as silicon carbide ceramic precursors have been active research areas in the Barton Research Group. In this thesis, the work is focused on the preparation of polycarbosilanes and polysilanes as stoichiometric silicon carbide precursor polymers. The syntheses of the precursor polymers are discussed and the conversions of these precursors to silicon carbide via pyrolysis are reported. The XRD pattern and elemental analyses of the resulting silicon carbide ceramics are presented. Silicon monoxide is an important intermediate in the production of silicon metal. The existence of silicon monoxide in gap phase has been widely accepted. In the second part of this thesis, the generation of gaseous silicon monoxide in four different reactors and the reactions of gaseous silicon monoxide towards organic compounds are discussed.

  15. SYNTHESES OF METHYLENEDIANILINES OVER THE ZEOLITE CATALYSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji?í Trejbal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Syntheses of methylenedianilines over zeolites with various structures were studied. It was foundout that the most selective catalyst for the synthesis of 4,4´-methylenedianiline isomer was zeoliteY. Further, the kinetic data showed that initial N,N´-diphenylmethylenediamine reacted over zeolitecatalysts by even one order of magnitude faster that the intermediate product 4-amino-N-benzylaniline.The most suitable temperature range

  16. SYNTHESES OF METHYLENEDIANILINES OVER THE ZEOLITE CATALYSTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ji?í Trejbal

    2010-01-01

    Syntheses of methylenedianilines over zeolites with various structures were studied. It was foundout that the most selective catalyst for the synthesis of 4,4´-methylenedianiline isomer was zeoliteY. Further, the kinetic data showed that initial N,N´-diphenylmethylenediamine reacted over zeolitecatalysts by even one order of magnitude faster that the intermediate product 4-amino-N-benzylaniline.The most suitable temperature range

  17. Molecular trees: from syntheses towards applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular trees, also called dendrimers, arborols, cauliflowers, cascades or hyperbranched molecules, have been synthesized since their first observation in 1978 by divergent, convergent or combined methods, with various functions on the branches. The potential applications of these nanoscopic molecules are in the fields of biology (gene therapy, virus mimicking an vectorization) and molecular materials sciences (new polymers, adhesion, liquid crystals, etc). (authors). 236 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs., 8 schemes

  18. Shock Syntheses of Novel Nitrides and Biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Toshimori

    2013-06-01

    High-pressure spinel nitride of Si3N4 was discovered more than 10 years ago. Since then there have been many studies on the spinel nitrides and related materials including oxynitrides. We have developed shock synthesis method to investigate their structural, mechanical, chemical, physical, and optical properties. At the same time we tried to synthesize carbon nitrides from the organic substances. And later we extended to shock synthesis of ammonia through the Haber-Bosch reaction under shock in order to apply geochemical subjects related to the origin of life. The simplest amino acid of glycine, as well as animes (up to propylamine) and carboxylic acids (up to pentanoic acid), has been synthesized successfully in aqueous solutions through meteoritic impact reactions. Recently we are trying to make more complex biomolecules for implications of biomolecule formation for the origin of life through meteorite impacts on early Earth's ocean. These results of shock syntheses may imply significant contributions to materials science and Earth and planetary sciences. This research is collaborated with National Institute for Materials Science and Tohoku University.

  19. Method of synthesizing cubic system boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for synthetically growing cubic system boron nitride crystals by using boron nitride sources, solvents for dissolving the boron nitride sources, and seed crystals under conditions of ultra-high pressure and high temperature for maintaining the cubic system boron nitride stable. The method comprises the following steps: preparing a synthesizing vessel having at least two chambers, arrayed in order in the synthesizing vessel so as to be heated according to a temperature gradient; placing the solvents having different eutectic temperatures in each chamber with respect to the boron nitride sources according to the temperature gradient; placing the boron nitride source in contact with a portion of each of the solvents heated at a relatively higher temperature and placing at least a seed crystal in a portion of each of the solvents heated at a relatively lower temperature; and growing at least one cubic system boron nitride crystal in each of the solvents in the chambers by heating the synthesizing vessel for establishing the temperature gradient while maintaining conditions of ultra-high pressure and high temperature

  20. Magnesioferrite synthesized from magnesian-magnetites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Hidemassa Anami

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Magnesioferrite is an important mineral due to its use in different scientific fields and by the fact that the soil through the action of weathering, can be a source of nutrients essential for plant development by the fact that in the soil. Its use in pure form or associated with other minerals is only possible through the synthesis in laboratory conditions. This study aimed to synthesize magnesioferrite and hematite from magnesian-magnetite by a co-precipitation procedure. The methodology used is an adaptation of the method of synthesis of pure magnetite, partially replacing the soluble salts of iron with soluble magnesium salts in the proportion of 30.0 mol% of Fe for Mg. The characterization of the synthetic minerals used x-rays diffraction, total chemical analysis and mass specific magnetic susceptibility. The results showed that besides the magnesian-magnetite an unprecedented muskoxita was synthesized, which upon annealing was converted to magnesioferrite and hematite and in the proportion of 93.1% and 6.9% respectively. The isomorphous substitution of Fe for Mg enhanced the thermal stability of the ferrimagnetic mineral synthesized.

  1. Arm-to-arm variation when evaluating neuromuscular block: an analysis of the precision and the bias and agreement between arms when using mechanomyography or acceleromyography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudius, C; Skovgaard, L T; Viby-Mogensen, J

    2010-01-01

    Studies comparing acceleromyography and mechanomyography indicate that the two methods cannot be used interchangeably. However, it is uncertain to what extent differences in precision between the methods and the naturally occurring arm-to-arm variation have influenced the results of these studies....... Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to examine the precision and the arm-to-arm variation, when the same method is used on both of the arms....

  2. ICRESH-ARMS 2015 Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmadi, Alireza; Verma, Ajit; Varde, Prabhakar

    2016-01-01

    Containing selected papers from the ICRESH-ARMS 2015 conference in Lulea, Sweden, collected by editors with years of experiences in Reliability and maintenance modeling, risk assessment, and asset management, this work maximizes reader insights into the current trends in Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety (RAMS) and Risk Management. Featuring a comprehensive analysis of the significance of the role of RAMS and Risk Management in the decision making process during the various phases of design, operation, maintenance, asset management and productivity in Industrial domains, these proceedings discuss key issues and challenges in the operation, maintenance and risk management of complex engineering systems and will serve as a valuable resource for those in the field.

  3. Robotic Arm Comprising Two Bending Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehling, Joshua S.; Difler, Myron A.; Ambrose, Robert O.; Chu, Mars W.; Valvo, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    The figure shows several aspects of an experimental robotic manipulator that includes a housing from which protrudes a tendril- or tentacle-like arm 1 cm thick and 1 m long. The arm consists of two collinear segments, each of which can be bent independently of the other, and the two segments can be bent simultaneously in different planes. The arm can be retracted to a minimum length or extended by any desired amount up to its full length. The arm can also be made to rotate about its own longitudinal axis. Some prior experimental robotic manipulators include single-segment bendable arms. Those arms are thicker and shorter than the present one. The present robotic manipulator serves as a prototype of future manipulators that, by virtue of the slenderness and multiple- bending capability of their arms, are expected to have sufficient dexterity for operation within spaces that would otherwise be inaccessible. Such manipulators could be especially well suited as means of minimally invasive inspection during construction and maintenance activities. Each of the two collinear bending arm segments is further subdivided into a series of collinear extension- and compression-type helical springs joined by threaded links. The extension springs occupy the majority of the length of the arm and engage passively in bending. The compression springs are used for actively controlled bending. Bending is effected by means of pairs of antagonistic tendons in the form of spectra gel spun polymer lines that are attached at specific threaded links and run the entire length of the arm inside the spring helix from the attachment links to motor-driven pulleys inside the housing. Two pairs of tendons, mounted in orthogonal planes that intersect along the longitudinal axis, are used to effect bending of each segment. The tendons for actuating the distal bending segment are in planes offset by an angle of 45 from those of the proximal bending segment: This configuration makes it possible to accommodate all eight tendons at the same diameter along the arm. The threaded links have central bores through which power and video wires can be strung (1) from a charge-coupled-device camera mounted on the tip of the arms (2) back along the interior of the arm into the housing and then (3) from within the housing to an external video monitor.

  4. Génotypage du virus de la rougeole par PCR en temps réel: Cas des souches virales isolées au Maroc pendant la saison 2004-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Waku-Kouomou

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Le génotypage du virus de la rougeole (VR est un outil important dans la surveillance de la rougeole. Il permet d’identifier l’origine du virus, ses voies de transmission et d’évaluer les programmes de vaccination. Vu l’importance du génotypage du VR dans le programme de l’élimination de la rougeole, une technique rapide a été développée. Cette technique se base sur l’identification des génotypes par PCR en temps réel, les différents génotypes sont distingués par leur température de fusion (Tm. Cette méthode constitue une alternative efficace pour l’investigation des épidémies de rougeole dans les pays en phase d’élimination.Les souches du virus de la rougeole isolées pendant la saison 2004-2005 ont été identifiées par PCR en temps réel puis confirmées par le séquençage des gènes H et N. cette étude, a permis de montrer une rapide diversification des génotypes qui circulent au Maroc. Parmi ces génotypes, certains sont importés de l’Afrique de l’Ouest et de l’Europe, d’autres correspondent à la souche autochtone. Ces résultats montrent la nécessité de renforcer la couverture vaccinale et d’introduire une nouvelle stratégie de vaccination dans le but d’éliminer la maladie.

  5. Thermo- and pH-Responsive Copolymers Bearing Cholic Acid and Oligo(ethylene glycol) Pendants: Self-Assembly and pH-Controlled Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yong-Guang; Zhu, X X

    2015-11-11

    A family of block and random copolymers of norbornene derivatives bearing cholic acid and oligo(ethylene glycol) pendants were prepared in the presence of Grubbs' catalyst. The phase transition temperature of the copolymers in aqueous solutions may be tuned by the variation of comonomer ratios and pH values. Both types of copolymers formed micellar nanostructures with a hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) shell and a hydrophobic core containing cholic acid residues. The micellar size increased gradually with increasing pH due to the deprotonation of the carboxylic acid groups. These micelles were capable of encapsulating hydrophobic compounds such as Nile Red (NR). A higher hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity ratio in both copolymers resulted in a higher loading capacity for NR. With similar molecular weights and monomer compositions, the block copolymers showed a higher loading capacity for NR than the random copolymers. The NR-loaded micelles exhibited a pH-triggered release behavior. At pH 7.4 within 96 h, the micelles formed by the block and random of copolymers released 56 and 97% NR, respectively. Therefore, these micelles may have promise for use as therapeutic nanocarriers in drug delivery systems. PMID:26479835

  6. After Arizona: Military Musicians in the Second World War Après Arizona: les musiciens dans la marine américaine pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Peters

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cet article traite du rôle des musiciens dans la marine américaine pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale. L’histoire de l’USS Arizona — et de son orchestre, noyé avec le cuirassé lors de l’attaque surprise des forces japonaises — étant bien connue, je m’appuie sur cet exemple comme point de départ afin de contextualiser la situation des musiciens militaires après les événements de Pearl Harbor, en décembre 1941. Dans le sillage de ce grand moment de l’Histoire, j’évoque ici des histoires à une autre échelle, celle de la « micro-histoire »— celle d’un militaire seul au milieu d’autres militaires. À travers les lettres échangées entre des recrues ayant suivi ensemble la même formation, je trace ici leurs expériences de guerre en tant qu’artistes, ainsi que les divers conflits pratiques et idéologiques qui se manifestent dans la tension entre l’art musical et l’art martial.

  7. Influence of Helical Structure on Chiral Recognition of Poly(phenylacetylene)s Bearing Phenylcarbamate Residues of L-Phenylglycinol and Amide Linage as Pendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunhong; Ma, Rui; Wang, Hailun; Sakai, Ryosuke; Satoh, Toshifumi; Kakuchi, Toyoji; Liu, Lijia; Okamoto, Yoshio

    2015-08-01

    Four poly(phenylacetylene)s (PPA-1~4) bearing phenylcarbamate residues of L-phenylglycinol and amide linkage as pendants were prepared to be used as chiral stationary phases (CSPs) for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the influences of coating solvents, dimethylformamide (DMF) and tetrahydrofuran (THF), which were used for coating the polymers on silica gel, on the helical structure of the polymers and their chiral recognition abilities were investigated. The structure analysis of PPA-1~4 by (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), size exclusion chromatography (SEC), optical rotation, and circular dichroism (CD) spectra indicated that the polymers possess the cis-transoidal structure with dynamic helical conformation. The polymers in THF seem to have shorter conjugated helical main chains along with a tighter twist conformation than those in DMF. The chiral recognition abilities of PPA-1~4 with the different helical structures induced by the coating solvents were evaluated as the CSPs in HPLC. The helical structures of PPA-1~4 induced with THF are preferable for chiral recognition for some racemates compared to those induced with DMF, and higher chiral recognition abilities of PPA-1~ were achieved using THF. PMID:25974753

  8. Poly(?-caprolactone)-based copolymers bearing pendant cyclic ketals and reactive acrylates for the fabrication of photocrosslinked elastomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaowei; Cui, Chengzhong; Tong, Zhixiang; Sabanayagam, Chandran R; Jia, Xinqiao

    2013-09-01

    Block copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) with chemically addressable functional groups were synthesized and characterized. Ring-opening polymerization of ?-caprolactone (CL) and 1,4,8-trioxaspiro-[4,6]-9-undecanone (TSU) using ?-methoxy, ?-hydroxyl poly(ethylene glycol) as the initiator afforded a copolymer with cyclic ketals being randomly distributed in the hydrophobic PCL block. At an initiator/catalyst molar ratio of 10/1 and a TSU/CL weight ratio of 1/4, a ketal-carrying copolymer (ECT2-CK) with Mn of 52 kDa and a ketal content of 15 mol.% was obtained. Quantitative side-chain deacetalization revealed the reactive ketones without noticeable polymer degradation. In our study, 10 mol.% of cyclic ketals were deprotected and the ketone-containing copolymer was designated as ECT2-CO. Reaction of ECT2-CO with 2-(2-(aminooxy)acetoxy)-ethyl acrylate gave rise to an acrylated product (ECT2-AC) containing an estimated 3-5 acrylate groups per chain. UV-initiated radical polymerization of ECT2-AC in dichloromethane resulted in a crosslinked network (xECT2-AC). Thermal and morphological analyses employing differential scanning calorimetry and atomic force microscopy operated in PeakForce Tapping mode revealed the semicrystalline nature of the network, which contained stiff crystalline lamellae dispersed in a softer amorphous interstitial. Macroscopic and nanoscale mechanical characterizations showed that ECT2-CK exhibited a significantly lower modulus than PCL of a similar molecular weight. Whereas ECT2-CK undergoes a plastic deformation with a distinct yield point and a cold-drawing region, xECT2-AC exhibits a compliant, elastomeric deformation with a Young's modulus of 0.5±0.1 MPa at 37°C. When properly processed, the crosslinked network exhibited shape-memory behaviors, with shape fixity and shape recovery values close to 1 and a shape recovery time of less than 4s at 37°C. In vitro studies showed that xECT2-AC films did not induce any cytotoxic effects on the cultured mesenchymal stem cells. The crosslinkable polyester copolymers can be potentially used as tissue engineering scaffolds and minimally invasive medical devices. PMID:23770222

  9. Naval arms control: Tons of options?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arms reductions have reached the US Navy, the most arms control averse of the US services, with budget-driven cuts in numbers of ships and personnel, and President Bush's unilateral withdrawal of tactical nuclear weapons. Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev's rejoinder not only replicated the Bush initiative for naval weapons, but also called for the destruction of all those weapons, many of which would simply be placed in secure storage ashore under Bush's approach. Can formal, negotiated naval arms control agreements be far behind? Post-war history suggests that such naval arms agreements will remain out of reach. But post-war history has been confounded repeatedly by the events of the past three years. There are, in fact, negotiated naval limits that would enhance the predictability of US-Soviet military relations, and smooth the path of the naval retrenchment already underway on both sides. The Bush-Gorbachev reciprocal withdrawals of naval tactical nuclear arms deal with the most urgent and dangerous issue for naval arms control, improve the US Navy's survivability by drastically reducing the nuclear threat, and improve its flexibility by eliminating the security and political issues associated with carrying nuclear arms. It would be highly desirable, however, to formalize and verify these withdrawals, placing withdrawn weapons under jointly monitored, secure control, to preserve options for further cuts in the future

  10. The dynamics of stars around spiral arms

    CERN Document Server

    Grand, Robert J J; Cropper, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Spiral density wave theory attempts to describe the spiral pattern in spiral galaxies in terms of a long-lived wave structure with a constant pattern speed in order to avoid the winding dilemma. The pattern is consequently a rigidly rotating, long-lived feature. We run N-body simulations of a giant disc galaxy consisting of a pure stellar disc and a static dark matter halo, and find that the spiral arms are transient features whose pattern speeds decrease with radius, in such a way that the pattern speed is almost equal to the rotation curve of the galaxy. We trace particle motion around the spiral arms. We show that particles from behind and in front of the spiral arm are drawn towards and join the arm. Particles move along the arm in the radial direction and we find a clear trend that they migrate toward the outer (inner) radii on the trailing (leading) side of the arm. Our simulations demonstrate that because the spiral arm feature is co-rotating, the particles continue to be accelerated (decelerated) by t...

  11. ARM Climate Research Facility Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Voyles

    2005-12-31

    Through the ARM Program, the DOE funded the development of several highly instrumented ground stations for studying cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer, and for measuring other parameters that determine the radiative properties of the atmosphere. This scientific infrastructure, and resultant data archive, is a valuable national and international asset for advancing scientific knowledge of Earth systems. In fiscal year (FY) 2003, the DOE designated ARM sites as a national scientific user facility: the ARM Climate Research (ACRF). The ACRF has enormous potential to contribute to a wide range interdisciplinary science in areas such as meteorology, atmospheric aerosols, hydrology, biogeochemical cycling, and satellite validation, to name only a few.

  12. Universal Controller Design Using Arm Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsin A. Bandi, Mr. Naimesh B. Mehta

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, different control strategies are discussed and design of universal (process controller on ARM embedded platform is proposed. The same controller support feedback, cascade, ratio and feed forward control strategy. The LPC2148 kit (ARM7 controller is used for the application which has many features which are also discussed in the paper.MODBUS RTU protocol is used for communication.GUI is developed in Wonderware In touch (SCADA software. Keil µvision 4 IDE is used for programming ARM controller

  13. Passive detection of nuclear-armed SLCMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective procedures have been developed, using national technical measures (photoreconnaissance satellites, radiointercept stations, etc.), for verification of reductions in land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles, such as marine-based ballistic missiles, and strategic bombers. However, there is agreement on procedures for verifying limitations of numbers of long-range nuclear-armed cruise missiles. The difficulties in developing such procedures are sometimes regarded (by opponents of nuclear disarmament) as a reason why cruise missiles based on ships and submarines ought not to be limited by future arms-reduction treaties. This paper considers the detectability of nuclear-armed cruise missiles through the penetrating radiation emitted spontaneously from their warheads

  14. Pitch angle of galactic spiral arms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michikoshi, Shugo [Department of Environmental Systems Science, Doshisha University, Tatara Miyakodani 1-3, Kyotanabe City, Kyoto 610-0394 (Japan); Kokubo, Eiichiro, E-mail: michiko@mail.doshisha.ac.jp, E-mail: kokubo@th.nao.ac.jp [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    One of the key parameters that characterizes spiral arms in disk galaxies is a pitch angle that measures the inclination of a spiral arm to the direction of galactic rotation. The pitch angle differs from galaxy to galaxy, which suggests that the rotation law of galactic disks determines it. In order to investigate the relation between the pitch angle of spiral arms and the shear rate of galactic differential rotation, we perform local N-body simulations of pure stellar disks. We find that the pitch angle increases with the epicycle frequency and decreases with the shear rate and obtain the fitting formula. This dependence is explained by the swing amplification mechanism.

  15. Pitch angle of galactic spiral arms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the key parameters that characterizes spiral arms in disk galaxies is a pitch angle that measures the inclination of a spiral arm to the direction of galactic rotation. The pitch angle differs from galaxy to galaxy, which suggests that the rotation law of galactic disks determines it. In order to investigate the relation between the pitch angle of spiral arms and the shear rate of galactic differential rotation, we perform local N-body simulations of pure stellar disks. We find that the pitch angle increases with the epicycle frequency and decreases with the shear rate and obtain the fitting formula. This dependence is explained by the swing amplification mechanism.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of three-arm polyamide 6-polyurethane block copolymer by monomer casting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three-arm polyamide 6-polyurethane (PA 6-PU) block copolymers were synthesized using ?-caprolactam as a monomer, caprolactam sodium as a catalyst, and a three-arm carbamyl caprolactam terminated polyurethane (PU) prepolymer as macroactivator. The three-arm PU prepolymer was formed from polyether glycerol (PPG) and diphenyl methane-4,4' diisocyanate (MDI). The block copolymers were obtained using the monomer casting process (MC) of ?-caprolactam at different content of three-arm PU prepolymer (5-20%). In increasing the content of the soft phase, in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), a displacement was observed in the band at 1637 cm-1, which is assigned to the amide I of polyamide 6 (PA 6) shifted to a higher wavenumber. This suggested an interaction between the amide group of the PA 6 and the urethane group of the PU. The effects of the PU prepolymer content on the mechanical properties of the block copolymers were investigated. The results showed that the impact strength of the block copolymers at 25 oC and -50 oC temperature could be significantly improved. The crystallization and melting behaviors, structure and thermal properties and morphological characteristic of the block copolymers were studied using the different techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMTA) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM).

  17. Branched-arm macromolecule liquid crystals-containing fluorine and isosorbide-structure and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Zhi; Zhang, Fang-di; Jia, Ying; Meng, Fan-Bao; Jia, Ying-gang

    2015-07-01

    A new series of cholesteric fluorated branched-arm liquid crystals (CHFBALCs) compound (MFA1-MFA4), with isosorbide as chiral core, was synthesized. Four precursors of branched-arm FA1-FA4 were obtained firstly and then were esterized separately with isosorbide to get four chiral branched-arm liquid crystalline (MFA1-MFA4). The structures and properties were characterized by conventional spectrum methods, thermal analysis and texture analysis. The results showed that FA1-FA4 all were nematic phase with schlieren, threaded-like or droplet texture. When the isosorbide was successfully inducted, the phase of FA1-FA4 turned into cholesteric phase with oily streak texture, finger print texture or cholesteric droplets. The values of melting point and clearing point for FA1-FA4 and MFA1-MFA4 all changed irregularly, which may be due to the effect of different branched arm, warping of chiral agent and fluorine atom. MFA1-MFA4 had the same handedness as isosorbide core and did not show selective reflection. MFA3 and MFA4 were hopeful to realize the combination of the processability of polymers and the mobility of small molecules.

  18. The spiral arms of the Milky Way: The relative location of each different arm tracer within a typical spiral arm width

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallée, Jacques P., E-mail: jacques.vallee@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Research Council Canada, National Science Infrastructure portfolio, Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, B.C., V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    From the Sun's location in the Galactic disk, different arm tracers (CO, H I, hot dust, etc.) have been employed to locate a tangent to each spiral arm. Using all various and different observed spiral arm tracers (as published elsewhere), we embark on a new goal, namely the statistical analysis of these published data (data mining) to statistically compute the mean location of each spiral arm tracer. We show for a typical arm cross-cut, a separation of 400 pc between the mid-arm and the dust lane (at the inner edge of the arm, toward the Galactic center). Are some arms major and others minor? Separating arms into two sets, as suggested by some, we find the same arm widths between the two sets. Our interpretation is that we live in a multiple (four-arm) spiral (logarithmic) pattern (around a pitch angle of 12°) for the stars and gas in the Milky Way, with a sizable interarm separation (around 3 kpc) at the Sun's location and the same arm width for each arm (near 400 pc from mid-arm to dust lane).

  19. The spiral arms of the Milky Way: The relative location of each different arm tracer within a typical spiral arm width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the Sun's location in the Galactic disk, different arm tracers (CO, H I, hot dust, etc.) have been employed to locate a tangent to each spiral arm. Using all various and different observed spiral arm tracers (as published elsewhere), we embark on a new goal, namely the statistical analysis of these published data (data mining) to statistically compute the mean location of each spiral arm tracer. We show for a typical arm cross-cut, a separation of 400 pc between the mid-arm and the dust lane (at the inner edge of the arm, toward the Galactic center). Are some arms major and others minor? Separating arms into two sets, as suggested by some, we find the same arm widths between the two sets. Our interpretation is that we live in a multiple (four-arm) spiral (logarithmic) pattern (around a pitch angle of 12°) for the stars and gas in the Milky Way, with a sizable interarm separation (around 3 kpc) at the Sun's location and the same arm width for each arm (near 400 pc from mid-arm to dust lane).

  20. Monodisperse carbon microspheres synthesized from asphaltene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xiaomin [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology (China) and Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials of Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024 (China)], E-mail: xiaomin1031@126.com; Guo Junjie [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology (China); Yang Xiaowei [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials of Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Xu Bingshe [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology (China); Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials of Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024 (China)

    2009-02-15

    Carbon microspheres were synthesized from asphaltene by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and Raman spectroscopy method. The results indicated the monodispersed spheres were almost curving graphitic structure with diameters from 300 to 400 nm. G mode centre of carbon microspheres had shifted upward compared with graphite. As an efficient precursor, asphaltenes were metastable structures at higher temperature. The aromatic carbon rings of asphaltenes promoted the formation of closed cage graphitic structures. The results provide a new perspective for the application of asphaltene.

  1. Monodisperse carbon microspheres synthesized from asphaltene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon microspheres were synthesized from asphaltene by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and Raman spectroscopy method. The results indicated the monodispersed spheres were almost curving graphitic structure with diameters from 300 to 400 nm. G mode centre of carbon microspheres had shifted upward compared with graphite. As an efficient precursor, asphaltenes were metastable structures at higher temperature. The aromatic carbon rings of asphaltenes promoted the formation of closed cage graphitic structures. The results provide a new perspective for the application of asphaltene

  2. Syntheses of deuterium labeled bile alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following major bile alcohols, identified in urine of healthy humans and in bile and urine of patients with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis, were synthesized as internal standards for mass spectral analyses: [26,27-D6]5?-cholestane-3?, 7?, 12?, 25-tetrol, [26,27-D6](23S)-5?-cholestane-3?, 7?, 12?, 23,25-pentol, [27-D3]5?-cholestane-3?, 7?, 12?, 25,26-pentol, and [2,4-D4]27-nor-5?-cholestane-3?, 7?, 12?, 24, 25-pentol. (author)

  3. Report synthesizes findings from International Polar Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-04-01

    The International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2008 "was an outstanding success," according to a National Research Council (NRC) report released 3 April. The report, Lessons and Legacies of the International Polar Year 2007-2008, synthesized reports from the thousands of scientists who participated in IPY. IPY was a coordinated international field campaign of observations, research, and analysis. Scientific observing and monitoring infrastructure was expanded, and scientists from more than 60 countries in a wide range of fields, including glaciology, atmospheric science, geoscience, space science, oceanography, biology, ecology, and the social sciences, participated in IPY activities.

  4. Biocompatibility of poly allylamine synthesized by plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the electric and hydrophilic properties of poly allylamine (PAI) synthesized by plasma whose structure contains N-H, C-H, C-O and O-H bonds is presented, that promote the biocompatibility with the human body. To study the PAI hydrolytic affinity, solutions of salt concentration similar to those of the human body were used. The results indicate that the solutions modify the charge balance in the surfaces reducing the hydrophobicity in the poly allylamine whose contact angle oscillates among 10 and 16 degrees and the liquid-solid surface tension between 4 and 8 dina/cm. (Author)

  5. 78 FR 30731 - Armed Forces Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ...these heroes have sacrificed to sustain that powerful promise that we hold so dear-- life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. And on Armed Forces Day, we honor those who serve bravely and sacrifice selflessly in our name. Our Soldiers,...

  6. Science team participation in the ARM program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report discusses the Science Team participation in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program for the period of October 31, 1992 to November 1, 1993. This report summarized the research accomplishments of six papers

  7. Nonlinear feedback control of multiple robot arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarn, T. J.; Yun, X.; Bejczy, A. K.

    1987-01-01

    Multiple coordinated robot arms are modeled by considering the arms: (1) as closed kinematic chains, and (2) as a force constrained mechanical system working on the same object simultaneously. In both formulations a new dynamic control method is discussed. It is based on a feedback linearization and simultaneous output decoupling technique. Applying a nonlinear feedback and a nonlinear coordinate transformation, the complicated model of the multiple robot arms in either formulation is converted into a linear and output decoupled system. The linear system control theory and optimal control theory are used to design robust controllers in the task space. The first formulation has the advantage of automatically handling the coordination and load distribution among the robot arms. In the second formulation, by choosing a general output equation, researchers can superimpose the position and velocity error feedback with the force-torque error feedback in the task space simultaneously.

  8. Disarmament and arms control: Multilateral negotiating efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multilateral negotiating efforts in the area of disarmament and arms control are discussed including the following issues: Non-Proliferation Treaty; comprehensive test ban treaty; the cut-off negotiations

  9. Self-locking telescoping manipulator arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesmith, M. F. (inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A telescoping manipulator arm and pivotable finger assembly are disclosed. The telescoping arm assembly includes a generally T-shaped arm having three outwardly extending fingers guided on grooved roller guides to compensate for environmental variations. The pivotable finger assembly includes four pivoting fingers. Arcuate teeth are formed on the ends of the fingers. A rack having teeth on four sides meshes with each one of the fingers. One surface of the rack includes teeth along its entire surface which mesh with teeth of one of the fingers. The teeth at the remote end of the rack engage teeth of a gear wheel. The wheel includes a worm which meshes with a worn drive shaft of the drive motor providing a ninety degree self-locking drive for locking the fingers in a desired position. A similar drive provides a self-locking drive for positioning the telescoping arm.

  10. MiniSAR composite gimbal arm development.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klarer, Paul Richard; Winscott, Mark (Orion International, Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-01-01

    An exploratory effort in the application of carbon epoxy composite structural materials to a multi-axis gimbal arm design is described. An existing design in aluminum was used as a baseline for a functionally equivalent redesigned outer gimbal arm using a carbon epoxy composite material. The existing arm was analyzed using finite element techniques to characterize performance in terms of strength, stiffness, and weight. A new design was virtually prototyped. using the same tools to produce a design with similar stiffness and strength, but reduced overall weight, than the original arm. The new design was prototyped using Rapid Prototyping technology, which was subsequently used to produce molds for fabricating the carbon epoxy composite parts. The design tools, process, and results are discussed.

  11. Arming and firing system for DISTANT RUNNER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia A and F systems Division 1132 provided arming and firing support for the DISTANT RUNNER Test Program at White Sands Missile Range. This report describes the field support and the firing system that was used

  12. Recent Advances in Chemoenzymatic Peptide Syntheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenjiro Yazawa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemoenzymatic peptide synthesis is the hydrolase-catalyzed stereoselective formation of peptide bonds. It is a clean and mild procedure, unlike conventional chemical synthesis, which involves complicated and laborious protection-deprotection procedures and harsh reaction conditions. The chemoenzymatic approach has been utilized for several decades because determining the optimal conditions for conventional synthesis is often time-consuming. The synthesis of poly- and oligopeptides comprising various amino acids longer than a dipeptide continues to pose a challenge owing to the lack of knowledge about enzymatic mechanisms and owing to difficulty in optimizing the pH, temperature, and other reaction conditions. These drawbacks limit the applications of the chemoenzymatic approach. Recently, a variety of enzymes and substrates produced using recombinant techniques, substrate mimetics, and optimal reaction conditions (e.g., frozen aqueous media and ionic liquids have broadened the scope of chemoenzymatic peptide syntheses. In this review, we highlight the recent advances in the chemoenzymatic syntheses of various peptides and their use in developing new materials and biomedical applications.

  13. Synthesizing Waves from Animated Height Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Bang; Söderström, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Computer animated ocean waves for feature films are typically carefully choreographed to match the vision of the director and to support the telling of the story. The rough shape of these waves is established in the previsualization (previs) stage, where artists use a variety of modeling tools with fast feedback to obtain the desired look. This poses a challenge to the effects artists who must subsequently match the locked-down look of the previs waves with high-quality simulated or synthesized waves, adding the detail necessary for the final shot. We propose a set of automated techniques for synthesizing Fourier-based ocean waves that match a previs input, allowing artists to quickly enhance the input wave animation with additional higher-frequency detail that moves consistently with the coarse waves, tweak the wave shapes to flatten troughs and sharpen peaks if desired (as is characteristic of deep water waves), and compute a physically reasonable velocity field of the water analytically. These properties are demonstrated with several examples, including a previs scene from a visual effects production environment.

  14. The molecular spiral arms of NGC 6946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacconi, L. J.; Xie, S.

    1990-01-01

    From CO-12(J=1 to 0) observations at 45 seconds resolution Tacconi and Young (1989) have found evidence for enhancements in both the CO emissivity and the massive star formation efficiency (MSFE) on optical spiral arms of the bright spiral galaxy NGC 6946. In the optically luminous and well-defined spiral arm in the NE quadrant, there are enhancements in both the H2 surface density and MSFE relative to the interarm regions. In contrast, a poorly defined arm in the SW shows no arm-interarm contrast in the MSFE. To further investigate the molecular gas content of these two spiral arms, researchers have made CO-12 J=2 to 1 and 3 to 2 observations with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. In the J=2 to 1 line, they made observations of the NE and SW spiral arm and interarm regions in 4 x 9 10 seconds spaced grids (36 points per grid). Because of decreased sensitivity in the J=3 to 2 line, they were limited to mapping the two arm regions in 2 x 3 10 seconds spaced grids (6 points per grid). The centers of each of the grids lie 2.4 minutes to the NE and 2.3 minutes to the SW of the nucleus of NGC 6946. With the CO J=2 to 1 data researchers are able to fully resolve the two observed spiral arms in NGC 6946. In both cases the CO emission is largely confined to the optical spiral arm regions with the peak observed T asterisk sub A being up to 4 times higher on the spiral arms than in the interarm regions. Researchers are currently estimating massive star formation efficiencies on and off the spiral arms through direct comparison of the CO maps with an H alpha image. They are also comparing the CO J=2 to 1 data with an HI map made at similar resolution. Thus, they will be able to determine structure in all components of the IS on scales of less than 20 inches.

  15. Force Sensor for Large Robot Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Primus, H. C.; Scheinman, V. D.

    1985-01-01

    Modified Maltese-cross force sensor larger and more sensitive than earlier designs. Measures inertial forces and torques exerted on large robot arms during free movement as well as those exerted by claw on manipulated objects. Large central hole of sensor allows claw drive mounted inside arm instead of perpendicular to its axis, eliminating potentially hazardous projection. Originally developed for Space Shuttle, sensor finds applications in large industrial robots.

  16. Design And Implementation Of Anthropomorphic Robotic Arm

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Sharma; Kelvin Lewis

    2014-01-01

    The report focuses on the design and demonstration of an anthropomorphic robotic arm with seven degrees of freedom using readily available low-cost components to perform different real time human hand applications. The robotic arm consists of a shoulder, elbow, wrist and a five-finger gripper. It can perform different gripping actions, such as lateral, spherical, cylindrical and tip-holding gripping actions; each finger has three movable links. The actuator used for the roboti...

  17. Optimal Best Arm Identification with Fixed Confidence

    OpenAIRE

    Garivier, Aurélien; Kaufmann, Emilie

    2016-01-01

    We provide a complete characterization of the complexity of best-arm identification in one-parameter bandit problems. We prove a new, tight lower bound on the sample complexity. We propose the 'Track-and-Stop' strategy, which is proved to be asymptotically optimal. It consists in a new sampling rule (which tracks the optimal proportions of arm draws highlighted by the lower bound) and in a stopping rule named after Chernoff, for which we give a new analysis.

  18. Computational Simplification of Robot-Arm Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Lee, S.

    1986-01-01

    Report presents two general methods for reducing mathematical complexities of state equations of robot-arm dynamics. Robot arms contain both rotary and linear joints. Both methods start with homogenous coordinates and Lagrangian formulation of mechanics briefly summarized in report. First method uses matrix-analysis techniques; second, vector-analysis techniques. Vector-analysis method includes new differential-vector representation of centripetal and Coriolis forces.

  19. Generic modular framework for robotic arm applications

    OpenAIRE

    Hernàndez, Sergi; Mirats-Tur, Josep M.

    2006-01-01

    Robotic manipulators are becoming a very common tool in modern industries and research laboratories. In order to successfully execute a given task, a control software is necessary that sends and tracks appropriate orders to the robot arm. This paper presents the design principles of a general software framework capable to control any robot arm with any set of sensors. A possible implementation of such a general framework is provided together with experiments on a particular robot platform.

  20. Youth Armed Groups in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Dale

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For the many years of Colombia’s civil war, youth have been trying to find their way in complicated and dangerous situations. A central component of this is their relationship with armed groups, something that has evolved considerably over the past ten years. This practice note examines the context within which these connections are formed and the implications this has for self/social identity and meaningful resistance. The ideas in this practice note are based on consultations with young Colombians, particularly those displaced from 2000-2013. These sessions included art activities, focus groups and individual interviews. Art activities involved descriptive and expressive projects so that participants could explore their feelings and memories of situations and experiences. This provided a base for group discussions where youth exchanged information and debated issues. A total of 34 workshops were held over a twelve year period. These consultations revealed how war flows all over young people, touching every aspect of their identity. The boundaries between the personal and political no longer exist in today’s civil wars, if indeed they every truly did. Young people growing up inside Colombia’s war understand this at a deep level. An acknowledgement of this pain – showing the connections between the personal and political dimensions of war – is, they would maintain, the basis for their personal healing as well as an important tool for the building of sustainable peace.

  1. Arm & Interarm Star Formation in Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Foyle, Kelly; Walter, Fabian; Leroy, Adam

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between spiral arms and star formation in the grand-design spirals NGC 5194 and NGC 628 and in the flocculent spiral NGC 6946. Filtered maps of near-IR (3.6 micron) emission allow us to identify "arm regions" that should correspond to regions of stellar mass density enhancements. The two grand-design spirals show a clear two-armed structure, while NGC 6946 is more complex. We examine these arm and interarm regions, looking at maps that trace recent star formation - far-ultraviolet (GALEX NGS) and 24 micron emission (Spitzer, SINGS) - and cold gas - CO (Heracles) and HI (Things). We find the star formation tracers and CO more concentrated in the spiral arms than the stellar 3.6 micron flux. If we define the spiral arms as the 25% highest pixels in the filtered 3.6 micron images, we find that the majority (60%) of star formation tracers occurs in the interarm regions; this result persists qualitatively even when considering the potential impact of finite data resolution and diffu...

  2. Modal kinematics for multisection continuum arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godage, Isuru S; Medrano-Cerda, Gustavo A; Branson, David T; Guglielmino, Emanuele; Caldwell, Darwin G

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a novel spatial kinematic model for multisection continuum arms based on mode shape functions (MSF). Modal methods have been used in many disciplines from finite element methods to structural analysis to approximate complex and nonlinear parametric variations with simple mathematical functions. Given certain constraints and required accuracy, this helps to simplify complex phenomena with numerically efficient implementations leading to fast computations. A successful application of the modal approximation techniques to develop a new modal kinematic model for general variable length multisection continuum arms is discussed. The proposed method solves the limitations associated with previous models and introduces a new approach for readily deriving exact, singularity-free and unique MSF's that simplifies the approach and avoids mode switching. The model is able to simulate spatial bending as well as straight arm motions (i.e., pure elongation/contraction), and introduces inverse position and orientation kinematics for multisection continuum arms. A kinematic decoupling feature, splitting position and orientation inverse kinematics is introduced. This type of decoupling has not been presented for these types of robotic arms before. The model also carefully accounts for physical constraints in the joint space to provide enhanced insight into practical mechanics and impose actuator mechanical limitations onto the kinematics thus generating fully realizable results. The proposed method is easily applicable to a broad spectrum of continuum arm designs. PMID:25969947

  3. The potential of transferrin-pendant-type polyethyleneglycol liposomes encapsulating decahydrodecaborate-1B (GB-10) as 1B-carriers for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate GB-10-encapsulating transferrin (TF)-pendant-type polyethyleneglycol (PEG) liposomes as tumor-targeting 1B-carriers for boron neutron capture therapy. Methods and Materials: A free mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate-1B (BSH) or decahydrodecaborate-1B (GB-10) solution, bare liposomes, PEG liposomes, or TF-PEG liposomes were injected into SCC VII tumor-bearing mice, and 1B concentrations in the tumors and normal tissues were measured by ?-ray spectrometry. Meanwhile, tumor-bearing mice were continuously given 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label all intratumor proliferating cells, then injected with these 1B-carriers containing BSH or GB-10 in the same manner. Right after thermal neutron irradiation, the response of quiescent (Q) cells was assessed in terms of the micronucleus frequency using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. The frequency in the total tumor cells was determined from the BrdU nontreated tumors. Results: Transferrin-PEG liposomes showed a prolonged retention in blood circulation, low uptake by reticuloendothelial system, and the most enhanced accumulation of 1B in solid tumors. In general, the enhancing effects were significantly greater in total cells than Q cells. In both cells, the enhancing effects of GB-10-containing 1B-carriers were significantly greater than BSH-containing 1B-carriers, whether loaded in free solution or liposomes. In both cells, whether BSH or GB-10 was employed, the greatest enhancing effect was observed with TF-PEG liposomes followed in decreasing order by PEG liposomes, bare liposomes, and free BSH or GB-10 solution. In Q cells, the decrease was remarkable between PEG and bare liposomes. Conclusions: In terms of biodistribution characteristics and tumor cell-killing effect as a whole, including Q cells, GB-10 TF-PEG liposomes were regarded as promising 1B-carriers

  4. Food rationing during World War two: a special case of sustainable consumption? Rationnement alimentaire pendant la seconde guerre mondiale : Un cas particulier de consommation durable ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iselin Theien

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores some of the strategies applied by consumers for making-do during the Second World War in Norway. By reducing waste, using various substitutes and exploiting underused natural resources such as wild plants, birds, and alternative marine sources of nutrition, Norwegian consumers adapted their diet to a situation of food scarcity. However, their everyday consumption was primarily governed by the regulatory framework installed for dealing with the crisis, namely the rationing system. By 1942, almost all common foods had been placed under rationing. Despite of the many bureaucratic inconveniences of this system, it was largely supported by consumers, who accepted it as a socially just mechanism for distributing scarce resources. The article brings up the question of how far the willingness of consumers to accept rationing was a unique experience of the war, or whether one might imagine a similar design for purposes of sustainable consumption.Cet article explore quelques unes des stratégies utilisées par les consommateurs pour survivre pendant la 2è guerre mondiale en Norvège. En limitant les déchets, en utilisant des produits de substitution ainsi que les ressources de la nature telles que plantes sauvages, oiseaux et aliments marins alternatifs, les consommateurs norvégiens ont pu adapter leur alimentation à cette période de pénurie alimentaire. La nourriture quotidienne était toutefois essentiellement encadrée par la réglementation mise en place afin de faire face à la crise, c’est à dire le système de rationnement. En 1942, presque tous les aliments étaient rationnés. En dépit de ses nombreux inconvénients administratifs, le rationnement fut quand même soutenu par les consommateurs, qui l’acceptèrent comme un système socialement équitable pour la distribution des maigres ressources. L’article développe la question suivante : l’acceptation du rationnement par les consommateurs norvégiens est-elle liée uniquement à la période de guerre, ou bien pourrait-on imaginer un système similaire pour favoriser une consommation durable?

  5. Chiral 3,3?-disubstituted BINOL derivatives: Syntheses, characterizations and X-ray structure analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Hua; Xue, Yun-Ning; Yao, Mei; Fang, Hai-Bing; Yu, Han; Yang, Shi-Ping

    2008-03-01

    Two chiral 3,3'-disubstituted BINOL derivatives 3a and 3b have been synthesized and their crystal structures have been reported. Their direct evidence of the solid-state conformations and their structural details of the unique 2D supramolecular architectures have been obtained. The intramolecular hydrogen bonds of both compounds lock two substituents at 3,3'-positions (like two arms) towards exterior around naphthyl backbones in an extended conformations. In the ( R)- 3a crystals, the uniform hand-to-hand intermolecular hydrogen bonds of O sbnd H sbnd N link the adjacent molecules into the infinite chainlike structure, and the ?-? stacking interactions and the inter-aggregate Cl/Cl close connections result in forming the higher-order 2D supramolecular crossbedded self-adhesive architecture. For ( R)- 3b, the structural characteristics of the self-assembly is to form supramolecular crossbedded self-adhesive structure through the cooperative hydrogen bonding.

  6. Recent Syntheses of Frog Alkaloid Epibatidine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ronaldo E. de, Oliveira Filho; Alvaro T., Omori.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many natives from Amazon use poison secreted by the skin of some colorful frogs (Dendrobatidae) on the tips of their arrows to hunt. This habit has generated interest in the isolation of these toxins. Among the over 500 isolated alkaloids, the most important is undoubtedly (-)-epibatidine. First iso [...] lated in 1992, by Daly from Epipedobates tricolor, this compound is highly toxic (LD50 about 0.4 µg per mouse). Most remarkably, its non-opioid analgesic activity was found to be about 200 times stronger than morphine. Due to its scarcity, the limited availability of natural sources, and its intriguing biological activity, more than 100 synthetic routes have been developed since the epibatidine structure was assigned. This review presents the recent formal and total syntheses of epibatidine since the excellent review published in 2002 by Olivo et al.1 Mainly, this review is summarized by the method used to obtain the azabicyclic core.

  7. Syntheses and thermal analyses of curium trichloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curium trichloride was synthesized by the solid state reaction of curium nitride with cadmium chloride heated up to 748 K in a dynamic vacuum. The product was hexagonal 244CmCl3, of which lattice parameters were determined to be a = 0.7385 ± 0.0005 and c = 0.4201 ± 0.0005 nm. The melting temperature of the 244CmCl3 sample was determined to be 970 ± 3 K by differential thermal analyses using a gold crucible. These values are close to those reported in literature. The results show that mg-scale CmCl3 samples for thermochemical measurements were prepared from the purified oxide sample without the use of corrosive reagents. (author)

  8. PZT Powders Synthesized by Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Kong-Jun, ZHU Ren-Qiang, DONG Na-Na, GU Hong-Hui, QIU Jin-Hao, JI Hong-Li

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) powders with single―phase, cubic morphology and average size of 1 ?m were synthesized using hydrothermal methods. Effects of KOH concentration, hydrothermal treatment time and Pb excess were investigated. The results show that KOH concentration has an important influence on the solid solubility of Pb ion in A―site of PZT perovskite structure. The concentration of Pb2+ vacancies increased with the increase of OH― concentration. However, this kind of deficiency could be compensated by adding more Pb ions in the raw materials, and more Pb ions were needed to add with higher alkaline concentration in the starting solution. But excessive compensation of Pb ions would result in the appearance of the second phase.

  9. Simplification of Methods for PET Radiopharmaceutical Syntheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilbourn, Michael, R.

    2011-12-27

    In an attempt to develop simplified methods for radiochemical synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals useful in Positron Emission Tomography (PET), current commercially available automated synthesis apparati were evaluated for use with solid phase synthesis, thin-film techniques, microwave-accelerated chemistry, and click chemistry approaches. Using combinations of these techniques, it was shown that these automated synthesis systems can be simply and effectively used to support the synthesis of a wide variety of carbon-11 and fluorine-18 labeled compounds, representing all of the major types of compounds synthesized and using all of the common radiochemical precursors available. These techniques are available for use to deliver clinically useful amounts of PET radiopharmaceuticals with chemical and radiochemical purities and high specific activities, suitable for human administration.

  10. Nanostructured bismuth ferrites synthesized by solvothermal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Well-crystallized bismuth ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized using the solvothermal method without the help of any mineralizer. The shape of the particles was changed by changing the synthesis temperature during solvothermal process. The as-prepared samples were characterized by an X-ray powder diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermal analyzer and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). It was observed that the change in solvent also led to the variation of the shape of the particles. Spindle, plate, cylindrical and hexagonal shapes were obtained. The particles showed antiferromagnetic nature within the measured temperature range of 80 K ? T ? 300 K. The hexagonal shaped particles showed a marked difference in coercivity at room temperature compared to the other samples.

  11. Porous oxides synthesized by the combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The result of this work, seeks to be a contribution for the treatment of radioactive wastes, with base to the sorption properties that present those porous oxides, synthesized by a method that allows to increase the sorption capacity. The main objective of the present investigation has been the modification of the structural characteristics of the oxides of Fe, Mg and Zn to increase its capacity of sorption of 60 Co in particular. It was studied the effect of the synthesis method by combustion in the inorganic oxides; the obtained solids were characterized using the following techniques: X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), semiquantitative elementary analysis by Dispersive energy spectroscopy (EDS) and determination of surface area by the Brunauner-Emmett-Teller method (BET). Also was carried out batch type experiments for the sorption of Co2+, with the purpose of studying the sorption capacity of each one of the prepared oxides. In accordance with that previously exposed, the working plan that was carried out in this investigation is summarized in the following stages: 1. Preparation of inorganic oxides by two different methods, studying the effect of the temperature in the synthesis process. 2. Characterization of the inorganic oxides by XRD, by means of which those were chosen the solids with better properties. 3. Characterization of the inorganic oxides by SEM and EDS where it was studied the morphology of the synthesized materials and the semiquantitative elemental composition. 4. Realization of a sorption experiment type Batch with non radioactive Co2+ to simulate the sorption of 60 Co and determination of the sorption capacity by means of neutron activation of the non radioactive cobalt. 5. Determination of the surface area by the (BET) technique of the inorganic oxides with better sorption properties. (Author)

  12. National Gas Survey. Synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The supply-Technical Advisory Task Force-Synthesized Gaseous Hydrocarbon Fuels considered coal, hydrocarbon liquids, oil shales, tar sands, and bioconvertible materials as potential feedstocks for gaseous fuels. Current status of process technology for each feedstock was reviewed, economic evaluations including sensitivity analysis were made, and constraints for establishment of a synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels industry considered. Process technology is presently available to manufacture gaseous hydrocarbon fuels from each of the feedstocks. In 1975 there were eleven liquid feedstock SNG plants in the United States having a capacity of 1.1 billion SCFD. There can be no contribution of SNG before 1982 from plants using feedstocks other than liquids because there are no plants in operation or under construction as of 1977. Costs for SNG are higher than current regulated prices for U.S. natural gas. Because of large reserves, coal is a prime feedstock candidate although there are major constraints in the area of coal leases, mining and water permits, and others. Commercial technology is available and several new gasification processes are under development. Oil shale is also a feedstock in large supply and commercial process technology is available. There are siting and permit constraints, and water availability may limit the ultimate size of an oil shale processing industry. Under projected conditions, bioconvertible materials are not expected to support the production of large quantities of pipeline quality gas during the next decade. Production of low or medium Btu gas from municipal solid wastes can be expected to be developed in urban areas in conjunction with savings in disposal costs. In the economic evaluations presented, the most significant factor for liquid feedstock plants is the anticipated cost of feedstock and fuel. The economic viability of plants using other feedstocks is primarily dependent upon capital requirements.

  13. Cortical spiking network interfaced with virtual musculoskeletal arm and robotic arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Dura-Bernal

    2015-11-01

    This work provides a novel approach consisting of bidirectionally connecting a cortical model to a realistic virtual arm, and using the system output to drive a robotic arm in real time. Our techniques are applicable to the future development of brain neuro-prosthetic control systems, and may enable enhanced brain-machine interfaces with the possibility for finer control of limb prosthetics.

  14. Dual Arm Work Module Development and Appplications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noakes, M.W.

    1999-04-25

    The dual arm work module (DAWM) was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by the Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP) as a development test bed to study issues related to dual arm manipulation, including platform cotilguration, controls, automation, operations, and tooling. The original platform was based on two Schilling Titan II manipulators mounted to a 5-degree-of- freedom (DOF) base fabricated by RedZone Robotics, Inc. The 5-DOF articulation provided a center torso rotation, linear actuation to change the separation between the arms, and arm base rotation joints to provide "elbows up," elbows down," or "elbows out" orientation. A series of tests were conducted on operations, tooling, and task space scene analysis (TSSA)-driven robotics for overhead transporter- mounted and crane hook-deployed scenarios. A concept was developed for DAWM deployment from a large remote work vehicle, but the project was redirected to support dismantlement of the Chicago Pile #5 (CP-5) reactor at Argonne National Laboratory in fiscal year (FY) 1997. Support of CP-5 required a change in focus of the dual arm technology from that of a development test bed to a system focussed for a specific end user. ORNL teamed with the Idaho National Environmental ,Engineering Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, and the Savannah River Technology Center to deliver a crane-deployed derivative of the DAWM, designated the dual arm work platform (DAWP). RTDP staff supported DAWP at CP-5 for one FY; Argonne staff continued operation through to dismantlement of the reactor internals. Lessons learned from this interaction were extensive. Beginning in FY 1999, dual arm development activities are again being pursued in the context of those lessons learned. This paper describes the progression of philosophy of the DAWM from initial test bed to lessons learned through interaction at CP-5 and to the present investigation of telerobotic assist of teleoperation and TSSA- driven robotics.

  15. Stellar Motion around Spiral Arms: Gaia Mock Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, D.; Hunt, J. A. S.; Grand, R. J. J.; Siebert, A.; Pasetto, S.; Cropper, M.

    2014-07-01

    We compare the stellar motion around a spiral arm created in two different scenarios, transient/co-rotating spiral arms and density-wave-like spiral arms. We generate Gaia mock data from snapshots of the simulations following these two scenarios using our stellar population code, SNAPDRAGONS, which takes into account dust extinction and the expected Gaia errors. We compare the observed rotation velocity around a spiral arm similar in position to the Perseus arm, and find that there is a clear difference in the velocity features around the spiral arm between the co-rotating spiral arm and the density-wave-like spiral arm. Our result demonstrates that the volume and accuracy of the Gaia data are sufficient to clearly distinguish these two scenarios of the spiral arms.

  16. Stellar Motion around Spiral Arms: Gaia Mock Data

    CERN Document Server

    Kawata, D; Grand, R J J; Siebert, A; Pasetto, S; Cropper, M

    2015-01-01

    We compare the stellar motion around a spiral arm created in two different scenarios, transient/co-rotating spiral arms and density-wave-like spiral arms. We generate Gaia mock data from snapshots of the simulations following these two scenarios using our stellar population code, SNAPDRAGONS, which takes into account dust extinction and the expected Gaia errors. We compare the observed rotation velocity around a spiral arm similar in position to the Perseus arm, and find that there is a clear difference in the velocity features around the spiral arm between the co-rotating spiral arm and the density-wave-like spiral arm. Our result demonstrates that the volume and accuracy of the Gaia data are sufficient to clearly distinguish these two scenarios of the spiral arms.

  17. ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements (ARM-ACME) and ARM-ACME 2.5 Final Campaign Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biraud, SC; Tom, MS

    2016-01-01

    We report on a 5-year multi-institution and multi-agency airborne study of atmospheric composition and carbon cycling at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, with scientific objectives that are central to the carbon-cycle and radiative-forcing goals of the U.S. Global Change Research Program and the North American Carbon Program (NACP). The goal of these measurements is to improve understanding of 1) the carbon exchange of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) SGP region; 2) how CO2 and associated water and energy fluxes influence radiative-forcing, convective processes, and CO2 concentrations over the ARM SGP region, and 3) how greenhouse gases are transported on continental scales.

  18. 78 FR 65451 - Agency Information Collection (Shoulder and Arm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ...Arm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY...Arm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any correspondence. FOR FURTHER...Arm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire).'' SUPPLEMENTARY...

  19. Cross-linking and ultrathin grafted gradation of fluorinated polymers synthesized via initiated chemical vapor deposition to prevent surface reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Andong; Goktekin, Esma; Gleason, Karen K

    2014-12-01

    Poly(fluoroalkyl acrylate)s with long perfluorooctyl pendant groups have been found to lead to the release of biopersistent perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS). Those with no more than six perfluorinated carbons in pedant groups do not cause such problems. They, however, give poor dynamic water repellency due to extensive reorganization of surface fluorinated groups when exposed to the water interface. In this work, thin films exhibiting improved dynamic water repellency, as evidenced by water contact angle (WCA) measurements, were synthesized via substrate-independent initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) from 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl acrylate (C6PFA) and divinylbenzene (DVB) using two methods: copolymerization and ultrathin grafted gradation. The copolymerization between C6PFA and the cross-linker, DVB, was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The cross-linking is concluded to hinder the reorganization of surface fluorinated groups. The grafted gradation, consisting of an ultrathin pC6PFA top layer and a pDVB base layer, was characterized by angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) measurements, which indicated that the top layer of pC6PFA is <2.5 nm thick to achieve the best dynamic water repellency. The outmost surface of this structure is fully covered by fluorinated groups, giving hydrophobicity. Concurrently, thanks to the interlayer grafting and the ultrathinness of the top layer, the fluorinated groups' tendency to migrate away from water interface is sterically blocked by the highly cross-linked pDVB base layer. The proposed approaches effectively reduced WCA hysteresis of C6PFA-based thin film to as low as 26.9° while maintaining sufficient hydrophobicity (advanced WCA of 119.6°). Due to the conformal and substrate-independent nature of iCVD technique, the films could be used to coat textured surfaces to generate superhydrophobicity. PMID:25358035

  20. Is the evaporation from phreatic aquifers in arid zones independent of the soil characteristics ? / L'évaporation des nappes phréatiques sous climat aride est-elle indépendante de la nature du sol ?

    OpenAIRE

    Coudrain-Ribstein, Anne; Pratx, Bruno; Talbi, A.; Jusserand, Claude

    1998-01-01

    The approximatly 20 pulished data based on isotopic profiles of the unsaturated zone lead us to express the evaporative flx as an inverse power function of the piezometric depth below the soil surface, independently of the soil characteristics. (...) Les données d'une vingtaine de profils isotopiques de la zone non saturée conduit à une expression du flux évaporatoire des aquifères qui est fonction de l'inverse de la profondeur du niveau piézométrique, et qui apparait indépendante de la natur...

  1. Trends in Job Quality during the Great Recession: a Comparative Approach for the EU / Tendances de la qualité de l'emploi pendant la crise : une approche européenne comparative

    OpenAIRE

    Erhel, Christine; Guergoat-Larivière, Mathilde; Leschke, Janine; Watt, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    L'objectif du document est d'analyser les conséquences de la crise sur la qualité de l'emploi en Europe. Il identifie tout d'abord les tendances de la qualité de l'emploi pendant l'épisode de crise, avant d'explorer les liens entre ces évolutions et des facteurs conjoncturels et institutionnels. Les données utilisées proviennent des principales bases européennes (Enquête sur les Forces de Travail, Enquêtes sur les Conditions de Travail, panel EU-SILC). Une première étape repose sur des indica...

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of New Chiral Monoanionic [ON] Ancillary Phenolate Ligands

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal Binda; Leslie Glover

    2014-01-01

    Three new chiral monoanionic [ON] ancillary phenolate ligands with varying pendant arms have been synthesized in moderate to high yields (50% - 85%) via Mannich-type condensation reaction of chiral substituted phenol, formaldehyde and (+)-bis-[(R)-1-phenylethyl]amine. These new organic compounds were fully characterized via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H and 13C) and elemental analysis. The newly synthesized ligands are suitable candidates for metal-catalyzed ring-opening of lact...

  3. Synthesized image processing in clilnical neurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an effort to achieve efficient image management in clinical neurosurgery utilizing a local image filing system, adequate image-processing and display techniques were developed. One is a method whereby the anatomical location of the thalamic and basal ganglion lesions is determined by automatically superimposing these lesions defined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) directly onto the Schaltenbrand-Wahren's human brain atlas. Horizontal, coronal and sagittal MR imiages are initially obtained based on intercommissural line and a perpendicular erected on the midcommissural point as the basic reference coordinates. Precise superimposition is accomplished by the use of these reference axes. This imaging technique may offer the potential for help in anatomical identification of small intracranial lesions. Another technique described in the current communication is automated synthesis of two cerebral angiograms. By simply indicating two reference points, nasion and inion, with a cursor on the display screen, two films are automatically superimposed and displayed as a single synthesized image, featuring two different vascular phases simultaneously by a posivite(vein)-negative(artery)mode. This technique was applied to patients with complete occlusion of the middle cerebral artery with or without sufficient blood flow through collateral circulation and was found useful in evaluating basis hemodynamics on a single angiographic image. (author). 8 refs.; 10 figs

  4. Copper nanocoils synthesized through solvothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanjuan; Liu, Xiaowei; Zhan, Yongjie; Fan, Haiming; Lu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Recently helical nanostructures such as nanosprings and nanocoils have drawn great interests in nanotechnology, due to their unique morphologies and physical properties, and they may be potential building blocks in sorts of electromechanical, magnetic, photoelectronic and plasmonic devices at micro/nanoscales. In this report, multi-turns copper nanocoils were synthesized through a modified solvothermal method, in which the mixture of water and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) were selected as reaction medium and copolymer poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) (PVP/VA 64E) as reductant. In the liquid solution, nanosprings could be formed from relaxed nanocoils and demonstrated high elasticity. These nanocoils and nanosprings are of single crystalline structure, with the characteristics wire diameters ranging from tens to a few hundreds of nanometers and the ring/coil diameters mostly ~10–35 microns. Their growth and deformation mechanisms were then investigated and discussed along with that of previously reported single-turn copper nanorings. This work could be of importance for researchers working on synthesis and applications of novel 1-D helical nanomaterials and their functional devices. PMID:26607386

  5. Copper nanocoils synthesized through solvothermal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanjuan; Liu, Xiaowei; Zhan, Yongjie; Fan, Haiming; Lu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Recently helical nanostructures such as nanosprings and nanocoils have drawn great interests in nanotechnology, due to their unique morphologies and physical properties, and they may be potential building blocks in sorts of electromechanical, magnetic, photoelectronic and plasmonic devices at micro/nanoscales. In this report, multi-turns copper nanocoils were synthesized through a modified solvothermal method, in which the mixture of water and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) were selected as reaction medium and copolymer poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) (PVP/VA 64E) as reductant. In the liquid solution, nanosprings could be formed from relaxed nanocoils and demonstrated high elasticity. These nanocoils and nanosprings are of single crystalline structure, with the characteristics wire diameters ranging from tens to a few hundreds of nanometers and the ring/coil diameters mostly ~10-35 microns. Their growth and deformation mechanisms were then investigated and discussed along with that of previously reported single-turn copper nanorings. This work could be of importance for researchers working on synthesis and applications of novel 1-D helical nanomaterials and their functional devices. PMID:26607386

  6. Multistep sintering to synthesize fast lithium garnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Biyi; Duan, Huanan; Xia, Wenhao; Guo, Yiping; Kang, Hongmei; Li, Hua; Liu, Hezhou

    2016-01-01

    A multistep sintering schedule is developed to synthesize Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) doped with 0.2 mol% Al3+. The effect of sintering steps on phase, relative density and ionic conductivity of Al-doped LLZO has been evaluated using powder X-Ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), 27Al magic spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results show that by holding the sample at 900 °C for 6 h, the mixture of tetragonal and cubic garnet phases are obtained; by continuously holding at 1100 °C for 6 h, the tetragonal phase completely transforms into cubic phase; by holding at 1200 °C, the relative density increases without decomposition of the cubic phase. The Al-LLZO pellets after multistep sintering exhibit cubic phase, relative density of 94.25% and ionic conductivity of 4.5 × 10-4 S cm-1 at room temperature. Based on the observation, a sintering model is proposed and discussed.

  7. Syntheses of surfactants from oleochemical epoxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warwel Siegfried

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar-based surfactants were obtained in good yields (up to 100% under mild conditions (70°C, methanol or mixtures of methanol and water by ring-opening of terminal epoxides with aminopolyols, derived from glucose. Reaction of N-methyl glucamine with epoxides from even-numbered C4-C18 alpha-olefins or from terminal unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters leads to linear products, while corresponding reactions with N-dodecyl glucamine or glucamine yield surfactants with different Y-structures. Products obtained by conversion of omega-epoxy fatty acid methyl esters were saponificated with NaOH or hydrolyzed enzymatically to sodium salts or free acids respectively, which are amphoteric surfactants. Studies of the surfactants at different pH-values demonstrate different surface active properties in aqueous solutions. Critical micelle concentrations (c.m.c. in a range between 2 and 500mg/l and surface tensions of 25-40mN/m were measured for several of the synthesized sugar-based surfactants. The ring-opening products are rather poor foamers, whereas some of the corresponding hydrobromides show good foaming properties.

  8. Measuring and Synthesizing Systems in Probabilistic Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Jobstmann, Barbara; Singh, Rohit

    2010-01-01

    Often one has a preference order among the different systems that satisfy a given specification. Under a probabilistic assumption about the possible inputs, such a preference order is naturally expressed by a weighted automaton, which assigns to each word a value, such that a system is preferred if it generates a higher expected value. We solve the following optimal-synthesis problem: given an omega-regular specification, a Markov chain that describes the distribution of inputs, and a weighted automaton that measures how well a system satisfies the given specification under the given input assumption, synthesize a system that optimizes the measured value. For safety specifications and measures that are defined by mean-payoff automata, the optimal-synthesis problem amounts to finding a strategy in a Markov decision process (MDP) that is optimal for a long-run average reward objective, which can be done in polynomial time. For general omega-regular specifications, the solution rests on a new, polynomial-time al...

  9. Adaptive Control Strategies for Flexible Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialasiewicz, Jan T.

    1996-01-01

    The control problem of a flexible robotic arm has been investigated. The control strategies that have been developed have a wide application in approaching the general control problem of flexible space structures. The following control strategies have been developed and evaluated: neural self-tuning control algorithm, neural-network-based fuzzy logic control algorithm, and adaptive pole assignment algorithm. All of the above algorithms have been tested through computer simulation. In addition, the hardware implementation of a computer control system that controls the tip position of a flexible arm clamped on a rigid hub mounted directly on the vertical shaft of a dc motor, has been developed. An adaptive pole assignment algorithm has been applied to suppress vibrations of the described physical model of flexible robotic arm and has been successfully tested using this testbed.

  10. Systems Approach to Arms Control Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, K; Neimeyer, I; Listner, C; Stein, G; Chen, C; Dreicer, M

    2015-05-15

    Using the decades of experience of developing concepts and technologies for verifying bilateral and multilateral arms control agreements, a broad conceptual systems approach is being developed that takes into account varying levels of information and risk. The IAEA has already demonstrated the applicability of a systems approach by implementing safeguards at the State level, with acquisition path analysis as the key element. In order to test whether such an approach could also be implemented for arms control verification, an exercise was conducted in November 2014 at the JRC ITU Ispra. Based on the scenario of a hypothetical treaty between two model nuclear weapons states aimed at capping their nuclear arsenals at existing levels, the goal of this exercise was to explore how to use acquisition path analysis in an arms control context. Our contribution will present the scenario, objectives and results of this exercise, and attempt to define future workshops aimed at further developing verification measures that will deter or detect treaty violations.

  11. ARM Cloud Retrieval Ensemble Data Set (ACRED)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, C; Xie, S; Klein, SA; McCoy, R; Comstock, JM; Delanoë, J; Deng, M; Dunn, M; Hogan, RJ; Jensen, MP; Mace, GG; McFarlane, SA; O’Connor, EJ; Protat, A; Shupe, MD; Turner, D; Wang, Z

    2011-09-12

    This document describes a new Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) data set, the ARM Cloud Retrieval Ensemble Data Set (ACRED), which is created by assembling nine existing ground-based cloud retrievals of ARM measurements from different cloud retrieval algorithms. The current version of ACRED includes an hourly average of nine ground-based retrievals with vertical resolution of 45 m for 512 layers. The techniques used for the nine cloud retrievals are briefly described in this document. This document also outlines the ACRED data availability, variables, and the nine retrieval products. Technical details about the generation of ACRED, such as the methods used for time average and vertical re-grid, are also provided.

  12. Fractures of the humerus during arm wrestling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bumbaširevi? Marko Ž.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Humeral shaft fractures may occur as a result of arm wrestling. The aim of this study was to present our treatment of humerus fracture sustained during arm wrestling. Methods. A total of six patients, aged 22 to 48, were treated at our department form January 2008 to January 2010 with open reduction and internal fixation and with hanging arm casts. A review of all the relevant literature on the subject was also presented. Results. In all the cases, the fractures healed and function returned to normal. No patient had any neural or vascular compromise. Conclusion. Closed and operative treatments were equally successful in all reported cases. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175-095

  13. Context-dependent arm pointing adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidler, R. D.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Stelmach, G. E.

    2001-01-01

    We sought to determine the effectiveness of head posture as a contextual cue to facilitate adaptive transitions in manual control during visuomotor distortions. Subjects performed arm pointing movements by drawing on a digitizing tablet, with targets and movement trajectories displayed in real time on a computer monitor. Adaptation was induced by presenting the trajectories in an altered gain format on the monitor. The subjects were shown visual displays of their movements that corresponded to either 0.5 or 1.5 scaling of the movements made. Subjects were assigned to three groups: the head orientation group tilted the head towards the right shoulder when drawing under a 0.5 gain of display and towards the left shoulder when drawing under a 1.5 gain of display; the target orientation group had the home and target positions rotated counterclockwise when drawing under the 0.5 gain and clockwise for the 1.5 gain; the arm posture group changed the elbow angle of the arm they were not drawing with from full flexion to full extension with 0.5 and 1.5 gain display changes. To determine if contextual cues were associated with display alternations, the gain changes were returned to the standard (1.0) display. Aftereffects were assessed to determine the efficacy of the head orientation contextual cue compared to the two control cues. The head orientation cue was effectively associated with the multiple gains. The target orientation cue also demonstrated some effectiveness while the arm posture cue did not. The results demonstrate that contextual cues can be used to switch between multiple adaptive states. These data provide support for the idea that static head orientation information is a crucial component to the arm adaptation process. These data further define the functional linkage between head posture and arm pointing movements.

  14. Offset between stellar spiral arms and gas arms of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, L G

    2015-01-01

    Spiral arms shown by different components may not be spatially coincident, which can constrain formation mechanisms of spiral structure in a galaxy. We reassess the spiral arm tangency directions in the Milky Way through identifying the bump features in the longitude plots of survey data for infrared stars, radio recombination lines (RRLs), star formation sites, CO, high density regions in clouds, and HI. The bump peaks are taken as indications for arm tangencies, which are close to the real density peaks near the spiral arm tangency point but often have $\\sim$ 1$^\\circ$ offset to the interior of spiral arms. The arm tangencies identified from the longitudes plots for RRLs, HII regions, methanol masers, CO, high density gas regions, and HI gas appear nearly the same Galactic longitude, and therefore there is no obvious offset for spiral arms traced by different gas components. However, we find obvious displacements of 1.3$^\\circ-$ 5.8$^\\circ$ between gaseous bump peaks from the directions of the maximum densi...

  15. Gender Integration and the Swedish Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Daniel Marcus Sunil

    This paper discusses different gender aspects of the Swedish Armed Forces with specific references to sexual harassment and prostitution. By using the concept of Hegemonic Masculinity, sexual harassment of the women in the Swedish Armed Forces is explained in terms of a need of the men within the...... organisation to reinforce the notion of women as inferior and subordinate to men, whereby the external hegemony is believed to be restored. Likewise, male Swedish peacekeepers’ demand for prostitution during international peacekeeping missions is explained in terms of a need to confirm manhood and as homo...

  16. Phoenix Robotic Arm connects with `Alice'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm comes into contact with a rock informally named 'Alice' near the 'Snow White' trench. This image was acquired by Phoenix's NASA's Surface Stereo Imager on July 13 during the 48th Martian day, or sol, since Phoenix landed. For scale, the width of the scoop at the end of the arm is about 8.5 centimeters (3.3 inches). The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Simulations of tidally induced spiral arms

    CERN Document Server

    Semczuk, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    The origin of grand design spiral structure in galaxies is still under debate but one of promising scenarios involves tidal interactions. We use N-body simulations to study the evolution of a Milky Way-size galaxy in a Virgo-like cluster. The galaxy is placed on a typical eccentric orbit and evolved for 10 Gyr. We find that grand design spiral arms are triggered by pericenter passages and later on they wind up and dissipate. The arms formed in the simulations are approximately logarithmic, but are also dynamic, transient and recurrent.

  18. The ARM unpiloted aerospace vehicle (UAV) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowle, D. [Mission Research Corporation, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Unmanned aerospace vehicles (UAVs) are an important complement to the DOE`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. ARM is primarily a ground-based program designed to extensively quantify the radiometric and meteorological properties of an atmospheric column. There is a need for airborne measurements of radiative profiles, especially flux at the tropopause, cloud properties, and upper troposphere water vapor. There is also a need for multi-day measurements at the tropopause; for example, in the tropics, at 20 km for over 24 hours. UAVs offer the greatest potential for long endurance at high altitudes and may be less expensive than piloted flights. 2 figs.

  19. Study of photoconductor polymers synthesized by plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the photoconductivity in poly thiophene (PTh), poly pyrrole (PPy) and doped poly pyrrole with iodine (PPy/I) is studied, whose structures depend of the intensity of the electric field applied during the synthesis by plasma. The conjugated organic polymers possess double alternated bonds in its chemical structure that its allow the one movement of π electrons through the polymeric chains. The plasma is produced by means of splendor discharges to 13.5 MHz, resistive coupling, at one pressure that oscillates in the interval from 2 to 3x10-1 mbar, 180 min and powers of 10, 24, 40, 60, 80 and 100 W. Its were used heteroaromatic polymers like PTh and PPy/I, due to their potential applications in optoelectronics. The influence of the iodine is evaluated as dopant in PPy and it is compared with their similar one without doping in the light absorption/emission processes. The polymers synthesized by plasma can ramify or to intersect due to the energy applied during the synthesis. However, if the polymer intersects, the aromaticity can continue through the polymeric chains. The absorptions obtained by infrared spectroscopy, suggest that the polymer conserves the aromatic structure of the monomer fundamentally with substitutions that indicate inter crossing and partial fragmentation. The structure of most of the polymers spreads to be amorphous because they don't possess any classification. However, the PPy/I and PTh synthesized by this technique present crystalline segments whose intensity diminishes with the power of the discharge. In PTh, the average crystallinity diminishes from 19.8% to 9.9%, and in PPy/I of 15.9% to 13.3% in the interval of 10 to 100 W of power. In this work, however, its were crystalline arrangements in all the studied powers. The classification of the polymeric structure favors the formation of trajectories of transfer of electric loads among the chains, that which influences in the global electric conductivity of the material. In UV-vis spectroscopy it was found that the PTh absorbs light in the interval of wavelength from 300 to 600 nm and the PPy of 300 to 600 nm; however, when the polymer it was doped with iodine a displacement toward the right of 100 nm is presented. The absorption of electromagnetic radiation depends on the structure of the compound and it is related with the transition π-π* of the aromatic rings. On the other hand, the Pth, PPy/I and PPy emit light in the interval of wavelength from 453 to 463 nm, of blue coloration, related with the transition that is produced from the singlet excited state of smaller energy, S1, until the fundamental state, S0. The electrical properties of the polymers were evaluated in function of the discharge power with excitement by temperature and with UV beams and visible. The excitement with light produces significant changes in the electric response of the polymers. Without excitement, the conductivity oscillates around 10-15 S/cm, with a behavior of insulating matter. When exciting them with visible light it increases 1 order of magnitude and when exciting them with UV light it is increased until 3 orders of magnitude, behaving as photosensitive materials. (Author)

  20. Synthesizing Smart Polymeric and Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chaokun

    Smart materials have been widely investigated to explore new functionalities unavailable to traditional materials or to mimic the multifunctionality of biological systems. Synthetic polymers are particularly attractive as they already possess some of the attributes required for smart materials, and there are vast room to further enhance the existing properties or impart new properties by polymer synthesis or composite formulation. In this work, three types of smart polymer and composites have been investigated with important new applications: (1) healable polymer composites for structural application and healable composite conductor for electronic device application; (2) conducting polymer polypyrrole actuator for implantable medical device application; and (3) ferroelectric polymer and ceramic nanoparticles composites for electrocaloric effect based solid state refrigeration application. These application entail highly challenging materials innovation, and my work has led to significant progress in all three areas. For the healable polymer composites, well known intrinsically healable polymer 2MEP4F (a Diels-Alder crosslinked polymer formed from a monomer with four furan groups and another monomer with two maleimide groups) was first chosen as the matrix reinforced with fiber. Glass fibers were successfully functionalized with maleimide functional groups on their surface. Composites from functionalized glass fibers and 2MEP4F healable polymer were made to compare with composites made from commercial carbon fibers and 2MEP4F polymer. Dramatically improved short beam shear strength was obtained from composite of functionalized glass fibers and 2MEP4F polymer. The high cost of 2MEP4F polymer can potentially limit the large-scale application of the developed healable composite, we further developed a new healable polymer with much lower cost. This new polymer was formed through the Diels-Alder crosslinking of poly(furfuryl alcohol) (PFA) and 1,1'-(Methylenedi-4,1-phenylene)bismaleimide (MDPB). It showed the same healing ability as 2MEP4F while all starting materials are cheaper and commercially available. To further improve the mechanical strength of the PFA-MDPB healable polymer, epoxy as a strengthening component was mixed with PFA-MDPB healable polymer. The PFA, MDPB and epoxy composite polymers were further reinforced by carbon fiber as done with 2MEP4F matrix and the final composites were proved to have higher short beam shear strength than 2MEP4F while exhibiting a similar healing efficiency. Healable polymer MDPB (a two maleimide groups monomer) -- FGEEDR (a four furan groups monomer) was also designed and synthesized for transparent healable polymer. The MDPB-FGEEDR healable polymer was composited with silver nanowires (AgNWs) to afford healable transparent composite conductor. Razer blade cuts in the composite conductor could heal upon heating to recover the mechanical strength and electrical conductivity of the composite. The healing could be repeated for multiple times on the same cut location. The healing process was as fast as 3 minutes for conductivity to recover 97% of the original value. For electroactive polymer polypyrrole, the fast volume change upon electrical field change due to electrochemical oxidization or reduction was studied for actuation targeting toward a robotic application. The flexibility of polypyrrole was improved via copolymerization with pyrrole derivatives. Actuator devices are fabricated that more suitable for implantable medical device application than pyrrole homopolymer. The change of dipole re-orientation and thus dielectric constant of ferroelectric polymers and ceramics upon electrical field may be exploited for electrocaloric effect (ECE) and solid state refrigeration. For ferroelectric ceramics, we synthesized a series of Ba1-xSrxTiO3 nanoparticles with diameter ranging from 8-12 nm and characterized their dielectric and ferroelectric properties through hysteresis measurement. It was found that 8 nm BaTiO3 nanocrystals are stable at cubic crystal structure without ferroelectric

  1. Syntheses and properties of ?-phase organic superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The syntheses and physical properties of ?-(ET)2Cu[N(CN)2]X (X=Br and Cl) are summarized. The ?-(ET)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br salt is the highest Tc radical-cation based ambient pressure organic superconductor (Tc=11.6 K), and the ?-(ET)2Cu[N(CN)2]Cl salt becomes a superconductor at even higher Tc under 0.3 kbar hydrostatic pressure (Tc=12.8 K). The similarities and differences between ?-(ET)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br and ?-(ET)2Cu(NCS)2 (Tc=10.4 K) are presented. The X-ray structures at 127 K reveal that the the S hor-ellipsis S contacts shorten between ET dimers in the former compound while the S hor-ellipsis S contacts shorten within dimers in the latter. The difference in their ESR linewidth behavior is also explained in terms of the structural differences. A semiconducting compound, (ET)Cu[N(CN)2]2, isolated during ?-(ET)2Cu[N(CN)2]Cl synthesis is also reported. The ESR measurements of the ?-(ET)2Cu[N(CN)2]Cl salt indicate that the phase transition near 40 K is similar to the spin density wave transition in (TMTSF)2SbF6. A new class of organic superconductors, ?-(ET)2Cu2(CN)3 and ?-(ET)2Cu2(CN)3-?Br?, is reported with Tc's of 2.8 K (1.5 kbar) and 2.6 K (1 kbar), respectively

  2. Kinematic decomposition and classification of octopus arm movements

    OpenAIRE

    IdoZelman; ShlomiHanassy

    2013-01-01

    The octopus arm is a muscular hydrostat and due to its deformable and highly flexible structure it is capable of a rich repertoire of motor behaviors. Its motor control system uses planning principles and control strategies unique to muscular hydrostats. We previously reconstructed a data set of octopus arm movements from records of natural movements using a sequence of 3D curves describing the virtual backbone of arm configurations. Here we describe a novel representation of octopus arm move...

  3. Democracies, politics and arms supply: A bilateral trade equation

    OpenAIRE

    Comola, Margherita

    2009-01-01

    La politique peut influencer les ventes d'armes de plusieurs façons et l'histoire indique qu'elle le fait réellement : tout au long du XXème siècle les armes ont non seulement été des marchandises commercialisables mais également des instruments de politique extérieure. Ce document se concentre sur des pays fournissant des armes conventionnelles majeures (ACM) et étudie si l'orientation politique du gouvernement en place a une importance sur la politique d'exportation d'armes. En particulier,...

  4. Light duty utility arm software requirements specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document defines the software requirements for the integrated control and data acquisition system of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System. It is intended to be used to guide the design of the application software, to be a basis for assessing the application software design, and to establish what is to be tested in the finished application software product

  5. Colleges Grapple with the "Behavioral Broken Arm"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Eric

    2008-01-01

    After the fatal shootings at Virginia Tech last April, colleges went shopping for hardware. They bought sirens, mass-messaging systems, surveillance cameras, and door locks. Some colleges armed their police departments for the first time. Others added assault rifles to their arsenals. "Active shooter" drills happened everywhere. As administrators…

  6. Kinematics and trajectory generation for MIRADAS arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater, J.; Gómez, J. M.; Torra, J.; López, M.; Raines, S. N.; Eikenberry, S. S.

    2015-05-01

    The Mid-resolution InfRAreD Astronomical Spectrograph (MIRADAS) is a NIR multi-object spectrograph for the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). The instrument has a multiplexing system (MXS) that enables the simultaneous observation of twenty objects located within its field of view. These user selected targets are acquired by twenty deployable robotic probe arms with pickoff mirror optics operating at cryogenic temperatures. The MIRADAS probe arm is a close-loop mechanism designed with optics simplicity in mind, presenting good stability when it is operated upside down. Calculating optimum collision-free trajectories requires a good knowledge of the MIRADAS arm behavior based on its geometry and its mechanical constraints. This study introduces a geometric model for the two degree-of-freedom (DoF) mechanism, including solutions for the forward and inverse kinematics problem. The concepts of zone-of-avoidance (ZoA), workspace and envelope of MIRADAS arm are presented and studied. Finally, the paper proposes two different patrolling approaches that can be exploited when planning trajectories.

  7. Molecular machines: Molecules bearing robotic arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprahamian, Ivan

    2016-02-01

    Mass production at the nanoscale requires molecular machines that can control, with high fidelity, the spatial orientation of other reactive species. The demonstration of a synthetic system in which a molecular robotic arm can be used to manipulate the position of a chemical cargo is a significant step towards achieving this goal.

  8. Syntheses and electronic structures of decamethylmetallocenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of decamethylmanganocene [(eta-C5(CH3)5)2Mn or (Me5Cp)2Mn)] is described. Magnetic susceptibility and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies show that (Me5Cp)2Mn is a low-spin, 17-electron compound with an orbitally degenerate, 2E/sub 2g/ [e/sub 2g/3 a/sub 1g/2] ground state. An x-ray crystallographic study of (Me5Cp)2Mn shows that it is a monomeric, D/sub 5d/ decamethylmetallocene with metal to ring carbon distances that are about 0.3 A shorter than those determined for high-spin manganocenes. The syntheses of new (Me5Cp)2M (M = Mg,V,Cr,Co, and Ni) and [(Me5Cp)2M]PF6 (M = Cr,Co, and Ni) compounds are described. In addition, a preparative route to a novel, dicationic decamethylmetallocene, [(Me5Cp)2Ni](PF6)2 is reported. Infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, magnetic susceptibility, and/or x-ray crystallographic studies indicate that all the above compounds are D/sub 5d/ or D/sub 5h/ decamethylmetallocenes with low-spin electronic configurations. Cyclic voltammetry studies verify the reversibility and the one-electron nature of the (Me5Cp)2M ? [(Me5Cp)2M]+ (M = Cr,Mn,Fe,Co,Ni), [(Me5Cp)2Mn]- ? (Me5Cp)2Mn and [(Me5Cp)2Ni]+ ? [Me5Cp)2Ni]2+ redox reactions. These studies reveal that the neutral decamethylmetallocenes are much more easily oxidized than their metallocene counterparts. This result attests to the electron-donating properties of the ten substituent methyl groups. Proton and carbon-13 NMR data are reported for the diamagnetic Mg(II), Mn(I), Fe(II), Co(III), and Ni(IV) decamethylmetallocenes and for [(Me5Cp)2V(CO)2]+. The uv-visible absorption spectra of the 15-, 18- and 20- electron decamethylmetallocenes are also reported

  9. Dynamics of Non-Steady Spiral Arms in Disk Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Baba, Junichi; Wada, Keiichi

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the physical mechanisms underlying non-steady stellar spiral arms in disk galaxies, we analyzed the growing and damping phases of their spiral arms using three-dimensional $N$-body simulations. We confirmed that the spiral arms are formed due to a swing amplification mechanism that reinforces density enhancement as a seeded wake. In the damping phase, the Coriolis force exerted on a portion of the arm surpasses the gravitational force that acts to shrink the portion. Consequently, the stars in the portion escape from the arm, and subsequently they form a new arm at a different location. The time-dependent nature of the spiral arms are originated in the continual repetition of this non-linear phenomenon. Since a spiral arm does not rigidly rotate, but follows the galactic differential rotation, the stars in the arm rotate at almost the same rate as the arm. In other words, every single position in the arm can be regarded as the co-rotation point. Due to interaction with their host arms, ...

  10. Position And Force Control For Multiple-Arm Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayati, Samad A.

    1988-01-01

    Number of arms increased without introducing undue complexity. Strategy and computer architecture developed for simultaneous control of positions of number of robot arms manipulating same object and of forces and torques that arms exert on object. Scheme enables coordinated manipulation of object, causing it to move along assigned trajectory and be subjected to assigned internal forces and torques.

  11. 49 CFR 1562.29 - Armed security officer requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DASSP into or out of DCA; and (2) To transport a firearm in accordance with the Armed Security Officer... coordination with the Federal Air Marshal Service, may establish in the Armed Security Officer Security Program... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Armed security officer requirements....

  12. Arm motion planning based on space-time constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dengming; Wang, Zhaoqi; Huang, He; Shi, Min

    2004-03-01

    Controlling 3D virtual human arm to achieve given tasks is a challenging goal for computer animators. In this paper, a new approach is proposed to plan the arm trajectory in three-dimensional space, which is an extended minimum hand jerk model based on spacetime constraints. Experimental results show that natural arm motion could be obtained by it.

  13. Establishing effective relations between government and its arm’s length bodies requires that they learn to live together

    OpenAIRE

    Rutter, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Central controls have limited the managerial freedoms of both departments and their arm’s length bodies (ALBs). Jill Rutter argues that their relationship needs to be built on mutual trust and respect

  14. Overview of ARM observations during the ARM MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, S. A.; Long, C. N.; Feng, Z.; Comstock, J. M.; Sivaraman, C.; Bharadwaj, N.; Johnson, K. L.; Orr, B. W.; Ritsche, M.; Collis, S. M.; Schumacher, C.; Ellis, S.; Powell, S.

    2012-12-01

    The US Department of Energy funded Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE) was performed in association with the DYNAMO (Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation) and CINDY-2011 (Cooperative Indian Ocean experiment on intraseasonal variability in the Year 2011) campaigns to study MJO initiation in the Indian Ocean. AMIE included measurements with the second ARM mobile facility (AMF2) on Addu City, the Maldives, and measurements at the permanent ARM site on Manus Island, Papua New Guinea. The dual-pronged nature of the AMIE experiment allowed observation of both MJO convective initiation in the Indian Ocean (at the Maldives site) and the mature phase of the MJO as it passed over the maritime continent (at the Manus site). The AMF2 consists of a full suite of atmospheric instrumentation including surface meteorological instruments, broadband radiometers, microwave radiometers, vertically pointing ceilometer, cloud radar and lidar, scanning cloud radar, and a 2D video disdrometer. At Manus, a similar suite of instruments, including a C-band precipitation radar, is available at the permanent ARM facility. A key aspect of the AMIE deployment was 8/day radiosonde launches at both the Maldives and Manus sites to document the evolution of the thermodynamic structure with the passage of the MJO over the sites. In this presentation, we give an overview of the available ARM thermodynamic, cloud, and precipitation observations during AMIE; show some preliminary ARM value added products; and present some initial comparisons of the ARM and DYNAMO radars.aily cloud frequency observed by the Ka ARM Zenith Radar (KAZR) at the Gan site during AMIE.

  15. The Arm’s Length Principle and Distortions to Multinational Firm Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Keuschnigg; Michael P. Devereux

    2013-01-01

    To prevent profit shifting by manipulation of transfer prices, tax authorities typically apply the arm's length principle in corporate taxation and use comparable market prices to ‘correctly’ assess the value of intracompany trade and royalty income of multinationals. We develop a model of firms subject to financing frictions and offshoring of intermediate inputs. We find that arm's length prices systematically differ from prices set by independent agents. Application of the princip...

  16. Diaminoalkane as Spacer Arm between Polystyrene and ?- Cylodextrin in Affinity Chromatography for ?-Amylase Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Widarti* ,

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Stationary phase design in affinity chromatography has to fulfill at least two requirements: non-specific interaction between solid support and or spacer arm and protein target or others is minimal and specific interaction between ligand and protein target is maximal. In this study, stationary phases that consist of polystyrene (PS as solid support, diaminoalkane as spacer arm and with and without ?CD as a ligand are performed in ?-amylase separation. Therefore, the research was carried out in two steps; stationary phase preparation and adsorption parameter determination towards ?-amylase. Stationary phases that consist of PS, 1,6-diaminohexane and ?CD (PS–DAH–?CD and without ?CD (PS–DAH were synthesized. Stationary phase structure was confirmed by FTIR, 13C NMR solid, 13C dan 1H NMR liquid spectroscopy. Other stationary phases, PS–DAP–?CD and PS–DAP that consist of 1,2-diaminopropane (DAP as spacer arm was synthesized in the previous research. Dynamic ?-amylase adsorption isotherm on PS–DAP and PS–DAH shows that both of them did not fix any adsorption isotherm model. The average binding capacity are 0.071 and 0.31 mg/0.1 g resin, respectively. In another hand, PS–DAP–?CD and PS–DAH–?CD fix isotherm adsorption Langmuir model and the adsorption parameters; the maximum binding capacity (qm are 5.5 and 2.1 mg/0.1 g resin, adsorption equilibrium constant (KA are 0.01965 and 0.01925 ?L—1 and desorption rate constant (k2 are 0.201 and 0.774 mg s—1 , respectively. Due to adsorption parameters, PS–DAP–?CD offer the best adsorption capacity and selectivity as stationary phase in affinity chromatography for ?-amylase separation.

  17. Structural Variation of Molecular Gas in the Sagittarius Arm and Inter-Arm Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Sawada, Tsuyoshi; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Koda, Jin; Handa, Toshihiro

    2012-01-01

    We have carried out survey observations toward the Galactic plane at l~38 deg in the 12CO and 13CO J=1-0 lines using the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45-m telescope. A wide area (0.8 x 0.8 deg) was mapped with high spatial resolution (17"). The line of sight samples the gas in both the Sagittarius arm and the inter-arm regions. The present observations reveal how the structure and physical conditions vary across a spiral arm. We classify the molecular gas in the line of sight into two distinct components based on its appearance: the bright and compact B component and the fainter and diffuse (i.e., more extended) D component. The B component is predominantly seen at the spiral arm velocities, while the D component dominates at the inter-arm velocities and is also found at the spiral arm velocities. We introduce the brightness distribution function and the brightness distribution index (BDI, which indicates the dominance of the B component) in order to quantify the map's appearance. The radial velocities of BDI p...

  18. Association between intramuscular fat in the arm following arm training and INSIG2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popadic Gacesa, J Z; Secher, N H

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-induced gene 2 (INSIG2) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs7566605) is linked to lipid metabolism, and this study assessed its potential influence on fat in the upper arm following arm training. Twenty healthy sedentary volunteers (22.0?±?1.1 years, body mass index 25.4?±?4.0?kg/m(2) ; mean?±?standard deviation) carried out a 12-week two-arm elbow extensor training (10 maximal extensions with 1?min recovery between bouts) five times per day, five times per week. For 17 volunteers, upper arm muscle and adipose tissue [subcutaneous (SCAT) and intramuscular (IMAT)] volumes were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging before, immediately after, and 12 months after training and variables were related to the subjects' INSIG2 SNP rs7566605 genotype. Muscle volume and SCAT for the upper arm, as the decrease in IMAT during training were not related to INSIG2 SNP rs7566605: GG: %IMAT 1.0?±?0.9%; GC/CC: %IMAT 0.6?±?0.5% (P?>?0.05). However, in the year following the training, accumulation of upper arm IMAT was twice as large in participants homozygous for the G allele (GG: ?%IMAT +2.5?±?0.8%; GC/CC: ?%IMAT +1.1?±?0.7%; P?

  19. Embedded ARM Control Robotic Arm using BoaWeb server – a Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Sirisha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In today’s market, the competing microprocessors are ARM (Advanced Risc Microprocessor, Intel, AMD. ARM is preferred since it has been powering portable devices for decades and has simple architecture to keep the energy waste to be minimum. The electronics advancements and embedded technology advancements have become a challenging field in today’s techno world. In paper, the diligent features of embedded systems are introduced. It deals about how a robot is controlled using embedded operating system and ARM. Based on the combination of ARM, DSP and ARM Linux, the robot is controlled. The paper introduces development of embedded robot control system using Wi-Fi and also IOT. The embedded control system design includes four aspects. i.e., system structure, functions, hardware design and software design. By using these aspects (hardware and software adjustments, many robotic applications can be developed. Due to the fast execution speed and reasonable Ethernet speed in ARM processor, this system can be used in industrial oriented applications where there is very much necessity of safety and security.

  20. Redox-cleavable star cationic PDMAEMA by arm-first approach of ATRP as a nonviral vector for gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Fengying; Sun, Peng; Liu, Yongjie; Liu, Wenguang

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we synthesized a star cationic polymer(s-PDMAEMA) consisting of cleavable poly[N,N-bis(acryloyl) cystamine](PBAC) crosslinked core and poly(N,N-dimethyl-ethylamine methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) arms by atomic transfer radical polymerization using one-pot "arm first" method. The s-PDMAEMA that was degradable in a mimic intracellular redox environment was more efficient in condensing DNA. It was shown that s-PDMAEMA achieved higher gene transfection levels relative to their linear precursors and s-PDMAEMA200 with longer and more arms exhibited superior transfection efficiencies and lower cytotoxicity compared to PEI25K. The buffer capacities were examined by acid-base titration; the pH-dependent morphological evolution and enzyme stability of PDMAEMA/DNA complexes were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, respectively. The results indicated that the star polymers exhibited a stronger buffering ability than their linear precursors due to the increased inner osmotic pressure. By decreasing the pH from 7.4 to 5.0, the linear PDMEMA/DNA complexes became more compact; in contrast, s-PDMAEMA200/DNA complex adopted a loose morphology due to the steric barrier of inter-arms and outward extension of positively charged arms. Analysis of the fluorescence life times of free and intercalated ethidium bromide unveiled more effective protection of DNA afforded by s-PDMAEMA. The effect of medium pH on the star PDMAEMA system was smaller owing to the ability of densely tertiary amino groups along multiple arms to absorb more protons, which was favorable for endosomolytic escape of complexes. PMID:19796806

  1. A Global Obstacle-avoidance Map for Anthropomorphic Arms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Fang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available More and more humanoid robots are used in human society, and they face a wide variety of complicated manipulation tasks, which are mainly to be achieved by their anthropomorphic arms. Obstacle avoidance for the anthropomorphic arm must be a fundamental consideration to guarantee the successful implementation of these tasks. Different from traditional methods searching for feasible or optimal collision-free solutions for the anthropomorphic arm, a global obstacle- avoidance map for the whole arm is proposed to indicate the complete set of feasible solutions. In this map, the motion of the arm can be appropriately planned to intuitively control the configuration of the arm in motion. First, the cubic spline function is adopted to interpolate some well-chosen path points to generate a smooth collision-free path for the wrist of the anthropomorphic arm. Second, based on the path function of the wrist, the time and the self-rotation angle of the arm about the “shoulder-wrist” axis are used to parameterize all possible configurations of the arm so that a global two- dimensional map considering the obstacle avoidance can be established. Subsequently, a collision-free self-rotation angle profile of the arm can be well planned. Finally, the joint trajectories of a specific anthropomorphic arm, which correspond to the planned path of the wrist and self-rotation angle profile of the arm, can be solved on the basis of the general kinematic analysis of the anthropomorphic arm, and the specific structure. Several simulations are conducted to verify that the proposed collision-free motion planning method for anthropomorphic arms has some advantages and can be regarded as a convenient and intuitive tool to control the configuration of the anthropomorphic arm in motion, without collision with obstacles in its surroundings.

  2. Synthesis and antimicrobial studies of some novel bis-[1,3,4]thiadiazole and bis-thiazole pendant to thieno[2,3-b]thiophene moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheder, Nabila Abdelshafy; Mabkhot, Yahia Nasser

    2012-01-01

    The synthetic utility of 3,3'-(3,4-dimethylthieno[2,3-b]thiophene-2,5-diyl)bis (3-oxopropanenitrile) (1) in the synthesis of some novel bis-[1,3,4-thiadiazole] 6a-g and bis-thiazole 10 and 13 derivatives with thieno[2,3-b]thiophene moiety is reported. Antimicrobial evaluation of some selected examples from the synthesized products was carried out and showed promising results. PMID:22489174

  3. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Studies of Some Novel Bis-[1,3,4]thiadiazole and Bis-thiazole Pendant to Thieno[2,3-b]thiophene Moiety

    OpenAIRE

    Nabila Abdelshafy Kheder; Yahia Nasser Mabkhot

    2012-01-01

    The synthetic utility of 3,3’-(3,4-dimethylthieno[2,3-b]thiophene-2,5-diyl)bis (3-oxopropanenitrile) (1) in the synthesis of some novel bis-[1,3,4-thiadiazole] 6a–g and bis-thiazole 10 and 13 derivatives with thieno[2,3-b]thiophene moiety is reported. Antimicrobial evaluation of some selected examples from the synthesized products was carried out and showed promising results.

  4. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Studies of Some Novel Bis-[1,3,4]thiadiazole and Bis-thiazole Pendant to Thieno[2,3-b]thiophene Moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Abdelshafy Kheder

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The synthetic utility of 3,3’-(3,4-dimethylthieno[2,3-b]thiophene-2,5-diylbis (3-oxopropanenitrile (1 in the synthesis of some novel bis-[1,3,4-thiadiazole] 6a–g and bis-thiazole 10 and 13 derivatives with thieno[2,3-b]thiophene moiety is reported. Antimicrobial evaluation of some selected examples from the synthesized products was carried out and showed promising results.

  5. Decentralized Learning for Multi-player Multi-armed Bandits

    OpenAIRE

    Kalathil, Dileep; Nayyar, Naumaan; Jain, Rahul

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of distributed online learning with multiple players in multi-armed bandits (MAB) models. Each player can pick among multiple arms. When a player picks an arm, it gets a reward. We consider both i.i.d. reward model and Markovian reward model. In the i.i.d. model each arm is modelled as an i.i.d. process with an unknown distribution with an unknown mean. In the Markovian model, each arm is modelled as a finite, irreducible, aperiodic and reversible Mar...

  6. ARM Core Unit Design of a Remote Video Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Jinbiao Hou

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we have a analysis of the ARM core unit design of a remote video monitoring system. An important aspect of a remote video monitoring system is that the image information stored in the monitoring system is transmitted to a remote PC through the GSM/GPRS network. There into the application of the ARM core unit is one part of the design of the entire remote video monitoring system. An ARM core unit is designed based on ARM architecture and ARM chips. It includes hardware and softw...

  7. On building methodological and theoretical frameworks to examine the interrelationships between environmental change and armed conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Hoek, J.

    2014-12-01

    Relationships between environmental change and armed conflict have long been studied. Sometimes referred to as 'warfare' or 'conflict' ecology, much of this scholarship has come in response to local-level perceptions of landscape or livelihood changes that result from regional armed conflict. However, such studies have, first, typically focused on spatiotemporally acute and readily detectable environmental change, like deforestation, to the exclusion of protracted and more subtle environmental changes, like agricultural degradation; second, been limited to situational conflicts or circumstances, thereby inhibiting broader theoretical development; and, third, often only considered the environmental consequences rather than the environmental or climatic circumstances that may contribute to conflict. As a result, there is little opportunity for methodological or theoretical cohesion between studies. In this presentation, I synthesize findings from three case studies examining the interrelationships between agricultural change and armed conflict in the semi-arid landscapes of northwest Pakistan, Palestine, and southern Syria. Using coarse through very high resolution remotely sensed imagery, socio-economic and demographic data, conflict databases, open-source programming, and building on theoretical underpinnings of political ecology and conflict studies, I present methods and modeling approaches that aid in overcoming data scarcity and disparity between scales of analysis and integrate environmental and conflict data in spatiotemporally explicit ways. Results from these case studies illuminate the interrelationships between both protracted and acute agricultural change and armed conflict, and have broad relevance for understanding the means by which environment, conflict, and livelihoods are linked, a nexus that will only become tighter with the advance of global climate change.

  8. The development of [18F]FDG synthesizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The automatic system for [18F]FDG production using for the diagnosis of cancer has been developed. This automation system was consisted of a synthesizer module, a PLC based controller and a PMU for graphic user interface. By this system, the radiochemical purity was over 98%, the production yield was over 30% after synthesize and elapsed time was 35 minute

  9. The Electronic Music Synthesizer and the Physics of Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, W. M.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the principal modules of analog electronic music synthesizers and discusses some ways that a synthesizer has been used in demonstrations, in psychophysical experiments, and in an undergraduate laboratory course in the physics of music and acoustics. Considers the synthesis of both steady and transitory auditory phenomena. (Author/MLH)

  10. The Norma arm region Chandra survey catalog: X-ray populations in the spiral arms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a catalog of 1415 X-ray sources identified in the Norma Arm Region Chandra Survey (NARCS), which covers a 2° × 0.°8 region in the direction of the Norma spiral arm to a depth of ?20 ks. Of these sources, 1130 are point-like sources detected with ?3? confidence in at least one of three energy bands (0.5-10, 0.5-2, and 2-10 keV), five have extended emission, and the remainder are detected at low significance. Since most sources have too few counts to permit individual classification, they are divided into five spectral groups defined by their quantile properties. We analyze stacked spectra of X-ray sources within each group, in conjunction with their fluxes, variability, and infrared counterparts, to identify the dominant populations in our survey. We find that ?50% of our sources are foreground sources located within 1-2 kpc, which is consistent with expectations from previous surveys. Approximately 20% of sources are likely located in the proximity of the Scutum-Crux and near Norma arm, while 30% are more distant, in the proximity of the far Norma arm or beyond. We argue that a mixture of magnetic and nonmagnetic cataclysmic variables dominates the Scutum-Crux and near Norma arms, while intermediate polars and high-mass stars (isolated or in binaries) dominate the far Norma arm. We also present the cumulative number count distribution for sources in our survey that are detected in the hard energy band. A population of very hard sources in the vicinity of the far Norma arm and active galactic nuclei dominate the hard X-ray emission down to fX ? 10–14 erg cm–2 s–1, but the distribution curve flattens at fainter fluxes. We find good agreement between the observed distribution and predictions based on other surveys.

  11. The Norma arm region Chandra survey catalog: X-ray populations in the spiral arms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornasini, Francesca M. [Astronomy Department, University of California, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Tomsick, John A.; Bodaghee, Arash; Krivonos, Roman A. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); An, Hongjun [Department of Physics, McGill University, Rutherford Physics Building, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Rahoui, Farid [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Gotthelf, Eric V. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Bauer, Franz E. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Stern, Daniel, E-mail: f.fornasini@berkeley.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 169-506, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We present a catalog of 1415 X-ray sources identified in the Norma Arm Region Chandra Survey (NARCS), which covers a 2° × 0.°8 region in the direction of the Norma spiral arm to a depth of ?20 ks. Of these sources, 1130 are point-like sources detected with ?3? confidence in at least one of three energy bands (0.5-10, 0.5-2, and 2-10 keV), five have extended emission, and the remainder are detected at low significance. Since most sources have too few counts to permit individual classification, they are divided into five spectral groups defined by their quantile properties. We analyze stacked spectra of X-ray sources within each group, in conjunction with their fluxes, variability, and infrared counterparts, to identify the dominant populations in our survey. We find that ?50% of our sources are foreground sources located within 1-2 kpc, which is consistent with expectations from previous surveys. Approximately 20% of sources are likely located in the proximity of the Scutum-Crux and near Norma arm, while 30% are more distant, in the proximity of the far Norma arm or beyond. We argue that a mixture of magnetic and nonmagnetic cataclysmic variables dominates the Scutum-Crux and near Norma arms, while intermediate polars and high-mass stars (isolated or in binaries) dominate the far Norma arm. We also present the cumulative number count distribution for sources in our survey that are detected in the hard energy band. A population of very hard sources in the vicinity of the far Norma arm and active galactic nuclei dominate the hard X-ray emission down to f{sub X} ? 10{sup –14} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}, but the distribution curve flattens at fainter fluxes. We find good agreement between the observed distribution and predictions based on other surveys.

  12. Présences mémorielles et carences fictionnelles : L’espace du deuil dans le cinéma indépendant new-yorkais post-11/09

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent SOULADIÉ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Alors que les majors hollywoodiennes ont observé une distance prudente à l’égard de l’évocation et de la représentation des attentats du onze septembre, plusieurs cinéastes indépendants new-yorkais ont pour leur part choisi de tourner rapidement des films dont les récits se situent explicitement dans le contexte immédiat de l’après-catastrophe et dans le décor meurtri de New York. Les films indépendants se caractérisent principalement par leur absence de contraintes artistiques imposées, par la modestie de leurs moyens, par leur liberté de ton, et par l’appartenance marquée des cinéastes à leur milieu culturel d’origine. En tenant compte de ces facteurs, intimité du tournage et intimité du récit, il importe de questionner l’orientation adoptée par le cinéma indépendant new yorkais pour traiter le sujet dramatique du onze septembre. Un corpus filmique se dégage et nous semble cristalliser des enjeux esthétiques et discursifs communs autour du onze septembre comme contexte diégétique et vecteur narratif. Lien communautaire, équilibre familial, harmonie conjugale ou quête identitaire se mesurent dans ces films à l’échelle englobante du trauma collectif.Whereas the Hollywood majors observed a careful distance in the evocation and the representation of 9/11, several filmmakers belonging to New York's independent cinema chose to rapidly direct movies set in its immediate aftermath and in the bruised landscape of New York. These movies are characterized by their low production budget, by their independent tone and their absence of exterior artistic constraint, and by the clear signs that the filmmakers 'belong' to the city. Taking into account the intimacy of both shooting and story, we will examine the orientation adopted in order to deal with the tragedy of 9/11 by New York's independent cinema. A number of movies indeed raise common aesthetic and discursive issues with regard to 9/11 as narrative context and narrative vector; in these works, the collective trauma has become the measure of community ties, family harmony and ontological quest.

  13. Diversity in the Danish Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John; Pradhan-Blach, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    The Danish Armed Forces face the functional imperative of becoming a smaller, professional expeditionary force and the societal imperative of including women and ethnic minorities. It currently lags behind its NATO partners in gender and ethnic diversity. Lessons to be learned from NATO members with more diverse militaries, such as the United States, Great Britain, and Canada, include recognition of diversity as a societal imperative to sustain the legitimacy of the armed forces, the necessity of systematically collecting and reporting personnel data to guide policy, the necessity of patience and realistic goals, systematically developing recruitment, development, and retention policies, and the superiority of an all-volunteer force over conscription in fulfilling this societal imperative.

  14. Design of Embedded FMS on ARM9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Tian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There are some problems in traditional Fieldbus Technology of flexible production line, such as the high request of the total control machine configuration, the large resources cost of the configuration software, the data should be regularly cleaned. This paper introduces a new type flexible manufacturing system (FMS architecture based on ARM. The control core of the system is Samsung's S3C2440 ARM micro processor, which enhanced the reliability of the system, Join monitoring equipment and wireless communication equipment, facilitate real-time monitoring and image collection, and ensure the safety of the unattended. The numerical control processing unit is based of industrial PC and movement control card form, which enhanced the openness of the CNC system, and improved the communication function of the numerical control system. The experiment proved that this scheme overcome the problems existing in the traditional FMS.

  15. Parametric instabilities in the LCGT arm cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the parametric instabilities of LCGT (Japanese interferometric gravitational wave detector project) arm cavity. The number of unstable modes of LCGT is 10-times smaller than that of Advanced LIGO (USA). Since the strength of the instabilities of LCGT depends on the mirror curvature more weakly than that of Advanced LIGO, the requirement of the mirror curvature accuracy is easier to be achieved. The difference in the parametric instabilities between LCGT and Advanced LIGO is because of the thermal noise reduction methods (LCGT, cooling sapphire mirrors; Advanced LIGO, fused silica mirrors with larger laser beams), which are the main strategies of the projects. Elastic Q reduction by the barrel surface (0.2 mm thickness Ta2O5) coating is effective to suppress instabilities in the LCGT arm cavity. Therefore, the cryogenic interferometer is a smart solution for the parametric instabilities in addition to thermal noise and thermal lensing

  16. Reflections upon homosexuality in the armed forces

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudio, Ortiz Lazo; Sin-Yin Antonela Andreani, Chia.

    Full Text Available This paper will discuss the issues involved in the incorporation of homosexual personnel into the Armed Forces. From a comparative standpoint it is established that the increasing relevance of this matter in developed countries, is due to social changes, operative necessities and the development of [...] a growing policy from the states towards the generation of maximum levels of equality of opportunities for all individuals, including the Armed Forces. Furthermore, this process can’t be just tackled from a moral point of view, which tends to segregate society and can isolate society from its military institutions. Finally, there exist multiple options to face this topic, since there are not unique "recipes" and therefore, it must be addressed considering the particular features of society.

  17. MAGIC: Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, ER; Wiscombe, WJ; Albrecht, BA; Bland, GL; Flagg, CN; Klein, SA; Kollias, P; Mace, G; Reynolds, RM; Schwartz, SE; Siebesma, AP; Teixeira, J; Wood, R; Zhang, M

    2012-10-03

    The second Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF2) will be deployed aboard the Horizon Lines cargo container ship merchant vessel (M/V) Spirit for MAGIC, the Marine ARM GPCI1 Investigation of Clouds. The Spirit will traverse the route between Los Angeles, California, and Honolulu, Hawaii, from October 2012 through September 2013 (except for a few months in the middle of this time period when the ship will be in dry dock). During this field campaign, AMF2 will observe and characterize the properties of clouds and precipitation, aerosols, and atmospheric radiation; standard meteorological and oceanographic variables; and atmospheric structure. There will also be two intensive observational periods (IOPs), one in January 2013 and one in July 2013, during which more detailed measurements of the atmospheric structure will be made.

  18. ARM Operations Quarterly Report - April - June 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, JW

    2012-07-18

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Data Archive, where they are made available to the research community. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  19. Multi-Armed Bandits in Metric Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinberg, Robert; Slivkins, Aleksandrs; Upfal, Eli

    2008-01-01

    In a multi-armed bandit problem, an online algorithm chooses from a set of strategies in a sequence of trials so as to maximize the total payoff of the chosen strategies. While the performance of bandit algorithms with a small finite strategy set is quite well understood, bandit problems with large strategy sets are still a topic of very active investigation, motivated by practical applications such as online auctions and web advertisement. The goal of such research is to id...

  20. Supporting the President's Arms Control and Nonproliferation Agenda: Transparency and Verification for Nuclear Arms Reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The President's arms control and nonproliferation agenda is still evolving and the details of initiatives supporting it remain undefined. This means that DOE, NNSA, NA-20, NA-24 and the national laboratories can help define the agenda, and the policies and the initiatives to support it. This will require effective internal and interagency coordination. The arms control and nonproliferation agenda is broad and includes the path-breaking goal of creating conditions for the elimination of nuclear weapons. Responsibility for various elements of the agenda will be widely scattered across the interagency. Therefore an interagency mapping exercise should be performed to identify the key points of engagement within NNSA and other agencies for creating effective policy coordination mechanisms. These can include informal networks, working groups, coordinating committees, interagency task forces, etc. It will be important for NA-20 and NA-24 to get a seat at the table and a functional role in many of these coordinating bodies. The arms control and nonproliferation agenda comprises both mature and developing policy initiatives. The more mature elements such as CTBT ratification and a follow-on strategic nuclear arms treaty with Russia have defined milestones. However, recent press reports indicate that even the START follow-on strategic arms pact that is planned to be complete by the end of 2009 may take significantly longer and be more expansive in scope. The Russians called for proposals to count non-deployed as well as deployed warheads. Other elements of the agenda such as FMCT, future bilateral nuclear arms reductions following a START follow-on treaty, nuclear posture changes, preparations for an international nuclear security summit, strengthened international safeguards and multilateral verification are in much earlier stages of development. For this reason any survey of arms control capabilities within the USG should be structured to address potential needs across the near-term (1-4) years and longer-term (5-10) years planning horizons. Some final observations include acknowledging the enduring nature of several key objectives on the Obama Administration's arms control and nonproliferation agenda. The CTBT, FMCT, bilateral nuclear arms reductions and strengthening the NPT have been sought by successive U.S. Administrations for nearly thirty years. Efforts towards negotiated arms control, although de-emphasized by the G.W. Bush Administration, have remained a pillar of U.S. national security strategy for decades and are likely to be of enduring if not increasing importance for decades to come. Therefore revitalization and expansion of USG capabilities in this area can be a positive legacy no matter what near-term arms control goals are achieved over the next four years. This is why it is important to reconstruct integrated bureaucratic, legislative, budgetary and diplomatic strategies to sustain the arms control and nonproliferation agenda. In this endeavor some past lessons must be taken to heart to avoid bureaucratic overkill and keep interagency policy-making and implementation structures lean and effective. On the Technical side a serious, sustained multilateral program to develop, down select and performance test nuclear weapons dismantlement verification technologies and procedures should be immediately initiated. In order to make this happen the United States and Russia should join with the UK and other interested states in creating a sustained, full-scale research and development program for verification at their respective nuc1ear weapons and defense establishments. The goals include development of effective technologies and procedures for: (1) Attribute measurement systems to certify nuclear warheads and military fissile materials; (2) Chain-of-custody methods to track items after they are authenticated and enter accountability; (3) Transportation monitoring; (4) Storage monitoring; (5) Fissile materials conversion verification. The remainder of this paper focuses on transparency and verification for nuclear arms and fissile material reductions.

  1. Multi-Armed Bandits in Metric Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinberg, Robert; Upfal, Eli

    2008-01-01

    In a multi-armed bandit problem, an online algorithm chooses from a set of strategies in a sequence of trials so as to maximize the total payoff of the chosen strategies. While the performance of bandit algorithms with a small finite strategy set is quite well understood, bandit problems with large strategy sets are still a topic of very active investigation, motivated by practical applications such as online auctions and web advertisement. The goal of such research is to identify broad and natural classes of strategy sets and payoff functions which enable the design of efficient solutions. In this work we study a very general setting for the multi-armed bandit problem in which the strategies form a metric space, and the payoff function satisfies a Lipschitz condition with respect to the metric. We refer to this problem as the "Lipschitz MAB problem". We present a complete solution for the multi-armed problem in this setting. That is, for every metric space (L,X) we define an isometry invariant which bounds f...

  2. The Perseus arm in the anticenter direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monguió, M.; Grosbøl, P.; Figueras, F.

    2015-05-01

    The stellar overdensity due to the Perseus arm has been detected in the anticenter direction through individual field stars. For that purpose, a Str&{uml;o}mgren photometric survey covering 16° ^2 was developed with the Wide Field Camera at the Isaac Newton Telescope. This photometry allowed us to compute individual physical parameters for these stars using a new method based on atmospheric models and evolutionary tracks. The analysis of the surface density as a function of distance for intermediate young stars in this survey allowed us to detect an overdensity at 1.6±0.2 kpc from the Sun, that can be associated with the Perseus arm, with a surface density amplitude of ˜14%. The significance of the detection is above 4? for all the cases. The fit for the radial scale length of the Galactic disk provided values in the range [2.9,3.5] kpc for the population of the B4-A1 stars. We also analyzed the interstellar visual absorption distribution, and its variation as a function of distance is coherent with a dust layer before the Perseus arm location.

  3. Monitoring and Controlling an Underwater Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, John; Todd, Brian Keith; Woodcock, Larry; Robinson, Fred M.

    2009-01-01

    The SSRMS Module 1 software is part of a system for monitoring an adaptive, closed-loop control of the motions of a robotic arm in NASA s Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory, where buoyancy in a pool of water is used to simulate the weightlessness of outer space. This software is so named because the robot arm is a replica of the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). This software is distributed, running on remote joint processors (RJPs), each of which is mounted in a hydraulic actuator comprising the joint of the robotic arm and communicating with a poolside processor denoted the Direct Control Rack (DCR). Each RJP executes the feedback joint-motion control algorithm for its joint and communicates with the DCR. The DCR receives joint-angular-velocity commands either locally from an operator or remotely from computers that simulate the flight like SSRMS and perform coordinated motion calculations based on hand-controller inputs. The received commands are checked for validity before they are transmitted to the RJPs. The DCR software generates a display of the statuses of the RJPs for the DCR operator and can shut down the hydraulic pump when excessive joint-angle error or failure of a RJP is detected.

  4. Large LED Display Design using ARM9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta G, K Satyashree

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available LED displays are widely employed for advertisements, sports, transportation, Stock markets, traffic signs in public transportation systems, shopping malls, schools, railways etc., The conventional LED display system uses traditional microcontrollers so that many problems such as poor reliability, flickering and more hardware requirement can be seen in display system. This article presents an efficient architecture for controlling LED displays which has the ability to expose monochrome movies and animations. Implementing the LED display screen using 32-bit ARM9 (S3C2440 processor reduces the hardware requirement and also provide the speed of refreshing the screen will be high so that we can avoid the flickering in the display. In this article, a new way is implemented to increase the speed of the monochrome display is by scanning 8 rows at a time(row byte scanning rather than single row(pixel by pixel. Therefore, the speed of refreshing of LED display will be increased. By allowing constant current through the LEDs in the display will increase the reliability of the display. The 8 GPIO lines of ARM processor are connected to the 8 rows of the LED display via 8 bit latches connected to implement row-byte scanning. Unlike in traditional LED display, rather than many microcontrollers a single ARM processor is enough to refresh the screen. A software tool using JAVA is present in PC to draw animations and send it to the LED display.

  5. Humanoid Robot Arm Adaptive Control: Experimental Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said G. Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a partially model based adaptive control of humanoid robot arm is presented. The aim of the adaptive control scheme is to deal with the uncertain parameters in its own dynamic model such as link masses or actuators inertias as well as to cope with changing dynamics in the tasks like passing objects between a human and a robot. The main idea here is to derive a dynamic model of the robot’s arm via a software package and parameterized it. Then, employ the adaptive control scheme to identify uncertain parameters such as link masses and actuator inertias online. This scheme will also be suitable for the tasks where robot is lifting weight and or passing an object to a human or vice versa (which is the ultimate goal of this work. The adaptive scheme is simulated and experimentally tested on the Bristol Robotics Laboratory humanoid Bristol- Elumotion-Robot-Torso (BERT Arm. Humanoid BERT robot is developed as a collaboration between Bristol Robotics Laboratory and Elumotion (a Bristol based robotic company.

  6. Elastic lever arm model for myosin V

    CERN Document Server

    Vilfan, A

    2005-01-01

    We present a mechanochemical model for myosin V, a two-headed processive motor protein. We derive the properties of a dimer from those of an individual head, which we model both with a 4-state cycle (detached, attached with ADP.Pi, attached with ADP and attached without nucleotide) and alternatively with a 5-state cycle (where the power stroke is not tightly coupled to the phosphate release). In each state the lever arm leaves the head at a different, but fixed, angle. The lever arm itself is described as an elastic rod. The chemical cycles of both heads are coordinated exclusively by the mechanical connection between the two lever arms. The model explains head coordination by showing that the lead head only binds to actin after the power stroke in the trail head and that it only undergoes its power stroke after the trail head unbinds from actin. Both models (4- and 5-state) reproduce the observed hand-over-hand motion and fit the measured force-velocity relations. The main difference between the two models c...

  7. Synthesis and characterization of a multi-arm poly(acrylic acid) star polymer for application in sustained delivery of cisplatin and a nitric oxide prodrug

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Shaofeng; Cai, Shuang; Xie, Yumei; Bagby, Taryn; Ren, Shenqiang; Forrest, M. Laird

    2012-01-01

    Functionalized polymeric nanocarriers have been recognized as drug delivery platforms for delivering therapeutic concentrations of chemotherapies. Of this category, star-shaped multiarm polymers are emerging candidates for targeted delivery of anti-cancer drugs, due to their compact structure, narrow size distribution, large surface area and high water solubility. In this study, we synthesized a multi-arm poly(acrylic acid) star polymer via MADIX/RAFT polymerization and characterized it using...

  8. Characteristics of Spiral Arms in Late-type Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Honig, Z N

    2014-01-01

    We have measured the positions of large numbers of H II regions in four nearly face-on, late-type, spiral galaxies: NGC 628 (M 74), NGC 1232, NGC 3184 and NGC 5194 (M 51). Fitting log-periodic spiral models to segments of each arm yields local estimates of spiral pitch angle and arm width. While pitch angles vary considerably along individual arms, among arms within a galaxy, and among galaxies, we find no systematic trend with galactocentric distance. We estimate the widths of the arm segments from the scatter in the distances of the H II regions from the spiral model. All major arms in these galaxies show spiral arm width increasing with distance from the galactic center, similar to the trend seen in the Milky Way. However, in the outer-most parts of the galaxies, where massive star formation declines, some arms reverse this trend and narrow. We find that spiral arms often appear to be composed of segments of ~5 kpc length, which join to form kinks and abrupt changes in pitch angle and arm width; these char...

  9. Laser frequency stabilization by dual arm locking for LISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will be the first dedicated space based gravitational wave detector. LISA will consist of a triangular formation of spacecraft, forming an interferometer with 5x106 km long arms. Annual length variations of the interferometer arms prevent exact laser frequency noise cancellation. Despite prestabilization to an optical cavity the expected frequency noise is many orders of magnitude larger than the required levels. Arm locking is a feedback control method that will further stabilize the laser frequency by referencing it to the 5x106 km arms. Although the original arm locking scheme produced a substantial noise reduction, the technique suffered from slowly decaying start-up transients and excess noise at harmonic frequencies of the inverse round-trip time. Dual arm locking, presented here, improves on the original scheme by combining information from two interferometer arms for feedback control. Compared to conventional arm locking, dual arm locking exhibits significantly reduced start-up transients, no noise amplification at frequencies within the LISA signal band, and more than 50 fold improvement in noise suppression at low frequencies. In this article we present a detailed analysis of the dual arm locking control system and present simulation results showing a noise reduction of 10 000 at a frequency of 10 mHz.

  10. CHARACTERISTICS OF SPIRAL ARMS IN LATE-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have measured the positions of large numbers of H II regions in four nearly face-on, late-type, spiral galaxies: NGC 628 (M74), NGC 1232, NGC 3184, and NGC 5194 (M51). Fitting log-periodic spiral models to segments of each arm yields local estimates of spiral pitch angle and arm width. While pitch angles vary considerably along individual arms, among arms within a galaxy, and among galaxies, we find no systematic trend with galactocentric distance. We estimate the widths of the arm segments from the scatter in the distances of the H II regions from the spiral model. All major arms in these galaxies show spiral arm width increasing with distance from the galactic center, similar to the trend seen in the Milky Way. However, in the outermost parts of the galaxies, where massive star formation declines, some arms reverse this trend and narrow. We find that spiral arms often appear to be composed of segments of ?5 kpc length, which join to form kinks and abrupt changes in pitch angle and arm width; these characteristics are consistent with properties seen in the large N-body simulations of D'Onghia et al. and others

  11. Characteristics of Spiral Arms in Late-type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Z. N.; Reid, M. J.

    2015-02-01

    We have measured the positions of large numbers of H II regions in four nearly face-on, late-type, spiral galaxies: NGC 628 (M74), NGC 1232, NGC 3184, and NGC 5194 (M51). Fitting log-periodic spiral models to segments of each arm yields local estimates of spiral pitch angle and arm width. While pitch angles vary considerably along individual arms, among arms within a galaxy, and among galaxies, we find no systematic trend with galactocentric distance. We estimate the widths of the arm segments from the scatter in the distances of the H II regions from the spiral model. All major arms in these galaxies show spiral arm width increasing with distance from the galactic center, similar to the trend seen in the Milky Way. However, in the outermost parts of the galaxies, where massive star formation declines, some arms reverse this trend and narrow. We find that spiral arms often appear to be composed of segments of ~5 kpc length, which join to form kinks and abrupt changes in pitch angle and arm width; these characteristics are consistent with properties seen in the large N-body simulations of D'Onghia et al. and others.

  12. CHARACTERISTICS OF SPIRAL ARMS IN LATE-TYPE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honig, Z. N.; Reid, M. J., E-mail: mreid@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-02-10

    We have measured the positions of large numbers of H II regions in four nearly face-on, late-type, spiral galaxies: NGC 628 (M74), NGC 1232, NGC 3184, and NGC 5194 (M51). Fitting log-periodic spiral models to segments of each arm yields local estimates of spiral pitch angle and arm width. While pitch angles vary considerably along individual arms, among arms within a galaxy, and among galaxies, we find no systematic trend with galactocentric distance. We estimate the widths of the arm segments from the scatter in the distances of the H II regions from the spiral model. All major arms in these galaxies show spiral arm width increasing with distance from the galactic center, similar to the trend seen in the Milky Way. However, in the outermost parts of the galaxies, where massive star formation declines, some arms reverse this trend and narrow. We find that spiral arms often appear to be composed of segments of ∼5 kpc length, which join to form kinks and abrupt changes in pitch angle and arm width; these characteristics are consistent with properties seen in the large N-body simulations of D'Onghia et al. and others.

  13. Method for Synthesizing Extremeley High Temperature Melting Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboungi, Marie-Louise and Glorieux, Benoit

    2005-11-22

    The invention relates to a method of synthesizing high-temperature melting materials. More specifically the invention relates to a containerless method of synthesizing very high temperature melting materials such as borides, carbides and transition-metal, lanthanide and actinide oxides, using an Aerodynamic Levitator and a laser. The object of the invention is to provide a method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials that are otherwise difficult to produce, without the use of containers, allowing the manipulation of the phase (amorphous/crystalline/metastable) and permitting changes of the environment such as different gaseous compositions.

  14. Optimizing Armed Forces Capabilities for Hybrid Warfare – New Challenge for Slovak Armed Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter PINDJÁK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the optimization of military capabilities of the Slovak Armed Forces for conducting operations in a hybrid conflict, which represents one of the possible scenarios of irregular warfare. Whereas in the regular warfare adversaries intend to eliminate the centers of gravity of each other, most often command and control structures, in irregular conflicts, the center of gravity shifts towards the will and cognitive perception of the target population. Hybrid warfare comprises a thoroughly planned combination of conventional military approaches and kinetic operations with subversive, irregular activities, including information and cyber operations. These efforts are often accompanied by intensified activities of intelligence services, special operation forces, and even mercenary and other paramilitary groups. The development of irregular warfare capabilities within the Slovak Armed Forces will require a progressive transformation process that may turn the armed forces into a modern and adaptable element of power, capable of deployment in national and international crisis management operations.

  15. Effects of age, sex and arm on the accuracy of arm position sense – Left-arm superiority in healthy right-handers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Schmidt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Position sense is an important proprioceptive ability. Disorders of arm position sense (APS often occur after unilateral stroke, and are associated with a negative functional outcome. In the present study we assessed horizontal APS by measuring angular deviations from a visually defined target separately for each arm in a large group of healthy subjects. We analyzed the accuracy and instability of horizontal APS as a function of age, sex and arm. Subjects were required to specify verbally the position of their unseen arm on a 0-90° circuit by comparing the current position with the target position indicated by a LED lamp, while the arm was passively moved by the examiner. Eighty-seven healthy subjects participated in the study, ranging from 20 to 77 years, subdivided into three age groups. The results revealed that APS was not a function of age or sex, but was significantly better in the non-dominant (left arm in absolute but not in constant errors across all age groups of right-handed healthy subjects. This indicates a right-hemisphere superiority for left arm position sense in right-handers and neatly fits to the more frequent and more severe left-sided body-related deficits in patients with unilateral stroke (i.e. impaired arm position sense in left spatial neglect, somatoparaphrenia or in individuals with abnormalities of the right cerebral hemisphere. These clinical issues will be discussed.

  16. Les relations économiques sino-américaines pendant les années Bush (2001-2008 : vers une stratégie de « dissuasion économique » ? US-China Relations during the Bush Presidency, 2001-2008: Towards a Strategy of “Economic Deterrence”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette Bourdin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Au cours de la présidence de George W. Bush, les relations économiques sino-américaines se sont caractérisées par une interdépendance croissante, tant au niveau des enjeux commerciaux que des enjeux financiers. Si les questions du déficit de la balance commerciale et des droits de la propriété intellectuelle faisaient déjà débat pendant la présidence de Bill Clinton, en revanche les questions financières de la valeur du renminbi et des réserves chinoises de bons du Trésor sont apparues pendant les années Bush. Alors que l’administration Bush prônait initialement une stratégie de « congagement » (endiguement/ engagement et définissait la Chine comme un « concurrent stratégique », non seulement le 11-Septembre a modifié les priorités immédiates de Washington mais, du fait de l’interdépendance économique sino-américaine, il semble que la « dissuasion économique » soit désormais la seule stratégie réaliste dans les relations entre Washington et Pékin.During the presidency of George W. Bush, the main characteristic of US-China economic relations was an increasing interdependency in the field of trade as well as over financial issues. If trade imbalance and intellectual property rights were already matters for debate during the presidency of Bill Clinton, the issues of the value of the renminbi and of Chinese holdings of US Treasury bonds emerged during the Bush years. While the Bush administration had initially advocated a strategy of “congagement” (containment/ engagement and had defined China as a “strategic competitor”, not only did 9/11 change Washington’s immediate priorities, but, with the US-China economic interdependency, the only realistic strategy between Washington and Beijing seemed to consist in “economic deterrence.”

  17. Légitimer la participation des femmes à l’effort de guerre en zone nationale pendant la guerre d’Espagne : vers la notion de « guerre totale »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Aline Barrachina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Pendant la guerre civile espagnole, l’urgence sanitaire et sociale conduit les femmes de la zone nationale à se mobiliser derrière des associations confessionnelles ou partisanes afin de  participer à l’effort de guerre. Or les forces qui soutenaient le soulèvement antirépublicain fondaient leur conception de l’Etat et de la société sur une stricte répartition des espaces privés et public, ce dernier étant exclusivement réservé aux hommes. Il convenait donc de dépoussiérer ces principes afin de les rendre cohérents avec la réalité du terrain, sans pour autant enfreindre trop visiblement l’ordre national et catholique. La reconnaissance par Franco du Secours social (2 février 1937, puis la création du Service social présenté comme l équivalent féminin du service militaire (décret du 7 octobre 1937 sont les premières étapes du processus d’officialisation d’un devoir national de présence des femmes dans l’espace public à des fins exclusives d’assistance, et sous le strict contrôle de l’Etat national et catholique. Ce devoir national, la presse féminine se chargera d’en préciser les limites dans une dernière étape qui se poursuit après guerre, en exaltant un modèle de femme espagnole dont l’unique aspiration, quand l’urgence l’oblige à accomplir de grandes choses au nom de la foi et de la patrie, serait de retrouver au plus vite la quiétude du foyer où réside sa vocation première et transcendante. C’est la théorie de la « guerre totale » qui arrache les femmes à leur nature, le temps d’une guerre.During the Spanish civil war, due to a lack of sanitary and social services, the women of the national zone had to support the war effort. But the forces that supported the antirepublican uprising had a conception of the state and society strictly divided between private and public spaces, this being exclusively for men. So it was necessary to get rid of these principles to adjust to war reality, without interfering too obviously in the national and catholic order. The Social Aid agreement (Franco, 02-02-1937 and the creation of the Social Service (10-07-1937 are the first steps to impose a national women’s obligation to state and act in the public space, with exactly limited activities, under the strict control of the national and catholic Spanish state. The feminine press was charged to precise the specificities of this obligation. Still, Spanish women’s major aspiration remained home, even though emergency forced them to become public and heroic actors. Thus, through «total war» theory, Spanish women’s could escape their so-called natural function.En la Guerra civil española, la urgencia sanitaria y social condujo a las mujeres de la zona nacional a movilizarse en asociaciones católicas o políticas para participar con su ayuda específicamente femenina. Ahora bien, tanto los carlistas, como los falangistas, y la Iglesia tienen una concepción del Estado y de la Sociedad basada en un estricto reparto entre mujeres y hombres de los espacios privados y públicos. Se imponía entonces una adaptación de dicho principio con el fin de hacerlo coherente con la realidad bélica. El reconocimiento por Franco de Auxilio social (02-02-1937 y la creación del Servicio social (07-10-1937 son las primeras etapas del proceso de oficialización de un deber nacional de presencia de las mujeres en el espacio públicos con fines exclusivos de ayuda y bajo estricto control del Estado y de la Iglesia. En una última etapa que se prolongó más allá del final de la guerra, se le encargó a la prensa femenina del Movimiento nacional la construcción de un modelo de mujer española acorde tanto con estas obligaciones como con su vocación hogareña: aun cuando la urgencia bélica la obliga a cumplir actos heroicos en nombre de la fe y de la patria, esta mujer no tendría más aspiración que la de volver cuanto antes al hogar que es su centro y su vocación. Esta teoría es la de la «guerra total» que — mientras dura la guerra — arranca a

  18. Association between intramuscular fat in the arm following arm training and INSIG2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popadic Gacesa, J Z; Secher, N H; Momcilovic, M; Grujic, N G

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-induced gene 2 (INSIG2) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs7566605) is linked to lipid metabolism, and this study assessed its potential influence on fat in the upper arm following arm training. Twenty healthy sedentary volunteers (22.0 ± 1.1 years, body mass index 25.4 ± 4.0 kg/m(2...... rs7566605 is more relevant for changes in IMAT following training than for the amount of subcutaneous fat....

  19. GaN Nanowires Synthesized by Electroless Etching Method

    KAUST Repository

    Najar, Adel

    2012-01-01

    Ultra-long Gallium Nitride Nanowires is synthesized via metal-electroless etching method. The morphologies and optical properties of GaN NWs show a single crystal GaN with hexagonal Wurtzite structure and high luminescence properties.

  20. Expedient total syntheses of rhein and diacerhein via Fries rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisserand, Steve; Baati, Rachid; Nicolas, Marc; Mioskowski, Charles

    2004-12-10

    Short and practical total syntheses of rhein (1) and diacerhein (2) have been achieved via a Fries rearrangement and bis-carbonylation strategy followed by cyclization in molten salt, starting from dibromoester 7. PMID:15575790

  1. Las armas a cambio de la libertad: Los esclavos en la guerra de independencia de Venezuela (1812-1835) / Les armes en échange de la liberté: Les esclaves pendant la guerre d'Indépendance au Venezuela (1812-1835) / Arms in exchange for freedom: slaves in Venezuela's war of independence (1812-1835)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana, Vergara.

    Full Text Available Tanto los republicanos, como los defensores del poder monárquico no preveían el impacto y la importancia de la participación esclava durante la guerra de independencia venezolana. Su inicial movilización a favor de la Justa Causa del Rey fue una de las razones de la destrucción de las dos primeras r [...] epúblicas. Su participación induce a Bolívar y demás dirigentes republicanos a reformular el programa independentista criollo; el cual no incluía, hasta el momento, un cuestionamiento del sistema esclavista, en tanto que eran beneficiarios directos del mismo y la institución formaba parte fundamental del sistema económico en que se desenvolvían. Este artículo trata abordar su participación en el conflicto a través de las experiencias relatadas por nueve esclavos en sus respectivas peticiones de libertad. Abstract in english Neither republicans nor the defenders of monarchical power foresaw the impact and importance of the participation of slaves in Venezuela's wars of independence. Their early mobilization to support the Justa Causa del Rey ("Just Cause of the King") was a key factor in the collapse of the first two Re [...] publics, while their participation led Bolívar and other republican leaders to reformulate the Creole's independence program, which up to then had never questioned the slavery system, because they were among the direct beneficiaries of that arrangement, which was also a cornerstone of the economic system in Venezuela's that had allowed them to prosper. The article examines the slave population's participation in the conflict through experiences narrated by nine slaves in their respective petitions for freedom.

  2. Decoupling Exploration and Exploitation in Multi-Armed Bandits

    CERN Document Server

    Avner, Orly; Shamir, Ohad

    2012-01-01

    We consider a multi-armed bandit problem where the decision maker can explore and exploit different arms at every round. The exploited arm adds to the decision maker's cumulative reward (without necessarily observing the reward) while the explored arm reveals its value. We devise algorithms for this setup and show that the dependence on the number of arms, k, can be much better than the standard square root of k dependence, depending on the behavior of the arms' reward sequences. For the important case of piecewise stationary stochastic bandits, we show a significant improvement over existing algorithms. Our algorithms are based on a non-uniform sampling policy, which we show is essential to the success of any algorithm in the adversarial setup. Finally, we show some simulation results on an ultra-wide band channel selection inspired setting indicating the applicability of our algorithms.

  3. ANA - A framework for building ATHENA on ARM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua Wyatt; Hamilton, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    The ATLAS software framework (ATHENA) is large and dynamic, comprised of around 6.5 million lines of code. It is compiled using the ATLAS monitoring system, NICOS which uses tools and scripts located and tuned for the CERN services, LXPLUS and AFS. Furthermore, the constraints placed on the hardware that the software is based, limits compilations to traditional x86 architecture. With the sudden interest in ARM processors for large scale high energy physics computing, a new system needs to be implemented to build ATHENA versions for ARM, on ARM. This letter serves to introduce a building framework called Atlas Nightly on ARM (ANA). This new framework implements patches to suit the ARM architecture with the goal of a final ATHENA version for ARM.

  4. Mayenite Synthesized Using the Citrate Sol-Gel Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ude, Sabina N [ORNL; Rawn, Claudia J [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta A [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Kirkham, Melanie J [ORNL; Jones, Gregory L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    A citrate sol-gel method has been used to synthesize mayenite (Ca12Al14O33). X-ray powder diffraction data show that the samples synthesized using the citrate sol-gel method contained CaAl2O4 and CaCO3 along with mayenite when fired ex-situ in air at 800 C but were single phase when fired at 900 C and above. Using high temperature x-ray diffraction, data collected in-situ in air at temperatures of 600 C and below showed only amorphous content; however, data collected at higher temperatures indicated the first phase to crystallize is CaCO3. High temperature x-ray diffraction data collected in 4% H2/96% N2 does not show the presence of CaCO3, and Ca12Al14O33 starts to form around 850 C. In comparison, x-ray powder diffraction data collected ex-situ on samples synthesized using traditional solid-state synthesis shows that single phase was not reached until samples were fired at 1350 C. DTA/TGA data collected either in a nitrogen environment or air on samples synthesized using the citrate gel method suggest the complete decomposition of metastable phases and the formation of mayenite at 900 C, although the phase evolution is very different depending on the environment. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements showed a slightly higher surface area of 7.4 0.1 m2/g in the citrate gel synthesized samples compared to solid-state synthesized sample with a surface area of 1.61 0.02 m2/g. SEM images show a larger particle size for samples synthesized using the solid-state method compared to those synthesized using the citrate gel method.

  5. SYNTHESIZER CONTROLLED BEAM TRANSFER FROM THE AGS TO RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To ensure minimal losses and to preserve longitudinal emittance, beam is transferred from the AGS to the RHIC bunch to bucket. This requires precision frequency and phase control for synchronization and kicker timing. The required precision is realized with a set of Direct Digital Synthesizers. Each synthesizer can be frequency and phase modulated to align the AGS bunch to the target bucket in the RHIC phase

  6. Proteins synthesized in tobacco mosaic virus infected protoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author deals with research on the multiplication of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in leaf cell protoplasts. An attempt is made to answer three questions: (1) Which proteins are synthesized in TMV infected protoplasts as a result of TMV multiplication. (2) Which of the synthesized proteins are made under the direction of the TMV genome and, if any, which of the proteins are host specific. (3) In which functions are these proteins involved. (Auth.)

  7. Characterization of tin selenides synthesized by high-energy milling

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Achimovi?ová; Aleksander Re?nik; Martin Fabián; Peter Baláž

    2011-01-01

    Tin selenides SnSeX (x=1,2) were synthesized from tin and selenium powder precursors by high-energy milling in the planetary ballmill Pulverisette 6 (Fritsch, Germany). The orthorhombic tin selenide SnSe and the hexagonal tin diselenide SnSe2 phases were formed after4 min and 5 min of milling, respectively. Specific surface area of both selenides increased with increasing time of mechanochemicalsynthesis. The particle size distribution analysis demonstrated that the synthesized products conta...

  8. Stereoselective syntheses of semichemicals : Applications in ecological chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Santangelo, Ellen M.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes the syntheses of semiochemicals and their applications in the development of control methods for pest insects. The compounds synthesized are divided into three groups: 1) Lepidoptera pheromones; 2) methyl substituted chiral pheromones and 3) aphid pheromones. Different purification techniques have been explored in order to provide > 99% pure semiochemicals for field tests. Examples of the techniques are uses of urea inclusion complexes, argentum chromatography, low te...

  9. Regulating the Arms Trade - The Potential of International Criminal Law

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Tomas Francis Barton

    2015-01-01

    Existing transnational regulation of the arms trade fails to adequately control the conduct of individual State officials, corporate officers and sole-trading shipping agents and brokers, who supply arms that assist in the commission of international crimes. The limitations of existing regulation are manifold. At the domestic level, arms export regulations vary greatly between different States, they tend not to address “Third State Brokering”, and often lack harsh criminal penalties to deter ...

  10. The Determinants of Arms Spending in South America

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge M. Battaglino; University Torcuato Di Tella

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, South America has witnessed a large increase in arms purchases. Nonetheless, there are important intraregional differences in terms of the allocation of resources for weapons acquisitions. How can we account for these disparities? Mainstream literature suggests that levels of arms importation depend on either the size of the defense budget or the perception of threat. In contrast, this article contends that the level of spending on arms is mainly determined by: (a) the expans...

  11. Corticospinal contribution to arm muscle activity during human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthélemy, Dorothy; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2010-01-01

    When we walk, our arm muscles show rhythmic activity suggesting that the central nervous system contributes to the swing of the arms. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether corticospinal drive plays a role in the control of arm muscle activity during human walking. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited in the posterior deltoid muscle (PD) by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were modulated during the gait cycle in parallel with changes in the background EMG activity....

  12. Controlling a Robotic Arm manipulator with a PLC

    OpenAIRE

    Lama, Bhim

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT This thesis was commissioned for HAMK University of Applied Sciences with the aim of designing a control system for a robotic arm. The Robotic Arm in this case was from HAMK’s Laboratory for Automation, Riihimäki which was designed by Nicolas Mustaka (an exchange student from Greece, 2009). The main objective of this thesis was to design a control system for the Robotic Arm using a programmable logic controller (PLC) and to construct a gripper. The control system design con...

  13. ARM Operations and Engineering Procedure Mobile Facility Site Startup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, Jimmy W

    2015-05-01

    This procedure exists to define the key milestones, necessary steps, and process rules required to commission and operate an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF), with a specific focus toward on-time product delivery to the ARM Data Archive. The overall objective is to have the physical infrastructure, networking and communications, and instrument calibration, grooming, and alignment (CG&A) completed with data products available from the ARM Data Archive by the Operational Start Date milestone.

  14. Risk-Aversion in Multi-armed Bandits

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Stochastic multi-armed bandits solve the Exploration-Exploitation dilemma and ultimately maximize the expected reward. Nonetheless, in many practical problems, maximizing the expected reward is not the most desirable objective. In this paper, we introduce a novel setting based on the principle of risk-aversion where the objective is to compete against the arm with the best risk-return trade-off. This setting proves to be intrinsically more difficult than the standard multi-arm bandit setting ...

  15. Risk-Aversion in Multi-armed Bandits

    OpenAIRE

    Sani, Amir; Lazaric, Alessandro; Munos, Rémi

    2012-01-01

    Stochastic multi--armed bandits solve the Exploration--Exploitation dilemma and ultimately maximize the expected reward. Nonetheless, in many practical problems, maximizing the expected reward is not the most desirable objective. In this paper, we introduce a novel setting based on the principle of risk--aversion where the objective is to compete against the arm with the best risk--return trade--off. This setting proves to be intrinsically more difficult than the standard multi-arm bandit set...

  16. Dynamic Simulation Analysis of Forest-fruit Vibratory Harvester Arm

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Zhou; Lijun Li; Ye Xue

    2014-01-01

    For obtaining excellent properties of vibration type picking machine of oil tea fruit, two and three dimensional virtual prototype of forest-fruit vibratory harvester was established by CAD and Pro/E software, then the dynamic prototype was converted and the dynamics simulation was worked out by the Adams system simulation software for the arm. The mechanical characteristics of arm were measured during positioning and vibrating the end of arm and they provide a theoretical references to optim...

  17. The European Union and armed drones: framing the debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bruno Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Armed drones are an issue extremely relevant for the EU. The recent emergence of targeted killings as a common counter-terrorism technique, the existence of several EU member states using armed and surveillance drones in military scenarios, the presence of member states troops in areas where armed drones have been active, the US use of European-originated intelligence to execute targeted killings, and the broader status of international law, are developments that illustrate the importance of the...

  18. Mechanism of the industrial enterprises marketing communication synthesized effect formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya.O. Tymokhina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The main purpose of the article is to propose mechanism of the industrial enterprises marketing communication (MC synthesized effect formation. An indispensable component of MC mechanism synthesized effect of industrial enterprise is the legislation that governs use of synthesized marketing communications and obtaines synthesized effect from using them. It can be divided into three groups: legislation that regulates entrepreneurial activities, legislation governing communication activities, legislation governing innovation activities. Legislation of Ukraine regulating communication activities needs to be clarified in regulation of using the latest MC tools, features of their combination, rules of their using and order of action in violation case of applicable law. The results of the analysis. Any economic activity of enterprises governed by principles that are divided into general and specific by the level of coverage. The proposed set of formation principles of synthesized effect are principles of systematic using that focus on the result and periodicity which refer to general. Within the principle of periodicity it should consider principles that characterize each level of management that are such principles as using synthesis, using synergy and complexity. Functions of synthesized effect that are subject to general principles of economic analysis are: searching, score, analysis and accounting. Essence of specific features of MC synthesized effect consists the following positions: planning function, integration function, communicative function, synthesis implementation function. Mechanism formation MC synthesized effect of industrial enterprise is a set of systems that are used in process of its creation by management levels that reflects subject-object relationship between these systems. Input elements system form factors of external and internal environment, information about which enterprise collects through market research. Subjects of communication activities at the level of control and manageable subsystems analyze information that forms the basis for creation synthesized promotion complex of enterprise`s products by management levels. Subordinates and users via MC synthesized by types, which are resultant at each level of management, gets results of communication activities at the end of promotion process that is synthesized effect. Using of dual system of synthesis advisable not only with concurrence MC types by management levels, but during creating subsystems of formation synthesized effect mechanism. Thus, providing subsystem combines common functions of economic analysis and specific functions of synergistic effect as part of communication analysis. Separation of control system for users and subordinates creates additional connection to control system, improving the information movement within the enterprise. Conclusions and directions of futher researches. The contrast to synergistic effect that allows obtaining an increase of effect through existing MC interaction synthesized effect arises from synthes of various promoting tools combined features of which can create synergy effect growth. Using the synthesized marketing communications by types allows clearly integrate promoting toolkit accordance with management level at which they will be resultant. Subject of future research is the development of economic component of mechanism formation MC synthesized effect of industrial enterprises. Results of research can be used for further researches and in practice of industrial enterprises.

  19. Pre-LBA Amazonian Region Micrometeorological Experiment (ARME) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Amazonian Region Micrometeorological Experiment (ARME) data contain micrometeorological data (climate, interception of precipitation, mircometeorology and soil...

  20. Pre-LBA Amazonian Region Micrometeorological Experiment (ARME) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The Amazonian Region Micrometeorological Experiment (ARME) data contain micrometeorological data (climate, interception of precipitation, mircometeorology...

  1. ANOMALOUS BRANCHES OF MEDIAN NERVE IN THE ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishita Ghosh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dissection of right and left upper limbs and demonstration of the origin and the course of median nerve. Result: Median nerve in the right upper limb is formed normally but it supplies brachialis muscle and both head of the biceps in the arm which is anomalous. In the left arm of the patient the course and supply of median nerve is normal. Conclusion: The patient has unilateral anomalous supply of median nerve in the arm – this can result in trauma to this nerve while undergoing any surgery in right arm.

  2. Manipulator arm for a nuclear reactor vessel inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A manipulator arm for a reactor vessel in-service inspection apparatus is adapted to transport a transducer array for ultrasonic examination of welds at any point in the vessel. The removal of the inspection device from the reactor vessel in an emergency presents a problem where a relatively long manipulator arm is used. This invention provides an improved arm with means for changing the normal orientation of the arm to a shorter one to permit safe removal of the inspection device from the reactor vessel. (author)

  3. Characteristics of Spiral Arms in Late-type Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Honig, Z. N.; Reid, M J

    2014-01-01

    We have measured the positions of large numbers of H II regions in four nearly face-on, late-type, spiral galaxies: NGC 628 (M 74), NGC 1232, NGC 3184 and NGC 5194 (M 51). Fitting log-periodic spiral models to segments of each arm yields local estimates of spiral pitch angle and arm width. While pitch angles vary considerably along individual arms, among arms within a galaxy, and among galaxies, we find no systematic trend with galactocentric distance. We estimate the widths...

  4. Learning to play K-armed bandit problems

    OpenAIRE

    Maes, Francis; Wehenkel, Louis; Ernst, Damien

    2012-01-01

    We propose a learning approach to pre-compute K-armed bandit playing policies by exploiting prior information describing the class of problems targeted by the player. Our algorithm ?rst samples a set of K-armed bandit problems from the given prior, and then chooses in a space of candidate policies one that gives the best average performances over these problems. The candidate policies use an index for ranking the arms and pick at each play the arm with the highest index; the index for each ar...

  5. System For Research On Multiple-Arm Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Paul G.; Hayati, Samad; Tso, Kam S.; Hayward, Vincent

    1991-01-01

    Kali system of computer programs and equipment provides environment for research on distributed programming and distributed control of coordinated-multiple-arm robots. Suitable for telerobotics research involving sensing and execution of low level tasks. Software and configuration of hardware designed flexible so system modified easily to test various concepts in control and programming of robots, including multiple-arm control, redundant-arm control, shared control, traded control, force control, force/position hybrid control, design and integration of sensors, teleoperation, task-space description and control, methods of adaptive control, control of flexible arms, and human factors.

  6. Teeth clenching reduces arm abduction force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hajime; Kawano, Tsutomu; Saito, Mitsuru; Toyoda, Hiroki; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Türker, Kemal Sitki; Kang, Youngnam

    2014-07-01

    It has been reported that the 90° arm abduction force counteracting external adduction loads appeared to be smaller under teeth clenching condition than under non-clenching condition. To elucidate the physiological mechanism underlying the possible inhibitory effect of teeth clenching on the arm abduction, we have attempted to quantify the difference in the force induced against the fast and slow ramp load between the arm abductions under teeth non-clenching and clenching conditions. When the load of adduction moment was linearly increased, the abductor force increased to a maximal isometric contraction force (MICF) and further increased to a maximal eccentric contraction force (MECF) with forced adduction. The MICF measured under teeth clenching was significantly lower than that under non-clenching, despite no significant difference in the MECF between the two conditions. The reduction in MICF caused by teeth clenching was enhanced by increasing the velocity of the load. These results suggest that clenching inhibits abduction force only during isometric contraction phase. The invariability of MECF would indicate the lack of involvement of fatigue in such inhibitory effects of clenching. To discover the source of the inhibition, we have examined the effects of teeth clenching on the stretch reflex in the deltoid muscle. The stretch reflex of deltoid muscles was inhibited during clenching, contrary to what was expected from the Jendrassik maneuver. Taken together, our results suggest that the teeth clenching reduced the MICF by depressing the recruitment of deltoid motoneurones presumably via the presynaptic inhibition of spindle afferent inputs onto those motoneurones. PMID:24687460

  7. Magnetic navigation versus mobile C-Arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate differences in radiation protection aspects between the use of a digital cardio angiography system with magnetic navigation (Artis Axiom dFcM + Stereotaxis NIOBE (registered) Magnetic Navigation System) and a standard mobile X-ray device with C-arm for electrophysiological procedures. Radiation exposure to staff and patients were analyzed and used for comparison. The time distribution of cardiology procedures for one physician is shown to introduce work of electrophysiology section. The records of procedures were used as information and as a data source for this study. These records include written operation as well as printed exam protocols. This study shows time course of procedures using the electro anatomical mapping system 'CARTO'. A single physicians performance has been used for this comparison to avoid possible differences between operators. The exposure time and air kerma product (PKA) values have been compared for both devices. Median value of exposure time, for each group of 20 patients, was reduced from 27.1 minutes to 20.0 minutes and radiation exposure from 12468 cGycm2 to 9078 cGycm2 PKA values. There is also scattered radiation in the operation area for C-Arm and the new technology presented. Magnetic navigation and replacing C-Arm by cardio angiography system reduces the personal dose by nearly one third, this fact was traced from personal monitoring reports. The main reason for saving time is the necessity to operate the catheter by joystick on a control panel from an adjacent room. These new technologies bring more effectiveness into interventional procedures, especially in cases of complicated examination, and reduce radiation exposure to patients and staff significantly. (author)

  8. Gravitoinertial force level influences arm movement control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, J.; Lackner, J. R.; DiZio, P.

    1993-01-01

    1. The ability to move the forearm between remembered elbow joint angles immediately after rapid increases or decreases of the background gravitoinertial force (G) level was measured. The movements had been well-practiced in a normal 1G environment before the measurements in high-(1.8G) and low-force (0G) environments. The forearm and upper arm were always unsupported to maximize the influence of altered G-loading and to minimize extraneous cues about arm position. 2. Horizontal and vertical movement planes were studied to measure the effects of varying the G load in the movement plane within a given G background. Rapid and slow movements were studied to assess the role of proprioceptive feedback. 3. G level did not affect the amplitude of rapid movements, indicating that subjects were able to plan and to generate appropriate motor commands for the new G loading of the arm. The amplitude of slow movements was affected by G level, indicating that proprioceptive feedback is influenced by G level. 4. The effects of G level were similar for horizontal and vertical movements, indicating that proprioceptive information from supporting structures, such as the shoulder joint and muscles, had a role in allowing generation of the appropriate motor commands. 5. The incidence and size of dynamic overshoots were greater in 0G and for rapid movements. This G-related change in damping suggests a decrease in muscle spindle activity in 0G. A decrease in muscle spindle activity in 0G and an increase in 1.8G are consistent with the results of our prior studies on the tonic vibration reflex, locomotion, and perception of head movement trajectory in varying force backgrounds.

  9. Limitation and reduction of conventional arms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are living at a time when war between East and West---not only nuclear but also conventional war--- is totally senseless. It cannot solve any problem---political, economic, or other. From the military point of view, war between East and West is madness. Calculations show that after 20 days of conventional warfare Europe could become another Hiroshima. Therefore we must work out forms of long-term cooperation. Before it is too late, we must radically reduce our military potentials and rethink our military doctrines. The reduction by 500,000 men is for the USSR no simple solution. But that step may become a model for further actions by East and West. The West's proposal that armed forces should be reduced to the level of 95 percent of NATO's armed forces is not a solution. Both sides---the Warsaw Treaty Organization and NATO---must be deprived of the capacity to launch a sudden attack; they must be deprived of their attack potential. The USSR initiative shows the true way toward that goal. What is happening in connection with our decision is not always correctly interpreted in the West, and so I should like to draw attention to some distinctive features of the Soviet armed forces reductions and, first of all, their scale (equivalent to the Bundeswehr of the Federal Republic of Germany). With respect to Europe, Soviet troops are to be reduced in the German Democratic Republic, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, and the European part of the Soviet Union---a total of 240,000 men, 10,000 tanks, 9,500 artillery systems, and 800 combat aircraft

  10. Synthesis of multi-block poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymer membrane with pendant quaternary ammonium groups for alkaline fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhuo; Wang, Junhua; Li, Shenghai; Zhang, Suobo

    2011-05-01

    A series of multi-block poly(arylene ether sulfone)s are synthesized via the copolymerization of bis(4-hydroxyphenol) sulfone, 3,3?, 5,5?-tetramethylbiphenol and 4,4?-difluorodiphenyl sulfone. The resulting multi-block copolymers are brominated by using N-bromosuccinmide (NBS) as bromination reagent. The bromomethylated copolymer is solution cast to form clear, creasable films, and subsequent soaking of these films in aqueous trimethylamine to give benzyltrimethylammonium groups. The anion exchange membranes obtained by the solution hydroxide exchange with aqueous sodium hydroxide show varying degrees of ionic conductivity depending on their ion exchange capacity. The highest hydroxide conductivity 0.029 S cm-1 is achieved with the QBPES-40 membrane having IEC value of 1.62 mequiv g-1 at room temperature and 100% RH. The obtained anion exchange membranes also have good mechanical properties and dimensional stability, which greatly facilitates the preparation of a MEA and the cell operation.

  11. Robotic Arm-The Ball Catcher

    OpenAIRE

    J.C.Titarmare; M.D.Katkar; A. J. Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Catching a thrown ball with a hand is not easy – neither for humans nor for robots. It demands for a tight interplay of skills in mechanics, control, planning and visual sensing to reach the necessary precision in space and time. Because of this, ball catching has been used for almost 20 years now as a challenging benchmark system to develop and test robotics key technologies. Here we propose a high speed and intelligent robotic arm set up which will capable enough to catch the short range th...

  12. ARM assembly language fundamentals and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Hohl, William

    2009-01-01

    Written by the director of ARM's worldwide academic program, this volume gives computer science professionals and students an edge, regardless of their preferred coding language. For those with some basic background in digital logic and high-level programming, the book examines code relevant to hardware and peripherals found on today's microcontrollers and looks at situations all programmers will eventually encounter. The book's carefully chosen examples teach easily transferrable skills that will help readers optimize routines and significantly streamline coding, especially in the embedded sp

  13. Rasp Tool on Phoenix Robotic Arm Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This close-up photograph taken at the Payload Interoperability Testbed at the University of Arizona, Tucson, shows the motorized rasp protruding from the bottom of the scoop on the engineering model of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm. The rasp will be placed against the hard Martian surface to cut into the hard material and acquire an icy soil sample for analysis by Phoenix's scientific instruments. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. ARM9 Based Embedded E-Documentation

    OpenAIRE

    Sachin S; , Sachin D. Anap, Amruta M. Kulkarni, Mahesh D. Nirmal, T.A.More,Taware, Sanjay G. Galande

    2012-01-01

    Among the huge population of India many people facing the headache of the government documents. Unwillingly they have to pay extra money and extra time for these documents though it is our basic right to get it free and urgent! This project is proposed to achieve the main goals of anti-corruption system for government documents needed for common people in day to day life. Our project basically includes four main parts, a fingerprint detector, ARM-9 control unit, PC with touch screen GUI and i...

  15. HS06 Benchmark for an ARM Server

    CERN Document Server

    Kluth, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    We benchmarked an ARM cortex-A9 based server system with a four-core CPU running at 1.1 GHz. The system used Ubuntu 12.04 as operating system and the HEPSPEC 2006 (HS06) benchmarking suite was compiled natively with gcc-4.4 on the system. The benchmark was run for various settings of the relevant gcc compiler options. We did not find significant influence from the compiler options on the benchmark result. The final HS06 benchmark result is 10.4.

  16. 'Great power' intervention in African armed conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2015-01-01

    This paper asks why the United States (US), China and the European Union (EU) have intervened in a number of armed conflicts in Africa in the twenty-first century. Scrutiny and comparison of the motivations and interests of the three non-African actors in intervening in African crises are assumed...... to contribute to understanding the changing geopolitical environment and the current conditions for conflict management in Africa. The focus is not on trade and aid. The paper launches the hypothesis that the explanations why the US, China and the EU have intervened are basically identical. In spite...

  17. ARM CLASIC ER2 CRS/EDOP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Heymsfield

    2010-12-20

    Data was taken with the NASA ER-2 aircraft with the Cloud Radar System and other instruments in conjunction with the DOE ARM CLASIC field campaign. The flights were near the SGP site in north Central Oklahoma and targeted small developing convection. The CRS is a 94 GHz nadir pointing Doppler radar. Also on board the ER-2 was the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL). Seven science flights were conducted but the weather conditions did not cooperate in that there was neither developing convection, or there was heavy rain.

  18. Worldwide report: Arms control, [February 21, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-02-21

    This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts on arms control. Titles include: SDI Brainchild of Military-Industrial Complex, Not Reagan; More Polish Coverage of SDI Debate in FRG; France`s Gen. Gallois on USSR Modernization Plan; Soviet Naval Journal, Trident Has First-Strike Roll; Dutch Party Leader on Cruise Treaty, Elections; Soviet Training Methods Against Chemical Weapons; USSR Views Disarmament Conference Session Held in Geneva; Time `Running Out` for Moratorium Decision; Nordic Labor Unions Urge New Nuclear Free Zone Conference; Goals of Geneva Disarmament Meeting; and others.

  19. Telerobotics with whole arm collision avoidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelmsen, K.; Strenn, S.

    1993-09-01

    The complexity of teleorbotic operations in a cluttered environment is exacerbated by the need to present collision information to the operator in an understandable fashion. In addition to preventing movements which will cause collisions, a system providing some form of virtual force reflection (VFR) is desirable. With this goal in mind, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has installed a kinematically master/slave system and developed a whole arm collision avoidance system which interacts directly with the telerobotic controller. LLNL has also provided a structure to allow for automated upgrades of workcell models and provide collision avoidance even in a dynamically changing workcell.

  20. TRIGGERED STAR FORMATION IN SPIRAL ARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Martínez-García

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the status of our research, relative to the triggering of star formation by large-scale galactic shocks associated with spiral density waves. Around a third of the galaxies in our sample do not seem suitable for this kind of study, because they present an e ect, probably due to opacity, that is not well understood. The remaining objects seem to favor the idea of density wave triggering of star formation in the arms. The comparison with stellar population synthesis models, and the orbital resonance positions for these galaxies (derived by means of spiral pattern angular speeds corroborate this hypothesis.

  1. New SNS/S and SNN/S Mixed Ligand Oxorhenium and Oxotechnetium Complexes Carrying a Pendant Nitro Group on the Monothiolate Moiety as Hypoxia Tissue Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of our project to develop small size, neutral, mixed ligand oxotechnetium and oxorhenium complexes of the general formula MOL1L2, we have synthesized and characterized four novel complexes of general formula MO[EtN(CH2CH2S)2][p-O2N-C6H4S] and MO [(Et2NCH2CH2NCH2CH2S)(p-O2N-C6H4S)] where M=Re (complex 1 and complex 2) or M=Tc (complex 3 and complex 4) as a new approach for hypoxia or ischemic tissue organ imaging. Complex 1 and 2 have been synthesized by exchange reaction in equimolar quantities of the tridentate and the monodentate ligand on ReOC13(PPh3). Only the syn isomer have been isolated and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-vis, and 1H NMR. Crystal datas reveal a trigonal bipyramidal geometry around the metal for complex 1 and square pyramidal geometry around the metal for complex 2. Complex 3 is prepared by exchange reaction using Tc-99m-glucoheptonate as precursor and equimolar quantities of two ligands; EtN(CH2CH2SH)2 and p-O2N-C6H4SH while complex 4 is prepared by simultaneously reacting the Et2NCH2CH2NHCH2CH2SH and p-O2N-C6H4SH ligands with the 99Tc gluconate precursor in equimolar amount in MeOH. It may be concluded that the result of SNS/S and SNN/S mixed ligand of oxotechnetium is comfirmed by comparative HPLC studies with complex 1 and complex 2, since rhenium is a surrogate of technetium

  2. Computer code ARM1 for solving the inverse kinematics of a six-link manipulator arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ARM1 is a FORTRAN 77 program for the numerical solutions of the inverse kinematics problems. This paper is a detailed description of the current program (version 1). The code is simple enough for practical use and besides has no particular restrictions except for the specification of memory size. Incorporated checking statements or routine are useful in identifying the accuracies of solutions obtained. (author)

  3. Version of the galaxy spiral structure model with opposite-directed arms and inter-arm links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt is made to explain some peculiarities of the local spiral structure and large-scale distribution of HII regions in the Galaxy by coexistence of the trailing and leading arm systems of different power and development. The existence of opposite-directed arms and inter-arm links in the circular zone (5-15 kpc) is analysed from the point of view of different Galaxy models

  4. Argentivorous molecules bearing three aromatic side arms: synthesis of triple-armed cyclens and their complexing property towards Ag(+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habata, Yoichi; Kizaki, Juli; Hosoi, Yasuhiro; Ikeda, Mari; Kuwahara, Shunsuke

    2015-01-21

    Triple-armed cyclens bearing three aromatic side-arms were prepared in three steps from (3R,5S)-3,5-dimethyl-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-2,6-dione, and the Ag(+)-ion-induced (1)H NMR and UV-vis spectral changes and X-ray structures suggested that the aromatic side-arms cover the Ag(+) incorporated into the ligand cavities like an insectivorous plant (Venus flytrap). PMID:25413213

  5. Poly(glycolide multi-arm star polymers: Improved solubility via limited arm length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian K. Wolf

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the low solubility of poly(glycolic acid (PGA, its use is generally limited to the synthesis of random copolyesters with other hydroxy acids, such as lactic acid, or to applications that permit direct processing from the polymer melt. Insolubility is generally observed for PGA when the degree of polymerization exceeds 20. Here we present a strategy that allows the preparation of PGA-based multi-arm structures which significantly exceed the molecular weight of processable oligomeric linear PGA (<1000 g/mol. This was achieved by the use of a multifunctional hyperbranched polyglycerol (PG macroinitiator and the tin(II-2-ethylhexanoate catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of glycolide in the melt. With this strategy it is possible to combine high molecular weight with good molecular weight control (up to 16,000 g/mol, PDI = 1.4–1.7, resulting in PGA multi-arm star block copolymers containing more than 90 wt % GA. The successful linkage of PGA arms and PG core via this core first/grafting from strategy was confirmed by detailed NMR and SEC characterization. Various PG/glycolide ratios were employed to vary the length of the PGA arms. Besides fluorinated solvents, the materials were soluble in DMF and DMSO up to an average arm length of 12 glycolic acid units. Reduction in the Tg and the melting temperature compared to the homopolymer PGA should lead to simplified processing conditions. The findings contribute to broadening the range of biomedical applications of PGA.

  6. Octopus-inspired multi-arm robotic swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfakiotakis, M; Kazakidi, A; Tsakiris, D P

    2015-06-01

    The outstanding locomotor and manipulation characteristics of the octopus have recently inspired the development, by our group, of multi-functional robotic swimmers, featuring both manipulation and locomotion capabilities, which could be of significant engineering interest in underwater applications. During its little-studied arm-swimming behavior, as opposed to the better known jetting via the siphon, the animal appears to generate considerable propulsive thrust and rapid acceleration, predominantly employing movements of its arms. In this work, we capture the fundamental characteristics of the corresponding complex pattern of arm motion by a sculling profile, involving a fast power stroke and a slow recovery stroke. We investigate the propulsive capabilities of a multi-arm robotic system under various swimming gaits, namely patterns of arm coordination, which achieve the generation of forward, as well as backward, propulsion and turning. A lumped-element model of the robotic swimmer, which considers arm compliance and the interaction with the aquatic environment, was used to study the characteristics of these gaits, the effect of various kinematic parameters on propulsion, and the generation of complex trajectories. This investigation focuses on relatively high-stiffness arms. Experiments employing a compliant-body robotic prototype swimmer with eight compliant arms, all made of polyurethane, inside a water tank, successfully demonstrated this novel mode of underwater propulsion. Speeds of up to 0.26 body lengths per second (approximately 100 mm s(-1)), and propulsive forces of up to 3.5 N were achieved, with a non-dimensional cost of transport of 1.42 with all eight arms and of 0.9 with only two active arms. The experiments confirmed the computational results and verified the multi-arm maneuverability and simultaneous object grasping capability of such systems. PMID:25970151

  7. ARM 7 BASED MP3 PLAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiq V Mehta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available MP3 is a patented encoding format for digital audio which uses a form of lossy data compression. It is a common audio format for consumer audio streaming or storage, as well as a de facto standard of digital audio compression for the transfer and playback of music on most digital audio players. Since the MPEG-1 Layer III encoding technology is nowadays widely used it might be interesting to gain knowledge of how this powerful compression/decompression scheme actually functions. The MPEG-1 Layer III is capable of reducing the bit rate with a factor of 12 without almost any audible degradation. Arm7 lpc2148 is arm7tdmi-s core board microcontroller that uses 16/32-bit 64 pin (lqfp microcontroller no.lpc2148 from Philips (nxp.The hardware system of lpc2148 includes the necessary devices within only one mcu has such as usb, adc, dac, timer/counter, pwm, capture, i2c, spi, uart, and etc.

  8. Characterizing Truthful Multi-Armed Bandit Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Babaioff, Moshe; Slivkins, Aleksandrs

    2008-01-01

    We consider a multi-round auction setting motivated by pay-per-click auctions for Internet advertising. In each round the auctioneer selects an advertiser and shows her ad, which is then either clicked or not. An advertiser derives value from clicks; the value of a click is her private information. Initially, neither the auctioneer nor the advertisers have any information about the likelihood of clicks on the advertisements. The auctioneer's goal is to design a (dominant strategies) truthful mechanism that (approximately) maximizes the social welfare. If the advertisers bid their true private values, our problem is equivalent to the "multi-armed bandit problem", and thus can be viewed as a strategic version of the latter. In particular, for both problems the quality of an algorithm can be characterized by "regret", the difference in social welfare between the algorithm and the benchmark which always selects the same "best" advertisement. We investigate how the design of multi-armed bandit algorithms is affect...

  9. The politics of arms control treaty ratification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents a critical examination of executive-congressional relations and the domestic politics of arms control treaty ratification within the United States during the twentieth century. The staring point of this study is the hypothesis that the politics of treaty ratification can be as important as the negotiations leading up to agreements. Benefits to international peace and security sought in years of painstaking diplomatic effort can be lost without Senate consent, as was the case with the Treaty of Versailles and the second treaty arising from the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT II). The authors of the case studies were requested to present first a brief, historical introduction to the case indicating why the case was important, the background concerning the origins of the treaty, and the treaty's major provisions. The purpose of the introduction to the case was not to provide a complete picture of the negotiating record but to set the stage for a more in-depth discussion of the events that followed after the treaty was signed. The authors address five substantive areas: the international political context of the treaty, the domestic political context, the role of the president, executive-congressional relations, and public opinion and the role of interest groups. The questions and issues concerning each of these areas are briefly summarized

  10. The Phoenix Mars Lander Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitz, Robert; Shiraishi, Lori; Robinson, Matthew; Carsten, Joseph; Volpe, Richard; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Chu, P. C.; Wilson, J. J.; Davis, K. R.

    2009-01-01

    The Phoenix Mars Lander Robotic Arm (RA) has operated for over 150 sols since the Lander touched down on the north polar region of Mars on May 25, 2008. During its mission it has dug numerous trenches in the Martian regolith, acquired samples of Martian dry and icy soil, and delivered them to the Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) and the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA). The RA inserted the Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) into the Martian regolith and positioned it at various heights above the surface for relative humidity measurements. The RA was used to point the Robotic Arm Camera to take images of the surface, trenches, samples within the scoop, and other objects of scientific interest within its workspace. Data from the RA sensors during trenching, scraping, and trench cave-in experiments have been used to infer mechanical properties of the Martian soil. This paper describes the design and operations of the RA as a critical component of the Phoenix Mars Lander necessary to achieve the scientific goals of the mission.

  11. Robotic Arm-The Ball Catcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C.Titarmare

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Catching a thrown ball with a hand is not easy – neither for humans nor for robots. It demands for a tight interplay of skills in mechanics, control, planning and visual sensing to reach the necessary precision in space and time. Because of this, ball catching has been used for almost 20 years now as a challenging benchmark system to develop and test robotics key technologies. Here we propose a high speed and intelligent robotic arm set up which will capable enough to catch the short range thrown ball in specified environment. The main technique used is a stereo vision system to tracks the ball and predicts the balls trajectory then the point and time required to reach at destination point, and in which orientation the robot should intercept the ball on its trajectory, is determined. Once robots calculate the desired parameters it will try to catch the ball. Expected outcome of the proposed system is to catch the ball by calculating the coming ball path using computer vision techniques and move the robotic arm in order to catch the ball

  12. ARM Climate Research Facility Annual Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, J.

    2004-12-31

    Like a rock that slowly wears away beneath the pressure of a waterfall, planet earth?s climate is almost imperceptibly changing. Glaciers are getting smaller, droughts are lasting longer, and extreme weather events like fires, floods, and tornadoes are occurring with greater frequency. Why? Part of the answer is clouds and the amount of solar radiation they reflect or absorb. These two factors clouds and radiative transfer represent the greatest source of error and uncertainty in the current generation of general circulation models used for climate research and simulation. The U.S. Global Change Research Act of 1990 established an interagency program within the Executive Office of the President to coordinate U.S. agency-sponsored scientific research designed to monitor, understand, and predict changes in the global environment. To address the need for new research on clouds and radiation, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. As part of the DOE?s overall Climate Change Science Program, a primary objective of the ARM Program is improved scientific understanding of the fundamental physics related to interactions between clouds and radiative feedback processes in the atmosphere.

  13. Porting Android on Arm Based Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KALPIK M. PATEL, CHIRAG K. PATEL

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Today Android operating system (OS is HOT in market for entertainment devices like mobile phones and tablet and TV and industry is exploring the ability of Android within other embedded platforms. Some industries replace with exiting operating system with Android because main reason is open source operating system (OS. Today industries select Android OS reason behind this big application market and easy to available to application development tools and also available many on-line group to resolve your issue. In this paper, we will explain the concept of porting android to any arm based devices. We will explain the basics of kernel, how to make android specific, how to compile kernel for ARM. In Android section, we will explain architecture of Android, how to compile android for specific board. For understanding, we will use Linux 2.6.32 kernel version and android 2.3.7 (Gingerbread. We will port android to d2plug board which is product of Marvell Semiconductor.

  14. Europe, arms control and American security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    What has come to be called the Revolution of 1989 has swept away longstanding political and economic arrangements in Eastern Europe. Perhaps more important, it has also called into question the fundamental underpinnings of European security created during the nonpeace that followed World War II. In June 1990, the Warsaw Treaty Organization abandoned the notion that NATO was the ideological enemy. At the same time, NATO ministers agreed at Tunberry, Scotland, to consider defining the Atlantic Alliance as more of a partner of the Soviet Union than as an enemy. The Washington summit of May 1990 between president Mikhail Gorbachev and president George Bush further highlighted the recent changes in the Soviet Union and its former satellites. Issues going to the heart of the viability of the Soviet Union and the communist system of political and economic organization competed with German reunification as central themes. Arms control issues, particularly as they pertain in European military stability, became contingent and dependent on the development of a broader political and economic framework for a new Europe. Whether this framework is viable remains an open question as Gorbachev's role is challenged more and more within the Soviet Union. This paper deals with European arms control issues from the point of view of the United States and its own security interests. The United States involved its security inextricably with that of Western Europe as a conscious decision in the turmoil following World War II

  15. The start of the Sagittarius spiral arm (Sagittarius origin) and the start of the Norma spiral arm (Norma origin) - model-computed and observed arm tangents at galactic longitudes -20 degrees < l < +23 degrees

    CERN Document Server

    Vallee, Jacques P

    2016-01-01

    Here we fitted a 4-arm spiral structure to the more accurate data on global arm pitch angle and arm longitude tangents, to get the start of each spiral arm near the Galactic nucleus. We find that the tangent to the 'start of the Sagittarius' spiral arm (arm middle) is at l= -17 degrees +/- 0.5 degree, while the tangent to the 'start of the Norma' spiral arm (arm middle) is at l= +20 degrees +/- 0.5 degree. Earlier, we published a compilation of observations and analysis of the tangent to each spiral arm tracer, from longitudes +23 degrees to +340 degrees; here we cover the arm tracers in the remaining longitudes +340 degrees (=- 20 degrees) to +23 degrees. Our model arm tangents are confirmed through the recent observed masers data (at the arm's inner edge). Observed arm tracers in the inner Galaxy show an offset from the mid-arm; this was also found elsewhere in the Milky Way disk (Vallee 2014c). In addition, we collated the observed tangents to the so-called '3-kpc-arm' features; here they are found statist...

  16. Special syntheses of certain organic iodine compounds; Syntheses speciales de certains composes organiques iodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, R.; Debuchy, D.; Junod, E. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The technical difficulties encountered in working on radioactive products force us to choose the simplest methods of chemical synthesis possible. For iodine compounds, two special methods have been chosen: - by using fission recoil, we can prepare simple iodine compounds such as iodobenzene or methyl iodide in high yields and having a good degree of purity. The method consists in the irradiation of mixtures of uranium oxide and benzoic acid or ammonium acetate. The iodised product is separated by distillation, after dissolving the recoil medium in a solvent. - by isotopic exchange between the inorganic iodine of different valencies and complex molecules such as Bengal pink, and diodone, it is also possible to obtain satisfactory labelling yields. These reactions have been adapted so as to give a minimum time for isotopic exchange. In the case of Bengal pink, we have found a yield of 90 per cent after 60 minutes by exchange between Nal and the organic molecule in aqueous solution in presence of hydrogen peroxide. For diodone the method proposed by Liebster has been modified so as to reduce losses during purification. The analytical methods adopted for these different compounds are described. (author) [French] Les difficultes technologiques du travail sur les produits radioactifs font choisir les methodes de syntheses chimiques les plus simples possible. Pour les composes iodes, on a choisi deux methodes speciales: - en utilisant le recul de fission, on prepare avec de bons rendements et avec une bonne purete des composes iodes simples tels que l'iodobenzene ou l'iodure de methyle. La methode consiste a irradier des melanges d'oxyde d'uranium et d'acide benzoique ou d'acetate d'ammonium. Le produit iode est separe par distillation, apres dissolution du milieu de recul dans un solvant, - par echange isotopique entre l'iode mineral a differentes valences et des molecules complexes comme le rose bengale et la diodone, on obtient egalement des rendements satisfaisants de marquage. Ces reactions ont ete amenagees pour que le temps d'echange isotopique soit raccourci au maximum. Pour le cas du rose Bengale, on a trouve un rendement de 90 pour cent apres 60 mn par echange entre INa et la molecule organique en milieu aqueux et en presence d'eau oxygenee. Pour la diodone, la methode proposee par Liebster a ete amenagee pour diminuer les pertes en cours de purification. On decrit egalement les methodes analytiques choisies pour ces differents composes. (auteur)

  17. Kinematic feedback control laws for generating natural arm movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a stochastic optimal feedback control law for generating natural robot arm motions. Our approach, inspired by the minimum variance principle of Harris and Wolpert (1998 Nature 394 780–4) and the optimal feedback control principles put forth by Todorov and Jordan (2002 Nature Neurosci. 5 1226–35) for explaining human movements, differs in two crucial respects: (i) the endpoint variance is minimized in joint space rather than Cartesian hand space, and (ii) we ignore the dynamics and instead consider only the second-order differential kinematics. The feedback control law generating the motions can be straightforwardly obtained by backward integration of a set of ordinary differential equations; these equations are obtained exactly, without any linear–quadratic approximations. The only parameters to be determined a priori are the variance scale factors, and for both the two-DOF planar arm and the seven-DOF spatial arm, a table of values is constructed based on the given initial and final arm configurations; these values are determined via an optimal fitting procedure, and consistent with existing findings about neuromuscular motor noise levels of human arm muscles. Experiments conducted with a two-link planar arm and a seven-DOF spatial arm verify that the trajectories generated by our feedback control law closely resemble human arm motions, in the sense of producing nearly straight-line hand trajectories, having bell-shaped velocity profiles, and satisfying Fitts Law. (paper)

  18. DNA prism structures constructed by folding of multiple rectangular arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Masayuki; Hidaka, Kumi; Kato, Takayuki; Namba, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    Novel multiarm DNA structures were designed using two-dimensional DNA origami scaffolds, and these structures were folded into hollow three-dimensional (3D) structures by introducing connection strands into the arms. The opening of the prism structures was examined by high-speed AFM imaging, which showed the dissociation of the connecting arms in the 3D structures. PMID:19824672

  19. Attitudes about Arms Control and Effects of "The Day After."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Linden L.; Slem, Charles M.

    An 18-item questionnaire was designed to investigate relationships between attitude towards arms control and beliefs about nuclear weapon effects, probability of war, Soviet goals, and the importance of nuclear arms superiority. Effects of the television movie, "The Day After," were also assessed by administering the questionnaire eight days…

  20. Risk factors of arm lymphedema in breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocak, Z; Overgaard, J

    2000-01-01

    Chronic lymphedema is a life-long, potential complication of axillary treatment for breast cancer patients. In this article we focus on risk factors in the development of arm lymphedema and also discuss definition, type and stage, and incidence of arm edema.

  1. 27 CFR 479.193 - Arms Export Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arms Export Control Act... CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Other Laws Applicable § 479.193 Arms Export Control Act. For provisions relating to the registration and licensing of persons engaged in the business of manufacturing, importing...

  2. Modelling and control of two coordinated robot arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarn, T. J.; Yun, X.; Bejczy, A. K.

    1988-01-01

    Two coordinated robot arms are modeled by considering the two arms as working on the same object simultaneously and as a closed kinematic chain. In both formulations, a novel dynamic control method is used which is based on feedback linearization and simultaneous output decoupling.

  3. ARM tõestab, et ka analüütikud eksivad / Fredy-Edwin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Esse, Fredy-Edwin

    2011-01-01

    Apple'i iPadidele ja iPhone'idele kiipe tootva Suurbritannia firma ARM Holdings aktsia on kõige suurem tõusja Londoni FTSE 100 indeksi kuue kuu, 12 kuu, 18 kuu, kahe aasta ja kolme aasta lõikes, samas on analüütikud kõigist indeksi aktsiatest kõige negatiivsemalt meelestatud just ARM Holdingsi suhtes. Graafik

  4. Why and how the EU should act on armed drones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bruno Oliveira; Backhaus, Benedikt

    2015-01-01

    This article systematizes the reasons that demand EU action on the issue of armed drones. It argues that a clear positioning of Brussels is required due to consistency with former practices in similar events and fundamental vectors of EU foreign and security policy, as well as legal and strategic...... position itself in the international debate on the regulation of armed drones....

  5. Stellar dynamics around transient co-rotating spiral arms

    CERN Document Server

    Kawata, Daisuke; Cropper, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Spiral density wave theory attempts to describe the spiral pattern in spiral galaxies in terms of a long-lived wave structure with a constant pattern speed in order to avoid the winding dilemma. The pattern is consequently a rigidly rotating, long-lived feature. We run an N-body/SPH simulation of a Milky Way-sized barred disk, and find that the spiral arms are transient features whose pattern speeds decrease with radius, in such a way that the pattern speed is almost equal to the rotation curve of the galaxy. We trace particle motion around the spiral arms. We show that particles from behind and in front of the spiral arm are drawn towards and join the arm. Particles move along the arm in the radial direction and we find a clear trend that they migrate toward the outer (inner) radii on the trailing (leading) side of the arm. Our simulations demonstrate that at all radii where there is a co-rotating spiral arm the particles continue to be accelerated (decelerated) by the spiral arm for long periods, which lead...

  6. Stellar dynamics around transient co-rotating spiral arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, D.; Grand, R. J. J.; Cropper, M.

    2012-02-01

    Spiral density wave theory attempts to describe the spiral pattern in spiral galaxies in terms of a long-lived wave structure with a constant pattern speed in order to avoid the winding dilemma. The pattern is consequently a rigidly rotating, long-lived feature. We run an N-body/SPH simulation of a Milky Way-sized barred disk, and find that the spiral arms are transient features whose pattern speeds decrease with radius, in such a way that the pattern speed is almost equal to the rotation curve of the galaxy. We trace particle motion around the spiral arms. We show that particles from behind and in front of the spiral arm are drawn towards and join the arm. Particles move along the arm in the radial direction and we find a clear trend that they migrate toward the outer (inner) radii on the trailing (leading) side of the arm. Our simulations demonstrate that tat all radii where there is a co-rotating spiral arm the particles continue to be accelerated (decelerated) by the spiral arm for long periods, which leads to strong migration.

  7. Can myocardial studies be performed with arms down?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It is known that attenuation of photons will decrease the diagnostic accuracy single photon emission computerised tomography (SPECT) myocardial imaging but patients imaged with their arms above their heads experience great discomfort, often resulting in patient motion during imaging, causing artifacts in the reconstructed images. The object of this study was to determine whether patients for myocardial perfusion imaging could be scanned with their arms by their side if attenuation correction (AC) is performed. We measured the attenuation distortion of myocardial polar maps by selecting 6 patients at random who underwent 180 deg SPECT myocardial acquisition using Technetium-99m Sestamibi with arms above their heads (AU) and again arms by their sides (AD). AC was performed using two moving Gadolinium-153 sources to generate a patient specific attenuation map. Data were reconstructed without AC using filtered back projection and with AC using maximum likelihood reconstruction. To determine the impact of patients' arms regions of interest were created on the polar maps to calculate the difference in mean count values. Without AC there was a significant difference in counts in the posterior wall of the left ventricle for arms up vs arms down (p < 0.05). With AC there was significant difference. It can be concluded that AC can improve polar map symmetry and compensate for the additional attenuation caused by the presence of arms in myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging

  8. 76 FR 72180 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B. English, DSCA... Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended (i) Prospective Purchaser: Malaysia. (ii... Arms Export Control Act. Policy Justification Malaysia--AIM-9X-2 SIDEWINDER Missiles The Government...

  9. Parametrized Stochastic Multi-armed Bandits with Binary Rewards

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Chong

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of multi-armed bandits with a large, possibly infinite number of correlated arms. We assume that the arms have Bernoulli distributed rewards, independent across time, where the probabilities of success are parametrized by known attribute vectors for each arm, as well as an unknown preference vector, each of dimension $n$. For this model, we seek an algorithm with a total regret that is sub-linear in time and independent of the number of arms. We present such an algorithm, which we call the Two-Phase Algorithm, and analyze its performance. We show upper bounds on the total regret which applies uniformly in time, for both the finite and infinite arm cases. The asymptotics of the finite arm bound show that for any $f \\in \\omega(\\log(T))$, the total regret can be made to be $O(n \\cdot f(T))$. In the infinite arm case, the total regret is $O(\\sqrt{n^3 T})$.

  10. Satellite data sets for the atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, L.; Bernstein, R.L. [SeaSpace Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    This abstract describes the type of data obtained from satellite measurements in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. The data sets have been widely used by the ARM team to derive cloud-top altitude, cloud cover, snow and ice cover, surface temperature, water vapor, and wind, vertical profiles of temperature, and continuoous observations of weather needed to track and predict severe weather.

  11. 48 CFR 225.7702 - Acquisition of small arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Operations in Iraq or Afghanistan 225.7702 Acquisition of small arms. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, when acquiring small arms for assistance to the Army of Iraq, the Army of Afghanistan, the Iraqi Police Forces, the Afghani Police Forces, or other Iraqi or Afghani...

  12. Clinical usefulness of synthesized MR angiography and surface anatomy scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to develop an imaging technique that can visualize cortical sulci and cortical veins on the same image by synthesizing MR angiography (MRA) image and surface anatomy scanning (SAS) image, and to evaluate clinical usefulness of the technique for surgical planning. Data of MRA were acquired with two-dimensional time of flight sequence after the administration of Gd-DTPA intravenously. Eight cases of surgically proven brain tumors were studied using this technique. Contrast enhanced MRA successfully demonstrated 7 of 8 brain tumors with cortical veins. On synthesized images, cortical sulci, superficial veins, tumor and skin markings were visualized on the same image. Synthesized brain surface image was thought to be an effective method for the presurgical planning and simulation, and it could be a method to overcome one of the disadvantages of SAS by differentiating an enhanced tumor from the surrounding edema. (author)

  13. A low-power CMOS frequency synthesizer for GPS receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low-power frequency synthesizer for GPS/Galileo L1/E1 band receivers implemented in a 0.18 ?m CMOS process is introduced. By adding clock-controlled transistors at latch outputs to reduce the time constant at sensing time, the working frequency of the high-speed source-coupled logic prescaler supplying quadrature local oscillator signals has been increased, compared with traditional prescalers. Measurement results show that this synthesizer achieves an in-band phase noise of -87 dBc/Hz at 15 kHz offset, with spurs less than -65 dBc. The whole synthesizer consumes 6 mA in the case of a 1.8 V supply, and its core area is 0.6 mm2. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  14. FRACTIONAL-N FREQUENCY SYNTHESIZER DESIGN FOR RFAPPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUDASSAR I. Y. MEER

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, design of Fractional-N Frequency Synthesizer using PLL has been investigated. The simulation is done in 0.18 μm CMOS technology with CADENCE tools using UMC foundry models. The different parts of synthesizer discussed in detail. Three different phase detector architectures are implemented. High speed TSPC DFF has designed to divide the frequency of GHz range. The prescalar is modified to have a delay of 80 ps only.For VCO, a multi layer inductor is used to save the area. The phase noise can be further reduced with a ΔΣ modulator in feedback loop. The designed frequency synthesizer targets RF applications like DVB-SH, WLAN,802.11, bluetooth, cordless phones and remote control.

  15. Comparison of Pyrolysis Characteristics of degreased and synthesized Mongolian Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaige; Wang, Shurong; Guo, Xiujuan; Luo, Zhongyang; Fransson, Torsten

    2010-11-01

    In order to study the influence of components' cross-interaction on biomass pyrolysis, research of degreased and synthesized Mongolian Pine (MP) was performed on a thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR) and the fast pyrolysis device. Compared with synthesized MP, the thermal behavior of degreased MP is much closer to the original and the degreased MP produces less aldehydes, alcohols or phenols and acids due to the cross-interactions of components. Synthesized MP has lower bio-oil yield and higher gas production than the degreased one. And the contents of furfural, acetic acid and levoglucosan change with the kind of samples obviously due to the intense cross-interactions of components.

  16. Effect of Shim Arm Depletion in the NBSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson A. H.; Brown N.; Diamond, D.J.

    2013-02-22

    The cadmium shim arms in the NBSR undergo burnup during reactor operation and hence, require periodic replacement. Presently, the shim arms are replaced after every 25 cycles to guarantee they can maintain sufficient shutdown margin. Two prior reports document the expected change in the 113Cd distribution because of the shim arm depletion. One set of calculations was for the present high-enriched uranium fuel and the other for the low-enriched uranium fuel when it was in the COMP7 configuration (7 inch fuel length vs. the present 11 inch length). The depleted 113Cd distributions calculated for these cores were applied to the current design for an equilibrium low-enriched uranium core. This report details the predicted effects, if any, of shim arm depletion on the shim arm worth, the shutdown margin, power distributions and kinetics parameters.

  17. The European Union and armed drones: framing the debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bruno Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Armed drones are an issue extremely relevant for the EU. The recent emergence of targeted killings as a common counter-terrorism technique, the existence of several EU member states using armed and surveillance drones in military scenarios, the presence of member states troops in areas where armed...... drones have been active, the US use of European-originated intelligence to execute targeted killings, and the broader status of international law, are developments that illustrate the importance of the topic. Yet, the EU still does not have an official position on armed drones. In 2014 the European...... Parliament recognized that this is problematic, adopting a Resolution that expressed “grave concern over the use of armed drones outside the international legal framework” and that urged the EU to “develop an appropriate policy response at both European and global level”. This Forum answers to the European...

  18. The Arms Trade Treaty (ATT): a public health imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Maria; Mtonga, Robert; Gould, Robert; Christ, Michael

    2014-02-01

    The United Nations adopted an historic international Arms Trade Treaty (ATT) in April 2013. A 1997 meeting of Nobel Peace Prize laureates who called for an International Code of Conduct to address the 'destructive effects of the unregulated arms trade' initiated discussions that led to the Treaty. Public health institutions, including the World Health Organization and the International Committee of the Red Cross, and nongovernmental health groups such as International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, made adoption of the ATT a public health imperative. The poorly regulated $70 billion annual trade in conventional arms fuels conflict, with devastating effects on global health. The ATT aims to 'reduce human suffering'. It prohibits arms' sales if there is knowledge that the arms would be used in the commission of genocide, attacks against civilians, or war crimes. The health community has much to contribute to ensuring ratification and implementation of the ATT. PMID:24257633

  19. A Unified Approach for Reporting ARM Measurement Uncertainties Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, E [Argonne National Laboratory; Sisterson, DL [Argonne National Laboratory

    2015-10-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility is observationally based, and quantifying the uncertainty of its measurements is critically important. With over 300 widely differing instruments providing over 2,500 datastreams, concise expression of measurement uncertainty is quite challenging. The ARM Facility currently provides data and supporting metadata (information about the data or data quality) to its users through a number of sources. Because the continued success of the ARM Facility depends on the known quality of its measurements, the Facility relies on instrument mentors and the ARM Data Quality Office (DQO) to ensure, assess, and report measurement quality. Therefore, an easily-accessible, well-articulated estimate of ARM measurement uncertainty is needed.

  20. Changement du taux des triterpénoîdes dans Helianthus annuus L. pendant la période de végétation [Variations in the level of triterpenoids in Helianthus annuus during vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Struby

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The variations in the level of triterpenoids, i.e. methylsterols, sterols, triterpenic monols and diols as well as of oleanolic acid and echinicystic acid were investigated in different organs of Helianthus annuus plant during vegetation period till 120th day. It was found that all types of compounds investigated are present in considerable quantities in the whole plant during this period. The presence of 5 monols and of 5 diols with chromatographic properties of pentacyclic triterpenic alcohols identified previously in Calendula officinalis flowers was proved in the shoots of H. annuus. This fact indicates that ,the green tissues of H. annuus possess the capacity to biosynthesize the pentacyclic triterpenes of different types and to hydroxylate them, what results in formation of diols from monols and of echinocystic acid from oleanolic acid. The green tissues of the previously investigated C. officinalis can synthesize only the triterpenes of the ß-amyrin type and the synthesis of triterpenes of other types and their hydroxylation procedes only in the flowers of this plant.

  1. Graphene Domains Synthesized on Electroplated Copper by Chemical Vapor Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electroplated Cu, which can be compatible with integrated circuit technology and large-scale silicon wafers, is explored as a substrate to synthesize graphene domains by ambient-pressure chemical vapor deposition. Hexagonal single crystal domains of graphene are synthesized on electroplated Cu under dilute methane gas flow. Scanning electron microscopy images of graphene domains grown on electroplated Cu indicate that the domain size is time-dependent, and the domains can cross Cu grain boundaries and are distributed more uniformly on electroplated Cu surface than those grown on Cu foil

  2. Zinc Oxide Nano crystals Synthesized by Quenching Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports an attempt to synthesize non toxic zinc oxide (ZnO) nano crystals using a simple quenching technique. The hot zinc oxide powder was quenched in hexane solution to obtain ZnO nano crystals. As the result, diameter size of the synthesized ZnO is 200 nm. It was also exhibited a good crystalline with wurtzite phase. The nano crystals properties of ZnO were revealed from good absorbance and green luminescence under UV exposure. This may be related with oxygen vacancy ionization during the annealing process. (author)

  3. Chemical phase analysis of seed mediated synthesized anisotropic silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Amardeep; Singh, Suman; Singla, M. L.; Goyal, Navdeep

    2015-08-01

    Noble-metal nanoparticles are of great interest because of its broad applications almost in every stream (i.e. biology, chemistry and engineering) due to their unique size/shape dependant properties. In this paper, chemical phase of seed mediated synthesized anisotropic silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) has been investigated via fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). These nanaoparticles were synthesized by seed-growth method controlled by urea and dextrose results to highly stable 12-20 nm particle size revealed by zeta potential and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  4. Study on magnetite nanoparticles synthesized by chemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetite nanoparticles with controlled size were synthesized by chemical method. Higher deposition temperature and a rapid-raising temperature procedure are favorable to particle size distribution and fabrication of monodisperse nanoparticles. The larger nanoparticles can be synthesized by the two-step method. The large nanoparticle (up to 25 nm) without agglomeration was successfully produced. The saturation magnetization of 11 nm magnetite particles was 45 emu/g at room temperature, which is smaller than that of bulk magnetite due to surface effect. Hysteresis of the magnetite nanoparticle was very small, indicating superparamagnetic behavior. The magnetic domains of the 11 nm magnetite nanoparticles were successfully observed by MFM

  5. Localised to intraligand charge-transfer states in cyclometalated platinum complexes: an experimental and theoretical study into the influence of electron-rich pendants and modulation of excited states by ion binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochester, David L; Develay, Stéphanie; Zális, Stanislav; Williams, J A Gareth

    2009-03-14

    The neopentyl ester of 1,3-di(2-pyridyl)benzene-5-boronic acid (dpy-B) is a useful intermediate in the divergent synthesis of N;C;N-coordinating, 1,3-di(2-pyridyl)benzene ligands, HL(n), that carry aryl substituents at the 5-position of the central ring. The platinum(ii) complexes, PtL(n)Cl, of several such ligands have been prepared, incorporating pendant anisoles, arylamines, an oxacrown, and an azacrown, all of which are strongly luminescent in solution at 298 K. The emission of the complexes is partially quenched by oxygen, and all of the compounds are very efficient sensitisers of singlet oxygen. The quantum yields of (1)O(2) formation have been measured on the basis of the intensity of the O(2)(1)Delta(g) emission at 1270 nm, and are in the range 0.25-0.65. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been carried out that include the effect of the solvent, on the unsubstituted complex PtL(1)Cl and on the derivatives incorporating p-dimethylaminophenyl and phenyl-15-mono-N-azacrown-5 pendants (PtL(9)Cl and PtL(12)Cl respectively). Absorption spectra have been simulated on the basis of the calculated singlet excitations: they closely resemble the experimental spectra. In particular, the DFT successfully accounts for the appearance of low-energy absorption bands that accompany the introduction of the aryl pendants, indicating the participation of the aryl group in the HOMO but not significantly in the LUMO. The calculated lowest energy triplet excitation of PtL(1)Cl is close to the observed 0-0 emission maximum of this complex in solution. Taking together data for this series of complexes and related compounds previously studied, the energies of the lowest-energy spin-allowed absorption bands are shown to correlate approximately linearly with the oxidation peak potential. The emission energies show a similar correlation in toluene, but in CH2Cl2 the value for PtL(9)Cl is anomalously low. The differing emission properties of this complex in the two solvents suggest a switch to a TICT-like state in CH2Cl2 (TICT = twisted intramolecular charge transfer), stabilised in the more polar environment. Transient DC photoconductivity measurements confirm that the dipole moment of the triplet excited state is larger in CH2Cl2 than in toluene. The azacrown PtL(12)Cl displays similar behaviour. Binding of metal ions such as Ca2+ to the azacrown unit of this complex leads to a pronounced blue shift in the emission, which can be readily understood in terms of the large increase in the TICT energy that will accompany the binding of the metal ion to the lone pair of the azacrown nitrogen atom. PMID:19240906

  6. Exoskeleton to Rehabilitate Paralyzed Arm Based on Patient Healthy Arm Guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Hu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the stroke rehabilitation by robotic device and a novel exoskeleton, which is based on the patient's self-guided control will be presented. It is realized by moving the patient’s own healthy arm in order to provide the movement trajectories for the exoskeleton. The main advantage of the exoskeleton is its flexibility and adaptivity for individual patient’s rehabilitation training. A new model predictive control (MPC algorithm for handling coupling and nonlinearity is also proposed and a microprocessor-based drive system for the exoskeleton will be adopted. In addition, to measure the angular positions corresponding to the joint angles of arm high resolution potentiometers are used.

  7. Study on the collision detection method between the 2-arm drill rig arms and the roadway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuxiang ZHANG

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve the automation drilling of the improved CMJ2-27 drill, kinematic analysis of the drill rig is conducted aiming the collision between the arms and the roadway during the operation process. By suing the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H method, the transformation matrix of coordinate system is obtained, then the coordinates of each joint and the ends are derived. The collision detection approach between the arm and the roadway is given. Theoretical calculation and the motion simulation experiment are conducted by using the detection method for a 88-hole drilling program for a mine. The research results show that the method is feasible and has the characteristics of simple procedures and high efficiency.

  8. A series of 2D metal-quinolone complexes: Syntheses, structures, and physical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jiang-Hong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Xiao, Dong-Rong, E-mail: xiaodr98@yahoo.com.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Chen, Hai-Yan; Sun, Dian-Zhen; Yan, Shi-Wei; Wang, Xin; Ye, Zhong-Li [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Luo, Qun-Li, E-mail: qlluo@swu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Wang, En-Bo, E-mail: wangeb889@nenu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalate Science of Ministry of Education, Department of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)

    2013-02-15

    Six novel 2D metal-quinolone complexes, namely [Cd(cfH)(bpdc)]{center_dot}H{sub 2}O (1), [M(norfH)(bpdc)]{center_dot}H{sub 2}O (M=Cd (2) and Mn (3)), [Mn{sub 2}(cfH)(odpa)(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]{center_dot}0.5H{sub 2}O (4), [Co{sub 2}(norfH)(bpta)({mu}{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{center_dot}H{sub 2}O (5) and [Co{sub 3}(saraH){sub 2}(Hbpta){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}]{center_dot}9H{sub 2}O (6) (cfH=ciprofloxacin, norfH=norfloxacin, saraH=sarafloxacin, bpdc=4,4 Prime -biphenyldicarboxylate, odpa=4,4 Prime -oxydiphthalate, bpta=3,3 Prime ,4,4 Prime -biphenyltetracarboxylate) have been synthesized and characterized. Compounds 1-3 consist of 2D arm-shaped layers based on the 1D {l_brace}M(COO){r_brace}{sub n}{sup n+} chains. Compounds 4 and 5 display 2D structures based on tetranuclear manganese or cobalt clusters with (3,6)-connected kgd topology. Compound 6 exhibits a 2D bilayer structure, which represents the first example of metal-quinolone complexes with 2D bilayer structure. By inspection of the structures of 1-6, it is believed that the long aromatic polycarboxylate ligands are important for the formation of 2D metal-quinolone complexes. The magnetic properties of compounds 3-6 was studied, indicating the existence of antiferromagnetic interactions. Furthermore, the luminescent properties of compounds 1-2 are discussed. - Graphical abstract: Six novel 2D metal-quinolone complexes have been prepared by self-assemblies of the quinolones and metal salts in the presence of long aromatic polycarboxylates. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compounds 1-3 consist of novel 2D arm-shaped layers based on the 1D {l_brace}M(COO){r_brace}{sub n}{sup n+} chains. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compounds 4 and 5 are two novel 2D layers based on tetranuclear Mn or Co clusters with kgd topology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compound 6 is the first example of metal-quinolone complexes with 2D bilayer structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compounds 1-6 represent six unusual examples of 2D metal-quinolone complexes.

  9. The Filled Arm Fizeau Telescope (FFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synnott, S. P.

    1991-01-01

    Attention is given to the design of a Mills Cross imaging interferometer in which the arms are fully filled with mirror segments of a Ritchey-Chretien primary and which has sensitivity to 27th magnitude per pixel and resolution a factor of 10 greater than Hubble. The optical design, structural configuration, thermal disturbances, and vibration, material, control, and metrology issues, as well as scientific capabilities are discussed, and technology needs are identified. The technologies under consideration are similar to those required for the development of the other imaging interferometers that have been proposed over the past decade. A comparison of the imaging capabilities of a 30-m diameter FFT, an 8-m telescope with a collecting area equal to that of the FFT, and the HST is presented.

  10. Phoenix Robotic Arm's Workspace After 90 Sols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    During the first 90 Martian days, or sols, after its May 25, 2008, landing on an arctic plain of Mars, NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander dug several trenches in the workspace reachable with the lander's robotic arm. The lander's Surface Stereo Imager camera recorded this view of the workspace on Sol 90, early afternoon local Mars time (overnight Aug. 25 to Aug. 26, 2008). The shadow of the the camera itself, atop its mast, is just left of the center of the image and roughly a third of a meter (one foot) wide. The workspace is on the north side of the lander. The trench just to the right of center is called 'Neverland.' The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Martian Dust Collected by Phoenix's Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image from NASA's Phoenix Lander's Optical Microscope shows particles of Martian dust lying on the microscope's silicon substrate. The Robotic Arm sprinkled a sample of the soil from the Snow White trench onto the microscope on July 2, 2008, the 38th Martian day, or sol, of the mission after landing. Subsequently, the Atomic Force Microscope, or AFM, zoomed in one of the fine particles, creating the first-ever image of a particle of Mars' ubiquitous fine dust, the most highly magnified image ever seen from another world. The Atomic Force Microscope was developed by a Swiss-led consortium in collaboration with Imperial College London. The AFM is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer instrument. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Wireless Control & Monitoring of Robotic Arm (SWORDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Kadu,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Robot warriors have already seen action in Iraq, and the US Army plans to replace one-third of its armored vehicles and weapons with robots by 2015. These killing machines may one day come equipped with an artificial conscience even to the extent of disobeying immoral orders. The US Army's latest recruits are 1 meter (about 3 feet tall, wear desert camouflage and are armed with black M249 machine guns. They also move on caterpillar tracks and thanks to five camera eyes can even see in the dark. The fearless fighters are three robot soldiers who, unnoticed by the general public, were deployed in Iraq in mid-June, charged with hunting down insurgents. As if guided by an unseen hand, they hone in on their targets and fire at them with their machine guns.

  13. DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF TORQUE ARM BRACKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj D. Shende

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this project is to investigate how a crack propagates and grows in a typical direction of Torque arm bracket. The finite element program and the crack growth program will be used to simulate crack growth and to compute the stresses and the stress-intensity factor. Aspecific bracket design was selected and a corner crack was investigated. This configuration was used since the engineers often detect this type of crack in brackets. The stress near the crack tip is compared against the yield strength of the material. The Mode I stress-intensity factor is compared against the material’s fracture toughness. The results show that the bracket can tolerate small cracks in the structure. The fatigue strength of the structure is recommended to be assessed in the future.

  14. 'Great power' intervention in African armed conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2015-01-01

    This paper asks why the United States (US), China and the European Union (EU) have intervened in a number of armed conflicts in Africa in the twenty-first century. Scrutiny and comparison of the motivations and interests of the three non-African actors in intervening in African crises are assumed to contribute to understanding the changing geopolitical environment and the current conditions for conflict management in Africa. The focus is not on trade and aid. The paper launches the hypothesis that the explanations why the US, China and the EU have intervened are basically identical. In spite of different evaluations of the specific crisis situations, the interventions have been about taking care of the ‘national interest’ of each of the three non-African actors. National interest is defined as either ‘hard core’ (security) or ‘core’ concerns (security and economic wealth).

  15. Exoskeleton to Rehabilitate Paralyzed Arm Based on Patient Healthy Arm Guidance

    OpenAIRE

    Jiajia Hu; Xinmin Xu; Weidong Liu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the stroke rehabilitation by robotic device and a novel exoskeleton, which is based on the patient's self-guided control will be presented. It is realized by moving the patient’s own healthy arm in order to provide the movement trajectories for the exoskeleton. The main advantage of the exoskeleton is its flexibility and adaptivity for individual patient’s rehabilitation training. A new model predictive control (MPC) algorithm for handling coupling and nonlinearity is...

  16. Object Sorting System Using Robotic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VISHNU R.KALE, V.A.KULKARNI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a smart approach for a real time inspection and selection of objects in continuous flow. Image processing in today’s world grabs massive attentions as it leads to possibilities of broaden application in many fields of high technology. The real challenge is how to improve existing sorting system in the modular processing system which consists of four integrated stations of identification, processing, selection and sorting with a new image processing feature. Existing sorting method uses a set of inductive, capacitive and optical sensors do differentiate object color. This paper presents a mechatronics color sorting system solution with the application of image processing. Image processing procedure senses the objects in an image captured in real-time by a webcam and then identifies color and information out of it. This information is processed by image processing for pick-and-place mechanism. The sorting process is based on a 2 phase operative methodology defined 1 a self-learning step where the apparatus learns to identify objects ; 2 an operative selection process where objects are detected, classified using a decisional algorithm and selected in real time. The Project deals with an automated material handling system. It aims in classifying the colored objects by colour, size, which are coming on the conveyor by picking and placing the objects in its respective pre-programmed place. Thereby eliminating the monotonous work done by human, achieving accuracy and speed in the work. The project involve sensors that senses the object’s colour, size and sends the signal to the microcontroller. The microcontroller sends signal to circuit which drives the various motors of the robotic arm to grip the object and place it in the specified location. Based upon the detection, the robotic arm moves to the specified location, releases the object and comes back to the original position [1] [2].

  17. Nuclear arms race gearing for speedup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To probe the rationale behind the big buildup in US strategic arms that is presaged by the current enhanced R and D effort - and to explore the broader, more long-term role of science and technology in the nuclear arms race - C and EN in recent months spoke with a host of experts both within and outside the defense establishment. It is a topic of incredible complexity, high controversy, and of the highest stakes imaginable - the survival of civilization. This buildup will include over the next decade, apart from the MX, a new, highly accurate, submarine-launched ballistic missile and a fleet of very large submarines to carry it; an air-launched cruise missile; a new long-range bomber; a new intermediate-range missile and a new ground-launched cruise missile, both capable of hitting targets in the Soviet Union from proposed bases in Western Europe; and a new sea-launched cruise missile that can be fired from conventional submarines or other naval vessels. To spokesmen for, and members of, the defense establishment the US buildup is prudent, even minimal. According to them, it is needed to keep the US at least on a par with the growth of Soviet strategic might which was very substantial in the 1970's and which will carry over into the 1980's with further major gains. It also is needed to keep the lid on Soviet expansionism; and it is the best way to prevent a nuclear war. To critics, the proposed buildup is the height of lunacy. According to them, the US strategic arsenal is more than adequate today. And it can continue to serve its only legitimate purpose - to deter nuclear war, no matter how much the Soviets may choose to build up their nuclear forces - with a much-more-modest modernization program

  18. Sprinkle Test by Phoenix's Robotic Arm (Movie)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander used its Robotic Arm during the mission's 15th Martian day since landing (June 9, 2008) to test a 'sprinkle' method for delivering small samples of soil to instruments on the lander deck. This sequence of four images from the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager covers a period of 20 minutes from beginning to end of the activity. In the single delivery of a soil sample to a Phoenix instrument prior to this test, the arm brought the scooped up soil over the instrument's opened door and turned over the scoop to release the soil. The sprinkle technique, by contrast, holds the scoop at a steady angle and vibrates the scoop by running the motorized rasp located beneath the scoop. This gently jostles some material out of the scoop to the target below. For this test, the target was near the upper end the cover of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer instrument suite, or MECA. The cover is 20 centimeters (7.9 inches) across. The scoop is about 8.5 centimeters (3.3 inches) across. Based on the test's success in delivering a small quantity and fine-size particles, the Phoenix team plans to use the sprinkle method for delivering samples to MECA and to the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA. The next planned delivery is to MECA's Optical Microscope, via the port in the MECA cover visible at the bottom of these images. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Testbed model and data assimilation for ARM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this contract are to further develop and test the ALFA (AER Local Forecast and Assimilation) model originally designed at AER for local weather prediction and apply it to three distinct but related purposes in connection with the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program: (a) to provide a testbed that simulates a global climate model in order to facilitate the development and testing of new cloud parametrizations and radiation models; (b) to assimilate the ARM data continuously at the scale of a climate model, using the adjoint method, thus providing the initial conditions and verification data for testing parameumtions; (c) to study the sensitivity of a radiation scheme to cloud parameters, again using the adjoint method, thus demonstrating the usefulness of the testbed model. The data assimilation will use a variational technique that minimizes the difference between the model results and the observation during the analysis period. The adjoint model is used to compute the gradient of a measure of the model errors with respect to nudging terms that are added to the equations to force the model output closer to the data. The radiation scheme that will be included in the basic ALFA model makes use of a gen two-stream approximation, and is designed for vertically inhonogeneous, multiple-scattering atmospheres. The sensitivity of this model to the definition of cloud parameters will be studied. The adjoint technique will also be used to compute the sensitivities. This project is designed to provide the Science Team members with the appropriate tools and modeling environment for proper testing and tuning of new radiation models and cloud parametrization schemes

  20. Kootenay Lake Fertilization Experiment, Year 15 (North Arm) and Year 3 (South Arm) (2006) Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, E.U.; Sebastian, D.; Andrusak, G.F. [Fish and Wildlife Science and Allocation, Ministry of Environment, Province of British Columbia

    2009-07-01

    This report summarizes results from the fifteenth year (2006) of nutrient additions to the North Arm of Kootenay Lake and three years of nutrient additions to the South Arm. Experimental fertilization of the lake has been conducted using an adaptive management approach in an effort to restore lake productivity lost as a result of nutrient uptake in upstream reservoirs. The primary objective of the experiment is to restore kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations, which are the main food source for Gerrard rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). The quantity of agricultural grade liquid fertilizer (10-34-0, ammonium polyphosphate and 28-0-0, urea ammonium nitrate) added to the North Arm in 2006 was 44.7 tonnes of P and 248.4 tonnes of N. The total fertilizer load added to the South Arm was 257 tonnes of nitrogen; no P was added. Kootenay Lake has an area of 395 km{sup 2}, a maximum depth of 150 m, a mean depth of 94 m, and a water renewal time of approximately two years. Kootenay Lake is a monomictic lake, generally mixing from late fall to early spring and stratifying during the summer. Surface water temperatures generally exceed 20 C for only a few weeks in July. Results of oxygen profiles were similar to previous years with the lake being well oxygenated from the surface to the bottom depths at all stations. Similar to past years, Secchi disc measurements at all stations in 2006 indicate a typical seasonal pattern of decreasing depths associated with the spring phytoplankton bloom, followed by increasing depths as the bloom gradually decreases by the late summer and fall. Total phosphorus (TP) ranged from 2-7 {micro}g/L and tended to decrease as summer advanced. Over the sampling season dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations decreased, with the decline corresponding to nitrate (the dominant component of DIN) being utilized by phytoplankton during summer stratification. Owing to the importance of epilimnetic nitrate that is required for optimal phytoplankton growth discrete depth water sampling occurred in 2006 to measure more accurately changes in the nitrate concentrations. As expected there was a seasonal decline in nitrate concentrations, thus supporting the strategy of increasing the nitrogen loading in both arms. These in-season changes emphasize the need for an adaptive management approach to ensure the nitrogen to phosphorus (N:P) ratio does not decrease below 15:1 (weight:weight) during the fertilizer application period. Phytoplankton composition determined from the integrated samples (0-20m) was dominated by diatoms, followed by cryptophytes and chrysophytes. The contribution of cryptophytes to total biomass was higher in 2006 than in 2005. Cryptophytes, considered being edible biomass for zooplankton and Daphnia spp., increased in 2006. Phytoplankton in the discrete depth samples (2, 5, 10, 15 and 20m) demonstrated a clear north to south gradient in average phytoplankton density and biomass among the three stations sampled, with highest values at the North Arm station (KLF 2) and lowest values in the most southern station in the South Arm (KLF 7). Populations were dominated by flagellates at all stations and depths in June and July, then dominated by diatoms in August and September in the North and South arms of the lake. There were no large bluegreen (cyanobacteria) populations in either arm of the lake in 2006. Seasonal average zooplankton abundance and biomass in both the main body of the lake and in the West Arm increased in 2006 compared to 2005. Zooplankton density was numerically dominated by copepods and biomass was dominated by Daphnia spp. The annual average mysid biomass data at deep stations indicated that the North Arm of Kootenay Lake was more productive than the South Arm in 2006. Mysid densities increased through the summer and declined in the winter; mean whole lake values remain within prefertilization densities. Kokanee escapement to Meadow Creek declined in 2006 to approximately 400,000 spawners. The Lardeau River escapement also declined wit