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Sample records for synthesized pendant armed

  1. Antibacterial, DNA interaction and cytotoxic activities of pendant-armed polyamine macrocyclic dinuclear nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthi, P.; Haleel, A.; Srinivasan, P.; Prabhu, D.; Arulvasu, C.; Kalilur Rahiman, A.

    2014-08-01

    A series of dinuclear nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes (1-6) of hexaaza macrocycles of 2,6-diformyl-4-methylphenol with three different benzoyl pendant-arms, 2,2?-benzoyliminodi(ethylamine) trihydrochloride (L), 2,2?-4-nitrobenzoyliminodi(ethylamine) trihydrochloride (L?) and 2,2?-3,5-dinitrobenzoyliminodi(ethylamine) trihydrochloride (L?) have been synthesized and characterized by spectral methods. The electrochemical studies of these complexes depict two irreversible one electron reduction processes around E1pc = -0.62 to -0.76 V and E2pc = -1.21 to -1.31, and nickel(II) complexes (1-3) exhibit two irreversible one electron oxidation processes around E1pa = 1.08 to 1.14 V and E2pa = 1.71 to 1.74 V. The room temperature magnetic moment values (?eff, 1.52-1.54 BM) indicate the presence of an antiferromagnetic interaction in the binuclear copper(II) complexes (4-6) which is also observed from the broad ESR spectra with a g value of 2.14-2.15. The synthesized complexes (1-6) were screened for their antibacterial activity. The results of DNA interaction studies indicate that the dinuclear complexes can bind to calf thymus DNA by intercalative mode and display efficient cleavage of plasmid DNA. Further, the cytotoxic activity of complexes 2, 5 and 6 on human liver adenocarcinoma (HepG2) cell line has been examined. Nuclear-chromatin cleavage has also been observed with PI staining and comet assays.

  2. Synthesis, characterization, biological evaluation and docking studies of macrocyclic binuclear manganese(II) complexes containing 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl pendant arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthi, P.; Shobana, S.; Srinivasan, P.; Mitu, L.; Kalilur Rahiman, A.

    2015-05-01

    A series of bis(phenoxo) bridged binuclear manganese(II) complexes of the type [Mn2L1-3](ClO4)2 (1-3) containing 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl pendant-arms have been synthesized by cyclocondensation of 2,6-diformyl-4-R-phenols (where R = sbnd CH3, sbnd C(CH3)3 or sbnd Br) with 2,2?-3,5-dinitrobenzoyliminodi(ethylamine) trihydrochloride in the presence of manganese(II) perchlorate. The IR spectra of complexes indicate the presence of uncoordinated perchlorate anions. The UV-Vis spectra of complexes suggest the distorted octahedral geometry around manganese(II) nuclei. The EPR spectra of Mn(II) complexes show a broad signal with g value 2.03-2.04, which is characteristic for octahedral high spin Mn2+ complex. The observed room temperature magnetic moment values of the Mn(II) complexes (5.60-5.62 B.M.) are less than the normal value (5.92 B.M.), indicating weak antiferromagnetic coupling interaction between the two metal ions. Electrochemical studies of the complexes show two distinct quasi-reversible one electron transfer processes in the cathodic (E1pc = -0.73 to -0.76 V, E2pc = -1.30 to -1.36 V), and anodic (E1pa = 1.02-1.11 V, E2pa = 1.32-1.79 V) potential regions. Antibacterial efficacy of complexes have been screened against four Gram (-ve) and two Gram (+ve) bacterial strains. The DNA interaction studies suggest that these complexes bind with CT-DNA by intercalation, giving the binding affinity in the order 1 > 2 > 3. All the complexes display significant cleavage activity against circular plasmid pBR322 DNA. Docking simulation was performed to insert complexes into the crystal structure of EGFR tyrosine kinase and B-DNA at active site to determine the probable binding mode.

  3. Mn2+ complexes with 12-membered pyridine based macrocycles bearing carboxylate or phosphonate pendant arm: crystallographic, thermodynamic, kinetic, redox, and 1H/17O relaxation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drahoš, Bohuslav; Kotek, Jan; Císa?ová, Ivana; Hermann, Petr; Helm, Lothar; Lukeš, Ivan; Tóth, Éva

    2011-12-19

    Mn(2+) complexes represent an alternative to Gd(3+) chelates which are widely used contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. In this perspective, we investigated the Mn(2+) complexes of two 12-membered, pyridine-containing macrocyclic ligands bearing one pendant arm with a carboxylic acid (HL(1), 6-carboxymethyl-3,6,9,15-tetraazabicyclo[9.3.1] pentadeca-1(15),11,13-triene) or a phosphonic acid function (H(2)L(2), 6-dihydroxyphosphorylmethyl-3,6,9,15-tetraazabicyclo[9.3.1]pentadeca-1(15),11,13-triene). Both ligands were synthesized using nosyl or tosyl amino-protecting groups (starting from diethylenetriamine or tosylaziridine). The X-ray crystal structures confirmed a coordination number of 6 for Mn(2+) in their complexes. In aqueous solution, these pentadentate ligands allow one free coordination site for a water molecule. Potentiometric titration data indicated a higher basicity for H(2)L(2) than that for HL(1), related to the electron-donating effect of the negatively charged phosphonate group. According to the protonation sequence determined by (1)H and (31)P pH-NMR titrations, the first two protons are attached to macrocyclic amino groups whereas the subsequent protonation steps occur on the pendant arm. Both ligands form thermodynamically stable complexes with Mn(2+), with full complexation at physiological pH and 1:1 metal to ligand ratio. The kinetic inertness was studied via reaction with excess of Zn(2+) under various pHs. The dissociation of MnL(2) is instantaneous (at pH 6). For MnL(1), the dissociation is very fast (k(obs) = 1-12 × 10(3) s(-1)), much faster than that for MnDOTA, MnNOTA, or the Mn(2+) complex of the 15-membered analogue. It proceeds exclusively via the dissociation of the monoprotonated complex, without any influence of Zn(2+). In aqueous solution, both complexes are air-sensitive leading to Mn(3+) species, as evidenced by UV-vis and (1)H NMRD measurements and X-ray crystallography. Cyclic voltammetry gave low oxidation peak potentials (E(ox) = 0.73 V for MnL(1) and E(ox) = 0.68 V for MnL(2)), in accordance with air-oxidation. The parameters governing the relaxivity of the Mn(2+) complexes were determined from variable-temperature (17)O NMR and (1)H NMRD data. The water exchange is extremely fast, k(ex) = 3.03 and 1.77 × 10(9) s(-1) for MnL(1) and MnL(2), respectively. Variable-pressure (17)O NMR measurements have been performed to assess the water exchange mechanism on MnL(1) and MnL(2) as well as on other Mn(2+) complexes. The negative activation volumes for both MnL(1) and MnL(2) complexes confirmed an associative mechanism of the water exchange as expected for a hexacoordinated Mn(2+) ion. The hydration number of q = 1 was confirmed for both complexes by (17)O chemical shifts. A relaxometric titration with phosphate, carbonate or citrate excluded the replacement of the coordinated water molecule by these small endogenous anions. PMID:22092039

  4. A macrocyclic tetraamine bearing four phenol groups: a new class of heptadentate ligands to provide an oxygen-sensitive luminescent Tb(iii) complex with an extendable phenol pendant arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Hidetaka; Nonaka, Kyoshiro; Goto, Takahiro; Seo, Juncheol; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Ogo, Seiji

    2015-06-28

    This paper presents a 1,4,7,10-teraazacyclododecane-based tetrakis-phenol as a protonated ligand precursor and its oxygen-sensitive luminescent terbium(iii) complex with an extendable phenol pendant arm (? = 0.91 under N2, ? = 0.031 under air), in which the potentially N4O4-octadentate ligand unprecedentedly coordinates to the Tb(3+) ion in a N4O3-heptadentate fashion. PMID:25996446

  5. Uranyl complexes formed with a para-t-butylcalix[4]arene bearing phosphinoyl pendant arms on the lower rim. Solid and solution studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, F. de M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac (Mexico). Dept. de Quimica; Varbanov, S. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. of Organic Chemistry with Center of Phytochemistry; Buenzli, J.C.G. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) (Switzerland). Inst. of Chemical Sciences and Engineering; Rivas-Silva, J.F.; Ocana-Bribiesca, M.A. [Instituto de Fisica de la BUAP, Puebla (Mexico); Cortes-Jacome, M.A.; Toledo-Antonio, J.A. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo/Programa de Ingenieria Molecular (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    The current interest in functionalized calixarenes with phosphorylated pendant arms resides in their coordination ability towards f elements and capability towards actinide/rare earth separation. Uranyl cation forms 1:1 and 1:2 (M:L) complexes with a tetra-phosphinoylated p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene, B{sub 4}bL{sup 4}: UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(B{sub 4}bL{sup 4}){sub n} . xH{sub 2}O (n = 1, x = 2, 1; n = 2, x = 6, 2). Spectroscopic data point to the inner coordination sphere of 1 containing one monodentate nitrate anion, one water molecule and the four phosphinoylated arms bound to UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} while in 2, uranyl is only coordinated to calixarene ligands. In both cases the U(VI) ion is 8-coordinate. Uranyl complexes display enhanced metal-centred luminescence due to energy transfer from the calixarene ligands; the luminescence decays are bi-exponential with associated lifetimes in the ranges 220 {mu}s < {tau}{sub s} < 250 {mu}s and 630 {mu}s < {tau}{sub L} < 640 {mu}s, pointing to the presence of two species with differently coordinated calixarene, as substantiated by a XPS study of U(4f{sub 5/2,7/2}), O(1s) and P(2p) levels on solid state samples. The extraction study of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} cation and trivalent rare-earth (Y, La, Eu) ions from acidic nitrate media by B{sub 4}bL{sup 4} in chloroform shows the uranyl cation being much more extracted than rare earths. (orig.)

  6. X-ray structural study of lanthanide complexes with a p- tert-butylthiacalix[4]arene bearing phosphoryl pendant arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qian-Ling; Yuan, Da-Qiang; Ma, Shu-Lan; Liu, Ying-Chun; Zhu, Wen-Xiang

    2005-10-01

    A new lower-rim substituted thiacalix[4]arene, 5,11,17,23-tetra- tert-butyl-25,26,27,28-tetrakis(diphenylphosphinoylmethoxy) thiacalix[4]arene ( L) has been synthesized and structurally characterized as an adduct L·0.5MeOH·1.5H 2O, monoclinic, space group P2 1/n . The ligand adopts a cone conformation. Trivalent lanthanide ion complexes of this ligand have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and IR spectra. The crystal structures of La 3+ and Nd 3+ complexes were determined by X-ray diffraction method. They are isostructural and belong to tetragonal system, I4 1/acd space group. In each complex, the calixarene retains the cone conformation, the metal ion is nine-coordinated to four oxygen atoms from phosphine oxide substituents, four oxygen atoms from two bidentate nitrate anions and one oxygen atom from a hydroxyl ion. The coordination polyhedron is a single-capped square antiprism. The complex assembles to a novel infinitely 1D helical structure through ?-? stacking, and further crosses each other forming a nanometer scale chessboard-like pore structure along c direction.

  7. Cyclam kappa4 to kappa3 ligand denticity change upon mono-n-substitution with a carboxypropyl pendant arm in a ruthenium nitrosyl complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doro, Fábio G; Castellano, Eduardo E; Moraes, Luiz A B; Eberlin, Marcos N; Tfouni, Elia

    2008-05-19

    The complex fac-[Ru(NO)Cl2(kappa(3)N(4),N(8),N(11)(1-carboxypropyl)cyclam)]Cl.H2O (1-carboxypropyl)cyclam=3-(1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecan-1-yl)propionic acid) was prepared in a one pot reaction by mixing equimolar amounts of RuNOCl 3 and (1-carboxypropyl)cyclam and was characterized by X-ray crystallography, electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS), elemental analysis, NMR, and electronic and vibrational (IR) spectroscopies. fac-[Ru(NO)Cl 2(kappa(3)N(4),N(8),N(11)(1-carboxypropyl)cyclam)]Cl.H2O crystallizes in the triclinic, space group P1, No. 2, with unit cell parameters of a=8.501(1) A, b=9.157(1) A, c=14.200(1) A, alpha=72.564(5) degrees , beta=82.512(5) degrees , gamma=80.308(5) degrees , and Z=2. The Ru-N interatomic distance and bond angle in the [Ru-NO] unit are 1.739(2) A and 167.7(2) degrees , respectively. ESI-MS/MS shows characteristic dissociation chemistry that initiates by HCl or NO loss. The IR spectrum displays a nu(NO) at 1881 cm(-1) indicating a nitrosonium character. The electronic spectrum shows absorptions bands at 264 nm (log epsilon=3.27), 404 nm (log epsilon=2.53), and 532 nm (log epsilon=1.88). (1)H and (13)C NMR are in agreement with the proposed molecular structure, which shows a very singular architecture where the cyclam ring N (with the carboxypropyl pendant arm) is not coordinated to the ruthenium resulting in a kappa(3) instead of the expected kappa(4) denticity. PMID:18399626

  8. Synthesis and characterization of Ni(II, Cu(II and Co(III complexes with polyamine-containing macrocycles bearing an aminoethyl pendant arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. SIDDIQI

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Reaction of [M(ppn2]X2 (where M = Cu(II, Ni(II, Co(II and ppn = 1,3-diaminopropane with formaldehyde and ethylenediamine in methanol results in the ready formation of a 16-membered macrocyclic complex. The complexes were characterized by elemental anlysis, IR, EPR, electronic spectral data, magnetic moments and conductance measurements. The Cu(II, Ni(II and Co(III complexes are coordinated axially with both pendant groups of the hexadentate macrocycle. These pendant donors are attached to the macrocycle by a carbon chain. The electrical conductivities of the Cu(II and Ni(II chelates indicated them to be 1:2 electrolytes whilst those of Co(III is a 1:3 electrolyte in DMSO. The EPR spectrum of the copper complex exhibited G at 3.66, which indicates a considerable exchange interaction in the complex. Spectroscopic evidence suggests that in all of the complexes the metal ion is in an octahedral environment.

  9. Reduction of N-Cyanomethyl Groups on a Macrocyclic Nickel(II) Complex Using Sodium Borohydride: Synthesis of a Complex Bearing Two N-(2-Aminoethyl) Pendant Arms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stepwise protonation constants for [NiL2]2+ were determined by a spectrophotometric titration.17 The approximate pKa1 value (ca. 3.6) was found to be somewhat larger than the pKa2 value (ca. 2.4), as usual. The low pKa1 and pKa2 values may be result from the relatively strong interactions between the functional groups and the central metal of the complex. NaBH4 is an efficient reagent for the reduction of [NiL1]2+ in the presence of methanol, even though the N-CH2CN groups are not involved in coordination. The stepwise protonation constants for [NiL2]2+ indicate that the pendant amino groups-central metal interactions are relatively strong

  10. Facilitated photoreduction of ruthenium bis(4'-methylterpyridine) pendant myoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A synthetic heme bearing ruthenium bis(terpyridine) through a covalent bond was successfully prepared. Ruthenium bis(terpyridine) pendant myoglobin, which was synthesized by a conventional cofactor reconstitution method, was efficiently activated through a photoinduced electron-transfer reaction from the ruthenium complex to the heme center. No reaction occurred in the corresponding intermolecular reaction system. (author)

  11. Polycationic biocides with pendant active groups: molecular weight dependence of antibacterial activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, T.; Hirayama, H.; Yamaguchi, H.; Tazuke, S; Watanabe, M.

    1986-01-01

    Two types of polycations with pendant active groups were synthesized: one is polymethacrylate containing pendant biguanide units, and the other is poly(vinylbenzyl ammonium chloride). The two polycations were found to exhibit higher bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus than the corresponding monomers. Fractionation of the polycations was successfully performed on gel filtration chromatography, and examination of the antibacterial activity against S. aureus of the well-character...

  12. Biodegradable polyesters containing ibuprofen and naproxen as pendant groups

    OpenAIRE

    Rosario-Meléndez, Roselin; Yu, Weiling; UHRICH, KATHRYN E.

    2013-01-01

    Controlled release of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen and naproxen could be beneficial for the treatment of inflammatory diseases while reducing the side effects resulting from their continuous use. Novel biodegradable polyesters solely comprised of biocompatible components (e.g., tartaric acid, 1,8-octanediol, and ibuprofen or naproxen as pendant groups) have been synthesized using tin (II) 2-ethylhexanoate as catalyst at 130 °C and subsequently characterized to deter...

  13. Nonlinear oscillations of pendant drops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whereas oscillations of free drops have been scrutinized for over a century, oscillations of supported (pendant or sessile) drops have only received limited attention to date. Here, the focus is on the axisymmetric, free oscillations of arbitrary amplitude of a viscous liquid drop of fixed volume V that is pendant from a solid rod of radius R and is surrounded by a dynamically inactive ambient gas. This nonlinear free boundary problem is solved by a method of lines using Galerkin/finite element analysis for discretization in space and an implicit, adaptive finite difference technique for discretization in time. The dynamics of such nonlinear oscillations are governed by four dimensionless groups: (1) a Reynolds number Re, (2) a gravitational Bond number G, (3) dimensionless drop volume V/R3 or some other measure of drop size, and (4) a measure of initial drop deformation a/b. The change in frequency ?? of pendant drops with increasing initial deformation is drop size dependent. As the average linear size of pendant drops characterized by V1/3 becomes large compared to the rod radius, V1/3/R much-gt 1, ?? falls as a/b rises, in accordance with results for free drops. The dynamics of very small drops, i.e., ones for which V1/3/R much-lt 1, however, are profoundly affected by the presence of the solid rod. For such small drops, ?? rises as a/b rises, a remarkable fact. The results show that for drops of a given size, the that for drops of a given size, the frequency is insignificantly affected by viscosity over a wide of range of Reynolds numbers. However, when Re falls below a critical value, the nature of drop motion changes from underdamped oscillations to an aperiodic return to the rest state (Abstract Truncated)

  14. ADSORPTION OF CELLOBIOSE-PENDANT POLYMERS TO A CELLULOSE MATRIX DETERMINED BY QUARTZ CRYSTAL MICROBALANCE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Shingo Yokota; Takefumi Ohta; Takuya Kitaoka; Hiroyuki Wariishi

    2009-01-01

    Cellobiose-pendant polymers were synthesized by radical polymerization and their affinity for a cellulose matrix was investigated by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). A 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethylureido cellobiose (MOU-Cel) macromer was synthesized by coupling cellobiosylamine with 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl isocyanate followed by polymerization in an aqueous radical reaction system. The interaction of the resulting poly(MOU-Cel) with a pure cellulose matrix in water was evaluated by QCM analys...

  15. Synthesis and ATRP of novel fluorinated aromatic monomer with pendant sulfonate group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Jankova Atanasova, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Novel, fluorinated monomer with pendant sulfonate group was synthesized utilizing a two-step derivatization of 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorostyrene (FS). The first step was a nucleophilic substitution of the fluorine atom in para position by hydroxyl group followed by sulfopropylation. The monomer was polymerized under aqueous ATRP conditions to yield phenyl-fluorinated aromatic homopolymer bearing pendant sulfonates on each repeating unit. Furthermore, this polymer was used as macroinitiator for the ATRP of poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate. The polymers were characterized by 1H NMR, SEC and FTIR analyses. Their thermal properties were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry and thermal gravimetric analyses.

  16. New polymeric biocides: synthesis and antibacterial activities of polycations with pendant biguanide groups.

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, T.; Yamaguchi, H.; Tazuke, S

    1984-01-01

    Acrylate monomers with pendant biguanide groups were successfully synthesized, and their homopolymers and copolymers were prepared with acrylamide. These cationic disinfectants of polymeric forms exhibited high antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria, whereas they were less active against gram-negative bacteria. It was found that the activity of the polymeric disinfectants was much higher than that of the monomeric species, and the difference in activity between the polymers and...

  17. Synthesis and Reactivity of Tripodal Complexes Containing Pendant Bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blacquiere, Johanna M.; Pegis, Michael L.; Raugei, Simone; Kaminsky, Werner; Forget, Amelie; Cook, Sarah; Taguchi, Taketo; Borovik, Andrew S.; Mayer, James M.

    2014-09-02

    The synthesis of a new tripodal ligand family is reported, with tertiary-amine groups in the second-coordination sphere. The ligands are tris(amido)amine derivatives, with the pendant amines attached via a peptide coupling strategy. They were designed to be used in new catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), in which the pendant acid/base group could improve catalyst performance. Two members of the new ligand family were each metallated with Co(II) and Zn(II) to afford trigonal monopyramidal complexes. Reaction of the cobalt complexes, [Co(L)]-, with dioxygen reversibly generates a small amount of a Co(III)-superoxo species, which was characterized by EPR. Protonation of the zinc complex Zn[N{CH2CH2NC(O)CH2N(CH2Ph)2}3)-– ([Zn(TNBn)]-) with one equivalent of acid occurs with displacement and dissociation of an amide ligand. Addition of excess acid to the any of the complexes [M(L)]- results in complete proteolysis and formation of the ligands H3L. This decomposition limits the use of these complexes as catalysts for the ORR. An alternative ligand with two pyridyl arms was also prepared but could not be metallated. These studies highlight the importance of stability of the primary-coordination sphere of ORR electrocatalysts to both oxidative and acidic conditions. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  18. Fluorescent macrocyclic probes with pendant functional groups as markers of acidic organelles within live cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhavane, Prashant D; Izquierdo, M Ángeles; Lutters, Dennis; Burguete, M Isabel; Marín, María J; Russell, David A; Galindo, Francisco; Luis, Santiago V

    2014-02-01

    A new family of acidity sensitive fluorescent macrocycles has been synthesized and fully characterized. Their photophysical properties including emission quantum yield and fluorescence lifetime have been determined. The acid-base properties of the new molecules can be tuned by the incorporation of pendant functional groups. The nature of such functional groups (carboxylic acid or ester) influences dramatically the pKa of the probes, two compounds of which exhibit low values. Preliminary intracellular studies using confocal microscopy together with emission spectra of the probes from the cellular environment have shown that the synthesized fluorescent macrocycles mark the acidic organelles of RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. PMID:24317276

  19. A novel poly(aryl ether) containing azobenzene chromophore and pendant oligoaniline: Synthesis and electrochromic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: This work describes a novel poly(aryl ether) functionalized with azobenzene chromophore and pendant oligoaniline, that exhibits a satisfied electrochromic properties with high contrast value, good coloration efficiency, moderate switching times and acceptable stability. - Abstract: A novel poly(aryl ether), containing pendant oligoaniline and azobenzene moieties (Azo-PAE-p-OA), was synthesized by nucleophilic polycondensation. The structures were confirmed spectroscopically via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier-transform infrared spectra (FTIR), morphological data was ascertained via X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the thermal stability was probed via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Due to the coexistence of oligoaniline and azobenzene groups, Azo-PAE-p-OA shows reversible electroactivity and expectable photoresponse to light irradiation, chemical redox and electrochemical modulation. The electrochromic performance of a Azo-PAE-p-OA film on indium tin oxide (ITO) was investigated by spectrochronoamperometry, and exhibited electrochromic properties with high contrast value, good coloration efficiency, moderate switching times, and acceptable stability.

  20. Breakup of a pendant magnetic drop

    OpenAIRE

    Havard, Nicolas; Risso, Frédéric; Tordjeman, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    We report experiments on a millimeter-sized pendant drop of ferrofluid in a horizontal magnetic field. The initial drop size is chosen just below the breakup threshold under gravity. As the magnetic field is increased, the drop tilts in order to align with the direction of the total volume force that is exerted on it: weight plus magnetic force. The breakup is controlled by a generalized Bond number based on this total force and on the radius of the neck of the drop. The evolution of drop sha...

  1. Ionic polymer cluster energetics: Computational analysis of pendant chain stiffness and charge imbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years there has been considerable study of the potential mechanisms underlying the electromechanical response of ionic-polymer-metal composites. The most recent models have been based on the response of the ion-containing clusters that are formed when the material is synthesized. Most of these efforts have employed assumptions of uniform ion distribution within spherical cluster shapes. This work investigates the impact of dispensing with these assumptions in order to better understand the parameters that impact cluster shape, size, and ion transport potential. A computational micromechanics model applying Monte Carlo methodology is employed to predict the equilibrium state of a single cluster of a solvated ionomeric polymer. For a constant solvated state, the model tracks the position of individual ions within a given cluster in response to ion-ion interaction, mechanical stiffness of the pendant chain, cluster surface energy, and external electric-field loading. Results suggest that cluster surface effects play a significant role in the equilibrium cluster state, including ion distribution; pendant chain stiffness also plays a role in ion distribution but to a lesser extent. Moreover, ion pairing is rarely complete even in cation-rich clusters; this in turn supports the supposition of the formation of anode and cathode boundary layers

  2. Optical Absorption and Emission of Fully Conjugated Heterocyclic Aromatic Rigid-rod Polymers Containing Sulfonated Pendants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shih Jung; Han, Shen-Rong

    2008-03-01

    Fully conjugated poly[(1,7-dihydrobenzo[1,2-d:4,5-d']diimidazole-2,6-diyl)-2-(2-sulfo)-p-phenylene] (sPBI) has a para-catenated rod-like backbone, which was synthesized and fabricated for mono-layer polymer light-emitting diode (PLED) showing a threshold voltage of 4.5 V and a green light (530 nm) emission. Its SO3H moiety attached to the p-phenyl ring improved electron delocalization along the backbone resulted in a red shift of absorption spectrum. sPBI was further derivatized for rigid-rod polyelectrolyte sPBI-PS(Li^+) by attaching propanesulfonated pendants to the heterocyclic moiety of intractable sPBI for water solubility. This fully conjugated polyelectrolyte sPBI-PS(Li^+) was fabricated for light-emitting electrochemical cells (PLECs) with a dopant of LiCF3SO3 or LiN(CF3SO2)2 for effects of propanesulfonated pendants and lithium dopants on lunimescent emission and on room-temperature conductivity. sPBI-PS(Li^+) PLECs doped with 0.41 and 1.01 wt.% of LiN(CF3SO2)2 showed higher green light (514 nm) electroluminescence emission intensity with a threshold voltage of 3.0 V and -4.6 V, respectively. Emission intensity of the sPBI-PS(Li^+) PLEC did not raise upon increasing the conductivity of the luminescent layer.

  3. Polythiophenes Comprising Conjugated Pendants for Polymer Solar Cells: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Ju Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Polythiophene (PT is one of the widely used donor materials for solution-processable polymer solar cells (PSCs. Much progress in PT-based PSCs can be attributed to the design of novel PTs exhibiting intense and broad visible absorption with high charge carrier mobility to increase short-circuit current density (Jsc, along with low-lying highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO levels to achieve large open circuit voltage (Voc values. A promising strategy to tailor the photophysical properties and energy levels via covalently attaching electron donor and acceptor pendants on PTs backbone has attracted much attention recently. The geometry, electron-donating capacity, and composition of conjugated pendants are supposed to be the crucial factors in adjusting the conformation, energy levels, and photovoltaic performance of PTs. This review will go over the most recent approaches that enable researchers to obtain in-depth information in the development of PTs comprising conjugated pendants for PSCs.

  4. Protonation Studies of a Tungsten Dinitrogen Complex Supported by a Diphosphine Ligand Containing a Pendant Amine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Charles J.; Egbert, Jonathan D.; Chen, Shentan; Helm, Monte L.; Bullock, R. Morris; Mock, Michael T.

    2014-05-12

    Treatment of trans-[W(N2)2(dppe)(PEtNMePEt)] (dppe = Ph2PCH2CH2PPh2; PEtNMePEt = Et2PCH2N(Me)CH2PEt2) with three equivalents of tetrafluoroboric acid (HBF4?Et2O) at -78 °C generated the seven-coordinate tungsten hydride trans-[W(N2)2(H)(dppe)(PEtNMePEt)][BF4]. Depending on the temperature of the reaction, protonation of a pendant amine is also observed, affording trans-[W(N2)2(H)(dppe)(PEtNMe(H)PEt)][BF4]2, with formation of the hydrazido complex, [W(NNH2)(dppe)(PEtNMe(H)PEt)][BF4]2, as a minor product. Similar product mixtures were obtained using triflic acid (HOTf). Upon acid addition to the carbonyl analogue, cis-[W(CO)2(dppe)(PEtNMePEt)], the seven-coordinate carbonyl-hydride complex, trans-[W(CO)2(H)(dppe)(PEtN(H)MePEt)][OTf]2 was generated. The mixed diphosphine complex without the pendant amine in the ligand backbone, trans-[W(N2)2(dppe)(depp)] (depp = Et2P(CH2)3PEt2), was synthesized and treated with HBF4?Et2O, selectively generating a hydrazido complex, [W(NNH2)(F)(dppe)(depp)][BF4]. Computational analysis was used to probe proton affinity of three sites of protonation, the metal, pendant amine, and N2 ligand in these complexes. Room temperature reactions with 100 equivalents of HOTf produced NH4+ from reduction of the N2 ligand (electrons come from W). The addition of 100 equivalents HOTf to trans-[W(N2)2(dppe)(PEtNMePEt)] afforded 0.88 ± 0.02 equivalents NH4+, while 0.36 ± 0.02 equivalents of NH4+was formed upon treatment of trans-[W(N2)2(dppe)(depp)], the complex without the pendant amine. This work was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Computational resources were provided by the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE.

  5. Novel poly (arylene-ether-ether-ketone)s containing preformed imide unit and pendant long chain alkyl group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies were carried out to get preformed imide unit containing PEEKs and Co-PEEKs with pendant long chain alkyl group. Thus two new bisphenols; N,N'-bis (4-hydroxy 2-pentadecyl phenyl) pyromellitimide (HPI) (I) and N,N'-bis (4-hydroxy 2-pentadecyl phenyl 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic imide (HBI) (II) containing imide unit, pendant C-15 alkyl substituents were synthesized, characterized by spectral data and polycondensed with 4,4'-difluorobenzophenone (DFB) to yield several PEEK and Co-PEEKs. The polymers were characterized by FTIR, inherent viscosity, solubility, and XRD. The polymers were obtained in good yields and had inherent viscosities up to 0.65 dL/g in NMP. Polymerization of mixture of two bisphenols; [(I) and BPA]; and [(II) and BPA] in various mol%, with DFB gave number of the copolymers viz. Co-PEEK-BPAPI and Co-PEEK-BPABI. Many of the Co-PEEKs had good solubility in polar solvents. The solubility of PEEK containing bulky pendant alkyl substituents did not much improve probably due to simultaneous presence of rigid imide structures. XRD analysis indicated that PEEK and Co-PEEKs were partially crystalline or amorphous depending on the nature and % content of imide-bisphenol. These new PEEK materials can be used as high performance films, coatings, gas separation membranes, in aerospace and nuclear industries.

  6. Extreme Ultraviolet Resist Fabricated Using Water Wheel-Like Cyclic Oligomer with Pendant Adamantyl Ester Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Hiroyuki; Kudo, Hiroto; Oizumi, Hiroaki; Itani, Toshiro; Nishikubo, Tadatomi

    2011-12-01

    The synthesis and properties of water wheel-like cyclic oligomer (noriaPY) derivatives (noriaPY-ADs) with pendant adamantyl ester (AD) groups were examined for their application as extreme ultraviolet (EUV) resist materials. NoriaPY-ADs with various degrees of introduction (DI values) of AD groups were synthesized by adjusting the reactant feed ratios and reaction concentration. Solubility, film-forming property, and thermal stability were consistent with differences in DI values. The patterning properties of noriaPY-AD25 (DI= 25%) were examined in an EUV resist system, and noriaPY-AD25 provided a clear line-and-space pattern with 30 nm resolution and a line width roughness (LWR) of 11.3 nm.

  7. ADSORPTION OF CELLOBIOSE-PENDANT POLYMERS TO A CELLULOSE MATRIX DETERMINED BY QUARTZ CRYSTAL MICROBALANCE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Yokota

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Cellobiose-pendant polymers were synthesized by radical polymerization and their affinity for a cellulose matrix was investigated by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM. A 2-(methacryloyloxyethylureido cellobiose (MOU-Cel macromer was synthesized by coupling cellobiosylamine with 2-(methacryloyloxyethyl isocyanate followed by polymerization in an aqueous radical reaction system. The interaction of the resulting poly(MOU-Cel with a pure cellulose matrix in water was evaluated by QCM analysis. Poly(MOU-Cel was strongly adsorbed to the cellulose substrate, whereas neither cellobiose nor MOU-Cel macromer exhibited an attractive interaction with cellulose. This specific interaction was not inhibited by the presence of ionic contaminants, suggesting that multiple cellobiopyranose moieties in each polymer molecule might cooperatively enhance its affinity for cellulose. Moderate insertion of acrylamide units into the polymer backbone improved the affinity for cellulose, possibly due to an increased mobility of sugar side chains. Polymers such as these, with a high affinity for cellulose, have potential applications for the surface functionalization of cellulose-based materials, including paper products.

  8. Donor-?-bridge-acceptor type polymeric materials with pendant electron-withdrawing groups for electrochromic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Donor-?-bridge-acceptor copolymers with different electrophilic groups were synthesized. • Electrochromic devices composed of PBDTTPAs layers, as the working electrode, and vanadium pentoxide, as the counter electrode, were fabricated and evaluated. • The PBDTTPA-CHO film and device show multicolor electrochromic behavior which exhibited vivid yellow, green, and gray with better electrochromic performance than PBDTTPA-COOH. - Abstract: A novel donor-?-bridge-acceptor copolymer, PBDTTPA-CHO, containing 4-(Bis(4-bromophenyl)-amino)benzaldehyde (TPA-CHO) and 4,8-bis-(2-ethyl- hexyloxy)-oxybenzo-[1,2-b:3,4-b’]dithiophene (BDT), was successfully synthesized using Stille coupling polymerization, and the pendant aldehyde group was modified with cyanoacetic acid to synthesize another polymer, PBDTTPA-COOH. Each of these new polymers are soluble in organic solvents and can be cast onto rigid or flexible substrates. The polymers with different electrophilic groups exhibit different electrochromic behaviors, including different colors, driving voltages and transmittances. The polymer film of PBDTTPA-CHO manifests reversible electrochemical oxidation and reduction accompanied by multicolor changes from its yellow neutral state to a highly absorbent green semi-oxidized state and a gray fully oxidized state, its transmittance change at 601 nm is 43%. PBDTTPA-COOH switches between orange and light green. We fabricated and evaluated electrochromic devices using a PBDTTPA layer as the working electrode and vanadium pentoxide as the counter electrode. With the contribution of counter electrodes, devices of both polymers show similar color changes but higher transmittance than their films

  9. Incorporation of Cyclotriphosphazene as Pendant Groups to the Sago Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyclotriphosphazene-incorporated sago wastes as pendant groups have been prepared and structurally characterized using FT-IR and SEM. The chemically modified sago wastes composite was applied with binders and developed as sound absorbing panels. These panels are a class of organic-inorganic based materials that exhibit excellent fire retardant properties. Sound absorbance test has given a higher value at 250, 500 and 2000 Hz, which indicates the suitability of the panel for used in medium frequency. The panel was 51 % lighter compared to fiber board. The function and basic manufacturing of sound absorbers products was aligned with the present products in the market. (author)

  10. Gravity model and structural implications of the Goddard Pendant, Sierra Nevada, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bray, E.A.; Oliver, H.W.

    1981-01-01

    A subsurface model for the Goddard pendant is constructed from a residual gravity high of about 7mGal over the pendant. The model, which is the simplest and most geologically reasonable possibility, shows a metamorphic block that tapers with depth and extends about 3.5km below the surface. The structures in the Goddard pendant are similar in style and orientation to those in other Sierra Nevada pendants, indicating that the country rock was neither deformed nor rotated during pluton emplacement. Consequently, emplacement must have been a passive rather than a forceful process. The pendant itself represents a piece of country rock trapped between plutons which are dome shaped in cross section. -Authors

  11. Aliphatic Polymers Bearing Pendant Radical Groups as Charge Carrying Moieties in Organic Electronic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudouris, Bryan; Rostro, Lizbeth; Baradwaj, Aditya

    2013-03-01

    The implementation of highly conjugated polymers has led to an explosion of high-performance organic electronic devices; however, many important synthetic, physical, and mechanical properties of these macromolecules still lag behind polymers with non-conjugated backbones. In order to implement the positive aspects of both macromolecular classes, we have synthesized radical polymers (i . e . , where a pendant stable radical group is present on each repeat unit of the polymer) using controlled polymerization mechanisms. We demonstrate that these next-generation conducting polymers have thermal and physical properties similar to that of aliphatic polymers while still retaining charge transport properties akin to those of well-studied conjugated polymer systems. Specifically, we characterize the charge transport ability of radical polymers using a model radical polymer, poly(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxymethacrylate), and propose a mechanism for charge transport in these molecules. Furthermore, because of the low optical absorption in the visible spectrum associated with non-conjugated polymers, radical polymers are utilized as anodic modifiers in organic photovoltaic devices and show promise in being more stable to environmental conditions than traditional anode-modifying materials.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Soluble Aromatic Polyesters with Pendant Cyano Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yikai Yu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available 2, 6-Bis (4-carboxyphenoxy benzonitrile was first synthesized by condensation of 2, 6-difluorobenzonitrile with p-Hydroxybenzoic acid in the presence of KOH and DMSO. And then the reaction of 2, 6-bis (4-carboxyphenoxy benzonitrile with sulfur oxychloride yieded 2, 6-bis (4-chloroformylphenoxy benzonitrile (BClPOBN. A series of novel soluble aromatic polyesters with pendant cyano groups were prepared by polycondensation of different aromatic diphenols and 2,6-bis (4-chloroformylphenoxy benzonitrile (BClPOBN using 1,2-dichoroethane (DCE as solvent and pyridine as the absorbent of HCl. The resulting polymers were characterized by different physico-chemical techniques, such as FT-IR, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, Wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD, and so on. All the polymers had the proposed structure and were amorphous. Thermogravimetric studies showed that the thermal decomposition temperatures (Tds at 5% weight loss of polymers were 391~406 ? in N2 atmosphere, indicating they had good thermal stabilities. The prepared polyesters exhibited good solubility in some common solvents, such as CHCl3, ethylene dichloride (DCE, CH2Cl2, tetrahydrofuran (THF as well as aprotic polar organic solvents such as N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP, N, N-dimethylacetamide (DMAC and N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF, and so on.

  13. Multicolor electrochromic performance of electroactive poly(amic acid) containing pendant oligoaniline, azobenzene and sulfonic acid groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel electroactive poly(amic acid) (EDA-CON-EPAA) containing oligoaniline pendants, azobenzene and sulfonic acid groups was synthesized by copolymerization. The synergistic interplay of these three distinct functional groups results in a number of interesting and novel properties. The polymer showed photoisomerization induce by irradiation with ultraviolet light and visible light by virtue of azobenzene groups, and also revealed excellent electroactivity in acid, neutral and even in alkaline solutions (pH = 12) due to self-doping between oligoaniline and sulfonic acid (and/or carboxylic acid) groups. Moreover, EDA-CON-EPAA displayed acceptable electrochromic performance even in alkaline solutions and multiple colors attributed to the complementary effects of the two chromophores, which greatly enlarged the range of the electrochromic application. The coloration efficiency could still reach 93.8 cm2/C (at 700 nm) even at pH = 10

  14. Synthesis and structure of Ag(i), Pd(ii), Rh(i), Ru(ii) and Au(i) NHC-complexes with a pendant Lewis acidic boronic ester moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toure, Momar; Chuzel, Olivier; Parrain, Jean-Luc

    2015-04-01

    Bifunctional Ag(i), Pd(ii), Rh(i), Ru(ii) and Au(i) complexes containing a NHC ligand and a pendant trivalent boron moiety have been synthesized in high yields. Fine-tuned reaction conditions were used to prevent potential ligand self-quenching or polymerization due to the eventual co-existence in situ of free NHC (Lewis base) and boronic ester (Lewis acid) in the same molecule. PMID:25824413

  15. Arm CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAT scan - arm; Computed axial tomography scan - arm; Computed tomography scan - arm; CT scan - arm ... stopping.) A computer creates separate images of the arm area, called slices. These images can be stored, ...

  16. On the Odd Gracefulness of Cyclic Snakes With Pendant Edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Badr

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Graceful and odd gracefulness of a graph are two entirely different concepts. A graph may posses one orboth of these or neither. We present four new families of odd graceful graphs. In particular we show an oddgraceful labeling of the linear kC4 ? snake e mK1 and therefore we introduce the odd graceful labeling of4 1 kC ? snake e mK ( for the general case . We prove that the subdivision of linear 3 kC ? snake is oddgraceful. We also prove that the subdivision of linear 3 kC ? snake with m-pendant edges is odd graceful.Finally, we present an odd graceful labeling of the crown graph n 1 P e mK .

  17. Arms limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary purpose of limiting arms is to remove the existence of weapons as a potential cause of conflict. Further, negotiated limitations on especially pernicious weapons may limit the destructiveness of wars that do occur. This discussion addresses the question of what kinds of arms limitations regimes could be implemented by India and Pakistan. Before surveying these regimes, this chapter examines those features distinguishing the South Asian arms control context from that of the US and Soviet Union or other regions. Three features are found to be especially significant: the covert nature of military nuclear activities, their integration with ostensibly civilian power and space programs, and small (if any) nuclear weapons stockpiles

  18. Removal and recovery of toxic metal ions from aqueous waste sites using polymer pendant ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the use of polymer pendant ligand technology to remove and recover toxic metal ions from DOE aqueous waste sites. Polymer pendant lgiands are organic ligands, anchored to crosslinked, modified divinylbenzene-polystyrene beads, that can selectively complex metal ions. The metal ion removal step usually occurs through a complexation or ion exchange phenomena, thus recovery of the metal ions and reuse of the beads is readily accomplished.

  19. A new DRAM-type memory devices based on polymethacrylate containing pendant 2-methylbenzothiazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The devices fabricated with 75 nm and 45 nm thick pBVMA films were both found to exhibit DRAM type memory behaviors, which may indicate that the Al nanoparticles had no penetration into the thin film during the vacuum-deposition process. Highlights: ? The side-functional moieties of pBVMA regularly arranged in film state. ? The device exhibits volatile memory behavior with an ON/OFF current ratio up to 105. ? The film thickness has nothing to do with the device's memory behavior. ? Physical theoretical models and molecular simulation supported the memory mechanism. - Abstract: A polymethacrylate containing pendant 2-methylbenzothiazole (pBVMA) with good thermal stability was synthesized by free radical polymerization. The devices based on pBVMA possess a sandwich structure comprising bottom indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrode and top Al electrode. The as-fabricated device exhibits the dynamic random access memory (DRAM) behavior with an ON/OFF current ratio up to 105 and can endure 108 read cycles under ?1 V pulse voltage. The effect of the film thickness on the device performance was investigated and the devices fabricated with 75 nm and 45 nm thick pBVMA films were both found to exhibit DRAM type memory behaviors, which may indicate that the Al nanoparticles had no penetration into the thin film during the vacuum-deposition process. The molecular simulation and physical theoretical models were analyzed and etical models were analyzed and the mechanism of the DRAM performance may be attributed to the weak electron withdrawing ability of the molecule.

  20. Les trotskystes grecs pendant la seconde guerre Mondiale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Hen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Comment les deux courants du trotskysme grec, pourchassés dès les années 30, ont-ils réagi face à l'occupation de leur pays et à la résistance d'obédience communiste ?Les trotskystes en Grèce étaient divisés, malgré des discussions d’unification dans les camps de Metaxas. Ils refusèrent de soutenir la Grèce contre l’intervention italo-allemande en 1940-1941 et s’opposèrent aux illusions dans les démocraties alliées. Fin 1942 ils reprirent une activité clandestine, refusant de se joindre à la Résistance mais aussi de choisir un côté militaire dans les affrontements avec l’occupant et ses supplétifs. En octobre 1944, les trotskystes s'agitèrent contre les Britanniques pendant que l’EAM les laissait entrer dans Athènes. Le KKE exécuta des dizaines de trotskystes. Ceux-ci restèrent neutres dans la guerre civile de décembre 1944. Leur sectarisme contribua à les stériliser lorsque, après les accords de Varkiza en février 1945, la direction du KKE était vulnérable aux accusations qu’elle avait conduit la révolution à la défaite.Trotskyists in Greece were divided, despite unification discussions in Metaxas’ concentration camps. They refused to support Greece against the 1940-41 Italo-German intervention and opposed illusions in Allied democracies. At the end of 1942 they resumed underground activity, refusing to join the Resistance but also to take a military side in the fighting against the occupiers and their local proxy forces. In October 1944 the Trotskyists agitated against the British while the EAM let them into Athens. The KKE executed dozens of Trotskyists. The Trotskyists remained neutral in the December 1944 civil war. Their sectarianism contributed to sterilize them when, after the February 1945 Varkiza Agreement, the KKE leadership was vulnerable to accusations of having led the revolution to defeat.

  1. Concentration effects on peptide elution from pendant PEO layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiangming; Ryder, Matthew P; McGuire, Joseph; Schilke, Karl F

    2014-06-01

    In earlier work, we have provided direction for development of responsive drug delivery systems based on modulation of structure and amphiphilicity of bioactive peptides entrapped within pendant polyethylene oxide (PEO) brush layers. Amphiphilicity promotes retention of the peptides within the hydrophobic inner region of the PEO brush layer. In this work, we describe the effects of peptide surface density on the conformational changes caused by peptide-peptide interactions, and show that this phenomenon substantially affects the rate and extent of peptide elution from PEO brush layers. Three cationic peptides were used in this study: the arginine-rich amphiphilic peptide WLBU2, the chemically identical but scrambled peptide S-WLBU2, and the non-amphiphilic homopolymer poly-l-arginine (PLR). Circular dichroism (CD) was used to evaluate surface density effects on the structure of these peptides at uncoated (hydrophobic) and PEO-coated silica nanoparticles. UV spectroscopy and a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) were used to quantify changes in the extent of peptide elution caused by those conformational changes. For amphiphilic peptides at sufficiently high surface density, peptide-peptide interactions result in conformational changes which compromise their resistance to elution. In contrast, elution of a non-amphiphilic peptide is substantially independent of its surface density, presumably due to the absence of peptide-peptide interactions. The results presented here provide a strategy to control the rate and extent of release of bioactive peptides from PEO layers, based on modulation of their amphiphilicity and surface density. PMID:24780434

  2. Controlled Synthesis of Fluorinated Copolymers with Pendant Sulfonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Jankova Atanasova, Katja

    2008-01-01

    Novel fluorinated copolymers of different architectures and bearing sulfopropyl groups were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of aromatic fluorinated monomers and two modification reactions performed on the polymer chain - demethylation followed by sulfopropylation. As a result two types of fluorinated copolymers were obtained. The first one was synthesized by ATRP of2,3,5,6-tetraflouro4- methoxystyrene (TFMS). Copolymers with different amounts of randomly distributed along the backbone sulfopropyl groups were obtained after the chemical modifications mentioned above. The second type copolymers have diblock architecture with one.of the blocks being sulfopropyl~ed. They were synthesized via ATRP of 2,3,4,5,6pentafluorostyrene (FS) initiated by PTFMS-macroinitiator followed by demethylation and sulfopropylation performed on the TFMS-block (Scheme 1). The) copolymers were characterized by size-exclusion chromatography, FTIR and IH NMR spectroscopy. Their thermal properties were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and thermal gravimetric analyses.

  3. Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )

    2005-06-27

    A robotic arm that can be worn at home may someday help stroke victims regain lost mobility. It's being developed by Arizona State University bioengineer Jiping He and his colleagues, with support from the National Institutes of Health. The sleeve-like device features four pneumatic muscles, from the shoulder to the wrist, that help the real arm move. As the patient gets stronger over time, the robotic muscles gradually back off.The device is still in the prototype stage, but if it proves successful, it could be a lot cheaper than long-term, one-on-one physical therapy.This resource also includes a text description of the research and links for further inquiry.

  4. Non-Destructive investigation of a scalenohedral hematite pendant from Bahrain, c. 1800 BC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovicky, Emil; Parisatto, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    A scalenohedral hematite pendant (presumably a pseudomorph after a calcite crystal), excavated on Bahrain (ancient Dilmun) in the Persian Gulf from layers dated to c.1800 bc, was investigated using X-ray computed microtomography. The internal porosity was studied in 3D, showing a preferential concentration of small pores in the central part, where carbonate remnants might still be present, and larger, flattened, elongated voids in the subsurface portion. Part of the scalenohedron can be described as an intergrowth of platy hematite crystals. Microtomography also yielded data on pore-size distribution. Considerations are given to the genetic model and the provenance of the hematite pendant.

  5. Comparison of the lateral retention forces on sessile and pendant water drops on a solid surface

    CERN Document Server

    de la Madrid, Rafael; Irwin, George

    2015-01-01

    We present a simple experiment that demonstrates how a water drop hanging from a Plexiglas surface (pendant drop) experiences a lateral retention force that is comparable to, and in some cases larger than, the lateral retention force on a drop resting on top of the surface (sessile drop). The experiment also affords a simple demonstration of the Coriolis effect in two dimensions.

  6. Design and Engineering of a Chess-Robotic Arm

    CERN Document Server

    Elouafiq, Ali

    2012-01-01

    In the scope of the "Chess-Bot" project, this study's goal is to choose the right model for the robotic arm that the "the Chess-Bot" will use to move the pawn from a cell to another. In this paper, there is the definition and the structure of a robot arm. Also, the different engineering and kinematics fundamentals of the robot and its components will be detailed. Furthermore, the different structures of robotic arms will be presented and compared based on different criteria. Finally, a model for "the Chess-Bot" arm will be synthesized based on accurate algorithms and equations.

  7. Strong-Arm Tactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Why do we care about a robotic arm? What does a robotic arm have to do with engineering? Creating such an arm comes from a design that involves mechanical, electrical, and computer science engineers. As expected, students generally do not know the complexity that goes into building and programming a robotic arm. This activity allows students to control a robotic arm from both a machine's and a computer science engineer's perspective by performing a simple task with a few instructions and constraints.

  8. Activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis with concomitant induction of cellular immune responses by a tetraaza-macrocycle with acetate pendant arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, S; Ordway, D; Arroz, M J; Costa, J; Delgado, R

    2001-01-01

    The novel tetraaza-macrocyclic compound 3,7,11-tris(carboxymethyl)-3,7,11,17-tetraaza-bicyclo[11.3.1]heptadeca-1(17),13,15-triene, abbreviated as ac3py14, was investigated for its activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and for induction of protective cellular immune responses. Perspective results show that ac3py14 and its Fe3+ 1:1 complex, [Fe(ac3py14)], inhibited radiometric growth of several strains of M. tuberculosis. Inhibition with 25 microg/mL varied from 99% for H37Rv to 80% and above for multiple drug-resistant clinical isolates. The capacity of ac3py14 to elicit a beneficial immune response without cellular apoptosis was assessed and compared to the effects of virulent M. tuberculosis. The present study produces evidence that after stimulation with ac3py14 there was significant production of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), whereas the production of interleukin-5 (IL-5) remained low, and there was development of a memory population (CD45RO). The level of binding of Annexin V, a marker of apoptosis, was not sufficient to result in toxic effects toward alphabeta and gammadelta T cells and CD14+ macrophages. This preliminary study is the first report of a compound that simultaneously exerts an inhibitory effect against M. tuberculosis and induces factors associated with protective immune responses. PMID:11501675

  9. Reaction of Lanthanum(III) and Gadolinium(III) complexes coordinated by pendant-armed macrocyclic ligand with salicylaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the reaction of Lanthanum(III) and Gadolinium(III) complexes coordinated by the ligand 1,9-bis(2-aminoethyl)-1, 4, 6, 9, 12, 14-hexaazacyclohexadecane with salicylaldehyde, only Gd3+ was led to an unexpected complex with the ligand tris{2-(salicylideneamino)ethyl}amine. The difference of the reactivity was applied to the separation of La3+ and Gd3+. (author)

  10. Role of hydrophilicity and length of diblock arms for determining star polymer physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felberg, Lisa E; Brookes, David H; Head-Gordon, Teresa; Rice, Julia E; Swope, William C

    2015-01-22

    We present a molecular simulation study of star polymers consisting of 16 diblock copolymer arms bound to a small adamantane core by varying both arm length and the outer hydrophilic block when attached to the same hydrophobic block of poly-?-valerolactone. Here we consider two biocompatible star polymers in which the hydrophilic block is composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) or polymethyloxazoline (POXA) in addition to a polycarbonate-based polymer with a pendant hydrophilic group (PC1). We find that the different hydrophilic blocks of the star polymers show qualitatively different trends in their interactions with aqueous solvent, orientational time correlation functions, and orientational correlation between pairs of monomers of their polymeric arms in solution, in which we find that the PEG polymers are more thermosensitive compared with the POXA and PC1 star polymers over the physiological temperature range we have investigated. PMID:25254622

  11. Protonation of Ferrous Dinitrogen Complexes Containing a Diphosphine Ligand with a Pendant Amine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiden, Zachariah M.; Chen, Shentan; Mock, Michael T.; Dougherty, William G.; Kassel, W. S.; Rousseau, Roger J.; Bullock, R. Morris

    2013-04-01

    The addition of protons to pendant amine containing ferrous dinitrogen complexes, of the type [FeX(N2)(PEtNMePEt)(dmpm)]+ (X = H, Cl, or Br; PEtNMePEt = Et2PCH2N(Me)CH2PEt2 and dmpm = Me2PCH2PMe2), was found to protonate at the pendant amine as opposed to the dinitrogen ligand. This protonation increased the ?N2 of the complex by about 25 cm-1, shifting the Fe(II/I) couple 330 mV to a more positive potential. A similar shift was observed in the case of [FeX(CO)(PEtNMePEt)(dmpm)]+ (X = H, Cl, or Br). Computational analysis verified these experimental results and showed the coordination of N2 to Fe(II) centers increases the basicity of N2 (vs. free N2) by 13 and 20 pKa units for the trans halides and hydrides, respectively. Although the iron center was found to increase the basicity of the bound N2 ligand, coordinated N2 is not sufficiently basic to be protonated. In the case of ferrous dinitrogen complexes containing a basic pendant methylamine, the amine site was determined to be the most basic site by 30 pKa units compared to protonation at the N2 ligand. To increase the basicity of the N2 ligand in order to promote proton transfer from the pendant amine to the N2 ligand, chemical reduction of these ferrous dinitrogen complexes was performed and found to result in oxidative addition of the methylene C-H bond of the PEtNMePEt ligand to Fe, preventing isolation of a reduced Fe(0) N2 complex. This work was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  12. Theoretical Design of Molecular Electrocatalysts with Flexible Pendant Amines for Hydrogen Production and Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Laura; Horvath, Samantha; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2013-02-07

    The design of hydrogen oxidation and production catalysts is important for the development of alternative renewable energy sources. The overall objective is to maximize the turnover frequency and minimize the overpotential. In an effort to assist in the design of such catalysts, we use computational methods to examine a variety of nickel-based molecular electrocatalysts with pendant amines. Our studies focus on the proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) process involving electron transfer between the complex and the electrode and intramolecular proton transfer between the nickel center and the nitrogen of the pendant amine. The concerted PCET mechanism, which tends to require a lower overpotential, is favored by a smaller equilibrium Ni-N distance and a more flexible pendant amine ligand, thereby decreasing the energetic penalty for the nitrogen to approach the nickel center for proton transfer. These calculations provide design principles that will be useful for developing the next generation of hydrogen catalysts. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  13. Use of the pendant drop method to measure interfacial tension between molten polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arashiro Emerson Y.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the pendant drop method to measure interfacial tension between molten polymers is reviewed. A typical pendant drop apparatus is presented. The algorithms used to infer interfacial tension from the geometrical profile of the pendant drop are described in details, in particular a new routine to evaluate correctly the value of the radius at the apex of the drop, necessary to the calculation of interfacial tension is presented. The method was evaluated for the possibility of measuring the interfacial tension between polyethylene and polystyrene. It is shown that the method is unsuitable for the measurement of interfacial tension between high density polyethylene and polystyrene due possibly to a too small difference of density between the two polymers. Values of interfacial tension between low density polyethylene (LDPE and polystyrene (PS as a function of the molecular weight of PS are presented. It was shown that the interfacial tension between LDPE and PS increased as a function of molecular weight of PS up to values of molecular weight of roughly 40,000 g/mol, value for which entanglements occur.

  14. Catalytic Oxidation of Alcohol via Nickel Phosphine Complexes with Pendant Amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Charles J.; Das, Partha Pratim; Higgins, Deanna LM; Helm, Monte L.; Appel, Aaron M.

    2014-09-05

    Nickel complexes were prepared with diphosphine ligands that contain pendant amines, and these complexes catalytically oxidize primary and secondary alcohols to their respective aldehydes and ketones. Kinetic and mechanistic studies of these prospective electrocatalysts were performed to understand what influences the catalytic activity. For the oxidation of diphenylmethanol, the catalytic rates were determined to be dependent on the concentration of both the catalyst and the alcohol. The catalytic rates were found to be independent of the concentration of base and oxidant. The incorporation of pendant amines to the phosphine ligand results in substantial increases in the rate of alcohol oxidation with more electron-donating substituents on the pendant amine exhibiting the fastest rates. We thank Dr. John C. Linehan, Dr. Elliott B. Hulley, Dr. Jonathan M. Darmon, and Dr. Elizabeth L. Tyson for helpful discussions. Research by CJW, PD, DLM, and AMA was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Research by MLH was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle.

  15. Oligosiloxane functionalized with pendant (1,3-bis(9-carbazolyl)benzene) (mCP) for solution-processed organic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dianming; Yang, Zhaomin; Ren, Zhongjie; Li, Huihui; Bryce, Martin R; Ma, Dongge; Yan, Shouke

    2014-12-01

    A new oligosiloxane derivative (ODCzMSi) functionalized with the well-known 1,3-bis(9-carbazolyl)benzene (mCP) pendant moiety, directly linked to the silicon atom of the oligosiloxane backbone, has been synthesized and characterized. Compared to mCP, the attachment of the oligosiloxane chain significantly improves the thermal and morphological stabilities with a high decomposition temperature (Td =540?°C) and glass transition temperature (Tg =142?°C). The silicon-oxygen linkage of ODCzMSi disrupts the backbone conjugation and maintains a high triplet energy level (ET =3.0?eV). A phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (PhOLED) using iridium bis(4,6-difluorophenyl)pyridinato-N,C(2) picolinate (FIrpic) as the emitter and ODCzMSi as the host shows a relatively low turn-on voltage of 5.0?V for solution-processed PhOLEDs, maximum external quantum efficiency of 9.2?%, and maximum current efficiency of 17.7?cd?A(-1) . The overall performance of this device is competitive with the best reported solution-processed blue PhOLEDs. Memory devices using ODCzMSi as an active layer exhibit non-volatile write-once read-many-times (WORM) characteristics with high stability in retention time up to 10(4) ?s and a low switch on voltage. This switching behaviour is explained by different stable conformations of ODCzMSi with high or low conductivity states which are obtained under the action of electric field through a ?-? stacking alignment of the pendant aromatic groups. These results with both PhOLEDs and memory devices demonstrate that this oligosiloxane-mCP hybrid structure is promising and versatile for high performance solution-processed optoelectronic applications. PMID:25307853

  16. Inorganic Syntheses, 35

    CERN Document Server

    Rauchfuss, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The Inorganic Syntheses series provides all users of inorganic substances with detailed and foolproof procedures for the preparation of important and timely compounds.: Includes complete, up-to-date procedures involving important inorganic substances; Contains subject, contributor, and formula indexes

  17. Improved orthopedic arm joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, D. H.

    1971-01-01

    Joint permits smooth and easy movement of disabled arm and is smaller, lighter and less expensive than previous models. Device is interchangeable and may be used on either arm at the shoulder or at the elbow.

  18. Rocker Arm: - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    SYED MUJAHID HUSAIN; PROF.SIRAJ SHEIKH

    2013-01-01

    Over the years rocker arms have been optimized in its design and material for better performance. Durability, toughness, high dimension stability, wear resistance, strength and cost of materials as well as economic factors are the reasons for optimization of rocker arm. This paper reviews the various types of rocker arms, based on published sources from the last 40 years in order to understand rocker arm for its problem identification and further optimization. This paper present what rocker a...

  19. Arm Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your body, 3 of them are in your arm; the humerus, radius and ulna. Your arms are also made up of muscles, joints, tendons ... Injuries to any of these parts of the arm can occur during sports, a fall or an ...

  20. Nuclear Arms Control Treaties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher Griffith

    This section contains summaries of all the major arms-control treaties including: Limited Test Ban Treaty, Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty I (Interim Agreement), Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, Threshold Test Ban Treaty, Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty - INF, Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty.

  1. The arms race control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Written in 1961, this paper presents the content of a book entitled 'The arms race control' where the author outlined the difference between disarmament and arms control, described the economic and moral role of arms race, the importance of force balance for international security. He wandered whether arms control could ensure this balance and whether nuclear balance meant force balance. Force balance then appears to be a precarious and unsteady component of international security. He commented the challenges of disarmament, recalled some arguments for a nuclear disarmament. Then he discussed what would be an arms control with or without disarmament (either nuclear or conventional)

  2. Analysis of the polar crane pendant cable from Three Mile Island - Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pendant cable to the polar crane in Three Mile Island - Unit 2 (TMI-2) was suspended near the center of the containment during the March 1979 accident. It sustained considerable thermal damage from the hydrogen burn that occurred. The cable was removed from TMI-2 and cut into sections, which were then analyzed to assess the extent of damage and learn as much as possible about the accident environment (by studying its effect on the cable). Both electrical and materials tests were employed in the analyses, which produced information about the hydrogen burn and contamination levels in containment. 10 refs., 24 figs

  3. Nano-anisotropic surface coating based on drug immobilized pendant polymer to suppress macrophage adhesion response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaladhar, K; Renz, H; Sharma, C P

    2015-04-01

    Exploring drug molecules for material design, to harness concepts of nano-anisotropy and ligand-receptor interactions, are rather elusive. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the bottom-up design of a single-step and bio-interactive polymeric surface coating, based on drug based pendant polymer. This can be applied on to polystyrene (PS) substrates, to suppress macrophage adhesion and spreading. The drug molecule is used in this coating for two purposes. The first one is drug as a "pendant" group, to produce nano-anisotropic properties that can enable adhesion of the coatings to the substrate. The second purpose is to use the drug as a "ligand", to produce ligand-receptor interaction, between the bound ligand and receptors of albumin, to develop a self-albumin coat over the surface, by the preferential binding of albumin in biological environment, to reduce macrophage adhesion. Our in silico studies show that, diclofenac (DIC) is an ideal drug based "ligand" for albumin. This can also act as a "pendant" group with planar aryl groups. The combination of these two factors can help to harness, both nano-anisotropic properties and biological functions to the polymeric coating. Further, the drug, diclofenac (DIC) is immobilized to the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), to develop the pendant polymer (PVA-DIC). The interaction of bound DIC with the albumin is a ligand-receptor based interaction, as per the studies by circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry, and SDS-PAGE. The non-polar ?-?* interactions are regulating; the interactions between PVA bound DIC-DIC interactions, leading to "nano-anisotropic condensation" to form distinct "nano-anisotropic segments" inside the polymeric coating. This is evident from, the thermo-responsiveness and uniform size of nanoparticles, as well as regular roughness in the surface coating, with similar properties as that of nanoparticles. In addition, the hydrophobic DIC-polystyrene (PS) interactions, between the PVA-DIC coating and PS-substrate produce improved coating stability. Subsequently, the PVA-DIC coated substrate has the maximum capacity to suppress the macrophage (RAW 264.7 cell line) adhesion and spreading, which is partly due to wavy-surface topography of hydrophilic PVA and preferential albumin binding capacity of PVA bound DIC. Our result shows that, such surfaces suppress the macrophages, even under stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The modified tissue culture plates can be used as an in vitro tool, to study the macrophage response under low spatial cues. PMID:25723344

  4. Synthesis and arm dissociation in molecular stars with a spoked wheel core and bottlebrush arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdy?ska, Joanna; Li, Yuanchao; Aggarwal, Anant Vikas; Höger, Sigurd; Sheiko, Sergei S; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof

    2014-09-10

    Unique star-like polymeric architectures composed of bottlebrush arms and a molecular spoked wheel (MSW) core were prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). A hexahydroxy-functionalized MSW (MSW(6-OH)) was synthesized and converted into a six-fold ATRP initiator (MSW(6-Br)). Linear chain arms were grafted from MSW(6-Br) and subsequently functionalized with ATRP moieties to form six-arm macroinitiators. Grafting of side chains from the macroinitiators yielded four different star-shaped bottlebrushes with varying lengths of arms and side chains, i.e., (450-g-20)6, (450-g-40)6, (300-g-60)6, and (300-g-150)6. Gel permeation chromatography analysis and molecular imaging by atomic force microscopy confirmed the formation of well-defined macromolecules with narrow molecular weight distributions. Upon adsorption to an aqueous substrate, the bottlebrush arms underwent prompt dissociation from the MSW core, followed by scission of covalent bonds in the bottlebrush backbones. The preferential cleavage of the arms is attributed to strong steric repulsion between bottlebrushes at the MSW branching center. Star-shaped macroinitiators may undergo aggregation which can be prevented by sonication. PMID:25133316

  5. A DFT Study on the Dissociation Property of Sulfonic Acids with Different Neighboring Pendants in Polymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuan-yuan; Tsuchida, Eiji; Choe, Yoong-Kee; Ikeshoji, Tamio; Ohira, Akihiro

    The proton dissociation property of four model compounds of polymer electrolyte membranes, M1-M4, has been studied based on density functional theory. These four model compounds have the same proton donor group, sulfonic acid, while differ by types of neighboring pendants, non-fluorinated and fluorinated. We find that the protons in the fluorinated model compounds can be dissociated when hydrated by 3 water molecules, comparable to Nafion, while for those non-fluorinated compounds, the protons can be dissociated only hydrated by 4 water molecules. The results indicate that the neighboring pendants have a significant effect on the proton dissociation property of the model compounds. The electron-withdrawing group involved in the neighboring pendants can improve the proton dissociation property of the compounds, which would be meaningful for finding a novel polymer electrolyte membrane with good conductivity.

  6. Arm locking for space-based laser interferometry gravitational wave observatories

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yinan; Mitryk, Shawn; Mueller, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Laser frequency stabilization is a critical part of the interferometry measurement system of space-based gravitational wave observatories such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). Arm locking as a proposed frequency stabilization technique, transfers the stability of the long arm lengths to the laser frequency. The arm locking sensor synthesizes an adequately filtered linear combination of the inter-spacecraft phase measurements to estimate the laser frequency n...

  7. Modelling of bionic arm

    OpenAIRE

    Amartya Ganguly

    2010-01-01

    The bionic arm is a prosthesis which will allow the amputees to control it with the help of their own brain instead of depending upon the mechanical functions of the artificial limbs which are at present available in the market. A complex design of control systems is embedded in the bionic arm which will receive and analyze the signals from the brain and convert the electrical energy to mechanical energy, making the bionic arm move.

  8. Evolution of robotic arms

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    The foundation of surgical robotics is in the development of the robotic arm. This is a thorough review of the literature on the nature and development of this device with emphasis on surgical applications. We have reviewed the published literature and classified robotic arms by their application: show, industrial application, medical application, etc. There is a definite trend in the manufacture of robotic arms toward more dextrous devices, more degrees-of-freedom, and capabilities beyond th...

  9. Hydraulic Arm Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-18

    Students design and build a mechanical arm that lifts and moves an empty 12-ounce soda can using hydraulics for power. Small design teams (1-2 students each) design and build a single axis for use in the completed mechanical arm. One team designs and builds the grasping hand, another team the lifting arm, and a third team the rotation base. The three groups must work to communicate effectively through written and verbal communication and sketches.

  10. Modelling of bionic arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amartya Ganguly

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The bionic arm is a prosthesis which will allow the amputees to control it with the help of their own brain instead of depending upon the mechanical functions of the artificial limbs which are at present available in the market. A complex design of control systems is embedded in the bionic arm which will receive and analyze the signals from the brain and convert the electrical energy to mechanical energy, making the bionic arm move.

  11. Radial arm strike rail

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Mark H. (Golden, CO); Beason, Steven C. (Lakewood, CO)

    1991-01-01

    The radial arm strike rail assembly is a system for measurement of bearings, directions, and stereophotography for geologic mapping, particularly where magnetic compasses are not appropriate. The radial arm, pivoting around a shaft axis, provides a reference direction determination for geologic mapping and bearing or direction determination. The centerable and levelable pedestal provide a base for the radial arm strike rail and the telescoping camera pedestal. The telescoping feature of the radial arm strike rail allows positioning the end of the rail for strike direction or bearing measurement with a goniometer.

  12. Biodegradable amphiphilic triblock copolymer bearing pendant glucose residues: preparation and specific interaction with Concanavalin A molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Changhai; Chen, Xuesi; Xie, Zhigang; Lu, Tiancheng; Wang, Xin; Ma, Jia; Jing, Xiabin

    2006-06-01

    A novel biodegradable amphiphilic block copolymer PLGG-PEG-PLGG bearing pendant glucose residues is successfully prepared by the coupling reaction of 3-(2-aminoethylthio)propyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside with the pendant carboxyl groups of PLGG-PEG-PLGG in the presence of N,N'-carbonyldiimidazole. The polymer PLGG-PEG-PLGG, i.e., poly{(lactic acid)-co-[(glycolic acid)-alt-(L-glutamic acid)]}-block-poly(ethylene glycol)-block- poly{(lactic acid)-co-[(glycolic acid)-alt-(L-glutamic acid)]}, is prepared by ring-opening copolymerization of L-lactide (LLA) with (3s)-benzoxylcarbonylethylmorpholine-2,5-dione (BEMD) in the presence of dihydroxyl PEG with molecular weight of 2000 as macroinitiator and Sn(Oct)2 as catalyst, and then by catalytic hydrogenation. The glucose-grafted copolymer shows a lower degree of cytotoxicity to ECV-304 cells and improved specific recognition and binding with Concanavalin A (Con A). Therefore, this kind of glucose-grafted copolymer may find biomedical applications. PMID:16768401

  13. Soft contact lenses functionalized with pendant cyclodextrins for controlled drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Jose-Fernando Rosa; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Silva, Maite; Balsa, Luis; Couceiro, Jose; Torres-Labandeira, Juan-Jose; Concheiro, Angel

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this work was to develop acrylic hydrogels with high proportions of cyclodextrins maintaining the mechanical properties and the biocompatibility of the starting hydrogels, but notably improving their ability to load drugs and to control their release rate. Poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate) hydrogels were prepared by copolymerization with glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) at various proportions and then beta-cyclodextrin (betaCD) was grafted to the network by reaction with the glycidyl groups under mild conditions. This led to networks in which the betaCDs form no part of the structural chains but they are hanging on 2-3 ether bonds through the hydroxyl groups. The pendant betaCDs did not modify the light transmittance, glass transition temperature, swelling degree, viscoelasticity, oxygen permeability, or surface contact angle of the hydrogels, but decreased their friction coefficient by 50% and improved diclofenac loading by 1300% and enhanced drug affinity 15-fold. The hydrogels were able to prevent drug leakage to a common conservation liquid for soft contact lenses (SCLs) and to sustain drug delivery in lacrimal fluid for two weeks. To summarize, the hydrogels with pendant betaCDs are particularly useful for the development of cytocompatible medicated implants or biomedical devices, such as drug-loaded SCLs. PMID:19064285

  14. Sulfonated copolyimide membranes derived from a novel diamine monomer with pendant benzimidazole groups for fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Wei; Guo, Xiaoxia

    2015-01-01

    Sulfonated polyimides are among the most interesting proton exchange membrane materials with high proton conductivity and good mechanical characteristics. As a major challenge the hydrolytic instability of the polymer backbone is addressed by introducing basic moieties in the polymer main chain. A series of sulfonated copolyimides (SPI) are prepared via random copolymerizatio of 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTDA) with a new diamine monomer with pendant benzimidazole groups, 2,2'-bis(4-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)phenoxy)benzidine (BIPOB), and a sulfonated diamine monomer 4,4'-bis(4-aminophenoxy)biphenyl-3,3'-disulfonic acid (BAPBDS) at different diamine molar ratios (BAPBDS/BIPOB, 4/1, 6/1, 9/1 and 12/1). With ion exchange capacities in the range of 1.60-2.24 meq g(-1), transparent and ductile membranes are obtained by solution casting. The incorporation of benzimiclazole pendant groups significantly improves the hydrolytic stability as well as the radical oxidative stability of the membranes. In addition, the SPI membranes exhibit high proton conductivities of 0.1 S cm(-1) in the fully hydrated state at 60 degrees C and high elastic modulus and tensile strength. Preliminary fuel cell tests demonstrate the technical feasibility and stability of the materials. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesis and Crystal Structures of Mercury(II) and Copper(II) Complexes of Azathia-Macrocycle with Pyridylmethyl Arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercury(II) and copper(II) complexes of pyridylmethyl-armed monobenzo-NS2-macrocycle have been prepared and structurally characterized by X-ray analysis. In all cases, the pyridine arms show important role in their three dimensional coordination behaviors via the strong Npy-M bonds. The coordination patterns depend markedly on the anion coordination. In case of the five-coordination system, the distortion parameter ? values were useful to classify their coordination geometries such as trigonal bipyramid or square pyramid. Three dimensional cation binding with the armed macrocycles is one of the important topics not only in the area of the ion transport but also in the construction of new metallo-supramolecules. In partircular, N-pivot armed macrocycles with pyridine-type pendant tend to be able to direct their side arm toward the guest since the hetero N atom is directed toward the metal cation. Sometimes the positions of the hetero N atom (Npy) in the pyridine arms affect the resulting topologies of the metallosupramolecules. Habata et al. reported the interesting bowl-type cyclic dimer and cylic trimer silver(I) complexes from 3'-pyridylmethyl- and 4'-pyridylmethyl-armed monoaza-12-crown-4, respectively

  16. Reaction with glutathione. A possible mechanism involved in rodent brain retention of a 99mTc SNS/S complex containing a pendant ester functionality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis, characterization of MvO([CH3CH2N(CH2CH2S)2](p-S-Ph-COOCH2-CH3)) (M:99mTc: I, Re: II) is presented in this work, where a pendant ester function is attached to the monothiolate ligand. Chemical structure of I is established after chromatographic comparison with II, synthesized in macroscopic amounts. Complex II is fully characterized by classical methods of analysis showing that the compound adopts a distorted trigonal bipyramidal configuration around the metal. The two sulfur atoms of the tridentate ligand and the oxo group form the basal plane, while the remaining nitrogen atom of the tridentate ligand and the sulfur atom of the monothiolate ligand occupy the apices of the bipyramid. In vitro challenge experiments with glutathione (GSH) in neutral aqueous medium demonstrate, that I suffers nucleophilic attack by GSH and thereby transformation to a more hydrophilic daughter metal compound. Formation of the latter depends on time and GSH concentration. Tissue distribution in mice shows minor retention in brain. As rodent brain presents no esterases to hydrolyze the ester group of I, while the intracerebral content in GSH amounts to 2 mM, the above described mechanism is suspected for the observed brain retention. However, in primate brain cells retention of I may additionally involve the hydrolysis of the ester function to the corresponding acid, as already revealed by preliminary in vitro experiments using esterase incubates. (author)

  17. Managing new arms races

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of new arms races in the region of Asia-Pacific includes considerations of weapons trade and transfer in the region, with an emphasis on nuclear weapons proliferation. It deals with the problem of controlling the arms trade and the efforts to control conventional weapons and underlines the possible role and influence of Conference on Cooperation and Security in Europe (CSCE)

  18. Security and arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book attempts to clarify and define selected current issues and problems related to security and arms control from an international perspective. The chapters are organized under the following headings. Conflict and the international system, Nuclear deterrence, Conventional warfare, Subconventional conflict, Arms control and crisis management

  19. Synthesizing folded band chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corron, Ned J; Hayes, Scott T; Pethel, Shawn D; Blakely, Jonathan N

    2007-04-01

    A randomly driven linear filter that synthesizes Lorenz-like, reverse-time chaos is shown also to produce Rössler-like folded band wave forms when driven using a different encoding of the random source. The relationship between the topological entropy of the random source, dissipation in the linear filter, and the positive Lyapunov exponent for the reverse-time wave form is exposed. The two drive encodings are viewed as grammar restrictions on a more general encoding that produces a chaotic superset encompassing both the Lorenz butterfly and Rössler folded band paradigms of nonlinear dynamics. PMID:17500950

  20. Effects of wake dynamics on infrared measurements of particle cloud temperatures in the superheater pendant region of utility boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turbulent particle cloud temperatures in the superheater pendant region are critical in coal-fired utility boilers not only for the interactions between turbulence and radiative heat transfer, but also for the ash deposit slagging and fouling on superheater tubes. The false infrared particle temperature fluctuations due to the pendant wake dynamics may cause large errors in modeling of the radiation transport. This paper presents a model to theoretically analyze the effects of wake dynamics on the false infrared particle cloud temperature fluctuations in the superheater pendant region. The preferred frequency in the power spectra and the root mean square temperature fluctuations are predicted theoretically and the effects of utility boiler operating conditions are analyzed. The preferred frequency is twice the vortex shedding frequency and is proportional to the flue gas velocity, and inversely proportional to the superheater tube diameter. The root mean square temperature fluctuations are proportional to the initial particle volume fraction and inversely proportional to the 1.04 power of the particle mass weighted mean diameter. -- Highlights: ? Superheater pendant wake causes the false infrared particle temperature fluctuations. ? Infrared particle temperatures fluctuate at twice the vortex shedding frequency. ? Root mean square temperature fluctuation is proportional to particle volume fraction. ? The present model predicts using only the utility boiler operating conditions

  1. Programmable electronic synthesized capacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinberg, Leonard L. (inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A predetermined and variable synthesized capacitance which may be incorporated into the resonant portion of an electronic oscillator for the purpose of tuning the oscillator comprises a programmable operational amplifier circuit. The operational amplifier circuit has its output connected to its inverting input, in a follower configuration, by a network which is low impedance at the operational frequency of the circuit. The output of the operational amplifier is also connected to the noninverting input by a capacitor. The noninverting input appears as a synthesized capacitance which may be varied with a variation in gain-bandwidth product of the operational amplifier circuit. The gain-bandwidth product may, in turn, be varied with a variation in input set current with a digital to analog converter whose output is varied with a command word. The output impedance of the circuit may also be varied by the output set current. This circuit may provide very small ranges in oscillator frequency with relatively large control voltages unaffected by noise.

  2. ABOUT PRISMATIC ANTLER PENDANTS FROM SÂNTANA DE MURE?-CERNJACHOV CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciuc?l?u Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In Sântana de Mure?-Cernjachov culture we distinguish numerous influences that have targeted not only the material aspects of daily life but also the spiritual life of its different ethnic components. Since the IVth century are signaled in the graves of women and children  a series of prismatic pendants made of antlers decorated with circles, which were seen by some scholars, such as J. Werner and I. Ionita as replicas of type Herkuleskeule amulets.  They were adopted in the Germanic world as symbols of the god Thor / Donau.  In this article we make a presentation of this type of amulets discovered in some of the cemeteries datated in the IVth century researched in Romania and Republic of Moldova.

  3. Proton and Electron Additions to Iron (II) Dinitrogen Complexes Containing Pendant Amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiden, Zachariah M.; Chen, Shentan; Labios, Liezel AN; Bullock, R. Morris; Walter, Eric D.; Tyson, Elizabeth L.; Mock, Michael T.

    2014-03-10

    We describe a single site cis-(H)FeII-N2 complex, generated by the protonation of an iron-carbon bond of a "reduced" iron complex, that models key aspects of proposed protonated intermediates of the E4 state of nitrogenase. The influence on N2 binding from the addition of protons to the pendant amine sites in the second coordination sphere is described. Furthermore, the addition of electrons to the protonated complexes results in H2 loss. The mechanism of H2 loss is explored to draw a parallel to the origin of H2 loss (homolytic or heterolytic) and the nature of N2 coordination in intermediates of the E4 state of nitrogenase.

  4. Reduction of Oxygen Catalyzed by Nickel Diphosphine Complexes with Positioned Pendant Amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel(II) bis(diphosphine) complexes that contain positioned bases in the second coordination sphere have been found to catalyze the reduction of O2 with H2 to selectively form water. The complexes also serve as electrocatalysts for the reduction of O2 with the addition of a weak acid. In contrast, a closely related nickel diphosphine complex without the positioned bases is catalytically inactive for O2 reduction. These results indicate that pendant bases in synthetic catalysts for O2 reduction can play a similar role to proton relays in enzymes, and that such relays should be considered in the design of catalysts for multi-electron and multi-proton reactions.

  5. Nickel Phosphine Catalysts with Pendant Amines for Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Charles J.; Wiedner, Eric S.; Roberts, John A.; Appel, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01

    Nickel phosphine complexes with pendant amines have been found to be electrocatalysts for the oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols, with turnover frequencies as high as 3.3 s-1. These complexes are the first electrocatalysts for alcohol oxidation based on non-precious metals, which will be critical for use in fuel cells. The research by CJW, ESW, and AMA was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. The research by JASR was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  6. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness.

  7. Phoenix's Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a lesson about programming and communications in space exploration. Learners will simulate sending commands to operate a robotic arm to complete a task. This is lesson 13 of 16 in the MarsBots learning module.

  8. External Resource: Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    1900-01-01

    In this activity, students will design and build their own rovers, explaining what type of instrumentation they would include and why it is necessary. Topics: engineering design, robots, end effectors, robotic arm, space exploration.

  9. Armed conflict and child health

    OpenAIRE

    Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti

    2011-01-01

    Armed conflict has a major impact on child health throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark contrast to the effect on children, the international arms trade results in huge profits for the large corporations involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions. Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important health issue that should be...

  10. Armed conflict and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti

    2012-01-01

    Armed conflict has a major impact on child health throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark contrast to the effect on children, the international arms trade results in huge profits for the large corporations involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions. Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important health issue that should be prevented. PMID:21393303

  11. Hello to Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This image highlights the hidden spiral arms (blue) that were discovered around the nearby galaxy NGC 4625 by the ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The image is composed of ultraviolet and visible-light data, from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer and the California Institute of Technology's Digitized Sky Survey, respectively. Near-ultraviolet light is colored green; far-ultraviolet light is colored blue; and optical light is colored red. As the image demonstrates, the lengthy spiral arms are nearly invisible when viewed in optical light while bright in ultraviolet. This is because they are bustling with hot, newborn stars that radiate primarily ultraviolet light. The youthful arms are also very long, stretching out to a distance four times the size of the galaxy's core. They are part of the largest ultraviolet galactic disk discovered so far. Located 31 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici, NGC 4625 is the closest galaxy ever seen with such a young halo of arms. It is slightly smaller than our Milky Way, both in size and mass. However, the fact that this galaxy's disk is forming stars very actively suggests that it might evolve into a more massive and mature galaxy resembling our own. The armless companion galaxy seen below NGC 4625 is called NGC 4618. Astronomers do not know why it lacks arms but speculate that it may have triggered the development of arms in NGC 4625.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Well-Defined Regular Star Polyisoprenes with 3, 4, 6 and 8 Arms

    KAUST Repository

    Ratkanthwar, Kedar R.

    2013-01-01

    Three series of regular well-defined star polyisoprenes (PIs) with 3, 4 and 6 arms (each series: same arm molecular weight) have been synthesized by anionic polymerization high vacuum techniques and chlorosilane chemistry. In addition, three linear PIs with practically the double arm molecular weight of the corresponding series (2-arm star PIs) have been synthesized, as well as one 8-arm star PI. All intermediate (arms) and final (stars) products have been characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), SEC-multi-angle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The Tg of the star PIs was determined by differential scanning calorimetry. These model polymeric materials are essential for polymer physics and polymer physical chemistry in order to establish the structure/property relationships.

  13. The influence of pendant carboxylic acid loading on surfaces of statistical poly(4-hydroxystyrene)-co-styrene)s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hvilsted, SØren

    2008-01-01

    Copolymers 9f 4-tert-butoxystyrene (tB5) and styrene (5) have been prepared by free radical copolymerization and the copolymer ratios of TtBS == 0.97 and Ts == 1.12 have been determined by the Kelen-Tiidos method. After deprotection to 4-hydroxystyrene, alkynes were introduced by a Williamson ether synthesis with propargyl bromide and the copolymers were functionalized with pendant aliphatic or aromatic carboxylic acids by click chemistry. Differential scanning calorimetry of the copolymers demonstrates the large influence on Tg ofthe different functional groups and the backbone composition. In particular, aliphatic and aromatic pendant groups differ by 92°C in Tg• Contact angle measurements onspin coated films have shown a maximum effect of the functional groups in the advancing contact angle at a 75/100 copolymer loading. In addition to this, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows the presence of acid groups on the surface.

  14. Signature électromagnétique de la dynamique corticale pendant l'éveil et le sommeil chez l'homme

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghani, Nima

    2012-01-01

    L'analyse de la fonction cérébrale à de multiples échelles est une étape nécessaire pour comprendre ses complexités. Dans ce travail de thèse, nous avons étudié cet aspect aux niveaux microscopiques et macroscopiques en utilisant des enregistrements invasifs et non-invasifs. Nous avons utilisé une série d'outils d'analyse communicationnels et de corrélation pour étudier l'activité cérébrale pendant l'éveil et le sommeil. Dans une première étude, nous avons analyse les enregistrements simultan...

  15. Syntheses of (±-Romucosine and (±-Cathafiline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surachai Nimgirawath

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The structures previously assigned to (--romucosine and (+-cathafiline, N-(methoxycarbonyl aporphine alkaloids from Rollina mucosa (Annonaceae and Cassytha filiformis (Lauraceae respectively, have been confirmed by total syntheses of the racemic substances. The key step of the syntheses involved formation of ring C of the aporphines by a radical-initiated cyclisation.

  16. Mystery Spiral Arms Explained?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    Using a quartet of space observatories, University of Maryland astronomers may have cracked a 45-year mystery surrounding two ghostly spiral arms in the galaxy M106. The Maryland team, led by Yuxuan Yang, took advantage of the unique capabilities of NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton X-ray observatory, and data obtained almost a decade ago with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. NGC X-ray Image NGC 4258 X-ray Image M106 (also known as NGC 4258) is a stately spiral galaxy 23.5 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici. In visible-light images, two prominent arms emanate from the bright nucleus and spiral outward. These arms are dominated by young, bright stars, which light up the gas within the arms. "But in radio and X-ray images, two additional spiral arms dominate the picture, appearing as ghostly apparitions between the main arms," says team member Andrew Wilson of the University of Maryland. These so-called "anomalous arms" consist mostly of gas. "The nature of these anomalous arms is a long-standing puzzle in astronomy," says Yang. "They have been a mystery since they were first discovered in the early 1960s." By analyzing data from XMM-Newton, Spitzer, and Chandra, Yang, Bo Li, Wilson, and Christopher Reynolds, all at the University of Maryland at College Park, have confirmed earlier suspicions that the ghostly arms represent regions of gas that are being violently heated by shock waves. Previously, some astronomers had suggested that the anomalous arms are jets of particles being ejected by a supermassive black hole in M106's nucleus. But radio observations by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Very Long Baseline Array, and the Very Large Array in New Mexico, later identified another pair of jets originating in the core. "It is highly unlikely that an active galactic nucleus could have more than one pair of jets," says Yang. In 2001, Wilson, Yang, and Gerald Cecil, of the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, noted that the two jets are tipped 30 degrees with respect to the galaxy disk. But if one could vertically project the jets onto the disk, they would line up almost perfectly with the anomalous arms. Figuring that this alignment was not strictly a matter of chance, Wilson, Yang, and Cecil proposed that the jets heat the gas in their line of travel, forming an expanding cocoon. Because the jets lie close to M106's disk, the cocoon heats gas in the disk and generates shock waves, heating the gas to millions of degrees and causing it to radiate brightly in X-rays and other wavelengths. Multiwavelength Animation of NGC 4258 Multiwavelength Animation of NGC 4258 To test this idea, Yang and his colleagues looked at archival spectral observations from XMM-Newton. With XMM-Newton's superb sensitivity, the team could measure the gas temperature in the anomalous arms and also see how strongly X-rays from the gas are absorbed en route by intervening material. "One of the predictions of this scenario is that the anomalous arms will gradually be pushed out of the galactic disk plane by jet-heated gas," says Yang. The XMM-Newton spectra show that X-rays are more strongly absorbed in the direction of the northwest arm than in the southeast arm. The results strongly suggest that the southeast arm is partly on the near side of M106's disk, and the northwest arm is partly on the far side. The scientists noted that these observations show clear consistency with their scenario. Confirmation of this interpretation has recently come from archival observations from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, whose infrared view shows clear signs that X-ray emission from the northwest arm is being absorbed by warm gas and dust in the galaxy's disk. Moreover, Chandra's superior imaging resolution gives clear indications of gas shocked by interactions with the two jets. Besides addressing the mystery of the anomalous arms, these observations allowed the team to estimate the energy in the jet

  17. Anionic polymerization and polyhomologation: An ideal combination to synthesize polyethylene-based block copolymers

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, H.

    2013-08-07

    A novel one-pot methodology combining anionic polymerization and polyhomologation, through a "bridge" molecule (BF3OEt 2), was developed for the synthesis of polyethylene (PE)-based block copolymers. The anionically synthesized macroanion reacts with the "bridge" molecule to afford a 3-arm star (trimacromolecular borane) which serves as an initiator for the polyhomologation. 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. Technetium-99m and rhenium-188 complexes with one and two pendant bisphosphonate groups for imaging arterial calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoloi, Jayanta Kumar; Berry, David; Khan, Irfan Ullah; Sunassee, Kavitha; de Rosales, Rafael Torres Martin; Shanahan, Catherine; Blower, Philip J

    2015-03-21

    The first (99m)Tc and (188)Re complexes containing two pendant bisphosphonate groups have been synthesised, based on the mononuclear M(v) nitride core with two dithiocarbamate ligands each with a pendant bisphosphonate. The structural identity of the (99)Tc and stable rhenium analogues as uncharged, mononuclear nitridobis(dithiocarbamate) complexes was determined by electrospray mass spectrometry. The (99m)Tc complex showed greater affinity for synthetic and biological hydroxyapatite, and greater stability in biological media, than the well-known but poorly-characterised and inhomogeneous bone imaging agent (99m)Tc-MDP. It gave excellent SPECT images of both bone calcification (mice and rats) and vascular calcification (rat model), but the improved stability and the availability of two pendant bisphosphonate groups conferred no dramatic advantage in imaging over the conventional (99m)Tc-MDP agent in which the bisphosphonate group is bound directly to Tc. The (188)Re complex also showed preferential uptake in bone. These tracers and the biological model of vascular calcification offer the opportunity to study the biological interpretation and clinical potential of radionuclide imaging of vascular calcification and to deliver radionuclide therapy to bone metastases. PMID:25559039

  19. THE INTERNATIONAL ARMS TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Japhet

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Everyone is aware of the existence of the arms trade but few have any idea of the nature of its workings or of its implications, both actual and potential. Some information as to the methods employed in the sale of arms was made available via the Lockheed and Northrop scandals, but by and large this was information that could not be evaluated in terms of all the elements of the system. It is the aim of this article to provide some insight into the various facets that go together to make up the arms trade, in this way by no means giving an all-embracing account but merely providing some interesting facts and figures.

  20. Sensitization of nanocrystalline TiO2 anchored with pendant catechol functionality using a new tetracyanato ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Prasenjit; Verma, Sandeep; Sen, Anik; Das, Amitava; Ganguly, Bishwajit; Ghosh, Hirendra Nath

    2010-05-01

    We have synthesized a new photoactive ruthenium(II) complex having a pendant catechol functionality (K(2)[Ru(CN)(4)(L)] (1) (L is 4-[2-(4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridinyl-4-yl)vinyl]benzene-1,2-diol) for studying the dynamics of the interfacial electron transfer between nanoparticulate TiO(2) and the photoexcited states of this Ru(II) complex using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Steady-state absorption and emission studies revealed that the complex 1 showed a strong solvatochromic behavior in solvents or solvent mixtures of varying polarity. Our steady-state absorption studies further revealed that 1 is bound to TiO(2) surfaces through the catechol functionality, though 1 has two different types of functionalities (catecholate and cyanato) for binding to TiO(2) surfaces. The longer wavelength absorption band tail for 1, bound to TiO(2) through the proposed catecholate functionality, could also be explained on the basis of the DFT calculations. Dynamics of the interfacial electron transfer between 1 and TiO(2) nanoparticles was investigated by studying kinetics at various wavelengths in the visible and near-infrared region. Electron injection to the conduction band of the nanoparticulate TiO(2) was confirmed by detection of the conduction band electron in TiO(2) ([e(-)](TiO(2))(CB)) and cation radical of the adsorbed dye (1(*+)) in real time as monitored by transient absorption spectroscopy. A single exponential and pulse-width limited (nanoparticle surface using a solvatochromic sensitizer molecule. PMID:20349939

  1. Synthesis of poly(ester-carbonate) with a pendant acetylcholine analog for promoting neurite growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Dongming; Ma, Lie; Gao, Changyou

    2014-10-01

    The modification of biodegradable polyesters with bioactive molecules has become an important strategy for controlling neuron adhesion and neurite outgrowth in nerve regeneration. In this study we report a biodegradable poly(ester-carbonate) with a pendant acetylcholine analog, which a neurotransmitter for the enhancement of neuron adhesion and outgrowth. The acetylcholine-functionalized poly(ester-carbonate) (Ach-P(LA-ClTMC)) was prepared by copolymerizing l-lactide (LA) and 5-methyl-5-chloroethoxycarbonyl trimethylene carbonate (ClTMC), followed by quaternization with trimethylamine. The acetylcholine analog content could be modulated by changing the molar feeding fraction of ClTMC. The incorporation of the acetylcholine analog improved the hydrophilicity of the films, but the acetylcholine analog content did not significantly influence the surface morphology of the acetylcholine-functionalized films. The results of PC12 cell culture showed that the acetylcholine analog promoted cell viability and neurite outgrowth in a concentration-dependent manner. The longest length of neurite and the percentage of cells bearing neurites were obtained on the Ach-P(LA-ClTMC)-10 film. All the results indicate that the integration of the acetylcholine analog at an appropriate fraction could be an effective strategy for optimizing the existing biodegradable polyesters for nerve regeneration applications. PMID:24998182

  2. PHENIX Muon Arms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PHENIX Muon Arms detect muons at rapidities of |y|=(1.2-2.4) with full azimuthal acceptance. Each muon arm must track and identify muons and provide good rejection of pions and kaons (?10-3). In order to accomplish this we employ a radial field magnetic spectrometer with precision tracking (Muon Tracker) followed by a stack of absorber/low resolution tracking layers (Muon Identifier). The design, construction, testing and expected run parameters of both the muon tracker and the muon identifier are described

  3. Arm To Arm Interface Using Embedded C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanraj.C

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Embedded systems are the most emerging field in these recent years. In this paper a different number of ARM processors (LPC2148 and LPC2378 are interconnected using C for distributed services. N numbers of processors are connected as the network and each processing devices are interlinked with each other, so that the each data that is processed by the devices and it can be used by the other device to activate their entire process. All the processed data’s are communicated to other device through Xbee interface card. LPC2148 and LPC2378 ARM processors are used in this prototype and winXtalk is used as a software terminal window. In this paper, the ultimate benefits of multiple processor interactions related to the embedded applications and design issues of processor interconnection are discussed. The features of multiple processor interaction in inter process communication and executions of embedded multitasking are also discussed. In modern embedded computing platform, embedded processor used in various applications like home automation, industrial control, medical system, access control, etc. In this paper, using embedded processor interactions, the several data communication is established.

  4. Replantation (Finger, Hand, or Arm)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the surgical reattachment of a finger, hand or arm that has been completely cut from a person’s ... replanted part if it is further down the arm. Joint vs. non-joint injury . More movement will ...

  5. The Arm Lie Group Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Arm, Boris

    2013-01-01

    We developp the Arm-Lie group theory which is a theory based onthe exponential of a changing of matrix variable u(X). We de ne a corresponding u-adjoint action, the corresponding commutation relations in the Arm-Lie algebra and the u-Jacobi identity. Throught the exponentiation, Arm-Lie algebras become Arm-Lie groups. We give the example of p p so(2) and p p su(2).

  6. Layers of Experience Using "Arms"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laurinda; Coles, Alf; Ball, Derek; Morton, Pat; Coles, Matt; Ordman, Louise; Orr, Barry; Lam, Tung Ken

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the authors' personal accounts and their experiences in working on mathematics using "arms." "Arms" is an idea that first appeared as a program written by John Warwick and David Wooldridge in an ATM publication "Some Lessons in Mathematics with a Microcomputer," 1983. The introduction to "Arms" in the book states that it is a…

  7. Kiikuv maja / Anu Arm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arm, Anu

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia esimese kursuse arhitektuuriüliõpilaste II semestri töö. Juhendaja arhitekt Andres Alver, ehitamise Pedaspeale organiseeris suvepraktika juhendaja arhitekt Jaan Tiidemann. Autor Anu Arm, kaasa töötasid ja valmis ehitasid: Ott Alver, Maarja Elm, Mari Hunt, Alvin Järving, Marten Kaevats, Riho Kerge, Reedik Poopuu, Anu Põime, Helen Rebane, Kaisa Saarva, Martin Tago, Reet Volt. Valmis: 19. VIII 2006

  8. Polythiophene derivative comprising carbazoles as pendant groups for polymer solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have prepared a polythiophene copolymer (CzPh-PT) containing 9-position substituted carbazoles as bulky pendants and investigated its application in polymer solar cell (PSC). Electrochemical study presented that the onset oxidation potential positively shifted 0.47 eV for CzPh-PT in comparison with that of poly(3-hexyl thiophene). By incorporating the bulky substituent of CzPh-PT, the effective conjugation length can be curtailed, and consequently a lowered HOMO energy level (-5.38 eV) was acquired. This promises better air stability and a high open circuit voltage (Voc) for the PSC. Moreover, the optical properties of CzPh-PT reveal that the presence of ?-? interaction between carbazole units can enhance light harvesting ability in visible region, leading to a wide absorbance. PSC was fabricated based on an interpenetrating network of CzPh-PT as electron-sufficient polymer and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) as electron-deficient material. The PSC device based on the blend of CzPh-PT/PC61BM (w/w = 1:1) gave the best preliminary result with a Voc of 0.85 V, a short-circuit current of 1.57 mA/cm2, and a fill factor of 0.27, offering an overall power conversion efficiency of 0.36%. Our finding suggests that the polythiophene derivative comprising bulky steric groups as side chains is promising for PSC applications.

  9. Assessment of surfactants for efficient droplet PCR in mineral oil using the pendant drop technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Kunal R; Rueger, Paul E; Calabrese, Richard V; Raghavan, Srinivasa R; White, Ian M

    2015-02-01

    Amplification and detection of nucleic acid sequences within integrated microsystems is routinely conducted using the technique of droplet PCR, wherein the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is performed in microscale water-in-oil droplets (nanoliter to picoliter volumes). During droplet PCR, interactions at the interface of the droplet tend to dominate. Specifically, adsorption of the polymerase at the droplet interface leads to inefficient amplification. To reduce polymerase adsorption, surfactants such as the silicone-based ABIL EM90 have been commonly used. However, these surfactants have been selected largely through trial and error, and have been only somewhat effective. For example, when using ABIL EM90, 8 times (8 ×) the manufacturer prescribed concentration of polymerase was necessary for amplification. In this report, we use the pendant drop technique to measure adsorption and loss of enzyme at droplet interfaces for various surfactant-oil combinations. Dynamic interfacial tension and surface pressure measurements showed that significant polymerase adsorption occurs when using ABIL EM90. In contrast, much lower polymerase adsorption is observed when using Brij L4, a nonionic surfactant with a C12 tail and an oxyethylene headgroup, which has not yet been reported for droplet PCR. These results correlate strongly with droplet PCR efficiency. Brij L4 enables highly efficient PCR at 2 × polymerase concentration, and still enables effective PCR at 1 × polymerase concentration. Overall, this work introduces a methodology for quantitatively assessing surfactants for use with droplet microreactors, and it demonstrates the practical value of this new approach by identifying a surfactant that can dramatically improve the efficiency of droplet PCR. PMID:25620443

  10. Dinuclear rhenium complexes as redox-active pendants in a novel electrodeposited polycyclopentadithiophene material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopio, Elsa Quartapelle; Bonometti, Valentina; Panigati, Monica; Mercandelli, Pierluigi; Mussini, Patrizia R; Benincori, Tiziana; D'Alfonso, Giuseppe; Sannicolò, Francesco

    2014-10-20

    The novel [Re2(?-H)(?-OOC-CPDT)(CO)6(?-3-Me-pydz)] complex (1; OOC-CPDT = 4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophene-4-carboxylate, 3-Me-pydz = 3-methylpyridazine) has been prepared and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, density functional theory (DFT), and time-dependent DFT computations, UV-vis absorption and emission spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The measured properties indicate the lack of electronic communication in the ground state between the CPDT and the rhenium diazine moieties. Oxidative electropolymerization of 1, achieved by repeated potential cycling (-0.4 to +1.0 V vs Fc(+)/Fc, in acetonitrile) with different supporting electrolytes, on different electrodes, afforded an electroactive and stable metallopolymer (poly-1). In situ measurements of the mass of the growing film (on a gold electrode, with an electrochemical quartz microbalance) confirmed the regularity of the polymerization process. The polymer exhibits two reversible oxidation peaks of the thiophene chain and a broad irreversible reduction peak (-1.4 V, quite close to that observed for the reduction of monomer 1), associated with a remarkably delayed sharp return peak, of comparable associated charge, appearing in close proximity (+0.3 V) to the first oxidation peak of the neutral polythiophene chain. This charge-trapping effect can be observed upon repeated cycles of p and n doping, and the negative charge is maintained even if the charged electrode is removed from the solution for many hours. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that the main CV oxidation peak corresponds to facile charge transfer, combined with very fast diffusion of both electrons and ions within the polymer. In summary, poly-1 provides a new example of a metallopolymer, in which the conductive properties of the ?-conjugated system are added to the redox behavior of the pendant-isolated complexes. PMID:25285663

  11. RAMESES publication standards: realist syntheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing interest in realist synthesis as an alternative systematic review method. This approach offers the potential to expand the knowledge base in policy-relevant areas - for example, by explaining the success, failure or mixed fortunes of complex interventions. No previous publication standards exist for reporting realist syntheses. This standard was developed as part of the RAMESES (Realist And MEta-narrative Evidence Syntheses: Evolving Standards project. The project's aim is to produce preliminary publication standards for realist systematic reviews. Methods We (a collated and summarized existing literature on the principles of good practice in realist syntheses; (b considered the extent to which these principles had been followed by published syntheses, thereby identifying how rigor may be lost and how existing methods could be improved; (c used a three-round online Delphi method with an interdisciplinary panel of national and international experts in evidence synthesis, realist research, policy and/or publishing to produce and iteratively refine a draft set of methodological steps and publication standards; (d provided real-time support to ongoing realist syntheses and the open-access RAMESES online discussion list so as to capture problems and questions as they arose; and (e synthesized expert input, evidence syntheses and real-time problem analysis into a definitive set of standards. Results We identified 35 published realist syntheses, provided real-time support to 9 on-going syntheses and captured questions raised in the RAMESES discussion list. Through analysis and discussion within the project team, we summarized the published literature and common questions and challenges into briefing materials for the Delphi panel, comprising 37 members. Within three rounds this panel had reached consensus on 19 key publication standards, with an overall response rate of 91%. Conclusion This project used multiple sources to develop and draw together evidence and expertise in realist synthesis. For each item we have included an explanation for why it is important and guidance on how it might be reported. Realist synthesis is a relatively new method for evidence synthesis and as experience and methodological developments occur, we anticipate that these standards will evolve to reflect further methodological developments. We hope that these standards will act as a resource that will contribute to improving the reporting of realist syntheses. To encourage dissemination of the RAMESES publication standards, this article is co-published in the Journal of Advanced Nursing and is freely accessible on Wiley Online Library (http://www.wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/jan. Please see related article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/20 and http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/22

  12. ARM User Survey Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, LR

    2010-06-22

    The objective of this survey was to obtain user feedback to, among other things, determine how to organize the exponentially growing data within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, and identify users’ preferred data analysis system. The survey findings appear to have met this objective, having received approximately 300 responses that give insight into the type of work users perform, usage of the data, percentage of data analysis users might perform on an ARM-hosted computing resource, downloading volume level where users begin having reservations, opinion about usage if given more powerful computing resources (including ability to manipulate data), types of tools that would be most beneficial to them, preferred programming language and data analysis system, level of importance for certain types of capabilities, and finally, level of interest in participating in a code-sharing community.

  13. Robot arm apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY)

    1992-01-01

    A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

  14. Microelectromechanical safe arm device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Alexander W. (Tijeras, NM)

    2012-06-05

    Microelectromechanical (MEM) apparatus and methods for operating, for preventing unintentional detonation of energetic components comprising pyrotechnic and explosive materials, such as air bag deployment systems, munitions and pyrotechnics. The MEM apparatus comprises an interrupting member that can be moved to block (interrupt) or complete (uninterrupt) an explosive train that is part of an energetic component. One or more latching members are provided that engage and prevent the movement of the interrupting member, until the one or more latching members are disengaged from the interrupting member. The MEM apparatus can be utilized as a safe and arm device (SAD) and electronic safe and arm device (ESAD) in preventing unintentional detonations. Methods for operating the MEM apparatus include independently applying drive signals to the actuators coupled to the latching members, and an actuator coupled to the interrupting member.

  15. Strategic arms limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen Greb, G.; Johnson, Gerald W.

    1983-10-01

    Following World War II, American scientists and politicians proposed in the Baruch plan a radical solution to the problem of nuclear weapons: to eliminate them forever under the auspices of an international nuclear development authority. The Soviets, who as yet did not possess the bomb, rejected this plan. Another approach suggested by Secretary of War Henry Stimson to negotiate directly with the Soviet Union was not accepted by the American leadership. These initial arms limitation failures both reflected and exacerbated the hostile political relationship of the superpowers in the 1950s and 1960s. Since 1969, the more modest focus of the Soviet-American arms control process has been on limiting the numbers and sizes of both defensive and offensive strategic systems. The format for this effort has been the Strategic Arms Limitatins Talks (Salt) and more recently the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START). Both sides came to these negotiations convinced that nuclear arsenals had grown so large that some for of mutual restraint was needed. Although the SALT/START process has been slow and ponderous, it has produced several concrete the agreements and collateral benefits. The 1972 ABM Treaty restricts the deployment of ballistic missile defense systems, the 1972 Interim Agreement places a quantitative freeze on each side's land based and sea based strategic launchers, and the as yet unratified 1979 SALT II Treaty sets numerical limits on all offensive strategic systems and sublimits on MIRVed systems. Collateral benefits include improved verification procedures, working definitions and counting rules, and permanent bureaucratic apparatus which enhance stability and increase the chances for achieving additional agreements.

  16. Liquid-vapour surface tension measurements of refractory metals by the pendant drop method under ultrahigh vacuum conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A careful implementation of the pendant drop technique for preparing the samples processed in an ultrahigh vacuum drop tube allows to measure accurately the liquid-vapor surface tension of a new set of refractory metals (Hf, V, Ti). It is shown that the result value disparity is essentially due to the complex action of the gases that are present in the drop volume. This study may also help to understand the significant disparities observed between the published values of this property. (authors). 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  17. A modular synthesis of dithiocarbamate pendant unnatural a-amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnatural a-amino acids containing dithiocarbamate side chains were synthesized by a one-pot reaction of in-situ generated dithiocarbamate anions with sulfamidates. A wide range of these anions participated in the highly regio- and stereo-selective ring opening of sulfamidates to...

  18. Pendant ionic groups of conjugated oligoelectrolytes govern their ability to intercalate into microbial membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, A W; Catania, C; Garner, L E; Bazan, G C

    2015-05-21

    Conjugated oligoelectrolytes (COEs) bearing pyridinium and carboxylate groups are synthesized, characterized, and compared to the trimethylammonium analogue from which they are derived. All COEs are able to spontaneously intercalate into liposomes, whereas only positively charged COEs intercalate into E. coli membranes. Membrane intercalation is determined necessary for performance enhancement in microbial fuel cells. PMID:25960368

  19. Frequency synthesizers concept to product

    CERN Document Server

    Chenakin, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A frequency synthesizer is an electronic system for generating any of a range of frequencies from a single fixed oscillator. They are found in modern devices like radio receivers, mobile phones, and GPS systems. This comprehensive resource offers RF and microwave engineers a thorough overview of both well-established and recently developed frequency synthesizer design techniques. Professionals find expert guidance on all design aspects, including main architectures, key building blocks, and practical circuit implementation. Engineers learn the development process and gain a solid understanding

  20. Build Your Own Robot Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    IEEE

    2012-01-01

    In this lesson, learners develop a robot arm using common materials. Learners explore design, construction, and teamwork, as well as materials selection and use. The robot arm must be at least 18 inches in length and must be able to pick up an empty Styrofoam cup. Teams of learners must agree on a design for the robot arm and identify what materials will be used. Learners will draw a sketch of their design prior to construction. Resulting robot arms are then tested and checked for range of motion and satisfaction of the given criteria.

  1. Asymmetrische Synthese von 1-Aminocyclobutancarbonsäuren

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Claus-Jürgen

    2002-01-01

    Ziele dieser Arbeit waren zunächst die Optimierung der Synthese der razemischen 2- Hydroxy-2,3,3-trimethyl-butansäure (4) sowie die Entwicklung einer effizienten Razematspaltung dieser Säure. Nach dem Aufbau des Glycinäquivalents sollte dieses für den stereoselektiven Aufbau 2-substituierter 1-Aminocyclobutancarbonsäuren verwendet werden. Dabei sollte zum einen auf bereits bestehende Synthesemethoden zurückgegriffen, als auch ggf. neue Synthesewege entwickelt werden. Die...

  2. Oxidative synthesis of a novel polyphenol having pendant Schiff base group: Synthesis, characterization, non-isothermal decomposition kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? In this study, the synthesis and thermal characterization of a new functional polyphenol are reported. ? Non-isothermal methods were used to evaluate the thermal decomposition kinetics of resulting polymer. ? Thermal decomposition of polymer follows a diffusion type kinetic model. ? It is noted that this kinetic model is quite rare in polymer degradation studies. - Abstract: In here, the facile synthesis and thermal characterization of a novel polyphenol containing Schiff base pendant group, poly(4-{[(4-hydroxyphenyl)imino]methyl}benzene-1,2,3-triol) [PHPIMB], are reported. UV-vis, FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, GPC, TG/DTG-DTA, CV (cyclic voltammetry) and solid state conductivity measurements were utilized to characterize the obtained monomer and polymer. The spectral analyses results showed that PHPIMB was composed of polyphenol main chains containing Schiff base pendant side groups. Thermal properties of the polymer were investigated by thermogravimetric analyses under a nitrogen atmosphere. Five methods were used to study the thermal decomposition of PHPIMB at different heating rate and the results obtained by using all the kinetic methods were compared with each other. The thermal decomposition of PHPIMB was found to be a simple process composed of three stages. These investigated methods were those of Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO), Tang, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS), Friedman and Kissinger methods.r methods.

  3. Disarmament and arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses how far science and technology can provide methods of making arms control and disarmament agreements more controlable in an objective way. Two case studies have been considered, the test ban treaty and the verification of the number of strategic nuclear weapons. These lead to the conclusion that both science and politics are closely interwoven and that within what appear to be scientific arguments, political positions are being defended. Consequently scientists and technologists and the contexts in which they work, play a prominent role. (C.F.)

  4. 33 CFR 154.510 - Loading arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loading arms. 154.510 Section 154.510 Navigation... Equipment Requirements § 154.510 Loading arms. (a) Each mechanical loading arm used for transferring oil or hazardous...

  5. X-Armed Bandits

    CERN Document Server

    Bubeck, Sébastien; Stoltz, Gilles; Szepesvari, Csaba

    2010-01-01

    We consider a generalization of stochastic bandits where the set of arms, $\\cX$, is allowed to be a generic measurable space and the mean-payoff function is "locally Lipschitz" with respect to a dissimilarity function that is known to the decision maker. Under this condition we construct an arm selection policy, called HOO hierarchical optimistic optimization), with improved regret bounds compared to previous results for a large class of problems. In particular, our results imply that if $\\cX$ is the unit hypercube in a Euclidean space and the mean-payoff function has a finite number of global maxima around which the behavior of the function is locally H\\"older continuous with a known exponent, then the expected of HOO regret is bounded up to a logarithmic factor by $\\sqrt{n}$, i.e., the rate of growth of the regret is independent of the dimension of the space. We also prove the minimax optimality of our algorithm when the dissimilarity is a metric.

  6. Femtosecond laser comb based subterahertz synthesizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, D. S.; Tretyakov, M. Yu.; Shkaev, A. P.; Kiselev, A. M.; Stepanov, A. N.; Parshin, V. V.

    2014-08-01

    Functioning layout of a frequency comb-based subterahertz synthesizer is demonstrated. A primary subterahertz oscillator was phase-locked against the Ti:Sapphire femtosecond laser frequency comb down-converted to the subterahertz range by the semiconductor mixer. Synthesizer operation is demonstrated through Fabri-Perot resonator response curve recording experiment. Spectral purity of the synthesizer was estimated. The advantage of the comb-based synthesizer over the synthesizer based on the Agilent E8257D device was shown.

  7. LISA Long-Arm Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, James I.

    2009-01-01

    An overview of LISA Long-Arm Interferometry is presented. The contents include: 1) LISA Interferometry; 2) Constellation Design; 3) Telescope Design; 4) Constellation Acquisition; 5) Mechanisms; 6) Optical Bench Design; 7) Phase Measurement Subsystem; 8) Phasemeter Demonstration; 9) Time Delay Interferometry; 10) TDI Limitations; 11) Active Frequency Stabilization; 12) Spacecraft Level Stabilization; 13) Arm-Locking; and 14) Embarassment of Riches.

  8. Pseudotachylite Bearing Cretaceous Fault in the Saddlebag Lake Pendant, Central Sierra Nevada, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesides, A. S.; Cao, W.; Paterson, S. R.

    2010-12-01

    Over the past several years the undergraduate researchers and mentors in the University of Southern California’s Undergraduate Team Research program has mapped the northern continuation of the Gem Lake shear zone from Gem Lake to Virginia Canyon near the north end of the Saddlebag pendant. In the center of this dominantly dextral, ductile shear zone we now recognize a pseudotachylite bearing brittle fault that often juxtaposes Triassic metavolcanics to the east of the fault with a Jurassic metasedimentary package to the west of the fault. Kinematic indicators such as slickenlines, steps, and offset dikes found within the brittle fault zone also suggest dextral oblique motion, similar to the motion of the ductile shear zone. The brittle fault dips steeply and strikes N-NW with the fault zone width varying from narrow (sub m scale) to a 100-200 m wide fracture zone as seen in the Sawmill area. Jurrasic metasediments (> 177Ma) and Cretaceous metavolcanics (110-95Ma) lie to the West of the fault and Triassic metavolcanics (219Ma) lie to the East of the fault in the Virginia Canyon, Saddlebag Lake, and Sawmill areas. The absence of ~45 million years of Jurassic metavolcanics along the contact of the fault in each area, suggests tectonic removal of the sequence. Pseudotachylite, quartz vein rich breccias, gouge, fault scarps, and truncated Cathedral Peak dikes (~88 Ma) originating from the Tuolumne Batholith (TB), are common features associated with the brittle fault. The truncated, 88 Ma Cathedral Peak dikes plus nearby biotite cooling ages of 82 Ma indicate that displacement on the brittle fault continued well after TB emplacement and cooling and likely continued after ~80 Ma. The pseudotachylite suggests earthquakes occurred on the brittle fault during the Cretaceous. Movement also occurred along the fault at fairly shallow depths as indicated by the presence of vugs, or cavities with free euhedral crystal growth, within the quartz vein breccias. In the Sawmill Canyon area, located immediately southwest of Saddlebag Lake, the fault zone widens and is rich with evidence of brittle faulting including the quartz vein breccias similar to other study areas and localized pseudotachylite veins and breccias with angular rock fragments varying from 4 cm in size. The fault branches off into several different strands within this zone, each associated with the quartz breccias and pseudotachylite common in the area. Outcrop scale kink bands found along some of the fault strands, suggesting late brittle faulting with the decrease of regional strain. Brittle faulting in the Sawmill area may be further complicated by large-scale boudinage associated with the faulting in the area. Some of the contacts in this area identified as fault strands may in part be large, fluid-filled cracks associated with bending (tension due to scar folding?) during boudinage of the metasedimentary package and nearby margin of the Tuolumne batholith in the area.

  9. Korean arms control: Arms control policies of the two Koreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, T.H.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the arms control proposals suggested by South and North Korea since the end of the Korean War and suggests some arms control measures that would be applied to the Korean Peninsula. Pyongyang has persistently proposed arms reduction measures since 1953, but Seoul has refused to discuss the issue because it suspected the North's true motive. The study points out that the objective reality of the two Koreas does not show any strong possibility of a war on the Peninsula. The most destabilizing factor in the South-North military relations is the possibility of misperception and miscalculation about the military capabilities and intentions of the other side. The study recommends that Seoul government not entirely adhere to the European CSBM model centered on the transparency of military activities. There are many other policy options for Seoul. The area between Seoul and Pyongyang can be made into a [open quotes]limited forces area[close quotes] as experienced by Egypt and Israel on the Sinai Peninsula. The study notes the utility of applying Charles Osgood's GRIT strategy to the Korean situation, a unilateral arms control approach. Among the structural arms control issues, the withdrawal of the US forces and its nuclear weapons are the most important ones which have to be dealt with before seriously negotiating arms reductions between the two Koreas. Considering the increasing capability of the South Korean armed forces and the availability of the US air and naval forces in and around South Korea, the US ground forces and the nuclear weapons would best be withdrawn from the South. Although these withdrawals cannot be used as bargaining chips by the South in the arms control negotiations with the North, these can be effectively utilized as GRIT measures. The South needs to persuade the North to reduce its redundant offensive weapons including chemical weapons and SCUD missiles as priority targets for arms reduction.

  10. Introduction of bridging and pendant organic groups into mesoporous alumina materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Stacy M; Woods, Stephan M; Gericke, Arne; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2011-11-01

    Incorporation of organic functionalities into soft-templated mesoporous alumina was performed via organosilane-assisted evaporation induced self-assembly using aluminum alkoxide precursors and block copolymer templates. This strategy permits one to obtain mesoporous alumina-based materials with tailorable adsorption, surface and structural properties. Isocyanurate, ethane, mercaptopropyl, and ureidopropyl-functionalized mesoporous alumina materials were synthesized with relatively high surface area and large pore volume with uniform and wormhole-like mesopores. The presence of organosilyl groups within these hybrid materials was confirmed by IR or Raman spectroscopy and their concentration was determined by elemental analysis. PMID:21988174

  11. Nuclear arms cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Soviet Union's demise five years ago brought an end to the Cold War, the 45-year arms race between the Soviet superpower and the United States. The euphoria that greeted the end of this bloodless conflict has dampened somewhat, however, as U.S. officials and their counterparts in the former Soviet republics come to grips with its legacy: thousands of highly toxic and politically destabilizing nuclear weapons. With no more perceived need for much of their vast arsenals, the governments have agreed to dismantle large numbers of nuclear warheads. But the agencies involved in this task face a daunting technical and political problem: what to do with the thousands of tons of plutonium and uranium that are the main ingredients of nuclear weapons

  12. Arm locking for space-based laser interferometry gravitational wave observatories

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Yinan; Mueller, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Laser frequency stabilization is a critical part of the interferometry measurement system of space-based gravitational wave observatories such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). Arm locking as a proposed frequency stabilization technique, transfers the stability of the long arm lengths to the laser frequency. The arm locking sensor synthesizes an adequately filtered linear combination of the inter-spacecraft phase measurements to estimate the laser frequency noise, which can be used to control the laser frequency. At the University of Florida we developed the hardware-based University of Florida LISA Interferometer Simulator (UFLIS) to study and verify laser frequency noise reduction and suppression techniques under realistic LISA-like conditions. These conditions include the variable Doppler shifts between the spacecraft, LISA-like signal travel times, optical transponders, realistic laser frequency and timing noise. We review the different types of arm locking sensors and discuss their expect...

  13. HABITAT DE LA TRUITE COMMUNE (SALMO TRUTTA L. PENDANT LA PÉRIODE JUVÉNILE EN RUISSEAU : PRÉFÉRENCES, MOUVEMENTS, VARIATIONS JOURNALIÈRES ET SAISONNIÈRES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROUSSEL J. M.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Cet article synthétise les résultats de travaux récents sur l’habitat de la truite commune pendant sa période juvénile en ruisseau. Par des approches in situ (affluents du Scorff, Bretagne et en milieu expérimental, les variations temporelles d’utilisation de l’habitat ont été étudiées, ainsi que l’influence de certains facteurs abiotiques (vitesse de courant, profondeur, granulométrie, abris et biotiques (prédation, compétition intraspécifique sur les choix d’habitat de l’individu. A l’aide de la bibliographie sur le sujet, nous proposons un bilan des changements journaliers et saisonniers d’habitat du juvénile en ruisseau, depuis l’émergence jusqu’à la première reproduction. En matière de protection des milieux, l’accent est mis sur l’importance de la diversité des habitats disponibles dans les affluents où se reproduit l’espèce.

  14. Nommer le conflit. Le cas de l’Alsace pendant son annexion de fait au Troisième Reich, 1940-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Ségolène Verneret

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available L’étude des comportements et opinions de la population en Alsace entre 1940 et 1945 fait appel à la nécessité de nommer une conflictualité parfois floue, ambivalente et qui évolue au cours de la période. Il convient de s’interroger sur l’adaptation des outils de définition des comportements développés en France et en Allemagne pour la situation alsacienne pendant l’annexion de fait de son territoire.   Alsace 1940-1945, oppositions au nazisme, comportements collectifsDie Erforschung des Verhaltens und der Meinung der Bevölkerung im Elsass zwischen 1940-1945 bringt die Notwendigkeit mit sich, eine zuweilen undurchsichtige, zweideutige Konfliktträchtigkeit zu benennen, die sich im Zeitraum der Annektierung zudem entwickelte. Die methodischen Werkzeuge zur Definition kollektiven Verhaltens, die in Frankreich und Deutschland für diesen elsässischen Fall entwickelt wurden, müssen hierbei angepasst werden.

  15. Synthesis and reactivity of molybdenum and tungsten bis(dinitrogen) complexes supported by diphosphine chelates containing pendant amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Charles J.; Groves, Amy N.; Mock, Michael T.; Dougherty, William G.; Kassel, W. S.; Helm, Monte L.; DuBois, Daniel L.; Bullock, R. Morris

    2012-04-30

    In this study, we report the synthesis and characterization of molybdenum bis(dinitrogen) complexes supported by two PNP diphosphine ligands, Mo(N{sub 2}){sub 2}(PNP){sub 2}; PNP = [(R{sub 2}PCH{sub 2}){sub 2}N(R'), R = Et (ethyl), Ph (phenyl); R'= Me (methyl), Bn (benzyl)], and a series of tungsten bis(dinitrogen) complexes containing one or two PNP ligands, W(N{sub 2}){sub 2}(dppe)(PNP) and W(N{sub 2}){sub 2}(PNP){sub 2}, respectively, and the analogues complexes without pendant amines for comparison. These Mo- and W-N{sub 2} complexes were characterized by NMR, IR, spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. In addition, reactivity of the complexes with CO is described.

  16. Les femmes et les enfants, prisonniers politiques ou déportés à titre préventif pendant la guerre civile grecque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Alexopoulos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Les conditions et stratégies de survie des milliers de femmes condamnées ou déportées de la guerre civile grecque permettent d'établir une typologie.Pendant la guerre civile grecque (1946-1949 des milliers de personnes sont emprisonnées, déportées dans des camps de concentration ou exilées dans des îles, une population hétéroclite d’hommes et de femmes, persécutés pour leurs idées, leurs origines ou même des liens de parenté avec les communistes. Dans la présente étude, nous nous intéresserons à un groupe lui-même peu homogène, les femmes et les enfants, prisonniers politiques ou déportés à titre préventif pendant le conflit. Après un bref rappel de la pratique de la déportation et une esquisse de typologie de la réclusion, nous étudierons les conditions de détention et les stratégies de survie des femmes, souvent emprisonnées avec leurs enfants, leur statut au sein des prisonniers politiques ainsi que le sens de l'engagement politique dans leur système de valeurs.During the Greek Civil War (1946-1949 thousands of persons were imprisoned, deported to concentration camps or exiled on the islands, a heteroclite population of men and women, persecuted for their ideas, their origins or even their association with the Communists. In the present study, we are interested in a not particularly homogeneous group of women and children, political prisoners or deportees who had been detained for preventive reasons during the conflict. Following a brief summary of the practice of deportation and a typological sketch of the imprisonment, we shall study the detention conditions and the survival strategies of the women, often imprisoned with their children, their status vis-à-vis the political prisoners as well as the meaning of political commitment in their value system.

  17. ARM Lead Mentor Selection Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisterson, DL

    2013-03-13

    The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as Instrument Mentors. Instrument Mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets.

  18. Method of synthesizing tungsten nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Steven G; Anderson, Travis M

    2013-02-12

    A method to synthesize tungsten nanoparticles has been developed that enables synthesis of nanometer-scale, monodisperse particles that can be stabilized only by tetrahydrofuran. The method can be used at room temperature, is scalable, and the product concentrated by standard means. Since no additives or stabilizing surfactants are required, this method is particularly well suited for producing tungsten nanoparticles for dispersion in polymers. If complete dispersion is achieved due to the size of the nanoparticles, then the optical properties of the polymer can be largely maintained.

  19. Arm fat and muscle areas in infancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Sann, L; Durand, M.; Picard, J; Lasne, Y; Bethenod, M

    1988-01-01

    Growth of arm muscle, fat and water areas were evaluated longitudinally in a prospective study in 81 infants from birth to the age of 12 months. The percentage of arm fat area v the cross sectional upper arm area increased at the age of 15 days with a peak peak at the age of 6 months while arm muscle area increased progressively throughout the year. As arm water area represented only 1% of cross sectional upper arm area, calculations of arm fat and muscle areas can be carried out from measure...

  20. Synthesis and catalytic application of magnesium complexes bearing pendant indolyl ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Kuo-Fu; Chen, Yun; Chen, Chi-Tien

    2015-05-12

    Three novel indole-based ligand precursors [HIndPh(R), R = methoxy, HIndPh(OMe) (); thiomethoxy, HIndPh(SMe) (); and N,N'-dimethylamino, HIndPh(NMe2) ()] have been synthesized via Sonogashira and cyclization reactions with moderate to high yield. Reactions of these ligand precursors with 0.6 equivalent of Mg(n)Bu2 in THF afforded the magnesium bis-indolyl complexes , respectively. All the ligand precursors and related magnesium complexes have been characterized by NMR spectroscopy and elemental analyses. The molecular structures are reported for compounds and . Under optimized conditions, compound demonstrates efficient catalytic activities towards the ring opening polymerization of l-lactide and ?-caprolactone in the presence of BnOH. PMID:25923231

  1. Collecting Survey Data during Armed Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Axinn, William G.; Ghimire, Dirgha; Williams, Nathalie E.

    2012-01-01

    Surveys provide crucial information about the social consequences of armed conflict, but armed conflict can shape surveys in ways that limit their value. We use longitudinal survey data from throughout the recent armed conflict in Nepal to investigate the relationship between armed conflict events and survey response. The Chitwan Valley Family Study (CVFS) provides a rare window into survey data collection through intense armed conflict. The CVFS data reveal that with operational strategies t...

  2. ARM Soc Based Enotebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranita C Bawankar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, electronic media has grown very fast replacing papers, tape devices, books, etc. The new technologies provide large number of data into single device, fast searching options and more readability than ever. As eBooks are replacing books; we are proposing ENotebook system in which user can write as he did in notebook, save, searches and then reread content. This paper presents design and development of ENotebook using ARM7. The system uses touch screen to get input data and operations like save, delete, open & close of data file. All data sensed by touch screen is digitized by internal ADCs of LPC2148 microcontroller which gives low power platform with fast execution. The output is shown on graphical LCD. Whatever user writes on screen it may need to save for future use. The content of such hand written data will be in graphical/pictorial form hence required large of memory for storage. We can provide external memory using pen drive, memory card, EEPROM etc. in this system we are using SD card interfacing through SPI port.

  3. The major yolk protein is synthesized in the digestive tract and secreted into the body cavities in sea urchin larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unuma, Tatsuya; Konishi, Kooichi; Kiyomoto, Masato; Matranga, Valeria; Yamano, Keisuke; Ohta, Hiromi; Yokota, Yukio

    2009-02-01

    Major yolk protein (MYP), a transferrin superfamily protein contained in yolk granules of sea urchin eggs, also occurs in the coelomic fluid of male and female adult sea urchins regardless of their reproductive cycle. MYP in the coelomic fluid (CFMYP; 180 kDa) has a zinc-binding capacity and has a higher molecular mass than MYP in eggs (EGMYP; 170 kDa). CFMYP is thought to be synthesized in the digestive tract and secreted into the coelomic fluid where it is involved in the transport of zinc derived from food. To clarify when and where MYP synthesis starts, we investigated the expression of MYP during larval development and growth in Pseudocentrotus depressus. MYP mRNA was detected using RT-PCR in the early 8-arm pluteus stage and its expression persisted until after metamorphosis. Real-time RT-PCR revealed that MYP mRNA increased exponentially from the early 8-arm stage to metamorphosis. Western blotting showed that maternal EGMYP disappeared by the 4-arm stage and that newly synthesized CFMYP was present at and after the mid 8-arm stage. In the late 8-arm larvae, MYP mRNA was detected in the digestive tract using in situ hybridization, and the protein was found in the somatocoel and the blastocoel-derived space between the somatocoel and epidermis using immunohistochemistry. These results suggest that CFMYP is synthesized in the digestive tract and secreted into the body cavities at and after the early 8-arm stage. We assume that in larvae, CFMYP transports zinc derived from food via the body cavities to various tissues, as suggested for adults. PMID:18500722

  4. The polymer electrolyte based on polysiloxane containing both alkyl cyanide and oligo ethylene oxide pendants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monomers (3-cyanopropyl) methylsiloxane cyclics (D4CN) and (3-(2-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxy)propyl) methylsiloxane cyclics (D4TEG) were prepared by a hydrosilylation reaction of 2,4,6,8-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4H) with allyl cyanide and tri(ethylene glycol) methyl allyl ether (allyl TEG), respectively, in toluene using a platinum(0)-1,3-divinyl-1,1,3,3-tetramethyl disiloxane complex as the catalyst. The new crosslinkable polymers with alkyl cyanide and ethylene oxide groups as the pendent were synthesized by ring opening polymerization and characterized by GPC and 1H NMR. And then, the crosslinked solid polymer electrolyte was prepared by UV radiation curing. The conductivities of samples were measured by impedance spectroscopy using an indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrode. As the results, the maximum ionic conductivities of the polymer were 1.15 x 10-5 S cm-1 at 20 deg. C and 1 x 10-4 S cm-1 at 60 deg. C. The electrolyte was stable electrochemically to 5 V versus Li+/Li at room temperature

  5. Poly (ethylene glycol)-armed hyperbranched polyoxetanes for anticancer drug delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Khushboo; Zolotarskaya, Olga Yu; Wynne, Kenneth J.; Yang, Hu

    2012-01-01

    A facile method for synthesis of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-armed hyperbranched polyoxetanes is presented as well as characterization and use in drug delivery. A series of hyperbranched polyoxetanes with multiple PEG arms were synthesized via a one-pot cationic ring-opening polymerization of 3-ethyl-3-hydroxymethyloxetane (EHMO) and its PEGylated derivative (EPMO), in which the feed mass ratio of EHMO to EPMO was 98:2, 96:4, 74:26, or 17:83. Characterization methods included NMR, DLS, FT-IR, D...

  6. Des femmes dans la France combattante pendant la Deuxième Guerre mondiale : Le Corps des Volontaires Françaises et le Groupe Rochambeau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Jauneau

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cet article aborde la question de l’engagement des femmes dans l’Armée française pendant la Deuxième Guerre Mondiale grâce aux traces écrites qu’elles ont laissés.Dès 1940, plusieurs centaines de femmes rejoignent les rangs des FFL à Londres, mais aussi en Afrique du Nord (Algérie, Maroc, Tunisie. Elles s’engagent dans les trois corps d’Armée et sont présentes dans la plupart des services. Souvent dénigrées par les hommes, sous-estimées aussi, ces femmes accomplissent pourtant des tâches essentielles entre 1940 et 1945. Cet engagement moral, physique et souvent idéologique dans l’Armée de la Libération, devient pour la plupart d’entre elles un tournant définitif dans leur vie. Nombreuses sont celles qui ont éprouvé le besoin de raconter cette période si « particulière » de leur vie. La lecture des témoignages et des souvenirs permet de comprendre quand et comment s’est déroulé leur engagement. Car, contrairement aux idées reçues, elles n’étaient pas toutes dans les transmissions ou dans les services de santé. Elles n’étaient pas non plus « que » des AFAT (Auxiliaires féminines de l’Armée de Terre. Grâce à un panel d’autobiographies et de souvenirs de guerre, les points abordés ici seront donc ceux du contexte et des motivations de l’engagement, des postes occupés par ces femmes, ainsi que du regard que les libérateurs ont porté sur elles pendant mais surtout après la Libération.This article uses women’s writings to examine women’s voluntary enlistment in the French Army during World War II. As early as 1940, several hundred women joined the Free French Army’s ranks in London, but also in North Africa (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia. They enlisted in the three army corps and were present in most services. These women carried out essential jobs between 1940 and 1945, although men often denigrated and underestimated their contributions. This moral, physical, and often ideological engagement in the Liberation Army became for most of them a permanent turning point in their lives. Many felt the need to write about this particular period of their lives. Their testimonies and memories reveal the context and motivations surrounding their decision to enlist. Contrary to general opinion, they were not just « AFAT » (Land Army’s Female Auxiliaries nor did they only serve in transmission or health services. The article then examines the nature of women’s jobs and the ways French soldiers described them during and after the Liberation.

  7. DYNAMIQUE DES STRUCTURES COHERENTES MAGNETIQUES A L'ECHELLE IONIQUE ET COUPLAGE AVEC LES ONDES DE SIFFLEMENT PENDANT LES SOUS-ORAGES.

    OpenAIRE

    Tenerani, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Dans cette thèse, on propose un nouveau modèle de couplage auto-cohérent entre des structures magnétiques cohérentes sur les échelles ioniques et des ondes dites de sifflement (whistlers, en anglais) à plus hautes fréquences, afin d'interpréter les données expérimentales recueillies par les satellites Cluster pendant un sous-orage magnétique dans la région nocturne de la magnétosphère terrestre. Le couplage fournit un mécanisme pour confiner et transporter les ondes whistlers ...

  8. ARM Education Center: Lesson Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is described as an important part of the US Department of Energy's strategy to understand global climate change. The ARM Education and Outreach Program offers the Lesson Plans Web site that strives to create basic science lessons related to weather and climate for K-12. Educators will find lessons on outgassing, air density and temperature, air pressure, winds, making clouds, the effect of solar radiation on land and sea, coastal erosion, acid rain, and many more -- each with a complete description of methods and materials needed. Other resources that can be found on the site include an extensive atmospheric science glossary, a learn how to graph activity, specific lessons that utilize ARM's Program data, quizzes, and related links.

  9. Ergonomically neutral arm support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siminovitch, Michael J; Chung, Jeffrey Y; Dellinges, Steven; Lafever, Robin E

    2005-08-02

    An ergonomic arm support system maintains a neutral position for the forearm. A mechanical support structure attached to a chair or other mounting structure supports the arms of a sitting or standing person. The system includes moving elements and tensioning elements to provide a dynamic balancing force against the forearms. The support structure is not fixed or locked in a rigid position, but is an active dynamic system that is maintained in equipoise by the continuous operation of the opposing forces. The support structure includes an armrest connected to a flexible linkage or articulated or pivoting assembly, which includes a tensioning element such as a spring. The pivoting assembly moves up and down, with the tensioning element providing the upward force that balances the downward force of the arm.

  10. Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N; Johnson, K

    2012-06-18

    The scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) is a polarimetric Doppler radar consisting of three different radar designs based on operating frequency. These are designated as follows: (1) X-band SACR (X-SACR); (2) Ka-band SACR (Ka-SACR); and (3) W-band SACR (W-SACR). There are two SACRs on a single pedestal at each site where SACRs are deployed. The selection of the operating frequencies at each deployed site is predominantly determined by atmospheric attenuation at the site. Because RF attenuation increases with atmospheric water vapor content, ARM's Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites use the X-/Ka-band frequency pair. The Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites field the Ka-/W-band frequency pair. One ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) has a Ka/W-SACR and the other (AMF2) has a X/Ka-SACR.

  11. Cobalt Complexes Containing Pendant Amines in the Second Coordination Sphere as Electrocatalysts for H2 Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Ming; Wiedner, Eric S.; Dougherty, William G.; Kassel, W. S.; Liu, Tianbiao L.; DuBois, Daniel L.; Bullock, R. Morris

    2014-10-27

    A series of heteroleptic 17e- cobalt complexes, [CpCoII(PtBu2NPh2)](BF4), [CpC6F5CoII(PtBu2NPh2)](BF4), [CpC5F4NCoII(PtBu2NPh2)](BF4), [where P2tBuN2Ph = 1,5-diphenyl-3,7-di(tert-butyl)-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane, CpC6F5 = C5H4(C6F5), and CpC5F4N = C5H4(C5F4N)] were synthesized, and structures of all three were determined by X-ray crystallography. Electrochemical studies showed that the CoIII/II couple of [CpC5F4NCoII(PtBu2NPh2)]+ appears 250 mV positive of the CoIII/II couple of [CpCoII(PtBu2NPh2)] as a result of the strongly electron-withdrawing perfluorpyridyl substituent on the Cp ring. Reduction of these paramagnetic CoII complexes by KC8 led to the diamagnetic 18e- complexes CpICo(PtBu2NPh2), CpC6F5CoI(PtBu2NPh2), CpC5F4NCoI(PtBu2NPh2), which were also characterized by crystallography. Protonation of these neutral CoI complexes led to the cobalt hydrides [CpCoIII(PtBu2NPh2)H](BF4), [CpC6F5CoIII(PtBu2NPh2)H](BF4), and [CpC5F4NCoIII(PtBu2NPh2)H](BF4). The cobalt hydride with the most electron-withdrawing Cp ligand, [CpC5F4NCoIII(PtBu2NPh2)H]+ is an electrocatalyst for production of H2 using 4-MeOC6H4NH3BF4 (pKaMeCN = 11.86) with a turnover frequency of 350 s-1 and an overpotential of 0.75 V. Experimental measurement of thermochemical data provided further insights into the thermodynamics of H2 elimination. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of novel polyamide-ethers based on bis-imidazole containing bulky aryl pendant groups

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Seyed Mahdi, Saadati; Mohammad Hossein, Mosslemin; Hossein, Behmadi.

    Full Text Available A series of novel polyamide-ethers (PAEs) based on bis-imidazole containing bulky aryl pendant groups was prepared by direct polycondensation of a diamine, 4-(1-(4-(4-(2-(4-aminophenyl)-4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl)phenoxy)phenyl)-4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)benzenamine (DABI), and various dicarb [...] oxylic acids. All the resulting polyamide-ethers were amorphous with inherent viscosities ranged from 0.52 to 0.61 dL/g and were readily soluble in many organic solvents which could be solution-cast into transparent and tough films. The glass transition temperatures (Tg) of these polymers were affected considerably by their chemical structure and ranged from 230 to 310 ºC. They had useful levels of thermal stability associated with relatively high temperatures of 10% weight loss (T10) in the range of 329-399 ºC in air atmosphere.

  13. Remote manipulator arm for nuclear generator repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A remote manipulator arm for positioning and operating tube sheet repair tools within a nuclear generator shell. The arm includes a number of arm segments linked serially, each having a remotely-controlled motor to pivot an elbow in the arm segment by way of gears. A mounting bracket passes through a manhole in the generator shell and provides a stable point of connection for the arm, both inside and outside the shell, as well as connections for power and control signals to the arm. A workhead is provided for mounting on the arm end opposite the bracket, and can carry a plurality of tools to conduct repair operations on tubes. The mounting bracket can be installed from without the shell and does not block the manhole, and the arm is self-installing, requiring no human presence within the generator shell

  14. Quadriplegic Uses Thoughts to Control Robotic Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the brain called the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), which controls the intention to move. That's in ... arm" and "extend the arm." Signals from the PPC are "higher level," and related to overall goals, ...

  15. 49 CFR 236.702 - Arm, semaphore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Arm, semaphore. 236.702 Section 236.702 Transportation...SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.702 Arm, semaphore. The part of a semaphore signal displaying...

  16. Herpes zoster (shingles) on the arm (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a picture of herpes zoster (shingles) on the arm. Shingles are caused by the same virus that ... skin. This distribution pattern, seen here on the arm, follows a dermatome (see the "dermatomes" picture).

  17. The Arm's Length Principle and Tacit Collusion

    OpenAIRE

    Choe, Chongwoo; Matsushima, Noriaki

    2011-01-01

    The arm's length principle states that the transfer price between two associated enterprises should be the price that would be paid for similar goods in similar circumstances by unrelated parties dealing at arm's length with each other. This paper examines the effect of the arm's length principle on dynamic competition in imperfectly competitive markets. It is shown that the arm's length principle renders tacit collusion more stable. This is true whether firms have exclusive dealings wi...

  18. 21 CFR 890.3640 - Arm sling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arm sling. 890.3640 Section 890.3640 Food...Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3640 Arm sling. (a) Identification. An arm sling is a device intended for medical...

  19. 32 CFR 935.134 - Arm signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arm signals. 935.134 Section 935.134...CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.134 Arm signals. (a) Any person operating...stop is made by fully extending the left arm as follows: (1) Left...

  20. ARM Data for Cloud Parameterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Kuan-Man

    2006-10-02

    The PI's ARM investigation (DE-IA02-02ER633 18) developed a physically-based subgrid-scale saturation representation that fully considers the direct interactions of the parameterized subgrid-scale motions with subgrid-scale cloud microphysical and radiative processes. Major accomplishments under the support of that interagency agreement are summarized in this paper.

  1. The Arm Prime Factors Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Arm, Boris

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the Arm prime factors decomposition which is the equivalent of the Taylor formula for decomposition of integers on the basis of prime numbers. We make the link between this decomposition and the p-adic norm known in the p-adic numbers theory. To see how it works, we give examples of these two

  2. Nuclear physicist, arms control advocate

    CERN Multimedia

    Chang, K

    2002-01-01

    Victor F. Weisskopf, a nuclear physicist who worked on the Manhattan Project to build the first atomic bomb in World War II and later became an ardent advocate of arms control, died Monday at his home in Newton, MA, USA. He was 93 (1 page).

  3. MOBILE ARM RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (MARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The power point presentation included an overview of the Mobile Arm Retreival System (MARS) including background information, schedule and design strategy, and described the sound tank system, assumed leaking tank system, key technical issues, the design progress, and the fabrication process

  4. Poly (ethylene glycol)-armed hyperbranched polyoxetanes for anticancer drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Khushboo; Zolotarskaya, Olga Yu; Wynne, Kenneth J; Yang, Hu

    2012-11-01

    A facile method for synthesis of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-armed hyperbranched polyoxetanes is presented as well as characterization and use in drug delivery. A series of hyperbranched polyoxetanes with multiple PEG arms were synthesized via a one-pot cationic ring-opening polymerization of 3-ethyl-3-hydroxymethyloxetane (EHMO) and its PEGylated derivative (EPMO), in which the feed mass ratio of EHMO to EPMO was 98:2, 96:4, 74:26, or 17:83. Characterization methods included NMR, DLS, FT-IR, DSC, and SEM. Toxicity of the synthesized polymers to human dermal fibroblasts was evaluated using the MTT assay. Formulation into particles was carried out to encapsulate the anticancer drug camptothecin using the single oil-in-water (o/w) solvent evaporation method. The resulting drug encapsulated particles were evaluated for antitumor activity using HN12 cells. PMID:23226692

  5. Composites comprising biologically-synthesized nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Seamus; Dias, Sampath; Blau, Werner; Wang, Jun; Oremland, Ronald S; Baesman, Shaun

    2013-04-30

    The present disclosure describes composite materials containing a polymer material and a nanoscale material dispersed in the polymer material. The nanoscale materials may be biologically synthesized, such as tellurium nanorods synthesized by Bacillus selenitireducens. Composite materials of the present disclosure may have optical limiting properties and find use in optical limiting devices.

  6. "Comments on Slavin": Synthesizing Causal Inferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Derek C.

    2008-01-01

    When causal inferences are to be synthesized across multiple studies, efforts to establish the magnitude of a causal effect should be balanced by an effort to evaluate the generalizability of the effect. The evaluation of generalizability depends on two factors that are given little attention in current syntheses: construct validity and external…

  7. Performance of arm locking in LISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) to reach its design sensitivity, the coupling of the free-running laser frequency noise to the signal readout must be reduced by more than 14 orders of magnitude. One technique employed to reduce the laser frequency noise will be arm locking, where the laser frequency is locked to the LISA arm length. In this paper we detail an implementation of arm locking. We investigate orbital effects (changing arm lengths and Doppler frequencies), the impact of errors in the Doppler knowledge that can cause pulling of the laser frequency, and the noise limit of arm locking. Laser frequency pulling is examined in two regimes: at lock acquisition and in steady state. The noise performance of arm locking is calculated with the inclusion of the dominant expected noise sources: ultrastable oscillator (clock) noise, spacecraft motion, and shot noise. We find that clock noise and spacecraft motion limit the performance of dual arm locking in the LISA science band. Studying these issues reveals that although dual arm locking [A. Sutton and D. A. Shaddock, Phys. Rev. D 78, 082001 (2008)] has advantages over single (or common) arm locking in terms of allowing high gain, it has disadvantages in both laser frequency pulling and noise performance. We address this by proposing a modification to the dual arm-locking sensor, a hybrid of common and dual arm-locking sensors. This modified dual arm-locking sensor has the laser frequency pulling charensor has the laser frequency pulling characteristics and low-frequency noise coupling of common arm locking, but retains the control system advantages of dual arm locking. We present a detailed design of an arm-locking controller and perform an analysis of the expected performance when used with and without laser prestabilization. We observe that the sensor phase changes beneficially near unity-gain frequencies of the arm-locking controller, allowing a factor of 10 more gain than previously believed, without degrading stability. With a time-delay error of 3 ns (equivalent of 1 m interspacecraft ranging error), time-delay interferometry (TDI) is capable of suppressing 300 Hz/?(Hz) of laser frequency noise to the required level. We show that if no interspacecraft laser links fail, arm locking alone surpasses this noise performance for the entire mission. If one interspacecraft laser link fails, arm locking alone will achieve this performance for all but approximately 1 h per year, when the arm length mismatch of the two remaining arms passes through zero. Therefore, the LISA sensitivity can be realized with arm locking and time-delay interferometry only, without any form of prestabilization.

  8. Ristripatsid Eesti 12.–13. sajandi laibakalmistutes: kas ehted või usu tunnused? / The cross-shaped pendants of inhumation burials in 12th-13th century Estonia: adornments or signs of belief?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuuli Kurisoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-shaped pendants are one of the most discussed symbolically laden artefacts among Estonian archaeological material. The beginning of the distribution of cross-shaped pendants dates back to 11th century when the artefacts, though scarce, appear. The number of such pendants increases noticeably at the very end of the Iron Age. Due to the ambiguous entity of cross and time context, cross-pendants have been interpreted either as symbols of Christian faith, as pieces of adornment not affiliated with Christianity, or as objects with magical qualities. In this paper I study pendants found in the inhumation cemeteries of Estonia. Only those provide us with an archaeological context which shows precisely who could have worn them and how. The analyzed cross-pendants were found at Pada, Kaberla, Kukruse, Haimre and Tammiku cemeteries and from the early burials in Viru-Nigula churchyard. As artefacts, the cross pendants are more or less stylized Greek crosses. In most cases the pendants were either used as a part of jewellery or worn singularly around the neck area. From the total of 48 analyzed cross-pendants one fourth could be interpreted as locally produced items. Of local origin are probably lead pendants from Pada cemetery, heads of decorative pins worn as cross-shaped pendants from Viru-Nigula and Kaberla cemeteries, and obvious scrap and unfinished pendant crosses. In addition, I would like to draw attention that cross-pendants from inhumation burials do not contain many widespread forms, such as ‘Scandinavian’ and some other widespread Russian origin types, which have been found in hoards, from hill-forts and cremation burials. This observation could confirm that cross pendants from 12th–13th century inhumation burials were communally recognized and some of them were locally manufactured. As the next stage of my investigation I studied different occurrence contexts of cross pendants in cemeteries and burials: the location of burials with cross-pendants in a cemetery, their orientation, grave goods, pendants with symbolic meaning and reference to other cross-symbolism. It appears that concerning general burial rituals, burials with cross-pendants do not differ from other contemporary burials. In the case of people being buried with crosses, family and/or community traditions may have been considered primary in the funeral rite. On an individual level it resulted in cross-pendants appearing in the graves of males, females or children; as a part of a necklace, as grave goods, etc.; either one or several. Finally, I took into account the data which I gained from contextual analyses and connected it with common interpretations. The research indicates that it is not reasonable to exclude interpretations in which crosses are seen only as adornments. After analyzing archaeological contexts, it appears that they probably had a symbolic meaning. The ambiguous nature of other interpretations made it difficult to connect them with archaeological evidence. Creating criteria in favour of one and/or another interpretation is artificial, because archaeological evidence from the inhumation burials is not univocally understandable. Burials with and without crosses do not differ considerably. Thus we should not interpret 12th–13th century inhumation burials through strict definitions; rather we should take into account a pluralistic world-view, enriched with multifarious symbolic language. Therefore, previously separated interpretations can be connected. The cross pendant could have a symbolic meaning and the definition of an amulet connects well with a Christian artefact of the Late Iron Age. For the owner it could have been both a symbol of Christianity and/or a good luck charm. In conclusion it seems that based on contextual analysis it is more likely that cross-shaped pendants were used as indicators of belief rather than just pieces of adornment. In addition it appears that the impulse for the appearance of cross-shaped pendants in inhumation burials in Estonia came from the general dissemination of these

  9. Control of flexible robotic arms, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic characteristics and control methods of a flexible robotic arm of first degree of freedom system are shown based on modelling a flexible arm as an elastic beam. Vibrations of the arm in positioning can be suppressed by the dynamic compensation with consideration of the arm flexibility, which current robotic arms have more or less in manipulating payloads. Subsequently, a control method of a SCARA type of a second degree of freedom system is shown based on the local feedback with variable adaptive gains to suppress vibrations in positioning control. In case of arm collisions against other objects, a control method to recover the state before collision is also shown as an application. The control methods proposed here are not limited to this special type of robotic arms, but also more general cases. (author)

  10. Diameter- and metallicity-selective enrichment of single-walled carbon nanotubes using polymethacrylates with pendant aromatic functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoyong; Li, Lain-Jong; Chan-Park, Mary B

    2010-06-21

    Current methods for the synthesis of single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) produce mixtures of semiconducting (sem-) and metallic (met-) nanotubes. Most approaches to the chemical separation of sem-/met-SWNTs are based on small neutral molecules or conjugated aromatic polymers, which characteristically have low separation/dispersion efficiencies or present difficulties in the postseparation removal of the polymer so that the resulting field-effect transistors (FETs) have poor performance. In this Full Paper, the use of three polymethacrylates with different pendant aromatic functional groups to separate cobalt-molybdenum catalyst (CoMoCAT) SWNTs according to their metallicity and diameters is reported. UV/Vis/NIR spectroscopy indicates that poly(methyl-methacrylate-co-fluorescein-o-acrylate) (PMMAFA) and poly(9-anthracenylmethyl-methacrylate) (PAMMA) preferentially disperse semiconducting SWNTs while poly(2-naphthylmethacrylate) (PNMA) preferentially disperses metallic SWNTs, all in dimethylforamide (DMF). Photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectroscopy indicates that all three polymers preferentially disperse smaller-diameter SWNTs, particularly those of (6,5) chirality, in DMF. When chloroform is used instead of DMF, the larger-diameter SWNTs (8,4) and (7,6) are instead selected by PNMA. The solvent effects suggest that diameter selectivity and change of polymer conformation is probably responsible. Change of the polymer fluorescence upon interaction with SWNTs indicates that metallicity selectivity presumably results from the photon-induced dipole-dipole interaction between polymeric chromophore and SWNTs. Thin-film FET devices using semiconductor-enriched solution with PMMAFA have been successfully fabricated and the device performance confirms the sem-SWNTs enrichment with a highly reproducible on/off ratio of about 10(3). PMID:20486222

  11. Regenerator cross arm seal assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Anthony V. (Indianapolis, IN)

    1988-01-01

    A seal assembly for disposition between a cross arm on a gas turbine engine block and a regenerator disc, the seal assembly including a platform coextensive with the cross arm, a seal and wear layer sealingly and slidingly engaging the regenerator disc, a porous and compliant support layer between the platform and the seal and wear layer porous enough to permit flow of cooling air therethrough and compliant to accommodate relative thermal growth and distortion, a dike between the seal and wear layer and the platform for preventing cross flow through the support layer between engine exhaust and pressurized air passages, and air diversion passages for directing unregenerated pressurized air through the support layer to cool the seal and wear layer and then back into the flow of regenerated pressurized air.

  12. The DOE ARM Aerial Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Hubbe, John M.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mei, Fan; Chand, Duli; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Andrews, Elisabeth; Biraud, S.; McFarquhar, Greg

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a climate research user facility operating stationary ground sites that provide long-term measurements of climate relevant properties, mobile ground- and ship-based facilities to conduct shorter field campaigns (6-12 months), and the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF). The airborne observations acquired by the AAF enhance the surface-based ARM measurements by providing high-resolution in-situ measurements for process understanding, retrieval-algorithm development, and model evaluation that are not possible using ground- or satellite-based techniques. Several ARM aerial efforts were consolidated into the AAF in 2006. With the exception of a small aircraft used for routine measurements of aerosols and carbon cycle gases, AAF at the time had no dedicated aircraft and only a small number of instruments at its disposal. In this "virtual hangar" mode, AAF successfully carried out several missions contracting with organizations and investigators who provided their research aircraft and instrumentation. In 2009, AAF started managing operations of the Battelle-owned Gulfstream I (G-1) large twin-turboprop research aircraft. Furthermore, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided funding for the procurement of over twenty new instruments to be used aboard the G-1 and other AAF virtual-hangar aircraft. AAF now executes missions in the virtual- and real-hangar mode producing freely available datasets for studying aerosol, cloud, and radiative processes in the atmosphere. AAF is also engaged in the maturation and testing of newly developed airborne sensors to help foster the next generation of airborne instruments.

  13. Dual arm master controller concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. 6 references, 3 figures

  14. Dual arm master controller development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuban, D. P.; Perkins, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    The advanced servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed to human factor design and performance tradeoffs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented.

  15. Tamasese distributing arms, Apia, Samoa

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    200 x 145 mm. A view showing Tamasese sitting on the ground, with rifles in front of him, and people sitting around. British sailors stand on the verandah of the building in the background. Tamasese was vice-king to Malietoa Tahu, whom Britain supported for the kingship. The arms seen here were probably from British or American sources. Photograph by Burton Bros., Dunedin, copyright registered October 21st 1899.

  16. The MVACS Robotic Arm Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, H. U.; Hartwig, H.; Kramm, R.; Koschny, D.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Thomas, N.; Fernades, M.; Smith, P. H.; Reynolds, R.; Lemmon, M. T.; Weinberg, J.; Marcialis, R.; Tanner, R.; Boss, B. J.; Oquest, C.; Paige, D. A.

    2001-08-01

    The Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) is one of the key instruments newly developed for the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor payload of the Mars Polar Lander. This lightweight instrument employs a front lens with variable focus range and takes images at distances from 11 mm (image scale 1:1) to infinity. Color images with a resolution of better than 50 ?m can be obtained to characterize the Martian soil. Spectral information of nearby objects is retrieved through illumination with blue, green, and red lamp sets. The design and performance of the camera are described in relation to the science objectives and operation. The RAC uses the same CCD detector array as the Surface Stereo Imager and shares the readout electronics with this camera. The RAC is mounted at the wrist of the Robotic Arm and can characterize the contents of the scoop, the samples of soil fed to the Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer, the Martian surface in the vicinity of the lander, and the interior of trenches dug out by the Robotic Arm. It can also be used to take panoramic images and to retrieve stereo information with an effective baseline surpassing that of the Surface Stereo Imager by about a factor of 3.

  17. Darwin curves and galaxy arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin

    2014-07-01

    In the natural world, there exists one kind of structure which is beyond the scope of human laboratorial experiment. It is the structure of galaxies which is usually composed of billions of stars. Spiral galaxies are flat disk-shaped. There are two types of spiral galaxies. The spiral galaxies with some bar-shaped pattern are called barred spirals, and the ones without the pattern are called ordinary spirals. Longer-wavelength galaxy images (infrared, for example) show that ordinary spiral galaxies are basically an axi-symmetric disk that is called exponential disk. For a planar distribution of matter, Jin He defined Darwin curves in the plane as such that the ratio of the matter densities at both sides of the curve is constant along the curve. Therefore, the arms of ordinary spiral galaxies are Darwin curves. Now an important question is that: Are the arms of barred spiral galaxies the Darwin curves too? Fortunately, Jin He designed a piece of Galaxy Anatomy graphic software. With the software, not only can people simulate the stellar density distribution of barred spiral galaxies but also can draw the Darwin curves of the simulated galaxy structure. This paper shows partial evidence that the arms of galaxy NGC 3275, 4548 and 5921 follow Darwin curves.

  18. Hand-arm vibration syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelmear, P L; Taylor, W

    1994-02-01

    The hand-arm vibration syndrome affects workers who perform tasks that generate vibration. Raynaud's phenomenon and sensory impairment of the fingers are the predominant effects. A history of hand-arm vibration (HAV) exposure in a patient with these symptoms should alert the physician to the diagnosis. Referral to a special clinic or hospital department for multiple clinical tests is required to confirm the diagnosis and, using the Stockholm classification, to grade the severity in each hand. The assessment permits the patient to be monitored either for progression of or recovery from the syndrome. Avoidance of further vibration exposure is recommended, together with the prescription of a slow-release calcium channel blocker to improve peripheral circulation. Hand-arm vibration syndrome should be distinguished from carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), which may have similar symptomatology but requires different treatments. Surgery is contraindicated in the former and should be the last resort for carpal tunnel syndrome in a worker requiring good grip-strength in future employment. PMID:8185734

  19. Raman assisted lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    We present a Lightwave Synthesized Frequency Sweeper comprising a Raman amplifier for loss compensation. The generated pulse train contains 123 pulses and has a flat signal level as well as a low noise level.

  20. Syntheses and Functional Properties of Phthalocyanines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi Sakamoto

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Metal phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acids, metal phthalocyanine octacarboxylic acids, metal octakis(hexyloxymethylphthalocyanines, and metal anthraquinocyanines have been synthesized. Then, zinc bis(1,4-didecylbenzo-bis(3,4-pyridoporphyrazines, the cyclotetramerization products of a 1:1 mixture of 3,6-didecylphthalonitrile and 3,4-dicyanopyridine, were synthesized. Futher, subphthalocyanine and its derivatives, with substituents such as thiobutyl and thiophenyl moieties were synthesized. Electrochemical measurements were performed on the abovementioned phthalocyanine derivatives and analogues in order to examine their electron transfer abilities and electrochemical reaction mechanisms in an organic solvent. Moreover, 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octakis(thiophenylmethyl phthalocyanes were synthesized. The Q-bands of the latter compounds appeared in the near-infrared region. Furthermore, non-colored transparent films in the visible region can be produced.

  1. Uncertainty Evaluation for SMART Synthesized Power Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A synthesized power distribution for SMART core is produced by SSUN (SMART core SUpporting system coupled by Nuclear design code). SSUN runs coupled with the MASTER neutronics code and generates the core 3-D synthesized power distribution using DPCM3D. DPCM3D is similar to the 3DPCM except for the coefficient library. The MASTER code plays a role to provide the DPCM3D constants to the SSUN code at core state. DPCM3D produces the 3-D power distribution by using the detector signals and the power coupling coefficients. The synthesized power distribution generated by the SSUN code is not a true solution and contains uncertainties originated from the measurement and the DPCM3D coefficient errors. In this paper, the overall uncertainty of the synthesized power distribution of the SSUN code is evaluated.

  2. FPGA Implementation of a Parameterized Fourier Synthesizer

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Rui; Wang, J. G.(Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 24061, Blacksburg, VA, USA); Clement, Benoit; Mansour, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) offers advantages for many applications, particularly where missions are complex and time performance is critical. For small-production digital acoustic synthesizers, FPGA can achieve the above-mentioned tighter system requirements with low total system costs on single chip. In this manuscript, a real-time acoustic synthesizer is implemented using Fourier series algorithm on Altera's Cyclone II FPGA chip. This work emphasizes systematic designs and paralle...

  3. Direct digital synthesizers : theory, design and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Vankka, Jouko

    2000-01-01

    Traditional designs of high bandwidth frequency synthesizers employ the use of a phase-locked-loop (PLL). A direct digital synthesizer (DDS) provides many significant advantages over the PLL approaches. Fast settling time, sub-Hertz frequency resolution, continuous-phase switching response and low phase noise are features easily obtainable in the DDS systems. Although the principle of the DDS has been known for many years, the DDS did not play a dominant role in wideband frequency generation ...

  4. Possibility of synthesizing doubly closed superheavy nucleus

    OpenAIRE

    Aritomo, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of synthesizing a doubly magic superheavy nucleus, $^{298}114_{184}$, is investigated on the basis of fluctuation-dissipation dynamics. In order to synthesize this nucleus, we must generate more neutron-rich compound nuclei because of the neutron emissions from excited compound nuclei. The compound nucleus $^{304}114$ has two advantages to achieving a high survival probability. First, because of small neutron separation energy and rapid cooling, the shell cor...

  5. Psychoacoustic Analysis of Synthesized Jet Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okcu, Selen; Rathsam, Jonathan; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    An aircraft noise synthesis capability is being developed so the annoyance caused by proposed aircraft can be assessed during the design stage. To make synthesized signals as realistic as possible, high fidelity simulation is required for source (e.g., engine noise, airframe noise), propagation and receiver effects. This psychoacoustic study tests whether the jet noise component of synthesized aircraft engine noise can be made more realistic using a low frequency oscillator (LFO) technique to simulate fluctuations in level observed in recordings. Jet noise predictions are commonly made in the frequency domain based on models of time-averaged empirical data. The synthesis process involves conversion of the frequency domain prediction into an audible pressure time history. However, because the predictions are time-invariant, the synthesized sound lacks fluctuations observed in recordings. Such fluctuations are hypothesized to be perceptually important. To introduce time-varying characteristics into jet noise synthesis, a method has been developed that modulates measured or predicted 1/3-octave band levels with a (noise recordings. For the aft emission angle, results indicate that signals synthesized using a generic LFO are perceived as more similar to recordings than those using no LFO, and signals synthesized with an angle-specific LFO are more similar to recordings than those synthesized with a generic LFO.

  6. Le volontariat armé au sein des milices nationalistes pendant la Guerre civile espagnole, 1936-1939 El voluntariado armado en las milicias nacionalistas durante la Guerra Civil Española

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Ségalas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available La guerre civile espagnole fut le fruit d’une conjonction de nombreux éléments, mais il fallut l’échec d’un coup d’État organisé par une partie de l’armée pour la faire éclater. Cette tentative de coup d’État « survient après une phase de politisation des masses sans équivalent antérieur, même pendant la Révolution de 1868 ». Cette politisation massive, alliée à une radicalisation de la vie politique espagnole durant la seconde République, peut expliquer en partie l’engagement de nombreux Esp...

  7. ARM assembly language with hardware experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Elahi, Ata

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a hands-on approach to learning ARM assembly language with the use of a TI microcontroller. The book starts with an introduction to computer architecture and then discusses number systems and digital logic. The text covers ARM Assembly Language, ARM Cortex Architecture and its components, and Hardware Experiments using TILM3S1968. Written for those interested in learning embedded programming using an ARM Microcontroller. ·         Introduces number systems and signal transmission methods   ·         Reviews logic gates, registers, multiplexers, decoders and memory   ·         Provides an overview and examples of ARM instruction set   ·         Uses using Keil development tools for writing and debugging ARM assembly language Programs   ·         Hardware experiments using a Mbed NXP LPC1768 microcontroller; including General Purpose Input/Output (GPIO) configuration, real time clock configuration, binary input to 7-segment display, creating ...

  8. Coke Formation During Hydrocarbons Pyrolysis. Part One: Steam Cracking Formation de coke pendant la pyrolise des hydrocarbures. Première partie : vapocraquage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weill J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermal cracking is always accompanied by coke formation, which becomes deposited on the wall and limits heat transfers in the reactor while increasing pressure drops and possibly even plugging up the reactor. This review article covers undesirable coking operations in steam craking reactors. These coking reactions may take place in the gas phase and/or on the surface of the reactor, with coke being produced during pyrolysis by a complex mechanism that breaks down into a catalytic sequence and a noncatalytic sequence. After a brief description of different experimental set-ups used to measure the coke deposition, on the basis of research described in the literature, the different factors and their importance for coke formation are listed. In particular, we describe the effects of surface properties of stainless-steel and quartz reactors as well as the influence of the cracked feedstock, of temperature, of dilution, of residence time and of the conversion on coke deposition. Some findings about the morphology of coke are described and linked to formation mechanisms. To illustrate this review, some particularly interesting research is referred to concerning models developed to assess coke formation during propane steam cracking. Le craquage thermique est toujours accompagné de la formation de coke qui, en se déposant à la paroi, limite les transferts de chaleur au réacteur, augmente les pertes de charges et même peut boucher celui-ci. Cet article fait le point sur les réactions indésirables de cokage dans les réacteurs de vapocraquage. Ces réactions de cokage peuvent avoir lieu en phase gazeuse et/ou sur la surface du réacteur, le coke étant produit pendant la pyrolyse par un mécanisme complexe qui se décompose en une séquence catalytique et une séquence non catalytique. Après une brève présentation des différents montages expérimentaux utilisés pour mesurer le dépôt de coke, il est mentionné, à partir de travaux de la littérature, les différents facteurs et leur importance sur la formation du coke. On présentera en particulier les effets de propriétés de surface de réacteurs en inox et en quartz, ainsi que l'influence de la charge craquée, de la température, de la dilution, du temps de séjour et de la conversion sur les dépôts de coke. Quelques résultats sur la morphologie du coke seront présentés et reliés aux mécanismes de formation du coke. Pour illustrer ce travail, on reprendra quelques études particulièrement intéressantes sur des modèles d'évaluation de la formation de coke développés pour le vapocraquage de propane.

  9. Nonlinear adaptive control of an elastic robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. N.

    1986-01-01

    An approach to control of a class of nonlinear flexible robotic systems is presented. For simplicity, a robot arm (PUMA-type) with three rotational joints is considered. The third link is assumed to be elastic. An adaptive torquer control law is derived for controlling the joint angles. This controller includes a dynamic system in the feedback path, requires only joint angle and rate for feedback, and asymptotically decomposes the elastic dynamics into two subsystems representing the transverse vibrations of the elastic link in two orthogonal planes. To damp out the elastic vibration, a force control law using modal feedback is synthesized. The combination of the torque and force control laws accomplishes joint angle control and elastic mode stabilization.

  10. Preventing Interstate Armed Conflict : whose responsibility?

    OpenAIRE

    Otunba, Ganiyu

    2010-01-01

    This is a study of interstate armed conflict prevention. The concept of conflict, armed conflict and conflict prevention is defined and explained in order to be able to investigate if there is any single institution saddled with the responsibility of preventing interstate armed conflict and also to verify if adequate efforts are been put in this area which is of importance to mankind. The relationship between conflict prevention, conflict management and conflict resolution is also discussed s...

  11. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-18

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is an important part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) strategy to understand global climate change. The ARM Program has established three outdoor research sites around the world. Scientists gather and use the data from these sites to study the effects of sunlight, radiant energy, and clouds on temperatures, weather, and climate. This site has information about ARM and global warming. It has lesson plans, a question area, and an Ask a Scientist link.

  12. How Many Noses Are in Your Arm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    PBS

    2012-01-01

    In this math lesson, learners apply the concepts of ratio and proportion to determine the length of the Statue of Liberty's torch-bearing arm. Learners use chart paper, string, and rulers to estimate the length of the statue's arm based on the knowledge that the nose is 4 feet 6 inches. The actual length of the Statue of Liberty's arm is located in an almanac (or online) and compared to the learners' estimates.

  13. World Military Expenditures and Arms Transfers (WMEAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency has placed online the full text of its 1996 WMEAT report, a reference on military expenditure, arms transfers, armed forces, and related economic data for 172 countries over the 1985-1995 decade. The data is comprehensive, up-to-date, and accompanied by analyses and highlights. Users may also choose to download selected portions of the larger report, including Highlights and Country Rankings.

  14. A global strategy for nuclear arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The context within which nuclear arms control will operate over the next decades is discussed. The existing framework for arms control including the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is outlined and the deficiencies in the existing framework are examined. A global arms control strategy is then presented. This would limit the current trends in nuclear proliferation while allowing major reductions in existing arsenals and even make a ''weaponless deterrence'' possible. (UK)

  15. Arms Trade Offsets and Cases of Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Platzgummer

    2014-01-01

    Because of a lack of transparency and the high complexity of administrative processes, arms acquisition is an area with a high risk of corruption. The aim of this paper is: 1) to provide a typology of cases of corruption in compensatory trade agreements, so called arms trade offsets, that have become integral parts of most arms trades; and 2) to analyze tools possessed by government agencies concerned to prevent or detect corruption. Based on an analysis of all major English-speaking newspape...

  16. MODELING AND SIMULATION OF ROBOTIC HUMANOID ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RANJEET RANJAN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper block model and machine model of Robotic humanoid arm has been generated Using MATLAB Simulink. Equations of Kinematics are derived by using D-H notation. By this equation and inverse kinematicsparameters for the motion trajectory have been determined. Kinematic parameters are divided into two groups namely, link parameters and joint parameters. Geometric model and motion of robotic humanoid arm with two link model with 3 Degree of freedom and arm with palm and fingers with 18 degree of freedom has been realized. Virtual simulation of the arm is also first step in actually controlling the mechanical structure.

  17. The development of multipurpose fluorination synthesizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project is developing the multipurpose fluorination synthesizer, which can produce various fluorination compounds that are used for the PET. The main results are as follows 1. We have intended to design a multipurpose synthesizer that can be used not only for the FDG synthesis, which is the most popular in the F-18 radioisotope labeled radiopharmaceutical, but also for the FLT and FET synthesis. In addition, the developed synthesizer is allowed to connect and control the HPLC system so that we can produce another type of fluorination compound different from the FDG. 2. The program suitable to the multipurpose fluorination synthesizer should manages appropriate sequences separately for each step. In other words, the program should can be modified by user at any time, and the user using the program is allowed to define or modify each step easily through the GUI interface. 3. The yield of the FDG synthesis is about 7% higher than the previous synthesizer and the radiochemical yield of [18F]FLT synthesis is 96% using the network based module We will provide a chance that having a technology transfer to domestic cyclotron manufacturers. The technology transferred domestic cyclotron manufacturers may accomplish a kind of package product by producing the PET radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals, and they can increase their marketability

  18. Dual arm master controller development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advanced servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. This work was performed as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  19. 49 CFR 236.810 - Spectacle, semaphore arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Spectacle, semaphore arm. 236.810 Section 236.810 Transportation...Definitions § 236.810 Spectacle, semaphore arm. That part of a semaphore arm which holds the roundels and to which the blade...

  20. High pressure syntheses of carbonates. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ternary carbonates TlLn(CO3)2 with Ln = La to Lu and Y are synthesized at 3500C by dehydration of the carbonates TlLn(CO3)2xxH2O or at 5000C by reaction of Tl2CO3 and Ln2(C2O4)3xyH2O under 3000 bar CO2. X-ray and IR investigations show the existence of five different structures. The compound Tl5La(CO3)4 is synthesized and X-ray and IR investigations were performed. (author)

  1. Simple model of the arms race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple model of a two-party arms race is developed based on the principle that the race will continue so long as either side can unleash an effective first strike against the other side. The model is used to examine how secrecy, the ABM, MIRV-ing, and an MX system affect the arms race

  2. Stress analysis for robot arm version 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of a robot needs to be analyzed to ensure the specification and requirement by the user is full filled. Therefore, stress analysis has been performed on the robot arm version 2 after its complete fabrication. This paper discusses the result of the analysis and proposed measures to improve the future design of robot arm. (author)

  3. Why we cannot grow a human arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, John L

    2013-11-01

    There are several significant issues that prevent us from growing a human arm now, or within the next 10-20 years. From a tissue engineering perspective, while we can grow many of the components necessary for construction of a human arm, we can only grow them in relatively small volumes, and when scaled up to large volumes we lack the ability to develop adequate blood/nerve supply. From a genetic engineering perspective, we will probably never be able to turn on the specific genes necessary to "grow an arm" unless it is attached to a fetus and this presents enormous ethical issues related to farming of human organs and structures. Perhaps the most daunting problem facing the transplantation of a tissue engineered or transplanted arm is that of re-innervation of the structure. Since the sensory and motor nerve cells of the arm are located outside of the structure, re-innervation requires those nerves to regenerate over relatively large distances to repopulate the nervous system of the arm. This is something with which we have had little success. We can grow repair parts, but "growing an arm" presents too many insurmountable problems. The best we could possibly do with tissue engineering or genetic engineering would be the equivalent of a fetal arm and the technical problems, costs, and ethical hurdles are enormous. A more likely solution is a functional, permanent, neuroelectronically-controlled prosthesis. These are nearly a reality today. PMID:24113888

  4. Linear growth measurement: a comparison of single arm-lengths and arm-span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belt-Niedbala, B J; Ekvall, S; Cook, C M; Oppenheimer, S; Wessel, J

    1986-06-01

    An investigation was done to determine whether the arm-lengths of 44 children with myelomeningocele differed from those of 96 control children; whether the level of the meningocele lesion has any effect on arm-length; and to compare the relationship between arm-length and both stature and age. Mean total arm-lengths did not differ significantly between the two groups of children. However, the mean arm-spans of children with high myelomeningocele lesions differed significantly from those of control children. Within the myelomeningocele group, the height of the lesion had no significant effect on any of the arm-length variables. Very high positive correlations were found between upper-arm and total arm-lengths and stature, and between arm-span and stature in the control children. These results suggest that arm-length may be used as an alternative measure of linear growth in children, and that a single arm-length will be the most accurate indicator of growth of children with myelomeningocele. PMID:3721076

  5. Design And Implementation Of Anthropomorphic Robotic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The report focuses on the design and demonstration of an anthropomorphic robotic arm with seven degrees of freedom using readily available low-cost components to perform different real time human hand applications. The robotic arm consists of a shoulder, elbow, wrist and a five-finger gripper. It can perform different gripping actions, such as lateral, spherical, cylindrical and tip-holding gripping actions; each finger has three movable links. The actuator used for the robotic arm is a high torque dc servo motor and the five-finger gripper consists of five cables placed like tendons in the human arm. Implementation is done using a human hand glove which senses the motion from sensor technology to produce a proportional analog voltage, digitized via the microcontroller Atmel ATmega32. The microcontroller then through the processed signal controls the mechanical structure that is the robotic arm. Keywords –

  6. Arm locking with Doppler estimation errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the University of Florida we developed the University of Florida LISA Interferometer Simulator (UFLIS) in order to study LISA interferometry with hardware in the loop at a system level. One of the proposed laser frequency stabilization techniques in LISA is arm locking. Arm locking uses an adequately filtered linear combination of the LISA arm signals as a frequency reference. We will report about experiments in which we demonstrated arm locking using UFLIS. During these experiments we also discovered a problem associated with the Doppler shift of the return beam. The initial arm locking publications assumed that this Doppler shift can perfectly be subtracted inside the phasemeter or adds an insignificant offset to the sensor signal. However, the remaining Doppler knowledge error will cause a constant change in the laser frequency if unaccounted for. Several ways to circumvent this problem have been identified. We performed detailed simulations and started preliminary experiments to verify the performance of the proposed new controller designs.

  7. Total syntheses of the nakinadine alkaloids

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Rushabh Surendra; Davies, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the development of methodology for the asymmetric syntheses of the nakinadine family of marine alkaloids and through these synthetic endeavours, seeks to confirm the structure and assign the relative and absolute configurations of these alkaloids for the first time.

  8. Digital Frequency Synthesizer For Radar Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadr, Ramin; Satorius, Edgar; Robinett, J. Loris, Jr.; Olson, Erlend

    1992-01-01

    Report discusses conceptual digital frequency synthesizer part of programmable local oscillator in radar-astronomy system. Phase must remain continuous during adjustments of frequency, phase noise must be low, and spectral purity must be high. Discusses theory of operation in some mathematical detail and presents new analysis of spectral purity of output.

  9. Synthesizing chaotic maps with prescribed invariant densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Inverse Frobenius-Perron Problem (IFPP) concerns the creation of discrete chaotic mappings with arbitrary invariant densities. In this Letter, we present a new and elegant solution to the IFPP, based on positive matrix theory. Our method allows chaotic maps with arbitrary piecewise-constant invariant densities, and with arbitrary mixing properties, to be synthesized

  10. Sorption and thermodynamic of cation-basic center interactions of inorganic-organic hybrids synthesized from RUB-18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthesized nanostructured hybrids from RUB-18 layered silicate, containing one (N) or three (3N) basic nitrogen atoms attached to pendant chains were applied for copper, nickel and cobalt sorptions. The isotherms obtained from batchwise processes were adjusted to the Freundlich and the Langmuir-Freundlich models for heterogeneous systems. The basic nitrogen centers/acidic cation interactions were followed by calorimetry under batchwise conditions and the results were analyzed by a modified Langmuir equation. The exothermic enthalpic values of -2.50 ± 0.30, -1.62 ± 0.10 and -1.35 ± 0.20 and -15.61 ± 0.20, -8.05 ± 0.14 and -20.48 ± 0.15 kJ mol-1, obtained for Cu2+, Ni2+ and Co2+ titrations with C-RUB-xN (x = 1, 3) materials, suggest a favorable process at the solid/liquid interface for inorganic/organic hybrid cation sorptions. These thermodynamic data, expressed also by reaction spontaneity, infer the use of such hybrids for cation removal from aqueous solution.

  11. Robotic Arm Comprising Two Bending Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehling, Joshua S.; Difler, Myron A.; Ambrose, Robert O.; Chu, Mars W.; Valvo, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    The figure shows several aspects of an experimental robotic manipulator that includes a housing from which protrudes a tendril- or tentacle-like arm 1 cm thick and 1 m long. The arm consists of two collinear segments, each of which can be bent independently of the other, and the two segments can be bent simultaneously in different planes. The arm can be retracted to a minimum length or extended by any desired amount up to its full length. The arm can also be made to rotate about its own longitudinal axis. Some prior experimental robotic manipulators include single-segment bendable arms. Those arms are thicker and shorter than the present one. The present robotic manipulator serves as a prototype of future manipulators that, by virtue of the slenderness and multiple- bending capability of their arms, are expected to have sufficient dexterity for operation within spaces that would otherwise be inaccessible. Such manipulators could be especially well suited as means of minimally invasive inspection during construction and maintenance activities. Each of the two collinear bending arm segments is further subdivided into a series of collinear extension- and compression-type helical springs joined by threaded links. The extension springs occupy the majority of the length of the arm and engage passively in bending. The compression springs are used for actively controlled bending. Bending is effected by means of pairs of antagonistic tendons in the form of spectra gel spun polymer lines that are attached at specific threaded links and run the entire length of the arm inside the spring helix from the attachment links to motor-driven pulleys inside the housing. Two pairs of tendons, mounted in orthogonal planes that intersect along the longitudinal axis, are used to effect bending of each segment. The tendons for actuating the distal bending segment are in planes offset by an angle of 45 from those of the proximal bending segment: This configuration makes it possible to accommodate all eight tendons at the same diameter along the arm. The threaded links have central bores through which power and video wires can be strung (1) from a charge-coupled-device camera mounted on the tip of the arms (2) back along the interior of the arm into the housing and then (3) from within the housing to an external video monitor.

  12. THE PALMERS AND ARMED PILGRIMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrullah KALEL??

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The pilgrims who set out on foot, carried no weapon and provisioned the needs with the alms from benefactors all the way in medieval were called “palmers”. This type of pilgrim, wearing a rough cloack and a round felt hat, symbolized the purest status of the pilgrimage with the saddlebag over his shoulder and a staff in his hand. In that epoch, the most acceptable pilgrimage was to visit the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem. Together with the increase of interest in these visits, it was formed the wish to have Jerusalem between Christians. Western Christians formerly had been come in the shape of palmers, this time fronted to Jerusalem as armed pilgrims. As a justification of their these aggrassive attitudes, they refered to the so-called torments inflicted by Turks against the Christians. In this study, it is discussed the process regarding with the transmutation of an ordinary pilgrimage to the crusades.

  13. Branched-arm macromolecule liquid crystals-containing fluorine and isosorbide-structure and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Zhi; Zhang, Fang-di; Jia, Ying; Meng, Fan-Bao; Jia, Ying-gang

    2015-07-01

    A new series of cholesteric fluorated branched-arm liquid crystals (CHFBALCs) compound (MFA1-MFA4), with isosorbide as chiral core, was synthesized. Four precursors of branched-arm FA1-FA4 were obtained firstly and then were esterized separately with isosorbide to get four chiral branched-arm liquid crystalline (MFA1-MFA4). The structures and properties were characterized by conventional spectrum methods, thermal analysis and texture analysis. The results showed that FA1-FA4 all were nematic phase with schlieren, threaded-like or droplet texture. When the isosorbide was successfully inducted, the phase of FA1-FA4 turned into cholesteric phase with oily streak texture, finger print texture or cholesteric droplets. The values of melting point and clearing point for FA1-FA4 and MFA1-MFA4 all changed irregularly, which may be due to the effect of different branched arm, warping of chiral agent and fluorine atom. MFA1-MFA4 had the same handedness as isosorbide core and did not show selective reflection. MFA3 and MFA4 were hopeful to realize the combination of the processability of polymers and the mobility of small molecules.

  14. Collecting Survey Data during Armed Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axinn, William G; Ghimire, Dirgha; Williams, Nathalie E

    2012-06-01

    Surveys provide crucial information about the social consequences of armed conflict, but armed conflict can shape surveys in ways that limit their value. We use longitudinal survey data from throughout the recent armed conflict in Nepal to investigate the relationship between armed conflict events and survey response. The Chitwan Valley Family Study (CVFS) provides a rare window into survey data collection through intense armed conflict. The CVFS data reveal that with operational strategies tailored to the specific conflict, duration of the panel study is the main determinant of attrition from the study, just as in most longitudinal studies outside of conflict settings. Though minor relative to duration, different dimensions of armed conflict can affect survey response in opposing directions, with bombings in the local area reducing response rates but nationwide political events increasing response rates. This important finding demonstrates that survey data quality may be affected differently by various dimensions of armed conflict. Overall, CVFS response rates remained exceptionally high throughout the conflict. We use the CVFS experience to identify principles likely to produce higher quality surveys during periods of generalized violence and instability. PMID:23420645

  15. The Milky Way Spiral Arm Pattern

    CERN Document Server

    Englmaier, Peter; Bissantz, Nicolai

    2008-01-01

    A complete map of the 3D distribution of molecular (CO) gas was constructed using a realistic dynamical model of the gas flow in the barred potential of the Milky Way. The map shows two prominent spiral arms starting at the bar ends connecting smoothly to the 4-armed spiral pattern observed in the atomic hydrogen gas in the outer Galaxy. Unlike previous attempts, our new map uncovers the gas distribution in the bar region of the Galaxy and the far side of the disk. For the first time, we can follow spiral arms in gas as they pass behind the galactic centre.

  16. Universal Controller Design Using Arm Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsin A. Bandi, Mr. Naimesh B. Mehta

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, different control strategies are discussed and design of universal (process controller on ARM embedded platform is proposed. The same controller support feedback, cascade, ratio and feed forward control strategy. The LPC2148 kit (ARM7 controller is used for the application which has many features which are also discussed in the paper.MODBUS RTU protocol is used for communication.GUI is developed in Wonderware In touch (SCADA software. Keil µvision 4 IDE is used for programming ARM controller

  17. ARM Climate Research Facility Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Voyles

    2005-12-31

    Through the ARM Program, the DOE funded the development of several highly instrumented ground stations for studying cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer, and for measuring other parameters that determine the radiative properties of the atmosphere. This scientific infrastructure, and resultant data archive, is a valuable national and international asset for advancing scientific knowledge of Earth systems. In fiscal year (FY) 2003, the DOE designated ARM sites as a national scientific user facility: the ARM Climate Research (ACRF). The ACRF has enormous potential to contribute to a wide range interdisciplinary science in areas such as meteorology, atmospheric aerosols, hydrology, biogeochemical cycling, and satellite validation, to name only a few.

  18. Maize mitochondria synthesize organ-specific polypeptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors detected both quantitative and qualitative organ-specific differences in the total protein composition of mitochondria of maize. Labeling of isolated mitochondria from each organ demonstrated that a few protein differences are due to changes in the polypeptides synthesized by the organelle. The synthesis of developmental stage-specific mitochondrial polypeptides was found in the scutella of developing and germinating kernels. The approximately 13-kDa polypeptide synthesized by mitochondria from seedlings of the Texas (T) male-sterile cytoplasm was shown to be constitutively expressed in all organs of line B37T tested. Methomyl, an insecticide known to inhibit the growth of T sterile plants, was shown to be an effective inhibitor of protein synthesis in mitochondria from T plants

  19. BRUCE/KYLIE: Pulsating star spectra synthesizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Rich

    2014-12-01

    BRUCE and KYLIE, written in Fortran 77, synthesize the spectra of pulsating stars. BRUCE constructs a point-sampled model for the surface of a rotating, gravity-darkened star, and then subjects this model to perturbations arising from one or more non-radial pulsation modes. Departures from adiabaticity can be taken into account, as can the Coriolis force through adoption of the so-called traditional approximation. BRUCE writes out a time-sequence of perturbed surface models. This sequence is read in by KYLIE, which synthesizes disk-integrated spectra for the models by co-adding the specific intensity emanating from each visible point toward the observer. The specific intensity is calculated by interpolation in a large temperature-gravity-wavelength-angle grid of pre-calculated intensity spectra.

  20. Carbon nanotube synthesized on metallic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmenegger, Ch; Mauron, P.; Züttel, A.; Nützenadel, Ch; Schneuwly, A.; Gallay, R.; Schlapbach, L.

    2000-08-01

    Well-aligned carbon nanotubes films were synthesized by a pyrolytic method with aluminum and silicon as substrates. The substrate was coated with a thin film of Fe(NO 3) 3. This film was transformed by subsequent heating into Fe 2O clusters with a diameter of a few nanometers. Nanotubes were synthesized from acetylene at a temperature between 630°C and 750°C. The nanotubes observed are "multiwall" type with a length in the range of 1-10 ?m and a diameter of 5-100 nm. The growth of the nanotubes is a function of the film thickness of deposited Fe(NO 3) 3 film as well as the temperature. The nanotubes deposited on aluminum exhibit excellent properties as electrode material in electrochemical double layer capacitors (ECDLs).

  1. Mechanical properties of bacterially synthesized nanocellulose hydrogels

    OpenAIRE

    Frensemeier, M.; Koplin, C.; Jaeger, R.; Kramer, F.; Klemm, D.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanical characteristics of bacterially synthesized nano-cellulose (BNC) were studied with uniaxial compression and tensile tests. Compressive loads result in a release of water and the deformation of the water-saturated network corresponds approximately to the volume of released water. The BNC hydrogel exhibits a mainly viscous response under compression. The strain response under tensile loads has an elastic and a viscous component. This can be described with a Maxwell model, where th...

  2. SYNTHESES OF METHYLENEDIANILINES OVER THE ZEOLITE CATALYSTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ji?í Trejbal

    2010-01-01

    Syntheses of methylenedianilines over zeolites with various structures were studied. It was foundout that the most selective catalyst for the synthesis of 4,4´-methylenedianiline isomer was zeoliteY. Further, the kinetic data showed that initial N,N´-diphenylmethylenediamine reacted over zeolitecatalysts by even one order of magnitude faster that the intermediate product 4-amino-N-benzylaniline.The most suitable temperature range

  3. Summarizing and Synthesizing: What's the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica Fries-Gaither

    For teachers in K-Grade 5 classrooms, the author of this article reviews the reading comprehension strategies known as Summarizing and Synthesizing. She provides links to web sites and to a book that will provide more background information and lessons. The article appears in the free, online magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, which focuses on the seven essential principles of climate science.

  4. Piezoresistance in chemically synthesized polypyrrole thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Barnoss, S.; Shanak, H.; Bufon, C. Bof; Heinzel, T.

    2009-01-01

    The resistance of chemically synthesized polypyrrole (PPy) thin films is investigated as a function of the pressure of various gases as well as of the film thickness. A physical, piezoresistive response is found to coexist with a chemical response if the gas is chemically active, like, e.g., oxygen. The piezoresistance is studied separately by exposing the films to the chemically inert gases such as nitrogen and argon. We observe that the character of the piezoresistive resp...

  5. Asymmetric syntheses of moiramide B and andrimid

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Sg; Dixon, Dj

    1998-01-01

    The first highly diastereoselective asymmetric syntheses of moiramide B 2 and andrimid 3 have been achieved using lithium amide (R)-6 and pyrrolidinone auxiliary (R)-9. Pyrrolidinone auxiliary (R)-9 was used to create the novel (S)-3-methyl-N-benzyloxysuccinimide (S)-11 which was subsequently acylated with the highly reactive tert-butoxycarbonyl-protected N-carboxy anhydride of L-valine (Boc-val-NCA) (S)-19 under strongly basic conditions, without racemisation. Lithium amide (R)-6 was used to...

  6. High pressure syntheses of carbonates. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ternary carbonates NaLn(CO3)2 with Ln = La to Lu and Y are synthesized by dehydration of NaLn(CO3)2.xH2O or by reaction of Na2CO3 with Ln2(C2O4)3.xH2O under 3000 bar CO2 and 350 - 500 0C. Two structures are found, characterized by IR and X-ray investigations and by thermal decomposition. (author)

  7. Spurious in PLL-DDS frequency synthesizers.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kroupa, V?nceslav František; Štursa, Jarmil

    2002-01-01

    Ro?. 2, ?. 1 (2002), s. 48-51. ISSN 1335-8243. [Digital Signal Processing and Multimedia Communications DSP-MCOM 2001 /5./. Košice, 27.11.2001-29.11.2001] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA102/00/0958 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : frequency synthesizers * phase locked loops * direct digital synthesis Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  8. HIMAC RF system with a digital synthesizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanazawa, M. E-mail: kanazawa@nirs.go.jp; Sato, K.; Itano, A.; Sudou, M.; Noda, K.; Takada, E.; Kumada, M.; Yamazaki, C.; Yamagishi, T.; Morii, Y.; Toyoda, E.; Tsuzuki, N.; Yagi, T

    2000-04-01

    An RF acceleration system, in which digital control with a direct digital synthesizer (DDS) is applied, has been developed for the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) synchrotron. This digital system allows us to obtain stable operation of the acceleration system over a wide frequency range from 1.04 to 7.9 MHz. In this paper the designed digital RF control system and its performance are described.

  9. Thermoelectric n-type silicon germanium synthesized by unidirectional solidification in microgravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Thermoelectric n-type SiGe was synthesized by unidirectional solidification. ? SiGe had dendrite structure aligned along the solidification direction. ? SiGe solidified unidirectionally in microgravity had crystalline orientation. ? Anisotropy of electric conductivity was seen in orthogonal solidification directions. ? ZT of Si0.7Ge0.3-1at%P solidified in microgravity at 1000 K was 1.19. - Abstract: Thermoelectric n-type Si0.2Ge0.8 and Si0.7Ge0.3 added 1at%P for Si–Ge were synthesized by unidirectional solidification in microgravity. Microgravity with ±10?2 g for 0.46 s was obtained in free fall using a 2 m-drop tower. The microstructure of the sample solidified in microgravity and 1 g was dendrite on the surface that contacted a Cu chill block. The microstructure of the cross section along the cooling direction was dendrite and the columnar dendrite structure was mainly aligned along the solidification direction. The dendrite became larger with depth from the surface that contacted the Cu chill block, and the width of the primary dendrite arm solidified in microgravity exceeded that in 1 g. Ge was segregated to the secondary arm of columnar dendrite. The Si/Ge atomic ratio in the primary and secondary arm of Si0.7Ge0.3-1at%P solidified in 1 g and microgravity was slightly higher than that of solidified Si0.8Ge0.2-1at%P sub>Ge0.2-1at%P in 1 g and microgravity. The secondary arm of solidified Si0.7Ge0.3-1at%P was wider than that of solidified Si0.8Ge0.2-1at%P. P was distributed uniformly in Si–Ge solidified in microgravity. The electrical conductivities of Si0.8Ge0.2-1at%P and Si0.7Ge0.3-1at%P were anisotropic in directions along and perpendicular to the solidification direction. The dimensionless Figure of Merit, ZT, of the direction along the solidification direction at 1000 K was estimated from thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity adjusted by the anisotropy, and the Seebeck coefficient in 1 g and microgravity. The ZT of the sample solidified in microgravity at 1000 K along the solidification direction was 1.19.

  10. The spiral arms of the Milky Way: The relative location of each different arm tracer within a typical spiral arm width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the Sun's location in the Galactic disk, different arm tracers (CO, H I, hot dust, etc.) have been employed to locate a tangent to each spiral arm. Using all various and different observed spiral arm tracers (as published elsewhere), we embark on a new goal, namely the statistical analysis of these published data (data mining) to statistically compute the mean location of each spiral arm tracer. We show for a typical arm cross-cut, a separation of 400 pc between the mid-arm and the dust lane (at the inner edge of the arm, toward the Galactic center). Are some arms major and others minor? Separating arms into two sets, as suggested by some, we find the same arm widths between the two sets. Our interpretation is that we live in a multiple (four-arm) spiral (logarithmic) pattern (around a pitch angle of 12°) for the stars and gas in the Milky Way, with a sizable interarm separation (around 3 kpc) at the Sun's location and the same arm width for each arm (near 400 pc from mid-arm to dust lane).

  11. Syntheses and studies of acetylenic polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yiwei, Ding

    1994-03-03

    Based on new diiodo aryl compounds a series of novel soluble polymers, poly(2,5-dialkoxy-1,4-phenyleneethynylene)s (PPE polymers) were synthesized using palladium-catalysis. The molecular weights (MW) range from 8,000 to 40,000. Properties such as absorption, fluorescence, and conductivity were studied. A PPE polymer with butoxy side chain exhibits a weak electrical conductivity ({sigma} = 10{sup {minus}3} S/cm) after doping with AsF{sub 5}. Absorption spectra in THF solution at room temperature (RT) show a maximum at 440 nm. However, absorption spectra of PPE polymers in the film state at (RT) show a maximum at 480 nm. PPE polymer-based light emitting diode (LED) devices have been prepared; greenish light from these LED devices can be observed. Poly(ethynylene-p-arylene-ethynylene-silylene)s were synthesized through the same palladium-catalyzed polymerization; MWs are between 6,000 and 82,000. Absorption and fluorescence were studied. Some of these polymers exhibit thermotropic liquid crystalline properties. In addition, nonlinear optical properties were briefly examined. Poly(silylene-ethynylene) homopolymers as well as alternating copolymers were synthesized through a novel palladium-catalyzed polymerization; MWs range from 56 {times} 10{sup 3} to 5.3 {times} 10{sup 3}. Thermal stability of these was also investigated; char yields range from 56 to 83%. One of these polymers exhibits thermotropic liquid crystalline properties.

  12. Magnesioferrite synthesized from magnesian-magnetites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Hidemassa Anami

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Magnesioferrite is an important mineral due to its use in different scientific fields and by the fact that the soil through the action of weathering, can be a source of nutrients essential for plant development by the fact that in the soil. Its use in pure form or associated with other minerals is only possible through the synthesis in laboratory conditions. This study aimed to synthesize magnesioferrite and hematite from magnesian-magnetite by a co-precipitation procedure. The methodology used is an adaptation of the method of synthesis of pure magnetite, partially replacing the soluble salts of iron with soluble magnesium salts in the proportion of 30.0 mol% of Fe for Mg. The characterization of the synthetic minerals used x-rays diffraction, total chemical analysis and mass specific magnetic susceptibility. The results showed that besides the magnesian-magnetite an unprecedented muskoxita was synthesized, which upon annealing was converted to magnesioferrite and hematite and in the proportion of 93.1% and 6.9% respectively. The isomorphous substitution of Fe for Mg enhanced the thermal stability of the ferrimagnetic mineral synthesized.

  13. A Synthesizer based on square waves

    CERN Document Server

    Vergara, Sossio

    2008-01-01

    One of the most widely employed technique for the sound synthesis is based on the Fourier theorem that states that any signal can be obtained as a sum of sinusoids. Unfortunately this algorithm, when applied to synthesizers, requires some peculiar operations, as the addressing of a Look Up Table, that are not easily built-in in standard processors, thus requiring specially designed architectures. The aim of this paper is to show that, when using a new method for the analysis and polar coordinates, a much broader class of functions can be employed as a basis, and it turns out that the square wave is just one of such functions. When the synthesis of signals is carried out by summing square waves, the additive synthesizer architecture results much more simplified, allowing for example to synthesize complex signals simply in software, using general purpose microprocessors, even in real-time. Firstly it will be proven that when using a novel method for the analysis phase, the L2 function space admits a broad class...

  14. Future legal restraints on arms proliferation. V. 3. Arms control and disarmament law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is the result of cooperation between the United Nations and the International Law Association, Committee on Arms Control and Disarmament Law. The contents of this volume concentrate on making the legal aspects of arms control feasible and in creating new legal approaches and innovations of principle and practices that encourage more efficient and wide-ranging forms of arms control, together with expansion of the whole range of the arms control agenda. The aim has been to convey the widest range of expert views, with each position presented in the most favourable light by its advocates

  15. Preparation and characterization of proton exchange poly (ether sulfone)s membranes grafted propane sulfonic acid on pendant phenyl groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly(ether sulfone)s containing hexaphenyl (PHP) was prepared by 1,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3,4,5,6-tetraphenylbenzene, 4,4-hydroxyphenylsulfone, and 4,4-fluorophenylsulfone, followed bromination on phenyl groups to produce brominated PHP (Br-PHP). Grafted sulfonated poly(ether sulfone)s containing hexaphenyl (GSPHP) were prepared from Br-PHP and 3-bromopropane sulfonic acid with potassium salt and copper powder. The salt form was converted to free acid using 1 M sulfuric acid solution. All these membranes were cast from dimethylacetamide (DMAc). The structural properties of the synthesized polymers were investigated by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The membranes were studied with regard to ion exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake, Fenton test, and proton conductivity. These grafted polymer membranes were compared with normal sulfonated poly(ether sulfone)s and Nafion

  16. Synthesis, spectral and oxidase studies of a new diamide copper(II) complex with pendant benzimidazolyl groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Sunil K.; Tehlan, Sarita; Mathur, Pavan

    2007-02-01

    A new benzimidazole-based diamide ligand- N, N'-bis(alanine-2-benzimidazolyl) hexanediamide (ABHA) has been synthesized and utilized to prepare Cu(II) complexes of general composition [Cu(ABHA)X 2]· nH 2O,where X is an exogenous anionic ligand (X = Cl -,NO 3-). Low temperature EPR spectra has been obtained that shows g? > g?>2.0024, indicating a tetragonal geometry in the solution state. The complexes display a quasi-reversible redox wave due to the Cu(II)/Cu(I) reduction process. E1/2 values shift anodically as NO 3- dopamine to dopachrome or aminochrome, both in a methanolic and a reverse-miceller system. The oxidation of dopamine to aminochrome is reminiscent of the functioning of Prostglandin H-synthetase in brain cells which requires dopamine as a cofactor for catalytic activity.

  17. Disarmament and arms control: Multilateral negotiating efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multilateral negotiating efforts in the area of disarmament and arms control are discussed including the following issues: Non-Proliferation Treaty; comprehensive test ban treaty; the cut-off negotiations

  18. JOINT SMALL-ARMS RANGE REMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) demonstration conducted by the Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) and the Army Environmental Center (AEC) removed lead and other heavy metals from small-arms range soils by a combination of phys...

  19. Science team participation in the ARM program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report discusses the Science Team participation in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program for the period of October 31, 1992 to November 1, 1993. This report summarized the research accomplishments of six papers

  20. MiniSAR composite gimbal arm development.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klarer, Paul Richard; Winscott, Mark (Orion International, Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-01-01

    An exploratory effort in the application of carbon epoxy composite structural materials to a multi-axis gimbal arm design is described. An existing design in aluminum was used as a baseline for a functionally equivalent redesigned outer gimbal arm using a carbon epoxy composite material. The existing arm was analyzed using finite element techniques to characterize performance in terms of strength, stiffness, and weight. A new design was virtually prototyped. using the same tools to produce a design with similar stiffness and strength, but reduced overall weight, than the original arm. The new design was prototyped using Rapid Prototyping technology, which was subsequently used to produce molds for fabricating the carbon epoxy composite parts. The design tools, process, and results are discussed.

  1. Design And Implementation Of Anthropomorphic Robotic Arm

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Sharma; Kelvin Lewis

    2014-01-01

    The report focuses on the design and demonstration of an anthropomorphic robotic arm with seven degrees of freedom using readily available low-cost components to perform different real time human hand applications. The robotic arm consists of a shoulder, elbow, wrist and a five-finger gripper. It can perform different gripping actions, such as lateral, spherical, cylindrical and tip-holding gripping actions; each finger has three movable links. The actuator used for the roboti...

  2. International cultural heritage law in armed conflict

    OpenAIRE

    LOSTAL BECERRIL, Marina

    2013-01-01

    The field of cultural property protection in armed conflict is composed of many conventions but little law. This is because: (1) there is no single understanding of the concepts of "cultural property" or "protection" (2) due to the principle of reciprocity, the more international an armed conflict is, the lower the chances that a treaty concerning cultural property will apply and (3) no convention has yet devised a specific safeguarding regime for "cultural heritage", which refers to the mo...

  3. Firm exit and armed conflict in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho, Andriana; Rodriguez, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses two unique panel data sets to study the causal effect that armed conflict has over entrepreneurial activity in Colombia. Using a fixed effect estimation methodology at the plant level and controlling for the possible endogeneity of armed conflict through the use of instrumental variables, we find that a one standard deviation in the number of guerrilla and paramilitary attacks in a municipality increases the probability of firm exit in 8.1 percentage points. This effect is str...

  4. Arms trade as a global international problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spalevi? Žaklina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to highlight the great social danger resulting from uncontrolled trade in arms and military equipment. A large number of terrorist attacks in the world show that uncontrolled arms trade is a growing problem for international security. In order to provide the same protection, the problem of uncontrolled arms and military equipment, which is the major international business, should be viewed from several aspects. To this end, after defining weapons, their production and trade, the authors have presented one of the ways the leading companies in the military-industrial complex provide themselves a market for sale of arms and military equipment, thus creating the conditions that contribute to expanding of their military companies. As the world’s largest exporters of arms and military equipment the United States, Russia and China give a short historical account of their arms trafficking. Then, considering the fact that the amount of weapons would unlikely diminish, the authors have pointed out that states should find a way to control the movement of weapons in the world preventing terrorist to take hold of them.

  5. Arm & Interarm Star Formation in Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Foyle, Kelly; Walter, Fabian; Leroy, Adam

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between spiral arms and star formation in the grand-design spirals NGC 5194 and NGC 628 and in the flocculent spiral NGC 6946. Filtered maps of near-IR (3.6 micron) emission allow us to identify "arm regions" that should correspond to regions of stellar mass density enhancements. The two grand-design spirals show a clear two-armed structure, while NGC 6946 is more complex. We examine these arm and interarm regions, looking at maps that trace recent star formation - far-ultraviolet (GALEX NGS) and 24 micron emission (Spitzer, SINGS) - and cold gas - CO (Heracles) and HI (Things). We find the star formation tracers and CO more concentrated in the spiral arms than the stellar 3.6 micron flux. If we define the spiral arms as the 25% highest pixels in the filtered 3.6 micron images, we find that the majority (60%) of star formation tracers occurs in the interarm regions; this result persists qualitatively even when considering the potential impact of finite data resolution and diffu...

  6. Youth Armed Groups in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Dale

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For the many years of Colombia’s civil war, youth have been trying to find their way in complicated and dangerous situations. A central component of this is their relationship with armed groups, something that has evolved considerably over the past ten years. This practice note examines the context within which these connections are formed and the implications this has for self/social identity and meaningful resistance. The ideas in this practice note are based on consultations with young Colombians, particularly those displaced from 2000-2013. These sessions included art activities, focus groups and individual interviews. Art activities involved descriptive and expressive projects so that participants could explore their feelings and memories of situations and experiences. This provided a base for group discussions where youth exchanged information and debated issues. A total of 34 workshops were held over a twelve year period. These consultations revealed how war flows all over young people, touching every aspect of their identity. The boundaries between the personal and political no longer exist in today’s civil wars, if indeed they every truly did. Young people growing up inside Colombia’s war understand this at a deep level. An acknowledgement of this pain – showing the connections between the personal and political dimensions of war – is, they would maintain, the basis for their personal healing as well as an important tool for the building of sustainable peace.

  7. A new approach to synthesize nano WC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harjinder; Pandey, O. P.

    2013-06-01

    Tungsten carbide (WC) is extensively used in cutting and mining tools, dies and in wear resistance parts. The recent application of WC as electrocatalyst in fuel cells to replace costly nobel metal platinum (Pt) has further increased its demand. Its catalytic and mechanical properties are improved with the reduction of particle size in a nanometric range. The nano WC is synthesized from the pure precursor(s) which makes its production costly. In this work, we report a new process to get nano WC directly from the scheelite (CaWO4) ore. The powders were characterized by XRD, SEM and HRTEM.

  8. Biocompatibility of poly allylamine synthesized by plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the electric and hydrophilic properties of poly allylamine (PAI) synthesized by plasma whose structure contains N-H, C-H, C-O and O-H bonds is presented, that promote the biocompatibility with the human body. To study the PAI hydrolytic affinity, solutions of salt concentration similar to those of the human body were used. The results indicate that the solutions modify the charge balance in the surfaces reducing the hydrophobicity in the poly allylamine whose contact angle oscillates among 10 and 16 degrees and the liquid-solid surface tension between 4 and 8 dina/cm. (Author)

  9. Monodisperse carbon microspheres synthesized from asphaltene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon microspheres were synthesized from asphaltene by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and Raman spectroscopy method. The results indicated the monodispersed spheres were almost curving graphitic structure with diameters from 300 to 400 nm. G mode centre of carbon microspheres had shifted upward compared with graphite. As an efficient precursor, asphaltenes were metastable structures at higher temperature. The aromatic carbon rings of asphaltenes promoted the formation of closed cage graphitic structures. The results provide a new perspective for the application of asphaltene

  10. Arm 7 Based Robotic Arm Control By Electronic Gesture Recognition Unit Using Mems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Brahmani#1 , K.S.Roy#2 , Mahaboob Ali

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mechatronics is one of the present trends in the era of computing in today’s system automation industry and control. The proposed project is one such attempt of implementing an accelerometer based system to communicate with an industrial robotic arm wirelessly. This project comprises of controlling of robotic arm powered with ARM7 based LPC1768 core. The LC1768 core has to be interfaced with DC motors of robotic arm to control the movements of robotic arm. MEMS is a three dimensional accelerometer sensor used for this purpose, this accelerometer sensor captures gestures of human-arm and produces three analog output voltages in three dimensional axes. And two flex sensors are used to control the gripper movement. For various movements of accelerometer and flex sensorscorresponding characters will be sent to the ARM7 core wirelessly using 2.4GHz RF module. And depending on the received character robotic arm can be controlled in Dynamic or Static mode by communicating with EEPROM using I2C protocol

  11. Synthesizing Waves from Animated Height Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Bang; Söderström, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Computer animated ocean waves for feature films are typically carefully choreographed to match the vision of the director and to support the telling of the story. The rough shape of these waves is established in the previsualization (previs) stage, where artists use a variety of modeling tools with fast feedback to obtain the desired look. This poses a challenge to the effects artists who must subsequently match the locked-down look of the previs waves with high-quality simulated or synthesized waves, adding the detail necessary for the final shot. We propose a set of automated techniques for synthesizing Fourier-based ocean waves that match a previs input, allowing artists to quickly enhance the input wave animation with additional higher-frequency detail that moves consistently with the coarse waves, tweak the wave shapes to flatten troughs and sharpen peaks if desired (as is characteristic of deep water waves), and compute a physically reasonable velocity field of the water analytically. These properties are demonstrated with several examples, including a previs scene from a visual effects production environment.

  12. Language Translator and Synthesizer for Mobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs.J. P. Kshirsagar, Prof. G. G. Chiddarwar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Machine Translation domain of Natural Language Processing and the area of Artificial Intelligence are very useful in providing people with a machine, which understands diverse languages spoken by common people. It presents the user of a computer system with an interface, with which he feels more comfortable. Since, there are many different languages spoken in this world, we are constantly in need for translators to enable people speaking different languages to share ideas and communicate with one another. Human translators are rare to find and are inaccessible to the common man. With the concept of Machine Translation we may work towards achieving the goal using easily available computer systems. Besides, one of the first linguistic applications of computers to be funded was machine translation. The English to Marathi translator designed will be very useful to people who don’t understand English.Speech synthesizer is the artificial production of human speech. A computer system used for this purpose is called a speech synthesizer, and can be implemented in software or hardware.

  13. Synthesizing new, high-temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Claire; Aronson, Meigan

    2015-03-01

    Currently, there is no accepted theory behind type-II, high-temperature superconductors, but there is a distinct relationship between anti-ferromagnetism and superconductivity. Our research focuses on synthesizing new superconducting materials by observing the link between atomic structure and magnetic moments of anti-ferromagnetic compounds and attempting to reproduce the molecular physics of these known materials in new compounds. Consider the square-planar arrangement of the transition metal Fe in the Fe-pnictide superconductors of the ZrCuSiAs ``11 11'' and the ThCr2Si2 ``122'' structure types. We believe that the physics behind this superconductor, where Fe has d6 valence electrons, contributes to the superconducting state, not the presence of Fe itself. For this reason, we are synthesizing materials containing neighboring transition metals, like Mn and Co, combined with other elements in similar crystal lattice arrangements, having ionization properties that hopefully impose d6 valence electrons on the transition metals. This project was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Workforce Development for Teachers and Scientists (WDTS) under the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internships Program (SULI).

  14. Recent Advances in Chemoenzymatic Peptide Syntheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenjiro Yazawa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemoenzymatic peptide synthesis is the hydrolase-catalyzed stereoselective formation of peptide bonds. It is a clean and mild procedure, unlike conventional chemical synthesis, which involves complicated and laborious protection-deprotection procedures and harsh reaction conditions. The chemoenzymatic approach has been utilized for several decades because determining the optimal conditions for conventional synthesis is often time-consuming. The synthesis of poly- and oligopeptides comprising various amino acids longer than a dipeptide continues to pose a challenge owing to the lack of knowledge about enzymatic mechanisms and owing to difficulty in optimizing the pH, temperature, and other reaction conditions. These drawbacks limit the applications of the chemoenzymatic approach. Recently, a variety of enzymes and substrates produced using recombinant techniques, substrate mimetics, and optimal reaction conditions (e.g., frozen aqueous media and ionic liquids have broadened the scope of chemoenzymatic peptide syntheses. In this review, we highlight the recent advances in the chemoenzymatic syntheses of various peptides and their use in developing new materials and biomedical applications.

  15. Synthesis and Protonation Studies of Molybdenum(0) Bis(dinitrogen) Complexes Supported by Diphosphine Ligands Containing Pendant Amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labios, Liezel AN; Weiss, Charles J.; Egbert, Jonathan D.; Lense, Sheri J.; Bullock, R. Morris; Dougherty, William G.; Kassel, W. S.; Mock, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    A series of molybdenum bis(dinitrogen) complexes of the formula trans-Mo(N2)2(PEtNRPEt)2 (PEtNRPEt = Et2PCH2N(R)CH2Et2; R = phenyl (1), 2,6-difluorobenzyl (2), 3,5-difluorobenzyl (3), CH2CH2NMe2 (4), CH2-o-Py (5)) have been synthesized and characterized by NMR and IR spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography. Protonation studies with stoichiometric amounts of triflic acid (HOTf) were performed and the the protonated products were characterized by NMR and in situ IR spectroscopic methods. Protonolysis experiments with excess triflic acid were conducted to test for the formation of ammonia from reduction of the dinitrogen ligands. This work was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. S.L. was supported by the DOE Office of Science, Early Career Research Program through the Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE.

  16. Stellar Motion around Spiral Arms: Gaia Mock Data

    CERN Document Server

    Kawata, D; Grand, R J J; Siebert, A; Pasetto, S; Cropper, M

    2015-01-01

    We compare the stellar motion around a spiral arm created in two different scenarios, transient/co-rotating spiral arms and density-wave-like spiral arms. We generate Gaia mock data from snapshots of the simulations following these two scenarios using our stellar population code, SNAPDRAGONS, which takes into account dust extinction and the expected Gaia errors. We compare the observed rotation velocity around a spiral arm similar in position to the Perseus arm, and find that there is a clear difference in the velocity features around the spiral arm between the co-rotating spiral arm and the density-wave-like spiral arm. Our result demonstrates that the volume and accuracy of the Gaia data are sufficient to clearly distinguish these two scenarios of the spiral arms.

  17. 78 FR 65451 - Agency Information Collection (Shoulder and Arm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ...Arm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY...Arm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any correspondence. FOR FURTHER...Arm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire).'' SUPPLEMENTARY...

  18. Spiral arms as cosmic ray source distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, M.; Kissmann, R.; Strong, A. W.; Reimer, O.

    2015-04-01

    The Milky Way is a spiral galaxy with (or without) a bar-like central structure. There is evidence that the distribution of suspected cosmic ray sources, such as supernova remnants, are associated with the spiral arm structure of galaxies. It is yet not clearly understood what effect such a cosmic ray source distribution has on the particle transport in our Galaxy. We investigate and measure how the propagation of Galactic cosmic rays is affected by a cosmic ray source distribution associated with spiral arm structures. We use the PICARD code to perform high-resolution 3D simulations of electrons and protons in galactic propagation scenarios that include four-arm and two-arm logarithmic spiral cosmic ray source distributions with and without a central bar structure as well as the spiral arm configuration of the NE2001 model for the distribution of free electrons in the Milky Way. Results of these simulation are compared to an axisymmetric radial source distribution. Also, effects on the cosmic ray flux and spectra due to different positions of the Earth relative to the spiral structure are studied. We find that high energy electrons are strongly confined to their sources and the obtained spectra largely depend on the Earth's position relative to the spiral arms. Similar finding have been obtained for low energy protons and electrons albeit at smaller magnitude. We find that even fractional contributions of a spiral arm component to the total cosmic ray source distribution influences the spectra on the Earth. This is apparent when compared to an axisymmetric radial source distribution as well as with respect to the Earth's position relative to the spiral arm structure. We demonstrate that the presence of a Galactic bar manifests itself as an overall excess of low energy electrons at the Earth. Using a spiral arm geometry as a cosmic ray source distributions offers a genuine new quality of modeling and is used to explain features in cosmic ray spectra at the Earth that are else-wise attributed to other propagation effects. We show that realistic cosmic ray propagation scenarios have to acknowledge non-axisymmetric source distributions.

  19. Spiral Arms as Cosmic Ray Source Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, M; Strong, A W; Reimer, O

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence that the distribution of suspected cosmic ray sources are associated with the spiral arm structure of galaxies. It is yet not clearly understood what effect such a cosmic ray source distribution has on the particle transport in our Galaxy. We use the PICARD code to perform high-resolution 3D simulations of electrons and protons in galactic propagation scenarios that include four-arm and two-arm logarithmic spiral cosmic ray source distributions with and without a central bar structure as well as the spiral arm configuration of the NE2001 model for the distribution of free electrons in the Milky Way. Results of these simulation are compared to an axisymmetric radial source distribution. Also, effects on the cosmic ray flux and spectra due to different positions of the Earth relative to the spiral structure are studied. We find that high energy electrons are strongly confined to their sources and the obtained spectra largely depend on the Earth's position relative to the spiral arms. Similar f...

  20. Comparison study of treadmill versus arm ergometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrieks, Ilse C; Barnes, Matthew J; Hodges, Lynette D

    2011-07-01

    The Bruce treadmill test is used worldwide to assess cardiovascular disease. However, because of the high increments of intensity between the stages of this test, it is not best suited to a number of populations. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the difference between physiological outcomes of the arm crank test and Bruce treadmill test and to provide a regression equation to account for this. Thirty subjects (16 men and 14 women) performed both an arm crank test and the Bruce treadmill test, on two separate days, in a random order. Peak values of oxygen uptake (VO(2) ), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), ventilation rate (V(E) ), heart rate (HR) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded. Arm crank VO(2peak) and peak V(E) were significantly lower compared with treadmill VO(2peak) and peak VE, in both men and women (Pprediction of treadmill VO(2peak) can be made by arm crank VO(2peak) , which is a good estimate of a person's maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max) ). Therefore, the arm crank test can be of great importance for evaluation of cardiovascular disease in many people. PMID:21672142

  1. Structure of the enzymatically synthesized fructan inulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Construction, purification and characterization of a fusion protein of maltose-binding protein of Escherichia coli and the fructosyltransferase of Streptococcus mutans is described. With the purified protein, in vitro synthesis of inulin was performed. The obtained polysaccharide was characterized by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) and static light scattering (SLS) in dilute aqueous and dimethyl sulfoxide solution. For all samples very high molecular weights between 60x106 and 90x106 g/mol and a remarkable small polydispersity index of 1.1 have been determined. Small root-mean-square radii of gyration point to a compact conformation in dilute solution. No difference between native and enzymatically synthesized inulin was observed by X-ray powder diffraction and thermoanalysis of solid samples. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  2. The Complexity of Synthesizing Uniform Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastien Maubert

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate uniformity properties of strategies. These properties involve sets of plays in order to express useful constraints on strategies that are not ?-calculus definable. Typically, we can state that a strategy is observation-based. We propose a formal language to specify uniformity properties, interpreted over two-player turn-based arenas equipped with a binary relation between plays. This way, we capture e.g. games with winning conditions expressible in epistemic temporal logic, whose underlying equivalence relation between plays reflects the observational capabilities of agents (for example, synchronous perfect recall. Our framework naturally generalizes many other situations from the literature. We establish that the problem of synthesizing strategies under uniformity constraints based on regular binary relations between plays is non-elementary complete.

  3. Recent Syntheses of Frog Alkaloid Epibatidine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ronaldo E. de, Oliveira Filho; Alvaro T., Omori.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many natives from Amazon use poison secreted by the skin of some colorful frogs (Dendrobatidae) on the tips of their arrows to hunt. This habit has generated interest in the isolation of these toxins. Among the over 500 isolated alkaloids, the most important is undoubtedly (-)-epibatidine. First iso [...] lated in 1992, by Daly from Epipedobates tricolor, this compound is highly toxic (LD50 about 0.4 µg per mouse). Most remarkably, its non-opioid analgesic activity was found to be about 200 times stronger than morphine. Due to its scarcity, the limited availability of natural sources, and its intriguing biological activity, more than 100 synthetic routes have been developed since the epibatidine structure was assigned. This review presents the recent formal and total syntheses of epibatidine since the excellent review published in 2002 by Olivo et al.1 Mainly, this review is summarized by the method used to obtain the azabicyclic core.

  4. Energy storage materials synthesized from ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebresilassie Eshetu, Gebrekidan; Armand, Michel; Scrosati, Bruno; Passerini, Stefano

    2014-12-01

    The advent of ionic liquids (ILs) as eco-friendly and promising reaction media has opened new frontiers in the field of electrochemical energy storage. Beyond their use as electrolyte components in batteries and supercapacitors, ILs have unique properties that make them suitable as functional advanced materials, media for materials production, and components for preparing highly engineered functional products. Aiming at offering an in-depth review on the newly emerging IL-based green synthesis processes of energy storage materials, this Review provides an overview of the role of ILs in the synthesis of materials for batteries, supercapacitors, and green electrode processing. It is expected that this Review will assess the status quo of the research field and thereby stimulate new thoughts and ideas on the emerging challenges and opportunities of IL-based syntheses of energy materials. PMID:25303401

  5. PZT Powders Synthesized by Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Kong-Jun, ZHU Ren-Qiang, DONG Na-Na, GU Hong-Hui, QIU Jin-Hao, JI Hong-Li

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) powders with single―phase, cubic morphology and average size of 1 ?m were synthesized using hydrothermal methods. Effects of KOH concentration, hydrothermal treatment time and Pb excess were investigated. The results show that KOH concentration has an important influence on the solid solubility of Pb ion in A―site of PZT perovskite structure. The concentration of Pb2+ vacancies increased with the increase of OH― concentration. However, this kind of deficiency could be compensated by adding more Pb ions in the raw materials, and more Pb ions were needed to add with higher alkaline concentration in the starting solution. But excessive compensation of Pb ions would result in the appearance of the second phase.

  6. Synthesizing Fault Tolerant Safety Critical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seemanta Saha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To keep pace with today’s nanotechnology, safety critical embedded systems are becoming less tolerant to errors. Research into techniques to cope with errors in these systems has mostly focused on transformational approach, replication of hardware devices, parallel program design, component based design and/or information redundancy. It would be better to tackle the issue early in the design process that a safety critical system never fails to satisfy its strict dependability requirements. A novel method is outlined in this paper that proposes an efficient approach to synthesize safety critical systems. The proposed method outperforms dominant existing work by introducing the technique of run time detection and completion of proper execution of the system in the presence of faults.

  7. Syntheses of 32P-labelled nucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most frequently used methods are described of the synthesis of nucleotides labelled with 32P (which is a beta decay radioisotope, half-life 14.3 days, max. decay energy 1.709 MeV). The possibilities are summed up of the preparation of ribonucleoside and deoxyribonucleoside mono-, di- and triphosphates with different positions of 32P using enzyme, chemical, combined and biosynthetic methods of synthesis. The described syntheses of nucleotides proceed from the reaction of 32P-orthophosphate with the terminal phosphate group of ATP, from the reaction of (?-32P) ATP with NDP, phosphorylation in chloroplasts, the general Moffat method for chemical synthesis of ATP, the separation of 32P-RNA from cells of E. coli with subsequent phosphorolysis, etc. An extensive list of references is provided. (J.C.)

  8. National Gas Survey. Synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The supply-Technical Advisory Task Force-Synthesized Gaseous Hydrocarbon Fuels considered coal, hydrocarbon liquids, oil shales, tar sands, and bioconvertible materials as potential feedstocks for gaseous fuels. Current status of process technology for each feedstock was reviewed, economic evaluations including sensitivity analysis were made, and constraints for establishment of a synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels industry considered. Process technology is presently available to manufacture gaseous hydrocarbon fuels from each of the feedstocks. In 1975 there were eleven liquid feedstock SNG plants in the United States having a capacity of 1.1 billion SCFD. There can be no contribution of SNG before 1982 from plants using feedstocks other than liquids because there are no plants in operation or under construction as of 1977. Costs for SNG are higher than current regulated prices for U.S. natural gas. Because of large reserves, coal is a prime feedstock candidate although there are major constraints in the area of coal leases, mining and water permits, and others. Commercial technology is available and several new gasification processes are under development. Oil shale is also a feedstock in large supply and commercial process technology is available. There are siting and permit constraints, and water availability may limit the ultimate size of an oil shale processing industry. Under projected conditions, bioconvertible materials are not expected to support the production of large quantities of pipeline quality gas during the next decade. Production of low or medium Btu gas from municipal solid wastes can be expected to be developed in urban areas in conjunction with savings in disposal costs. In the economic evaluations presented, the most significant factor for liquid feedstock plants is the anticipated cost of feedstock and fuel. The economic viability of plants using other feedstocks is primarily dependent upon capital requirements.

  9. Porous oxides synthesized by the combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The result of this work, seeks to be a contribution for the treatment of radioactive wastes, with base to the sorption properties that present those porous oxides, synthesized by a method that allows to increase the sorption capacity. The main objective of the present investigation has been the modification of the structural characteristics of the oxides of Fe, Mg and Zn to increase its capacity of sorption of 60 Co in particular. It was studied the effect of the synthesis method by combustion in the inorganic oxides; the obtained solids were characterized using the following techniques: X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), semiquantitative elementary analysis by Dispersive energy spectroscopy (EDS) and determination of surface area by the Brunauner-Emmett-Teller method (BET). Also was carried out batch type experiments for the sorption of Co2+, with the purpose of studying the sorption capacity of each one of the prepared oxides. In accordance with that previously exposed, the working plan that was carried out in this investigation is summarized in the following stages: 1. Preparation of inorganic oxides by two different methods, studying the effect of the temperature in the synthesis process. 2. Characterization of the inorganic oxides by XRD, by means of which those were chosen the solids with better properties. 3. Characterization of the inorganic oxides by SEM and EDS where it was studied the morphology of the synthesized materials and the semiquantitative elemental composition. 4. Realization of a sorption experiment type Batch with non radioactive Co2+ to simulate the sorption of 60 Co and determination of the sorption capacity by means of neutron activation of the non radioactive cobalt. 5. Determination of the surface area by the (BET) technique of the inorganic oxides with better sorption properties. (Author)

  10. Synthesizing plant phenological indicators from multispecies datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutishauser, This; Peñuelas, Josep; Filella, Iolanda; Gehrig, Regula; Scherrer, Simon C.; Röthlisberger, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Changes in the seasonality of life cycles of plants from phenological observations are traditionally analysed at the species level. Trends and correlations with main environmental driving variables show a coherent picture across the globe. The question arises whether there is an integrated phenological signal across species that describes common interannual variability. Is there a way to express synthetic phenological indicators from multispecies datasets that serve decision makers as usefull tools? Can these indicators be derived in such a robust way that systematic updates yield necessary information for adaptation measures? We address these questions by analysing multi-species phenological data sets with leaf-unfolding and flowering observations from 30 sites across Europe between 40° and 63°N including data from PEP725, the Swiss Plant Phenological Observation Network and one legacy data set. Starting in 1951 the data sets were synthesized by multivariate analysis (Principal Component Analysis). The representativeness of the site specific indicator was tested against subsets including only leaf-unfolding or flowering phases, and by a comparison with a 50% random sample of the available phenophases for 500 time steps. Results show that a synthetic indicators explains up to 79% of the variance at each site - usually 40-50% or more. Robust linear trends over the common period 1971-2000 indicate an overall change of the indicator of -0.32 days/year with lower uncertainty than previous studies. Advances were more pronounced in southern and northern Europe. The indicator-based analysis provides a promising tool for synthesizing site-based plant phenological records and is a companion to, and validating data for, an increasing number of phenological measurements derived from phenological models and satellite sensors.

  11. Spiral arms, comets and terrestrial catastrophism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented of an hypothesis of terrestrial catastrophism in which comets grow in molecular clouds and are captured by the Sun as it passes through the spiral arms of the Galaxy. Assuming that comets are a major supplier of the Earth-crossing (Appollo) asteroid population, the latter fluctuates correspondingly and leads to episodes of terrestrial bombardment. Changes in the rotational momentum of core and mantle, generated by impacts, lead to episodes of magnetic field reversal and tectonic activity, while surface phenomena lead to ice-ages and mass extinctions. An episodic geophysical history with an interstellar connection is thus implied. If comets in spiral arms are necessary intermediaries in the process of star formation, the theory also has implications relating to early solar system history and galactic chemistry. These aspects are briefly discussed with special reference to the nature of spiral arms. (author)

  12. ARM Cloud Retrieval Ensemble Data Set (ACRED)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, C; Xie, S; Klein, SA; McCoy, R; Comstock, JM; Delanoë, J; Deng, M; Dunn, M; Hogan, RJ; Jensen, MP; Mace, GG; McFarlane, SA; O’Connor, EJ; Protat, A; Shupe, MD; Turner, D; Wang, Z

    2011-09-12

    This document describes a new Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) data set, the ARM Cloud Retrieval Ensemble Data Set (ACRED), which is created by assembling nine existing ground-based cloud retrievals of ARM measurements from different cloud retrieval algorithms. The current version of ACRED includes an hourly average of nine ground-based retrievals with vertical resolution of 45 m for 512 layers. The techniques used for the nine cloud retrievals are briefly described in this document. This document also outlines the ACRED data availability, variables, and the nine retrieval products. Technical details about the generation of ACRED, such as the methods used for time average and vertical re-grid, are also provided.

  13. Fusion of hand and arm gestures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquin, D.; Benoit, E.; Sawada, H.; Ionescu, B.

    2005-12-01

    In order to improve the link between an operator and its machine, some human oriented communication systems are now using natural languages like speech or gesture. The goal of this paper is to present a gesture recognition system based on the fusion of measurements issued from different kind of sources. It is necessary to have some sensors that are able to capture at least the position and the orientation of the hand such as Dataglove and a video camera. Datagloge gives a measure of the hand posture and a video camera gives a measure of the general arm gesture which represents the physical and spatial properties of the gesture, and based on the 2D skeleton representation of the arm. The measurements used are partially complementary and partially redundant. The application is distributed on intelligent cooperating sensors. The paper presents the measurement of the hand and the arm gestures, the fusion processes, and the implementation solution.

  14. Phoenix Deploying its Robotic Arm Elbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This animated gif is compiled of images from Phoenix's Stereo Surface Imager (SSI) taken on Sol 3. It shows the stair-step motion used to unstow the arm from a protective covering called the biobarrier. The last two moves allow the arm to stand straight up. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Two-Armed, Mobile, Sensate Research Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelberger, J. F.; Roberts, W. Nelson; Ryan, David J.; Silverthorne, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The Anthropomorphic Robotic Testbed (ART) is an experimental prototype of a partly anthropomorphic, humanoid-size, mobile robot. The basic ART design concept provides for a combination of two-armed coordination, tactility, stereoscopic vision, mobility with navigation and avoidance of obstacles, and natural-language communication, so that the ART could emulate humans in many activities. The ART could be developed into a variety of highly capable robotic assistants for general or specific applications. There is especially great potential for the development of ART-based robots as substitutes for live-in health-care aides for home-bound persons who are aged, infirm, or physically handicapped; these robots could greatly reduce the cost of home health care and extend the term of independent living. The ART is a fully autonomous and untethered system. It includes a mobile base on which is mounted an extensible torso topped by a head, shoulders, and two arms. All subsystems of the ART are powered by a rechargeable, removable battery pack. The mobile base is a differentially- driven, nonholonomic vehicle capable of a speed >1 m/s and can handle a payload >100 kg. The base can be controlled manually, in forward/backward and/or simultaneous rotational motion, by use of a joystick. Alternatively, the motion of the base can be controlled autonomously by an onboard navigational computer. By retraction or extension of the torso, the head height of the ART can be adjusted from 5 ft (1.5 m) to 6 1/2 ft (2 m), so that the arms can reach either the floor or high shelves, or some ceilings. The arms are symmetrical. Each arm (including the wrist) has a total of six rotary axes like those of the human shoulder, elbow, and wrist joints. The arms are actuated by electric motors in combination with brakes and gas-spring assists on the shoulder and elbow joints. The arms are operated under closed-loop digital control. A receptacle for an end effector is mounted on the tip of the wrist and contains a force-and-torque sensor that provides feedback for force (compliance) control of the arm. The end effector could be a tool or a robot hand, depending on the application.

  16. Absolute Radiometric Measurements in Space: ARMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. E.; Fox, N. P.

    1992-12-01

    The Absolute Radiometric Measurements in Space (ARMS) project proposes the development of a new primary radiometric standard for use in space traceable to the SI system of units. The standard, the Cryogenic Solar Absolute Radiometer (CSAR) will be capable of measuring the total irradiance of the Sun with an uncertainty of 0.01 percent, and a resolution of 0.001 percent, more than a factor ten improvement over existing instruments. ARMS was submitted to ESA in response to a call for opportunities for Columbus precursor flights and CSAR is currently on the provisional payload of Eureca 3.

  17. Electrochemical Oxidation of H? Catalyzed by Ruthenium Hydride Complexes Bearing P?N? Ligands With Pendant Amines as Proton Relays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tianbiao L.; Rakowski DuBois, Mary; DuBois, Daniel L.; Bullock, R. Morris

    2014-01-01

    Two Ru hydride complexes (Cp*Ru(PPh?NBn?)H, (1-H) and Cp*Ru(PtBu?NBn?)H, (2-H) supported by cyclic PR?NR'? ligands (Cp* = n?-C?Me?; 1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane, where R = Ph or tBu and R' = Bn) have been synthesized and fully characterized. Both complexes are demonstrated to be electrocatalysts for oxidation of H? (1 atm, 22 °C) in the presence of external base, DBU (1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene). The turnover frequency of 2-H is 1.2 s-1, with an overpotential at Ecat/2 of 0.45 V, while catalysis by 1-H has a turnover frequency of 0.6 s-1 and an overpotential of 0.6 V at Ecat/2. Addition of H?O facilitates oxidation of H? by 2-H and increases its turnover frequency to 1.9 s-1 while , H?O slows down the catalysis by 1-H. The different effects of H?O for 1-H and 2-H are ascribed to different binding affinities of H?O to the Ru center of the corresponding unsaturated species, [Cp*Ru(PPh?NBn?)]+ and [Cp*Ru(PPh?NBn?)]+. In addition, studies of Cp*Ru(dmpm)H (where dmpm = bis(dimethylphosphino)methane), a control complex lacking pendent amines in its diphosphine ligand, confirms the critical roles of the pendent amines of P?N? ligands for oxidation of H?. We thank the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences, for supporting initial parts of the work. Current work is supported by the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  18. Génotypage du virus de la rougeole par PCR en temps réel: Cas des souches virales isolées au Maroc pendant la saison 2004-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Waku-Kouomou

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Le génotypage du virus de la rougeole (VR est un outil important dans la surveillance de la rougeole. Il permet d’identifier l’origine du virus, ses voies de transmission et d’évaluer les programmes de vaccination. Vu l’importance du génotypage du VR dans le programme de l’élimination de la rougeole, une technique rapide a été développée. Cette technique se base sur l’identification des génotypes par PCR en temps réel, les différents génotypes sont distingués par leur température de fusion (Tm. Cette méthode constitue une alternative efficace pour l’investigation des épidémies de rougeole dans les pays en phase d’élimination.Les souches du virus de la rougeole isolées pendant la saison 2004-2005 ont été identifiées par PCR en temps réel puis confirmées par le séquençage des gènes H et N. cette étude, a permis de montrer une rapide diversification des génotypes qui circulent au Maroc. Parmi ces génotypes, certains sont importés de l’Afrique de l’Ouest et de l’Europe, d’autres correspondent à la souche autochtone. Ces résultats montrent la nécessité de renforcer la couverture vaccinale et d’introduire une nouvelle stratégie de vaccination dans le but d’éliminer la maladie.

  19. After Arizona: Military Musicians in the Second World War Après Arizona: les musiciens dans la marine américaine pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Peters

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cet article traite du rôle des musiciens dans la marine américaine pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale. L’histoire de l’USS Arizona — et de son orchestre, noyé avec le cuirassé lors de l’attaque surprise des forces japonaises — étant bien connue, je m’appuie sur cet exemple comme point de départ afin de contextualiser la situation des musiciens militaires après les événements de Pearl Harbor, en décembre 1941. Dans le sillage de ce grand moment de l’Histoire, j’évoque ici des histoires à une autre échelle, celle de la « micro-histoire »— celle d’un militaire seul au milieu d’autres militaires. À travers les lettres échangées entre des recrues ayant suivi ensemble la même formation, je trace ici leurs expériences de guerre en tant qu’artistes, ainsi que les divers conflits pratiques et idéologiques qui se manifestent dans la tension entre l’art musical et l’art martial.

  20. Study of sulfonated polyether ether ketone with pendant lithiated fluorinated sulfonic groups as ion conductive binder in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zengbin; Xue, Lixin; Nie, Feng; Sheng, Jianfang; Shi, Qianru; Zhao, Xiulan

    2014-06-01

    In an attempt to reduce the Li+ concentration polarization and electrolyte depletion from the electrode porous space, sulfonated polyether ether ketone with pendant lithiated fluorinated sulfonic groups (SPEEK-FSA-Li) is prepared and attempted as ionic conductivity binder. Sulfonated aromatic poly(ether ether ketone) exhibits strong adhesion and chemical stability, and lithiated fluorinated sulfonic side chains help to enhance the ionic conductivity and Li+ ion diffusion due to the charge delocalization over the sulfonic chain. The performances are evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, charge-discharge cycle testing, 180° peel testing, and compared with the cathode prepared with polyvinylidene fluoride binder. The electrode prepared with SPEEK-FSA-Li binder forms the relatively smaller resistances of both the SEI and the charge transfer of lithium ion transport. This is beneficial to lithium ion intercalation and de-intercalation of the cathode during discharging-charging, therefore the cell prepared with SPEEK-FSA-Li shows lower charge plateau potential and higher discharge plateau potential. Compared with PVDF, the electrode with ionic binder shows smaller decrease in capacity with the increasing of cycle rate. Meanwhile, adhesion strength of electrode prepared with SPEEK-FSA-Li is more than five times greater than that with PVDF.

  1. DYNAMICS OF NON-STEADY SPIRAL ARMS IN DISK GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Junichi; Saitoh, Takayuki R. [Interactive Research Center of Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Wada, Keiichi, E-mail: babajn@geo.titech.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-30 Korimoto, Kagoshima, Kagoshima 890-8580 (Japan)

    2013-01-20

    In order to understand the physical mechanisms underlying non-steady stellar spiral arms in disk galaxies, we analyzed the growing and damping phases of their spiral arms using three-dimensional N-body simulations. We confirmed that the spiral arms are formed due to a swing amplification mechanism that reinforces density enhancement as a seeded wake. In the damping phase, the Coriolis force exerted on a portion of the arm surpasses the gravitational force that acts to shrink the portion. Consequently, the stars in the portion escape from the arm, and subsequently they form a new arm at a different location. The time-dependent nature of the spiral arms originates in the continual repetition of this nonlinear phenomenon. Since a spiral arm does not rigidly rotate, but follows the galactic differential rotation, the stars in the arm rotate at almost the same rate as the arm. In other words, every single position in the arm can be regarded as the corotation point. Due to interaction with their host arms, the energy and angular momentum of the stars change, thereby causing radial migration of the stars. During this process, the kinetic energy of random motion (random energy) of the stars does not significantly increase, and the disk remains dynamically cold. Owing to this low degree of disk heating, short-lived spiral arms can recurrently develop over many rotational periods. The resultant structure of the spiral arms in the N-body simulations is consistent with the observational nature of spiral galaxies. We conclude that the formation and structure of spiral arms in isolated disk galaxies can be reasonably understood by nonlinear interactions between a spiral arm and its constituent stars.

  2. On monochromatic arm exponents for 2D critical percolation

    OpenAIRE

    Beffara, Vincent; Nolin, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the so-called monochromatic arm exponents for critical percolation in two dimensions. These exponents, describing the probability of observing j disjoint macroscopic paths, are shown to exist and to form a different family from the (now well understood) polychromatic exponents. More specifically, our main result is that the monochromatic j-arm exponent is strictly between the polychromatic j-arm and (j+1)-arm exponents.

  3. Methyltriethoxysilane: New precursor for synthesizing silica aerogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditionally, silica aerogels are synthesized using three silicon alkoxides, namely, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) and methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) for various applications in science as well as in technology. Among all these precursors, only MTMS-based silica aerogels are inherently superhydrophobic with so far reported, the highest contact angle of 173 deg. In the present paper, we reported a new precursor, namely, methyltriethoxysilane (MTES) for synthesizing the silica aerogels having the novel properties as that of MTMS-based aerogels. The aerogels have been prepared using the MTES by two-stage acid-base catalyzed sol-gel process followed by supercritical drying. The solvent and catalysts used for the synthesis were methanol (MeOH), oxalic acid (C2H2O4) and ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH), respectively. The aerogels of different densities were obtained by varying the molar ratio of MeOH/MTES (S) from 6.45 to 19.35. In order to get good quality aerogels in terms of low density, high contact angle and less volume shrinkage, the oxalic acid (A) and NH4OH (B) concentrations were varied from 0 to 1 and from 2 to 13.36 M, respectively. Monolithic aerogels have been obtained for the values of A = 0.01 M and B = 13.36 M. Simultaneously, the aerogels are superhydrophobic with contact angle as high as 163 deg. Furthermore, the effects of molar ratio of H2O/MTES (W1), i.e. acidic water and 2O/MTES (W1), i.e. acidic water and H2O/MTES (W2), i.e. basic water on the physical properties of the aerogels have also been studied. The molar ratio of MTES:MeOH:acidic water:basic water was optimized at 1:19.35:3.57:3.57, respectively. The aerogel thermal stability was studied by TGA-DTA while the hydrophobicity was quantified in terms of the contact angle measurements and FTIR studies. The as-prepared aerogels have been characterized by bulk density, porosity, volume shrinkage, thermal conductivity, contact angle measurements, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The physical properties of the aerogels have been explained by taking into account of sol-gel reactions and the gel network formation

  4. Dynamics of Non-Steady Spiral Arms in Disk Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Baba, Junichi; Wada, Keiichi

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the physical mechanisms underlying non-steady stellar spiral arms in disk galaxies, we analyzed the growing and damping phases of their spiral arms using three-dimensional $N$-body simulations. We confirmed that the spiral arms are formed due to a swing amplification mechanism that reinforces density enhancement as a seeded wake. In the damping phase, the Coriolis force exerted on a portion of the arm surpasses the gravitational force that acts to shrink the portion. Consequently, the stars in the portion escape from the arm, and subsequently they form a new arm at a different location. The time-dependent nature of the spiral arms are originated in the continual repetition of this non-linear phenomenon. Since a spiral arm does not rigidly rotate, but follows the galactic differential rotation, the stars in the arm rotate at almost the same rate as the arm. In other words, every single position in the arm can be regarded as the co-rotation point. Due to interaction with their host arms, ...

  5. 32 CFR 707.3 - Yard arm signaling lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Yard arm signaling lights. 707.3 Section 707...STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.3 Yard arm signaling lights. Naval vessels may...all round lights at the ends of the yard arms. These lights will flash in varying...

  6. 49 CFR 572.196 - Thorax without arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Thorax without arm. 572.196 Section 572.196 Transportation...Adult Female § 572.196 Thorax without arm. (a) The thorax is part of the...assembly (drawing 180-0000) with the arm (180-6000) on the impacted...

  7. 49 CFR 173.170 - Black powder for small arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Black powder for small arms. 173.170 Section 173.170 Transportation...and Class 7 § 173.170 Black powder for small arms. Black powder for small arms that has been classed in Division 1.1 may...

  8. 29 CFR 4.11 - Arm's length proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Arm's length proceedings. 4.11 Section...Standards Provisions and Procedures § 4.11 Arm's length proceedings. (a) Statutory...agreement must be reached “as a result of arm's-length negotiations.”...

  9. 49 CFR 234.255 - Gate arm and gate mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gate arm and gate mechanism. 234.255 Section 234...Testing Inspections and Tests § 234.255 Gate arm and gate mechanism. (a) Each gate arm and gate mechanism shall be inspected at...

  10. 48 CFR 225.7702 - Acquisition of small arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Acquisition of small arms. 225.7702 Section 225.7702 ...Afghanistan 225.7702 Acquisition of small arms. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, when acquiring small arms for assistance to the Army of Iraq,...

  11. 32 CFR 552.118 - Issuance from unit arms room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 true Issuance from unit arms room. 552.118 Section 552.118...MILITARY RESERVATIONS Physical Security of Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives-Fort Lewis...Washington § 552.118 Issuance from unit arms room. When privately owned weapons...

  12. 49 CFR 173.171 - Smokeless powder for small arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Smokeless powder for small arms. 173.171 Section 173.171 Transportation...Class 7 § 173.171 Smokeless powder for small arms. Smokeless powder for small arms which has been classed in Division 1.3...

  13. 49 CFR 572.195 - Thorax with arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Thorax with arm. 572.195 Section 572.195 Transportation...Adult Female § 572.195 Thorax with arm. (a) The thorax is part of the upper...drawing 180-3000. For the thorax with arm impact test, the dummy is...

  14. 77 FR 40026 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ...Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended...defined in Section 47(6) of the Arms Export Control Act. POLICY...and expand its existing Army architecture to counter threats posed by...Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act Annex...

  15. 77 FR 35363 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ...Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as Amended...defined in Section 47(6) of the Arms Export Control Act. [[Page...to expand its existing army architecture and improve its self-defense...Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act Annex...

  16. 77 FR 46415 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ...Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended...defined in Section 47(6) of the Arms Export Control Act. Policy...to expand its existing army architecture and improve its self-defense...Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act Annex...

  17. 76 FR 68434 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ...Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended...defined in Section 47(6) of the Arms Export Control Act. (iii...enhance its existing air defense architecture to counter threats posed by...Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as...

  18. 76 FR 60461 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ...Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as Amended...defined in Section 47(6) of the Arms Export Control Act. (iii...and expand its existing Army architecture to counter threats posed by...Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act Annex...

  19. 76 FR 40707 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ...Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as Amended...defined in Section 47(6) of the Arms Export Control Act. (iii...Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as Amended...via standard Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) interfaces via...

  20. Irrevocable Multi-Armed Bandit Policies

    CERN Document Server

    Farias, Vivek

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the multi-armed bandit problem with multiple simultaneous arm pulls. We develop a new `irrevocable' heuristic for this problem. In particular, we do not allow recourse to arms that were pulled at some point in the past but then discarded. This irrevocable property is highly desirable from a practical perspective. As a consequence of this property, our heuristic entails a minimum amount of `exploration'. At the same time, we find that the price of irrevocability is limited for a broad useful class of bandits we characterize precisely. This class includes one of the most common applications of the bandit model, namely, bandits whose arms are `coins' of unknown biases. Computational experiments with a generative family of large scale problems within this class indicate losses of up to 5 to 10% relative to an upper bound on the performance of an optimal policy with no restrictions on exploration. We also provide a worst-case theoretical analysis that shows that for this class of bandit proble...

  1. Kinematics and trajectory generation for MIRADAS arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater, J.; Gómez, J. M.; Torra, J.; López, M.; Raines, S. N.; Eikenberry, S. S.

    2015-05-01

    The Mid-resolution InfRAreD Astronomical Spectrograph (MIRADAS) is a NIR multi-object spectrograph for the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). The instrument has a multiplexing system (MXS) that enables the simultaneous observation of twenty objects located within its field of view. These user selected targets are acquired by twenty deployable robotic probe arms with pickoff mirror optics operating at cryogenic temperatures. The MIRADAS probe arm is a close-loop mechanism designed with optics simplicity in mind, presenting good stability when it is operated upside down. Calculating optimum collision-free trajectories requires a good knowledge of the MIRADAS arm behavior based on its geometry and its mechanical constraints. This study introduces a geometric model for the two degree-of-freedom (DoF) mechanism, including solutions for the forward and inverse kinematics problem. The concepts of zone-of-avoidance (ZoA), workspace and envelope of MIRADAS arm are presented and studied. Finally, the paper proposes two different patrolling approaches that can be exploited when planning trajectories.

  2. Whole arm obstacle avoidance for teleoperated robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feddema, J.T.; Novak, J.L.

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes a collision avoidance system using Whole Arm Proximity (WHAP) sensors on a PUMA 560 robot arm. The capacitance-based sensors generate electric fields which can completely encompass the robot arm and detect obstacles as they approach from any direction. The directional obstacle information gathered by the WHAP sensors together with the sensor geometry and robot configuration is used to scale the commanded joint velocities of the robot. A linearized relationship between the WHAP sensor reading and the distance from the obstacle allows direct transformation of perturbations in VHAP readings to perturbations in joint velocities. The VHAP reading is used to directly reduce the component of the command input velocity along the normal axis of the sensor, allowing graceful reductions in speed as the arm approaches the obstacle. By scaling only the component of the velocity vector in the,direction of the nearest obstacles, the control system restricts motion in the direction of obstacles while permitting unconstrained motion in other directions.

  3. Light duty utility arm software requirements specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document defines the software requirements for the integrated control and data acquisition system of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System. It is intended to be used to guide the design of the application software, to be a basis for assessing the application software design, and to establish what is to be tested in the finished application software product

  4. Light Duty Utility Arm Software Test Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plan describes how validation testing of the software will be implemented for the integrated control and data acquisition system of the Light Duty Utility Arm System (LDUA). The purpose of LDUA software validation testing is to demonstrate and document that the LDUA software meets its software requirements specification

  5. Arms Control, Deterrence and Nuclear Proliferation Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    This collection contains documents about arms control, nuclear deterrence and nuclear proliferation. Principle documents include: The Baruch Plan, Churchill' s "Iron Curtain" Speech, Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace Speech, Sec. of Defense McNamara's "No Cities" Speech, Sec. of Defense McNamara's "Mutual Deterrence" Speech. The collection also contains documents about recent nuclear events in North Korea, India and Pakistan.

  6. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells synthesize neuromodulatory factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakry, Dominik; Yigit, Hatice; Dimou, Leda; Trotter, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    NG2 protein-expressing oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) are a persisting and major glial cell population in the adult mammalian brain. Direct synaptic innervation of OPC by neurons throughout the brain together with their ability to sense neuronal network activity raises the question of additional physiological roles of OPC, supplementary to generating myelinating oligodendrocytes. In this study we investigated whether OPC express neuromodulatory factors, typically synthesized by other CNS cell types. Our results show that OPC express two well-characterized neuromodulatory proteins: Prostaglandin D2 synthase (PTGDS) and neuronal Pentraxin 2 (Nptx2/Narp). Expression levels of the enzyme PTGDS are influenced in cultured OPC by the NG2 intracellular region which can be released by cleavage and localizes to glial nuclei upon transfection. Furthermore PTGDS mRNA levels are reduced in OPC from NG2-KO mouse brain compared to WT cells after isolation by cell sorting and direct analysis. These results show that OPC can contribute to the expression of these proteins within the CNS and suggest PTGDS expression as a downstream target of NG2 signaling. PMID:25966014

  7. Total syntheses of (+)-tedanolide and (+)-13-deoxytedanolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunetz, Joshua R; Julian, Lisa D; Newcom, Jason S; Roush, William R

    2008-12-01

    Convergent total syntheses of the potent cytotoxins (+)-tedanolide (1) and (+)-13-deoxytedanolide (2) are described. The carbon framework of these compounds was assembled via a stereoselective aldol reaction that unifies the C(1)-C(12) ketone fragment 5 with a C(13)-C(23) aldehyde fragment 6 (for 13-deoxytedanolide) or 52 (for tedanolide). Multiple obstacles were encountered en route to (+)-1 and (+)-2 that required very careful selection and orchestration of the stereochemistry and functionality of key intermediates. Chief among these issues was the remarkable stability and lack of reactivity of hemiketals 33b and 34 that prevented the tedanolide synthesis from being completed from aldol 4. Key to the successful completion of the tedanolide synthesis was the observation that the 13-deoxy hemiketal 36 could be oxidized to C(11,15)-diketone 38 en route to 13-deoxytedanolide. This led to the decision to pursue the tedanolide synthesis via C(15)-(S)-epimers, since this stereochemical change would destabilize the hemiketal that plagued the attempted synthesis of tedanolide via C(15)-(R) intermediates. However, use of C(15)-(S)-configured intermediates required that the side-chain epoxide be introduced very late in the synthesis, owing to the ease with which the C(15)-(S)-OH cyclized onto the epoxide of intermediate 50. PMID:18980317

  8. Total Syntheses of (+)-Tedanolide and (+)-13-Deoxytedanolide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunetz, Joshua R.; Julian, Lisa D.; Newcom, Jason S.; Roush, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Convergent total syntheses of the potent cytotoxins (+)-tedanolide (1) and (+)-13-deoxytedanolide (2) are described. The carbon framework of these compounds was assembled via a stereoselective aldol reaction that unifies the C(1)–C(12) ketone fragment 5 with a C(13)–C(23) aldehyde fragment 6 (for 13-deoxytedanolide) or 52 (for tedanolide). Multiple obstacles were encountered en route to (+)-1 and (+)-2 that required very careful selection and orchestration of the stereochemistry and functionality of key intermediates. Chief among these issues was the remarkable stability and lack of reactivity of hemiketals 33b and 34 that prevented the tedanolide synthesis from being completed from aldol 4. Key to the successful completion of the tedanolide synthesis was the observation that the 13-deoxy hemiketal 36 could be oxidized to C(11,15)-diketone 38 en route to 13-deoxytedanolide. This led to the decision to pursue the tedanolide synthesis via C(15)-(S)-epimers, since this stereochemical change would destabilize the hemiketal that plagued the attempted synthesis of tedanolide via C(15)-(R) intermediates. However, use of C(15)-(S) configured intermediates required that the side chain epoxide be introduced very late in the synthesis, owing to the ease with which the C(15)-(S)-OH cyclized onto the epoxide of intermediate 50. PMID:18980317

  9. Efficacy of some synthesized thiazoles against dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouf, S A; Taleb, A M Abu; Tharwat, N A; Geweely, N S

    2013-12-01

    Twelve thiazoles and their fused derivatives were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Trichophyton rubrum, T. terrestre, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum gypseum. Most of the synthesized compounds were inhibitory to the tested fungi. The most effective compound was 5-(4-ethoxybenzylidene-4,5-dihydro-4-oxothiazol-2-yl)-N,3-diphenylbut-2-namide (3c) followed by 2-(4-oxo-4,5-dihydrothiazol-2-yl)-3-phenyl-but-2-enoic acid-(3-cyano-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-amide (2b). These compounds were more efficacious than terbinafine, the reference drug. The tested compounds caused variable reduction in the activity of keratinase of the dermatophytes, depending on the azole derivative and the test fungus. Thiazole derivatives (2b) and (3c) exhibited the highest efficacy in decreasing ergosterol biosynthesis of the tested dermatophytes. The treatment of guinea pigs with compound (3c) induced complete curing in the case of all the test dermatophytes 30days post-treatment. The percent curing for compounds (3c) and (2b) was better than the reference drug. PMID:24129248

  10. Controlled synthesis of multi-arm star polyether-polycarbonate polyols based on propylene oxide and CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilf, Jeannette; Schulze, Patricia; Seiwert, Jan; Frey, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Multi-arm star copolymers based on a hyperbranched poly(propylene oxide) polyether-polyol (hbPPO) as a core and poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC) arms are synthesized in two steps from propylene oxide (PO), a small amount of glycidol and CO2 . The PPC arms are prepared via carbon dioxide (CO2 )/PO copolymerization, using hbPPO as a multifunctional macroinitiator and the (R,R)-(salcy)CoOBzF5 catalyst. Star copolymers with 14 and 28 PPC arms, respectively, and controlled molecular weights in the range of 2700-8800 g mol(-1) are prepared (Mw /Mn = 1.23-1.61). Thermal analysis reveals lowered glass transition temperatures in the range of -8 to 10 °C for the PPC star polymers compared with linear PPC, which is due to the influence of the flexible polyether core. Successful conversion of the terminal hydroxyl groups with phenylisocyanate demonstrates the potential of the polycarbonate polyols for polyurethane synthesis. PMID:24214125

  11. Association between intramuscular fat in the arm following arm training and INSIG2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popadic Gacesa, J Z; Secher, N H

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-induced gene 2 (INSIG2) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs7566605) is linked to lipid metabolism, and this study assessed its potential influence on fat in the upper arm following arm training. Twenty healthy sedentary volunteers (22.0?±?1.1 years, body mass index 25.4?±?4.0?kg/m(2) ; mean?±?standard deviation) carried out a 12-week two-arm elbow extensor training (10 maximal extensions with 1?min recovery between bouts) five times per day, five times per week. For 17 volunteers, upper arm muscle and adipose tissue [subcutaneous (SCAT) and intramuscular (IMAT)] volumes were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging before, immediately after, and 12 months after training and variables were related to the subjects' INSIG2 SNP rs7566605 genotype. Muscle volume and SCAT for the upper arm, as the decrease in IMAT during training were not related to INSIG2 SNP rs7566605: GG: %IMAT 1.0?±?0.9%; GC/CC: %IMAT 0.6?±?0.5% (P?>?0.05). However, in the year following the training, accumulation of upper arm IMAT was twice as large in participants homozygous for the G allele (GG: ?%IMAT +2.5?±?0.8%; GC/CC: ?%IMAT +1.1?±?0.7%; P?

  12. A Global Obstacle-avoidance Map for Anthropomorphic Arms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Fang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available More and more humanoid robots are used in human society, and they face a wide variety of complicated manipulation tasks, which are mainly to be achieved by their anthropomorphic arms. Obstacle avoidance for the anthropomorphic arm must be a fundamental consideration to guarantee the successful implementation of these tasks. Different from traditional methods searching for feasible or optimal collision-free solutions for the anthropomorphic arm, a global obstacle- avoidance map for the whole arm is proposed to indicate the complete set of feasible solutions. In this map, the motion of the arm can be appropriately planned to intuitively control the configuration of the arm in motion. First, the cubic spline function is adopted to interpolate some well-chosen path points to generate a smooth collision-free path for the wrist of the anthropomorphic arm. Second, based on the path function of the wrist, the time and the self-rotation angle of the arm about the “shoulder-wrist” axis are used to parameterize all possible configurations of the arm so that a global two- dimensional map considering the obstacle avoidance can be established. Subsequently, a collision-free self-rotation angle profile of the arm can be well planned. Finally, the joint trajectories of a specific anthropomorphic arm, which correspond to the planned path of the wrist and self-rotation angle profile of the arm, can be solved on the basis of the general kinematic analysis of the anthropomorphic arm, and the specific structure. Several simulations are conducted to verify that the proposed collision-free motion planning method for anthropomorphic arms has some advantages and can be regarded as a convenient and intuitive tool to control the configuration of the anthropomorphic arm in motion, without collision with obstacles in its surroundings.

  13. Frequency synthesizer of pulsed nuclear quadrupole resonance spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frequency synthesizer of pulsed nuclear quadrupole resonance spectrometer is described. Synthesizer works on the principle of indirect coherent synthesis of frequencies. Synthesizer output frequency is formed by frequency-tuned generator, the current frequency of which is continuously compared with quartz generator reference frequency by means of automatic frequency and phase control systems. The range of synthesizer operating frequencies is 0.5-6HHz, frequency spectrum 1kHz, short-time frequency instability is 1x10-6 per 1s. The frequency settling time is 3s. The output signal phase may vary discretely with a step of 90 deg

  14. ARM Core Unit Design of a Remote Video Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Jinbiao Hou

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we have a analysis of the ARM core unit design of a remote video monitoring system. An important aspect of a remote video monitoring system is that the image information stored in the monitoring system is transmitted to a remote PC through the GSM/GPRS network. There into the application of the ARM core unit is one part of the design of the entire remote video monitoring system. An ARM core unit is designed based on ARM architecture and ARM chips. It includes hardware and softw...

  15. ARM Core Unit Design of a Remote Video Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbiao Hou

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have a analysis of the ARM core unit design of a remote video monitoring system. An important aspect of a remote video monitoring system is that the image information stored in the monitoring system is transmitted to a remote PC through the GSM/GPRS network. There into the application of the ARM core unit is one part of the design of the entire remote video monitoring system. An ARM core unit is designed based on ARM architecture and ARM chips. It includes hardware and software design. Practice shows high stability and reliability of the design.

  16. Study of photoconductor polymers synthesized by plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the photoconductivity in poly thiophene (PTh), poly pyrrole (PPy) and doped poly pyrrole with iodine (PPy/I) is studied, whose structures depend of the intensity of the electric field applied during the synthesis by plasma. The conjugated organic polymers possess double alternated bonds in its chemical structure that its allow the one movement of ? electrons through the polymeric chains. The plasma is produced by means of splendor discharges to 13.5 MHz, resistive coupling, at one pressure that oscillates in the interval from 2 to 3x10-1 mbar, 180 min and powers of 10, 24, 40, 60, 80 and 100 W. Its were used heteroaromatic polymers like PTh and PPy/I, due to their potential applications in optoelectronics. The influence of the iodine is evaluated as dopant in PPy and it is compared with their similar one without doping in the light absorption/emission processes. The polymers synthesized by plasma can ramify or to intersect due to the energy applied during the synthesis. However, if the polymer intersects, the aromaticity can continue through the polymeric chains. The absorptions obtained by infrared spectroscopy, suggest that the polymer conserves the aromatic structure of the monomer fundamentally with substitutions that indicate inter crossing and partial fragmentation. The structure of most of the polymers spreads to be amorphous because they don't possess any classification. However, the PPy/I and PTh synthesized by this technique present crystalline segments whose intensity diminishes with the power of the discharge. In PTh, the average crystallinity diminishes from 19.8% to 9.9%, and in PPy/I of 15.9% to 13.3% in the interval of 10 to 100 W of power. In this work, however, its were crystalline arrangements in all the studied powers. The classification of the polymeric structure favors the formation of trajectories of transfer of electric loads among the chains, that which influences in the global electric conductivity of the material. In UV-vis spectroscopy it was found that the PTh absorbs light in the interval of wavelength from 300 to 600 nm and the PPy of 300 to 600 nm; however, when the polymer it was doped with iodine a displacement toward the right of 100 nm is presented. The absorption of electromagnetic radiation depends on the structure of the compound and it is related with the transition ?-?* of the aromatic rings. On the other hand, the Pth, PPy/I and PPy emit light in the interval of wavelength from 453 to 463 nm, of blue coloration, related with the transition that is produced from the singlet excited state of smaller energy, S1, until the fundamental state, S0. The electrical properties of the polymers were evaluated in function of the discharge power with excitement by temperature and with UV beams and visible. The excitement with light produces significant changes in the electric response of the polymers. Without excitement, the conductivity oscillates around 10-15 S/cm, with a behavior of insulating matter. When exciting them with visible light it increases 1 order of magnitude and when exciting them with UV light it is increased until 3 orders of magnitude, behaving as photosensitive materials. (Author)

  17. Synthesizing Smart Polymeric and Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chaokun

    Smart materials have been widely investigated to explore new functionalities unavailable to traditional materials or to mimic the multifunctionality of biological systems. Synthetic polymers are particularly attractive as they already possess some of the attributes required for smart materials, and there are vast room to further enhance the existing properties or impart new properties by polymer synthesis or composite formulation. In this work, three types of smart polymer and composites have been investigated with important new applications: (1) healable polymer composites for structural application and healable composite conductor for electronic device application; (2) conducting polymer polypyrrole actuator for implantable medical device application; and (3) ferroelectric polymer and ceramic nanoparticles composites for electrocaloric effect based solid state refrigeration application. These application entail highly challenging materials innovation, and my work has led to significant progress in all three areas. For the healable polymer composites, well known intrinsically healable polymer 2MEP4F (a Diels-Alder crosslinked polymer formed from a monomer with four furan groups and another monomer with two maleimide groups) was first chosen as the matrix reinforced with fiber. Glass fibers were successfully functionalized with maleimide functional groups on their surface. Composites from functionalized glass fibers and 2MEP4F healable polymer were made to compare with composites made from commercial carbon fibers and 2MEP4F polymer. Dramatically improved short beam shear strength was obtained from composite of functionalized glass fibers and 2MEP4F polymer. The high cost of 2MEP4F polymer can potentially limit the large-scale application of the developed healable composite, we further developed a new healable polymer with much lower cost. This new polymer was formed through the Diels-Alder crosslinking of poly(furfuryl alcohol) (PFA) and 1,1'-(Methylenedi-4,1-phenylene)bismaleimide (MDPB). It showed the same healing ability as 2MEP4F while all starting materials are cheaper and commercially available. To further improve the mechanical strength of the PFA-MDPB healable polymer, epoxy as a strengthening component was mixed with PFA-MDPB healable polymer. The PFA, MDPB and epoxy composite polymers were further reinforced by carbon fiber as done with 2MEP4F matrix and the final composites were proved to have higher short beam shear strength than 2MEP4F while exhibiting a similar healing efficiency. Healable polymer MDPB (a two maleimide groups monomer) -- FGEEDR (a four furan groups monomer) was also designed and synthesized for transparent healable polymer. The MDPB-FGEEDR healable polymer was composited with silver nanowires (AgNWs) to afford healable transparent composite conductor. Razer blade cuts in the composite conductor could heal upon heating to recover the mechanical strength and electrical conductivity of the composite. The healing could be repeated for multiple times on the same cut location. The healing process was as fast as 3 minutes for conductivity to recover 97% of the original value. For electroactive polymer polypyrrole, the fast volume change upon electrical field change due to electrochemical oxidization or reduction was studied for actuation targeting toward a robotic application. The flexibility of polypyrrole was improved via copolymerization with pyrrole derivatives. Actuator devices are fabricated that more suitable for implantable medical device application than pyrrole homopolymer. The change of dipole re-orientation and thus dielectric constant of ferroelectric polymers and ceramics upon electrical field may be exploited for electrocaloric effect (ECE) and solid state refrigeration. For ferroelectric ceramics, we synthesized a series of Ba1-xSrxTiO3 nanoparticles with diameter ranging from 8-12 nm and characterized their dielectric and ferroelectric properties through hysteresis measurement. It was found that 8 nm BaTiO3 nanocrystals are stable at cubic crystal structure without ferroelectric

  18. A Laboratory Investigation of the Effects of Saturated Steam Properties on the Interfacial Tension of Heavy-Oil/Steam System Using Pendant Drop Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madi Abdullah Naser

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For about a century, steam injection has been widely used as the most popular thermal recovery method for heavy-oil in sandstone reservoirs. In order to achieve higher recovery efficiency, which corresponds to the lowest possible value of residual oil saturation and economic success of steam injection projects, an accurate laboratory measurement of the interfacial tension between steam and heavy-oil is essential. However, laboratory investigation and visualization of the effects of steam injection on the interfacial tension between heavy-oil and steam as a function of saturation temperature and pressure is not well documented in the literature. The objective of this study is to investigate the influences of the two main factors which affect the interfacial tension of heavy-oil and steam namely saturation pressure and temperature. An optical cell, which was fitted with a goniometer system and a procedure to generate steam for the measurement of interfacial tension have been used. The difference between the density of heavy-oil and steam, which was used for pendant drop measurements, was calculated at specific temperature and pressure conditions using Katz’s method. Meanwhile, the density of steam was obtained from an international steam table. The interfacial tension of heavy-oil/steam was measured in small intervals, ranging from 115 to 181 Celsius and 25 to 150 pounds per square inch. The results show that the interfacial tension decreases when the saturation temperature and pressure increases. This finding might be useful as an important reference for understanding and visualization the mechanism of interfacial tension during steam injection.

  19. The potential of transferrin-pendant-type polyethyleneglycol liposomes encapsulating decahydrodecaborate-1B (GB-10) as 1B-carriers for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate GB-10-encapsulating transferrin (TF)-pendant-type polyethyleneglycol (PEG) liposomes as tumor-targeting 1B-carriers for boron neutron capture therapy. Methods and Materials: A free mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate-1B (BSH) or decahydrodecaborate-1B (GB-10) solution, bare liposomes, PEG liposomes, or TF-PEG liposomes were injected into SCC VII tumor-bearing mice, and 1B concentrations in the tumors and normal tissues were measured by ?-ray spectrometry. Meanwhile, tumor-bearing mice were continuously given 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label all intratumor proliferating cells, then injected with these 1B-carriers containing BSH or GB-10 in the same manner. Right after thermal neutron irradiation, the response of quiescent (Q) cells was assessed in terms of the micronucleus frequency using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. The frequency in the total tumor cells was determined from the BrdU nontreated tumors. Results: Transferrin-PEG liposomes showed a prolonged retention in blood circulation, low uptake by reticuloendothelial system, and the most enhanced accumulation of 1B in solid tumors. In general, the enhancing effects were significantly greater in total cells than Q cells. In both cells, the enhancing effects of GB-10-containing 1B-carriers were significantly greater than BSH-containing 1B-carriers, whether loaded in free solution or liposomes. In boaded in free solution or liposomes. In both cells, whether BSH or GB-10 was employed, the greatest enhancing effect was observed with TF-PEG liposomes followed in decreasing order by PEG liposomes, bare liposomes, and free BSH or GB-10 solution. In Q cells, the decrease was remarkable between PEG and bare liposomes. Conclusions: In terms of biodistribution characteristics and tumor cell-killing effect as a whole, including Q cells, GB-10 TF-PEG liposomes were regarded as promising 1B-carriers

  20. Food rationing during World War two: a special case of sustainable consumption? Rationnement alimentaire pendant la seconde guerre mondiale : Un cas particulier de consommation durable ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iselin Theien

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores some of the strategies applied by consumers for making-do during the Second World War in Norway. By reducing waste, using various substitutes and exploiting underused natural resources such as wild plants, birds, and alternative marine sources of nutrition, Norwegian consumers adapted their diet to a situation of food scarcity. However, their everyday consumption was primarily governed by the regulatory framework installed for dealing with the crisis, namely the rationing system. By 1942, almost all common foods had been placed under rationing. Despite of the many bureaucratic inconveniences of this system, it was largely supported by consumers, who accepted it as a socially just mechanism for distributing scarce resources. The article brings up the question of how far the willingness of consumers to accept rationing was a unique experience of the war, or whether one might imagine a similar design for purposes of sustainable consumption.Cet article explore quelques unes des stratégies utilisées par les consommateurs pour survivre pendant la 2è guerre mondiale en Norvège. En limitant les déchets, en utilisant des produits de substitution ainsi que les ressources de la nature telles que plantes sauvages, oiseaux et aliments marins alternatifs, les consommateurs norvégiens ont pu adapter leur alimentation à cette période de pénurie alimentaire. La nourriture quotidienne était toutefois essentiellement encadrée par la réglementation mise en place afin de faire face à la crise, c’est à dire le système de rationnement. En 1942, presque tous les aliments étaient rationnés. En dépit de ses nombreux inconvénients administratifs, le rationnement fut quand même soutenu par les consommateurs, qui l’acceptèrent comme un système socialement équitable pour la distribution des maigres ressources. L’article développe la question suivante : l’acceptation du rationnement par les consommateurs norvégiens est-elle liée uniquement à la période de guerre, ou bien pourrait-on imaginer un système similaire pour favoriser une consommation durable?

  1. Low noise frequency synthesizer of a centimeter range wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Tsvelikh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A highly stable, low noise 10.7 GHz frequency synthesizer for radio-relay link transceiver is presented. The basic elements of synthesizer are electrically tuned 5.35 GHz dielectric ring oscillator and transistor frequency doubler.

  2. Syntheses and electronic structures of decamethylmetallocenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of decamethylmanganocene [(eta-C5(CH3)5)2Mn or (Me5Cp)2Mn)] is described. Magnetic susceptibility and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies show that (Me5Cp)2Mn is a low-spin, 17-electron compound with an orbitally degenerate, 2E/sub 2g/ [e/sub 2g/3 a/sub 1g/2] ground state. An x-ray crystallographic study of (Me5Cp)2Mn shows that it is a monomeric, D/sub 5d/ decamethylmetallocene with metal to ring carbon distances that are about 0.3 A shorter than those determined for high-spin manganocenes. The syntheses of new (Me5Cp)2M (M = Mg,V,Cr,Co, and Ni) and [(Me5Cp)2M]PF6 (M = Cr,Co, and Ni) compounds are described. In addition, a preparative route to a novel, dicationic decamethylmetallocene, [(Me5Cp)2Ni](PF6)2 is reported. Infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, magnetic susceptibility, and/or x-ray crystallographic studies indicate that all the above compounds are D/sub 5d/ or D/sub 5h/ decamethylmetallocenes with low-spin electronic configurations. Cyclic voltammetry studies verify the reversibility and the one-electron nature of the (Me5Cp)2M ? [(Me5Cp)2M]+ (M = Cr,Mn,Fe,Co,Ni), [(Me5Cp)2Mn]- ? (Me5Cp)2Mn and [(Me5Cp)2Ni]+ ? [Me5Cp)2Ni]2+ redox reactions. These studies reveal that the neutral decamethylmetallocenes are much more easily oxidized than their metallocene counterparts. This result attests to the electron-donating properties of the ten substituent methyl groups. Proton and carbon-13 NMR data are reported for the diamagnetic Mg(II), Mn(I), Fe(II), Co(III), and Ni(IV) decamethylmetallocenes and for [(Me5Cp)2V(CO)2]+. The uv-visible absorption spectra of the 15-, 18- and 20- electron decamethylmetallocenes are also reported

  3. Syntheses and electronic structures of decamethylmetallocenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, J.L.

    1981-04-01

    The synthesis of decamethylmanganocene ((eta-C/sub 5/(CH/sub 3/)/sub 5/)/sub 2/Mn or (Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/Mn)) is described. Magnetic susceptibility and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies show that (Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/Mn is a low-spin, 17-electron compound with an orbitally degenerate, /sup 2/E/sub 2g/ (e/sub 2g//sup 3/ a/sub 1g//sup 2/) ground state. An x-ray crystallographic study of (Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/Mn shows that it is a monomeric, D/sub 5d/ decamethylmetallocene with metal to ring carbon distances that are about 0.3 A shorter than those determined for high-spin manganocenes. The syntheses of new (Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/M (M = Mg,V,Cr,Co, and Ni) and ((Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/M)PF/sub 6/ (M = Cr,Co, and Ni) compounds are described. In addition, a preparative route to a novel, dicationic decamethylmetallocene, ((Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/Ni)(PF/sub 6/)/sub 2/ is reported. Infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, magnetic susceptibility, and/or x-ray crystallographic studies indicate that all the above compounds are D/sub 5d/ or D/sub 5h/ decamethylmetallocenes with low-spin electronic configurations. Cyclic voltammetry studies verify the reversibility and the one-electron nature of the (Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/M ..-->.. ((Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/M)/sup +/ (M = Cr,Mn,Fe,Co,Ni), ((Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/Mn)/sup -/ ..-->.. (Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/Mn and ((Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/Ni)/sup +/ ..-->.. (Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/Ni)/sup 2 +/ redox reactions. These studies reveal that the neutral decamethylmetallocenes are much more easily oxidized than their metallocene counterparts. This result attests to the electron-donating properties of the ten substituent methyl groups. Proton and carbon-13 NMR data are reported for the diamagnetic Mg(II), Mn(I), Fe(II), Co(III), and Ni(IV) decamethylmetallocenes and for ((Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/V(CO)/sub 2/)/sup +/. The uv-visible absorption spectra of the 15-, 18- and 20- electron decamethylmetallocenes are also reported.

  4. Uncertainty Evaluation for SMART Synthesized Power Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report performs the uncertainty analysis for the SMART synthesis power distribution generated by a SSUN (SMART core SUpporting system coupled by Nuclear design code) code. SSUN runs coupled with the MASTER neutronics code and generates the core 3-D synthesis power distribution by using DPCM3D. The MASTER code plays a role to provide the DPCM3D constants to the SSUN code for the current core states. The uncertainties evaluated in this report are the form of 95%/95% probability/confidence one-sided tolerance limits and can be used in conjunction with Technical Specification limits on these quantities to establish appropriate LCO (Limiting Conditions of Operation) and LSSS (Limiting Safety System Settings) limits. This report is applicable to SMART nuclear reactor using fixed rhodium detector systems. The unknown true power distribution should be given for the uncertainty evaluation of the synthesis power distribution. This report produces virtual distributions for the true power distribution by imposing the CASMO-3/MASTER uncertainty to the MASTER power distribution. Detector signals are generated from these virtual distribution and the DPCM3D constants are from the MASTER power distribution. The SSUN code synthesizes the core 3-D power distribution by using these detector signals and the DPCM3D constants. The following summarizes the uncertainty evaluation procedure for the synthesis power distribution. (1) Generation of 3-D power distribution by MASTER -> Determination of the DPCM3D constants. (2) Generation of virtual power distribution (assumed to be true power distribution) -> Generation of detector signals. (3) Generation of synthesis power distribution. (4) Uncertainty evaluation for the synthesis power distribution. Chi-Square normality test rejects the hypothesis of normal distribution for the synthesis power error distribution. Therefore, the KRUSKAL WALLIS test and the non-parametric statistics are used for data pooling and the tolerance limits. The uncertainties for the 3-D, axially integrated and planar node power distribution are determined to be 5.4 %, 3.6 % and 5.0 %. The uncertainties for the peak pin power distribution are determined to be 5.8 %, 4.1 % and 5.3 %

  5. Syntheses of F-18 Labeled Fluoroalkyltyrosine Derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission tomography (PET) offers the highest resolution of all nuclear medicine imaging modalities and allows quantitation of tracer concentration in tissues. For more than 60 years, some of C-11 or F-18 labeled amino acids have been synthesized and evaluated for potential use in oncology, neurology and psychiatric disorders. Besides, a variety of radioisotope labeled amino acids have proven to be useful for imaging tumors, especially for brain tumor, lung tumor and breast tumor. These amino acids can be subdivided into two categories. The first category is represented by radiolabled naturally occurring amino acids and structurally similar analogues. Although these radiolabeled amino acids have proven useful in detecting brain and systemic tumors, it is susceptible to in vivo metabolism through multiple pathways that give rise to numerous radiolabled metabolites. On the other side, structurally similar amino acid analogues have some significant advantages over the natural amino acids. These nonnatural amino acids are not metabolized, which simplifieds the kinetic analysis of their uptake. On the basis of the promising results obtained with these nonnatural amino acids in preclinical studies, recent efforts have focused on the development of new F-18 labeled nonnatural amino acids. Recently, O-(2-[18F]Fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (FET), O-(3-[18F]Fluoropropyl)-L-tyrosine (FPT) were developed and evaluated among structurally similar to a new amted among structurally similar to a new amino acid analogue. FET has shown high uptake in activated inflammatory cells using an experimental acute abscess model and in inflammation within lymph nodes. FPT was superior to FDG and had a slight advantage over FET in the differentiation of tumor from inflammation, and, like FET, it appeared to be a potential amino acid tracer for tumor imaging with PET. In this paper, we elected to introduce fluoroethyl and fluoropropyl groups at the R1 positions and OCH3 at R2 position to the same effect of FET. Herein, we wish to report the synthesis and biological evaluation of four novel nonnatural fluorine-substituted tyrosine derivatives for brain tumor imaging, 3-(2- [18F]fluoroethyl)tyrosine 1 (ortho-FET), 3-(3- [18F]fluoropropyl)tyrosine 2 (ortho-FPT), O-methyl[3- (2-[18F]fluoroethyl)tyrosine 3 (MFET), and Omethyl[ 3-(3-[18F]fluoropropyl)tyrosine 4 (MFPT)

  6. Parallelization algorithms for modeling ARM processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Melamed

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available AutoRegressive Modular (ARM processes are a new class of nonlinear stochastic processes, which can accurately model a large class of stochastic processes, by capturing the empirical distribution and autocorrelation function simultaneously. Given an empirical sample path, the ARM modeling procedure consists of two steps: a global search for locating the minima of a nonlinear objective function over a large parametric space, and a local optimization of optimal or near optimal models found in the first step. In particular, since the first task calls for the evaluation of the objective function at each vector of the search space, the global search is a time consuming procedure. To speed up the computations, parallelization of the global search can be effectively used by partitioning the search space among multiple processors, since the requisite communication overhead is negligible.

  7. MAGIC: Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, ER; Wiscombe, WJ; Albrecht, BA; Bland, GL; Flagg, CN; Klein, SA; Kollias, P; Mace, G; Reynolds, RM; Schwartz, SE; Siebesma, AP; Teixeira, J; Wood, R; Zhang, M

    2012-10-03

    The second Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF2) will be deployed aboard the Horizon Lines cargo container ship merchant vessel (M/V) Spirit for MAGIC, the Marine ARM GPCI1 Investigation of Clouds. The Spirit will traverse the route between Los Angeles, California, and Honolulu, Hawaii, from October 2012 through September 2013 (except for a few months in the middle of this time period when the ship will be in dry dock). During this field campaign, AMF2 will observe and characterize the properties of clouds and precipitation, aerosols, and atmospheric radiation; standard meteorological and oceanographic variables; and atmospheric structure. There will also be two intensive observational periods (IOPs), one in January 2013 and one in July 2013, during which more detailed measurements of the atmospheric structure will be made.

  8. Diversity in the Danish Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John; Pradhan-Blach, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    The Danish Armed Forces face the functional imperative of becoming a smaller, professional expeditionary force and the societal imperative of including women and ethnic minorities. It currently lags behind its NATO partners in gender and ethnic diversity. Lessons to be learned from NATO members with more diverse militaries, such as the United States, Great Britain, and Canada, include recognition of diversity as a societal imperative to sustain the legitimacy of the armed forces, the necessity of systematically collecting and reporting personnel data to guide policy, the necessity of patience and realistic goals, systematically developing recruitment, development, and retention policies, and the superiority of an all-volunteer force over conscription in fulfilling this societal imperative.

  9. Special Gripper for a Robotic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel SELLES

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available New structures for gripping objects in robotic manipulation processes are oriented to the new arrangement of mechanical structures using new materials and processing technologies and innovative procedures for the implementation of contact gripping element links to an object with a high degree of adaptively of applications together with the ability to alter the structure of grip and limiting the intensity of the contact stiffness variation of snap elements custody and pliability. The application of elastomeric materials and surface finishes is important. This paper presents both a new gripper design for robot arms but also the search of the selected materials to make an experimental evaluation of technical parameters that are used to assess their application potential and suitability for the targeted applications. Also the results and conclusions for gripper testing in manipulation operations with two different robot arms are presented.

  10. Design of Embedded FMS on ARM9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Tian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There are some problems in traditional Fieldbus Technology of flexible production line, such as the high request of the total control machine configuration, the large resources cost of the configuration software, the data should be regularly cleaned. This paper introduces a new type flexible manufacturing system (FMS architecture based on ARM. The control core of the system is Samsung's S3C2440 ARM micro processor, which enhanced the reliability of the system, Join monitoring equipment and wireless communication equipment, facilitate real-time monitoring and image collection, and ensure the safety of the unattended. The numerical control processing unit is based of industrial PC and movement control card form, which enhanced the openness of the CNC system, and improved the communication function of the numerical control system. The experiment proved that this scheme overcome the problems existing in the traditional FMS.

  11. ARM Operations Quarterly Report - April - June 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, JW

    2012-07-18

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Data Archive, where they are made available to the research community. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  12. Antimicrobial properties of CuO nanorods and multi-armed nanoparticles against B. anthracis vegetative cells and endospores

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Pratibha; Packiyaraj, Merwyn S; Nigam, Himangini; Agarwal, Gauri S.; Singh, Beer; Patra, Manoj K

    2014-01-01

    Two different kinds of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) namely CuO nanorods (PS2) and multi-armed nanoparticles (P5) were synthesized by wet and electrochemical routes, respectively. Their structure, morphology, size and compositions were characterized by SEM, EDX and XRD. The NPs demonstrated strong bactericidal potential against Bacillus anthracis cells and endospores. PS2 killed 92.17% of 4.5 × 104 CFU/mL B. anthracis cells within 1 h at a dose of 1 mg/mL. Whereas P5 showed a higher efficacy by ki...

  13. ARMED FORCES AND INTERVENTION IN TROPICAL AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    L. Steyn; S.J. Baynham

    2012-01-01

    "The Ghana Armed Forces, in co-operation with the police, have thought it necessary to take over the reins of power and to dismiss the former President, Kwame Nkrumah, the Presidential Commission and all Ministers, and to suspend the Constitution and to dissolve Parliament. This act has been necessitated by the political and economic situation in the country. The concentration of power in the hands of one man has led to the abuse of individual rights and liberty. Power has been exercis...

  14. Impact of Armed Conflict on Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machel, Graca.

    1997-01-01

    In 1994, United Nations Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali appointed Graca Machel, a former Mozambican Education Minister, to study the impact of armed conflict on children in response to a call by the General Assembly for a detailed examination of the issue. This report presents the findings, conclusions and recommendations of the two-year study which included consultations with experts and officials from key regions, field visits, and interviews with the individuals affected.

  15. Armed conflict as a public health problem

    OpenAIRE

    King, Gary; Christopher J.L. Murray; Alan D Lopez; Tomijima, Niels; Krug, Etienne

    2002-01-01

    Armed conflict between warring states and groups within states have been major causes of ill health and mortality for most of human history. Conflict obviously causes deaths and injuries on the battlefield, but also health consequences from the displacement of populations, the breakdown of health and social services, and the heightened risk of disease transmission. Despite the size of the health consequences, mili­tary conflict has not received the same attention from public health res...

  16. Book review: embassies in armed conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Gaynor

    2012-01-01

    During wartime, embassies assume different roles and face various situations. An embassy might represent a belligerent state while being situated in an enemy, an allied, or a neutral state. Conversely, it might represent a neutral state, while having to function in a belligerent state. How does an embassy’s situation affect its priorities? How does it affect its staff and mission? Embassies in Armed Conflict examines these issues and the problems wartime embassies encounter by looking primari...

  17. About the principles of armed conflicts rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international instruments approved in relation to restriction of war right are studied and their relevant clauses are interpreted in the article. The author lists the principles of choosing the ways and methods of conducting the war, and states that at present one of the aspects for regulation of the armed conflicts from the international and legal standpoint is to implement the operations for protection of peace or good will operations as well

  18. Constrained trajectory optimization for kinematically redundant arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carignan, Craig R.; Tarrant, Janice M.

    1990-01-01

    Two velocity optimization schemes for resolving redundant joint configurations are compared. The Extended Moore-Penrose Technique minimizes the joint velocities and avoids obstacles indirectly by adjoining a cost gradient to the solution. A new method can incorporate inequality constraints directly to avoid obstacles and singularities in the workspace. A four-link arm example is used to illustrate singularity avoidance while tracking desired end-effector paths.

  19. Video Monitoring System Based on ARM9

    OpenAIRE

    Srikanth V,; Prof. Leelavathi

    2012-01-01

    The preceding and existing video surveillance system which entails high end cameras, video servers, network switch and monitoring PC all these resources leads to complexity, expensive, high power consumption and also requires more area to establish. In order to overcome the hitch in the preceding and existing system, this paper presents a proficient where it uses few hardware resources for the implementation of the video monitoring system. S3C2440 is a very good ARM9 family processor providin...

  20. Multiple arm coordination using concurrent processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    The use of concurrent processing for robot arm coordination is considered, and a hierarchically structured set of routines for the completion of coordinated tasks is discussed. Concurrent programming controls interacting concurrent processes by providing techniques to handle the problems of mutual exclusion, synchronization, and communication. The process is demonstrated for the example of the producer-consumer problem. Software supporting a concurrent environment to control a robotic system is being developed in which parallel rather than sequential thought processes are used.

  1. Can a kinetic optimization criterion predict both arm trajectory and final arm posture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yasuhiro; Yamanaka, Kazuhiro; Soga, Yousuke; Tsuyuki, Kimitaka; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2006-01-01

    The following two characteristics have been well demonstrated concerning the features of a point-to-point human arm movement on a plane. (1) The path is a roughly straight line, but is slightly curved. (2) The velocity profile is bell shaped with a single peak. Several models have been proposed to explain these features. Four criteria for trajectory planning based on optimal principles have been proposed. They are the minimum hand jerk criterion, the minimum angle jerk criterion, the minimum torque change criterion, and the minimum commanded torque change criterion. Trajectories generated by the minimum commanded-torque change model have been shown to correspond well with measured trajectories in a horizontal and sagittal work space. However, previous works had been restricted to trajectories on a two-dimensional plane. Trajectories and final arm postures had not been examined in three-dimensional space. In this paper, we quantitatively discuss predictions based on these criteria for human arm trajectories and arm postures in three-dimensional space. Finally, we report that both measured hand trajectories and arm postures were closest to trajectories and postures predicted by the minimum commanded torque change criterion. PMID:17946449

  2. Arms control agency faces uncertain future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National security cognoscenti are busy sifting tea leaves trying to puzzle out the fate of arms control and nonproliferation policy in the new Administration. Of special concern to these policy gurus is the future of the semiautonomous Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA). ACDA's existence as a separate entity on the executive branch's organization chart is precarious. The agency has never functioned as intended since Congress created it in 1961. Its stock over the decades has ebbed and flowed, paralleling the prominence and clout of its director. And except for a few notable successes--the conclusion of the chemical weapons treaty being one--the agency's authority has plummeted in the past 14 years. Today, almost every interested party agrees that something has to be done, that the agency cannot continue as it now functions. Several recent studies have called for its rejuvenation. Still other studies have suggested that ACDA be dismantled, and those activities relevant to national security in a post-Cold War environment be shifted to and integrated into the State Department. Observers expect ACDA to evolve into an agency whose primary focus is on problems of proliferation. In a world in which tighter export controls on dual-use technologies, restraint on arms transfers, and economic assistance conditional on a recipients's security behavior will be the norm for security and stability, a role for ACDA as the U.S.'s nonproliferation nanny is not a bad oneoliferation nanny is not a bad one

  3. Multi-Armed Bandits in Metric Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinberg, Robert; Upfal, Eli

    2008-01-01

    In a multi-armed bandit problem, an online algorithm chooses from a set of strategies in a sequence of trials so as to maximize the total payoff of the chosen strategies. While the performance of bandit algorithms with a small finite strategy set is quite well understood, bandit problems with large strategy sets are still a topic of very active investigation, motivated by practical applications such as online auctions and web advertisement. The goal of such research is to identify broad and natural classes of strategy sets and payoff functions which enable the design of efficient solutions. In this work we study a very general setting for the multi-armed bandit problem in which the strategies form a metric space, and the payoff function satisfies a Lipschitz condition with respect to the metric. We refer to this problem as the "Lipschitz MAB problem". We present a complete solution for the multi-armed problem in this setting. That is, for every metric space (L,X) we define an isometry invariant which bounds f...

  4. Large LED Display Design using ARM9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta G, K Satyashree

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available LED displays are widely employed for advertisements, sports, transportation, Stock markets, traffic signs in public transportation systems, shopping malls, schools, railways etc., The conventional LED display system uses traditional microcontrollers so that many problems such as poor reliability, flickering and more hardware requirement can be seen in display system. This article presents an efficient architecture for controlling LED displays which has the ability to expose monochrome movies and animations. Implementing the LED display screen using 32-bit ARM9 (S3C2440 processor reduces the hardware requirement and also provide the speed of refreshing the screen will be high so that we can avoid the flickering in the display. In this article, a new way is implemented to increase the speed of the monochrome display is by scanning 8 rows at a time(row byte scanning rather than single row(pixel by pixel. Therefore, the speed of refreshing of LED display will be increased. By allowing constant current through the LEDs in the display will increase the reliability of the display. The 8 GPIO lines of ARM processor are connected to the 8 rows of the LED display via 8 bit latches connected to implement row-byte scanning. Unlike in traditional LED display, rather than many microcontrollers a single ARM processor is enough to refresh the screen. A software tool using JAVA is present in PC to draw animations and send it to the LED display.

  5. Monitoring and Controlling an Underwater Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, John; Todd, Brian Keith; Woodcock, Larry; Robinson, Fred M.

    2009-01-01

    The SSRMS Module 1 software is part of a system for monitoring an adaptive, closed-loop control of the motions of a robotic arm in NASA s Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory, where buoyancy in a pool of water is used to simulate the weightlessness of outer space. This software is so named because the robot arm is a replica of the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). This software is distributed, running on remote joint processors (RJPs), each of which is mounted in a hydraulic actuator comprising the joint of the robotic arm and communicating with a poolside processor denoted the Direct Control Rack (DCR). Each RJP executes the feedback joint-motion control algorithm for its joint and communicates with the DCR. The DCR receives joint-angular-velocity commands either locally from an operator or remotely from computers that simulate the flight like SSRMS and perform coordinated motion calculations based on hand-controller inputs. The received commands are checked for validity before they are transmitted to the RJPs. The DCR software generates a display of the statuses of the RJPs for the DCR operator and can shut down the hydraulic pump when excessive joint-angle error or failure of a RJP is detected.

  6. Tags and seals for arms control verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVolpi, A.

    1990-09-18

    Tags and seals have long been recognized as important tools in arms control. The trend in control of armaments is to limit militarily significant equipment that is capable of being verified through direct and cooperative means, chiefly on-site inspection or monitoring. Although this paper will focus on the CFE treaty, the role of tags and seals for other treaties will also be addressed. Published technology and concepts will be reviewed, based on open sources. Arms control verification tags are defined as unique identifiers designed to be tamper-revealing; in that respect, seals are similar, being used as indicators of unauthorized access. Tamper-revealing tags might be considered as single-point markers, seals as two-point couplings, and nets as volume containment. The functions of an arms control tag can be considered to be two-fold: to provide field verification of the identity of a treaty-limited item (TLI), and to have a means of authentication of the tag and its tamper-revealing features. Authentication could take place in the field or be completed elsewhere. For CFE, the goal of tags and seals can be to reduce the overall cost of the entire verification system.

  7. Humanoid Robot Arm Adaptive Control: Experimental Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said G. Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a partially model based adaptive control of humanoid robot arm is presented. The aim of the adaptive control scheme is to deal with the uncertain parameters in its own dynamic model such as link masses or actuators inertias as well as to cope with changing dynamics in the tasks like passing objects between a human and a robot. The main idea here is to derive a dynamic model of the robot’s arm via a software package and parameterized it. Then, employ the adaptive control scheme to identify uncertain parameters such as link masses and actuator inertias online. This scheme will also be suitable for the tasks where robot is lifting weight and or passing an object to a human or vice versa (which is the ultimate goal of this work. The adaptive scheme is simulated and experimentally tested on the Bristol Robotics Laboratory humanoid Bristol- Elumotion-Robot-Torso (BERT Arm. Humanoid BERT robot is developed as a collaboration between Bristol Robotics Laboratory and Elumotion (a Bristol based robotic company.

  8. Characteristics of daily arm activities in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Kenneth; Annegarn, Janneke; Lima Passos, Valéria; Savelberg, Hans H; Schols, Annemie M; Wouters, Emiel F; Spruit, Martijn A

    2014-06-01

    Arm activities are required for maintenance of self-care and independent living. This study aimed to investigate whether and to what extent arm activities of daily living (ADL) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients differ compared to healthy controls and the extent to which they perform arm ADL at a relatively higher upper limb muscle effort. Daily arm and leg activities were assessed using accelerometers in the home environment (COPD: n=21, healthy: n=24; part 1). The relative efforts of the trapezius, deltoid and biceps muscles were studied using electromyography during domestic arm ADL in a laboratory setting (COPD: n=17, healthy: n=15; part 2). After correction for walking time, the time spent on arm ADL was similar between COPD patients and healthy control subjects (p=0.52), while the intensity of arm activities was lower in COPD patients (p=0.041). In the laboratory setting, arm ADL were performed at a lower intensity by COPD patients, while the trapezius muscle effort was significantly higher during several arm ADL compared to healthy control subjects (plower intensity. Moreover, patients perform some arm ADL at a relatively higher muscle effort. PMID:24558175

  9. Trends in Job Quality during the Great Recession: a Comparative Approach for the EU / Tendances de la qualité de l'emploi pendant la crise : une approche européenne comparative

    OpenAIRE

    Erhel, Christine; Guergoat-larivie?re, Mathilde; Leschke, Janine; Watt, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    L'objectif du document est d'analyser les conséquences de la crise sur la qualité de l'emploi en Europe. Il identifie tout d'abord les tendances de la qualité de l'emploi pendant l'épisode de crise, avant d'explorer les liens entre ces évolutions et des facteurs conjoncturels et institutionnels. Les données utilisées proviennent des principales bases européennes (Enquête sur les Forces de Travail, Enquêtes sur les Conditions de Travail, panel EU-SILC). Une première étape repose su...

  10. Effect of swim speed on leg-to-arm coordination in unilateral arm amputee front crawl swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborough, Conor; Daly, Daniel; Payton, Carl

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of swimming speed on leg-to-arm coordination in competitive unilateral arm amputee front crawl swimmers. Thirteen well-trained swimmers were videotaped underwater during three 25-m front crawl trials (400 m, 100 m and 50 m pace). The number, duration and timing of leg kicks in relation to arm stroke phases were identified by video analysis. Within the group, a six-beat kick was predominantly used (n = 10) although some swimmers used a four-beat (n = 2) or eight-beat kick (n = 1). Swimming speed had no significant effect on the relative duration of arm stroke and leg kick phases. At all speeds, arm stroke phases were significantly different (P < 0.05) between the affected and unaffected sides. In contrast, the kicking phases of both legs were not different. Consequently, leg-to-arm coordination was asymmetrical. The instant when the leg kicks ended on the affected side corresponded with particular positions of the unaffected arm, but not with the same positions of the affected arm. In conclusion, the ability to dissociate the movements of the arms from the legs demonstrates that, because of their physical impairment, unilateral arm amputee swimmers functionally adapt their motor organisation to swim front crawl. PMID:25562689

  11. Dynamic Pricing under Finite Space Demand Uncertainty: A Multi-Armed Bandit with Dependent Arms

    OpenAIRE

    Tehrani, Pouya; Zhai, Yixuan; Zhao, Qing

    2012-01-01

    We consider a dynamic pricing problem under unknown demand models. In this problem a seller offers prices to a stream of customers and observes either success or failure in each sale attempt. The underlying demand model is unknown to the seller and can take one of N possible forms. In this paper, we show that this problem can be formulated as a multi-armed bandit with dependent arms. We propose a dynamic pricing policy based on the likelihood ratio test. We show that the pro...

  12. Method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboungi, Marie-Louise (Chicago, IL); Glorieux, Benoit (Perpignan, FR)

    2007-11-06

    The invention relates to a method of synthesizing high-temperature melting materials. More specifically the invention relates to a containerless method of synthesizing very high temperature melting materials such as carbides and transition-metal, lanthanide and actinide oxides, using an aerodynamic levitator and a laser. The object of the invention is to provide a method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials that are otherwise difficult to produce, without the use of containers, allowing the manipulation of the phase (amorphous/crystalline/metastable) and permitting changes of the environment such as different gaseous compositions.

  13. Method for Synthesizing Extremeley High Temperature Melting Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboungi, Marie-Louise and Glorieux, Benoit

    2005-11-22

    The invention relates to a method of synthesizing high-temperature melting materials. More specifically the invention relates to a containerless method of synthesizing very high temperature melting materials such as borides, carbides and transition-metal, lanthanide and actinide oxides, using an Aerodynamic Levitator and a laser. The object of the invention is to provide a method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials that are otherwise difficult to produce, without the use of containers, allowing the manipulation of the phase (amorphous/crystalline/metastable) and permitting changes of the environment such as different gaseous compositions.

  14. Synthesis and growth discussion of novel ZnO nanotetrapods with pearl-necklace-shaped arms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Youguo; Zhou, Lixia; Zou, Jianying [China University of Petroleum, College of Physical Science and Technology, Dongying, Shandong (China); Zhang, Ye [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Anhui Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, Institute of Solid State Physics, P.O. Box 1129, Hefei, Anhui (China)

    2009-03-15

    Novel ZnO tetrapod-shaped nanostructures with pearl-necklace-shaped arms were successfully synthesized using mixture of Zn, ZnO, and carbon powder as source. The definite supersaturation ratio provided by Zn, ZnO, and carbon powder was considered as the crucial factor of determining the formation of this kind of structure, and a negative feedback growth model combined with octahedral nucleation mechanism was proposed. Two other comparative experiments were also conducted to study the growth behavior of reagent species under different supersaturation ratios. Our experiments provided a beneficial experimental exploration in controlled growth of nanostructures through modulating supersaturation ratio by source, and these obtained novel nanostructures were also expected to have potential application as functional blocks in nanodevices. Furthermore, the study of photoluminescence indicated that the physical properties were strongly dependent on the crystal structure. (orig.)

  15. Activist for Change: An Interview with Suzanne Arms

    OpenAIRE

    Zwelling, Elaine

    2002-01-01

    Suzanne Arms's name is readily recognized by many in the field of perinatal education. For 30 years she has been a tireless advocate for childbearing women, a fighter for change in the traditional maternity care system, and a feminist with strong beliefs about the physical, emotional, and spiritual impact of birth. Arms's well-known books and frequent speaking engagements have allowed her to spread her message and her plea to humanize the childbirth experience. Talking with Arms is an energiz...

  16. The crimes of recruiting and using children in armed conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Greijer, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    This study is an enquiry into the legal developments aimed at bringing the involvement of children in armed conflict to an end. The issue of children's recruitment into and use by armed groups and forces is addressed from an interdisciplinary legal perspective that combines human rights law, international humanitarian law and international criminal law. The study takes a child rights-based approach to the issue of children in armed conflict and thereby aims to fill some of the current gaps in...

  17. Interpretation of arm circumference as an indicator of nutritional status.

    OpenAIRE

    Mcdowell, I.; King, F. S.

    1982-01-01

    Data from a longitudinal study of 1342 Zambian children aged between 0 and 60 months are used to derive reference standards for mid-upper arm circumference. To determine the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of the arm circumference measurement as an indicator of nutritional status, associations between arm circumference and other anthropometric and clinical indicators of nutritional status are presented. Although none of the anthropometric indices accurately reflects the clinica...

  18. Design and Analysis of Rotating Bucket Arm of Excavator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikash Rai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an attempt has been made to design and analyze the rotating bucket of the excavator along with the stick and the bucket arm. This paper focuses on the joint design by using the geared motor for angular rotation of the bucket arm and studies the effect of digging, torsional force and bending stresses developed on the joint. Study the motion of the bucket arm

  19. Risk-Aversion in Multi-armed Bandits

    OpenAIRE

    Sani, Amir; Lazaric, Alessandro; Munos, Re?mi

    2012-01-01

    Stochastic multi--armed bandits solve the Exploration--Exploitation dilemma and ultimately maximize the expected reward. Nonetheless, in many practical problems, maximizing the expected reward is not the most desirable objective. In this paper, we introduce a novel setting based on the principle of risk--aversion where the objective is to compete against the arm with the best risk--return trade--off. This setting proves to be intrinsically more difficult than the standard multi-arm bandit set...

  20. Explore the Performance of the ARM Processor Using JPEG

    OpenAIRE

    Jadhav, A. D.; N.N. Ganvir

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the evolution of embedded systems has shown a strong trend towards application- specific, single- chip solutions. The ARM processor core is a leading RISC processor architecture in the embedded domain. The ARM family of processors supports a unique feature of code size reduction. In this paper it is illustrated using an embedded platform trying to design an image encoder, more specifically a JPEG encoder using ARM7TDMI processor. Here gray scale image is used and it is coded by usin...

  1. A pH and Redox Dual Responsive 4-Arm Poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(disulfide histamine) Copolymer for Non-Viral Gene Transfection in Vitro and in Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Kangkang An; Peng Zhao; Chao Lin; Hongwei Liu

    2014-01-01

    A novel 4-arm poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(disulfide histamine) copolymer was synthesized by Michael addition reaction of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) vinyl sulfone and amine-capped poly(disulfide histamine) oligomer, being denoted as 4-arm PEG-SSPHIS. This copolymer was able to condense DNA into nanoscale polyplexes (<200 nm in average diameter) with almost neutral surface charge (+(5–10) mV). Besides, these polyplexes were colloidal stable within 4 h in HEPES buffer saline at pH 7.4 (ph...

  2. ANOMALOUS BRANCHES OF MEDIAN NERVE IN THE ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishita Ghosh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dissection of right and left upper limbs and demonstration of the origin and the course of median nerve. Result: Median nerve in the right upper limb is formed normally but it supplies brachialis muscle and both head of the biceps in the arm which is anomalous. In the left arm of the patient the course and supply of median nerve is normal. Conclusion: The patient has unilateral anomalous supply of median nerve in the arm – this can result in trauma to this nerve while undergoing any surgery in right arm.

  3. Information booklet on personal protective equipment: arm and hand protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fire, heat, cold, electro-magnetic and ionising radiation, electricity, chemicals, impacts, cuts, abrasion, etc. are the common hazards for arms and hands at work. The gloves chosen for protection of the arm and hand should cover those parts adequately and the material of the gloves should be capable of offering protection against the specific hazard involved. Criteria for choosing arm and hand protection equipment will be based on their shape and part of the arm and hand protected. Guide lines for choosing such personal protection equipment for nuclear facilities are given. (M.K.V.). 3 annexures, 1 appendix

  4. Explore the Performance Of The ARM Processor Using Protocol Trainer

    OpenAIRE

    Jadhav S.K.,; Gaikwad A.B., Mukti Awad

    2012-01-01

    Recently ,the evolution of embedded systems has shown a strong trend towards application specific, single chip solutions. The ARM processor core is a leading RISC processor architecture in the embedded domain .The ARM family of processor supports a unique feature of code size reduction.IN this paper it is illustrated using an embedded platform trying to design Protocol trainer using ARM7TDMI processor. Here the kill sotware is used for ARM programming and at base station VB is used. In this w...

  5. GaN Nanowires Synthesized by Electroless Etching Method

    KAUST Repository

    Najar, Adel

    2012-01-01

    Ultra-long Gallium Nitride Nanowires is synthesized via metal-electroless etching method. The morphologies and optical properties of GaN NWs show a single crystal GaN with hexagonal Wurtzite structure and high luminescence properties.

  6. Syntheses of Mono-, Di-, and Trifluorinated Styrenic Monomers

    OpenAIRE

    Walkowiak, J.; Del Campo, Tm; Ameduri, B.; Gouverneur, V.

    2010-01-01

    Concise syntheses of gram quantities of three fluorinated -methylstyrenic monomers suitable for polymerisation studies are disclosed, all based on the use of reasonably priced commercially available starting materials and reagents. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart New York.

  7. Current-mode analog nonlinear function synthesizer structures

    CERN Document Server

    Popa, Cosmin Radu

    2013-01-01

    This book is dedicated to the analysis and design of analog CMOS nonlinear function synthesizer structures, based on original superior-order approximation functions. A variety of analog function synthesizer structures are discussed, based on accurate approximation functions.  Readers will be enabled to implement numerous circuit functions with applications in analog signal processing, including exponential, Gaussian or hyperbolic functions. Generalizing the methods for obtaining these particular functions, the author analyzes superior-order approximation functions, which represent the core for developing CMOS analog nonlinear function synthesizers.   ·         Describes novel methods for generating a multitude of circuit functions, based on superior-order improved accuracy approximation functions; ·         Presents techniques for analog function synthesizers that can be applied easily to a wide variety of analog signal processing circuits; ·         Enables the design of analog s...

  8. synthesis of novel four armed PE-PCL grafted superparamagnetic and biocompatible nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panja, Sudipta; Saha, Biswajit; Ghosh, S K; Chattopadhyay, Santanu

    2013-10-01

    Novel biocompatible polymer immobilized superparamagnetic nanoparticles (MNP) are prepared by grafting four armed pentaerythritol poly(?-polycaprolactone) (PE-PCL) onto silane modified MNP. The MNPs are synthesized by hydrothermal process and its modification using (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (TMAS) coating is done by the sol-gel technique. The pentaerythritol (PE) initiated ring-opening polymerization (ROP) is carried out to prepare four armed PE-PCL. The reaction is shown to follow first order kinetics. The structure of PE-PCL is confirmed by NMR spectrum and MALDI-TOF analysis. The in situ grafting of PE-PCL onto modified MNP has been carried out by using 4,4'-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) as an intermediate linker. The grafting density as determined by TGA analysis has been found to be significantly higher than previously reported linear PCL grafted MNPs in the literature. This leads to uniform dispersion of grafted MNPs which still is a challenging task in contemporary research. The effective dispersion of MNP into PE-PCL matrix is analyzed by HRTEM. The saturation magnetization of the PE-PCL grafted MNPs is significantly high and this can be tailored further by varying the grafting density. The biocompatibility of polymer grafted nanoparticles is confirmed by MTT assay using HeLa cell line. The superparamagnetic and biocompatible novel PE-PCL grafted MNP so prepared would have manifold potential applications including in therapy and targeted drug delivery. PMID:24041315

  9. Teeth clenching reduces arm abduction force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hajime; Kawano, Tsutomu; Saito, Mitsuru; Toyoda, Hiroki; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Türker, Kemal Sitki; Kang, Youngnam

    2014-07-01

    It has been reported that the 90° arm abduction force counteracting external adduction loads appeared to be smaller under teeth clenching condition than under non-clenching condition. To elucidate the physiological mechanism underlying the possible inhibitory effect of teeth clenching on the arm abduction, we have attempted to quantify the difference in the force induced against the fast and slow ramp load between the arm abductions under teeth non-clenching and clenching conditions. When the load of adduction moment was linearly increased, the abductor force increased to a maximal isometric contraction force (MICF) and further increased to a maximal eccentric contraction force (MECF) with forced adduction. The MICF measured under teeth clenching was significantly lower than that under non-clenching, despite no significant difference in the MECF between the two conditions. The reduction in MICF caused by teeth clenching was enhanced by increasing the velocity of the load. These results suggest that clenching inhibits abduction force only during isometric contraction phase. The invariability of MECF would indicate the lack of involvement of fatigue in such inhibitory effects of clenching. To discover the source of the inhibition, we have examined the effects of teeth clenching on the stretch reflex in the deltoid muscle. The stretch reflex of deltoid muscles was inhibited during clenching, contrary to what was expected from the Jendrassik maneuver. Taken together, our results suggest that the teeth clenching reduced the MICF by depressing the recruitment of deltoid motoneurones presumably via the presynaptic inhibition of spindle afferent inputs onto those motoneurones. PMID:24687460

  10. Magnetic navigation versus mobile C-Arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate differences in radiation protection aspects between the use of a digital cardio angiography system with magnetic navigation (Artis Axiom dFcM + Stereotaxis NIOBE (registered) Magnetic Navigation System) and a standard mobile X-ray device with C-arm for electrophysiological procedures. Radiation exposure to staff and patients were analyzed and used for comparison. The time distribution of cardiology procedures for one physician is shown to introduce work of electrophysiology section. The records of procedures were used as information and as a data source for this study. These records include written operation as well as printed exam protocols. This study shows time course of procedures using the electro anatomical mapping system 'CARTO'. A single physicians performance has been used for this comparison to avoid possible differences between operators. The exposure time and air kerma product (PKA) values have been compared for both devices. Median value of exposure time, for each group of 20 patients, was reduced from 27.1 minutes to 20.0 minutes and radiation exposure from 12468 cGycm2 to 9078 cGycm2 PKA values. There is also scattered radiation in the operation area for C-Arm and the new technology presented. Magnetic navigation and replacing C-Arm by cardio angiography system reduces the personal dose by nearly one third, this fact was traced from personal monitoring reports. The mainfrom personal monitoring reports. The main reason for saving time is the necessity to operate the catheter by joystick on a control panel from an adjacent room. These new technologies bring more effectiveness into interventional procedures, especially in cases of complicated examination, and reduce radiation exposure to patients and staff significantly. (author)

  11. Mayenite Synthesized Using the Citrate Sol-Gel Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ude, Sabina N [ORNL; Rawn, Claudia J [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta A [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Kirkham, Melanie J [ORNL; Jones, Gregory L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    A citrate sol-gel method has been used to synthesize mayenite (Ca12Al14O33). X-ray powder diffraction data show that the samples synthesized using the citrate sol-gel method contained CaAl2O4 and CaCO3 along with mayenite when fired ex-situ in air at 800 C but were single phase when fired at 900 C and above. Using high temperature x-ray diffraction, data collected in-situ in air at temperatures of 600 C and below showed only amorphous content; however, data collected at higher temperatures indicated the first phase to crystallize is CaCO3. High temperature x-ray diffraction data collected in 4% H2/96% N2 does not show the presence of CaCO3, and Ca12Al14O33 starts to form around 850 C. In comparison, x-ray powder diffraction data collected ex-situ on samples synthesized using traditional solid-state synthesis shows that single phase was not reached until samples were fired at 1350 C. DTA/TGA data collected either in a nitrogen environment or air on samples synthesized using the citrate gel method suggest the complete decomposition of metastable phases and the formation of mayenite at 900 C, although the phase evolution is very different depending on the environment. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements showed a slightly higher surface area of 7.4 0.1 m2/g in the citrate gel synthesized samples compared to solid-state synthesized sample with a surface area of 1.61 0.02 m2/g. SEM images show a larger particle size for samples synthesized using the solid-state method compared to those synthesized using the citrate gel method.

  12. Thermotoga lettingae Can Salvage Cobinamide To Synthesize Vitamin B12

    OpenAIRE

    Butzin, Nicholas C.; Secinaro, Michael A.; Swithers, Kristen S.; Gogarten, J Peter; Noll, Kenneth M

    2013-01-01

    We recently reported that the Thermotogales acquired the ability to synthesize vitamin B12 by acquisition of genes from two distantly related lineages, Archaea and Firmicutes (K. S. Swithers et al., Genome Biol. Evol. 4:730–739, 2012). Ancestral state reconstruction suggested that the cobinamide salvage gene cluster was present in the Thermotogales' most recent common ancestor. We also predicted that Thermotoga lettingae could not synthesize B12 de novo but could use the cobinamide salvage...

  13. Syntheses of 11C-labelled compounds and radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The syntheses of 11CO2, 11C-sodium carbonate, 11C-potassium bicarbonate, 11C-cyanide, 11C-methanol and 11C-methyl iodide, which are very important precursors for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals, are described. With these starting materials, carboxylic acids and amino acids were obtained. 11C-labelled glucose was prepared by photosynthesis. The syntheses of all the 11C-labelled compounds were simple and rapid. (UK)

  14. Proteins synthesized in tobacco mosaic virus infected protoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author deals with research on the multiplication of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in leaf cell protoplasts. An attempt is made to answer three questions: (1) Which proteins are synthesized in TMV infected protoplasts as a result of TMV multiplication. (2) Which of the synthesized proteins are made under the direction of the TMV genome and, if any, which of the proteins are host specific. (3) In which functions are these proteins involved. (Auth.)

  15. RESTRICTED DOMAIN MALAY SPEECH SYNTHESIZER USING SYNTAX-PROSODY REPRESENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Enya Kong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The speech synthesis approach required in restricted domain speech application is a synthesizer that has high quality like the speech output of â??slot-filler’ approach but have at least the least flexibility of the â??genuine’ speech synthesizer. Thus, in this research study, we propose an alternative approach of creating a speech synthesizer to be used in a restricted domain speech application. In our approach, we use word unit as the primary unit and our speech corpus is represented by syntax-prosody tree structures. Speech synthesis is performed by constructing a syntax-prosody tree of a target input sentence. The construction of the tree is by done by adapting an example-based syntactic parsing approach and the concatenated of synthesis units from the constructed tree nodes will be the synthesized utterance. For evaluation, we performed MOS subjective evaluation on our speech synthesizer with natural speech and two other Malay TTS system. Based on an ANOVA and T-Tests analysis, we found the overall MOS scores of our speech synthesizer output, sound B was (mean = 3.34, sd = 1.10, the other two Malay TTS system; C (mean = 1.95, sd = 0.72 and D (mean = 1.80, sd = 1.04 and the natural speech, A (mean = 4.71, sd = 0.21. We conclude that our Malay speech synthesizer sounded more natural, easier to listen, more pleasant and more ï¬?uent compared to the sounds of the other two Malay TTS systems. As expected, the recorded speech was perceived more natural than the output of our Malay speech synthesizer.

  16. Computer code ARM1 for solving the inverse kinematics of a six-link manipulator arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ARM1 is a FORTRAN 77 program for the numerical solutions of the inverse kinematics problems. This paper is a detailed description of the current program (version 1). The code is simple enough for practical use and besides has no particular restrictions except for the specification of memory size. Incorporated checking statements or routine are useful in identifying the accuracies of solutions obtained. (author)

  17. ARM CLASIC ER2 CRS/EDOP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Heymsfield

    2010-12-20

    Data was taken with the NASA ER-2 aircraft with the Cloud Radar System and other instruments in conjunction with the DOE ARM CLASIC field campaign. The flights were near the SGP site in north Central Oklahoma and targeted small developing convection. The CRS is a 94 GHz nadir pointing Doppler radar. Also on board the ER-2 was the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL). Seven science flights were conducted but the weather conditions did not cooperate in that there was neither developing convection, or there was heavy rain.

  18. HS06 Benchmark for an ARM Server

    OpenAIRE

    Kluth, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    We benchmarked an ARM cortex-A9 based server system with a four-core CPU running at 1.1 GHz. The system used Ubuntu 12.04 as operating system and the HEPSPEC 2006 (HS06) benchmarking suite was compiled natively with gcc-4.4 on the system. The benchmark was run for various settings of the relevant gcc compiler options. We did not find significant influence from the compiler options on the benchmark result. The final HS06 benchmark result is 10.4.

  19. TRIGGERED STAR FORMATION IN SPIRAL ARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Mart\\u00EDnez-Garc\\u00EDa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the status of our research, relative to the triggering of star formation by large-scale galactic shocks associated with spiral density waves. Around a third of the galaxies in our sample do not seem suitable for this kind of study, because they present an e ect, probably due to opacity, that is not well understood. The remaining objects seem to favor the idea of density wave triggering of star formation in the arms. The comparison with stellar population synthesis models, and the orbital resonance positions for these galaxies (derived by means of spiral pattern angular speeds corroborate this hypothesis.

  20. Interstellar extinction in the Perseus arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Individual UV extinction curves for nine stars located in the direction of h and chi Persei in the distance range 0.6 to 4.4 kpc are presented. The observations were made with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) in the low dispersion mode with large aperture. The sample has been enlarged by the use of available UV and visible data for 32 reddened stars with distances r >= 2 kpc located in the same direction. It is found that the mean interstellar extinction curve for the stars located in the Perseus arm shows significantly higher extinction shortward of 2000 A than the galactic mean. (author)

  1. Comparação entre o método da gota pendente e o método da gota girante para medida da tensão interfacial entre polímeros / Comparison between the pendant drop and spinning drop method to measure interfacial tension between polymers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nicole R., Demarquette; Musa R., Kamal.

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Dois instrumentos, um deles baseado no princípio da gota pendente e o outro baseado no método da gota girante, para medir a tensão interfacial entre polímeros, são apresentados e comparados aqui. Com ambos instrumentos foi possível visualizar a gota de polímero "on line". Os instrumentos mostraram-s [...] e complementares quanto às suas áreas de aplicação. O método da gota pendente deve ser usado quando as quantidades de polímero são limitadas ou quando o polímero mais denso é opaco. O método da gota girante deve ser usado quando a degradação térmica pode ser um problema ou quando o polímero menos denso é opaco. Abstract in english In this paper two apparatuses, one based on the principle of the pendant drop method and one based on the principle of the spinning drop are presented and compared. With both apparatuses it was possible to view the drop in real time and calculate the interfacial tension on-line. The two equipments w [...] ere shown to be complementary in their use. The pendant drop method should be used when there are limited quantities of polymer and/or the denser polymer is opaque. The spinning drop method should be used when thermal degradation could be a problem and/or when the lighter polymer is opaque.

  2. Mechanism of the industrial enterprises marketing communication synthesized effect formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya.O. Tymokhina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The main purpose of the article is to propose mechanism of the industrial enterprises marketing communication (MC synthesized effect formation. An indispensable component of MC mechanism synthesized effect of industrial enterprise is the legislation that governs use of synthesized marketing communications and obtaines synthesized effect from using them. It can be divided into three groups: legislation that regulates entrepreneurial activities, legislation governing communication activities, legislation governing innovation activities. Legislation of Ukraine regulating communication activities needs to be clarified in regulation of using the latest MC tools, features of their combination, rules of their using and order of action in violation case of applicable law. The results of the analysis. Any economic activity of enterprises governed by principles that are divided into general and specific by the level of coverage. The proposed set of formation principles of synthesized effect are principles of systematic using that focus on the result and periodicity which refer to general. Within the principle of periodicity it should consider principles that characterize each level of management that are such principles as using synthesis, using synergy and complexity. Functions of synthesized effect that are subject to general principles of economic analysis are: searching, score, analysis and accounting. Essence of specific features of MC synthesized effect consists the following positions: planning function, integration function, communicative function, synthesis implementation function. Mechanism formation MC synthesized effect of industrial enterprise is a set of systems that are used in process of its creation by management levels that reflects subject-object relationship between these systems. Input elements system form factors of external and internal environment, information about which enterprise collects through market research. Subjects of communication activities at the level of control and manageable subsystems analyze information that forms the basis for creation synthesized promotion complex of enterprise`s products by management levels. Subordinates and users via MC synthesized by types, which are resultant at each level of management, gets results of communication activities at the end of promotion process that is synthesized effect. Using of dual system of synthesis advisable not only with concurrence MC types by management levels, but during creating subsystems of formation synthesized effect mechanism. Thus, providing subsystem combines common functions of economic analysis and specific functions of synergistic effect as part of communication analysis. Separation of control system for users and subordinates creates additional connection to control system, improving the information movement within the enterprise. Conclusions and directions of futher researches. The contrast to synergistic effect that allows obtaining an increase of effect through existing MC interaction synthesized effect arises from synthes of various promoting tools combined features of which can create synergy effect growth. Using the synthesized marketing communications by types allows clearly integrate promoting toolkit accordance with management level at which they will be resultant. Subject of future research is the development of economic component of mechanism formation MC synthesized effect of industrial enterprises. Results of research can be used for further researches and in practice of industrial enterprises.

  3. Poly(glycolide multi-arm star polymers: Improved solubility via limited arm length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian K. Wolf

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the low solubility of poly(glycolic acid (PGA, its use is generally limited to the synthesis of random copolyesters with other hydroxy acids, such as lactic acid, or to applications that permit direct processing from the polymer melt. Insolubility is generally observed for PGA when the degree of polymerization exceeds 20. Here we present a strategy that allows the preparation of PGA-based multi-arm structures which significantly exceed the molecular weight of processable oligomeric linear PGA (<1000 g/mol. This was achieved by the use of a multifunctional hyperbranched polyglycerol (PG macroinitiator and the tin(II-2-ethylhexanoate catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of glycolide in the melt. With this strategy it is possible to combine high molecular weight with good molecular weight control (up to 16,000 g/mol, PDI = 1.4–1.7, resulting in PGA multi-arm star block copolymers containing more than 90 wt % GA. The successful linkage of PGA arms and PG core via this core first/grafting from strategy was confirmed by detailed NMR and SEC characterization. Various PG/glycolide ratios were employed to vary the length of the PGA arms. Besides fluorinated solvents, the materials were soluble in DMF and DMSO up to an average arm length of 12 glycolic acid units. Reduction in the Tg and the melting temperature compared to the homopolymer PGA should lead to simplified processing conditions. The findings contribute to broadening the range of biomedical applications of PGA.

  4. Octopus-inspired multi-arm robotic swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfakiotakis, M; Kazakidi, A; Tsakiris, D P

    2015-06-01

    The outstanding locomotor and manipulation characteristics of the octopus have recently inspired the development, by our group, of multi-functional robotic swimmers, featuring both manipulation and locomotion capabilities, which could be of significant engineering interest in underwater applications. During its little-studied arm-swimming behavior, as opposed to the better known jetting via the siphon, the animal appears to generate considerable propulsive thrust and rapid acceleration, predominantly employing movements of its arms. In this work, we capture the fundamental characteristics of the corresponding complex pattern of arm motion by a sculling profile, involving a fast power stroke and a slow recovery stroke. We investigate the propulsive capabilities of a multi-arm robotic system under various swimming gaits, namely patterns of arm coordination, which achieve the generation of forward, as well as backward, propulsion and turning. A lumped-element model of the robotic swimmer, which considers arm compliance and the interaction with the aquatic environment, was used to study the characteristics of these gaits, the effect of various kinematic parameters on propulsion, and the generation of complex trajectories. This investigation focuses on relatively high-stiffness arms. Experiments employing a compliant-body robotic prototype swimmer with eight compliant arms, all made of polyurethane, inside a water tank, successfully demonstrated this novel mode of underwater propulsion. Speeds of up to 0.26 body lengths per second (approximately 100 mm s(-1)), and propulsive forces of up to 3.5 N were achieved, with a non-dimensional cost of transport of 1.42 with all eight arms and of 0.9 with only two active arms. The experiments confirmed the computational results and verified the multi-arm maneuverability and simultaneous object grasping capability of such systems. PMID:25970151

  5. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Studies of Some Novel Bis-[1,3,4]thiadiazole and Bis-thiazole Pendant to Thieno[2,3-b]thiophene Moiety

    OpenAIRE

    Nabila Abdelshafy Kheder; Yahia Nasser Mabkhot

    2012-01-01

    The synthetic utility of 3,3’-(3,4-dimethylthieno[2,3-b]thiophene-2,5-diyl)bis (3-oxopropanenitrile) (1) in the synthesis of some novel bis-[1,3,4-thiadiazole] 6a–g and bis-thiazole 10 and 13 derivatives with thieno[2,3-b]thiophene moiety is reported. Antimicrobial evaluation of some selected examples from the synthesized products was carried out and showed promising results.

  6. 76 FR 68313 - Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Libya and UNSCR 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ...Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Libya...is amending the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR...authorities, and small arms, light weapons, and related materiel...has considered this rule in light of Executive Order 13563,...

  7. 33 CFR 167.1703 - In Prince William Sound: Valdez Arm Traffic Separation Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false In Prince William Sound: Valdez Arm Traffic Separation Scheme. 167.1703 Section...167.1703 In Prince William Sound: Valdez Arm Traffic Separation Scheme. The Valdez Arm Traffic Separation Scheme consists of the...

  8. 78 FR 36307 - Proposed Information Collection (Shoulder and Arm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ...Proposed Information Collection (Shoulder and Arm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...a claimant's diagnosis of shoulder and arm conditions. DATES: Written comments and...Control No. 2900--NEW (Shoulder and Arm Conditions Disability Benefits...

  9. 78 FR 44557 - Turnagain Arm Tidal Energy Corporation; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ...No. 13509-002] Turnagain Arm Tidal Energy Corporation; Notice of Preliminary...February 1, 2013, the Turnagain Arm Tidal Energy Corporation, filed an application...Executive Officer, Turnagain Arm Tidal Energy Corporation, 821 N....

  10. ARM 7 BASED MP3 PLAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiq V Mehta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available MP3 is a patented encoding format for digital audio which uses a form of lossy data compression. It is a common audio format for consumer audio streaming or storage, as well as a de facto standard of digital audio compression for the transfer and playback of music on most digital audio players. Since the MPEG-1 Layer III encoding technology is nowadays widely used it might be interesting to gain knowledge of how this powerful compression/decompression scheme actually functions. The MPEG-1 Layer III is capable of reducing the bit rate with a factor of 12 without almost any audible degradation. Arm7 lpc2148 is arm7tdmi-s core board microcontroller that uses 16/32-bit 64 pin (lqfp microcontroller no.lpc2148 from Philips (nxp.The hardware system of lpc2148 includes the necessary devices within only one mcu has such as usb, adc, dac, timer/counter, pwm, capture, i2c, spi, uart, and etc.

  11. Robotic Arm-The Ball Catcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C.Titarmare

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Catching a thrown ball with a hand is not easy – neither for humans nor for robots. It demands for a tight interplay of skills in mechanics, control, planning and visual sensing to reach the necessary precision in space and time. Because of this, ball catching has been used for almost 20 years now as a challenging benchmark system to develop and test robotics key technologies. Here we propose a high speed and intelligent robotic arm set up which will capable enough to catch the short range thrown ball in specified environment. The main technique used is a stereo vision system to tracks the ball and predicts the balls trajectory then the point and time required to reach at destination point, and in which orientation the robot should intercept the ball on its trajectory, is determined. Once robots calculate the desired parameters it will try to catch the ball. Expected outcome of the proposed system is to catch the ball by calculating the coming ball path using computer vision techniques and move the robotic arm in order to catch the ball

  12. Europe, arms control and American security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    What has come to be called the Revolution of 1989 has swept away longstanding political and economic arrangements in Eastern Europe. Perhaps more important, it has also called into question the fundamental underpinnings of European security created during the nonpeace that followed World War II. In June 1990, the Warsaw Treaty Organization abandoned the notion that NATO was the ideological enemy. At the same time, NATO ministers agreed at Tunberry, Scotland, to consider defining the Atlantic Alliance as more of a partner of the Soviet Union than as an enemy. The Washington summit of May 1990 between president Mikhail Gorbachev and president George Bush further highlighted the recent changes in the Soviet Union and its former satellites. Issues going to the heart of the viability of the Soviet Union and the communist system of political and economic organization competed with German reunification as central themes. Arms control issues, particularly as they pertain in European military stability, became contingent and dependent on the development of a broader political and economic framework for a new Europe. Whether this framework is viable remains an open question as Gorbachev's role is challenged more and more within the Soviet Union. This paper deals with European arms control issues from the point of view of the United States and its own security interests. The United States involved its security inextricably with that of Western Europe as a conscious decision in testern Europe as a conscious decision in the turmoil following World War II

  13. ARM Climate Research Facility Annual Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, J.

    2004-12-31

    Like a rock that slowly wears away beneath the pressure of a waterfall, planet earth?s climate is almost imperceptibly changing. Glaciers are getting smaller, droughts are lasting longer, and extreme weather events like fires, floods, and tornadoes are occurring with greater frequency. Why? Part of the answer is clouds and the amount of solar radiation they reflect or absorb. These two factors clouds and radiative transfer represent the greatest source of error and uncertainty in the current generation of general circulation models used for climate research and simulation. The U.S. Global Change Research Act of 1990 established an interagency program within the Executive Office of the President to coordinate U.S. agency-sponsored scientific research designed to monitor, understand, and predict changes in the global environment. To address the need for new research on clouds and radiation, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. As part of the DOE?s overall Climate Change Science Program, a primary objective of the ARM Program is improved scientific understanding of the fundamental physics related to interactions between clouds and radiative feedback processes in the atmosphere.

  14. Double arm handling device for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention concerns a machine which, inside a liquid sodium cooled reactor, makes it possible to transfer fuel assemblies forming the core, between the positions that these assemblies fill inside the core to a storage position for these fuel assemblies inside the vessel. These operations are carried out when the reactor plug is in position and when the vessel is filled with liquid sodium, hence they are carried out without being seen. The improved charging system enables the handling time to be cut to a minimum and to diminish the number of positioning operations of the handling system inside the reactor vessel to effect the various charging and discharging operations. It includes a vertically positioned drum of which the top end crosses the plug; a first truck guided in vertical translation by guiding facilities integral with the drum and a second truck guided in vertical translation by other guiding facilities also integral with the drum, each truck being fitted with a horizontal arm at the free end of which is placed a grab hook for holding the fuel assemblies, the guiding facilities being such that the arms remain parallel to each other; gear for moving the trucks vertically and separately; facilities for controlling the opening and closing of the grabs and gear for turning the drum vertically about its centre line

  15. Porting Android on Arm Based Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KALPIK M. PATEL, CHIRAG K. PATEL

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Today Android operating system (OS is HOT in market for entertainment devices like mobile phones and tablet and TV and industry is exploring the ability of Android within other embedded platforms. Some industries replace with exiting operating system with Android because main reason is open source operating system (OS. Today industries select Android OS reason behind this big application market and easy to available to application development tools and also available many on-line group to resolve your issue. In this paper, we will explain the concept of porting android to any arm based devices. We will explain the basics of kernel, how to make android specific, how to compile kernel for ARM. In Android section, we will explain architecture of Android, how to compile android for specific board. For understanding, we will use Linux 2.6.32 kernel version and android 2.3.7 (Gingerbread. We will port android to d2plug board which is product of Marvell Semiconductor.

  16. Characterizing Truthful Multi-Armed Bandit Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Babaioff, Moshe; Slivkins, Aleksandrs

    2008-01-01

    We consider a multi-round auction setting motivated by pay-per-click auctions for Internet advertising. In each round the auctioneer selects an advertiser and shows her ad, which is then either clicked or not. An advertiser derives value from clicks; the value of a click is her private information. Initially, neither the auctioneer nor the advertisers have any information about the likelihood of clicks on the advertisements. The auctioneer's goal is to design a (dominant strategies) truthful mechanism that (approximately) maximizes the social welfare. If the advertisers bid their true private values, our problem is equivalent to the "multi-armed bandit problem", and thus can be viewed as a strategic version of the latter. In particular, for both problems the quality of an algorithm can be characterized by "regret", the difference in social welfare between the algorithm and the benchmark which always selects the same "best" advertisement. We investigate how the design of multi-armed bandit algorithms is affect...

  17. ARM tõestab, et ka analüütikud eksivad / Fredy-Edwin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Esse, Fredy-Edwin

    2011-01-01

    Apple'i iPadidele ja iPhone'idele kiipe tootva Suurbritannia firma ARM Holdings aktsia on kõige suurem tõusja Londoni FTSE 100 indeksi kuue kuu, 12 kuu, 18 kuu, kahe aasta ja kolme aasta lõikes, samas on analüütikud kõigist indeksi aktsiatest kõige negatiivsemalt meelestatud just ARM Holdingsi suhtes. Graafik

  18. "Armed" oncolytic herpes simplex viruses for brain tumor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todo, Tomoki

    2008-01-01

    Genetically engineered, conditionally replicating herpes simplex viruses type 1 (HSV-1) are promising therapeutic agents for brain tumors and other solid cancers. They can replicate in situ, spread and exhibit oncolytic activity via a direct cytocidal effect. One of the advantages of HSV-1 is the capacity to incorporate large and/or multiple transgenes within the viral genome. Oncolytic HSV-1 can therefore be "armed" to add certain functions. Recently, the field of armed oncolytic HSV-1 has drastically advanced, due to development of recombinant HSV-1 generation systems that utilize bacterial artificial chromosome and multiple DNA recombinases. Because antitumor immunity is induced in the course of oncolytic activities of HSV-1, transgenes encoding immunomodulatory molecules have been most frequently used for arming. Other armed oncolytic HSV-1 include those that express antiangiogenic factors, fusogenic membrane glycoproteins, suicide gene products, and proapoptotic proteins. Provided that the transgene product does not interfere with viral replication, such arming of oncolytic HSV-1 results in augmentation of antitumor efficacy. Immediate-early viral promoters are often used to control the arming transgenes, but strict-late viral promoters have been shown useful to restrict the expression in the late stage of viral replication when desirable. Some armed oncolytic HSV-1 have been created for the purpose of noninvasive in vivo imaging of viral infection and replication. Development of a wide variety of armed oncolytic HSV-1 will lead to an establishment of a new genre of therapy for brain tumors as well as other cancers. PMID:19262110

  19. Working with Young Children Who Are Victims of Armed Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Eva; Penn, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Young children are particularly vulnerable to war and armed conflict. Although the long-term priority is always to try to unravel and reduce violence and conflict, in the short term some interventions may reduce suffering. In this article the authors report on recent evidence on psychosocial interventions designed to mitigate the impact of armed

  20. Satellite data sets for the atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, L.; Bernstein, R.L. [SeaSpace Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    This abstract describes the type of data obtained from satellite measurements in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. The data sets have been widely used by the ARM team to derive cloud-top altitude, cloud cover, snow and ice cover, surface temperature, water vapor, and wind, vertical profiles of temperature, and continuoous observations of weather needed to track and predict severe weather.

  1. Scrape on Endeavour's robotic arm during oxygen leak repairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Robotic arm experts begin inspection of a scrape on the surface of the honeycomb shell on Endeavour's robotic arm. The scrape occurred while work platforms were being installed to gain access to repair the oxygen leak in the Shuttle's mid-body. Launch of Endeavour on mission STS-113 has been postponed until no earlier than Nov. 22.

  2. Risk factors of arm lymphedema in breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocak, Z; Overgaard, J

    2000-01-01

    Chronic lymphedema is a life-long, potential complication of axillary treatment for breast cancer patients. In this article we focus on risk factors in the development of arm lymphedema and also discuss definition, type and stage, and incidence of arm edema.

  3. 33 CFR 117.779 - Eastchester Bay (Arm of).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eastchester Bay (Arm of). 117.779 Section 117.779 Navigation and Navigable...Specific Requirements New York § 117.779 Eastchester Bay (Arm of). The draw of the highway bridge, mile 2.2 between...

  4. AGRICULTURAL RUNOFF MANAGEMENT (ARM) MODEL VERSION II: REFINEMENT AND TESTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Runoff Management (ARM) Model has been refined and tested on small agricultural watersheds in Georgia and Michigan. The ARM Model simulates the hydrologic, sediment production, pesticide, and nutrient processes on the land surface and in the soil profile that det...

  5. USER'S MANUAL FOR AGRICULTURAL RUNOFF MANAGEMENT (ARM) MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This user manual provides detailed instructions and guidelines for using the Agricultural Runoff Management (ARM) Model, Versions I and II. The manual includes a brief general description of the ARM Model structure, operation, and components, but the primary purpose of this docum...

  6. Attitudes about Arms Control and Effects of "The Day After."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Linden L.; Slem, Charles M.

    An 18-item questionnaire was designed to investigate relationships between attitude towards arms control and beliefs about nuclear weapon effects, probability of war, Soviet goals, and the importance of nuclear arms superiority. Effects of the television movie, "The Day After," were also assessed by administering the questionnaire eight days…

  7. The Atmospheric Radiation Monitoring (ARM) Education Program: An Integrated Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, F.; Marsh, L. K.; Springer, M.; Talus, C. E.; Haruta, A.; Kloesel, K.; Zak, B. D.; Clements, W. E.

    2001-12-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Education and Outreach program supports ARM Operations at all three CART sites (North Slope of Alaska, Tropical West Pacific, and Southern Great Plains) in ways that are relevant to the needs of the communities and regions that host the ARM program sites. The goal of the education and outreach program is to develop basic science awareness, critical thinking skills, and improve environmental science capacity building for communities, teachers and students in ARM host communities and regions. This year, the primary goal is to extend the existing program to cover all three sites and to coordinate activities among the sites. In order to achieve this goal, we: o Bring awareness of the ARM program to host communities through public education relevant to the culture of the region; o Aid capacity building and community involvement in developing and implementing ARM education at each site; o Promote a broader knowledge of regional and international climate concerns for teachers and students through integration of ARM education across sites; o Assist access to ARM data for educational programs as technical resources permit, and to provide real time research experiences for students; and o Increase the knowledge base for teachers and students in basic science and critical thinking skills using curriculum-based enrichment activities in climate, climate change, and climate change effects relevant to each region.

  8. 78 FR 72066 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ...in Section 47(6) of the Arms Export Control Act. POLICY...Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act Annex Item...GCCS-J is an open-ended architecture system consisting of servers...networking protocols and system architectures. 4. Combined...

  9. Guest Editorial: Research update: VA study to optimize DEKA Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Resnik, PT, PhD

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA announced its Revolutionizing Prosthetics program and funded the development of the DEKA prosthetic arm. The DEKA Arm System incorporates major technological advances such as flexible socket design, innovative control features, software, and hardware that together enable enhanced functionality that promises to surpass any currently available prosthetic device. In 2008, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA entered into an agreement with DARPA to conduct clinical evaluations of the prototype DEKA Arm System, a prosthetic device system still under development and not yet available commercially. Studies of the DEKA Arm System have been underway at VA sites since late 2008, with the first subject fitted with a DEKA Arm in early 2009.

  10. Explore the Performance Of The ARM Processor Using Protocol Trainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadhav S.K.,

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently ,the evolution of embedded systems has shown a strong trend towards application specific, single chip solutions. The ARM processor core is a leading RISC processor architecture in the embedded domain .The ARM family of processor supports a unique feature of code size reduction.IN this paper it is illustrated using an embedded platform trying to design Protocol trainer using ARM7TDMI processor. Here the kill sotware is used for ARM programming and at base station VB is used. In this we will be incorporating various day today protocols used in the embedded industry, which will be helpful in a better understanding of the subject. Successfully putting a new application of Protocol trainer on ARM7 process.

  11. Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles synthesized by atmospheric microplasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles using the atmospheric microplasma (AMP). The properties of iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized using AMP are compared with particles (i) formed in as-prepared solution and (ii) prepared using thermal decomposition method. Iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by all the 3 treatment methods exhibit quite soft ferromagnetic properties with coercivities less than 10 G. The AMP synthesis technique was found to be more efficient and better than thermal decomposition method due to ultra-shorter experiment time (around 2.5 min) as compared to 90 min required for thermal decomposition method. Moreover, AMP synthesized nanoparticles are better isolated and of smaller size than thermal decomposition ones.The effect of plasma discharge timings on synthesized nanoparticles has also been studied in this work. Coercivity of synthesized nanoparticles decreases with the increasing plasma discharge timings from 3 to 10 min. The nanoparticles synthesized using plasma discharge timing of 10 min exhibit the smallest coercivity of around 3 G. This suggests a high possibility of achieving super-paramagnetic nanoparticles by optimizing the plasma discharge timings of AMP. (author)

  12. The synthese of compounds labelled with 14C. General problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barium carbonate (14C) is the only material for the syntheses of compounds labelled with 14C. The syntheses of compounds of 14C were considered for their individual features and specificities in respect of double - lined character of chemical and radiochemical phenomena. It was stated that compounds of 14C obtainable directly from barium carbonate (14C) will be called basis compounds of 14C. The methods of adaptations of some syntheses of 14C elaborated previously in other laboratory were considered. The aim of this adaptation was to obtain a method flexible in respect with amount of products 14C and repeatable concerning yield and purity of compounds labelled with 14C. The methods of the microsyntheses of compounds labelled with 14C were discussed. (author)

  13. Supercritical fluid route for synthesizing crystalline Barium Strontium Titanate nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverón, H; Elissalde, C; Aymonier, C; Bidault, O; Maglione, M; Cansell, F

    2005-10-01

    Pure and well-crystallized Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) nanoparticles with controlled Ba/Sr ratio have been successfully synthesized under supercritical conditions using a continuous-flow reactor in the temperature range of 150-380 degrees C at 26 MPa. To synthesize the Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 composition, alkoxides, ethanol and water were used. The resulting nanopowder consists of fine particles with an average particle size of 23 nm. The results show that the Ba/Sr ratio of this powder can be accurately controlled from the composition of precursor. The characterization of the as-synthesized Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 solid-solution and the dielectric properties of the sintered ceramics are here reported. PMID:16245539

  14. Design of coupled stripline directional coupler power synthesizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle of design and calculation of the power synthesis in the solid-state amplifier are de- scribed in this paper. The working frequency of the synthesizer is 80.5 MHz. The output continuous wave power is more than 20 kW; The synthesizer power capacity is analyzed. The theoretical calculation re- suits, Computer Simulation Technology (CST) simulated results are compared with the measured results of the actual 3 dB couplers. The analysis of the measured results and CST calculated results shows that the simulation is in agreement with the measurement results which meet the design requirements of the solid-state amplifier. Except the coupling coefficient, the isolation, the VSWR and other parameters are better than the design target. When the output power is 20 kW, the sampling waveform has no deform and the temperature of the synthesizer is stable. (authors)

  15. A low-power CMOS frequency synthesizer for GPS receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low-power frequency synthesizer for GPS/Galileo L1/E1 band receivers implemented in a 0.18 ?m CMOS process is introduced. By adding clock-controlled transistors at latch outputs to reduce the time constant at sensing time, the working frequency of the high-speed source-coupled logic prescaler supplying quadrature local oscillator signals has been increased, compared with traditional prescalers. Measurement results show that this synthesizer achieves an in-band phase noise of -87 dBc/Hz at 15 kHz offset, with spurs less than -65 dBc. The whole synthesizer consumes 6 mA in the case of a 1.8 V supply, and its core area is 0.6 mm2. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  16. Programmable frequency-hop synthesizers based on chirp mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, B. J.; Hannah, J. M.

    1981-05-01

    One technique for implementing a synthesizer is based on mixing chirp signals generated by impulsing SAW filters. Potentially, this method allows fast frequency hop generation over wide bandwidth (about 500 MHz) with large numbers of selectable hop frequencies (about 4000). Furthermore, the hardware can occupy a small volume and dissipate low power compared with conventional synthesizers. This paper examines the techniques and establishes likely parameter and performance bounds. Deleterious mechanisms are identified and their effects on CW spectral purity and fast frequency-hopped link error rate performance is discussed. Experimental results are presented for both a high performance modem, with N equal to 480 across a 96-MHz band and a recent development comprising the basic chirp synthesizer plus phased locked loop (PLL) to provide enhanced slow frequency hop and continuous-wave (CW) spectral purity.

  17. 'Great power' intervention in African armed conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2015-01-01

    This paper asks why the United States (US), China and the European Union (EU) have intervened in a number of armed conflicts in Africa in the twenty-first century. Scrutiny and comparison of the motivations and interests of the three non-African actors in intervening in African crises are assumed to contribute to understanding the changing geopolitical environment and the current conditions for conflict management in Africa. The focus is not on trade and aid. The paper launches the hypothesis that the explanations why the US, China and the EU have intervened are basically identical. In spite of different evaluations of the specific crisis situations, the interventions have been about taking care of the ‘national interest’ of each of the three non-African actors. National interest is defined as either ‘hard core’ (security) or ‘core’ concerns (security and economic wealth).

  18. ARMED FORCES AND INTERVENTION IN TROPICAL AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Steyn

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available "The Ghana Armed Forces, in co-operation with the police, have thought it necessary to take over the reins of power and to dismiss the former President, Kwame Nkrumah, the Presidential Commission and all Ministers, and to suspend the Constitution and to dissolve Parliament. This act has been necessitated by the political and economic situation in the country. The concentration of power in the hands of one man has led to the abuse of individual rights and liberty. Power has been exercised by the former President capriciously. The operation of the laws has been suspended to the advantage of his favourites and he has been running the country as his own personal property. "

  19. Wireless Control & Monitoring of Robotic Arm (SWORDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Kadu,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Robot warriors have already seen action in Iraq, and the US Army plans to replace one-third of its armored vehicles and weapons with robots by 2015. These killing machines may one day come equipped with an artificial conscience even to the extent of disobeying immoral orders. The US Army's latest recruits are 1 meter (about 3 feet tall, wear desert camouflage and are armed with black M249 machine guns. They also move on caterpillar tracks and thanks to five camera eyes can even see in the dark. The fearless fighters are three robot soldiers who, unnoticed by the general public, were deployed in Iraq in mid-June, charged with hunting down insurgents. As if guided by an unseen hand, they hone in on their targets and fire at them with their machine guns.

  20. DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF TORQUE ARM BRACKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj D. Shende

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this project is to investigate how a crack propagates and grows in a typical direction of Torque arm bracket. The finite element program and the crack growth program will be used to simulate crack growth and to compute the stresses and the stress-intensity factor. Aspecific bracket design was selected and a corner crack was investigated. This configuration was used since the engineers often detect this type of crack in brackets. The stress near the crack tip is compared against the yield strength of the material. The Mode I stress-intensity factor is compared against the material’s fracture toughness. The results show that the bracket can tolerate small cracks in the structure. The fatigue strength of the structure is recommended to be assessed in the future.

  1. Nuclear arms race gearing for speedup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To probe the rationale behind the big buildup in US strategic arms that is presaged by the current enhanced R and D effort - and to explore the broader, more long-term role of science and technology in the nuclear arms race - C and EN in recent months spoke with a host of experts both within and outside the defense establishment. It is a topic of incredible complexity, high controversy, and of the highest stakes imaginable - the survival of civilization. This buildup will include over the next decade, apart from the MX, a new, highly accurate, submarine-launched ballistic missile and a fleet of very large submarines to carry it; an air-launched cruise missile; a new long-range bomber; a new intermediate-range missile and a new ground-launched cruise missile, both capable of hitting targets in the Soviet Union from proposed bases in Western Europe; and a new sea-launched cruise missile that can be fired from conventional submarines or other naval vessels. To spokesmen for, and members of, the defense establishment the US buildup is prudent, even minimal. According to them, it is needed to keep the US at least on a par with the growth of Soviet strategic might which was very substantial in the 1970's and which will carry over into the 1980's with further major gains. It also is needed to keep the lid on Soviet expansionism; and it is the best way to prevent a nuclear war. To critics, the proposed buildup is the height of lunacy. According to them, the US strategic arsen According to them, the US strategic arsenal is more than adequate today. And it can continue to serve its only legitimate purpose - to deter nuclear war, no matter how much the Soviets may choose to build up their nuclear forces - with a much-more-modest modernization program

  2. Sprinkle Test by Phoenix's Robotic Arm (Movie)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander used its Robotic Arm during the mission's 15th Martian day since landing (June 9, 2008) to test a 'sprinkle' method for delivering small samples of soil to instruments on the lander deck. This sequence of four images from the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager covers a period of 20 minutes from beginning to end of the activity. In the single delivery of a soil sample to a Phoenix instrument prior to this test, the arm brought the scooped up soil over the instrument's opened door and turned over the scoop to release the soil. The sprinkle technique, by contrast, holds the scoop at a steady angle and vibrates the scoop by running the motorized rasp located beneath the scoop. This gently jostles some material out of the scoop to the target below. For this test, the target was near the upper end the cover of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer instrument suite, or MECA. The cover is 20 centimeters (7.9 inches) across. The scoop is about 8.5 centimeters (3.3 inches) across. Based on the test's success in delivering a small quantity and fine-size particles, the Phoenix team plans to use the sprinkle method for delivering samples to MECA and to the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA. The next planned delivery is to MECA's Optical Microscope, via the port in the MECA cover visible at the bottom of these images. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Testbed model and data assimilation for ARM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this contract are to further develop and test the ALFA (AER Local Forecast and Assimilation) model originally designed at AER for local weather prediction and apply it to three distinct but related purposes in connection with the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program: (a) to provide a testbed that simulates a global climate model in order to facilitate the development and testing of new cloud parametrizations and radiation models; (b) to assimilate the ARM data continuously at the scale of a climate model, using the adjoint method, thus providing the initial conditions and verification data for testing parameumtions; (c) to study the sensitivity of a radiation scheme to cloud parameters, again using the adjoint method, thus demonstrating the usefulness of the testbed model. The data assimilation will use a variational technique that minimizes the difference between the model results and the observation during the analysis period. The adjoint model is used to compute the gradient of a measure of the model errors with respect to nudging terms that are added to the equations to force the model output closer to the data. The radiation scheme that will be included in the basic ALFA model makes use of a gen two-stream approximation, and is designed for vertically inhonogeneous, multiple-scattering atmospheres. The sensitivity of this model to the definition of cloud parameters will be studied. The adjoint technique will also be used to compute the sensitivities. This project is designed to provide the Science Team members with the appropriate tools and modeling environment for proper testing and tuning of new radiation models and cloud parametrization schemes

  4. Two-Arm Flexible Thermal Strap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquiza, Eugenio; Vasquez, Cristal; Rodriquez, Jose I.; Leland, Robert S.; VanGorp, Byron E.

    2011-01-01

    Airborne and space infrared cameras require highly flexible direct cooling of mechanically-sensitive focal planes. A thermal electric cooler is often used together with a thermal strap as a means to transport the thermal energy removed from the infrared detector. While effective, traditional thermal straps are only truly flexible in one direction. In this scenario, a cooling solution must be highly conductive, lightweight, able to operate within a vacuum, and highly flexible in all axes to accommodate adjustment of the focal plane while transmitting minimal force. A two-armed thermal strap using three end pieces and a twisted section offers enhanced elastic movement, significantly beyond the motion permitted by existing thermal straps. This design innovation allows for large elastic displacements in two planes and moderate elasticity in the third plane. By contrast, a more conventional strap of the same conductance offers less flexibility and asymmetrical elasticity. The two-arm configuration reduces the bending moment of inertia for a given conductance by creating the same cross-sectional area for thermal conduction, but with only half the thickness. This reduction in the thickness has a significant effect on the flexibility since there is a cubic relationship between the thickness and the rigidity or bending moment of inertia. The novelty of the technology lies in the mechanical design and manufacturing of the thermal strap. The enhanced flexibility will facilitate cooling of mechanically sensitive components (example: optical focal planes). This development is a significant contribution to the thermal cooling of optics. It is known to be especially important in the thermal control of optical focal planes due to their highly sensitive alignment requirements and mechanical sensitivity; however, many other applications exist including the cooling of gimbal-mounted components.

  5. Object Sorting System Using Robotic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VISHNU R.KALE, V.A.KULKARNI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a smart approach for a real time inspection and selection of objects in continuous flow. Image processing in today’s world grabs massive attentions as it leads to possibilities of broaden application in many fields of high technology. The real challenge is how to improve existing sorting system in the modular processing system which consists of four integrated stations of identification, processing, selection and sorting with a new image processing feature. Existing sorting method uses a set of inductive, capacitive and optical sensors do differentiate object color. This paper presents a mechatronics color sorting system solution with the application of image processing. Image processing procedure senses the objects in an image captured in real-time by a webcam and then identifies color and information out of it. This information is processed by image processing for pick-and-place mechanism. The sorting process is based on a 2 phase operative methodology defined 1 a self-learning step where the apparatus learns to identify objects ; 2 an operative selection process where objects are detected, classified using a decisional algorithm and selected in real time. The Project deals with an automated material handling system. It aims in classifying the colored objects by colour, size, which are coming on the conveyor by picking and placing the objects in its respective pre-programmed place. Thereby eliminating the monotonous work done by human, achieving accuracy and speed in the work. The project involve sensors that senses the object’s colour, size and sends the signal to the microcontroller. The microcontroller sends signal to circuit which drives the various motors of the robotic arm to grip the object and place it in the specified location. Based upon the detection, the robotic arm moves to the specified location, releases the object and comes back to the original position [1] [2].

  6. The illusion of owning a third arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterstam, Arvid; Petkova, Valeria I; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Could it be possible that, in the not-so-distant future, we will be able to reshape the human body so as to have extra limbs? A third arm helping us out with the weekly shopping in the local grocery store, or an extra artificial limb assisting a paralysed person? Here we report a perceptual illusion in which a rubber right hand, placed beside the real hand in full view of the participant, is perceived as a supernumerary limb belonging to the participant's own body. This effect was supported by questionnaire data in conjunction with physiological evidence obtained from skin conductance responses when physically threatening either the rubber hand or the real one. In four well-controlled experiments, we demonstrate the minimal required conditions for the elicitation of this "supernumerary hand illusion". In the fifth, and final experiment, we show that the illusion reported here is qualitatively different from the traditional rubber hand illusion as it is characterised by less disownership of the real hand and a stronger feeling of having two right hands. These results suggest that the artificial hand 'borrows' some of the multisensory processes that represent the real hand, leading to duplication of touch and ownership of two right arms. This work represents a major advance because it challenges the traditional view of the gross morphology of the human body as a fundamental constraint on what we can come to experience as our physical self, by showing that the body representation can easily be updated to incorporate an additional limb. PMID:21383847

  7. Kootenay Lake Fertilization Experiment, Year 15 (North Arm) and Year 3 (South Arm) (2006) Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, E.U.; Sebastian, D.; Andrusak, G.F. [Fish and Wildlife Science and Allocation, Ministry of Environment, Province of British Columbia

    2009-07-01

    This report summarizes results from the fifteenth year (2006) of nutrient additions to the North Arm of Kootenay Lake and three years of nutrient additions to the South Arm. Experimental fertilization of the lake has been conducted using an adaptive management approach in an effort to restore lake productivity lost as a result of nutrient uptake in upstream reservoirs. The primary objective of the experiment is to restore kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations, which are the main food source for Gerrard rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). The quantity of agricultural grade liquid fertilizer (10-34-0, ammonium polyphosphate and 28-0-0, urea ammonium nitrate) added to the North Arm in 2006 was 44.7 tonnes of P and 248.4 tonnes of N. The total fertilizer load added to the South Arm was 257 tonnes of nitrogen; no P was added. Kootenay Lake has an area of 395 km{sup 2}, a maximum depth of 150 m, a mean depth of 94 m, and a water renewal time of approximately two years. Kootenay Lake is a monomictic lake, generally mixing from late fall to early spring and stratifying during the summer. Surface water temperatures generally exceed 20 C for only a few weeks in July. Results of oxygen profiles were similar to previous years with the lake being well oxygenated from the surface to the bottom depths at all stations. Similar to past years, Secchi disc measurements at all stations in 2006 indicate a typical seasonal pattern of decreasing depths associated with the spring phytoplankton bloom, followed by increasing depths as the bloom gradually decreases by the late summer and fall. Total phosphorus (TP) ranged from 2-7 {micro}g/L and tended to decrease as summer advanced. Over the sampling season dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations decreased, with the decline corresponding to nitrate (the dominant component of DIN) being utilized by phytoplankton during summer stratification. Owing to the importance of epilimnetic nitrate that is required for optimal phytoplankton growth discrete depth water sampling occurred in 2006 to measure more accurately changes in the nitrate concentrations. As expected there was a seasonal decline in nitrate concentrations, thus supporting the strategy of increasing the nitrogen loading in both arms. These in-season changes emphasize the need for an adaptive management approach to ensure the nitrogen to phosphorus (N:P) ratio does not decrease below 15:1 (weight:weight) during the fertilizer application period. Phytoplankton composition determined from the integrated samples (0-20m) was dominated by diatoms, followed by cryptophytes and chrysophytes. The contribution of cryptophytes to total biomass was higher in 2006 than in 2005. Cryptophytes, considered being edible biomass for zooplankton and Daphnia spp., increased in 2006. Phytoplankton in the discrete depth samples (2, 5, 10, 15 and 20m) demonstrated a clear north to south gradient in average phytoplankton density and biomass among the three stations sampled, with highest values at the North Arm station (KLF 2) and lowest values in the most southern station in the South Arm (KLF 7). Populations were dominated by flagellates at all stations and depths in June and July, then dominated by diatoms in August and September in the North and South arms of the lake. There were no large bluegreen (cyanobacteria) populations in either arm of the lake in 2006. Seasonal average zooplankton abundance and biomass in both the main body of the lake and in the West Arm increased in 2006 compared to 2005. Zooplankton density was numerically dominated by copepods and biomass was dominated by Daphnia spp. The annual average mysid biomass data at deep stations indicated that the North Arm of Kootenay Lake was more productive than the South Arm in 2006. Mysid densities increased through the summer and declined in the winter; mean whole lake values remain within prefertilization densities. Kokanee escapement to Meadow Creek declined in 2006 to approximately 400,000 spawners. The Lardeau River escapement also declined wit

  8. Active aging as a way of keeping diseases at arm’s length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    Active ageing has increasingly become the ideal of how to live later life. Concepts of activity, participation and independence are central to how elderly see themselves and practice aging (Katz 2000). The elderly are encouraged and expected to stay active and independent. This is believed to be good for their quality of life, health, functionality and the economy (Sundhedsstyrelsen 2008, EC 2006, WHO 2002). At the same time active aging is inscribed into a general health care focus, which individualizes the responsibility for health and disease. This requires subjects ready to self-care, by paying attention to the signals of the body and leading healthy lives (Rose 2001). However, active aging seems to contain an ambiguity in this aspect, as the practice of active aging is often a way for elderly to keep diseases at arm’s length, and not a way to sense the possible abnormalities in the body. Through ethnographic fieldwork at two activity centres, the author has studied the role of activity and practice ofactive aging in the everyday live of the elderly users of the centres. There seems to be a fundamental difference between how active aging is thought of at policy level – as a part of a health regime of prevention and sensing the body - and how these elderly use activities to distance the sensations of the body. Activity in this way becomes a way to maintain disease at arms length.

  9. Las armas a cambio de la libertad: Los esclavos en la guerra de independencia de Venezuela (1812-1835) / Les armes en échange de la liberté: Les esclaves pendant la guerre d'Indépendance au Venezuela (1812-1835) / Arms in exchange for freedom: slaves in Venezuela's war of independence (1812-1835)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana, Vergara.

    Full Text Available Tanto los republicanos, como los defensores del poder monárquico no preveían el impacto y la importancia de la participación esclava durante la guerra de independencia venezolana. Su inicial movilización a favor de la Justa Causa del Rey fue una de las razones de la destrucción de las dos primeras r [...] epúblicas. Su participación induce a Bolívar y demás dirigentes republicanos a reformular el programa independentista criollo; el cual no incluía, hasta el momento, un cuestionamiento del sistema esclavista, en tanto que eran beneficiarios directos del mismo y la institución formaba parte fundamental del sistema económico en que se desenvolvían. Este artículo trata abordar su participación en el conflicto a través de las experiencias relatadas por nueve esclavos en sus respectivas peticiones de libertad. Abstract in english Neither republicans nor the defenders of monarchical power foresaw the impact and importance of the participation of slaves in Venezuela's wars of independence. Their early mobilization to support the Justa Causa del Rey ("Just Cause of the King") was a key factor in the collapse of the first two Re [...] publics, while their participation led Bolívar and other republican leaders to reformulate the Creole's independence program, which up to then had never questioned the slavery system, because they were among the direct beneficiaries of that arrangement, which was also a cornerstone of the economic system in Venezuela's that had allowed them to prosper. The article examines the slave population's participation in the conflict through experiences narrated by nine slaves in their respective petitions for freedom.

  10. Special syntheses of certain organic iodine compounds; Syntheses speciales de certains composes organiques iodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, R.; Debuchy, D.; Junod, E. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The technical difficulties encountered in working on radioactive products force us to choose the simplest methods of chemical synthesis possible. For iodine compounds, two special methods have been chosen: - by using fission recoil, we can prepare simple iodine compounds such as iodobenzene or methyl iodide in high yields and having a good degree of purity. The method consists in the irradiation of mixtures of uranium oxide and benzoic acid or ammonium acetate. The iodised product is separated by distillation, after dissolving the recoil medium in a solvent. - by isotopic exchange between the inorganic iodine of different valencies and complex molecules such as Bengal pink, and diodone, it is also possible to obtain satisfactory labelling yields. These reactions have been adapted so as to give a minimum time for isotopic exchange. In the case of Bengal pink, we have found a yield of 90 per cent after 60 minutes by exchange between Nal and the organic molecule in aqueous solution in presence of hydrogen peroxide. For diodone the method proposed by Liebster has been modified so as to reduce losses during purification. The analytical methods adopted for these different compounds are described. (author) [French] Les difficultes technologiques du travail sur les produits radioactifs font choisir les methodes de syntheses chimiques les plus simples possible. Pour les composes iodes, on a choisi deux methodes speciales: - en utilisant le recul de fission, on prepare avec de bons rendements et avec une bonne purete des composes iodes simples tels que l'iodobenzene ou l'iodure de methyle. La methode consiste a irradier des melanges d'oxyde d'uranium et d'acide benzoique ou d'acetate d'ammonium. Le produit iode est separe par distillation, apres dissolution du milieu de recul dans un solvant, - par echange isotopique entre l'iode mineral a differentes valences et des molecules complexes comme le rose bengale et la diodone, on obtient egalement des rendements satisfaisants de marquage. Ces reactions ont ete amenagees pour que le temps d'echange isotopique soit raccourci au maximum. Pour le cas du rose Bengale, on a trouve un rendement de 90 pour cent apres 60 mn par echange entre INa et la molecule organique en milieu aqueux et en presence d'eau oxygenee. Pour la diodone, la methode proposee par Liebster a ete amenagee pour diminuer les pertes en cours de purification. On decrit egalement les methodes analytiques choisies pour ces differents composes. (auteur)

  11. ARM System Developer's Guide Designing and Optimizing System Software

    CERN Document Server

    Sloss, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Over the last ten years, the ARM architecture has become one of the most pervasive architectures in the world, with more than 2 billion ARM-based processors embedded in products ranging from cell phones to automotive braking systems. A world-wide community of ARM developers in semiconductor and product design companies includes software developers, system designers and hardware engineers. To date no book has directly addressed their need to develop the system and software for an ARM-based system. This text fills that gap. This book provides a comprehensive description of the operation of the ARM core from a developer's perspective with a clear emphasis on software. It demonstrates not only how to write efficient ARM software in C and assembly but also how to optimize code. Example code throughout the book can be integrated into commercial products or used as templates to enable quick creation of productive software. The book covers both the ARM and Thumb instruction sets, covers Intel''s XScale Processors, ou...

  12. A Kinematic Calibration Process for Flight Robotic Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Curtis L.; Robinson, Matthew L.

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) robotic arm is ten times more massive than any Mars robotic arm before it, yet with similar accuracy and repeatability positioning requirements. In order to assess and validate these requirements, a higher-fidelity model and calibration processes were needed. Kinematic calibration of robotic arms is a common and necessary process to ensure good positioning performance. Most methodologies assume a rigid arm, high-accuracy data collection, and some kind of optimization of kinematic parameters. A new detailed kinematic and deflection model of the MSL robotic arm was formulated in the design phase and used to update the initial positioning and orientation accuracy and repeatability requirements. This model included a higher-fidelity link stiffness matrix representation, as well as a link level thermal expansion model. In addition, it included an actuator backlash model. Analytical results highlighted the sensitivity of the arm accuracy to its joint initialization methodology. Because of this, a new technique for initializing the arm joint encoders through hardstop calibration was developed. This involved selecting arm configurations to use in Earth-based hardstop calibration that had corresponding configurations on Mars with the same joint torque to ensure repeatability in the different gravity environment. The process used to collect calibration data for the arm included the use of multiple weight stand-in turrets with enough metrology targets to reconstruct the full six-degree-of-freedom location of the rover and tool frames. The follow-on data processing of the metrology data utilized a standard differential formulation and linear parameter optimization technique.

  13. US-Russian relations: the arms control agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At a time when US-Russian relations are widely regarded to be in a state of flux, it is appropriate to examine the degree of continuity and change in the sphere of nuclear arms control. More specifically, this brief essay identifies a number of propositions about nuclear weapons, arms control, and nonproliferation that increasingly reflect the conventional wisdom in Washington, although these propositions may be neither true nor wise; and assesses the prospects for arms control progress in the areas of strategic and non-strategic nuclear weapons and nonproliferation in light of these prevailing views. (author)

  14. The purposes, achievements, and priorities of arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arms control purposes include strengthening the framework of deterrence and reducing the threat of the use of nuclear weapons, reducing the dangers of attack and accidental nuclear war, and allowing more resources for the civilian economy. The paper briefly describes achievements in arms control since World War II. These include the Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABMT)-SALT I, SALT II, Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT), Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty (PNET), and Nuclear-Free Zones treaties. The author also discusses his views on what the priorities of arms control activities should be

  15. A method for removing arm backscatter from EPID images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Brian W. [School of Mathematical and Physics Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales 2308 (Australia); Greer, Peter B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Newcastle, New South Wales 2310 (Australia); School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales 2308 (Australia)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To develop a method for removing the support arm backscatter from images acquired using current Varian electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs).Methods: The effect of arm backscatter on EPID images was modeled using a kernel convolution method. The parameters of the model were optimized by comparing on-arm images to off-arm images. The model was used to develop a method to remove the effect of backscatter from measured EPID images. The performance of the backscatter removal method was tested by comparing backscatter corrected on-arm images to measured off-arm images for 17 rectangular fields of different sizes and locations on the imager. The method was also tested using on- and off-arm images from 42 intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) fields.Results: Images generated by the backscatter removal method gave consistently better agreement with off-arm images than images without backscatter correction. For the 17 rectangular fields studied, the root mean square difference of in-plane profiles compared to off-arm profiles was reduced from 1.19% (standard deviation 0.59%) on average without backscatter removal to 0.38% (standard deviation 0.18%) when using the backscatter removal method. When comparing to the off-arm images from the 42 IMRT fields, the mean {gamma} and percentage of pixels with {gamma} < 1 were improved by the backscatter removal method in all but one of the images studied. The mean {gamma} value (1%, 1 mm) for the IMRT fields studied was reduced from 0.80 to 0.57 by using the backscatter removal method, while the mean {gamma} pass rate was increased from 72.2% to 84.6%.Conclusions: A backscatter removal method has been developed to estimate the image acquired by the EPID without any arm backscatter from an image acquired in the presence of arm backscatter. The method has been shown to produce consistently reliable results for a wide range of field sizes and jaw configurations.

  16. Design and Engineering of a Chess-Robotic Arm

    OpenAIRE

    Elouafiq, Ali

    2012-01-01

    In the scope of the "Chess-Bot" project, this study's goal is to choose the right model for the robotic arm that the "the Chess-Bot" will use to move the pawn from a cell to another. In this paper, there is the definition and the structure of a robot arm. Also, the different engineering and kinematics fundamentals of the robot and its components will be detailed. Furthermore, the different structures of robotic arms will be presented and compared based on different criteria....

  17. 6-arm blue grand design of NGC 309

    CERN Document Server

    Chernin, A D

    2015-01-01

    The geometry and physics of the spiral structure of the giant Hubble type Sc galaxy NGC 309 is studied. A schematic of two patterns with three arms in each is suggested for the blue spiral. The red and blue patterns form together a grand design with two-fold symmetry. A possible gas-dynamics explanation of the phenomenon is suggested which shows how the two-arm red spiral may induce the formation of the six-arm coherent blue spiral. Key words: galaxies: individual (NGC 309) -- galaxies: spiral

  18. Light Duty Utility Arm computer software configuration management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plan describes the configuration management for the Light Duty Utility Arm robotic manipulation arm control software. It identifies the requirement, associated documents, and the software control methodology. The Light Duty Utility Ann (LDUA) System is a multi-axis robotic manipulator arm and deployment vehicle, used to perform surveillance and characterization operations in support of remediation of defense nuclear wastes currently stored in the Hanford Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) through the available 30.5 cm (12 in.) risers. This plan describes the configuration management of the LDUA software

  19. Proto-Flight Manipulator Arm (P-FMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    The technical development of the Proto-Flight Manipulator Arm (P-FMA) which is a seven-degree-of-freedom general-purpose arm capable of being remotely operated in an earth orbital environment is discussed. The P-FMA is a unique manipulator, combining the capabilities of significant dexterity, high tip forces, precise motion control, gear backdriveability, high end effector grip forces and torques, and the quality of flightworthiness. The 2.4-meter (8-foot) arm weighs 52.2 kilograms (115 pounds).

  20. Les relations économiques sino-américaines pendant les années Bush (2001-2008 : vers une stratégie de « dissuasion économique » ? US-China Relations during the Bush Presidency, 2001-2008: Towards a Strategy of “Economic Deterrence”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette Bourdin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Au cours de la présidence de George W. Bush, les relations économiques sino-américaines se sont caractérisées par une interdépendance croissante, tant au niveau des enjeux commerciaux que des enjeux financiers. Si les questions du déficit de la balance commerciale et des droits de la propriété intellectuelle faisaient déjà débat pendant la présidence de Bill Clinton, en revanche les questions financières de la valeur du renminbi et des réserves chinoises de bons du Trésor sont apparues pendant les années Bush. Alors que l’administration Bush prônait initialement une stratégie de « congagement » (endiguement/ engagement et définissait la Chine comme un « concurrent stratégique », non seulement le 11-Septembre a modifié les priorités immédiates de Washington mais, du fait de l’interdépendance économique sino-américaine, il semble que la « dissuasion économique » soit désormais la seule stratégie réaliste dans les relations entre Washington et Pékin.During the presidency of George W. Bush, the main characteristic of US-China economic relations was an increasing interdependency in the field of trade as well as over financial issues. If trade imbalance and intellectual property rights were already matters for debate during the presidency of Bill Clinton, the issues of the value of the renminbi and of Chinese holdings of US Treasury bonds emerged during the Bush years. While the Bush administration had initially advocated a strategy of “congagement” (containment/ engagement and had defined China as a “strategic competitor”, not only did 9/11 change Washington’s immediate priorities, but, with the US-China economic interdependency, the only realistic strategy between Washington and Beijing seemed to consist in “economic deterrence.”

  1. Synthese und Charakterisierung von FeMFI-Katalysator-Systemen

    OpenAIRE

    Dykhnenko, Larisa

    2013-01-01

    Als FeMFI werden Materialien bezeichnet, bei denen Eisenspezies entweder im Porengefüge des Zeolithen ZSM-5 auf Kationenplätzen fixiert oder als Gitteratome Aluminium ersetzen. Es gelang FeMFI-Katalysatoren unter Anwendung einer modifizierten hydrothermalen Synthese nach A. Brückner zu präparieren und die Einwirkung verschiedener Syntheseparameter auf das Erscheinungsbild der Materialien zu verifizieren. Neben den üblich, zur Charakterisierung von zeolithischen Katalysatoren eingesetzten Meth...

  2. Total syntheses of (-)-huperzine Q and (+)-lycopladines B and C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Benke; Li, Houhua; Wu, Jinbao; Zhang, Jing; Lei, Xiaoguang

    2015-01-12

    Utilizing a late-stage enamine bromofunctionalization strategy, the twelve-step total synthesis of (-)-huperzine?Q was accomplished. Furthermore, the first total syntheses of (+)-lycopladines?B and C are described. An unprecedented X-ray crystal structure of an unusual epoxyamine intermediate is also reported, and the synthetic application of this intermediate in natural product synthesis is demonstrated. PMID:25358669

  3. Carbon onions synthesized via thermal reduction of glycerin with magnesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon onions have been successfully synthesized via thermal reduction of glycerin with magnesium at 650 deg C. The obtained carbon onions have diameters ranging from 60 to 90 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy analyses confirm that the carbon material has graphite feature and polycrystalline structure

  4. Review on plasma-liquid interactions for nanomaterial syntheses

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qiang; Li, Junshuai; Li, Yongfeng

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we have summarized the recent advances and present conditions of the nanomaterials synthesis from the plasma-liquid interactions. A theoretical analysis for the nanomaterials synthesis process is presented by analyzing the experimental data. Besides the theoretical analysis, the practical applications in several nanomaterials syntheses of the the plasma-liquid interactions are also presented.

  5. Plasma-Liquid Interaction: a New Way to Synthesize Nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Qiang; Li, Yongfeng; Zhang, Xianhui; Yang, Size

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we have summarized the recent advances and present conditions of the nanomaterials synthesis from the plasma-liquid interactions. A theoretical analysis for the nanomaterials synthesis process is presented by analyzing the experimental data. Besides the theoretical analysis, the practical applications in several nanomaterials syntheses of the the plasma-liquid interactions are also presented.

  6. Syntheses of ? and ?-tocopherols selectively labelled with deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four deuterium-substituted ?-tocopherols (dideutero-RRR, nonadeutero-ambo, nonadeutero-all-rac and undecadeutero-all-rac) and a dideutro-RRR-?-tocopherol have been synthesized for use in studies of the biokinetics, bioavailability and metabolism of vitamin E. (author)

  7. Radiolitically Synthesized Hybrid Nanosystems for Bio-Nano-Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report a review of the main results and the studies carried out under the scope of the IAEA CRP project: Nanoscale Radiation Engineering of Advanced Materials for Potential Biomedical Application is presented. In particular two topics are discussed: radiation synthesizing of Ag nanoparticles in hydrogels for potential biomedical application and decoration of carbon nanotubes with Ag clusters by gamma irradiation. (author)

  8. Nonaqueous syntheses of metal oxide and metal nitride nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Buha, Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Nanostrukturierte Materialien sind Materialien, die aus nanopartikulären Baueinheiten in der Größenordnung von Nanonmetern (d.h. 10-9 m) bestehen. Zusammensetzung, Kristallinität und Morphologie können die natürlichen Eigenschaften dieser Materialien verbessern oder zusätzliche Eigenschaften erzeugen, die für heutige und zukünftige Anwendungen und Verfahren wünschenswert sind. In dieser Arbeit präsentieren wir neue Strategien zur Synthese von Nanopartikeln der Metaloxide und Metalnitride. ...

  9. Synthesizing a Life: An Interview with Carl Djerassi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardellini, Liberato

    2011-01-01

    In this interview, Carl Djerassi recalls his first years, from his pleasant childhood, to how he escaped the Nazi persecutions, to his college education in America. He remembers how with his research group he won the race for synthesis of cortisone, and how they then synthesized norethindrone, the active ingredient in oral contraceptives. Djerassi…

  10. Antimicrobial and mosquitocidal activity of microbial synthesized silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Namita; Prakash, Soam

    2015-03-01

    Microbial synthesis of nanoparticles is a green approach that interconnects nanotechnology and microbial biotechnology. Here, we synthesized the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using bacterial strains of Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus subtilius and Streptomyces anulatus. We tested the efficacy of AgNPs against the larvae, pupae and adults of Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. We have also investigated the antifungal activity of AgNPs against the soil keratinophilic fungus of Chrysosporium keratinophilum. The efficacy tests were then performed at different concentrations and varying numbers of hours by probit analysis. The results were obtained using a UV-visible spectrophotometer, and the images were recorded with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The synthesized AgNPs were in varied shape and sizes. The larvae and pupae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were found highly susceptible to AgNPs synthesized using the L. monocytogenes, B. subtilius and S. anulatus than the An. stephensi, while the adults of An. stephensi were found more susceptible to the AgNPs synthesized using the L. monocytogenes, B. subtilius and S. anulatus the Cx. quinquefasciatus. Further, these nanoparticles have also been tested as antifungal activity against the entomopathogenic fungus C. keratinophilum. The higher zone of inhibition occurred at the concentration level of 50 ?l. This study gives an innovative approach to develop eco-friendly AgNPs which act as an effective antifungal agent/fungicide and insecticide. PMID:25544704

  11. ARSENIC REMOVAL USING SOL-GEL SYNTHESIZED TITANIUM DIOXIDE NANOPARTICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, the effectiveness of TiO2 nanoparticles in arsenic adsorption was examined. TiO2 particles (LS) were synthesized via sol-gel techniques and characterized for their crystallinity, surface area and pore volume. Batch adsorption studies were perf...

  12. Description of the ARM Operational Objective Analysis System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, M; Xie, S; Cederwall, RT; Yio, JJ

    2001-06-01

    This report describes the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) operational variational objective analysis system. It is currently used to process data collected from the ARM intensive operational periods (IOPs) for driving and evaluating physical parameterizations in climate models. The analysis system was originally developed by Zhang and Lin (1997) at the State University of New York (SUNY) at Stony Brook and was migrated to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as the ARM operational objective analysis system in May 1999. In contrast with previous objective analysis (e.g., Barnes 1964; O’Brien 1970; Lin and Johnson 1994) the ARM objective analysis used the constrained variational analysis method in which the atmospheric state variables are forced to satisfy the conservation of mass, heat, moisture, and momentum. The purpose of this technical report is to provide an overview of the constrained variational analysis method, the architecture of the objective analysis system, along with in-depth information on running the variational analysis codes.

  13. Arms control, disarmament and non proliferation: French policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents the initiatives carried out by the French government in arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation: professionalizing of army, reduction of military budgets, mastery of conventional weapons, disarmament and nuclear non-proliferation. (J.S.)

  14. Beyond arms control? Looking for the lost paradigm.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the tragic events of September 11, 2001, the international relations have become more complex and the arms control concept, born during the cold war and implemented during the 3 last decades is today marking time. Disarmament and non-proliferation, which were the keystones of arms control and international negotiations, are today undergoing erosion. This article analyzes the change of situation between the end of the 20. century and the beginning of the 21. century. Three steps are defined by the author: a 'flux' step with the signature of a huge number of international agreements about non-proliferation and arms control, a stagnation step marked by the difficulties of implementing some of the existing treaties and by the violation by some states of some of them, and a 'reflux' step marked by a freezing up of the bilateral US-Russian disarmament process and a general renouncement of the multilateral arms control concept. (J.S.)

  15. Explore the Performance of the ARM Processor Using JPEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Jadhav

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the evolution of embedded systems has shown a strong trend towards application- specific, single- chip solutions. The ARM processor core is a leading RISC processor architecture in the embedded domain. The ARM family of processors supports a unique feature of code size reduction. In this paper it is illustrated using an embedded platform trying to design an image encoder, more specifically a JPEG encoder using ARM7TDMI processor. Here gray scale image is used and it is coded by using keil software and same procedure is repeated by using MATLAB software for compare the results with standard one. Successfully putting a new application of JPEG on ARM7 processor.

  16. Decentralized Multi-Armed Bandit with Multiple Distributed Players

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Keqin

    2009-01-01

    We consider multi-armed bandit with distributed players, where each player independently samples one of N stochastic processes with unknown parameters and accrues reward in each slot without information exchange. Users choosing the same arm collide, and none or only one receives reward depending on the collision model. This problem can be formulated as a decentralized multi-armed bandit problem. We measure the performance of a decentralized policy by the system regret, defined as the total reward loss with respect to the optimal performance under the perfect scenario where all arm parameters are known to all users and collisions among users are eliminated through perfect scheduling. We show that the minimum system regret grows with time at the same logarithmic order as in the centralized counterpart, where users exchange observations and make decisions jointly. A decentralized policy is constructed to achieve this optimal order. Furthermore, we show that the proposed policy belongs to a general class of decen...

  17. Doppler ultrasound exam of an arm or leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need to remove clothes from the arm or leg being examined. ... the person performing the test will need to press on the vein to make sure it does not have a clot. Some people may feel slight pain.

  18. Modelling and Control of 5 dof Robotic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurettin Gökhan Adar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, dynamic modeling of a 5 DOF Robotic Arm was carried out. The Robotic Arm totally had 5 DOF spatial articulated arm which consist of 3 parts. The modeling of dynamic equations of motion were based on Lagrange-Euler equations. The equations were taked into matrix-vector form. The parts of Robotic Arm had been in free fall to see the accuracy of the equations of motion and each joint graphs were obtained. A control algorithm was designed to achieve the position of the joint corresponding to the desired scenario. PID control algorithm is used in this study. As a result of the simulation of the orbits of the cubic joint position had been followed up successfully.

  19. 77 FR 35362 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ...Fuzed Weapons to modernize its armed forces and enhance its capability to defeat a wide range of enemy defenses including fortifications, armored vehicles, and maritime threats. Additionally, the munition's precision and low failure rate will reduce...

  20. Development of the OPESCOPE mobile C-arm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new mobile C-arm X-ray fluoroscopy system called the 'OPESCOPE' equipped with a CCD TV camera and high-definition Image Intensifier has been developed. All the cables for the I.I. and X-ray generator are held inside the C-arm to prevent interference with operation and the C-arm is locked electromagnetically. Moreover, the C-arm is spring counterbalanced in the vertical motion axis. These features enable smooth positioning and uncluttered operation. The X-ray generator uses a high-frequency inverter designed to assure noiseless operation and a compact size. With the new DFS-700 videoprocessor unit being combined, clearer, more informative images can be obtained. In addition to its inherent portability this unit can be upgraded in DSA function to allow angiographic examinations in the surgical theater. (author)

  1. Test report light duty utility arm power distribution system (PDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) Power Distribution System has completed vendor and post-delivery acceptance testing. The Power Distribution System has been found to be acceptable and is now ready for integration with the overall LDUA system

  2. Decontamination trade study for the Light Duty Utility Arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various methods were evaluated for decontaminating the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). Physical capabilities of each method were compared with the constraints and requirements for the LDUA Decontamination System. Costs were compared and a referred alternative was chosen

  3. 78 FR 15001 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ...Pursuant to Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act Annex Item No. vii...communication network using the Link-16 architecture. The systems provides enhanced situational...software defined radio tenets, and architectures, provides superior performance in...

  4. Synthesis of a poly-pendant 1-D chain based on 'trans-vanadium' bicapped, Keggin-type vanadtungstate and its photocatalytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Qing; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Li, Yang-Guang; Lu, Ying; Wang, En-Bo

    2014-11-21

    A vanadtungstate cluster-based organic-inorganic hybrid material [NiL4V(IV)W(VI)10W(V)2O40(V(IV)O)2] (1, L = 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene) was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectra, thermal gravimetric analysis, and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Structural analysis reveals that compound 1 contains a transition metal-centered, bicapped Keggin-type {VW12O40(VO)2} core, connected by nickel linkers into a 1-D chain. These 1D chains interdigitated with each other, achieving an interdigitated 3D supermolecular architecture. Photocatalytic studies indicate that compound 1 exhibits not only active photocatalytic degradation of dye molecules, but also selective photocatalytic activity for degradation of cationic dyes in aqueous solution. Further, this photocatalyst is stable and easily separated from the photocatalytic system for reuse as well. PMID:25113738

  5. Armed” oncolytic herpes simplex viruses for brain tumor therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Todo, Tomoki

    2008-01-01

    Genetically engineered, conditionally replicating herpes simplex viruses type 1 (HSV-1) are promising therapeutic agents for brain tumors and other solid cancers. They can replicate in situ, spread and exhibit oncolytic activity via a direct cytocidal effect. One of the advantages of HSV-1 is the capacity to incorporate large and/or multiple transgenes within the viral genome. Oncolytic HSV-1 can therefore be “armed” to add certain functions. Recently, the field of armed oncolytic HSV-1 h...

  6. Modeling a Controller for an Articulated Robotic Arm

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeev Agrawal; Koushik Kabiraj; Ravi Singh

    2012-01-01

    The precise control upon each degree of freedom of a robotic arm is a great challenge in implementing industrial work. This paper aims to design a novel controller for an automated robotic arm. A discrete Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) control technique is being used to replace the complex electronic circuitry, which would greatly reduce the cost and size of the controller. DC motors will be controlled on the basis of Closed-loop System using an avr (Atmega 16/32) microcontroller. Tra...

  7. A Scramble for Rents : Foreign Aid and Armed Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Sollenberg, Margareta

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has not specified the circumstances under which foreign aid may increase the probability of armed conflict. The purpose of this dissertation is to address this gap by employing a theoretical framework in which foreign aid produces incentives for a rent-seeking scramble among elites. A set of conditions affecting the likelihood of armed conflict are identified and tested on global data in a series of statistical analyses. Paper I argues and finds that foreign aid increases th...

  8. International Actors for Armed Conflict Prevention: A Conceptual Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Jamilah Othman; Azahari Ismail; Jinwon Kim; Jeffrey Lawrence D’Silva

    2013-01-01

    The international society is increasingly interested in importance of armed conflict prevention in order to avoid or minimize unnecessary damage. Indeed, many international agents such as the United Nations (UN), non-governmental organizations, and regional organizations maintain efforts and play a major role in field of armed conflict prevention. However, there is little study on which agent play a more effective role as preventer. Based on examination in this article, regional organizations...

  9. Vision-Integrated Physiotherapy Service Robot Using Cooperating Two Arms

    OpenAIRE

    Huanbing Gao; Shouyin Lu; Tao Wang; Cungen Liu

    2013-01-01

    This study present the mechanical architecture, control system and other modules of a physiotherapy service robot which can treat degenerative disease and chronic disease of middle-aged and aged people by Chinese massage skill. The main body of the robot includes a massage adjustable bed, two 4-DOF robot arms and two massage hands that can accomplish various massage manipulations. Two arms cooperate to improve the massage efficiency and provide sufficient strength and enough reachable workspa...

  10. Innovative Design of Plastic Bottle Recycling Box Based on ARM

    OpenAIRE

    Yuedong Xiong; Huadong Huang

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at the problems of on-site plastic bottles recycling and the reuse of waste, the automatic recycling system was developed on the basis of ARM. As the main controller, ARM not only controls the mechanical system of the collector to recover and break plastic bottles, but also communicates with and rewards the user by the automatic reward system through the wireless network. The experimental prototype test results show: post treated fragments of plastic bottles are small, which are conven...

  11. Kinematic Analysis of Lower Mobility Cooperative Arms by Screw Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Philip; Caro, Stéphane; Khalil, Wisama

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the kinematic modeling and analysis of a system with two cooperative manipulators, working together on a common task. The task is defined as the transportation of an object in space. The cooperative system is the dual armed humanoid Nao robot, where the serial architecture of each arm has five degrees of freedom. The mobility of the closed loop system is analyzed and the nature of the possible motion explored. The serial singular configurations of the system are considered....

  12. Charter for the ARM Climate Research Facility Science Board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, W

    2013-03-08

    The objective of the ARM Science Board is to promote the Nation’s scientific enterprise by ensuring that the best quality science is conducted at the DOE’s User Facility known as the ARM Climate Research Facility. The goal of the User Facility is to serve scientific researchers by providing unique data and tools to facilitate scientific applications for improving understanding and prediction of climate science.

  13. Initial explorations of ARM processors for scientific computing

    OpenAIRE

    Abdurachmanov, David; Elmer, Peter; Eulisse, Giulio; Muzaffar, Shahzad

    2013-01-01

    Power efficiency is becoming an ever more important metric for both high performance and high throughput computing. Over the course of next decade it is expected that flops/watt will be a major driver for the evolution of computer architecture. Servers with large numbers of ARM processors, already ubiquitous in mobile computing, are a promising alternative to traditional x86-64 computing. We present the results of our initial investigations into the use of ARM processors for...

  14. Arm to leg coordination in elite butterfly swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, D; Seifert, L; Boulesteix, L; Carter, M

    2006-04-01

    This study proposed the use of four time gaps to assess arm-to-leg coordination in the butterfly stroke at increasing race paces. Fourteen elite male swimmers swam at four velocities corresponding to the appropriate paces for, respectively, the 400-m, 200-m, 100-m, and 50-m events. The different stroke phases of the arm and leg were identified by video analysis and then used to calculate four time gaps (T1: time gap between entry of the hands in the water and the high break-even point of the first undulation; T2: time gap between the beginning of the hands' backward movement and the low break-even point of the first undulation; T3: time gap between the hands' arrival in a vertical plane to the shoulders and the high break-even point of the second undulation; T4: time gap between the hands' release from the water and the low break-even point of the second undulation), the values of which described the changing relationship of arm to leg movements over an entire stroke cycle. With increases in pace, elite swimmers increased the stroke rate, the relative duration of the arm pull, the recovery and the first downward movement of the legs, and decreased the stroke length, the relative duration of the arm catch phase and the body glide with arms forward (measured by T2), until continuity in the propulsive actions was achieved. Whatever the paces, the T1, T3, and T4 values were close to zero and revealed a high degree of synchronisation at key motor points of the arm and leg actions. This new method to assess butterfly coordination could facilitate learning and coaching by situating the place of the leg undulation in relation with the arm stroke. PMID:16572376

  15. Using HMI Weintek in command of an industrial robot arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, C.; Latinovic, T.; Balan, I. B. A.; Pop-Vadean, A.; Pop, P. P.

    2015-06-01

    The present paper intends to highlight the utility and importance of HMI in the control of the robotic arm, commanding a Siemens PLC. The touch screen HMI Weinteke MT3070a is the user interface in the process command of Siemens PLC, in which the distances and displacement speeds are introduced on the three axes. The interface includes monitoring robotic arm movement but also allows its command by incrementing step by step the motion over axis.

  16. SELECTION AND TRAINING OF LEADERS IN THE TURKISH ARMED FORCES

    OpenAIRE

    Suat Begec

    2013-01-01

    Leadership is the most frequently studied concept at the beginning of every period of history. Leader is a commander and the leadership is a command the unit in military sense. The majority of studies about leadership are conducted in the armed forces. Many countries have designed their armies in accordance with these studies. The Turkish Armed Forces (TAF) believes the importance of these studies and designs education systems and training in the selection and training of the leaders. The big...

  17. Addressing Mode Extension to the ARM/Thumb Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    KIM, D.-H.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, two new addressing modes are introduced to the 16-bit Thumb instruction set architecture to improve performance of the ARM/Thumb processors. Contrary to previous approaches, the proposed approach focuses on the addressing mode of the instruction set architecture. It adopts scaled register offset addressing mode and post-indexed addressing mode from the 32-bit ARM architecture, which is the superset of the 16-bit Thumb architecture. To provide the encoding space ...

  18. A review of assistive devices for arm balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, A G; Herder, J L

    2013-06-01

    Due to neuromuscular disorders (e.g., Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy) people often loose muscle strength and become wheelchair bound. It is important to use muscles as much as possible. To allow this, and to increase independency of patients, an arm orthosis can be used to perform activities of daily life. The orthosis compensates for the gravity force of the arm, allowing people to perform movements with smaller muscle forces. For patients, the aesthetics of the orthosis is one of the critical issues. This paper presents the state-of-the-art in passive and wearable active arm orthoses, and investigates how to proceed towards a suitable structure for a wearable passive arm orthosis, that is able to balance the arm within its natural range of motion and is inconspicuous; in the ideal case it fits underneath the clothes. Existing devices were investigated with respect to the body interface, the volume, and the workspace. According to these evaluation metrics it is investigated to what extent the devices are wearable and inconspicuous. Furthermore, the balancing principle of the devices, the architecture, force transmission through the devices, and alignment with the body joints are investigated. It appears that there is only one wearable passive orthosis presented in literature. This orthosis can perform throughout the natural workspace of the arm, but is still too bulky to be inconspicuous. The other passive orthoses were conspicuous and mounted to the wheelchair. Except one, the wearable active orthoses were all conspicuous and heavy due to a large backpack to enclose the actuators. They also could not achieve the entire natural workspace of the human arm. A future design of an inconspicuous, wearable, passive arm orthoses should stay close to the body, be comfortable to wear, and supports pronation and supination. PMID:24187302

  19. Non-state actors and human rights: The case of arms manufacturers

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Mauricio Bastien Olvera

    2011-01-01

    Irresponsible arms transfers, the illicit manufacturer and the use jeopardize human rights. Thus, it is important that future Arms Trade Treaty, to be concluded next year, addresses serious challenges related to arms transfers, such as the likeliness of these arms to be used to commit serious violations of human rights. For this purpose, this article will analyze the participation of arms manufacturers in the negotiation process taking into account the recent developments on internat...

  20. Upper Arm Measurements of Healthy Neonates Comparing Ultrasonography and Anthropometric Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira-da-Silva, L; Gomes, J.; Clington, A; Videira-Amaral, J; S. Bustamante

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To compare measurements of the upper arm cross-sectional areas (total arm area,arm muscle area, and arm fat area of healthy neonates) as calculated using anthropometry with the values obtained by ultrasonography. Materials and methods: This study was performed on 60 consecutively born healthy neonates: gestational age (mean6SD) 39.661.2 weeks, birth weight 3287.16307.7 g, 27 males (45%) and 33 females (55%). Mid-arm circumference and tricipital skinfold thickness measurements were ...

  1. Limited angle C-arm tomosynthesis reconstruction algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malalla, Nuhad A. Y.; Xu, Shiyu; Chen, Ying

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, C-arm tomosynthesis with digital detector was investigated as a novel three dimensional (3D) imaging technique. Digital tomosythses is an imaging technique to provide 3D information of the object by reconstructing slices passing through the object, based on a series of angular projection views with respect to the object. C-arm tomosynthesis provides two dimensional (2D) X-ray projection images with rotation (-/+20 angular range) of both X-ray source and detector. In this paper, four representative reconstruction algorithms including point by point back projection (BP), filtered back projection (FBP), simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) and maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) were investigated. Dataset of 25 projection views of 3D spherical object that located at center of C-arm imaging space was simulated from 25 angular locations over a total view angle of 40 degrees. With reconstructed images, 3D mesh plot and 2D line profile of normalized pixel intensities on focus reconstruction plane crossing the center of the object were studied with each reconstruction algorithm. Results demonstrated the capability to generate 3D information from limited angle C-arm tomosynthesis. Since C-arm tomosynthesis is relatively compact, portable and can avoid moving patients, it has been investigated for different clinical applications ranging from tumor surgery to interventional radiology. It is very important to evaluate C-arm tomosynthesis for valuable applications.

  2. MoJo Wire Action Atlas on US Arm Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    This new atlas from MojoWire, the online version of Mother Jones, highlights the United States' dominance in the international arms trade, paying special attention to the large-scale expansion in arms sales under the Clinton administration. As the introduction indicates, sales more than doubled in the President's first year in office, and from 1993 to 1997 "the US government sold, approved, or gave away $190 billion in weapons to virtually every nation on earth," often with little regard for the buyer's record on human rights or their involvement in current conflicts. The easy-to-use Atlas offers reports on recent US arms sales to 46 countries, with details on what has been bought, how it has been used, and information on the country's human rights record. Users will also find profiles of the twelve largest US arms exporters; an interactive map of arms customers involved in conflicts or insurgencies, accused of rights violations, or reselling US weapons; and a collection of links and contact information for arms-trade activists.

  3. Kinematic modeling and path planning for MIRADAS arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater, Josep; Gómez, José María.; López, Manuel; Torra, Jordi; Raines, Steven N.; Eikenberry, Stephen S.

    2014-07-01

    The Mid-resolution InfRAreD Astronomical Spectrograph (MIRADAS) is a near-infrared (NIR) multi-object spectrograph for the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). It can simultaneously observe multiple targets selected by 20 identical deployable probe arms with pickoff mirror optics. The bases of the arms are fixed to the multiplexing system (MXS) plate, a circular platform, and arranged in a circular layout with minimum separation between elements of the arms. This document presents the MXS prototype P2a, a full-scale, fully operational prototype of a MIRADAS probe arm. This planar closed-loop mechanism compared to other previous designs offers some advantages specially in terms of stability and from the point of view of optics. Unfortunately, these benefits come at the expense of a more complicated kinematics and an unintuitive arm motion. Furthermore, the cryogenic motor controllers used in prototyping impose severe restrictions in path planing. They negatively impact in the slice of pie approach, a collision-avoidance patrolling strategy that can gives good results in other scenarios. This study is a starting point to define collision-free trajectory algorithms for the 20 probe arms of MIRADAS.

  4. Kinematic Analysis of Exoskeleton Suit for Human Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surachai Panich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: There are many robotic arms developed for providing care to physically disabled people. It is difficult to find robot designs in literature that articulate such a procedure. Therefore, it is our hope that the design work shown in this study may serve as a good example of a systematic method for rehabilitation robot design. Approach: The arm exoskeleton suit was developed to increase human's strength, endurance, or speed enabling them to perform tasks that they previously could not perform. It should not impede the user's natural motion and should be comfortable and safe to wear and easy to use. Although movement is difficult for them, they usually want to go somewhere by themselves. Results: The kinematic exoskeleton suit for human arms is simulated by MATLAB software. The exoskeleton suit of human arm consists of one link length, three link twists, two link offsets and three joint angles. Conclusion: This study introduced the kinematic of exoskeleton suit for human arm. The exoskeleton suit can be used to be instrument for anyone who needs to improve human's performance. It will increase the strength of human that can lift heavy load or help handicapped patients, who cannot use their arm.

  5. ARM9 Based Embedded E-Documentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin S.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Among the huge population of India many people facing the headache of the government documents. Unwillingly they have to pay extra money and extra time for these documents though it is our basic right to get it free and urgent! This project is proposed to achieve the main goals of anti-corruption system for government documents needed for common people in day to day life. Our project basically includes four main parts, a fingerprint detector, ARM-9 control unit, PC with touch screen GUI and internet database station. The database (name, address, unique ID and Fingerprint etc. and respective records (7-12 records, proof of residency etc. of each citizen of country is recorded and stored in the database station. Using finger print identity, unique code and token amount (exceptional user can easily get document either in visual or in printed format. Our Embedded E-documentation system is implementable for “Talhati office” at village/city level which is the ground hub of government work. By connecting all such systems over a country on a dedicated secure network with single Database station, we can easily achieve the remote access anywhere in Country

  6. Climatic gradients of arms race coevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toju, Hirokazu; Abe, Harue; Ueno, Saneyoshi; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Taniguchi, Fumiya; Sota, Teiji; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2011-05-01

    In nature, spatiotemporally dynamic coevolutionary processes play major roles in the foundation and maintenance of biodiversity. Here, we examined the arms race coevolution involving a seed-eating weevil with a long snout and its camellia plant host with a thick fruit coat (pericarp) throughout the marked climatic gradient observed across the Japanese islands. Results demonstrated that female weevils, which bored holes through camellia pericarps to lay eggs into seeds, had evolved much longer snouts than males, especially in areas in which Japanese camellia pericarps were very thick. The thickness of the plant pericarp was heritable, and the camellia plant evolved a significantly thicker pericarp on islands with the weevil than on islands without it. Across populations with weevils, resource allocation to plant defense increased with increasing annual mean temperature or annual precipitation, thereby geographically differentiating the evolutionary and ecological interactions between the two species. Given that the coevolutionary relationship exhibited appreciable variation across a relatively small range of annual mean temperatures, ongoing global climatic change can dramatically alter the coevolutionary process, thereby changing the ecological interaction between these species. PMID:21508604

  7. Tolerance at arm's length: the Dutch experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuijer, J

    1990-01-01

    With respect to pedophilia and the age of consent, the Netherlands warrants special attention. Although pedophilia is not as widely accepted in the Netherlands as sometimes is supposed, developments in the judicial practice showed a growing reservedness. These developments are a spin-off of related developments in Dutch society. The tolerance in the Dutch society has roots that go far back in history and is also a consequence of the way this society is structured. The social changes of the sixties and seventies resulted in a "tolerance at arm's length" for pedophiles, which proved to be deceptive when the Dutch government proposed to lower the age of consent in 1985. It resulted in a vehement public outcry. The prevailing sex laws have been the prime target of protagonists of pedophile emancipation. Around 1960, organized as a group, they started to undertake several activities. In the course of their existence, they came to redefine the issue of pedophilia as one of youth emancipation. PMID:2086632

  8. Video Monitoring System Based on ARM9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth V,

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The preceding and existing video surveillance system which entails high end cameras, video servers, network switch and monitoring PC all these resources leads to complexity, expensive, high power consumption and also requires more area to establish. In order to overcome the hitch in the preceding and existing system, this paper presents a proficient where it uses few hardware resources for the implementation of the video monitoring system. S3C2440 is a very good ARM9 family processor providing a camera interface which is very conducive to the application and development. Embedded Linux is chosen as operating system which provides open-source, multi-task, multi-process, highly modular, multi-platform support, performance and stability to the system. The design system achieves maximum frame rate of 30fps with a resolution of 1280x1024 if individual camera is initialized and 10fps with a maximum video resolution of 340x480 if two cameras are initialized. The application of this paper can be implemented at security surveillance, patient monitoring in hospitals and polling booths.

  9. Human Rights Norms in Arms Export Controls:-Exploring the Process of Norm Implementation in Norwegian Arms Export Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Wallacher, Hilde

    2006-01-01

    The need for protection of humanitarian values to be incorporated into arms trade regulations is increasingly being framed in a human rights language in the arguments of activist groups, international agreements and governments. In Norway, there has been mounting pressure from NGOs to incorporate human rights concerns in domestic regulations. This thesis explores the evolution of the role of human rights in arms trade regulations in Norway based on an adaptation of the spiral model introduced...

  10. Transfer pricing and the arm’s length principle in the European Union law and domestic law

    OpenAIRE

    Mauri?cio, Maria Joa?o Da Cruz

    2014-01-01

    At the present moment, the majority of cross border transactions take place between related enterprises. Transfer pricing has grown and constitutes one of the core issues on the tax agenda of multinational enterprises. Under this framework, the so-called arm´s length principle is the universal method used for tax purposes in order to allocate profits between related enterprises operating in different countries. This standard has become accepted both internationally and within ...

  11. First landmines, now small arms?: the international campaign to ban landmines as a model for small-arms advocacy

    OpenAIRE

    O Dwyer, Diana

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a comparative analysis of the international campaigns around landmines and small arms. The aim is to determine whether aspects of the successful campaign to ban landmines can be replicated by non-governmental organisations (NGOs) campaigning on other issues, such as the regulation of small arms. Drawing on the literature on globalisation, transnational civil society, social movements, global governance and international norms, five main factors influencing the success of the lan...

  12. Characterization of tin selenides synthesized by high-energy milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Achimovi?ová

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tin selenides SnSeX (x=1,2 were synthesized from tin and selenium powder precursors by high-energy milling in the planetary ballmill Pulverisette 6 (Fritsch, Germany. The orthorhombic tin selenide SnSe and the hexagonal tin diselenide SnSe2 phases were formed after4 min and 5 min of milling, respectively. Specific surface area of both selenides increased with increasing time of mechanochemicalsynthesis. The particle size distribution analysis demonstrated that the synthesized products contain agglomerated selenide particlesconsisting of numerous idiomorphic tin selenide crystals, measuring from 2 to more than 100 nm in diameter, which were also documentedby TEM. UV-Vis spectrophotometry confirmed that tin selenide particles do not behave as quantum dots.

  13. Antibacterial and catalytic activities of green synthesized silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindhu, M. R.; Umadevi, M.

    2015-01-01

    The aqueous beetroot extract was used as reducing agent for silver nanoparticles synthesis. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface plasmon resonance peak of synthesized nanoparticles was observed at 438 nm. As the concentration of beetroot extract increases, absorption spectra shows blue shift with decreasing particle size. The prepared silver nanoparticles were well dispersed, spherical in shape with the average particle size of 15 nm. The prepared silver nanoparticles are effective in inhibiting the growth of both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The prepared silver nanoparticles reveal faster catalytic activity. This natural method for synthesis of silver nanoparticles offers a valuable contribution in the area of green synthesis and nanotechnology avoiding the presence of hazardous and toxic solvents and waste.

  14. Thin films of bottom-up synthesized graphene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhirev, Mikhail; Lipatov, Alexey; Vo, Timothy; Mehdi Pour, Mohammad; Sinitskii, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    Bottom-up solution synthetic approaches for graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) receive a great deal of attention, because they yield large quantities of atomically precise GNRs with intriguing electronic and optical properties. However, poor solubility of these GNRs in conventional solvents remains a great challenge and limits their processability for applications in printable electronics, photovoltaics and composite materials. We studied the solubility of solution-synthesized GNRs in chlorosulfonic acid and developed a protocol for thin film fabrication that could be applied for different types of bottom-up synthesized GNRs. The developed procedure also provides control over the thickness of films that can be made as thin as one GNR thick. Reactivity of the GNRs with chlorosulfonic acid and electrical properties of fabricated films will also be discussed.

  15. Studies on the Alkaloids of the Calycanthaceae and Their Syntheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Biao Xu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the Calycanthaceae family, which possesses four genera and about 15 species, are mainly distributed in China, North America and Australia. Chemical studies on the Calycanthaceae have led to the discovery of about 14 alkaloids of different skeletons, including dimeric piperidinoquinoline, dimeric pyrrolidinoindoline and/or trimeric pyrrolidinoindolines, which exhibit significant anti-convulsant, anti-fungal, anti-viral analgesic, anti-tumor, and anti-melanogenesis activities. As some of complex tryptamine-derived alkaloids exhibit promising biological activities, the syntheses of these alkaloids have also been a topic of interest in synthetic chemistry during the last decades. This review will focus on the structures and total syntheses of these alkaloids.

  16. Strong nonlinear photonic responses from microbiologically synthesized tellurium nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, K.-S.; Wang, J.; Dias, S.; Dewald, J.; Alley, N.J.; Baesman, S.M.; Oremland, R.S.; Blau, W.J.; Curran, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    A new class of nanomaterials, namely microbiologically-formed nanorods composed of elemental tellurium [Te(0)] that forms unusual nanocomposites when combined with poly(m-phenylenevinylene-co-2,5-dioctoxy-phenylenevinylene) (PmPV) is described. These bio-nanocomposites exhibit excellent broadband optical limiting at 532 and 1064 nm. Nonlinear scattering, originating from the laser induced solvent bubbles and microplasmas, is responsible for this nonlinear behavior. The use of bacterially-formed Te(0) when combined with an organic chemical host (e.g., PmPV) is a new green method of nanoparticle syntheses. This opens the possibilities of using unique, biologically synthesized materials to advance future nanoelectronic and nanophotonic applications. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Properties of zeolite a synthesized by natural bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthetic zeolite was prepared by using of natural bentonite from Kampo area and the application of detergent builder was investigated. The optimum synthetic condition was SiO2/Al2O3 = 2, Na2O/Al2O3 = 1, H2O/Al2O3 30 at 90 deg C for 3 hr and it was found by XRD analysis that the zeolite synthesized under this condition was type A. When the zeolite A synthesized under the optimum condition was contacted with 40 deg Dh CaCl2 solution at 30 deg C for 15 min, the cation exchange capacity was 264.9 mg CaO/g-zeolite. And the whiteness of the sample was 89% and the mean particle size was 9.95?m. (author)

  18. 4-GHz counters bring synthesizers up to speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F.; Miller, R.

    1984-06-01

    The availability of digital IC counters built on GaAs makes direct frequency division in microwave synthesizers possible. Four GHz is the highest clock rate achievable in production designs. These devices have the ability to drive TTL/CMOS logic, and the counter can be connected directly to single-chip frequency synthesizers controllers. A complete microwave sythesizer is formed by two chips and a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO). The advantages of GaAs are discussed along with flip-flop basics, aspects of device fabrication, and the characteristics of GaAs MESAFETs. Attention is given to a GaAs prescaler usable for direct conversion, four kinds of flip-flops in a divide-by-two mode, and seven-stage binary ripple counters.

  19. Syntheses of amidoxime polyethylene resin for selective Uranium (VI) adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium is a major element in the management of spent nuclear fuel (SF) or radioactive wastes, and selective separation of U has been one of research targets. For the separation of U from fission products (FP) in a SF, usually, a solvent extraction or an ion exchange technology has been usually used in an acid medium. In the case of ion exchange method, anion exchanger has been used. However, recently, some absorbents containing amidoxime functional group selective for the U have been designed and synthesized. Therefore, new adsorbent capable of selective sensing U over FP in a carbonate solution are now highly demanded. So, in this study, total synthesis of the polymer-amidoxime derivatives, divinylbenzene-amidoxime (DVB-AO) and polyethylene amidoxime (PE-AO) have been developed and the desired final products were successfully synthesized

  20. Structural Properties of the Nanocrystallized Magnetite of Different Syntheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov V.N.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Transmission electron microscopy (TEM with electronic diffraction and X-ray diffraction (XRD was used to study structural features of nanosized magnetite Fe3O4, which was synthesized using polymeric matrices (polysaccharide chitosan, at alias. From the received data it was revealed that growth inhibition and size stabilization of Fe3O4 nanoparticles were strongly affected by polysaccharide matrix. It was also observed that directional size decrease of Fe3O4 nanoparticles was accompanied by the increasing defectiveness of crystal lattice and decreasing unit cell size. The effectiveness of complementary use of both TEM with electronic diffraction and XRD techniques for structural and substructural parameters determination while studying magnetite nanosized particles synthesized in polysaccharide matrices is shown in this paper.