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Sample records for synthesized pendant armed

  1. Biological evaluation of 153Sm and 166Ho complexes with tetraazamacrocycles containing methylcarboxylate and/or methylphosphonate pendant arms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    153Sm and 166Ho complexes with two series of tetraazamacrocyclic ligands containing methylcarboxylate and/or methylphosphonate pendant arms were synthesized and their charge, lipophilicity, protein binding and in vitro and in vivo behaviour evaluated. The first series has the same backbone, a 14-membered tetraazamacrocycle containing a pyridine unit with different pendant arms, namely methylcarboxylates (ac3py14) or methylphosphonates (MeP2py14 and P3py14). The second series comprises 12- to 14-membered tetraazamacrocycles having methylcarboxylates and/or methylphosphonates as pendant arms (trans-DO2A2P, TRITA, TRITP, TETA and TETP). The 153Sm/166Ho complexes with the 14-membered tetraazamacrocycles containing the pyridine unit are neutral, hydrophilic, have a significant plasmatic protein binding, are unstable in vivo and present a slow rate of radioactivity excretion and high hepatic retention. 153Sm/166Ho complexes with the 12- to 14-membered tetraazamacrocycles are quantitatively prepared, except those with TETP. These complexes are hydrophilic, have an overall negative charge and present a medium to low plasmatic protein binding. The 153Sm/166Ho-trans-DO2A2P, 153Sm/166Ho-TRITA and 166Ho-TRITP complexes are stable in vitro and in vivo, presenting a rapid clearance from main organs and a high rate of whole body rain organs and a high rate of whole body radioactivity excretion. Biological profile of 153Sm/166Ho-TRITA complexes makes them promising candidates for therapy when conjugated to a biomolecule, while 166Ho-TRITP is potentially useful for bone targeting due to its considerable uptake by bone. (orig.)

  2. Co-ordination chemistry of amino pendant arm derivatives of 1,4,7-triazacyclononane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tei, Lorenzo; Bencini, Andrea; Blake, Alexander J; Lippolis, Vito; Perra, Alessandro; Valtancoli, Barbara; Wilson, Claire; Schröder, Martin

    2004-07-01

    The binding properties of 1,4,7-triazacyclononane ([9]aneN3) to metal cations can be adapted through sequential functionalisation of the secondary amines with aminoethyl or aminopropyl pendant arms to generate ligands with increasing numbers of donor atoms. The new amino functionalised pendant arm derivative of 1,4,7-triazacyclononane ([9]aneN3), L1, has been synthesised and its salt [H2L1]Cl2 characterised by X-ray diffraction. The protonation constants of the ligands L1-L4 having one, two or three aminoethyl or three aminopropyl pendant arms, respectively, on the [9]aneN3 framework, and the thermodynamic stabilities of their mononuclear complexes with CuII and ZnII have been investigated by potentiometric measurements in aqueous solutions. In order to discern the protonation sites of ligands L1-L4, 1H NMR spectroscopic studies were performed in D2O as a function of pH. While the stability constants of the CuII complexes increase on going from L1 to L2 and then decrease on going from L2 to L3 and L4, those for ZnII complexes increase from L1 to L3 and then decrease for L4. The X-ray crystal structures of the complexes [Cu(L1)(Br)]Br, [Zn(L1)(NO3)]NO3, [Cu(L2)](ClO4)2, [Ni(L2)(MeCN)](BF4)2, [Zn(L4)](BF4)2.MeCN and [Mn(L4)](NO3)2.1/2H2O have been determined. In both [Cu(L1)(Br)]Br and [Zn(L1)(NO3)]NO3 the metal ion is five co-ordinate and bound by four N-donors of the macrocyclic ligand and by one of the two counter-anions. The crystal structures of [Cu(L2)](ClO4)2 and [Ni(L2)(MeCN)](BF4)2 show the metal centre in slightly distorted square-based pyramidal and octahedral geometry, respectively, with a MeCN molecule completing the co-ordination sphere around NiII in the latter. In both [Zn(L4)](BF4)2.MeCN and [Mn(L4)](NO3)2.1/2H2O the metal ion is bound by all six N-donors of the macrocyclic ligand in a distorted octahedral geometry. Interestingly, and in agreement with the solution studies and with the marked preference of CuII to assume a square-based pyramidal geometry with these types of ligands, the reaction of L4 with one equivalent of Cu(BF4)2.4H2O in MeOH at room temperature yields a square-based pyramidal five co-ordinate CuII complex [Cu(L6)](BF4)2 where one of the three propylamino pendant arms of the starting ligand has been cleaved to give L6. PMID:15252580

  3. Synthesis, structural studies, and oxidation catalysis of the late-first-row-transition-metal complexes of a 2-pyridylmethyl pendant-armed ethylene cross-bridged cyclam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Donald G; Wilson, Kevin R; Cannon-Smith, Desiray J; Shircliff, Anthony D; Zhang, Zhan; Chen, Zhuqi; Prior, Timothy J; Yin, Guochuan; Hubin, Timothy J

    2015-03-01

    The first 2-pyridylmethyl pendant-armed ethylene cross-bridged cyclam ligand has been synthesized and successfully complexed to Mn(2+), Fe(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), and Zn(2+) cations. X-ray crystal structures were obtained for all six complexes and demonstrate pentadentate binding of the ligand with the requisite cis-V configuration of the cross-bridged cyclam ring in all cases, leaving a potential labile binding site cis to the pyridine donor for interaction of the complex with oxidants and/or substrates. The electronic properties of the complexes were evaluated using solid-state magnetic moment determination and acetonitrile solution electronic spectroscopy, which both agree with the crystal structure determination of high-spin divalent metal complexes in all cases. Cyclic voltammetry in acetonitrile revealed reversible redox processes in all but the Ni(2+) complex, suggesting that catalytic reactivity involving electron-transfer processes is possible for complexes of this ligand. Kinetic studies of the dissociation of the ligand from the copper(II) complex under strongly acidic conditions and elevated temperatures revealed that the pyridine pendant arm actually destabilizes the complex compared to the parent cross-bridged cyclam complex. Screening for oxidation catalysis using hydrogen peroxide as the terminal oxidant for the most biologically relevant Mn(2+), Fe(2+), and Cu(2+) complexes identified the Mn(2+) complex as a potential mild oxidation catalyst worthy of continued development. PMID:25671291

  4. Construction of a peptide with an electroactive daunomycin like a pendant arm to detect ovalbumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Kazuharu; Kadoya, Toshihiko; Kuramitz, Hideki

    2015-02-01

    In this study, a peptide-1 (RNRCKGTDVQAW) constructing lysozyme was conjugated with an electroactive daunomycin in order to voltammetrically detect ovalbumin (OVA). Hetero-bifunctional cross-linking agents with four kinds of ethylene chains in differing lengths were used to bind the peptide-1 and daunomycin. After a cross-linking agent had reacted with an amino group of daunomycin, the compound was introduced into the peptide to the cysteine residue in the peptide using a pendant arm. The OVA was sensed via a change in the electrode response of the daunomycin moiety, based on the binding between the peptide and the OVA. The adsorption of the peptide probe on the electrode increased with increases in the ethylene chain. The binding constants between the peptide probes and the OVA, however, did not depend on the length of the chain. This was because the ethylene chain influenced the binding. When the peptide and the daunomycin were bound using N-(6-maleimidocaproyloxy) sulfosuccinimide, the electrode response of the peptide probe was the most sensitive from among the four cross-linking agents. The calibration curve of the OVA using the peptide probe was linear and ranged from 1.5×10(-11) to 3.0×10(-10)M. Furthermore, this method could be applied to the electrochemical sensing of the OVA in egg whites and in fetal bovine serum. PMID:25604822

  5. Assembly of silver(I)-organic networks from flexible supramolecular synthons with pendant ethynide arms attached to a naphthyl skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Shuang-Quan; Mak, Thomas C W

    2008-08-18

    Five new ligands bearing terminal ethynide moieties attached via pendant arms to a naphthyl skeleton have been used in the synthesis of eight silver(I) complexes. In these compounds, the invariable appearance of the mu 4 and mu 5 ligation modes of the ethynide moiety reaffirms the general utility of the silver-ethynide supramolecular synthons R-CC supersetAg n and Ag n subsetCC-R-CC supersetAg n ( n = 4, 5) in coordination network assembly, even when the R group is conformationally flexible. Besides the silver-ethynyl and silver-aromatic interactions, several unconventional intermolecular interactions (argentophilicity, anion-pi, C-H...pi, and CN...pi) also make their appearance. PMID:18637678

  6. Mn2+ complexes with 12-membered pyridine based macrocycles bearing carboxylate or phosphonate pendant arm: crystallographic, thermodynamic, kinetic, redox, and 1H/17O relaxation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drahoš, Bohuslav; Kotek, Jan; Císa?ová, Ivana; Hermann, Petr; Helm, Lothar; Lukeš, Ivan; Tóth, Éva

    2011-12-19

    Mn(2+) complexes represent an alternative to Gd(3+) chelates which are widely used contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. In this perspective, we investigated the Mn(2+) complexes of two 12-membered, pyridine-containing macrocyclic ligands bearing one pendant arm with a carboxylic acid (HL(1), 6-carboxymethyl-3,6,9,15-tetraazabicyclo[9.3.1] pentadeca-1(15),11,13-triene) or a phosphonic acid function (H(2)L(2), 6-dihydroxyphosphorylmethyl-3,6,9,15-tetraazabicyclo[9.3.1]pentadeca-1(15),11,13-triene). Both ligands were synthesized using nosyl or tosyl amino-protecting groups (starting from diethylenetriamine or tosylaziridine). The X-ray crystal structures confirmed a coordination number of 6 for Mn(2+) in their complexes. In aqueous solution, these pentadentate ligands allow one free coordination site for a water molecule. Potentiometric titration data indicated a higher basicity for H(2)L(2) than that for HL(1), related to the electron-donating effect of the negatively charged phosphonate group. According to the protonation sequence determined by (1)H and (31)P pH-NMR titrations, the first two protons are attached to macrocyclic amino groups whereas the subsequent protonation steps occur on the pendant arm. Both ligands form thermodynamically stable complexes with Mn(2+), with full complexation at physiological pH and 1:1 metal to ligand ratio. The kinetic inertness was studied via reaction with excess of Zn(2+) under various pHs. The dissociation of MnL(2) is instantaneous (at pH 6). For MnL(1), the dissociation is very fast (k(obs) = 1-12 × 10(3) s(-1)), much faster than that for MnDOTA, MnNOTA, or the Mn(2+) complex of the 15-membered analogue. It proceeds exclusively via the dissociation of the monoprotonated complex, without any influence of Zn(2+). In aqueous solution, both complexes are air-sensitive leading to Mn(3+) species, as evidenced by UV-vis and (1)H NMRD measurements and X-ray crystallography. Cyclic voltammetry gave low oxidation peak potentials (E(ox) = 0.73 V for MnL(1) and E(ox) = 0.68 V for MnL(2)), in accordance with air-oxidation. The parameters governing the relaxivity of the Mn(2+) complexes were determined from variable-temperature (17)O NMR and (1)H NMRD data. The water exchange is extremely fast, k(ex) = 3.03 and 1.77 × 10(9) s(-1) for MnL(1) and MnL(2), respectively. Variable-pressure (17)O NMR measurements have been performed to assess the water exchange mechanism on MnL(1) and MnL(2) as well as on other Mn(2+) complexes. The negative activation volumes for both MnL(1) and MnL(2) complexes confirmed an associative mechanism of the water exchange as expected for a hexacoordinated Mn(2+) ion. The hydration number of q = 1 was confirmed for both complexes by (17)O chemical shifts. A relaxometric titration with phosphate, carbonate or citrate excluded the replacement of the coordinated water molecule by these small endogenous anions. PMID:22092039

  7. DOTASA, an Asymmetrical Derivative of DOTA Substituted at one Acetate pendant Arm: 1H NMR and Potentiometric Studies of the Ligand and its Lanthanide(III) Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Andre?, Joa?o P.; Bru?cher, Erno?; Kiraly, Robert; Carvalho, Rui A.; Ma?cke, Helmut; Geraldes, Carlos F. G. C.

    2005-01-01

    The ligand H5dotasa (=(alphaRS)-alpha-(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) is a H4dota-like macrocyclic ligand with a carboxymethyl CH2COOH substituent moiety at the C(alpha) atom of one of the four acetate pendant arms of H4dota (=1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid), present as a racemic mixture of (alphaR) and (alphaS) enantiomers. The protonation constants of the ligand were determined by potentiometry, giving values close to H4dot...

  8. Stable Mn(2+), Cu(2+) and Ln(3+) complexes with cyclen-based ligands functionalized with picolinate pendant arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Aurora; Garda, Zoltán; Ruscsák, Erika; Esteban-Gómez, David; de Blas, Andrés; Rodríguez-Blas, Teresa; Lima, Luís M P; Beyler, Maryline; Tripier, Raphaël; Tircsó, Gyula; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos

    2015-03-01

    In this study we present the results of the equilibrium, dissociation kinetics, DFT and X-ray crystallographic studies performed on the complexes of metal ions of biomedical importance (Mn(2+), Cu(2+) and Gd(3+)) formed with octadentate ligands based on a cyclen platform incorporating two picolinate pendant arms (dodpa(2-) and Medodpa(2-)). The stability constants of the complexes were accessed by multiple methods (pH-potentiometry, direct and competition UV-vis spectrophotometry and (1)H-relaxometry). The stability constants of the complexes formed with dodpa(2-) and Medodpa(2-) do not differ significantly (e.g. log?K[Mn(dodpa)] = 17.40 vs. log?K[Mn(Medodpa)] = 17.46, log?K[Cu(dodpa)] = 24.34-25.17 vs. log?K[Cu(Medodpa)] = 24.74 and log?K[Gd(dodpa)](+) = 17.27 vs. log?K[Gd(Medodpa)](+) = 17.59), which indicates that the steric hindrance brought by the methyl groups has no significant effect on the stability of the complexes. The stability constants of the Mn(2+) complexes formed with the cyclen dipicolinates were found to be ca. 3?log?K units higher than those determined for the complex of the cyclen monopicolinate (dompa(-)), which indicates that the second picolinate moiety attached to the backbone of the macrocycle is very likely coordinated to the Mn(2+) ion. However, the stability of the [Cu(dodpa)] and [Cu(Medodpa)] complexes agrees well with the stability constant of [Cu(dompa)](+), in line with the hexadentate coordination around the metal ion observed in the X-ray structure of [Cu(Medodpa)]. The [Gd(dodpa)](+) and [Gd(Medodpa)](+) complexes display a fairly high kinetic inertness, as the rate constants of acid catalysed dissociation (k1 = 2.5(4) × 10(-3) and 8.3(4) × 10(-4) M(-1) s(-1) for [Gd(dodpa)](+) and [Gd(Medodpa)](+), respectively) are smaller than the value reported for [Gd(do3a)] (k1 = 2.5 × 10(-2) M(-1) s(-1)). The [Mn(dodpa)] complex was found to be more inert than [Mn(Medodpa)]. The results of the diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy (DOSY) and DFT calculations of diamagnetic [La(dodpa)](+) and [Lu(dodpa)](+) complexes indicate the formation of a trinuclear entity of the La complex in aqueous solution. PMID:25666267

  9. Synthesis, characterization, biological evaluation and docking studies of macrocyclic binuclear manganese(II) complexes containing 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl pendant arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthi, P; Shobana, S; Srinivasan, P; Mitu, L; Kalilur Rahiman, A

    2015-05-15

    A series of bis(phenoxo) bridged binuclear manganese(II) complexes of the type [Mn2L(1-3)](ClO4)2 (1-3) containing 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl pendant-arms have been synthesized by cyclocondensation of 2,6-diformyl-4-R-phenols (where R=CH3, C(CH3)3 or Br) with 2,2'-3,5-dinitrobenzoyliminodi(ethylamine) trihydrochloride in the presence of manganese(II) perchlorate. The IR spectra of complexes indicate the presence of uncoordinated perchlorate anions. The UV-Vis spectra of complexes suggest the distorted octahedral geometry around manganese(II) nuclei. The EPR spectra of Mn(II) complexes show a broad signal with g value 2.03-2.04, which is characteristic for octahedral high spin Mn(2+) complex. The observed room temperature magnetic moment values of the Mn(II) complexes (5.60-5.62B.M.) are less than the normal value (5.92B.M.), indicating weak antiferromagnetic coupling interaction between the two metal ions. Electrochemical studies of the complexes show two distinct quasi-reversible one electron transfer processes in the cathodic (E(1)pc=-0.73 to -0.76V, E(2)pc=-1.30 to -1.36V), and anodic (E(1)pa=1.02-1.11V, E(2)pa=1.32-1.79V) potential regions. Antibacterial efficacy of complexes have been screened against four Gram (-ve) and two Gram (+ve) bacterial strains. The DNA interaction studies suggest that these complexes bind with CT-DNA by intercalation, giving the binding affinity in the order 1>2>3. All the complexes display significant cleavage activity against circular plasmid pBR322 DNA. Docking simulation was performed to insert complexes into the crystal structure of EGFR tyrosine kinase and B-DNA at active site to determine the probable binding mode. PMID:25710114

  10. Uranyl complexes formed with a para-t-butylcalix[4]arene bearing phosphinoyl pendant arms on the lower rim. Solid and solution studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, F. de M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac (Mexico). Dept. de Quimica; Varbanov, S. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. of Organic Chemistry with Center of Phytochemistry; Buenzli, J.C.G. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) (Switzerland). Inst. of Chemical Sciences and Engineering; Rivas-Silva, J.F.; Ocana-Bribiesca, M.A. [Instituto de Fisica de la BUAP, Puebla (Mexico); Cortes-Jacome, M.A.; Toledo-Antonio, J.A. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo/Programa de Ingenieria Molecular (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    The current interest in functionalized calixarenes with phosphorylated pendant arms resides in their coordination ability towards f elements and capability towards actinide/rare earth separation. Uranyl cation forms 1:1 and 1:2 (M:L) complexes with a tetra-phosphinoylated p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene, B{sub 4}bL{sup 4}: UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(B{sub 4}bL{sup 4}){sub n} . xH{sub 2}O (n = 1, x = 2, 1; n = 2, x = 6, 2). Spectroscopic data point to the inner coordination sphere of 1 containing one monodentate nitrate anion, one water molecule and the four phosphinoylated arms bound to UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} while in 2, uranyl is only coordinated to calixarene ligands. In both cases the U(VI) ion is 8-coordinate. Uranyl complexes display enhanced metal-centred luminescence due to energy transfer from the calixarene ligands; the luminescence decays are bi-exponential with associated lifetimes in the ranges 220 {mu}s < {tau}{sub s} < 250 {mu}s and 630 {mu}s < {tau}{sub L} < 640 {mu}s, pointing to the presence of two species with differently coordinated calixarene, as substantiated by a XPS study of U(4f{sub 5/2,7/2}), O(1s) and P(2p) levels on solid state samples. The extraction study of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} cation and trivalent rare-earth (Y, La, Eu) ions from acidic nitrate media by B{sub 4}bL{sup 4} in chloroform shows the uranyl cation being much more extracted than rare earths. (orig.)

  11. Synthesis, characterization and spectroscopic studies of two new schiff-base bithienyl pendant-armed 15-crown-5 molecular probes

    OpenAIRE

    Pedras, Bruno; Fernandes, Luz; Oliveira, Elisabete; Rodri?guez, Laura; Raposo, M. Manuela M.; Capelo, Jose? Luis; Lodeiro, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Two new ligands provided with a 15-crown-5 as receptor unit and bithiophen unit as emissive probe have been synthesized and characterized in order to evaluate the coordination capabilities and their sensor effect. Ligand L1 presents an aromatic crown ether moiety directed linked to the imine-2,2´-bithiophene ?–conjugated system and ligand L2 is constituted by an aliphatic crown ether moiety linked to the same imine-2,2´-bithiophene system through a methylene unit. Solid metal complexes o...

  12. X-ray structural study of lanthanide complexes with a p- tert-butylthiacalix[4]arene bearing phosphoryl pendant arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qian-Ling; Yuan, Da-Qiang; Ma, Shu-Lan; Liu, Ying-Chun; Zhu, Wen-Xiang

    2005-10-01

    A new lower-rim substituted thiacalix[4]arene, 5,11,17,23-tetra- tert-butyl-25,26,27,28-tetrakis(diphenylphosphinoylmethoxy) thiacalix[4]arene ( L) has been synthesized and structurally characterized as an adduct L·0.5MeOH·1.5H 2O, monoclinic, space group P2 1/n . The ligand adopts a cone conformation. Trivalent lanthanide ion complexes of this ligand have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and IR spectra. The crystal structures of La 3+ and Nd 3+ complexes were determined by X-ray diffraction method. They are isostructural and belong to tetragonal system, I4 1/acd space group. In each complex, the calixarene retains the cone conformation, the metal ion is nine-coordinated to four oxygen atoms from phosphine oxide substituents, four oxygen atoms from two bidentate nitrate anions and one oxygen atom from a hydroxyl ion. The coordination polyhedron is a single-capped square antiprism. The complex assembles to a novel infinitely 1D helical structure through ?-? stacking, and further crosses each other forming a nanometer scale chessboard-like pore structure along c direction.

  13. Influence of pendant arms bearing ligating groups on the structure of bismuth porphyrins: implications for labeling immunoglobulins used in medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halime, Zakaria; Michaudet, Lydie; Lachkar, Mohammed; Brossier, Pierre; Boitrel, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    The synthesis of two picket bismuth(III) porphyrins is reported, and their crystal structures are compared. The influence of the nature of the pickets, as well as their number, is discussed in terms of stability, kinetics of metalation, structure, and distortion of the porphyrin. Unexpectedly, the results indicate that the coordination sphere of bismuth is not affected by different types of distortion nor is the stability of the complex. For both types of complexes, the X-ray crystallography revealed that a single arm is actually in direct interaction with the bismuth cation, thereby allowing further functionalization on the porphyrin core as the linkage with immunoglobulins or anti-rabbit antibodies (both noted IgG), which have been used in diagnostic or therapeutic applications. PMID:15546184

  14. Determination of cobalt ions at nano-level based on newly synthesized pendant armed macrocycle by polymeric membrane and coated graphite electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashok K; Singh, Prerna; Bhattacharjee, G

    2009-12-15

    Poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) based membranes of macrocycles 2,3,4:9,10,11-dipyridine-1,3,5,8,10,12-hexaazacyclotetradeca-2,9-diene (L(1)) and 2,3,4:9,10,11-dipyridine-1,5,8,12-tetramethylacrylate-1,3,5,8,10,12-hexaazacyclotetradeca-2,9-diene (L(2)) with NaTPB and KTpClPB as anion excluders and dibutylphthalate (DBP), benzyl acetate (BA), dioctylphthalate (DOP), o-nitrophenyloctyl ether (o-NPOE) and tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) as plasticizing solvent mediators were prepared and investigated as Co(2+) selective electrodes. The best performance was observed with the membranes having the composition L(2):PVC:TBP:NaTPB in the ratio of 6:39:53:2 (w/w; mg). The performance of the membrane based on L(2) was compared with polymeric membrane electrode (PME) and coated graphite electrode (CGE). The PME exhibits detection limit of 4.7x10(-8)M with a Nernstian slope of 29.7 mV decade(-1) of activity between pH 2.5 and 8.5 whereas CGE exhibits the detection limit of 6.8x10(-9)M with a Nernstian slope of 29.5 mV decade(-1) of activity between pH 2.0 and 9.0. The response time for PME and CGE was found to be 11 and 8s, respectively. The CGE has been found to work satisfactorily in partially non-aqueous media up to 35% (v/v) content of methanol, ethanol and 25% (v/v) content of acetonitrile and could be used for a period of 4 months. The CGE was successfully applied for the determination of Co(2+) in real and pharmaceutical samples and as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of cobalt ion. PMID:19836538

  15. H5dotasa (=(alphaRS)-alpha-(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid), an Asymmetrical Derivative of H4dota (=1,4,7,10-Tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic Acid) Substituted at One Acetate Pendant Arm: 1H-NMR and Potentiometric Studies of the Ligand and Its Lanthanide(III) Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Andre?, Joa?o p; Bru?cher, Erno?; Kiraly, Robert; Carvalho, Rui a; Ma?cke, Helmut; Geraldes, Carlos f  g  c

    2005-01-01

    The ligand H5dotasa (=(alphaRS)-alpha-(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) is a H4dota-like macrocyclic ligand with a carboxymethyl CH2COOH substituent at the C(alpha) atom of one of the four acetate pendant arms of H4dota (=1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid), present as a racemic mixture of (alphaR) and (alphaS) enantiomers. The protonation constants of the ligand were determined by potentiometry, giving values close to those of H4d...

  16. Formation of Pervaporation Membranes from Polyphosphazenes Having Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Pendant Groups: Synthesis and Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Frederick Forrest; Harrup, Mason Kurt; Luther, Thomas Alan; Orme, Christopher Joseph; Lash, Robert Paul

    2001-02-01

    A series of new polyphosphazene polymers were synthesized using three different pendant groups with the goal of probing structure-function relationships between pendant group substitution and polymer swelling/water flux through thin dense films. Formation of polymers with relative degrees of hydrophilicity was probed by varying the stoichiometry of the pendant groups attached to the phosphazene backbone: p-methoxyphenol, 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethanol, and o-allylphenol. The polymers in this study were characterized using NMR, thermal methods, and dilute solution light-scattering techniques. These techniques revealed that the polymers were amorphous high polymers (Mw = 105-107) with varying ratios of pendant groups as determined by integration of the 1H- and 31P-NMR spectra. Thin dense film membranes were solution-cast with azo-bis(cyclohexane)carbonitrile included in the matrix and crosslinked using thermal initiation.

  17. Synthesis and reactivity of tripodal complexes containing pendant bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacquiere, Johanna M; Pegis, Michael L; Raugei, Simone; Kaminsky, Werner; Forget, Amélie; Cook, Sarah A; Taguchi, Taketo; Mayer, James M

    2014-09-01

    The synthesis of a new tripodal ligand family that contains tertiary amine groups in the second-coordination sphere is reported. The ligands are tris(amido)amine derivatives, with the pendant amines attached via a peptide coupling strategy. They were designed to function as new molecular catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), in which the pendant acid/base group could improve the catalyst performance. Two members of the ligand family were each metalated with cobalt(II) and zinc(II) to afford trigonal-monopyramidal complexes. The reaction of the cobalt complexes [Co(L)](-) with dioxygen reversibly generates a small amount of a cobalt(III) superoxo species, which was characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Protonation of the zinc complex Zn[N{CH2CH2NC(O)CH2N(CH2Ph)2}3)](-) ([Zn(TN(Bn))](-)) with 1 equiv of acid occurs at a primary-coordination-sphere amide moiety rather than at a pendant basic site. The addition of excess acid to any of the complexes [M(L)](-) results in complete proteolysis and formation of the ligands H3L. These undesired reactions limit the use of these complexes as catalysts for the ORR. An alternative ligand with two pyridyl arms was also prepared but could not be metalated. These studies highlight the importance of the stability of the primary-coordination sphere of ORR electrocatalysts to both oxidative and acidic conditions. PMID:25105991

  18. Zinc phyllosilicates containing amino pendant groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new zinc silicate hybrids were synthesized via sol-gel process from the reaction of zinc ions with trialkoxyaminesilanes in aqueous basic medium at room temperature and at 373 K. The inorganic-organic hybrids obtained, named SILZn (x=1 or 2) are related to 3-aminopropyl- and N-propylethylenediaminetrimethoxysilane, respectively. From nitrogen content, the number of pendant moles of organic groups in the matrices SILZnx (x=1 to 2) were determined as 5.14 and 3.25 mmol g-1, respectively. The thermogravimetric curves showed mass losses of 50.7% and 58.0% for the same sequence of hybrids, to give the oxides as residue. X-ray diffraction patterns gave basal distances of 2065 and 2814 pm for SILZnx (x=1, 2), with well-formed particles of irregular shapes and sizes, as a characteristic of such material obtained from sol-gel process. The infrared spectra confirmed the attachment of the organic moieties on siloxane groups on the inorganic framework

  19. Nanopod Formation Through Gold Nanoparticle Templated and Catalyzed Crosslinking of Polymers Bearing Pendant Propargyl Ethers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ke; Cutler, Joshua I.; Zhang, Jian; Zheng, Dan; Auyeung, Evelyn; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2010-01-01

    A novel method for synthesizing polymer nanopods from a linear polymer bearing pendant propargyl ether groups, using gold nanoparticles as both the template and the catalyst for the crosslinking reaction, is reported. The transformations involved in the crosslinking process are unprecedented on the surface of a gold particle. A tentative crosslinking mechanism is proposed.

  20. Synthesis and ATRP of novel fluorinated aromatic monomer with pendant sulfonate group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Jankova Atanasova, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Novel, fluorinated monomer with pendant sulfonate group was synthesized utilizing a two-step derivatization of 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorostyrene (FS). The first step was a nucleophilic substitution of the fluorine atom in para position by hydroxyl group followed by sulfopropylation. The monomer was polymerized under aqueous ATRP conditions to yield phenyl-fluorinated aromatic homopolymer bearing pendant sulfonates on each repeating unit. Furthermore, this polymer was used as macroinitiator for the ATRP of poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate. The polymers were characterized by 1H NMR, SEC and FTIR analyses. Their thermal properties were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry and thermal gravimetric analyses.

  1. {sup 55}Cobalt complexes with pendant carbohydrates as potential PET imaging agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Cara L. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Medicinal Inorganic Chemistry Group, Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, 2036 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Lapi, Suzanne [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Steele, Jennifer; Green, David E. [Medicinal Inorganic Chemistry Group, Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, 2036 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Ruth, Thomas J. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Adam, Michael J. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada)], E-mail: adam@triumf.ca; Orvig, Chris [Medicinal Inorganic Chemistry Group, Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, 2036 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)], E-mail: orvig@chem.ubc.ca

    2007-12-15

    Bis-ligand cobalt(II) complexes of four 3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone ligands with pendant carbohydrates were synthesized and examined for their potential as radiopharmaceuticals. Non-radioactive complexes were prepared on the macroscopic scale and characterized by elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, IR and UV/visible spectroscopy. Facile radiolabeling produced the {sup 55}Co complexes in high radiochemical yields (>95%). Identification of the radiolabeled compounds was accomplished by HPLC comparison with the corresponding non-radioactive complexes.

  2. A novel poly(aryl ether) containing azobenzene chromophore and pendant oligoaniline: Synthesis and electrochromic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: This work describes a novel poly(aryl ether) functionalized with azobenzene chromophore and pendant oligoaniline, that exhibits a satisfied electrochromic properties with high contrast value, good coloration efficiency, moderate switching times and acceptable stability. - Abstract: A novel poly(aryl ether), containing pendant oligoaniline and azobenzene moieties (Azo-PAE-p-OA), was synthesized by nucleophilic polycondensation. The structures were confirmed spectroscopically via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier-transform infrared spectra (FTIR), morphological data was ascertained via X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the thermal stability was probed via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Due to the coexistence of oligoaniline and azobenzene groups, Azo-PAE-p-OA shows reversible electroactivity and expectable photoresponse to light irradiation, chemical redox and electrochemical modulation. The electrochromic performance of a Azo-PAE-p-OA film on indium tin oxide (ITO) was investigated by spectrochronoamperometry, and exhibited electrochromic properties with high contrast value, good coloration efficiency, moderate switching times, and acceptable stability.

  3. Phosphodiester Hydrolysis by a New Zinc(II) Macrocyclic Tetraamine Complex with an Alcohol Pendant : Elucidation of the Roles of Ser-102 and Zinc(II) in Alkaline Phosphatase

    OpenAIRE

    ??, ??; ????, ????; Kodama, Yorimitsu

    1996-01-01

    A new benzyl alcohol-pendant cyclen (cyclen = 1,4,7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane) ligand, (S)-1 -(2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (L) has been synthesized. The complexation of L with ZnII yielded 1:1 five-coordinate complexes (isolated as its perchlorate salts with the pendant alcohol either undissociated (ZnL) or dissociated (ZnH-1L) from acidic (pH 6.0) or basic (pH 9.5) aqueous solution, respectively). The pKa value for the pendant alcohol (ZnL ? ZnH-1L + H+) was det...

  4. Breakup of a pendant magnetic drop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havard, N; Risso, F; Tordjeman, Ph

    2013-07-01

    We report experiments on a millimeter-sized pendant drop of ferrofluid in a horizontal magnetic field. The initial drop size is chosen just below the breakup threshold under gravity. As the magnetic field is increased, the drop tilts in order to align with the direction of the total volume force that is exerted on it: weight plus magnetic force. The breakup is controlled by a generalized Bond number based on this total force and on the radius of the neck of the drop. The evolution of drop shape turns out to be a complex process governed by many parameters such as the angle between the total force and the needle, the drop size relative to the needle radius, and the wettability of the liquid on the needle material. This suggests a certain universality, that a single value of the critical Bond number is found regardless of magnetic fluid properties and whether the force is inclined or not. PMID:23944556

  5. Hydrogen Oxidation Catalysis by a Nickel Diphosphine Complex with Pendant t-Butyl Amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jenny Y.; Chen, Shentan; Dougherty, William G.; Kassel, W. Scott; Bullock, R. Morris; DuBois, Daniel L.; Raugei, Simone; Rousseau, Roger; Dupuis, Michel; DuBois, M. Rakowski

    2010-01-01

    A bis-diphosphine nickel complex with tert-butyl functionalized pendant amines [Ni(P{sup Cy}{sub 2}N{sup t-Bu}{sub 2}){sub 2}]{sup 2+} has been synthesized. It is a highly active electrocatalyst for the oxidation of hydrogen in the presence of base. The turnover rate of 50 s{sup ?1} under 1.0 atm H{sub 2} at a potential of ?0.77 V vs. the ferrocene couple is 5 times faster than the rate reported heretofore for any other synthetic molecular H{sub 2} oxidation catalyst.

  6. Polythiophenes Comprising Conjugated Pendants for Polymer Solar Cells: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Ju Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Polythiophene (PT is one of the widely used donor materials for solution-processable polymer solar cells (PSCs. Much progress in PT-based PSCs can be attributed to the design of novel PTs exhibiting intense and broad visible absorption with high charge carrier mobility to increase short-circuit current density (Jsc, along with low-lying highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO levels to achieve large open circuit voltage (Voc values. A promising strategy to tailor the photophysical properties and energy levels via covalently attaching electron donor and acceptor pendants on PTs backbone has attracted much attention recently. The geometry, electron-donating capacity, and composition of conjugated pendants are supposed to be the crucial factors in adjusting the conformation, energy levels, and photovoltaic performance of PTs. This review will go over the most recent approaches that enable researchers to obtain in-depth information in the development of PTs comprising conjugated pendants for PSCs.

  7. Copoly(arlene ether)s containing pendant sulfonic acid groups as proton exchange membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kim, Dae Sik [CANADA NRC; Robertson, Gilles [CANADA NRC; Guiver, Michael [CANADA NRC

    2008-01-01

    A copoly(arylene ether) (PAE) with high fluorine content and a copoly(arylene ether nitrile) (PAEN) with high nitrile content, each containing pendant phenyl sulfonic acids were synthesized. The P AE and PAEN were prepared from decafluorobiphenyl (DFBP) and difluorobenzonitrile (DFBN) respectively, by polycondensation with 2-phenylhydroquinone (PHQ) by conventional aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions. The sulfonic acid groups were introduced by mild post-sulfonation exclusively on the para-position of the pendant phenyl ring in PHQ. The membrane properties of the resulting sulfonated copolymers sP AE and sP AEN were compared for fuel cell applications. The copolymers sPAE and sPAEN, each having a degree of sulfonation (DS) of 1.0 had high ion exchange capacities (IEC{sub v}(wet) (volume-based, wet state)) of 1.77 and 2.55 meq./cm{sup 3}, high proton conductivities of 135.4 and 140.1 mS/cm at 80 C, and acceptable volume-based water uptake of 44.5-51.9 vol% at 80 C, respectively, compared to Nafion. The data points of these copolymer membranes are located in the area of outstanding properties in the trade-off plot of alternative hydrocarbon polyelectrolyte membranes (PEM) for the relationship between proton conductivity versus water uptake (weight based or volume based). Furthermore, the relative selectivity derived from proton conductivity and methanol permeability is higher than that of Nafion.

  8. Protonation Studies of a Tungsten Dinitrogen Complex Supported by a Diphosphine Ligand Containing a Pendant Amine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Charles J.; Egbert, Jonathan D.; Chen, Shentan; Helm, Monte L.; Bullock, R. Morris; Mock, Michael T.

    2014-05-12

    Treatment of trans-[W(N2)2(dppe)(PEtNMePEt)] (dppe = Ph2PCH2CH2PPh2; PEtNMePEt = Et2PCH2N(Me)CH2PEt2) with three equivalents of tetrafluoroboric acid (HBF4?Et2O) at -78 °C generated the seven-coordinate tungsten hydride trans-[W(N2)2(H)(dppe)(PEtNMePEt)][BF4]. Depending on the temperature of the reaction, protonation of a pendant amine is also observed, affording trans-[W(N2)2(H)(dppe)(PEtNMe(H)PEt)][BF4]2, with formation of the hydrazido complex, [W(NNH2)(dppe)(PEtNMe(H)PEt)][BF4]2, as a minor product. Similar product mixtures were obtained using triflic acid (HOTf). Upon acid addition to the carbonyl analogue, cis-[W(CO)2(dppe)(PEtNMePEt)], the seven-coordinate carbonyl-hydride complex, trans-[W(CO)2(H)(dppe)(PEtN(H)MePEt)][OTf]2 was generated. The mixed diphosphine complex without the pendant amine in the ligand backbone, trans-[W(N2)2(dppe)(depp)] (depp = Et2P(CH2)3PEt2), was synthesized and treated with HBF4?Et2O, selectively generating a hydrazido complex, [W(NNH2)(F)(dppe)(depp)][BF4]. Computational analysis was used to probe proton affinity of three sites of protonation, the metal, pendant amine, and N2 ligand in these complexes. Room temperature reactions with 100 equivalents of HOTf produced NH4+ from reduction of the N2 ligand (electrons come from W). The addition of 100 equivalents HOTf to trans-[W(N2)2(dppe)(PEtNMePEt)] afforded 0.88 ± 0.02 equivalents NH4+, while 0.36 ± 0.02 equivalents of NH4+was formed upon treatment of trans-[W(N2)2(dppe)(depp)], the complex without the pendant amine. This work was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Computational resources were provided by the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE.

  9. Hydrogen Oxidation Catalysis by a Nickel Diphosphine Complex with Pendant tert-Butyl Amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jenny Y.; Chen, Shentan; Dougherty, William G.; Kassel, W. S.; Bullock, R. Morris; DuBois, Daniel L.; Raugei, Simone; Rousseau, Roger J.; Dupuis, Michel; Rakowski DuBois, Mary

    2010-11-09

    A bis-diphosphine nickel complex with t-butyl functionalized pendant amines [Ni(PCy2Nt-Bu2)2]2+ has been synthesized. It is a highly active electrocatalyst for the oxidation of hydrogen in the presence of base. The turn-over rate of 50 s 1 under 1.0 atm H2 at a potential of –0.77 V vs the ferrocene couple is 5 times faster than the rate reported heretofore for any other molecular H2 oxidation catalyst. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy. Computational resources were provided by the Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory (EMSL) and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  10. Facile synthesis and characterization of novel biodegradable amphiphilic block copolymers bearing pendant hydroxyl groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Gaicen; Fan, Xiaoshan; Xu, Bingcan; Zhang, Delong; Hu, Zhiguo

    2014-10-01

    Novel amphiphilic block copolymers bearing pendant hydroxyl groups polylactide-b-poly(3,3-bis(Hydroxymethyl-triazolylmethyl) oxetane)-b-polylactide (PLA-b-PHMTYO-b-PLA) were synthesized via a facile and efficient method. First, the block copolymer intermediates polylactide-b-poly(3,3-Diazidomethyloxetane)-b-polylactide (PLA-b-PBAMO-b-PLA) were synthesized through ring-opening polymerization of lactide using PBAMO as a macroinitiator. Following "Click" reaction of PLA-b-PBAMO-b-PLA with propargyl alcohol provided the targeted amphiphilic block copolymers PLA-b-PHMTYO-b-PLA with pendant hydroxyl groups. The composition and structure of prepared copolymers were characterized by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The self-assembly behavior of the copolymers in water was investigated by transmission electron microscope (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and static light scattering (SLS). The results showed that the novel copolymers PLA-b-PHMTYO-b-PLA self-assembled into spherical micelles with diameters ranging from 100 nm to 200 nm in aqueous solution. These copolymers also exhibited low critical micellar concentrations (CMC: 6.9 × 10(-4)mg/mL and 3.9 × 10(-5)mg/mL, respectively). In addition, the in vitro cytotoxicity of these copolymers was determined in the presence of L929 cells. The results showed that the block copolymers PLA-b-PHMTYO-b-PLA exhibited better biocompatibility. Therefore, these well-defined copolymers are expected to find some applications in drug delivery or tissue engineering. PMID:25175206

  11. Maximum Stable Sets and Pendant Vertices in Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Levit, V E; Levit, Vadim E.; Mandrescu, Eugen

    1999-01-01

    One theorem of Nemhauser and Trotter ensures that, under certain conditions, a stable set of a graph G can be enlarged to a maximum stable set of this graph. For example, any stable set consisting of only simplicial vertices is contained in a maximum stable set of G. In this paper we demonstrate that an inverse assertion is true for trees of order greater than one, where, in fact, all the simplicial vertices are pendant. Namely, we show that any maximum stable set of such a tree contains at least one pendant vertex. Moreover, we prove that if T does not own a perfect matching, then a stable set, consisting of at least two pendant vertices, is included in the intersection of all its maximum stable sets. For trees, the above assertion is also a strengthening of one result of Hammer, Hansen, and Simeone, stating that if half of order of G is less than the cardinality of a maximum stable set of G, then the intersection of all its maximum stable sets is non-empty.

  12. Copoly(arylene ether)s containing pendant sulfonic acid groups as proton exchange membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dae Sik, Kim [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yu Seung, Kim [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gilles, Robertson [CANADA-NRC; Guiver, Michael D [CANADA-NRC

    2009-01-01

    A copoly(arylene ether) (PAE) with high fluorine content and a copoly(arylene ether nitrile) (PAEN) with high nitrile content, each containing pendant phenyl sulfonic acids were synthesized. The PAE and P AEN were prepared from decafluorobiphenyl (DFBP) and difluorobenzonitrile (DFBN) respectively, by polycondensation with 2phenylhydroquinone (PHQ) by conventional aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions. sulfonic acid groups were introduced by mild post-sulfonation exclusively on the para-position of the pendant phenyl ring in PHQ. The membrane properties of the resulting sulfonated copolymers sPAE and sPAEN were compared for fuel cell applications. The copolymers sPAE and sPAEN, each having a degree of sulfonation (OS) of 1.0 had high ion exchange capacities (IEC{sub v})(wet) (volume-based, wet state) of 1.77 and 2.55 meq./cm3, high proton conductivities of 135.4 and 140.1 mS/cm at 80 C, and acceptable volume-based water uptake of 44.5 -51.9 vol% at 80 C, respectively, compared to Nafion. The data points of these copolymer membranes are located in the upper left-hand corner in the trade-off plot of alternative hydrocarbon polyelectrolyte membranes (PEM) for the relationship between proton conductivity versus water uptake (weight based or volume based), i.e., high proton conductivity and low water uptake. Furthermore, the relative selectivity derived from proton conductivity and methanol permeability is higher than that of Nafion.

  13. A Novel Side-Bridged Hybrid Phosphonate/Acetate Pendant Cyclam: Synthesis, Characterization, and 64Cu Small Animal PET Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, C. Andrew; Regino, Celeste A. S.; Baidoo, Kwamena E.; Wong, Karen J.; Milenic, Diane E.; Kelley, James A.; Lai, Christopher C.; Brechbiel, Martin W.

    2008-01-01

    Copper-64 (t½ = 12.7 hr; ?+: 0.653 MeV, 17.4%; ??: 0.578 MeV, 39%) is produced in a biomedical cyclotron and has applications in both imaging and therapy. Macrocyclic chelators are widely used as bifunctional chelators to bind copper radionuclides to antibodies and peptides owing to their relatively high kinetic stability. A novel side-bridged cyclam featuring both pendant acetate and phosphonate groups was synthesized using a Kabachnik-Fields approach followed by hydrobromic acid deprotection. The Cu(II) complex of the novel ligand was synthesized, radiolabeling with 64Cu was demonstrated, and in vitro (serum) stability was performed. In addition, in vivo distribution and clearance of the 64Cu-labeled complex was visualized by positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. This novel chelate may be useful in 64Cu-mediated diagnostic positron emission tomography (PET) imaging as well as targeted radiotherapeutic applications. PMID:19101152

  14. Designed pendant chain covalently bonded to silica gel for cation removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The precursor 1,4-bis(3-aminopropyl)piperazine organofunctionalized silica gel reacted with methylacrylate to yield a new inorganic-organic chelating material, by adopting a heterogeneous and divergent synthetic approach. The synthesized materials were characterized through elemental analyses and spectroscopic techniques such as infrared, nuclear magnetic nuclei of carbon-13 and silicon-29. Due to the increment of basic centers attached to the pendant chains the metal adsorption capability of the final chelating material, was found to be higher than its precursor. The adsorption of metal ions from aqueous solution followed the order Cu2+ > Ni2+ > Co2+. Both Langmuir and Freundlich models were found to be applicable for the adsorption of copper, with the equilibrium parameter value within zero to one. The competitive sorption behavior, with variation of pH, was favorable for the separation of copper from binary mixtures with nickel and cobalt. When sodium, potassium and magnesium cations are present in the medium little effects on adsorption were observed, thus suggesting that the synthesized material can be useful for removal of toxic/heavy metal ions from natural and wastewater systems

  15. ADSORPTION OF CELLOBIOSE-PENDANT POLYMERS TO A CELLULOSE MATRIX DETERMINED BY QUARTZ CRYSTAL MICROBALANCE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Yokota

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Cellobiose-pendant polymers were synthesized by radical polymerization and their affinity for a cellulose matrix was investigated by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM. A 2-(methacryloyloxyethylureido cellobiose (MOU-Cel macromer was synthesized by coupling cellobiosylamine with 2-(methacryloyloxyethyl isocyanate followed by polymerization in an aqueous radical reaction system. The interaction of the resulting poly(MOU-Cel with a pure cellulose matrix in water was evaluated by QCM analysis. Poly(MOU-Cel was strongly adsorbed to the cellulose substrate, whereas neither cellobiose nor MOU-Cel macromer exhibited an attractive interaction with cellulose. This specific interaction was not inhibited by the presence of ionic contaminants, suggesting that multiple cellobiopyranose moieties in each polymer molecule might cooperatively enhance its affinity for cellulose. Moderate insertion of acrylamide units into the polymer backbone improved the affinity for cellulose, possibly due to an increased mobility of sugar side chains. Polymers such as these, with a high affinity for cellulose, have potential applications for the surface functionalization of cellulose-based materials, including paper products.

  16. Incorporation of Cyclotriphosphazene as Pendant Groups to the Sago Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyclotriphosphazene-incorporated sago wastes as pendant groups have been prepared and structurally characterized using FT-IR and SEM. The chemically modified sago wastes composite was applied with binders and developed as sound absorbing panels. These panels are a class of organic-inorganic based materials that exhibit excellent fire retardant properties. Sound absorbance test has given a higher value at 250, 500 and 2000 Hz, which indicates the suitability of the panel for used in medium frequency. The panel was 51 % lighter compared to fiber board. The function and basic manufacturing of sound absorbers products was aligned with the present products in the market. (author)

  17. The possible equilibrium shapes of static pendant drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumesh, P. T.; Govindarajan, Rama

    2010-10-01

    Analytical and numerical studies are carried out on the shapes of two-dimensional and axisymmetric pendant drops hanging under gravity from a solid surface. Drop shapes with both pinned and equilibrium contact angles are obtained naturally from a single boundary condition in the analytical energy optimization procedure. The numerical procedure also yields optimum energy shapes, satisfying Young's equation without the explicit imposition of a boundary condition at the plate. It is shown analytically that a static pendant two-dimensional drop can never be longer than 3.42 times the capillary length. A related finding is that a range of existing solutions for long two-dimensional drops correspond to unphysical drop shapes. Therefore, two-dimensional drops of small volume display only one static solution. In contrast, it is known that axisymmetric drops can display multiple solutions for a given volume. We demonstrate numerically that there is no limit to the height of multiple-lobed Kelvin drops, but the total volume is finite, with the volume of successive lobes forming a convergent series. The stability of such drops is in question, though. Drops of small volume can attain large heights. A bifurcation is found within the one-parameter space of Laplacian shapes, with a range of longer drops displaying a minimum in energy in the investigated space. Axisymmetric Kelvin drops exhibit an infinite number of bifurcations.

  18. Varying coordination modes and magnetic properties of copper(II) complexes with diazamesocyclic ligands by altering additional donor pendants on 1,5-diazacyclooctane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, X H; Du, M; Shang, Z L; Zhang, R H; Liao, D Z; Shionoya, M; Clifford, T

    2000-09-18

    A series of new diazamesocyclic ligands based on a diazamesocycle, 1,5-diazacyclooctane (DACO), functionalized by additional donor groups--1,5-bis(N-1-methylimidazol-2-ylmethyl)-1,5- diazacyclooctane (L1), 1-(2-hydroxybenzyl)-1,5-diazacyclooctane (HL2), 1,5-bis(2-hydroxybenzyl)-1,5-diazacyclooctane (H2L3), and 1-(N-1-methylimidazol-2-ylmethyl)-1,5-diazacyclooctane (L4)--and their Cu(II) complexes have been synthesized and characterized. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of the four Cu(II) complexes revealed that L1 forms a five-coordinate mononuclear complex, HL2 a N3- mu-bridged binuclear complex, H2L3 an oxygen mu-bridged trinuclear complex, and L4 a one-dimensional zigzag coordination polymeric complex with Cu(II). [CuL1ClO4](ClO4) (I): a = 12.194(2) A, b = 13.351(3) A, c = 14.473(3) A, beta = 107.10(3) degrees, Z = 4. [CuL2(N3)]2 (II): a = 8.1864(6) A, b = 18.141(2) A, c = 9.3307(7) A, beta = 103.662(6) degrees, Z = 2. [Cu3(L3)2Cl2] (III): a = 10.7296(13) A, b = 13.7707(17) A, c = 13.5523(17) A, beta = 106.350(3) degrees, Z = 2. ([CuL4Cl]2ClO4) infinity (IV): a = 7.279(1) A, b = 23.695(5) A, c = 19.308(4) A, beta = 100.28(3) degrees, Z = 8. All four complexes crystallize in the monoclinic crystal system with the P2(1)/c space group, and each Cu(II) center coordinated with DACO is pentacoordinated with a distorted square-pyramidal or trigonal-bipyrimidal coordination environment. In complex IV, the binuclear cation unit [CuL4Cl]2(2+) constitutes the fundamental building block of an infinite alternating zigzag chain structure, and the binuclear unit contains two types of geometries around the Cu(II) centers: the Cu(1) center is a distorted square-pyramidal environment, while the Cu(2) is a distorted trigonal-bipyramidal coordination environment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first Cu(II) complex of a diazamesocyclic ligand with an infinite polymeric structure. The magnetic properties of complexes II, III, and IV have been investigated by variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements in the solid state. The obtained parameters are 2J = 2.06 cm-1 (II), -345.56 cm-1 (III), and -2.60 cm-1 (IV), which differ greatly from ferromagnetic to weak and strong antiferromagnetic coupling. These results unequivocally indicate that the nature of the pendant arms is a key factor governing the structure and properties of the complexes; therefore, the coordination modes and properties of the metal complexes of a diazamesocycle can be controlled by altering the pendant donors on it. Magneto-structural correlation has been precisely analyzed, and the solution properties of these complexes have also been described. PMID:11196910

  19. Les caractéristiques du rythme de sécrétion de mélatonine ne sont pas modifiées pendant la gestation chez la brebis

    OpenAIRE

    Zarazaga Garce?s, Luis A?ngel; Malpaux, B.; Chemineau, Phileppe

    1996-01-01

    Les caractéristiques du rythme de sécrétion de la mélatonine ont été étudiées pendant la gestation en répétant les mesures sur les mêmes animaux. Treize brebis, soumises à une photopériode naturelle, ont été utilisées et les caractéristiques du rythme de sécrétion de la mélatonine ont été mesurées pendant un cycle oestrien et pendant la gestation. La durée de sécrétion et les concentrations moyennes de mélatonine pendant l’élévation nocturne ont ?...

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Soluble Aromatic Polyesters with Pendant Cyano Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yikai Yu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available 2, 6-Bis (4-carboxyphenoxy benzonitrile was first synthesized by condensation of 2, 6-difluorobenzonitrile with p-Hydroxybenzoic acid in the presence of KOH and DMSO. And then the reaction of 2, 6-bis (4-carboxyphenoxy benzonitrile with sulfur oxychloride yieded 2, 6-bis (4-chloroformylphenoxy benzonitrile (BClPOBN. A series of novel soluble aromatic polyesters with pendant cyano groups were prepared by polycondensation of different aromatic diphenols and 2,6-bis (4-chloroformylphenoxy benzonitrile (BClPOBN using 1,2-dichoroethane (DCE as solvent and pyridine as the absorbent of HCl. The resulting polymers were characterized by different physico-chemical techniques, such as FT-IR, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, Wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD, and so on. All the polymers had the proposed structure and were amorphous. Thermogravimetric studies showed that the thermal decomposition temperatures (Tds at 5% weight loss of polymers were 391~406 ? in N2 atmosphere, indicating they had good thermal stabilities. The prepared polyesters exhibited good solubility in some common solvents, such as CHCl3, ethylene dichloride (DCE, CH2Cl2, tetrahydrofuran (THF as well as aprotic polar organic solvents such as N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP, N, N-dimethylacetamide (DMAC and N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF, and so on.

  1. Multicolor electrochromic performance of electroactive poly(amic acid) containing pendant oligoaniline, azobenzene and sulfonic acid groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel electroactive poly(amic acid) (EDA-CON-EPAA) containing oligoaniline pendants, azobenzene and sulfonic acid groups was synthesized by copolymerization. The synergistic interplay of these three distinct functional groups results in a number of interesting and novel properties. The polymer showed photoisomerization induce by irradiation with ultraviolet light and visible light by virtue of azobenzene groups, and also revealed excellent electroactivity in acid, neutral and even in alkaline solutions (pH = 12) due to self-doping between oligoaniline and sulfonic acid (and/or carboxylic acid) groups. Moreover, EDA-CON-EPAA displayed acceptable electrochromic performance even in alkaline solutions and multiple colors attributed to the complementary effects of the two chromophores, which greatly enlarged the range of the electrochromic application. The coloration efficiency could still reach 93.8 cm2/C (at 700 nm) even at pH = 10

  2. Mechanical characterization of the Varian Exact-arm and R-arm support systems for eight aS500 electronic portal imaging devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the positioning accuracy at different gantry angles of two electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) support arm systems by using EPID difference images as a measure for displacement. This work presents a comparison of the mechanical performance of eight Varian aS500 (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) EPIDs, mounted using either the Varian Exact-arm or R-arm. Methods: The mechanical performance of the two arm systems was compared by investigating the variation in sensitivity with gantry angle, both before and after the EPID position was adjusted after gantry rotation. Positional errors were investigated by subtracting images from a reference image taken at gantry 0 deg., and the amplitude of the peaks and troughs at the field edges for longitudinal (radial) and lateral (transverse) profiles across the resulting image was related to the distance of displacement. Calibration curves based on a pixel-by-pixel shift were generated for each EPID and the Varian hand pendant accuracy was compared to the calibration data. Results: The response of the EPIDs was found to change with gantry rotation, with the largest difference at 180 deg. The Exact-arm was found to correct well for any displacement, while the R-arm tended to overcorrect following repositioning using the hand pendant. The calibration curves were consistent within each set of matched linacs, and the hand pendant accuracy was similar for both arm systems, although gs similar for both arm systems, although generally in different directions. With respect to gantry rotation effects, the mechanical performance of the Exact-arm systems was found to be much better than that of the R-arm systems. At gantry positions 90 deg., 270 deg., and 180 deg. the average misalignment in the longitudinal direction was +4.2±0.2, +1.8±1.6, and +7.4±0.5 mm for the R-arms, and +2.9±0.2, +2.1±0.8, and +4.9±0.7 mm for the Exact-arms. In the lateral direction the average positional errors were +2.1±0.4, -4.7±0.4, and -2.5±0.5 mm for the R-arms, and -0.3±0.3, -0.5±0.3, and -0.4±0.2 mm for the Exact-arms. The hand pendant correction had minimal impact in the lateral direction for both arm systems. However in the longitudinal direction the mean errors for the R-arms were +3.4±0.7, +1.5±0.6, and +4.6±0.7 mm at gantry angles 90 deg., 270 deg., and 180 deg., and the equivalent Exact-arm errors were +0.9±0.3, +1.2±0.3, and +1.9±0.9 mm, respectively. Conclusions: The performance of the EPIDs demonstrate that the Exact-arm system provides a more reproducible position and better agreement with the EPID position as indicated on the EPID pendant at all gantry angles than the R-arm.

  3. On the Odd Gracefulness of Cyclic Snakes With Pendant Edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Badr

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Graceful and odd gracefulness of a graph are two entirely different concepts. A graph may posses one orboth of these or neither. We present four new families of odd graceful graphs. In particular we show an oddgraceful labeling of the linear kC4 ? snake e mK1 and therefore we introduce the odd graceful labeling of4 1 kC ? snake e mK ( for the general case . We prove that the subdivision of linear 3 kC ? snake is oddgraceful. We also prove that the subdivision of linear 3 kC ? snake with m-pendant edges is odd graceful.Finally, we present an odd graceful labeling of the crown graph n 1 P e mK .

  4. Layered inorganic/organic mercaptopropyl pendant chain hybrid for chelating heavy cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo, Thais R. [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-71 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Petrucelli, Giovanni C. [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Goias, Jatai, P.O. Box 03, 75805-190 Jatai, GO (Brazil); Pinto, Alane A. [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-71 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Goias, Jatai, P.O. Box 03, 75805-190 Jatai, GO (Brazil); Airoldi, Claudio, E-mail: airoldi@iqm.unicamp.br [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-71 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Crystalline lamellar silicate RUB-18 was immobilized with mercaptopropyl groups at the surface and then used as support for cadmium and lead removal from aqueous solutions. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthetic methodology requires intercalation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organofunctionalized ilerite compound as sorbent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Active mercaptopropyl groups remove cations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High maximum sorption capacity for cadmium. -- Abstract: Heavy metal sorbents with uptake capacities for divalent cadmium and lead cation removal from aqueous solutions have been synthesized by grafting mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane onto the surface of two different precursors obtained from lamellar ilerite, its acidic and the cetyltrimethylammonium exchanged forms. The organofunctionalization was carried out by two different procedures: reflux and solvent evaporation methodologies. Elemental analysis data based on carbon content gave 1.37 and 3.53 mmol of organic pendant groups per gram of hybrid by the reflux method, when starting from acidic ilerite and the surfactant form. X-ray diffraction corroborated the maintenance of the original crystallinity. Infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance for {sup 29}Si and {sup 13}C nuclei are in agreement with the success of the proposed method. The sulfur basic centers attached to the lamellar structure are used to coordinate both cations at the solid/liquid interface. The isotherms were obtained through the batchwise process and the experimental data were adjusted to the Freundlich model. The maximum sorption capacities of 5.55 and 5.12 mmol g{sup -1} for lead and 6.10 and 7.10 mmol g{sup -1} for cadmium were obtained for organofunctionalized ilerite and its surfactant form, synthesized by reflux methodology. This behavior suggested that these hybrids could be employed as promising sorbents with a polluted system.

  5. Synthesis of the Gd(III) complex with a tetrazole-armed macrocyclic ligand as a potential MRI contrast agent

    OpenAIRE

    Aime, Silvio; Geninatti Crich, Simonetta; Cravotto, Giancarlo

    2002-01-01

    We report the synthesis and the properties of the Gd(III) complex with 4 (H(4)dotetra), a novel mixed pendant-arm macrocyclic ligand embodying a tetrazole subunit in a N5O3 donor set as a potential magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent.

  6. Arms limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary purpose of limiting arms is to remove the existence of weapons as a potential cause of conflict. Further, negotiated limitations on especially pernicious weapons may limit the destructiveness of wars that do occur. This discussion addresses the question of what kinds of arms limitations regimes could be implemented by India and Pakistan. Before surveying these regimes, this chapter examines those features distinguishing the South Asian arms control context from that of the US and Soviet Union or other regions. Three features are found to be especially significant: the covert nature of military nuclear activities, their integration with ostensibly civilian power and space programs, and small (if any) nuclear weapons stockpiles

  7. Electron transfer in pendant-group and molecularly doped polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, C. B.; Meyer, R. J.

    1981-03-01

    Utilizing the molecular-ion model previously constructed to describe photoemission and ultraviolet absorption in pendant-group polymers, we derive an expression for the probability of electron transfer between a molecular ion and a neutral molecular species embedded in a frequency-dependent dielectric medium described by the (nonlocal) longitudinal dielectric response function ?(q-->,?). The medium is taken to exhibit three branches of its longitudinal polarization excitation spectrum defined by ?(q-->,?(q-->))=0: a low-frequency branch corresponding to intermolecular motions, an infrared branch corresponding to molecular vibrational modes, and a high-frequency branch corresponding to valence-electron excitations. In addition, the linear coupling of the electron to the intramolecular modes of the initial and final molecular ions is incorporated into the model. The electron-transfer probability is evaluated as a function of the spacing, R, between the molecular-ion sites and the energy difference between the intitial and final molecular-ion states. Utilizing parameters in ?(q-->,?) typical of pendant-group polymers (e.g., polystyrene, polyvinylpyridine) or the matrices utilized in molecularly doped polymers films (e.g., polycarbonates), we find that the electron-transfer process is activated and that the low-frequency dielectric relaxations characteristic of these polymers create this activation. Explicit expressions for the activation energies are derived and evaluated numerically for poly(2-vinylypyridine): a material for which a model of ?(q-->,?) is available in the literature. The valence-electron excitations do not influence the electron-transfer activation energies, but both the intramolecular and longitudinal-polarization vibrational modes increase these activation energies above the values predicted using the low-frequency relaxations alone. The energies, ??n, of many of these vibrational modes are, however, larger than thermal energies, kT. Consequently, the predicted electron-transfer activation energies are smaller than those given by traditional semiclassical models of electron transfer. Moreover, these activation energies also depend explicitly on the spacing, R, between the two sites. This R dependence is evaluated for both classical and quantum-mechanical models of the change densities on the molecular ions. Our analysis predicts, therefore, the complete spacing and temperature dependence of the electron-transfer probabilities as functions of the intramolecular molecular-ion vibrational frequencies and electron-vibration coupling constants, and of the frequency and spatial dependence of the dielectric response of the medium in which these ions are embedded. This prediction permits the identification of scaling laws relating both the activation energies and electron-transfer prefactors to molecular and dielectric observables: an identification which provides valuable guidance in the molecular design of efficient electronic transport media.

  8. Guanidinium-pendant oligofluorene for rapid and specific identification of antibiotics with membrane-disrupting ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Wang, Bing; Zhang, Jiangyan; Nie, Chenyao; Lv, Fengting; Liu, Libing; Wang, Shu

    2015-02-19

    A new method was developed through an efficient Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from guanidinium-pendant oligofluorene to green fluorescent protein (GFP) for specifically screening membrane-disrupting antibiotics to which bacteria have difficulty developing resistance. PMID:25664361

  9. Removal and recovery of toxic metal ions from aqueous waste sites using polymer pendant ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the use of polymer pendant ligand technology to remove and recover toxic metal ions from DOE aqueous waste sites. Polymer pendant lgiands are organic ligands, anchored to crosslinked, modified divinylbenzene-polystyrene beads, that can selectively complex metal ions. The metal ion removal step usually occurs through a complexation or ion exchange phenomena, thus recovery of the metal ions and reuse of the beads is readily accomplished.

  10. Removal and recovery of toxic metal ions from aqueous waste sites using polymer pendant ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the use of polymer pendant ligand technology to remove and recover toxic metal ions from DOE aqueous waste sites. Polymer pendant lgiands are organic ligands, anchored to crosslinked, modified divinylbenzene-polystyrene beads, that can selectively complex metal ions. The metal ion removal step usually occurs through a complexation or ion exchange phenomena, thus recovery of the metal ions and reuse of the beads is readily accomplished

  11. Bionic arm

    OpenAIRE

    Loburenko, M. V.

    2013-01-01

    A new prosthetic arm has been developed by a researcher in Switzerland that not only provides the user with a working limb, but also lets them feel rudimentary sensations from the hand and fingers. It's being tested out on an anonymous patient later this year. The artificial limb was designed by Dr. Silvestro Micera at the Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne in Switzerland. It works by tapping directly into the median and ulnar nerves in the arm, allowing signals from the brain to rea...

  12. Amphiphilic asymmetric comb copolymer with pendant pyrene groups and PNIPAM side chains: synthesis, photophysical properties, and self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chuanzhuang; Wu, Dongxia; Lian, Xueming; Zhang, Yue; Song, Xiaohui; Zhao, Hanying

    2010-05-20

    An amphiphilic asymmetric comb polymer with pendant pyrene groups and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) side chains was synthesized based on click chemistry and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. Gel permeation chromatography, FTIR, and (1)H NMR results all indicated successful synthesis of a well-defined comb polymer. The photophysical properties and self-assembly of the polymer in solution were studied by UV-vis spectroscopy, fluorescence technique, and transmission electron microscopy. The intensity ratio of the excimer peak (I(E)) to the monomer peak (I(M)) of the comb polymer in THF was used to monitor the formation of inter- or intramolecular excimers. At low polymer concentration, the value of I(E)/I(M) kept unchanged, indicating the formation of intramolecular excimer; at high polymer concentration, the value increased rapidly with concentration because of the formation of intermolecular excimer. The change of the intensity ratio of the first to the third vibronic band (I(1)/I(3)) on the monomer emission of the comb polymer also proved the association of the pendant pyrene groups in THF at high polymer concentration. In aqueous solution, the comb polymer chains self-assembled into vesicles with pyrene groups in the walls and PNIPAM side chains in the coronae. The value of the critical aggregation concentration of the polymer was determined by fluorescence technique. Temperature exerted a significant effect on the size and morphology of the vesicles. At a temperature above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of PNIPAM, PNIPAM brushes in the coronae of vesicles collapsed on the surface of the structures forming nanosized domains, and vesicles with smaller size were obtained. Fluorescence quenching experiments indicated that the collapsed PNIPAM chains protected a part of pyrene groups from being quenched by nitromethane at a temperature above the LCST of PNIPAM. PMID:20415503

  13. A new DRAM-type memory devices based on polymethacrylate containing pendant 2-methylbenzothiazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The devices fabricated with 75 nm and 45 nm thick pBVMA films were both found to exhibit DRAM type memory behaviors, which may indicate that the Al nanoparticles had no penetration into the thin film during the vacuum-deposition process. Highlights: ? The side-functional moieties of pBVMA regularly arranged in film state. ? The device exhibits volatile memory behavior with an ON/OFF current ratio up to 105. ? The film thickness has nothing to do with the device's memory behavior. ? Physical theoretical models and molecular simulation supported the memory mechanism. - Abstract: A polymethacrylate containing pendant 2-methylbenzothiazole (pBVMA) with good thermal stability was synthesized by free radical polymerization. The devices based on pBVMA possess a sandwich structure comprising bottom indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrode and top Al electrode. The as-fabricated device exhibits the dynamic random access memory (DRAM) behavior with an ON/OFF current ratio up to 105 and can endure 108 read cycles under ?1 V pulse voltage. The effect of the film thickness on the device performance was investigated and the devices fabricated with 75 nm and 45 nm thick pBVMA films were both found to exhibit DRAM type memory behaviors, which may indicate that the Al nanoparticles had no penetration into the thin film during the vacuum-deposition process. The molecular simulation and physical theoretical models were analyzed and etical models were analyzed and the mechanism of the DRAM performance may be attributed to the weak electron withdrawing ability of the molecule.

  14. A new DRAM-type memory devices based on polymethacrylate containing pendant 2-methylbenzothiazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Dong; Li Hua; Li Najun; Zhao Ying; Zhou Qianhao; Xu Qingfeng [Key Laboratory of Organic Synthesis of Jiangsu Province, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, 199 Ren' ai Road, Suzhou 215123 (China); Lu Jianmei, E-mail: lujm@suda.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Organic Synthesis of Jiangsu Province, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, 199 Ren' ai Road, Suzhou 215123 (China); Wang Lihua [Key Laboratory of Organic Synthesis of Jiangsu Province, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, 199 Ren' ai Road, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2012-05-15

    Graphical abstract: The devices fabricated with 75 nm and 45 nm thick pBVMA films were both found to exhibit DRAM type memory behaviors, which may indicate that the Al nanoparticles had no penetration into the thin film during the vacuum-deposition process. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The side-functional moieties of pBVMA regularly arranged in film state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The device exhibits volatile memory behavior with an ON/OFF current ratio up to 10{sup 5}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The film thickness has nothing to do with the device's memory behavior. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Physical theoretical models and molecular simulation supported the memory mechanism. - Abstract: A polymethacrylate containing pendant 2-methylbenzothiazole (pBVMA) with good thermal stability was synthesized by free radical polymerization. The devices based on pBVMA possess a sandwich structure comprising bottom indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrode and top Al electrode. The as-fabricated device exhibits the dynamic random access memory (DRAM) behavior with an ON/OFF current ratio up to 10{sup 5} and can endure 10{sup 8} read cycles under -1 V pulse voltage. The effect of the film thickness on the device performance was investigated and the devices fabricated with 75 nm and 45 nm thick pBVMA films were both found to exhibit DRAM type memory behaviors, which may indicate that the Al nanoparticles had no penetration into the thin film during the vacuum-deposition process. The molecular simulation and physical theoretical models were analyzed and the mechanism of the DRAM performance may be attributed to the weak electron withdrawing ability of the molecule.

  15. Arm CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... scan - arm; Computed axial tomography scan - arm; Computed tomography scan - arm; CT scan - arm ... DM, Roditi G. Intravascular contrast media for radiology, CT, and MRI. ... tomography. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, eds. Grainger & Allison's ...

  16. Controlled Synthesis of Fluorinated Copolymers with Pendant Sulfonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Jankova Atanasova, Katja

    2008-01-01

    Novel fluorinated copolymers of different architectures and bearing sulfopropyl groups were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of aromatic fluorinated monomers and two modification reactions performed on the polymer chain - demethylation followed by sulfopropylation. As a result two types of fluorinated copolymers were obtained. The first one was synthesized by ATRP of2,3,5,6-tetraflouro4- methoxystyrene (TFMS). Copolymers with different amounts of randomly distributed along the backbone sulfopropyl groups were obtained after the chemical modifications mentioned above. The second type copolymers have diblock architecture with one.of the blocks being sulfopropyl~ed. They were synthesized via ATRP of 2,3,4,5,6pentafluorostyrene (FS) initiated by PTFMS-macroinitiator followed by demethylation and sulfopropylation performed on the TFMS-block (Scheme 1). The) copolymers were characterized by size-exclusion chromatography, FTIR and IH NMR spectroscopy. Their thermal properties were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and thermal gravimetric analyses.

  17. Telescope arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the telescope arm consisting of several elements which can be moved against one another, measuring- and control-devices can be moved into the space between pressure vessel and wall. The telscope elements are driven by a convex metallic tape which is fixed at the telescope front element and conducted by rolls at the other telescope elements. The steel tape is wrapped upon a coil. (DG)

  18. Structural development of Saddlebag Lake pendant, eastern Sierra Nevada, California: Implications for crustal evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweickert, R.A.; Lahren, M.M. (Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    Saddlebag Lake pendant provides an important window into the structural development of wallrocks of the Sierra Nevada batholith, and provides constraints on a number of regional tectonic events. Sixteen mappable stratigraphic units crop out within ten major thrust sheets. Stratigraphic cutoffs and estimated 35-degree average ramp angles yield minimum total thrust displacements of 25 km. Adding displacements required by flats, thickness variations among stratigraphic units, internal folds, and internal strains within thrust sheets yields an estimate of 50--60 km of shortening. Although only estimates, these figures indicate that a significant zone of Triassic and Jurassic( ) contractional deformation exists within the pendant, offering little support for extensional tectonic scenarios for Sierran wallrocks that have been proposed. In addition, map and structural relations preclude the existence of intrabatholithic breaks with proposed dextral displacements of up to 210 km, along the eastern edge of the pendant. The authors conclude that this part of the eastern Sierra experienced only the following tectonic events: (1) Antler deformation; (2) Permo-Triassic( ) Golconda thrusting; (3) large-magnitude Late Triassic thrusting during arc volcanism and plutonism; (4) Late Jurassic or Early Cretaceous east-vergent thrusting, folding, and cleavage development. Evidence also exists along the western edge of the pendant for pre-90 Ma dextral shear following the above events. They infer that the latter event may signal development of the Mojave-Snow Lake fault west of Saddlebag Lake pendant.

  19. Synthesis of hydronaphthalenes through coupling of enyne carbonyl compounds that contain pendant alkene groups with Fischer carbene complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar-patti, Rajesh; Duan, Shaofeng; Camacho-davila, Alejandro; Waynant, Kris; Dunn, Kenneth A.; Herndon, James W.

    2010-01-01

    The coupling of enyne carbonyl compounds that contain pendant alkene groups with Fischer carbene complexes to afford furans that contain pendant alkene groups is described. Subsequent intramolecular Diels-Alder reactions are effective in select cases, resulting in hydronaphthalene systems after dehydration. Although the Diels-Alder event is thermodynamically unfavorable, the overall transformation of alkene-furans to dihydronaphthalenes is a favorable process.

  20. Design and Engineering of a Chess-Robotic Arm

    CERN Document Server

    Elouafiq, Ali

    2012-01-01

    In the scope of the "Chess-Bot" project, this study's goal is to choose the right model for the robotic arm that the "the Chess-Bot" will use to move the pawn from a cell to another. In this paper, there is the definition and the structure of a robot arm. Also, the different engineering and kinematics fundamentals of the robot and its components will be detailed. Furthermore, the different structures of robotic arms will be presented and compared based on different criteria. Finally, a model for "the Chess-Bot" arm will be synthesized based on accurate algorithms and equations.

  1. Stratigraphy and structure of the Strawberry Mine roof pendant, central Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokleberg, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Strawberry mine roof pendant, 90 km northeast of Fresno, Calif., is composed of a sequence of metasedimentary rocks of probable Early Jurassic age and a sequence of metaigneous rocks of middle Cretaceous age. The metasedimentary rocks are a former miogeosynclinal sequence of marl and limestone now metamorphosed to calc-silicate hornfels and marble. A pelecypod found in the calc-silicate hornfels has been tentatively identified as a Mesozoic bivalve, possibly Inoceramus pseudomytiloides of Early Jurassic age. These metasedimentary rocks are similar in lithology, structure, and gross age to the metasedimentary rocks of the Boyden Cave roof pendant and are assigned to the Lower Jurassic Kings sequence. The younger metaigneous rocks are metamorphosed shallow-in trusi ve rocks that range in composi tion from granodiorite to rhyolite. These rocks are similar in composition and age to the metavolcanic rocks of the surrounding Merced Peak quadrangle and nearby Ritter Range, and probably represent necks or dikes that were one source for the meta volcanic rocks. The roof pendant is intruded by several plutons, ranging in composition from dioritic to highly felsic, that constitute part of the granodiorite of Jackass Lakes, also M middle Cretaceous age. The contemporaneous suites of metaigneous, metavolcanic, and plutonic rocks in the region represent a middle Cretaceous period of calc-alkalic volcanism and plutonism in the central Sierra Nevada and are interpreted as part of an Andean-type volcanic-plutonic arc. Three deformations are documented in the roof pendant. The first deformation is reflected only in the metasedimentary rocks and consists of northeast-to east-west-trending folds. Similar structures occur in the Boyden Cave roof pendant and in the Calaveras Formation and represent a Middle Jurassic regional deformation. Evidence of the second deformation occurs in the metasedimentary and metaigneous rocks and consists of folds, faults, minor structures, and regional metamorphism along N. 25? W. trends. Crosscutting of these structures by the contemporaneous granodiorite of Jackass Lakes indicates that this deformation occurred simultaneously with volcanism and plutonism during the middle Cretaceous. The third deformation involved both the roof pendant and adjacent plutonic rocks and consists of folds, faults, schistosities, and regional metamorphism along N. 65? -900 W. trends. Crosscutting of similar structures in other middle Cretaceous plutonic rocks of the Merced Peak quadrangle by undeformed late Cretaceous plutonic rocks indicates a regional deformation of middle to late Cretaceous age. Structures of similar style, orientation, and age occur elsewhere in metavolcanic and plutonic rocks throughout the central Sierra Nevada.

  2. Determination of cerium ion by polymeric membrane and coated graphite electrode based on novel pendant armed macrocycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ashok K., E-mail: akscyfcy@iitr.ernet.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology-Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667 (India); Singh, Prerna [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology-Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667 (India)

    2010-08-24

    Plasticized membranes using 2,3,4:12,13,14-dipyridine-1,3,5,8,11,13,15,18-octaazacycloicosa-2,12-diene (L{sub 1}) and 2,3,4:12,13,14-dipyridine-1,5,8,11,15,18-hexamethylacrylate- 1,3,5,8,11,13,15,18-octaazacycloicosa-2,12-diene (L{sub 2}) have been prepared and explored as Ce(III) selective sensors. Effect of various plasticizers viz. dibutylphthalate (DBP), tri-n-butylphthalate (TBP), o-nitrophenyloctylether (o-NPOE), dioctylphthalate (DOP), benzylacetate (BA) and anion excluders, sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) and potassium tetrakis p-(chlorophenyl) borate was studied in detail and improved performance was observed. Optimum performance was observed for the membrane sensor having a composition of L{sub 2}:PVC:o-NPOE:KTpClPB in the ratio of 6:34:58:2 (w/w, mg). The performance of the membrane based on L{sub 2} was compared with polymeric membrane electrode (PME) as well as with coated graphite electrode (CGE). The electrodes exhibit Nernstian slope for Ce(III) ions with limits of detection of 8.3 x 10{sup -8} mol L{sup -1} for PME and 7.7 x 10{sup -9} mol L{sup -1} for CGE. The response time for PME and CGE was found to be 12 s and 10 s respectively. The potentiometric responses are independent of the pH of the test solution in the pH range 3.5-7.5 for PME and 2.5-8.5 for CGE. The CGE could be used for a period of 5 months. The practical utility of the CGE has been demonstrated by its usage as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of oxalate and fluoride ions with Ce(III) solution. The proposed electrode was also successfully applied to the determination of fluoride ions in mouthwash solution and oxalate ions in real samples.

  3. Determination of cerium ion by polymeric membrane and coated graphite electrode based on novel pendant armed macrocycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasticized membranes using 2,3,4:12,13,14-dipyridine-1,3,5,8,11,13,15,18-octaazacycloicosa-2,12-diene (L1) and 2,3,4:12,13,14-dipyridine-1,5,8,11,15,18-hexamethylacrylate- 1,3,5,8,11,13,15,18-octaazacycloicosa-2,12-diene (L2) have been prepared and explored as Ce(III) selective sensors. Effect of various plasticizers viz. dibutylphthalate (DBP), tri-n-butylphthalate (TBP), o-nitrophenyloctylether (o-NPOE), dioctylphthalate (DOP), benzylacetate (BA) and anion excluders, sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) and potassium tetrakis p-(chlorophenyl) borate was studied in detail and improved performance was observed. Optimum performance was observed for the membrane sensor having a composition of L2:PVC:o-NPOE:KTpClPB in the ratio of 6:34:58:2 (w/w, mg). The performance of the membrane based on L2 was compared with polymeric membrane electrode (PME) as well as with coated graphite electrode (CGE). The electrodes exhibit Nernstian slope for Ce(III) ions with limits of detection of 8.3 x 10-8 mol L-1 for PME and 7.7 x 10-9 mol L-1 for CGE. The response time for PME and CGE was found to be 12 s and 10 s respectively. The potentiometric responses are independent of the pH of the test solution in the pH range 3.5-7.5 for PME and 2.5-8.5 for CGE. The CGE could be used for a period of 5 months. The practical utility of the CGE has been demonstrated by its usage as an indicator electrode in potentiusage as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of oxalate and fluoride ions with Ce(III) solution. The proposed electrode was also successfully applied to the determination of fluoride ions in mouthwash solution and oxalate ions in real samples.

  4. Hydrogen-bond stabilized columnar discotic benzenetrisamides with pendant triphenylene groups

    OpenAIRE

    Paraschiv, I.; Lange, K.; Giesbers, M.; Lagen, B.; Grozema, F. C.; Abellon, R. D.; Siebbeles, L. D. A.; Sudho?lter, E. J. R.; Zuilhof, H.; Marcelis, A. T. M.

    2008-01-01

    series of 1,3,5-benzenetrisamide derivatives with three hexaalkoxytriphenylene pendant groups were prepared, in which the triphenylene groups are connected to the central 1,3,5-benzenetrisamide core through a flexible spacer. The length of this spacer, as well as the size of the ortho-substituent at the triphenylene core, influences the columnar packing of these molecules. All compounds show liquid crystalline behavior with high isotropization temperatures. Different columnar hexagonal phases...

  5. Sensing system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kychakoff, George (Maple Valley, WA); Afromowitz, Martin A. (Mercer Island, WA); Hogle, Richard E. (Olympia, WA)

    2008-10-14

    A system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers includes one or more deposit monitoring sensors operating in infrared regions of about 4 or 8.7 microns and directly producing images of the interior of the boiler, or producing feeding signals to a data processing system for information to enable a distributed control system by which the boilers are operated to operate said boilers more efficiently. The data processing system includes an image pre-processing circuit in which a 2-D image formed by the video data input is captured, and includes a low pass filter for performing noise filtering of said video input. It also includes an image compensation system for array compensation to correct for pixel variation and dead cells, etc., and for correcting geometric distortion. An image segmentation module receives a cleaned image from the image pre-processing circuit for separating the image of the recovery boiler interior into background, pendant tubes, and deposition. It also accomplishes thresholding/clustering on gray scale/texture and makes morphological transforms to smooth regions, and identifies regions by connected components. An image-understanding unit receives a segmented image sent from the image segmentation module and matches derived regions to a 3-D model of said boiler. It derives a 3-D structure the deposition on pendant tubes in the boiler and provides the information about deposits to the plant distributed control system for more efficient operation of the plant pendant tube cleaning and operating systems.

  6. Synthesizing Reactive Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Madhusudan, Parthasarathy

    2011-01-01

    Current theoretical solutions to the classical Church's synthesis problem are focused on synthesizing transition systems and not programs. Programs are compact and often the true aim in many synthesis problems, while the transition systems that correspond to them are often large and not very useful as synthesized artefacts. Consequently, current practical techniques first synthesize a transition system, and then extract a more compact representation from it. We reformulate the synthesis of ...

  7. Portable Speech Synthesizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibfritz, Gilbert H.; Larson, Howard K.

    1987-01-01

    Compact speech synthesizer useful traveling companion to speech-handicapped. User simply enters statement on board, and synthesizer converts statement into spoken words. Battery-powered and housed in briefcase, easily carried on trips. Unit used on telephones and face-to-face communication. Synthesizer consists of micro-computer with memory-expansion module, speech-synthesizer circuit, batteries, recharger, dc-to-dc converter, and telephone amplifier. Components, commercially available, fit neatly in 17-by 13-by 5-in. briefcase. Weighs about 20 lb (9 kg) and operates and recharges from ac receptable.

  8. Theoretical Design of Molecular Electrocatalysts with Flexible Pendant Amines for Hydrogen Production and Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Laura; Horvath, Samantha; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2013-02-07

    The design of hydrogen oxidation and production catalysts is important for the development of alternative renewable energy sources. The overall objective is to maximize the turnover frequency and minimize the overpotential. In an effort to assist in the design of such catalysts, we use computational methods to examine a variety of nickel-based molecular electrocatalysts with pendant amines. Our studies focus on the proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) process involving electron transfer between the complex and the electrode and intramolecular proton transfer between the nickel center and the nitrogen of the pendant amine. The concerted PCET mechanism, which tends to require a lower overpotential, is favored by a smaller equilibrium Ni-N distance and a more flexible pendant amine ligand, thereby decreasing the energetic penalty for the nitrogen to approach the nickel center for proton transfer. These calculations provide design principles that will be useful for developing the next generation of hydrogen catalysts. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  9. The Intersection of All Maximum Stable Sets of a Tree and its Pendant Vertices

    CERN Document Server

    Levit, V E; Levit, Vadim E.; Mandrescu, Eugen

    2000-01-01

    A stable set in a graph G is a set of mutually non-adjacent vertices, alpha(G) is the size of a maximum stable set of G, and core(G) is the intersection of all its maximum stable sets. In this paper we demonstrate that in a tree T, of order n greater than 1, any stable set of size greater or equal to n/2 contains at least one pendant vertex. Hence, we deduce that any maximum stable set in a tree contains at least one pendant vertex. Our main finding is the theorem claiming that if T does not own a perfect matching, then at least two pendant vertices an even distance apart belong to core(T). While it is proved by Levit and Mandrescu that if G is a connected bipartite graph of order at least 2, then the size of core(G) is different from 1, our new statement reveals an additional structure of the intersection of all maximum stable sets of a tree. The above assertions give refining of one result of Hammer, Hansen and Simeone, stating that if a graph G is of order less than 2*alpha(G), then core(G) is non-empty, a...

  10. Catalytic Oxidation of Alcohol via Nickel Phosphine Complexes with Pendant Amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Charles J.; Das, Partha Pratim; Higgins, Deanna LM; Helm, Monte L.; Appel, Aaron M.

    2014-09-05

    Nickel complexes were prepared with diphosphine ligands that contain pendant amines, and these complexes catalytically oxidize primary and secondary alcohols to their respective aldehydes and ketones. Kinetic and mechanistic studies of these prospective electrocatalysts were performed to understand what influences the catalytic activity. For the oxidation of diphenylmethanol, the catalytic rates were determined to be dependent on the concentration of both the catalyst and the alcohol. The catalytic rates were found to be independent of the concentration of base and oxidant. The incorporation of pendant amines to the phosphine ligand results in substantial increases in the rate of alcohol oxidation with more electron-donating substituents on the pendant amine exhibiting the fastest rates. We thank Dr. John C. Linehan, Dr. Elliott B. Hulley, Dr. Jonathan M. Darmon, and Dr. Elizabeth L. Tyson for helpful discussions. Research by CJW, PD, DLM, and AMA was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Research by MLH was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle.

  11. Arm MRI scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... An abnormal finding on an x-ray or bone scan Arm pain and a history of cancer Arm or wrist pain that does not get better with treatment Bone infection (osteomyelitis) Bone pain and fever Broken bone ...

  12. Evolution of robotic arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    The foundation of surgical robotics is in the development of the robotic arm. This is a thorough review of the literature on the nature and development of this device with emphasis on surgical applications. We have reviewed the published literature and classified robotic arms by their application: show, industrial application, medical application, etc. There is a definite trend in the manufacture of robotic arms toward more dextrous devices, more degrees-of-freedom, and capabilities beyond the human arm. da Vinci designed the first sophisticated robotic arm in 1495 with four degrees-of-freedom and an analog on-board controller supplying power and programmability. von Kemplen's chess-playing automaton left arm was quite sophisticated. Unimate introduced the first industrial robotic arm in 1961, it has subsequently evolved into the PUMA arm. In 1963 the Rancho arm was designed; Minsky's Tentacle arm appeared in 1968, Scheinman's Stanford arm in 1969, and MIT's Silver arm in 1974. Aird became the first cyborg human with a robotic arm in 1993. In 2000 Miguel Nicolalis redefined possible man-machine capacity in his work on cerebral implantation in owl-monkeys directly interfacing with robotic arms both locally and at a distance. The robotic arm is the end-effector of robotic systems and currently is the hallmark feature of the da Vinci Surgical System making its entrance into surgical application. But, despite the potential advantages of this computer-controlled master-slave system, robotic arms have definite limitations. Ongoing work in robotics has many potential solutions to the drawbacks of current robotic surgical systems. PMID:25484945

  13. Nuclear Arms Control Treaties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher Griffith

    This section contains summaries of all the major arms-control treaties including: Limited Test Ban Treaty, Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty I (Interim Agreement), Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, Threshold Test Ban Treaty, Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty - INF, Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty.

  14. Synthesizing an Alkaloid

    Science.gov (United States)

    WGBH Educational Foundation

    2007-02-12

    In this video segment, adapted from NOVA, learn how chemist Percy Julian revolutionized chemistry by synthesizing the alkaloid physostigminefrom scratch—the first total synthesis of a chemical compound.

  15. Inorganic Syntheses, 35

    CERN Document Server

    Rauchfuss, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The Inorganic Syntheses series provides all users of inorganic substances with detailed and foolproof procedures for the preparation of important and timely compounds.: Includes complete, up-to-date procedures involving important inorganic substances; Contains subject, contributor, and formula indexes

  16. From surfactant adsorption kinetics to asymmetric nanomembrane mechanics: pendant drop experiments with subphase exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, James K; Kotsmar, Csaba; Miller, Reinhard

    2010-12-15

    Adsorption equilibrium is the state in which the chemical potential of each species in the interface and bulk is the same. Dynamic phenomena at fluid-fluid interfaces in the presence of surface active species are often probed by perturbing an interface or adjoining bulk phase from the equilibrium state. Many methods designed for studying kinetics at fluid-fluid interfaces focus on removing the system from equilibrium through dilation or compression of the interface. This modifies the surface excess concentration ?(i) and allows the species distribution in the bulk C(i) to respond. There are only a few methods available for studying fluid-fluid interfaces which seek to control C(i) and allow the interface to respond with changes to ?(i). Subphase exchange in pendant drops can be achieved by the injection and withdrawal of liquid into a drop at constant volumetric flow rate R(E) during which the interfacial area and drop volume V(D) are controlled to be approximately constant. This can be accomplished by forming a pendant drop at the tip of two coaxial capillary tubes. Although evolution of the subphase concentration C(i)(t) is dictated by extrinsic factors such as R(E) and V(D), complete subphase exchange can always be attained when a sufficient amount of liquid is used. This provides a means to tailor driving forces for adsorption and desorption in fluid-fluid systems and in some cases, fabricate interfacial materials of well-defined composition templated at these interfaces. The coaxial capillary pendant drop (CCPD) method opens a wide variety of experimental possibilities. Experiments and theoretical frameworks are reviewed for the study of surfactant exchange kinetics, macromolecular adsorption equilibrium and dynamics, as well as the fabrication of a wide range of soft surface materials and the characterization of their mechanics. Future directions for new experiments are also discussed. PMID:20810096

  17. Bifunctional cyclam-based ligands with phosphorus Acid pendant moieties for radiocopper separation: thermodynamic and kinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paúrová, Monika; Havlí?ková, Jana; Pospíšilová, Aneta; Vetrík, Miroslav; Císa?ová, Ivana; Stephan, Holger; Pietzsch, Hans-Jürgen; Hrubý, Martin; Hermann, Petr; Kotek, Jan

    2015-03-16

    Two macrocyclic ligands based on cyclam with trans-disposed N-methyl and N-(4-aminobenzyl) substituents as well as two methylphosphinic (H2 L1) or methylphosphonic (H4 L2) acid pendant arms were synthesised and investigated in solution. The ligands form stable complexes with transition metal ions. Both ligands show high thermodynamic selectivity for divalent copper over nickel(II) and zinc(II)-K(CuL) is larger than K(Ni/ZnL) by about seven orders of magnitude. Complexation is significantly faster for the phosphonate ligand H4 L2, probably due to the stronger coordination ability of the more basic phosphonate groups, which efficiently bind the metal ion in an "out-of-cage" complex and thus accelerate its "in-cage" binding. The rate of Cu(II) complexation by the phosphinate ligand H2 L1 is comparable to that of cyclam itself and its derivatives with non-coordinating substituents. Acid-assisted decomplexation of the copper(II) complexes is relatively fast (?1/2 =44 and 42?s in 1?M aq. HClO4 at 25?°C for H2 L1 and H4 L2, respectively). This combination of properties is convenient for selective copper removal/purification. Thus, the title ligands were employed in the preparation of ion-selective resins for radiocopper(II) separation. Glycidyl methacrylate copolymer beads were modified with the ligands through a diazotisation reaction. The separation ability of the modified polymers was tested with cold copper(II) and non-carrier-added (64) Cu in the presence of a large excess of both nickel(II) and zinc(II). The experiments exhibited high overall separation efficiency leading to 60-70?% recovery of radiocopper with high selectivity over the other metal ions, which were originally present in 900-fold molar excess. The results showed that chelating resins with properly tuned selectivity of their complexing moieties can be employed for radiocopper separation. PMID:25649310

  18. Effect of pendant group structure on the hydrolytic stability of polyaspartamide polymers under physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yijie; Chau, Mokit; Boyle, A J; Liu, Peng; Niehoff, Ansgar; Weinrich, Dirk; Reilly, Raymond M; Winnik, Mitchell A

    2012-05-14

    We describe the synthesis of metal chelating polymers based on polyaspartamide and polyglutamide backbones as carriers for (111)In in radioimmunoconjugates. These polymers [PAsp(DTPA), PGlu(DTPA)] have a biotin end group and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) chelators attached to the primary amines of the diethylenetriamine (DET) pendant groups of biotin-poly{N'-[N-(2-aminoethyl)-2-aminoethyl]aspartamide} [PAsp(DET)] and of biotin-poly{N'-[N-(2-aminoethyl)-2-aminoethyl]glutamide} [PGlu(DET)]. Like Asn-containing proteins and polypeptides, polyaspartamides undergo uncatalyzed degradation under model physiological conditions (10 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, 150 mM NaCl). We studied the uncatalyzed degradation of the polyaspartamide polymers by size exclusion chromatography and found that the degradation rate was sensitive to the nature of the pendant groups. The metal-free polymer underwent somewhat slower degradation than the corresponding polymers in which the DTPA groups were saturated with Eu(3+) or In(3+), but even after 14 days, substantial fractions of the polymers survived. We conclude that these polymers undergo negligible degradation on the time scale (24-48 h) of radioimmunotherapy treatment of tumors with (111)In. From a mechanistic perspective, we note that these degradation rates are on the order of the deamidation rates reported [J. Peptide Res. 2004, 63, 426] for Asn-containing pentapeptides, with half-times on the order of 10 days, but much slower than the rapid decay (hours) reported recently [Biomaterials 2010, 31, 3707] for poly{N'-[N-(2-aminoethyl)-2-aminoethyl]aspartamide} itself. This variation in degradation rate can be explained in terms of the influence of positive charges on the pendant group enhancing the acidity of the side-chain amide nitrogen of the aspartamide repeat unit. The DET pendant group is positively charged at pH 7, but in indium-loaded PAsp(DTPA) this charge is offset by the net negative charge of the DTPA-In complex. PMID:22471754

  19. Analysis of the polar crane pendant cable from Three Mile Island - Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pendant cable to the polar crane in Three Mile Island - Unit 2 (TMI-2) was suspended near the center of the containment during the March 1979 accident. It sustained considerable thermal damage from the hydrogen burn that occurred. The cable was removed from TMI-2 and cut into sections, which were then analyzed to assess the extent of damage and learn as much as possible about the accident environment (by studying its effect on the cable). Both electrical and materials tests were employed in the analyses, which produced information about the hydrogen burn and contamination levels in containment. 10 refs., 24 figs

  20. Design and construction of the Aerobot Robotic Manipulator (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, William L.

    1993-12-01

    This thesis designed, constructed, and tested a robotic arm for the Aerobot (Aerial Robot). The main purpose of the ARM is to enable the Aerobot to retrieve objects during an annual robotics competition. Design of the ARM involved synthesizing the characteristics of simplicity, weight, strength, and size. The result was a three-degree-of-freedom manipulator that uses electric motors, cable linkages, and telescoping tubes to access a work space below the Aerobot. Forward and inverse kinematics were investigated to enable automation of the ARM. Data was collected from infrared sensors to validate the model. Manipulation of the ARM is presently under open loop control (joy stick) which demonstrates the use of tele-robotics and its capabilities.

  1. A DFT Study on the Dissociation Property of Sulfonic Acids with Different Neighboring Pendants in Polymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuan-yuan; Tsuchida, Eiji; Choe, Yoong-Kee; Ikeshoji, Tamio; Ohira, Akihiro

    The proton dissociation property of four model compounds of polymer electrolyte membranes, M1-M4, has been studied based on density functional theory. These four model compounds have the same proton donor group, sulfonic acid, while differ by types of neighboring pendants, non-fluorinated and fluorinated. We find that the protons in the fluorinated model compounds can be dissociated when hydrated by 3 water molecules, comparable to Nafion, while for those non-fluorinated compounds, the protons can be dissociated only hydrated by 4 water molecules. The results indicate that the neighboring pendants have a significant effect on the proton dissociation property of the model compounds. The electron-withdrawing group involved in the neighboring pendants can improve the proton dissociation property of the compounds, which would be meaningful for finding a novel polymer electrolyte membrane with good conductivity.

  2. Hydraulic Arm Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-18

    Students design and build a mechanical arm that lifts and moves an empty 12-ounce soda can using hydraulics for power. Small design teams (1-2 students each) design and build a single axis for use in the completed mechanical arm. One team designs and builds the grasping hand, another team the lifting arm, and a third team the rotation base. The three groups must work to communicate effectively through written and verbal communication and sketches.

  3. Modelling of bionic arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amartya Ganguly

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The bionic arm is a prosthesis which will allow the amputees to control it with the help of their own brain instead of depending upon the mechanical functions of the artificial limbs which are at present available in the market. A complex design of control systems is embedded in the bionic arm which will receive and analyze the signals from the brain and convert the electrical energy to mechanical energy, making the bionic arm move.

  4. Modelling of bionic arm

    OpenAIRE

    Amartya Ganguly

    2010-01-01

    The bionic arm is a prosthesis which will allow the amputees to control it with the help of their own brain instead of depending upon the mechanical functions of the artificial limbs which are at present available in the market. A complex design of control systems is embedded in the bionic arm which will receive and analyze the signals from the brain and convert the electrical energy to mechanical energy, making the bionic arm move.

  5. Evolution of robotic arms

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    The foundation of surgical robotics is in the development of the robotic arm. This is a thorough review of the literature on the nature and development of this device with emphasis on surgical applications. We have reviewed the published literature and classified robotic arms by their application: show, industrial application, medical application, etc. There is a definite trend in the manufacture of robotic arms toward more dextrous devices, more degrees-of-freedom, and capabilities beyond th...

  6. Sulfonated copolyimide membranes derived from a novel diamine monomer with pendant benzimidazole groups for fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Wei; Guo, Xiaoxia

    2015-01-01

    Sulfonated polyimides are among the most interesting proton exchange membrane materials with high proton conductivity and good mechanical characteristics. As a major challenge the hydrolytic instability of the polymer backbone is addressed by introducing basic moieties in the polymer main chain. A series of sulfonated copolyimides (SPI) are prepared via random copolymerizatio of 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTDA) with a new diamine monomer with pendant benzimidazole groups, 2,2'-bis(4-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)phenoxy)benzidine (BIPOB), and a sulfonated diamine monomer 4,4'-bis(4-aminophenoxy)biphenyl-3,3'-disulfonic acid (BAPBDS) at different diamine molar ratios (BAPBDS/BIPOB, 4/1, 6/1, 9/1 and 12/1). With ion exchange capacities in the range of 1.60-2.24 meq g(-1), transparent and ductile membranes are obtained by solution casting. The incorporation of benzimiclazole pendant groups significantly improves the hydrolytic stability as well as the radical oxidative stability of the membranes. In addition, the SPI membranes exhibit high proton conductivities of 0.1 S cm(-1) in the fully hydrated state at 60 degrees C and high elastic modulus and tensile strength. Preliminary fuel cell tests demonstrate the technical feasibility and stability of the materials. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Intracellular drug delivery nanocarriers of glutathione-responsive degradable block copolymers having pendant disulfide linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorsand, Behnoush; Lapointe, Gabriel; Brett, Christopher; Oh, Jung Kwon

    2013-06-10

    Self-assembled micelles of amphiphilic block copolymers (ABPs) with stimuli-responsive degradation (SRD) properties have a great promise as nanotherapeutics exhibiting enhanced release of encapsulated therapeutics into targeted cells. Here, thiol-responsive degradable micelles based on a new ABP consisting of a pendant disulfide-labeled methacrylate polymer block (PHMssEt) and a hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) block were investigated as effective intracellular nanocarriers of anticancer drugs. In response to glutathione (GSH) as a cellular trigger, the cleavage of pendant disulfide linkages in hydrophobic PHMssEt blocks of micellar cores caused the destabilization of self-assembled micelles due to change in hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance. Such GSH-triggered micellar destabilization changed their size distribution with an appearance of large aggregates and led to enhanced release of encapsulated anticancer drugs. Cell culture results from flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy for cellular uptake as well as cell viability measurements for high anticancer efficacy suggest that new GSH-responsive degradable PEO-b-PHMssEt micelles offer versatility in multifunctional drug delivery applications. PMID:23647437

  8. Synthesis and arm dissociation in molecular stars with a spoked wheel core and bottlebrush arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdy?ska, Joanna; Li, Yuanchao; Aggarwal, Anant Vikas; Höger, Sigurd; Sheiko, Sergei S; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof

    2014-09-10

    Unique star-like polymeric architectures composed of bottlebrush arms and a molecular spoked wheel (MSW) core were prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). A hexahydroxy-functionalized MSW (MSW(6-OH)) was synthesized and converted into a six-fold ATRP initiator (MSW(6-Br)). Linear chain arms were grafted from MSW(6-Br) and subsequently functionalized with ATRP moieties to form six-arm macroinitiators. Grafting of side chains from the macroinitiators yielded four different star-shaped bottlebrushes with varying lengths of arms and side chains, i.e., (450-g-20)6, (450-g-40)6, (300-g-60)6, and (300-g-150)6. Gel permeation chromatography analysis and molecular imaging by atomic force microscopy confirmed the formation of well-defined macromolecules with narrow molecular weight distributions. Upon adsorption to an aqueous substrate, the bottlebrush arms underwent prompt dissociation from the MSW core, followed by scission of covalent bonds in the bottlebrush backbones. The preferential cleavage of the arms is attributed to strong steric repulsion between bottlebrushes at the MSW branching center. Star-shaped macroinitiators may undergo aggregation which can be prevented by sonication. PMID:25133316

  9. Synthese van deutereerde anabolica

    OpenAIRE

    Zomer G

    2012-01-01

    Dit rapport beschrijft de syntheses van gedeutereerde anabolica: diethylstilbestrol-D6, hexestrol-D4, dienestrol-D2, methyltestosteron- D3, ranol-D4, trenbolon-D2, nortestosteron-D2, en medroxyprogesteron- D3. De gebruikte routes zijn dusdanig gekozen dat het mogelijk is om meer deuterium atomen in te voeren.

  10. High catalytic rates for hydrogen production using nickel electrocatalysts with seven-membered cyclic diphosphine ligands containing one pendant amine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Michael P; Ho, Ming-Hsun; Wiese, Stefan; Lindstrom, Mary Lou; Thogerson, Colleen E; Raugei, Simone; Bullock, R Morris; Helm, Monte L

    2013-04-24

    A series of Ni-based electrocatalysts, [Ni(7P(Ph)2N(C6H4X))2](BF4)2, featuring seven-membered cyclic diphosphine ligands incorporating a single amine base, 1-para-X-phenyl-3,6-triphenyl-1-aza-3,6-diphosphacycloheptane (7P(Ph)2N(C6H4X), where X = OMe, Me, Br, Cl, or CF3), have been synthesized and characterized. X-ray diffraction studies have established that the [Ni(7P(Ph)2N(C6H4X))2](2+) complexes have a square planar geometry, with bonds to four phosphorus atoms of the two bidentate diphosphine ligands. Each of the complexes is an efficient electrocatalyst for hydrogen production at the potential of the Ni(II/I) couple, with turnover frequencies ranging from 2400 to 27,000 s(-1) with [(DMF)H](+) in acetonitrile. Addition of water (up to 1.0 M) accelerates the catalysis, giving turnover frequencies ranging from 4100 to 96,000 s(-1). Computational studies carried out on the [Ni(7P(Ph)2N(C6H4X))2](2+) family indicate the catalytic rates reach a maximum when the electron-donating character of X results in the pKa of the Ni(I) protonated pendant amine matching that of the acid used for proton delivery. Additionally, the fast catalytic rates for hydrogen production by the [Ni(7P(Ph)2N(C6H4X))2](2+) family relative to the analogous [Ni(P(Ph)2N(C6H4X)2)2](2+) family are attributed to preferred formation of endo protonated isomers with respect to the metal center in the former, which is essential to attain suitable proximity to the reduced metal center to generate H2. The results of this work highlight the importance of precise pKa matching with the acid for proton delivery to obtain optimal rates of catalysis. PMID:23384205

  11. Development of electrochemical sensors for nano scale Tb(III) ion determination based on pendant macrocyclic ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashok K; Singh, Prerna; Banerjee, Shibdas; Mehtab, Sameena

    2009-02-01

    The two macrocyclic pendant ligands 3,4,5:12,13,14-dipyridine-2,6,11,15-tetramethyl-1,7,10,16-tetramethylacrylate-1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaazacyclooctadeca-3,13-di ene (L(1)) and 3,4,5:12,13,14-dipyridine-2,6,11,15-tetramethyl-1,7,10,16-tetra(2-cyano ethane)-1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaazacyclooctadeca-3,13-diene (L(2)) have been synthesized and explored as neutral ionophores for preparing poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) based membrane sensors selective to Tb(III) ions. Effects of various plasticizers and anion excluders were studied in detail and improved performance was observed. The best performance was obtained for the membrane sensor having a composition of L(1): PVC:1-CN:NaTPB in the ratio of 6: 32: 58: 4 (w/w; mg). The performance of the membrane based on L(1) was compared with polymeric membrane electrode (PME) as well as with coated graphite electrode (CGE). The electrodes exhibit Nernstian slope for Tb(3+) ions with limits of detection of 3.4 x 10(-8)mol L(-1) for PME and 5.7 x 10(-9)mol L(-1) for CGE. The response time for PME and CGE was found to be 10s and 8s, respectively. The potentiometric responses are independent of the pH of the test solution in the pH range 3.0-7.5 for PME and 2.0-8.5 for CGE. The CGE has found to work satisfactorily in partially non-aqueous media upto 30% (v/v) content of methanol, ethanol and 20% (v/v) content of acetonitrile and could be used for a period of 5 months. The CGE was used as indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Tb(3+) ions with EDTA and in determination of fluoride ions in various samples. It can also be used in direct determination of Tb(3+) ions in tap water and various binary mixtures with quantitative results. PMID:19110124

  12. Development of electrochemical sensors for nano scale Tb(III) ion determination based on pendant macrocyclic ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ashok K. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology-Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667 (India)], E-mail: akscyfcy@iitr.ernet.in; Singh, Prerna; Banerjee, Shibdas; Mehtab, Sameena [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology-Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667 (India)

    2009-02-02

    The two macrocyclic pendant ligands 3,4,5:12,13,14-dipyridine-2,6,11, 15-tetramethyl-1,7,10,16-tetramethylacrylate -1,4,7,10,13, 16-hexaazacyclooctadeca-3,13-di ene (L{sub 1}) and 3,4,5:12,13,14-dipyridine-2,6,11,15-tetramethyl-1,7,10,16-tetra(2-cyano ethane)-1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaazacyclooctadeca-3,13-diene (L{sub 2}) have been synthesized and explored as neutral ionophores for preparing poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) based membrane sensors selective to Tb(III) ions. Effects of various plasticizers and anion excluders were studied in detail and improved performance was observed. The best performance was obtained for the membrane sensor having a composition of L{sub 1}: PVC:1-CN:NaTPB in the ratio of 6: 32: 58: 4 (w/w; mg). The performance of the membrane based on L{sub 1} was compared with polymeric membrane electrode (PME) as well as with coated graphite electrode (CGE). The electrodes exhibit Nernstian slope for Tb{sup 3+} ions with limits of detection of 3.4 x 10{sup -8} mol L{sup -1} for PME and 5.7 x 10{sup -9} mol L{sup -1} for CGE. The response time for PME and CGE was found to be 10 s and 8 s, respectively. The potentiometric responses are independent of the pH of the test solution in the pH range 3.0-7.5 for PME and 2.0-8.5 for CGE. The CGE has found to work satisfactorily in partially non-aqueous media upto 30% (v/v) content of methanol, ethanol and 20% (v/v) content of acetonitrile and could be used for a period of 5 months. The CGE was used as indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Tb{sup 3+} ions with EDTA and in determination of fluoride ions in various samples. It can also be used in direct determination of Tb{sup 3+} ions in tap water and various binary mixtures with quantitative results.

  13. Development of electrochemical sensors for nano scale Tb(III) ion determination based on pendant macrocyclic ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two macrocyclic pendant ligands 3,4,5:12,13,14-dipyridine-2,6,11, 15-tetramethyl-1,7,10,16-tetramethylacrylate -1,4,7,10,13, 16-hexaazacyclooctadeca-3,13-di ene (L1) and 3,4,5:12,13,14-dipyridine-2,6,11,15-tetramethyl-1,7,10,16-tetra(2-cyano ethane)-1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaazacyclooctadeca-3,13-diene (L2) have been synthesized and explored as neutral ionophores for preparing poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) based membrane sensors selective to Tb(III) ions. Effects of various plasticizers and anion excluders were studied in detail and improved performance was observed. The best performance was obtained for the membrane sensor having a composition of L1: PVC:1-CN:NaTPB in the ratio of 6: 32: 58: 4 (w/w; mg). The performance of the membrane based on L1 was compared with polymeric membrane electrode (PME) as well as with coated graphite electrode (CGE). The electrodes exhibit Nernstian slope for Tb3+ ions with limits of detection of 3.4 x 10-8 mol L-1 for PME and 5.7 x 10-9 mol L-1 for CGE. The response time for PME and CGE was found to be 10 s and 8 s, respectively. The potentiometric responses are independent of the pH of the test solution in the pH range 3.0-7.5 for PME and 2.0-8.5 for CGE. The CGE has found to work satisfactorily in partially non-aqueous media upto 30% (v/v) content of methanol, ethanol and 20% (v/v) content of acetonitrile and could be used for a period of 5 moile and could be used for a period of 5 months. The CGE was used as indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Tb3+ ions with EDTA and in determination of fluoride ions in various samples. It can also be used in direct determination of Tb3+ ions in tap water and various binary mixtures with quantitative results

  14. Security and arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book attempts to clarify and define selected current issues and problems related to security and arms control from an international perspective. The chapters are organized under the following headings. Conflict and the international system, Nuclear deterrence, Conventional warfare, Subconventional conflict, Arms control and crisis management

  15. Sensitized non-coherent photon upconversion by intramolecular triplet-triplet annihilation in a diphenylanthracene pendant polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Andrew J.; Robotham, Benjamin E.; Steer, Ronald P.; Ghiggino, Kenneth P.

    2015-01-01

    Non-coherent photon upconversion by rapid intramolecular triplet-triplet annihilation has been observed following nanosecond laser excitation of Ru(dmb)3 and sequential two-fold triplet energy sensitization of a polymer containing 30 pendant diphenylanthracene groups. A global kinetic analysis of the system has been performed; the intramolecular annihilation step occurs on a sub-nanosecond time scale.

  16. Effects of wake dynamics on infrared measurements of particle cloud temperatures in the superheater pendant region of utility boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turbulent particle cloud temperatures in the superheater pendant region are critical in coal-fired utility boilers not only for the interactions between turbulence and radiative heat transfer, but also for the ash deposit slagging and fouling on superheater tubes. The false infrared particle temperature fluctuations due to the pendant wake dynamics may cause large errors in modeling of the radiation transport. This paper presents a model to theoretically analyze the effects of wake dynamics on the false infrared particle cloud temperature fluctuations in the superheater pendant region. The preferred frequency in the power spectra and the root mean square temperature fluctuations are predicted theoretically and the effects of utility boiler operating conditions are analyzed. The preferred frequency is twice the vortex shedding frequency and is proportional to the flue gas velocity, and inversely proportional to the superheater tube diameter. The root mean square temperature fluctuations are proportional to the initial particle volume fraction and inversely proportional to the 1.04 power of the particle mass weighted mean diameter. -- Highlights: ? Superheater pendant wake causes the false infrared particle temperature fluctuations. ? Infrared particle temperatures fluctuate at twice the vortex shedding frequency. ? Root mean square temperature fluctuation is proportional to particle volume fraction. ? The present model predicts using only the utility boiler operating conditions

  17. Molecular Electrocatalysts for the Oxidation of Hydrogen and the Production of Hydrogen – The Role of Pendant Amines as Proton Relays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, Daniel L; Bullock, R. Morris

    2011-01-01

    Electrocatalysts for efficient conversion between electricity and chemical bonds will play a vital role in future systems for storage and delivery of energy. Our research on functional models of hydrogenase enzymes uses nickel and cobalt, abundant and inexpensive metals, in contrast to platinum, a precious metal used in fuel cells. A key feature of our research is a focus on the use of pendant amines incorporated into diphosphane ligands. These pendant amines function as proton relays, lowering the barrier to proton transfers to and from the catalytically active metal site. The hydride acceptor ability of metal cations, along with the basicity of pendant amines, are key thermochemical values that determine the thermodynamics of addition of H{sub 2} to a metal complex with a pendant amine incorporated into its ligand. Nickel catalysts for oxidation of H{sub 2} have turnover frequencies up to 50 s{sup –1} (at 1 atm H{sub 2} and room temperature). Nickel and cobalt catalysts for production of H{sub 2} by reduction of protons were studied; one of them has a turnover frequency over 1000 s{sup –1}.

  18. Molecular Electrocatalysts for the Oxidation of Hydrogen and the Production of Hydrogen - The Role of Pendant Amines as Proton Relays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuBois, Daniel L.; Bullock, R. Morris

    2011-03-15

    Electrocatalysts for efficient conversion between electricity and chemical bonds will play a vital role in future systems for storage and delivery of energy. Our research on functional models of hydrogenase enzymes uses nickel and cobalt, abundant and inexpensive metals, in contrast to platinum, a precious metal used in fuel cells. A key feature of our research is a focus on the use of pendant amines incorporated into diphosphine ligands. These pendant amines function as proton relays, lowering the barrier to proton transfers to and from the catalytically active metal site. The hydride acceptor ability of metal cations, along with the basicity of pendant amines, are key thermochemical values that determine the thermodynamics of addition of H2 to a metal complex with a pendant amine incorporated into its ligand. Nickel catalysts for oxidation of H2 have turnover frequencies up to 50 s-1 (at 1 atm H2 and room temperature). Nickel and cobalt catalysts for production of H2 by reduction of protons are studied, one of which has a turnover frequency over 1000 s-1. This material is based upon work supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  19. Katalysierte Synthese von Dimethylcarbonat

    OpenAIRE

    Dou, Herui

    2010-01-01

    Die Synthese von Dimethylcarbonat (DMC) aus Methanol und Kohlenstoffdioxid ist durch die Gleichgewichtslage auf weniger als 1% limitiert. Wird das Nebenprodukt Wasser durch externe Trocknung entfernt kann die Ausbeute unter Verwendung eines ZrO2 Katalysators auf 17% gesteigert werden. Die Grenze des Umsatzes zu DMC ist durch die Effektivität der Entfernung des Wassers limitiert. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde das Reaktionsgemisch durch Umpumpen extern in einen zweiten Reaktor über Zeolith...

  20. Proton and Electron Additions to Iron (II) Dinitrogen Complexes Containing Pendant Amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiden, Zachariah M.; Chen, Shentan; Labios, Liezel AN; Bullock, R. Morris; Walter, Eric D.; Tyson, Elizabeth L.; Mock, Michael T.

    2014-03-10

    We describe a single site cis-(H)FeII-N2 complex, generated by the protonation of an iron-carbon bond of a "reduced" iron complex, that models key aspects of proposed protonated intermediates of the E4 state of nitrogenase. The influence on N2 binding from the addition of protons to the pendant amine sites in the second coordination sphere is described. Furthermore, the addition of electrons to the protonated complexes results in H2 loss. The mechanism of H2 loss is explored to draw a parallel to the origin of H2 loss (homolytic or heterolytic) and the nature of N2 coordination in intermediates of the E4 state of nitrogenase.

  1. ABOUT PRISMATIC ANTLER PENDANTS FROM SÂNTANA DE MURE?-CERNJACHOV CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciuc?l?u Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In Sântana de Mure?-Cernjachov culture we distinguish numerous influences that have targeted not only the material aspects of daily life but also the spiritual life of its different ethnic components. Since the IVth century are signaled in the graves of women and children  a series of prismatic pendants made of antlers decorated with circles, which were seen by some scholars, such as J. Werner and I. Ionita as replicas of type Herkuleskeule amulets.  They were adopted in the Germanic world as symbols of the god Thor / Donau.  In this article we make a presentation of this type of amulets discovered in some of the cemeteries datated in the IVth century researched in Romania and Republic of Moldova.

  2. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness.

  3. Remote control handling arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention concerns a remote control arm, of the type comprising an articulated assembly connecting a handling component to a support. This articulated assembly is made up from standard and separate components interconnected by an articulation allowing for the transmission of an independent movement to produce a pre-determined movement of this handling component with respect to the said support. Such handling arms are fully described in French patent No. 1459250, in which, incidentally, one of the inventors mentioned is the same person as in this application. One of the most important uses of such handling arms is in the fitting of power remote handling devices for hot nuclear laboratories

  4. Solvent resistant microfluidic DNA synthesizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanyi; Castrataro, Piero; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Quake, Stephen R

    2007-01-01

    We fabricated a microfluidic DNA synthesizer out of perfluoropolyether (PFPE), an elastomer with excellent chemical compatibility which makes it possible to perform organic chemical reactions, and synthesized 20-mer oligonucleotides on chip. PMID:17180201

  5. SYNTH: A spectrum synthesizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer code has been written at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to synthesize the results of typical gamma ray spectroscopy experiments. The code, dubbed SYNTH, allows a user to specify physical characteristics of a gamma ray source, the quantity of the nuclides producing the radiation, the source-to-detector distance and the presence of absorbers, the type and size of the detector, and the electronic set up used to gather the data. In the process of specifying the parameters needed to synthesize a spectrum, several interesting intermediate results are produced, including a photopeak transmission function versus energy, a detector efficiency curve, and a weighted list of gamma and x rays produced from a set of nuclides. All of these intermediate results are available for graphical inspection and for printing. SYNTH runs on personal computers. It is menu driven and can be customized to user specifications. SYNTH contains robust support for coaxial germanium detectors and some support for sodium iodide detectors. SYNTH is not a finished product. A number of additional developments are planned. However, the existing code has been compared carefully to spectra obtained from National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) certified standards with very favorable results. Examples of the use of SYNTH and several spectral results are presented

  6. Method for synthesizing HMX

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Raymond R. (Brentwood, CA); Coon, Clifford L. (Fremont, CA); Harrar, Jackson E. (Castro Valley, CA); Pearson, Richard K. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for electrochemically synthesizing N.sub.2 O.sub.5 cludes oxidizing a solution of N.sub.2 O.sub.4 /HNO.sub.3 at an anode, while maintaining a controlled potential between the N.sub.2 O.sub.4 /HNO.sub.3 solution and the anode. A potential of about 1.35 to 2.0 V vs. SCE is preferred, while a potential of about 1.80 V vs. SCE is most preferred. Thereafter, the N.sub.2 O.sub.5 is reacted with either 1.5-diacetyl-3,7-dinitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane (DADN) or 1,3,5,7-tetraacetyl-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane (TAT) to form cyclotetramethylenetetraamine (HMX).

  7. Novel 4-Arm Poly(Ethylene Glycol)-Block-Poly(Anhydride-Esters) Amphiphilic Copolymer Micelles Loading Curcumin: Preparation, Characterization, and In Vitro Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Shengrong Guo; Shengtang Huang; Mingna Li; Xiaofen Xu; Min Li; Yuanyuan Shen; Li Lv

    2013-01-01

    A novel 4-arm poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(anhydride-esters) amphiphilic copolymer (4-arm PEG-b-PAE) was synthesized by esterization of 4-arm poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(anhydride-esters) which was obtained by melt polycondensation of ?-, ?-acetic anhydride terminated poly(L-lactic acid). The obtained 4-arm PEG-b-PAE was characterized by 1H-NMR and gel permeation chromatography. The critical micelle concentration of 4-arm PEG-b-PAE was 2.38??g/mL. The curcumin-loaded 4-arm PEG-b-P...

  8. Thermochemical and Mechanistic Studies of Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Production by Cobalt Complexes Containing Pendant Amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedner, Eric S.; Appel, Aaron M.; DuBois, Daniel L.; Bullock, R. Morris

    2013-12-16

    Two cobalt(tetraphosphine) complexes [Co(PnC-PPh22NPh2)(CH3CN)](BF4)2 with a tetradentate phosphine ligand (PnC-PPh22NPh2 = 1,5-diphenyl-3,7-bis((diphenylphosphino)alkyl)-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane; alkyl = (CH2)2, n = 2 (L2); (CH2)3, n = 3 (L3)) have been studied for electrocatalytic hydrogen production using 1:1 [(DMF)H]+:DMF. A turnover frequency of 980 s–1 with an overpotential of 1210 mV was measured for [CoII(L2)(CH3CN)]2+, and a turnover frequency of 980 s–1 with an overpotential of 930 mV was measured for [CoII(L3)(CH3CN)]2+. Addition of water increases the turnover frequency of [CoII(L2)(CH3CN)]2+ to 19,000 s–1. The catalytic wave for each of these complexes occurs at the reduction potential of the corresponding HCoIII complex. Comprehensive thermochemical studies of [CoII(L2)(CH3CN)]2+ and [CoII(L3)(CH3CN)]2+ and species derived from them by addition/removal of protons/electrons were carried out using values measured experimentally and calculated using DFT. Notably, HCoI(L2) and HCoI(L2) were found to be remarkably strong hydride donors, with HCoI(L2) being a better hydride donor than BH4-. Mechanistic studies of these catalysts reveal that H2 formation can occur by protonation of a HCoII intermediate, and that the pendant amines of these complexes facilitate proton delivery to the cobalt center. The rate-limiting step for catalysis is a net intramolecular isomerization of the protonated pendant amine from the non-productive exo-isomer to the productive endo isomer. We thank Dr. Shentan Chen for many helpful discussions. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Computational resources were provided at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  9. Phoenix Stretches its Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation The Phoenix spacecraft is scheduled to begin raising its robotic arm up and out of its stowed configuration on the third Martian day, or Sol 3 (May 28, 2008) of the mission. This artist's animation, based on engineering models, shows how Phoenix will accomplish this task. First, its wrist actuator will rotate, releasing its launch-restraint pin. Next, the forearm moves up, releasing the elbow launch-restraint pin. The elbow will then move up and over in small steps, a process referred to as 'staircasing.' This ensures that the arm's protective biobarrier wrap, now unpeeled and lying to the side of the arm, will not get in the way of the arm's deployment. The arm is scheduled to straighten all the way out on Sol 4 (May 29, 2008), after engineers have reviewed images and telemetry data from the spacecraft showing that the biobarrier material has been cleared. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. The influence of pendant carboxylic acid loading on surfaces of statistical poly(4-hydroxystyrene)-co-styrene)s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hvilsted, SØren

    2008-01-01

    Copolymers 9f 4-tert-butoxystyrene (tB5) and styrene (5) have been prepared by free radical copolymerization and the copolymer ratios of TtBS == 0.97 and Ts == 1.12 have been determined by the Kelen-Tiidos method. After deprotection to 4-hydroxystyrene, alkynes were introduced by a Williamson ether synthesis with propargyl bromide and the copolymers were functionalized with pendant aliphatic or aromatic carboxylic acids by click chemistry. Differential scanning calorimetry of the copolymers demonstrates the large influence on Tg ofthe different functional groups and the backbone composition. In particular, aliphatic and aromatic pendant groups differ by 92°C in Tg• Contact angle measurements onspin coated films have shown a maximum effect of the functional groups in the advancing contact angle at a 75/100 copolymer loading. In addition to this, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows the presence of acid groups on the surface.

  11. Arm To Arm Interface Using Embedded C

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanraj.C; Manivannan.D

    2013-01-01

    Embedded systems are the most emerging field in these recent years. In this paper a different number of ARM processors (LPC2148 and LPC2378) are interconnected using C for distributed services. N numbers of processors are connected as the network and each processing devices are interlinked with each other, so that the each data that is processed by the devices and it can be used by the other device to activate their entire process. All the processed data’s are communicated to other device t...

  12. Tectonic implications of REE, Th, and Sc analyses of metamorphosed mudstones, Boyden Cave roof pendant, Sierra Nevada, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, A.D.; Girty, G.H. (San Diego State Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    The Boyden Cave pendant is subdivided into an eastern sequence, chaotic unit, and western sequence. The western sequence has an outcrop width of about 2.5 km and consists of a metasandstone unit, calcsilicate schist unit, andalusite biotite schist unit, and marble unit all metamorphosed to amphibolite grade. Because of complex structural relationships, the stratigraphic thicknesses of these four units are unknown. Psammites within the metasandstone unit, on average, are composed of 85.5 [+-] 4.2% quartz, 8.1 [+-] 4.6% total feldspar, 4.8 [+-] 2.8% white mica, 1.4 [+-] 1.3% biotite, and 0.1 [+-] 0.2% epidote (N = 17). The authors analyzed 10 mudstone samples for major, trace, and REEs from the metasandstone and andalusite biotite schist units of the Boyden Cave pendant. Chondrite-normalized REE distribution patterns exhibit LREE-enrichment trends, and Eu anomalies that vary from 0.61 to 0.86, and average 0.69. Such patterns are characteristic of mudstones composed of continentally derived detritus and are consistent with the complete absence of volcanic material. A similar set of geochemical data was collected from the proposed correlative miogeoclinal units in the Nopah Range, SE California. REE distribution patterns for mudstones from the Stirling Quartzite Wood Canyon Formation, and Carrara Formation exhibit LREE-enrichment trends and Eu anomalies that vary from 0.65 to 0.75, and average 0.68. REE distribution patterns for samples collected from the Boyden Cave and Nopah Range are nearly identical in all aspects. On a La-Th-Sc diagram, data from the mudstones in the Boyden Cave pendant cluster with data from the Nopah Range. Thus, the authors conclude that their data are consistent with the proposed correlations suggested by R.A. Schweickert and M.M. Lahren, and that the western sequence of the Boyden Cave pendant may represent a displaced fragment of the Cordilleran miogeocline.

  13. Signature électromagnétique de la dynamique corticale pendant l'éveil et le sommeil chez l'homme

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghani, Nima

    2012-01-01

    L'analyse de la fonction cérébrale à de multiples échelles est une étape nécessaire pour comprendre ses complexités. Dans ce travail de thèse, nous avons étudié cet aspect aux niveaux microscopiques et macroscopiques en utilisant des enregistrements invasifs et non-invasifs. Nous avons utilisé une série d'outils d'analyse communicationnels et de corrélation pour étudier l'activité cérébrale pendant l'éveil et le sommeil. Dans une première étude, nous avons analyse les enre...

  14. THE INTERNATIONAL ARMS TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Japhet

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Everyone is aware of the existence of the arms trade but few have any idea of the nature of its workings or of its implications, both actual and potential. Some information as to the methods employed in the sale of arms was made available via the Lockheed and Northrop scandals, but by and large this was information that could not be evaluated in terms of all the elements of the system. It is the aim of this article to provide some insight into the various facets that go together to make up the arms trade, in this way by no means giving an all-embracing account but merely providing some interesting facts and figures.

  15. Robotic Arm Unwrapped

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken shortly after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander touched down on the surface of Mars, shows the spacecraft's robotic arm in its stowed configuration, with its biobarrier successfully unpeeled. The 'elbow' of the arm can be seen at the top center of the picture, and the biobarrier is the shiny film seen to the left of the arm. The biobarrier is an extra precautionary measure for protecting Mars from contamination with any bacteria from Earth. While the whole spacecraft was decontaminated through cleaning, filters and heat, the robotic arm was given additional protection because it is the only spacecraft part that will directly touch the ice below the surface of Mars. Before the arm was heated, it was sealed in the biobarrier, which is made of a trademarked film called Tedlar that holds up to baking like a turkey-basting bag. This ensures that any new bacterial spores that might have appeared during the final steps before launch and during the journey to Mars will not contact the robotic arm. After Phoenix landed, springs were used to pop back the barrier, giving it room to deploy. The base of the lander's Meteorological Station can be seen in this picture on the upper left. Because only the base of the station is showing, this image tells engineers that the instrument deployed successfully. The image was taken on landing day, May 25, 2008, by the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Synthesis of poly(ester-carbonate) with a pendant acetylcholine analog for promoting neurite growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Dongming; Ma, Lie; Gao, Changyou

    2014-10-01

    The modification of biodegradable polyesters with bioactive molecules has become an important strategy for controlling neuron adhesion and neurite outgrowth in nerve regeneration. In this study we report a biodegradable poly(ester-carbonate) with a pendant acetylcholine analog, which a neurotransmitter for the enhancement of neuron adhesion and outgrowth. The acetylcholine-functionalized poly(ester-carbonate) (Ach-P(LA-ClTMC)) was prepared by copolymerizing l-lactide (LA) and 5-methyl-5-chloroethoxycarbonyl trimethylene carbonate (ClTMC), followed by quaternization with trimethylamine. The acetylcholine analog content could be modulated by changing the molar feeding fraction of ClTMC. The incorporation of the acetylcholine analog improved the hydrophilicity of the films, but the acetylcholine analog content did not significantly influence the surface morphology of the acetylcholine-functionalized films. The results of PC12 cell culture showed that the acetylcholine analog promoted cell viability and neurite outgrowth in a concentration-dependent manner. The longest length of neurite and the percentage of cells bearing neurites were obtained on the Ach-P(LA-ClTMC)-10 film. All the results indicate that the integration of the acetylcholine analog at an appropriate fraction could be an effective strategy for optimizing the existing biodegradable polyesters for nerve regeneration applications. PMID:24998182

  17. Polymer pendant crown thioethers for removal of mercury from acidic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, T F; Fox, G A; Reynolds, J

    1998-12-22

    Removal and immobilization of mercury ions from industrial waste streams is a difficult and expensive problem requiring an efficient and selective extractant that is resistant to corrosive conditions. We have now developed an acid-resistant thiacrown polymer that has potential utility as a selective and cost-effective Hg2+ extractant. Copolymerization of a novel C-substituted thiacrown, N,N-(4-vinylbenzylmethyl)-2-aminomethyl- ,4,&l 1,14- pentathiacycloheptadecane, with DVB (80% divinylbenzene) using a radical initiator generated a highly cross-linked polymer containing pendant thiacrowns. Mercury extraction capabilities of the polymer were tested in acidic media (pH range: 1.5 to 6.2) and the extraction of Hg2+ was determined to be 95+% with a mixing time of 30 minutes. The thiacrown polymer was also determined to be selective for Hg*+, competing ions such as Pb2+, Cd2+, A13+, and Fe3+. even in the presence of high concentrations of The bound Hg2+ ions can then be stripped from the polymer, allowing the polymer to be reused without significant loss of loading capacity.

  18. Arm To Arm Interface Using Embedded C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanraj.C

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Embedded systems are the most emerging field in these recent years. In this paper a different number of ARM processors (LPC2148 and LPC2378 are interconnected using C for distributed services. N numbers of processors are connected as the network and each processing devices are interlinked with each other, so that the each data that is processed by the devices and it can be used by the other device to activate their entire process. All the processed data’s are communicated to other device through Xbee interface card. LPC2148 and LPC2378 ARM processors are used in this prototype and winXtalk is used as a software terminal window. In this paper, the ultimate benefits of multiple processor interactions related to the embedded applications and design issues of processor interconnection are discussed. The features of multiple processor interaction in inter process communication and executions of embedded multitasking are also discussed. In modern embedded computing platform, embedded processor used in various applications like home automation, industrial control, medical system, access control, etc. In this paper, using embedded processor interactions, the several data communication is established.

  19. THE INTERNATIONAL ARMS TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    Japhet, M.

    2012-01-01

    Everyone is aware of the existence of the arms trade but few have any idea of the nature of its workings or of its implications, both actual and potential. Some information as to the methods employed in the sale of arms was made available via the Lockheed and Northrop scandals, but by and large this was information that could not be evaluated in terms of all the elements of the system. It is the aim of this article to provide some insight into the various facets that go together to make up th...

  20. Doclet To Synthesize UML

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Matthew R.; Osborne, Richard N.

    2005-01-01

    The RoseDoclet computer program extends the capability of Java doclet software to automatically synthesize Unified Modeling Language (UML) content from Java language source code. [Doclets are Java-language programs that use the doclet application programming interface (API) to specify the content and format of the output of Javadoc. Javadoc is a program, originally designed to generate API documentation from Java source code, now also useful as an extensible engine for processing Java source code.] RoseDoclet takes advantage of Javadoc comments and tags already in the source code to produce a UML model of that code. RoseDoclet applies the doclet API to create a doclet passed to Javadoc. The Javadoc engine applies the doclet to the source code, emitting the output format specified by the doclet. RoseDoclet emits a Rose model file and populates it with fully documented packages, classes, methods, variables, and class diagrams identified in the source code. The way in which UML models are generated can be controlled by use of new Javadoc comment tags that RoseDoclet provides. The advantage of using RoseDoclet is that Javadoc documentation becomes leveraged for two purposes: documenting the as-built API and keeping the design documentation up to date.

  1. The Josephson locked synthesizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the development of a Josephson locked synthesizer (JoLoS) where a calibrator is used as a sine wave generator whose output is controlled by the calculable fundamental of the stepwise sinusoidal wave generated by a programmable Josephson junction array. Such a system combines the versatility of a calibrator with the stability and accuracy of the Josephson voltage standard. The accuracy of the JoLoS was confirmed by a high precision comparison with a pulse-driven Josephson voltage standard. This comparison showed agreement between the two systems of 0.3 ?V V?1 at a frequency of 500 Hz and an rms amplitude of 100 mV. As an example of the calibration ability of the JoLoS, the calibration of a thermal transfer standard (TTS) is reported. This calibration is in good agreement with a calibration performed against a multi-junction thermal converter for voltages below 1 V and frequencies below 1 kHz. The agreement between the JoLoS and the calibrated TTS is better than 1 ?V V?1 at 1 V. On the lowest voltage ranges, the uncertainties measured with the JoLoS are significantly smaller than the calibration uncertainties of the TTS. This result demonstrates the present potential of the JoLoS at voltages up to 1 V and frequencies up to 1 kHz. (paper)

  2. Phosphorus-nitrogen compounds: Part 28. Syntheses, structural characterizations, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities, and DNA interactions of new phosphazenes bearing vanillinato and pendant ferrocenyl groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tümer, Yasemin; Asmafiliz, Nuran; K?l?ç, Zeynel; Hökelek, Tuncer; Yasemin Koç, L.; Aç?k, Leyla; Yola, Mehmet Lütfi; Solak, Ali Osman; Öner, Ya?mur; Dündar, Devrim; Yavuz, Makbule

    2013-10-01

    The gradually Cl replacement reactions of spirocyclic mono (1 and 2) and bisferrocenyl cyclotriphosphazenes (3-5) with the potassium salt of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (potassium vanillinate) gave mono (1a-5a), geminal (gem-1b-5b), non-geminal (cis-1b, cis-5b and trans-2b-5b), tri (1c-5c) and tetra-substituted phosphazenes (1d-5d). Some phosphazenes have stereogenic P-center(s). The chirality of 4c was verified using chiral HPLC column. Electrochemical behaviors were influenced only by the number of ferrocene groups, but not the length of the amine chains and the substituent(s). The structures of the new phosphazenes were determined by FTIR, MS, 1H, 13C and 31P NMR, HSQC and HMBC spectral data. The solid-state structures of cis-1b and 4d were examined by single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The twelve phosphazene derivatives were screened for antimicrobial activity and the compounds 5a, cis-1b and 2c exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against G(+) and G(-) bacteria. In addition, it was found that overall gem-1b inhibited the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The compounds 1d, 2d and 4d were tested in HeLa cancer cell lines. Among these compounds, 2d had cytotoxic effect on HeLa cell in the first 48 h. Moreover, interactions between compounds 2a, gem-1b, gem-2b, cis-1b, 2c, 3c, 4c, 5c, 1d, 2d and 4d, and pBR322 plasmid DNA were investigated.

  3. Robotic Arm End Effector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Image illustrates the tools on the end of the arm that are used to acquire samples, image the contents of the scoop, and perform science experiments. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Kiikuv maja / Anu Arm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arm, Anu

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia esimese kursuse arhitektuuriüliõpilaste II semestri töö. Juhendaja arhitekt Andres Alver, ehitamise Pedaspeale organiseeris suvepraktika juhendaja arhitekt Jaan Tiidemann. Autor Anu Arm, kaasa töötasid ja valmis ehitasid: Ott Alver, Maarja Elm, Mari Hunt, Alvin Järving, Marten Kaevats, Riho Kerge, Reedik Poopuu, Anu Põime, Helen Rebane, Kaisa Saarva, Martin Tago, Reet Volt. Valmis: 19. VIII 2006

  5. Syntheses of (±-Romucosine and (±-Cathafiline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surachai Nimgirawath

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The structures previously assigned to (--romucosine and (+-cathafiline, N-(methoxycarbonyl aporphine alkaloids from Rollina mucosa (Annonaceae and Cassytha filiformis (Lauraceae respectively, have been confirmed by total syntheses of the racemic substances. The key step of the syntheses involved formation of ring C of the aporphines by a radical-initiated cyclisation.

  6. Dinuclear rhenium complexes as redox-active pendants in a novel electrodeposited polycyclopentadithiophene material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopio, Elsa Quartapelle; Bonometti, Valentina; Panigati, Monica; Mercandelli, Pierluigi; Mussini, Patrizia R; Benincori, Tiziana; D'Alfonso, Giuseppe; Sannicolò, Francesco

    2014-10-20

    The novel [Re2(?-H)(?-OOC-CPDT)(CO)6(?-3-Me-pydz)] complex (1; OOC-CPDT = 4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophene-4-carboxylate, 3-Me-pydz = 3-methylpyridazine) has been prepared and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, density functional theory (DFT), and time-dependent DFT computations, UV-vis absorption and emission spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The measured properties indicate the lack of electronic communication in the ground state between the CPDT and the rhenium diazine moieties. Oxidative electropolymerization of 1, achieved by repeated potential cycling (-0.4 to +1.0 V vs Fc(+)/Fc, in acetonitrile) with different supporting electrolytes, on different electrodes, afforded an electroactive and stable metallopolymer (poly-1). In situ measurements of the mass of the growing film (on a gold electrode, with an electrochemical quartz microbalance) confirmed the regularity of the polymerization process. The polymer exhibits two reversible oxidation peaks of the thiophene chain and a broad irreversible reduction peak (-1.4 V, quite close to that observed for the reduction of monomer 1), associated with a remarkably delayed sharp return peak, of comparable associated charge, appearing in close proximity (+0.3 V) to the first oxidation peak of the neutral polythiophene chain. This charge-trapping effect can be observed upon repeated cycles of p and n doping, and the negative charge is maintained even if the charged electrode is removed from the solution for many hours. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that the main CV oxidation peak corresponds to facile charge transfer, combined with very fast diffusion of both electrons and ions within the polymer. In summary, poly-1 provides a new example of a metallopolymer, in which the conductive properties of the ?-conjugated system are added to the redox behavior of the pendant-isolated complexes. PMID:25285663

  7. Polymer pendant crown thioethers for removal of mercury from acidic wastes: synthesis, characterization and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, J G; Baumann, T F; Nelson, A J; Fox, G A

    2000-07-21

    Removal of mercury ions from industrial waste streams is a difficult and expensive problem requiring an efficient and selective extractant that is resistant to corrosive conditions. We have now developed an acid-resistant thiacrown polymer that has potential utility as a selective and cost-effective Hg{sup 2+} extractant. Copolymerization of a novel C-substituted thiacrown, N,N-(4-vinylbenzylmethyl)-2-aminomethyl-1,4,8,11,14-pentathiacycloheptadecane, with DVB (80% divinylbenzene) using a radical initiator generated a highly cross-linked polymer containing pendant thiacrowns. Mercury extraction capabilities of the polymer were tested in acidic media (pH range: 1.5 to 6.2) and the extraction of Hg{sup 2+} was determined to be 95% at a mixing time of 30 minutes. The thiacrown polymer was also determined to be selective for Hg{sup 2+}, even in the presence of high concentrations of competing ions such as Pb{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Al{sup 3}, and Fe{sup 3+}. The bound Hg{sup 2+} ions can then be stripped from the polymer, allowing the polymer to be reused without significant loss of loading capacity. The binding of Hg{sup 2+} to the polymer has been examined by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The thiacrown appears unaffected by incorporation into the polymer and the Hg{sup 2+} appears to be bound to the polymer complex in a similar manner as Hg{sup 2+} is bound in monomeric thiacrowns containing five sulfur atoms.

  8. Microelectromechanical safe arm device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesler, Alexander W. (Tijeras, NM)

    2012-06-05

    Microelectromechanical (MEM) apparatus and methods for operating, for preventing unintentional detonation of energetic components comprising pyrotechnic and explosive materials, such as air bag deployment systems, munitions and pyrotechnics. The MEM apparatus comprises an interrupting member that can be moved to block (interrupt) or complete (uninterrupt) an explosive train that is part of an energetic component. One or more latching members are provided that engage and prevent the movement of the interrupting member, until the one or more latching members are disengaged from the interrupting member. The MEM apparatus can be utilized as a safe and arm device (SAD) and electronic safe and arm device (ESAD) in preventing unintentional detonations. Methods for operating the MEM apparatus include independently applying drive signals to the actuators coupled to the latching members, and an actuator coupled to the interrupting member.

  9. ARM Soc Based Enotebook

    OpenAIRE

    Bawankar, Pranita C.; Rane, Prof U. A.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, electronic media has grown very fast replacing papers, tape devices, books, etc. The new technologies provide large number of data into single device, fast searching options and more readability than ever. As eBooks are replacing books; we are proposing ENotebook system in which user can write as he did in notebook, save, searches and then reread content. This paper presents design and development of ENotebook using ARM7. The system uses touch screen to get in...

  10. Small arms ammunition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Joseph (399 Clover St., Aberdeen, MD 21001)

    1992-01-01

    An elongate projectile for small arms use has a single unitary mass with a hollow nose cavity defined by a sharp rigid cutting edge adapted to make initial contact with the target surface and cut therethrough. The projectile then enters the target mass in an unstable flight mode. The projectile base is substantially solid such that the nose cavity, while relatively deep, does not extend entirely through the base and the projectile center of gravity is aft of its geometric center.

  11. AES i ARM procesori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela D. Proti?

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Potreba za zaštitom informacija dovodi do velikih problema u izradi prenosivih ure?aja kojima su limitirani snaga, memorija i energija. Ukoliko se takvim ure?ajima dodaju koprocesori, koji treba da obavljaju funkcije kriptozaštite, njihove se dimenzije pove?avaju, pojavljuje se nefleksibilnost pa cena ure?aja raste i do nekoliko puta. Na drugoj strani, algoritmi za zaštitu podataka su ?esto memorijski zahtevni, a zbog velikog broja operacija koje je potrebno izvršavati u procesima šifrovanja i dešifrovanja, koprocesori ?esto uspore rad osnovnog procesora. Za jedan od standarda za kriptozaštitu, AES, NIST je prihvatio Rijndaelov blokovski algoritam sa dužinom ulaznog i izlaznog bloka od 128 b, i dužinama šifarskog klju?a od 128 b, 192 b i 256 b. Zbog karakteristika male potrošnje, 32-bitske arhitekture i brzog izvršavanja instrukcija, ARM procesori mogu da realizuju kriptozaštitu podataka, izme?u ostalog i AES-om, a da ne opterete glavne procese u sistemima u kojima se koriste. Tehnologija ARM-a zašti?ena je kao intelektualna svojina, pa je veliki broj proizvo?a?a koristi za razvoj sopstvenih proizvoda, što je rezultovalo ?injenicom da je u svetu proizvedeno preko 2 milijarde ?ipova koji su bazirani na ovoj tehnologiji. U radu su prikazane mogu?nosti za poboljšanja u izvršenju algoritma AES primenom najnovijih verzija ARM procesora.

  12. Geochemical Investigation of Saddlebag Lake Roof Pendant and Lee Vining Intrusive Suite Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonderly, A.; Canchola, J.; Putirka, K. D.

    2009-12-01

    Our study is to determine to what extent volcanic rocks from the Saddlebag Lake Roof Pendant (SLRP) represent the erupted complement of the Sierra Nevada Batholith (SNB). SLRP formation is thought to be prior to or synchronous with Sierra Nevada orogeny. Age dates of the SLRP are similar to age dates from the Lee Vining Intrusive Suite (LVIS), so the LVIS may be the plutonic equivalent of the SLRP (Kistler and Fleck 1994). A hypothesized analog between SLRP-LVIS is the Wilson Ridge Pluton (WRP)-River Mountains (RM) complex in southern Nevada, which is a dismembered volcanic complex offset by normal faulting (Honn and Smith, 2008). WRP and RM trace element data from Honn and Smith plot very similar on a Hf-Th-Ta ternary diagram, and Sr and Nd isotope analyses also indicate that the Nevada rocks are co-magmatic. Our goal is to conduct geochemical tests to determine whether the SLRP and LVIS are co-genetic. Our preliminary data support the possibility that the SLRP may provide a window into the magmatic evolutionary processes that led to the development of the LVIS, and the SNB generally. Eighteen samples were collected from the SLRP; major element compositions of whole rocks yield similar weight percents of major oxides for some published data from the LVIS (Bateman et al. 1984). Our SLRP samples, though, trend to higher MgO, Fe2O3, Al2O3, and CaO, lower in SiO2 and Na2O+K2O. If the SLRP and LVIS are indeed related, the SLRP samples may represent some of the less-differentiated liquids from which the LVIS was derived. We were only able to find one basalt (51.2 wgt % SiO2), albeit with very low MgO (2.17 wt %), which may give clues as to the origin of the LVIS. If the mafic enclaves in the LVIS were once liquid, then the SLRP basalts should be comparable to mafic enclaves in composition. We are also analyzing mafic enclaves from the LVIS to explore whether these are liquid precursors to Sierra Nevada Batholith granites.

  13. Zinc, cadmium, and mercury complexes of a pyridyloxy-substituted cyclotriphosphazene: syntheses, structures, and fluxional behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainscough, Eric W; Brodie, Andrew M; Edwards, Patrick J B; Jameson, Geoffrey B; Otter, Carl A; Kirk, Stephen

    2012-10-15

    The synthesis and characterization of the fluxional, d(10) cyclotriphosphazene complexes, [MLCl(2)] (M = Zn, Cd, and Hg; L = spiro-[(1,1'-biphenyl)-2,2'-dioxy]tetrakis(4-methyl-2-pyridyloxy)cyclotriphosphazene), are described. Single-crystal X-ray structures show that the zinc complex has crystallized into two crystal forms: one as a tetrahedral species, with a N(2)Cl(2) donor set in which a geminal pair of the pendant pyridyloxy nitrogen atoms binds to the zinc, and the other as a trigonal-bipyramidal (tbp) one, with an N(3)Cl(2) donor set. The third nitrogen atom comes from the phosphazene ring and the two pyridyl ligands are non-geminal. The asymmetric unit of the cadmium complex contains three structurally distinct molecules. One molecule has a tbp structure similar to that of the zinc complex. The second molecule has a six-coordinate, distorted octahedral geometry around the cadmium center with a N(4)Cl(2) donor set, with three of the nitrogen donor atoms coming from the pendant pyridyloxy arms. The third site contains a tbp complex and a distorted octahedral species with a relative occupancy of 3:1. The identification of these three different forms in the one crystal suggests that the energy difference between the tbp and distorted octahedral isomers is not large. Quantitative analysis of the (1)H NMR and variable-temperature (31)P NMR spectra of the zinc, cadmium, and mercury complexes in a CD(2)Cl(2) solution, coupled with the X-ray structural results, shows that an associative fluxional mechanism (?S(++) < -65 J mol(-1) K(-1)) is operating. PMID:23025919

  14. Nature of galaxy spiral arms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nature of galaxy spiral arms is discussed in a popular form. Two approaches in the theory of spiral arms are considered; they are related to the problem of differential galaxy rotation and the spiral structure wave theory. The example of Galaxy M31 is considered to compare the structural peculiarity of its spiral arms with the wave theory predictions. The situation in the central and south-eastern part of arm S4 in Galaxy M31 noted to be completely explained by the wave theory and modern concepts on the origin of massive stars

  15. Sensibilité des œufs de truite arc-en-ciel aux chocs mécaniques pendant la phase de durcissement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BILLARD R.

    1976-10-01

    Full Text Available Des œufs de Truite arc-en-ciel en provenance de plusieurs femelles ont été transférés en eau douce après insémination et soumis à une agitation mécanique pendant une heure. Généralement on observe après 30 mn d'agitation une diminution du pourcentage d'œufs embryonnés qui est significative (P < 0,001 et P < 0,05. Cependant dans le cas d'une femelle la diminution n'était pas significative (fig. 1. Si l'agitation est appliquée seulement entre la 30e et la 60e minute après le transfert en eau douce, il n'y a pas de diminution du pourcentage d'œufs embryonnés (fig. 3. Il n'y a donc pas de phases plus sensibles que d'autres ; la durée totale d'agitation étant le facteur le plus important. La manipulation des œufs pendant une heure après leur transfert en eau douce apparaît au moins dans certains cas préjudiciable au développement embryonnaire et doit donc être évitée

  16. Pseudotachylite Bearing Cretaceous Fault in the Saddlebag Lake Pendant, Central Sierra Nevada, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesides, A. S.; Cao, W.; Paterson, S. R.

    2010-12-01

    Over the past several years the undergraduate researchers and mentors in the University of Southern California’s Undergraduate Team Research program has mapped the northern continuation of the Gem Lake shear zone from Gem Lake to Virginia Canyon near the north end of the Saddlebag pendant. In the center of this dominantly dextral, ductile shear zone we now recognize a pseudotachylite bearing brittle fault that often juxtaposes Triassic metavolcanics to the east of the fault with a Jurassic metasedimentary package to the west of the fault. Kinematic indicators such as slickenlines, steps, and offset dikes found within the brittle fault zone also suggest dextral oblique motion, similar to the motion of the ductile shear zone. The brittle fault dips steeply and strikes N-NW with the fault zone width varying from narrow (sub m scale) to a 100-200 m wide fracture zone as seen in the Sawmill area. Jurrasic metasediments (> 177Ma) and Cretaceous metavolcanics (110-95Ma) lie to the West of the fault and Triassic metavolcanics (219Ma) lie to the East of the fault in the Virginia Canyon, Saddlebag Lake, and Sawmill areas. The absence of ~45 million years of Jurassic metavolcanics along the contact of the fault in each area, suggests tectonic removal of the sequence. Pseudotachylite, quartz vein rich breccias, gouge, fault scarps, and truncated Cathedral Peak dikes (~88 Ma) originating from the Tuolumne Batholith (TB), are common features associated with the brittle fault. The truncated, 88 Ma Cathedral Peak dikes plus nearby biotite cooling ages of 82 Ma indicate that displacement on the brittle fault continued well after TB emplacement and cooling and likely continued after ~80 Ma. The pseudotachylite suggests earthquakes occurred on the brittle fault during the Cretaceous. Movement also occurred along the fault at fairly shallow depths as indicated by the presence of vugs, or cavities with free euhedral crystal growth, within the quartz vein breccias. In the Sawmill Canyon area, located immediately southwest of Saddlebag Lake, the fault zone widens and is rich with evidence of brittle faulting including the quartz vein breccias similar to other study areas and localized pseudotachylite veins and breccias with angular rock fragments varying from 4 cm in size. The fault branches off into several different strands within this zone, each associated with the quartz breccias and pseudotachylite common in the area. Outcrop scale kink bands found along some of the fault strands, suggesting late brittle faulting with the decrease of regional strain. Brittle faulting in the Sawmill area may be further complicated by large-scale boudinage associated with the faulting in the area. Some of the contacts in this area identified as fault strands may in part be large, fluid-filled cracks associated with bending (tension due to scar folding?) during boudinage of the metasedimentary package and nearby margin of the Tuolumne batholith in the area.

  17. Hand/Wrist/Arm Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of infection. No 5. Is it painful to grip a doorknob, and does the pain start on the outside of your elbow and move down your arm to your wrist? Yes Your may have TENNIS ELBOW, a type of TENDINITIS. Rest the arm, apply ice packs ...

  18. Synthesized layered inorganic-organic magnesium organosilicate containing a disulfide moiety as a promising sorbent for cations removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new-layered inorganic-organic magnesium organosilicate was synthesized through a single step template sol-gel route under mild conditions, using a new alkoxysilane, containing a 2-aminophenyldisulfide molecule. Elemental analysis data based on the nitrogen atom showed an incorporation of 1.97 mmol of organic pendant groups for each gram of the hybrid formed. The X-ray diffraction patterns demonstrated that this nanocompound exhibited lamellar structure, in agreement with that found for natural inorganic silicates. Infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance for the 29Si nucleus in the solid state are in agreement with the success of the proposed synthetic method. The presence of nitrogen and sulfur basic centers attached to the pendant groups inside the lamellar structure is used as basic centers to coordinate cations from aqueous solution at the solid/liquid interface. The isotherms were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich models. The maxima adsorption capacities for copper, lead and cadmium, calculated from Langmuir model, were 3.28, 1.42 and 0.35 mmol g-1, respectively. These values are comparable to other adsorbing nanomaterials. This behavior suggested that this new inorganic-organic hybrid could be employed as a promising adsorbent for cation removal from polluted systems

  19. La evolución de la relación salarial durante la post convertibilidad L’évolution du rapport salarial pendant la post-convertibilité The evolution of the labor-wage nexus during the post-convertibility phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Neffa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este capítulo constituye una síntesis de trabajos realizados conjuntamente con Robert Boyer durante la década pasada y tiene como objetivo mostrar los cambios y la evolución de la relación salarial durante el periodo de la post-convertibilidad, es decir desde 2002 hasta fines de 2011, así como las principales restricciones que debe enfrentar el nuevo modo de desarrollo desde la crisis de los subprimes, que se manifiestan con fuerza desde el inicio del Segundo Mandato de la Dra. Cristina Fernández de Kirchner.Ce chapitre est une synthèse des travaux réalisés pendant la décennie dernière. Il analyse les changements du rapport salarial après l'abandon de la convertibilité, c´est-à-dire depuis 2002 et jusqu´à la fin de 2011. Il explicite ensuite les principales contraintes qui s'imposent au nouveau mode de développement depuis la crise des subprimes et limitent sa viabilité. Ces tensions se manifestent avec force dès le début du deuxième mandat de la présidente Cristina Fernández de Kirchner.This contribution synthesizes a decade of research. It analyses the dynamics of the wage-labor nexus after the convertibility period, i.e. from 2002 until the end of 2011. It also scrutinizes the most salient constraints arising in the development mode after the subprime crisis that limit its viability. These problems are becoming more obvious since the beginning of President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner second term.

  20. Robotic Arm Biobarrier Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on the 14th Martian day of the mission (June 7, 2008), shows the cable that held the Robotic Arm's biobarrier in place during flight has snapped. The cable's springs retracted to release the biobarrier right after landing. To the lower right of the image a spring is visible. Extending from that spring is a length of cable that snapped during the biobarrier's release. A second spring separated from the cable when it snapped and has been photographed on the ground under the lander near one of the legs. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. Introduction of bridging and pendant organic groups into mesoporous alumina materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Stacy M; Woods, Stephan M; Gericke, Arne; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2011-11-01

    Incorporation of organic functionalities into soft-templated mesoporous alumina was performed via organosilane-assisted evaporation induced self-assembly using aluminum alkoxide precursors and block copolymer templates. This strategy permits one to obtain mesoporous alumina-based materials with tailorable adsorption, surface and structural properties. Isocyanurate, ethane, mercaptopropyl, and ureidopropyl-functionalized mesoporous alumina materials were synthesized with relatively high surface area and large pore volume with uniform and wormhole-like mesopores. The presence of organosilyl groups within these hybrid materials was confirmed by IR or Raman spectroscopy and their concentration was determined by elemental analysis. PMID:21988174

  2. Method of synthesizing pyrite nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadia, Cyrus; Wu, Yue

    2013-04-23

    A method of synthesizing pyrite nanocrystals is disclosed which in one embodiment includes forming a solution of iron (III) diethyl dithiophosphate and tetra-alkyl-ammonium halide in water. The solution is heated under pressure. Pyrite nanocrystal particles are then recovered from the solution.

  3. Intramolecular iron-mediated C-H bond heterolysis with an assist of pendant base in a [FeFe]-hydrogenase model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dehua; Wang, Ning; Wang, Mei; Ding, Shengda; Ma, Chengbing; Darensbourg, Marcetta Y; Hall, Michael B; Sun, Licheng

    2014-12-01

    Although many metalloenzymes containing iron play a prominent role in biological C-H activation processes, to date iron-mediated C(sp(3))-H heterolysis has not been reported for synthetic models of Fe/S-metalloenzymes. In contrast, ample precedent has established that nature's design for reversible hydrogen activation by the diiron hydrogenase ([FeFe]-H2ase) active site involves multiple irons, sulfur bridges, a redox switch, and a pendant amine base, in an intricate arrangement to perform H-H heterolytic cleavage. In response to whether this strategy might be extended to C-H activation, we report that a [FeFe]-H2ase model demonstrates iron-mediated intramolecular C-H heterolytic cleavage via an agostic C-H interaction, with proton removal by a nearby pendant amine, affording Fe(II)-[Fe'(II)-CH-S] three-membered-ring products, which can be reduced back to 1 by Cp2Co in the presence of HBF4. The function of the pendant base as a proton shuttle was confirmed by the crystal structures of the N-protonated intermediate and the final deprotonated product in comparison with that of a similar but pendant-amine-free complex that does not show evidence of C-H activation. The mechanism of the process was backed up by DFT calculations. PMID:25244613

  4. Evidence of Uppermost Proterozoic to Lower Cambrian miogeoclinal rocks and the Mojave-Snow Lake Fault: Snow Lake Pendant, central Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahren, Mary M.; Schweickert, Richard A.; Mattinson, James M.; Walker, J. Douglas

    1990-12-01

    Displaced uppermost Precambrian to Lower Cambrian miogeoclinal strata occur within Snow Lake pendant in the central Sierra Nevada. These rocks have been correlated with the Stirling Quartzite, the Wood Canyon Formation, the Zabriskie Quartzite, and the Carrara Formation in the western Mojave Desert and the San Bernardino Mountains (Lahren and Schweickert, 1989; Lahren, 1989). This correlation is based on new, updated, and previously reported data including (1) lithologic similarities, (2) overall stratigraphic sequence, (3) vertical sequence within individual formations, (4) approximate stratigraphic thicknesses, (5) Skolithos in the correct stratigraphie position, (6) depositional environments, and (7) petrographic character and provenance of quartz arenites. The correlation is strengthened by the fact that Snow Lake pendant and the western Mojave share many other close similarities including (1) initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of associated granitic rocks >0.706, (2) passive margin tectonic setting of Precambrian to Cambrian miogeoclinal rocks, (3) dikes of the Independence dike swarm, (4) possible Lower Triassic overlap sequence, the Fairview Valley Formation, (5) petrographically similar gabbroic complexes of the same age, (6) associated eugeoclinal rocks, and (7) identical(?) pre-Tertiary structural configuration. New U/Pb zircon geochronology unequivocally shows that dikes at Snow Lake pendant are coeval with the Independence dike swarm of the eastern Sierra and the western Mojave desert and that associated gabbroic complexes in both the Mojave and Snow Lake pendant are the same age. Correlation of Snow Lake pendant with the western Mojave requires about 400 km of dextral displacement of the rocks of Snow Lake pendant, together with associated rocks (Snow Lake block), from the western Mojave Desert along the Mojave-Snow Lake fault. Displacement most likely occurred after 150 Ma, the age of the Independence dike swarm, and before about 110 Ma, the age of major plutons within the Sierra Nevada batholith. This interpretation, if correct, holds major implications for allochthonous terranes west of Snow Lake pendant, which were probably attached to the Snow Lake block before its northward transport. In addition, a number of Paleozoic and Mesozoic tectonic features in western Nevada and eastern California may have been offset dextrally along the proposed Mojave-Snow Lake fault.

  5. HABITAT DE LA TRUITE COMMUNE (SALMO TRUTTA L. PENDANT LA PÉRIODE JUVÉNILE EN RUISSEAU : PRÉFÉRENCES, MOUVEMENTS, VARIATIONS JOURNALIÈRES ET SAISONNIÈRES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROUSSEL J. M.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Cet article synthétise les résultats de travaux récents sur l’habitat de la truite commune pendant sa période juvénile en ruisseau. Par des approches in situ (affluents du Scorff, Bretagne et en milieu expérimental, les variations temporelles d’utilisation de l’habitat ont été étudiées, ainsi que l’influence de certains facteurs abiotiques (vitesse de courant, profondeur, granulométrie, abris et biotiques (prédation, compétition intraspécifique sur les choix d’habitat de l’individu. A l’aide de la bibliographie sur le sujet, nous proposons un bilan des changements journaliers et saisonniers d’habitat du juvénile en ruisseau, depuis l’émergence jusqu’à la première reproduction. En matière de protection des milieux, l’accent est mis sur l’importance de la diversité des habitats disponibles dans les affluents où se reproduit l’espèce.

  6. Synthesis, crystal structure, computational and photophysical studies of new hydrazono-thiazole derivatives decorated with N-methyl tetrahydrocarbazole pendant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Deepika; Chaudhary, R. P.

    2015-01-01

    2,3-Dihydro-1H-carbazol-4(9H)-one, obtained from 2,3-Dichloro-5,6-Dicyanobenzoquinone (DDQ) oxidation of tetrahydrocarbazole, on methylation with N, N-dimethylformamide dimethyl acetal (DMF-DMA) furnish N-methyl derivative. The thiosemicarbazone of N-methyl derivative on reaction with 2-bromopropionic acid, ethyl bromopyruvate and dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (DMAD) afford hydrazono-thiazolidin-4-one derivatives with tetrahydrocarbazole pendant. X-ray diffraction and DFT studies of (Z)-5-methyl-2-((E)-(9-methyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-carbazol-4(9H)-ylidene)hydrazono)thiazolidin-4-one 5 have been reported. The reaction with dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (DMAD) and ethyl bromopyruvate take place without any catalyst and organic solvent. The photophysical properties of these compounds were studied by means of UV/visible absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy.

  7. Phosphorylcholine substituted polyolefins: New syntheses, solution assemblies, and polymer vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Katrina A.

    This thesis describes the synthesis and applications of a new series of amphiphilic homopolymers and copolymers consisting of hydrophobic polyolefin backbone and hydrophilic phosphorylcholine (PC) pendant groups. These polymers are synthesized by ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of a novel PC- cyclooctene monomer, and copolymerization of various functionalized cyclooctene comonomers. Incorporation of different comonomers into the PC-polyolefin backbone affords copolymers with different functionalities, including crosslinkers, fluorophores, and other reactive groups, that tune the range of applications of these polymers, and their hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance. The amphiphilic nature of PC-polyolefins was exploited in oil-water interfacial assembly, providing robust polymer capsules to encapsulate and deliver nanoparticles to damaged regions of a substrate in a project termed `repair-and-go.' In repair-and-go, a flexible microcapsule filled with a solution of nanoparticles probes an imperfection-riddled substrate as it rolls over the surface. The thin capsule wall allows the nanoparticles to escape the capsules and enter into the cracks, driven in part by favorable interactions between the nanoparticle ligands and the cracked surface (i.e., hydrophobic-hydrophobic interactions). The capsules then continue their transport along the surface, filling more cracks and depositing particles into them. The amphiphilic nature of PC-polyolefins was also exploited in aqueous assembly, forming novel polymer vesicles in water. PC-polyolefin vesicles ranged in size from 50 nm to 30 µm. The mechanical properties of PC-polyolefin vesicles were measured by micropipette aspiration techniques, and found to be more robust than conventional liposomes or polymersomes prepared from block copolymers. PC-polyolefin vesicles have potential use in drug delivery; it was found that the cancer drug doxorubicin could be encapsulated efficiently in PC-polyolefin vesicles. In another application, PC-polyolefins were used as antifouling coatings for ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) water purification membranes. These polymers were found to reduce surface fouling in both UF and RO membranes. Finally, PC-substituted ruthenium benzylidene catalysts were synthesized and evaluated for ROMP in water. PC-substituted catalysts proved effective towards productive metathesis of water soluble cyclic olefins including PEG-substituted oxanorbornene.

  8. Computing Free Energy Landscapes: Application to Ni-based Electrocatalysts with Pendant Amines for H2 Production and Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shentan; Ho, Ming-Hsun; Bullock, R. Morris; DuBois, Daniel L.; Dupuis, Michel; Rousseau, Roger J.; Raugei, Simone

    2014-01-03

    A general strategy is reported for computational exploration of catalytic pathways of molecular catalysts. Our results are based on a set of linear free energy relationships derived from extensive electronic structure calculations that permit predicting the thermodynamics of intermediates, with accuracy comparable to experimental data. The approach is exemplified with the catalytic oxidation and production of H2 by [Ni(diphosphine)2]2+ electrocatalysts with pendant amines incorporated in the second coordination sphere of the metal center. The analysis focuses upon prediction of thermodynamic properties including reduction potentials, hydride donor abilities, and pKa values of both the protonated Ni center and pendant amine. It is shown that all of these chemical properties can be estimated from the knowledge of only the two redox potentials for the Ni(II)/Ni(I) and Ni(I)/Ni(0) couples of the non-protonated complex, and the pKa of the parent primary aminium ion. These three quantities are easily accessible either experimentally or theoretically. The proposed correlations reveal intimate details about the nature of the catalytic mechanism and its dependence on chemical structure and thermodynamic conditions such as applied external voltage and species concentration. This computational methodology is applied to exploration of possible catalytic pathways, identifying low and high-energy intermediates and, consequently, possibly avoiding bottlenecks associated with undesirable intermediates in the catalytic reactions. We discuss how to optimize some of the critical reaction steps in order to favor catalytically more efficient intermediates. The results of this study highlight the substantial interplay between the various parameters characterizing the catalytic activity, and form the basis needed to optimize the performance of this class of catalysts.

  9. Monolayer assemblies of a sandwich-type double-decker porphyrin complex of cerium with an additional pendant porphyrin unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Joe; Ohya, Chiaki; Komatsu, Yuji; Morisaki, Takuya

    2012-01-01

    We have prepared a novel sandwich-type double-decker porphyrin complex with cerium, in which one of the porphyrins has long alkyl chains and the other has a pendant free-base porphyrin unit. The preparation of the complex was achieved with a Sonogashira coupling reaction between a preformed double-decker complex bearing an ethynyl moiety and an iodophenyl porphyrin. This complex forms moderately ordered self-assembled monolayers at the interface of 1-phenyloctane and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. STM images with submolecular resolution revealed that the double-decker complexes form monolayers through adsorption of the alkyl-substituted porphyrin unit, presenting the other porphyrin having the additional porphyrin unit to the solution. All molecules are oriented in the same direction within single ordered domains. The double-decker complex and the corresponding free-base porphyrin form mixed monolayers due to their common adsorbing group and the matching unit cell parameters. The high spots for the double-decker cores are accompanied by lower spots, which can be assigned as the pendant free-base porphyrin units, revealing that the double-decker complexes predominantly take perpendicular orientation, in which the additional porphyrin unit orients perpendicular to the molecular row. Both the double-decker complex and the free-base porphyrin adsorb on the surface initially after the mixture was deposited, but the double-decker complex is gradually replaced by free-base porphyrin toward the thermodynamically stable assembly, in which the free-base porphyrin predominates. This behavior is unique to this particular complex among some analogous complexes with the same adsorbing group, which implies that groups not directly involved in adsorption may have profound effects on the adsorption and assembling properties of the molecule. PMID:22523960

  10. ARM Lead Mentor Selection Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisterson, DL

    2013-03-13

    The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as Instrument Mentors. Instrument Mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets.

  11. Chemical syntheses and characterizations of II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lijuan

    This thesis is mainly concerned with the chemical syntheses and property characterizations of a series of II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals. We have synthesized ZnTe and Cr doped ZnTe nanoparticles, ZnSe:en precursor nanoribbon arrays, and CdSe quantum dots (QDs) and tetrapods nanocrystals using simple chemical methods. Structures and compositions of the obtained nanocrystals are characterized by the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM). The optical absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL), and field emission experiments are also carried out. ZnTe and Cr doped ZnTe nanoparticles (ZnTe:Cr) have been synthesized by colloidal nano-synthesis method. The characterizations by XRD, XRF, and TEM show that the synthesized ZnTe and ZnTe:Cr crystals have cubic structure and Cr is incorporated into ZnTe. The magnetic properties of ZnTe:Cr are investigated. A hysteresis is observed in the magnetization versus magnetic field measurements below 10K. The detailed analyses suggest that the hysteresis is possibly originated from the magnetic short-range orders of Zn1-xCrxTe compounds in the sample. Vertically-aligned ZnSe:en precursor nanoribbon arrays have been grown directly on Zn foil via a simple solvothermal procedure. The nanoribbons are 100 ˜ 300 nm in width and several nanometers in thickness. Their lengths are about a few micrometers. The conversion of the ZnSe:en nanoribbon arrays to ZnSe nanoribbon arrays with wurtzite structures is achieved by a thermal annealing in N2 atmosphere. Upon the release of en, the morphology of the ZnSe nanoribbon arrays is well-preserved and the crystallinity of the ribbons is improved. Uniform field emissions were observed from ZnSe nanoribbons. Results show that the ZnSe nanoribbon arrays are good field emitters in comparison with many other nanostructures as having a low turn-on field of 5 V/mum and a high field enhancement factor of 1382. CdSe tetrapod nanocrystals have been synthesized using a simple nano-synthesis method by controlling the protonic acidity of the cadmium OA-TOP precursor. The crystal structure of the tetrapods is determined by HRTEM analysis, which shows that the tetrapod has a zinc blende core and four wurtzite arms. The possible growth mechanism in our experiment is discussed. The electronic structure of tetrapod is calculated in comparison with the spherical dot, indicating that for our tetrapod samples the ground state is dominated by the core diameter and only for the states above the fourth excited state the "arm diameter" effect becomes important. The steady state and transient optical properties of CdSe tetrapods and QDs are studied in details. No qualitative differences are detected. The field emission properties of CdSe tetrapods with different arm lengths are also investigated in details, showing that the longer the arm length, the lower the turn-on field, and the higher the enhancement factor.

  12. X-Band PLL Synthesizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kutin

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with design and realization of a PLL synthesizer for the microwave X−band. The synthesizer is intended for use as a local oscillator in a K−band downconverter. The design goal was to achieve very low phase noise and spurious free signal with a sufficient power level. For that purpose a low phase noise MMIC VCO was used in phase locked loop. The PLL works at half the output frequency, therefore there is a frequency doubler at the output of the PLL. The output signal from the frequency doubler is filtered by a band-pass filter and finally amplified by a single stage amplifier.

  13. Catalytic method for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); Sansone, Michael J. (Summit, NJ); Slegeir, William A. R. (Hampton Bays, NY)

    1984-01-01

    A method for synthesizing hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen by contacting said gases with a slurry of a catalyst composed of palladium or platinum and cobalt supported on a solid phase is disclosed. The catalyst is prepared by heating a heterogeneous component of the palladium or platinum deposited on the solid support in a solution of cobalt carbonyl or precursors thereof. The catalyst exhibits excellent activity, stability in air, and produces highly desirable product fractions even with dilute gaseous reactants.

  14. Bandwidth-Synthesizing FM Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chialin

    1992-01-01

    Proposed frequency-modulation (FM) radar system uses sawtooth-wave-form linear frequency sweeps and return-signal-processing scheme in which samples of signals from N consecutive sweep periods are combined to multiply range resolution by factor of N. System "synthesizes" bandwith N times that of transmitted signal in sense that to increase resolution of ordinary radar system where consecutive samples are not combined, it is necessary to increase bandwidth of transmitted signal by same factor. Used in FM radar altimeters.

  15. Synthesizing Robust Systems with RATSY

    OpenAIRE

    Roderick Bloem; Hans-Jürgen Gamauf; Georg Hofferek; Bettina Könighofer; Robert Könighofer

    2012-01-01

    Specifications for reactive systems often consist of environment assumptions and system guarantees. An implementation should not only be correct, but also robust in the sense that it behaves reasonably even when the assumptions are (temporarily) violated. We present an extension of the requirements analysis and synthesis tool RATSY that is able to synthesize robust systems from GR(1) specifications, i.e., system in which a finite number of safety assumption violations is gua...

  16. Arm locking for space-based laser interferometry gravitational wave observatories

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Yinan; Mueller, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Laser frequency stabilization is a critical part of the interferometry measurement system of space-based gravitational wave observatories such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). Arm locking as a proposed frequency stabilization technique, transfers the stability of the long arm lengths to the laser frequency. The arm locking sensor synthesizes an adequately filtered linear combination of the inter-spacecraft phase measurements to estimate the laser frequency noise, which can be used to control the laser frequency. At the University of Florida we developed the hardware-based University of Florida LISA Interferometer Simulator (UFLIS) to study and verify laser frequency noise reduction and suppression techniques under realistic LISA-like conditions. These conditions include the variable Doppler shifts between the spacecraft, LISA-like signal travel times, optical transponders, realistic laser frequency and timing noise. We review the different types of arm locking sensors and discuss their expect...

  17. Changing patterns of arms transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three factors in the international system have been of importance for the trade of arms: the role of the main actors on the supply side and since 1970 on the demand side, the permanently increasing importance of economics, and the balance trade, industrial capacity and jobs in supplier countries and purchasing power of potential importers. Two political events in 1991 had lasting effect on the development of the trade in arms: the dissolution of Soviet Union and the Gulf War

  18. The polymer electrolyte based on polysiloxane containing both alkyl cyanide and oligo ethylene oxide pendants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monomers (3-cyanopropyl) methylsiloxane cyclics (D4CN) and (3-(2-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxy)propyl) methylsiloxane cyclics (D4TEG) were prepared by a hydrosilylation reaction of 2,4,6,8-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4H) with allyl cyanide and tri(ethylene glycol) methyl allyl ether (allyl TEG), respectively, in toluene using a platinum(0)-1,3-divinyl-1,1,3,3-tetramethyl disiloxane complex as the catalyst. The new crosslinkable polymers with alkyl cyanide and ethylene oxide groups as the pendent were synthesized by ring opening polymerization and characterized by GPC and 1H NMR. And then, the crosslinked solid polymer electrolyte was prepared by UV radiation curing. The conductivities of samples were measured by impedance spectroscopy using an indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrode. As the results, the maximum ionic conductivities of the polymer were 1.15 x 10-5 S cm-1 at 20 deg. C and 1 x 10-4 S cm-1 at 60 deg. C. The electrolyte was stable electrochemically to 5 V versus Li+/Li at room temperature

  19. Method of synthesizing tungsten nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Steven G; Anderson, Travis M

    2013-02-12

    A method to synthesize tungsten nanoparticles has been developed that enables synthesis of nanometer-scale, monodisperse particles that can be stabilized only by tetrahydrofuran. The method can be used at room temperature, is scalable, and the product concentrated by standard means. Since no additives or stabilizing surfactants are required, this method is particularly well suited for producing tungsten nanoparticles for dispersion in polymers. If complete dispersion is achieved due to the size of the nanoparticles, then the optical properties of the polymer can be largely maintained.

  20. Super Armed Glycosyl Donors : Conformational arming of thioglycosides by silylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bols, Mikael; Pedersen, Christian Marcus

    2007-01-01

    Glycosyl donors protected with bulky silyl protective groups (tert-butyldimethylsilyl, TBS), on the 2-, 3- and 4-OH groups were found to have superior reactivity compared with benzylated thioglucosides. The enhanced reactivity is explained by the stereoelectronic effects associated with the conformational change induced by the silylation: A TBS silylated thioglucoside donor have axial OR groups while a benzylated thioglucoside have equatorial OR groups leading to much more favorable charge-dipole interactions in the transition state. This concept could be used to create ‘super armed' glucosyl, mannosyl, rhamnosyl and galactosyl donors, which could cross couple with the armed acceptors phenyl 2,3,4-tri-O-benzyl-ß-D-thioglucoside or phenyl 2,3,6-tri-O-benzyl-ß-D-thioglucoside to give the corresponding armed disaccharides in good to excellent yields.

  1. Swimming constraints and arm coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Ludovic; Chollet, Didier; Rouard, Annie

    2007-02-01

    Following Newell's concept of constraint (1986), we sought to identify the constraints (organismic, environmental and task) on front crawl performance, focusing on arm coordination adaptations over increasing race paces. Forty-two swimmers (15 elite men, 15 mid-level men and 12 elite women) performed seven self-paced swim trials (race paces: as if competitively swimming 1500m, 800m, 400m, 200m, 100m, 50m, and maximal velocity, respectively) using the front crawl stroke. The paces were race simulations over 25m to avoid fatigue effects. Swim velocity, stroke rate, stroke length, and various arm stroke phases were calculated from video analysis. Arm coordination was quantified in terms of an index of coordination (IdC) based on the lag time between the propulsive phases of each arm. This measure quantified three possible coordination modes in the front crawl: opposition (continuity between the two arm propulsions), catch-up (a time gap between the two arm propulsions) and superposition (an overlap of the two arm propulsions). With increasing race paces, swim velocity, stroke rate, and stroke length, the three groups showed a similar transition in arm coordination mode at the critical 200m pace, which separated the long- and mid-pace pattern from the sprint pace pattern. The 200m pace was also characterized by a stroke rate close to 40strokemin(-1). The finding that all three groups showed a similar adaptation of arm coordination suggested that race paces, swim velocity, stroke rate and stroke length reflect task constraints that can be manipulated as control parameters, with race paces (R(2)=.28) and stroke rate (R(2)=.36) being the best predictors of IdC changes. On the other hand, only the elite men reached a velocity greater than 1.8ms(-1) and a stroke rate of 50strokemin(-1). They did so using superposition of the propulsion phases of the two arms, which occurred because of the great forward resistance created when these swimmers achieved high velocity, i.e., an environmental constraint. Conversely, the elite women and mid-level men had shorter stroke lengths and maintained a time gap between the propulsions of the two arms throughout the increase in paces, with gender and expertise explaining 9% and 8.3% of the IdC changes, respectively. These results indicate that arm coordination cannot be interpreted solely from the IdC value but should be considered from the perspective of task, environmental, and organismic constraints. These constraints can serve as control parameters in experiments aimed at gaining insight into changes in arm coordination during the front crawl. In this context, catch-up coordination, which is often considered as a mistake, was seen to be an adaptation to a relative constraint. PMID:17126942

  2. Les infirmières-visiteuses pendant l’entre-deux-guerres en Haute-Normandie : entre professionnalisme officiel et bénévolat officieux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Henry

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Marginale avant 1914, révélée pendant la Première Guerre mondiale, adulée ou décriée pendant l’entre-deux-guerres, l’évolution de la profession d’infirmière-visiteuse est étrangement commune à l’évolution de la place des femmes dans le travail salarié. En effet, même si une législation est venue encadrer ce nouveau corps de femmes au début des années vingt, force est de constater, au travers des exemples des départements de Seine-Inférieure et de l’Eure, que celui-ci a gardé de nombreux attributs propres au bénévolat. D’ailleurs, bien que les dirigeants de l’action antituberculeuse, Albert Calmette en tête, aient régulièrement encensé la profession, ils ont néanmoins cherché à l’encadrer strictement, redoutant des envies trop fortes d’autonomie. À cette professionnalisation toute relative se sont ajoutées des conditions de travail particulièrement rudes pour ces jeunes femmes novices, finalement peu préparées à côtoyer une misère insoupçonnée. Ainsi, si la fonction d’infirmière-visiteuse correspond à un virage non négligeable dans l’acceptation du travail qualifié des femmes par la société, son efficacité dans le cadre des luttes contre les fléaux sociaux (tuberculose et mortalité infantile reste tout de même mesurée dans les faits.The evolutions of the status of the visiting nurse echo the evolution in women's position within the workforce: marginal prior to 1914, revealed during the First World War, idolized or disparaged in the inter-war years. Despite legislation governing this new corps of women nurses in the early twenties, examples from the departments of the Seine-Inférieure and  the Eure make clear that it retained many attributes of volunteer work. Moreover, although the leaders of the war against tuberculosis, such as Albert Calmette, regularly praised the profession, they nonetheless sought to regulate it strictly, fearing a move toward excessive autonomy. The article considers the nature of this relative professionalization as well as the particularly difficult working conditions of these novice women professionals, who were ultimately ill-equipped to handle the misery they encountered.  Thus, while the emergence of the visiting nurse represented a major shift in the acceptance of women’s skilled work in French society, the ability of these women to exert their skills effectively in the context of struggles against social scourges (tuberculosis and infant mortality was limited in practice.

  3. Azathia crown ethers carrying pyrene pendant as receptor molecules for metal sensor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocak, Ummuehan, E-mail: ummuhanocak@yahoo.co [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Ocak, Mirac; Parlayan, Semanur [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Basoglu, Aysel [Bayburt University, Vocational School, Bayburt (Turkey); Caglar, Yasemin; Bahadir, Zekeriyya [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2011-04-15

    A series of crown ethers carrying a pyrene group with nitrogen-sulfur donor atoms, that differ in having three, four and five sulfur atoms in the macrocycle was designed and synthesized by the reaction of the corresponding macrocyclic compound and 1-bromomethylpyrene. The influence of metal cations such as Mn{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 3+}, Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Hg{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+} and Al{sup 3+} on the spectroscopic properties of the ligands was investigated in acetonitrile-dichloromethane (1:1) by means of absorption and emission spectrometry. Absorption spectra show isosbestic points in the spectrophotometric titration of Fe{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+} and Hg{sup 2+}. The results of spectrophotometric titration experiments disclosed the complexation compositions and complex stability constants of the novel ligands with Fe{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+} and Hg{sup 2+} cations. The monoazatetrathia crown ether showed good sensitivity for Cu{sup 2+} with linearity in the range 5.0x10{sup -7}-2.5x10{sup -6} M and detection limit of 1.6x10{sup -8} M. - Research highlights: We report a series of crown ethers carrying a pyrene group with nitrogen-sulfur donor atoms. The influence of metal cations on the spectroscopic properties of the ligands is investigated. We have carried out the monoazatetrathia crown ether showed good sensitivity for Cu{sup 2+}.

  4. Hydrogen Production using Nickel Electrocatalysts with Pendant Amines: Ligand Effects on Rates and Overpotentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiese, Stefan; Kilgore, Uriah J.; Ho, Ming-Hsun; Raugei, Simone; DuBois, Daniel L.; Bullock, R. Morris; Helm, Monte L.

    2013-11-01

    A Ni-based electrocatalyst for H2 production, [Ni(8PPh2NC6H4Br)2](BF4)2, featuring eight-membered cyclic diphosphine ligands incorporating a single amine base, 1-para-bromo-phenyl-3,7-triphenyl-1-aza-3,7-diphosphacycloheptane (8PPh2NC6H4Br) has been synthesized and characterized. X-ray ?diffraction studies reveal that the cation of [Ni(8PPh2NC6H4Br)2(CH3CN)](BF4)2 has a distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry. In CH3CN [Ni(8PPh2NC6H4Br)2]2+ is an electrocatalyst for reduction of protons, and it has a maximum turnover frequency for H2 production of 800 s-1 with a 700 mV overpotential (at Ecat/2) when using [(DMF)H]OTf as the acid. Addition of H2O to acidic CH3CN solutions of [Ni(8PPh2NC6H4Br)2]2+ results in an increase of the turnover frequency for H2 production to a maximum of 3,300 s?1 with an overpotential of 760 mV at Ecat/2. Computational studies carried out on [Ni(8PPh2NC6H4Br)2]2+ indicate the observed catalytic rate is limited by formation of non-productive protonated isomers, diverting active catalyst from the catalytic cycle. The results of this research show that proton delivery from the exogenous acid to the correct position on the proton relay of the metal complex is essential for fast H2 production. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  5. DYNAMIQUE DES STRUCTURES COHERENTES MAGNETIQUES A L'ECHELLE IONIQUE ET COUPLAGE AVEC LES ONDES DE SIFFLEMENT PENDANT LES SOUS-ORAGES.

    OpenAIRE

    Tenerani, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Dans cette thèse, on propose un nouveau modèle de couplage auto-cohérent entre des structures magnétiques cohérentes sur les échelles ioniques et des ondes dites de sifflement (whistlers, en anglais) à plus hautes fréquences, afin d'interpréter les données expérimentales recueillies par les satellites Cluster pendant un sous-orage magnétique dans la région nocturne de la magnétosphère terrestre. Le couplage fournit un mécanisme pour confiner et transporter les ondes whistlers ...

  6. ARM Education Center: Lesson Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is described as an important part of the US Department of Energy's strategy to understand global climate change. The ARM Education and Outreach Program offers the Lesson Plans Web site that strives to create basic science lessons related to weather and climate for K-12. Educators will find lessons on outgassing, air density and temperature, air pressure, winds, making clouds, the effect of solar radiation on land and sea, coastal erosion, acid rain, and many more -- each with a complete description of methods and materials needed. Other resources that can be found on the site include an extensive atmospheric science glossary, a learn how to graph activity, specific lessons that utilize ARM's Program data, quizzes, and related links.

  7. Cobalt Complexes Containing Pendant Amines in the Second Coordination Sphere as Electrocatalysts for H2 Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Ming; Wiedner, Eric S.; Dougherty, William G.; Kassel, W. S.; Liu, Tianbiao L.; DuBois, Daniel L.; Bullock, R. Morris

    2014-10-27

    A series of heteroleptic 17e- cobalt complexes, [CpCoII(PtBu2NPh2)](BF4), [CpC6F5CoII(PtBu2NPh2)](BF4), [CpC5F4NCoII(PtBu2NPh2)](BF4), [where P2tBuN2Ph = 1,5-diphenyl-3,7-di(tert-butyl)-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane, CpC6F5 = C5H4(C6F5), and CpC5F4N = C5H4(C5F4N)] were synthesized, and structures of all three were determined by X-ray crystallography. Electrochemical studies showed that the CoIII/II couple of [CpC5F4NCoII(PtBu2NPh2)]+ appears 250 mV positive of the CoIII/II couple of [CpCoII(PtBu2NPh2)] as a result of the strongly electron-withdrawing perfluorpyridyl substituent on the Cp ring. Reduction of these paramagnetic CoII complexes by KC8 led to the diamagnetic 18e- complexes CpICo(PtBu2NPh2), CpC6F5CoI(PtBu2NPh2), CpC5F4NCoI(PtBu2NPh2), which were also characterized by crystallography. Protonation of these neutral CoI complexes led to the cobalt hydrides [CpCoIII(PtBu2NPh2)H](BF4), [CpC6F5CoIII(PtBu2NPh2)H](BF4), and [CpC5F4NCoIII(PtBu2NPh2)H](BF4). The cobalt hydride with the most electron-withdrawing Cp ligand, [CpC5F4NCoIII(PtBu2NPh2)H]+ is an electrocatalyst for production of H2 using 4-MeOC6H4NH3BF4 (pKaMeCN = 11.86) with a turnover frequency of 350 s-1 and an overpotential of 0.75 V. Experimental measurement of thermochemical data provided further insights into the thermodynamics of H2 elimination. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of novel polyamide-ethers based on bis-imidazole containing bulky aryl pendant groups

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Seyed Mahdi, Saadati; Mohammad Hossein, Mosslemin; Hossein, Behmadi.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A series of novel polyamide-ethers (PAEs) based on bis-imidazole containing bulky aryl pendant groups was prepared by direct polycondensation of a diamine, 4-(1-(4-(4-(2-(4-aminophenyl)-4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl)phenoxy)phenyl)-4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)benzenamine (DABI), and various dicarb [...] oxylic acids. All the resulting polyamide-ethers were amorphous with inherent viscosities ranged from 0.52 to 0.61 dL/g and were readily soluble in many organic solvents which could be solution-cast into transparent and tough films. The glass transition temperatures (Tg) of these polymers were affected considerably by their chemical structure and ranged from 230 to 310 ºC. They had useful levels of thermal stability associated with relatively high temperatures of 10% weight loss (T10) in the range of 329-399 ºC in air atmosphere.

  9. Low-cost robotic arm control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, John R.

    2008-04-01

    A low-cost robotic arm and controller system is presented. The controller is a desktop model of the robotic arm with the same degrees of freedom whose joints are equipped with sensors. Manipulating the controller by hand causes the robotic arm to mimic the movement in maser-slave fashion. The system takes advantage of the low cost and wide availability of hobby radio control components and uses a low-cost, easy-to-program microprocessor. The system is implemented with a video camera on the robotic arm, and the arm is mounted on an unmanned omnidirectional vehicle inspection robot. With a camera on the end of a robot arm, the vehicle inspection system can reach difficult to-access regions of the vehicle underbody. Learning to manipulate the robot arm with this controller is faster than learning with a traditional joystick. Limitations of the microcontroller are discussed, and suggestions for further development of the robot arm and control are made.

  10. Multiple Identifications in Multi-Armed Bandits

    CERN Document Server

    Bubeck, Sébastien; Viswanathan, Nitin

    2012-01-01

    We study the problem of identifying the top $m$ arms in a multi-armed bandit game. Our proposed solution relies on a new algorithm based on successive rejects of the seemingly bad arms, and successive accepts of the good ones. This algorithmic contribution allows to tackle other multiple identifications settings that were previously out of reach. In particular we show that this idea of successive accepts and rejects applies to the multi-bandit best arm identification problem.

  11. Arm locking for space-based laser interferometry gravitational wave observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yinan; Mitryk, Shawn; Mueller, Guido

    2014-09-01

    Laser frequency stabilization is a critical part of the interferometry measurement system of space-based gravitational wave observatories such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). Arm locking as a proposed frequency stabilization technique transfers the stability of the long arm lengths to the laser frequency. The arm locking sensor synthesizes an adequately filtered linear combination of the interspacecraft phase measurements to estimate the laser frequency noise, which can be used to control the laser frequency. At the University of Florida we developed the hardware-based University of Florida LISA Interferometer Simulator to study and verify laser frequency noise reduction and suppression techniques under realistic LISA-like conditions. These conditions include the variable Doppler shifts among the spacecraft, LISA-like signal travel times, optical transponders, realistic laser frequency, and timing noise. We review the different types of arm locking sensors and discuss their expected performance in LISA. The presented results are supported by results obtained during experimental studies of arm locking under relevant LISA-like conditions. We measured the noise suppression as well as initial transients and frequency pulling in the presence of Doppler frequency errors. This work has demonstrated the validity and feasibility of arm locking in LISA.

  12. MOBILE ARM RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (MARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The power point presentation included an overview of the Mobile Arm Retreival System (MARS) including background information, schedule and design strategy, and described the sound tank system, assumed leaking tank system, key technical issues, the design progress, and the fabrication process

  13. Nuclear physicist, arms control advocate

    CERN Multimedia

    Chang, K

    2002-01-01

    Victor F. Weisskopf, a nuclear physicist who worked on the Manhattan Project to build the first atomic bomb in World War II and later became an ardent advocate of arms control, died Monday at his home in Newton, MA, USA. He was 93 (1 page).

  14. The Arm Prime Factors Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Arm, Boris

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the Arm prime factors decomposition which is the equivalent of the Taylor formula for decomposition of integers on the basis of prime numbers. We make the link between this decomposition and the p-adic norm known in the p-adic numbers theory. To see how it works, we give examples of these two

  15. Synthese de champs sonores adaptative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Philippe-Aubert

    La reproduction de champs acoustiques est une approche physique au probleme technologique de la spatialisation sonore. Cette these concerne l'aspect physique de la reproduction de champs acoustiques. L'objectif principal est l'amelioration de la reproduction de champs acoustiques par "synthese de champs acoustiques" ("Wave Field Synthesis", WFS), une approche connue, basee sur des hypotheses de champ libre, a l'aide du controle actif par l'ajout de capteurs de l'erreur de reproduction et d'une boucle fermee. Un premier chapitre technique (chapitre 4) expose les resultats d'appreciation objective de la WFS par simulations et mesures experimentales. L'effet indesirable de la salle de reproduction sur les qualites objectives de la WFS fut illustre. Une premiere question de recherche fut ensuite abordee (chapitre 5), a savoir s'il est possible de reproduire des champs progressifs en salle dans un paradigme physique de controle actif: cette possibilite fut prouvee. L'approche technique privilegiee, "synthese de champs adaptative" ("Adaptive Wave Field Synthesis" [AWFS]), fut definie, puis simulee (chapitre 6). Cette approche d'AWFS comporte une originalite en controle actif et en reproduction de champs acoustiques: la fonction cout quadratique representant la minimisation des erreurs de reproduction inclut une regularisation de Tikhonov avec solution a priori qui vient de la WFS. L'etude de l'AWFS a l'aide de la decomposition en valeurs singulieres (chapitre 7) a permis de comprendre les mecanismes propres a l'AWFS. C'est la deuxieme principale originalite de la these. L'algorithme FXLMS (LMS et reference filtree) est modifie pour l'AWFS (chapitre 8). Le decouplage du systeme par decomposition en valeurs singulieres est illustre dans le domaine du traitement de signal et l'AWFS basee sur le controle independant des modes de rayonnement est simulee (chapitre 8). Ce qui constitue la troisieme originalite principale de cette these. Ces simulations du traitement de signal montrent l'efficacite des algorithmes et la capacite de l'AWFS a attenuer les erreurs attribuables a des reflexions acoustiques. Le neuvieme chapitre presente des resultats experimentaux d'AWFS. L'objectif etait de valider la methode et d'evaluer les performances de l'AWFS. Un autre algorithme prometteur est aussi teste. Les resultats demontrent la bonne marche de l'AWFS et des algorithmes testes. Autant dans le cas de la reproduction de champs harmoniques que dans le cas de la reproduction de champs a large bande, l'AWFS reduit l'erreur de reproduction de la WFS et les effets indesirables causes par les lieux de reproduction.

  16. Audio Signal Synthesizer and Audio Signal Encoder

    OpenAIRE

    Nagel, F.; Disch, S.; Rettelbach, N.; Neuendorf, M.; Grill, B.; Kraemer, U.; Wabnik, S.

    2010-01-01

    In accordance with a first aspect of the invention, an audio signal synthesizer generates a synthesis audio signal having a first frequency band and a second synthesized frequency band derived from the first frequency band. The audio signal synthesizer comprises a patch generator, a spectral converter, a raw signal processor and a combiner. The patch generator performs at least two different patching algorithms, wherein each patching algorithm generates a raw signal having signal components i...

  17. Lipase-Catalyzed Syntheses of Telechelic Polyesters

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    Telechelic polyesters have successfully been synthesized with lipase-catalyzed polymerization. The produced telechelics had a high degree of di­functionalization, high purity (requiring little or no workup) and controlled degree of polymerization. The syntheses were performed in one-pot one-step reaction systems. The use of protection/deprotection chemistry was not necessary, since the lipase selectivity was utilized in the syntheses. Two different types of lipase-catalyzed polymerizations w...

  18. Poly(ethyleneglycol)-b-poly(?-caprolactone-co-?-hydroxyl-?- caprolactone) bearing pendant hydroxyl groups as nanocarriers for doxorubicin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Longlong; Deng, Liandong; Wang, Weiwei; Lv, Zesheng; Hu, Fuqiang; Dong, Anjie; Zhang, Jianhua

    2012-10-01

    A novel biodegradable amphiphilic diblock copolymer methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(?-caprolactone-co-?-hydroxyl-?-caprolactone) (mPEG-b-P(CL-co-HCL)) bearing pendant hydroxyl groups on the PCL block was prepared. The hydroxyl groups were formed through the reduction of ketones by sodium borohydride without protection and deprotection. The obtained polymers were well characterized by (1)H NMR, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and contact angle measurement. mPEG-b-P(CL-co-HCL) could self-assemble into stable nanoparticles (NPs) with critical micellar concentrations (CMC) of 6.3 × 10(-4) ? 8.1 × 10(-4) mg/mL. The NPs prepared from mPEG-b-P(CL-co-HCL) were spherical in shape with diameters about 100 to 140 nm. The hydrophobic doxorubicin (DOX) was chosen as a drug model and successfully encapsulated into the NPs. The encapsulation efficiency and release kinetics of DOX were investigated. The results indicated that the introduction of hydroxyl groups onto the core-forming block could decrease the hydrophobicity of copolymers, thus improving the storage stability of NPs in aqueous solution. Moreover, higher loading capacity and slower in vitro release of DOX were observed, which was due to the hydrogen-bonding formation between DOX and hydroxyl groups. Meanwhile, the MTT assay demonstrated that the blank NPs were biocompatible to HepG2 cell,s while free DOX and DOX-loaded NPs showed significant cytotoxicity against the cells. Moreover, Compared to the free DOX, the DOX-loaded NPs were more efficiently internalized by HepG2 cells. In sum, the introduction of hydroxyl groups on the polyester block in mPEG-b-P(CL-co-HCL) exhibited great potentials for modifications in the stability, drug solubilization, and release properties of NPs. PMID:22931197

  19. Synthesizing Diamond from Liquid Feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Yonhua

    2005-01-01

    A relatively economical method of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been developed for synthesizing diamond crystals and films. Unlike prior CVD methods for synthesizing diamond, this method does not require precisely proportioned flows of compressed gas feedstocks or the use of electrical discharges to decompose the feedstocks to obtain free radicals needed for deposition chemical reactions. Instead, the feedstocks used in this method are mixtures of common organic liquids that can be prepared in advance, and decomposition of feedstock vapors is effected simply by heating. The feedstock used in this method is a solution comprising between 90 and 99 weight percent of methanol and the balance of one or more other oxyhydrocarbons that could include ethanol, isopropanol, and/or acetone. This mixture of compounds is chosen so that dissociation of molecules results in the desired proportions of carbon-containing radicals (principally, CH3) and of OH, H, and O radicals. Undesirably, the CVD temperature and pressure conditions thermodynamically favor the growth of graphite over the growth of diamond. The H radicals are desirable because they help to stabilize the growing surface of diamond by shifting the thermodynamic balance toward favoring the growth of diamond. The OH and O radicals are desirable because they preferentially etch graphite and other non-diamond carbon, thereby helping to ensure the net deposition of pure diamond. The non-methanol compounds are included in the solution because (1) methanol contains equal numbers of C and O atoms; (2) an excess of C over O is needed to obtain net deposition of diamond; and (3) the non-methanol molecules contain multiple carbon atoms for each oxygen atom and thus supply the needed excess carbon A typical apparatus used in this method includes a reservoir containing the feedstock liquid and a partially evacuated stainless-steel reaction chamber. The reservoir is connected to the chamber via tubing and a needle valve or other suitable flow controller. When the liquid enters the low-pressure environment inside the chamber, it evaporates to form a vapor mixture of the same chemical composition. In addition to the inlet for the feedstock liquid, the chamber is fitted with an outlet connected to a vacuum pump (not shown) through a throttle valve (also not shown) that is automatically controlled to keep the pressure at or near the required value throughout the deposition process. Inside the chamber, a spiral filament made of tungsten, tantalum, graphite, or other high-melting-temperature material is electrically heated to a temperature >2,000 C high enough to cause dissociation of vapor molecules into the aforementioned radicals. A deposition substrate typically, a diamond-polished silicon wafer about 2.5 cm square is positioned about 2 cm away from the filament. The exact location of the substrate is chosen so that the substrate becomes heated by the filament to a deposition temperature in the approximate range of 800 to 1,000 C.

  20. Control of flexible robotic arms, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic characteristics and control methods of a flexible robotic arm of first degree of freedom system are shown based on modelling a flexible arm as an elastic beam. Vibrations of the arm in positioning can be suppressed by the dynamic compensation with consideration of the arm flexibility, which current robotic arms have more or less in manipulating payloads. Subsequently, a control method of a SCARA type of a second degree of freedom system is shown based on the local feedback with variable adaptive gains to suppress vibrations in positioning control. In case of arm collisions against other objects, a control method to recover the state before collision is also shown as an application. The control methods proposed here are not limited to this special type of robotic arms, but also more general cases. (author)

  1. Magnetic Spiral Arms and Galactic Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Chamandy, Luke; Subramanian, Kandaswamy

    2014-01-01

    Galactic magnetic arms have been observed between the gaseous arms of some spiral galaxies; their origin remains unclear. We suggest that magnetic spiral arms can be naturally generated in the interarm regions because the galactic fountain flow or wind is likely to be weaker there than in the arms. Galactic outflows lead to two countervailing effects: removal of small-scale magnetic helicity, which helps to avert catastrophic quenching of the dynamo, and advection of the large-scale magnetic field, which suppresses dynamo action. For realistic galactic parameters, the net consequence of outflows being stronger in the gaseous arms is higher saturation large-scale field strengths in the interarm regions as compared to in the arms. By incorporating rather realistic models of spiral structure and evolution into our dynamo models, an interlaced pattern of magnetic and gaseous arms can be produced.

  2. Telescopic arm with automatic advance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of the telescopic arm TV cameras, tools or the like can be moved in and out of reactor pressure vessels. For pressure and traction driving element a curved steel band is used which is guided in the central axis of the telescopic arm by means of one adapting element each per telescopic member. On advancing the steel band, which can absorb considerable bending moments, is drawn out of a cartridge with a spool, by meanes of friction rollers. A nozzle-shaped device in front of the cartridge is flattering the steel band before winding it up. The free buckling length of the stell band is never greater than the distance between two adapting elements (part in the shape of a parallelpiped with a slot for guiding the steel band) resp. the length of a telescopic member. (UWI)

  3. Dual arm master controller concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. 6 references, 3 figures

  4. Darwin curves and galaxy arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin

    2014-07-01

    In the natural world, there exists one kind of structure which is beyond the scope of human laboratorial experiment. It is the structure of galaxies which is usually composed of billions of stars. Spiral galaxies are flat disk-shaped. There are two types of spiral galaxies. The spiral galaxies with some bar-shaped pattern are called barred spirals, and the ones without the pattern are called ordinary spirals. Longer-wavelength galaxy images (infrared, for example) show that ordinary spiral galaxies are basically an axi-symmetric disk that is called exponential disk. For a planar distribution of matter, Jin He defined Darwin curves in the plane as such that the ratio of the matter densities at both sides of the curve is constant along the curve. Therefore, the arms of ordinary spiral galaxies are Darwin curves. Now an important question is that: Are the arms of barred spiral galaxies the Darwin curves too? Fortunately, Jin He designed a piece of Galaxy Anatomy graphic software. With the software, not only can people simulate the stellar density distribution of barred spiral galaxies but also can draw the Darwin curves of the simulated galaxy structure. This paper shows partial evidence that the arms of galaxy NGC 3275, 4548 and 5921 follow Darwin curves.

  5. Composites comprising biologically-synthesized nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curran, Seamus; Dias, Sampath; Blau, Werner; Wang, Jun; Oremland, Ronald S; Baesman, Shaun

    2013-04-30

    The present disclosure describes composite materials containing a polymer material and a nanoscale material dispersed in the polymer material. The nanoscale materials may be biologically synthesized, such as tellurium nanorods synthesized by Bacillus selenitireducens. Composite materials of the present disclosure may have optical limiting properties and find use in optical limiting devices.

  6. Metall-Katalysierte Enantioselektive Synthese von Propargylaminen und ihre Anwendungen in der Synthese

    OpenAIRE

    Gommermann, Nina

    2005-01-01

    Im Rahmen der Dissertation "Metall-katalysierte enantioselektive Synthese von Propargylaminen und ihre Anwendungen in der Synthese" wurde eine Kupfer-katalysierte enantioselektive Additionsreaktion von Alkinen an in situ generierte Iminium-Ionen untersucht. Zunächst wurde eine neuartige Eintopf-Synthese entwickelt, die eine besonders atomökonomische und synthetisch wertvolle Methode zur Darstellung der Propargylamne darstellt. Dabei wurden equimolare Mengen von terminalen Alkinen, Aldehyde...

  7. Bifunctional oligonucleotide probes synthesized using a novel CPG support are able to detect single base pair mutations.

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, P. S.; Frye, R. A.; Liu, E.

    1989-01-01

    A novel multifunctional controlled pore glass, MF-CPG (Fig. 1), has been synthesized and used to incorporate 3' terminal primary aliphatic amines into synthetic oligonucleotides. MF-CPG consists of a unique succinic acid linking arm which possesses both a masked primary amine for label attachment and a dimethoxytrityl protected hydroxyl for nucleotide chain elongation. Using MF-CPG, we have devised a simple and convenient technique to attach non-radioactive labels to the 3' terminus of oligon...

  8. Coke Formation During Hydrocarbons Pyrolysis. Part One: Steam Cracking Formation de coke pendant la pyrolise des hydrocarbures. Première partie : vapocraquage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weill J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermal cracking is always accompanied by coke formation, which becomes deposited on the wall and limits heat transfers in the reactor while increasing pressure drops and possibly even plugging up the reactor. This review article covers undesirable coking operations in steam craking reactors. These coking reactions may take place in the gas phase and/or on the surface of the reactor, with coke being produced during pyrolysis by a complex mechanism that breaks down into a catalytic sequence and a noncatalytic sequence. After a brief description of different experimental set-ups used to measure the coke deposition, on the basis of research described in the literature, the different factors and their importance for coke formation are listed. In particular, we describe the effects of surface properties of stainless-steel and quartz reactors as well as the influence of the cracked feedstock, of temperature, of dilution, of residence time and of the conversion on coke deposition. Some findings about the morphology of coke are described and linked to formation mechanisms. To illustrate this review, some particularly interesting research is referred to concerning models developed to assess coke formation during propane steam cracking. Le craquage thermique est toujours accompagné de la formation de coke qui, en se déposant à la paroi, limite les transferts de chaleur au réacteur, augmente les pertes de charges et même peut boucher celui-ci. Cet article fait le point sur les réactions indésirables de cokage dans les réacteurs de vapocraquage. Ces réactions de cokage peuvent avoir lieu en phase gazeuse et/ou sur la surface du réacteur, le coke étant produit pendant la pyrolyse par un mécanisme complexe qui se décompose en une séquence catalytique et une séquence non catalytique. Après une brève présentation des différents montages expérimentaux utilisés pour mesurer le dépôt de coke, il est mentionné, à partir de travaux de la littérature, les différents facteurs et leur importance sur la formation du coke. On présentera en particulier les effets de propriétés de surface de réacteurs en inox et en quartz, ainsi que l'influence de la charge craquée, de la température, de la dilution, du temps de séjour et de la conversion sur les dépôts de coke. Quelques résultats sur la morphologie du coke seront présentés et reliés aux mécanismes de formation du coke. Pour illustrer ce travail, on reprendra quelques études particulièrement intéressantes sur des modèles d'évaluation de la formation de coke développés pour le vapocraquage de propane.

  9. Preventing Interstate Armed Conflict : whose responsibility?

    OpenAIRE

    Otunba, Ganiyu

    2010-01-01

    This is a study of interstate armed conflict prevention. The concept of conflict, armed conflict and conflict prevention is defined and explained in order to be able to investigate if there is any single institution saddled with the responsibility of preventing interstate armed conflict and also to verify if adequate efforts are been put in this area which is of importance to mankind. The relationship between conflict prevention, conflict management and conflict resolution is also discussed s...

  10. Arms Trade Offsets and Cases of Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Platzgummer

    2014-01-01

    Because of a lack of transparency and the high complexity of administrative processes, arms acquisition is an area with a high risk of corruption. The aim of this paper is: 1) to provide a typology of cases of corruption in compensatory trade agreements, so called arms trade offsets, that have become integral parts of most arms trades; and 2) to analyze tools possessed by government agencies concerned to prevent or detect corruption. Based on an analysis of all major English-speaking newspape...

  11. World Military Expenditures and Arms Transfers (WMEAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency has placed online the full text of its 1996 WMEAT report, a reference on military expenditure, arms transfers, armed forces, and related economic data for 172 countries over the 1985-1995 decade. The data is comprehensive, up-to-date, and accompanied by analyses and highlights. Users may also choose to download selected portions of the larger report, including Highlights and Country Rankings.

  12. Dual arm master controller development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    The advanced servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. This work was performed as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Segmentgürtel mit mehrteiliger Anhängekombination - Ein Frauenschmuckgürtel der Renaissance (Segmented Girdles with a Multi-part Pendant Construction - a Woman´s Decorative Girdle of the Renaissance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Harder

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The finds of this study consist of two belts, and a total of 24 fully preserved fragments show a different high number of conserved segments. They were primarily found as scattered finds in the Brandenburg districts Prignitz, Ostprignitz-Ruppin, Havelland, Upper Havel, district Jericho, Oder-Spree district, Dahme-Spreewald, Uckermark and in Berlin at the Mühlendamm/Spree. According to the present analysis, the examined girdles show a typical composition with fas-tenings consisting of oblong one-piece segments with blunt terminals and with a multi-part pendant construction. Based on formal characteristics they can be categorized as female decorative girdles of the type “Segmented girdles with multi-part pendant construction”.Some examples of fully preserved girdles have even been assembled from segments of several different types of manufacture and decorative motifs. This leads to the conclusion that in general these girdles were probably not produced by specialised craftsmen. Another aim of the present analysis was to work out specific characteristics facilitating the distinction of girdle segments from book-clasps. In this respect, the closing construction was of particular relevance. It could be clarified that toggle fastenings with a spade- or mushroom-shaped hole on the fastening sheet can undoubtedly be identified as girdle elements.

  14. Interchangeable end effector tools utilized on the protoflight manipulator arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    A subset of teleoperator and effector tools was designed, fabricated, delivered and successfully demonstrated on the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) protoflight manipulator arm (PFMA). The tools delivered included a rotary power tool with interchangeable collets and two fluid coupling mate/demate tools; one for a Fairchild coupling and the other for a Purolator coupling. An electrical interface connector was also provided for the rotary power tool. A tool set, from which the subset was selected, for performing on-orbit satellite maintenance was identified and conceptionally designed. Maintenance requirements were synthesized, evaluated and prioritized to develop design requirements for a set of end effector tools representative of those needed to provide on-orbit maintenance of satellites to be flown in the 1986 to 2000 timeframe.

  15. The Trajectory Synthesizer Generalized Profile Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alan G.; Bouyssounouse, Xavier; Murphy, James R.

    2010-01-01

    The Trajectory Synthesizer is a software program that generates aircraft predictions for Air Traffic Management decision support tools. The Trajectory Synthesizer being used by researchers at NASA Ames Research Center was restricted in the number of trajectory types that could be generated. This limitation was not sufficient to support the rapidly changing Air Traffic Management research requirements. The Generalized Profile Interface was developed to address this issue. It provides a flexible approach to describe the constraints applied to trajectory generation and may provide a method for interoperability between trajectory generators. It also supports the request and generation of new types of trajectory profiles not possible with the previous interface to the Trajectory Synthesizer. Other enhancements allow the Trajectory Synthesizer to meet the current and future needs of Air Traffic Management research.

  16. FPGA Implementation of a Parameterized Fourier Synthesizer

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Rui; Wang, J. G.; Clement, Benoit; Mansour, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) offers advantages for many applications, particularly where missions are complex and time performance is critical. For small-production digital acoustic synthesizers, FPGA can achieve the above-mentioned tighter system requirements with low total system costs on single chip. In this manuscript, a real-time acoustic synthesizer is implemented using Fourier series algorithm on Altera's Cyclone II FPGA chip. This work emphasizes systematic designs and paralle...

  17. Possibility of synthesizing doubly closed superheavy nucleus

    OpenAIRE

    Aritomo, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of synthesizing a doubly magic superheavy nucleus, $^{298}114_{184}$, is investigated on the basis of fluctuation-dissipation dynamics. In order to synthesize this nucleus, we must generate more neutron-rich compound nuclei because of the neutron emissions from excited compound nuclei. The compound nucleus $^{304}114$ has two advantages to achieving a high survival probability. First, because of small neutron separation energy and rapid cooling, the shell cor...

  18. Synthese und kontrollierte radikalische Polymerisation multifunktioneller Monomere

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Meizhen

    2004-01-01

    Multifunctional monomers on the basis of acryl- and methacryl derivatives were synthesized and different protective groups were used. After polymerization the protective groups were removed by different methods. Various initiators for the NMP of the monomers were synthesized and the reaction conditions were optimized. The results showed that NMP was not a suitable method for multifunctional acryl- and methacryl derivatives to achieve well-defined homopolymers, although it was successful for c...

  19. Maize mitochondria synthesize organ-specific polypeptides.

    OpenAIRE

    Newton, K. J.; Walbot, V.

    1985-01-01

    We detected both quantitative and qualitative organ-specific differences in the total protein composition of mitochondria of maize. Labeling of isolated mitochondria from each organ demonstrated that a few protein differences are due to changes in the polypeptides synthesized by the organelle. The synthesis of developmental stage-specific mitochondrial polypeptides was found in the scutella of developing and germinating kernels. The approximately 13-kDa polypeptide synthesized by mitochondria...

  20. Direct digital synthesizers : theory, design and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Vankka, Jouko

    2000-01-01

    Traditional designs of high bandwidth frequency synthesizers employ the use of a phase-locked-loop (PLL). A direct digital synthesizer (DDS) provides many significant advantages over the PLL approaches. Fast settling time, sub-Hertz frequency resolution, continuous-phase switching response and low phase noise are features easily obtainable in the DDS systems. Although the principle of the DDS has been known for many years, the DDS did not play a dominant role in wideband frequency generation ...

  1. Psychoacoustic Analysis of Synthesized Jet Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okcu, Selen; Rathsam, Jonathan; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    An aircraft noise synthesis capability is being developed so the annoyance caused by proposed aircraft can be assessed during the design stage. To make synthesized signals as realistic as possible, high fidelity simulation is required for source (e.g., engine noise, airframe noise), propagation and receiver effects. This psychoacoustic study tests whether the jet noise component of synthesized aircraft engine noise can be made more realistic using a low frequency oscillator (LFO) technique to simulate fluctuations in level observed in recordings. Jet noise predictions are commonly made in the frequency domain based on models of time-averaged empirical data. The synthesis process involves conversion of the frequency domain prediction into an audible pressure time history. However, because the predictions are time-invariant, the synthesized sound lacks fluctuations observed in recordings. Such fluctuations are hypothesized to be perceptually important. To introduce time-varying characteristics into jet noise synthesis, a method has been developed that modulates measured or predicted 1/3-octave band levels with a (noise recordings. For the aft emission angle, results indicate that signals synthesized using a generic LFO are perceived as more similar to recordings than those using no LFO, and signals synthesized with an angle-specific LFO are more similar to recordings than those synthesized with a generic LFO.

  2. Mobile C-arm units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobile C-arm units, so named because of their configuration, are used primarily for fluoroscopic imaging during surgical, orthopedic, critical care, and emergency care procedures. They also provide radiographic capability, although they are rarely used for this imaging modality. We evaluated three mobile C-arm units from three manufacturers. We based our ratings on the ability of the units to safely and reliably produce the best possible image quality while delivering the lowest possible radiation dose to the patient and protecting personnel from radiation exposure; we also considered human factors design. The Philips BV 25 N is rated Acceptable and is preferred as a general-purpose unit. The OEC-Diasonics 9000/6 is also rated Acceptable and may be preferred when the hospital has specific uses for its optional specialty modules. The Fischer Ortho-Omni 325 is rated Acceptable-Not Recommended because of its relatively high patient exposure rates, poorer object thickness compensation (penetration) capability, poorer spatial resolution, and overall poor human factors design compared with the other evaluated units. Also see Issues of Radiation Exposure and Ensuring Optimum Performance

  3. Stereo matching image processing by synthesized color and the characteristic area by the synthesized color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Akira; Mutoh, Eiichiro; Kumagai, Hideo

    2014-09-01

    We have developed the stereo matching image processing by synthesized color and the corresponding area by the synthesized color for ranging the object and image recognition. The typical images from a pair of the stereo imagers may have some image disagreement each other due to the size change, missed place, appearance change and deformation of characteristic area. We constructed the synthesized color and corresponding color area with the same synthesized color to make the distinct stereo matching. We constructed the synthesized color and corresponding color area with the same synthesized color by the 3 steps. The first step is making binary edge image by differentiating the focused image from each imager and verifying that differentiated image has normal density of frequency distribution to find the threshold level of binary procedure. We used Daubechies wavelet transformation for the procedures of differentiating in this study. The second step is deriving the synthesized color by averaging color brightness between binary edge points with respect to horizontal direction and vertical direction alternatively. The averaging color procedure was done many times until the fluctuation of averaged color become negligible with respect to 256 levels in brightness. The third step is extracting area with same synthesized color by collecting the pixel of same synthesized color and grouping these pixel points by 4 directional connectivity relations. The matching areas for the stereo matching are determined by using synthesized color areas. The matching point is the center of gravity of each synthesized color area. The parallax between a pair of images is derived by the center of gravity of synthesized color area easily. The experiment of this stereo matching was done for the object of the soccer ball toy. From this experiment we showed that stereo matching by the synthesized color technique are simple and effective.

  4. Sensory-Feedback Exoskeletal Arm Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Bin; Massie, Thomas H.; Vayner, Vladimir

    2004-01-01

    An electromechanical exoskeletal arm apparatus has been designed for use in controlling a remote robotic manipulator arm. The apparatus, called a force-feedback exoskeleton arm master (F-EAM) is comfortable to wear and easy to don and doff. It provides control signals from the wearer s arm to a robot arm or a computer simulator (e.g., a virtual-reality system); it also provides force and torque feedback from sensors on the robot arm or from the computer simulator to the wearer s arm. The F-EAM enables the wearer to make the robot arm gently touch objects and finely manipulate them without exerting excessive forces. The F-EAM features a lightweight design in which the motors and gear heads that generate force and torque feedback are made smaller than they ordinarily would be: this is achieved by driving the motors to power levels greater than would ordinarily be used in order to obtain higher torques, and by providing active liquid cooling of the motors to prevent overheating at the high drive levels. The F-EAM (see figure) includes an assembly that resembles a backpack and is worn like a backpack, plus an exoskeletal arm mechanism. The FEAM has five degrees of freedom (DOFs) that correspond to those of the human arm: 1. The first DOF is that of the side-to-side rotation of the upper arm about the shoulder (rotation about axis 1). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 1 via drum 1 and a planar four-bar linkage. 2. The second DOF is that of the up-and-down rotation of the arm about the shoulder. The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 2 via drum 2. 3. The third DOF is that of twisting of the upper arm about its longitudinal axis. This DOF is implemented in a cable remote-center mechanism (CRCM). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 3, which drives the upper-arm cuff and the mechanism below it. A bladder inflatable by gas or liquid is placed between the cuff and the wearer s upper arm to compensate for misalignment between the exoskeletal mechanism and the shoulder. 4. The fourth DOF is that of flexion and extension of the elbow. The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 4 and drum 4, which are mounted on a bracket that can slide longitudinally by a pin-and-slot engagement with the upper-arm cuff to compensate for slight variations in the position of the kinematic center of the elbow. Attached to drum 4 is an adapter plate to which is attached a CRCM for the lower arm. 5. The lower-arm CRCM implements the fifth DOF, which is the twist of the forearm about its longitudinal axis. Motor 5 provides the reflected torque for this DOF by driving the lower-arm cuff. A rod transmits twist and torsion between the lower-arm cuff and the hand cuff. With this system, the motion of the wearer s joints and the reflected torques applied to these joints can be measured and controlled in a relatively simple manner. This is because the anthropomorphic design of the mechanism imitates the kinematics of the human arm, eliminating the need for kinematic conversion of joint-torque and joint-angle data.

  5. Design of a biomimetic robotic octopus arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the rationale and design of a robotic arm, as inspired by an octopus arm. The octopus arm shows peculiar features, such as the ability to bend in all directions, to produce fast elongations, and to vary its stiffness. The octopus achieves these unique motor skills, thanks to its peculiar muscular structure, named muscular hydrostat. Different muscles arranged on orthogonal planes generate an antagonistic action on each other in the muscular hydrostat, which does not change its volume during muscle contractions, and allow bending and elongation of the arm and stiffness variation. By drawing inspiration from natural skills of octopus, and by analysing the geometry and mechanics of the muscular structure of its arm, we propose the design of a robot arm consisting of an artificial muscular hydrostat structure, which is completely soft and compliant, but also able to stiffen. In this paper, we discuss the design criteria of the robotic arm and how this design and the special arrangement of its muscular structure may bring the building of a robotic arm into being, by showing the results obtained by mathematical models and prototypical mock-ups

  6. CDE, MBFR, and the arms control process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the arms control process from 1980 until 1987 which produced no new arms control and has even lost many of the attributes one would normally associate with a process. This was a substantial change from the 1970s, when Western arms control policies sought, with at least some success, to begin reducing by progressive increments the levels of nuclear and non-nuclear armaments while attempting to make war less likely by restructuring the East-West armed confrontation in Europe. After the failure of the SALT II treaty to win ratification in the United States, and given the general impasse in other arms control areas, many analysts suggested that the arms control process had given rise to false expectations that a mutual interest in arms control would help regulate US-Soviet and East-West relations more generally. This charge may in fact be warranted to the extent that public expectations exceeded the realistic ability of the arms control process to change fundamentally the adversarial nature of US-Soviet relations. But the internal goals of the process were relatively modest. Policy usually focused on the do-able rather than on the desirable: an approach that opened the way to possible agreements, but perhaps also invited disappointment with the results and, by implication, with the process itself

  7. Simple model of the arms race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple model of a two-party arms race is developed based on the principle that the race will continue so long as either side can unleash an effective first strike against the other side. The model is used to examine how secrecy, the ABM, MIRV-ing, and an MX system affect the arms race

  8. Small Arms Marksmanship Manual, NAVPERS 93863.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    The Navy's small arms marksmanship training program is designed to achieve proficiency for Navy personnel in handling the rifle, pistol andshotgun. The minimum objective of this program is to qualify Navy personnel as "Marksman," and ensure that personnel who are issued small arms for security, recreation, or competitions are fully qualified in…

  9. Tetra-armed cyclen bearing two benzo-15-crown-5 ethers in the side arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Mari; Matsumoto, Mikako; Kuwahara, Shunsuke; Habata, Yoichi

    2014-10-01

    A tetra-armed cyclen bearing two benzo-15-crown-5 ethers in the side arms (1) is reported. When 1 equiv of Ag(+) is added to 1, the aromatic side arms cover the Ag(+) incorporated in the cyclen. Upon the addition of more than 1 equiv of Ag(+) to 1, the cyclen moiety binds Ag(+) first, before the crown ether in the side arms subsequently binds Ag(+). The log K11, log K12, and log K13 values for the 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3 (= 1/Ag(+)) complexes were estimated to be 9.4, 5.8, and 4.0, respectively. We found that the tetra-armed cyclen possessing crown ethers in the side arms behaves like an argentivorous molecule even though the crown ether arms bind metal cations. PMID:25248049

  10. Anthropomorphic dual-arm space telemanipulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jau, Bruno M.

    1990-01-01

    Dexterous dual-arm manipulations are feasible with the system described and illustrated in the paper. The structure is based on an extensible host arm that carries the dual-arm robot which comprises two 7-DOF arms each of which includes a hand with a thumb and three fingers with 4 DOF each. Joint compliance can be stiffened to any level, and the operator uses arm harnesses and gloves to utilize the robotics in an anthropomorphic fashion. The configuration eliminates coordinate-transformation computations, and the system is found to achieve a control-frequency rate of 1000 Hz for its direct man/machine interfaces based on fiber-optic cables. The electronics control for the system utilizes a sensory system consisting of force, position, and compliance sensors. The robotics system is expected to be a user-friendly device that permits assembly, repair, tethering, and other complex mechanical operations.

  11. Arm exercise training for wheelchair users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, R M

    1989-10-01

    Although individuals with lower-limb paralysis typically use their arms for wheelchair locomotion and exercise training, several factors including the relatively small muscle mass available, as well as deficient cardiovascular reflex responses and inactivity of the venous muscle pump (resulting in hypokinetic circulation), can cause the early onset of fatigue during arm activity. Thus, cardiopulmonary (aerobic) fitness is difficult to develop and maintain; this situation can often be exacerbated by a sedentary lifestyle. The purpose of this paper is to present research related to exercise capability of wheelchair users, arm exercise modes, physical fitness training programs using arm exercise, and newly developed exercise techniques which incorporate combinations of voluntary arm exercise and functional neuromuscular stimulation-induced exercise of paralyzed leg muscles. It is evident that exercise training programs utilizing appropriate techniques can markedly improve the physical fitness, functional independence, and rehabilitation outcome of wheelchair users. PMID:2691827

  12. The development of multipurpose fluorination synthesizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project is developing the multipurpose fluorination synthesizer, which can produce various fluorination compounds that are used for the PET. The main results are as follows 1. We have intended to design a multipurpose synthesizer that can be used not only for the FDG synthesis, which is the most popular in the F-18 radioisotope labeled radiopharmaceutical, but also for the FLT and FET synthesis. In addition, the developed synthesizer is allowed to connect and control the HPLC system so that we can produce another type of fluorination compound different from the FDG. 2. The program suitable to the multipurpose fluorination synthesizer should manages appropriate sequences separately for each step. In other words, the program should can be modified by user at any time, and the user using the program is allowed to define or modify each step easily through the GUI interface. 3. The yield of the FDG synthesis is about 7% higher than the previous synthesizer and the radiochemical yield of [18F]FLT synthesis is 96% using the network based module We will provide a chance that having a technology transfer to domestic cyclotron manufacturers. The technology transferred domestic cyclotron manufacturers may accomplish a kind of package product by producing the PET radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals, and they can increase their marketability

  13. Maximizing diversity in synthesized hyperspectral images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadiran, Oladipo O.; Molnár, Péter

    2006-05-01

    Maximum diversity in sample data is required in order to ensure that results from such are representative of the entire domain. In cases where the generation of data is computationally expensive, such as image synthesis, the number of samples should be kept to a minimum with a higher density in regions of transition with respect to image variation. Our objective is to synthesize a set of hyperspectral images to evaluate the performance of ATRs. We use the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model, an image synthesizing software, to generate the images. The nature of a synthesized image is determined by numerous input parameters to DIRSIG. It is required that the resulting image set be diverse with respect to the degree of difficulty for the ATRs under test. We model each synthesized image as a function of the input parameters to DIRSIG, each parameter being a possible source of variation in the image. We compute a Complexity Measure (CM) for each image that represents the degree of difficulty for an ATR. A gradient based sampling scheme is infeasible to determine the regions of transitions in the CM in the multiparameter space because of the computational cost of synthesizing each image. We thus present a sampling algorithm based on an active walker model, in which the step size is adapted based on the distribution of the CM values from the already synthesized images. We sample a variety of multi-dimensional functions with this algorithm, and confirm the improved reconstruction accuracy from samples obtained using it compared to even and random sampling. When applied to sampling the CM multi-parameter space, our adaptive sampling algorithm produces a more diverse image set with respect to degree of difficulty than the random and even sampling schemes.

  14. Virtual arm?s reach influences perceived distances but only after experience reaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkenauger, Sally A; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Mohler, Betty J

    2015-04-01

    Considerable empirical evidence has shown influences of the action capabilities of the body on the perception of sizes and distances. Generally, as one?s action capabilities increase, the perception of the relevant distance (over which the action is to be performed) decreases and vice versa. As a consequence, it has been proposed that the body?s action capabilities act as a perceptual ruler, which is used to measure perceived sizes and distances. In this set of studies, we investigated this hypothesis by assessing the influence of arm?s reach on the perception of distance. By providing participant with a self-representing avatar seen in a first-person perspective in virtual reality, we were able to introduce novel and completely unfamiliar alterations in the virtual arm?s reach to evaluate their impact on perceived distance. Using both action-based and visual matching measures, we found that virtual arm?s reach influenced perceived distance in virtual environments. Due to the participants? inexperience with the reach alterations, we also were able to assess the amount of experience with the new arm?s reach required to influence perceived distance. We found that minimal experience reaching with the virtual arm can influence perceived distance. However, some reaching experience is required. Merely having a long or short virtual arm, even one that is synchronized to one?s movements, is not enough to influence distance perception if one has no experience reaching. PMID:25446965

  15. High pressure syntheses of carbonates. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ternary carbonates TlLn(CO3)2 with Ln = La to Lu and Y are synthesized at 3500C by dehydration of the carbonates TlLn(CO3)2xxH2O or at 5000C by reaction of Tl2CO3 and Ln2(C2O4)3xyH2O under 3000 bar CO2. X-ray and IR investigations show the existence of five different structures. The compound Tl5La(CO3)4 is synthesized and X-ray and IR investigations were performed. (author)

  16. Adjustable degradation and drug release of a thermosensitive hydrogel based on a pendant cyclic ether modified poly(?-caprolactone) and poly(ethylene glycol)co-polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiwei; Deng, Liandong; Liu, Shasha; Li, Xu; Zhao, Xiumei; Hu, Renjie; Zhang, Jianhua; Han, Haijie; Dong, Anjie

    2012-11-01

    The convenient and precise fabrication of drug-hydrogel formulations with satisfactory degradability and a well-controlled drug release profile are crucial factors for injectable hydrogel formulations in clinical applications. Here a new injectable thermosensitive hydrogel formed from poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(?-caprolactone) amphiphilicco-polymers with 1,4,8-trioxa[4.6]spiro-9-undecanone (TOSUO) moieties incorporated in the poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL)block (PECT) was constructed to provide a route to tailor the degradation and drug release behavior. The effect of hydrophilic cyclic ether moieties on the degradation of and drug release by PECT hydrogels were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The results indicated that a freeze-dried powder of paclitaxel-loaded PECT nanoparticles rapidly dissolved in water at ambient temperature with slightly shaking and formed a stable injectable in situ drug-hydrogel formulation at body temperature, which is convenient for clinical operations because it avoids the need for pre-quenching or long-term incubation. The paclitaxel distribution was also more quantitative and homogeneous on entrapping paclitaxel in PECT nanoparticles. Further, the small number of pendant cyclic ether groups in PCL could decrease the cystallinity and hydrophobicity and, as a result, the in vitro and in vivo retention time of PECT hydrogels and the release of entrapped paclitaxel could be tuned from a few weeks to months by varying the amount of PTOSUO in the hydrophobic block. Significantly, paclitaxel-loaded PECT nanoparticles and free paclitaxel could be simultaneously released during the in vitro paclitaxel release from PECT hydrogels. A histopathological evaluation indicated that in vivo injected PECT hydrogels produced only a modest inflammatory response. Thus pendant cyclic ether modification of PCL could be an effective way to achieve the desired degradation and drug release profiles of amphiphilicco-polymer thermosensitive hydrogels and PECT hydrogels may be suitable for local drug delivery. PMID:22835677

  17. Weaponomics: The economics of small arms

    OpenAIRE

    Killicoat, Phillip

    2006-01-01

    The small arms market has received considerable attention since the end of the Cold War. Small arms may be viewed as the specific capital of rebel groups yet no statistical analysis of this market for weapons has yet taken place due to the absence of data. This paper introduces the first effort to quantitatively document the small arms market by collating field reports and journalist accounts to produce a cross-country time-series price index of Kalashnikov assault rifles. The new data is use...

  18. ARM Climate Research Facility Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Voyles

    2005-12-31

    Through the ARM Program, the DOE funded the development of several highly instrumented ground stations for studying cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer, and for measuring other parameters that determine the radiative properties of the atmosphere. This scientific infrastructure, and resultant data archive, is a valuable national and international asset for advancing scientific knowledge of Earth systems. In fiscal year (FY) 2003, the DOE designated ARM sites as a national scientific user facility: the ARM Climate Research (ACRF). The ACRF has enormous potential to contribute to a wide range interdisciplinary science in areas such as meteorology, atmospheric aerosols, hydrology, biogeochemical cycling, and satellite validation, to name only a few.

  19. Passive detection of nuclear-armed SLCMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective procedures have been developed, using national technical measures (photoreconnaissance satellites, radiointercept stations, etc.), for verification of reductions in land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles, such as marine-based ballistic missiles, and strategic bombers. However, there is agreement on procedures for verifying limitations of numbers of long-range nuclear-armed cruise missiles. The difficulties in developing such procedures are sometimes regarded (by opponents of nuclear disarmament) as a reason why cruise missiles based on ships and submarines ought not to be limited by future arms-reduction treaties. This paper considers the detectability of nuclear-armed cruise missiles through the penetrating radiation emitted spontaneously from their warheads

  20. Two new helical compounds based on Keggin clusters and N-donor multidentate ligand: Syntheses, structures and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shi; Liu, Bo; Li, Xiao-Min; Shi, Tian; Chen, Ya-Guang

    2014-11-01

    Two isostructural polyoxometalate-based inorganic-organic hybrids with 1D helical chain, [CuH3L2(GeMo12O40)]·2H2O (1) and [CuH3L2(SiMo12O40)]·2H2O (2), where L=2,4,5-tri(4-pyridyl)-imidazole have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. It is the first time to use the L ligand to synthesis the Keggin-type polyoxometalate-based inorganic-organic hybrids. The two compounds possess the left- and right-handed helical chains and the POMs as pendants attach in the helical chains through Cu-O bonds. The two compounds have been characterized by elemental analyses, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and photoluminescent spectroscopy. Moreover, nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement, electrochemical and photocatalysis properties for degradation of methylene blue (MB) upon a UV irradiation of compound 1 have been examined.

  1. Syntheses of Arnottin I and Arnottin II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschitto, Matthew J; Anthony, David R; Lewis, Chad A

    2015-03-20

    Short total syntheses of arnottin I and II were accomplished in 5 and 6 steps, respectively. A sesamol-benzyne cycloaddition with a 3-furyl-benzoate followed by regiospecific lactonization provided rapid, large-scale access to the core of arnottin I. Saponification of arnottin I and hypervalent iodide mediated spirocyclization provided an efficient and direct preparation of racemic arnottin II. PMID:25748275

  2. Method and apparatus for synthesizing filamentary structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Height, Murray J. (Somerville, MA); Howard, Jack B. (Winchester, MA); Vandersande, John B. (Newbury, MA)

    2008-02-26

    Method and apparatus for producing filamentary structures. The structures include single-walled nanotubes. The method includes combusting hydrocarbon fuel and oxygen to establish a non-sooting flame and providing an unsupported catalyst to synthesize the filamentary structure in a post-flame region of the flame. Residence time is selected to favor filamentary structure growth.

  3. Synthesizing Diacetylenes With Nonlinear Optical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmanus, Samuel P.; Frazier, Donald P.; Paley, Mark S.

    1993-01-01

    Diacetylene compounds being investigated to determine whether they have nonlinear optical properties making them useful for four-wave mixing, generation of third harmonics, phase conjugation, and like. Diacetylene monomers synthesized by sequences of chemical reactions. Monomers polymerized by ultraviolet light, forming potentially useful nonlinear optical materials.

  4. Highly Efficient Syntheses of Hyaluronic Acid Oligosaccharides

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Lijun; Huang, Xuefei

    2007-01-01

    Highly efficient syntheses of hyaluronic acid oligosaccharides have been accomplished through the pre-activation based iterative one-pot strategy. A series of oligosaccharides ranging from di- to hexasaccharides were rapidly assembled using only near stoichiometric amounts of the building blocks without aglycon adjustment or purifications of intermediate oligosaccharides. Deprote...

  5. Studies on polysomes synthesizing influenza virus haemagglutinin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fraction of polysomes synthesizing fowl plague virus (FPV) haemagglutinin (HA) was isolated from an infected chick embryo fibroblast (CEF) culture using a double immunoprecipitation assay. In an immunoprecipitate of HA-synthesizing polysomes (HA precipitate) the content of the HA polypeptide was increased with respect to the M1-NS1 polypeptides as compared to a preparation of unprecipitated polysomes. In the HA precipitate, besides mRNA coding for HA synthesis, we have detected mRNAs corresponding to genes 1, 2 and 3 coding for high molecular weight P proteins. Studies of a cytoplasmic extract (CE) from FPV-infected CEF cultures in a sucrose density gradient revealed a fraction of polysomes with a sedimentation value of about 500S; the composition of virusspecific polypeptides and mRNA of the fraction was similar to that of the HA precipitate. It is thought that P proteins are synthesized on membrane-bound polysomes located closely to HA-synthesizing polysomes. (Author)

  6. Dynamic analysis of the Schilling Titan 7F robotic arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A seven degree of freedom hydraulically actuated robotic arm is modeled using DADS. The low level control system for the arm is included in the model, as is the hydraulic system, and model results are compared with experimental results for the arm. Vane type rotary actuators are used in this arm, and a method for modeling them with DADS elements is presented. 10 figs

  7. Preparation and characterization of proton exchange poly (ether sulfone)s membranes grafted propane sulfonic acid on pendant phenyl groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly(ether sulfone)s containing hexaphenyl (PHP) was prepared by 1,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3,4,5,6-tetraphenylbenzene, 4,4-hydroxyphenylsulfone, and 4,4-fluorophenylsulfone, followed bromination on phenyl groups to produce brominated PHP (Br-PHP). Grafted sulfonated poly(ether sulfone)s containing hexaphenyl (GSPHP) were prepared from Br-PHP and 3-bromopropane sulfonic acid with potassium salt and copper powder. The salt form was converted to free acid using 1 M sulfuric acid solution. All these membranes were cast from dimethylacetamide (DMAc). The structural properties of the synthesized polymers were investigated by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The membranes were studied with regard to ion exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake, Fenton test, and proton conductivity. These grafted polymer membranes were compared with normal sulfonated poly(ether sulfone)s and Nafion

  8. One regional ARM guide for climatic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.M.

    1990-04-01

    One of the early tasks of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Program is to provide climatic guides for site selection purposes including possible continental, regional, local and on-site locations. The first guide A Preliminary ARM Guide for Climatic Evaluations'' provided some climate data on a continental scale; this one is an attempt to show the variability that exists over a region. Kansas was chosen for this particular guide because it satisfies most of the requirements given in the ARM Program Plan, i.e., climatic significance, potential for synergism with other programs and scientific and logistical viability. Kansas has extreme climatic variations, is centrally located, is compatible with other large scale programs (Fife), has good airfields and accommodations to minimize time and effort in planning and operating an ARM site for continuous use and special campaigns.

  9. One regional ARM guide for climatic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.M.

    1990-04-01

    One of the early tasks of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Program is to provide climatic guides for site selection purposes including possible continental, regional, local and on-site locations. The first guide ``A Preliminary ARM Guide for Climatic Evaluations`` provided some climate data on a continental scale; this one is an attempt to show the variability that exists over a region. Kansas was chosen for this particular guide because it satisfies most of the requirements given in the ARM Program Plan, i.e., climatic significance, potential for synergism with other programs and scientific and logistical viability. Kansas has extreme climatic variations, is centrally located, is compatible with other large scale programs (Fife), has good airfields and accommodations to minimize time and effort in planning and operating an ARM site for continuous use and special campaigns.

  10. Swing-arm profilometry of aspherics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David S.; Burge, James H.

    1995-09-01

    A profilometer is described that utilizes the swing-arm geometry to provide surface profile measurements of large, highly aspheric surfaces. The profilometer measurement is shown to be robust against stiffness and alignment induced errors in the probe motion.

  11. JOINT SMALL-ARMS RANGE REMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) demonstration conducted by the Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) and the Army Environmental Center (AEC) removed lead and other heavy metals from small-arms range soils by a combination of phys...

  12. MiniSAR composite gimbal arm development.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klarer, Paul Richard; Winscott, Mark (Orion International, Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-01-01

    An exploratory effort in the application of carbon epoxy composite structural materials to a multi-axis gimbal arm design is described. An existing design in aluminum was used as a baseline for a functionally equivalent redesigned outer gimbal arm using a carbon epoxy composite material. The existing arm was analyzed using finite element techniques to characterize performance in terms of strength, stiffness, and weight. A new design was virtually prototyped. using the same tools to produce a design with similar stiffness and strength, but reduced overall weight, than the original arm. The new design was prototyped using Rapid Prototyping technology, which was subsequently used to produce molds for fabricating the carbon epoxy composite parts. The design tools, process, and results are discussed.

  13. Science team participation in the ARM program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report discusses the Science Team participation in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program for the period of October 31, 1992 to November 1, 1993. This report summarized the research accomplishments of six papers

  14. Youth Armed Groups in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Dale

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For the many years of Colombia’s civil war, youth have been trying to find their way in complicated and dangerous situations. A central component of this is their relationship with armed groups, something that has evolved considerably over the past ten years. This practice note examines the context within which these connections are formed and the implications this has for self/social identity and meaningful resistance. The ideas in this practice note are based on consultations with young Colombians, particularly those displaced from 2000-2013. These sessions included art activities, focus groups and individual interviews. Art activities involved descriptive and expressive projects so that participants could explore their feelings and memories of situations and experiences. This provided a base for group discussions where youth exchanged information and debated issues. A total of 34 workshops were held over a twelve year period. These consultations revealed how war flows all over young people, touching every aspect of their identity. The boundaries between the personal and political no longer exist in today’s civil wars, if indeed they every truly did. Young people growing up inside Colombia’s war understand this at a deep level. An acknowledgement of this pain – showing the connections between the personal and political dimensions of war – is, they would maintain, the basis for their personal healing as well as an important tool for the building of sustainable peace.

  15. Is Negotiated Arms Control Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panofsky, W. K. H.

    2014-11-01

    I had a very difficult time deciding on the topic of this talk, since Viki's interests cover such a broad range of activities with which I am also concerned. You can hear next week about the recent exciting work with the SLAC storage rings, a description of the design principles of such rings, and their future promise for new physics through Professor Richter's Loeb Lectures at Harvard. Talking about inelastic lepton scattering during an M.I.T. conference would be bringing coals to Newcastle, since the local M.I.T. physicists are primary agents in these experiments. Broad problems in high energy physics policy, for instance such questions as the relation between University users and the large laboratories, are matters of current concern to Viki and his friends in high energy physics, but I doubt whether many would sit still for a one-hour talk on that subject. I would therefore like to use the opportunity to express some personal views on certain current issues in arms control, since I know that there exists a wide spectrum of involvement and also opinion on this subject in the local community...

  16. The Temporal Structure of Vertical Arm Movements

    OpenAIRE

    Gaveau, Je?re?mie; Papaxanthis, Charalambos

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates how the CNS deals with the omnipresent force of gravity during arm motor planning. Previous studies have reported direction-dependent kinematic differences in the vertical plane; notably, acceleration duration was greater during a downward than an upward arm movement. Although the analysis of acceleration and deceleration phases has permitted to explore the integration of gravity force, further investigation is necessary to conclude whether feedforward or feedba...

  17. BRUCE/KYLIE: Pulsating star spectra synthesizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Rich

    2014-12-01

    BRUCE and KYLIE, written in Fortran 77, synthesize the spectra of pulsating stars. BRUCE constructs a point-sampled model for the surface of a rotating, gravity-darkened star, and then subjects this model to perturbations arising from one or more non-radial pulsation modes. Departures from adiabaticity can be taken into account, as can the Coriolis force through adoption of the so-called traditional approximation. BRUCE writes out a time-sequence of perturbed surface models. This sequence is read in by KYLIE, which synthesizes disk-integrated spectra for the models by co-adding the specific intensity emanating from each visible point toward the observer. The specific intensity is calculated by interpolation in a large temperature-gravity-wavelength-angle grid of pre-calculated intensity spectra.

  18. Syntheses and studies of organosilicon compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, R.

    1999-02-12

    The syntheses of polycarbosilanes and polysilanes as silicon carbide ceramic precursors have been active research areas in the Barton Research Group. In this thesis, the work is focused on the preparation of polycarbosilanes and polysilanes as stoichiometric silicon carbide precursor polymers. The syntheses of the precursor polymers are discussed and the conversions of these precursors to silicon carbide via pyrolysis are reported. The XRD pattern and elemental analyses of the resulting silicon carbide ceramics are presented. Silicon monoxide is an important intermediate in the production of silicon metal. The existence of silicon monoxide in gap phase has been widely accepted. In the second part of this thesis, the generation of gaseous silicon monoxide in four different reactors and the reactions of gaseous silicon monoxide towards organic compounds are discussed.

  19. Maize mitochondria synthesize organ-specific polypeptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors detected both quantitative and qualitative organ-specific differences in the total protein composition of mitochondria of maize. Labeling of isolated mitochondria from each organ demonstrated that a few protein differences are due to changes in the polypeptides synthesized by the organelle. The synthesis of developmental stage-specific mitochondrial polypeptides was found in the scutella of developing and germinating kernels. The approximately 13-kDa polypeptide synthesized by mitochondria from seedlings of the Texas (T) male-sterile cytoplasm was shown to be constitutively expressed in all organs of line B37T tested. Methomyl, an insecticide known to inhibit the growth of T sterile plants, was shown to be an effective inhibitor of protein synthesis in mitochondria from T plants

  20. Synthesizing frequency selective metasurfaces with nanodisks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidi, Chiya; van der Weide, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    We present a comprehensive method for synthesizing frequency selective surfaces (FSSs) composed of arrays of periodic nanodisks. The synthesis is based on the recently derived equivalent circuit of the nanoparticle arrays, whose element values are related to the physical, geometrical, and electrical parameters of the FSS, and can be determined from the desired frequency response. We validate the synthesis procedure with design examples of FSSs with second-order Chebyshev and third-order Butterworth bandstop responses.

  1. Concise total syntheses of (±)-mesembrane and (±)-crinane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Mrinal Kanti; De, Subhadip; Shubhashish; Bisai, Alakesh

    2015-03-11

    A straightforward and unified strategy to access Amaryllidaceae alkaloids comprising a cis-3a-aryloctahydroindole scaffold has been developed. The strategy features Eschenmoser-Claisen rearrangement of allylalcohol as a key step for the installation of all-carbon quaternary stereocenters present in these alkaloids. The consequent iodolactonization-reduction-oxidation sequence beautifully assembles the advanced intermediate keto-aldehyde , in synthetically viable yields. The methodology has been successfully applied in the efficient syntheses of (±)-mesembrane () and (±)-crinane (). PMID:25698179

  2. Spurious in PLL-DDS frequency synthesizers.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kroupa, V?nceslav František; Štursa, Jarmil

    2002-01-01

    Ro?. 2, ?. 1 (2002), s. 48-51. ISSN 1335-8243. [Digital Signal Processing and Multimedia Communications DSP-MCOM 2001 /5./. Košice, 27.11.2001-29.11.2001] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA102/00/0958 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : frequency synthesizers * phase locked loops * direct digital synthesis Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  3. Method for synthesizing ultrafine powder materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Richard J. (Albuquerque, NM); Ho, Pauline (Albuquerque, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A method for synthesizing ultrafine powder materials, for example, ceramic and metal powders, comprises admitting gaseous reactants from which the powder material is to be formed into a vacuum reaction chamber maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric and at a temperature less than about 400.degree. K. (127.degree.C.). The gaseous reactants are directed through a glow discharge provided in the vacuum reaction chamber to form the ultrafine powder material.

  4. High pressure syntheses of carbonates. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ternary carbonates NaLn(CO3)2 with Ln = La to Lu and Y are synthesized by dehydration of NaLn(CO3)2.xH2O or by reaction of Na2CO3 with Ln2(C2O4)3.xH2O under 3000 bar CO2 and 350 - 500 0C. Two structures are found, characterized by IR and X-ray investigations and by thermal decomposition. (author)

  5. Human Microglial Cells Synthesize Albumin in Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Sung-min; Byun, Kyunghee; Cho, Kun; Kim, Jin Young; Yoo, Jong Shin; Kim, Deokhoon; Paek, Sun Ha; Kim, Seung U.; Simpson, Richard J.; Lee, Bonghee

    2008-01-01

    Albumin, an abundant plasma protein with multifunctional properties, is mainly synthesized in the liver. Albumin has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) since it can bind to and transport amyloid beta (A?), the causative agent of AD; albumin is also a potent inhibitor of A? polymerization. Despite evidence of non-hepatic transcription of albumin in many tissues including kidney and pancreas, non-hepatic synthesis of albumin at the protein level has been rarely confirmed. In a pilot ...

  6. Syntheses and studies of acetylenic polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yiwei, Ding

    1994-03-03

    Based on new diiodo aryl compounds a series of novel soluble polymers, poly(2,5-dialkoxy-1,4-phenyleneethynylene)s (PPE polymers) were synthesized using palladium-catalysis. The molecular weights (MW) range from 8,000 to 40,000. Properties such as absorption, fluorescence, and conductivity were studied. A PPE polymer with butoxy side chain exhibits a weak electrical conductivity ({sigma} = 10{sup {minus}3} S/cm) after doping with AsF{sub 5}. Absorption spectra in THF solution at room temperature (RT) show a maximum at 440 nm. However, absorption spectra of PPE polymers in the film state at (RT) show a maximum at 480 nm. PPE polymer-based light emitting diode (LED) devices have been prepared; greenish light from these LED devices can be observed. Poly(ethynylene-p-arylene-ethynylene-silylene)s were synthesized through the same palladium-catalyzed polymerization; MWs are between 6,000 and 82,000. Absorption and fluorescence were studied. Some of these polymers exhibit thermotropic liquid crystalline properties. In addition, nonlinear optical properties were briefly examined. Poly(silylene-ethynylene) homopolymers as well as alternating copolymers were synthesized through a novel palladium-catalyzed polymerization; MWs range from 56 {times} 10{sup 3} to 5.3 {times} 10{sup 3}. Thermal stability of these was also investigated; char yields range from 56 to 83%. One of these polymers exhibits thermotropic liquid crystalline properties.

  7. A Synthesizer based on square waves

    CERN Document Server

    Vergara, Sossio

    2008-01-01

    One of the most widely employed technique for the sound synthesis is based on the Fourier theorem that states that any signal can be obtained as a sum of sinusoids. Unfortunately this algorithm, when applied to synthesizers, requires some peculiar operations, as the addressing of a Look Up Table, that are not easily built-in in standard processors, thus requiring specially designed architectures. The aim of this paper is to show that, when using a new method for the analysis and polar coordinates, a much broader class of functions can be employed as a basis, and it turns out that the square wave is just one of such functions. When the synthesis of signals is carried out by summing square waves, the additive synthesizer architecture results much more simplified, allowing for example to synthesize complex signals simply in software, using general purpose microprocessors, even in real-time. Firstly it will be proven that when using a novel method for the analysis phase, the L2 function space admits a broad class...

  8. Magnesioferrite synthesized from magnesian-magnetites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Hidemassa Anami

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Magnesioferrite is an important mineral due to its use in different scientific fields and by the fact that the soil through the action of weathering, can be a source of nutrients essential for plant development by the fact that in the soil. Its use in pure form or associated with other minerals is only possible through the synthesis in laboratory conditions. This study aimed to synthesize magnesioferrite and hematite from magnesian-magnetite by a co-precipitation procedure. The methodology used is an adaptation of the method of synthesis of pure magnetite, partially replacing the soluble salts of iron with soluble magnesium salts in the proportion of 30.0 mol% of Fe for Mg. The characterization of the synthetic minerals used x-rays diffraction, total chemical analysis and mass specific magnetic susceptibility. The results showed that besides the magnesian-magnetite an unprecedented muskoxita was synthesized, which upon annealing was converted to magnesioferrite and hematite and in the proportion of 93.1% and 6.9% respectively. The isomorphous substitution of Fe for Mg enhanced the thermal stability of the ferrimagnetic mineral synthesized.

  9. Titanat aluminium synthesized in a solar furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suleimanov, S.; Gulamova, D. [Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Tashkent (Uzbekistan). Materials Science Inst.; Boehmer, M.; Fend, T.; Rietbrock, P. [DLR, Koeln (Germany). MD-ET

    1997-12-31

    Solar furnace technology is an ecologically clean and economically attractive way, most suitable for research and development of new advanced materials. Such features of the solar furnace as sterile conditions of heating, high speed temperature delivering, materials processing in the whole range of the solar spectrum, quenching of the melt with rates of {proportional_to}10{sup 6} K/s, possibility of melting in the cold crucible etc. allow to synthesize complex oxide compositions, such as Al{sub 2}TiO{sub 5}. The study of Al{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} synthesized in the solar furnace has shown that the material is pure {beta}-Al{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} and possesses orthorhombic crystal structure. Microstructure of the material obtained from the melt has a prolonged prismatic shape. When the material is obtained by quenching the microstructure displays fine-grain structure with crystallites of 3-5 micron in size. Raman spectroscopy investigations have been performed on {beta}-Al{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} synthesized on the solar furnace. It has been observed a distinct band at 900 1/cm which is not presented in other six coordinated titanates. Most probably this band is connected with valent vibrations of the Al-O coupling in distorted octahedrons [AlO{sub 6}]. (orig.)

  10. Template Syntheses, Crystal Structures and Supramolecular Assembly of Hexaaza Macrocyclic Copper(II) Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taehyung; Kim, Ju Chang [Pukyong National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lough, Alan J. [Univ. of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    2013-06-15

    Two new hexaaza macrocyclic copper(II) complexes were prepared by a template method and structurally characterized. In the solid state, they were self-assembled by intermolecular interactions to form the corresponding supramolecules 1 and 2, respectively. In the structure of 1, the copper(II) macrocycles are bridged by a tp ligand to form a macrocyclic copper(II) dimer. The dimer extends its structure by intermolecular forces such as hydrogen bonds and C-H···? interactions, resulting in the formation of a double stranded 1D supramolecule. In 2, the basic structure is a monomeric copper(II) macrocycle with deprotonated imidazole pendants. An undulated 1D hydrogen bonded array is achieved through hydrogen bonds between imidazole pendants and secondary amines, where the imidazole pendants act as a hydrogen bond acceptor. The 1D hydrogen bonded supramolecular chain is supported by C-H···? interactions between the methyl groups of acetonitrile ligands and imidazole pendants of the copper(II) macrocycles. In both complexes, the introduction of imidazoles to the macrocycle as a pendant plays an important role for the formation of supramolecules, where they act as intermolecular hydrogen bond donors and/or acceptors, C-H···? and ?-? interactions.

  11. Template Syntheses, Crystal Structures and Supramolecular Assembly of Hexaaza Macrocyclic Copper(II) Complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new hexaaza macrocyclic copper(II) complexes were prepared by a template method and structurally characterized. In the solid state, they were self-assembled by intermolecular interactions to form the corresponding supramolecules 1 and 2, respectively. In the structure of 1, the copper(II) macrocycles are bridged by a tp ligand to form a macrocyclic copper(II) dimer. The dimer extends its structure by intermolecular forces such as hydrogen bonds and C-H···? interactions, resulting in the formation of a double stranded 1D supramolecule. In 2, the basic structure is a monomeric copper(II) macrocycle with deprotonated imidazole pendants. An undulated 1D hydrogen bonded array is achieved through hydrogen bonds between imidazole pendants and secondary amines, where the imidazole pendants act as a hydrogen bond acceptor. The 1D hydrogen bonded supramolecular chain is supported by C-H···? interactions between the methyl groups of acetonitrile ligands and imidazole pendants of the copper(II) macrocycles. In both complexes, the introduction of imidazoles to the macrocycle as a pendant plays an important role for the formation of supramolecules, where they act as intermolecular hydrogen bond donors and/or acceptors, C-H···? and ?-? interactions

  12. Synthesis, spectral and oxidase studies of a new diamide copper(II) complex with pendant benzimidazolyl groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Sunil K; Tehlan, Sarita; Mathur, Pavan

    2007-02-01

    A new benzimidazole-based diamide ligand-N,N'-bis(alanine-2-benzimidazolyl) hexanediamide (ABHA) has been synthesized and utilized to prepare Cu(II) complexes of general composition [Cu(ABHA)X2].nH2O,where X is an exogenous anionic ligand (X=Cl-,NO3-). Low temperature EPR spectra has been obtained that shows gparallel>gperpendicular>2.0024, indicating a tetragonal geometry in the solution state. The complexes display a quasi-reversible redox wave due to the Cu(II)/Cu(I) reduction process. E1/2 values shift anodically as NO3-

  13. Research on the measurement technology of effective arm length of swing arm profilometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Jing, Hongwei; Wei, Zhongwei; Li, Jie; Cao, Xuedong

    2014-09-01

    When the swing arm profilometer(SAP) measuring the mirror, the effective arm length of SAP which haves an obvious influence on the measurement results of the mirror surface shape needs to be measured accurately. It requires the measurement uncertainty of the effective arm length to reach 10?m in order to meet the measurement requirements, in this paper, we present a kind of technology based on laser tracker to measure the effective arm length of SAP. When the swing arm rotates around the shaft axis of swing arm rotary stage, the probe and two laser tracker balls form three sections of circular arc around the shaft axis of swing arm rotary stage in space. Laser tracker tracks and measures the circular arcs of two laser tracker balls, the center coordinates of the circular plane of circular arc can be calculated by data processing. The linear equation that passes through the two center coordinates is the equation of the shaft axis of rotary stage, the vertical distance from the probe to the shaft axis of rotary stage which can be calculated refer to the equation from the point to the line is the effective arm length. After Matlab simulation, this measurement method can meet the measurement accuracy.

  14. Alignment and arm length measurement of the swing arm profilometer using a laser tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Hongwei; King, Christopher; Walker, David

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we present the use of the laser tracker to aid the alignment of a Swing Arm Profilometer (SAP) and measure the length of the swinging arm, thus calibrating the operating radius of the SAP. The measurement uncertainty analysis is given. A laser tracker is used to align the SAP to ensure the path of the probe head passes through the rotary axis of the rotary table. By building the coordinate system by laser tracker measurement on the rotary table and measuring the swinging arc of the arm, we can determine whether the swinging path of the probe head passes through the rotary axis of the rotary table and perform the corresponding adjustment if necessary. A laser tracker is also used to measure the arm length, i.e. the length between the probe's ball centre and the rotation axis of the swinging arm. By placing a retroreflector or the tracker ball on the swinging arm and scanning the swinging path of the arm using the laser tracker, we can acquire the data of an arc and fit to determine the length of the probe head center to rotation axis of swinging arm, thus giving accurate SAP calibration data.

  15. Automatic algebraic computation of basic kinematic equations of tree structure robot arms: application to human arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahed, S M

    1991-01-01

    Tree structure robot arms have been very little studied due to the complexity of their topological structure compared with those of the simple chain type. This paper presents a symbolic computation of the basic kinematic equations of these tree structure robot arms. This leads to the calculation of the homogeneous transformation matrices (HTMs) of the tree branches. These computations are arranged to need the smallest possible number of arithmetic operations. A computer program MGLAT is developed in Pascal to generate such equations in symbolic form. The human arm which consists of the forearm, a wrist and fingers is a very good example of such a structure. A simplified model of 25 degrees of mobility of such an arm is presented. Its basic kinematic equations need 358 multiplications, 214 additions and 252 equations. These equations are useful for improving the existing designs of the artificial arms for handicapped persons and for designing new robot hands for delicate tasks. PMID:1823787

  16. Stellar Motion around Spiral Arms: Gaia Mock Data

    CERN Document Server

    Kawata, D; Grand, R J J; Siebert, A; Pasetto, S; Cropper, M

    2015-01-01

    We compare the stellar motion around a spiral arm created in two different scenarios, transient/co-rotating spiral arms and density-wave-like spiral arms. We generate Gaia mock data from snapshots of the simulations following these two scenarios using our stellar population code, SNAPDRAGONS, which takes into account dust extinction and the expected Gaia errors. We compare the observed rotation velocity around a spiral arm similar in position to the Perseus arm, and find that there is a clear difference in the velocity features around the spiral arm between the co-rotating spiral arm and the density-wave-like spiral arm. Our result demonstrates that the volume and accuracy of the Gaia data are sufficient to clearly distinguish these two scenarios of the spiral arms.

  17. Spiral arms as cosmic ray source distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, M.; Kissmann, R.; Strong, A. W.; Reimer, O.

    2015-04-01

    The Milky Way is a spiral galaxy with (or without) a bar-like central structure. There is evidence that the distribution of suspected cosmic ray sources, such as supernova remnants, are associated with the spiral arm structure of galaxies. It is yet not clearly understood what effect such a cosmic ray source distribution has on the particle transport in our Galaxy. We investigate and measure how the propagation of Galactic cosmic rays is affected by a cosmic ray source distribution associated with spiral arm structures. We use the PICARD code to perform high-resolution 3D simulations of electrons and protons in galactic propagation scenarios that include four-arm and two-arm logarithmic spiral cosmic ray source distributions with and without a central bar structure as well as the spiral arm configuration of the NE2001 model for the distribution of free electrons in the Milky Way. Results of these simulation are compared to an axisymmetric radial source distribution. Also, effects on the cosmic ray flux and spectra due to different positions of the Earth relative to the spiral structure are studied. We find that high energy electrons are strongly confined to their sources and the obtained spectra largely depend on the Earth's position relative to the spiral arms. Similar finding have been obtained for low energy protons and electrons albeit at smaller magnitude. We find that even fractional contributions of a spiral arm component to the total cosmic ray source distribution influences the spectra on the Earth. This is apparent when compared to an axisymmetric radial source distribution as well as with respect to the Earth's position relative to the spiral arm structure. We demonstrate that the presence of a Galactic bar manifests itself as an overall excess of low energy electrons at the Earth. Using a spiral arm geometry as a cosmic ray source distributions offers a genuine new quality of modeling and is used to explain features in cosmic ray spectra at the Earth that are else-wise attributed to other propagation effects. We show that realistic cosmic ray propagation scenarios have to acknowledge non-axisymmetric source distributions.

  18. Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitz, Robert; Slostad, Jeffrey; Bon, Bruce; Braun, Dave; Brill, Russ; Buck, Carl; Fleischner, Richard; Haldeman, Albert; Herman, Jennifer; Hetzel, Mark; Noon, Don; Pixler, Greg; Schenker, Paul; Ton, Thieu; Tucker, Curtis; Zimmerman, Wayne; Paige, David

    2001-08-01

    The primary purpose of the Mars Volatiles And Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Robotic Arm is to support the other MVACS science instruments by digging trenches in the Martian soil; acquiring and dumping soil samples into the Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer; positioning the Soil Temperature Probe in the soil; positioning the Robotic Arm Air Temperature Sensor at various heights above the surface, and positioning the Robotic Arm Camera for taking images of the surface, trench, soil samples, magnetic targets, and other objects of scientific interest within its workspace. In addition to data collected from the Robotic Arm sensors during science support operations, the Robotic Arm will perform experiments along with the other science instruments to yield additional information on Martian soil mechanics in the vicinity of the lander. The experiments include periodic imaging of dumped soil piles, surface scraping and soil chopping experiments, compaction tests, insertion of the various end-effector tools into the soil, and trench cave-in tests. Data from the soil mechanics experiments will yield information on Martian soil properties such as angle of repose, cohesion, bearing strength, and grain size distribution.

  19. Spiral Arms as Cosmic Ray Source Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, M; Strong, A W; Reimer, O

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence that the distribution of suspected cosmic ray sources are associated with the spiral arm structure of galaxies. It is yet not clearly understood what effect such a cosmic ray source distribution has on the particle transport in our Galaxy. We use the PICARD code to perform high-resolution 3D simulations of electrons and protons in galactic propagation scenarios that include four-arm and two-arm logarithmic spiral cosmic ray source distributions with and without a central bar structure as well as the spiral arm configuration of the NE2001 model for the distribution of free electrons in the Milky Way. Results of these simulation are compared to an axisymmetric radial source distribution. Also, effects on the cosmic ray flux and spectra due to different positions of the Earth relative to the spiral structure are studied. We find that high energy electrons are strongly confined to their sources and the obtained spectra largely depend on the Earth's position relative to the spiral arms. Similar f...

  20. Adaptive Control Strategies for Flexible Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialasiewicz, Jan T.

    1996-01-01

    The control problem of a flexible robotic arm has been investigated. The control strategies that have been developed have a wide application in approaching the general control problem of flexible space structures. The following control strategies have been developed and evaluated: neural self-tuning control algorithm, neural-network-based fuzzy logic control algorithm, and adaptive pole assignment algorithm. All of the above algorithms have been tested through computer simulation. In addition, the hardware implementation of a computer control system that controls the tip position of a flexible arm clamped on a rigid hub mounted directly on the vertical shaft of a dc motor, has been developed. An adaptive pole assignment algorithm has been applied to suppress vibrations of the described physical model of flexible robotic arm and has been successfully tested using this testbed.

  1. ARM Cloud Retrieval Ensemble Data Set (ACRED)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, C; Xie, S; Klein, SA; McCoy, R; Comstock, JM; Delanoë, J; Deng, M; Dunn, M; Hogan, RJ; Jensen, MP; Mace, GG; McFarlane, SA; O’Connor, EJ; Protat, A; Shupe, MD; Turner, D; Wang, Z

    2011-09-12

    This document describes a new Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) data set, the ARM Cloud Retrieval Ensemble Data Set (ACRED), which is created by assembling nine existing ground-based cloud retrievals of ARM measurements from different cloud retrieval algorithms. The current version of ACRED includes an hourly average of nine ground-based retrievals with vertical resolution of 45 m for 512 layers. The techniques used for the nine cloud retrievals are briefly described in this document. This document also outlines the ACRED data availability, variables, and the nine retrieval products. Technical details about the generation of ACRED, such as the methods used for time average and vertical re-grid, are also provided.

  2. ARM Based Remote control Toy Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish G Langar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With ever increasing popularity of ARM core based microcontroller for embedded systems, So decided to incorporate project utilizing ARM based microcontroller LPC 2129.In this project , ARM based LPC 2129 kit studied & after careful examination of various functions of pins, suitable pins were chosen & necessary hardware were added to develop simple application of remote control of car . A normal control toy car has four keys for controlling forward, reverse, right & left turn motions. At any particular time, only one function can beincorporated and it is observed that car just runs at constant speed and turns abruptly. Our work demonstrates much better control with smoother acceleration and deceleration along with capability to turn while running at lower speed. PWM capability of LPC 2129 utilized to control speed of motor using pulse width modulator. Currently two route paths were programmed for control.LCD display interfaced to kit to indicate present state of car.

  3. Fusion of hand and arm gestures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquin, D.; Benoit, E.; Sawada, H.; Ionescu, B.

    2005-12-01

    In order to improve the link between an operator and its machine, some human oriented communication systems are now using natural languages like speech or gesture. The goal of this paper is to present a gesture recognition system based on the fusion of measurements issued from different kind of sources. It is necessary to have some sensors that are able to capture at least the position and the orientation of the hand such as Dataglove and a video camera. Datagloge gives a measure of the hand posture and a video camera gives a measure of the general arm gesture which represents the physical and spatial properties of the gesture, and based on the 2D skeleton representation of the arm. The measurements used are partially complementary and partially redundant. The application is distributed on intelligent cooperating sensors. The paper presents the measurement of the hand and the arm gestures, the fusion processes, and the implementation solution.

  4. Evaluating and synthesizing broadcasting satellite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knouse, G. H.

    1974-01-01

    A system model and a computer program have been developed which are representative of broadcasting satellite systems employing several types of receiving terminals. The program provides a user-oriented tool for (1) evaluating performance/cost tradeoffs, (2) synthesizing minimum cost systems for a given set of system requirements, and (3) performing sensitivity analyses to identify critical user requirements, system parameters, and technology. The types of systems which can be evaluated are described, and the capabilities of the program are illustrated by means of several examples.

  5. Carbon submicrotubes synthesized on carbon microfibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon submicrotubes were synthesized on carbon microfibers by floating catalyst method, and carbon nanotubes were also observed to grow on the rough surface of carbon submicrotubes. The morphology, microstructure and composition of the obtained products were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The growth of carbon submicrotubes on carbon microfibers was attributed to the pretreatment of carbon microfibers, which gave rise to catalyst areas, while the secondary growth of carbon nanotubes could be related to the defects of hexagonal graphite on the surface of carbon submicrotubes

  6. Martian Soil Inside Phoenix's Robotic Arm Scoop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) shows material from the Martian surface captured by the Robotic Arm (RA) scoop during its first test dig and dump on the seventh Martian day of the mission, or Sol 7 (June 1, 2008). The test sample shown was taken from the digging area informally known as 'Knave of Hearts.' The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Responses to arm and leg ergometry.

    OpenAIRE

    Eston, R. G.; Brodie, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Arm (A), leg (L) and combined arm and leg (A + L) ergometry modes were compared at power outputs of 49, 73.5 and 98 W. Selected cardiorespiratory variables and a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured for 19 males of mean age 25.7 (+/- 5.5) years. Oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), minute ventilation and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were all higher (p less than 0.01) in A compared with L and A + L. Gross mechanical efficiency was significantly lower in A (p less than 0.01) ...

  8. Two-Armed, Mobile, Sensate Research Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelberger, J. F.; Roberts, W. Nelson; Ryan, David J.; Silverthorne, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The Anthropomorphic Robotic Testbed (ART) is an experimental prototype of a partly anthropomorphic, humanoid-size, mobile robot. The basic ART design concept provides for a combination of two-armed coordination, tactility, stereoscopic vision, mobility with navigation and avoidance of obstacles, and natural-language communication, so that the ART could emulate humans in many activities. The ART could be developed into a variety of highly capable robotic assistants for general or specific applications. There is especially great potential for the development of ART-based robots as substitutes for live-in health-care aides for home-bound persons who are aged, infirm, or physically handicapped; these robots could greatly reduce the cost of home health care and extend the term of independent living. The ART is a fully autonomous and untethered system. It includes a mobile base on which is mounted an extensible torso topped by a head, shoulders, and two arms. All subsystems of the ART are powered by a rechargeable, removable battery pack. The mobile base is a differentially- driven, nonholonomic vehicle capable of a speed >1 m/s and can handle a payload >100 kg. The base can be controlled manually, in forward/backward and/or simultaneous rotational motion, by use of a joystick. Alternatively, the motion of the base can be controlled autonomously by an onboard navigational computer. By retraction or extension of the torso, the head height of the ART can be adjusted from 5 ft (1.5 m) to 6 1/2 ft (2 m), so that the arms can reach either the floor or high shelves, or some ceilings. The arms are symmetrical. Each arm (including the wrist) has a total of six rotary axes like those of the human shoulder, elbow, and wrist joints. The arms are actuated by electric motors in combination with brakes and gas-spring assists on the shoulder and elbow joints. The arms are operated under closed-loop digital control. A receptacle for an end effector is mounted on the tip of the wrist and contains a force-and-torque sensor that provides feedback for force (compliance) control of the arm. The end effector could be a tool or a robot hand, depending on the application.

  9. The ARM unpiloted aerospace vehicle (UAV) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowle, D. [Mission Research Corporation, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Unmanned aerospace vehicles (UAVs) are an important complement to the DOE`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. ARM is primarily a ground-based program designed to extensively quantify the radiometric and meteorological properties of an atmospheric column. There is a need for airborne measurements of radiative profiles, especially flux at the tropopause, cloud properties, and upper troposphere water vapor. There is also a need for multi-day measurements at the tropopause; for example, in the tropics, at 20 km for over 24 hours. UAVs offer the greatest potential for long endurance at high altitudes and may be less expensive than piloted flights. 2 figs.

  10. Regeneration of subnormally innervated axolotl arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, H; Watson, A; Egar, M

    1981-04-01

    Forearms of juvenile axolotls contain about 5000 axons, of which only 25% are myelinated and visible by light microscopy. Virtually all the axons degenerate after transection of the brachial plexus, but repeated operations fail to keep the arm completely denervated. Regrown nerve fibres were detected by electron microscopy after 6 weeks of attempted denervation and related to the quantity usually considered necessary for limb regeneration. Such arms regenerated quite normally, provided their innervation had been depleted for several weeks before amputation. Among other ways of reconciling these observations to the neurotrophic theory of limb regeneration, it is suggested that tissues can adapt to deprivation of their nerve supply. PMID:7276803

  11. Study of sulfonated polyether ether ketone with pendant lithiated fluorinated sulfonic groups as ion conductive binder in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zengbin; Xue, Lixin; Nie, Feng; Sheng, Jianfang; Shi, Qianru; Zhao, Xiulan

    2014-06-01

    In an attempt to reduce the Li+ concentration polarization and electrolyte depletion from the electrode porous space, sulfonated polyether ether ketone with pendant lithiated fluorinated sulfonic groups (SPEEK-FSA-Li) is prepared and attempted as ionic conductivity binder. Sulfonated aromatic poly(ether ether ketone) exhibits strong adhesion and chemical stability, and lithiated fluorinated sulfonic side chains help to enhance the ionic conductivity and Li+ ion diffusion due to the charge delocalization over the sulfonic chain. The performances are evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, charge-discharge cycle testing, 180° peel testing, and compared with the cathode prepared with polyvinylidene fluoride binder. The electrode prepared with SPEEK-FSA-Li binder forms the relatively smaller resistances of both the SEI and the charge transfer of lithium ion transport. This is beneficial to lithium ion intercalation and de-intercalation of the cathode during discharging-charging, therefore the cell prepared with SPEEK-FSA-Li shows lower charge plateau potential and higher discharge plateau potential. Compared with PVDF, the electrode with ionic binder shows smaller decrease in capacity with the increasing of cycle rate. Meanwhile, adhesion strength of electrode prepared with SPEEK-FSA-Li is more than five times greater than that with PVDF.

  12. Novel oxygen chirality induced by asymmetric coordination of an ether oxygen atom to a metal center in a series of sugar-pendant dipicolylamine copperII complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikata, Yuji; Sugai, Yuko; Obata, Makoto; Harada, Masafumi; Yano, Shigenobu

    2006-02-20

    Six sugar-pendant 2,2'-dipicolylamine (DPA) ligands (L1-3 and L'1-3) have been prepared. OH-protected and unprotected D-glucose, D-mannose, and D-xylose were attached to a DPA moiety via an O-glycoside linkage. X-ray crystallography of the copper(II) complexes (1-5) with these ligands revealed that the anomeric oxygen atom is coordinated to the metal center in the solid state, generating a chiral center at the oxygen atom. The CD spectra of these copper complexes in methanol or aqueous solution exhibit Cotton effects in the d-d transition region, which indicates that the ether oxygen atoms remain coordinated to the metal center and the oxygen-atom chirality is preserved even in solution. For complexes 1 and 2, the inverted oxygen-atom chirality and chelate-ring conformation in the solid state are well correlated with the mirror-image CD spectra in methanol solution. The concomitant inversion of the asymmetric configuration around the copper center was also observed in a methanol solution of complex 3 and a pyridine solution of complex 2. The square-pyramidal/octahedral copper(II) centers also exhibited characteristic absorption and CD spectra. PMID:16471965

  13. Influence of the polymer backbone structure on the properties of aromatic ionomers with pendant sulfobenzoyl side chains for use as proton-exchange membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutemar, Elin Persson; Jannasch, Patric

    2010-12-01

    Six different ionomers having various aromatic polymer backbones with pendant 2-sulfobenzoyl side chains were prepared by nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions of lithium 2,6-difluoro-2'-sulfobenzophenone with 4,4-biphenol, 2,7-dihydroxynaphthalene, 4,4-isopropylidenediphenol, 4,4-dihydroxydiphenyl ether, 4,4'-thiodiphenol, and 4,4'-thiobisbenzenethiol, respectively, to produce four poly(arylene ether)s, one poly(arylene ether sulfide), and one poly(arylene sulfide). Mechanically tough proton-exchange membranes with ion-exchange capacities in the narrow range from 1.9 to 2.3 mequiv/g were cast from the high-molecular-weight ionomers, and subsequently investigated with respect to their structure-property relationships. Glass transitions were only detected for ionomers in the sodium salt form, and increasing glass-transition temperatures (Tg) were found to give higher thermal decomposition temperatures. Analysis by small-angle X-ray scattering indicated that the ionic clustering was promoted for ionomers with flexible polymer backbones and low Tg values. The proton conductivity of the membranes at 80 °C under fully humidified conditions was found between 0.02 and 0.2 S/cm and appeared to depend primarily on the Tg. PMID:21138250

  14. Synthesized image processings in the neurosurgical field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogayama, Hiroyuki (Akita Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-06-01

    Widespread applications of computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and other diagnostic imaging modalities using digital techniques have recently created increasing demands for a picture archiving and communicating system (PACS) with efficient image management capabilities. For its introduction into a hospital specializing in neurological surgery, the following three pieces of software for medical image synthesis, have been developed in order to achieve efficient image management in the field of clinical neurosurgery. The field piece of software is for automatically mapping small thalamic or basal ganglionic lesions depicted on MR images onto the Schaltenbrand-Wahren's brain atlas. The second is for superimposing two angiographic films to yield a single synthesized image featuring two different phases simultaneously. The third software is for superimposing sagittal CT images, automatically reconstructed from the axial slices, onto the lateral views of cerebral angiograms. It was found that these PACS-based imaging techniques may offer the potential to help both in anatomical localization of small intracranial lesions using the first piece of software, and in the evaluation of basic hemodynamics, including collateral circulation in a single angiographic image, utilizing the second software. The resulting synthesized images obtained with the use of the third software, were also found useful in simplifying the design of craniotomy for intracranial lesions by graphically indicating their locations, along with cerebral vessels in a lateral view. These newly developed methods for medical image synthesis are described in detail with their clinical applications. (author).

  15. Synthesizing Waves from Animated Height Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Bang; Söderström, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Computer animated ocean waves for feature films are typically carefully choreographed to match the vision of the director and to support the telling of the story. The rough shape of these waves is established in the previsualization (previs) stage, where artists use a variety of modeling tools with fast feedback to obtain the desired look. This poses a challenge to the effects artists who must subsequently match the locked-down look of the previs waves with high-quality simulated or synthesized waves, adding the detail necessary for the final shot. We propose a set of automated techniques for synthesizing Fourier-based ocean waves that match a previs input, allowing artists to quickly enhance the input wave animation with additional higher-frequency detail that moves consistently with the coarse waves, tweak the wave shapes to flatten troughs and sharpen peaks if desired (as is characteristic of deep water waves), and compute a physically reasonable velocity field of the water analytically. These properties are demonstrated with several examples, including a previs scene from a visual effects production environment.

  16. Recent Advances in Chemoenzymatic Peptide Syntheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenjiro Yazawa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemoenzymatic peptide synthesis is the hydrolase-catalyzed stereoselective formation of peptide bonds. It is a clean and mild procedure, unlike conventional chemical synthesis, which involves complicated and laborious protection-deprotection procedures and harsh reaction conditions. The chemoenzymatic approach has been utilized for several decades because determining the optimal conditions for conventional synthesis is often time-consuming. The synthesis of poly- and oligopeptides comprising various amino acids longer than a dipeptide continues to pose a challenge owing to the lack of knowledge about enzymatic mechanisms and owing to difficulty in optimizing the pH, temperature, and other reaction conditions. These drawbacks limit the applications of the chemoenzymatic approach. Recently, a variety of enzymes and substrates produced using recombinant techniques, substrate mimetics, and optimal reaction conditions (e.g., frozen aqueous media and ionic liquids have broadened the scope of chemoenzymatic peptide syntheses. In this review, we highlight the recent advances in the chemoenzymatic syntheses of various peptides and their use in developing new materials and biomedical applications.

  17. Skin testing, PPD (R arm) and Candida (L) (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The right arm represents a positive reaction to PPD (a skin test for tuberculosis protein). The left arm represents a positive reaction to Candida protein. Candida antigen is tested to determine if the ...

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of New Chiral Monoanionic [ON] Ancillary Phenolate Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Binda

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Three new chiral monoanionic [ON] ancillary phenolate ligands with varying pendant arms have been synthesized in moderate to high yields (50% - 85% via Mannich-type condensation reaction of chiral substituted phenol, formaldehyde and (+-bis-[(R-1-phenylethyl]amine. These new organic compounds were fully characterized via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H and 13C and elemental analysis. The newly synthesized ligands are suitable candidates for metal-catalyzed ring-opening of lactones and asymmetric catalysis.

  19. Localization of ANP-synthesizing cells in rat stomach

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chun-hui; Pan, Li-hui; Li, Chun-yu; Zhu, Chang-lin; Xu, Wen-xie

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the morphological positive expression of antrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)-synthesizing cells and ultrastructural localization and the relationship between ANP-synthesizing cells and microvessel density in the stomach of rats and to analyze the distribution of the three histologically distinct regions of ANP-synthesizing cells.

  20. DYNAMICS OF NON-STEADY SPIRAL ARMS IN DISK GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Junichi; Saitoh, Takayuki R. [Interactive Research Center of Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Wada, Keiichi, E-mail: babajn@geo.titech.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-30 Korimoto, Kagoshima, Kagoshima 890-8580 (Japan)

    2013-01-20

    In order to understand the physical mechanisms underlying non-steady stellar spiral arms in disk galaxies, we analyzed the growing and damping phases of their spiral arms using three-dimensional N-body simulations. We confirmed that the spiral arms are formed due to a swing amplification mechanism that reinforces density enhancement as a seeded wake. In the damping phase, the Coriolis force exerted on a portion of the arm surpasses the gravitational force that acts to shrink the portion. Consequently, the stars in the portion escape from the arm, and subsequently they form a new arm at a different location. The time-dependent nature of the spiral arms originates in the continual repetition of this nonlinear phenomenon. Since a spiral arm does not rigidly rotate, but follows the galactic differential rotation, the stars in the arm rotate at almost the same rate as the arm. In other words, every single position in the arm can be regarded as the corotation point. Due to interaction with their host arms, the energy and angular momentum of the stars change, thereby causing radial migration of the stars. During this process, the kinetic energy of random motion (random energy) of the stars does not significantly increase, and the disk remains dynamically cold. Owing to this low degree of disk heating, short-lived spiral arms can recurrently develop over many rotational periods. The resultant structure of the spiral arms in the N-body simulations is consistent with the observational nature of spiral galaxies. We conclude that the formation and structure of spiral arms in isolated disk galaxies can be reasonably understood by nonlinear interactions between a spiral arm and its constituent stars.

  1. Light duty utility arm software requirements specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document defines the software requirements for the integrated control and data acquisition system of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System. It is intended to be used to guide the design of the application software, to be a basis for assessing the application software design, and to establish what is to be tested in the finished application software product

  2. Arms Control, Deterrence and Nuclear Proliferation Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    This collection contains documents about arms control, nuclear deterrence and nuclear proliferation. Principle documents include: The Baruch Plan, Churchill' s "Iron Curtain" Speech, Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace Speech, Sec. of Defense McNamara's "No Cities" Speech, Sec. of Defense McNamara's "Mutual Deterrence" Speech. The collection also contains documents about recent nuclear events in North Korea, India and Pakistan.

  3. Clinical applications: Mobile C-arm systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of the image intensifier opened up new perspectives in surgery and interventional radiology. This article traces the development of mobile C-arm systems from the first surgical systems to modern systems such as the BV Pulsera with 3D rotational imaging. (orig.)

  4. Arms Control, Disarmament, and Peace Newsletters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Stephen

    1986-01-01

    Considers the research value of four types of newsletters on arms control, disarmament, and peace: direct-action, informational, scholarly, and single-issue. An annotated list of 58 newsletters includes those considered most significant of their type and recommended for library collections. (EM)

  5. ARM Surface Meteorology Systems Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritsche, MT

    2011-03-08

    The ARM Surface Meteorology Systems consist mainly of conventional in situ sensors that obtain a defined “core” set of measurements. The core set of measurements is: Barometric Pressure (kPa), Temperature (°C), Relative Humidity (%), Arithmetic-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), Vector-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), and Vector-Averaged Wind Direction (deg).

  6. The lure of disarmament and arms reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear disarmament and arms reduction do not have the same aims. Confusing their definitions means misunderstanding the logic which currently drives the power calculations of yesterday's Great Powers, and their associated approaches to the new strategic actor: China. The author knows the subject well from personal experience. (author)

  7. X long arm deletion with oligomenorrhoea.

    OpenAIRE

    Mijin, K.; Stolevic?, E.; Adzic?, S.; Lac?a, Z.; Markovic?, S.

    1982-01-01

    A 35-year-old female patient with oligomenorrhoea had a deletion of the long arm of the X chromosome. The breakpoint at band q23 caused infertility in spite of excessive pituitary stimulation. The aberrant X chromosome was inactivated in all cells analysed.

  8. Case Report: Macrocystic Lymphangioma of the Arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the case of a macrocystic lymphatic malformation present since birth in the right arm of a 3-year-old child. Ultrasound and MRI were consistent with a macrocystic lymphatic malformation, and histology after total resection confirmed the diagnosis. These lesions are common in the head and neck, but rarely occur in the extremities.

  9. An economical and safe procedure to synthesize 2-hydroxy-4-pentynoic acid: A precursor towards ‘clickable’ biodegradable polylactide

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Quanxuan; Ren, Hong; Baker, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    2-Hydroxy-4-pentynoic acid (1) is a key intermediate towards ‘clickable’ polylactide which allows for efficient introduction of a broad range of pendant functional groups onto polymers from a single monomer via convenient ‘click’ chemistry with organic azides. The incorporation of various pendant functional groups could effectively tailor the physicochemical properties of polylactide. The reported synthesis of 1 started from propargyl bromide and ethyl glyoxylate. However, both of sta...

  10. Diaminoalkane as Spacer Arm between Polystyrene and ?- Cylodextrin in Affinity Chromatography for ?-Amylase Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Widarti* ,

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Stationary phase design in affinity chromatography has to fulfill at least two requirements: non-specific interaction between solid support and or spacer arm and protein target or others is minimal and specific interaction between ligand and protein target is maximal. In this study, stationary phases that consist of polystyrene (PS as solid support, diaminoalkane as spacer arm and with and without ?CD as a ligand are performed in ?-amylase separation. Therefore, the research was carried out in two steps; stationary phase preparation and adsorption parameter determination towards ?-amylase. Stationary phases that consist of PS, 1,6-diaminohexane and ?CD (PS–DAH–?CD and without ?CD (PS–DAH were synthesized. Stationary phase structure was confirmed by FTIR, 13C NMR solid, 13C dan 1H NMR liquid spectroscopy. Other stationary phases, PS–DAP–?CD and PS–DAP that consist of 1,2-diaminopropane (DAP as spacer arm was synthesized in the previous research. Dynamic ?-amylase adsorption isotherm on PS–DAP and PS–DAH shows that both of them did not fix any adsorption isotherm model. The average binding capacity are 0.071 and 0.31 mg/0.1 g resin, respectively. In another hand, PS–DAP–?CD and PS–DAH–?CD fix isotherm adsorption Langmuir model and the adsorption parameters; the maximum binding capacity (qm are 5.5 and 2.1 mg/0.1 g resin, adsorption equilibrium constant (KA are 0.01965 and 0.01925 ?L—1 and desorption rate constant (k2 are 0.201 and 0.774 mg s—1 , respectively. Due to adsorption parameters, PS–DAP–?CD offer the best adsorption capacity and selectivity as stationary phase in affinity chromatography for ?-amylase separation.

  11. Star formation in Galactic spiral arms and the inter-arm regions

    CERN Document Server

    Eden, D J; Morgan, L K; Thompson, M A; Urquhart, J S

    2013-01-01

    The line of sight through the Galactic Plane between longitudes l = 37.83 degr and l = 42.50 degr allows for the separation of Galactic Ring Survey molecular clouds into those that fall within the spiral arms and those located in the inter-arm regions. By matching these clouds in both position and velocity with dense clumps detected in the mm continuum by the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey, we are able to look for changes in the clump formation efficiency (CFE), the ratio of clump-to-cloud mass, with Galactic environment. We find no evidence of any difference in the CFE between the inter-arm and spiral-arm regions along this line of sight. This is further evidence that, outside the Galactic Centre region, the large-scale structures of the Galaxy play little part in changing the dense, potentially star-forming structures within molecular clouds.

  12. 76 FR 55651 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ...of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is...Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended...defined in Section 47(6) of the Arms Export Control Act. (iii...Mission Computers, and 2 Tactical Mobile Acoustic Support Systems...

  13. 76 FR 69707 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ...of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is...Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as Amended...defined in Section 47(6) of the Arms Export Control Act. (iii...proposed sale will provide a highly mobile and light combat vehicle...

  14. 77 FR 9899 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ...Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as Amended...defined in Section 47(6) of the Arms Export Control Act. (iii...Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act Annex Item...the capability to engage some mobile targets. The DSU-40...

  15. 78 FR 15004 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ...of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is...Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as Amended...defined in Section 47(6) of the Arms Export Control Act. (iii...for Purchase: 90 M45 RAPISCAN Mobile Eagle High Energy Mobile...

  16. 77 FR 46421 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ...defined in Section 47(6) of the Arms Export Control Act. (iii...defined in Section 47(6) of the Arms Export Control Act. Policy...Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act Annex Item...V)11 system is compact, mobile, reliable and...

  17. Energy storage materials synthesized from ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebresilassie Eshetu, Gebrekidan; Armand, Michel; Scrosati, Bruno; Passerini, Stefano

    2014-12-01

    The advent of ionic liquids (ILs) as eco-friendly and promising reaction media has opened new frontiers in the field of electrochemical energy storage. Beyond their use as electrolyte components in batteries and supercapacitors, ILs have unique properties that make them suitable as functional advanced materials, media for materials production, and components for preparing highly engineered functional products. Aiming at offering an in-depth review on the newly emerging IL-based green synthesis processes of energy storage materials, this Review provides an overview of the role of ILs in the synthesis of materials for batteries, supercapacitors, and green electrode processing. It is expected that this Review will assess the status quo of the research field and thereby stimulate new thoughts and ideas on the emerging challenges and opportunities of IL-based syntheses of energy materials. PMID:25303401

  18. Digital frequency synthesizer for radar astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadr, R.; Satorius, E.; Robinett, L.; Olson, E.

    1990-01-01

    The digital frequency synthesizer (DFS) is an integral part of the programmable local oscillator (PLO) which is being developed for the NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) and radar astronomy. Here, the theory of operation and the design of the DFS are discussed, and the design parameters in application for the Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR) are specified. The spectral purity of the DFS is evaluated by analytically evaluating the output spectrum of the DFS. A novel architecture is proposed for the design of the DFS with a frequency resolution of 1/2(exp 48) of the clock frequency (0.35 mu Hz at 100 MHz), a phase resolution of 0.0056 degrees (16 bits), and a frequency spur attenuation of -96 dBc.

  19. Simplification of Methods for PET Radiopharmaceutical Syntheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilbourn, Michael, R.

    2011-12-27

    In an attempt to develop simplified methods for radiochemical synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals useful in Positron Emission Tomography (PET), current commercially available automated synthesis apparati were evaluated for use with solid phase synthesis, thin-film techniques, microwave-accelerated chemistry, and click chemistry approaches. Using combinations of these techniques, it was shown that these automated synthesis systems can be simply and effectively used to support the synthesis of a wide variety of carbon-11 and fluorine-18 labeled compounds, representing all of the major types of compounds synthesized and using all of the common radiochemical precursors available. These techniques are available for use to deliver clinically useful amounts of PET radiopharmaceuticals with chemical and radiochemical purities and high specific activities, suitable for human administration.

  20. Nanostructured bismuth ferrites synthesized by solvothermal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Well-crystallized bismuth ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized using the solvothermal method without the help of any mineralizer. The shape of the particles was changed by changing the synthesis temperature during solvothermal process. The as-prepared samples were characterized by an X-ray powder diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermal analyzer and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). It was observed that the change in solvent also led to the variation of the shape of the particles. Spindle, plate, cylindrical and hexagonal shapes were obtained. The particles showed antiferromagnetic nature within the measured temperature range of 80 K ? T ? 300 K. The hexagonal shaped particles showed a marked difference in coercivity at room temperature compared to the other samples.

  1. Syntheses and structures of terminal arylalumylene complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Koichi; Agou, Tomohiro; Tokitoh, Norihiro

    2014-04-01

    Terminal arylalumylene complexes of platinum [Ar-Al-Pt(PCy3 )2 ] (Ar=2,6-[CH(SiMe3 )2 ]2 C6 H3 (Bbp) or 2,6-[CH(SiMe3 )2 ]2 -4-(tBu)C6 H2 (Tbb)) have been synthesized either by the reaction of a dialumene-benzene adduct with [Pt(PCy3 )2 ], or by the reduction of 1,2-dibromodialumanes Ar(Br)Al-Al(Br)Ar in the presence of [Pt(PCy3 )2 ]. X-Ray crystallographic analysis reveals that the Al?Pt bond lengths of these arylalumylene complexes are shorter than the previously reported shortest Al?Pt distance. DFT calculations suggest that the Al?Pt bonds in the arylalumylene complexes have a significantly high electrostatic character. PMID:24616148

  2. Structure of the enzymatically synthesized fructan inulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyer, A.G.; Schroeer, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Molekulare Pflanzenphysiologie, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 25, 14476 Golm (Germany); Radosta, S. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Angewandte Polymerforschung, Postfach 126, 14504 Teltow (Germany); Wolff, D.; Czapla, S.; Springer, J. [Technische Universitaet Berlin, FG Makromolekulare Chemie, Str. des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    1998-12-15

    Construction, purification and characterization of a fusion protein of maltose-binding protein of Escherichia coli and the fructosyltransferase of Streptococcus mutans is described. With the purified protein, in vitro synthesis of inulin was performed. The obtained polysaccharide was characterized by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) and static light scattering (SLS) in dilute aqueous and dimethyl sulfoxide solution. For all samples very high molecular weights between 60x10{sup 6} and 90x10{sup 6} g/mol and a remarkable small polydispersity index of 1.1 have been determined. Small root-mean-square radii of gyration point to a compact conformation in dilute solution. No difference between native and enzymatically synthesized inulin was observed by X-ray powder diffraction and thermoanalysis of solid samples. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  3. PZT Powders Synthesized by Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Kong-Jun, ZHU Ren-Qiang, DONG Na-Na, GU Hong-Hui, QIU Jin-Hao, JI Hong-Li

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) powders with single―phase, cubic morphology and average size of 1 ?m were synthesized using hydrothermal methods. Effects of KOH concentration, hydrothermal treatment time and Pb excess were investigated. The results show that KOH concentration has an important influence on the solid solubility of Pb ion in A―site of PZT perovskite structure. The concentration of Pb2+ vacancies increased with the increase of OH― concentration. However, this kind of deficiency could be compensated by adding more Pb ions in the raw materials, and more Pb ions were needed to add with higher alkaline concentration in the starting solution. But excessive compensation of Pb ions would result in the appearance of the second phase.

  4. Porous oxides synthesized by the combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The result of this work, seeks to be a contribution for the treatment of radioactive wastes, with base to the sorption properties that present those porous oxides, synthesized by a method that allows to increase the sorption capacity. The main objective of the present investigation has been the modification of the structural characteristics of the oxides of Fe, Mg and Zn to increase its capacity of sorption of 60 Co in particular. It was studied the effect of the synthesis method by combustion in the inorganic oxides; the obtained solids were characterized using the following techniques: X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), semiquantitative elementary analysis by Dispersive energy spectroscopy (EDS) and determination of surface area by the Brunauner-Emmett-Teller method (BET). Also was carried out batch type experiments for the sorption of Co2+, with the purpose of studying the sorption capacity of each one of the prepared oxides. In accordance with that previously exposed, the working plan that was carried out in this investigation is summarized in the following stages: 1. Preparation of inorganic oxides by two different methods, studying the effect of the temperature in the synthesis process. 2. Characterization of the inorganic oxides by XRD, by means of which those were chosen the solids with better properties. 3. Characterization of the inorganic oxides by SEM and EDS where it was studied the morphology of the synthesized materials and the semiquantitative elemental composition. 4. Realization of a sorption experiment type Batch with non radioactive Co2+ to simulate the sorption of 60 Co and determination of the sorption capacity by means of neutron activation of the non radioactive cobalt. 5. Determination of the surface area by the (BET) technique of the inorganic oxides with better sorption properties. (Author)

  5. National Gas Survey. Synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The supply-Technical Advisory Task Force-Synthesized Gaseous Hydrocarbon Fuels considered coal, hydrocarbon liquids, oil shales, tar sands, and bioconvertible materials as potential feedstocks for gaseous fuels. Current status of process technology for each feedstock was reviewed, economic evaluations including sensitivity analysis were made, and constraints for establishment of a synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels industry considered. Process technology is presently available to manufacture gaseous hydrocarbon fuels from each of the feedstocks. In 1975 there were eleven liquid feedstock SNG plants in the United States having a capacity of 1.1 billion SCFD. There can be no contribution of SNG before 1982 from plants using feedstocks other than liquids because there are no plants in operation or under construction as of 1977. Costs for SNG are higher than current regulated prices for U.S. natural gas. Because of large reserves, coal is a prime feedstock candidate although there are major constraints in the area of coal leases, mining and water permits, and others. Commercial technology is available and several new gasification processes are under development. Oil shale is also a feedstock in large supply and commercial process technology is available. There are siting and permit constraints, and water availability may limit the ultimate size of an oil shale processing industry. Under projected conditions, bioconvertible materials are not expected to support the production of large quantities of pipeline quality gas during the next decade. Production of low or medium Btu gas from municipal solid wastes can be expected to be developed in urban areas in conjunction with savings in disposal costs. In the economic evaluations presented, the most significant factor for liquid feedstock plants is the anticipated cost of feedstock and fuel. The economic viability of plants using other feedstocks is primarily dependent upon capital requirements.

  6. Synthesizing plant phenological indicators from multispecies datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutishauser, This; Peñuelas, Josep; Filella, Iolanda; Gehrig, Regula; Scherrer, Simon C.; Röthlisberger, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Changes in the seasonality of life cycles of plants from phenological observations are traditionally analysed at the species level. Trends and correlations with main environmental driving variables show a coherent picture across the globe. The question arises whether there is an integrated phenological signal across species that describes common interannual variability. Is there a way to express synthetic phenological indicators from multispecies datasets that serve decision makers as usefull tools? Can these indicators be derived in such a robust way that systematic updates yield necessary information for adaptation measures? We address these questions by analysing multi-species phenological data sets with leaf-unfolding and flowering observations from 30 sites across Europe between 40° and 63°N including data from PEP725, the Swiss Plant Phenological Observation Network and one legacy data set. Starting in 1951 the data sets were synthesized by multivariate analysis (Principal Component Analysis). The representativeness of the site specific indicator was tested against subsets including only leaf-unfolding or flowering phases, and by a comparison with a 50% random sample of the available phenophases for 500 time steps. Results show that a synthetic indicators explains up to 79% of the variance at each site - usually 40-50% or more. Robust linear trends over the common period 1971-2000 indicate an overall change of the indicator of -0.32 days/year with lower uncertainty than previous studies. Advances were more pronounced in southern and northern Europe. The indicator-based analysis provides a promising tool for synthesizing site-based plant phenological records and is a companion to, and validating data for, an increasing number of phenological measurements derived from phenological models and satellite sensors.

  7. A Global Obstacle-avoidance Map for Anthropomorphic Arms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Fang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available More and more humanoid robots are used in human society, and they face a wide variety of complicated manipulation tasks, which are mainly to be achieved by their anthropomorphic arms. Obstacle avoidance for the anthropomorphic arm must be a fundamental consideration to guarantee the successful implementation of these tasks. Different from traditional methods searching for feasible or optimal collision-free solutions for the anthropomorphic arm, a global obstacle- avoidance map for the whole arm is proposed to indicate the complete set of feasible solutions. In this map, the motion of the arm can be appropriately planned to intuitively control the configuration of the arm in motion. First, the cubic spline function is adopted to interpolate some well-chosen path points to generate a smooth collision-free path for the wrist of the anthropomorphic arm. Second, based on the path function of the wrist, the time and the self-rotation angle of the arm about the “shoulder-wrist” axis are used to parameterize all possible configurations of the arm so that a global two- dimensional map considering the obstacle avoidance can be established. Subsequently, a collision-free self-rotation angle profile of the arm can be well planned. Finally, the joint trajectories of a specific anthropomorphic arm, which correspond to the planned path of the wrist and self-rotation angle profile of the arm, can be solved on the basis of the general kinematic analysis of the anthropomorphic arm, and the specific structure. Several simulations are conducted to verify that the proposed collision-free motion planning method for anthropomorphic arms has some advantages and can be regarded as a convenient and intuitive tool to control the configuration of the anthropomorphic arm in motion, without collision with obstacles in its surroundings.

  8. Motor Costs and the Coordination of the Two Arms

    OpenAIRE

    Salimpour, Yousef; Shadmehr, Reza

    2014-01-01

    We have two arms, many muscles in each arm, and numerous neurons that contribute to their control. How does the brain assign responsibility to each of these potential actors? We considered a bimanual task in which people chose how much force to produce with each arm so that the sum would equal a target. We found that the dominant arm made a greater contribution, but only for specific directions. This was not because the dominant arm was stronger. Rather, it was less noisy. A cost that include...

  9. Food rationing during World War two: a special case of sustainable consumption? Rationnement alimentaire pendant la seconde guerre mondiale : Un cas particulier de consommation durable ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iselin Theien

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores some of the strategies applied by consumers for making-do during the Second World War in Norway. By reducing waste, using various substitutes and exploiting underused natural resources such as wild plants, birds, and alternative marine sources of nutrition, Norwegian consumers adapted their diet to a situation of food scarcity. However, their everyday consumption was primarily governed by the regulatory framework installed for dealing with the crisis, namely the rationing system. By 1942, almost all common foods had been placed under rationing. Despite of the many bureaucratic inconveniences of this system, it was largely supported by consumers, who accepted it as a socially just mechanism for distributing scarce resources. The article brings up the question of how far the willingness of consumers to accept rationing was a unique experience of the war, or whether one might imagine a similar design for purposes of sustainable consumption.Cet article explore quelques unes des stratégies utilisées par les consommateurs pour survivre pendant la 2è guerre mondiale en Norvège. En limitant les déchets, en utilisant des produits de substitution ainsi que les ressources de la nature telles que plantes sauvages, oiseaux et aliments marins alternatifs, les consommateurs norvégiens ont pu adapter leur alimentation à cette période de pénurie alimentaire. La nourriture quotidienne était toutefois essentiellement encadrée par la réglementation mise en place afin de faire face à la crise, c’est à dire le système de rationnement. En 1942, presque tous les aliments étaient rationnés. En dépit de ses nombreux inconvénients administratifs, le rationnement fut quand même soutenu par les consommateurs, qui l’acceptèrent comme un système socialement équitable pour la distribution des maigres ressources. L’article développe la question suivante : l’acceptation du rationnement par les consommateurs norvégiens est-elle liée uniquement à la période de guerre, ou bien pourrait-on imaginer un système similaire pour favoriser une consommation durable?

  10. Cross-linking and ultrathin grafted gradation of fluorinated polymers synthesized via initiated chemical vapor deposition to prevent surface reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Andong; Goktekin, Esma; Gleason, Karen K

    2014-12-01

    Poly(fluoroalkyl acrylate)s with long perfluorooctyl pendant groups have been found to lead to the release of biopersistent perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS). Those with no more than six perfluorinated carbons in pedant groups do not cause such problems. They, however, give poor dynamic water repellency due to extensive reorganization of surface fluorinated groups when exposed to the water interface. In this work, thin films exhibiting improved dynamic water repellency, as evidenced by water contact angle (WCA) measurements, were synthesized via substrate-independent initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) from 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl acrylate (C6PFA) and divinylbenzene (DVB) using two methods: copolymerization and ultrathin grafted gradation. The copolymerization between C6PFA and the cross-linker, DVB, was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The cross-linking is concluded to hinder the reorganization of surface fluorinated groups. The grafted gradation, consisting of an ultrathin pC6PFA top layer and a pDVB base layer, was characterized by angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) measurements, which indicated that the top layer of pC6PFA is <2.5 nm thick to achieve the best dynamic water repellency. The outmost surface of this structure is fully covered by fluorinated groups, giving hydrophobicity. Concurrently, thanks to the interlayer grafting and the ultrathinness of the top layer, the fluorinated groups' tendency to migrate away from water interface is sterically blocked by the highly cross-linked pDVB base layer. The proposed approaches effectively reduced WCA hysteresis of C6PFA-based thin film to as low as 26.9° while maintaining sufficient hydrophobicity (advanced WCA of 119.6°). Due to the conformal and substrate-independent nature of iCVD technique, the films could be used to coat textured surfaces to generate superhydrophobicity. PMID:25358035

  11. Methyltriethoxysilane: New precursor for synthesizing silica aerogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadargi, Digambar Y. [Air Glass Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Vidya Nagar, Kolhapur 416004, Maharashtra (India); Rao, A. Venkateswara [Air Glass Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Vidya Nagar, Kolhapur 416004, Maharashtra (India)], E-mail: raouniv@yahoo.com

    2009-01-07

    Traditionally, silica aerogels are synthesized using three silicon alkoxides, namely, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) and methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) for various applications in science as well as in technology. Among all these precursors, only MTMS-based silica aerogels are inherently superhydrophobic with so far reported, the highest contact angle of 173 deg. In the present paper, we reported a new precursor, namely, methyltriethoxysilane (MTES) for synthesizing the silica aerogels having the novel properties as that of MTMS-based aerogels. The aerogels have been prepared using the MTES by two-stage acid-base catalyzed sol-gel process followed by supercritical drying. The solvent and catalysts used for the synthesis were methanol (MeOH), oxalic acid (C{sub 2}H{sub 2}O{sub 4}) and ammonium hydroxide (NH{sub 4}OH), respectively. The aerogels of different densities were obtained by varying the molar ratio of MeOH/MTES (S) from 6.45 to 19.35. In order to get good quality aerogels in terms of low density, high contact angle and less volume shrinkage, the oxalic acid (A) and NH{sub 4}OH (B) concentrations were varied from 0 to 1 and from 2 to 13.36 M, respectively. Monolithic aerogels have been obtained for the values of A = 0.01 M and B = 13.36 M. Simultaneously, the aerogels are superhydrophobic with contact angle as high as 163 deg. Furthermore, the effects of molar ratio of H{sub 2}O/MTES (W1), i.e. acidic water and H{sub 2}O/MTES (W2), i.e. basic water on the physical properties of the aerogels have also been studied. The molar ratio of MTES:MeOH:acidic water:basic water was optimized at 1:19.35:3.57:3.57, respectively. The aerogel thermal stability was studied by TGA-DTA while the hydrophobicity was quantified in terms of the contact angle measurements and FTIR studies. The as-prepared aerogels have been characterized by bulk density, porosity, volume shrinkage, thermal conductivity, contact angle measurements, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The physical properties of the aerogels have been explained by taking into account of sol-gel reactions and the gel network formation.

  12. Methyltriethoxysilane: New precursor for synthesizing silica aerogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditionally, silica aerogels are synthesized using three silicon alkoxides, namely, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) and methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) for various applications in science as well as in technology. Among all these precursors, only MTMS-based silica aerogels are inherently superhydrophobic with so far reported, the highest contact angle of 173 deg. In the present paper, we reported a new precursor, namely, methyltriethoxysilane (MTES) for synthesizing the silica aerogels having the novel properties as that of MTMS-based aerogels. The aerogels have been prepared using the MTES by two-stage acid-base catalyzed sol-gel process followed by supercritical drying. The solvent and catalysts used for the synthesis were methanol (MeOH), oxalic acid (C2H2O4) and ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH), respectively. The aerogels of different densities were obtained by varying the molar ratio of MeOH/MTES (S) from 6.45 to 19.35. In order to get good quality aerogels in terms of low density, high contact angle and less volume shrinkage, the oxalic acid (A) and NH4OH (B) concentrations were varied from 0 to 1 and from 2 to 13.36 M, respectively. Monolithic aerogels have been obtained for the values of A = 0.01 M and B = 13.36 M. Simultaneously, the aerogels are superhydrophobic with contact angle as high as 163 deg. Furthermore, the effects of molar ratio of H2O/MTES (W1), i.e. acidic water and 2O/MTES (W1), i.e. acidic water and H2O/MTES (W2), i.e. basic water on the physical properties of the aerogels have also been studied. The molar ratio of MTES:MeOH:acidic water:basic water was optimized at 1:19.35:3.57:3.57, respectively. The aerogel thermal stability was studied by TGA-DTA while the hydrophobicity was quantified in terms of the contact angle measurements and FTIR studies. The as-prepared aerogels have been characterized by bulk density, porosity, volume shrinkage, thermal conductivity, contact angle measurements, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The physical properties of the aerogels have been explained by taking into account of sol-gel reactions and the gel network formation

  13. The Norma Arm Region Chandra Survey Catalog: X-Ray Populations in the Spiral Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasini, Francesca M.; Tomsick, John A.; Bodaghee, Arash; Krivonos, Roman A.; An, Hongjun; Rahoui, Farid; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Bauer, Franz E.; Stern, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    We present a catalog of 1415 X-ray sources identified in the Norma Arm Region Chandra Survey (NARCS), which covers a 2° × 0.°8 region in the direction of the Norma spiral arm to a depth of ?20 ks. Of these sources, 1130 are point-like sources detected with >=3? confidence in at least one of three energy bands (0.5-10, 0.5-2, and 2-10 keV), five have extended emission, and the remainder are detected at low significance. Since most sources have too few counts to permit individual classification, they are divided into five spectral groups defined by their quantile properties. We analyze stacked spectra of X-ray sources within each group, in conjunction with their fluxes, variability, and infrared counterparts, to identify the dominant populations in our survey. We find that ~50% of our sources are foreground sources located within 1-2 kpc, which is consistent with expectations from previous surveys. Approximately 20% of sources are likely located in the proximity of the Scutum-Crux and near Norma arm, while 30% are more distant, in the proximity of the far Norma arm or beyond. We argue that a mixture of magnetic and nonmagnetic cataclysmic variables dominates the Scutum-Crux and near Norma arms, while intermediate polars and high-mass stars (isolated or in binaries) dominate the far Norma arm. We also present the cumulative number count distribution for sources in our survey that are detected in the hard energy band. A population of very hard sources in the vicinity of the far Norma arm and active galactic nuclei dominate the hard X-ray emission down to fX ? 10-14 erg cm-2 s-1, but the distribution curve flattens at fainter fluxes. We find good agreement between the observed distribution and predictions based on other surveys.

  14. Hydroquinone-O,O'-diacetic acid ('Q-linker') as a replacement for succinyl and oxalyl linker arms in solid phase oligonucleotide synthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Pon, R. T.; Yu, S.

    1997-01-01

    When hydroquinone-O,Ooffiacetic acid is used as a linker arm in solid phase oligonucleotide synthesis, the time for NH4OH cleavage of oligodeoxy- or oligoribonucleotides is reduced to only 2 min. This allows increased productivity on automated DNA synthesizers without requiring any other modifications to existing reagents or synthesis and deprotection methods. The Q-linker may also be rapidly cleaved by milder reagents such as 5% NH4OH, potassium carbonate, anhydrous ammonia, t-butylamine or ...

  15. Legionella bozemanae synthesizes phosphatidylcholine from exogenous choline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palusinska-Szysz, Marta; Janczarek, Monika; Kalitynski, Rafal; Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Russa, Ryszard

    2011-02-20

    The phospholipid class and fatty acid composition of Legionella bozemanae were determined using thin-layer chromatography, gas-liquid chromatography, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and diphosphatidylglycerol were the predominant phospholipids, while phosphatidyl-N-monomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidyl-N,N-dimethylethanolamine were present at low concentrations. With the use of the LC/MS technique, PC16:0/15:0, PC17:/15:0, and PE16:1/15:0 were shown to be the dominant phospholipid constituents, which may be taxonomically significant. Two independent phosphatidylcholine synthesis pathways (the three-step methylation and the one-step CDP-choline pathway) were present and functional in L. bozemanae. In the genome of L. bozemanae, genes encoding two potential phosphatidylcholine forming enzymes, phospholipid N-methyl transferase (PmtA) and phosphatidylcholine synthase (Pcs), homologous to L. longbeachae, L. drancourtii, and L. pneumophila pmtA and pcs genes were identified. Genes pmtA and pcs from L. bozemanae were sequenced and analyzed on nucleotide and amino acid levels. Bacteria grown on an artificial medium with labelled choline synthesized phosphatidylcholine predominantly via the phosphatidylcholine synthase pathway, which indicates that L. bozemanae phosphatidylcholine, similarly as in other bacteria associated with eukaryotes, is an important determinant of host-microbe interactions. PMID:20338739

  16. Measuring and Synthesizing Systems in Probabilistic Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Jobstmann, Barbara; Singh, Rohit

    2010-01-01

    Often one has a preference order among the different systems that satisfy a given specification. Under a probabilistic assumption about the possible inputs, such a preference order is naturally expressed by a weighted automaton, which assigns to each word a value, such that a system is preferred if it generates a higher expected value. We solve the following optimal-synthesis problem: given an omega-regular specification, a Markov chain that describes the distribution of inputs, and a weighted automaton that measures how well a system satisfies the given specification under the given input assumption, synthesize a system that optimizes the measured value. For safety specifications and measures that are defined by mean-payoff automata, the optimal-synthesis problem amounts to finding a strategy in a Markov decision process (MDP) that is optimal for a long-run average reward objective, which can be done in polynomial time. For general omega-regular specifications, the solution rests on a new, polynomial-time al...

  17. Total syntheses of lyconadins A-C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Takuya; Unni, Aditya K; Yokoshima, Satoshi; Fukuyama, Tohru

    2013-02-27

    The total synthesis of the Lycopodium alkaloid lyconadin A was accomplished and it was applied to the total syntheses of the related congeners, lyconadins B and C. Lyconadin A has attracted attention as a challenging target for total synthesis due to the unprecedented pentacyclic skeleton. Our synthesis of lyconadin A features a facile construction of the highly fused tetracyclic skeleton through a combination of an aza-Prins reaction and an electrocyclic ring opening, followed by formation of a C-N bond. Transformation of the bromoalkene moiety of the tetracycle to a key enone intermediate was extensively investigated, and three methods via sulfide, oxime, or azide intermediates were established. A pyridone ring was constructed from the key enone intermediate to complete the synthesis of lyconadin A. A dihydropyridone ring could also be formed from the same enone intermediate, leading to a synthesis of lyconadin B. Establishment of the conditions for an electrocyclic ring opening without formation of the C-N bond resulted in completion of the total synthesis of lyconadin C. PMID:23330605

  18. Plasmon-mediated syntheses of metallic nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langille, Mark R; Personick, Michelle L; Mirkin, Chad A

    2013-12-23

    The ability to prepare noble metal nanostructures of a desired composition, size, and shape enables their resulting properties to be exquisitely tailored, which has led to the use of these structures in numerous applications, ranging from medicine to electronics. The prospect of using light to guide nanoparticle reactions is extremely attractive since one can, in principle, regulate particle growth based on the ability of the nanostructures to absorb a specific excitation wavelength. Therefore, using the nature of light, one can generate a homogenous population of product nanoparticles from a heterogeneous starting population. The best example of this is afforded by plasmon-mediated syntheses of metal nanoparticles, which use visible light irradiation and plasmon excitation to drive the chemical reduction of Ag(+) by citrate. Since the initial discovery that Ag triangular prisms could be prepared by the photo-induced conversion of Ag spherical nanoparticles, plasmon-mediated synthesis has become a highly controllable technique for preparing a number of different Ag particles with tight control over shape, as well as a wide variety of Au-Ag bimetallic nanostructures. We discuss the underlying physical and chemical factors that drive structural selection and conclude by outlining some of the important design considerations for controlling particle shape as learned through studies of plasmon-mediated reactions, but applicable to all methods of noble metal nanocrystal synthesis. PMID:24281910

  19. Design of Embedded FMS on ARM9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Tian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There are some problems in traditional Fieldbus Technology of flexible production line, such as the high request of the total control machine configuration, the large resources cost of the configuration software, the data should be regularly cleaned. This paper introduces a new type flexible manufacturing system (FMS architecture based on ARM. The control core of the system is Samsung's S3C2440 ARM micro processor, which enhanced the reliability of the system, Join monitoring equipment and wireless communication equipment, facilitate real-time monitoring and image collection, and ensure the safety of the unattended. The numerical control processing unit is based of industrial PC and movement control card form, which enhanced the openness of the CNC system, and improved the communication function of the numerical control system. The experiment proved that this scheme overcome the problems existing in the traditional FMS.

  20. MAGIC: Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, ER; Wiscombe, WJ; Albrecht, BA; Bland, GL; Flagg, CN; Klein, SA; Kollias, P; Mace, G; Reynolds, RM; Schwartz, SE; Siebesma, AP; Teixeira, J; Wood, R; Zhang, M

    2012-10-03

    The second Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF2) will be deployed aboard the Horizon Lines cargo container ship merchant vessel (M/V) Spirit for MAGIC, the Marine ARM GPCI1 Investigation of Clouds. The Spirit will traverse the route between Los Angeles, California, and Honolulu, Hawaii, from October 2012 through September 2013 (except for a few months in the middle of this time period when the ship will be in dry dock). During this field campaign, AMF2 will observe and characterize the properties of clouds and precipitation, aerosols, and atmospheric radiation; standard meteorological and oceanographic variables; and atmospheric structure. There will also be two intensive observational periods (IOPs), one in January 2013 and one in July 2013, during which more detailed measurements of the atmospheric structure will be made.

  1. ARM Operations Quarterly Report - April - June 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, JW

    2012-07-18

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Data Archive, where they are made available to the research community. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  2. The temporal structure of vertical arm movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaveau, Jérémie; Papaxanthis, Charalambos

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates how the CNS deals with the omnipresent force of gravity during arm motor planning. Previous studies have reported direction-dependent kinematic differences in the vertical plane; notably, acceleration duration was greater during a downward than an upward arm movement. Although the analysis of acceleration and deceleration phases has permitted to explore the integration of gravity force, further investigation is necessary to conclude whether feedforward or feedback control processes are at the origin of this incorporation. We considered that a more detailed analysis of the temporal features of vertical arm movements could provide additional information about gravity force integration into the motor planning. Eight subjects performed single joint vertical arm movements (45° rotation around the shoulder joint) in two opposite directions (upwards and downwards) and at three different speeds (slow, natural and fast). We calculated different parameters of hand acceleration profiles: movement duration (MD), duration to peak acceleration (D PA), duration from peak acceleration to peak velocity (D PA-PV), duration from peak velocity to peak deceleration (D PV-PD), duration from peak deceleration to the movement end (D PD-End), acceleration duration (AD), deceleration duration (DD), peak acceleration (PA), peak velocity (PV), and peak deceleration (PD). While movement durations and amplitudes were similar for upward and downward movements, the temporal structure of acceleration profiles differed between the two directions. More specifically, subjects performed upward movements faster than downward movements; these direction-dependent asymmetries appeared early in the movement (i.e., before PA) and lasted until the moment of PD. Additionally, PA and PV were greater for upward than downward movements. Movement speed also changed the temporal structure of acceleration profiles. The effect of speed and direction on the form of acceleration profiles is consistent with the premise that the CNS optimises motor commands with respect to both gravitational and inertial constraints. PMID:21765935

  3. Chromosomal Arm Replacement in Streptomyces griseus

    OpenAIRE

    Uchida, Tetsuya; Miyawaki, Mariko; Kinashi, Haruyasu

    2003-01-01

    UV irradiation of Streptomyces griseus 2247 yielded a new chromosomal deletion mutant, MM9. Restriction and sequencing analysis revealed that homologous recombination between two similar lipoprotein-like open reading frames, which are located 450 and 250 kb from the left and right ends, respectively, caused chromosomal arm replacement. As a result, new 450-kb terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) were formed in place of the original 24-kb TIRs. Frequent homologous recombinations in Streptomyces st...

  4. About the principles of armed conflicts rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international instruments approved in relation to restriction of war right are studied and their relevant clauses are interpreted in the article. The author lists the principles of choosing the ways and methods of conducting the war, and states that at present one of the aspects for regulation of the armed conflicts from the international and legal standpoint is to implement the operations for protection of peace or good will operations as well

  5. Swing arm optical CMM for aspherics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Peng; Oh, Chang Jin; Parks, Robert E.; Burge, James H.

    2009-08-01

    A profilometer for in situ measurement of the topography of aspheric mirrors called the Swing arm Optical CMM (SOC) was built, and has been used for measuring the figure of 1.4 m convex aspheric mirrors with a performance rivaling full aperture interferometric tests. Errors in the SOC that have odd symmetry are self-calibrated due to the test geometry. Even errors are calibrated against a full aperture interferometric test.

  6. Fast complex arm movements in Parkinson's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Berardelli, A.; Accornero, N.; Argenta, M.; Meco, G.; Manfredi, M.

    1986-01-01

    Fast arm movements involving the shoulder and elbow joints have been analysed in normal controls and in patients with Parkinson's disease. The subjects were requested to draw on a graphic tablet triangles and squares of different size and shape. The patients produced a larger number of EMG burst compared with controls. The movements were accurate, and each segment of the geometric figures was performed with a roughly straight trajectory, but the time necessary to trace the geometric figures a...

  7. Experimental Verification of Arm Locking for LISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ira Thorpe, James

    2005-11-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a joint effort of NASA and ESA to build a space-based gravitational wave detector which will study gravitational waves in the 10-4 Hz to 10-1 Hz frequency regime. The mission calls for a constellation of three separate spacecraft (SC) flying in a triangular formation with an intra-SC distance of 5 Gm. The distance between the SC will be measured interferometrically with pm accuracy in an effort to detect modulations caused by gravitational waves. A major challenge for these measurements is reducing the phase noise of the laser light source. A technique known as arm-locking has been proposed to address this problem. We present the results of arm-locking in an electronic model of LISA. Additionally, we discuss progress towards integrating the electronic model with an optical model of the LISA interferometry. This combined model will incorporate many of the essential features of the LISA interferometry and will allow us to test arm-locking under more realistic conditions.

  8. Multi-Armed Bandits in Metric Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinberg, Robert; Upfal, Eli

    2008-01-01

    In a multi-armed bandit problem, an online algorithm chooses from a set of strategies in a sequence of trials so as to maximize the total payoff of the chosen strategies. While the performance of bandit algorithms with a small finite strategy set is quite well understood, bandit problems with large strategy sets are still a topic of very active investigation, motivated by practical applications such as online auctions and web advertisement. The goal of such research is to identify broad and natural classes of strategy sets and payoff functions which enable the design of efficient solutions. In this work we study a very general setting for the multi-armed bandit problem in which the strategies form a metric space, and the payoff function satisfies a Lipschitz condition with respect to the metric. We refer to this problem as the "Lipschitz MAB problem". We present a complete solution for the multi-armed problem in this setting. That is, for every metric space (L,X) we define an isometry invariant which bounds f...

  9. Emission from ELDWIM traces the Local Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, P.; Cersosimo, J. C.; Muller, R. J.; Santiago Figueroa, N.; Figueroa Velez, S.; Testori, J. C.

    2005-12-01

    The continuum emission of the galactic region located at G85-0.5 is well defined by the weak 11 cm emission. Extended 3o in diameter, the region is catalogued as W80 and the optical image associated is composed of the North America and the Pelican Nebulae (NPN). In this work we show the results obtained from the observations of the radio recombination line observations made with single dish at the frequency near of 1.4 GHz. These observations are sensitive to extended low density warm ionized medium (ELDWIM) and we investigate its distribution and the physical parameters of the component in the direction of W80. The distribution of the gas in the (X,Y) plot shows that the ionized hydrogen is located in a spiral pattern, defining the local spiral arm between 0.5 to 3.5 kpc from the Sun. It is shown that W80 is a complex of ionized gas distributed along the local spiral arm instead of being clumped at one distance, and the complex is the near structure of the local arm. Simple models suggest average electron densities between 3 and 4 cm-3.

  10. Humanoid Robot Arm Adaptive Control: Experimental Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said G. Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a partially model based adaptive control of humanoid robot arm is presented. The aim of the adaptive control scheme is to deal with the uncertain parameters in its own dynamic model such as link masses or actuators inertias as well as to cope with changing dynamics in the tasks like passing objects between a human and a robot. The main idea here is to derive a dynamic model of the robot’s arm via a software package and parameterized it. Then, employ the adaptive control scheme to identify uncertain parameters such as link masses and actuator inertias online. This scheme will also be suitable for the tasks where robot is lifting weight and or passing an object to a human or vice versa (which is the ultimate goal of this work. The adaptive scheme is simulated and experimentally tested on the Bristol Robotics Laboratory humanoid Bristol- Elumotion-Robot-Torso (BERT Arm. Humanoid BERT robot is developed as a collaboration between Bristol Robotics Laboratory and Elumotion (a Bristol based robotic company.

  11. Elastic lever arm model for myosin V

    CERN Document Server

    Vilfan, A

    2005-01-01

    We present a mechanochemical model for myosin V, a two-headed processive motor protein. We derive the properties of a dimer from those of an individual head, which we model both with a 4-state cycle (detached, attached with ADP.Pi, attached with ADP and attached without nucleotide) and alternatively with a 5-state cycle (where the power stroke is not tightly coupled to the phosphate release). In each state the lever arm leaves the head at a different, but fixed, angle. The lever arm itself is described as an elastic rod. The chemical cycles of both heads are coordinated exclusively by the mechanical connection between the two lever arms. The model explains head coordination by showing that the lead head only binds to actin after the power stroke in the trail head and that it only undergoes its power stroke after the trail head unbinds from actin. Both models (4- and 5-state) reproduce the observed hand-over-hand motion and fit the measured force-velocity relations. The main difference between the two models c...

  12. Arms control agency faces uncertain future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National security cognoscenti are busy sifting tea leaves trying to puzzle out the fate of arms control and nonproliferation policy in the new Administration. Of special concern to these policy gurus is the future of the semiautonomous Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA). ACDA's existence as a separate entity on the executive branch's organization chart is precarious. The agency has never functioned as intended since Congress created it in 1961. Its stock over the decades has ebbed and flowed, paralleling the prominence and clout of its director. And except for a few notable successes--the conclusion of the chemical weapons treaty being one--the agency's authority has plummeted in the past 14 years. Today, almost every interested party agrees that something has to be done, that the agency cannot continue as it now functions. Several recent studies have called for its rejuvenation. Still other studies have suggested that ACDA be dismantled, and those activities relevant to national security in a post-Cold War environment be shifted to and integrated into the State Department. Observers expect ACDA to evolve into an agency whose primary focus is on problems of proliferation. In a world in which tighter export controls on dual-use technologies, restraint on arms transfers, and economic assistance conditional on a recipients's security behavior will be the norm for security and stability, a role for ACDA as the U.S.'s nonproliferation nanny is not a bad oneoliferation nanny is not a bad one

  13. Precision frequency synthesizing sources with excellent time/frequency performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liren; Lin, Hai

    1994-01-01

    Precision frequency synthesizing sources are needed in the time / frequency measuring system, atomic frequency standards, telemetry, communication, and radar systems. This kind of frequency synthesizing source possesses high frequency accuracy and excellent long term and short term frequency stability. Several precision frequency synthesizing sources developed by Beijing Institute of Radio Metrology and Measurement (BIRMM) which have been successfully applied to the time / frequency measuring system, atomic frequency standards system, and radar system are described. In addition, the working principle, implementation approach, and the main technical specifications of the frequency synthesizing sources are also given.

  14. Spiral arm structures revealed in the M31 galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Efremov, Yu N

    2009-01-01

    Striking regularities are found in the northwestern arm of the M31 galaxy. Star complexes located in this arm are all spaced 1.2 kpc apart and have similar sizes of about 0.6 kpc. Within the same arm region Beck et al. (1989) detected a regular magnetic field, and we found that its wavelength is the spacing between the complexes. In this arm, groups of HII regions lie inside star complexes, which, in turn, are located inside the gas and dust lane. In contrast, the southwestern arm of M31 splits into a gas and dust lane upstream and a dense stellar arm downstream, with HII regions located mostly along the boundary between these components of the arm. The stellar density in the southwestern arm is much higher than in the northwestern arm, and the former is not fragmented into star complexes. The age gradient across this arm have been found in earlier observations. According the classical SDW theory, these drastic differences may be due due to their different pitch angles: about 0 degree for northwestern part of...

  15. Characteristics of Spiral Arms in Late-type Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Honig, Z N

    2014-01-01

    We have measured the positions of large numbers of H II regions in four nearly face-on, late-type, spiral galaxies: NGC 628 (M 74), NGC 1232, NGC 3184 and NGC 5194 (M 51). Fitting log-periodic spiral models to segments of each arm yields local estimates of spiral pitch angle and arm width. While pitch angles vary considerably along individual arms, among arms within a galaxy, and among galaxies, we find no systematic trend with galactocentric distance. We estimate the widths of the arm segments from the scatter in the distances of the H II regions from the spiral model. All major arms in these galaxies show spiral arm width increasing with distance from the galactic center, similar to the trend seen in the Milky Way. However, in the outer-most parts of the galaxies, where massive star formation declines, some arms reverse this trend and narrow. We find that spiral arms often appear to be composed of segments of ~5 kpc length, which join to form kinks and abrupt changes in pitch angle and arm width; these char...

  16. Syntheses and properties of ?-phase organic superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The syntheses and physical properties of ?-(ET)2Cu[N(CN)2]X (X=Br and Cl) are summarized. The ?-(ET)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br salt is the highest Tc radical-cation based ambient pressure organic superconductor (Tc=11.6 K), and the ?-(ET)2Cu[N(CN)2]Cl salt becomes a superconductor at even higher Tc under 0.3 kbar hydrostatic pressure (Tc=12.8 K). The similarities and differences between ?-(ET)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br and ?-(ET)2Cu(NCS)2 (Tc=10.4 K) are presented. The X-ray structures at 127 K reveal that the the S hor-ellipsis S contacts shorten between ET dimers in the former compound while the S hor-ellipsis S contacts shorten within dimers in the latter. The difference in their ESR linewidth behavior is also explained in terms of the structural differences. A semiconducting compound, (ET)Cu[N(CN)2]2, isolated during ?-(ET)2Cu[N(CN)2]Cl synthesis is also reported. The ESR measurements of the ?-(ET)2Cu[N(CN)2]Cl salt indicate that the phase transition near 40 K is similar to the spin density wave transition in (TMTSF)2SbF6. A new class of organic superconductors, ?-(ET)2Cu2(CN)3 and ?-(ET)2Cu2(CN)3-?Br?, is reported with Tc's of 2.8 K (1.5 kbar) and 2.6 K (1 kbar), respectively

  17. Synthesized Spectra of Optically Thin Emission Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olluri, K.; Gudiksen, B. V.; Hansteen, V. H.; De Pontieu, B.

    2015-03-01

    In recent years realistic 3D numerical models of the solar atmosphere have become available. The models attempt to recreate the solar atmosphere and mimic observations in the best way, in order to make it possible to couple complicated observations with physical properties such as the temperatures, densities, velocities, and magnetic fields. We here present a study of synthetic spectra created using the Bifrost code in order to assess how well they fit with previously taken solar data. A study of the synthetic intensity, nonthermal line widths, Doppler shifts, and correlations between any two of these three components of the spectra first assuming statistical equilibrium is made, followed by a report on some of the effects nonequilibrium ionization will have on the synthesized spectra. We find that the synthetic intensities compare well with the observations. The synthetic observations depend on the assumed resolution and point-spread function (PSF) of the instrument, and we find a large effect on the results, especially for intensity and nonthermal line width. The Doppler shifts produce the reported persistent redshifts for the transition region (TR) lines and blueshifts for the upper TR and corona lines. The nonthermal line widths reproduce the well-known turnoff point around (2–3) × 105 K, but with much lower values than those observed. The nonthermal line widths tend to increase with decreasing assumed instrumental resolution, also when nonequilibrium ionization is included. Correlations between the nonthermal line width of any two TR line studies as reported by Chae et al. are reproduced, while the correlations of intensity to line width are reproduced only after applying a PSF to the data. Doppler shift correlations reported by Doschek for the TR lines and correlations of Doppler shift to nonthermal line width of the Fe xii19.5 line reported by Doschek et al. are reproduced.

  18. Effects of age, sex and arm on the accuracy of arm position sense – Left-arm superiority in healthy right-handers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LenaSchmidt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Position sense is an important proprioceptive ability. Disorders of arm position sense (APS often occur after unilateral stroke, and are associated with a negative functional outcome. In the present study we assessed horizontal APS by measuring angular deviations from a visually defined target separately for each arm in a large group of healthy subjects. We analyzed the accuracy and instability of horizontal APS as a function of age, sex and arm. Subjects were required to specify verbally the position of their unseen arm on a 0-90° circuit by comparing the current position with the target position indicated by a LED lamp, while the arm was passively moved by the examiner. Eighty-seven healthy subjects participated in the study, ranging from 20 to 77 years, subdivided into three age groups. The results revealed that APS was not a function of age or sex, but was significantly better in the non-dominant (left arm in absolute but not in constant errors across all age groups of right-handed healthy subjects. This indicates a right-hemisphere superiority for left arm position sense in right-handers and neatly fits to the more frequent and more severe left-sided body-related deficits in patients with unilateral stroke (i.e. impaired arm position sense in left spatial neglect, somatoparaphrenia or in individuals with abnormalities of the right cerebral hemisphere. These clinical issues will be discussed.

  19. Syntheses and electronic structures of decamethylmetallocenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of decamethylmanganocene [(eta-C5(CH3)5)2Mn or (Me5Cp)2Mn)] is described. Magnetic susceptibility and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies show that (Me5Cp)2Mn is a low-spin, 17-electron compound with an orbitally degenerate, 2E/sub 2g/ [e/sub 2g/3 a/sub 1g/2] ground state. An x-ray crystallographic study of (Me5Cp)2Mn shows that it is a monomeric, D/sub 5d/ decamethylmetallocene with metal to ring carbon distances that are about 0.3 A shorter than those determined for high-spin manganocenes. The syntheses of new (Me5Cp)2M (M = Mg,V,Cr,Co, and Ni) and [(Me5Cp)2M]PF6 (M = Cr,Co, and Ni) compounds are described. In addition, a preparative route to a novel, dicationic decamethylmetallocene, [(Me5Cp)2Ni](PF6)2 is reported. Infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, magnetic susceptibility, and/or x-ray crystallographic studies indicate that all the above compounds are D/sub 5d/ or D/sub 5h/ decamethylmetallocenes with low-spin electronic configurations. Cyclic voltammetry studies verify the reversibility and the one-electron nature of the (Me5Cp)2M ? [(Me5Cp)2M]+ (M = Cr,Mn,Fe,Co,Ni), [(Me5Cp)2Mn]- ? (Me5Cp)2Mn and [(Me5Cp)2Ni]+ ? [Me5Cp)2Ni]2+ redox reactions. These studies reveal that the neutral decamethylmetallocenes are much more easily oxidized than their metallocene counterparts. This result attests to the electron-donating properties of the ten substituent methyl groups. Proton and carbon-13 NMR data are reported for the diamagnetic Mg(II), Mn(I), Fe(II), Co(III), and Ni(IV) decamethylmetallocenes and for [(Me5Cp)2V(CO)2]+. The uv-visible absorption spectra of the 15-, 18- and 20- electron decamethylmetallocenes are also reported

  20. Syntheses and electronic structures of decamethylmetallocenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, J.L.

    1981-04-01

    The synthesis of decamethylmanganocene ((eta-C/sub 5/(CH/sub 3/)/sub 5/)/sub 2/Mn or (Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/Mn)) is described. Magnetic susceptibility and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies show that (Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/Mn is a low-spin, 17-electron compound with an orbitally degenerate, /sup 2/E/sub 2g/ (e/sub 2g//sup 3/ a/sub 1g//sup 2/) ground state. An x-ray crystallographic study of (Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/Mn shows that it is a monomeric, D/sub 5d/ decamethylmetallocene with metal to ring carbon distances that are about 0.3 A shorter than those determined for high-spin manganocenes. The syntheses of new (Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/M (M = Mg,V,Cr,Co, and Ni) and ((Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/M)PF/sub 6/ (M = Cr,Co, and Ni) compounds are described. In addition, a preparative route to a novel, dicationic decamethylmetallocene, ((Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/Ni)(PF/sub 6/)/sub 2/ is reported. Infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, magnetic susceptibility, and/or x-ray crystallographic studies indicate that all the above compounds are D/sub 5d/ or D/sub 5h/ decamethylmetallocenes with low-spin electronic configurations. Cyclic voltammetry studies verify the reversibility and the one-electron nature of the (Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/M ..-->.. ((Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/M)/sup +/ (M = Cr,Mn,Fe,Co,Ni), ((Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/Mn)/sup -/ ..-->.. (Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/Mn and ((Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/Ni)/sup +/ ..-->.. (Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/Ni)/sup 2 +/ redox reactions. These studies reveal that the neutral decamethylmetallocenes are much more easily oxidized than their metallocene counterparts. This result attests to the electron-donating properties of the ten substituent methyl groups. Proton and carbon-13 NMR data are reported for the diamagnetic Mg(II), Mn(I), Fe(II), Co(III), and Ni(IV) decamethylmetallocenes and for ((Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/V(CO)/sub 2/)/sup +/. The uv-visible absorption spectra of the 15-, 18- and 20- electron decamethylmetallocenes are also reported.

  1. Thermoelectric n-type silicon germanium synthesized by unidirectional solidification in microgravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okutani, Takeshi, E-mail: okutani@ynu.ac.jp [Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University, 79-7 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-Ku, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Kabeya, Yuto [Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University, 79-7 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-Ku, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Nagai, Hideaki [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology,1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8565 (Japan)

    2013-02-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermoelectric n-type SiGe was synthesized by unidirectional solidification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SiGe had dendrite structure aligned along the solidification direction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SiGe solidified unidirectionally in microgravity had crystalline orientation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anisotropy of electric conductivity was seen in orthogonal solidification directions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZT of Si{sub 0.7}Ge{sub 0.3}-1at%P solidified in microgravity at 1000 K was 1.19. - Abstract: Thermoelectric n-type Si{sub 0.2}Ge{sub 0.8} and Si{sub 0.7}Ge{sub 0.3} added 1at%P for Si-Ge were synthesized by unidirectional solidification in microgravity. Microgravity with {+-}10{sup -2} g for 0.46 s was obtained in free fall using a 2 m-drop tower. The microstructure of the sample solidified in microgravity and 1 g was dendrite on the surface that contacted a Cu chill block. The microstructure of the cross section along the cooling direction was dendrite and the columnar dendrite structure was mainly aligned along the solidification direction. The dendrite became larger with depth from the surface that contacted the Cu chill block, and the width of the primary dendrite arm solidified in microgravity exceeded that in 1 g. Ge was segregated to the secondary arm of columnar dendrite. The Si/Ge atomic ratio in the primary and secondary arm of Si{sub 0.7}Ge{sub 0.3}-1at%P solidified in 1 g and microgravity was slightly higher than that of solidified Si{sub 0.8}Ge{sub 0.2}-1at%P in 1 g and microgravity. The secondary arm of solidified Si{sub 0.7}Ge{sub 0.3}-1at%P was wider than that of solidified Si{sub 0.8}Ge{sub 0.2}-1at%P. P was distributed uniformly in Si-Ge solidified in microgravity. The electrical conductivities of Si{sub 0.8}Ge{sub 0.2}-1at%P and Si{sub 0.7}Ge{sub 0.3}-1at%P were anisotropic in directions along and perpendicular to the solidification direction. The dimensionless Figure of Merit, ZT, of the direction along the solidification direction at 1000 K was estimated from thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity adjusted by the anisotropy, and the Seebeck coefficient in 1 g and microgravity. The ZT of the sample solidified in microgravity at 1000 K along the solidification direction was 1.19.

  2. Controlling a Robotic Arm manipulator with a PLC

    OpenAIRE

    Lama, Bhim

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT This thesis was commissioned for HAMK University of Applied Sciences with the aim of designing a control system for a robotic arm. The Robotic Arm in this case was from HAMK’s Laboratory for Automation, Riihimäki which was designed by Nicolas Mustaka (an exchange student from Greece, 2009). The main objective of this thesis was to design a control system for the Robotic Arm using a programmable logic controller (PLC) and to construct a gripper. The control system design ...

  3. Design and Analysis of Rotating Bucket Arm of Excavator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikash Rai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an attempt has been made to design and analyze the rotating bucket of the excavator along with the stick and the bucket arm. This paper focuses on the joint design by using the geared motor for angular rotation of the bucket arm and studies the effect of digging, torsional force and bending stresses developed on the joint. Study the motion of the bucket arm

  4. Reducing the flexing of the arms of LISA

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, K. Rajesh; Koshti, S.; Dhurandhar, S. V.; Vinet, J-y

    2005-01-01

    The joint NASA-ESA mission LISA relies crucially on the stability of the three spacecraft constellation. All three spacecraft are on heliocentric and weakly eccentric orbits forming a stable triangle. It has been shown that for certain spacecraft orbits, the arms keep constant distances to the first order in the eccentricities. However, exact orbitography shows the so-called `breathing modes' of the arms where the arms slowly change their lengths over the time-scale of a yea...

  5. Robot arm system for automatic satellite capture and berthing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Shinichiro; Toriu, Hidetoshi; Hayashi, Masato; Kubo, Tomoaki; Miyata, Makoto

    1994-01-01

    Load control is one of the most important technologies for capturing and berthing free flying satellites by a space robot arm because free flying satellites have different motion rates. The performance of active compliance control techniques depend on the location of the force sensor and the arm's structural compliance. A compliance control technique for the robot arm's structural elasticity and a consideration for an end-effector appropriate for it are presented in this paper.

  6. Spiral arm structures revealed in the M31 galaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Efremov, Yu N.

    2009-01-01

    Striking regularities are found in the northwestern arm of the M31 galaxy. Star complexes located in this arm are all spaced 1.2 kpc apart and have similar sizes of about 0.6 kpc. Within the same arm region Beck et al. (1989) detected a regular magnetic field, and we found that its wavelength is the spacing between the complexes. In this arm, groups of HII regions lie inside star complexes, which, in turn, are located inside the gas and dust lane. In contrast, the southweste...

  7. Structure of spiral arm S6 in the Andromeda Nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The star distribution across spiral arm S6 in Baade's M31 field IV is investigated. The brightest stars congregate toward the arm midline, along which maximum star density also occurs. The symmetric structure of S6 may result from its being located near the corotation radius, as indicated by the spiral-pattern rotational velocity ?/sub p/roughly-equal10 km sec-1 kpc-1 derived from the Cepheid age gradient in S4. Arm S6 has features similar to the galactic spiral arms in the solar neighborhood

  8. Learning to play K-armed bandit problems

    OpenAIRE

    Maes, Francis; Wehenkel, Louis; Ernst, Damien

    2012-01-01

    We propose a learning approach to pre-compute K-armed bandit playing policies by exploiting prior information describing the class of problems targeted by the player. Our algorithm ?rst samples a set of K-armed bandit problems from the given prior, and then chooses in a space of candidate policies one that gives the best average performances over these problems. The candidate policies use an index for ranking the arms and pick at each play the arm with the highest index; the index for each ...

  9. Magnetic navigation versus mobile C-Arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate differences in radiation protection aspects between the use of a digital cardio angiography system with magnetic navigation (Artis Axiom dFcM + Stereotaxis NIOBE (registered) Magnetic Navigation System) and a standard mobile X-ray device with C-arm for electrophysiological procedures. Radiation exposure to staff and patients were analyzed and used for comparison. The time distribution of cardiology procedures for one physician is shown to introduce work of electrophysiology section. The records of procedures were used as information and as a data source for this study. These records include written operation as well as printed exam protocols. This study shows time course of procedures using the electro anatomical mapping system 'CARTO'. A single physicians performance has been used for this comparison to avoid possible differences between operators. The exposure time and air kerma product (PKA) values have been compared for both devices. Median value of exposure time, for each group of 20 patients, was reduced from 27.1 minutes to 20.0 minutes and radiation exposure from 12468 cGycm2 to 9078 cGycm2 PKA values. There is also scattered radiation in the operation area for C-Arm and the new technology presented. Magnetic navigation and replacing C-Arm by cardio angiography system reduces the personal dose by nearly one third, this fact was traced from personal monitoring reports. The mainfrom personal monitoring reports. The main reason for saving time is the necessity to operate the catheter by joystick on a control panel from an adjacent room. These new technologies bring more effectiveness into interventional procedures, especially in cases of complicated examination, and reduce radiation exposure to patients and staff significantly. (author)

  10. Limitation and reduction of conventional arms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are living at a time when war between East and West---not only nuclear but also conventional war--- is totally senseless. It cannot solve any problem---political, economic, or other. From the military point of view, war between East and West is madness. Calculations show that after 20 days of conventional warfare Europe could become another Hiroshima. Therefore we must work out forms of long-term cooperation. Before it is too late, we must radically reduce our military potentials and rethink our military doctrines. The reduction by 500,000 men is for the USSR no simple solution. But that step may become a model for further actions by East and West. The West's proposal that armed forces should be reduced to the level of 95 percent of NATO's armed forces is not a solution. Both sides---the Warsaw Treaty Organization and NATO---must be deprived of the capacity to launch a sudden attack; they must be deprived of their attack potential. The USSR initiative shows the true way toward that goal. What is happening in connection with our decision is not always correctly interpreted in the West, and so I should like to draw attention to some distinctive features of the Soviet armed forces reductions and, first of all, their scale (equivalent to the Bundeswehr of the Federal Republic of Germany). With respect to Europe, Soviet troops are to be reduced in the German Democratic Republic, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, and the European part of the Soviet Union---a total of 240,part of the Soviet Union---a total of 240,000 men, 10,000 tanks, 9,500 artillery systems, and 800 combat aircraft

  11. HS06 Benchmark for an ARM Server

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluth, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    We benchmarked an ARM cortex-A9 based server system with a four-core CPU running at 1.1 GHz. The system used Ubuntu 12.04 as operating system and the HEPSPEC 2006 (HS06) benchmarking suite was compiled natively with gcc-4.4 on the system. The benchmark was run for various settings of the relevant gcc compiler options. We did not find significant influence from the compiler options on the benchmark result. The final HS06 benchmark result is 10.4.

  12. ARM CLASIC ER2 CRS/EDOP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Heymsfield

    2010-12-20

    Data was taken with the NASA ER-2 aircraft with the Cloud Radar System and other instruments in conjunction with the DOE ARM CLASIC field campaign. The flights were near the SGP site in north Central Oklahoma and targeted small developing convection. The CRS is a 94 GHz nadir pointing Doppler radar. Also on board the ER-2 was the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL). Seven science flights were conducted but the weather conditions did not cooperate in that there was neither developing convection, or there was heavy rain.

  13. Interstellar extinction in the Perseus arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Individual UV extinction curves for nine stars located in the direction of h and chi Persei in the distance range 0.6 to 4.4 kpc are presented. The observations were made with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) in the low dispersion mode with large aperture. The sample has been enlarged by the use of available UV and visible data for 32 reddened stars with distances r >= 2 kpc located in the same direction. It is found that the mean interstellar extinction curve for the stars located in the Perseus arm shows significantly higher extinction shortward of 2000 A than the galactic mean. (author)

  14. Computer code ARM1 for solving the inverse kinematics of a six-link manipulator arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ARM1 is a FORTRAN 77 program for the numerical solutions of the inverse kinematics problems. This paper is a detailed description of the current program (version 1). The code is simple enough for practical use and besides has no particular restrictions except for the specification of memory size. Incorporated checking statements or routine are useful in identifying the accuracies of solutions obtained. (author)

  15. Argentivorous molecules bearing three aromatic side arms: synthesis of triple-armed cyclens and their complexing property towards Ag(+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habata, Yoichi; Kizaki, Juli; Hosoi, Yasuhiro; Ikeda, Mari; Kuwahara, Shunsuke

    2015-01-21

    Triple-armed cyclens bearing three aromatic side-arms were prepared in three steps from (3R,5S)-3,5-dimethyl-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-2,6-dione, and the Ag(+)-ion-induced (1)H NMR and UV-vis spectral changes and X-ray structures suggested that the aromatic side-arms cover the Ag(+) incorporated into the ligand cavities like an insectivorous plant (Venus flytrap). PMID:25413213

  16. Arm posture score and arm movement during walking: a comprehensive assessment in spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riad, Jacques; Coleman, Scott; Lundh, Dan; Broström, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Patients with hemiplegic cerebral palsy often have noticeably deviant arm posture and decreased arm movement. Here we develop a comprehensive assessment method for the upper extremity during walking. Arm posture score (APS), deviation of shoulder flexion/extension, shoulder abduction/adduction, elbow flexion/extension and wrist flexion/extension were calculated from three-dimensional gait analysis. The APS is the root mean square deviation from normal, similar to Baker's Gait Profile Score (GPS) [1]. The total range of motion (ROM) was defined as the difference between the maximum and minimum position in the gait cycle for each variable. The arm symmetry, arm posture index (API) was calculated by dividing the APS on the hemiplegic side by that on the non-involved side, and the range of motion index (ROMI) by dividing the ROM on the hemiplegic side by that on the non-involved side. Using the APS, two groups were defined. Group 1 had minor deviations, with an APS under 9.0 and a mean of 6.0 (95% CI 5.0-7.0). Group 2 had more pronounced deviations, with an APS over 9.0 and a mean of 13.1 (CI 10.8-15.5) (p=0.000). Total ROM was 60.6 in group 1 and 46.2 in group 2 (p=0.031). API was 0.89 in group 1 and 1.70 in group 2 (pROMI was 1.15 in group 1 and 0.69 in group 2 (p=0.003). APS describes the amount of deviation, ROM provides additional information on movement pattern and the indices the symmetry. These comprehensive objective and dynamic measurements of upper extremity abnormality can be useful in following natural progression, evaluating treatment and making prognoses in several categories of patients. PMID:20971011

  17. Porting Android on Arm Based Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KALPIK M. PATEL, CHIRAG K. PATEL

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Today Android operating system (OS is HOT in market for entertainment devices like mobile phones and tablet and TV and industry is exploring the ability of Android within other embedded platforms. Some industries replace with exiting operating system with Android because main reason is open source operating system (OS. Today industries select Android OS reason behind this big application market and easy to available to application development tools and also available many on-line group to resolve your issue. In this paper, we will explain the concept of porting android to any arm based devices. We will explain the basics of kernel, how to make android specific, how to compile kernel for ARM. In Android section, we will explain architecture of Android, how to compile android for specific board. For understanding, we will use Linux 2.6.32 kernel version and android 2.3.7 (Gingerbread. We will port android to d2plug board which is product of Marvell Semiconductor.

  18. ARM Climate Research Facility Annual Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, J.

    2004-12-31

    Like a rock that slowly wears away beneath the pressure of a waterfall, planet earth?s climate is almost imperceptibly changing. Glaciers are getting smaller, droughts are lasting longer, and extreme weather events like fires, floods, and tornadoes are occurring with greater frequency. Why? Part of the answer is clouds and the amount of solar radiation they reflect or absorb. These two factors clouds and radiative transfer represent the greatest source of error and uncertainty in the current generation of general circulation models used for climate research and simulation. The U.S. Global Change Research Act of 1990 established an interagency program within the Executive Office of the President to coordinate U.S. agency-sponsored scientific research designed to monitor, understand, and predict changes in the global environment. To address the need for new research on clouds and radiation, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. As part of the DOE?s overall Climate Change Science Program, a primary objective of the ARM Program is improved scientific understanding of the fundamental physics related to interactions between clouds and radiative feedback processes in the atmosphere.

  19. Structured Molecular Gas Reveals Galactic Spiral Arms

    CERN Document Server

    Sawada, Tsuyoshi; Koda, Jin

    2012-01-01

    We explore the development of structures in molecular gas in the Milky Way by applying the analysis of the brightness distribution function (BDF) and the brightness distribution index (BDI) in the archival data from the Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory 13CO J=1-0 Galactic Ring Survey. The BDI measures the fractional contribution of spatially confined bright molecular emission over faint emission extended over large areas. This relative quantity is largely independent of the amount of molecular gas and of any conventional, pre-conceived structures, such as cores, clumps, or giant molecular clouds. The structured molecular gas traced by higher BDI is located continuously along the spiral arms in the Milky Way in the longitude-velocity diagram. This clearly indicates that molecular gas changes its structure as it flows through the spiral arms. Although the high-BDI gas generally coincides with H II regions, there is also some high-BDI gas with no/little signature of ongoing star formati...

  20. Arm insulation and swimming in cold water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounsbury, David S; Ducharme, Michel B

    2008-09-01

    To test whether adding insulation to the arms would improve cold water swimming performance by delaying swimming failure (SF). Novice (n = 7) and expert (n = 8) swimmers, clothed and equipped with a personal flotation device, each performed two trials in a swimming flume filled with 10 degrees C water. During free swimming (FS), subjects performed swimming until failure, followed by the Heat Escape Lessening Posture. In free swimming with additional insulation (FSA), subjects wore custom-fitted armbands. Trials ended when rectal temperature decreased to 34 degrees C or after 2 h of immersion. Measurements included: rectal and skin temperatures, heat flow, and various appraisals of swimming performance. FSA was thermally advantageous versus FS. Rectal temperature cooling rates during swimming (dT/dt Swim) were faster for FS compared to FSA (0.050 +/- 0.007 degrees C min(-1) vs. 0.042 +/- 0.006 degrees C min(-1), P neoprene armbands appears to have partially preserved muscle function, but with unimpressive effects on overall performance. SF is a complex entity, but is evidently related to both triceps skinfold and arm girth. PMID:18309510

  1. ARM 7 BASED MP3 PLAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiq V Mehta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available MP3 is a patented encoding format for digital audio which uses a form of lossy data compression. It is a common audio format for consumer audio streaming or storage, as well as a de facto standard of digital audio compression for the transfer and playback of music on most digital audio players. Since the MPEG-1 Layer III encoding technology is nowadays widely used it might be interesting to gain knowledge of how this powerful compression/decompression scheme actually functions. The MPEG-1 Layer III is capable of reducing the bit rate with a factor of 12 without almost any audible degradation. Arm7 lpc2148 is arm7tdmi-s core board microcontroller that uses 16/32-bit 64 pin (lqfp microcontroller no.lpc2148 from Philips (nxp.The hardware system of lpc2148 includes the necessary devices within only one mcu has such as usb, adc, dac, timer/counter, pwm, capture, i2c, spi, uart, and etc.

  2. Double arm handling device for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention concerns a machine which, inside a liquid sodium cooled reactor, makes it possible to transfer fuel assemblies forming the core, between the positions that these assemblies fill inside the core to a storage position for these fuel assemblies inside the vessel. These operations are carried out when the reactor plug is in position and when the vessel is filled with liquid sodium, hence they are carried out without being seen. The improved charging system enables the handling time to be cut to a minimum and to diminish the number of positioning operations of the handling system inside the reactor vessel to effect the various charging and discharging operations. It includes a vertically positioned drum of which the top end crosses the plug; a first truck guided in vertical translation by guiding facilities integral with the drum and a second truck guided in vertical translation by other guiding facilities also integral with the drum, each truck being fitted with a horizontal arm at the free end of which is placed a grab hook for holding the fuel assemblies, the guiding facilities being such that the arms remain parallel to each other; gear for moving the trucks vertically and separately; facilities for controlling the opening and closing of the grabs and gear for turning the drum vertically about its centre line

  3. Method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboungi, Marie-Louise (Chicago, IL); Glorieux, Benoit (Perpignan, FR)

    2007-11-06

    The invention relates to a method of synthesizing high-temperature melting materials. More specifically the invention relates to a containerless method of synthesizing very high temperature melting materials such as carbides and transition-metal, lanthanide and actinide oxides, using an aerodynamic levitator and a laser. The object of the invention is to provide a method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials that are otherwise difficult to produce, without the use of containers, allowing the manipulation of the phase (amorphous/crystalline/metastable) and permitting changes of the environment such as different gaseous compositions.

  4. Method for Synthesizing Extremeley High Temperature Melting Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboungi, Marie-Louise and Glorieux, Benoit

    2005-11-22

    The invention relates to a method of synthesizing high-temperature melting materials. More specifically the invention relates to a containerless method of synthesizing very high temperature melting materials such as borides, carbides and transition-metal, lanthanide and actinide oxides, using an Aerodynamic Levitator and a laser. The object of the invention is to provide a method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials that are otherwise difficult to produce, without the use of containers, allowing the manipulation of the phase (amorphous/crystalline/metastable) and permitting changes of the environment such as different gaseous compositions.

  5. 75 FR 46843 - Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Commodity Jurisdiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ...7075] Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations...of State is amending the International Traffic in Arms Regulations...or service, and include a history of this product's design...Secretary, Arms Control and International Security, Department...

  6. 48 CFR 252.223-7007 - Safeguarding sensitive conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Safeguarding sensitive conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives. 252.223-7007...Safeguarding sensitive conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives. As prescribed...Safeguarding Sensitive Conventional Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives (SEP 1999)...

  7. 27 CFR 70.444 - Importation of arms, ammunition, and implements of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Importation of arms, ammunition, and implements of war. 70.444... § 70.444 Importation of arms, ammunition, and implements of war. Part...registration of importers in arms, ammunition, and implements of war, (b)...

  8. 78 FR 44557 - Turnagain Arm Tidal Energy Corporation; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ...No. 13509-002] Turnagain Arm Tidal Energy Corporation; Notice of Preliminary...February 1, 2013, the Turnagain Arm Tidal Energy Corporation, filed an application...Executive Officer, Turnagain Arm Tidal Energy Corporation, 821 N....

  9. Post-synthetic modification of hangman porphyrins synthesized on the gram scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Daniel J; Zheng, Shao-Liang; Nocera, Daniel G

    2014-09-01

    We report a multi-gram scale synthesis of methyl 6-formyl-4-dibenzofurancarboxylate and its subsequent use in the gram scale synthesis of a dibenzofuran-functionalized hangman porphyrin containing a pendant carboxylic acid (HPD-CO2H). HPD-CO2H can be isolated as a free carboxylic acid in high purity with minimal purification. Post-synthetic modification of HPD-CO2H allows for the introduction of any desired pendant group in good yields, resulting in a practical amount of hangman porphyrin ligand with an easily customizable second coordination sphere. The cobalt complexes of these hangman porphyrins are shown to be active proton reduction electrocatalysts. PMID:24975130

  10. Working with Young Children Who Are Victims of Armed Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Eva; Penn, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Young children are particularly vulnerable to war and armed conflict. Although the long-term priority is always to try to unravel and reduce violence and conflict, in the short term some interventions may reduce suffering. In this article the authors report on recent evidence on psychosocial interventions designed to mitigate the impact of armed

  11. Can myocardial studies be performed with arms down?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, S.; Skerrett, D.; Hutton, B.; Cowell, S. [Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW (Australia). Departments of Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound]|[Sydney University, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Medical Radiation Technology

    1998-06-01

    Full text: It is known that attenuation of photons will decrease the diagnostic accuracy single photon emission computerised tomography (SPECT) myocardial imaging but patients imaged with their arms above their heads experience great discomfort, often resulting in patient motion during imaging, causing artifacts in the reconstructed images. The object of this study was to determine whether patients for myocardial perfusion imaging could be scanned with their arms by their side if attenuation correction (AC) is performed. We measured the attenuation distortion of myocardial polar maps by selecting 6 patients at random who underwent 180 deg SPECT myocardial acquisition using Technetium-99m Sestamibi with arms above their heads (AU) and again arms by their sides (AD). AC was performed using two moving Gadolinium-153 sources to generate a patient specific attenuation map. Data were reconstructed without AC using filtered back projection and with AC using maximum likelihood reconstruction. To determine the impact of patients` arms regions of interest were created on the polar maps to calculate the difference in mean count values. Without AC there was a significant difference in counts in the posterior wall of the left ventricle for arms up vs arms down (p < 0.05). With AC there was significant difference. It can be concluded that AC can improve polar map symmetry and compensate for the additional attenuation caused by the presence of arms in myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging 1 tab.

  12. Kinematic feedback control laws for generating natural arm movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donghyun; Jang, Cheongjae; Park, Frank C

    2014-03-01

    We propose a stochastic optimal feedback control law for generating natural robot arm motions. Our approach, inspired by the minimum variance principle of Harris and Wolpert (1998 Nature 394 780-4) and the optimal feedback control principles put forth by Todorov and Jordan (2002 Nature Neurosci. 5 1226-35) for explaining human movements, differs in two crucial respects: (i) the endpoint variance is minimized in joint space rather than Cartesian hand space, and (ii) we ignore the dynamics and instead consider only the second-order differential kinematics. The feedback control law generating the motions can be straightforwardly obtained by backward integration of a set of ordinary differential equations; these equations are obtained exactly, without any linear-quadratic approximations. The only parameters to be determined a priori are the variance scale factors, and for both the two-DOF planar arm and the seven-DOF spatial arm, a table of values is constructed based on the given initial and final arm configurations; these values are determined via an optimal fitting procedure, and consistent with existing findings about neuromuscular motor noise levels of human arm muscles. Experiments conducted with a two-link planar arm and a seven-DOF spatial arm verify that the trajectories generated by our feedback control law closely resemble human arm motions, in the sense of producing nearly straight-line hand trajectories, having bell-shaped velocity profiles, and satisfying Fitts Law. PMID:24343165

  13. ARM tõestab, et ka analüütikud eksivad / Fredy-Edwin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Esse, Fredy-Edwin

    2011-01-01

    Apple'i iPadidele ja iPhone'idele kiipe tootva Suurbritannia firma ARM Holdings aktsia on kõige suurem tõusja Londoni FTSE 100 indeksi kuue kuu, 12 kuu, 18 kuu, kahe aasta ja kolme aasta lõikes, samas on analüütikud kõigist indeksi aktsiatest kõige negatiivsemalt meelestatud just ARM Holdingsi suhtes. Graafik

  14. Satellite data sets for the atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, L.; Bernstein, R.L. [SeaSpace Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    This abstract describes the type of data obtained from satellite measurements in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. The data sets have been widely used by the ARM team to derive cloud-top altitude, cloud cover, snow and ice cover, surface temperature, water vapor, and wind, vertical profiles of temperature, and continuoous observations of weather needed to track and predict severe weather.

  15. Risk factors of arm lymphedema in breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocak, Z; Overgaard, J

    2000-01-01

    Chronic lymphedema is a life-long, potential complication of axillary treatment for breast cancer patients. In this article we focus on risk factors in the development of arm lymphedema and also discuss definition, type and stage, and incidence of arm edema.

  16. 48 CFR 908.7111 - Arms and ammunition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Arms and ammunition. 908.7111 Section 908.7111...Special Items 908.7111 Arms and ammunition. Pursuant to 10 U.S.C. 4655...accouterments for use therewith, and ammunition for the protection of public money...

  17. Parametrized Stochastic Multi-armed Bandits with Binary Rewards

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Chong

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of multi-armed bandits with a large, possibly infinite number of correlated arms. We assume that the arms have Bernoulli distributed rewards, independent across time, where the probabilities of success are parametrized by known attribute vectors for each arm, as well as an unknown preference vector, each of dimension $n$. For this model, we seek an algorithm with a total regret that is sub-linear in time and independent of the number of arms. We present such an algorithm, which we call the Two-Phase Algorithm, and analyze its performance. We show upper bounds on the total regret which applies uniformly in time, for both the finite and infinite arm cases. The asymptotics of the finite arm bound show that for any $f \\in \\omega(\\log(T))$, the total regret can be made to be $O(n \\cdot f(T))$. In the infinite arm case, the total regret is $O(\\sqrt{n^3 T})$.

  18. Effects of scopolamine on repeated acquisition of radial-arm maze performance by rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Peele, D. B.; Baron, S. P.

    1988-01-01

    Rats repeatedly acquired the performance of selecting only the four baited arms in an automated eight-arm radial maze, with the arms containing food pellets randomly assigned prior to each session. During each 14-trial (trial: obtain all four pellets) daily session, the number of errors (selecting nonbaited arms or repeating arm selections) showed a within-session decline, and choice accuracy for the first four arm selections showed a positive acceleration across trials for all rats. An index...

  19. Neutral-hydrogen observations of smooth-arm spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A class of galaxies has been identified whose members show spiral arms but not the clumpy regions that are indicative of recent star formation in those arms. Neutral-hydrogen observations have been made of five of these smooth-arm spirals in three galaxy clusters, using the 305 m Arecibo telescope. Four nonsmooth spirals in two of the same clusters were also observed. Three of the four nonsmooth galaxies were detected and found to be deficient in neutral hydrogen with respect to ''field'' galaxies. One of the smooth-arm spirals was definitely detected, and a second one one was detected at a low confidence level. Upper limits substantially below the neutral-hydrogen levels for actively star-forming spirals were established for the other three smooth spirals. These observations argue that smooth-arm spirals are gas deficient even when compared to their clumpy spiral neighbors in rich clusters

  20. Guest Editorial: Research update: VA study to optimize DEKA Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Resnik, PT, PhD

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA announced its Revolutionizing Prosthetics program and funded the development of the DEKA prosthetic arm. The DEKA Arm System incorporates major technological advances such as flexible socket design, innovative control features, software, and hardware that together enable enhanced functionality that promises to surpass any currently available prosthetic device. In 2008, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA entered into an agreement with DARPA to conduct clinical evaluations of the prototype DEKA Arm System, a prosthetic device system still under development and not yet available commercially. Studies of the DEKA Arm System have been underway at VA sites since late 2008, with the first subject fitted with a DEKA Arm in early 2009.

  1. Effect of Shim Arm Depletion in the NBSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson A. H.; Brown N.; Diamond, D.J.

    2013-02-22

    The cadmium shim arms in the NBSR undergo burnup during reactor operation and hence, require periodic replacement. Presently, the shim arms are replaced after every 25 cycles to guarantee they can maintain sufficient shutdown margin. Two prior reports document the expected change in the 113Cd distribution because of the shim arm depletion. One set of calculations was for the present high-enriched uranium fuel and the other for the low-enriched uranium fuel when it was in the COMP7 configuration (7 inch fuel length vs. the present 11 inch length). The depleted 113Cd distributions calculated for these cores were applied to the current design for an equilibrium low-enriched uranium core. This report details the predicted effects, if any, of shim arm depletion on the shim arm worth, the shutdown margin, power distributions and kinetics parameters.

  2. Current-mode analog nonlinear function synthesizer structures

    CERN Document Server

    Popa, Cosmin Radu

    2013-01-01

    This book is dedicated to the analysis and design of analog CMOS nonlinear function synthesizer structures, based on original superior-order approximation functions. A variety of analog function synthesizer structures are discussed, based on accurate approximation functions.  Readers will be enabled to implement numerous circuit functions with applications in analog signal processing, including exponential, Gaussian or hyperbolic functions. Generalizing the methods for obtaining these particular functions, the author analyzes superior-order approximation functions, which represent the core for developing CMOS analog nonlinear function synthesizers.   ·         Describes novel methods for generating a multitude of circuit functions, based on superior-order improved accuracy approximation functions; ·         Presents techniques for analog function synthesizers that can be applied easily to a wide variety of analog signal processing circuits; ·         Enables the design of analog s...

  3. Discontinuities in the DNA synthesized by an avian retrovirus.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, J. M.; Cywinski, A.; Smith, J. K.

    1983-01-01

    The unintegrated linear DNA synthesized in cells infected by Rous sarcoma virus is a predominantly double-stranded structure in which most of the minus-strand DNA, complementary to the viral RNA genome, is genome sized, whereas the plus-strand DNA is present as subgenomic fragments. We previously reported the application of benzoylated naphthoylated DEAE-cellulose chromatography to demonstrate that of the linear viral DNA species synthesized in quail embryo fibroblasts infected with Rous sarc...

  4. Proteins synthesized in tobacco mosaic virus infected protoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author deals with research on the multiplication of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in leaf cell protoplasts. An attempt is made to answer three questions: (1) Which proteins are synthesized in TMV infected protoplasts as a result of TMV multiplication. (2) Which of the synthesized proteins are made under the direction of the TMV genome and, if any, which of the proteins are host specific. (3) In which functions are these proteins involved. (Auth.)

  5. Characterization of tin selenides synthesized by high-energy milling

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Achimovi?ová; Aleksander Re?nik; Martin Fabián; Peter Baláž

    2011-01-01

    Tin selenides SnSeX (x=1,2) were synthesized from tin and selenium powder precursors by high-energy milling in the planetary ballmill Pulverisette 6 (Fritsch, Germany). The orthorhombic tin selenide SnSe and the hexagonal tin diselenide SnSe2 phases were formed after4 min and 5 min of milling, respectively. Specific surface area of both selenides increased with increasing time of mechanochemicalsynthesis. The particle size distribution analysis demonstrated that the synthesized products conta...

  6. Fast Switching Fractional-N Frequency Synthesizer Architecture Using TDTL

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulrahman Al-HUMAIDAN; Al-araji, Saleh R.; Al-qutayri, Mahmoud A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient indirect fractional frequency synthesizer architecture based on the time delay digital tanlock loop. The indirect type frequency synthesis systems incorporate a low complexity high performance adaptation mechanism that enables them to remain in a locked state following the division process. The performance of the proposed fractional-N synthesizer under various input conditions is demonstrated. This includes sudden changes in the system input frequency as well ...

  7. Vanadium oxide electrode synthesized by electroless deposition for electrochemical capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haoran; Lian, Keryn

    2014-12-01

    A thin film vanadium oxide electrode was synthesized by a simple electroless deposition method. Surface and structural analyses revealed that the deposited oxide is a mixture of amorphous V2O5 and VO2. Electrochemical characterizations of the synthesized vanadium oxide showed capacitive behavior with good cycle life. The electroless deposition of vanadium oxide is inexpensive, easy to process, and environmentally benign, offering a promising route for electrode development for electrochemical capacitors.

  8. Nanosized Ferrite Particles Synthesized by Pulsed Wire Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pengyuan; Suematsu, Hisayuki; Jiang, Weihua; Yatsui, Kiyoshi

    Nanocrystallites ferrite particles (ZnFe2O4, CoFe2O4) have been synthesized successfully by high power short electric pulse discharge of Fe and metal wires in oxygen. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Mean size of the obtained particles strongly depended on the oxygen pressure, which were determined by both BET and TEM. TEM observation shows that the well dispersed, uniform sized ferrite nanocrystallites was synthesized.

  9. SWATI: Synthesizing Wordlengths Automatically Using Testing and Induction

    OpenAIRE

    Jha, Susmit; Seshia, Sanjit A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present an automated technique SWATI: Synthesizing Wordlengths Automatically Using Testing and Induction, which uses a combination of Nelder-Mead optimization based testing, and induction from examples to automatically synthesize optimal fixedpoint implementation of numerical routines. The design of numerical software is commonly done using floating-point arithmetic in design-environments such as Matlab. However, these designs are often implemented using fi...

  10. Synthesizing attractors of Hindmarsh–Rose neuronal systems

    OpenAIRE

    Danca, Marius-f; Wang, Qingyun

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In this paper a periodic parameter-switching scheme is applied to the Hindmarsh–Rose neuronal system to synthesize certain attractors. Results show numerically, via computer graphic simulations, that the obtained synthesized attractor belongs to the class of all admissible attractors for the Hindmarsh–Rose neuronal system and matches the averaged attractor obtained with the control parameter replaced with the averaged switched parameter values. This feature allows us t...

  11. Divergent total syntheses of lyconadins A and C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Haskins, Christopher W; Zhang, Wandi; Low, Pui Leng; Dai, Mingji

    2014-04-01

    Divergent and concise total syntheses of two lycopodium alkaloids, lyconadins?A and C have been developed. The synthesis of lyconadin?A, having potent neurotrophic activity, features an efficient one-pot ketal removal and formal aza-[4+2] cyclization to form the cagelike core structure. A tandem ketal removal/Mannich reaction was developed to build the tricyclic structure of lyconadin?C. Both lyconadins?A and C were synthesized from a pivotal intermediate. PMID:24596132

  12. Total syntheses of bioactive natural products from carbohydrates

    OpenAIRE

    Kuniaki Tatsuta and Seijiro Hosokawa

    2006-01-01

    Total syntheses of bioactive natural products recently accomplished in our laboratories are described. They are classified by structures of target molecules and are focused on our original approach to their own structures. The target molecules include nanaomycin, kalafungin, BE-54238B, tetracycline, rosmarinecine, thienamycin, luminacines C1 and C2, tetrodecamycin, cochleamycin A, and tubelactomicin A, which have been synthesized as optically pure form from carbohydrates.

  13. A Statistical Method for Synthesizing Meta-Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Liansheng Larry Tang; Michael Caudy; Faye Taxman

    2013-01-01

    Multiple meta-analyses may use similar search criteria and focus on the same topic of interest, but they may yield different or sometimes discordant results. The lack of statistical methods for synthesizing these findings makes it challenging to properly interpret the results from multiple meta-analyses, especially when their results are conflicting. In this paper, we first introduce a method to synthesize the meta-analytic results when multiple meta-analyses use the same type of summary e...

  14. Mayenite Synthesized Using the Citrate Sol-Gel Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ude, Sabina N [ORNL; Rawn, Claudia J [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta A [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Kirkham, Melanie J [ORNL; Jones, Gregory L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    A citrate sol-gel method has been used to synthesize mayenite (Ca12Al14O33). X-ray powder diffraction data show that the samples synthesized using the citrate sol-gel method contained CaAl2O4 and CaCO3 along with mayenite when fired ex-situ in air at 800 C but were single phase when fired at 900 C and above. Using high temperature x-ray diffraction, data collected in-situ in air at temperatures of 600 C and below showed only amorphous content; however, data collected at higher temperatures indicated the first phase to crystallize is CaCO3. High temperature x-ray diffraction data collected in 4% H2/96% N2 does not show the presence of CaCO3, and Ca12Al14O33 starts to form around 850 C. In comparison, x-ray powder diffraction data collected ex-situ on samples synthesized using traditional solid-state synthesis shows that single phase was not reached until samples were fired at 1350 C. DTA/TGA data collected either in a nitrogen environment or air on samples synthesized using the citrate gel method suggest the complete decomposition of metastable phases and the formation of mayenite at 900 C, although the phase evolution is very different depending on the environment. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements showed a slightly higher surface area of 7.4 0.1 m2/g in the citrate gel synthesized samples compared to solid-state synthesized sample with a surface area of 1.61 0.02 m2/g. SEM images show a larger particle size for samples synthesized using the solid-state method compared to those synthesized using the citrate gel method.

  15. Las armas a cambio de la libertad: Los esclavos en la guerra de independencia de Venezuela (1812-1835) / Les armes en échange de la liberté: Les esclaves pendant la guerre d'Indépendance au Venezuela (1812-1835) / Arms in exchange for freedom: slaves in Venezuela's war of independence (1812-1835)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana, Vergara.

    Full Text Available Tanto los republicanos, como los defensores del poder monárquico no preveían el impacto y la importancia de la participación esclava durante la guerra de independencia venezolana. Su inicial movilización a favor de la Justa Causa del Rey fue una de las razones de la destrucción de las dos primeras r [...] epúblicas. Su participación induce a Bolívar y demás dirigentes republicanos a reformular el programa independentista criollo; el cual no incluía, hasta el momento, un cuestionamiento del sistema esclavista, en tanto que eran beneficiarios directos del mismo y la institución formaba parte fundamental del sistema económico en que se desenvolvían. Este artículo trata abordar su participación en el conflicto a través de las experiencias relatadas por nueve esclavos en sus respectivas peticiones de libertad. Abstract in english Neither republicans nor the defenders of monarchical power foresaw the impact and importance of the participation of slaves in Venezuela's wars of independence. Their early mobilization to support the Justa Causa del Rey ("Just Cause of the King") was a key factor in the collapse of the first two Re [...] publics, while their participation led Bolívar and other republican leaders to reformulate the Creole's independence program, which up to then had never questioned the slavery system, because they were among the direct beneficiaries of that arrangement, which was also a cornerstone of the economic system in Venezuela's that had allowed them to prosper. The article examines the slave population's participation in the conflict through experiences narrated by nine slaves in their respective petitions for freedom.

  16. Anything But Arms? Perceptions, the European Union and the Arms Embargo on China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. W. Brown

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the debate that emerged in the European Union (EU in late 2003 and ran to mid-2005 on the possibility of lifting the arms embargo imposed on the People’s Republic of China (PRC since June 1989. It seeks to offer a more nuanced explanation of the developments in the EU’s arms embargo policy towards China than has been put forward in the existing literature to date, which makes assumptions about the motivations of certain actors. To do so, it examines how the perceptions of key policymakers in the EU and two of its Member States – France and the United Kingdom (UK – influenced their positions in the debate. The article argues that an account focusing on the variation in perceptions between actors and consequently divergent policy preferences through close process-tracing of the development of the policy facilitates a more nuanced explanation of the proceedings of the debate.

  17. Exoskeleton to Rehabilitate Paralyzed Arm Based on Patient Healthy Arm Guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Hu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the stroke rehabilitation by robotic device and a novel exoskeleton, which is based on the patient's self-guided control will be presented. It is realized by moving the patient’s own healthy arm in order to provide the movement trajectories for the exoskeleton. The main advantage of the exoskeleton is its flexibility and adaptivity for individual patient’s rehabilitation training. A new model predictive control (MPC algorithm for handling coupling and nonlinearity is also proposed and a microprocessor-based drive system for the exoskeleton will be adopted. In addition, to measure the angular positions corresponding to the joint angles of arm high resolution potentiometers are used.

  18. A series of 2D metal-quinolone complexes: Syntheses, structures, and physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiang-Hong; Xiao, Dong-Rong; Chen, Hai-Yan; Sun, Dian-Zhen; Yan, Shi-Wei; Wang, Xin; Ye, Zhong-Li; Luo, Qun-Li; Wang, En-Bo

    2013-02-01

    Six novel 2D metal-quinolone complexes, namely [Cd(cfH)(bpdc)]rad H2O (1), [M(norfH)(bpdc)]rad H2O (M=Cd (2) and Mn (3)), [Mn2(cfH)(odpa)(H2O)3]rad 0.5H2O (4), [Co2(norfH)(bpta)(?2-H2O)(H2O)2]rad H2O (5) and [Co3(saraH)2(Hbpta)2(H2O)4]rad 9H2O (6) (cfH=ciprofloxacin, norfH=norfloxacin, saraH=sarafloxacin, bpdc=4,4'-biphenyldicarboxylate, odpa=4,4'-oxydiphthalate, bpta=3,3',4,4'-biphenyltetracarboxylate) have been synthesized and characterized. Compounds 1-3 consist of 2D arm-shaped layers based on the 1D {M(COO)}nn+ chains. Compounds 4 and 5 display 2D structures based on tetranuclear manganese or cobalt clusters with (3,6)-connected kgd topology. Compound 6 exhibits a 2D bilayer structure, which represents the first example of metal-quinolone complexes with 2D bilayer structure. By inspection of the structures of 1-6, it is believed that the long aromatic polycarboxylate ligands are important for the formation of 2D metal-quinolone complexes. The magnetic properties of compounds 3-6 was studied, indicating the existence of antiferromagnetic interactions. Furthermore, the luminescent properties of compounds 1-2 are discussed.

  19. ARMED FORCES AND INTERVENTION IN TROPICAL AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Steyn

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available "The Ghana Armed Forces, in co-operation with the police, have thought it necessary to take over the reins of power and to dismiss the former President, Kwame Nkrumah, the Presidential Commission and all Ministers, and to suspend the Constitution and to dissolve Parliament. This act has been necessitated by the political and economic situation in the country. The concentration of power in the hands of one man has led to the abuse of individual rights and liberty. Power has been exercised by the former President capriciously. The operation of the laws has been suspended to the advantage of his favourites and he has been running the country as his own personal property. "

  20. ARM Surface Meteorology Systems Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritsche, MT

    2011-03-08

    The ARM Surface Meteorology Systems consist mainly of conventional in situ sensors that obtain a defined “core” set of measurements. The core set of measurements is: Barometric Pressure (kPa), Temperature (°C), Relative Humidity (%), Arithmetic-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), Vector-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), and Vector-Averaged Wind Direction (deg). The sensors that collect the core variables are mounted at the standard heights defined for each variable: • Winds: 10 meters • Temperature and Relative Humidity: 2 meters • Barometric Pressure: 1 meter. Depending upon the geographical location, different models and types of sensors may be used to measure the core variables due to the conditions experienced at those locations. Most sites have additional sensors that measure other variables that are unique to that site or are well suited for the climate of the location but not at others.

  1. VAST 2010 Challenge: Arms Dealings and Pandemics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinstein, Georges; Konecni, Shawn; Plaisant, Catherine; Scholtz, Jean; Whiting, Mark A.

    2010-10-23

    The 5th VAST Challenge consisted of three mini-challenges that involved both intelligence analysis and bioinformatics. Teams could solve one, two or all three mini-challenges and assess the overall situation to enter the Grand Challenge. Mini-challenge one involved text reports about people and events giving information about arms dealers, situations in various countries and linkages between different countries. Mini-challenge two involved hospital admission and death records from various countries providing information about the spread of a world wide pandemic. Mini-challenge three involved genetic data to be used to identify the origin of the pandemic and the most dangerous viral mutations. The Grand Challenge was to determine how these various mini-challenges were connected. As always the goal was to analyze the data and provide novel interactive visualizations useful in the analytic process. We received 58 submissions in total and gave 15 awards.

  2. Wireless Control & Monitoring of Robotic Arm (SWORDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Kadu,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Robot warriors have already seen action in Iraq, and the US Army plans to replace one-third of its armored vehicles and weapons with robots by 2015. These killing machines may one day come equipped with an artificial conscience even to the extent of disobeying immoral orders. The US Army's latest recruits are 1 meter (about 3 feet tall, wear desert camouflage and are armed with black M249 machine guns. They also move on caterpillar tracks and thanks to five camera eyes can even see in the dark. The fearless fighters are three robot soldiers who, unnoticed by the general public, were deployed in Iraq in mid-June, charged with hunting down insurgents. As if guided by an unseen hand, they hone in on their targets and fire at them with their machine guns.

  3. PHENIX central arm particle ID detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizawa, M.; Akiba, Y.; Begay, R.; Burward-Hoy, J.; Chappell, R.B.; Chi, C.Y.; Chiu, M.; Chujo, T.; Crook, D.W.; Danmura, A.; Ebisu, K.; Emery, M.S.; Enosawa, K.; Esumi, S.; Ferrierra, J.; Frawley, A.D. E-mail: frawley@fsuhip.physics.fsu.edu; Griffin, V.; Hamagaki, H.; Hara, H.; Hayano, R.S.; Hayashi, H.; Hemmick, T.K.; Hibino, M.; Higuchi, R.; Hirano, T.; Hoade, R.; Hutter, R.; Inaba, M.; Jones, K.; Kametani, S.; Kato, S.; Kennedy, M.; Kikuchi, J.; Kiyomichi, A.; Koseki, K.; Kurata-Nishimura, M.; Kurita, K.; Kuroki, Y.; Matsumoto, T.; Miake, Y.; Miyamoto, Y.; Moscone, G.G.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nishimura, S.; Ono, M.; Oyama, K.; Raynis, R.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sakai, S.; Sako, H.; Salomone, S.; Sato, S.; Shigaki, K.; Shimada, T.; Suzuki-Nara, M.; Tamai, M.; Tanaka, Y.; Tsuruoka, H.; Urasawa, S.; Ushiroda, T.; Walker, J.W.; Wang, S.; Wintenberg, A.L.; Wright, L.W.; Yagi, K.; Yokota, Y.; Young, G.R

    2003-03-01

    The Ring-Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) and the Time-of-Flight (ToF) systems provide identification of charged particles for the PHENIX central arm. The RICH is located between the inner and outer tracking units and is one of the primary devices for identifying electrons among the very large number of charged pions. The ToF is used to identify hadrons and is located between the most outer pad chamber (PC3) and the electromagnetic calorimeter. A Time Zero (T0) counter that enhances charged particle measurements in p-p collisions is described. Details of the construction and performance of both the RICH, ToF and T0 are given along with typical results from the first PHENIX data taking run.

  4. Homeobox genes expressed during echinoderm arm regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Khadra, Yousra; Said, Khaled; Thorndyke, Michael; Martinez, Pedro

    2014-04-01

    Regeneration in echinoderms has proved to be more amenable to study in the laboratory than the more classical vertebrate models, since the smaller genome size and the absence of multiple orthologs for different genes in echinoderms simplify the analysis of gene function during regeneration. In order to understand the role of homeobox-containing genes during arm regeneration in echinoderms, we isolated the complement of genes belonging to the Hox class that are expressed during this process in two major echinoderm groups: asteroids (Echinaster sepositus and Asterias rubens) and ophiuroids (Amphiura filiformis), both of which show an extraordinary capacity for regeneration. By exploiting the sequence conservation of the homeobox, putative orthologs of several Hox genes belonging to the anterior, medial, and posterior groups were isolated. We also report the isolation of a few Hox-like genes expressed in the same systems. PMID:24309817

  5. Poly(glycolide) multi-arm star polymers: Improved solubility via limited arm length

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Florian K.; Fischer, Anna M.; Holger Frey

    2010-01-01

    Due to the low solubility of poly(glycolic acid) (PGA), its use is generally limited to the synthesis of random copolyesters with other hydroxy acids, such as lactic acid, or to applications that permit direct processing from the polymer melt. Insolubility is generally observed for PGA when the degree of polymerization exceeds 20. Here we present a strategy that allows the preparation of PGA-based multi-arm structures which significantly exceed the molecular weight of processable oligomeric l...

  6. NuSTAR Norma Arm Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasini, Francesca; NuSTAR

    2015-01-01

    One part of the Galaxy that was surveyed during the Nuclear Spectroscopic Array (NuSTAR) primary mission is a region of the Norma Arm that was observed with Chandra in 2011. The Norma Arm is a region of recent star formation containing a large number of OB associations and was targeted to search for and study X-ray sources associated with massive stars, such as high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) and colliding wind binaries (CWBs). The Norma Chandra survey covered a 2 deg x 0.8 deg field and NuSTAR has observed about half of this field to date with ~50 ks depth. We detect at least 29 NuSTAR sources in this region and present their spectral and timing properties. Four of these sources are relatively well-studied and have been observed with a number of other instruments; NuSTAR is providing new insights into these sources, which include two pulsar wind nebulae, a black hole binary, and an obscured HMXB. Four sources are NuSTAR discoveries, at least two of which are transients. We have obtained infrared spectra of the IR counterparts of seven of the remaining 21 NuSTAR sources to facilitate their identification. Two sources have high-mass stellar counterparts and are likely HMXBs or CWBs. Five have low-mass counterparts and are likely intermediate polars or low-mass X-ray binaries; one of these sources has spectral and timing properties that are consistent with a black hole binary. The 14 sources without detected IR counterparts are likely a mixture of distant intermediate polars, active galactic nuclei, and magnetars.

  7. Object Sorting System Using Robotic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VISHNU R.KALE, V.A.KULKARNI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a smart approach for a real time inspection and selection of objects in continuous flow. Image processing in today’s world grabs massive attentions as it leads to possibilities of broaden application in many fields of high technology. The real challenge is how to improve existing sorting system in the modular processing system which consists of four integrated stations of identification, processing, selection and sorting with a new image processing feature. Existing sorting method uses a set of inductive, capacitive and optical sensors do differentiate object color. This paper presents a mechatronics color sorting system solution with the application of image processing. Image processing procedure senses the objects in an image captured in real-time by a webcam and then identifies color and information out of it. This information is processed by image processing for pick-and-place mechanism. The sorting process is based on a 2 phase operative methodology defined 1 a self-learning step where the apparatus learns to identify objects ; 2 an operative selection process where objects are detected, classified using a decisional algorithm and selected in real time. The Project deals with an automated material handling system. It aims in classifying the colored objects by colour, size, which are coming on the conveyor by picking and placing the objects in its respective pre-programmed place. Thereby eliminating the monotonous work done by human, achieving accuracy and speed in the work. The project involve sensors that senses the object’s colour, size and sends the signal to the microcontroller. The microcontroller sends signal to circuit which drives the various motors of the robotic arm to grip the object and place it in the specified location. Based upon the detection, the robotic arm moves to the specified location, releases the object and comes back to the original position [1] [2].

  8. Two-Arm Flexible Thermal Strap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquiza, Eugenio; Vasquez, Cristal; Rodriquez, Jose I.; Leland, Robert S.; VanGorp, Byron E.

    2011-01-01

    Airborne and space infrared cameras require highly flexible direct cooling of mechanically-sensitive focal planes. A thermal electric cooler is often used together with a thermal strap as a means to transport the thermal energy removed from the infrared detector. While effective, traditional thermal straps are only truly flexible in one direction. In this scenario, a cooling solution must be highly conductive, lightweight, able to operate within a vacuum, and highly flexible in all axes to accommodate adjustment of the focal plane while transmitting minimal force. A two-armed thermal strap using three end pieces and a twisted section offers enhanced elastic movement, significantly beyond the motion permitted by existing thermal straps. This design innovation allows for large elastic displacements in two planes and moderate elasticity in the third plane. By contrast, a more conventional strap of the same conductance offers less flexibility and asymmetrical elasticity. The two-arm configuration reduces the bending moment of inertia for a given conductance by creating the same cross-sectional area for thermal conduction, but with only half the thickness. This reduction in the thickness has a significant effect on the flexibility since there is a cubic relationship between the thickness and the rigidity or bending moment of inertia. The novelty of the technology lies in the mechanical design and manufacturing of the thermal strap. The enhanced flexibility will facilitate cooling of mechanically sensitive components (example: optical focal planes). This development is a significant contribution to the thermal cooling of optics. It is known to be especially important in the thermal control of optical focal planes due to their highly sensitive alignment requirements and mechanical sensitivity; however, many other applications exist including the cooling of gimbal-mounted components.

  9. Nuclear arms race gearing for speedup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To probe the rationale behind the big buildup in US strategic arms that is presaged by the current enhanced R and D effort - and to explore the broader, more long-term role of science and technology in the nuclear arms race - C and EN in recent months spoke with a host of experts both within and outside the defense establishment. It is a topic of incredible complexity, high controversy, and of the highest stakes imaginable - the survival of civilization. This buildup will include over the next decade, apart from the MX, a new, highly accurate, submarine-launched ballistic missile and a fleet of very large submarines to carry it; an air-launched cruise missile; a new long-range bomber; a new intermediate-range missile and a new ground-launched cruise missile, both capable of hitting targets in the Soviet Union from proposed bases in Western Europe; and a new sea-launched cruise missile that can be fired from conventional submarines or other naval vessels. To spokesmen for, and members of, the defense establishment the US buildup is prudent, even minimal. According to them, it is needed to keep the US at least on a par with the growth of Soviet strategic might which was very substantial in the 1970's and which will carry over into the 1980's with further major gains. It also is needed to keep the lid on Soviet expansionism; and it is the best way to prevent a nuclear war. To critics, the proposed buildup is the height of lunacy. According to them, the US strategic arsen According to them, the US strategic arsenal is more than adequate today. And it can continue to serve its only legitimate purpose - to deter nuclear war, no matter how much the Soviets may choose to build up their nuclear forces - with a much-more-modest modernization program

  10. Kootenay Lake Fertilization Experiment, Year 15 (North Arm) and Year 3 (South Arm) (2006) Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, E.U.; Sebastian, D.; Andrusak, G.F. [Fish and Wildlife Science and Allocation, Ministry of Environment, Province of British Columbia

    2009-07-01

    This report summarizes results from the fifteenth year (2006) of nutrient additions to the North Arm of Kootenay Lake and three years of nutrient additions to the South Arm. Experimental fertilization of the lake has been conducted using an adaptive management approach in an effort to restore lake productivity lost as a result of nutrient uptake in upstream reservoirs. The primary objective of the experiment is to restore kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations, which are the main food source for Gerrard rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). The quantity of agricultural grade liquid fertilizer (10-34-0, ammonium polyphosphate and 28-0-0, urea ammonium nitrate) added to the North Arm in 2006 was 44.7 tonnes of P and 248.4 tonnes of N. The total fertilizer load added to the South Arm was 257 tonnes of nitrogen; no P was added. Kootenay Lake has an area of 395 km{sup 2}, a maximum depth of 150 m, a mean depth of 94 m, and a water renewal time of approximately two years. Kootenay Lake is a monomictic lake, generally mixing from late fall to early spring and stratifying during the summer. Surface water temperatures generally exceed 20 C for only a few weeks in July. Results of oxygen profiles were similar to previous years with the lake being well oxygenated from the surface to the bottom depths at all stations. Similar to past years, Secchi disc measurements at all stations in 2006 indicate a typical seasonal pattern of decreasing depths associated with the spring phytoplankton bloom, followed by increasing depths as the bloom gradually decreases by the late summer and fall. Total phosphorus (TP) ranged from 2-7 {micro}g/L and tended to decrease as summer advanced. Over the sampling season dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations decreased, with the decline corresponding to nitrate (the dominant component of DIN) being utilized by phytoplankton during summer stratification. Owing to the importance of epilimnetic nitrate that is required for optimal phytoplankton growth discrete depth water sampling occurred in 2006 to measure more accurately changes in the nitrate concentrations. As expected there was a seasonal decline in nitrate concentrations, thus supporting the strategy of increasing the nitrogen loading in both arms. These in-season changes emphasize the need for an adaptive management approach to ensure the nitrogen to phosphorus (N:P) ratio does not decrease below 15:1 (weight:weight) during the fertilizer application period. Phytoplankton composition determined from the integrated samples (0-20m) was dominated by diatoms, followed by cryptophytes and chrysophytes. The contribution of cryptophytes to total biomass was higher in 2006 than in 2005. Cryptophytes, considered being edible biomass for zooplankton and Daphnia spp., increased in 2006. Phytoplankton in the discrete depth samples (2, 5, 10, 15 and 20m) demonstrated a clear north to south gradient in average phytoplankton density and biomass among the three stations sampled, with highest values at the North Arm station (KLF 2) and lowest values in the most southern station in the South Arm (KLF 7). Populations were dominated by flagellates at all stations and depths in June and July, then dominated by diatoms in August and September in the North and South arms of the lake. There were no large bluegreen (cyanobacteria) populations in either arm of the lake in 2006. Seasonal average zooplankton abundance and biomass in both the main body of the lake and in the West Arm increased in 2006 compared to 2005. Zooplankton density was numerically dominated by copepods and biomass was dominated by Daphnia spp. The annual average mysid biomass data at deep stations indicated that the North Arm of Kootenay Lake was more productive than the South Arm in 2006. Mysid densities increased through the summer and declined in the winter; mean whole lake values remain within prefertilization densities. Kokanee escapement to Meadow Creek declined in 2006 to approximately 400,000 spawners. The Lardeau River escapement also declined wit

  11. Active aging as a way of keeping diseases at arm’s length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    Active ageing has increasingly become the ideal of how to live later life. Concepts of activity, participation and independence are central to how elderly see themselves and practice aging (Katz 2000). The elderly are encouraged and expected to stay active and independent. This is believed to be good for their quality of life, health, functionality and the economy (Sundhedsstyrelsen 2008, EC 2006, WHO 2002). At the same time active aging is inscribed into a general health care focus, which individualizes the responsibility for health and disease. This requires subjects ready to self-care, by paying attention to the signals of the body and leading healthy lives (Rose 2001). However, active aging seems to contain an ambiguity in this aspect, as the practice of active aging is often a way for elderly to keep diseases at arm’s length, and not a way to sense the possible abnormalities in the body. Through ethnographic fieldwork at two activity centres, the author has studied the role of activity and practice ofactive aging in the everyday live of the elderly users of the centres. There seems to be a fundamental difference between how active aging is thought of at policy level – as a part of a health regime of prevention and sensing the body - and how these elderly use activities to distance the sensations of the body. Activity in this way becomes a way to maintain disease at arms length.

  12. Arm and Interarm Star Formation in Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyle, K.; Rix, H.-W.; Walter, F.; Leroy, A. K.

    2010-12-01

    We investigate the relationship between spiral arms and star formation in the grand-design spirals NGC 5194 and NGC 628 and in the flocculent spiral NGC 6946. Filtered maps of near-IR (3.6 ?m) emission allow us to identify "arm regions" that should correspond to regions of stellar mass density enhancements. The two grand-design spirals show a clear two-armed structure, while NGC 6946 is more complex. We examine these arm and interarm regions, looking at maps that trace recent star formation—far-ultraviolet (GALEX NGS) and 24 ?m emission (Spitzer SINGS)—and cold gas-CO (HERACLES) and H I (THINGS). We find the star formation tracers and CO more concentrated in the spiral arms than the stellar 3.6 ?m flux. If we define the spiral arms as the 25% highest pixels in the filtered 3.6 ?m images, we find that the majority (60%) of star formation tracers occur in the interarm regions; this result persists qualitatively even when considering the potential impact of finite data resolution and diffuse interarm 24 ?m emission. Even with a generous definition of the arms (45% highest pixels), interarm regions still contribute at least 30% to the integrated star formation rate (SFR) tracers. We look for evidence that spiral arms trigger star or cloud formation using the ratios of SFR (traced by a combination of FUV and 24 ?m emission) to H2 (traced by CO) and H2 to H I. Any enhancement of SFR/M(H2) in the arm region is very small (less than 10%) and the grand-design spirals show no enhancement compared to the flocculent target. Arm regions do show a weak enhancement in H2/H I compared to the interarm regions, but at a fixed gas surface density there is little clear enhancement in the H2/H I ratio in the arm regions. Thus, it seems that spiral arms may only act to concentrate the gas to higher densities in the arms.

  13. Organogelation behavior and thermal properties of supramolecular polymer network composed of carboxy- and pyridyl-terminated 4-arm star-shaped ?-caprolactone oligomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Taro; Chu, Xiaoyun; Shimasaki, Toshiaki; Shibata, Mitsuhiro

    2013-08-15

    Carboxy-terminated 4-arm star-shaped ?-caprolactone oligomers (Tetra-SA-CLO, Tetra-PA-CLO, and Tetra-TCPA-CLO) were synthesized by the reactions of hydroxy-terminated 4-arm star-shaped ?-caprolactone oligomers (Tetra-OH-CLO) having the degree of polymerization per one oligocaprolactone chain, n=3 and 5 with succinic anhydride, phthalic anhydride, and 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophthalic anhydride, respectively. As a pyridyl-terminated analog, nicotinate-functionalized 4-arm star-shaped ?-caprolactone oligomer (Tetra-NA-CLO) was synthesized by the esterification reaction of Tetra-OH-CLO with nicotinic acid. All mixtures of the carboxy- and pyridyl-terminated analogs became thermoreversible organogels in N,N-dimethylformamide and nitromethane at around 15°C. The (1)H NMR and FT-IR analyses of the mixtures revealed the formation of hydrogen-bonded polymer network. The glass transition and cold crystallization temperatures of the mixtures were higher than the values estimated from those of the single components. PMID:23684230

  14. Copper complexes of thiosemicarbazone-pyridylhydrazine (THYNIC) hybrid ligands: a new versatile potential bifunctional chelator for copper radiopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Andrew R; Dilworth, Jonathan R; Donnelly, Paul S; White, Jonathan M

    2006-01-23

    Two new thiosemicarbazone-pyridylhydrazine (THYNIC) hybrid ligands have been synthesized. Copper(II) and copper(I) complexes of the ligands have been prepared and characterized by X-ray crystallography. Cyclic voltammetry measurements show that the copper(II) complexes undergo quasi-reversible reductions at biologically accessible potentials. One of the ligands, bearing a pendant carboxylate arm, has been conjugated to N-alpha-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-L-lysine. PMID:16411680

  15. ARM System Developer's Guide Designing and Optimizing System Software

    CERN Document Server

    Sloss, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Over the last ten years, the ARM architecture has become one of the most pervasive architectures in the world, with more than 2 billion ARM-based processors embedded in products ranging from cell phones to automotive braking systems. A world-wide community of ARM developers in semiconductor and product design companies includes software developers, system designers and hardware engineers. To date no book has directly addressed their need to develop the system and software for an ARM-based system. This text fills that gap. This book provides a comprehensive description of the operation of the ARM core from a developer's perspective with a clear emphasis on software. It demonstrates not only how to write efficient ARM software in C and assembly but also how to optimize code. Example code throughout the book can be integrated into commercial products or used as templates to enable quick creation of productive software. The book covers both the ARM and Thumb instruction sets, covers Intel''s XScale Processors, ou...

  16. Bluetooth Based Home Automation and Security System Using ARM9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.NARESH1 , B.CHAKRADHAR2 , S.KRISHNAVENI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Today we are living in 21st century where automation is playing important role in human life. Home automation allows us to control household appliances like light, door, fan, AC etc. It also provides home security and emergency system to be activated. Home automation not only refers to reduce human efforts but also energy saving and time efficiency. The main objective of home automation and security is to help handicapped and old aged people who will enable them to control home appliances and alert them in critical situations. This paper put forwards the design of home automation and security system using ARM7 LPC2148 board. The design is based on a standalone embedded system board ARM7 LPC2148 at home. Home appliances are connected to the ARM7 and communication is established between the ARM7 and ARM9 with Bluetooth device. The home appliances are connected to the input / output ports of the embedded system board and their status is passed to the ARM7. We would develop an authentication to the system for authorized person to access home appliances. The device with low cost and scalable to less modification to the core is much important. It presents the design and implementation of automation system that can monitor and control home appliances via ARM9 S3C2440A board.

  17. Motor costs and the coordination of the two arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimpour, Yousef; Shadmehr, Reza

    2014-01-29

    We have two arms, many muscles in each arm, and numerous neurons that contribute to their control. How does the brain assign responsibility to each of these potential actors? We considered a bimanual task in which people chose how much force to produce with each arm so that the sum would equal a target. We found that the dominant arm made a greater contribution, but only for specific directions. This was not because the dominant arm was stronger. Rather, it was less noisy. A cost that included unimanual noise and strength accounted for both direction- and handedness-dependent choices that young people made. To test whether there was a causal relationship between unimanual noise and bimanual control, we considered elderly people, whose unimanual noise is comparable in the two arms. We found that, in bimanual control, the elderly showed no preference for their dominant arm. We noninvasively stimulated the motor cortex to produce a change in unimanual strength and noise, and found a corresponding change in bimanual control. Using the noise measurements, we built a neuronal model. The model explained the anisotropic distribution of preferred directions of neurons in the monkey motor cortex and predicted that, in humans, there are changes in the number of these cortical neurons with handedness and aging. Therefore, we found that coordination can be explained by the noise and strength of each effector, where noise may be a reflection of the number of task-related neurons available for control of that effector in the motor cortex. PMID:24478362

  18. Possibility of mixed progenitor cells in sea star arm regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernroth, Bodil; Farahani, Farhad; Brunborg, Gunnar; Dupont, Sam; Dejmek, Annika; Sköld, Helen Nilsson

    2010-09-15

    In contrast to most vertebrates, invertebrate deuterostome echinoderms, such as the sea star Asterias rubens, undergo regeneration of lost body parts. The current hypothesis suggests that differentiated cells are the main source for regenerating arm in sea stars, but there is little information regarding the origin and identity of these cells. Here, we show that several organs distant to the regenerating arm responded by proliferation, most significantly in the coelomic epithelium and larger cells of the pyloric caeca. Analyzing markers for proliferating cells and parameters indicating cell ageing, such as levels of DNA damage, pigment, and lipofuscin contents as well as telomere length and telomerase activity, we suggest that cells contributing to the new arm likely originate from progenitors rather than differentiated cells. This is the first study showing that cells of mixed origin may be recruited from more distant sources of stem/progenitor cells in a sea star, and the first described indication of a role for pyloric caeca in arm regeneration. Data on growth rate during arm regeneration further indicate that regeneration is at the expense of whole animal growth. We propose a new working hypothesis for arm regeneration in sea stars involving four phases: wound healing by coelomocytes, migration of distant progenitor cells of mixed origin including from pyloric caeca, proliferation in these organs to compensate for cell loss, and finally, local proliferation in the regenerating arm. PMID:20700890

  19. Neuronal populations in primary motor cortex encode bimanual arm movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, O; Donchin, O; Gribova, A; Cardosa de Oliveira, S; Bergman, H; Vaadia, E

    2002-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that activity of neuronal populations in the primary motor cortex (MI), processed by the population vector method, faithfully predicts upcoming movements. In our previous studies we found that single neurons responded differently during movements of one arm vs. combined movements of the two arms. It was, therefore, not clear whether the population vector approach could produce reliable movement predictions also for bimanual movements. This study tests this question by comparing the predictive quality of population vectors for unimanual and bimanual arm movements. We designed a bimanual motor task that requires coordinated movements of the two arms, in which each arm may move in eight directions, and recorded single unit activity in the MI of two rhesus (Macaca mulatta) monkeys during the performance of unimanual and bimanual arm movements. We analysed the activity of 212 MI cells from both hemispheres and found that, despite bimanual related activity, the directional tuning and preferred directions of most cells were preserved in unimanual and bimanual movements. We demonstrate that population vectors, constructed from the activity of MI cells, predict accurately the direction of movement both for unimanual and for bimanual movements even when the two arms move simultaneously in different directions. PMID:11994131

  20. Neural control of rhythmic arm cycling after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, E Paul; Loadman, Pamela M; Hundza, Sandra R

    2012-08-01

    Disordered reflex activity and alterations in the neural control of walking have been observed after stroke. In addition to impairments in leg movement that affect locomotor ability after stroke, significant impairments are also seen in the arms. Altered neural control in the upper limb can often lead to altered tone and spasticity resulting in impaired coordination and flexion contractures. We sought to address the extent to which the neural control of movement is disordered after stroke by examining the modulation pattern of cutaneous reflexes in arm muscles during arm cycling. Twenty-five stroke participants who were at least 6 mo postinfarction and clinically stable, performed rhythmic arm cycling while cutaneous reflexes were evoked with trains (5 × 1.0-ms pulses at 300 Hz) of constant-current electrical stimulation to the superficial radial (SR) nerve at the wrist. Both the more (MA) and less affected (LA) arms were stimulated in separate trials. Bilateral electromyography (EMG) activity was recorded from muscles acting at the shoulder, elbow, and wrist. Analysis was conducted on averaged reflexes in 12 equidistant phases of the movement cycle. Phase-modulated cutaneous reflexes were present, but altered, in both MA and LA arms after stroke. Notably, the pattern was "blunted" in the MA arm in stroke compared with control participants. Differences between stroke and control were progressively more evident moving from shoulder to wrist. The results suggest that a reduced pattern of cutaneous reflex modulation persists during rhythmic arm movement after stroke. The overall implication of this result is that the putative spinal contributions to rhythmic human arm movement remain accessible after stroke, which has translational implications for rehabilitation. PMID:22572949

  1. Les relations économiques sino-américaines pendant les années Bush (2001-2008 : vers une stratégie de « dissuasion économique » ? US-China Relations during the Bush Presidency, 2001-2008: Towards a Strategy of “Economic Deterrence”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette Bourdin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Au cours de la présidence de George W. Bush, les relations économiques sino-américaines se sont caractérisées par une interdépendance croissante, tant au niveau des enjeux commerciaux que des enjeux financiers. Si les questions du déficit de la balance commerciale et des droits de la propriété intellectuelle faisaient déjà débat pendant la présidence de Bill Clinton, en revanche les questions financières de la valeur du renminbi et des réserves chinoises de bons du Trésor sont apparues pendant les années Bush. Alors que l’administration Bush prônait initialement une stratégie de « congagement » (endiguement/ engagement et définissait la Chine comme un « concurrent stratégique », non seulement le 11-Septembre a modifié les priorités immédiates de Washington mais, du fait de l’interdépendance économique sino-américaine, il semble que la « dissuasion économique » soit désormais la seule stratégie réaliste dans les relations entre Washington et Pékin.During the presidency of George W. Bush, the main characteristic of US-China economic relations was an increasing interdependency in the field of trade as well as over financial issues. If trade imbalance and intellectual property rights were already matters for debate during the presidency of Bill Clinton, the issues of the value of the renminbi and of Chinese holdings of US Treasury bonds emerged during the Bush years. While the Bush administration had initially advocated a strategy of “congagement” (containment/ engagement and had defined China as a “strategic competitor”, not only did 9/11 change Washington’s immediate priorities, but, with the US-China economic interdependency, the only realistic strategy between Washington and Beijing seemed to consist in “economic deterrence.”

  2. 6-arm blue grand design of NGC 309

    CERN Document Server

    Chernin, A D

    2015-01-01

    The geometry and physics of the spiral structure of the giant Hubble type Sc galaxy NGC 309 is studied. A schematic of two patterns with three arms in each is suggested for the blue spiral. The red and blue patterns form together a grand design with two-fold symmetry. A possible gas-dynamics explanation of the phenomenon is suggested which shows how the two-arm red spiral may induce the formation of the six-arm coherent blue spiral. Key words: galaxies: individual (NGC 309) -- galaxies: spiral

  3. A method for removing arm backscatter from EPID images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop a method for removing the support arm backscatter from images acquired using current Varian electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs).Methods: The effect of arm backscatter on EPID images was modeled using a kernel convolution method. The parameters of the model were optimized by comparing on-arm images to off-arm images. The model was used to develop a method to remove the effect of backscatter from measured EPID images. The performance of the backscatter removal method was tested by comparing backscatter corrected on-arm images to measured off-arm images for 17 rectangular fields of different sizes and locations on the imager. The method was also tested using on- and off-arm images from 42 intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) fields.Results: Images generated by the backscatter removal method gave consistently better agreement with off-arm images than images without backscatter correction. For the 17 rectangular fields studied, the root mean square difference of in-plane profiles compared to off-arm profiles was reduced from 1.19% (standard deviation 0.59%) on average without backscatter removal to 0.38% (standard deviation 0.18%) when using the backscatter removal method. When comparing to the off-arm images from the 42 IMRT fields, the mean ? and percentage of pixels with ? < 1 were improved by the backscatter removal method in all but one of the images studied. The mean ? value (1%, 1 mm) for the IMRT fields studied was reduced from 0.80 T fields studied was reduced from 0.80 to 0.57 by using the backscatter removal method, while the mean ? pass rate was increased from 72.2% to 84.6%.Conclusions: A backscatter removal method has been developed to estimate the image acquired by the EPID without any arm backscatter from an image acquired in the presence of arm backscatter. The method has been shown to produce consistently reliable results for a wide range of field sizes and jaw configurations

  4. Design and Engineering of a Chess-Robotic Arm

    OpenAIRE

    Elouafiq, Ali

    2012-01-01

    In the scope of the "Chess-Bot" project, this study's goal is to choose the right model for the robotic arm that the "the Chess-Bot" will use to move the pawn from a cell to another. In this paper, there is the definition and the structure of a robot arm. Also, the different engineering and kinematics fundamentals of the robot and its components will be detailed. Furthermore, the different structures of robotic arms will be presented and compared based on different criteria....

  5. Light Duty Utility Arm computer software configuration management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipp, B.L.

    1998-09-14

    This plan describes the configuration management for the Light Duty Utility Arm robotic manipulation arm control software. It identifies the requirement, associated documents, and the software control methodology. The Light Duty Utility Ann (LDUA) System is a multi-axis robotic manipulator arm and deployment vehicle, used to perform surveillance and characterization operations in support of remediation of defense nuclear wastes currently stored in the Hanford Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) through the available 30.5 cm (12 in.) risers. This plan describes the configuration management of the LDUA software.

  6. US-Russian relations: the arms control agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At a time when US-Russian relations are widely regarded to be in a state of flux, it is appropriate to examine the degree of continuity and change in the sphere of nuclear arms control. More specifically, this brief essay identifies a number of propositions about nuclear weapons, arms control, and nonproliferation that increasingly reflect the conventional wisdom in Washington, although these propositions may be neither true nor wise; and assesses the prospects for arms control progress in the areas of strategic and non-strategic nuclear weapons and nonproliferation in light of these prevailing views. (author)

  7. Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles synthesized by atmospheric microplasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles using the atmospheric microplasma (AMP). The properties of iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized using AMP are compared with particles (i) formed in as-prepared solution and (ii) prepared using thermal decomposition method. Iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by all the 3 treatment methods exhibit quite soft ferromagnetic properties with coercivities less than 10 G. The AMP synthesis technique was found to be more efficient and better than thermal decomposition method due to ultra-shorter experiment time (around 2.5 min) as compared to 90 min required for thermal decomposition method. Moreover, AMP synthesized nanoparticles are better isolated and of smaller size than thermal decomposition ones.The effect of plasma discharge timings on synthesized nanoparticles has also been studied in this work. Coercivity of synthesized nanoparticles decreases with the increasing plasma discharge timings from 3 to 10 min. The nanoparticles synthesized using plasma discharge timing of 10 min exhibit the smallest coercivity of around 3 G. This suggests a high possibility of achieving super-paramagnetic nanoparticles by optimizing the plasma discharge timings of AMP. (author)

  8. Transition metal oxide nanowires synthesized by heating metal substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: · This paper describes a simple and general method to synthesize 3d metal oxide nanowires. · Self-catalysis growth mechanism was proposed to explain the growth of the nanowires. · The temperature range for the growth of nanowires was estimated by taking into account the Gibbs free energy of reaction. · This synthesis approach could be applied to synthesize other one-dimensional structures, such as FeSe and Bi2Te3 nanowires. -- Abstract: Here we reported a simple method to synthesize transition metal oxide nanowires. Copper oxide (CuO), zinc oxide (ZnO), and cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nanowires were synthesized by heating the copper, zinc, and cobalt substrates under atmosphere condition. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to analyze the morphology and microstructure of the nanowires. According to our experimental results, self-catalysis growth mechanism was proposed to explain the growth of the nanowires. The temperature window for the growth of nanowires was estimated by taking into account the Gibbs free energy of reaction. The synthesis approach observed in our experiment could be applied to synthesize other one-dimensional structures, such as FeSe and Bi2Te3 nanowires.

  9. Perceived quality of DIBR-based synthesized views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosc, Emilie; Pépion, Romuald; Le Callet, Patrick; Köppel, Martin; Ndjiki-Nya, Patrick; Morin, Luce; Pressigout, Muriel

    2011-09-01

    This paper considers the reliability of usual assessment methods when evaluating virtual synthesized views in the multiview video context. Virtual views are generated from Depth Image Based Rendering (DIBR) algorithms. Because DIBR algorithms involve geometric transformations, new types of artifacts come up. The question regards the ability of commonly used methods to deal with such artifacts. This paper investigates how correlated usual metrics are to human judgment. The experiments consist in assessing seven different view synthesis algorithms by subjective and objective methods. Three different 3D video sequences are used in the tests. Resulting virtual synthesized sequences are assessed through objective metrics and subjective protocols. Results show that usual objective metrics can fail assessing synthesized views, in the sense of human judgment.

  10. On synthesizing test cases in symbolic real-time testing

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ahmed, Khoumsi.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Test synthesis (or test generation) can be described as follows: from a formal specification of an implementation under test (IUT), and from a test purpose describing behaviors to be tested, the aim is to synthesize test cases to be executed in order to check whether the IUT conforms to its formal s [...] pecification, while trying to control the IUT so that it satisfies the test purpose. In this paper, we study the synthesis of test cases for symbolic real-time systems. By symbolic, we mean that the specification of the IUT contains variables and parameters. And by real-time, we mean that the specification of the IUT contains timing constraints. Our method combines and generalizes two testing methods presented in previous work, namely: 1) a method for synthesizing test cases for (non-symbolic) real-time systems, and 2) a method for synthesizing test cases for (non-real-time) symbolic systems.

  11. A low-power CMOS frequency synthesizer for GPS receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low-power frequency synthesizer for GPS/Galileo L1/E1 band receivers implemented in a 0.18 ?m CMOS process is introduced. By adding clock-controlled transistors at latch outputs to reduce the time constant at sensing time, the working frequency of the high-speed source-coupled logic prescaler supplying quadrature local oscillator signals has been increased, compared with traditional prescalers. Measurement results show that this synthesizer achieves an in-band phase noise of -87 dBc/Hz at 15 kHz offset, with spurs less than -65 dBc. The whole synthesizer consumes 6 mA in the case of a 1.8 V supply, and its core area is 0.6 mm2. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  12. Design of coupled stripline directional coupler power synthesizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle of design and calculation of the power synthesis in the solid-state amplifier are de- scribed in this paper. The working frequency of the synthesizer is 80.5 MHz. The output continuous wave power is more than 20 kW; The synthesizer power capacity is analyzed. The theoretical calculation re- suits, Computer Simulation Technology (CST) simulated results are compared with the measured results of the actual 3 dB couplers. The analysis of the measured results and CST calculated results shows that the simulation is in agreement with the measurement results which meet the design requirements of the solid-state amplifier. Except the coupling coefficient, the isolation, the VSWR and other parameters are better than the design target. When the output power is 20 kW, the sampling waveform has no deform and the temperature of the synthesizer is stable. (authors)

  13. FRACTIONAL-N FREQUENCY SYNTHESIZER DESIGN FOR RFAPPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUDASSAR I. Y. MEER

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, design of Fractional-N Frequency Synthesizer using PLL has been investigated. The simulation is done in 0.18 ?m CMOS technology with CADENCE tools using UMC foundry models. The different parts of synthesizer discussed in detail. Three different phase detector architectures are implemented. High speed TSPC DFF has designed to divide the frequency of GHz range. The prescalar is modified to have a delay of 80 ps only.For VCO, a multi layer inductor is used to save the area. The phase noise can be further reduced with a ?? modulator in feedback loop. The designed frequency synthesizer targets RF applications like DVB-SH, WLAN,802.11, bluetooth, cordless phones and remote control.

  14. Beyond arms control? Looking for the lost paradigm.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the tragic events of September 11, 2001, the international relations have become more complex and the arms control concept, born during the cold war and implemented during the 3 last decades is today marking time. Disarmament and non-proliferation, which were the keystones of arms control and international negotiations, are today undergoing erosion. This article analyzes the change of situation between the end of the 20. century and the beginning of the 21. century. Three steps are defined by the author: a 'flux' step with the signature of a huge number of international agreements about non-proliferation and arms control, a stagnation step marked by the difficulties of implementing some of the existing treaties and by the violation by some states of some of them, and a 'reflux' step marked by a freezing up of the bilateral US-Russian disarmament process and a general renouncement of the multilateral arms control concept. (J.S.)

  15. Test report light duty utility arm power distribution system (PDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) Power Distribution System has completed vendor and post-delivery acceptance testing. The Power Distribution System has been found to be acceptable and is now ready for integration with the overall LDUA system

  16. Segmented articulating manipulator arm for nuclear reactor vessel inspection apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A segmented manipulator arm for a nuclear reactor vessel inspection device is disclosed. The several segments of the arm are linked in a manner which permits independent movement of each segment in a different plane of motion. The transducer array which is utilized to conduct the examination of any appropriate point in the reactor vessel is cooperably linked to the final or most forward segment of the manipulator arm. The first segment of the manipulator arm is appropriately coupled to the main column of the inspection device for independent movement in one of three planes relative to the main column. Additional segments are employed and cooperatively linked to the first segment to yield a total of nine planes of movement for one or more of the segments. In addition, brackets are used to constrain segment movement in parallel or predetermined planes as desired

  17. 76 FR 20590 - International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Defense Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ...proposes to amend the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) to update...Integration'' means the systems engineering design process of uniting two or more...abroad, in the design, development, engineering, manufacture, production,...

  18. Development of the OPESCOPE mobile C-arm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new mobile C-arm X-ray fluoroscopy system called the 'OPESCOPE' equipped with a CCD TV camera and high-definition Image Intensifier has been developed. All the cables for the I.I. and X-ray generator are held inside the C-arm to prevent interference with operation and the C-arm is locked electromagnetically. Moreover, the C-arm is spring counterbalanced in the vertical motion axis. These features enable smooth positioning and uncluttered operation. The X-ray generator uses a high-frequency inverter designed to assure noiseless operation and a compact size. With the new DFS-700 videoprocessor unit being combined, clearer, more informative images can be obtained. In addition to its inherent portability this unit can be upgraded in DSA function to allow angiographic examinations in the surgical theater. (author)

  19. A robot arm simulation with a shared memory multiprocessor machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Soo; Chuang, Li-Ping

    1989-01-01

    A parallel processing scheme for a single chain robot arm is presented for high speed computation on a shared memory multiprocessor. A recursive formulation that is derived from a virtual work form of the d'Alembert equations of motion is utilized for robot arm dynamics. A joint drive system that consists of a motor rotor and gears is included in the arm dynamics model, in order to take into account gyroscopic effects due to the spinning of the rotor. The fine grain parallelism of mechanical and control subsystem models is exploited, based on independent computation associated with bodies, joint drive systems, and controllers. Efficiency and effectiveness of the parallel scheme are demonstrated through simulations of a telerobotic manipulator arm. Two different mechanical subsystem models, i.e., with and without gyroscopic effects, are compared, to show the trade-off between efficiency and accuracy.

  20. A Robotic arm for optical and gamma radwaste inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, L.; Cosentino, L.; Pappalardo, A.; Piscopo, M.; Scirè, C.; Scirè, S.; Vecchio, G.; Muscato, G.; Finocchiaro, P.

    2014-12-01

    We propose Radibot, a simple and cheap robotic arm for remote inspection, which interacts with the radwaste environment by means of a scintillation gamma detector and a video camera representing its light (videogame joypad.

  1. 31 CFR 547.301 - Arms or any related materiel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...their integration in the territory of the Democratic Republic of the Congo outside the provinces of North and South Kivu and the Ituri district; and (4) The supplies of arms and related materiel, technical training, and assistance described in...

  2. Explore the Performance of the ARM Processor Using JPEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Jadhav

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the evolution of embedded systems has shown a strong trend towards application- specific, single- chip solutions. The ARM processor core is a leading RISC processor architecture in the embedded domain. The ARM family of processors supports a unique feature of code size reduction. In this paper it is illustrated using an embedded platform trying to design an image encoder, more specifically a JPEG encoder using ARM7TDMI processor. Here gray scale image is used and it is coded by using keil software and same procedure is repeated by using MATLAB software for compare the results with standard one. Successfully putting a new application of JPEG on ARM7 processor.

  3. Decentralized Multi-Armed Bandit with Multiple Distributed Players

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Keqin

    2009-01-01

    We consider multi-armed bandit with distributed players, where each player independently samples one of N stochastic processes with unknown parameters and accrues reward in each slot without information exchange. Users choosing the same arm collide, and none or only one receives reward depending on the collision model. This problem can be formulated as a decentralized multi-armed bandit problem. We measure the performance of a decentralized policy by the system regret, defined as the total reward loss with respect to the optimal performance under the perfect scenario where all arm parameters are known to all users and collisions among users are eliminated through perfect scheduling. We show that the minimum system regret grows with time at the same logarithmic order as in the centralized counterpart, where users exchange observations and make decisions jointly. A decentralized policy is constructed to achieve this optimal order. Furthermore, we show that the proposed policy belongs to a general class of decen...

  4. New SNS/S and SNN/S Mixed Ligand Oxorhenium and Oxotechnetium Complexes Carrying a Pendant Nitro Group on the Monothiolate Moiety as Hypoxia Tissue Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of our project to develop small size, neutral, mixed ligand oxotechnetium and oxorhenium complexes of the general formula MOL1L2, we have synthesized and characterized four novel complexes of general formula MO[EtN(CH2CH2S)2][p-O2N-C6H4S] and MO [(Et2NCH2CH2NCH2CH2S)(p-O2N-C6H4S)] where M=Re (complex 1 and complex 2) or M=Tc (complex 3 and complex 4) as a new approach for hypoxia or ischemic tissue organ imaging. Complex 1 and 2 have been synthesized by exchange reaction in equimolar quantities of the tridentate and the monodentate ligand on ReOC13(PPh3). Only the syn isomer have been isolated and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-vis, and 1H NMR. Crystal datas reveal a trigonal bipyramidal geometry around the metal for complex 1 and square pyramidal geometry around the metal for complex 2. Complex 3 is prepared by exchange reaction using Tc-99m-glucoheptonate as precursor and equimolar quantities of two ligands; EtN(CH2CH2SH)2 and p-O2N-C6H4SH while complex 4 is prepared by simultaneously reacting the Et2NCH2CH2NHCH2CH2SH and p-O2N-C6H4SH ligands with the 99Tc gluconate precursor in equimolar amount in MeOH. It may be concluded that the result of SNS/S and SNN/S mixed ligand of oxotechnetium is comfirmed by comparative HPLC studies with complex 1 and complex 2, since rhenium is a surrogate of technetium

  5. Special syntheses of certain organic iodine compounds; Syntheses speciales de certains composes organiques iodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, R.; Debuchy, D.; Junod, E. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The technical difficulties encountered in working on radioactive products force us to choose the simplest methods of chemical synthesis possible. For iodine compounds, two special methods have been chosen: - by using fission recoil, we can prepare simple iodine compounds such as iodobenzene or methyl iodide in high yields and having a good degree of purity. The method consists in the irradiation of mixtures of uranium oxide and benzoic acid or ammonium acetate. The iodised product is separated by distillation, after dissolving the recoil medium in a solvent. - by isotopic exchange between the inorganic iodine of different valencies and complex molecules such as Bengal pink, and diodone, it is also possible to obtain satisfactory labelling yields. These reactions have been adapted so as to give a minimum time for isotopic exchange. In the case of Bengal pink, we have found a yield of 90 per cent after 60 minutes by exchange between Nal and the organic molecule in aqueous solution in presence of hydrogen peroxide. For diodone the method proposed by Liebster has been modified so as to reduce losses during purification. The analytical methods adopted for these different compounds are described. (author) [French] Les difficultes technologiques du travail sur les produits radioactifs font choisir les methodes de syntheses chimiques les plus simples possible. Pour les composes iodes, on a choisi deux methodes speciales: - en utilisant le recul de fission, on prepare avec de bons rendements et avec une bonne purete des composes iodes simples tels que l'iodobenzene ou l'iodure de methyle. La methode consiste a irradier des melanges d'oxyde d'uranium et d'acide benzoique ou d'acetate d'ammonium. Le produit iode est separe par distillation, apres dissolution du milieu de recul dans un solvant, - par echange isotopique entre l'iode mineral a differentes valences et des molecules complexes comme le rose bengale et la diodone, on obtient egalement des rendements satisfaisants de marquage. Ces reactions ont ete amenagees pour que le temps d'echange isotopique soit raccourci au maximum. Pour le cas du rose Bengale, on a trouve un rendement de 90 pour cent apres 60 mn par echange entre INa et la molecule organique en milieu aqueux et en presence d'eau oxygenee. Pour la diodone, la methode proposee par Liebster a ete amenagee pour diminuer les pertes en cours de purification. On decrit egalement les methodes analytiques choisies pour ces differents composes. (auteur)

  6. Arms control: moral, political and historical lesson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many of the world's most influential policy-makers and analysts view arms control as a scientific and technological problem. They measure a nation's nuclear power exclusively by megatonnage and throw-weights leaving the intangible elements of military and political power to philosophers and historians. They tend to ignore the human and qualitative aspects of power. This is a book that shift the emphasis to aspects of the nuclear problem which are sometimes overlooked. Basically, these elements are bound up in the moral, political, and historical lessons of the nuclear age. Nonquantitative factors have been central to studies of national defense and military power since the rise of the modern nation state system. However, most students of present-day nuclear weapons tend to stress their revolutionary character. Because they are considered wholly unique, analysts tend to write about them in a historical and apolitical terms. One purpose of the collection of papers in this little volume is to redirect attention to the moral, political, and historical lessons that the nuclear age presents. What most distinguishes the writings of contributors to this volume is their use of certain well-established principles and concepts long acknowledged in military and foreign policy analysis. Thus Father Hehir asks many of the same questions that students of ethics and foreign policy have asked for four hundred years

  7. Virtual sine arm kinematic mount system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel kinematic mount system for a vertical focusing mirror of the soft x-ray spectroscopy beamline at the Advanced Photon Source is described. The system contains three points in a horizontal plane. Each point consists of two horizontal linear precision stages, a spherical ball bearing, and a vertical precision stage. The horizontal linear stages are aligned orthogonally and are conjoined by a spherical ball bearing, supported by the vertical linear stage at each point. The position of each confined horizontal stage is controlled by a motorized micrometer head by spring-loading the flat tip of the micrometer head onto a tooling ball fixing on the carriage of the stage. A virtual sine arm is formed by tilting the upstream horizontal stage down and the two downstream horizontal stages up by a small angle. The fine pitch motion is achieved by adjusting the upstream stage. This supporting structure is extremely steady due to a relatively large span across the supporting points and yields extremely high resolution on the pitch motion. With a one degree tilt and a microstepping motor, the authors achieved a 0.4 nanoradian resolution on the mirror pitch motion

  8. ARM7 Based Smart Car Security System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Shaikh, S. M. Kate

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this project is to offer an advance security system in CAR, which consists of a face detection subsystem, a GPS module, a GSM module and a control platform. The face detection subsystem can detect faces in cars during the period in which nobody should be in the car, and make an alarm loudly or soundlessly. The other modules transmit necessary information to users and help to keep eyes on cars all the time, even when the car is lost.In todays world, many new techniques such as biometric recognition technique, image processing technique, communication technique and so on, have been integrated into car security systems . At the same time, the amount of car lost is also increasing. Traditional car security systems depends on many sensors and cost is also high .When one car is lost, no more feedback could be available to help people to find it back.This system prototype is built on the base of one embedded platform ARM7 which controls all the processes. Experimental results illuminate the validity of this car security system.

  9. Study on magnetite nanoparticles synthesized by chemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetite nanoparticles with controlled size were synthesized by chemical method. Higher deposition temperature and a rapid-raising temperature procedure are favorable to particle size distribution and fabrication of monodisperse nanoparticles. The larger nanoparticles can be synthesized by the two-step method. The large nanoparticle (up to 25 nm) without agglomeration was successfully produced. The saturation magnetization of 11 nm magnetite particles was 45 emu/g at room temperature, which is smaller than that of bulk magnetite due to surface effect. Hysteresis of the magnetite nanoparticle was very small, indicating superparamagnetic behavior. The magnetic domains of the 11 nm magnetite nanoparticles were successfully observed by MFM

  10. Graphene Domains Synthesized on Electroplated Copper by Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Rong; Liang, Chen; Li, Tie; Yang, Heng; Lu, Na; Wang, Yue-Lin

    2013-02-01

    Electroplated Cu, which can be compatible with integrated circuit technology and large-scale silicon wafers, is explored as a substrate to synthesize graphene domains by ambient-pressure chemical vapor deposition. Hexagonal single crystal domains of graphene are synthesized on electroplated Cu under dilute methane gas flow. Scanning electron microscopy images of graphene domains grown on electroplated Cu indicate that the domain size is time-dependent, and the domains can cross Cu grain boundaries and are distributed more uniformly on electroplated Cu surface than those grown on Cu foil.

  11. Design & Implementation of High Switching & Low Phase Noise Frequency Synthesizer

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Ali M. N.

    2006-01-01

    This research describes the design & implementation of frequency synthesizer using single loop Phase lock loop with the following specifications: Frequency range (1.5 ? 2.75) GHz,Step size (1 MHz), Switching time 36.4 µs, & phase noise @10 kHz = -92dBc & spurious -100 dBc The development in I.C. technology provide the simplicity in the design of frequency synthesizer because it implements the phase frequency detector(PFD) , prescalar & reference divider in single chip. Therefore our system...

  12. Initial explorations of ARM processors for scientific computing

    OpenAIRE

    Abdurachmanov, David; Elmer, Peter; Eulisse, Giulio; Muzaffar, Shahzad

    2013-01-01

    Power efficiency is becoming an ever more important metric for both high performance and high throughput computing. Over the course of next decade it is expected that flops/watt will be a major driver for the evolution of computer architecture. Servers with large numbers of ARM processors, already ubiquitous in mobile computing, are a promising alternative to traditional x86-64 computing. We present the results of our initial investigations into the use of ARM processors for...

  13. Packaging Of Control Circuits In A Robot Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, William

    1994-01-01

    Packaging system houses and connects control circuitry mounted on circuit boards within shoulder, upper section, and lower section of seven-degree-of-freedom robot arm. Has modular design that incorporates surface-mount technology, multilayer circuit boards, large-scale integrated circuits, and multi-layer flat cables between sections for compactness. Three sections of robot arm contain circuit modules in form of stardardized circuit boards. Each module contains two printed-circuit cards, one of each face.

  14. Arm to leg coordination in elite butterfly swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, D; Seifert, L; Boulesteix, L; Carter, M

    2006-04-01

    This study proposed the use of four time gaps to assess arm-to-leg coordination in the butterfly stroke at increasing race paces. Fourteen elite male swimmers swam at four velocities corresponding to the appropriate paces for, respectively, the 400-m, 200-m, 100-m, and 50-m events. The different stroke phases of the arm and leg were identified by video analysis and then used to calculate four time gaps (T1: time gap between entry of the hands in the water and the high break-even point of the first undulation; T2: time gap between the beginning of the hands' backward movement and the low break-even point of the first undulation; T3: time gap between the hands' arrival in a vertical plane to the shoulders and the high break-even point of the second undulation; T4: time gap between the hands' release from the water and the low break-even point of the second undulation), the values of which described the changing relationship of arm to leg movements over an entire stroke cycle. With increases in pace, elite swimmers increased the stroke rate, the relative duration of the arm pull, the recovery and the first downward movement of the legs, and decreased the stroke length, the relative duration of the arm catch phase and the body glide with arms forward (measured by T2), until continuity in the propulsive actions was achieved. Whatever the paces, the T1, T3, and T4 values were close to zero and revealed a high degree of synchronisation at key motor points of the arm and leg actions. This new method to assess butterfly coordination could facilitate learning and coaching by situating the place of the leg undulation in relation with the arm stroke. PMID:16572376

  15. SELECTION AND TRAINING OF LEADERS IN THE TURKISH ARMED FORCES

    OpenAIRE

    Suat Begec

    2013-01-01

    Leadership is the most frequently studied concept at the beginning of every period of history. Leader is a commander and the leadership is a command the unit in military sense. The majority of studies about leadership are conducted in the armed forces. Many countries have designed their armies in accordance with these studies. The Turkish Armed Forces (TAF) believes the importance of these studies and designs education systems and training in the selection and training of the leaders. The big...

  16. Vision-Integrated Physiotherapy Service Robot Using Cooperating Two Arms

    OpenAIRE

    Huanbing Gao; Shouyin Lu; Tao Wang; Cungen Liu

    2013-01-01

    This study present the mechanical architecture, control system and other modules of a physiotherapy service robot which can treat degenerative disease and chronic disease of middle-aged and aged people by Chinese massage skill. The main body of the robot includes a massage adjustable bed, two 4-DOF robot arms and two massage hands that can accomplish various massage manipulations. Two arms cooperate to improve the massage efficiency and provide sufficient strength and enough reachable workspa...

  17. Kinematic Analysis of Lower Mobility Cooperative Arms by Screw Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Philip; Caro, Ste?phane; Khalil, Wisama

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the kinematic modeling and analysis of a system with two cooperative manipulators, working together on a common task. The task is defined as the transportation of an object in space. The cooperative system is the dual armed humanoid Nao robot, where the serial architecture of each arm has five degrees of freedom. The mobility of the closed loop system is analyzed and the nature of the possible motion explored. The serial singular configurations of the system are considered....

  18. Reprogrammed viruses as cancer therapeutics: targeted, armed and shielded

    OpenAIRE

    Cattaneo, Roberto; Miest, Tanner; Shashkova, Elena V.; Barry, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    Virotherapy is currently undergoing a renaissance, based on our improved understanding of virus biology and genetics and our better knowledge of many different types of cancer. Viruses can be reprogrammed into oncolytic vectors by combining three types of modification: targeting, arming and shielding. Targeting introduces multiple layers of cancer specificity and improves safety and efficacy; arming occurs through the expression of prodrug convertases and cytokines; and coating with polymers ...

  19. Do giant oilfield discoveries fuel internal armed conflicts?

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Yu-hsiang; Michaels, Guy

    2011-01-01

    We use new data to examine the effects of giant oilfield discoveries around the world since 1946. On average, these discoveries increase per capita oil production and oil exports by up to 50 percent. But these giant oilfield discoveries also have a dark side: they increase the incidence of internal armed conflict by about 5-8 percentage points. This increased incidence of conflict due to giant oilfield discoveries is especially high for countries that had already experienced armed conflict...

  20. How to Take a Picture of A Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This movie first shows an artist's animation of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander snapping a picture of its arm, then transitions to the actual picture of the arm in its stowed configuration, with its biobarrier unpeeled. The arm is still folded up, with its 'elbow' shown at upper left and its scoop at bottom right. The biobarrier is the shiny film seen to the left of the arm in this view. The barrier is an extra precaution to protect Mars from contamination with any bacteria from Earth. While the whole spacecraft was decontaminated through cleaning, filters and heat, the robotic arm was given additional protection because it is the only spacecraft part that will directly touch the ice below the surface of Mars. Before the arm was heated, it was sealed in the biobarrier, which is made of a trademarked film called Tedlar that holds up to baking like a turkey-basting bag. This ensures that any new bacterial spores that might have come about during the final steps before launch, and during the journey to Mars, will not contact the robotic arm. After Phoenix landed, springs were used to pop back the barrier, giving it room to deploy. The arm is scheduled to begin to unlatch on the third Martian day of the mission, or Sol 3 (May 28, 2008). This image was taken on Sol 1 (May 26, 2008) by the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. Stochastic Estimation of Arm Mechanical Impedance During Robotic Stroke Rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Palazzolo, Jerome J.; Ferraro, Mark; Krebs, Hermano Igo; Lynch, Daniel; Volpe, Bruce T.; Hogan, Neville

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a stochastic method to estimate the multijoint mechanical impedance of the human arm suitable for use in a clinical setting, e.g., with persons with stroke undergoing robotic rehabilitation for a paralyzed arm. In this context, special circumstances such as hypertonicity and tissue atrophy due to disuse of the hemiplegic limb must be considered. A low-impedance robot was used to bring the upper limb of a stroke patient to a test location, generate force perturbations, and ...

  2. Diffuse Pigmentation of Back and Arms: Macular Amyloidosis or Other?

    OpenAIRE

    Masood Asgrai; Pedram Noormohammadpour; Amir Ehsani; Pari Rahimi; Seyed Zahra Ghodsi; Fatemeh Gholamali

    2013-01-01

    The study was undertaken to answer the question that how many patients with pigmentation of back and arms actually have amyloid deposits in pathology. 44 patients presenting with diffuse pigmentation of back and arms (DPOBA) were selected. Skin biopsies were performed in all cases from the affected sites. On all formalin fixed and paraffin embedded specimens, the following histochemical stains were performed: Haematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Congo red and immunohistochemical staining using anti-...

  3. Charter for the ARM Climate Research Facility Science Board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, W

    2013-03-08

    The objective of the ARM Science Board is to promote the Nation’s scientific enterprise by ensuring that the best quality science is conducted at the DOE’s User Facility known as the ARM Climate Research Facility. The goal of the User Facility is to serve scientific researchers by providing unique data and tools to facilitate scientific applications for improving understanding and prediction of climate science.

  4. MoJo Wire Action Atlas on US Arm Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    This new atlas from MojoWire, the online version of Mother Jones, highlights the United States' dominance in the international arms trade, paying special attention to the large-scale expansion in arms sales under the Clinton administration. As the introduction indicates, sales more than doubled in the President's first year in office, and from 1993 to 1997 "the US government sold, approved, or gave away $190 billion in weapons to virtually every nation on earth," often with little regard for the buyer's record on human rights or their involvement in current conflicts. The easy-to-use Atlas offers reports on recent US arms sales to 46 countries, with details on what has been bought, how it has been used, and information on the country's human rights record. Users will also find profiles of the twelve largest US arms exporters; an interactive map of arms customers involved in conflicts or insurgencies, accused of rights violations, or reselling US weapons; and a collection of links and contact information for arms-trade activists.

  5. View from Above of Phoenix's Stowed Robotic Arm Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This artist's animation of an imaginary camera zooming in from above shows the location of the Robotic Arm Camera on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander as it acquires an image of the scoop at the end of the arm. Located just beneath the Robotic Arm Camera lens, the scoop is folded in the stowed position, with its open end facing the Robotic Arm Camera. The last frame in the animation shows the first image taken by the Robotic Arm Camera, one day after Phoenix landed on Mars. In the center of the image is the robotic scoop the lander will use to dig into the surface, collect samples and touch water ice on Mars for the first time. The scoop is in the stowed position, awaiting deployment of the robotic arm. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Electromyography Control of a Computer Model of the Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amad M. Alasker

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Human arm movements may be adversely affected in the event of stroke or spinal cord injuries, eventually causing the patient to lose control of arm movements. Electromyography (EMG is con-sidered the most effective technique for the restoration of arm movement in such cases. The reha-bilitation period for such patients is usually long. Moreover, complex treatment techniques may demoralize them. Therefore, this study, attempts to contribute to the development of a relaxing rehabilitation environment through electromyography control of a computer model of the arm. The model is created using MATLAB? and Data LINK software and other requisite components for training the targeted participants to control their arm movements. Six male participants with no history of injury to the arms or back were selected using the set protocol. The results and data collected are analysed using three performance measures i.e. the number of target hits, average time to target, and path efficiency for each target. Then, the main results in terms of the obtained performance measures are discussed and compared with those of previous studies.

  7. Kinematic Analysis of Exoskeleton Suit for Human Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surachai Panich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: There are many robotic arms developed for providing care to physically disabled people. It is difficult to find robot designs in literature that articulate such a procedure. Therefore, it is our hope that the design work shown in this study may serve as a good example of a systematic method for rehabilitation robot design. Approach: The arm exoskeleton suit was developed to increase human's strength, endurance, or speed enabling them to perform tasks that they previously could not perform. It should not impede the user's natural motion and should be comfortable and safe to wear and easy to use. Although movement is difficult for them, they usually want to go somewhere by themselves. Results: The kinematic exoskeleton suit for human arms is simulated by MATLAB software. The exoskeleton suit of human arm consists of one link length, three link twists, two link offsets and three joint angles. Conclusion: This study introduced the kinematic of exoskeleton suit for human arm. The exoskeleton suit can be used to be instrument for anyone who needs to improve human's performance. It will increase the strength of human that can lift heavy load or help handicapped patients, who cannot use their arm.

  8. Effect of reverse shoulder design philosophy on muscle moment arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Matthew A; Diep, Phong; Roche, Chris; Flurin, Pierre Henri; Wright, Thomas W; Zuckerman, Joseph D; Routman, Howard

    2015-04-01

    This study analyzes the muscle moment arms of three different reverse shoulder design philosophies using a previously published method. Digital bone models of the shoulder were imported into a 3D modeling software and markers placed for the origin and insertion of relevant muscles. The anatomic model was used as a baseline for moment arm calculations. Subsequently, three different reverse shoulder designs were virtually implanted and moment arms were analyzed in abduction and external rotation. The results indicate that the lateral offset between the joint center and the axis of the humerus specific to one reverse shoulder design increased the external rotation moment arms of the posterior deltoid relative to the other reverse shoulder designs. The other muscles analyzed demonstrated differences in the moment arms, but none of the differences reached statistical significance. This study demonstrated how the combination of variables making up different reverse shoulder designs can affect the moment arms of the muscles in different and statistically significant ways. The role of humeral offset in reverse shoulder design has not been previously reported and could have an impact on external rotation and stability achieved post-operatively. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 33:605-613, 2015. PMID:25640775

  9. Kinematic modeling and path planning for MIRADAS arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater, Josep; Gómez, José María.; López, Manuel; Torra, Jordi; Raines, Steven N.; Eikenberry, Stephen S.

    2014-07-01

    The Mid-resolution InfRAreD Astronomical Spectrograph (MIRADAS) is a near-infrared (NIR) multi-object spectrograph for the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). It can simultaneously observe multiple targets selected by 20 identical deployable probe arms with pickoff mirror optics. The bases of the arms are fixed to the multiplexing system (MXS) plate, a circular platform, and arranged in a circular layout with minimum separation between elements of the arms. This document presents the MXS prototype P2a, a full-scale, fully operational prototype of a MIRADAS probe arm. This planar closed-loop mechanism compared to other previous designs offers some advantages specially in terms of stability and from the point of view of optics. Unfortunately, these benefits come at the expense of a more complicated kinematics and an unintuitive arm motion. Furthermore, the cryogenic motor controllers used in prototyping impose severe restrictions in path planing. They negatively impact in the slice of pie approach, a collision-avoidance patrolling strategy that can gives good results in other scenarios. This study is a starting point to define collision-free trajectory algorithms for the 20 probe arms of MIRADAS.

  10. Nudging Armed Groups: How Civilians Transmit Norms of Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Kaplan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available What are the varying roles that norms play to either enable or constrain violence in armed conflict settings? The article examines this question by drawing on experiences from communities and armed groups in Colombia and Syria. It begins by presenting an explanation of how norms of violence and nonviolence may arise within communities and influence the behavior of civilian residents, reducing the chances of them becoming involved with armed groups. It then considers how civilian communities can transmit those same norms, shared understandings, and patterns of interaction to the ranks of illegal armed groups and subsequently shape their decisions about the use of violence against civilians. The author argues that civilians may be better positioned to promote the principles codified in International Humanitarian Law than international humanitarian organizations because they have closer contact with irregular armed actors and are viewed with greater legitimacy. The analysis illustrates that to better understand civilian protection mechanisms it is essential to study the interactions between communities and armed actors.

  11. Design and Development of a Competitive Low-Cost Robot Arm with Four Degrees of Freedom

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf Elfasakhany; Eduardo Yanez; Karen Baylon; Ricardo Salgado

    2011-01-01

    The main focus of this work was to design, develop and implementation of competitively robot arm with en- hanced control and stumpy cost. The robot arm was designed with four degrees of freedom and talented to accomplish accurately simple tasks, such as light material handling, which will be integrated into a mobile platform that serves as an assistant for industrial workforce. The robot arm is equipped with several servo motors which do links between arms and perform arm movements. The servo...

  12. ??ARM?????????????? Two-Dimensional Bar Code Recognition and Voice Broadcast Based on ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ???

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????ARM9??????????????????????????S3C2440??????????????????C/OS-II????????C???????????????????????????????????????????PDF417??Data Matrix?????????????????????????????????With the development of communications technology and computer technology barcode technol-ogy came into being a new type of automatic dentification technology. Two-dimensional bar code is based on one-dimensional bar code, and high-density high information content on the barcode. Large amount of in-formation can be encoded in the small area. Two-dimensional bar code is itself a complete data file which is to achieve certificates, cards and other information storage, portable and can be automatically readable by machines. Acquisition environment for bar code identification system and portability features of uncertainty, design a two-dimensional bar code identification and voice broadcast system based on ARM9. The system takes Samsung S3C2440 chip as the core processing unit, uses embedded operating system ?C/OS-II as de-velopment platform. By C language programming achieving two-dimensional bar code image recognition, code word decoding and voice broadcast. The results show that transplantation, the system can realize the two-dimensional bar code such as PDF417, Data Matrix code, the letter codes of Chinese and so on, can read them by voice broadcast. The system has high recognition rate and reliability.

  13. Application of C-arm computed tomography in cardiology; Kardiale Anwendung der C-Arm-Computertomographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieber, J. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Innenstadt, Abteilung fuer Kardiologie, Medizinische Poliklinik, Muenchen (Germany); Rohkohl, C. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Lehrstuhl fuer Mustererkennung, Department Informatik, Erlangen (Germany); Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim, Forchheim (Germany); Lauritsch, G. [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim, Forchheim (Germany); Rittger, H. [Krankenhaus Coburg, Abteilung fuer Kardiologie, Coburg (Germany); Meissner, O. [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim, Forchheim (Germany); Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    C-arm computed tomography is currently being introduced into cardiac imaging and offers the potential for three-dimensional imaging of the cardiac anatomy within the interventional environment. This detailed view is necessary to support complex interventional strategies, such as transcutaneous valve replacement, interventional therapy of atrial fibrillation, implantation of biventricular pacemakers and assessment of myocardial perfusion. Currently, the major limitation of this technology is its insufficient temporal resolution which limits the visualization of fast moving parts of the heart. (orig.) [German] Durch die Entwicklung der C-Arm-Computertomographie- (CACT-)Angiographie ist es erstmals moeglich, waehrend einer Herzkatheteruntersuchung eine detaillierte dreidimensionale Darstellung der kardialen Anatomie zu erhalten. Derartige zusaetzliche Informationen koennten die Durchfuehrung der immer komplexer werdenden Strategien der interventionellen Kardiologie wirkungsvoll unterstuetzen. Hierzu zaehlen u. a. der transkutane Klappenersatz, die interventionelle Behandlung von Vorhofflimmern, die Implantation biventrikulaerer Schrittmacher sowie die Beurteilung der Myokardperfusion. Die derzeit groesste Limitation dieser Methode ist die relativ geringe zeitliche Aufloesung, die aufgrund der Bewegung des Herzens die Anwendung dieser Technologie einschraenkt. (orig.)

  14. User and clinician perspectives on DEKA Arm: Results of VA study to optimize DEKA Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Resnik, PT, PhD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes feedback from Department of Veterans Affairs (VA subjects and clinicians gathered during the VA optimization study of the DEKA Arm. VA subjects and clinicians tested two DEKA Arm prototypes (second-generation [gen 2] and third-generation [gen 3]. Features of the prototypes in three configurations are described. DEKA used feedback from the VA optimization study and from their own subjects to refine the gen 2 prototype. Thirty-three unique subjects participated in the VA evaluation; 26 participated in the gen 2 evaluation (1 subject participated twice, 13 participated in the gen 3 evaluation, and 5 participated in both gen 2 and gen 3 evaluations. Subject data were gathered through structured and open-ended surveys, interviews, and audio- and videotaped sessions. Study prosthetists and therapists provided ongoing feedback and completed surveys at the end of each subject’s protocol. Eleven categories of feedback were identified: weight, cosmesis, hand grips, wrist design, elbow design, end-point control, foot controls, batteries and chargers, visual notifications, tactor, and socket features. Final feedback on the gen 3 was generally positive, particularly regarding improvements in wrist design, visual notifications, foot controls, end-point control, and cosmesis. Additional refinements to make the device lighter in weight, eliminate external wires and cables, and eliminate the external battery may further enhance its perceived usability and acceptability.

  15. User and clinician perspectives on DEKA arm: results of VA study to optimize DEKA arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, Linda; Klinger, Shana Lieberman; Etter, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes feedback from Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) subjects and clinicians gathered during the VA optimization study of the DEKA Arm. VA subjects and clinicians tested two DEKA Arm prototypes (second-generation [gen 2] and third-generation [gen 3]). Features of the prototypes in three configurations are described. DEKA used feedback from the VA optimization study and from their own subjects to refine the gen 2 prototype. Thirty-three unique subjects participated in the VA evaluation; 26 participated in the gen 2 evaluation (1 subject participated twice), 13 participated in the gen 3 evaluation, and 5 participated in both gen 2 and gen 3 evaluations. Subject data were gathered through structured and open-ended surveys, interviews, and audio- and videotaped sessions. Study prosthetists and therapists provided ongoing feedback and completed surveys at the end of each subject's protocol. Eleven categories of feedback were identified: weight, cosmesis, hand grips, wrist design, elbow design, end-point control, foot controls, batteries and chargers, visual notifications, tactor, and socket features. Final feedback on the gen 3 was generally positive, particularly regarding improvements in wrist design, visual notifications, foot controls, end-point control, and cosmesis. Additional refinements to make the device lighter in weight, eliminate external wires and cables, and eliminate the external battery may further enhance its perceived usability and acceptability. PMID:24805891

  16. The Norma Arm Region Chandra Survey: X-ray Populations in the Spiral Arms

    CERN Document Server

    Fornasini, Francesca M; Bodaghee, Arash; Krivonos, Roman A; An, Hongjun; Rahoui, Farid; Gotthelf, Eric V; Bauer, Franz E; Stern, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We present a catalog of 1415 X-ray sources identified in the Norma arm region Chandra survey (NARCS), which covers a 2 deg x 0.8 deg region in the direction of the Norma spiral arm to a depth of $\\approx$20 ks. Of these sources, 1130 are point-like sources detected with $\\geq3\\sigma$ confidence in at least one of three energy bands (0.5-10, 0.5-2, and 2-10 keV), five have extended emission, and the remainder are detected at low significance. Since most sources have too few counts to permit individual classification, they are divided into five spectral groups defined by their quantile properties. We analyze stacked spectra of X-ray sources within each group, in conjunction with their fluxes, variability, and infrared counterparts, to identify the dominant populations in our survey. We find that $\\sim$50% of our sources are foreground sources located within 1-2 kpc, which is consistent with expectations from previous surveys. Approximately 20% of sources are likely located in the proximity of the Scutum-Crux an...

  17. Carbon onions synthesized via thermal reduction of glycerin with magnesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon onions have been successfully synthesized via thermal reduction of glycerin with magnesium at 650 deg C. The obtained carbon onions have diameters ranging from 60 to 90 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy analyses confirm that the carbon material has graphite feature and polycrystalline structure

  18. Synthesize and Characterization of Hollow Boron-Nitride Nanocages

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Z. D.; Geng, D. Y.; Li, W. F.; Zheng, J. G.; Zhang, W. S.

    2009-01-01

    The boron-nitride (BN) nanocages are synthesized by nitrogenation of amorphous boron nanoparticles at 1073?K under nitrogen and ammonia atmosphere. The BN nanocages exhibit a well-crystallized feature with nearly pentagonal or spherical shape, depending on their size. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies reveal that they are hollow nanocages. The growth mechanism of the BN nanocages is proposed.

  19. A frequency tracking synthesizer for beam diagnostic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In low and medium energy synchrotrons the beam revolution frequency changes by a large factor during the acceleration process. High production rates require that these machines cycle rapidly. In attempting to diagnose instabilities which develop during the acceleration process it is useful to be able to select some frequency segment between revolution harmonics for viewing. Most types of test equipment operating in the frequency domain, such as spectrum analyzers and network analyzers, are not suited to making direct measurements on such rapidly sweeping signals. Ideally, one would want to set the frequency frame of reference to the spot in the accelerating revolution harmonic domain where the measurements are to be made. A scheme using a direct digital synthesizer (DDS) was developed to provide this moving reference frame. This paper describes a synthesizer scheme combining digital and analog synthesizer techniques to allow tracking of signals during acceleration. Virtually any ratio of synthesizer to beam revolution frequency may be generated by this scheme. Details of hardware and measurement results are presented

  20. Synthesizing Friction In A Force-Reflecting Hand Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, James

    1993-01-01

    Algorithm synthesizes frictionlike limited reaction force in force-reflecting hand controller. Synthetic friction enhances operator's feel and improves control characteristics in two ways: handle of controller retains setting when operator releases it, and in case of multiple-axis controller, synthetic frictional force helps to hold control setting on one axis when handle pushed to command movement along another axis.

  1. Branched nanostructures and method of synthesizing the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Luis F. (Inventor); Resto, Oscar (Inventor); Sola, Francisco (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A branched nanostructure is synthesized. A porous material, with pores having a diameter of approximately 1 .mu.m or less, is placed in a vacuum. It is irradiated with an electron beam. This causes a trunk to grow from the porous material and further causes branches to grow from the trunk.

  2. Method for synthesizing peptides with saccharide linked enzyme polymer conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callstrom, Matthew R. (Columbus, OH); Bednarski, Mark D. (Berkeley, CA); Gruber, Patrick R. (St. Paul, MN)

    1997-01-01

    A method is disclosed for synthesizing peptides using water soluble enzyme polymer conjugates. The method comprises catalyzing the peptide synthesis with enzyme which has been covalently bonded to a polymer through at least three linkers which linkers have three or more hydroxyl groups. The enzyme is conjugated at lysines or arginines.

  3. Meta-Analysis: A Systematic Method for Synthesizing Counseling Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiston, Susan C.; Li, Peiwei

    2011-01-01

    The authors provide a template for counseling researchers who are interested in quantitatively aggregating research findings. Meta-analytic studies can provide relevant information to the counseling field by systematically synthesizing studies performed by researchers from diverse fields. Methodologically sound meta-analyses require careful…

  4. Neutron diffraction studies of mechanochemically synthesized iron oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Mechanochemically synthesized magnetite has attracted considerable interest due to its interesting structural and magnetic properties. The neutron diffraction measurements have been carried out on a series of mechanochemically synthesized iron oxide samples (haematite milled for 24h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h, 144 h) at room temperature. The diffraction patterns of normal haematite, magnetite and maghemite (?-Fe2O3) have also been collected for comparison. Refinement of the neutron diffraction patterns indicates a continuous transformation of haematite to magnetite during the milling process and after 144 h of milling, the diffraction pattern of the sample shows a spinel-type, magnetite structure. The lattice parameters and the site occupancies reveal that there are vacancies in both the octahedral and tetrahedral sites of the spinel structure of the mechanochemically synthesized magnetite with a formula of Fe3-x(Vac)xO4 where x?0.3. Based on the analysis, the crystal and magnetic structure of the mechanochemically synthesized product exhibit features similar to both magnetite and ?-Fe2O3. The patterns have been refined in terms of diffraction refinement models allowing for the possible presence of randomly distributed vacancies in both the octahedral and the tetrahedral sites of the spinel structure

  5. Function generator for synthesizing complex vibration mode patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, E. C.; Hagood, G. J., Jr. (inventors)

    1973-01-01

    A simple highly flexible device for synthesizing complex vibration mode patterns is described. These mode patterns can be used to identify vibration mode data. This device sums selected sine and cosine functions and then plots the sum against a linear function.

  6. A new catalyst to synthesize carbon nanospheres at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nanospheres were synthesized at 210 degrees Celsius via Grignard reaction mechanism with a new catalyst by using magnesium powder, hexachloroethane and cobalt chloride as precursor materials and benzene as solvent. The products were characterized with X-ray diffraction pattern and scanning electron microscope images. The experimental conditions are incredibly simple to operate and control

  7. Carbon onions synthesized via thermal reduction of glycerin with magnesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Jimin [Center for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Liu Zhimin [Center for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)]. E-mail: Liuzm@iccas.ac.cn; Li Zhonghao [Center for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Han Buxing [Center for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)]. E-mail: Hanbx@iccas.ac.cn; Sun Zhenyu [Center for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Huang Ying [Center for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2005-09-15

    Carbon onions have been successfully synthesized via thermal reduction of glycerin with magnesium at 650 deg C. The obtained carbon onions have diameters ranging from 60 to 90 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy analyses confirm that the carbon material has graphite feature and polycrystalline structure.

  8. ARSENIC REMOVAL USING SOL-GEL SYNTHESIZED TITANIUM DIOXIDE NANOPARTICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, the effectiveness of TiO2 nanoparticles in arsenic adsorption was examined. TiO2 particles (LS) were synthesized via sol-gel techniques and characterized for their crystallinity, surface area and pore volume. Batch adsorption studies were perf...

  9. Synthese, Charakterisierung und Anwendung von neuen Alkalimetall- und Erdalkalimetallcyclopentadieniden

    OpenAIRE

    Kra?nzle, Rainer

    2005-01-01

    In vorliegender Arbeit wurden neue Cyclopentadienylliganden synthetisiert und deren Anwendung in der Organometallchemie untersucht. Zahlreiche Beispiele mit Haupt- und Nebengruppenmetallen wurden strukturell untersucht. Des Weiteren wurde eine Calciumverbindung auf ihre Katalyseaktivität bei der Ringöffnugnspolymerisation von Lactiden untersucht. Außerdem gelang die Synthese und spektroskopische Charakterisierung von Übergangsmetallphosphaniden.

  10. Syntheses of ? and ?-tocopherols selectively labelled with deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four deuterium-substituted ?-tocopherols (dideutero-RRR, nonadeutero-ambo, nonadeutero-all-rac and undecadeutero-all-rac) and a dideutro-RRR-?-tocopherol have been synthesized for use in studies of the biokinetics, bioavailability and metabolism of vitamin E. (author)

  11. Synthesis and Photodynamic Effect of New Highly Photostable Decacationically Armed [60]- and [70]Fullerene Decaiodide Monoadducts to Target Pathogenic Bacteria and Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Min; Huang, Liyi; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Jeon, Seaho; Thota, Sammaiah; Sperandio, Felipe F.; Nayka, Suhasini; Chang, Julie; Hamblin, Michael R.; Chiang, Long Y.

    2012-01-01

    Novel water-soluble decacationically armed C60 and C70 decaiodide monoadduct, C60- or C70[>M(C3N6+C3)2] were synthesized, characterized, and applied as photosensitizers and potential nano-PDT agents against pathogenic bacteria and cancer cells. A high number of cationic charges per fullerene cage and H-bonding moieties were designed for rapid binding to the anionic residues displayed on the outer parts of bacterial cell walls. In the presence of a high number of electron-donating iodide anion...

  12. Light duty utility arm walkdown report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a report of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) drawing walkdown. The purpose of this walkdown was to validate the essential configuration of the LDUA in preparation of deploying the equipment in a Hanford waste tank. The LDUA system has, over the course of its development, caused the generation of a considerable number of design drawings. The number of drawings is estimated to be well over 1,000. A large number consist of vendor type drawings, furnished by both Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and SPAR Aerospace Limited (SPAR). A smaller number, approximately 200, are H-6 type drawing sheets in the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) document control system. A preliminary inspection of the drawings showed that the physical configuration of the LDUA did not match the documented configuration. As a result of these findings, a scoping walkdown of 20 critical drawing sheets was performed to determine if a problem existed in configuration management of the LDUA system. The results of this activity showed that 18 of the 20 drawing sheets were found to contain errors or omissions of varying concern. Given this, Characterization Engineering determined that a walkdown of the drawings necessary and sufficient to enable safe operation and maintenance of the LDUA should be performed. A review team was assembled to perform a review of all of the drawings and determine the set which would need to be verified through an engineering walkdown. The team determined that approximately 150 H-6 type drawing sheets would need to be verified, 12 SPAR/PNNL drawing sheets would need to be verified and converted to H-6 drawings, and three to six new drawings would be created (see Appendix A). This report documents the results of that walkdown

  13. Arms control and the rule of law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many who speak of the end of the Cold War emphasize the warming of international relations when they speak of the momentous consequences of this event. According to this image, the half century since Trinity has been a period of sparse international communication during which the Eastern and Western blocs hibernated in their isolated dens of security alliances. Yet it is equally valid to consider the implications of the end of the war footing that has underlain the policies of all of the major military powers during the last fifty years. While meaningful international dialogue was in a state of relative lethargy during much of this period, the military establishments of the Great Powers were actively engaged in using as much force as possible in their efforts to control world affairs, short of triggering a nuclear holocaust. International discourse, at least in English, was rife with such military images as appeasement, containment, crisis stability, and tripwires. From the military posture of the U.S. and Russia a tense peace ironically emerged, but the terms by which decisions were made about controlling weapons of mass destruction (i.e., nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons) were the terms of war. The thesis of this paper is that the end of the Cold War marks a shift away from reliance on military might toward an international commitment to control weapons of mass destruction through the rule of law developed by John Rawls. The progression of agreements during this century to limit weapons of mass destruction testifies to this new development. A review of arms control agreements that the U.S. is a part of show clear growth of the rule of law as the world has left the Cold War

  14. Light duty utility arm walkdown report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smalley, J.L.

    1998-09-25

    This document is a report of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) drawing walkdown. The purpose of this walkdown was to validate the essential configuration of the LDUA in preparation of deploying the equipment in a Hanford waste tank. The LDUA system has, over the course of its development, caused the generation of a considerable number of design drawings. The number of drawings is estimated to be well over 1,000. A large number consist of vendor type drawings, furnished by both Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and SPAR Aerospace Limited (SPAR). A smaller number, approximately 200, are H-6 type drawing sheets in the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) document control system. A preliminary inspection of the drawings showed that the physical configuration of the LDUA did not match the documented configuration. As a result of these findings, a scoping walkdown of 20 critical drawing sheets was performed to determine if a problem existed in configuration management of the LDUA system. The results of this activity showed that 18 of the 20 drawing sheets were found to contain errors or omissions of varying concern. Given this, Characterization Engineering determined that a walkdown of the drawings necessary and sufficient to enable safe operation and maintenance of the LDUA should be performed. A review team was assembled to perform a review of all of the drawings and determine the set which would need to be verified through an engineering walkdown. The team determined that approximately 150 H-6 type drawing sheets would need to be verified, 12 SPAR/PNNL drawing sheets would need to be verified and converted to H-6 drawings, and three to six new drawings would be created (see Appendix A). This report documents the results of that walkdown.

  15. Lower limb influence on standing arm-cranking ('grinding').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, V; Zaher, N; Pain, M T G; Folland, J P

    2009-10-01

    Standing arm-cranking ('grinding') is predominantly an upper-body exercise, however, the contribution of the legs to this activity is unknown. The purpose of the study was to examine the influence of normal lower-limb movement on physiological strain during arm-cranking. Eight elite professional America's Cup grinders performed two exercise trials, on an adjustable standing arm-crank ergometer with SRM powercrank, in a cross-over design. Each trial comprised of two 5-min stages at the same work rate ( approximately lactate threshold) with the knee joint splinted or normal movement available. Vertical ground reaction forces (VGRF) and knee joint angle were determined from two force plates and sagittal plane video, respectively. Work rate was identical for the two conditions (246 (14) vs. 246 (13) W, p=0.7). Knee joint range of motion and unilateral VGRF amplitude were greater during normal compared with splinted arm-cranking (both p<0.01). There was no difference in VO2 (p=0.2) between the two conditions, however, there was greater VCO2 (8%, p=0.001), RER (11%, p<0.001), V(E) (17%, p<0.001) and HR (7 (3) beats.min(-1), p<0.001) during splinted compared with normal arm-cranking. Furthermore, the rise in BLa was greater after splinted than normal arm-cranking (4.8 (0.8) vs. 3.7 (1.0) mmol.L(-1), p=0.04). These data suggest that the lower-limbs play an integral role in standing arm-cranking, and restricted leg movement markedly affects the cardiovascular and metabolic responses to this activity. PMID:19764007

  16. Designed pendant chain covalently bonded to analogue of heulandite for removal of divalent toxic metals from aqueous solution: thermodynamic and equilibrium study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Denis L; Viana, Rúbia R; Airoldi, Claudio

    2009-09-01

    An analogue of heulandite was synthesized by using inorganic salts as a source for silicon and aluminum in the hydrothermal synthesis of the material. The resulting solid was modified by organofunctionalization with 1,4-bis(3-aminopropyl)piperazine and subsequent reaction with methylacrylate in a heterogeneous route. The original (HEU) and modified silicate (HEU(APPMA)) samples were characterized by textural analysis, SEM, and nuclear magnetic nuclei of (29)Si and (13)C. The chemically modified silicate sample showed modification of its physical-chemical properties including specific area 459.0-978.8 m(2) g(-1). The ability of this material to remove nickel(II), cobalt(II), and copper(II) from aqueous solutions was followed by a series of adsorption isotherms adjusted to a Sips equation. The quick adsorption process reached the equilibrium before 10, 15, and 20 min for Cu(II), Ni(II), and Co(II), respectively, with maximum adsorptions at pH 4.0. Based on the capacity of adsorption of HEU(APPMA) to interact with metal ions, the following results were obtained 12.9, 9.8, and 7.5 mmol g(-1) for Cu(II), Ni(II), and Co(II), respectively, reflecting a maximum adsorption order of Cu(II)>Ni(II)>Co(II). The energetic effects caused by metal cation adsorption were determined through calorimetric titrations. PMID:19524249

  17. Influence of pendant chiral C(?)-(alkylideneamino/guanidino) cationic side-chains of PNA backbone on hybridization with complementary DNA/RNA and cell permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Deepak R; Anandi V, Libi; Lahiri, Mayurika; Ganesh, Krishna N

    2014-10-17

    Intrinsically cationic and chiral C(?)-substituted peptide nucleic acid (PNA) analogues have been synthesized in the form of ?(S)-ethyleneamino (eam)- and ?(S)-ethyleneguanidino (egd)-PNA with two carbon spacers from the backbone. The relative stabilization (?Tm) of duplexes from modified cationic PNAs as compared to 2-aminoethylglycyl (aeg)-PNA is better with complementary DNA (PNA:DNA) than with complementary RNA (PNA:RNA). Inherently, PNA:RNA duplexes have higher stability than PNA:DNA duplexes, and the guanidino PNAs are superior to amino PNAs. The cationic PNAs were found to be specific toward their complementary DNA target as seen from their significantly lower binding with DNA having single base mismatch. The differential binding avidity of cationic PNAs was assessed by the displacement of DNA duplex intercalated ethidium bromide and gel electrophoresis. The live cell imaging of amino/guanidino PNAs demonstrated their ability to penetrate the cell membrane in 3T3 and MCF-7 cells, and cationic PNAs were found to be accumulated in the vicinity of the nuclear membrane in the cytoplasm. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis of cell permeability showed the efficiency to be dependent upon the nature of cationic functional group, with guanidino PNAs being better than the amino PNAs in both cell lines. The results are useful to design new biofunctional cationic PNA analogues that not only bind RNA better but also show improved cell permeability. PMID:25221945

  18. Effective Electrostatic Interactions in Solutions of Polyelectrolyte Stars with Rigid Rodlike Arms

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, H; Wang, Hao; Denton, Alan R.

    2005-01-01

    In solutions of star-branched polyelectrolytes, electrostatic interactions between charged arms on neighboring stars can compete with intra-star interactions and rotational entropy to induce anisotropy in the orientational distribution of arms. For model stars comprising rigid rodlike arms with evenly spaced charged monomers interacting via an effective screened-Coulomb (Yukawa) potential, we explore the influence of arm orientational anisotropy on effective star-star interactions. Monte Carlo simulation and density-functional theory are used to compute arm orientational distributions and effective pair potentials between weakly charged stars. The degree of anisotropy is found to increase with the strength of electrostatic interactions and proximity of the stars. As two stars begin to overlap, the forward arms are pushed back by inter-star arm-arm repulsion, but partially interdigitate due to rotational entropy. At center-center separations approaching complete overlap, the arms relax to an isotropic distribu...

  19. Syntheses and structural studies of coordination polymers with microporous frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Tianyan

    The purpose of this work is to synthesize microporous solids using coordination chemistry. The syntheses were carried by diffusion method. Starting reagents, solvent, concentration, reaction speed and time, and temperature were the variables used to optimize the syntheses. The resulting products were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction to determine their structures. X-ray powder diffraction, TGA, IR, elemental analysis, and electron microprobe were used to provide complementary or supporting information. Exploratory studies were carried out mainly on organotin-cyanometalate compounds [(RmSnIV)x{M(CN)n} y]. The compounds are made up of SnRm cations and M(CN) n anions. The structures adopted are determined by the number and size of the organic ligands attached to the Sn atoms and by the cyanometalate M(CN) n moiety. Several new compounds in this class were synthesized and structurally characterized. They are [(Bu3Sn)3M(CN)6] (M = Fe, Co), [(R2Sn)3{CO(CN)6}2·X] (R = vinyl, butyl, and propyl), and [(Ph3Sn)2Ni(CN) 4 Ph3SnOH·˜0.8CH3CN·˜0.2H 2O]. The compound [(Ph3Sn)2Ni(CN)4·Ph 3SnOH·˜0.8CH3CN·˜0.2H2O] is to our knowledge, the first three dimensional cyanometalate coordination polymer with expanded inorganic NbO structure. The framework is not interpenetrated and the large central cavity in the structure is filled by inclusion of Ph 3SnOH and other solvent molecules during synthesis. In addition to the investigation of organotin-cyanometalate compounds, other approaches to microporous solids were also studied. A new compound [Co(H 2O)2Ni(CN)4·4H2O] in the Hofmann's clathrate family was obtained. Five one dimensional polymers synthesized by the reaction of dirhodium(II) tetraacetate with 1,4-dicyanobenzene in different solvent systems were also synthesized, and the effect of solvent on the resulting structures was investigated.

  20. Compensatory arm reaching strategies after stroke: Induced position analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu, PhD

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available After stroke, movement patterns of the upper limb (UL during functional arm reaching change to accommodate altered constraints. These compensatory movement control strategies do not, however, have a one-to-one mapping with posttraining outcomes. In this study, we quantify arm movement control strategies in unilateral and bilateral reaching tasks using induced position analysis. In addition, we assess how those strategies are associated with UL residual impairments and with functional improvement after a specific bilateral arm training intervention. Twelve individuals with chronic stroke were measured while reaching to a box as part of their pre- and posttesting assessments. Other measurements included the Fugl-Meyer Upper Extremity Assessment (FM, Modified Wolf Motor Function Test (WT, and the University of Maryland Arm Questionnaire for Stroke (UMAQS. We identified arm control strategies that did not differ between unilateral and bilateral tasks but did differ by FM impairment level and by predicted gains in WT but not UMAQS. Increased shoulder relative to elbow moment contribution was associated with less impairment and greater gains of speed in functional tasks. These results suggest that one goal of training to achieve better outcomes may be to decrease the abnormal coupling of the shoulder and elbow.