WorldWideScience

Sample records for statistically significant dose-response

  1. Appropriate statistical methods to compare dose responses of methionine sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzer, D D; Littell, R C

    2006-05-01

    Two sources of methionine (Met) activity are frequently used in commercial feed formulation: DL-2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMTBA), most commonly available as an 88% solution with 12% water; and DL-methionine (DLM, 99% powder). Despite the fact that both compounds have been in commercial use for over 50 yr, controversy and confusion remain with respect to their relative bioefficacy (RBE). This paper presents a review of the use of a nonlinear common plateau asymptotic regression technique (NLCPAR) that has been used to compare the 2 Met sources with particular emphasis on the validity of the basic assumptions of that model. The thesis of this paper is that the controversy is due, at least in part, to the misapplication of this regression technique to estimate the RBE of HMTBA and DLM. The NLCPAR model is a bioassay with the key dependent assumptions that HMTBA is a dilution of DLM, and that each follows dose-response curves of the same form and approach a common plateau. Because both provide Met activity, it may be considered reasonable to accept these assumptions; however, specifically testing them demonstrated that the assumption of a common dose-response is not supported by data. The common plateau assumption was tested with an alternative approach of fitting nonlinear separate plateaus asymptotic regression (NLSPAR) to a set of 13 published broiler studies in which the NLCPAR model had been used to estimate RBE of HMTBA and DLM. The hypothesis of a common plateau was rejected (P < 0.01), meaning that the conclusion that HMTBA had lower bioefficacy than DLM based on the NLCPAR methodology was not valid. An example using published data demonstrated that the NLSPAR model was a significantly better fit than the NLCPAR model, and showed that HMTBA and DLM followed different dose responses. Consequently, there was no single value for RBE for the entire dose range; rather, the RBE of the 2 compounds varied with use level. The evidence presented here indicates that separate plateau models should be used when comparing these 2 products. These more valid models can then be used for predictions of differences between HMTBA and DLM at levels of expected use. PMID:16673777

  2. Significant statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Pulverer, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Appropriate statistical analysis is vital to the integrity of the scientific record, but experience and intuition also play a role in interpreting results. Scientific progress should not be hampered through statistical over-evaluation.

  3. On the Statistical Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yongsheng

    2005-01-01

    A definition for the statistical significance by constructing a correlation between the normal distribution integral probability and the p-value observed in an experiment is proposed, which is suitable for both counting experiment and continuous test statistics.

  4. On Statistical Significance of Signal

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yong-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    A definition for the statistical significance of a signal in an experiment is proposed by establishing a correlation between the observed p-value and the normal distribution integral probability, which is suitable for both counting experiment and continuous test statistics. The explicit expressions to calculate the statistical significance for both cases are given.

  5. Estimation of dose-response curves and identification of peaks in hormone pulsations: classic marriages of statistics to science

    Science.gov (United States)

    PhD Douglas Curran-Everett (National Jewish Medical and Research Center Div. Biostatistics, Depts. Prev. Med./Biometrics, Physiology/Biophys)

    2005-09-01

    Essay on 2 APS Classic Papers by De Léan, Munson, and Rodbard on Simultaneous analysis of families of sigmoidal curves: application to bioassay, radioligand assay, and physiological dose-response curves and by Merriam and Wachter on Algorithms for the study of episodic hormone secretion

  6. Statistical significance for genomewide studies

    OpenAIRE

    Storey, John D.; Tibshirani, Robert

    2003-01-01

    With the increase in genomewide experiments and the sequencing of multiple genomes, the analysis of large data sets has become commonplace in biology. It is often the case that thousands of features in a genomewide data set are tested against some null hypothesis, where a number of features are expected to be significant. Here we propose an approach to measuring statistical significance in these genomewide studies based on the concept of the false discovery rate. This ...

  7. Statistical issues in radiation dose-response analysis of employees of the nuclear industry in Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poisson regression methods are used to describe dose-response relations for cancer mortality for a subcohort of 28,347 white male radiation workers. Age specific baseline rates are described using both internal and external (US white male) rates. Regression analyses are based on an analytic data structure (ADS) that consists of a table of observed deaths, expected deaths, and person-years at risk for each combination of levels of seven risk factors. The factors are socioeconomic status, length of employment, birth cohort, age at risk, facility, internal exposure, and external exposure. Each observation in the ADS consists of the index value of each of the stratifying factors, the observed deaths, the expected deaths, the person-years, and the ten year lagged average cumulative dose. Regression diagnostics show that a linear exponential relative risk model is not appropriate for these data. Results are presented using a main effects model for factors other than external radiation, and an excess relative risk term for cumulative external radiation dose

  8. Alternatives to Statistical Significance Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, Ronald S.

    Researchers increasingly recognize that significance tests are limited in their ability to inform scientific practice. Common errors in interpreting significance tests and three strategies for augmenting the interpretation of significance test results are illustrated. The first strategy for augmenting the interpretation of significance tests…

  9. Statistical Significance of Threading Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Fayyaz Movaghar, Afshin; Launay, Guillaume; Schbath, Sophie; Gibrat, Jean-François; Rodolphe, François

    2012-01-01

    We present a general method for assessing threading score significance. The threading score of a protein sequence, thread onto a given structure, should be compared with the threading score distribution of a random amino-acid sequence, of the same length, thread on the same structure; small p-values point significantly high scores. We claim that, due to general protein contact map properties, this reference distribution is a Weibull extreme value distribution whose parameters depend on the th...

  10. Statistical Significance vs. Practical Significance: An Exploration through Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Brittany L.; DeMaria, Andrea L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences between statistical and practical significance, including strengths and criticisms of both methods, as well as provide information surrounding the application of various effect sizes and confidence intervals within health education research. Provided are recommendations, explanations and…

  11. Mining Statistically Significant Substrings using the Chi-Square Statistic

    OpenAIRE

    Sachan, Mayank; Bhattacharya, Arnab

    2012-01-01

    The problem of identification of statistically significant patterns in a sequence of data has been applied to many domains such as intrusion detection systems, financial models, web-click records, automated monitoring systems, computational biology, cryptology, and text analysis. An observed pattern of events is deemed to be statistically significant if it is unlikely to have occurred due to randomness or chance alone. We use the chi-square statistic as a quantitative measur...

  12. Understanding Statistical Significance: A Conceptual History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Considers how if literacy is envisioned as a sort of competence in a set of social and intellectual practices, then scientific literacy must encompass the realization that "statistical significance," the cardinal arbiter of social scientific knowledge, was not born out of an immanent logic of mathematics but socially constructed and reconstructed…

  13. Finding statistically significant communities in networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lancichinetti, Andrea; Ramasco, Jose' Javier; Fortunato, Santo

    2010-01-01

    Community structure is one of the main structural features of networks, revealing both their internal organization and the similarity of their elementary units. Despite the large variety of methods proposed to detect communities in graphs, there is a big need for multi-purpose techniques, able to handle different types of datasets and the subtleties of community structure. In this paper we present OSLOM (Order Statistics Local Optimization Method), the first method capable to detect clusters in networks accounting for edge directions, edge weights, overlapping communities, hierarchies and community dynamics. It is based on the local optimization of a fitness function expressing the statistical significance of clusters with respect to random fluctuations, which is estimated with tools of Extreme and Order Statistics. OSLOM can be used alone or as a refinement procedure of partitions/covers delivered by other techniques. We have also implemented sequential algorithms combining OSLOM with other fast techniques, ...

  14. Swiss solar power statistics 2007 - Significant expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents and discusses the 2007 statistics for solar power in Switzerland. A significant number of new installations is noted as is the high production figures from newer installations. The basics behind the compilation of the Swiss solar power statistics are briefly reviewed and an overview for the period 1989 to 2007 is presented which includes figures on the number of photovoltaic plant in service and installed peak power. Typical production figures in kilowatt-hours (kWh) per installed kilowatt-peak power (kWp) are presented and discussed for installations of various sizes. Increased production after inverter replacement in older installations is noted. Finally, the general political situation in Switzerland as far as solar power is concerned are briefly discussed as are international developments.

  15. Social significance of community structure: Statistical view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Jia; Daniels, Jasmine J.

    2015-01-01

    Community structure analysis is a powerful tool for social networks that can simplify their topological and functional analysis considerably. However, since community detection methods have random factors and real social networks obtained from complex systems always contain error edges, evaluating the significance of a partitioned community structure is an urgent and important question. In this paper, integrating the specific characteristics of real society, we present a framework to analyze the significance of a social community. The dynamics of social interactions are modeled by identifying social leaders and corresponding hierarchical structures. Instead of a direct comparison with the average outcome of a random model, we compute the similarity of a given node with the leader by the number of common neighbors. To determine the membership vector, an efficient community detection algorithm is proposed based on the position of the nodes and their corresponding leaders. Then, using a log-likelihood score, the tightness of the community can be derived. Based on the distribution of community tightness, we establish a connection between p -value theory and network analysis, and then we obtain a significance measure of statistical form . Finally, the framework is applied to both benchmark networks and real social networks. Experimental results show that our work can be used in many fields, such as determining the optimal number of communities, analyzing the social significance of a given community, comparing the performance among various algorithms, etc.

  16. Dose response relationship and Alara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, it will be shown how dose-response relationships allow to give quantitative figures for the detriment of irradiation. At this stage, the detriment is expressed directly as a certain number of health effects, whose valuation is not dealt with here. The present tools for quantifying, their weaknesses and their strenghts, and their scientific basis will be developed

  17. Statistical significance tests for autoradiographic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to develop statistical methods that take radiation spread into account in analyzing data from different autoradiographic experiments. The method uses the probability circle analysis of Salpeter and McHenry to obtain the probable source of each radioactive emission and the circle and point counting method of Williams to estimate the relative area occupied by each cellular site. Two levels of analysis are presented. The first level of analysis is concerned with estimating relative activities and standard errors for cellular items that are larger than the probability circle. The second level of analysis involves estimating relative activities and standard errors for cellular sites that are smaller than the probability circle and are therefore observed in circles containing another item such as cytoplasmic matrix. Two different tests of hypotheses are discussed. The first null hypothesis is that the radioactivity is randomly distributed among the cellular sites. The second null hypothesis is that there is no difference between two different treatments in the relative activities for a given site

  18. Social significance of community structure: Statistical view

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hui-Jia

    2015-01-01

    Community structure analysis is a powerful tool for social networks, which can simplify their topological and functional analysis considerably. However, since community detection methods have random factors and real social networks obtained from complex systems always contain error edges, evaluating the significance of community structure partitioned is an urgent and important question. In this paper, integrating the specific characteristics of real society, we present a novel framework analyzing the significance of social community specially. The dynamics of social interactions are modeled by identifying social leaders and corresponding hierarchical structures. Instead of a direct comparison with the average outcome of a random model, we compute the similarity of a given node with the leader by the number of common neighbors. To determine the membership vector, an efficient community detection algorithm is proposed based on the position of nodes and their corresponding leaders. Then, using log-likelihood sco...

  19. Implicit dose-response curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Millán, Mercedes; Dickenstein, Alicia

    2015-06-01

    We develop tools from computational algebraic geometry for the study of steady state features of autonomous polynomial dynamical systems via elimination of variables. In particular, we obtain nontrivial bounds for the steady state concentration of a given species in biochemical reaction networks with mass-action kinetics. This species is understood as the output of the network and we thus bound the maximal response of the system. The improved bounds give smaller starting boxes to launch numerical methods. We apply our results to the sequential enzymatic network studied in Markevich et al. (J Cell Biol 164(3):353-359, 2004) to find nontrivial upper bounds for the different substrate concentrations at steady state. Our approach does not require any simulation, analytical expression to describe the output in terms of the input, or the absence of multistationarity. Instead, we show how to extract information from effectively computable implicit dose-response curves, with the use of resultants and discriminants. We moreover illustrate in the application to an enzymatic network, the relation between the exact implicit dose-response curve we obtain symbolically and the standard hysteresis diagram provided by a numerical ode solver. The setting and tools we propose could yield many other results adapted to any autonomous polynomial dynamical system, beyond those where it is possible to get explicit expressions. PMID:25008963

  20. Equivalence of dose response curves

    OpenAIRE

    Dette, Holger; Möllenhoff, Kathrin; Volgushev, Stanislav; Bretz, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the problem if the difference between two parametric models $m_1, m_2$ describing the relation between the response and covariates in two groups is of no practical significance, such that inference can be performed on the basis of the pooled sample. Statistical methodology is developed to test the hypotheses $H_0: d(m_1,m_2) \\geq \\varepsilon$ versus $H_1: d(m_1,m_2) < \\varepsilon$ of equivalence between the two regression curves $m_1, m_2$, where $d$ ...

  1. In vitro human cytogenetic dose-response systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To provide dosimetry for radiation accident management, in vitro dose-response models are used for deriving biological estimates of the doses received by individuals involved in accidents. The dose estimates are made by comparing the frequency of specific cytogenetic aberrations in cultured blood lymphocytes of the exposed person with the frequency observed in human lymphocytes irradiated in vitro. Three factors influenced the accuracy of the in vitro dose-response relation determinations. These are the biological aspects of lymphocytes and the culture system, statistical and mathematical aspects of data collection and analysis, and the physical conditions of the in vitro radiation exposure. Each of these factors is discussed and examples of dose-response curves generated for needs of dose-determination in accidents involving americium 241 and iridium 192

  2. Analysis of Dose Response for Circulatory Disease After Radiotherapy for Benign Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, Mark P., E-mail: mark.little@nih.gov [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Executive Plaza South, Rockville, Maryland (United States); Kleinerman, Ruth A. [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Executive Plaza South, Rockville, Maryland (United States); Stovall, Marilyn; Smith, Susan A. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Mabuchi, Kiyohiko [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Executive Plaza South, Rockville, Maryland (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To assess the shape of the dose-response for various circulatory disease endpoints, and modifiers by age and time since exposure. Methods and Materials: This was an analysis of the US peptic ulcer data testing for heterogeneity of radiogenic risk by circulatory disease endpoint (ischemic heart, cerebrovascular, other circulatory disease). Results: There were significant excess risks for all circulatory disease, with an excess relative risk Gy{sup -1} of 0.082 (95% CI 0.031-0.140), and ischemic heart disease, with an excess relative risk Gy{sup -1} of 0.102 (95% CI 0.039-0.174) (both p = 0.01), and indications of excess risk for stroke. There were no statistically significant (p > 0.2) differences between risks by endpoint, and few indications of curvature in the dose-response. There were significant (p < 0.001) modifications of relative risk by time since exposure, the magnitude of which did not vary between endpoints (p > 0.2). Risk modifications were similar if analysis was restricted to patients receiving radiation, although the relative risks were slightly larger and the risk of stroke failed to be significant. The slopes of the dose-response were generally consistent with those observed in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in occupationally and medically exposed groups. Conclusions: There were excess risks for a variety of circulatory diseases in this dataset, with significant modification of risk by time since exposure. The consistency of the dose-response slopes with those observed in radiotherapeutically treated groups at much higher dose, as well as in lower dose-exposed cohorts such as the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and nuclear workers, implies that there may be little sparing effect of fractionation of dose or low-dose-rate exposure.

  3. Analysis of Dose Response for Circulatory Disease After Radiotherapy for Benign Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the shape of the dose–response for various circulatory disease endpoints, and modifiers by age and time since exposure. Methods and Materials: This was an analysis of the US peptic ulcer data testing for heterogeneity of radiogenic risk by circulatory disease endpoint (ischemic heart, cerebrovascular, other circulatory disease). Results: There were significant excess risks for all circulatory disease, with an excess relative risk Gy?1 of 0.082 (95% CI 0.031–0.140), and ischemic heart disease, with an excess relative risk Gy?1 of 0.102 (95% CI 0.039–0.174) (both p = 0.01), and indications of excess risk for stroke. There were no statistically significant (p > 0.2) differences between risks by endpoint, and few indications of curvature in the dose–response. There were significant (p 0.2). Risk modifications were similar if analysis was restricted to patients receiving radiation, although the relative risks were slightly larger and the risk of stroke failed to be significant. The slopes of the dose–response were generally consistent with those observed in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in occupationally and medically exposed groups. Conclusions: There were excess risks for a variety of circulatory diseases in this dataset, with significant modification of risk by time since exposure. The by time since exposure. The consistency of the dose–response slopes with those observed in radiotherapeutically treated groups at much higher dose, as well as in lower dose–exposed cohorts such as the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and nuclear workers, implies that there may be little sparing effect of fractionation of dose or low-dose-rate exposure.

  4. Caveats for using statistical significance tests in research assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg

    2013-01-01

    This article raises concerns about the advantages of using statistical significance tests in research assessments as has recently been suggested in the debate about proper normalization procedures for citation indicators by Opthof and Leydesdorff (2010). Statistical significance tests are highly controversial and numerous criticisms have been leveled against their use. Based on examples from articles by proponents of the use statistical significance tests in research assessments, we address some of the numerous problems with such tests. The issues specifically discussed are the ritual practice of such tests, their dichotomous application in decision making, the difference between statistical and substantive significance, the implausibility of most null hypotheses, the crucial assumption of randomness, as well as the utility of standard errors and confidence intervals for inferential purposes. We argue that applying statistical significance tests and mechanically adhering to their results are highly problematic and detrimental to critical thinking. We claim that the use of such tests do not provide any advantages in relation to deciding whether differences between citation indicators are important or not. On the contrary their use may be harmful. Like many other critics, we generally believe that statistical significance tests are over- and misused in the empirical sciences including scientometrics and we encourage a reform on these matters.

  5. The Dose Response Relationship for Radiation Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Eric

    2008-03-01

    Recent surveys show that the collective population radiation dose from medical procedures in the U.S. has increased by 750% in the past two decades. It would be impossible to imagine the practice of medicine today without diagnostic and therapeutic radiology, but nevertheless the widespread and rapidly increasing use of a modality which is a known human carcinogen is a cause for concern. To assess the magnitude of the problem it is necessary to establish the shape of the dose response relationship for radiation carcinogenesis. Information on radiation carcinogenesis comes from the A-bomb survivors, from occupationally exposed individuals and from radiotherapy patients. The A-bomb survivor data indicates a linear relationship between dose and the risk of solid cancers up to a dose of about 2.5 Sv. The lowest dose at which there is a significant excess cancer risk is debatable, but it would appear to be between 40 and 100 mSv. Data from the occupation exposure of nuclear workers shows an excess cancer risk at an average dose of 19.4 mSv. At the other end of the dose scale, data on second cancers in radiotherapy patients indicates that cancer risk does not continue to rise as a linear function of dose, but tends towards a plateau of 40 to 60 Gy, delivered in a fractionated regime. These data can be used to estimate the impact of diagnostic radiology at the low dose end of the dose response relationship, and the impact of new radiotherapy modalities at the high end of the dose response relationship. In the case of diagnostic radiology about 90% of the collective population dose comes from procedures (principally CT scans) which involve doses at which there is credible evidence of an excess cancer incidence. While the risk to the individual is small and justified in a symptomatic patient, the same is not true of some screening procedures is asymptomatic individuals, and in any case the huge number of procedures must add up to a potential public health problem. In the case of radiation oncology, modern innovations such as Intensity Modulated Radiation Oncology or Proton Therapy both result in a substantial total-body dose to the patient, which must result in an increased incidence of second cancers. The technology exists to reduce these total body doses and the problem needs to be addressed.

  6. Identification of Statistically Significant Features from Random Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Jérôme; Verleysen, Michel; Dupont, Pierre; ECML workshop on Solving Complex Machine Learning Problems with Ensemble Methods

    2013-01-01

    Embedded feature selection can be performed by analyzing the variables used in a Random Forest. Such a multivariate selection takes into account the interactions between variables but is not easy to interpret in a statistical sense. We propose a statistical procedure to measure variable importance that tests if variables are significantly useful in combination with others in a forest. We show experimentally that this new importance index correctly identifies relevant variables. The top of the...

  7. On detection and assessment of statistical significance of Genomic Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhuri Probal

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many of the available methods for detecting Genomic Islands (GIs in prokaryotic genomes use markers such as transposons, proximal tRNAs, flanking repeats etc., or they use other supervised techniques requiring training datasets. Most of these methods are primarily based on the biases in GC content or codon and amino acid usage of the islands. However, these methods either do not use any formal statistical test of significance or use statistical tests for which the critical values and the P-values are not adequately justified. We propose a method, which is unsupervised in nature and uses Monte-Carlo statistical tests based on randomly selected segments of a chromosome. Such tests are supported by precise statistical distribution theory, and consequently, the resulting P-values are quite reliable for making the decision. Results Our algorithm (named Design-Island, an acronym for Detection of Statistically Significant Genomic Island runs in two phases. Some 'putative GIs' are identified in the first phase, and those are refined into smaller segments containing horizontally acquired genes in the refinement phase. This method is applied to Salmonella typhi CT18 genome leading to the discovery of several new pathogenicity, antibiotic resistance and metabolic islands that were missed by earlier methods. Many of these islands contain mobile genetic elements like phage-mediated genes, transposons, integrase and IS elements confirming their horizontal acquirement. Conclusion The proposed method is based on statistical tests supported by precise distribution theory and reliable P-values along with a technique for visualizing statistically significant islands. The performance of our method is better than many other well known methods in terms of their sensitivity and accuracy, and in terms of specificity, it is comparable to other methods.

  8. More accurate tests for the statistical significance of result differences

    OpenAIRE

    Yeh, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    Statistical significance testing of differences in values of metrics like recall, precision and balanced F-score is a necessary part of empirical natural language processing. Unfortunately, we find in a set of experiments that many commonly used tests often underestimate the significance and so are less likely to detect differences that exist between different techniques. This underestimation comes from an independence assumption that is often violated. We point out some use...

  9. Your Chi-Square Test Is Statistically Significant: Now What?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Applied researchers have employed chi-square tests for more than one hundred years. This paper addresses the question of how one should follow a statistically significant chi-square test result in order to determine the source of that result. Four approaches were evaluated: calculating residuals, comparing cells, ransacking, and partitioning. Data…

  10. A Comparison of Statistical Significance Tests for Selecting Equating Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Tim

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the accuracies of nine previously proposed statistical significance tests for selecting identity, linear, and equipercentile equating functions in an equivalent groups equating design. The strategies included likelihood ratio tests for the loglinear models of tests' frequency distributions, regression tests, Kolmogorov-Smirnov…

  11. Experimental data and dose-response models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose-response relationships for radiation carcinogenesis have been of interest to biologists, modelers, and statisticians for many years. Despite his interest there are few instances in which there are sufficient experimental data to allow the fitting of various dose-response models. In those experimental systems for which data are available the dose-response curves for tumor induction for the various systems cannot be described by a single model. Dose-response models which have been observed following acute exposures to gamma rays include threshold, quadratic, and linear models. Data on sex, age, and environmental influences of dose suggest a strong role of host factors on the dose response. With decreasing dose rate the effectiveness of gamma ray irradiation tends to decrease in essentially every instance. In those cases in which the high dose rate dose response could be described by a quadratic model, the effect of dose rate is consistent with predictions based on radiation effects on the induction of initial events. Whether the underlying reasons for the observed dose-rate effect is a result of effects on the induction of initial events or is due to effects on the subsequent steps in the carcinogenic process is unknown. Information on the dose response for tumor induction for high LET (linear energy transfer) radiations such as neutrons is even more limited. The observed dose and dose rate data for tumor induction following neutron exposure are complex and do not g neutron exposure are complex and do not appear to be consistent with predictions based on models for the induction of initial events

  12. Study on relationships of time-response and dose-response of radiation-induced DNA damages using single cell gel electrophoresis for rapid dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationships of time-response and dose-response of DNA damages of peripheral blood cell induced by 60Co ? radiation were studied using single cell gel electrophoresis and the feasibility of SCGE as a biological dosimeter was discussed. Mice and human peripheral blood cells were irradiated in vivo an in vitro respectively, for drawing up curves of time-response and dose-response. In vivo, DNA damages in mice peripheral blood cells were the most serious immediately after irradiation, and were essentially repaired 2 h after irradiation and had no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) between irradiation and control groups 24 h after irradiation. In vitro, TM value of human peripheral blood cells increased in a dose dependent manner, and a extremely statistically significant difference was observed between irradiation and control groups after irradiation immediately. The dose-response relationship well fitted with linear model: Y=0.3619 + 2.1834D (r=0.9946). However, there has been no statistical difference (p>0.05) between irradiation and control groups 6 h after irradiation. The results indicate that SCGE is a rapid, sensitive method for examining radiation-induced DNA damages, and has showed a well linear dose-response relation although it can only measure in a limited time range as damages repaired more rapidly. (authors)

  13. Topics in dose-response modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, M; Marks, H

    1998-11-01

    Great uncertainty exists in conducting dose-response assessment for microbial pathogens. The data to support quantitative modeling of dose-response relationships are meager. Our philosophy in developing methodology to conduct microbial risk assessments has been to rely on data analysis and formal inferencing from the available data in constructing dose-response and exposure models. The probability of illness is a complex function of factors associated with the disease triangle: the host, the pathogen, and the environment including the food vehicle and indigenous microbial competitors. The epidemiological triangle and interactions between the components of the triangle are used to illustrate key issues in dose-response modeling that impact the estimation of risk and attendant uncertainty. Distinguishing between uncertainty (what is unknown) and variability (heterogeneity) is crucial in risk assessment. Uncertainty includes components that are associated with (i) parameter estimation for a given assumed model, and (ii) the unknown "true" model form among many plausible alternatives such as the exponential, Beta-Poisson, probit, logistic, and Gompertz. Uncertainty may be grossly understated if plausible alternative models are not tested in the analysis. Examples are presented of the impact of variability and uncertainty on species, strain, or serotype of microbial pathogens; variability in human response to administered doses of pathogens; and effects of threshold and nonthreshold models. Some discussion of the usefulness and limitations of epidemiological data is presented. Criteria for development of surrogate dose-response models are proposed for pathogens for which human data are lacking. Alternative dose-response models which consider biological plausibility are presented for predicting the probability of illness. PMID:9829203

  14. An Efficient Rigorous Approach for Identifying Statistically Significant Frequent Itemsets

    CERN Document Server

    Kirsch, Adam; Pietracaprina, Andrea; Pucci, Geppino; Upfal, Eli; Vandin, Fabio

    2010-01-01

    As advances in technology allow for the collection, storage, and analysis of vast amounts of data, the task of screening and assessing the significance of discovered patterns is becoming a major challenge in data mining applications. In this work, we address significance in the context of frequent itemset mining. Specifically, we develop a novel methodology to identify a meaningful support threshold s* for a dataset, such that the number of itemsets with support at least s* represents a substantial deviation from what would be expected in a random dataset with the same number of transactions and the same individual item frequencies. These itemsets can then be flagged as statistically significant with a small false discovery rate. We present extensive experimental results to substantiate the effectiveness of our methodology.

  15. Statistical Significance Does Not Equal Geological Significance: Reply to Comments on “Lies, Damned Lies, and Statistics (in Geology)”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeesch, Pieter

    2011-02-01

    In my Eos Forum of 24 November 2009 (90(47), 443), I used the chi-square test to reject the null hypothesis that earthquakes occur independent of the weekday to make the point that statistical significance should not be confused with geological significance. Of the five comments on my article, only the one by Sornette and Pisarenko [2011] disputes this conclusion, while the remaining comments take issue with certain aspects of the geophysical case study. In this reply I will address all of these points, after providing some necessary further background about statistical tests. Two types of error can result from a hypothesis test. A Type I error occurs when a true null hypothesis is erroneously rejected by chance. A Type II error occurs when a false null hypothesis is erroneously accepted by chance. By definition, the p value is the probability, under the null hypothesis, of obtaining a test statistic at least as extreme as the one observed. In other words, the smaller the p value, the lower the probability that a Type I error has been made. In light of the exceedingly small p value of the earthquake data set, Tseng and Chen's [2011] assertion that a Type I error has been committed is clearly wrong. How about Type II errors?

  16. Statistical significance of climate sensitivity predictors obtained by data mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Peter M.; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Zelinka, Mark D.; Klein, Stephen A.; Santer, Benjamin D.; Sanderson, Benjamin M.

    2014-03-01

    Several recent efforts to estimate Earth's equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) focus on identifying quantities in the current climate which are skillful predictors of ECS yet can be constrained by observations. This study automates the search for observable predictors using data from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. The primary focus of this paper is assessing statistical significance of the resulting predictive relationships. Failure to account for dependence between models, variables, locations, and seasons is shown to yield misleading results. A new technique for testing the field significance of data-mined correlations which avoids these problems is presented. Using this new approach, all 41,741 relationships we tested were found to be explainable by chance. This leads us to conclude that data mining is best used to identify potential relationships which are then validated or discarded using physically based hypothesis testing.

  17. Statistical Significance of Geographic Heterogeneity Measures in Spatial Epidemiologic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Lian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing geographic variations in health events is one of the major tasks in spatial epidemiologic studies. Geographic variation in a health event can be estimated using the neighborhood-level variance that is derived from a generalized mixed linear model or a Bayesian spatial hierarchical model. Two novel heterogeneity measures, including median odds ratio and interquartile odds ratio, have been developed to quantify the magnitude of geographic variations and facilitate the data interpretation. However, the statistical significance of geographic heterogeneity measures was inaccurately estimated in previous epidemiologic studies that reported two-sided 95% confidence intervals based on standard error of the variance or 95% credible intervals with a range from 2.5th to 97.5th percentiles of the Bayesian posterior distribution. Given the mathematical algorithms of heterogeneity measures, the statistical significance of geographic variation should be evaluated using a one-tailed P value. Therefore, previous studies using two-tailed 95% confidence intervals based on a standard error of the variance may have underestimated the geographic variation in events of their interest and those using 95% Bayesian credible intervals may need to re-evaluate the geographic variation of their study outcomes.

  18. Comparison of the dose-response relationships for chromosome aberration frequencies between the T65D and DS86 dosimetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytogenetic data, derived from cultured lymphocytes of atomic bomb survivors and controls in the ABCC-RERF Adult Health Study cohort, have been analyzed to determine differences in the dose-response relationships for chromosome aberrations between the T65D and DS86 dose estimates and to assess differences between Hiroshima and Nagasaki. For a linear dose-response model, the average percentage of cells with at least one chromosome aberration increases less rapidly with dose in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima. The magnitude of the intercity difference in the percentage of cells with aberrations per gray is less for DS86 than for T65D, though the difference is statistically significant for both kerma and bone marrow dose with either dosimetry. The percentage of cells with aberrations per gray for DS86 kerma estimates is about 60 % greater than the corresponding T65D slope. Analyses to test nonlinearity in the dose-response function indicate significant departures (p<.001) from linearity, using both dosimetries for both kerma and marrow dose. Therefore, comparative results are presented for a range of RBE relationships under various linear (L) and linearquadratic linear (LQ-L) models. As an illustrative result, if one assumes an LQ-L model similar to models reported in the cytogenetic literature, with a limiting RBE of 20 at zero dose, the DS86 slope (the percentage of cells with aberrations per sievert) is 120 % greater than the corresponding T65D value. (J.P.N.)

  19. A Reanalysis of Curvature in the Dose Response for Cancer and Modifications by Age at Exposure Following Radiation Therapy for Benign Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, Mark P., E-mail: mark.little@nih.gov [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland (United States); Stovall, Marilyn; Smith, Susan A. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kleinerman, Ruth A. [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To assess the shape of the dose response for various cancer endpoints and modifiers by age and time. Methods and Materials: Reanalysis of the US peptic ulcer data testing for heterogeneity of radiogenic risk by cancer endpoint (stomach, pancreas, lung, leukemia, all other). Results: There are statistically significant (P<.05) excess risks for all cancer and for lung cancer and borderline statistically significant risks for stomach cancer (P=.07), and leukemia (P=.06), with excess relative risks Gy{sup -1} of 0.024 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.011, 0.039), 0.559 (95% CI 0.221, 1.021), 0.042 (95% CI -0.002, 0.119), and 1.087 (95% CI -0.018, 4.925), respectively. There is statistically significant (P=.007) excess risk of pancreatic cancer when adjusted for dose-response curvature. General downward curvature is apparent in the dose response, statistically significant (P<.05) for all cancers, pancreatic cancer, and all other cancers (ie, other than stomach, pancreas, lung, leukemia). There are indications of reduction in relative risk with increasing age at exposure (for all cancers, pancreatic cancer), but no evidence for quadratic variations in relative risk with age at exposure. If a linear-exponential dose response is used, there is no significant heterogeneity in the dose response among the 5 endpoints considered or in the speed of variation of relative risk with age at exposure. The risks are generally consistent with those observed in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in groups of nuclear workers. Conclusions: There are excess risks for various malignancies in this data set. Generally there is a marked downward curvature in the dose response and significant reduction in relative risk with increasing age at exposure. The consistency of risks with those observed in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in groups of nuclear workers implies that there may be little sparing effect of fractionation of dose or low-dose-rate exposure.

  20. Radiation dose response estimation with emphasis on low dose range using restricted cubic splines: application to all solid cancer mortality data, 1950-2003, in atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Eiji

    2015-07-01

    Using the all solid cancer mortality data set of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort from 1950 to 2003 (LSS Report 14) data among atomic bomb survivors, excess relative risk (ERR) statistical analyses were performed using the second degree polynomial and the threshold and restricted cubic spline (RCS) dose response models. For the RCS models with 3 to 7 knots of equally spaced percentiles with margins in the dose range greater than 50 mGy, the dose response was assumed to be linear at less than 70 to 90 mGy. Due to the skewed dose distribution of atomic bomb survivors, the current knot system for the RCS analysis results in a detailed depiction of the dose response as less than approximately 0.5 Gy. The 6 knot RCS models for the all-solid cancer mortality dose response of the whole dose or less than 2 Gy were selected with the AIC model selection criterion and fit significantly better (p < 0.05) than the linear (L) model. The usual RCS includes the L-global model but not the quadratic (Q) nor linear-quadratic (LQ) global models. The authors extended the RCS to include L or LQ global models by putting L or LQ constraints on the cubic spline in the lower and upper tails, and the best RCS model selected with AIC criterion was the usual RCS with L-constraints in both the lower and upper tails. The selected RCS had a linear dose-response model in the lower dose range (i.e., < 0.2-0.3 Gy) and was compatible with the linear no-threshold (LNT) model in this dose range. The proposed method is also useful in describing the dose response of a specific cancer or non-cancer disease incidence/mortality. PMID:26011495

  1. Finding Statistically Significant Communities in Networks with Weighted Label Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Various networks exist in the world today including biological, social, information, and communication networks with the Internet as the largest network of all. One salient structural feature of these networks is the formation of groups or communities of vertices that tend to be more connected to each other within the same group than to those outside. Therefore, the detection of these communities is a topic of great interest and importance in many applications and different algorithms including label propagation have been developed for such purpose. Speaker-listener label propagation algorithm (SLPA enjoys almost linear time complexity, so desirable in dealing with large networks. As an extension of SLPA, this study presented a novel weighted label propagation algorithm (WLPA, which was tested on four real world social networks with known community structures including the famous Zachary's karate club network. Wilcoxon tests on the communities found in the karate club network by WLPA demonstrated an improved statistical significance over SLPA. Withthehelp of Wilcoxon tests again, we were able to determine the best possible formation of two communities in this network relative to the ground truth partition, which could be used as a new benchmark for assessing community detection algorithms. Finally WLPA predicted better communities than SLPA in two of the three additional real social networks, when compared to the ground truth.

  2. Non-Linear Dose Response Relationships in Biology, Toxicology, and Medicine (June 8-10, 2004). Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference attracts approximately 500 scientists researching in the area of non-linear low dose effects. These scientists represent a wide range of biological/medical fields and technical disciplines. Observations that biphasic dose responses are frequently reported in each of these areas but that the recognition of similar dose response relationships across disciplines is very rarely appreciated and exploited. By bringing scientist of such diverse backgrounds together who are working on the common area of non-linear dose response relationships this will enhance our understanding of the occurrence, origin, mechanism, significance and practical applications of such dose response relationships

  3. A study of dose-response relationship between tobacco habits and oral leukoplakia.

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, P. C.

    1984-01-01

    In a house-to-house survey in Ernakulam district, Kerala, India, 12,213 tobacco users were interviewed about the details of their tobacco usage and examined for the presence of leukoplakia. The frequency of tobacco habit was associated with the prevalence of leukoplakia indicating a positive dose-response relationship. The dose-response relationship remained significant, taking age, sex, and the type of tobacco habit into account. After adjusting for all these variables jointly the associatio...

  4. The statistical significance of close pairs of QSOs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous workers have proposed a method of statistical analysis of close pairs of quasistellar objects (QSOs) to test the null hypothesis that the redshifts of QSOs are of cosmological origin. Close pairs of QSOs have been discovered and the statistical test can be applied. However the authors show that the probability of finding so many close pairs by chance, as required by the cosmological hypothesis, is as small as -4, depending on observational uncertainties. (author)

  5. International stock return predictability: statistical evidence and economic significance

    OpenAIRE

    Giot, Pierre; Petitjean, Mikael

    2006-01-01

    The predictability of stock returns in ten countries is assessed taking into account recently developed out-of-sample statistical tests and risk-adjusted metrics. Predictive variables include both valuation ratios and interest rate variables. Out-of-sample predictive power is found to be greatest for the short-term and long-term interest rate variables. Given the importance of trading profitability in assessing market efficiency, we show that such statistical predictive power is economically ...

  6. Induced structural changes in chromosomes of the Syrian hamster after X-irradiation of spermatogonia: comparison of dose-response curves derived from synaptonemal complexes and from air-dried preparations of metaphase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dose-response relationships of the induction of structural change in chromosomes after X-irradiation of spermatogonia have been determined from analyses of synaptonemal complexes in pachytene spermatocytes and from air-dried preparations of metaphase I. The dose-response curves were superficially the same shape, with a peak yield of cells containing a multivalent at 4 Gy, although only in the pachytene data was there any statistically significant hump. The pachytene preparations were much more sensitive, revealing nearly twice the proportion of cells containing multivalents than found at metaphase. (Auth.)

  7. TESS-based dose-response using pediatric clonidine exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The toxic and lethal doses of clonidine in children are unclear. This study was designed to determine whether data from the American Association of Poison Control Centers Toxic Exposure Surveillance System (TESS) could be utilized to determine a dose-response relationship for pediatric clonidine exposure. Methods: 3458 single-substance clonidine exposures in children <6 years of age reported to TESS from January 2000 through December 2003 were examined. Dose ingested, age, and medical outcome were available for 1550 cases. Respiratory arrest cases (n = 8) were classified as the most severe of the medical outcome categories (Arrest, Major, Moderate, Mild, and No effect). Exposures reported as a 'taste or lick' (n = 51) were included as a dose of 1/10 of the dosage form involved. Dose ranged from 0.4 to 1980 (median 13) ?g/kg. Weight was imputed based on a quadratic estimate of weight for age. Dose certainty was coded as exact (26% of cases) or not exact (74%). Medical outcome (response) was examined via logistic regression using SAS JMP (release 5.1). Results: The logistic model describing medical outcome (P < 0.0001) included Log dose/kg (P 0.0000) and Certainty (P = 0.045). Conclusion: TESS data can provide the basis for a statistically sound description of dose-response for pediatric clonidine poisoning exposures

  8. Dose response from pharmacological interventions for CBF changes in a baboon model using 99Tcm-HMPAO and SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study assesses the sensitivity of the baboon model under anaesthesia to determine by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and 99Tcm-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) dose responses from drugs (acetazolamide) with known regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) effects on humans. Three dosages of acetazolamide were chosen: 250, 500 and 750 mg. The effects of these were studied by conventional SPECT 5 min after intravenous (i.v.) administration and compared to previous studies of rCBF with the baboons under anaesthesia only. An additional study concerned the effect of 500 mg acetazolamide at 15 min after administration. Haemodynamic parameters and blood gases were also monitored. No statistically significant regional effects were noted. The largest increase in CBF (39%) was observed from 500 mg acetazolamide after 5 min. This was statistically significantly different from control values only at a 10% level of confidence; then following a 27% increase above control values after 750 mg (5 min). At 15 min 500 mg yielded values lower by 10% than the high dose. No effects were observed from 250 mg acetazolamide; only pO2 showed changes which largely confirm the CBF findings. The model did not give significant results at a 5% level of confidence but large fluctuations were observed, also in the haemodynamic and blood gas values. At a 10% level a significant dose response was confirmed for acetazolamide. (author) for acetazolamide. (author)

  9. Assessing dose-response relationships for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs): a focus on non-monotonicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoeller, R Thomas; Vandenberg, Laura N

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental principle in regulatory toxicology is that all chemicals are toxic and that the severity of effect is proportional to the exposure level. An ancillary assumption is that there are no effects at exposures below the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL), either because no effects exist or because they are not statistically resolvable, implying that they would not be adverse. Chemicals that interfere with hormones violate these principles in two important ways: dose-response relationships can be non-monotonic, which have been reported in hundreds of studies of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs); and effects are often observed below the LOAEL, including all environmental epidemiological studies examining EDCs. In recognition of the importance of this issue, Lagarde et al. have published the first proposal to qualitatively assess non-monotonic dose response (NMDR) relationships for use in risk assessments. Their proposal represents a significant step forward in the evaluation of complex datasets for use in risk assessments. Here, we comment on three elements of the Lagarde proposal that we feel need to be assessed more critically and present our arguments: 1) the use of Klimisch scores to evaluate study quality, 2) the concept of evaluating study quality without topical experts' knowledge and opinions, and 3) the requirement of establishing the biological plausibility of an NMDR before consideration for use in risk assessment. We present evidence-based logical arguments that 1) the use of the Klimisch score should be abandoned for assessing study quality; 2) evaluating study quality requires experts in the specific field; and 3) an understanding of mechanisms should not be required to accept observable, statistically valid phenomena. It is our hope to contribute to the important and ongoing debate about the impact of NMDRs on risk assessment with positive suggestions. PMID:25971795

  10. Dose Response Effects of Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate Treatment in Adults with ADHD: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Kollins, Scott H.; Glatt, Stephen J.; Goodman, David

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore dose-response effects of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) treatment for ADHD. Method: This was a 4-week, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, forced-dose titration study in adult participants, aged 18 to 55 years, meeting "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., text rev.)…

  11. Novel systematic discovery of statistically significant network features

    CERN Document Server

    Ziv, E; Wiggins, C; Ziv, Etay; Koytcheff, Robin; Wiggins, Chris

    2003-01-01

    The physicist's desire to analyze in terms of local structures, breaking systems into fundamental parts, is uniquely thwarted by idealized networks: they are composed of identical nodes, differentiated only by the combinatorial explosion of possible connections. The ideal reduced degrees of freedom -- the correct "local substructures" -- are not at all obvious; we strive here to develop a systematic and principled algorithm for their discovery. Functional genomics and the development of modular biology motivate a systematic, statistical approach to identifying the most important features, functionals of the adjacency matrix representation of the graph. The features are global, involving all nodes in each feature; although they can be related to subgraph enumeration, the analysis does not require hypothetical "most important" subgraphs. The resulting algorithm provides an automated tool for graph drawing and decomposition, and suggests novel machine-learning techniques for network classification.

  12. Biological dosimetry in radiological protection: dose response curves elaboration for 60Co and 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation sources for pacific uses are being extensively utilized by modern society and the applications of these sources have raised the probability of the occurrence of accidents. The accidental exposition to radiation creates a necessity of the development of methods to evaluate dose quantity. This data could be obtained by the measurement of damage caused by radiation in the exposed person. The radiation dose can be estimated in exposed persons through physical methods (physical dosimetry) but the biological methods can't be dispensed, and among them, the cytogenetic one that makes use of chromosome aberrations (dicentric and centric ring) formed in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) exposed to ionizing radiation. This method correlates the frequency of radioinduced aberrations with the estimated absorbed dose, as in vitro as in vivo, which is called cytogenetic dosimetry. By the introduction of improved new techniques in culture, in the interpretation of aberrations in the different analysers of slides and by the adoption of different statistical programs to analyse the data, significant differences are observed among laboratories in dose-response curves (calibration curves). The estimation of absorbed dose utilizing other laboratory calibration curves may introduce some uncertainties, so the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) advises that each laboratory elaborates your own dose-response curve for cytogenetic dosimetry. The results were obtained from peripheral blood lymphocytes of the healthy and no-smoking donors exposed to 60Co and 137Cs radiation, with dose rate of 5 cGy.min.-1. Six points of dose were determined 20,50,100,200,300,400 cGy and the control not irradiated. The analysed aberrations were of chromosomic type, dicentric and centric ring. The dose response curve for dicentrics were obtained by frequencies weighted in liner-quadratic mathematic model and the equation resulted were for 60Co: Y = (3 46 +- 2.14)10-4 cGy-1 + (3.45 +- 0.64)10-6 cGy''-2 and for 137Cs'Cs: Y = (7.69 +- 2.33)10-4 cGy-1 + (l,96 +- 0,58)10-6 cGy-2. (author)

  13. Late rectal toxicity after conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer (I): multivariate analysis and dose-response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to use the outcome of a dose escalation protocol for three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) of prostate cancer to study the dose-response for late rectal toxicity and to identify anatomic, dosimetric, and clinical factors that correlate with late rectal bleeding in multivariate analysis. Methods and Materials: Seven hundred forty-three patients with T1c-T3 prostate cancer were treated with 3D-CRT with prescribed doses of 64.8 to 81.0 Gy. The 5-year actuarial rate of late rectal toxicity was assessed using Kaplan-Meier statistics. A retrospective dosimetric analysis was performed for patients treated to 70.2 Gy (52 patients) or 75.6 Gy (119 patients) who either exhibited late rectal bleeding (RTOG Grade 2/3) within 30 months after treatment (i.e., 70.2 Gy--13 patients, 75.6 Gy--36 patients) or were nonbleeding for at least 30 months (i.e., 70.2 Gy--39 patients, 75.6 Gy--83 patients). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed to correlate late rectal bleeding with several anatomic, dosimetric, and clinical variables. Results: A dose response for ? Grade 2 late rectal toxicity was observed. By multivariate analysis, the following factors were significantly correlated with ? Grade 2 late rectal bleeding for patients prescribed 70.2 Gy: 1) enclosure of the outer rectal contour by the 50% isodose on the isocenter slice (i.e., Iso50) (p max (p max

  14. The effect of diagnostic misclassification on noncancer and cancer mortality dose response in the RERF life span study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed analyses of cancer and noncancer mortality in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) Life Span Study (LSS) to determine whether the observed increased risk of noncancer death due to radiation exposure could be attributed solely to misclassification of causes of death on death certificates. Cancer and noncancer misclassification rates and their dependence on age at death were estimated from a series of autopsies performed on LSS participants between 1961 and 1975. The crude misclassification rates were 20% for cancer and 2.8% for noncancer. Although the noncancer dose response remained significant, correcting for this amount of misclassification reduced the estimated noncancer excess relative risk (ERR) at 1 Gy exposure by 21% and the number of excess noncancer deaths in the cohort by 23%. The estimated cancer ERR at 1 Gy was increased by 12% and the excess cancer deaths by 16% as a result of the correction. The statistical significance of the noncancer dose response was relatively insensitive to underestimating the cancer misclassification rate, but was sensitive to assuming that cancer misclassification was positively associated with dose. We discuss the implementation of the EM algorithm for adjusting for misclassification and extensions of the method to more than two causes of death. (author)

  15. Analysis of late effects data using dose-response models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical data for skin telangiectasia from previous prospective studies at the Radiotherapy Department in Gothenborg are reanalyzed using two dose-response models - general formulations of the well known linear-quadratic (LQ) and NSD isoeffect models. Assuming that essentially no repopulation appears in the vessel endothelium for overall treatment times up to 68 days, the ?/?-value of 2.75 Gy is obtained for the LQ-model. The time factor is found not to be significant by the NSD-model for the treatment times used (?68 days) at the 95% level of confidence. The estimated value of the exponent of the number of fractions, A, is 0.321. The obtained values of the ?/?-ratio and of A show high sensitivity of the vessel endothelium to changes in the dose per fraction. Our results show that within the interval of the number of fractions used, 10-35 fractions, the NSD-model gives predictions comparable to those of the LQ-model. For number of fractions smaller than 5, a high discrepancy occurs between the two models, the NSD-model predicting higher values of the isoeffective total dose. The maximal deviation between the models appears for N = 1;25% and 27% at the 5 and 50% level of effect, respectively. For large N and especially at low effect probabilities the NSD-model again predicts higher isoeffective doses: the dose predicted by the NSD-model for a regimen with 40 fractions and for 5% probability of telangiectasia is 7.5%, higher than that predicted by the LQ-model than that predicted by the LQ-model. Based on the estimated dose-response curves, considering the telangiectasia as the decisive late tissue effect, the requirement of the combined uncertainty in the dose delivery is estimated between 3 and 4.%. (author). 61 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs

  16. Effect of Cesium–137 Gamma Rays and High-Energy Electrons on Dose Response of Glycine Dosimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mukherjee

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Glycine (50 mg / 10 mL FX system can be used in the dose range of 500 to 4000 Gy for Cobalt-60 gamma rays. The energy dependency study for the glycine system was carried out by comparing its dose response for Cesium–137 gamma rays and 7 MeV electron beam with the dose response for Cobalt-60 gamma rays. It was found that for both the radiations viz.: Cesium-137 gamma rays and electrons, there is no significant change in dose response as compared with that for Cobalt-60.

  17. Population variability in biological adaptive responses to DNA damage and the shapes of carcinogen dose-response curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcinogen dose-response curves for both ionizing radiation and chemicals are typically assumed to be linear at environmentally relevant doses. This assumption is used to ensure protection of the public health in the absence of relevant dose-response data. A theoretical justification for the assumption has been provided by the argument that low dose linearity is expected when an exogenous agent adds to an ongoing endogenous process. Here, we use computational modeling to evaluate (1) how two biological adaptive processes, induction of DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint control, may affect the shapes of dose-response curves for DNA-damaging carcinogens and (2) how the resulting dose-response behaviors may vary within a population. Each model incorporating an adaptive process was capable of generating not only monotonic dose-responses but also nonmonotonic (J-shaped) and threshold responses. Monte Carlo analysis suggested that all these dose-response behaviors could coexist within a population, as the spectrum of qualitative differences arose from quantitative changes in parameter values. While this analysis is largely theoretical, it suggests that (a) accurate prediction of the qualitative form of the dose-response requires a quantitative understanding of the mechanism (b) significant uncertainty is associated with human health risk prediction in the absence of such quantitative understanding and (c) a stronger experimental and regulatory focus on biological mechanisnd regulatory focus on biological mechanisms and interindividual variability would allow flexibility in regulatory treatment of environmental carcinogens without compromising human health

  18. Statistical Significance Testing in Second Language Research: Basic Problems and Suggestions for Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Traditions of statistical significance testing in second language (L2) quantitative research are strongly entrenched in how researchers design studies, select analyses, and interpret results. However, statistical significance tests using "p" values are commonly misinterpreted by researchers, reviewers, readers, and others, leading to…

  19. Comment on "The Historical Growth of Statistical Significance Testing in Psychology--and Its Future Prospects."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winer, Russell S.

    2000-01-01

    Agrees with R. Hubbard and P. Ryan that statistical significance testing has had a negative impact in that some users have closed their minds to alternative approaches to conducting research. In marketing, the alternatives are not completely satisfactory, however, and researchers are likely to continue to rely on statistical significance testing.…

  20. Determining sexual dimorphism in frog measurement data: integration of statistical significance, measurement error, effect size and biological significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayek Lee-Ann C.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Several analytic techniques have been used to determine sexual dimorphism in vertebrate morphological measurement data with no emergent consensus on which technique is superior. A further confounding problem for frog data is the existence of considerable measurement error. To determine dimorphism, we examine a single hypothesis (Ho = equal means for two groups (females and males. We demonstrate that frog measurement data meet assumptions for clearly defined statistical hypothesis testing with statistical linear models rather than those of exploratory multivariate techniques such as principal components, correlation or correspondence analysis. In order to distinguish biological from statistical significance of hypotheses, we propose a new protocol that incorporates measurement error and effect size. Measurement error is evaluated with a novel measurement error index. Effect size, widely used in the behavioral sciences and in meta-analysis studies in biology, proves to be the most useful single metric to evaluate whether statistically significant results are biologically meaningful. Definitions for a range of small, medium, and large effect sizes specifically for frog measurement data are provided. Examples with measurement data for species of the frog genus Leptodactylus are presented. The new protocol is recommended not only to evaluate sexual dimorphism for frog data but for any animal measurement data for which the measurement error index and observed or a priori effect sizes can be calculated.

  1. Defining a dose-response relationship with radiotherapy for prostate cancer: is more really better?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Data were reviewed addressing the association between radiation therapy (RT) dose and treatment outcome for localized prostate cancer to help clarify the existence of a potential dose-response relationship. Methods and Materials: Articles were identified through the MEDLINE database, CancerLit database, and reference lists of relevant articles. Studies were categorized into four groups based upon the endpoint analyzed, including biochemical control (BC), local control (LC), pathologic control (PC), and cause-specific survival (CSS). The impact of increasing RT dose with each endpoint was recorded. Results: Twenty-two trials involving a total of 11,297 patients were identified. Of the 11 trials addressing the association of RT dose with LC, 9 showed statistically significant improvements. Of the 12 trials that reported BC with RT dose, all showed statistically significant improvements. Two out of 4 studies analyzing PC with increasing dose showed a positive correlation. Finally, 3 out of 9 studies addressing RT dose with CSS showed statistically significant improvements. Despite inconclusive results, patients with poor risk features (e.g., prostate-specific antigen [PSA] ?10, Gleason score [GS] ?7, or tumor stage ?T2b) were most likely to benefit from increasing dose with respect to each endpoint. However, the optimal RT dose and the magnitude of benefit of dose escalation could not be identified. Conclusions: Although RT dose appears to correlate with v RT dose appears to correlate with various measures of treatment outcome, objective, high-quality data addressing this critical issue are still lacking. At the present time, the absolute improvement in outcome due to dose escalation, the subset of patients benefiting most, and the optimal dose remain to be defined

  2. Model for dose-response with alternative change of sign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new mathematical model of dose-response relationships is proposed, suitable for calculating stochastic effects of low level exposure. The corresponding differential equations are presented as well as their solution. (A.K.)

  3. Immunomodulating potential of supplementation with probiotics : a dose-response study in healthy young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Risager; Larsen, C.N.

    2006-01-01

    Certain probiotic microorganisms have been found beneficial in the treatment of immune-related diseases and may also affect immune function in healthy people. Intervention studies of probiotics in healthy humans are urgently required. Here, the immunomodulating potential of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (BB-12) and Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (CRL-431) was studied in a double-blind placebo-controlled parallel dose-response trial (n=71) based on five randomly assigned groups of young healthy adults supplemented for 3 weeks with 0, 10(8), 10(9), 10(10) and 10(11) CFU day(-1), respectively, of a mixture of BB-12 and CRL-431. No statistically significant dose-dependent effect was found for phagocytic activity in blood leukocytes, fecal immunoglobulin A (IgA) concentrations or production of interferon-gamma and interleukin-10 in blood cells. When evaluating data according to the amount of viable BB-12 recovered from faeces, the interferon-gamma production in blood cells was significantly reduced.In conclusion, no solid effect on the immune function of young healthy adults supplemented with even high doses of B. animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 and L. paracasei ssp. paracasei CRL-431 was demonstrated in this study.

  4. Dose-response characteristics of low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In this era of dose escalation, the benefit of higher radiation doses for low-risk prostate cancer remains controversial. For intermediate-risk patients, the data suggest a benefit from higher doses. However, the quantitative characterization of the benefit for these patients is scarce. We investigated the radiation dose-response relation of tumor control probability in low-risk and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients treated with radiotherapy alone. We also investigated the differences in the dose-response characteristics using the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) definition vs. an alternative biochemical failure definition. Methods and materials: This study included 235 low-risk and 387 intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients treated with external beam radiotherapy without hormonal treatment between 1987 and 1998. The low-risk patients had 1992 American Joint Committee on Cancer Stage T2a or less disease as determined by digital rectal examination, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels of ?10 ng/mL, and biopsy Gleason scores of ?6. The intermediate-risk patients had one or more of the following: Stage T2b-c, PSA level of ?20 ng/mL but >10 ng/mL, and/or Gleason score of 7, without any of the following high-risk features: Stage T3 or greater, PSA >20 ng/mL, or Gleason score ?8. The logistic models were fitted to the data at varying points after treatment, and the dose-response parameters were estimated. We use parameters were estimated. We used two biochemical failure definitions. The ASTRO PSA failure was defined as three consecutive PSA rises, with the time to failure backdated to the mid-point between the nadir and the first rise. The second biochemical failure definition used was a PSA rise of ?2 ng/mL above the current PSA nadir (CN + 2). The failure date was defined as the time at which the event occurred. Local, nodal, and distant relapses and the use of salvage hormonal therapy were also failures. Results: On the basis of the ASTRO definition, at 5 years after radiotherapy, the dose required for 50% tumor control (TCD50) for low-risk patients was 57.3 Gy (95% confidence interval [CI], 47.6-67.0). The ?50 was 1.4 (95% CI, -0.1 to 2.9) around 57 Gy. A statistically significant dose-response relation was found using the ASTRO definition. However, no dose-response relation was noted using the CN + 2 definition for these low-risk patients. For the intermediate-risk patients, using the ASTRO definition, the TCD50 was 67.5 Gy (95% CI, 65.5-69.5) Gy and the ?50 was 2.2 (95% CI, 1.1-3.2) around TCD50. Using the CN + 2 definition, the TCD50 was 57.8 Gy (95% CI, 49.8-65.9) and the ?50 was 1.4 (95% CI, 0.2-2.5). Recursive partitioning analysis identified two subgroups within the low-risk group, as well as the intermediate-risk group: PSA level 78 Gy for these patients. A dose-response relation was noted for the intermediate-risk patients using either the CN + 2 or ASTRO definition. Most of the benefit from the higher doses also derived from the intermediate-risk patients with higher PSA levels. Some room for improvement appears to exist with additional dose increases in this group

  5. Radiation Dose-Response Model for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer After Preoperative Chemoradiation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, A. L.; Ploen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) is part of the standard treatment of locally advanced rectal cancers. Tumor regression at the time of operation is desirable, but not much is known about the relationship between radiation dose and tumor regression. In the present study we estimated radiation dose-response curves for various grades of tumor regression after preoperative CRT. Methods and Materials: A total of 222 patients, treated with consistent chemotherapy and radiation therapy techniques, were considered for the analysis. Radiation therapy consisted of a combination of external-beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy. Response at the time of operation was evaluated from the histopathologic specimen and graded on a 5-point scale (TRG1-5). The probability of achieving complete, major, and partial response was analyzed by ordinal logistic regression, and the effect of including clinical parameters in the model was examined. The radiation dose-response relationship for a specific grade of histopathologic tumor regression was parameterized in terms of the dose required for 50% response, D-50,D-i, and the normalized dose-response gradient, gamma(50,i). Results: A highly significant dose-response relationship was found (P=.002). For complete response (TRG1), the dose-response parameters were D-50,D-TRG1 = 92.0 Gy (95% confidence interval [CI] 79.3-144.9 Gy), gamma(50,TRG1) = 0.982 (CI 0.533-1.429), and for major response (TRG1-2) D-50,D-TRG1&2 = 72.1 Gy (CI 65.3-94.0 Gy), gamma(50,TRG1&2) = 0.770 (CI 0.338-1.201). Tumor size and N category both had a significant effect on the dose-response relationships. Conclusions: This study demonstrated a significant dose-response relationship for tumor regression after preoperative CRT for locally advanced rectal cancer for tumor dose levels in the range of 50.4-70 Gy, which is higher than the dose range usually considered. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  6. Strategies for Testing Statistical and Practical Significance in Detecting DIF with Logistic Regression Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidalgo, Angel M.; Alavi, Seyed Mohammad; Amirian, Seyed Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    This study examines three controversial aspects in differential item functioning (DIF) detection by logistic regression (LR) models: first, the relative effectiveness of different analytical strategies for detecting DIF; second, the suitability of the Wald statistic for determining the statistical significance of the parameters of interest; and…

  7. Testosterone dose-response relationships in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, S; Woodhouse, L; Casaburi, R; Singh, A B; Bhasin, D; Berman, N; Chen, X; Yarasheski, K E; Magliano, L; Dzekov, C; Dzekov, J; Bross, R; Phillips, J; Sinha-Hikim, I; Shen, R; Storer, T W

    2001-12-01

    Testosterone increases muscle mass and strength and regulates other physiological processes, but we do not know whether testosterone effects are dose dependent and whether dose requirements for maintaining various androgen-dependent processes are similar. To determine the effects of graded doses of testosterone on body composition, muscle size, strength, power, sexual and cognitive functions, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), plasma lipids, hemoglobin, and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels, 61 eugonadal men, 18-35 yr, were randomized to one of five groups to receive monthly injections of a long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist, to suppress endogenous testosterone secretion, and weekly injections of 25, 50, 125, 300, or 600 mg of testosterone enanthate for 20 wk. Energy and protein intakes were standardized. The administration of the GnRH agonist plus graded doses of testosterone resulted in mean nadir testosterone concentrations of 253, 306, 542, 1,345, and 2,370 ng/dl at the 25-, 50-, 125-, 300-, and 600-mg doses, respectively. Fat-free mass increased dose dependently in men receiving 125, 300, or 600 mg of testosterone weekly (change +3.4, 5.2, and 7.9 kg, respectively). The changes in fat-free mass were highly dependent on testosterone dose (P = 0.0001) and correlated with log testosterone concentrations (r = 0.73, P = 0.0001). Changes in leg press strength, leg power, thigh and quadriceps muscle volumes, hemoglobin, and IGF-I were positively correlated with testosterone concentrations, whereas changes in fat mass and plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were negatively correlated. Sexual function, visual-spatial cognition and mood, and PSA levels did not change significantly at any dose. We conclude that changes in circulating testosterone concentrations, induced by GnRH agonist and testosterone administration, are associated with testosterone dose- and concentration-dependent changes in fat-free mass, muscle size, strength and power, fat mass, hemoglobin, HDL cholesterol, and IGF-I levels, in conformity with a single linear dose-response relationship. However, different androgen-dependent processes have different testosterone dose-response relationships. PMID:11701431

  8. A test for the statistical significance of DNA sequence similarities for application in databank searches.

    OpenAIRE

    Mott, RF; Kirkwood, TB; Curnow, RN

    1989-01-01

    A method is developed, based on word-searching, which provides a rapid test for the statistical significance of DNA sequence similarities for use in databank searching. The method makes allowance for the lengths and dinucleotide compositions of the sequences being compared. A way is also described to calculate the power of the test, i.e. the probability of detecting a given similarity as being statistically significant. The effects on the power of the test of the scoring method, word length, ...

  9. Anti-irritants I: Dose-response in acute irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Flemming; Hedegaard, Kathryn; Petersen, Thomas Kongstad; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Fullerton, Ann; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2006-09-01

    The term 'anti-irritant' (AI) was coined in 1965 by Goldemberg to describe a diverse group of topical product ingredients, which were able to reduce the irritation potential of other more irritating ingredients in the same product. 'AIs' are being added to cosmetic formulations in order, allegedly, to benefit tolerability of the products and allow claims such as 'soothing' and 'healing' ingredients. Limited documentation in favour of the efficacy of AIs is published. We studied the dose-related effect of 4 alleged AIs (nifedipine, (-)-alpha-bisabolol, canola oil and glycerol) on experimentally induced acute irritation in healthy volunteers. Each AI was used in 3 concentrations. Acute irritation was induced by occlusive tests with 1% sodium lauryl sulfate and 20% nonanoic acid in N-propanol. The irritant reactions were treated twice daily with AI-containing formulations from the time of removal of the patches. Evaluation of skin irritation and efficacy of treatments were performed daily for 4 days using clinical scoring, evaporimetry (transepidermal water loss), hydration measurement and colourimetry. Only glycerol showed dose-response and effects potentially better than no treatment. There was no significant effect and no difference between the three other AIs. PMID:16918613

  10. Using the Bootstrap Method for a Statistical Significance Test of Differences between Summary Histograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kuan-Man

    2006-01-01

    A new method is proposed to compare statistical differences between summary histograms, which are the histograms summed over a large ensemble of individual histograms. It consists of choosing a distance statistic for measuring the difference between summary histograms and using a bootstrap procedure to calculate the statistical significance level. Bootstrapping is an approach to statistical inference that makes few assumptions about the underlying probability distribution that describes the data. Three distance statistics are compared in this study. They are the Euclidean distance, the Jeffries-Matusita distance and the Kuiper distance. The data used in testing the bootstrap method are satellite measurements of cloud systems called cloud objects. Each cloud object is defined as a contiguous region/patch composed of individual footprints or fields of view. A histogram of measured values over footprints is generated for each parameter of each cloud object and then summary histograms are accumulated over all individual histograms in a given cloud-object size category. The results of statistical hypothesis tests using all three distances as test statistics are generally similar, indicating the validity of the proposed method. The Euclidean distance is determined to be most suitable after comparing the statistical tests of several parameters with distinct probability distributions among three cloud-object size categories. Impacts on the statistical significance levels resulting from differences in the total lengths of satellite footprint data between two size categories are also discussed.

  11. Statistical vs. Economic Significance in Economics and Econometrics: Further comments on McCloskey & Ziliak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom

    2009-01-01

    I comment on the controversy between McCloskey & Ziliak and Hoover & Siegler on statistical versus economic significance, in the March 2008 issue of the Journal of Economic Methodology. I argue that while McCloskey & Ziliak are right in emphasizing 'real error', i.e. non-sampling error that cannot be eliminated through specification testing, they fail to acknowledge those areas in economics, e.g. rational expectations macroeconomics and asset pricing, where researchers clearly distinguish between statistical and economic significance and where statistical testing plays a relatively minor role in model evaluation. In these areas models are treated as inherently misspecified and, consequently, are evaluated empirically by other methods than statistical tests. I also criticise McCloskey & Ziliak for their strong focus on the size of parameter estimates while neglecting the important question of how to obtain reliable estimates, and I argue that significance tests are useful tools in those cases where a statistical model serves as input in the quantification of an economic model. Finally, I provide a specific example from economics - asset return predictability - where the distinction between statistical and economic significance is well appreciated, but which also shows how statistical tests have contributed to our substantive economic understanding.

  12. A dose response study of hepatitis A vaccine in healthy adults who are > or = 30 years old and weigh > or = 77 kg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertino, J S; Thoelen, S; VanDamme, P; Bryan, J P; Becherer, P R; Frey, S; Hayden, F G; Marcus, L C; Parenti, D M; Sperling, M; Chan, I S; Brown, L; Nalin, D

    1998-10-01

    The dose response relationship of 25-, 50-, and 100-U doses of an inactivated hepatitis A vaccine was examined in 358-seronegative volunteers in a 2-dose schedule. The 50-U and 100-U groups had statistically significantly higher seroconversion rates than the 25-U group at weeks 2, 4, 8, and 24. Seroconversion was statistically significantly greater for the 100-U compared with the 25- and 50-U doses 2 weeks after the first injection but was not significantly different by 4 weeks after the first injection in the 50- and 100-U dose groups. After 2 injections, all subjects in all groups seroconverted. The vaccine was well tolerated at all dosage levels. PMID:9806056

  13. Determining sexual dimorphism in frog measurement data: integration of statistical significance, measurement error, effect size and biological significance

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lee-Ann C., Hayek; W. Ronald, Heyer.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Técnicas analíticas variadas têm sido usadas para avaliar o dimorfismo sexual em medidas de vertebrados, mas não há consenso sobre o melhor procedimento. Um problema adicional, no caso dos anfíbios, é a presença de ponderável erro de medida. Para analisar dimorfismo sexual examinamos uma única hipót [...] ese (Ho = médias iguais) para dois grupos (fêmeas e machos). Demonstramos que dados de anfíbios preenchem as premissas para hipóteses estatísticas claramente definidas, usando modelos lineares em vez de técnicas exploratórias multivaraiadas, tais como components principais, correlação ou análise de correspondências. Para distinguir significância biológica de significância estatística nas hipóteses, propomos um protocolo incorporando erro de medida e "effect size". O erro de medida é avaliado por meio de um novo índice específico. Demonstramos que "effect size", amplamente usado nas ciências do comportamento e em meta-análises biológicas, é a medida mais útil na discriminação entre significância biológica e significância estatística. São dadas definições de uma ampla gama de "effect sizes" para dados anfibiológicos. São apresentados exemplos com medidas do gênero Leptodactylus. O novo protocolo é recomenadado não apenas no caso de anfíbios, mas em todos os casos de vertebrados em que possam ser calculados erros de medida e "effect sizes" observados ou determinados a priori. Abstract in english Several analytic techniques have been used to determine sexual dimorphism in vertebrate morphological measurement data with no emergent consensus on which technique is superior. A further confounding problem for frog data is the existence of considerable measurement error. To determine dimorphism, w [...] e examine a single hypothesis (Ho = equal means) for two groups (females and males). We demonstrate that frog measurement data meet assumptions for clearly defined statistical hypothesis testing with statistical linear models rather than those of exploratory multivariate techniques such as principal components, correlation or correspondence analysis. In order to distinguish biological from statistical significance of hypotheses, we propose a new protocol that incorporates measurement error and effect size. Measurement error is evaluated with a novel measurement error index. Effect size, widely used in the behavioral sciences and in meta-analysis studies in biology, proves to be the most useful single metric to evaluate whether statistically significant results are biologically meaningful. Definitions for a range of small, medium, and large effect sizes specifically for frog measurement data are provided. Examples with measurement data for species of the frog genus Leptodactylus are presented. The new protocol is recommended not only to evaluate sexual dimorphism for frog data but for any animal measurement data for which the measurement error index and observed or a priori effect sizes can be calculated.

  14. EasyGene – a prokaryotic gene finder that ranks ORFs by statistical significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Schou; Krogh, Anders Stærmose

    2003-01-01

    Background: Contrary to other areas of sequence analysis, a measure of statistical significance of a putative gene has not been devised to help in discriminating real genes from the masses of random Open Reading Frames (ORFs) in prokaryotic genomes. Therefore, many genomes have too many short ORFs annotated as genes.Results: In this paper, we present a new automated gene-finding method, EasyGene, which estimates the statistical significance of a predicted gene. The gene finder is based on a hidden Markov model (HMM) that is automatically estimated for a new genome. Using extensions of similarities in Swiss-Prot, a high quality training set of genes is automatically extracted from the genome and used to estimate the HMM. Putative genes are then scored with the HMM, and based on score and length of an ORF, the statistical significance is calculated. The measure of statistical significance for an ORF is the expected number of ORFs in one megabase of random sequence at the same significance level or better, wherethe random sequence has the same statistics as the genome in the sense of a third order Markov chain.Conclusions: The result is a flexible gene finder whose overall performance matches or exceeds other methods. The entire pipeline of computer processing from the raw input of a genome or set of contigs to a list of putative genes with significance is automated, making it easy to apply EasyGene to newly sequenced organisms.

  15. Kinetic modeling of optical absorption dose response in TLD-100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical absorption (OA) dose response is modeled in the framework of a single electron-trapping-center (TC), single hole-luminescent-center (LC) and single electron-competitive-center (CC). It is demonstrated that the 'always-experimentally-observed' linear/exponentially saturating OA dose response arises if there is approximate equality (within an order of magnitude) of the dose filling constants and the total available trap density associated with the TC and CC, as is apparently the case in LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) and other investigated TL materials. In principle, however, OA dose response supralinearity can occur if either of these are sufficiently dissimilar leading to early saturation of one of the electron trapping entities

  16. Codon Deviation Coefficient: A novel measure for estimating codon usage bias and its statistical significance

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhang

    2012-03-22

    Background: Genetic mutation, selective pressure for translational efficiency and accuracy, level of gene expression, and protein function through natural selection are all believed to lead to codon usage bias (CUB). Therefore, informative measurement of CUB is of fundamental importance to making inferences regarding gene function and genome evolution. However, extant measures of CUB have not fully accounted for the quantitative effect of background nucleotide composition and have not statistically evaluated the significance of CUB in sequence analysis.Results: Here we propose a novel measure--Codon Deviation Coefficient (CDC)--that provides an informative measurement of CUB and its statistical significance without requiring any prior knowledge. Unlike previous measures, CDC estimates CUB by accounting for background nucleotide compositions tailored to codon positions and adopts the bootstrapping to assess the statistical significance of CUB for any given sequence. We evaluate CDC by examining its effectiveness on simulated sequences and empirical data and show that CDC outperforms extant measures by achieving a more informative estimation of CUB and its statistical significance.Conclusions: As validated by both simulated and empirical data, CDC provides a highly informative quantification of CUB and its statistical significance, useful for determining comparative magnitudes and patterns of biased codon usage for genes or genomes with diverse sequence compositions. 2012 Zhang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  17. Dose-response relationships explained by the example of early side effects caused by irradiation of bladder neoplasms: Effects of fractionation and irradiation volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on clinical data obtained for 59 patients, dose-response relationships have been determined by evaluating early side effects observed after irradiation of bladder neoplasms. For this purpose, a computer simulation program has been set up for computing empirical frequency data from early side effects, and the resulting dose-response relationships. Slight or serious cystitis and proctic complaints have been considered as early side effects. Serious cystitis proved to be most suited for dose-response relationship assessments, as diagnosis in this case is relatively safe, its simulation leading to the steepest dose-response relationships, and the effects of correction of ''time factor'' and volume being most significant. For correcting the ''time factor'', the Ellis formula alone, the Ellis formula including consideration of exposure intermittance, and the so-called ''general formula'' for determination of nominal dose according to Kellerer have been used. All these concepts applied for determining dose-response relationships produced approximately concurrent results. (orig./MG)

  18. Testing effect of a drug using multiple nested models for the dose–response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baayen, C.; Hougaard, P.

    2015-01-01

    During development of a drug, typically the choice of dose is based on a Phase II dose?finding trial, where selected doses are included with placebo. Two common statistical dose?finding methods to analyze such trials are separate comparisons of each dose to placebo (using a multiple comparison procedure) or a model?based strategy (where a dose–response model is fitted to all data). The first approach works best when patients are concentrated on few doses, but cannot conclude on doses not tested. Model?based methods allow for interpolation between doses, but the validity depends on the correctness of the assumed dose–response model. Bretz et al. (2005, Biometrics 61, 738–748) suggested a combined approach, which selects one or more suitable models from a set of candidate models using a multiple comparison procedure. The method initially requires a priori estimates of any non?linear parameters of the candidate models, such that there is still a degree of model misspecification possible and one can only evaluateone or a few special cases of a general model. We propose an alternative multiple testing procedure, which evaluates a candidate set of plausible dose–response models against each other to select one final model. The method does not require any a priori parameter estimates and controls the Type I error rate of selecting a too complex model.

  19. Confidence intervals permit, but don't guarantee, better inference than statistical significance testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FionaFidler

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A statistically significant result, and a non-significant result may differ little, although significance status may tempt an interpretation of difference. Two studies are reported that compared interpretation of such results presented using null hypothesis significance testing (NHST, or confidence intervals (CIs. Authors of articles published in psychology, behavioural neuroscience, and medical journals were asked, via email, to interpret two fictitious studies that found similar results, one statistically significant, and the other non-significant. Responses from 330 authors varied greatly, but interpretation was generally poor, whether results were presented as CIs or using NHST. However, when interpreting CIs respondents who mentioned NHST were 60% likely to conclude, unjustifiably, the two results conflicted, whereas those who interpreted CIs without reference to NHST were 95% likely to conclude, justifiably, the two results were consistent. Findings were generally similar for all three disciplines. An email survey of academic psychologists confirmed that CIs elicit better interpretations if NHST is not invoked. Improved statistical inference can result from encouragement of meta-analytic thinking and use of CIs but, for full benefit, such highly desirable statistical reform requires also that researchers interpret CIs without recourse to NHST.

  20. A Bayesian network model for biomarker-based dose response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, C Eric; Haber, Lynne T; Maier, Andrew; Shulte, Paul; Fowler, Bruce; Lotz, W Gregory; Savage, Russell E

    2010-07-01

    A Bayesian network model was developed to integrate diverse types of data to conduct an exposure-dose-response assessment for benzene-induced acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The network approach was used to evaluate and compare individual biomarkers and quantitatively link the biomarkers along the exposure-disease continuum. The network was used to perform the biomarker-based dose-response analysis, and various other approaches to the dose-response analysis were conducted for comparison. The network-derived benchmark concentration was approximately an order of magnitude lower than that from the usual exposure concentration versus response approach, which suggests that the presence of more information in the low-dose region (where changes in biomarkers are detectable but effects on AML mortality are not) helps inform the description of the AML response at lower exposures. This work provides a quantitative approach for linking changes in biomarkers of effect both to exposure information and to changes in disease response. Such linkage can provide a scientifically valid point of departure that incorporates precursor dose-response information without being dependent on the difficult issue of a definition of adversity for precursors. PMID:20412521

  1. CANCER DOSE-RESPONSE MODELS INCORPORATING CLONAL EXPANSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under the assumption that a malignant tumor develops through a sequence of steps (normal cells - initiated cells/foci - nodules - tumors) two classes of mathematical models of carcinogenesis that have a potential to be used for cancer dose-response modeling are discussed. The two...

  2. Effect of specific resistance training on musculoskeletal pain symptoms : dose-response relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Andersen, Lars Louis

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Pedersen, MT, Andersen, LL, Jørgensen, MB, Søgaard, K, and Sjøgaard, G. Effect of specific resistance training on musculoskeletal pain symptoms: Dose-response relationship. J Strength Cond Res 27(1): 229-235, 2013-The purpose of this study was to investigate the dose-response of strength training for relieving musculoskeletal pain in female office workers. The relation between the dose of training in terms of total training volume (sets × repetitions × load reported in training diaries) during a 16-week strength training program and changes in pain (calculated as pain index, 0-100%, from self-reported intensities and durations of pain in the upper body and low back) was determined by regression analysis. The women were part of a randomized controlled trial with specific strength training (SRT), all-round physical exercise (APE), and a reference group (REF). Results showed that pain index in SRT and APE decreased significantly from baseline to follow-up (-25%/-22%) compared with changes in REF (-15%). In the dose-response analysis within the SRT group (n = 125), the total volume of training (mean 18.056 kg, SD = 13.798) was negatively correlated with changes in pain index (ß = -0.16, p = 0.045), and there was a significant dose-response relationship between training volume per session and change in pain index (ß = -0.20, p = 0.034). In contrast, training attendance (mean 1.69 sessions per week, SD = 0.8) was not significantly related to the change in pain index. In conclusion, achieving higher accumulated training volumes was important for reducing musculoskeletal pain in female office workers. The training volume per session should be optimized by securing a load at 10-15 repetition maximum and adhering to principles of progressive overload.

  3. Radiation Dose-Response Relationships and Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The notion of a dose-response relationship was probably invented shortly after the discovery of poisons, the invention of alcoholic beverages, and the bringing of fire into a confined space in the forgotten depths of ancient prehistory. The amount of poison or medicine ingested can easily be observed to affect the behavior, health, or sickness outcome. Threshold effects, such as death, could be easily understood for intoxicants, medicine, and poisons. As Paracelsus (1493-1541), the 'father' of modern toxicology said, 'It is the dose that makes the poison.' Perhaps less obvious is the fact that implicit in such dose-response relationships is also the notion of dose rate. Usually, the dose is administered fairly acutely, in a single injection, pill, or swallow; a few puffs on a pipe; or a meal of eating or drinking. The same amount of intoxicants, medicine, or poisons administered over a week or month might have little or no observable effect. Thus, before the discovery of ionizing radiation in the late 19th century, toxicology ('the science of poisons') and pharmacology had deeply ingrained notions of dose-response relationships. This chapter demonstrates that the notion of a dose-response relationship for ionizing radiation is hopelessly simplistic from a scientific standpoint. While useful from a policy or regulatory standpoint, dose-response relationships cannot possibly convey enough information to describe the problem from a quantitative view of radiation biology, a quantitative view of radiation biology, nor can they address societal values. Three sections of this chapter address the concepts, observations, and theories that contribute to the scientific input to the practice of managing risks from exposure to ionizing radiation. The presentation begins with irradiation regimes, followed by responses to high and low doses of ionizing radiation, and a discussion of how all of this can inform radiation risk management. The knowledge that is really needed for prediction of individual risk is presented. The chapter ends with conclusions and recommendations.

  4. Dose-response curve to salbutamol during acute and chronic treatment with formoterol in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Piana GE

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Emanuele La Piana¹, Luciano Corda², Enrica Bertella¹, Luigi Taranto Montemurro¹, Laura Pini¹, Claudio Tantucci¹¹Cattedra di Malattie dell'Apparato Respiratorio, Università di Brescia, ²Prima Divisione di Medicina Interna, Spedali Civili, Brescia, ItalyBackground: Use of short-acting ß2-agonists in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD during treatment with long-acting ß2-agonists is recommended as needed, but its effectiveness is unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess the additional bronchodilating effect of increasing doses of salbutamol during acute and chronic treatment with formoterol in patients with COPD.Methods: Ten patients with COPD underwent a dose-response curve to salbutamol (until 800 µg of cumulative dose after a 1-week washout (baseline, 8 hours after the first administration of formoterol 12 µg (day 1, and after a 12-week and 24-week period of treatment with formoterol (12 µg twice daily by dry powder inhaler. Peak expiratory flow, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, forced vital capacity, and inspiratory capacity were measured at the different periods of treatment and at different steps of the dose-response curve.Results: Despite acute or chronic administration of formoterol, maximal values of peak expiratory flow, FEV1, and forced vital capacity after 800 µg of salbutamol were unchanged compared with baseline. The baseline FEV1 dose-response curve was steeper than that at day 1, week 12, or week 24 (P < 0.0001. Within each dose-response curve, FEV1 was different only at baseline and at day 1 (P < 0.001, when FEV1 was still greater at 800 µg than at 0 µg (P < 0.02. In contrast, the forced vital capacity dose-response curves were similar at the different periods, while within each dose-response curve, forced vital capacity was different in all instances (P < 0.001, always being higher at 800 µg than at 0 µg (P < 0.05.Conclusion: In patients with stable COPD, the maximal effect of salbutamol on peak expiratory flow, FEV1, and forced vital capacity was unchanged after either acute or chronic treatment with formoterol. With increasing doses of salbutamol, FEV1 increased only after acute administration of formoterol. Forced vital capacity also significantly improved during long-term treatment with formoterol.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, salbutamol, formoterol, long-acting ß2-agonists

  5. Exposure time independent summary statistics for assessment of drug dependent cell line growth inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falgreen, Steffen; Laursen, Maria Bach

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In vitro generated dose-response curves of human cancer cell lines are widely used to develop new therapeutics. The curves are summarised by simplified statistics that ignore the conventionally used dose-response curves' dependency on drug exposure time and growth kinetics. This may lead to suboptimal exploitation of data and biased conclusions on the potential of the drug in question. Therefore we set out to improve the dose-response assessments by eliminating the impact of time dependency. RESULTS: First, a mathematical model for drug induced cell growth inhibition was formulated and used to derive novel dose-response curves and improved summary statistics that are independent of time under the proposed model. Next, a statistical analysis workflow for estimating the improved statistics was suggested consisting of 1) nonlinear regression models for estimation of cell counts and doubling times, 2) isotonic regression for modelling the suggested dose-response curves, and 3) resampling based methodfor assessing variation of the novel summary statistics. We document that conventionally used summary statistics for dose-response experiments depend on time so that fast growing cell lines compared to slowly growing ones are considered overly sensitive. The adequacy of the mathematical model is tested for doxorubicin and found to fit real data to an acceptable degree. Dose-response data from the NCI60 drug screen were used to illustrate the time dependency and demonstrate an adjustment correcting for it. The applicability of the workflow was illustrated by simulation and application on a doxorubicin growth inhibition screen. The simulations show that under the proposed mathematical model the suggested statistical workflow results in unbiased estimates of the time independent summary statistics. Variance estimates of the novel summary statistics are used to conclude that the doxorubicin screen covers a significant diverse range of responses ensuring it is useful for biological interpretations. CONCLUSION: Time independent summary statistics may aid the understanding of drugs' action mechanism on tumour cells and potentially renew previous drug sensitivity evaluation studies.

  6. EasyGene – a prokaryotic gene finder that ranks ORFs by statistical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsen Thomas

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contrary to other areas of sequence analysis, a measure of statistical significance of a putative gene has not been devised to help in discriminating real genes from the masses of random Open Reading Frames (ORFs in prokaryotic genomes. Therefore, many genomes have too many short ORFs annotated as genes. Results In this paper, we present a new automated gene-finding method, EasyGene, which estimates the statistical significance of a predicted gene. The gene finder is based on a hidden Markov model (HMM that is automatically estimated for a new genome. Using extensions of similarities in Swiss-Prot, a high quality training set of genes is automatically extracted from the genome and used to estimate the HMM. Putative genes are then scored with the HMM, and based on score and length of an ORF, the statistical significance is calculated. The measure of statistical significance for an ORF is the expected number of ORFs in one megabase of random sequence at the same significance level or better, where the random sequence has the same statistics as the genome in the sense of a third order Markov chain. Conclusions The result is a flexible gene finder whose overall performance matches or exceeds other methods. The entire pipeline of computer processing from the raw input of a genome or set of contigs to a list of putative genes with significance is automated, making it easy to apply EasyGene to newly sequenced organisms. EasyGene with pre-trained models can be accessed at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/EasyGene.

  7. Using the Descriptive Bootstrap to Evaluate Result Replicability (Because Statistical Significance Doesn't)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinella, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    As result replicability is essential to science and difficult to achieve through external replicability, the present paper notes the insufficiency of null hypothesis statistical significance testing (NHSST) and explains the bootstrap as a plausible alternative, with a heuristic example to illustrate the bootstrap method. The bootstrap relies on…

  8. Effect size, confidence interval and statistical significance: a practical guide for biologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Shinichi; Cuthill, Innes C

    2007-11-01

    Null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) is the dominant statistical approach in biology, although it has many, frequently unappreciated, problems. Most importantly, NHST does not provide us with two crucial pieces of information: (1) the magnitude of an effect of interest, and (2) the precision of the estimate of the magnitude of that effect. All biologists should be ultimately interested in biological importance, which may be assessed using the magnitude of an effect, but not its statistical significance. Therefore, we advocate presentation of measures of the magnitude of effects (i.e. effect size statistics) and their confidence intervals (CIs) in all biological journals. Combined use of an effect size and its CIs enables one to assess the relationships within data more effectively than the use of p values, regardless of statistical significance. In addition, routine presentation of effect sizes will encourage researchers to view their results in the context of previous research and facilitate the incorporation of results into future meta-analysis, which has been increasingly used as the standard method of quantitative review in biology. In this article, we extensively discuss two dimensionless (and thus standardised) classes of effect size statistics: d statistics (standardised mean difference) and r statistics (correlation coefficient), because these can be calculated from almost all study designs and also because their calculations are essential for meta-analysis. However, our focus on these standardised effect size statistics does not mean unstandardised effect size statistics (e.g. mean difference and regression coefficient) are less important. We provide potential solutions for four main technical problems researchers may encounter when calculating effect size and CIs: (1) when covariates exist, (2) when bias in estimating effect size is possible, (3) when data have non-normal error structure and/or variances, and (4) when data are non-independent. Although interpretations of effect sizes are often difficult, we provide some pointers to help researchers. This paper serves both as a beginner's instruction manual and a stimulus for changing statistical practice for the better in the biological sciences. PMID:17944619

  9. Similarity criterion analysis of dose-response curves in biological assay and radioimmunoassay of hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The difficulties involved in the control of biological and radioimmunological assay systems, and in the maintenance of standard, as well as, the usual heterogeneity of assayed samples require some evidence of similarity between the dose-response curves obtained with the standard and the sample. Nowadays the parallelism test is used to provide such evidence. However, some indications of non-normal errors distribution, such as the presence of out layers, render the parallelism test both conceptually implausible and statistically inefficient. In such a manner we suggest the non-parametric 'frequencial' test as a more sounding option. (author)

  10. Dose-responses from multi-model inference for the non-cancer disease mortality of atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöllnberger, H; Kaiser, J C; Jacob, P; Walsh, L

    2012-05-01

    The non-cancer mortality data for cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular diseases from Report 13 on the atomic bomb survivors published by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation were analysed to investigate the dose-response for the influence of radiation on these detrimental health effects. Various parametric and categorical models (such as linear-no-threshold (LNT) and a number of threshold and step models) were analysed with a statistical selection protocol that rated the model description of the data. Instead of applying the usual approach of identifying one preferred model for each data set, a set of plausible models was applied, and a sub-set of non-nested models was identified that all fitted the data about equally well. Subsequently, this sub-set of non-nested models was used to perform multi-model inference (MMI), an innovative method of mathematically combining different models to allow risk estimates to be based on several plausible dose-response models rather than just relying on a single model of choice. This procedure thereby produces more reliable risk estimates based on a more comprehensive appraisal of model uncertainties. For CVD, MMI yielded a weak dose-response (with a risk estimate of about one-third of the LNT model) below a step at 0.6 Gy and a stronger dose-response at higher doses. The calculated risk estimates are consistent with zero risk below this threshold-dose. For mortalities related to cardiovascular diseases, an LNT-type dose-response was found with risk estimates consistent with zero risk below 2.2 Gy based on 90% confidence intervals. The MMI approach described here resolves a dilemma in practical radiation protection when one is forced to select between models with profoundly different dose-responses for risk estimates. PMID:22437350

  11. Significance in gamma-ray astronomy - the Li & Ma problem in Bayesian statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillessen, S.; Harney, H. L.

    2005-01-01

    The significance of having detected an astrophysical gamma ray source is usually calculated by means of a formula derived by Li & Ma (1983, ApJ, 272, 317). We solve the same problem in terms of Bayesian statistics, which provides a logically more satisfactory framework. We do not use any subjective elements in the present version of Bayesian statistics. We show that for large count numbers and a weak source the Li & Ma formula agrees with the Bayesian result. For other cases the two results differ, both due to the mathematically different treatment and the fact that only Bayesian inference can take into account prior knowldege.

  12. Do statistically significant correlations exist between the Homestake solar neutrino data and sunspots?

    CERN Document Server

    Boger, J; Cumming, J B

    2000-01-01

    It has been suggested by various authors that a significant anticorrelation exists between the Homestake solar neutrino data and the sunspot cycle. Some of these claims rest on smoothing the data by taking running averages, a method that has recently undergone criticism. We demonstrate that no significant anticorrelation can be found in the Homestake, data, or in standard 2- and 4-point averages of that data. However, when 3-, 5-, and 7-point running averages are taken, an anticorrelation seems to emerge whose significance grows as the number of points in the average increases. Our analysis indicates that the apparently high significance of these anticorrelations is an artifact of the failure to consider the loss of independence introduced in the running average process. When this is considered, the significance is reduced to that of the unaveraged data. Furthermore, when evaluated via parametric subsampling, no statistically significant anticorrelation is found. We conclude that the Homestake data can not be...

  13. Determination of dose- response relationship in cultured human by lymphocytes for biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: lymphocyte- dicentric assay is the most generally accepted method for biological dosimetry of overexposed individuals. In this study, the frequency of unstable chromosome aberration in blood lymphocytes was used to estimate radiation dose received by individuals. Evaluation of dose using a calibration curve produced elsewhere may have a significant uncertainty; therefore, experiments were performed to produce a dose-response curve using an established protocol of international atomic energy agency. Materials and methods: lymphocytes in whole peripheral blood obtained from healthy individuals, were exposed to various doses of gamma radiation (0.25-4 Gy). Then after 1 hour of incubation in 37digC , were cultured in complete RPMI-1640 medium. 500 mitoses were analyzed for the presence or absence of unstable chromosomal aberrations for each radiation dose after the standard metaphase preparation and staining slides. Results and conclusion: Intercellular distribution chromosomes at each radiation dose has been used to contrast a dose- response curve. It seems that dose-effect relationship follows with the linear-quadratic model. There is a good agreement between our dose- response curves with similar published studies by other laboratories

  14. Cognitive Constructivism and the Epistemic Significance of Sharp Statistical Hypotheses in Natural Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, J M

    2010-01-01

    This book presents our case in defense of a constructivist epistemological framework and the use of compatible statistical theory and inference tools. The basic metaphor of decision theory is the maximization of a gambler's expected fortune, according to his own subjective utility, prior beliefs an learned experiences. This metaphor has proven to be very useful, leading the development of Bayesian statistics since its XX-th century revival, rooted on the work of de Finetti, Savage and others. The basic metaphor presented in this text, as a foundation for cognitive constructivism, is that of an eigen-solution, and the verification of its objective epistemic status. The FBST - Full Bayesian Significance Test - is the cornerstone of a set of statistical tolls conceived to assess the epistemic value of such eigen-solutions, according to their four essential attributes, namely, sharpness, stability, separability and composability. We believe that this alternative perspective, complementary to the one ofered by dec...

  15. Radiation dose response of strand breaks in SINPV-DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Spodoplera litura Nuclear Polyhedrosis Viruses (SINPV) is a kind of insectile virus with a simple structure, in which a double helix DNA is encapsulated in a protein coat and there is no function of enzymatic repair. The SINPV samples in dry powdered form held in sealed plastic tube were irradiated by 1-100 kGy gamma rays. The single strand breaks (SSB) and double strand breaks (DSB) induced in SINPV after irradiation were measured by neutral and alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis. A dose-response function combining the responses of one-hit and two-hit events was used to describe the SSB and DSB dose-response curves. It is shown that the SSB are one-hit events and the DSB are the combination of both one-hit, and two-hit events, and two-hit events are predominant in the DSB process

  16. Model Averaging Software for Dichotomous Dose Response Risk Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W. Wheeler

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Model averaging has been shown to be a useful method for incorporating model uncertainty in quantitative risk estimation. In certain circumstances this technique is computationally complex, requiring sophisticated software to carry out the computation. We introduce software that implements model averaging for risk assessment based upon dichotomous dose-response data. This software, which we call Model Averaging for Dichotomous Response Benchmark Dose (MADr-BMD, ?ts the quantal response models, which are also used in the US Environmental Protection Agency benchmark dose software suite, and generates a model-averaged dose response model to generate benchmark dose and benchmark dose lower bound estimates. The software ful?lls a need for risk assessors, allowing them to go beyond one single model in their risk assessments based on quantal data by focusing on a set of models that describes the experimental data.

  17. Thresholds for statistical and clinical significance in systematic reviews with meta-analytic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Wetterslev, JØrn

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thresholds for statistical significance when assessing meta-analysis results are being insufficiently demonstrated by traditional 95% confidence intervals and P-values. Assessment of intervention effects in systematic reviews with meta-analysis deserves greater rigour. METHODS: Methodologies for assessing statistical and clinical significance of intervention effects in systematic reviews were considered. Balancing simplicity and comprehensiveness, an operational procedure was developed, based mainly on The Cochrane Collaboration methodology and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. RESULTS: We propose an eight-step procedure for better validation of meta-analytic results in systematic reviews (1) Obtain the 95% confidence intervals and the P-values from both fixed-effect and random-effects meta-analyses and report the most conservative results as the main results. (2) Explore the reasons behind substantial statistical heterogeneity using sensitivity analyses. (3) To take account of problems with multiplicity adjust the thresholds for significance according to the number of primary outcomes. (4) Calculate required information sizes ([almost equal to] the a priori required number of participants for a meta-analysis to be conclusive) for all outcomes and analyse each outcome with trial sequential analysis. Report whether the trial sequential monitoring boundaries for benefit, harm, or futility are crossed. (5) Calculate Bayes factors for all primary outcomes. (6) Use subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses to assess the potential impact of bias on the review results. (7) Assess the risk of publication bias. (8) Assess the clinical significance of the statistically significant review results. CONCLUSIONS: If followed, the proposed eight-step procedure will increase the validity of assessments of intervention effects in systematic reviews of randomised clinical trials.

  18. Dose-response relationship in radioiodine therapy of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the analysis of the dose-response relationship during radioiodine therapy, the effective dose was calculated based on measurements in 1,171 patients. Early results of the radioiodine therapy of these cases were checked up from 6 to 9 months afterwards. The dose-response curve for the probability of residual hyperthyreoses shows an exponential shape, whereas the curve of induced hypothyroidism is sigmoidally shaped. The results of experimental biophysics concerning dose-response curves allow the statement that there is no reactivity of the thyroid gland in cases of residual hyperthyroidism, whereas distinct compensation mechanisms are counteracting the induction of hypothyroidism. Thus, the conception of fractionated radioiodine therapy is supported by the shape of dose-response curves. The fractionation of the dose leads to accumulated inactivation effects on the hyperthyroidism, while the compensational mechanisms against hypothyroidism are strengthening by intermittent recovery and the rate of induced hypothyroidism is decreasing. The favorable effect of multiple treatment on the number of induced hypothyreoses could be verified. A defined interrelation is found between the effective dose, the thyroid mass and the effect of the dose. A formula of the isoeffective dose in dependence on the thyroid mass is derived. The deviation of the effective dose from the dose previously calculated is represented as a distribution function. The mean value of this distribution tion. The mean value of this distribution function can be regarded as an expectation of the effective dose. Hence, a previous calculation of the dose is considered useful also in future. The isoeffective dose is proposed to be chosen in dependence on the thyroid mass according to a 50% probability of residual hyperthyroidism. Relative to the intensity of residual hyperthyroidism, a second treatment considering the same standards should be performed after 4 to 9 months. The number of reiterated treatments needed depends on individual radiation sensitivity resulting from biological factors. (orig./MG)

  19. Dose response of ipratropium bromide assessed by two methods

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Christopher J.; Campbell, Alastair H.

    1980-01-01

    The dose-response relationships of ipratropium bromide were assessed by two different techniques in two groups of 10 male patients with partially reversible airways obstruction. In a randomised double-blind fashion on four days, 10 patients were given 40 ?g, 80 ?g, or 120 ?g of ipratropium bromide or placebo from identical containers. Baseline FEV1 and vital capacity were measured and the measurements repeated after 40 minutes, one, two, four, and six hours, and any symptoms were elicited....

  20. Dose-response curves and their modification by specific mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three types of mechanisms are discussed that can contribute to the yield of radiation induced cancer. The relative contribution of each mechanism depends heavily on the tumor type in question. It is suggested that the most fruitful approach to the study of the biology of radiation carcinogenesis is a continued consideration of the mechanisms involved relative to the dose response curves observed (U.S.)

  1. Modeling the biological dose response to carbon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thorough understanding of the dose response is one of the keys for success in radiation therapy. Due to the relatively short history and increased fraction size resulting from hypofractionation by superior dose localization, verification of the appropriateness of the available dose response models for carbon ion radiotherapy is needed. In this study, the applicability of three dose response models, including the linear-quadratic (LQ), multi-target two components (MT) and Repairable-Conditionally Repairable (RCR) models was investigated for the endpoints of in-vivo mouse skin reaction and the clinical local control rate of non-small cell lung cancer with the carbon beam. We found that the RCR model is the most appropriate for determining the in-vivo skin reaction among the three models; however, the classical LQ model still gives the best reproducibility of the clinical results. The understanding of the difference between in-vivo and clinical data, as well as the uniqueness of single irradiation, is indispensable for establishing the optimum dose and technique for administering carbon ion radiotherapy in the future. (author)

  2. Henry Eyring: Statistical Mechanics, Significant Structure Theory, and the Inductive-Deductive Method

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Henry Eyring was, and still is, a towering figure in science. Some aspects of his life and science, beginning in Mexico and continuing in Arizona, California, Wisconsin, Germany, Princeton, and finally Utah, are reviewed here. Eyring moved gradually from quantum theory toward statistical mechanics and the theory of liquids, motivated in part by his desire to understand reactions in condensed matter. Significant structure theory, while not as successful as Eyring thought, is ...

  3. The orthopaedic trauma literature: an evaluation of statistically significant findings in orthopaedic trauma randomized trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tornetta Paul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based medicine posits that health care research is founded upon clinically important differences in patient centered outcomes. Statistically significant differences between two treatments may not necessarily reflect a clinically important difference. We aimed to quantify the sample sizes and magnitude of treatment effects in a review of orthopaedic randomized trials with statistically significant findings. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search (PubMed, Cochrane for all randomized controlled trials between 1/1/95 to 12/31/04. Eligible studies include those that focused upon orthopaedic trauma. Baseline characteristics and treatment effects were abstracted by two reviewers. Briefly, for continuous outcome measures (ie functional scores, we calculated effect sizes (mean difference/standard deviation. Dichotomous variables (ie infection, nonunion were summarized as absolute risk differences and relative risk reductions (RRR. Effect sizes >0.80 and RRRs>50% were defined as large effects. Using regression analysis we examined the association between the total number of outcome events and treatment effect (dichotomous outcomes. Results Our search yielded 433 randomized controlled trials (RCTs, of which 76 RCTs with statistically significant findings on 184 outcomes (122 continuous/62 dichotomous outcomes met study eligibility criteria. The mean effect size across studies with continuous outcome variables was 1.7 (95% confidence interval: 1.43–1.97. For dichotomous outcomes, the mean risk difference was 30% (95%confidence interval:24%–36% and the mean relative risk reduction was 61% (95% confidence interval: 55%–66%; range: 0%–97%. Fewer numbers of total outcome events in studies was strongly correlated with increasing magnitude of the treatment effect (Pearson's R = -0.70, p Conclusion Our review suggests that statistically significant results in orthopaedic trials have the following implications-1 On average large risk reductions are reported 2 Large treatment effects (>50% relative risk reduction are correlated with few number of total outcome events. Readers should interpret the results of such small trials with these issues in mind.

  4. The null hypothesis significance test in health sciences research (1995-2006): statistical analysis and interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Somoano Ana; Suárez-Gil Patricio; Silva-Ayçaguer Luis

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The null hypothesis significance test (NHST) is the most frequently used statistical method, although its inferential validity has been widely criticized since its introduction. In 1988, the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) warned against sole reliance on NHST to substantiate study conclusions and suggested supplementary use of confidence intervals (CI). Our objective was to evaluate the extent and quality in the use of NHST and CI, both in Englis...

  5. Evidence for t bar t production at the Tevatron: Statistical significance and cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We summarize here the results of the ''counting experiments'' by the CDF Collaboration in the search of t bar t production in p bar p collisions at ?s = 1800 TeV at the Tevatron. We analyze their statistical significance by calculating the probability that the observed excess is a fluctuation of the expected backgrounds, and assuming the excess is from top events, extract a measurement of the t bar t production cross-section

  6. SU-E-J-51: Dose Response of Common Solid State Detectors in Homogeneous Transverse and Longitudinal Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Solid state radiation detectors are often used for dose profiles and percent depth dose measurements. The dose response of selected solid state detectors is evaluated in varying transverse and longitudinal magnetic fields for eventual use in MR-Linac devices. Methods: A PTW 60003 and IBA PFD detector were modeled in the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE, incorporating a magnetic field which was varied in strength and oriented both transversely and longitudinally with respect to the incident photon beam. The detectors' long axis was in turn oriented either parallel or perpendicular to the photon beam. Dose to the active volume of each detector was scored, and its ratio to dose with zero magnetic field strength (dose response) was determined. Accuracy of the simulations was evaluated by measurements using both chambers taken at low field with a small electromagnet. Simulations were also performed in a water phantom to compare to the in air results. Results: Significant dose response was found in transverse field geometries, nearing 20% at 1.5T. The response is highly dependent on relative orientations to the magnetic field and photon beam, and on detector composition. Low field measurements confirm these results. In the presence of longitudinal magnetic fields, the detectors exhibit little dose response, reaching 0.5–1% at 1.5T regardless of detector orientation. Water tank simulations compared well to the in air simulations when not at the beam periphery, where in transverse magnetic fields only, the water tank simulations differed from the in air results. Conclusion: Transverse magnetic fields can cause large deviations in dose response, and are highly position orientation dependent. Comparatively, longitudinal magnetic fields exhibit little to no dose response in each detector as a function of magnetic field strength. Water tank simulations show longitudinal fields are generally easier to work with, but each detector must be evaluated separately

  7. Island method for estimating the statistical significance of profile-profile alignment scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poleksic Aleksandar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last decade, a significant improvement in detecting remote similarity between protein sequences has been made by utilizing alignment profiles in place of amino-acid strings. Unfortunately, no analytical theory is available for estimating the significance of a gapped alignment of two profiles. Many experiments suggest that the distribution of local profile-profile alignment scores is of the Gumbel form. However, estimating distribution parameters by random simulations turns out to be computationally very expensive. Results We demonstrate that the background distribution of profile-profile alignment scores heavily depends on profiles' composition and thus the distribution parameters must be estimated independently, for each pair of profiles of interest. We also show that accurate estimates of statistical parameters can be obtained using the "island statistics" for profile-profile alignments. Conclusion The island statistics can be generalized to profile-profile alignments to provide an efficient method for the alignment score normalization. Since multiple island scores can be extracted from a single comparison of two profiles, the island method has a clear speed advantage over the direct shuffling method for comparable accuracy in parameter estimates.

  8. Volcanic activity before and after large tectonic earthquakes: Observations and statistical significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, Silke; Walter, Thomas R.

    2009-06-01

    The study of volcanic triggering and interaction with the tectonic surroundings has received special attention in recent years, using both direct field observations and historical descriptions of eruptions and earthquake activity. Repeated reports of clustered eruptions and earthquakes may imply that interaction is important in some subregions. However, the subregions likely to suffer such clusters have not been systematically identified, and the processes responsible for the observed interaction remain unclear. We first review previous works about the clustered occurrence of eruptions and earthquakes, and describe selected events. We further elaborate available databases and confirm a statistically significant relationship between volcanic eruptions and earthquakes on the global scale. Moreover, our study implies that closed volcanic systems in particular tend to be activated in association with a tectonic earthquake trigger. We then perform a statistical study at the subregional level, showing that certain subregions are especially predisposed to concurrent eruption-earthquake sequences, whereas such clustering is statistically less significant in other subregions. Based on this study, we argue that individual and selected observations may bias the perceptible weight of coupling. The activity at volcanoes located in the predisposed subregions (e.g., Japan, Indonesia, Melanesia), however, often unexpectedly changes in association with either an imminent or a past earthquake.

  9. Dose responses of alkaline-earth sulfate doped with rare earth ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescence (TL) and optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dose response curves of alkaline-earth sulfate doped with rare earth ions were measured. The non-linear dose response parameters were obtained by using the composite action dose response model. It is concluded that the linearity of dose response is relative to the species of rare earth ions and the defect structure. The one-hit factors (R) are closes to 1 in sulfate phosphors doped with Eu ions, which means that the dose responses are sublinear. But the dose responses are supralinear since R<0.5 when sulfate phosphors were doped with Tm or Dy ions. The value of R decreases with the increasing of TL peak temperatures, which means that contribution to dose response from the two-hit events is increased. The experiments also show that the dose response parameters of OSL are similar to those to TL. (authors)

  10. Testing statistical significance of trends in learning, ageing and safety indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A relatively new subject for probabilistic safety methodology is statistical analysis of trends in observed failures and other safety indicators reflecting ageing or learning in operational and maintenance experience at industrial facilities. Random variations of the indicators can mask real changes or cause false alarms. Methodology is proposed for testing statistical significance of apparent trends in safety indicators. Improved methods are developed for detecting both monotonic and non-monotonic trends, some demonstrated by simulation studies and real examples to be more powerful than those known so far. An effective way to use standard trend tests with transformed data for testing exponentiality of data is also demonstrated and found superior to a well-known Lilliefors' goodness-of-fit test

  11. Determining sexual dimorphism in frog measurement data: integration of statistical significance, measurement error, effect size and biological significance

    OpenAIRE

    Hayek, Lee-Ann C.; W. Ronald Heyer

    2005-01-01

    Several analytic techniques have been used to determine sexual dimorphism in vertebrate morphological measurement data with no emergent consensus on which technique is superior. A further confounding problem for frog data is the existence of considerable measurement error. To determine dimorphism, we examine a single hypothesis (Ho = equal means) for two groups (females and males). We demonstrate that frog measurement data meet assumptions for clearly defined statistical hypothesis testing wi...

  12. Dose–responses from multi-model inference for the non-cancer disease mortality of atomic bomb survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Scho?llnberger, H.; Kaiser, J. C.; Jacob, P.; Walsh, L.

    2012-01-01

    The non-cancer mortality data for cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular diseases from Report 13 on the atomic bomb survivors published by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation were analysed to investigate the dose–response for the influence of radiation on these detrimental health effects. Various parametric and categorical models (such as linear-no-threshold (LNT) and a number of threshold and step models) were analysed with a statistical selection protocol that rated the mo...

  13. A weighted composite dose-response model for human salmonellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, H K; Jaykus, L A; Morales, R A; Cowen, P; Crawford-Brown, D

    2001-04-01

    This article describes the development of a weighted composite dose-response model for human salmonellosis. Data from previously reported human challenge studies were categorized into two different groups representing low and moderately virulent/pathogenic Salmonella strains based on a disease end point. Because epidemiological data indicate that some Salmonella strains are particularly pathogenic, and in the absence of human feeding study data for such strains, Shigella dysenteriae was used as a proxy for highly virulent strains. Three single-hit dose-response models were applied to the human feeding study data and evaluated for best fit using maximum likelihood estimation: (1) the exponential (E-1pop), (2) the two-subpopulation exponential (E-2pop), and (3) the Beta-Poisson (BP). Based on the goodness-of-fit test, the E-1pop and BP were the best-fit models for low and moderately virulent/pathogenic Salmonella strains, and the E-2pop and BP models were better for highly virulent/pathogenic strains. Epistemic analysis was conducted by determining the degree of confidence associated with the selected models, which was found to be 50%/50% (E-1pop/BP) for low and moderately pathogenic Salmonella strains, and 9.8%/90.2% (E-2pop/BP) for highly virulent strains. The degree of confidence for each component model and variations in the proportion of strains within each virulence/pathogenicity category were incorporated into the overall composite model. This study describes the influence of variation in strain virulence and host susceptibility on the shape of the population dose-response relationship. PMID:11414538

  14. Do Statistically Significant Correlations Exist between the Homestake Solar Neutrino Data and Sunspots?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been suggested by various authors that a significant anticorrelation exists between the Homestake solar neutrino data and the sunspot cycle. Some of these claims rest on smoothing the data by taking running averages, a method that has recently undergone criticism. We demonstrate that no significant anticorrelation can be found in the Homestake data, or in standard averages of that data. However, when running averages are taken, an anticorrelation seems to emerge whose significance grows as the number of points in the average increases. Our analysis indicates that the apparently high significance of these anticorrelations is an artifact of the failure to consider the loss of independence introduced in the running average process. When this is considered, the significance is reduced to that of the unaveraged data. Furthermore, when evaluated via parametric subsampling, no statistically significant anticorrelation is found. We conclude that the Homestake data cannot be used to substantiate any claim of an anticorrelation with the sunspot cycle. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society

  15. Dose-response patterns of Radix Glycyrrhizae in Shanghan Lun

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xue; YUE Xiao-Qiang

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: In order to explore the dose-response patterns of Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae) in Shanghan Lun (Treatise on Febrile Diseases), all prescriptions containing Gancao in Shanghan Lun were analyzed by frequency and hierarchical clustering analysis. The doses of Gancao used in Shanghan Lun ranged from six zhu (Chinese unit, and one zhu is equal to 0.65 g) to four liang (Chinese unit, and one liang is equal to 15.625 g). Doses of one, two, three or four liang were commonly used. One liang G...

  16. Dose response experiments using the mouse tail model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation induced tail necrosis in BALB/c mice was used to investigate the effects of tissue temperature and local oxygenation on the radiation response. Single doses of 250 kV roentgen-rays were given over the temperature range 32.5 to 370C and dose response curves obtained. The temperature dependence of the response was shown to be consistent with changing hypoxic status by the derivation of a simple model; this has practical implications for the treatment of patients using simultaneously combined radiation therapy and hyperthermia. (Auth.)

  17. Prediction of the mortality dose-response relationship in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based upon an extensive data base including 100 separate animal studies, an estimate of the mortality dose-response relationship due to continuous photon radiation is predicted for 70 kg man. The model used in this prediction exercise includes fixed terms accounting for effects of body weight and dose rate, and random terms accounting for inter- and intra-species variation and experimental error. Point predictions and 95% prediction intervals are given for the LD05, LD10, LD25, LD50, LD75, LD90, and LD95, for dose rates ranging from 1 to 50 R/min. 6 refs., 5 tabs

  18. A Simulation Study of Permutation, Bootstrap, and Gene Dropping for Assessing Statistical Significance in the Case of Unequal Relatedness

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Riyan; Palmer, Abraham A.

    2013-01-01

    We used simulations to evaluate methods for assessing statistical significance in association studies. When the statistical model appropriately accounted for relatedness among individuals, unrestricted permutation tests and a few other simulation-based methods effectively controlled type I error rates; otherwise, only gene dropping controlled type I error but at the expense of statistical power.

  19. A suggested statistical approach for dealing with the non-significant interactions between treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria M. Sawan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of nitrogen (N fertilizer and foliar appli-cation of potassium (K and Mepiquat Chloride (MC on yield of cotton. Seed cotton yield per plant and seed cotton and lint yield per hectare; have been increased due to the higher N rate and use of foliar application of K and MC. No significant interactions were found among the variables in the present study (N, K and MC with respect to characters under investigation. Generally, interactions indicated that, the fa-vorable effects ascribed to the application of N; spraying cotton plants with K combined with MC on cotton productivity, were more obvious by applying N at 143 kg per hectare, and combined with spraying cotton plants with K at 957 g per hectare and also with MC at 48 + 24 g active ingredient per hectare. Sensible increases were found in seed cotton yield per hectare (about 40% as a result of applying the same combination. However, this interaction did not reach the level of significance, so, statistical approach for dealing with the non-significant interactions between treatments, depending on the Least Significant Difference values has been suggested, to provide an opportunity to disclosure of the interaction effects regardless of their insignificance. As a matter of fact the original formula used in calculating the significance of interactions suffers a possible shortage, which can be eliminated through applying the new suggested formula.

  20. Statistically Significant Strings are Related to Regulatory Elements in the Promoter Regions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, R; Hu, Rui; Wang, Bin

    2000-01-01

    Finding out statistically significant words in DNA and protein sequences forms the basis for many genetic studies. By applying the maximal entropy principle, we give one systematic way to study the nonrandom occurrence of words in DNA or protein sequences. Through comparison with experimental results, it was shown that patterns of regulatory binding sites in Saccharomyces cerevisiae(yeast) genomes tend to occur significantly in the promoter regions. We studied two correlated gene family of yeast. The method successfully extracts the binding sites varified by experiments in each family. Many putative regulatory sites in the upstream regions are proposed. The study also suggested that some regulatory sites are a ctive in both directions, while others show directional preference.

  1. Dose-response slope of forced oscillation and forced expiratory parameters in bronchial challenge testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohadana, A B; Peslin, R; Megherbi, S E; Teculescu, D; Sauleau, E A; Wild, P; Pham, Q T

    1999-02-01

    In population studies, the provocative dose (PD) of bronchoconstrictor causing a significant decrement in lung function cannot be calculated for most subjects. Dose-response curves for carbachol were examined to determine whether this relationship can be summarized by means of a continuous index likely to be calculable for all subjects, namely the two-point dose response slope (DRS) of mean resistance (Rm) and resistance at 10 Hz (R10) measured by the forced oscillation technique (FOT). Five doses of carbachol (320 microg each) were inhaled by 71 patients referred for investigation of asthma (n=16), chronic cough (n=15), nasal polyposis (n=8), chronic rhinitis (n=8), dyspnoea (n=8), urticaria (n=5), post-anaphylactic shock (n=4) and miscellaneous conditions (n=7). FOT resistance and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were measured in close succession. The PD of carbachol leading to a fall in FEV1 > or = 20% (PD20) or a rise in Rm or R10 > or = 47% (PD47,Rm and PD47,R10) were calculated by interpolation. DRS for FEV1 (DRSFEV1), Rm (DRSRm) and R10 (DRSR10) were obtained as the percentage change at last dose divided by the total dose of carbachol. The sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of DRSRm, DRS10 delta%Rm and delta%R10 in detecting spirometric bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR, fall in FEV1 > or = 20%) were assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. There were 23 (32%) "spirometric" reactors. PD20 correlated strongly with DRSFEV1 (r=-0.962; p=0.0001); PD47,Rm correlated significantly with DRSRm (r=-0.648; p=0.0001) and PD47,R10 with DRSR10 (r=-0.552; p=0.0001). DRSFEV1 correlated significantly with both DRSRm (r=0.700; p=0.0001) and DRSR10 (r=0.784; p=0.0001). The Se and Sp of the various FOT indices to correctly detect spirometric BHR were as follows: DRSRm: Se=91.3%, Sp=81.2%; DRSR10: Se=91.3%, Sp=95.8%; delta%Rm: Se=86.9%, Sp=52.1%; and delta%R10: Se=91.3%, Sp=58.3%. Dose-response slopes of indices of forced oscillation technique resistance, especially the dose-response slope of resistance at 10Hz are proposed as simple quantitative indices of bronchial responsiveness which can be calculated for all subjects and that may be useful in occupational epidemiology. PMID:10065671

  2. Sample size and significance – somewhere between statistical power and judgment prostration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary Wata?a

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available When performing scientific research we are so “embraced” to use the tool of inductive logic in our reasoning that we often express more generalized opinions on the population of interest based on relatively small sample(s of a general population. What we take care about in such situations is that chosen segments are representative for a whole set of elements in the general population. To cope with such a demand we always want to know how large our selected subpopulation should be to enable us to detect the experimental effect of interest not only at a certain level of significance, but also with the highest possible power of statistical reasoning. Thus, when designing our experiment, we have to compromise between a sample size not too small to ensure that our sample is sufficiently representative, and not too large to benefit from the sampling procedure at all. The tools for the estimation of minimum required sample size and the analysis of power, which help us to make quick decisions on how to compromise reasonably between significance, statistical power and sample size, are discussed in this paper.

  3. Some hybrid models applicable to dose-response relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type of models of dose-response relationships has been studied as an initial stage to explore a reliable extrapolation of the relationships decided by high dose data to the range of low dose covered by radiation protection. The approach is to use a 'hybrid scale' of linear and logarithmic scales; the first model is that the normalized surviving fraction (? S > 0) in a hybrid scale decreases linearly with dose in a linear scale, and the second is that the induction in a log scale increases linearly with the normalized dose (? D > 0) in a hybrid scale. The hybrid scale may reflect an overall effectiveness of a complex system against adverse events caused by various agents. Some data of leukemia in the atomic bomb survivors and of rodent experiments were used to show the applicability of hybrid scale models. The results proved that proposed models fit these data not less than the popular linear-quadratic models, providing the possible interpretation of shapes of dose-response curves, e.g. shouldered survival curves varied by recovery time. (author)

  4. Dose-response relationships for radium-induced bone sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of bone sarcomas among 3055 female radium-dial workers who entered the dial industry before 1950 was used to determine dose-response relationships for the induction of bone sarcomas by radium. Two subpopulations were analyzed: all measured cases who survived at last five years after the start of employment and all cases who survived at least two years after first measurement. The first constituted a group based on year of entry; it contained 1468 women who experienced 42 bone sarcomas; the expected number was 0.4. The second comprised a group based on first measurement; it contained 1257 women who experienced 13 bone sarcomas; the expected number was 0.2. The dose-response function, I = (C + ?D + #betta#D2)e/sup -#betta#D/, and simplifications of this general form, were fit to each data set. Two functions, I = (C + ?D + #betta#D2)e/sup -#betta#D/ and I = (C + #betta#D2)e/sup -#betta#D/, fit the data for year of entry (p greater than or equal to 0.05); both these functions and I = (C + ?D) fit the data for first measurement. The function I = (C + #betta#D2)e/sup -#betta#D/ was used to predict the number of bone sarcomas in all other pre-1950 radium cases (medical, laboratory, and other exposure); fewer were actually observed than the fit of this function to the female dial workers predicted

  5. The nickel dose-response relationship by filaggrin genotype (FLG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross-Hansen, Katrine; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: On skin contact, nickel accumulates in the stratum corneum, where it is probably bound to proteins and amino acids. One probable contributor is filaggrin, which binds nickel avidly. Filaggrin gene (FLG) null mutations lead to a complete lack of filaggrin production from the affected allele, and have been associated with an increased risk of nickel contact sensitization in German and Danish adults. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the experimental nickel elicitation threshold level differed between heterozygous FLG mutation and non-mutation carriers. METHOD: Thirteen nickel-sensitized female patients, seven heterozygous mutation carriers and six non-mutation carriers (genotyped for R501X, 2282del4, or R2447X), were patch tested and performed a repeated open application test (ROAT) with a nickel sulfate dilution series. Logistic threshold dose-response analyses were used to test for differences between the two groups. RESULTS: No difference was found in the dose-response relationship between FLG mutation and non-mutation carriers. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of this small patient study, it appears that the elicitation threshold level for nickel is independent of FLG null mutation single-allele carrier status.

  6. Maximum likelihood estimation for cytogenetic dose-response curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro dose-response curves are used to describe the relation between chromosome aberrations and radiation dose for human lymphocytes. The lymphocytes are exposed to low-LET radiation, and the resulting dicentric chromosome aberrations follow the Poisson distribution. The expected yield depends on both the magnitude and the temporal distribution of the dose. A general dose-response model that describes this relation has been presented by Kellerer and Rossi (1972, Current Topics on Radiation Research Quarterly 8, 85-158; 1978, Radiation Research 75, 471-488) using the theory of dual radiation action. Two special cases of practical interest are split-dose and continuous exposure experiments, and the resulting dose-time-response models are intrinsically nonlinear in the parameters. A general-purpose maximum likelihood estimation procedure is described, and estimation for the nonlinear models is illustrated with numerical examples from both experimental designs. Poisson regression analysis is used for estimation, hypothesis testing, and regression diagnostics. Results are discussed in the context of exposure assessment procedures for both acute and chronic human radiation exposure

  7. Maximum likelihood estimation for cytogenetic dose-response curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro dose-response curves are used to describe the relation between the yield of dicentric chromosome aberrations and radiation dose for human lymphocytes. The dicentric yields follow the Poisson distribution, and the expected yield depends on both the magnitude and the temporal distribution of the dose for low LET radiation. A general dose-response model that describes this relation has been obtained by Kellerer and Rossi using the theory of dual radiation action. The yield of elementary lesions is kappa[?d + g(t, tau)d2], where t is the time and d is dose. The coefficient of the d2 term is determined by the recovery function and the temporal mode of irradiation. Two special cases of practical interest are split-dose and continuous exposure experiments, and the resulting models are intrinsically nonlinear in the parameters. A general purpose maximum likelihood estimation procedure is described and illustrated with numerical examples from both experimental designs. Poisson regression analysis is used for estimation, hypothesis testing, and regression diagnostics. Results are discussed in the context of exposure assessment procedures for both acute and chronic human radiation exposure

  8. Scalable detection of statistically significant communities and hierarchies: message-passing for modularity

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Pan

    2014-01-01

    Modularity is a popular measure of community structure. However, maximizing the modularity can lead to many competing partitions with almost the same modularity that are poorly correlated to each other; it can also overfit, producing illusory "communities" in random graphs where none exist. We address this problem by using the modularity as a Hamiltonian, and computing the marginals of the resulting Gibbs distribution. If we assign each node to its most-likely community under these marginals, we claim that, unlike the ground state, the resulting partition is a good measure of statistically-significant community structure. We propose an efficient Belief Propagation (BP) algorithm to compute these marginals. In random networks with no true communities, the system has two phases as we vary the temperature: a paramagnetic phase where all marginals are equal, and a spin glass phase where BP fails to converge. In networks with real community structure, there is an additional retrieval phase where BP converges, and ...

  9. Accounting for shared and unshared dosimetric uncertainties in the dose response for ultrasound-detected thyroid nodules after exposure to radioactive fallout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Charles E; Kwon, Deukwoo; Hoffman, F Owen; Moroz, Brian; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Bouville, André; Beck, Harold; Luckyanov, Nicholas; Weinstock, Robert M; Simon, Steven L

    2015-02-01

    Dosimetic uncertainties, particularly those that are shared among subgroups of a study population, can bias, distort or reduce the slope or significance of a dose response. Exposure estimates in studies of health risks from environmental radiation exposures are generally highly uncertain and thus, susceptible to these methodological limitations. An analysis was published in 2008 concerning radiation-related thyroid nodule prevalence in a study population of 2,994 villagers under the age of 21 years old between August 1949 and September 1962 and who lived downwind from the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site in Kazakhstan. This dose-response analysis identified a statistically significant association between thyroid nodule prevalence and reconstructed doses of fallout-related internal and external radiation to the thyroid gland; however, the effects of dosimetric uncertainty were not evaluated since the doses were simple point "best estimates". In this work, we revised the 2008 study by a comprehensive treatment of dosimetric uncertainties. Our present analysis improves upon the previous study, specifically by accounting for shared and unshared uncertainties in dose estimation and risk analysis, and differs from the 2008 analysis in the following ways: 1. The study population size was reduced from 2,994 to 2,376 subjects, removing 618 persons with uncertain residence histories; 2. Simulation of multiple population dose sets (vectors) was performed using a two-dimensional Monte Carlo dose estimation method; and 3. A Bayesian model averaging approach was employed for evaluating the dose response, explicitly accounting for large and complex uncertainty in dose estimation. The results were compared against conventional regression techniques. The Bayesian approach utilizes 5,000 independent realizations of population dose vectors, each of which corresponds to a set of conditional individual median internal and external doses for the 2,376 subjects. These 5,000 population dose vectors reflect uncertainties in dosimetric parameters, partly shared and partly independent, among individual members of the study population. Risk estimates for thyroid nodules from internal irradiation were higher than those published in 2008, which results, to the best of our knowledge, from explicitly accounting for dose uncertainty. In contrast to earlier findings, the use of Bayesian methods led to the conclusion that the biological effectiveness for internal and external dose was similar. Estimates of excess relative risk per unit dose (ERR/Gy) for males (177 thyroid nodule cases) were almost 30 times those for females (571 cases) and were similar to those reported for thyroid cancers related to childhood exposures to external and internal sources in other studies. For confirmed cases of papillary thyroid cancers (3 in males, 18 in females), the ERR/Gy was also comparable to risk estimates from other studies, but not significantly different from zero. These findings represent the first reported dose response for a radiation epidemiologic study considering all known sources of shared and unshared errors in dose estimation and using a Bayesian model averaging (BMA) method for analysis of the dose response. PMID:25574587

  10. Investigating quartz optically stimulated luminescence dose-response curves at high doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the general expectation that optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) growth should be described by a simple saturating exponential function, an additional high dose component is often reported in the dose response of quartz. Although often reported as linear, it appears that this response is the early expression of a second saturating exponential. While some studies using equivalent doses that fall in this high dose region have produced ages that correlate well with independent dating, others report that it results in unreliable age determinations. Two fine grain sedimentary quartz samples that display such a response were used to investigate the origin of this additional high dose component: three experiments were conducted to examine their dose-response up to >1000 Gy. The high dose rates provided by laboratory irradiation were found not to induce a sensitivity change in the response to a subsequent test dose, with the latter not being significantly different from those generated following naturally acquired doses. The relative percentage contributions of the fast and medium OSL components remained fixed throughout the dose-response curve, suggesting that the electron traps that give rise to the initial OSL do not change with dose. An attempt was made to investigate a change in luminescence centre recombination probability by monitoring the depletion of the '325 oC' thermoluminescence (TL) during the optical stimulation that would result in depletal stimulation that would result in depletion of the OSL signal. The emissions measured through both the conventional ultraviolet (UV), and a longer wavelength violet/blue (VB) window, displayed similar relative growth with dose, although it was not possible to resolve the origin of the VB emissions. No evidence was found to indicate whether the additional component at high doses occurs naturally or is a product of laboratory treatment. However, it appears that these samples display an increased sensitivity of quartz OSL to high doses that is not recorded by the sensitivity to a subsequent test dose, and which results in a change in the sensitivity-corrected dose-response curve.

  11. Dose response curves for effects of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The linear dose-response model used by international committees to assess the genetic and carcinogenic hazards of low-level radiation appears to be the most reasonable interpretation of the available scientific data that are relevant to this topic. There are, of course, reasons to believe that this model may overestimate radiation hazards in certain instances, a fact acknowledged in recent reports of these committees. The linear model is now also being utilized to estimate the potential carcinogenic hazards of other agents such as asbestos and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. This model implies that there is no safe dose for any of these agents and that potential health hazards will increase in direct proportion to total accumulated dose. The practical implication is the recommendation that all exposures should be kept 'as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account'. (auth)

  12. Proposal of a probabilistic dose-response model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A biologically updated dose-response model is presented as an alternative to the linear-quadratic model currently in use for cancer risk assessment. The new model is based on the probability functions for misrepair and/or unrepair of DNA lesions, in terms of the radiation damage production rate in the cell (supposedly, a stem cell) and its repair-rate constant. The model makes use, interpreting it on the basis of misrepair probabilities, of the ''dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor'' of ICRP, and provides the way for a continuous extrapolation between the high and low dose-rate regions, ratifying the ''linear non-threshold hypothesis'' as the main option. Anyhow, the model throws some doubts about the additive property of the dose. (author)

  13. The dose-response relationship for UV-tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the investigations was to extend the knowledge on experimental UV-carcinogenesis and to use the experimental results as guidelines for developing a dose-response model for UV-carcinogenesis. The animal experiments carried out were all long-term ones. It was decided that - in anticipation of the data to be obtained - a model for such an assessment should be developed using the experimental results available at the start of the present study (1977). This initial study is presented. The results of two animal experiments are presented, which show that UV radiation is capable of inducing a systemic effect that enhances the de novo formation of UV induced tumors. The results of the main experiment are presented. In this experiment groups of mice were subjected to daily exposure to a certain dose of UV radiation in order to find the dose-response relationship. The relation between the daily dose and the duration of the treatment till the appearance of tumors (for instance, as measured by the yield) was ascertained for tumors of different sizes. It appears that the growth of a tumor is dose-independent, and, therefore, only the initiation of a tumor is dose-dependent. Finally an experiment is presented in which it was measured that, if a mouse is subjected to daily UV exposure, the transmission of the epidermis in the shortwave UV region decreases continuously. This decrease is due to hyperplasia of the epidermis, i.e., thickening of the epidermis by an increase in the number of cells per unit surface area. (Auth.)

  14. Dose-response models for the radiation-induction of skin tumours in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive data on radiation-induced skin tumours in mice were examined using 8 models, all based on the concept that incidences of radiation-induced tumours depend on a combination of two radiation effects: a tumour induction process and the loss of reproductive integrity by the potential tumour cells. Models with and without a threshold were used, in spite of theoretical objections to threshold models. No model fitted well both the epidermal and the dermal tumour data and models which proved to be statistically satisfactory for some of the data were rejected for biological reasons. It is concluded that, for skin tumours, dose-response curves depending on a combination of cancer induction and loss of cellular reproductive integrity are distorted by some special, relatively radio-resistant, factor which we have previously postulated as being involved in radiation skin carcinogenesis. (author)

  15. Estimates of statistical significance for comparison of individual positions in multiple sequence alignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadreyev Ruslan I

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Profile-based analysis of multiple sequence alignments (MSA allows for accurate comparison of protein families. Here, we address the problems of detecting statistically confident dissimilarities between (1 MSA position and a set of predicted residue frequencies, and (2 between two MSA positions. These problems are important for (i evaluation and optimization of methods predicting residue occurrence at protein positions; (ii detection of potentially misaligned regions in automatically produced alignments and their further refinement; and (iii detection of sites that determine functional or structural specificity in two related families. Results For problems (1 and (2, we propose analytical estimates of P-value and apply them to the detection of significant positional dissimilarities in various experimental situations. (a We compare structure-based predictions of residue propensities at a protein position to the actual residue frequencies in the MSA of homologs. (b We evaluate our method by the ability to detect erroneous position matches produced by an automatic sequence aligner. (c We compare MSA positions that correspond to residues aligned by automatic structure aligners. (d We compare MSA positions that are aligned by high-quality manual superposition of structures. Detected dissimilarities reveal shortcomings of the automatic methods for residue frequency prediction and alignment construction. For the high-quality structural alignments, the dissimilarities suggest sites of potential functional or structural importance. Conclusion The proposed computational method is of significant potential value for the analysis of protein families.

  16. Diethylene glycol-induced toxicities show marked threshold dose response in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Greg M; Dunning, Cody L; Abreo, Fleurette; Latimer, Brian; Orchard, Elysse; McMartin, Kenneth E

    2015-02-01

    Diethylene glycol (DEG) exposure poses risks to human health because of widespread industrial use and accidental exposures from contaminated products. To enhance the understanding of the mechanistic role of metabolites in DEG toxicity, this study used a dose response paradigm to determine a rat model that would best mimic DEG exposure in humans. Wistar and Fischer-344 (F-344) rats were treated by oral gavage with 0, 2, 5, or 10g/kg DEG and blood, kidney and liver tissues were collected at 48h. Both rat strains treated with 10g/kg DEG had equivalent degrees of metabolic acidosis, renal toxicity (increased BUN and creatinine and cortical necrosis) and liver toxicity (increased serum enzyme levels, centrilobular necrosis and severe glycogen depletion). There was no liver or kidney toxicity at the lower DEG doses (2 and 5g/kg) regardless of strain, demonstrating a steep threshold dose response. Kidney diglycolic acid (DGA), the presumed nephrotoxic metabolite of DEG, was markedly elevated in both rat strains administered 10g/kg DEG, but no DGA was present at 2 or 5g/kg, asserting its necessary role in DEG-induced toxicity. These results indicate that mechanistically in order to produce toxicity, metabolism to and significant target organ accumulation of DGA are required and that both strains would be useful for DEG risk assessments. PMID:25545985

  17. The use of mode of action information in risk assessment : quantitative key events/dose-response framework for modeling the dose-response for key events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, Ted W; Simons, S Stoney

    2014-01-01

    The HESI RISK21 project formed the Dose-Response/Mode-of-Action Subteam to develop strategies for using all available data (in vitro, in vivo, and in silico) to advance the next-generation of chemical risk assessments. A goal of the Subteam is to enhance the existing Mode of Action/Human Relevance Framework and Key Events/Dose Response Framework (KEDRF) to make the best use of quantitative dose-response and timing information for Key Events (KEs). The resulting Quantitative Key Events/Dose-Response Framework (Q-KEDRF) provides a structured quantitative approach for systematic examination of the dose-response and timing of KEs resulting from a dose of a bioactive agent that causes a potential adverse outcome. Two concepts are described as aids to increasing the understanding of mode of action-Associative Events and Modulating Factors. These concepts are illustrated in two case studies; 1) cholinesterase inhibition by the pesticide chlorpyrifos, which illustrates the necessity of considering quantitative dose-response information when assessing the effect of a Modulating Factor, that is, enzyme polymorphisms in humans, and 2) estrogen-induced uterotrophic responses in rodents, which demonstrate how quantitative dose-response modeling for KE, the understanding of temporal relationships between KEs and a counterfactual examination of hypothesized KEs can determine whether they are Associative Events or true KEs.

  18. Exposure-dose-response of Anadara trapezia to metal contaminated estuarine sediments. 1. Cadmium spiked sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Anne M., E-mail: anne.taylor@canberra.edu.au [Ecochemistry Laboratory, Institute for Applied Ecology, Faculty of Applied Science, University of Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Maher, William A. [Ecochemistry Laboratory, Institute for Applied Ecology, Faculty of Applied Science, University of Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We describe an exposure-dose-response approach for assessing cadmium exposure in Anadara trapezia. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Accumulated cadmium was detoxified in metallothionein like proteins or as active metal in mitochondria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased cadmium dose resulted in a reduction in total antioxidant capacity, decreased lysosomal stability and genotoxic damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elevated sediment cadmium concentrations can lead to increased biologically active cadmium and cellular impairment of A. trapezia. - Abstract: The relationship between cadmium exposure dose and response was investigated in Anadara trapezia exposed to cadmium spiked sediment (10 {mu}g/g and 50 {mu}g/g dry mass) for 56 days. A. trapezia reached an equilibrium cadmium tissue concentration (13 {mu}g/g and 25 {mu}g/g, respectively) by day 42. Gills accumulated significantly more cadmium than the hepatopancreas and haemolymph. After 56 days exposure between 46 and 73% of accumulated gill and hepatopancreas cadmium was detoxified and in the metallothionein like protein fraction. Approximately half of the biologically active cadmium in both tissues was in the mitochondrial fraction which has the potential to cause dysfunction in mitochondrial activity. Cadmium exposed A. trapezia generally had reduced GPx activity with an associated increase in total glutathione concentrations and reduced GSH:GSSG ratios due to a build up of oxidised glutathione. The changes in the glutathione pathway were reflected in the total antioxidant capacity of cadmium exposed A. trapezia which were significantly reduced compared to control organisms. There was a trend of increased lipid peroxidation with increased cadmium exposure but this was not significant. Increased cadmium exposure resulted in significant lysosomal destabilisation and increased frequency of micronuclei. The significant exposure-dose-response relationship for A. trapezia exposed to cadmium enriched sediments indicates that elevated sediment cadmium concentrations have the potential to lead to increased biologically active cadmium burdens and impairment of individual A. trapezia at cellular and subcellular levels.

  19. Exposure dose response relationships of the freshwater bivalve Hyridella australis to cadmium spiked sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marasinghe Wadige, Chamani P.M., E-mail: chamani.marasinghe.wadige@canberra.edu.au; Maher, William A.; Taylor, Anne M.; Krikowa, Frank

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • The exposure–dose–response approach was used to assess cadmium exposure and toxicity. • Accumulated cadmium in H. australis reflected the sediment cadmium exposure. • Spill over of cadmium into the biologically active pool was observed. • Increased cadmium resulted in measurable biological effects. • H. australis has the potential to be a cadmium biomonitor in freshwater environments. - Abstract: To understand how benthic biota may respond to the additive or antagonistic effects of metal mixtures in the environment it is first necessary to examine their responses to the individual metals. In this context, laboratory controlled single metal-spiked sediment toxicity tests are useful to assess this. The exposure–dose–response relationships of Hyridella australis to cadmium-spiked sediments were, therefore, investigated in laboratory microcosms. H. australis was exposed to individual cadmium spiked sediments (<0.05 (control), 4 ± 0.3 (low) and 15 ± 1 (high) ?g/g dry mass) for 28 days. Dose was measured as cadmium accumulation in whole soft body and individual tissues at weekly intervals over the exposure period. Dose was further examined as sub-cellular localisation of cadmium in hepatopancreas tissues. The biological responses in terms of enzymatic and cellular biomarkers were measured in hepatopancreas tissues at day 28. H. australis accumulated cadmium from spiked sediments with an 8-fold (low exposure organisms) and 16-fold (high exposure organisms) increase at day 28 compared to control organisms. The accumulated tissue cadmium concentrations reflected the sediment cadmium exposure at day 28. Cadmium accumulation in high exposure organisms was inversely related to the tissue calcium concentrations. Gills of H. australis showed significantly higher cadmium accumulation than the other tissues. Accumulated cadmium in biologically active and biologically detoxified metal pools was not significantly different in cadmium exposed organisms, which suggests that H. australis has some tolerance to cadmium. The metallothionein like protein fraction played an important role in the sequestration and detoxification of cadmium and the amount sequestered in this fraction increased with increased cadmium exposure. The highest percentage of biologically active cadmium was associated with the lysosome + microsome and mitochondrial fractions. Cadmium concentrations in these two fractions of cadmium exposed organisms were significantly higher with respect to controls. Total antioxidant capacity decreased with increased cadmium exposure and tissue dose. Lipid peroxidation increased and lysosomal membrane stability decreased significantly with increased cadmium exposure and tissue dose. Based on exposure–dose–response analysis in this study, H. australis would be a suitable organism for assessing cadmium sediment exposure and toxicity.

  20. Exposure dose response relationships of the freshwater bivalve Hyridella australis to cadmium spiked sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The exposure–dose–response approach was used to assess cadmium exposure and toxicity. • Accumulated cadmium in H. australis reflected the sediment cadmium exposure. • Spill over of cadmium into the biologically active pool was observed. • Increased cadmium resulted in measurable biological effects. • H. australis has the potential to be a cadmium biomonitor in freshwater environments. - Abstract: To understand how benthic biota may respond to the additive or antagonistic effects of metal mixtures in the environment it is first necessary to examine their responses to the individual metals. In this context, laboratory controlled single metal-spiked sediment toxicity tests are useful to assess this. The exposure–dose–response relationships of Hyridella australis to cadmium-spiked sediments were, therefore, investigated in laboratory microcosms. H. australis was exposed to individual cadmium spiked sediments (<0.05 (control), 4 ± 0.3 (low) and 15 ± 1 (high) ?g/g dry mass) for 28 days. Dose was measured as cadmium accumulation in whole soft body and individual tissues at weekly intervals over the exposure period. Dose was further examined as sub-cellular localisation of cadmium in hepatopancreas tissues. The biological responses in terms of enzymatic and cellular biomarkers were measured in hepatopancreas tissues at day 28. H. australis accumulated cadmium from spiked sediments with an 8-fold (low exposure organisms) and 16-fold (high exposure organisms) increase at day 28 compared to control organisms. The accumulated tissue cadmium concentrations reflected the sediment cadmium exposure at day 28. Cadmium accumulation in high exposure organisms was inversely related to the tissue calcium concentrations. Gills of H. australis showed significantly higher cadmium accumulation than the other tissues. Accumulated cadmium in biologically active and biologically detoxified metal pools was not significantly different in cadmium exposed organisms, which suggests that H. australis has some tolerance to cadmium. The metallothionein like protein fraction played an important role in the sequestration and detoxification of cadmium and the amount sequestered in this fraction increased with increased cadmium exposure. The highest percentage of biologically active cadmium was associated with the lysosome + microsome and mitochondrial fractions. Cadmium concentrations in these two fractions of cadmium exposed organisms were significantly higher with respect to controls. Total antioxidant capacity decreased with increased cadmium exposure and tissue dose. Lipid peroxidation increased and lysosomal membrane stability decreased significantly with increased cadmium exposure and tissue dose. Based on exposure–dose–response analysis in this study, H. australis would be a suitable organism for assessing cadmium sediment exposure and toxicity

  1. Nickel-sulphate-induced contact dermatitis in the guinea pig maximization test : a dose-response study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohold, A E; Nielsen, G D

    1991-01-01

    Nickel sulphate is a sensitizer in guinea pigs, but the frequency of sensitization varies from study to study. The dose-response relationship for NiSO4.6H2O was evaluated in the guinea pig maximization test in this study. 6 intradermal (0.01%-3.0% aq.) and 6 topical (0.25%-10.0% pet.) concentrations were chosen for induction and NiSO4.6H2O 1% pet. was used for challenge, based on the absence of skin irritation in a pilot study. Blind reading was performed. A logistic dose-response model was applied to the challenge results. At 48 h, a linear relationship was obtained between the intradermal induction dose (but not topical dose) and the response, resulting in a maximum sensitization rate of 40% after 3% i.d. The reactivity disappeared at re-challenge 1 week later. Following a booster closed patch on day 35, using NiSO4 10% pet., the animals were challenged with NiSO4 2% pet. and statistical analyses of 72-h readings revealed a non-linear dose-response relationship, giving a maximum response frequency of 40% after initial induction with NiSO4 3% i.d. and 2% topical.

  2. When is chemical similarity significant? The statistical distribution of chemical similarity scores and its extreme values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Pierre; Nasr, Ramzi

    2010-07-26

    As repositories of chemical molecules continue to expand and become more open, it becomes increasingly important to develop tools to search them efficiently and assess the statistical significance of chemical similarity scores. Here, we develop a general framework for understanding, modeling, predicting, and approximating the distribution of chemical similarity scores and its extreme values in large databases. The framework can be applied to different chemical representations and similarity measures but is demonstrated here using the most common binary fingerprints with the Tanimoto similarity measure. After introducing several probabilistic models of fingerprints, including the Conditional Gaussian Uniform model, we show that the distribution of Tanimoto scores can be approximated by the distribution of the ratio of two correlated Normal random variables associated with the corresponding unions and intersections. This remains true also when the distribution of similarity scores is conditioned on the size of the query molecules to derive more fine-grained results and improve chemical retrieval. The corresponding extreme value distributions for the maximum scores are approximated by Weibull distributions. From these various distributions and their analytical forms, Z-scores, E-values, and p-values are derived to assess the significance of similarity scores. In addition, the framework also allows one to predict the value of standard chemical retrieval metrics, such as sensitivity and specificity at fixed thresholds, or receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves at multiple thresholds, and to detect outliers in the form of atypical molecules. Numerous and diverse experiments that have been performed, in part with large sets of molecules from the ChemDB, show remarkable agreement between theory and empirical results. PMID:20540577

  3. Dose-response patterns of Radix Glycyrrhizae in Shanghan Lun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue YANG

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In order to explore the dose-response patterns of Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae in Shanghan Lun (Treatise on Febrile Diseases, all prescriptions containing Gancao in Shanghan Lun were analyzed by frequency and hierarchical clustering analysis. The doses of Gancao used in Shanghan Lun ranged from six zhu (Chinese unit, and one zhu is equal to 0.65 g to four liang (Chinese unit, and one liang is equal to 15.625 g. Doses of one, two, three or four liang were commonly used. One liang Gancao as juvantia was usually matched with Mahuang (Herba Ephedrae, Xingren (Semen Armeniacae and Guizhi (Ramulus Cinnamomi for restricting the excessive diaphoresis of Mahuang. Two liang Gancao was often matched with some couple drugs, such as Guizhi and Shaoyao (Radix Paeoniae, Shigao (Gypsum Fibrosum and Zhimu (Rhizoma Anemarrhenae, Fuzi (Radix Aconiti Lateralis and Ganjiang (Rhizoma Zingiberis, for warming yang to supplement qi, nourishing yin, detoxifying Fuzi, and preventing qi impairment from heat evil. Three liang Gancao was mainly matched with Banxia (Rhizoma Pinelliae or Renshen (Radix Ginseng for treating middle energizer emesis. Four liang Gancao was matched with Ganjiang or tonifying herbs for invigorating vital qi and relieving spasm in deficiency syndromes with contraction, palpitation or diarrhea. Gancao is used for treating many syndromes in Shanghan Lun. It is frequently used to treat excess or heat syndromes with one or two liang in a dose and deficiency or cold syndromes with three or four liang in a dose.

  4. Dose Response of Alanine Detectors Irradiated with Carbon Ion Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Rochus; Jäkel, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The amino acid alanine is used for dosimetry for several decades. For proton and ion radiation the detector dose response depends on the particle energy and particle type. Based on the track structure theory by Butts and Katz, a model developed by J. Hansen and K. Olsen describes this dependence. Methods: This paper presents experiments to verify the model for carbon ions in MeV an energy range of 89-400. The relative effectiveness of alanine is measured in this regime. Using the Monte Carlo code FLUKA the response of the detector is simulated and compared with the experimental results. Results: Calculations of the relative effectiveness deviate less than 4% from the measured values for mono energetic beams. Deviations in the peak area of 12.9 % and up to 9.6 % in the tail area in term of peak response have been found for depth dose-curves. Conclusions: The used model and its implementation show a very good overall agreement, deviations are attributed to uncertainties of the detector geometry implemented in the Monte Carlo simulations.

  5. Dose response characteristics in polymer gel for the composition ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although a gel dosimeter is not widely used, it has many potential merits for 3D dosimetry in the development of radiotherapy techniques. Because conventional gel dosimeters tend to sensitively polymerize with oxygen. A new polymer gel that solves these problems was introduced recently. The gel dosimeter contains anti-oxidants that eliminate oxygen chemically instead of using complicated facilities. The type and the concentration of the monomer affect the polymerization of the polymer gel dosimeter. Therefore, the polymerization of the normoxic polymer gel dosimeter is affected by anti-oxidant, the monomer, the constituent ratio, and the condition of the monomer, so many researchers have concentrated on the anti-oxidant, the type of monomer, and the constituent ratio. In this study, a normoxic polymer gel dosimeter was composed using anti-oxidants in a laboratory, and the dose response and sensitivity were measured. The results of this study are as follow the threshold R2 values were reduced, and the radio sensitivity was reduced with the increasing MAA ratio. Otherwise, the increase in the gelatin represented an increase and decrease in the threshold value of R2 values and the radio sensitivity, respectively. Therefore, in this study, 6 - 8 % MAA ratios and an 8 % gelatin ratio, considering the aging effect of the gel, were the optimal values.

  6. Nonlinear dose-response relationships and inducible cellular defence mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the inclusion of inducible radioprotective mechanisms in a radiobiological state-vector model it was possible to explain plateaus in dose-response relationships for neoplastic transformation produced by in vitro irradiation of different cell lines with low-LET irradiation at high dose rates. The current study repeated the simulation of one data set that contains a plateau at mid doses. In contrast to earlier studies, the new one did not model the repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) located in bulk DNA (likely via non-homologous end joining) as being inducible. Repair of specific DSBs located in actively transcribed genes was assumed to occur via homologous recombination and was considered to be inducible. This reduced the number of parameters that have to be determined by fitting the model to data. In addition, all types of radical scavengers were formerly considered to be inducible by radiation. This was redefined in the current work and the effectiveness of scavengers was implemented in a refined way. The current work investigated whether these and other model adjustments lead to an improved fit of the data set. (author)

  7. FES Training in Aging: interim results show statistically significant improvements in mobility and muscle fiber size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Kern

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a multifactorial process that is characterized by decline in muscle mass and performance. Several factors, including reduced exercise, poor nutrition and modified hormonal metabolism, are responsible for changes in the rates of protein synthesis and degradation that drive skeletal muscle mass reduction with a consequent decline of force generation and mobility functional performances. Seniors with normal life style were enrolled: two groups in Vienna (n=32 and two groups in Bratislava: (n=19. All subjects were healthy and declared not to have any specific physical/disease problems. The two Vienna groups of seniors exercised for 10 weeks with two different types of training (leg press at the hospital or home-based functional electrical stimulation, h-b FES. Demografic data (age, height and weight were recorded before and after the training period and before and after the training period the patients were submitted to mobility functional analyses and muscle biopsies. The mobility functional analyses were: 1. gait speed (10m test fastest speed, in m/s; 2. time which the subject needed to rise from a chair for five times (5x Chair-Rise, in s; 3. Timed –Up-Go- Test, in s; 4. Stair-Test, in s; 5. isometric measurement of quadriceps force (Torque/kg, in Nm/kg; and 6. Dynamic Balance in mm. Preliminary analyses of muscle biopsies from quadriceps in some of the Vienna and Bratislava patients present morphometric results consistent with their functional behaviors. The statistically significant improvements in functional testings here reported demonstrates the effectiveness of h-b FES, and strongly support h-b FES, as a safe home-based method to improve contractility and performances of ageing muscles.

  8. Association of vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E and risk of bladder cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fuqiang; Li, Qingshu; Yu, Yang; Yang, Wenrong; Shi, Fei; Qu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    A dose-response meta-analysis was conducted to assess the association of vitamin C, D, E with risk of bladder cancer. Pertinent studies were identified in PubMed and Embase. The random-effect model was used. The relative risk (95% confidence interval) of bladder cancer was 0.99 (0.95-1.03) for every 100 IU/day increment in vitamin D from diet plus supplement and 0.95 (0.90-1.00) for every 10 nmol/L increment in circulating vitamin D. The effect for every 10 mg/day increment was 0.96 (0.90-1.02) for vitamin E from diet plus supplement, 0.83 (0.72-0.95) from diet and 0.88 (0.67-1.15) from supplement, and the effect was 0.84 (0.76-0.94) for every 1 mg/dL increment in circulating ?-Tocopherol and 1.22 (1.00-1.49) for every 0.1 mg/dL increment in circulating ?-Tocopherol. The observed association for vitamin D and vitamin E was significant among smokers but not among non-smokers. No significant association was found between vitamin C and risk of bladder cancer in the dose-response analysis. Based on the dose-response analysis, the risk of bladder cancer might be inversely associated with vitamin D and E (especially ?-Tocopherol), but positively associated with ?-Tocopherol. PMID:25905583

  9. Methods for extracting dose response curves from radiation therapy data. I. A unified approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses an approach to fitting models to radiation therapy data in order to extract dose response curves for tumor local control and normal tissue damage. The approach is based on the method of maximum likelihood and is illustrated by several examples. A general linear logistic equation which leads to the Ellis nominal standard dose (NSD) equation is discussed; the fit of this equation to experimental data for mouse foot skin reactions produced by fractionated irradiation is described. A logistic equation based on the concept that normal tissue reactions are associated with the surviving fraction of cells is also discussed, and the fit of this equation to the same set of mouse foot skin reaction data is also described. These two examples illustrate the importance of choosing a model based on underlying mechanisms when one seeks to attach biological significance to a model's parameters

  10. The dose-response of canine focal gastric mucosal blood flow to misoprostol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dose-response of focal gastric mucosal blood flow was measured simultaneously by laser-Doppler flowmetry and hydrogen gas clearance in the canine chambered gastric segment to topical misoprostol. Simultaneously obtained mucosal blood flow values showed a highly significant linear correlation in the basal but not misoprostol periods between the two techniques. Laser-Doppler flowmetry measured a dose-dependent increase in blood flow, while in contrast, hydrogen gas clearance showed a gradual decline in blood flow after misoprostol administration throughout all experiments. It is concluded that misoprostol dose-dependently and transiently increases focal gastric mucosal blood flow. However, only laser-Doppler flowmetry is sensitive enough to detect it. Although it can measure steady-state blood flow, owing to the duration of one measurement, hydrogen gas clearance is incapable of detecting rapid flow changes

  11. The dose-response of canine focal gastric mucosal blood flow to misoprostol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gana, T.J.; Pherson, B.R.; Koo, J. (Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada))

    1989-01-01

    The dose-response of focal gastric mucosal blood flow was measured simultaneously by laser-Doppler flowmetry and hydrogen gas clearance in the canine chambered gastric segment to topical misoprostol. Simultaneously obtained mucosal blood flow values showed a highly significant linear correlation in the basal but not misoprostol periods between the two techniques. Laser-Doppler flowmetry measured a dose-dependent increase in blood flow, while in contrast, hydrogen gas clearance showed a gradual decline in blood flow after misoprostol administration throughout all experiments. It is concluded that misoprostol dose-dependently and transiently increases focal gastric mucosal blood flow. However, only laser-Doppler flowmetry is sensitive enough to detect it. Although it can measure steady-state blood flow, owing to the duration of one measurement, hydrogen gas clearance is incapable of detecting rapid flow changes.

  12. No-threshold dose-response curves for nongenotoxic chemicals: Findings and applications for risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We tested the hypothesis that no threshold exists when estradiol acts through the same mechanism as an active endogenous estrogen. A Michaelis-Menten (MM) equation accounting for response saturation, background effects, and endogenous estrogen level fit a turtle sex-reversal data set with no threshold and estimated the endogenous dose. Additionally, 31 diverse literature dose-response data sets were analyzed by adding a term for nonhormonal background; good fits were obtained but endogenous dose estimations were not significant due to low resolving power. No thresholds were observed. Data sets were plotted using a normalized MM equation; all 178 data points were accommodated on a single graph. Response rates from ?1% to >95% were well fit. The findings contradict the threshold assumption and low-dose safety. Calculating risk and assuming additivity of effects from multiple chemicals acting through the same mechanism rather than assuming a safe dose for nonthresholded curves is appropriate

  13. Marginal iodide deficiency and thyroid function: Dose-response analysis for quantitative pharmacokinetic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severe iodine deficiency (ID) results in adverse health outcomes and remains a benchmark for understanding the effects of developmental hypothyroidism. The implications of marginal ID, however, remain less well known. The current study examined the relationship between graded levels of ID in rats and serum thyroid hormones, thyroid iodine content, and urinary iodide excretion. The goals of this study were to provide parametric and dose-response information for development of a quantitative model of the thyroid axis. Female Long Evans rats were fed casein-based diets containing varying iodine (I) concentrations for 8 weeks. Diets were created by adding 975, 200, 125, 25, or 0 ?g/kg I to the base diet (?25 ?g I/kg chow) to produce 5 nominal I levels, ranging from excess (basal + added I, Treatment 1: 1000 ?g I/kg chow) to deficient (Treatment 5: 25 ?g I/kg chow). Food intake and body weight were monitored throughout and on 2 consecutive days each week over the 8-week exposure period, animals were placed in metabolism cages to capture urine. Food, water intake, and body weight gain did not differ among treatment groups. Serum T4 was dose-dependently reduced relative to Treatment 1 with significant declines (19 and 48%) at the two lowest I groups, and no significant changes in serum T3 or TSH were detected. Increases in thyroid weight and decreases in thyroidal and urinary iodide content were observed as a function of decreasing I in the diet. Data were compared with predictions from a recently published biologically based dose-response (BBDR) model for ID. Relative to model predictions, female Long Evans rats under the conditions of this study appeared more resilient to low I intake. These results challenge existing models and provide essential information for development of quantitative BBDR models for ID during pregnancy and lactation.

  14. Accelerator driven reactors, - the significance of the energy distribution of spallation neutrons on the neutron statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to make correct predictions of the second moment of statistical nuclear variables, such as the number of fissions and the number of thermalized neutrons, the dependence of the energy distribution of the source particles on their number should be considered. It has been pointed out recently that neglecting this number dependence in accelerator driven systems might result in bad estimates of the second moment, and this paper contains qualitative and quantitative estimates of the size of these efforts. We walk towards the requested results in two steps. First, models of the number dependent energy distributions of the neutrons that are ejected in the spallation reactions are constructed, both by simple assumptions and by extracting energy distributions of spallation neutrons from a high-energy particle transport code. Then, the second moment of nuclear variables in a sub-critical reactor, into which spallation neutrons are injected, is calculated. The results from second moment calculations using number dependent energy distributions for the source neutrons are compared to those where only the average energy distribution is used. Two physical models are employed to simulate the neutron transport in the reactor. One is analytical, treating only slowing down of neutrons by elastic scattering in the core material. For this model, equations are written down and solved for the second moment of thermalized neutrons that include the distribution of energy of the spallation neutrons. The other model utilizes Monte Carlo methods for tracking the source neutrons as they travel inside the reactor material. Fast and thermal fission reactions are considered, as well as neutron capture and elastic scattering, and the second moment of the number of fissions, the number of neutrons that leaked out of the system, etc. are calculated. Both models use a cylindrical core with a homogenous mixture of core material. Our results indicate that the number dependence of the energy distribution of the spallation neutrons leads to second moments that differ significantly from the ones calculated with the average energy distribution only. With the most realistic model of the energy distributions, the second moment of the number of fissions was underestimated with 12-16%

  15. Analysis of thermal-dose response to heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors reasoned that if hyperthermia alone has a clinical anti-tumor effect, response should have a thermal dose relationship. The authors analyzed 100 patients with advanced cancer treated with magnetic-induction. Three methods of determining thermal dose were used: (A) t1x10, the lowest temperature sustained throughout the tumor for 30-60min during the first of ten daily treatments, which represents one usual course of ten hourly sessions; (B) t43 (equivalent minutes at 43C) which accounts for non-linear tumor heating by combining serially measured temperatures during the first treatment with a mathematical description of the time-temperature relationship for thermal inactivation or damage; (C) Ct43 (cumulative t43), which represents the t43 value multiplied by the actual number of subsequent daily treatments received. Response was defined as CR+PR+MR. The results show a statistically significant effect of heat alone for t1x10, t43, and Ct43. These analyses demonstrate a thermal-dose relationship between hyperthermia therapy and tumor response as a sole independent variable, which indicates that heat therapy has clinical anti-cancer activity

  16. Cerebral radioprotection by pentobarbital: Dose-response characteristics and association with GABA agonist activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, J.J.; Friedman, R.; Orr, K.; Delaney, T.; Oldfield, E.H. (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Pentobarbital reduces cerebral radiation toxicity; however, the mechanism of this phenomenon remains unknown. As an anesthetic and depressant of cerebral metabolism, pentobarbital induces its effects on the central nervous system by stimulating the binding of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to its receptor and by inhibiting postsynaptic excitatory amino acid activity. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of these actions as well as other aspects of the radioprotective activity of pentobarbital. Fischer 344 rats were separated into multiple groups and underwent two dose-response evaluations. In one set of experiments to examine the relationship of radioprotection to pentobarbital dose, a range of pentobarbital doses (0 to 75 mg/kg) were given intraperitoneally prior to a constant-level radiation dose (70 Gy). In a second series of experiments to determine the dose-response relationship of radiation protection to radiation dose, a range of radiation doses (10 to 90 Gy) were given with a single pentobarbital dose. Further groups of animals were used to evaluate the importance of the timing of pentobarbital administration, the function of the (+) and (-) isomers of pentobarbital, and the role of an alternative GABA agonist (diazepam). In addition, the potential protective effects of alternative methods of anesthesia (ketamine) and induction of cerebral hypometabolism (hypothermia) were examined. Enhancement of survival time from acute radiation injury due to high-dose single-fraction whole-brain irradiation was maximal with 60 mg/kg of pentobarbital, and occurred over the range of all doses examined between 30 to 90 Gy. Protection was seen only in animals that received the pentobarbital before irradiation. Administration of other compounds that enhance GABA binding (Saffan and diazepam) also significantly enhanced survival time.

  17. Cerebral radioprotection by pentobarbital: Dose-response characteristics and association with GABA agonist activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentobarbital reduces cerebral radiation toxicity; however, the mechanism of this phenomenon remains unknown. As an anesthetic and depressant of cerebral metabolism, pentobarbital induces its effects on the central nervous system by stimulating the binding of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to its receptor and by inhibiting postsynaptic excitatory amino acid activity. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of these actions as well as other aspects of the radioprotective activity of pentobarbital. Fischer 344 rats were separated into multiple groups and underwent two dose-response evaluations. In one set of experiments to examine the relationship of radioprotection to pentobarbital dose, a range of pentobarbital doses (0 to 75 mg/kg) were given intraperitoneally prior to a constant-level radiation dose (70 Gy). In a second series of experiments to determine the dose-response relationship of radiation protection to radiation dose, a range of radiation doses (10 to 90 Gy) were given with a single pentobarbital dose. Further groups of animals were used to evaluate the importance of the timing of pentobarbital administration, the function of the (+) and (-) isomers of pentobarbital, and the role of an alternative GABA agonist (diazepam). In addition, the potential protective effects of alternative methods of anesthesia (ketamine) and induction of cerebral hypometabolism (hypothermia) were examined. Enhancement of survival time from acute radiation injury due tval time from acute radiation injury due to high-dose single-fraction whole-brain irradiation was maximal with 60 mg/kg of pentobarbital, and occurred over the range of all doses examined between 30 to 90 Gy. Protection was seen only in animals that received the pentobarbital before irradiation. Administration of other compounds that enhance GABA binding (Saffan and diazepam) also significantly enhanced survival time

  18. Estimates of statistical significance for comparison of individual positions in multiple sequence alignments

    OpenAIRE

    Sadreyev Ruslan I; Grishin Nick V

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Profile-based analysis of multiple sequence alignments (MSA) allows for accurate comparison of protein families. Here, we address the problems of detecting statistically confident dissimilarities between (1) MSA position and a set of predicted residue frequencies, and (2) between two MSA positions. These problems are important for (i) evaluation and optimization of methods predicting residue occurrence at protein positions; (ii) detection of potentially misaligned regions ...

  19. Dose-response kinetics of chromatid aberration frequencies induced in vicia faba L. by ionizing radiation. I. Gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frequency kinetics and ratio of the different chromatid aberration types induced by varying ?-rays doses in cells of Vicia faba root meristem were investigated. The dose dependence of the individual aberration types was studied by applying statistical models. It was established that the frequency of chromatid breaks surpasses that of interchromosomal exchanges, while isochromatid breaks had highest frequency as compared to the remaining types of aberrations. The frequency of true chromatid breaks was lowest. Chromatid aberration frequencies calculated per cell at a 1 rad dose did not depend on the radiation dose, while the frequency of interchromosomal exchanges rose about 2.5 times with the increase in the dose from 25 to 400 rad. The analysis of the dose-response curves of true chromatid breaks and isochromatid breaks performed by applying several statistical models showed that these aberrations had clearly expressed linear dose-response kinetics. Analysing the two types of breaks according to phases, however, showed also a slightly expressed two-track component in G2, which was absent in S-phase. In respect to interchromosomal exchanges a linear-quadratic kinetics was assessed both in S and in G-phase, with a higher one-track component in S as compared to G2. On the basis of the data conclusions were drawn concerning the probable mechanisms participating in the formation of chromosomal aberrations. (authors)thors)

  20. Redressing the Power and Effect of Significance. A New Approach to an Old Problem: Teaching Statistics to Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Shirley; Muncer, Steven

    2000-01-01

    In teaching research methods, introducing effect size, then power, then statistical significance will improve understanding of Type I and Type II errors. Students will develop a better grasp of decision-making processes involved in hypothesis testing, which nurses need in an environment stressing evidence-based practice. (SK)

  1. A New Method for Assessing the Statistical Significance in the Differential Functioning of Items and Tests (DFIT) Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, T. C.; Raju, Nambury S.; Nanda, Alice O.

    2006-01-01

    A new item parameter replication method is proposed for assessing the statistical significance of the noncompensatory differential item functioning (NCDIF) index associated with the differential functioning of items and tests framework. In this new method, a cutoff score for each item is determined by obtaining a (1-alpha ) percentile rank score…

  2. Confidence Intervals: From tests of statistical significance to confidence intervals, range hypotheses and substantial effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Beaulieu-Prévost

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available For the last 50 years of research in quantitative social sciences, the empirical evaluation of scientific hypotheses has been based on the rejection or not of the null hypothesis. However, more than 300 articles demonstrated that this method was problematic. In summary, null hypothesis testing (NHT is unfalsifiable, its results depend directly on sample size and the null hypothesis is both improbable and not plausible. Consequently, alternatives to NHT such as confidence intervals (CI and measures of effect size are starting to be used in scientific publications. The purpose of this article is, first, to provide the conceptual tools necessary to implement an approach based on confidence intervals, and second, to briefly demonstrate why such an approach is an interesting alternative to an approach based on NHT. As demonstrated in the article, the proposed CI approach avoids most problems related to a NHT approach and can often improve the scientific and contextual relevance of the statistical interpretations by testing range hypotheses instead of a point hypothesis and by defining the minimal value of a substantial effect. The main advantage of such a CI approach is that it replaces the notion of statistical power by an easily interpretable three-value logic (probable presence of a substantial effect, probable absence of a substantial effect and probabilistic undetermination. The demonstration includes a complete example.

  3. A dose-response analysis for classical Kaposi's sarcoma management by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to evaluate the dose-response relationship in classical Kaposi's sarcoma CKS patients treated with external beam radiotherapy. Between 1993 and 2004, patients with CKS treated at the Department of Radiation Oncology, Gulhane Military Medical School, Ankara, Turkey were evaluated in this retrospective study. The median age at initial presentation was 60 years. First we analyzed the overall response rates for normalized total dose2Gy NTD2Gy of 20Gy. Secondly we searched for whether better response rates could be obtained with the NTD2Gy of >/=20Gy compared to the NTD2Gy of /20Gy and 64% and 24%for NDT2Gyof 20< Gy and these were statistically different p=0.001. Late side effects of radiation therapy were acceptable in all but 4 patients with fibrosis and edema. This retrospective analysis showed that radiotherapy schedules with an NDT2Gy of 20 Gy and above by using local irradiation fields are effective in terms of complete response rates in the management of CKS compared to NDT2Gy of < 20 Gy. (author)

  4. Threshold estimation based on a p-value framework in dose-response and regression settings

    CERN Document Server

    Mallik, Atul; Banerjee, Moulinath; Michailidis, George

    2011-01-01

    We use p-values to identify the threshold level at which a regression function takes off from its baseline value, a problem motivated by applications in toxicological and pharmacological dose-response studies and environmental statistics. We study the problem in two sampling settings: one where multiple responses can be obtained at a number of different covariate-levels and the other the standard regression setting involving limited number of response values at each covariate. Our procedure involves testing the hypothesis that the regression function is at its baseline at each covariate value and then computing the potentially approximate p-value of the test. An estimate of the threshold is obtained by fitting a piecewise constant function with a single jump discontinuity, otherwise known as a stump, to these observed p-values, as they behave in markedly different ways on the two sides of the threshold. The estimate is shown to be consistent and its finite sample properties are studied through simulations. Ou...

  5. Comparison of Dose Response Models for Predicting Normal Tissue Complications from Cancer Radiotherapy: Application in Rat Spinal Cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Adamus-Górka

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Seven different radiobiological dose-response models have been compared with regard to their ability to describe experimental data. The first four models, namely the critical volume, the relative seriality, the inverse tumor and the critical element models are mainly based on cell survival biology. The other three models: the Lyman (Gaussian distribution, the parallel architecture and the Weibull distribution models are semi-empirical and rather based on statistical distributions. The maximum likelihood estimation was used to fit the models to experimental data and the ?2-distribution, AIC criterion and F-test were applied to compare the goodness-of-fit of the models. The comparison was performed using experimental data for rat spinal cord injury. Both the shape of the dose-response curve and the ability of handling the volume dependence were separately compared for each model. All the models were found to be acceptable in describing the present experimental dataset (p > 0.05. For the white matter necrosis dataset, the Weibull and Lyman models were clearly superior to the other models, whereas for the vascular damage case, the Relative Seriality model seems to have the best performance although the Critical volume, Inverse tumor, Critical element and Parallel architecture models gave similar results. Although the differences between many of the investigated models are rather small, they still may be of importance in indicating the advantages and limitations of each particular model. It appears that most of the models have favorable properties for describing dose-response data, which indicates that they may be suitable to be used in biologically optimized intensity modulated radiation therapy planning, provided a proper estimation of their radiobiological parameters had been performed for every tissue and clinical endpoint.

  6. Equivalent dose determination in foraminifera: analytical description of the CO2--signal dose-response curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dose-response of the CO2-signal (g=2.0006) in foraminifera with ages between 19 and 300 ka is investigated. The sum of two exponential saturation functions is an adequate function to describe the dose-response curve up to an additional dose of 8000 Gy. It yields excellent dating results but requires an artificial doses of at least 5000 Gy. For small additional doses of about 500 Gy the single exponential saturation function can be used to calculate a reliable equivalent dose DE, although it does not describ the dose-response for higher doses. The CO2--signal dose-response indicates that the signal has two components of which one is less stable than the other

  7. Improved Monte Carlo estimation of statistical significance for tests of trend in rates or proportions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asymptotic significance levels of tests for monotone trends in rates or proportions can be profoundly anticonservative when applied to small numbers of events and when distributions of exposure to risk are highly skewed. In such cases Monte Carlo (MC) estimation of observed levels of significance (''p-values'') can be very useful. We describe a simple technique of importance sampling (IS) which can greatly improve the efficiency of MC estimation in this setting. Implementation of the IS technique is described, and the variance of the IS estimator is derived. It is shown that, in many situations likely to occur in practice, the variance is substantially less than that of a simple MC estimator proposed earlier. Generalizations beyond the case of survival data without ties are described, and the use of IS is illustrated with data regarding mortality among atomic bomb survivors. (author)

  8. Statistical protein quantification and significance analysis in label-free LC-MS experiments with complex designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clough Timothy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS is widely used for quantitative proteomic investigations. The typical output of such studies is a list of identified and quantified peptides. The biological and clinical interest is, however, usually focused on quantitative conclusions at the protein level. Furthermore, many investigations ask complex biological questions by studying multiple interrelated experimental conditions. Therefore, there is a need in the field for generic statistical models to quantify protein levels even in complex study designs. Results We propose a general statistical modeling approach for protein quantification in arbitrary complex experimental designs, such as time course studies, or those involving multiple experimental factors. The approach summarizes the quantitative experimental information from all the features and all the conditions that pertain to a protein. It enables both protein significance analysis between conditions, and protein quantification in individual samples or conditions. We implement the approach in an open-source R-based software package MSstats suitable for researchers with a limited statistics and programming background. Conclusions We demonstrate, using as examples two experimental investigations with complex designs, that a simultaneous statistical modeling of all the relevant features and conditions yields a higher sensitivity of protein significance analysis and a higher accuracy of protein quantification as compared to commonly employed alternatives. The software is available at http://www.stat.purdue.edu/~ovitek/Software.html.

  9. Dose response and factors related to interstitial pneumonitis after bone marrow transplant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) and chemotherapy are common components of conditioning regimens for bone marrow transplantation. Interstitial pneumonitis (IP) is a known regimen-related complication. Using published data of IP in a multivariate logistic regression, this study sought to identify the parameters in the bone marrow transplantation conditioning regimen that were significantly associated with IP and to establish a radiation dose-response function. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of articles that reported IP incidence along with lung dose, fractionation, dose rate, and chemotherapy regimen. In the final analysis, 20 articles (n = 1090 patients), consisting of 26 distinct TBI/chemotherapy regimens, were included in the analysis. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine dosimetric and chemotherapeutic factors that influenced the incidence of IP. Results: A logistic model was generated from patients receiving daily fractions of radiation. In this model, lung dose, cyclophosphamide dose, and the addition of busulfan were significantly associated with IP. An incidence of 3%-4% with chemotherapy-only conditioning regimens is estimated from the models. The ?/? value of the linear-quadratic model was estimated to be 2.8 Gy. The dose eliciting a 50% incidence, D 50, for IP after 120 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide was 8.8 Gy; in the absence of chemotherapy, the estimated D 50 is 10.6 Gy. No dose red D 50 is 10.6 Gy. No dose rate effect was observed. The use of busulfan as a substitute for radiation is equivalent to treating with 14.8 Gy in 4 fractions with 50% transmission blocks shielding the lung. The logistic regression failed to find a model that adequately fit the multiple-fraction-per-day data. Conclusions: Dose responses for both lung radiation dose and cyclophosphamide dose were identified. A conditioning regimen of 12 Gy TBI in 6 daily fractions induces an IP incidence of about 11% in the absence of lung shielding. Shielding the lung to receive 50% of this dose lowers the estimated incidence to about 2.3%. Because the lungs can be adequately shielded, we recommend against using busulfan as a substitute for fractionated TBI with cyclophosphamide

  10. Health effects of low doses at low dose rates: dose-response relationship modeling in a cohort of workers of the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this thesis is to contribute to a better understanding of the health effects of chronic external low doses of ionising radiation. This work is based on the French cohort of CEA-AREVA NC nuclear workers. The mains stages of this thesis were (1) conducting a review of epidemiological studies on nuclear workers, (2) completing the database and performing a descriptive analysis of the cohort, (3) quantifying risk by different statistical methods and (4) modelling the exposure-time-risk relationship. The cohort includes monitored workers employed more than one year between 1950 and 1994 at CEA or AREVA NC companies. Individual annual external exposure, history of work, vital status and causes of death were reconstructed for each worker. Standardized mortality ratios using French national mortality rates as external reference were computed. Exposure-risk analysis was conducted in the cohort using the linear excess relative risk model, based on both Poisson regression and Cox model. Time dependent modifying factors were investigated by adding an interaction term in the model or by using exposure time windows. The cohort includes 36, 769 workers, followed-up until age 60 in average. During the 1968- 2004 period, 5, 443 deaths, 2, 213 cancers, 62 leukemia and 1, 314 cardiovascular diseases were recorded. Among the 57% exposed workers, the mean cumulative dose was 21.5 milli-sieverts (mSv). A strong Healthy Worker Effect is observed in the cohort. Significant elevated risks of pleura cancer and melanoma deaths were observed in the cohort but not associated with dose. No significant association was observed with solid cancers, lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. A significant dose-response relationship was observed for leukemia excluding chronic lymphatic leukemia, mainly for doses received less than 15 years before and for yearly dose rates higher than 10 mSv. This PhD work contributes to the evaluation of risks associated to chronic external radiation exposure. Our study finds a risk of leukemia associated with chronic external exposure and allows taking into account modifying factors of this relation. Additional follow-up allows to improve the precision of the estimated dose-response relationship. A combined analysis including the present cohort and other nuclear cohorts could quantify more precisely the risks associated with low doses at low dose rates, in order to validate current underlying hypotheses of the radiation protection system. (author)

  11. A suggested statistical approach for dealing with the non-significant interactions between treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Sawan, Zakaria M.

    2011-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and foliar appli-cation of potassium (K) and Mepiquat Chloride (MC) on yield of cotton. Seed cotton yield per plant and seed cotton and lint yield per hectare; have been increased due to the higher N rate and use of foliar application of K and MC. No significant interactions were found among the variables in the present study (N, K and MC) with respect to characters under investigation. Generally, interactions ind...

  12. Test for the statistical significance of a treatment effect in the presence of hidden sub-populations

    OpenAIRE

    Karmakar, Bikram; Dhara, Kumaresh; Dey, Kushal Kumar; Basu, Analabha; Ghosh, Anil

    2012-01-01

    For testing the statistical significance of a treatment effect, we usually compare between two parts of a population, one is exposed to the treatment, and the other is not exposed to it. Standard parametric and nonparametric two-sample tests are often used for this comparison. But direct applications of these tests can yield misleading results, especially when the population has some hidden sub-populations, and the impact of this sub-population difference on the study variab...

  13. Myths and Misconceptions Revisited - What are the (Statistically Significant) methods to prevent employee injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A company's overall safety program becomes an important consideration to continue performing work and for procuring future contract awards. When injuries or accidents occur, the employer ultimately loses on two counts - increased medical costs and employee absences. This paper summarizes the human and organizational components that contributed to successful safety programs implemented by WESKEM, LLC's Environmental, Safety, and Health Departments located in Paducah, Kentucky, and Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The philosophy of 'safety, compliance, and then production' and programmatic components implemented at the start of the contracts were qualitatively identified as contributing factors resulting in a significant accumulation of safe work hours and an Experience Modification Rate (EMR) of <1.0. Furthermore, a study by the Associated General Contractors of America quantitatively validated components, already found in the WESKEM, LLC programs, as contributing factors to prevent employee accidents and injuries. Therefore, an investment in the human and organizational components now can pay dividends later by reducing the EMR, which is the key to reducing Workers' Compensation premiums. Also, knowing your employees' demographics and taking an active approach to evaluate and prevent fatigue may help employees balance work and non-work responsibilities. In turn, this approach can assist employers in maintaining a healthy and productive workforce. For these reasons, it is essentiorkforce. For these reasons, it is essential that safety needs be considered as the starting point when performing work. (authors)

  14. Listeria monocytogenes dose response revisited--incorporating adjustments for variability in strain virulence and host susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouillot, Régis; Hoelzer, Karin; Chen, Yuhuan; Dennis, Sherri B

    2015-01-01

    Evaluations of Listeria monocytogenes dose-response relationships are crucially important for risk assessment and risk management, but are complicated by considerable variability across population subgroups and L. monocytogenes strains. Despite difficulties associated with the collection of adequate data from outbreak investigations or sporadic cases, the limitations of currently available animal models, and the inability to conduct human volunteer studies, some of the available data now allow refinements of the well-established exponential L. monocytogenes dose response to more adequately represent extremely susceptible population subgroups and highly virulent L. monocytogenes strains. Here, a model incorporating adjustments for variability in L. monocytogenes strain virulence and host susceptibility was derived for 11 population subgroups with similar underlying comorbidities using data from multiple sources, including human surveillance and food survey data. In light of the unique inherent properties of L. monocytogenes dose response, a lognormal-Poisson dose-response model was chosen, and proved able to reconcile dose-response relationships developed based on surveillance data with outbreak data. This model was compared to a classical beta-Poisson dose-response model, which was insufficiently flexible for modeling the specific case of L. monocytogenes dose-response relationships, especially in outbreak situations. Overall, the modeling results suggest that most listeriosis cases are linked to the ingestion of food contaminated with medium to high concentrations of L. monocytogenes. While additional data are needed to refine the derived model and to better characterize and quantify the variability in L. monocytogenes strain virulence and individual host susceptibility, the framework derived here represents a promising approach to more adequately characterize the risk of listeriosis in highly susceptible population subgroups. PMID:24975545

  15. Meta-analysis for deriving age- and gender-specific dose-response relationships between urinary cadmium concentration and ? 2-microglobulinuria under environmental exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A meta-analysis was conducted to derive age- and gender-specific dose-response relationships between urinary cadmium (Cd) concentration and ? 2-microglobulinuria (?2MG-uria) under environmental exposure. ?2MG-uria was defined by a cutoff point of 1000 ?g ? 2-microglobulin/g creatinine. We proposed a model for describing the relationships among the interindividual variabilities in urinary Cd concentration, the ratio of Cd concentrations in the target organ and in urine, and the threshold Cd concentration in the target organ. The parameters in the model were determined so that good agreement might be achieved between the prevalence rates of ?2MG-uria reported in the literature and those estimated by the model. In this analysis, only the data from the literature on populations environmentally exposed to Cd were used. Using the model and estimated parameters, the prevalence rate of ?2MG-uria can be estimated for an age- and gender-specific subpopulation for which the distribution of urinary Cd concentrations is known. The maximum permissible level of urinary Cd concentration was defined as the maximum geometric mean of the urinary Cd concentration in an age- and gender-specific subpopulation that would not result in a statistically significant increase in the prevalence rate of ?2MG-uria. This was estimated to be approximately 3 ?g/g creatinine for a population in a small geographical area and approximately 2 ?g/g creatinine for a nationwid ?g/g creatinine for a nationwide population

  16. Dose - response relationship between noise exposure and the risk of occupational injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Hong, Jeong-Suk; Roh, Jaehoon; Kim, Chi-Nyon; Won, Jong-Uk

    2015-01-01

    Many workers worldwide experience fatality and disability caused by occupational injuries. This study examined the relationship between noise exposure and occupational injuries at factories in Korea. A total of 1790 factories located in northern Gyeonggi Province, Korea was evaluated. The time-weighted average levels of dust and noise exposure were taken from Workplace Exposure Assessment data. Apart occupational injuries, sports events, traffic accidents, and other accidents occurring outside workplaces were excluded. The incidences of occupational injury in each factory were calculated by data from the Korea Workers' Compensation and Welfare Services. Workplaces were classified according to the incidence of any occupational injuries (incident or nonincident workplaces, respectively). Workplace dust exposure was classified as 90 dB. Workplaces with high noise exposure were significantly associated with being incident workplaces, whereas workplaces with high dust exposure were not. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) derived from a logistic regression model were 1.68 (1.27-2.24) and 3.42 (2.26-5.17) at 80-89 dB and ? 90 dB versus workplace. Furthermore, the risk of occupational injury increases with noise exposure level in a dose-response relationship. Therefore, strategies for reducing noise exposure level are required to decrease the risk of occupational injury. PMID:25599757

  17. Dose-response algorithms for water-borne Pseudomonas aeruginosa folliculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roser, D J; VAN DEN Akker, B; Boase, S; Haas, C N; Ashbolt, N J; Rice, S A

    2015-05-01

    We developed two dose-response algorithms for P. aeruginosa pool folliculitis using bacterial and lesion density estimates, associated with undetectable, significant, and almost certain folliculitis. Literature data were fitted to Furumoto & Mickey's equations, developed for plant epidermis-invading pathogens: N l  = A ln(1 + BC) (log-linear model); P inf = 1-e(-r c C) (exponential model), where A and B are 2.51644 × 107 lesions/m2 and 2.28011 × 10-11 c.f.u./ml P. aeruginosa, respectively; C = pathogen density (c.f.u./ml), N l  = folliculitis lesions/m2, P inf = probability of infection, and r C  = 4·3 × 10-7 c.f.u./ml P. aeruginosa. Outbreak data indicates these algorithms apply to exposure durations of 41 ± 25 min. Typical water quality benchmarks (?10-2 c.f.u./ml) appear conservative but still useful as the literature indicated repeated detection likely implies unstable control barriers and bacterial bloom potential. In future, culture-based outbreak testing should be supplemented with quantitative polymerase chain reaction and organic carbon assays, and quantification of folliculitis aetiology to better understand P. aeruginosa risks. PMID:25275553

  18. Gamma- and electron dose response of the electrical conductivity of polyaniline based polymer blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Conducting polymers, also known as 'synthetic metals' have been the subject of widespread investigations over the past decade due to their very promising characteristics. Polyaniline (PANI) holds a special position among conducting polymers in that its most highly conducting doped form can be reached by protonic acid doping or oxidative doping. It was published earlier, that the electrical conductivity of some polyaniline based polymer composites increases to a significant extent when irradiated to gamma, electron or UV radiation. The aim of the present study was to measure the high frequency conductivity of blended films of PANI with poly(vinylchloride), PVC, and chlorinated poly(propylene) irradiated in air to different doses. In order to find the most suitable composition od these composites the mass percentage of PANI within the PPCl and PVC matrix was changed between 5 - 30%. These samples were then gamma irradiated and the induced electrical conductivity was measured in the 1 kHz - 1 MHz frequency range to determine the most sensitive evaluation conditions. After selecting both the most suitable measuring conditions as well as the blend compositions the dose response of the chosen samples was determined in the dose range of 10 - 250 kGy. With respect to potential dosimetry application the effect of electron irradiation, the effect of irradiation temperature and the stability of the irradiated samples have also been investigated

  19. On the use of resampling tests for evaluating statistical significance of binding-site co-occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Steven

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In eukaryotes, most DNA-binding proteins exert their action as members of large effector complexes. The presence of these complexes are revealed in high-throughput genome-wide assays by the co-occurrence of the binding sites of different complex components. Resampling tests are one route by which the statistical significance of apparent co-occurrence can be assessed. Results We have investigated two resampling approaches for evaluating the statistical significance of binding-site co-occurrence. The permutation test approach was found to yield overly favourable p-values while the independent resampling approach had the opposite effect and is of little use in practical terms. We have developed a new, pragmatically-devised hybrid approach that, when applied to the experimental results of an Polycomb/Trithorax study, yielded p-values consistent with the findings of that study. We extended our investigations to the FL method developed by Haiminen et al, which derives its null distribution from all binding sites within a dataset, and show that the p-value computed for a pair of factors by this method can depend on which other factors are included in that dataset. Both our hybrid method and the FL method appeared to yield plausible estimates of the statistical significance of co-occurrences although our hybrid method was more conservative when applied to the Polycomb/Trithorax dataset. A high-performance parallelized implementation of the hybrid method is available. Conclusions We propose a new resampling-based co-occurrence significance test and demonstrate that it performs as well as or better than existing methods on a large experimentally-derived dataset. We believe it can be usefully applied to data from high-throughput genome-wide techniques such as ChIP-chip or DamID. The Cooccur package, which implements our approach, accompanies this paper.

  20. Demystification of the significance of p in statistical tests / Desmitificación de la significancia de p en las pruebas estadísticas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Reinaldo Alberto, Sánchez Turcios.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Todas la pruebas estadísticas tienen un valor de p significativo a partir de [...] rafos, por lo que se establece un debate en la comunidad científica donde clásicamente se consideraba obtener la significancia de p un sello de garantía, que el proyecto de investigación era capaz de aceptar o rechazar la hipótesis. El objetivo de este artículo es discutir los cuestionamientos de la significancia de p. Abstract in english All statistical tests have a p value that is significant when [...] bate among the scientific community: obtaining p significance was considered as a guarantee that the research project would be an appropriate contrast between the hypothesis and the acceptance, or rejection, of it. The purpose of this paper is to construct a discussion about p significance.

  1. Biphasic dose responses in biology, toxicology and medicine: Accounting for their generalizability and quantitative features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most common quantitative feature of the hormetic-biphasic dose response is its modest stimulatory response which at maximum is only 30–60% greater than control values, an observation that is consistently independent of biological model, level of organization (i.e., cell, organ or individual), endpoint measured, chemical/physical agent studied, or mechanism. This quantitative feature suggests an underlying “upstream” mechanism common across biological systems, therefore basic and general. Hormetic dose response relationships represent an estimate of the peak performance of integrative biological processes that are allometrically based. Hormetic responses reflect both direct stimulatory or overcompensation responses to damage induced by relatively low doses of chemical or physical agents. The integration of the hormetic dose response within an allometric framework provides, for the first time, an explanation for both the generality and the quantitative features of the hormetic dose response. -- Highlights: •The hormetic stimulation is at maximum 30–60% greater than control responses. •Hormesis is a measure of biological performance and plasticity. •The hormetic response is evolutionary based and highly generalizable. -- This paper provides a biologically based explanation for the generalizability/quantitative features of the hormetic dose response, representing a fundamental contribution to the field

  2. Dietary Magnesium Intake and Metabolic Syndrome in the Adult Population: Dose-Response Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Yhun Ju

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available ncreasing evidence has suggested an association between dietary magnesium intake and metabolic syndrome. However, previous research examining dietary magnesium intake and metabolic syndrome has produced mixed results. Our objective was to determine the relationship between dietary magnesium intake and metabolic syndrome in the adult population using a dose-response meta-analysis. We searched the PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library databases from August, 1965, to May, 2014. Observational studies reporting risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs for metabolic syndrome in ?3 categories of dietary magnesium intake levels were selected. The data extraction was performed independently by two authors, and the quality of the studies was evaluated using the Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Nonrandomized Studies (RoBANS. Based on eight cross-sectional studies and two prospective cohort studies, the pooled relative risks of metabolic syndrome per 150 mg/day increment in magnesium intake was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84–0.93; I2 = 36.3%. The meta-regression model showed a generally linear, inverse relationship between magnesium intake (mg/day and metabolic syndrome. This dose-response meta-analysis indicates that dietary magnesium intake is significantly and inversely associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome. However, randomized clinical trials will be necessary to address the issue of causality and to determine whether magnesium supplementation is effective for the prevention of metabolic syndrome.

  3. Predictive population dose-response assessment for Cryptosporidium parvum: infection endpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englehardt, James D; Swartout, Jeff

    Data validation of safe doses of pathogens in drinking water consistent with public health goals is not possible due to the number of subjects that would be needed at each dose. Because of this problem, together with the difficulty in extrapolating pathogenic response between species, and the ability of microbes to adapt rapidly, confidence-level-dependent assessments of Cryptosporidium parvum dose-response have been developed. However, these results, even on a relative basis, are dependent on confidence level, and the lack of scientific basis for this choice hampers efforts to set water quality standards. Therefore, a predictive Bayesian dose-response assessment method was proposed previously. In this article, a hierarchical predictive population dose-response Bayesian assessment for C. parvum is presented for the infection endpoint. Available data on the infectivity of three isolates of C. parvum, genotype C, were adjusted for sensitive and antibody-positive subpopulations not proportionately represented in the data, by bootstrap analysis. The diverse mean infectivities of the isolates were used to obtain a predictive distribution for population infectivity, used in turn to obtain the predictive population dose-response function. The predictive result is a distribution of unconditional probability of infection, based on available dose-response information. Information includes theoretical and empirical evidence for the conditional beta-Poisson parametric dose-response function. Results indicate that a dose of 6 x 10(-6) oocysts per exposure corresponds to 10(-4) infections per capita year. An allowable dose corresponding to goals of the SWTR should be increased over this value to reflect the illness endpoint, while potentially being reduced to account for secondary transmission among hosts if important for gastroenteritis in developed countries. PMID:15192860

  4. Dose response of micronuclei induced by combination radiation of ?-particles and ?-rays in human lymphoblast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Ruiping; He, Mingyuan; Dong, Chen; Xie, Yuexia; Ye, Shuang; Yuan, Dexiao [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, No. 2094 Xie-Tu Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Shao, Chunlin, E-mail: clshao@shmu.edu.cn [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, No. 2094 Xie-Tu Road, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ? ?-Particle induced MN had a biphasic dose–response followed by a bystander model. ? MN dose–response of ?- and ?-combination IR was similar to that of ?-particle. ? ?-Particles followed by ?-rays yielded a synergistic effect on MN induction. ? Low dose ?-rays triggered antagonistic and adaptive responses against ?-particle. - Abstract: Combination radiation is a real situation of both nuclear accident exposure and space radiation environment, but its biological dosimetry is still not established. This study investigated the dose–response of micronuclei (MN) induction in lymphocyte by irradiating HMy2.CIR lymphoblast cells with ?-particles, ?-rays, and their combinations. Results showed that the dose–response of MN induced by ?-rays was well-fitted with the linear-quadratic model. But for ?-particle irradiation, the MN induction had a biphasic phenomenon containing a low dose hypersensitivity characteristic and its dose response could be well-stimulated with a state vector model where radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) was involved. For the combination exposure, the dose response of MN was similar to that of ?-irradiation. However, the yield of MN was closely related to the sequence of irradiations. When the cells were irradiated with ?-particles at first and then ?-rays, a synergistic effect of MN induction was observed. But when the cells were irradiated with ?-rays followed by ?-particles, an antagonistic effect of MN was observed in the low dose range although this combination radiation also yielded a synergistic effect at high doses. When the interval between two irradiations was extended to 4 h, a cross-adaptive response against the other irradiation was induced by a low dose of ?-rays but not ?-particles.

  5. Curvilinearity in the dose-response curve for cancer in Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    OpenAIRE

    Little, M. P.; Muirhead, C. R.

    1997-01-01

    Recently released data on cancer incidence in Japanese atomic bomb survivors are analyzed using a variety of relative risk models that take account of errors in estimates of dose to assess the dose response at low doses. If a relative risk model with a threshold (the dose response is assumed linear above the threshold) is fitted to solid cancer data, a threshold of more than about 0.2 Sv is inconsistent with the data, whereas these data are consistent with there being no threshold. Among soli...

  6. Chromosome aberrations as a biological dose-response indicator of radiation exposure in uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes of controls and uranium miners were analyzed for the prevalence of structural chromosomal aberrations. The frequency data are compared between controls and five groups of miners with exposures expressed in working level months (WLM). The results demonstrate: (i) the prevalence of dicentrics + rings is not a good biological dose-response indicator; (ii) there is a marked decrease in the prevalence of deletions or dicentrics + rings + deletions in the most highly exposed individuals (Group V; >3000 WLM); (iii) apart from the Group V results, all aberration categories except dicentrics + rings demonstrate a significant and monotonic biological response increasing uniformly with estimated radiation dose through Group IV (1740 to 2890 WLM); (iv) including Group V individuals, the aberration category which shows the most consistent pattern of increase with dose is the pericentric inversions + translocations grouping (Spearman's r/sub s/ = 0.943; P = 0.01); (v) excepting dicentrics + rings, the prevalence of chromosome aberrations is a sensitive biological indicator of low-level uranium miner irradiation; and (vi) significant (P = 0.01) differences in the prevalence of chromosome aberrations are observed between miners with regular to mildly atypical bronchial cell cytology and those with markedly atypical cells to carcinoma in situ. A marked increase in the prevalence of chromosome aberrations is probably a valid indicator of health riss probably a valid indicator of health risk in the miner groups. The relevance of the chromosome aberrations test for individual miners is more difficult to assess, but the absence of a high frequency of aberrations in an individual cannot be construed as a lack of risk. The application of radiation cytogenetic monitoring to other populations potentially exposed to high doses of radon daughters is discussed

  7. Dose-Response Relationship of Phototherapy for Hyperbilirubinemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandborg, Pernille Kure; Hansen, Bo Moelholm

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Using light-emitting diodes during conventional phototherapy, it is possible to reduce the distance from light source to infant, thus increasing light irradiance. The objective of this study was to search for a "saturation point" (ie, an irradiation level above which there is no further decrease in total serum bilirubin [TsB]). This was a prospective randomized study performed in the NICU of Aalborg Hospital, Denmark.METHODS:One hundred fifty-one infants (gestational age ?33 weeks) with uncomplicated hyperbilirubinemia were randomized to 1 of 4 distances from the phototherapy device to the mattress (20, 29, 38, and 47 cm). TsB was measured before and after 24 hours of phototherapy and irradiance every eighth hour. Main outcome was 24-hour decrease of TsB expressed in percent, ( TsB(0-24), difference between TsB(0) and TsB(24) [%]).RESULTS:A highly significant linear relation was seen between light irradiance and TsB(0-24) (%) (P <.001): when the irradiance increased from 20 to 55 ?W/cm(2)/nm, TsB(0-24) (%) increased from approximately 30% to 50%. In addition, smooth regression showed no tendency for TsB(0-24) (%) to level off as irradiance increased. TsB(0-24) (%) was negatively correlated to birth weight and positively to formula volume. Average weight gain during phototherapy was 1%, independent of light irradiance.CONCLUSIONS:By using light-emitting diodes, we found a linear relation between light irradiance in the range of 20 to 55 ?W/cm(2)/nm and a decrease in TsB after 24 hours of therapy, with no evidence of a saturation point.

  8. The Role of Target and Bystander Cells in Dose-Response Relationship of Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects in Two Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymanifard, Shokouhozaman; Bahreyni Toossi, Mohammad Taghi; Sazgarnia, Ameneh; Mohebbi, Shokoufe

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Radiation effect induced in nonirradiated cells which are adjacent or far from irradiated cells is termed radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE). Published data on dose-response relationship of RIBE is controversial. In the present study the role of targeted and bystander cells in RIBE dose-response relationship of two cell lines have been investigated. Materials and Methods: Two cell lines (QU-DB and MRC5) which had previously exhibited different dose-response relationship were selected. In the previous study the two cell lines received medium from autologous irradiated cells and the results showed that the magnitude of damages induced in QU-DB cells was dependent on dose unlike MRC5 cells. In the present study, the same cells irradiated with 0.5, 2 and 4 Gy gamma rays and their conditioned media were transferred to nonautologous bystander cells; such that the bystander effects due to cross-interaction between them were studied. Micronucleus assay was performed to measure the magnitude of damages induced in bystander cells (RIBE level). Results: QU-DB cells exhibited a dose-dependent response. RIBE level in MRC5 cells which received medium from 0.5 and 2 Gy QU-DB irradiated cells was not statistically different, but surprisingly when they received medium from 4Gy irradiated QU-DB cells, RIBE was abrogated. Conclusion: Results pertaining to QU-DB and MRC5 cells indicated that both target and bystander cells determined the outcome. Triggering the bystander effect depended on the radiation dose and the target cell-type, but when RIBE was triggered, dose-response relationship was predominantly determined by the bystander cell type. PMID:24298387

  9. The low-level shape of dose response for chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existing information on dose risk at the low-dose range is derived mainly from an extrapolation of the effects of higher doses or from the effects on a certain population group whose irradiation dose had been roughly assessed. Chromosome aberrations have been investigated in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of people whose annual radiation burden was calculated and accumulated individually according to their time of stay at their respective living and working sites, whereby the external gamma irradiation as well as significant mean values of the contents of radionuclides in the atmosphere were measured at every single place. Specific organ doses were also calculated. The data show that the sum of chromosome breaks for a continuous environmental low-level irradiation rises sharply with the annual combined alpha-plus-gamma dose. An extrapolation of the low-dose slope would never meet the well-known dose-effect curve for single in-vitro doses higher than 100 rads which are found to be linear in the log-log scale. On the other hand, an extrapolation of the high-dose response curve to the low-dose range would supply aberration values that were too low. From these data, and data in literature, it can be concluded that the initial part of the dose-effect curve for chromosome aberrations is not linear or sigmoid with a threshold at the lowest dose, but rises sharply and passes into a convex upward from with a kind of plateau until it meets the linear curve of the high dos it meets the linear curve of the high dose. This could be explained by postulating that at natural levels of radioactivity a basic amount of repair enzymes is present, and with increasing radiation aberrations increase. The stimulation of additional enzymes is induced only after a certain level of damage to the DNA, explaining the plateau effect. When this inducibility is saturated, aberration levels again rise

  10. Mechanistic interpretation of radiation dose-response relationship for subclinical metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To use a biophysical model based on the kinetics of metastatic formation to interpret radiation dose-response relationship for subclinical metastasis, and compare with what is predicted by the empirical model of Withers et al.. Methods: The metastases control probability (MCP) was formulated as a function of radiation dose and metastatic cell burden (MCB). The MCB was expressed to be log-uniformly distributed, as suggested by Withers et al.. In the mechanistic model, it was derived from the kinetics of primary tumor growth and subsequent metastatic colony formation and growth. A limiting resolution for clinical detection of metastasis (e.g. 109 cells) was assumed, and heterogeneous distributions for various biological parameters were considered. Mathematical expressions for both empirical and mechanistic models were solved analytically, and numerical simulations were performed using Mathcad software. Results: Withers et al. had presented clinical data to support a sigmoid-shaped MCP curve with a slope that is flatter than the control probability for gross tumor. This was verified by assuming the MCB to be log-uniformly distributed from 1 to 109 cells, provided that patients without subclinical metastasis are excluded. However, for patients diagnosed to have localized primary tumor, whether or not subclinical metastases are present remains unknown. This difficulty is alleviated in the mechanistic model, as an explicit expression for the metastasis an explicit expression for the metastasis-free cohort was obtained by subjecting all patients to undergo the Poisson process of metastatic establishment. Numerical simulations confirmed that the sigmoid MCP curve has a shallower slope if heterogeneity in metastatic rate is considered using log-normal distribution. Heterogeneity in metastatic growth rate with Gaussian distribution also resulted in significant flattening from an otherwise sharply-rising deterministic MCP curve. Conclusion: The mechanistic model of metastatogenesis appears to be more versatile for clinical application than the empirical model. It may help in formulating appropriate therapeutic strategy for subclinical metastases

  11. An evaluation of the dose-response relationship of fluoride injury to Gladiolus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, C. Thomas; Pack, Merrill R.; Sulzbach, Charles W.

    Experiments were conducted with Gladiolus to evaluate the dose-response relationship of F - injury to plants. In two experiments (Group I), plants were intermittently exposed to HF in different patterns of period length and frequency (24-384 h) with the mean HF concentrations and cumulative doses (concentration x duration) being similar among the treatments in each experiment. In another series of experiments (Group II), plants were continuously exposed to similar HF doses applied in widely different combinations of concentration (3-86 ?g F m -3) and duration (384-12 h). Leaf necrosis, as a percentage of the total leaf area of the plant, was used as the index of F - injury, and to facilitate its estimation, a mathematical model was developed relating lineal distance from the leaf tip to the area of the corresponding part of the leaf. In one of the Group I experiments (at 2.0 ?g F m -3) no significant differences in response were found between treatments. In the other experiment (at 2.9 ?g F m -3) less foliar necrosis was produced by the shorter duration, more frequent exposure treatments than by longer, less frequent exposures, inferring some degree of recovery for plants under the former conditions. In the Group II experiments no consistent relationship was found between the amount of foliar necrosis and the HF treatment concentration or duration. The range of responses in both Groups of experiments was much less than the range of the exposure conditions, which indicates a much closer relationship of F - injury to exposure dose than to the concentration, duration, or frequency of exposure.

  12. Intracoronary irradiation: dose response for the prevention of restenosis in swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty represents, in part, a proliferative response of vascular smooth muscle at the site of injury. We have previously shown that high-dose radiation (20 Gy), delivered via an intracoronary 192Ir source, causes focal medial fibrosis and markedly impairs the restenosis process after balloon angioplasty in swine. This study sought to delineate the dose-response characteristics of this effect. Methods and Materials: Forty juvenile swine underwent coronary angiography; a segment of the left coronary artery was chosen as a target for balloon injury. In 30 swine, a 2 cm ribbon of 192Ir was positioned at the target segment and 20, 15, or 10 Gy were delivered to the vessel wall (10 animals/dose). Subsequently, overdilatation balloon angioplasty was performed at the irradiated segment. In 10 control swine, overdilatation balloon angioplasty was performed without previous irradiation. Thirty-eight animals survived until sacrifice at 30 ± 3 days. Histopathological analysis was performed by a pathologist in a blinded manner. The area of maximal luminal compromise within the target segment was analyzed via computer-assisted planimetry. Results: Neointimal area was decreased by 71.4% at 20 Gy and by 58.3% at 15 Gy compared with control animals (p < 0.05 for both). A stimulatory effect on smooth muscle cell proliferation was noted at 10 Gy, with a 123% increase in neointimal area compared withincrease in neointimal area compared with controls (p < 0.05). Mean percent area stenosis was also reduced by 63% at 20 Gy and by 74.8% at 15 Gy compared with controls (p < 0.05 for both). Conclusions: Intracoronary irradiation prior to overstretch balloon angioplasty markedly reduces neointima formation; this effect is dose dependent, with evidence of a significant stimulatory effect at 10 Gy. The effective therapeutic dose range for the prevention of restenosis in this model begins at approximately 15 Gy delivered to the vessel wall

  13. Dose-response effects of atropine and HI-6 treatment of organophosphorus poisoning in guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koplovitz, I.; Menton, R.; Matthews, C.; Shutz, M.; Nalls, C.

    1995-12-31

    H1-6 (1-2-hydrnxyiminomethyl-1 pyridino-3-(4-carbameyl- 1--pyddino)-2- oxaprnpane dichioride) has been evaluated as an oxime alternative to pralidoxime, and toxogonin in the treatment of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning. The dose response effects of atropine (ATR) and HI-6 were investigated to more fully explore the interaction of these compounds in the treatment of OP poisoning. ATR, HI-6 and various combinations of the two drugs were evaluated against lethal poisoning by soman (GD) and tabun (GA) in guinea pigs. The effect of adjunctive diazepam treatment on the efficacy of atropine and HI-6 against soman was also investigated. Animals of either sex were challenged s.c. with OP and treated i.m. 1 min later with ATR and/or HI-6. When used, diazepam was injected immediately after ATR+HI6. LD50s of each treatment were calculated from probit models based on 24-hour survival against 5 levels of nerve agent and 6 animals per challenge level. A protective index (PI) was calculated by dividing the nerve agent LD50 in the presence of treatment by the LD50 in the absence of treatment. Treatment with HI-6 alone had little effect on the toxicity of either OP. Treatment with ATR alone was more effective than HI-6 alone and was significantly more effective against soman than against tabun. When used in combination atropine and HI-6 had a strong synergistic effect against both agents. The dose of atropine used with HI-6 was critical in determining the efficacy of HI-6 against either agent. The slopes of the dose-lethality curves were minimally affected by the dose of ATR or HI-6. Adjunctive treatment with diazepam enhanced the efficacy of HI-6 and atropine against soman.

  14. Cytogenetics dosimetry: dose-response curve for low doses of X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a preliminary study for the standardization in the future, the dose-response curve for low doses of X-rays, through the analysis of in vitro cultures of peripheral blood samples of 3 men and 3 women occupationally not exposed to artificial sources of ionizing radiation, age 18-40 years, where possible nonsmokers

  15. Dose-response measurement in gel dosimeter using various imaging modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujibuchi, T.; Kawamura, H.; Yamanashi, K.; Hiroki, A.; Yamashita, S.; Taguchi, M.; Sato, Y.; Mimura, K.; Ushiba, H.; Okihara, T.

    2013-06-01

    Measurement methods that accurately measure radiation dose distribution in a three dimensional manner in order to allow comparisons of treatment plans are needed for quality assurance. One such measurement method involves the use of a polymer gel dosimeter to measure the dose distribution in three dimensions. During irradiation, a polymerization reaction makes new chemical bonds and induces changes of the chemical structure of the gel of the gel dosimeter. In the present study, dose-response measurement of an environment-friendly material used in the gel dosimeter was performed by imaging with computed tomography (CT) and R1, R2, and fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) under various imaging conditions. Dose-response characteristics in the gel dosimeter used in the experiment were observed at doses of 5-20 Gy administered by X-ray CT and MRI. Although the FLAIR signal was a relative value, the dose-response values with FLAIR were excellent compared to those with R1, R2, and CT. Determination of more appropriate imaging conditions could help expand the dose-response parameters of each measurement method.

  16. Dose response of subcutaneous GLP-1 infusion in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torekov, Signe SØrensen; Kipnes, M S

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the dose-response relationship of the recombinant glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide (rGLP-1) administered by continuous subcutaneous infusion (CSCI) in subjects with type 2 diabetes, with respect to reductions in fasting, postprandial and 11-h serum glucose profiles.

  17. Effects of fluticasone propionate on methacholine dose-response curves in nonsmoking atopic asthmatics

    OpenAIRE

    Overbeek, S. E.; Rijnbeek, P. R.; Vons, C.; Hoogsteden, H. C.; Bogaard, J. M.; Mulder, P. G. H.

    1996-01-01

    Methacholine is frequently used to determine bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and to generate dose-response curves. These curves are characterized by a threshold (provocative concentration of methacholine producing a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (PC20) = sensitivity), slope (reactivity) and maximal response (plateau). We investigated the efficacy of 12 weeks of treatment with 1,000 microg fluticasone propionate in ...

  18. Dose-Response Curve of Chromosome Aberrations in Human Lymphocytes Induced by Gamma-Rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Lusiyanti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome aberration is a biomarker to predict the level of cell damage caused by exposure to ionizing radiation on human body. Dicentric chromosome is a specific chromosome aberration caused by ionizing radiation and is used as a gold standard biodosimetry of individuals over exposed to ionizing radiation. In radiation accident the dicentric assays has been applied as biological dosimetry to estimate radiation absorbed dose and also to confirm the radiation dose received to radiation workers.The purpose of this study was to generate a dose response curve of chromosome aberration (dicentric in human lymphocyte induced by gamma radiation. Peripheral blood samples from three non smoking healthy volunteers aged between 25-48 years old with informed consent were irradiated with dose between 0.1-4.0 Gy and a control using gamma teletherapy source. The culture procedure was conducted following the IAEA standard procedures with slight modifications. Analysis of dose-response curves used was LQ model Y = a + ?D + ?D2. The result showed that ? and ? values of the curve obtained were 0.018 ± 0.006 and 0.013 ± 0.002, respectively. Dose response calibration curve for dicentric chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes induced by gamma-radiation fitted to linear quadratic model. In order to apply the dose response curve of chromosome aberration disentric for biodosimetry, this standar curve still need to be validated.

  19. Dose-Response Curve of Chromosome Aberrations in Human Lymphocytes Induced by Gamma-Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromosome aberration is a bio marker to predict the level of cell damage caused by exposure to ionizing radiation on human body. Dicentric chromosome is a specific chromosome aberration caused by ionizing radiation and is used as a gold standard bio dosimetry of individuals over exposed to ionizing radiation. In radiation accident the dicentric assays has been applied as biological dosimetry to estimate radiation absorbed dose and also to confirm the radiation dose received to radiation workers.The purpose of this study was to generate a dose response curve of chromosome aberration (dicentric) in human lymphocyte induced by gamma radiation. Peripheral blood samples from three non smoking healthy volunteers aged between 25-48 years old with informed consent were irradiated with dose between 0.1-4.0 Gy and a control using gamma teletherapy source. The culture procedure was conducted following the IAEA standard procedures with slight modifications. Analysis of dose-response curves used was LQ model Y = a + ?D + ?D2. The result showed that ? and ? values of the curve obtained were 0.018 ± 0.006 and 0.013 ± 0.002, respectively. Dose response calibration curve for dicentric chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes induced by gamma-radiation fitted to linear quadratic model. In order to apply the dose response curve of chromosome aberration dicentric for bio dosimetry, this standard curve still need to be validated. (author)

  20. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN STRATEGY FOR THE WEIBULL DOSE RESPONSE MODEL (JOURNAL VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the research was to determine optimum design point allocation for estimation of relative yield losses from ozone pollution when the true and fitted yield-ozone dose response relationship follows the Weibull. The optimum design is dependent on the values of the We...

  1. On the existence of a threshold in the dose-response relationship from the epidemiological data of atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, Tatsuo [Radiation Education Forum, Tokyo (Japan); Sugahara, Tsutomu [Health Research Foundation, Kyoto (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Whether or not there is a threshold dose in the dose-response relationship for cancer incidence due to radiation is one of the most important but controversial issues in radiation protection and nuclear policy making. The epidemiological studies on the Life Span Study (LSS) group of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, conducted by Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) have been regarded to be most authentic, and they keep the view that there is no evidence to deny the linear non-threshold (LNT) hypotheses. The authors have claimed the necessity of reassessment of exposure doses of survivors, by considering the contribution of chronic dose, which comes from fall-out, induced radioactivity, and early entrance near the center of the city. The authors also have stressed the importance of the cases of if 'not-in-city' survivors, frequently reported to be fatal by the heavy chronic exposure. Recently we have noticed that the appearance of acute radiation symptoms is an important index for estimating total dose. In this paper, based on Obos statistical data (in 1957) for the acute symptoms observed for various category of survivors, we present an estimation of the average chronic dose of survivors, which should be added to the instantaneous dose for the directly exposed groups. By assuming the threshold for the appearance of the acute symptom such as epilation as 0.5 Sv, average chronic dose of 0.32 Sv was estimated for all survivors. Then the present dose-response relationship for cancer incidence should be shifted to the right hand side by this amount, and the value of about 0.32 Sv or more is suggested as the threshold for cancer incidence in low radiation level region.

  2. On the existence of a threshold in the dose-response relationship from the epidemiological data of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whether or not there is a threshold dose in the dose-response relationship for cancer incidence due to radiation is one of the most important but controversial issues in radiation protection and nuclear policy making. The epidemiological studies on the Life Span Study (LSS) group of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, conducted by Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) have been regarded to be most authentic, and they keep the view that there is no evidence to deny the linear non-threshold (LNT) hypotheses. The authors have claimed the necessity of reassessment of exposure doses of survivors, by considering the contribution of chronic dose, which comes from fall-out, induced radioactivity, and early entrance near the center of the city. The authors also have stressed the importance of the cases of if 'not-in-city' survivors, frequently reported to be fatal by the heavy chronic exposure. Recently we have noticed that the appearance of acute radiation symptoms is an important index for estimating total dose. In this paper, based on Obos statistical data (in 1957) for the acute symptoms observed for various category of survivors, we present an estimation of the average chronic dose of survivors, which should be added to the instantaneous dose for the directly exposed groups. By assuming the threshold for the appearance of the acute symptom such as epilation as 0.5 Sv, average chronic dose of 0.32 Sv was estimated for all survivors. Then the present dosed for all survivors. Then the present dose-response relationship for cancer incidence should be shifted to the right hand side by this amount, and the value of about 0.32 Sv or more is suggested as the threshold for cancer incidence in low radiation level region

  3. Dose response explorer: an integrated open-source tool for exploring and modelling radiotherapy dose-volume outcome relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy treatment outcome models are a complicated function of treatment, clinical and biological factors. Our objective is to provide clinicians and scientists with an accurate, flexible and user-friendly software tool to explore radiotherapy outcomes data and build statistical tumour control or normal tissue complications models. The software tool, called the dose response explorer system (DREES), is based on Matlab, and uses a named-field structure array data type. DREES/Matlab in combination with another open-source tool (CERR) provides an environment for analysing treatment outcomes. DREES provides many radiotherapy outcome modelling features, including (1) fitting of analytical normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) and tumour control probability (TCP) models, (2) combined modelling of multiple dose-volume variables (e.g., mean dose, max dose, etc) and clinical factors (age, gender, stage, etc) using multi-term regression modelling, (3) manual or automated selection of logistic or actuarial model variables using bootstrap statistical resampling, (4) estimation of uncertainty in model parameters, (5) performance assessment of univariate and multivariate analyses using Spearman's rank correlation and chi-square statistics, boxplots, nomograms, Kaplan-Meier survival plots, and receiver operating characteristics curves, and (6) graphical capabilities to visualize NTCP or TCP prediction versus selected variable models using various plots. DREES provides cdels using various plots. DREES provides clinical researchers with a tool customized for radiotherapy outcome modelling. DREES is freely distributed. We expect to continue developing DREES based on user feedback

  4. Repetitive TASER X26 discharge resulted in adverse physiologic events with a dose-response relationship related to the duration of discharge in anesthetized swine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Jung; Choi, Sang-Cheon; Ahn, Jung-Hwan; Min, Young-Gi

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of our study were to investigate the dose-response relationship of the TASER X26 discharge duration in an anesthetized swine model. Fourteen swines were anesthetized and then exposed to TASER X26 discharge for 5 sec (n = 5) or for 10 sec (n = 6). The sham control group (n = 3) was anesthetized and studied using the same protocol except TASER X26 discharges during the experiments. Hemodynamic parameters were obtained. Blood pressure and total peripheral resistance decreased significantly after TASER discharge and returned to baseline value at 15 min after 5 sec of TASER discharge but did not return to baseline values during the 30-min observation period after 10 sec of TASER discharge. Repetitive TASER X26 discharge resulted in adverse physiologic events with a dose-response relationship related to the duration of TASER X26 discharge in an anesthetized swine model. PMID:23066880

  5. Smoking, obesity, and hypertension alter the dose-response curve and test sensitivity of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin as a marker of alcohol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, J B; Fletcher, L M; Murphy, T L; Powell, L W; Halliday, J; Heath, A C; Martin, N G

    1998-12-01

    Serum carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is a specific and comparatively sensitive marker of excessive alcohol use; however, reports of its sensitivity vary according to the population or patient groups studied and their average alcohol intake. We have characterized the dose-response curve between alcohol intake and CDT concentrations in a study of 1400 men and women from a community-based twin registry. Our results show that mean CDT increases with increasing reported alcohol consumption even within the range of alcohol use considered to be nonhazardous. We found significant effects of sex, age, smoking, previous alcohol dependence, body mass index, and diastolic hypertension on the alcohol-CDT dose-response curve. These variables either affect test sensitivity or require adjustment of reference intervals. The results also provide insight into the physiological and biochemical factors that affect CDT concentration. PMID:9836715

  6. Dose-response studies on the carcinogenicity of potassium bromate in F344 rats after long-term oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Y; Aoki, S; Matsushima, Y; Takamura, N; Imazawa, T; Hayashi, Y

    1986-10-01

    Dose-response studies on the carcinogenicity of potassium bromate (KBrO3), a food additive, were undertaken to examine its effects at low doses. A total of 148 6-week-old male inbred F344 rats were divided into 7 groups. They were given KBrO3 orally in their drinking water at doses of 500, 250, 125, 60, 30, 15, and 0 ppm for 104 weeks, at the end of which time all the surviving animals were autopsied and then examined histopathologically. Shortening of the survival times and marked inhibition of body weight increase were observed in a group given 500 ppm KBrO3. The combined incidences of renal adenocarcinomas and adenomas were significantly increased in rats treated with KBrO3 at doses of 500, 250, and 125 ppm in a dose-related manner. The dose-response curve showed a sigmoid appearance. The value for the virtually safe dose (VSD), calculated by the probit model, was 0.950 ppm KBrO3 at a risk level of 10(-6). However, significant increases in the occurrence of dysplastic foci of the kidney were found in groups at doses higher than 30 ppm KBrO3. The VSD value for the dysplastic foci estimated by the gamma-multi-hit model was 0.148 X 10(-3) ppm KBrO3 at a risk level of 10(-6). In a group tested with 500 ppm KBrO3, the combined incidences for follicular adenocarcinomas and adenomas of the thyroid and for mesotheliomas of the peritoneum were shown to be significantly increased. PMID:3463824

  7. Variation through the cell cycle in the dose-response of DNA neutral filter elution in X-irradiated synchronous CHO-cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose-response curves for DNA neutral (pH 9.6) filter elution were obtained with synchronized CHO cells exposed to X-rays at various phases of cell cycle. The dose response was similar in synchronized and plateau-phase G1 cells, as well as in cells arrested at the G1/S border using aphidicolin; it flattened as cells progressed into S phase and reached a minimum in the middle of this phase. An increase in DNA elution dose response, to values only slightly lower than those obtained with G1 cells, was observed as cells entered G2 phase. Significant alterations in the sedimentation properties of the DNA during S phase were also observed in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells using the neutral sucrose gradient centrifugation technique. A significant proportion of the DNA from S cells irradiated with 10 Gy sedimented at speeds (350S-700S) well above the maximum sedimentation speed expected for free sedimenting DNA molecules (ssub(max) = 350S), indicating the formation of a DNA complex. DNA from G1, G1/S, or G2 + M cells sedimented as expected for free sedimenting molecules. (author)

  8. A mass action model of the dose-response curve of immunoradiometric assay and its curve fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of no satisfactory mathematical model is presently available for the dose-response curve of immunoradiometric assay, a three parameter model based on single binding site mass action law has been derived. A curve fitting method based on similar principle of linear robust regression was designed and a software was prepared for use on IBM personal computers. Experiments revealed that the model is applicable to a variety of IRMA systems as well as to time-resolved immunofluorometric assay of hAFP. When there was outlier(s) of the calibration curve, the average bias of unknown samples obtained with this method is significantly smaller than methods using four parameter logistic model or four parameter single site mass action model

  9. Spatial and dose–response analysis of fibrotic lung changes after stereotactic body radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinogradskiy, Yevegeniy; Diot, Quentin; Kavanagh, Brian; Schefter, Tracey; Gaspar, Laurie; Miften, Moyed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is becoming the standard of care for early stage nonoperable lung cancers. Accurate dose–response modeling is challenging for SBRT because of the decreased number of clinical toxicity events. As a surrogate for a clinical toxicity endpoint, studies have proposed to use radiographic changes in follow up computed tomography (CT) scans to evaluate lung SBRT normal tissue effects. The purpose of the current study was to use local fibrotic lung regions to spatially and dosimetrically evaluate lung changes in patients that underwent SBRT.Methods: Forty seven SBRT patients treated at our institution from 2003 to 2009 were used for the current study. Our patient cohort had a total of 148 follow up CT scans ranging from 3 to 48 months post-therapy. Post-treatment scans were binned into intervals of 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months after the completion of treatment. Deformable image registration was used to align the follow up CT scans with the pretreatment CT and dose distribution. Areas of visible fibrotic changes were contoured. The centroid of each gross tumor volume (GTV) and contoured fibrosis volume was calculated and the fibrosis volume location and movement (magnitude and direction) relative to the GTV and 30 Gy isodose centroid were analyzed. To perform a dose–response analysis, each voxel in the fibrosis volume was sorted into 10 Gy dose bins and the average CT number value for each dose bin was calculated. Dose–response curves were generated by plotting the CT number as a function of dose bin and time posttherapy.Results: Both fibrosis and GTV centroids were concentrated in the upper third of the lung. The average radial movement of fibrosis centroids relative to the GTV centroids was 2.6 cm with movement greater than 5 cm occurring in 11% of patients. Evaluating dose–response curves revealed an overall trend of increasing CT number as a function of dose. The authors observed a CT number plateau at doses ranging from 30 to 50 Gy for the 3, 6, and 12 months posttherapy time points. There was no evident plateau for the dose–response curves generated using data from the 18, 24, 30, and 36 months posttherapy time points.Conclusions: Regions of local fibrotic lung changes in patients that underwent SBRT were evaluated spatially and dosimetrically. The authors found that the average fibrosis movement was 2.6 cm with movement greater than 5 cm possible. Evaluating dose–response curves revealed an overall trend of increasing CT number as a function of dose. Furthermore, our dose–response data also suggest that one of the possible explanations of the CT number plateau effect may be the time posttherapy of the acquired data. Understanding normal tissue dose–response is important for reducing toxicity after SBRT, especially in cases where larger tumors are treated. The methods presented in the current work build on prior quantitative studies and further enhance the understanding of normal lung dose–response after SBRT.

  10. Spatial and dose–response analysis of fibrotic lung changes after stereotactic body radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is becoming the standard of care for early stage nonoperable lung cancers. Accurate dose–response modeling is challenging for SBRT because of the decreased number of clinical toxicity events. As a surrogate for a clinical toxicity endpoint, studies have proposed to use radiographic changes in follow up computed tomography (CT) scans to evaluate lung SBRT normal tissue effects. The purpose of the current study was to use local fibrotic lung regions to spatially and dosimetrically evaluate lung changes in patients that underwent SBRT.Methods: Forty seven SBRT patients treated at our institution from 2003 to 2009 were used for the current study. Our patient cohort had a total of 148 follow up CT scans ranging from 3 to 48 months post-therapy. Post-treatment scans were binned into intervals of 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months after the completion of treatment. Deformable image registration was used to align the follow up CT scans with the pretreatment CT and dose distribution. Areas of visible fibrotic changes were contoured. The centroid of each gross tumor volume (GTV) and contoured fibrosis volume was calculated and the fibrosis volume location and movement (magnitude and direction) relative to the GTV and 30 Gy isodose centroid were analyzed. To perform a dose–response analysis, each voxel in the fibrosis volume was sorted into 10 Gy dose bins and the average CT number value for each dose bin was calculated. Dose–response curves were generated by plotting the CT number as a function of dose bin and time posttherapy.Results: Both fibrosis and GTV centroids were concentrated in the upper third of the lung. The average radial movement of fibrosis centroids relative to the GTV centroids was 2.6 cm with movement greater than 5 cm occurring in 11% of patients. Evaluating dose–response curves revealed an overall trend of increasing CT number as a function of dose. The authors observed a CT number plateau at doses ranging from 30 to 50 Gy for the 3, 6, and 12 months posttherapy time points. There was no evident plateau for the dose–response curves generated using data from the 18, 24, 30, and 36 months posttherapy time points.Conclusions: Regions of local fibrotic lung changes in patients that underwent SBRT were evaluated spatially and dosimetrically. The authors found that the average fibrosis movement was 2.6 cm with movement greater than 5 cm possible. Evaluating dose–response curves revealed an overall trend of increasing CT number as a function of dose. Furthermore, our dose–response data also suggest that one of the possible explanations of the CT number plateau effect may be the time posttherapy of the acquired data. Understanding normal tissue dose–response is important for reducing toxicity after SBRT, especially in cases where larger tumors are treated. The methods presented in the current work build on prior quantitative studies and further enhance the understanding of normal lung dose–response after SBRT

  11. A randomized trial in a massive online open course shows people don't know what a statistically significant relationship looks like, but they can learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Aaron; Anderson, G Brooke; Peng, Roger; Leek, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Scatterplots are the most common way for statisticians, scientists, and the public to visually detect relationships between measured variables. At the same time, and despite widely publicized controversy, P-values remain the most commonly used measure to statistically justify relationships identified between variables. Here we measure the ability to detect statistically significant relationships from scatterplots in a randomized trial of 2,039 students in a statistics massive open online course (MOOC). Each subject was shown a random set of scatterplots and asked to visually determine if the underlying relationships were statistically significant at the P < 0.05 level. Subjects correctly classified only 47.4% (95% CI [45.1%-49.7%]) of statistically significant relationships, and 74.6% (95% CI [72.5%-76.6%]) of non-significant relationships. Adding visual aids such as a best fit line or scatterplot smooth increased the probability a relationship was called significant, regardless of whether the relationship was actually significant. Classification of statistically significant relationships improved on repeat attempts of the survey, although classification of non-significant relationships did not. Our results suggest: (1) that evidence-based data analysis can be used to identify weaknesses in theoretical procedures in the hands of average users, (2) data analysts can be trained to improve detection of statistically significant results with practice, but (3) data analysts have incorrect intuition about what statistically significant relationships look like, particularly for small effects. We have built a web tool for people to compare scatterplots with their corresponding p-values which is available here: http://glimmer.rstudio.com/afisher/EDA/. PMID:25337457

  12. A randomized trial in a massive online open course shows people don’t know what a statistically significant relationship looks like, but they can learn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Fisher

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Scatterplots are the most common way for statisticians, scientists, and the public to visually detect relationships between measured variables. At the same time, and despite widely publicized controversy, P-values remain the most commonly used measure to statistically justify relationships identified between variables. Here we measure the ability to detect statistically significant relationships from scatterplots in a randomized trial of 2,039 students in a statistics massive open online course (MOOC. Each subject was shown a random set of scatterplots and asked to visually determine if the underlying relationships were statistically significant at the P < 0.05 level. Subjects correctly classified only 47.4% (95% CI [45.1%–49.7%] of statistically significant relationships, and 74.6% (95% CI [72.5%–76.6%] of non-significant relationships. Adding visual aids such as a best fit line or scatterplot smooth increased the probability a relationship was called significant, regardless of whether the relationship was actually significant. Classification of statistically significant relationships improved on repeat attempts of the survey, although classification of non-significant relationships did not. Our results suggest: (1 that evidence-based data analysis can be used to identify weaknesses in theoretical procedures in the hands of average users, (2 data analysts can be trained to improve detection of statistically significant results with practice, but (3 data analysts have incorrect intuition about what statistically significant relationships look like, particularly for small effects. We have built a web tool for people to compare scatterplots with their corresponding p-values which is available here: http://glimmer.rstudio.com/afisher/EDA/.

  13. A randomized trial in a massive online open course shows people don’t know what a statistically significant relationship looks like, but they can learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Aaron; Anderson, G. Brooke; Peng, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Scatterplots are the most common way for statisticians, scientists, and the public to visually detect relationships between measured variables. At the same time, and despite widely publicized controversy, P-values remain the most commonly used measure to statistically justify relationships identified between variables. Here we measure the ability to detect statistically significant relationships from scatterplots in a randomized trial of 2,039 students in a statistics massive open online course (MOOC). Each subject was shown a random set of scatterplots and asked to visually determine if the underlying relationships were statistically significant at the P < 0.05 level. Subjects correctly classified only 47.4% (95% CI [45.1%–49.7%]) of statistically significant relationships, and 74.6% (95% CI [72.5%–76.6%]) of non-significant relationships. Adding visual aids such as a best fit line or scatterplot smooth increased the probability a relationship was called significant, regardless of whether the relationship was actually significant. Classification of statistically significant relationships improved on repeat attempts of the survey, although classification of non-significant relationships did not. Our results suggest: (1) that evidence-based data analysis can be used to identify weaknesses in theoretical procedures in the hands of average users, (2) data analysts can be trained to improve detection of statistically significant results with practice, but (3) data analysts have incorrect intuition about what statistically significant relationships look like, particularly for small effects. We have built a web tool for people to compare scatterplots with their corresponding p-values which is available here: http://glimmer.rstudio.com/afisher/EDA/. PMID:25337457

  14. A randomized trial in a massive online open course shows people don't know what a statistically significant relationship looks like, but they can learn

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Aaron; Anderson, G Brooke; Peng, Roger; Leek, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Scatterplots are the most common way for statisticians, scientists, and the public to visually detect relationships between measured variables. At the same time, and despite widely publicized controversy, P-values remain the most commonly used measure to statistically justify relationships identified between variables. Here we measure the ability to detect statistically significant relationships from scatterplots in a randomized trial of 2,039 students in a statistics massiv...

  15. Extent of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS and its dose-response relation to respiratory health among adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Kenneth D

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a dearth of standardized studies examining exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS and its relationship to respiratory health among adults in developing countries. Methods In 2004, the Syrian Center for Tobacco Studies (SCTS conducted a population-based survey using stratified cluster sampling to look at issues related to environmental health of adults aged 18–65 years in Aleppo (2,500,000 inhabitants. Exposure to ETS was assessed from multiple self-reported indices combined into a composite score (maximum 22, while outcomes included both self-report (symptoms/diagnosis of asthma, bronchitis, and hay fever, and objective indices (spirometric assessment of FEV1 and FVC. Logistic and linear regression analyses were conducted to study the relation between ETS score and studied outcomes, whereby categorical (tertiles and continuous scores were used respectively, to evaluate the association between ETS exposure and respiratory health, and explore the dose-response relationship of the association. Results Of 2038 participants, 1118 were current non-smokers with breath CO levels ? 10 ppm (27.1% men, mean age 34.7 years and were included in the current analysis. The vast majority of study participants were exposed to ETS, whereby only 3.6% had ETS score levels ? 2. In general, there was a significant dose-response pattern in the relationship of ETS score with symptoms of asthma, hay fever, and bronchitis, but not with diagnoses of these outcomes. The magnitude of the effect was in the range of twofold increases in the frequency of symptoms reported in the high exposure group compared to the low exposure group. Severity of specific respiratory problems, as indicated by frequency of symptoms and health care utilization for respiratory problems, was not associated with ETS exposure. Exposure to ETS was associated with impaired lung function, indicative of airflow limitation, among women only. Conclusions This study provides evidence for the alarming extent of exposure to ETS among adult non-smokers in Syria, and its dose-response relationship with respiratory symptoms of infectious and non-infectious nature. It calls for concerted efforts to increase awareness of this public health problem and to enforce regulations aimed at protecting non-smokers.

  16. The influence of tube voltage and phantom size in computed tomography on the dose-response relationship of dicentrics in human blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the dose response relationship of dicentrics in human lymphocytes after CT scans at tube voltages of 80 and 140 kV. Blood samples from a healthy donor placed in tissue equivalent abdomen phantoms of standard, pediatric and adipose sizes were exposed at dose levels up to 0.1 Gy using a 64-slice CT scanner. It was found that both the tube voltage and the phantom size significantly influenced the CT scan-induced linear dose-response relationship of dicentrics in human lymphocytes. Using the same phantom (standard abdomen), 80 kV CT x-rays were biologically more effective than 140 kV CT x-rays. However, it could also be determined that the applied phantom size had much more influence on the biological effectiveness. Obviously, the increasing slopes of the CT scan-induced dose response relationships of dicentrics in human lymphocytes obtained in a pediatric, a standard and an adipose abdomen have been induced by scattering effects of photons, which strongly increase with increasing phantom size.

  17. A randomized trial on dose-response in radiation therapy of low-grade cerebral glioma: European organization for research and treatment of cancer (EORTC) study 22844

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Cerebral low-grade gliomas (LGG) in adults are mostly composed of astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and mixed oligoastrocytomas. There is at present no consensus in the policy of treatment of these tumors. We sought to determine the efficacy of radiotherapy and the presence of a dose-response relationship for these tumors in two multicentric randomized trials conducted by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC). The dose-response study is the subject of this article. Methods and Materials: For the dose-response trial, 379 adult patients with cerebral LGGs were randomized centrally at the EORTC Data Center to receive irradiation postoperatively (or postbiopsy) with either 45 Gy in 5 weeks or 59.4 Gy in 6.6 weeks with quality-controlled radiation therapy. All known parameters with possible influences on prognosis were prospectively recorded. Conventional treatment techniques were recommended. Results: With 343 (91%) eligible and evaluable patients followed up for at least 50 months with a median of 74 months, there is no significant difference in terms of survival (58% for the low-dose arm and 59% for the high-dose arm) or the progression free survival (47% and 50%) between the two arms of the trial. However, this prospective trial has revealed some important facets about the prognostic parameters: The T of the TNM classifications as proposed in the protocol appears to be one of the most important prognostic factors (p < 0.0001) omportant prognostic factors (p < 0.0001) on multivariate analysis. Other prognostic factors, most of which are known, have now been quantified and confirmed in this prospective study. Conclusion: The EORTC trial 22844 has not revealed the presence of radiotherapeutic dose-response for patients with LGG for the two dose levels investigated with this conventional setup, but objective prognostic parameters are recognized. The tumor size or T parameter as used in this study appears to be a very important factor

  18. Development of free statistical software enabling researchers to calculate confidence levels, clinical significance curves and risk-benefit contours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Confidence levels, clinical significance curves, and risk-benefit contours are tools improving analysis of clinical studies and minimizing misinterpretation of published results, however no software has been available for their calculation. The objective was to develop software to help clinicians utilize these tools. Excel 2000 spreadsheets were designed using only built-in functions, without macros. The workbook was protected and encrypted so that users can modify only input cells. The workbook has 4 spreadsheets for use in studies comparing two patient groups. Sheet 1 comprises instructions and graphic examples for use. Sheet 2 allows the user to input the main study results (e.g. survival rates) into a 2-by-2 table. Confidence intervals (95%), p-value and the confidence level for Treatment A being better than Treatment B are automatically generated. An additional input cell allows the user to determine the confidence associated with a specified level of benefit. For example if the user wishes to know the confidence that Treatment A is at least 10% better than B, 10% is entered. Sheet 2 automatically displays clinical significance curves, graphically illustrating confidence levels for all possible benefits of one treatment over the other. Sheet 3 allows input of toxicity data, and calculates the confidence that one treatment is more toxic than the other. It also determines the confidence that the relative toxicity of the most effective arm does not exceed user-defint effective arm does not exceed user-defined tolerability. Sheet 4 automatically calculates risk-benefit contours, displaying the confidence associated with a specified scenario of minimum benefit and maximum risk of one treatment arm over the other. The spreadsheet is freely downloadable at www.ontumor.com/professional/statistics.htm A simple, self-explanatory, freely available spreadsheet calculator was developed using Excel 2000. The incorporated decision-making tools can be used for data analysis and improve the reporting of results of any comparison between two patient groups

  19. Aspartame tablets-gamma dose response and usability for routine radiation processing dosimetry using spectrophotometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinde, S.H. [Radiation Safety Systems Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)]. E-mail: shs_barc@yahoo.com; Mukherjee, T. [Radiation Safety Systems Division, Chemistry Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2007-02-15

    Aspartame tablets were studied for gamma dose response, using spectrophotometric read-out method. The optimum concentration for ferrous ions was 2x10{sup -4}moldm{sup -3} and xylenol orange with 2.5x10{sup -1}moldm{sup -3} of sulphuric acid for the optimum acidity in FX solution. Wavelength of maximum absorbance is 548nm. Post-irradiation stability is appreciable i.e. for not less than one month. Dose response is non-linear with third order polynomial fit, in the dose range of 1000-10000Gy. This system of aspartame was further used for carrying out relative percentage dose profile measurement in Gamma Cell-220. Results obtained were inter-compared with that of a glutamine dosimeter, which showed that maximum difference between the values of aspartame and glutamine systems is within +/-10%.

  20. Aspartame tablets-gamma dose response and usability for routine radiation processing dosimetry using spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspartame tablets were studied for gamma dose response, using spectrophotometric read-out method. The optimum concentration for ferrous ions was 2x10-4moldm-3 and xylenol orange with 2.5x10-1moldm-3 of sulphuric acid for the optimum acidity in FX solution. Wavelength of maximum absorbance is 548nm. Post-irradiation stability is appreciable i.e. for not less than one month. Dose response is non-linear with third order polynomial fit, in the dose range of 1000-10000Gy. This system of aspartame was further used for carrying out relative percentage dose profile measurement in Gamma Cell-220. Results obtained were inter-compared with that of a glutamine dosimeter, which showed that maximum difference between the values of aspartame and glutamine systems is within +/-10%

  1. Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of hypertension and CVD: a dose-response meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Bo; Huang, Yubei; Reilly, Kathleen Heather; Li, Shuangshuang; Zheng, Ruolong; Barrio-Lopez, Maria T; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A; Zhou, Donghao

    2015-03-14

    A number of prospective cohort studies have investigated the associations between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and the risk of hypertension, CHD and stroke, but revealed mixed results. In the present study, we aimed to perform a dose-response meta-analysis of these prospective studies to clarify these associations. A systematic literature search was conducted using the PubMed and Embase databases up to 5 May 2014. Random- or fixed-effects models were used to calculate the pooled relative risks (RR) with 95 % CI for the highest compared with the lowest category of SSB consumption, and to conduct a dose-response analysis. A total of six prospective studies (240 726 participants and 80 411 incident cases of hypertension) from four publications on hypertension were identified. A total of four prospective studies (194 664 participants and 7396 incident cases of CHD) from four publications on CHD were identified. A total of four prospective studies (259 176 participants and 10 011 incident cases of stroke) from four publications on stroke were identified. The summary RR for incident hypertension was 1·08 (95 % CI 1·04, 1·12) for every additional one serving/d increase in SSB consumption. The summary RR for incident CHD was 1·17 (95 % CI 1·10, 1·24) for every serving/d increase in SSB consumption. There was no significant association between SSB consumption and total stroke (summary RR 1·06, 95 % CI 0·97, 1·15) for every serving/d increase in SSB consumption. The present meta-analysis suggested that a higher consumption of SSB was associated with a higher risk of hypertension and CHD, but not with a higher risk of stroke. PMID:25735740

  2. Dose response of hydrazine - Deproteinated tooth enamel under blue light stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuece, Ulkue Rabia, E-mail: ulkuyuce@hotmail.co [Ankara University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Engineering Physics, 06100, Tandogan - Ankara (Turkey); Meric, Niyazi, E-mail: meric@ankara.edu.t [Ankara University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Engineering Physics, 06100, Tandogan - Ankara (Turkey); Atakol, Orhan, E-mail: atakol@science.ankara.edu.t [Ankara University, Science Faculty, Department of Chemistry, 06100, Tandogan - Ankara (Turkey); Yasar, Fusun, E-mail: ab121310@adalet.gov.t [Council of Forensic Medicine, Ankara Branch, Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-08-15

    The beta dose response and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) signal stability characteristics of human tooth enamel deproteinated by hydrazine reagent under blue photon stimulation are reported. Removal of the protein organic component of tooth enamel resulted in a higher OSL sensitivity and slower fading of OSL signals. The effect of chemical sample preparation on the enamel sample sensitivity is discussed and further steps to make this deproteinization treatment suitable for in vitro dose reconstruction studies are suggested.

  3. Human cytogenetic dosimetry: a dose-response relationship for alpha particle radiation from 241Am

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytogenetic dosimetry estimates to guide treatment of persons internally contaminated with transuranic elements have not previously been possible because appropriate in vitro dose-response curves specifically for alpha particle irradiation of human lymphocytes do not exist. Using well-controlled cytogenetic methods for human lymphocyte culture, an experimentally derived dose-response curve for 241Am alpha particle (5.49 and 5.44 MeV) radiation of G0 lymphocytes was generated. Cells were exposed to 43.8, 87.7, 175.3 or 350.6 nCi/ml 241Am for 1.7 hr giving doses of 0.85, 1.71, 3.42 or 6.84 rad. Based on dicentric chromosome yield, the linear dose-response equation is Y = 4.90(+-0.42) x 10-2 X, with Y given as dicentrics per cell and X as dose in rads. The study also shows that the two-break asymmetrical exchanges in cells damaged by alpha particle radiation are overdispersed when compared to a Poisson distribution. An example is presented to show how the derived dose-response equation can be used to estimate the radiation dose for a person internally contaminated with an actinide. An experimentally derived RBE value of 118 at 0.85 rad is calculated for the efficiency of 241Am alpha particle induction of dicentric chromosomes in human G0 lymphocytes as compared with the efficiency of 60Co gamma radiation. The maximum theoretical value for the RBE for cytogenetic damage from alpha irradiation wasogenetic damage from alpha irradiation was determined to be 278 at 0.1 rad or less which is in marked contrast to previously reported RBE values of approx. 20. (author)

  4. Dose response curve linearization and computer potency calculation of turbidimetric microbiological vitamin assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, K; Elfring, G L; Crain, H H; Cole, R J

    1967-03-01

    The dose response curves of various turbidimetric microbiological assays, including vitamin B(12), Ca pantothenate, and pyridoxine (vitamin B(6)), were linear with logarithmic transformation of the responses by use of the equation derived, ln[T(x) - T(infinity)] = ln A - Bx. A Fortran computer program which used the slope ratio potency calculation was written. The assay potencies calculated by the computer program showed excellent agreement with those obtained by the manual calculation. PMID:6029833

  5. Dose Response of Retinol and Isotretinoin in the Prevention of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer Recurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Clouser, Mary C.; Roe, Denise J.; Foote, Janet A.; Harris, Robin B.; Alberts, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from a randomized, double blind, study of the efficacy of retinol or isotretinoin versus placebo on recurrence of non-melanoma skin cancer in high risk subjects, a reanalysis of the original intent to treat analysis was performed in a dose response format. Cox proportional hazards models describe the relationship between dose quartiles of isotretinoin and retinol use and time to first occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in crude and adjusted mo...

  6. Eosinophils in the bronchial mucosa in relation to methacholine dose-response curves in atopic asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Moller, G. M.; Overbeek, S. E.; Helden-meeuwsen, C. G.; Hoogsteden, H. C.; Bogaard, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by both local infiltration of eosinophils in the bronchial mucosa and bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR). A detailed characterization of BHR implies analysis of a histamine or methacholine dose-response curve yielding not only the dose at 20% fall of baseline forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), but also a plateau (P) representing the maximal narrowing response in terms of percent change in F...

  7. A comparison of dose-response models for death from hematological depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many radiation-induced lethality experiments that have been published for various mammalian species have been compiled into a database suitable to study interspecific variability of radiosensitivity, dose-rate dependence of sensitivity, dose-response behavior within each experiment, etc. The data compiled were restricted to continuous and nearly continuous exposures to photon radiations having source energies above 100 keV. Also, photon source energy, exposure geometry, and body weight considerations were used to select studies where the dose to hematopoietic marrow was nearly uniform, i.e., < +- 20%. The data base reflects 13 mammalian test species ranging from mouse to cattle. Some 211 studies were compiled but only 105 were documented in adequate detail to be useful in development and evaluation of dose-response models of interest to practical human exposures. Of the 105 studies, 70 were for various rodent species, and 35 were for nonrodent groups ranging from standard laboratory primates (body weight ?5 kg) to cattle (body weight 375 kg). This paper considers seven different dose-response models which are tested for validity against those 105 studies. The dose-response models included: a right-skewed extreme value, a left-skewed extreme value model, log-logistic, log-probit, logistic, probit, and Weibull models. In general, the log transformed models did not improve model performance and the extreme value models did not seem consistent with the preponderance of the data. Overall, the probit and the logistic models seemed preferable over the Weibull model. 30 refs., 8 tabs

  8. Dose-Response Relationship between Dietary Polyphenols from Acorns and Parotid Gland Hypertrophy in Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Grazia Cappai; Petra Wolf; Walter Pinna; Josef Kamphues

    2012-01-01

    Proline contents of parotid glands (PG) in pigs constantly increase after the inclusion of different amounts of ripe hulled acorns in the diet providing high polyphenols levels. The dose-response relationship was estimated on natural hydrolizable tannins (expressed as tannic acid equivalent TAE) amounts of 25.8 to 36.1 g TAE/kg DM in experimental diets. Macroscopic and histological morphometry of parotid glands greatly varied according to feed intake and dosages of TAE ingested. The PG respon...

  9. Non-targeted effects and the dose response for heavy ion tumor induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A; Chappell, Lori J

    2010-05-01

    Non-targeted effects (NTE), including bystander effects in neighbor cells of cells directly hit by radiation tracks and genomic instability in the progeny of irradiated cells, challenge traditional radiation protection paradigms on Earth. It is thus of interest to understand how NTE could impact our understanding of cancer risks from galactic cosmic rays (GCR), which are comprised of high-energy protons and heavy ions. The most comprehensive data set for tumor induction by heavy ions is the induction of Harderian gland tumors in mice by high-energy protons, helium, neon, iron and niobium ions after doses of 0.05 to several Gy. We report on an analysis of these data that compares a dose response model motivated by the conventional targeted effects (TE) model to one which includes a dose response term descriptive of non-targeted effects (NTE) in cell culture. Results show that a NTE model provides an improved fit to the Harderian gland data over the TE model. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors are shown to have much larger values at low doses based on a NTE model than the maximum RBE estimates based on estimates of the ratio of initial linear slopes of heavy ions compared to gamma-rays in the TE model. Our analysis provides important in vivo support for the deviation from linear dose responses at low doses for high LET radiation, which are best explained by a NTE model. PMID:20085778

  10. Human evidence on the shape of the dose-response curves for radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carcinogenic effects of high levels of ionizing radiation are better understood than those of any other environmental agent. However, the somatic risk from low doses is highly disputed. The uncertainties stem from the fact that a direct estimation of small risks requires impracticably large samples. Therefore, risk estimates for low doses have to be derived indirectly by extrapolation from high exposure data and are heavily dependent on assumptions about the form of the dose-response curve. Although radiobiological theories tested on in vitro systems predict a quadratic term in the dose-response equation which should, at least for sparsely ionizing radiation, dominate the shape of the curve, the epidemiological data available cannot exclude the possibility of a pure linear relationship. In some cases, apparent thresholds may result from latent periods inversely related to dose. Besides depending on the quality of the radiation, the shape seems also to differ with the type of cancer induced. Studies on uranium miners, atomic bomb survivors and on irradiated patients are reviewed with emphasis on the shape of the dose-response. The credibility of the most publicized reports claiming a large cancer risk from low levels of radiation is assessed. The feasibility of a new study in an area of high natural background is explored. Finally, the influence of the uncertainties concerning the effect of low level radiation on future exposure limits set by regulatory bodies is discussed. (Auth.)

  11. The shape of the cancer mortality dose-response curve for atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shape of the cancer mortality dose-response in the atomic bomb survivor data is analyzed in the context of linear-quadratic (LQ) models. Results are given for all cancers except leukemia as a group, for leukemia, and for combined inferences assuming common curvature. Since there is substantial information aside from these data suggesting a dose-response concave from above, the emphasis here is not on estimating the best-fitting dose-response curve, but rather on assessing the maximal extent of curvature under LQ models which is consistent with the data. Such inferences are substantially affected by imprecision in the dose estimates, and methods are applied which make explicit allowances for biases due to this. The primary means used here to express the extent of curvature is the factor by which linear risk estimates should be divided to arrive at appropriate low-dose risk estimates. In the past, influential committees have recommended ranges of 2-10 and of 1.5-3 for such a factor. Results here suggest that values greater than about 2 are at least moderately inconsistent with these data, within the context of LQ models. It is emphasized, however, that there is little direct information in these data regarding low-dose risks; the inferences here depend strongly on the link between low-dose and high-dose risks provided by the assumption of an LQ model. (author)

  12. A comparison of dose-response models for death from hematological depression in different species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A database has been completed suitable to study interspecific variability of radiosensitivity, dose-rate dependence of sensitivity, dose-response behaviour within each experiment, etc. Data compiled were restricted to continuous and nearly continuous exposures to photon radiations having source energies above 100 keV. Photon source energy, exposure geometry, and body weight considerations were used to select studies where dose to hematopoietic tissue was approximately uniform. The database reflects 13 mammalian species ranging in size from mouse to cattle. Some 211 studies were compiled, but only 105 were documented in adequate detail to be useful in development and evaluation of dose-response models of interest to human exposures. Of the 105 studies, 70 were for rodent species, 35 for non-rodent groups ranging from standard laboratory primates (body weight ? 5 kg) to cattle (body weight ? 375 kg). Seven different dose-response models are tested for validity against the 105 studies. In general, log transformation models did not improve model performance and extreme value models did not seem consistent with the preponderance of the data. Probit and the logistic models seemed preferable over the Weibull model. (author)

  13. Non-targeted effects and the dose response for heavy ion tumor induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cucinotta, Francis A., E-mail: Francis.A.Cucinotta@nasa.gov [NASA, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Space Radiation Program, 2101 NASA Parkway, Mail Code SK, Houston, TX 77058 (United States); Chappell, Lori J. [USRA Division of Life Sciences, Houston, TX 77058 (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Non-targeted effects (NTE), including bystander effects in neighbor cells of cells directly hit by radiation tracks and genomic instability in the progeny of irradiated cells, challenge traditional radiation protection paradigms on Earth. It is thus of interest to understand how NTE could impact our understanding of cancer risks from galactic cosmic rays (GCR), which are comprised of high-energy protons and heavy ions. The most comprehensive data set for tumor induction by heavy ions is the induction of Harderian gland tumors in mice by high-energy protons, helium, neon, iron and niobium ions after doses of 0.05 to several Gy. We report on an analysis of these data that compares a dose response model motivated by the conventional targeted effects (TE) model to one which includes a dose response term descriptive of non-targeted effects (NTE) in cell culture. Results show that a NTE model provides an improved fit to the Harderian gland data over the TE model. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors are shown to have much larger values at low doses based on a NTE model than the maximum RBE estimates based on estimates of the ratio of initial linear slopes of heavy ions compared to {gamma}-rays in the TE model. Our analysis provides important in vivo support for the deviation from linear dose responses at low doses for high LET radiation, which are best explained by a NTE model.

  14. Dose-response relationship analysis for cancer and circulatory system disease mortality risks among uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relation between lung cancer risk and radon exposure has been clearly established, especially from the studies on uranium miner cohorts. But the association between radon exposure and extrapulmonary cancers and non-cancer diseases remains not well known. Moreover, the health risks associated with the other mining-related ionizing radiation exposures are still under consideration. The aim of this thesis is to contribute to the estimation of the radio-induced health risks at low-doses through the analysis of the kidney cancer and Circulatory System Disease (CSD) mortality risks among uranium miners. Kidney cancer mortality risk analyses were performed from the French cohort of uranium miners (n=5086; follow-up period: 1946-2007), the post-55 cohort (n=3,377; follow-up period: 1957-2007) and the German cohort of the Wismut (n=58,986; follow-up period: 1946-2003) which included 24, 11 and 174 deaths from kidney cancer, respectively. The exposures to radon and its short-lived progeny (expressed in Working Level Month WLM), to uranium ore dust (kBqh.m-3) and to external gamma rays (mSv) were estimated for each miners and the equivalent kidney dose was calculated. The dose-response relation was refined considering two responses: the instantaneous risk of kidney cancer mortality (corresponding to the classical analysis, Cause specific Hazard Ratio (CSHR) estimated with the Cox model) and its occurrence probability during the followup (Sub-distribution Hazard Ratio (SHR) estimated with the Fine and Gray model). An excess of kidney cancer mortality was observed only in the French cohort (SMR = 1.62 CI95%[1.04; 2.41]). In the Wismut cohort, a decrease of the kidney cancer mortality was observed (0.89 [0.78; 0.99]). For these three cohorts, the occupational radiological exposures (or the equivalent kidney dose) were significantly associated neither with the risk of kidney cancer mortality (e.g. CSHRWismut-radon/100 WLM=1.023 [0.993; 1.053]), nor with its occurrence probability during the follow-up (e.g. SHRWismut-radon /100 WLM=1.012 [0.983; 1.042]). CSD mortality risk analyses in the French cohort showed a significant increase of the risks of mortality from CSD (n=442, CSHR/100 WLM=1.11 [1.01; 1.22]) and from Cerebrovascular Disease (MCeV, n=105, CSHR/100 WLM=1.25 [1.09; 1.43]) with radon exposure. A case-control study nested in the French cohort was set up to collect the information related to CSD risk factors (overweight, hypertension, diabetes...) from the medical records of 313 miners (76 deaths from CSD (including 26 from Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) and 16 from MCeV) and 237 controls). For the three radiological exposures, the exposure-risk relation was analyzed in a pseudo-cohort (n=1,644 pseudo-individuals, obtained from the weighting of the observations by their inverse selection probability) with the Cox model, adjusted for the CSD risk factors. The association between the radiological exposure and the risk of mortality from CSD, IHD or MCeV was not significant (e.g. CSHRCSD-radon/100 WLM=1.43 [0.71; 2.87]). The adjustment for CSD risk factors did not substantially change the exposure-risk relation. The lack of a significant dose-response relation suggests that the excess of kidney cancer mortality among the French uranium miners may be induced by other risk factors, unavailable for this study. The small change of the coefficients observed after adjustment for CSD risk factors in the nested case-control study supports the assumption of the existence of the MCeV mortality risk increase associated with radon exposure in the French cohort of uranium miners. Future analyses based on further follow-up updates should allow to confirm or not these results. (author)

  15. Effects of glycerol co-solvent on the rate and form of polymer gel dose response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A factor currently limiting the clinical utility of x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry is the overall low dose sensitivity (and hence low dose resolution) of the system. Hence, active research remains in the investigation of polymer gel formulations with increased CT dose response. An ideal polymer gel dosimeter will exhibit a sensitive CT response which is linear over a suitable dose range, making clinical implementation reasonably straightforward. This study reports on the variations in rate and form of the CT dose response of irradiated polymer gels manufactured with glycerol, which is a co-solvent that permits dissolution of additional bisacrylamide above its water solubility limit (3% by weight). This study focuses on situations where the concentration of bisacrylamide is kept at or below its water solubility limit so that the influence of the co-solvent on the dose response can be explored separately from the effects of increased cross-linker concentration. CT imaging and Raman spectroscopy are used to construct dose-response curves for irradiated gels varying in (i) initial total monomer (%T) and (ii) initial co-solvent concentration. Results indicate that: (i) for a fixed glycerol concentration, gel response increases linearly with %T. Furthermore, the functional form of the dose response remains constant, in agreement with a previous model of polymer formation. (ii) Polymer gels with constant %T and increasing co-solvent concentrations also show enhanced CT respoconcentrations also show enhanced CT response. In addition, the functional form of the response is altered in these gels as co-solvent concentration is increased. Raman data indicate that the fraction of bis-acrylamide incorporated into polymerization, as opposed to cyclization, increases as co-solvent concentration increases. The changes in functional form indicate varying polymer yields (per unit dose), akin to relative fractional monomer/cross-linker (i.e. %C) changes in earlier studies. These results are put into context of the model of polymer formation. The implications of these results on the clinical utility of polymer gels with co-solvent are highlighted.

  16. Cytogenetic dose-response in vitro for biological dosimetry after exposure to high doses of gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dose response for dicentrics plus centric rings and total unstable chromosome-type aberrations was studied in the first mitoses of cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes irradiated in vitro to doses of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 16 and 20 Gy of acute 60Co gamma-rays. A dose-dependent increase of aberration yield was accompanied by a tendency to the under dispersion of dicentrics and centric rings among cells distributions compared with Poisson statistics at doses ?6 Gy. The formal fitting of the data to a linear-quadratic model resulted in an equation with the linear and quadratic coefficients ranged 0.098-0.129xcell-1xGy-1 and 0.039-0.034xcell-1xGy-2, respectively, depending on the fitting method. The actual radiation-induced aberration yield was markedly lower than expected from a calibration curve, generated earlier within a lower dose range. Interlaboratory variations in reported dicentric yields induced by medium-to-high radiation doses in vitro are discussed. (authors)

  17. Dose-response of 1, 3, and 5 sets of resistance exercise on strength, local muscular endurance, and hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radaelli, Regis; Fleck, Steven J; Leite, Thalita; Leite, Richard D; Pinto, Ronei S; Fernandes, Liliam; Simão, Roberto

    2015-05-01

    The study's purpose was to compare the response of performing 1, 3, and 5 sets on measures of performance and muscle hypertrophy. Forty-eight men, with no weight training experience, were randomly assigned to one of the 3 training groups, 1 SET, 3 SETS, 5 SETS, or control group. All training groups performed 3 resistance training sessions per week for 6 months. The 5 repetition maximum (RM) for all training groups increased in the bench press (BP), front lat pull down (LPD), shoulder press (SP), and leg press (LP) (p ? 0.05), with the 5 RM increases in the BP and LPD being significantly greater for 5 SETS compared with the other training groups (p ? 0.05). Bench press 20 RM in the 3-SET and 5-SET groups significantly increased with the increase being significantly greater than the 1-SET group and the 5-SET group increase being significantly greater than the 3-SET group (p ? 0.05). LP 20 RM increased in all training groups (p ? 0.05), with the 5-SETS group showing a significantly greater increase than the 1-SET group (p ? 0.05). The 3-SET and 5-SET groups significantly increased elbow flexor muscle thickness (MT) with the 5-SET increase being significantly greater than the other 2 training groups (p ? 0.05). The 5-SET group significantly increased elbow extensor MT with the increase being significantly greater than the other training groups (p ? 0.05). All training groups decreased percent body fat, increased fat-free mass, and vertical jump ability (p ? 0.05), with no differences between groups. The results demonstrate a dose-response for the number of sets per exercise and a superiority of multiple sets compared with a single set per exercise for strength gains, muscle endurance, and upper arm muscle hypertrophy. PMID:25546444

  18. Dose-response curve of a microfluidic magnetic bead-based surface coverage sandwich assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornaglia, Matteo; Trouillon, Raphaël; Tekin, H Cumhur; Lehnert, Thomas; Gijs, Martin A M

    2015-09-25

    Magnetic micro- and nanoparticles ('magnetic beads') have been used to advantage in many microfluidic devices for sensitive antigen (Ag) detection. Today, assays that use as read-out of the signal the number count of immobilized beads on a surface for quantification of a sample's analyte concentration have been among the most sensitive and have allowed protein detection lower than the fgmL(-1) concentration range. Recently, we have proposed in this category a magnetic bead surface coverage assay (Tekin et al., 2013 [1]), in which 'large' (2.8?m) antibody (Ab)-functionalized magnetic beads captured their Ag from a serum and these Ag-carrying beads were subsequently exposed to a surface pattern of fixed 'small' (1.0?m) Ab-coated magnetic beads. When the system was exposed to a magnetic induction field, the magnet dipole attractive interactions between the two bead types were used as a handle to approach both bead surfaces and assist with Ag-Ab immunocomplex formation, while unspecific binding (in absence of an Ag) of a large bead was reduced by exploiting viscous drag flow. The dose-response curve of this type of assay had two remarkable features: (i) its ability to detect an output signal (i.e. bead number count) for very low Ag concentrations, and (ii) an output signal of the assay that was non-linear with respect to Ag concentration. We explain here the observed dose-response curves and show that the type of interactions and the concept of our assay are in favour of detecting the lowest analyte concentrations (where typically either zero or one Ag is carried per large bead), while higher concentrations are less efficiently detected. We propose a random walk process for the Ag-carrying bead over the magnetic landscape of small beads and this model description explains the enhanced overall capture probability of this assay and its particular non-linear dose response curves. PMID:25817550

  19. Bayesian development of a dose-response model for Aspergillus fumigatus and invasive aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leleu, Christopher; Menotti, Jean; Meneceur, Pascale; Choukri, Firas; Sulahian, Annie; Garin, Yves Jean-François; Denis, Jean-Baptiste; Derouin, Francis

    2013-08-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a major cause of mortality in immunocompromized hosts, most often consecutive to the inhalation of spores of Aspergillus. However, the relationship between Aspergillus concentration in the air and probability of IA is not quantitatively known. In this study, this relationship was examined in a murine model of IA. Immunosuppressed Balb/c mice were exposed for 60 minutes at day 0 to an aerosol of A. fumigatus spores (Af293 strain). At day 10, IA was assessed in mice by quantitative culture of the lungs and galactomannan dosage. Fifteen separate nebulizations with varying spore concentrations were performed. Rates of IA ranged from 0% to 100% according to spore concentrations. The dose-response relationship between probability of infection and spore exposure was approximated using the exponential model and the more flexible beta-Poisson model. Prior distributions of the parameters of the models were proposed then updated with data in a Bayesian framework. Both models yielded close median dose-responses of the posterior distributions for the main parameter of the model, but with different dispersions, either when the exposure dose was the concentration in the nebulized suspension or was the estimated quantity of spores inhaled by a mouse during the experiment. The median quantity of inhaled spores that infected 50% of mice was estimated at 1.8?×?10(4) and 3.2?×?10(4) viable spores in the exponential and beta-Poisson models, respectively. This study provides dose-response parameters for quantitative assessment of the relationship between airborne exposure to the reference A. fumigatus strain and probability of IA in immunocompromized hosts. PMID:23311627

  20. Dose-response models and methods of risk prediction and causation estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose-response models are mathematical expressions that describe the relationship between absorbed dose and radiogenic effects. The limited quality and quantity of human dose-response data make it necessary to use fairly simplistic models. Most current low-LET data support the linear-quadratic model in which radiogenic effects are linearly dependent at low doses and then become quadratically curved at higher doses. Some types of effects never exhibit a quadratic component, remaining linear over a wide range of absorbed dose. Future progress in developing more refined dose-response models is more likely to come from a better understanding of the fundamentals of radiation carcinogenesis rather than better data or better curve-fitting techniques. The risk of radiation injury is a prospective estimation of the probability that some harm will result in the future as a consequence of having been irradiated. Quantitative risk estimates for the carcinogenic, genetic, and fetal effects of low level radiation that have been determined by national and international organizations are of the order of magnitude of one chance fatality in 10,000/rem. Causation estimation is the retrospective analysis of the probability that cancer observed in an irradiated individual was caused by radiation as opposed to some other agent. Depending on the dose type of cancer, gender, age at time of irradiation, and time since irradiation, the probability of causation can range from 0% to 100%. Methodsusation can range from 0% to 100%. Methods for calculation of the probability of causation for certain types of cancer and irradiation circumstances have been developed recently by the National Institutes of Health

  1. Influence of Relative Humidity, Dose Rate and Dose Fractionation on Gamma Dose Response of Glycine Dosimetric System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh H. Shinde

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE Glycine dosimeter based on spectrophotometric read-out method has great potential for gamma dosimetry in low dose applications of radiation processing. However, external factors such as relative humidity, dose rate, and dose fractionation, may have a profound effect on its gamma dose response Influence of these factors on the gamma dose response of glycine dosimeter was studied in the present work.

  2. Dose-response functions and corrosion mapping for a small geographical area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed corrosion and environmental measurements have been used to develop dose response (D/R) functions for carbon steel, zinc, copper, and aluminum for a 26 x 31 km urban/rural area with approximately homogeneous climate. The D/R functions, expressed in terms of SO2 and time of wetness, were of the same type for all four metals. The SO2 contribution to the total corrosion dominates in the centers of towns and around an industrial plant. Corrosion maps for the whole area were established

  3. Low Doses of Gamma-Radiation Induce Nonlinear Dose Responses in Mammalian and Plant Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zaichkina, S. I.; Rozanova, O. M.; Aptikaeva, G. F.; Achmadieva, A. Ch; Klokov, D. Y.

    2004-01-01

    The percentage of cells with chromosome aberrations or micronuclei induced by low doses of acute (dose rate of 47 cGy/min) or chronic (dose rate of 0.01 cGy/min) gamma-irradiation was studied in vitro in Chinese hamster fibroblasts, human lymphocytes, and Vicia faba seeds and seedlings. The sensitivity of the indicated biological entities to low doses was greater than expected based on linear extrapolation from higher doses. The dose-response curves for cytogenetic damage that were obtained w...

  4. The effects and dose-response relationship of xamoterol in patients with ischaemic heart disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Molajo, A. O.; Bennett, D. H.; Marlow, H. F.; Snow, H. M.; Bastain, W.

    1987-01-01

    1. In a double-blind placebo controlled four-way crossover study the effects and dose response relationships of xamoterol were studied in nine patients with angina and dyspnoea secondary to chronic left ventricular dysfunction. The duration of exercise on a treadmill and heart rate were measured at the end of each phase of the study at 2 h and 24 h after dosing. 2. Xamoterol at 200 mg and 400 mg orally once daily had no effect on the mean resting heart rate but there was a small (5.7 beats mi...

  5. Linear dose response of gene conversion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae after ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of populations of the D7 strain D7.52a of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was irradiated with 150-kVp x rays while bubbling with either O2 or N2. Linear dose responses were observed for all the populations. In O2, the effects were proportional to dose from 0.01 to 10 Gy. Effects in nitrogen were proportional to dose over the range 0.125 to 50 Gy. The OER for gene conversion in these experiments was 2.5. At the dose rates used (1.03 to 0.034 Gy/min) there was no evidence of a dose-rate effect

  6. Low dose radiation and cancer in A-bomb survivors: latency and non-linear dose-response in the 1950–90 mortality cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Dropkin Greg

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Analyses of Japanese A-bomb survivors' cancer mortality risks are used to establish recommended annual dose limits, currently set at 1 mSv (public) and 20 mSv (occupational). Do radiation doses below 20 mSv have significant impact on cancer mortality in Japanese A-bomb survivors, and is the dose-response linear? Methods I analyse stomach, liver, lung, colon, uterus, and all-solid cancer mortality in the 0 – 20 mSv colon dose subcohort of the 1950–90 (grouped) mortality...

  7. Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Hayslett, H T

    1991-01-01

    Statistics covers the basic principles of Statistics. The book starts by tackling the importance and the two kinds of statistics; the presentation of sample data; the definition, illustration and explanation of several measures of location; and the measures of variation. The text then discusses elementary probability, the normal distribution and the normal approximation to the binomial. Testing of statistical hypotheses and tests of hypotheses about the theoretical proportion of successes in a binomial population and about the theoretical mean of a normal population are explained. The text the

  8. Dose-response study of probiotic bacteria Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis BB-12 and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei CRL-341 in healthy young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C.N.; Nielsen, S.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study was performed to investigate the dose-response effects of supplementation with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis (BB-12) and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei (CRL-431) on blood lipids, recovery from feces and bowel habits. Changes of the fecal microflora was analyzed in the 10(10) CFU/day probiotic and placebo group. Design: The study was designed as a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, parallel dose-response study. Subjects: Healthy young adults (18 - 40 years) were recruited by advertising in local newspapers. Of the 75 persons enrolled, 71 ( 46 women, 25 men, mean age 25.6 years ( range 18 - 40 years)) completed the study. Intervention: The volunteers were randomly assigned into five groups receiving either placebo or a mixture of the two probiotics in the concentration of 10(8), 10(9), 10(10) or 10(11) CFU/day in 2 weeks run-in period, 3 weeks intervention and 2 weeks wash-out. Diary reporting bowel habits and well being (abdominal bloating, flatulence and headache) was kept for all 7 weeks and blood lipids, fecal recovery of BB-12 and CRL-431, as well as fecal microflora was tested before, immediately and 2 weeks after intervention. Results: The fecal recovery of BB-12 increased significantly (P <0.001) with increasing dose. In the group receiving 10(11) CFU/day BB-12 was recovered from 13 out of 15 volunteers. CRL-431 was not recovered in any of the fecal samples. Supplementation with probiotics did not change the fecal bacterial composition. A significant linear increase in fecal consistency (looser stool) with increasing probiotic dose (P=0.018) was observed. No overall dose - response effect was found on the blood lipids. High doses of probiotics were well tolerated. Conclusion: A dose-related recovery of BB-12 from feces was observed. Sponsorship: The study was sponsored by Chr. Hansen A/S, Hoersholm, Denmark.

  9. The dose–response of the anal sphincter region – An analysis of data from the MRC RT01 trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Most studies investigating the dose–response of the rectum focus on rectal bleeding. However, it has been reported that other symptoms such as urgency or sphincter control have a large impact on quality-of-life and that different symptoms are related to the dose to different parts of the anorectal wall. In this study correlations between the 3D dose distribution to the anal-sphincter region and radiation-induced side-effects were quantified. Materials and methods: Dose–surface maps of the anal canal were generated. Next, longitudinal and lateral extent and eccentricity were calculated at different dose levels; DSHs and DVHs were also determined. Correlations between these dosimetric measures and seven clinically relevant endpoints were determined by assessing dosimetric constraints. Furthermore, an LKB model was generated. The study was performed using the data of 388 prostate patients from the RT01 trial (ISRCTN 47772397). Results: Subjective sphincter control was significantly correlated with the dose to the anal surface. The strongest correlations were found for lateral extent at 53 Gy (p = 0.01). Outcome was also significantly correlated with the DSH and the mean dose to the anal surface. Conclusions: The dose to the anal sphincter region should be taken into account when generating treatment-plans. This could be done using shape-based tools, DSH/DVH-based tools or an NTCP model.

  10. Statistical significance of hierarchical multi-body potentials based on Delaunay tessellation and their application in sequence-structure alignment.

    OpenAIRE

    Munson, P J; R.K. Singh

    1997-01-01

    Statistical potentials based on pairwise interactions between C alpha atoms are commonly used in protein threading/fold-recognition attempts. Inclusion of higher order interaction is a possible means of improving the specificity of these potentials. Delaunay tessellation of the C alpha-atom representation of protein structure has been suggested as a means of defining multi-body interactions. A large number of parameters are required to define all four-body interactions of 20 amino acid types ...

  11. Conjugate distributions in hierarchical Bayesian ANOVA for computational efficiency and assessments of both practical and statistical significance

    OpenAIRE

    Geinitz, Steven; Furrer, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Assessing variability according to distinct factors in data is a fundamental technique of statistics. The method commonly regarded to as analysis of variance (ANOVA) is, however, typically confined to the case where all levels of a factor are present in the data (i.e. the population of factor levels has been exhausted). Random and mixed effects models are used for more elaborate cases, but require distinct nomenclature, concepts and theory, as well as distinct inferential pr...

  12. Statistically significant dependence of the Xaa-Pro peptide bond conformation on secondary structure and amino acid sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Leitner Dietmar; Freund Christian; Pahlke Doreen; Labudde Dirk

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background A reliable prediction of the Xaa-Pro peptide bond conformation would be a useful tool for many protein structure calculation methods. We have analyzed the Protein Data Bank and show that the combined use of sequential and structural information has a predictive value for the assessment of the cis versus trans peptide bond conformation of Xaa-Pro within proteins. For the analysis of the data sets different statistical methods such as the calculation of the Chou-Fasman param...

  13. Macro-Indicators of Citation Impacts of Six Prolific Countries: InCites Data and the Statistical Significance of Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Bornmann, Lutz; Leydesdorff, Loet

    2013-01-01

    Using the InCites tool of Thomson Reuters, this study compares normalized citation impact values calculated for China, Japan, France, Germany, United States, and the UK throughout the time period from 1981 to 2010. InCites offers a unique opportunity to study the normalized citation impacts of countries using (i) a long publication window (1981 to 2010), (ii) a differentiation in (broad or more narrow) subject areas, and (iii) allowing for the use of statistical procedures in order to obtain ...

  14. Dose-response relationship for elective neck irradiation of head and neck cancer - facts and controversies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to assign dose-response relationship for subclinical neck metastases of squamous cell head and neck cancer based on extensive survey of 24 data sets collected from the literature. Neck relapse rates (NRR) without and after elective (ENI) or preoperative irradiation were estimated for each site and stage of primary tumor and the reduction in neck relapse rate was calculated. An average NRR without ENI was 22% (12-35% ) and only 2.5% (0-1 0%) after the ENI with total dose of 46- 50 Gy which gives high reduction rate in the risk of neck recurrences being on the average 89% and 42% (0-46%) after preoperative irradiation using 22-30 Gy. Dose response curve for elective and preoperative irradiation have shown that 50 Gy in 2 Gy fraction reduces the incidence of neck relapses in the NO patients by more than 90% and only by less than 50% after total doses lower than 30 Gy. No correlation between the risk of neck metastases without ENI and the reduction in neck relapses after ENI was found. (authors)

  15. The scientific basis for the establishment of threshold levels and dose response relationships of carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency hosted a two day Symposium from 2-3 December 1974 at its Headquarters, organized by the 'International Academy for Environmental Safety and the Forum fur Wissenschaft, Wirtschaft und Politik' on the subject 'Scientific Basis for the Establishment of Threshold. Levels and Dose Response Relationships of Carcinogenesis'. Following an introductory paper by the Radiation Biology Section of the Agency on 'Radiation Carcinogenesis - Dose Response Relationship, Threshold and Risk Estimates', a series of papers dealt with this problem in chemical carcinogenesis.It was suggested that more experiments should be done using non-human primates for tests of carcinogens, especially chemicals. Preliminary experiments using monkeys with a potent carcinogen - nitrosoamine - indicate that there could possibly be a dose where no effect can be observed during the 5 year period of study. It was also pointed out that the overall cost/benefit and risk/ benefit relationships should be taken into consideration in determining limits for chemicals which are potentially carcinogenic but are used routinely by the public and industries; these considerations have been weighed in setting exposure limits for radiation

  16. Dose-response of strengthening exercise for treatment of severe neck pain in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C. H.; Andersen, Lars L.

    2013-01-01

    Specific strength training is shown to relieve neck pain in office workers. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of specific strength training in women with severe neck pain and to analyze the dose-response relationship between training adherence and pain reduction. One hundred eighteen untrained women with severe neck pain (>30 mm VAS pain) were included from a larger study, in which the subjects were randomized to 20-week specific strength training for the neck/shoulders or to a control group. In the intention-to-treat analysis, the training group experienced greater pain relief than the control group (p <0.01). Participants who adhered "per protocol" decreased pain by 35 mm VAS (95% confidence interval: -26 to -44) from baseline to follow-up corresponding to a 70% reduction. In the dose-response analyses, participants with medium and high training adherence showed better pain relief than the control group and those with low adherence (p <0.0001). The decrease from baseline in the medium and high adherence groups was 37 mm VAS (28-46 mm) and 33 mm VAS (24-43 mm), respectively. Specific strength training reduces pain intensity in women with severe neck pain, and 1-2 training sessions per week for 20 weeks ( approximately 30 training sessions) seems sufficient for optimal pain relief.

  17. Childhood adversity specificity and dose-response effect in non-affective first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trauelsen, Anne Marie; Bendall, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reviews conclude that childhood and adolescence sexual, physical, emotional abuse and emotional and physical neglect are all risk factors for psychosis. However, studies suggest only some adversities are associated with psychosis. Dose-response effects of several adversities on risk of psychosis have not been consistently found. The current study aimed to explore adversity specificity and dose-response effects of adversities on risk of psychosis. METHOD: Participants were 101 persons with first-episode psychosis (FEP) diagnosed with ICD-10 F20 - F29 (except F21) and 101 non-clinical control persons matched by gender, age and parents' socio-economic status. Assessment included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and parts of the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. RESULTS: Eighty-nine percent of the FEP group reported one or more adversities compared to 37% of the control group. Childhood and adolescent sexual, physical, emotional abuse, and physical and emotional neglect, separation and institutionalization were about four to 17 times higher for the FEP group (all p<0.01). The risk of psychosis increased two and a half times for each additional adversity. All associations between specific adversities and psychosis decreased when they were adjusted for other adversities. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that there is a large shared effect of adversities on the risk of psychosis. Contrary to the call for further research into specific adversities, we suggest a search for mechanisms in the shared effects of traumatization. Clinical implications are thorough assessment of adversities and their possible effects.

  18. The nickel dose–response relationship by filaggrin genotype (FLG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross-Hansen, Katrine; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: On skin contact, nickel accumulates in the stratum corneum, where it is probably bound to proteins and amino acids. One probable contributor is filaggrin, which binds nickel avidly. Filaggrin gene (FLG) null mutations lead to a complete lack of filaggrin production from the affected allele, and have been associated with an increased risk of nickel contact sensitization in German and Danish adults. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the experimental nickel elicitation threshold level differed between heterozygous FLG mutation and non-mutation carriers. METHOD: Thirteen nickel-sensitized female patients, seven heterozygous mutation carriers and six non-mutation carriers (genotyped for R501X, 2282del4, or R2447X), were patch tested and performed a repeated open application test (ROAT) with a nickel sulfate dilution series. Logistic threshold dose-response analyses were used to test for differences between the two groups. RESULTS: No difference was found in the dose-response relationship between FLG mutation and non-mutation carriers. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of this small patient study, it appears that the elicitation threshold level for nickel is independent of FLG null mutation single-allele carrier status.

  19. Thermoluminescence from igneous and natural hydrothermal vein quartz: dose response after optical bleaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied optical bleaching and gamma dose response of primary quartz isolated from volcanic and granitic host rocks as well as from pegmatites and hydrothermal veins using thermoluminescence (TL). We attempted to isolate the TL signature of these individual types of quartz so that improved analysis of the TL behaviour of composite sedimentary quartz mixtures is possible. We have identified the following aspects of quartz TL in these samples: (1) large variation in TL residuals after extensive bleaching; (2) shifts in glow curve peak temperatures during bleaching and gamma dose apparently related to 2nd order TL kinetics; (3) differences in TL sensitivity to gamma dose among samples; (4) supralinear dose response of both a 230oC TL peak and a germanium EPR signal only in the pegmatitic quartz samples; and (5) the volcanic and pegmatitic samples had generally higher TL sensitivity to gamma dose than did the granitic or hydrothermal samples. We concluded that (1), (2) and (3) could contribute to enhanced scatter in routine TL dating of sediments composed of mixed fractions of different quartz types, but that none of the effects observed appear to introduce any unforeseen sources of error into ED determinations using any of the standard sediment dating methods. (author)

  20. Analysis/plot generation code with significance levels computed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics valid for both large and small samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, S.E.; Fields, D.E.

    1983-10-01

    This report describes a version of the TERPED/P computer code that is very useful for small data sets. A new algorithm for determining the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistics is used to extend program applicability. The TERPED/P code facilitates the analysis of experimental data and assists the user in determining its probability distribution function. Graphical and numerical tests are performed interactively in accordance with the user's assumption of normally or log-normally distributed data. Statistical analysis options include computation of the chi-square statistic and the KS one-sample test statistic and the corresponding significance levels. Cumulative probability plots of the user's data are generated either via a local graphics terminal, a local line printer or character-oriented terminal, or a remote high-resolution graphics device such as the FR80 film plotter or the Calcomp paper plotter. Several useful computer methodologies suffer from limitations of their implementations of the KS nonparametric test. This test is one of the more powerful analysis tools for examining the validity of an assumption about the probability distribution of a set of data. KS algorithms are found in other analysis codes, including the Statistical Analysis Subroutine (SAS) package and earlier versions of TERPED. The inability of these algorithms to generate significance levels for sample sizes less than 50 has limited their usefulness. The release of the TERPED code described herein contains algorithms to allow computation of the KS statistic and significance level for data sets of, if the user wishes, as few as three points. Values computed for the KS statistic are within 3% of the correct value for all data set sizes.

  1. The thresholds for statistical and clinical significance : a five-step procedure for evaluation of intervention effects in randomised clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Gluud, Christian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thresholds for statistical significance are insufficiently demonstrated by 95% confidence intervals or P-values when assessing results from randomised clinical trials. First, a P-value only shows the probability of getting a result assuming that the null hypothesis is true and does not reflect the probability of getting a result assuming an alternative hypothesis to the null hypothesis is true. Second, a confidence interval or a P-value showing significance may be caused by multiplicity. Third, statistical significance does not necessarily result in clinical significance. Therefore, assessment of intervention effects in randomised clinical trials deserves more rigour in order to become more valid. METHODS: Several methodologies for assessing the statistical and clinical significance of intervention effects in randomised clinical trials were considered. Balancing simplicity and comprehensiveness, a simple five-step procedure was developed. RESULTS: For a more valid assessment of results from a randomised clinical trial we propose the following five-steps: (1) report the confidence intervals and the exact P-values; (2) report Bayes factor for the primary outcome, being the ratio of the probability that a given trial result is compatible with a 'null' effect (corresponding to the P-value) divided by the probability that the trial result is compatible with the intervention effect hypothesised in the sample size calculation; (3) adjust the confidence intervals and the statistical significance threshold if the trial is stopped early or if interim analyses have been conducted; (4) adjust the confidence intervals and the P-values for multiplicity due to number of outcome comparisons; and (5) assess clinical significance of the trial results. CONCLUSIONS: If the proposed five-step procedure is followed, this may increase the validity of assessments of intervention effects in randomised clinical trials.

  2. The thresholds for statistical and clinical significance - a five-step procedure for evaluation of intervention effects in randomised clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Gluud, Christian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thresholds for statistical significance are insufficiently demonstrated by 95% confidence intervals or P-values when assessing results from randomised clinical trials. First, a P-value only shows the probability of getting a result assuming that the null hypothesis is true and does not reflect the probability of getting a result assuming an alternative hypothesis to the null hypothesis is true. Second, a confidence interval or a P-value showing significance may be caused by multiplicity. Third, statistical significance does not necessarily result in clinical significance. Therefore, assessment of intervention effects in randomised clinical trials deserves more rigour in order to become more valid. METHODS: Several methodologies for assessing the statistical and clinical significance of intervention effects in randomised clinical trials were considered. Balancing simplicity and comprehensiveness, a simple five-step procedure was developed. RESULTS: For a more valid assessment of results from a randomised clinical trial we propose the following five-steps: (1) report the confidence intervals and the exact P-values; (2) report Bayes factor for the primary outcome, being the ratio of the probability that a given trial result is compatible with a 'null' effect (corresponding to the P-value) divided by the probability that the trial result is compatible with the intervention effect hypothesised in the sample size calculation; (3) adjust the confidence intervals and the statistical significance threshold if the trial is stopped early or if interim analyses have been conducted; (4) adjust the confidence intervals and the P-values for multiplicity due to number of outcome comparisons; and (5) assess clinical significance of the trial results. CONCLUSIONS: If the proposed five-step procedure is followed, this may increase the validity of assessments of intervention effects in randomised clinical trials.

  3. Some implications of linear-quadratic-linear radiation dose-response with regard to hypofractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent technological advances enable radiation therapy to be delivered in a highly conformal manner to targets located almost anywhere in the body. This capability has renewed the clinical interest in hypofractionation wherein the tumor is delivered a few fractions of very large dose per fraction. Extrapolating clinical experience from conventional regimens to fractions of high dose is important to designing hypofractionated treatments. The concept of biologically effective dose (BED) based on the linear-quadratic (LQ) formulation e-(?D+?D2) is a useful tool for intercomparing conventional fractionations but may be hampered if the value of ?/? is dose range dependent and/or when extrapolating to fractions of high dose because the LQ curve bends continuously on the log-linear plot. This does not coincide with what is observed experimentally in many clonogenic cell survival studies at high dose wherein radiation dose-response relationships more closely approximate a straight line. Intercomparison of conventional fractionations with hypofractionated regimens may benefit from BED calculations which instead use a dose range independent linear-quadratic-linear (LQ-L) formulation which better fits the experimental data across a wider range of dose. The dosimetric implications of LQ-L are explored using a simple model which requires only the specification of a dose DT at which the LQ curve transitions to final linearity and the logee cell kill per Gy in the final linear portion of the survival curve at high dose. It is shown that the line tangent to the LQ curve at transition dose DT can often be used to approximate the final slope of the dose response curve. When DT=2?/? Gy, the line tangent to the LQ curve at DT intersects the e-?D and e-?D2 curves at dose ?/? Gy and also closely fits the linear response in the high dose region of some classic in vitro cell survival curves for which the value of ?/? is low. It is hypothesized that DT will increase as the magnitude of ?/? increases. Examples are presented illustrating how to recognize LQ-L behavior in multifraction isoeffect studies of late responses such as spinal cord and lung. When planning hypofractionated regimens involving reactions with low ?/?, recognizing LQ-L behavior could be important because the dose-response is likely to transition to final linearity within the contemplated range of hypofractional doses

  4. Kinetic modeling of Fluorine vacancy/F center creation in LiF:Mg,Ti including vacancy-interstitial recombination: Evaluating the factors leading to the lack of supralinearity in the optical absorption F center concentration dose response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliyahu, I.; Horowitz, Y. S.; Oster, L.; Mardor, I.; Druzhyna, S.; Biderman, S.

    2015-01-01

    Kinetic model simulations of charge carrier transport following irradiation of LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) including Fluorine vacancy/F center creation by the radiation and dose-dependent vacancy-interstitial recombination are presented which describe the experimentally measured linear/exponentially saturating optical absorption dose response of the electron trapping centers at 4.0 eV, 4.77 eV, 5.08 eV (F band) and 5.45 eV. Linear/exponentially saturating dose response is commonly observed for centers which are not created by the radiation. The creation of Fluorine vacancies by the radiation could therefore be expected to lead to a supralinear dose response of the F center before the onset of saturation. Nonetheless, the dose response is linear from 10 Gy to 500 Gy and can be fitted with a dose-filling constant ? = 6.1 · 10-5 Gy-1 corresponding to a 5% and 25% decrease from linearity at 103 Gy and 5 · 103 Gy respectively. The model attempts to resolve a central question concerning the mechanisms leading to the linear/exponentially saturating dose response of the F band even though Fluorine vacancies are being continuously created during the irradiation. The electron-trapping characteristics of the created vacancies are assumed to differ somewhat from the vacancies originally present in un-irradiated samples due to differences in their immediate environment. Vacancy-interstitial recombination for separation distances less than a critical distance, dc is demonstrated to be significant for D > 500 Gy (dc = 36 Å) and is an important mechanism contributing to the F center saturation at high dose-levels. The kinetic model accurately simulates the experimentally observed F center dose response over the entire investigated dose range of 10-105 Gy under the following conditions: (i) The concentration of vacancies initially present is unexpectedly high at ?1023 m-3, possibly due to the highly doped, non-crystalline and hot-pressed nature of the LiF:Mg,Ti samples. (ii) The transition probability, An4o, for electron capture into the initially-present vacancies is ?40 times greater than An4, the transition probability for the radiation-created vacancies. These two factors marginalize the effect of the created vacancies at low dose resulting in a linear dose response.

  5. Generation of dose-response relationships to assess the effects of acidity in precipitation on growth and productivity of vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were performed with several plant species in natural environments as well in a greenhouse and/or tissue culture facilities to establish dose-response functions of plant responses to simulated acidic rain in order to determine environmental risk assessments to ambient levels of acidic rain. Response functions of foliar injury, biomass of leaves and seed of soybean and pinto beans, root yields of radishes and garden beets, and reproduction of bracken fern are considered. The dose-response function of soybean seed yields with the hydrogen ion concentration of simulated acidic rainfalls was expressed by the equation y = 21.06-1.01 log x where y = seed yield in grams per plant and x = the hydrogen concentration if ?eq l-1. The correlation coefficient of this relationship was -0.90. A similar dose-response function was generated for percent fertilization of ferns in a forest understory. When percent fertilization is plotted on logarithmic scale with hydrogen ion concentration of the simulated rain solution, the Y intercept is 51.18, slope -0.041 with a correlation coefficient of -0.98. Other dose-response functions were generated that assist in a general knowledge as to which plant species and which physiological processes are most impacted by acidic precipitation. Some responses did not produce convenient dose-response relationships. In such cases the responses may be altered by other environmental factors or there may be no differences among treatment means

  6. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for liver metastasis in an experimental model: dose–response at five-week follow-up based on retrospective dose assessment in individual rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; Veronica A. Trivilin; Lucas L. Colombo; Andrea Monti Hughes; Silvia I. Thorp; Jorge E. Cardoso; Marcel A. Garabalino; Ana J. Molinari; Elisa M. Heber; Paula Curotto; Marcelo Miller; Maria E. Itoiz; Romina F. Aromando; David W. Nigg; Amanda E. Schwint

    2013-11-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was proposed for untreatable colorectal liver metastases. Employing an experimental model of liver metastases in rats, we recently demonstrated that BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA-BNCT) at 13 Gy prescribed to tumor is therapeutically useful at 3-week follow-up. The aim of the present study was to evaluate dose–response at 5-week follow-up, based on retrospective dose assessment in individual rats. BDIX rats were inoculated with syngeneic colon cancer cells DHD/K12/TRb. Tumor-bearing animals were divided into three groups: BPA-BNCT (n = 19), Beam only (n = 8) and Sham (n = 7) (matched manipulation, no treatment). For each rat, neutron flux was measured in situ and boron content was measured in a pre-irradiation blood sample for retrospective individual dose assessment. For statistical analysis (ANOVA), individual data for the BPA-BNCT group were pooled according to absorbed tumor dose, BPA-BNCT I: 4.5–8.9 Gy and BPA-BNCT II: 9.2–16 Gy. At 5 weeks post-irradiation, the tumor surface area post-treatment/pre-treatment ratio was 12.2 +/- 6.6 for Sham, 7.8 +/- 4.1 for Beam only, 4.4 +/- 5.6 for BPA-BNCT I and 0.45 +/- 0.20 for BPA-BNCT II; tumor nodule weight was 750 +/- 480 mg for Sham, 960 +/- 620 mg for Beam only, 380 +/- 720 mg for BPA-BNCT I and 7.3 +/- 5.9 mg for BPA-BNCT II. The BPA-BNCT II group exhibited statistically significant tumor control with no contributory liver toxicity. Potential threshold doses for tumor response and significant tumor control were established at 6.1 and 9.2 Gy, respectively.

  7. Dose response relationships for radiation induced chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes in vivo and in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromosome aberrations have been analysed in cultured lymphocytes from a patient undergoing whole-body treatment with split doses of gamma-rays up to a cumulative dose of 1.4 Gy. The dependence on dose of the yield of dicentrics was best fitted to the linear-quadratic relationship with a linear component predominating in the low dose range (below 0.56 Gy). These observations were compared with the data obtained when blood samples were exposed in vitro to low acute doses of gamma-rays (from 0.05 up to 2.0 Gy). The frequencies of induced chromosome aberrations were similar in both cases and little deviation was found between the dose response curves (a/b ratio equal to 0.56 and 0.69 Gy, respectively in vivo and in vitro). These results confirm that in vitro calibration curves can be utilized confidently for the biological estimate of an in vivo absorbed dose. (orig.)

  8. Dose-Response Relationship between Dietary Polyphenols from Acorns and Parotid Gland Hypertrophy in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia Cappai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Proline contents of parotid glands (PG in pigs constantly increase after the inclusion of different amounts of ripe hulled acorns in the diet providing high polyphenols levels. The dose-response relationship was estimated on natural hydrolizable tannins (expressed as tannic acid equivalent TAE amounts of 25.8 to 36.1 g TAE/kg DM in experimental diets. Macroscopic and histological morphometry of parotid glands greatly varied according to feed intake and dosages of TAE ingested. The PG response (hypertrophy grade on acorns’ tannins content in the diet was positively correlated (R2 = 0.748: the response to the protein precipitating activity (PPA of tannins consisted of a functional parotidomegaly (hypertrophy, 1.34 up to 3.55 folds than control PGs, following an oral dosage 0.596 up 1.72 TAE g·kg body weight·d-1 respectively, after one week exposure.

  9. Dose response curve for the phase-shifting effect of triazolam on the mammalian circadian clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turek, F W; Losee-Olson, S H

    1987-03-16

    A dose response curve for the phase shifting effect of triazolam, a short-acting benzodiazepine commonly prescribed for the treatment of insomnia, on the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity was measured for the golden hamster. A single intraperitoneal injection of triazolam six hours before the onset of wheel-running activity induced a dose-dependent phase advance in the rhythm. A maximum phase advance, which averaged about 100 minutes, was observed in animals injected with 0.5 to 5.0 mg of triazolam. The use of drugs which promote sleep, and induce phase shifts in a central circadian clock, could be important in the treatment of sleep disorders associated with disrupted schedules and of mental and physical disorders associated with abnormal circadian rhythmicity. PMID:3821371

  10. SO/sub 2/ dose-response sensitivity classification data for crops and natural vegetation species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irving, P.M.; Ballou, S.W.

    1980-09-01

    Over the past several years studies have been made on the interaction of sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) and vegetation by performing field research and by developing analytical procedures for applying field observation data to energy impact assessments. As a result of this work, numerous reports have been prepared on crop-pollutant interactions, such as dose-response data; on the applications of such data to screening approaches for identifying crops at risk; and on models that predict crop yield reductions from point source emissions of SO/sub 2/. Data that were used for these studies, such as the crop-at-risk screening procedure, are presented in this report. Maps are also presented that show the national distribution of SO/sub 2/-sensitive crops and natural vegetation.

  11. Dose response linearity and practical factors influencing minimum detectable dose for various thermoluminescent detector types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The minimum detectable dose (MDD) limit was examined in four different ways for groups of LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescent dosimeters, and two ways for CaF2:Dy, CaF2:Tm, CaF2:Mn, and CaSO4:Dy dosimeters. All types were irradiated and read out at dose intervals from 8.8 ?Gy to 6.6 mGy. Dose response linearity was never lost even for the lowest dose tested. As an ideal MDD, the signal arising from a zero applied dose readout was compared to calibration from true doses, resulting in signal corresponding to 0.04-0.1 ?Gy. The effects of fading and high ambient radon exposure on the MDD were examined. (author)

  12. Dose-response relationship for breast cancer induction at radiotherapy dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruber Günther

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Cancer induction after radiation therapy is known as a severe side effect. It is therefore of interest to predict the probability of second cancer appearance for the patient to be treated including breast cancer. Materials and methods In this work a dose-response relationship for breast cancer is derived based on (i the analysis of breast cancer induction after Hodgkin's disease, (ii a cancer risk model developed for high doses including fractionation based on the linear quadratic model, and (iii the reconstruction of treatment plans for Hodgkin's patients treated with radiotherapy, (iv the breast cancer induction of the A-bomb survivor data. Results The fitted model parameters for an ?/? = 3 Gy were ? = 0.067Gy-1 and R = 0.62. The risk for breast cancer is according to this model for small doses consistent with the finding of the A-bomb survivors, has a maximum at doses of around 20 Gy and drops off only slightly at larger doses. The predicted EAR for breast cancer after radiotherapy of Hodgkin's disease is 11.7/10000PY which can be compared to the findings of several epidemiological studies where EAR for breast cancer varies between 10.5 and 29.4/10000PY. The model was used to predict the impact of the reduction of radiation volume on breast cancer risk. It was estimated that mantle field irradiation is associated with a 3.2-fold increased risk compared with mediastinal irradiation alone, which is in agreement with a published value of 2.7. It was also shown that the modelled age dependency of breast cancer risk is in satisfying agreement with published data. Conclusions The dose-response relationship obtained in this report can be used for the prediction of radiation induced secondary breast cancer of radiotherapy patients.

  13. Radiation dose response correlation between thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence in quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fast, linearly modulated optically stimulated luminescence (LM-OSL) component in quartz is the main dosimetric signal used for the dating applications of this material. Since the blue light stimulation (470 nm, 40 mW cm ?2) time needed to obtain the fast LM-OSL component is less than 50 s the electron trapping levels responsible for it are still highly populated. In this way an active radiation history is created which could play an important role in the dosimetric characteristics of the fast OSL signal. In the present work the dose response behavior of the fast OSL signal is investigated in quartz samples with an annealed radiation history and quartz samples possessing an artificial radiation history. A computerized curve de-convolution analysis of the LM-OSL curves for 50 s stimulation time showed that it consists of three individual OSL components. The faster component C1 with peak maximum time around 5 s has a linear dose response in virgin samples, which turns to a slight superlinearity as a function of the artificial radiation history. On the other hand the component C2 with peak maximum time at 12 s is slightly superlinear which turns into strong superlinearity as a function of artificial radiation history. Finally, component C3 with peak maximum time at about 45 s is strongly superlinear for both virgin samples and as a function of artificial radiation history. The implications to practical application are discations to practical application are discussed. - Highlights: ? The fast OSL component consists of three components. ? The linearity of first fast component does not depend on radiation history. ? The linearity of second and third components depend on radiation history. ? The TL between 180 and 300 °C is the major source of OSL.

  14. Epidemiological methods for assessing dose-response and dose-effect relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellström, Tord; Grandjean, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Description Handbook of the Toxicology of Metals is the standard reference work for physicians, toxicologists and engineers in the field of environmental and occupational health. This new edition is a comprehensive review of the effects on biological systems from metallic elements and their compounds. An entirely new structure and illustrations represent the vast array of advancements made since the last edition. Special emphasis has been placed on the toxic effects in humans with chapters on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of metal poisoning. This up-to-date reference provides easy access to a broad range of basic toxicological data and also gives a general introduction to the toxicology of metallic compounds. Audience Toxicologists, physicians, and engineers in the fields of environmental and occupational health as well as libraries in these disciplines. Will also be a useful reference for governmental regulatory agencies and public health officers. Contents Introduction - General Considerations and International Perspectives General Chemistry, Sampling, Analytical Methods and Speciation Routes of Exposure, Dose, and Metabolism of Metals Biological Monitoring and Biomarkers Selected Molecular Mechanisms of Metal Toxicity and Carcinogenicity General Considerations of Dose-Effect and Dose-Response Relationships Interactions in Metal Toxicology Epidemiological Methods for Assessing Dose-Response and Dose-Effect Relationships Essential Metals: Assessing Risks from Deficiency and Toxicity Carcinogenicity of Metal Compounds Immunotoxicology of Metals Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Metals Ecotoxicology of Metals - Sources, Transport, and Effects in the Ecosystem Risk Assessment Diagnosis and Treatment of Metal Poisoning - General Aspects Principles for Prevention of the Toxic Effects of Metals Aluminum Antimony Arsenic Barium Beryllium Bismuth Cadmium Chromium Cobalt Copper Gallium and Semiconductor Compounds Germanium Indium Iron Lead Manganese Mercury Molybdenum Nickel Palladium Platinum Selenium Silver Tellurium Thallium Tin Titanium Tungsten Uranium Vanadium Zinc

  15. Dose-response regressions for algal growth and similar continuous endpoints: Calculation of effective concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik R.; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2009-01-01

    We derive equations for the effective concentration giving 10% inhibition (EC10) with 95% confidence limits for probit (log-normal), Weibull, and logistic dose -responsemodels on the basis of experimentally derived median effective concentrations (EC50s) and the curve slope at the central point (50% inhibition). For illustration, data from closed, freshwater algal assays are analyzed using the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata with growth rate as the response parameter. Dose-response regressions for four test chemicals (tetraethylammonium bromide, musculamine, benzonitrile, and 4-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy-phenol) with ranges of representative slopes at 50% response (0.54-2.62) and EC50s (2.20-357 mg/L) were selected. Reference EC50s and EC10s with 95% confidence limits using probit or Weibull models are calculated by nonlinear regression on the whole dataset using a dose - response regression program with variance weighting and proper inverse estimation. The Weibull model provides the best fit to the data for all four chemicals. Predicted EC10s (95% confidence limits) from our derived equations are quite accurate; for example, with 4-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy-phenol and the probit model, we obtain 1.40 (1.22-1.61) mg/L versus 1.40 (1.20-1.64) mg/L obtained from the nonlinear regression program. The main advantage of the approach is that EC10 or ECx (where x = 1 - 99) can be predicted from well-determined responses around EC20 to EC80 without experimental data in the low- or high-response range. Problems with the estimation of confidence interval for EClow,x (concentration predicted to cause x% inhibition) from algal growth inhibition also are addressed. Large confidence intervals may be the result of experimental error and lack of a well-defined reference response value.

  16. Defining a dose-response relationship for prostate external beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We aimed to quantify a relationship between radiotherapy dose and freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF) in low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer. To reduce confounding we used data with a standardised end–point, mature follow-up, low competing risk of metastatic failure, conventional fractionation and separate reporting for outcomes with hormonal therapy (HT). A systematic review of the literature was carried out. Studies that reported the use of radiotherapy alone in 1.8–2Gy fractions in low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The primary end–point was Phoenix definition 5-year FFBF. A logistic regression was used to quantify the dose–response relationship. Data from eight studies with 3037 patients met the inclusion criteria. The data from 810 low-risk patients and 2245 intermediate-risk patients were analysed. A strong association between radiotherapy dose and FFBF was found in low- and intermediate-risk patients managed with radiotherapy alone. In low-risk patients not treated with HT the dose required to achieve 50% biochemical tumour control (TCD50) is 52.0?Gy and the slope of the dose–response curve at TCD50 (?50) is 2.1%/Gy. At 78Gy this represented a FFBF of 90.3%. In intermediate-risk patients not treated with HT the TCD50 is 64.7Gy and ?50 is 3.2%/Gy. At 78 Gy this translated into a FFBF of 84.3%. HT had a small effect for low-risk patients and an inconsistent effect for intermediate-risk men. A strong association was found between radiation dose and biochemical outcome in both low- and intermediate-risk patients. Standardised reporting of results from future studies will make future analyses more robust.

  17. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the years 2004 and 2005 the figures shown in the tables of Energy Review are partly preliminary. The annual statistics published in Energy Review are presented in more detail in a publication called Energy Statistics that comes out yearly. Energy Statistics also includes historical time-series over a longer period of time (see e.g. Energy Statistics, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 2004.) The applied energy units and conversion coefficients are shown in the back cover of the Review. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in GDP, energy consumption and electricity consumption, Carbon dioxide emissions from fossile fuels use, Coal consumption, Consumption of natural gas, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices in heat production, Fuel prices in electricity production, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Average monthly spot prices at the Nord pool power exchange, Total energy consumption by source and CO2-emissions, Supplies and total consumption of electricity GWh, Energy imports by country of origin in January-June 2003, Energy exports by recipient country in January-June 2003, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Price of natural gas by type of consumer, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumeice of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy taxes, precautionary stock fees and oil pollution fees

  18. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the year 2000, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy Review appear in more detail from the publication Energiatilastot - Energy Statistics issued annually, which also includes historical time series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot 1999, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 2000, ISSN 0785-3165). The inside of the Review's back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions from the use of fossil fuels, Total energy consumption by source and CO2-emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in 2000, Energy exports by recipient country in 2000, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy taxes and precauenergy sources and Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees on oil products

  19. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the year 1998 and the year 1999, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy Review appear in more detail from the publication Energiatilastot - Energy Statistics issued annually, which also includes historical time series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot 1998, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 1999, ISSN 0785-3165). The inside of the Review's back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions, Total energy consumption by source and CO2-emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in January-June 1999, Energy exports by recipient country in January-June 1999, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy tprices of some energy sources and Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees on oil products

  20. Thermoluminescence dose Response Study of Natural Salt (NaCl:Cu,Mg,Mn,O,Cu,As obtained from Mizoram, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Chandra Tiwari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the dose response study of natural salt (local name Dap Chi extracted from salty water sources in Mizoram, India. XRD and SEM of the sample were done and TL studies have been carried out using TLD reader TL1009I and sample was irradiated with gamma radiation using Theratron machine fitted with cobalt-60 source. Chen and Mckeever method has been applied to analyze linearity, sub-linearity and super linearity properties of the sample. The corrections for zero dose reading were done. The fifth degree polynomial dose responses had also been investigated. From the investigations, it may be concluded that the natural salt extracted from Mizoram shows a linear dose response in the range of 0.5 Gy – 2.0 Gy and may be a candidate for low radiation dose-meter, however further studies are needed for confirmation in this regard.

  1. Maximum likelihood estimation of dose-response parameters for therapeutic operating characteristic (TOC) analysis of carcinoma of the nasopharynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Therapeutic Operating Characteristic (TOC) curve for radiation therapy plots, for all possible treatment doses, the probability of tumor ablation as a function of the probability of radiation-induced complication. Application of this analysis to actual therapeutic situation requires that dose-response curves for ablation and for complication be estimated from clinical data. We describe an approach in which ''maximum likelihood estimates'' of these dose-response curves are made, and we apply this approach to data collected on responses to radiotherapy for carcinoma of the nasopharynx. TOC curves constructed from the estimated dose-response curves are subject to moderately large uncertainties because of the limitations of available data.These TOC curves suggest, however, that treatment doses greater than 1800 rem may substantially increase the probability of tumor ablation with little increase in the risk of radiation-induced cervical myelopathy, especially for T1 and T2 tumors

  2. Biological stress response terminology: Integrating the concepts of adaptive response and preconditioning stress within a hormetic dose-response framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many biological subdisciplines that regularly assess dose-response relationships have identified an evolutionarily conserved process in which a low dose of a stressful stimulus activates an adaptive response that increases the resistance of the cell or organism to a moderate to severe level of stress. Due to a lack of frequent interaction among scientists in these many areas, there has emerged a broad range of terms that describe such dose-response relationships. This situation has become problematic because the different terms describe a family of similar biological responses (e.g., adaptive response, preconditioning, hormesis), adversely affecting interdisciplinary communication, and possibly even obscuring generalizable features and central biological concepts. With support from scientists in a broad range of disciplines, this article offers a set of recommendations we believe can achieve greater conceptual harmony in dose-response terminology, as well as better understanding and communication across the broad spectrum of biological disciplines

  3. A DoseResponse Study of Magnesium Sulfate in Suppressing Cardiovascular Responses to Laryngoscopy & Endotracheal Intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Montazeri

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of pretreatment with magnesium on cardiovascular responses associated with intubation have been studied previously. In this study we wanted to find optimal dose of magnesium that causes decreased cardiovascular responses after laryngoscopy & endotracheal intubation. Methods: In a double-blind , randomized, clinical trial ,120 ASA-1 patients with ages between 15-50 years old , who were candidates for elective surgery, were selected and classified in 6 groups (20 patients in each . The pulse rate and arterial blood pressure were measured and recorded at 5 minutes before taking any drug then, according to different groups, patients took magnesium sulfate (10, 20, 30, 40, 50mg/kg and lidocaine (1.5 mg/kg. The induction of anesthesia was same in all groups and the pulse rate and arterial blood pressure were measured and recorded just before intubation and also at 1, 3 , and 5 minutes after intubation (before surgical incision . Statistical analysis was performed by use of ANOVA, Post Hoc test (Duncan, Pearson correlation, and Chi square test. Results: there were no statistically significant differences in blood pressure, pulse rate, Train Of Four (TOF, and complications between groups who received magnesium but the significant differences in these parameters were seen between magnesium and lidocaine groups. Conclusion: We concluded that pretreatment with different doses of magnesium sulfate have a safe decreasing effect on cardiovascular responses that is more effective than pretreatment with lidocaine. Keywords: magnesium sulfate, cardiovascular responses, lidocaine.

  4. Research toward the development of a biologically based dose response assessment for inorganic arsenic carcinogenicity: A progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer risk assessments for inorganic arsenic have been based on human epidemiological data, assuming a linear dose response below the range of observation of tumors. Part of the reason for the continued use of the linear approach in arsenic risk assessments is the lack of an adequate biologically based dose response (BBDR) model that could provide a quantitative basis for an alternative nonlinear approach. This paper describes elements of an ongoing collaborative research effort between the CIIT Centers for Health Research, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ENVIRON International, and EPRI to develop BBDR modeling approaches that could be used to inform a nonlinear cancer dose response assessment for inorganic arsenic. These efforts are focused on: (1) the refinement of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models of the kinetics of inorganic arsenic and its metabolites in the mouse and human; (2) the investigation of mathematical solutions for multi-stage cancer models involving multiple pathways of cell transformation; (3) the review and evaluation of the literature on the dose response for the genomic effects of arsenic; and (4) the collection of data on the dose response for genomic changes in the urinary bladder (a human target tissue for arsenic carcinogenesis) associated with in vivo drinking water exposures in the mouse as well as in vitro exposures of both mouse and human cells. An approach is proposed for conducting a biologically based marginfor conducting a biologically based margin of exposure risk assessment for inorganic arsenic using the in vitro dose response for the expression of genes associated with the obligatory precursor events for arsenic tumorigenesis

  5. In situ protocol for the determination of dose-response effect of low-fluoride dentifrices on enamel remineralization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rebeca Lima, AFONSO; Juliano Pelim, PESSAN; Bruna Babler, IGREJA; Camila Fernandes, CANTAGALLO; Marcelle, DANELON; Alberto Carlos Botazzo, DELBEM.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available No in situ protocol has assessed the dose-response effects of fluoride dentifrices involving low-fluoride formulations. Objective: To assess the ability of an in situ remineralization model in determining dose-response effects of dentifrices containing low fluoride concentrations ([F]) on bovine [...] enamel. Material and Methods: Volunteers wore palatal appliances containing demineralized enamel blocks and brushed their teeth and devices with the dentifrices supplied (double-blind, crossover protocol) separately for 3 and 7 days. Surface hardness (SH), integrated subsurface hardness (?KHN) and [F] in enamel were determined. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, Tukey's test and Pearson's correlation (p

  6. Application of Monte Carlo-based statistical significance determinations to the Beta Cephei stars V400 Car, V401 Car, V403 Car and V405 Car

    OpenAIRE

    Engelbrecht, C. A.; Frescura, F. A. M.; Frank, B. S.

    2009-01-01

    We have used Lomb-Scargle periodogram analysis and Monte Carlo significance tests to detect periodicities above the 3-sigma level in the Beta Cephei stars V400 Car, V401 Car, V403 Car and V405 Car. These methods produce six previously unreported periodicities in the expected frequency range of excited pulsations: one in V400 Car, three in V401 Car, one in V403 Car and one in V405 Car. One of these six frequencies is significant above the 4-sigma level. We provide statistical...

  7. t-Test at the Probe Level: An Alternative Method to Identify Statistically Significant Genes for Microarray Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Boareto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Microarray data analysis typically consists in identifying a list of differentially expressed genes (DEG, i.e., the genes that are differentially expressed between two experimental conditions. Variance shrinkage methods have been considered a better choice than the standard t-test for selecting the DEG because they correct the dependence of the error with the expression level. This dependence is mainly caused by errors in background correction, which more severely affects genes with low expression values. Here, we propose a new method for identifying the DEG that overcomes this issue and does not require background correction or variance shrinkage. Unlike current methods, our methodology is easy to understand and implement. It consists of applying the standard t-test directly on the normalized intensity data, which is possible because the probe intensity is proportional to the gene expression level and because the t-test is scale- and location-invariant. This methodology considerably improves the sensitivity and robustness of the list of DEG when compared with the t-test applied to preprocessed data and to the most widely used shrinkage methods, Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM and Linear Models for Microarray Data (LIMMA. Our approach is useful especially when the genes of interest have small differences in expression and therefore get ignored by standard variance shrinkage methods.

  8. Influence of image slice thickness on rectal dose-response relationships following radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, C.; Thor, M.; Liu, M.; Moissenko, V.; Petersen, S. E.; Høyer, M.; Apte, A.; Deasy, J. O.

    2014-07-01

    When pooling retrospective data from different cohorts, slice thicknesses of acquired computed tomography (CT) images used for treatment planning may vary between cohorts. It is, however, not known if varying slice thickness influences derived dose-response relationships. We investigated this for rectal bleeding using dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the rectum and rectal wall for dose distributions superimposed on images with varying CT slice thicknesses. We used dose and endpoint data from two prostate cancer cohorts treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy to either 74 Gy (N = 159) or 78 Gy (N = 159) at 2 Gy per fraction. The rectum was defined as the whole organ with content, and the morbidity cut-off was Grade ?2 late rectal bleeding. Rectal walls were defined as 3 mm inner margins added to the rectum. DVHs for simulated slice thicknesses from 3 to 13 mm were compared to DVHs for the originally acquired slice thicknesses at 3 and 5 mm. Volumes, mean, and maximum doses were assessed from the DVHs, and generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) values were calculated. For each organ and each of the simulated slice thicknesses, we performed predictive modeling of late rectal bleeding using the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model. For the most coarse slice thickness, rectal volumes increased (?18%), whereas maximum and mean doses decreased (?0.8 and ?4.2 Gy, respectively). For all a values, the gEUD for the simulated DVHs were ?1.9 Gy different than the gEUD for the original DVHs. The best-fitting LKB model parameter values with 95% CIs were consistent between all DVHs. In conclusion, we found that the investigated slice thickness variations had minimal impact on rectal dose-response estimations. From the perspective of predictive modeling, our results suggest that variations within 10 mm in slice thickness between cohorts are unlikely to be a limiting factor when pooling multi-institutional rectal dose data that include slice thickness variations within this range. Presented in part at the European Society for Therapeutic Radiotherapy and Oncology Annual Meeting, April 5-8, 2014, Vienna, Austria.

  9. Influence of image slice thickness on rectal dose-response relationships following radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, C; Thor, M

    2014-01-01

    When pooling retrospective data from different cohorts, slice thicknesses of acquired computed tomography (CT) images used for treatment planning may vary between cohorts. It is, however, not known if varying slice thickness influences derived dose-response relationships. We investigated this for rectal bleeding using dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the rectum and rectal wall for dose distributions superimposed on images with varying CT slice thicknesses. We used dose and endpoint data from two prostate cancer cohorts treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy to either 74 Gy (N = 159) or 78 Gy (N = 159) at 2 Gy per fraction. The rectum was defined as the whole organ with content, and the morbidity cut-off was Grade ?2 late rectal bleeding. Rectal walls were defined as 3 mm inner margins added to the rectum. DVHs for simulated slice thicknesses from 3 to 13 mm were compared to DVHs for the originally acquired slice thicknesses at 3 and 5 mm. Volumes, mean, and maximum doses were assessed from the DVHs, and generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) values were calculated. For each organ and each of the simulated slice thicknesses, we performed predictive modeling of late rectal bleeding using the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model. For the most coarse slice thickness, rectal volumes increased (?18%), whereas maximum and mean doses decreased (?0.8 and ?4.2 Gy, respectively). For all a values, the gEUD for the simulated DVHs were ?1.9 Gy different than the gEUD for the original DVHs. The best-fitting LKB model parameter values with 95% CIs were consistent between all DVHs. In conclusion, we found that the investigated slice thickness variations had minimal impact on rectal dose-response estimations. From the perspective of predictive modeling, our results suggest that variations within 10 mm in slice thickness between cohorts are unlikely to be a limiting factor when pooling multi-institutional rectal dose data that include slice thickness variations within this range.

  10. Non-Targeted Effects and the Dose Response for Heavy Ion Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelli, Lori J.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is no human epidemiology data available to estimate the heavy ion cancer risks experienced by astronauts in space. Studies of tumor induction in mice are a necessary step to estimate risks to astronauts. Previous experimental data can be better utilized to model dose response for heavy ion tumorigenesis and plan future low dose studies. DOSE RESPONSE MODELS: The Harderian Gland data of Alpen et al.[1-3] was re-analyzed [4] using non-linear least square regression. The data set measured the induction of Harderian gland tumors in mice by high-energy protons, helium, neon, iron, niobium and lanthanum with LET s ranging from 0.4 to 950 keV/micron. We were able to strengthen the individual ion models by combining data for all ions into a model that relates both radiation dose and LET for the ion to tumor prevalence. We compared models based on Targeted Effects (TE) to one motivated by Non-targeted Effects (NTE) that included a bystander term that increased tumor induction at low doses non-linearly. When comparing fitted models to the experimental data, we considered the adjusted R2, the Akaike Information Criteria (AIC), and the Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC) to test for Goodness of fit.In the adjusted R2test, the model with the highest R2values provides a better fit to the available data. In the AIC and BIC tests, the model with the smaller values of the summary value provides the better fit. The non-linear NTE models fit the combined data better than the TE models that are linear at low doses. We evaluated the differences in the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and found the NTE model provides a higher RBE at low dose compared to the TE model. POWER ANALYSIS: The final NTE model estimates were used to simulate example data to consider the design of new experiments to detect NTE at low dose for validation. Power and sample sizes were calculated for a variety of radiation qualities including some not considered in the Harderian Gland data set and with different background tumor incidences. We considered different experimental designs with varying number of doses and varying low doses dependant on the LET of the radiation. The optimal design to detect a NTE for an individual ion had 4 doses equally spaced below a maximal dose where bending due to cell sterilization was ions similar to the methods used with the Harderian Gland data.

  11. Linearization of dose–response curve of the radiochromic film dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Despite numerous advantages of radiochromic film dosimeter (high spatial resolution, near tissue equivalence, low energy dependence) to measure a relative dose distribution with film, one needs to first measure an absolute dose (following previously established reference dosimetry protocol) and then convert measured absolute dose values into relative doses. In this work, we present result of our efforts to obtain a functional form that would linearize the inherently nonlinear dose–response curve of the radiochromic film dosimetry system. Methods: Functional form [?= (?1)·netOD(2/3)/ln(netOD)] was derived from calibration curves of various previously established radiochromic film dosimetry systems. In order to test the invariance of the proposed functional form with respect to the film model used we tested it with three different GAFCHROMIC™ film models (EBT, EBT2, and EBT3) irradiated to various doses and scanned on a same scanner. For one of the film models (EBT2), we tested the invariance of the functional form to the scanner model used by scanning irradiated film pieces with three different flatbed scanner models (Epson V700, 1680, and 10000XL). To test our hypothesis that the proposed functional argument linearizes the response of the radiochromic film dosimetry system, verification tests have been performed in clinical applications: percent depth dose measurements, IMRT quality assurance (QA), and brachytherapy QA. Results: Obtained R2 values indicate that the choice of the functional form of the new argument appropriately linearizes the dose response of the radiochromic film dosimetry system we used. The linear behavior was insensitive to both film model and flatbed scanner model used. Measured PDD values using the green channel response of the GAFCHROMIC™ EBT3 film model are well within ±2% window of the local relative dose value when compared to the tabulated Cobalt-60 data. It was also found that criteria of 3%/3 mm for an IMRT QA plan and 3%/2 mm for a brachytherapy QA plan are passing 95% gamma function points. Conclusions: In this paper, we demonstrate the use of functional argument to linearize the inherently nonlinear response of a radiochromic film based reference dosimetry system. In this way, relative dosimetry can be conveniently performed using radiochromic film dosimetry system without the need of establishing calibration curve.

  12. The shape of DNA elution dose-response curves under non-denaturing conditions: the contribution of the degree of chromatin condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors re-examined the effect of detergent type, pH and temperature of lysis on the shape of the DNA elution dose response under non-denaturing conditions using plateau-phase CHO cells. They also examined chromatin decondensation as a contributing factor in the linearization observed in the elution dose-response curve under the above conditions. They found that radiation-sensitive and radiation resistant cell lines give similar DNA elution dose-response curves, suggesting that elution dose response and cell radiosensitivity are not necessarily coupled. (UK)

  13. Low dose radiation and cancer in A-bomb survivors: latency and non-linear dose-response in the 1950–90 mortality cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dropkin Greg

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analyses of Japanese A-bomb survivors' cancer mortality risks are used to establish recommended annual dose limits, currently set at 1 mSv (public and 20 mSv (occupational. Do radiation doses below 20 mSv have significant impact on cancer mortality in Japanese A-bomb survivors, and is the dose-response linear? Methods I analyse stomach, liver, lung, colon, uterus, and all-solid cancer mortality in the 0 – 20 mSv colon dose subcohort of the 1950–90 (grouped mortality cohort, by Poisson regression using a time-lagged colon dose to detect latency, while controlling for gender, attained age, and age-at-exposure. I compare linear and non-linear models, including one adapted from the cellular bystander effect for ? particles. Results With a lagged linear model, Excess Relative Risk (ERR for the liver and all-solid cancers is significantly positive and several orders of magnitude above extrapolations from the Life Span Study Report 12 analysis of the full cohort. Non-linear models are strongly superior to the linear model for the stomach (latency 11.89 years, liver (36.90, lung (13.60 and all-solid (43.86 in fitting the 0 – 20 mSv data and show significant positive ERR at 0.25 mSv and 10 mSv lagged dose. The slope of the dose-response near zero is several orders of magnitude above the slope at high doses. Conclusion The standard linear model applied to the full 1950–90 cohort greatly underestimates the risks at low doses, which are significant when the 0 – 20 mSv subcohort is modelled with latency. Non-linear models give a much better fit and are compatible with a bystander effect.

  14. Pregabalin versus gabapentin in partial epilepsy: a meta-analysis of dose-response relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Sally

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare the efficacy of pregabalin and gabapentin at comparable effective dose levels in patients with refractory partial epilepsy. Methods Eight randomized placebo controlled trials investigating the efficacy of pregabalin (4 studies and gabapentin (4 studies over 12 weeks were identified with a systematic literature search. The endpoints of interest were "responder rate" (where response was defined as at least a 50% reduction from baseline in the number of seizures and "change from baseline in seizure-free days over the last 28 days (SFD". Results of all trials were analyzed using an indirect comparison approach with placebo as the common comparator. The base-case analysis used the intention-to-treat last observation carried forward method. Two sensitivity analyses were conducted among completer and responder populations. Results The base-case analysis revealed statistically significant differences in response rate in favor of pregabalin 300 mg versus gabapentin 1200 mg (odds ratio, 1.82; 95% confidence interval, 1.02, 3.25 and pregabalin 600 mg versus gabapentin 1800 mg (odds ratio, 2.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.21, 5.27. Both sensitivity analyses supported the findings of the base-case analysis, although statistical significance was not demonstrated. All dose levels of pregabalin (150 mg to 600 mg were more efficacious than corresponding dosages of gabapentin (900 mg to 2400 mg in terms of SFD over the last 28 days. Conclusion In patients with refractory partial epilepsy, pregabalin is likely to be more effective than gabapentin at comparable effective doses, based on clinical response and the number of SFD.

  15. Plasma and liver acetaminophen-protein adduct levels in mice after acetaminophen treatment: Dose–response, mechanisms, and clinical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At therapeutic doses, acetaminophen (APAP) is a safe and effective analgesic. However, overdose of APAP is the principal cause of acute liver failure in the West. Binding of the reactive metabolite of APAP (NAPQI) to proteins is thought to be the initiating event in the mechanism of hepatotoxicity. Early work suggested that APAP-protein binding could not occur without glutathione (GSH) depletion, and likely only at toxic doses. Moreover, it was found that protein-derived APAP-cysteine could only be detected in serum after the onset of liver injury. On this basis, it was recently proposed that serum APAP-cysteine could be used as diagnostic marker of APAP overdose. However, comprehensive dose–response and time course studies have not yet been done. Furthermore, the effects of co-morbidities on this parameter have not been investigated. We treated groups of mice with APAP at multiple doses and measured liver GSH and both liver and plasma APAP-protein adducts at various timepoints. Our results show that protein binding can occur without much loss of GSH. Importantly, the data confirm earlier work that showed that protein-derived APAP-cysteine can appear in plasma without liver injury. Experiments performed in vitro suggest that this may involve multiple mechanisms, including secretion of adducted proteins and diffusion of NAPQI directly into plasma. Induction of liver necrosis through ischemia–reperfusion significantly increased the plasma concentration of protein-derived APAP-cysteine after a subtoxic dose of APAP. While our data generally support the measurement of serum APAP-protein adducts in the clinic, caution is suggested in the interpretation of this parameter. - Highlights: • Extensive GSH depletion is not required for APAP-protein binding in the liver. • APAP-protein adducts appear in plasma at subtoxic doses. • Proteins are adducted in the cell and secreted out. • Coincidental liver injury increases plasma APAP-protein adducts at subtoxic doses. • Plasma APAP-protein adducts are diagnostically useful, but interpret with care

  16. Body Mass Index and Risk of Parkinson’s Disease: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Liang; Wang, Yu-Tong; Li, Jin-Feng; Zhang, Yu-Zheng; Yin, Hong-Lei; Han, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Background A number of epidemiologic studies examining the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the future occurrence of Parkinson’s disease (PD) reported largely inconsistent findings. We conducted a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies to clarify this association. Methods Eligible prospective studies were identified by a search of PubMed and by checking the references of related publications. The generalized least squares trend estimation was employed to compute study-specific relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for an increase in BMI of 5 kg/m2, and the random-effects model was used to compute summary RR and 95% CI. Results A total of 10 prospective studies were included in the final analysis. An increase in BMI of 5 kg/m2 was not associated with PD risk, with a summary RR of 1.00 (95% CI = 0.89-1.12). Results of subgroup analysis found similar results except for a week positive association in studies that adjusted for alcohol consumption (RR = 1.13, 95% CI = 0.99-1.29), and a week inverse association in studies that did not (RR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.78-1.04). In a separate meta-analysis, no significant association between overweight (25 kg/m2 ? BMI ?29.9 kg/m2), obesity (BMI?30 kg/m2) or excess weight (BMI?25 kg/m2) and PD risk was observed. Conclusion This meta-analysis does not support the notion that higher BMI materially increases PD risk. However, a week positive BMI-PD association that may be masked by confounders still cannot be excluded, and future prospective studies with a good control for potential confounding factors are needed. PMID:26121579

  17. Dose Response for Chromosome Aberrations in Human Lymphocytes and Fibroblasts After Exposure to Very Low Dose of High Let Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, M.; George, K.; Chappell, L.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between biological effects and low doses of absorbed radiation is still uncertain, especially for high LET radiation exposure. Estimates of risks from low-dose and low-dose-rates are often extrapolated using data from Japanese atomic bomb survivor with either linear or linear quadratic models of fit. In this study, chromosome aberrations were measured in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and normal skin fibroblasts cells after exposure to very low dose (0.01 - 0.20 Gy) of 170 MeV/u Si-28 ions or 600 MeV/u Fe-56 ions, including doses where on average less than one direct ion traversal per cell nucleus occurs. Chromosomes were analyzed using the whole-chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique during the first cell division after irradiation, and chromosome aberrations were identified as either simple exchanges (translocations and dicentrics) or complex exchanges (involving >2 breaks in 2 or more chromosomes). The responses for doses above 0.1 Gy (more than one ion traverses a cell) showed linear dose responses. However, for doses less than 0.1 Gy, both Si-28 ions and Fe-56 ions showed a dose independent response above background chromosome aberrations frequencies. Possible explanations for our results are non-targeted effects due to aberrant cell signaling [1], or delta-ray dose fluctuations [2] where a fraction of cells receive significant delta-ray doses due to the contributions of multiple ion tracks that do not directly traverse cell nuclei where chromosome aberrations are scored.

  18. Dose response evaluation of gene expression profiles in the skin of K6/ODC mice exposed to sodium arsenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic drinking water exposure to inorganic arsenic and its metabolites increases tumor frequency in the skin of K6/ODC transgenic mice. To identify potential biomarkers and modes of action for this skin tumorigenicity, we characterized gene expression profiles from analysis of K6/ODC mice administered 0, 0.05, 0.25, 1.0 and 10 ppm sodium arsenite in their drinking water for 4 weeks. Following exposure, total RNA was isolated from mouse skin and processed to biotin-labeled cRNA for microarray analyses. Skin gene expression was analyzed with Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430A 2.0 GeneChips (registered) , and pathway analysis was conducted with DAVID (NIH), Ingenuity (registered) Systems and MetaCore's GeneGo. Differential expression of several key genes was verified through qPCR. Only the highest dose (10 ppm) resulted in significantly altered KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways, including MAPK, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, Wnt, Jak-Stat, Tight junction, Toll-like, phosphatidylinositol and insulin signaling pathways. Approximately 20 genes exhibited a dose response, including several genes known to be associated with carcinogenesis or tumor progression including cyclin D1, CLIC4, Ephrin A1, STAT3 and DNA methyltransferase 3a. Although transcription changes in all identified genes have not previously been linked to arsenic carcinogenesis, their association with carcinogenesis in other systems suggests that these genes may play a role in the early staese genes may play a role in the early stages of arsenic-induced skin carcinogenesis and can be considered potential biomarkers

  19. The effect of heterogeneity in tumor cell kinetics on radiation dose-response. An exploratory investigation of a plateau effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of heterogeneity in tumor cell kinetics on radiation dose-response curves for a population of patients.Materials and methods: A series of exploratory calculations have been performed using an improved geometric-stochastic model of tumor cure.Results: Radiation therapy dose-response curves may plateau, or nearly so, at tumor control levels well below 100%, if a proportion of tumors would grow sufficiently fast to counterbalance the effect of fractionated radiotherapy. If the model assumptions of doubling time heterogeneity are correct, the difference between a short and protracted radiation regimen would be not only in the position and steepness of the radiation dose-response curve, but also in the level of the predicted plateau.Conclusions: For a given rate of dose accumulation, the one-sided flattening in dose-response curves at high doses is predicted from the modeling, and determined by the proportion of most radioresistant and rapidly growing tumors. This shows that empirical models of tumor control probability which assume a symmetric sigmoid relationship from 0 to 100% have apparent limitations, seemingly not well acknowledged in the literature. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  20. Dose-Response Relationship Of Chromosome Aberration Induced By Low Doses Gamma Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection method of chromosome aberration is highly valuable as a biological dosimeter to support physical dosimeter. Dicentric is a specific type of chromosome aberration caused by ionizing radiation exposure that can be detected from a radiation dose of 0.2 Gy. To prove this presumption, a research had been conducted by exposing lymphocyte cell of peripheral blood taken from four male donors to Co-60 gamma rays at doses of 0 (control), 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1 Gy. The blood samples were cultured with standard procedures. The results showed that dicentric type can be detected starting from 0.2 Gy dose, i.e. 0.002 + 0.001/cell. The higher radiation dose the higher dicentric chromosome induced. The equation of dose-response curve obtained with linier quadratic model is Y = 0.678 x 10-3 - 0.166 x 10-4 X + 0.147 x 10-5 X2 with corellation value R of 0.969

  1. Aspergillus flavus dose-response curves to selected natural and synthetic antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Malo, Aurelio; Alzamora, Stella M; Palou, Enrique

    2002-03-01

    The effects of selected concentrations of antimicrobials from natural (vanillin, thymol, eugenol, carvacrol or citral) or synthetic (potassium sorbate or sodium benzoate) origin on Aspergillus flavus lag time inoculated in laboratory media formulated at water activity (a(w)) 0.99 and pH 4.5 or 3.5, were evaluated. Time to detect a colony with a diameter > 0.5 mm was determined. Mold response was modeled using the Fermi function. Antimicrobial minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was defined as the minimal required inhibiting mold growth for 2 months. Fermi function successfully captured A. flavus dose-response curves to the tested antimicrobials with a highly satisfactory fit. Fermi equation coefficients, Pc and k, were used to compare antimicrobials and assess the effect of pH. Important differences in Pc and k were observed among antimicrobials, being natural antimicrobials less pH dependent than synthetic antimicrobials. A large Pc value represents a small antimicrobial effect on A. flavus lag time; thus, high concentrations are needed to delay growth. A. flavus exhibited higher sensitivity to thymol, eugenol, carvacrol, potassium sorbate (at pH 3.5), and sodium benzoate (at pH 3.5) than to vanillin or citral. MICs varied from 200 ppm of sodium bcnzoate at pH 3.5 to 1800 ppm of citral at both evaluated pHs. PMID:11934030

  2. Dose–response analysis of parotid gland function: What is the best measure of xerostomia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To describe the dose–response relationships for the different measures of salivary gland recovery following radical radiotherapy for locally advanced head and neck squamous cell cancers (LA-HNSCC). Methods and materials: Dosimetric analysis of data from the PARSPORT trial, a Phase III study of conventional RT (RT) and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for LA-HNSCC was undertaken to determine the relationship between parotid gland mean dose and toxicity endpoints: high-grade subjective and objective xerostomia and xerostomia-related quality of life scores. LKB-NTCP parameters (TD50, m and n) were generated and tolerance doses (D50) reported using non-linear logistic regression analysis. Results: Data were available on 63 patients from the PARSPORT trial. Parotid saliva flow rate provided the strongest association between mean dose and recovery, D50 = 23.4 Gy (20.6–26.2) and k = 3.2 (1.9–4.5), R2 = 0.85. Corresponding LKB parameters were TD50 = 26.3 Gy (95% CI: 24.0–30.1), m = 0.25 (0.18–1.0 and n = 1). LENTSOMA subjective xerostomia also demonstrated a strong association D50 = 33.3 Gy (26.7–39.8), k = 2.8 (91.4–4.4), R2 = 0.77). Conclusion: We recommend using the LENT SOMA subjective xerostomia score to predict recovery of salivation due to its strong association with dosimetry and ease of recording

  3. High-LET dose-response characteristics by track structure theory of heavy charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The track structure theory developed by Katz and co-workers ascribes the effect of high-LET radiation to the highly inhomogeneous dose distribution due to low energy ?-rays ejected from the particle track. The theory predicts the effectiveness of high-LET radiation by using the ion parameters zsub(eff') effective charge of the ion, and ? = v/c, the relative ion velocity, together with the characteristic dose D37 derived from low-LET dose-response characteristic of the detector and the approximate size asub(0) of the sensitive element of the detector. 60Co gamma-irradiation is used as a reference low-LET radiation, while high-LET radiation ranging from 16 MeV protons to 4 MeV/amu 160-ions covering an initial LET range of 30-5500 MeVcm2/g is obtained from a tandem Van de Graaff accelerator. A thin film (5mg/cm2) radiochromic dye cyanide plastic dosemeter was used as detector with the characteristic dose of 16.8 Mrad and a sensitive element size of 10-7 cm. Theoretical and experimental effectiveness, RBE, agreed within 10 to 25% depending on LET. (author)

  4. Dose-response for bone regeneration after single doses of 60Co irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bone Growth Chamber (BGC) methodology was used to establish a dose-response relationship for regeneration of mature bone tissue after irradiation of 5, 8, 11, 15 and 25 Gy single dose 60Co. The BGC, which is a titanium implant, was inserted in the proximal tibial metaphyses, bilaterally, of a rabbit immediately following local irradiation to one tibia. Each animal thus served as its own control. During a healing period of 4 weeks, the two canals penetrating the implant became filled with more or less newly formed bone. At the end of the healing period, the implants were removed and taken apart and the newly formed bone was collected and its volume measured by microradiography and microdensitometry. It was found that in the dose range of 5 to 8 Gy bone regeneration was reduced by about 20% as compared to non-irradiated controls. Between 8 and 11 Gy, there was a critical range in that a small increase in dose resulted in a greatly reduced bone formation. At 11 Gy and above, the depression in bone formation, as compared to non-irradiated controls, was about 65 to 75%

  5. Acute administration of methylphenidate alters the prefrontal cortex neuronal activity in a dose–response characteristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claussen CM

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Catherine M Claussen, Nachum Dafny Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Texas Health Science Center Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: The prefrontal cortex (PFC is part of the collective structures known as the motive circuit. The PFC acts to enhance higher cognitive functions as well as mediate the effects of psychostimulants. Previous literature shows the importance of PFC neuronal adaptation in response to acute and chronic psychostimulant exposure. The PFC receives input from other motive circuit structures, including the ventral tegmental area, which mediates and facilitates the rewarding effects of psychostimulant exposure. PFC neuronal and locomotor activity from freely behaving rats previously implanted with permanent semimicroelectrodes were recorded concomitantly using a telemetric (wireless recording system. Methylphenidate (MPD is used as a leading treatment for behavioral disorders and more recently as a cognitive enhancer. Therefore, the property of MPD dose response on PFC neuronal activity was investigated. The results indicate that MPD modulates PFC neuronal activity and behavioral activity in a dose-dependent manner. PFC neuronal responses to 0.6 mg/kg elicited mainly a decrease in PFC neuronal activity, while higher MPD doses (2.5 and 10.0 mg/kg elicited mainly increased neuronal activity in response to MPD. The correlation between MPD effects on PFC neuronal activity and animal behavior is discussed. Keywords: prefrontal cortex, Ritalin, behavior, neuronal, acute

  6. Dose-response model of murine typhus (Rickettsia typhi: time post inoculation and host age dependency analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamrakar Sushil B

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rickettsia typhi (R. mooseri is the causative agent of murine typhus. It is one of the most widely distributed flea-borne diseases with a relatively mild febrile initial illness with six to 14 days of incubation period. The bacterium is gram negative and an obligate intracellular pathogen. The disease is transmitted to humans and vertebrate host through fleabites or via contact with infected feces. This paper develops dose-response models of different routes of exposure for typhus in rodents. Methods Data from published articles were analyzed using parametric dose-response relationship models. Dose-response relationships were fit to data using the method of maximum likelihood estimation (MLE. Results Dose-response models quantifying the effects of different ages of rats and time post inoculation in BALB/c mice were analyzed in the study. Both the adult rats (inoculated intradermally and newborn rats (inoculated subcutaneously were best fit by exponential models and both distributions could be described by a single dose-response relationship. The BALB/C mice inoculated subcutaneously were best fit by Beta-Poisson models. The time post inoculation analysis showed that there was a definite time and response relationship existed in this case. Conclusions Intradermally or subcutaneously inoculated rats (adult and newborn models suggest that less than 1 plaque-forming unit (PFU (1.33 to 0.38 in 95% confidence limits of the pathogen is enough to seroconvert 50% of the exposed population on average. For the BALB/c mouse time post inoculation model, an average dose of 0.28 plaque-forming units (PFU (0.75 to 0.11 in 95% confidence limits will seroconvert 50% of the exposed mice.

  7. Light-emitting diode therapy (LEDT) before matches prevents increase in creatine kinase with a light dose response in volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraresi, Cleber; Dos Santos, Ricardo Vinicius; Marques, Guilherme; Zangrande, Marcelo; Leonaldo, Roberley; Hamblin, Michael R; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been applied over skeletal muscles before intense exercise (muscular pre-conditioning) in order to reduce fatigue and muscle damage (measured by creatine kinase, CK) in clinical trials. However, previous exercise protocols do not exactly simulate the real muscle demand required in sports. For this reason, the aim of this randomized and double-blind placebo-controlled trial was to investigate whether light-emitting diode therapy (LEDT) applied over the quadriceps femoris muscles, hamstrings, and triceps surae of volleyball players before official matches could prevent muscle damage (CK) with a dose response, establishing a therapeutic window. A professional male volleyball team (12 athletes) was enrolled in this study, and LEDT was applied before 4 matches during a national championship. LEDT used an array of 200 light-emitting diodes (LEDs) arranged in 25 clusters of 4 infrared LEDs (850?±?20 nm; 130 mW) and 25 clusters of 4 red LEDs (630?±?10 nm; 80 mW). Athletes were randomized to receive one of four different total doses over each muscle group in a double-blind protocol: 105 J (20 s), 210 J (40 s), 315 J (60 s), and placebo (no light for 30 s). CK in blood was assessed 1 h before and 24 h after each match. LEDT at 210 J avoided significant increases in CK (+10 %; P?=?0.993) as well as 315 J (+31 %, P?=?0.407). Placebo (0 J) allowed a significant increase in CK (+53 %; P?=?0.012) as well as LEDT at 105 J (+59 %; P?=?0.001). LEDT prevented significant increases of CK in blood in athletes when applied before official matches with a light dose response of 210-315 J, suggesting athletes might consider applying LEDT before competition. PMID:25722067

  8. Statistics Related Self-Efficacy A Confirmatory Factor Analysis Demonstrating a Significant Link to Prior Mathematics Experiences for Graduate Level Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Larwin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined students' statistics-related self-efficacy, as measured with the current statistics self-efficacy (CSSE inventory developed by Finney and Schraw (2003. Structural equation modeling was used to check the confirmatory factor analysis of the one-dimensional factor of CSSE. Once confirmed, this factor was used to test whether a significant link to prior mathematics experiences exists. Additionally a new post-structural equation modeling (SEM application was employed to compute error-free latent variable score for CSSE in an effort to examine the ancillary effects of gender, age, ethnicity, department, degree level, hours completed, expected course grade, number of college-level math classes, current GPA on students' CSSE scores. Results support the one-dimensional construct and as expected, the model demonstrated a significant link between CSSE scores and prior mathematics experiences to CSSE. Additionally the students' department, expected grade, and number of prior math classes were found to have a significant effect on student's CSSE scores.

  9. A novel pairwise comparison method for in silico discovery of statistically significant cis-regulatory elements in eukaryotic promoter regions: application to Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloo-Dashtpagerdi, Roohollah; Razi, Hooman; Aliakbari, Massumeh; Lindlöf, Angelica; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Cis regulatory elements (CREs), located within promoter regions, play a significant role in the blueprint for transcriptional regulation of genes. There is a growing interest to study the combinatorial nature of CREs including presence or absence of CREs, the number of occurrences of each CRE, as well as of their order and location relative to their target genes. Comparative promoter analysis has been shown to be a reliable strategy to test the significance of each component of promoter architecture. However, it remains unclear what level of difference in the number of occurrences of each CRE is of statistical significance in order to explain different expression patterns of two genes. In this study, we present a novel statistical approach for pairwise comparison of promoters of Arabidopsis genes in the context of number of occurrences of each CRE within the promoters. First, using the sample of 1000 Arabidopsis promoters, the results of the goodness of fit test and non-parametric analysis revealed that the number of occurrences of CREs in a promoter sequence is Poisson distributed. As a promoter sequence contained functional and non-functional CREs, we addressed the issue of the statistical distribution of functional CREs by analyzing the ChIP-seq datasets. The results showed that the number of occurrences of functional CREs over the genomic regions was determined as being Poisson distributed. In accordance with the obtained distribution of CREs occurrences, we suggested the Audic and Claverie (AC) test to compare two promoters based on the number of occurrences for the CREs. Superiority of the AC test over Chi-square (2×2) and Fisher's exact tests was also shown, as the AC test was able to detect a higher number of significant CREs. The two case studies on the Arabidopsis genes were performed in order to biologically verify the pairwise test for promoter comparison. Consequently, a number of CREs with significantly different occurrences was identified between the promoters. The results of the pairwise comparative analysis together with the expression data for the studied genes revealed the biological significance of the identified CREs. PMID:25303887

  10. Efeito dose-resposta de fatores de risco para a doença isquêmica do coração / Dose-response effect of risk factors to ischaemic heart disease

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Suzana Alves de, Moraes; José Maria Pacheco de, Souza.

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Resultados de diversos estudos têm apontado a relevância da hipertensão arterial, do hábito de fumar e da hipercolesterolemia como fatores de risco para a doença isquêmica do coração (DIC). Poucos autores têm investigado a existência de gradiente linear relacionando a quantidade destas exposições co [...] m os eventos coronarianos. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes graus de exposição a estas variáveis sobre a DIC, procedendo-se ao ajustamento para possíveis variáveis de confusão, foi feito estudo planejado sob a forma de desenho tipo caso-controle, tendo a coleta de dados se estendido de março de 1993 a fevereiro de 1994. Foram estudados 833 indivíduos de ambos os sexos, na faixa etária compreendida entre 30 e 69 anos completos, sendo todos residentes no Município de São Paulo, SP (Brasil). Foram comparados 280 casos com 553 controles (285 controles de vizinhança e 268 controles hospitalares). A técnica estatística utilizada para a análise dos dados foi a regressão logística multivariada. Os resultados permitiram identificar gradiente linear para as variáveis duração da hipertensão arterial e para número de cigarros consumidos/dia. As variáveis duração do hábito de fumar e duração da hipercolesterolemia, embora tendo apresentado "odds ratios" significantes para as respectivas categorias de exposição, não apresentaram gradiente linear. Foram discutidos aspectos metodológicos que poderiam exercer influência sobre a tendência dos "odds ratios" nas categorias de exposição das variáveis duração do hábito de fumar e duração da hipercolesterolemia. Conclui-se que os efeitos dose-resposta observados para as variáveis duração da hipertensão arterial e número de cigarros consumidos/dia foram independentes da presença nos modelos de potentes fatores de risco para a doença isquêmica do coração. Abstract in english Several authors have reported hypertension, smoking and hypercholesterolemia as independent risk factors to ischaemic heart disease (IHD). However few of them have investigated the existence of a linear gradient related to the levels of these exposures and IHD. The effect of different levels of thes [...] e exposures and IHD after adjusting for known confounders of effect, is assessed. The project was designed as a case-control study and the data were collected over one year from March/93 to February/94. The sample was composed of a total of 833 individuals of both genders aged 30-69 living in the city of S. Paulo, SP (Brazil), 280 of whom were compared with 553 controls (285 neighbourhood controls and 268 hospital controls). Logistic regression was the statistical method wold for the analysis of the data. The results showed a linear gradient for known duration of hypertension and daily number of cigarettes consumed. Although the variables duration of hypercholesterolemia and duration of the habit smoking presented statistically significant odds ratio in the respective strata there was no indication of a linear gradient. Some methodological issues are presented to explain this absence of a linear gradient for known duration of hypercholesterolemia and duration of the smoking habit. It is concluded that the dose response effect detected for known duration of hypertension and daily number of cigarettes consumed were independent of the presence of major risk factors ischaemic heart disease.

  11. Efeito dose-resposta de fatores de risco para a doença isquêmica do coração Dose-response effect of risk factors to ischaemic heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Alves de Moraes

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Resultados de diversos estudos têm apontado a relevância da hipertensão arterial, do hábito de fumar e da hipercolesterolemia como fatores de risco para a doença isquêmica do coração (DIC. Poucos autores têm investigado a existência de gradiente linear relacionando a quantidade destas exposições com os eventos coronarianos. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes graus de exposição a estas variáveis sobre a DIC, procedendo-se ao ajustamento para possíveis variáveis de confusão, foi feito estudo planejado sob a forma de desenho tipo caso-controle, tendo a coleta de dados se estendido de março de 1993 a fevereiro de 1994. Foram estudados 833 indivíduos de ambos os sexos, na faixa etária compreendida entre 30 e 69 anos completos, sendo todos residentes no Município de São Paulo, SP (Brasil. Foram comparados 280 casos com 553 controles (285 controles de vizinhança e 268 controles hospitalares. A técnica estatística utilizada para a análise dos dados foi a regressão logística multivariada. Os resultados permitiram identificar gradiente linear para as variáveis duração da hipertensão arterial e para número de cigarros consumidos/dia. As variáveis duração do hábito de fumar e duração da hipercolesterolemia, embora tendo apresentado "odds ratios" significantes para as respectivas categorias de exposição, não apresentaram gradiente linear. Foram discutidos aspectos metodológicos que poderiam exercer influência sobre a tendência dos "odds ratios" nas categorias de exposição das variáveis duração do hábito de fumar e duração da hipercolesterolemia. Conclui-se que os efeitos dose-resposta observados para as variáveis duração da hipertensão arterial e número de cigarros consumidos/dia foram independentes da presença nos modelos de potentes fatores de risco para a doença isquêmica do coração.Several authors have reported hypertension, smoking and hypercholesterolemia as independent risk factors to ischaemic heart disease (IHD. However few of them have investigated the existence of a linear gradient related to the levels of these exposures and IHD. The effect of different levels of these exposures and IHD after adjusting for known confounders of effect, is assessed. The project was designed as a case-control study and the data were collected over one year from March/93 to February/94. The sample was composed of a total of 833 individuals of both genders aged 30-69 living in the city of S. Paulo, SP (Brazil, 280 of whom were compared with 553 controls (285 neighbourhood controls and 268 hospital controls. Logistic regression was the statistical method wold for the analysis of the data. The results showed a linear gradient for known duration of hypertension and daily number of cigarettes consumed. Although the variables duration of hypercholesterolemia and duration of the habit smoking presented statistically significant odds ratio in the respective strata there was no indication of a linear gradient. Some methodological issues are presented to explain this absence of a linear gradient for known duration of hypercholesterolemia and duration of the smoking habit. It is concluded that the dose response effect detected for known duration of hypertension and daily number of cigarettes consumed were independent of the presence of major risk factors ischaemic heart disease.

  12. Non-Targeted Effects and the Dose Response for Heavy Ion Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelli, Lori J.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is no human epidemiology data available to estimate the heavy ion cancer risks experienced by astronauts in space. Studies of tumor induction in mice are a necessary step to estimate risks to astronauts. Previous experimental data can be better utilized to model dose response for heavy ion tumorigenesis and plan future low dose studies. DOSE RESPONSE MODELS: The Harderian Gland data of Alpen et al.[1-3] was re-analyzed [4] using non-linear least square regression. The data set measured the induction of Harderian gland tumors in mice by high-energy protons, helium, neon, iron, niobium and lanthanum with LET s ranging from 0.4 to 950 keV/micron. We were able to strengthen the individual ion models by combining data for all ions into a model that relates both radiation dose and LET for the ion to tumor prevalence. We compared models based on Targeted Effects (TE) to one motivated by Non-targeted Effects (NTE) that included a bystander term that increased tumor induction at low doses non-linearly. When comparing fitted models to the experimental data, we considered the adjusted R2, the Akaike Information Criteria (AIC), and the Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC) to test for Goodness of fit.In the adjusted R2test, the model with the highest R2values provides a better fit to the available data. In the AIC and BIC tests, the model with the smaller values of the summary value provides the better fit. The non-linear NTE models fit the combined data better than the TE models that are linear at low doses. We evaluated the differences in the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and found the NTE model provides a higher RBE at low dose compared to the TE model. POWER ANALYSIS: The final NTE model estimates were used to simulate example data to consider the design of new experiments to detect NTE at low dose for validation. Power and sample sizes were calculated for a variety of radiation qualities including some not considered in the Harderian Gland data set and with different background tumor incidences. We considered different experimental designs with varying number of doses and varying low doses dependant on the LET of the radiation. The optimal design to detect a NTE for an individual ion had 4 doses equally spaced below a maximal dose where bending due to cell sterilization was < 2%. For example at 100 keV/micron we would irradiate at 0.03 Gy, 0.065 Gy, 0.13 Gy, and 0.26 Gy and require 850 mice including a control dose for a sensitivity to detect NTE with 80% power. Sample sizes could be improved by combining ions similar to the methods used with the Harderian Gland data.

  13. The Role of Target and Bystander Cells in Dose-Response Relationship of Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects in Two Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Soleymanifard, Shokouhozaman; Bahreyni Toossi, Mohammad Taghi; Sazgarnia, Ameneh; Mohebbi, Shokoufe

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Radiation effect induced in nonirradiated cells which are adjacent or far from irradiated cells is termed radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE). Published data on dose-response relationship of RIBE is controversial. In the present study the role of targeted and bystander cells in RIBE dose-response relationship of two cell lines have been investigated.

  14. Teratogenic radiation effects: Phenomena, dose-response relationships and risk levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report in hand informs about a study performed within the framework of the research project 'Animal experiments with albino mice for establishing a model for the detection and assessment of radiation-induced, developmental risks in man due to low-dose irradiation'. The subjects investigated in this study are: (1) Dose-response relationships for postnatal developmental disturbances of the brain as a result of prenatal X-ray treatment. (2) Biokinetics, distribution patterns and effects of inorganically and organically bonded radioiodine (I-125) during the phase of development of the brain. For investigation of the first-mentioned subject, computerized microphotograph analysis was applied for detecting and assessing disturbances of the alignment of axons, as well as deviations from normal cross-sectional data of the Cortex layer, and cerebral commissures as final locations of neurogenetic damage. With all parameters studied, the slope of the relevant curves was found to decrease as a function of age of the fetus at the time of exposure. In addition, time factor effects were investigated. For the parameter cross-sectional area of the Cortex, a clear decrease of effect was found, but for all other parameters, reactions were ambiguous. The study into the second subject was done with cell cultures, showing that the I-125 bonded to the cell nucleus has a much stronger radiotoxic effect than I-125 bonded to the cytoplasma. This difference in effect was studied in mice afteference in effect was studied in mice after incorporation of equal doses administered by way of (I-125)-sodium iodide or (I-125)-iododesoxyuridine. Long-term effects on Cortex cross-sectional areas, cerebral commissures or the texture of axons were quantified by microphotograph analysis. Acute cell death and initial disturbances of the neuronal cell growth were evident after incorporation of (I-125)-IdUR, but not detectable after administration of (I-125)-NaI. (orig./MG)

  15. Dose-response relationships between four pesticides and phosphorus uptake by hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiger, P.F.; Jakobsen, I.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of the fungicides carbendazim, fenpropimorph and propiconazole and of the insecticide dimethoate on plant P uptake via external hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi was examined. Mycorrhizal plants were grown in a two-compartment system where a root-free hyphal compartment was separated from the main root compartment by nylon mesh. After 5 weeks of plant growth external hyphae of the AM fungi had spread throughout the hyphal compartment. At this time aqueous solutions of both P-32 and pesticide were added to the hyphal compartment. Resulting soil pesticide concentrations covered a wide range with the aim of describing the dose-response relationships between pesticide concentration and hyphal P uptake. Plants were harvested 6d after pesticide application. The amount of P-32 taken up into the plant was measured as was hyphal length in the hyphal compartment. Carbendazim had the most negative effect, with concentrations above 0.006 mu g g(-1) leading to a sharp decrease in hyphal P uptake. Concentrations above 0.1 mu g g-l almost completely inhibited hyphal P uptake. This concentration is lower than the expected field concentration following carbendazim application at the recommended field rate. Hyphal P uptake was also negatively affected by propiconazole but only at concentrations above 1 mu g g(-1). This corresponds to an expected field concentration of propiconazole after application of 10 times the recommended field dosage. Fenpropimorph and dimethoate had no negative effects on hyphal P uptake even when applied at concentrations of 125 or 46 mu g g(-1) respectively. These concentrations are equivalent to expected field concentrations following pesticide applications at 100 times the recommended field rate. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Study of Cell Line and Dose-response of Human Leukemic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Idrish Miah

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell type studied in this work is human leukemic cell Jurkat. In order to identify the exponential growth phase, the better time for sampling the population, the cell line was evaluated by monitoring the proliferation and viability of the cells in a 7-days long culture adding no medium to the cells. It was found that the culture within the cellular concentration from 6x105-2.7x106 cells/ml was in the exponential or log phase, where the viability and reproduction for the cells were high. The lag time and population doubling time were calculated and found to be 1 and 5 days respectively. The density dependent survival of cells in culture was remained constant, with the exception at very higher cell densities where it was found to decrease slightly. The viability of the cells was found to remain within 96-97% at incubation temperature range 10-500C, with a maximum at 35-400C. The cells were then incubated with 1 mM ALA at different temperatures and irradiated with different light doses. The dose-response curves were studied and modeled. The cell survival for incubation temperatures 10-370C were modeled as sigmoidal Boltzmann curves, whereas the survival for temperatures 39-500C were modeled as the second-order exponential decay curves. The efficiency for cell inactivation was calculated as the light dose or exposure time required for 50% of cell survival, and it was found that the efficiency was higher at higher temperatures.

  17. Effect of Relative Humidity on Dose Response of Effervescent Glycine Pellet Dosimeters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh H Shinde

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Glycine pellet dosimeter based on spectrophotometric read-out method has a useful dose range of 100 to 1000 Gy and is apt for routine dosimetry in low dose applications of radiation processing. The read-out method requires dissolution of these pellets in acidified solution of ferrous ammonium sulphate and xylenol orange, but due to appreciable hardness of these pellets it is required to stir the solution for complete dissolution which is generally not preferable. Hence fast dissolving pellets were fabricated using sodium bicarbonate as an effervescent agent. As sodium bicarbonate is hygroscopic, study of effect of relative humidity on dose response of these pellets was carried out in the present work.  

  18. Energy crop (Sida hermaphrodita) fertilization using digestate under marginal soil conditions: A dose-response experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabel, Moritz; Bueno Piaz Barbosa, Daniela; Horsch, David; Jablonowski, Nicolai David

    2014-05-01

    The global demand for energy security and the mitigation of climate change are the main drivers pushing energy-plant production in Germany. However, the cultivation of these plants can cause land use conflicts since agricultural soil is mostly used for plant production. A sustainable alternative to the conventional cultivation of food-based energy-crops is the cultivation of special adopted energy-plants on marginal lands. To further increase the sustainability of energy-plant cultivation systems the dependency on synthetic fertilizers needs to be reduced via closed nutrient loops. In the presented study the energy-plant Sida hermaphrodita (Malvaceae) will be used to evaluate the potential to grow this high potential energy-crop on a marginal sandy soil in combination with fertilization via digestate from biogas production. With this dose-response experiment we will further identify an optimum dose, which will be compared to equivalent doses of NPK-fertilizer. Further, lethal doses and deficiency doses will be observed. Two weeks old Sida seedlings were transplanted to 1L pots and fertilized with six doses of digestate (equivalent to a field application of 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160t/ha) and three equivalent doses of NPK-fertilizer. Control plants were left untreated. Sida plants will grow for 45 days under greenhouse conditions. We hypothesize that the nutrient status of the marginal soil can be increased and maintained by defined digestate applications, compared to control plants suffering of nutrient deficiency due to the low nutrient status in the marginal substrate. The dose of 40t/ha is expected to give a maximum biomass yield without causing toxicity symptoms. Results shall be used as basis for further experiments on the field scale in a field trial that was set up to investigate sustainable production systems for energy crop production under marginal soil conditions.

  19. The cumulative cost of additional wakefulness: dose-response effects on neurobehavioral functions and sleep physiology from chronic sleep restriction and total sleep deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dongen, Hans P A.; Maislin, Greg; Mullington, Janet M.; Dinges, David F.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To inform the debate over whether human sleep can be chronically reduced without consequences, we conducted a dose-response chronic sleep restriction experiment in which waking neurobehavioral and sleep physiological functions were monitored and compared to those for total sleep deprivation. DESIGN: The chronic sleep restriction experiment involved randomization to one of three sleep doses (4 h, 6 h, or 8 h time in bed per night), which were maintained for 14 consecutive days. The total sleep deprivation experiment involved 3 nights without sleep (0 h time in bed). Each study also involved 3 baseline (pre-deprivation) days and 3 recovery days. SETTING: Both experiments were conducted under standardized laboratory conditions with continuous behavioral, physiological and medical monitoring. PARTICIPANTS: A total of n = 48 healthy adults (ages 21-38) participated in the experiments. INTERVENTIONS: Noctumal sleep periods were restricted to 8 h, 6 h or 4 h per day for 14 days, or to 0 h for 3 days. All other sleep was prohibited. RESULTS: Chronic restriction of sleep periods to 4 h or 6 h per night over 14 consecutive days resulted in significant cumulative, dose-dependent deficits in cognitive performance on all tasks. Subjective sleepiness ratings showed an acute response to sleep restriction but only small further increases on subsequent days, and did not significantly differentiate the 6 h and 4 h conditions. Polysomnographic variables and delta power in the non-REM sleep EEG-a putative marker of sleep homeostasis--displayed an acute response to sleep restriction with negligible further changes across the 14 restricted nights. Comparison of chronic sleep restriction to total sleep deprivation showed that the latter resulted in disproportionately large waking neurobehavioral and sleep delta power responses relative to how much sleep was lost. A statistical model revealed that, regardless of the mode of sleep deprivation, lapses in behavioral alertness were near-linearly related to the cumulative duration of wakefulness in excess of 15.84 h (s.e. 0.73 h). CONCLUSIONS: Since chronic restriction of sleep to 6 h or less per night produced cognitive performance deficits equivalent to up to 2 nights of total sleep deprivation, it appears that even relatively moderate sleep restriction can seriously impair waking neurobehavioral functions in healthy adults. Sleepiness ratings suggest that subjects were largely unaware of these increasing cognitive deficits, which may explain why the impact of chronic sleep restriction on waking cognitive functions is often assumed to be benign. Physiological sleep responses to chronic restriction did not mirror waking neurobehavioral responses, but cumulative wakefulness in excess of a 15.84 h predicted performance lapses across all four experimental conditions. This suggests that sleep debt is perhaps best understood as resulting in additional wakefulness that has a neurobiological "cost" which accumulates over time.

  20. Gamma-ray dose response of ESR signals in tooth enamel of cows and mice in comparison with human teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ESR dose responses of the tooth enamel samples prepared from teeth of cow and mice were examined in comparison with that of human. The samples were prepared with combined procedures of mechanical and chemical treatments of teeth. The ESR dose response was extracted from the total ESR spectra of tooth enamel samples by a specially developed matrix method. The dosimetric signal was found to be increased linearly with gamma dose for all studied tooth enamel samples. The radiation sensitivity of cow tooth enamel was found to be close to that of human teeth while that of mouse teeth was about 25% lower. The present results indicate that, having high radiation sensitivity, cow and mouse teeth can be used for retrospective radiation dosimetry in low-dose level

  1. Establishment of in vitro 192Ir ?-ray dose-response relationship for dose assessment by the lymphocyte dicentric assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Maria; Meronka, Katarzyna; Szewczak, Kamil

    2012-03-01

    In vitro dose-response relationships are used to describe the relation between dicentric chromosomes and radiation dose for human peripheral blood lymphocytes. The dicentric yield depends on both the dose and the radiation quality. Thus, for reliable dose estimation in vitro dose responses must be determined for different radiation qualities. This paper reports the work for setting up the relationship for the dicentric production in the lymphocytes exposed in vitro to 192Ir g-rays at Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection (CLOR). In a case of a radiation accident in industrial radiography using 192Ir sealed sources, this will be the basis for the indirect evaluation of the g-ray dose to which an accidental victim was exposed.

  2. Youth suicide attempts and the dose-response relationship to parental risk factors: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, E; Goldney, R D

    2011-01-01

    There is a lack of specific knowledge about the dose-response effect of multiple parental risk factors for suicide attempts among children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to determine the dose-response effect of multiple parental risk factors on an offspring's risk for suicide attempt.MethodWe designed a population-based two-generation nested case-control study and used Danish register data. A population of 403 431 individuals born between 1983 and 1989 was sampled. Among these, 3465 (0.8%) were registered as having had a suicide attempt. Twenty controls were matched to each case and a link to the offspring's biological parents was established.

  3. Dose-response relation between exposure to two types of hand-arm vibration and sensorineural perception of vibration.

    OpenAIRE

    Virokannas, H

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--31 railway workers and 32 lumberjacks were examined to compare the dose-response relation between the exposure to two types of hand-arm vibration and the sensory disturbances in peripheral nerves as evaluated by the vibration perception thresholds (VPTs). METHODS--Clinical examinations were carried out that included measurements of the VPTs, and electroneuromyography (ENMG), and an inquiry to confirm the use of vibrating tools. Diseases of the central nervous system and neuropathi...

  4. Dose Response Effects of Dermally applied Diethanolamine on Neurogenesis in Fetal Mouse Hippocampus and Potential Exposure of Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Craciunescu, Corneliu N; Niculescu, Mihai D.; Guo, Zhong; Johnson, Amy R.; Fischer, Leslie; Steven H Zeisel

    2008-01-01

    Diethanolamine (DEA) is a common ingredient of personal care products. Dermal administration of DEA diminishes hepatic stores of the essential nutrient choline and alters brain development. We previously reported that 80 mg/kg/day of DEA during pregnancy in mice reduced neurogenesis and increased apoptosis in the fetal hippocampus. This study was designed to establish the dose-response relationships for this effect of DEA. Timed-pregnant C57BL/6 mouse dams were dosed dermally from gestation d...

  5. Developing guidelines for economic evaluation of environmental impacts in EIAs. Part II: Case studies and dose-response literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This Part II of the report contains full versions of the case studies for air, water and land (Chapters 2-4), which were only summarised in Part I. In addition, during the work the research team has collected a large amount of literature and information on dose response relationships for air and water pollution relevant to China. This information is included as Chapters 5 and 6.

  6. Critical reevaluation of the dose-response relationships for carcinogenic effects of low-level ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent decades, it has been customary, for radiation protection purposes, to assume that the overall risk of radiation- included cancer increases as a linear-nonthreshold function of the dose. The existing data do not exclude the existence of a threshold, however, and the dose-response relationship is known to vary depending on the type of cancer in question, the dose, dose rate and LET of the radiation, the age, sex and physiological state of the exposed individuals, and other variables, including the potential influence of adaptive responses and bystander effects at low doses. In light of advancing knowledge, therefore, the dose-response relationship for carcinogenic effects of low-level radiation has been reevaluated periodically by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, the International Commission of Radiological Protection, the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, the U.S. National Academy of Sciences Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, and other organizations. The most recent such reviews have generally found the weight of evidence to suggest that lesions which are precursors to cancer (i.e., mutations and chromosome aberrations), and certain types of cancer as well, may increase in frequency linearly aberrations), and certain types of cancer as well, may increase in frequency linearly with the dose in the low-dose domain. On this basis, it is concludedose domain. On this basis, it is concluded that no alternative dose-response model for the carcinogenic effects of low-level radiation is ore plausible than the linear-nonthreshold model, although other dose-response relationships cannot be excluded. (author)

  7. A Review: Development of a Microdose Model for Analysis of Adaptive Response and Bystander Dose Response Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard, Bobby E.

    2008-01-01

    Prior work has provided incremental phases to a microdosimetry modeling program to describe the dose response behavior of the radio-protective adaptive response effect. We have here consolidated these prior works (Leonard 2000, 2005, 2007a, 2007b, 2007c) to provide a composite, comprehensive Microdose Model that is also herein modified to include the bystander effect. The nomenclature for the model is also standardized for the benefit of the experimental cellular radio-biologist. It extends t...

  8. Developing guidelines for economic evaluation of environmental impacts in EIAs. Part II: Case studies and dose-response literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Part II of the report contains full versions of the case studies for air, water and land (Chapters 2-4), which were only summarised in Part I. In addition, during the work the research team has collected a large amount of literature and information on dose response relationships for air and water pollution relevant to China. This information is included as Chapters 5 and 6

  9. Dose–response curve slope is a missing dimension in the analysis of HIV-1 drug resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Sampah, Maame Efua S.; Lin SHEN; Jilek, Benjamin L.; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    HIV-1 drug resistance is a major clinical problem. Resistance is evaluated using in vitro assays measuring the fold change in IC50 caused by resistance mutations. Antiretroviral drugs are used at concentrations above IC50, however, and inhibition at clinical concentrations can only be predicted from IC50 if the shape of the dose–response curve is also known. Curve shape is influenced by cooperative interactions and is described mathematically by the slope parameter or Hill coefficient (m). ...

  10. Dose-response comparison of ipratropium bromide from a metered-dose inhaler and by jet nebulisation.

    OpenAIRE

    Gomm, S. A.; Keaney, N. P.; Hunt, L. P.; Allen, S. C.; Stretton, T. B.

    1983-01-01

    The dose-response relationships of the anticholinergic bronchodilator drug ipratropium bromide were studied. Cumulative doses totalling 288 micrograms ipratropium were given by inhalation of a liquid aerosol from a Wright nebuliser to each of 10 patients with stable, moderately severe airflow obstruction. Up to 80% of the maximum achievable bronchodilator response, as assessed by a rise in the patients' mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), was obtained with a cumulative total d...

  11. European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology task force report on 'dose-response relationship in allergen-specific immunotherapy'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderón, M A; Larenas, D

    2011-01-01

    For a century, allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) has proven to be an effective treatment for allergic rhinitis, asthma, and insect sting allergy. However, as allergen doses are frequently adapted to the individual patient, there are few data on dose-response relationship in SIT. Allergen products for SIT are being increasingly required to conform to regulatory requirements for human medicines, which include the need to demonstrate dose-dependent effects.

  12. Laboratory measurement error in external dose estimates and its effects on dose-response analyses of Hanford worker mortality data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report addresses laboratory measurement error in estimates of external doses obtained from personnel dosimeters, and investigates the effects of these errors on linear dose-response analyses of data from epidemiologic studies of nuclear workers. These errors have the distinguishing feature that they are independent across time and across workers. Although the calculations made for this report were based on Hanford data, the overall conclusions are likely to be relevant for other epidemiologic studies of workers exposed to external radiation

  13. Statistics of regional surface temperatures post year 1900. Long-range versus short-range dependence, and significance of warming trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løvsletten, Ola; Rypdal, Martin; Rypdal, Kristoffer; Fredriksen, Hege-Beate

    2015-04-01

    We explore the statistics of instrumental surface temperature records on 5°× 5°, 2°× 2°, and equal-area grids. In particular, we compute the significance of determinstic trends against two parsimonious null models; auto-regressive processes of order 1, AR(1), and fractional Gaussian noises (fGn's). Both of these two null models contain a memory parameter which quantifies the temporal climate variability, with white noise nested in both classes of models. Estimates of the persistence parameters show significant positive serial correlation for most grid cells, with higher persistence over occeans compared to land areas. This shows that, in a trend detection framework, we need to take into account larger spurious trends than what follows from the frequently used white noise assumption. Tested against the fGn null hypothesis, we find that ~ 68% (~ 47%) of the time series have significant trends at the 5% (1%) significance level. If we assume an AR(1) null hypothesis instead, then the result is that ~ 94% (~ 88%) of the time series have significant trends at the 5% (1%) significance level. For both null models, the locations where we do not find significant trends are mostly the ENSO regions and the North-Atlantic. We try to discriminate between the two null models by means of likelihood-ratios. If we at each grid point choose the null model preferred by the model selection test, we find that ~ 82% (~ 73%) of the time series have significant trends at the 5% (1%). We conclude that there is emerging evidence of significant warming trends also at regional scales, although with a much lower signal-to-noise ratio compared to global mean temperatures. Another finding is that many temperature records are consistent with error models for internal variability that exhibit long-range dependence, whereas the temperature fluctuations of the tropical oceans are strongly influenced by the ENSO, and therefore seemingly more consistent with random processes with short-range dependence. Four different data products, HADCRUT4, NOAA mlost, GISS and Berkely Earth, are analyzed in this project, with similar results in all cases.

  14. Evaluation of the Linear-Nonthreshold Dose-Response Model for Ionizing Radiation (NCRP Report No 136)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements MD: NCRP (2001) 287 pp, $50.00 Lively debate continues on the nature of the dose-response relationship for the excess risk of cancer following exposure to ionising radiation at low doses and/or low dose rates. Clearly, these are the exposure conditions of principal importance to radiological protection. Presently, for the purposes of radiological protection, the assumption is made that the underlying dose-response relationship is linear-quadratic with no threshold, and that in the low dose and/or low dose rate region this curve can be approximated by a straight line with a gradient half that of the linear relationship which (for cancers other than leukaemia) is appropriate for moderate to high doses received at high dose rates. This, in essence, is the 'linear-nonthreshold (LNT) dose-response model' referred to in the title of NCRP Report No 136. The report begins by examining the way in which radiation energy is deposited in cells. It concludes that at low doses and low dose rates the relevant biological damage would be produced by a 'single hit' because of the spatial and temporal sparseness of the events causing the damage. Since cancer is considered to be monoclonal (single cell) in origin, this suggests that the dose-response is linear at low doses with no threshold. However, it is possible that the whole organism may be more capable of repairing damage at low doses and low dose rates, whic h would modify s and low dose rates, whic h would modify the dose-response to a sub-linear curve. The extent of such modification, if it exists, is unknown as is whether it could be 100% effective as implied by a threshold in the dose-response at some non-zero dose. The evidence for the modification of the dose-response curve at low doses is considered in the report in four chapters dealing with various biological manifestations of the fundamental damage caused by ionising radiation. The chapter on DNA repair and processing concludes that it is likely that exposure of humans to low doses and low dose rates does result in permanent alterations in DNA sequences, which points away from a threshold. However, many steps are required between these events and clinical cancer and it is not known how this progression might differ after low dose irradiation. The next chapter discusses radiation-induced mutations. All types of mutations commonly seen in human cancers can be induced by ionising radiation. There is no direct evidence for a threshold in the dose-response obtained from in vitro studies. Genomic instability may contribute to radiation-induced carcinogenesis and produce a non-linear dose-response, but insufficient is known about this process at the moment. The misrepair of DNA lesions can also give rise to chromosome aberrations and this is considered in the next chapter. While the existing data do not exclude the possibility that a threshold for the induction of chromosome aberrations may exist in the mSv dose range, there is no body of data supporting such a possibility nor would such a threshold be consistent with current understanding of the mechanisms of chromosome aberration formation at low doses. Oncogenic transformation in vitro and genomic instability are considered in the following chapter. The dose-response curve for neoplastic transformation is complex in shape and subject to variation depending upon the particular cells and experimental conditions under investigation. The report identifies the principal research need as being the development of transformation assays based on human cells. The experimental findings concerning carcinogenic effects in laboratory animals (next chapter) permit few generalisations concerning the shapes of the dose-response curves. The variations in the dose-response relationships for different cancers point to differences in causal mechanisms which are not yet understood. However, it is clear that cancer induction in vivo is a multi-stage process. The epidemiological evidence for carcinogenic effects in human populations is consider

  15. Evaluating statistical and clinical significance of intervention effects in single-case experimental designs: an SPSS method to analyze univariate data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maric, Marija; de Haan, Else; Hogendoorn, Sanne M; Wolters, Lidewij H; Huizenga, Hilde M

    2015-03-01

    Single-case experimental designs are useful methods in clinical research practice to investigate individual client progress. Their proliferation might have been hampered by methodological challenges such as the difficulty applying existing statistical procedures. In this article, we describe a data-analytic method to analyze univariate (i.e., one symptom) single-case data using the common package SPSS. This method can help the clinical researcher to investigate whether an intervention works as compared with a baseline period or another intervention type, and to determine whether symptom improvement is clinically significant. First, we describe the statistical method in a conceptual way and show how it can be implemented in SPSS. Simulation studies were performed to determine the number of observation points required per intervention phase. Second, to illustrate this method and its implications, we present a case study of an adolescent with anxiety disorders treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy techniques in an outpatient psychotherapy clinic, whose symptoms were regularly assessed before each session. We provide a description of the data analyses and results of this case study. Finally, we discuss the advantages and shortcomings of the proposed method. PMID:25645171

  16. Las pruebas de significación estadística en tres revistas biomédicas: una revisión crítica Tests of statistical significance in three biomedical journals: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelaine Sarria Castro

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Caracterizar el empleo de las pruebas convencionales de significación estadística y las tendencias actuales que muestra su uso en tres revistas biomédicas del ámbito hispanohablante. MÉTODOS: Se examinaron todos los artículos originales descriptivos o explicativos que fueron publicados en el quinquenio de 1996­2000 en tres publicaciones: Revista Cubana de Medicina General Integral, Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública/Pan American Journal of Public Health y Medicina Clínica. RESULTADOS: En las tres revistas examinadas se detectaron diversos rasgos criticables en el empleo de las pruebas de hipótesis basadas en los "valores P" y la escasa presencia de las nuevas tendencias que se proponen en su lugar: intervalos de confianza (IC e inferencia bayesiana. Los hallazgos fundamentales fueron los siguientes: mínima presencia de los IC, ya fuese como complemento de las pruebas de significación o como recurso estadístico único; mención del tamaño muestral como posible explicación de los resultados; predominio del empleo de valores rígidos de alfa; falta de uniformidad en la presentación de los resultados, y alusión indebida en las conclusiones de la investigación a los resultados de las pruebas de hipótesis. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados reflejan la falta de acatamiento de autores y editores en relación con las normas aceptadas en torno al uso de las pruebas de significación estadística y apuntan a que el empleo adocenado de estas pruebas sigue ocupando un espacio importante en la literatura biomédica del ámbito hispanohablante.OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of conventional tests of statistical significance and the current trends shown by their use in three biomedical journals read in Spanish-speaking countries. METHODS: All descriptive or explanatory original articles published in the five-year period of 1996 through 2000 were reviewed in three journals: Revista Cubana de Medicina General Integral [Cuban Journal of Comprehensive General Medicine], Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública/Pan American Journal of Public Health, and Medicina Clínica [Clinical Medicine] (which is published in Spain. RESULTS: In the three journals that were reviewed various shortcomings were found in their use of hypothesis tests based on P values and in the limited use of new tools that have been suggested for use in their place: confidence intervals (CIs and Bayesian inference. The basic findings of our research were: minimal use of CIs, as either a complement to significance tests or as the only statistical tool; mentions of a small sample size as a possible explanation for the lack of statistical significance; a predominant use of rigid alpha values; a lack of uniformity in the presentation of results; and improper reference in the research conclusions to the results of hypothesis tests. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate the lack of compliance by authors and editors with accepted standards for the use of tests of statistical significance. The findings also highlight that the stagnant use of these tests continues to be a common practice in the scientific literature.

  17. Las pruebas de significación estadística en tres revistas biomédicas: una revisión crítica / Tests of statistical significance in three biomedical journals: a critical review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Madelaine, Sarria Castro; Luis Carlos, Silva Ayçaguer.

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Caracterizar el empleo de las pruebas convencionales de significación estadística y las tendencias actuales que muestra su uso en tres revistas biomédicas del ámbito hispanohablante. MÉTODOS: Se examinaron todos los artículos originales descriptivos o explicativos que fueron publicados en [...] el quinquenio de 1996­2000 en tres publicaciones: Revista Cubana de Medicina General Integral, Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública/Pan American Journal of Public Health y Medicina Clínica. RESULTADOS: En las tres revistas examinadas se detectaron diversos rasgos criticables en el empleo de las pruebas de hipótesis basadas en los "valores P" y la escasa presencia de las nuevas tendencias que se proponen en su lugar: intervalos de confianza (IC) e inferencia bayesiana. Los hallazgos fundamentales fueron los siguientes: mínima presencia de los IC, ya fuese como complemento de las pruebas de significación o como recurso estadístico único; mención del tamaño muestral como posible explicación de los resultados; predominio del empleo de valores rígidos de alfa; falta de uniformidad en la presentación de los resultados, y alusión indebida en las conclusiones de la investigación a los resultados de las pruebas de hipótesis. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados reflejan la falta de acatamiento de autores y editores en relación con las normas aceptadas en torno al uso de las pruebas de significación estadística y apuntan a que el empleo adocenado de estas pruebas sigue ocupando un espacio importante en la literatura biomédica del ámbito hispanohablante. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of conventional tests of statistical significance and the current trends shown by their use in three biomedical journals read in Spanish-speaking countries. METHODS: All descriptive or explanatory original articles published in the five-year period of 1996 through 2000 [...] were reviewed in three journals: Revista Cubana de Medicina General Integral [Cuban Journal of Comprehensive General Medicine], Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública/Pan American Journal of Public Health, and Medicina Clínica [Clinical Medicine] (which is published in Spain). RESULTS: In the three journals that were reviewed various shortcomings were found in their use of hypothesis tests based on P values and in the limited use of new tools that have been suggested for use in their place: confidence intervals (CIs) and Bayesian inference. The basic findings of our research were: minimal use of CIs, as either a complement to significance tests or as the only statistical tool; mentions of a small sample size as a possible explanation for the lack of statistical significance; a predominant use of rigid alpha values; a lack of uniformity in the presentation of results; and improper reference in the research conclusions to the results of hypothesis tests. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate the lack of compliance by authors and editors with accepted standards for the use of tests of statistical significance. The findings also highlight that the stagnant use of these tests continues to be a common practice in the scientific literature.

  18. On the necessity of different statistical treatment for Illumina BeadChip and Affymetrix GeneChip data and its significance for biological interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisenhaber Frank

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The original spotted array technology with competitive hybridization of two experimental samples and measuring relative expression levels is increasingly displaced by more accurate platforms that allow determining absolute expression values for a single sample (for example, Affymetrix GeneChip and Illumina BeadChip. Unfortunately, cross-platform comparisons show a disappointingly low concordance between lists of regulated genes between the latter two platforms. Results Whereas expression values determined with a single Affymetrix GeneChip represent single measurements, the expression results obtained with Illumina BeadChip are essentially statistical means from several dozens of identical probes. In the case of multiple technical replicates, the data require, therefore, different stistical treatment depending on the platform. The key is the computation of the squared standard deviation within replicates in the case of the Illumina data as weighted mean of the square of the standard deviations of the individual experiments. With an Illumina spike experiment, we demonstrate dramatically improved significance of spiked genes over all relevant concentration ranges. The re-evaluation of two published Illumina datasets (membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase expression in mammary epithelial cells by Golubkov et al. Cancer Research (2006 66, 10460; spermatogenesis in normal and teratozoospermic men, Platts et al. Human Molecular Genetics (2007 16, 763 significantly identified more biologically relevant genes as transcriptionally regulated targets and, thus, additional biological pathways involved. Conclusion The results in this work show that it is important to process Illumina BeadChip data in a modified statistical procedure and to compute the standard deviation in experiments with technical replicates from the standard errors of individual BeadChips. This change leads also to an improved concordance with Affymetrix GeneChip results as the spermatogenesis dataset re-evaluation demonstrates. Reviewers This article was reviewed by I. King Jordan, Mark J. Dunning and Shamil Sunyaev.

  19. Dose-response relationships within the parotid gland after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To determine the salivary function, after parotid-sparing radiotherapy (RT), of different regions within the parotid gland and to evaluate dose-function relationships within the parotid glands and between patients. Patients and methods: Sixteen head and neck cancer patients, irradiated between September 1999 and November 2000 using a conformal parotid-sparing technique, were included in this study. Before RT and 7 months after RT (range 6-10 months), a salivary gland scintigraphy was performed in all patients combined with a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The salivary excretion fraction (SEF) was measured, after stimulation, in 8-12 transverse 5 mm SPECT slices of each parotid. Loss of salivary excretion fraction (dSEF %) of these slices was calculated as the proportion of SEF after RT as compared to SEF before RT. Since the planning CT-scan and the SPECT-scintigraphy were performed in the same treatment position, the dose to a transverse slice within the parotid gland could be matched to the loss of salivary excretion fraction of that respective slice. A non-linear model was fitted to the dose-loss of function data and the dose resulting in 50% loss of salivary excretion fraction (D50) was calculated. Results: Before RT, all but one patient presented with normal salivary excretion fractions (SEF) of both parotid glands. Within the same parotid gland, the SEF's of the different slices were almost equal. Seven monferent slices were almost equal. Seven months after RT, the reduction in SEF was statistically significant (P-value 50%). After fitting a non-linear model to these plots, the mean dose resulting in 50% loss of salivary excretion fraction (D50) 7 months after RT was 22.5 Gy. A large inter-patient variability was found in D50. Conclusions: Salivary SPECT is a useful tool for the evaluation of the salivary function of different slices within the parotid gland. Before irradiation, the different slices within one parotid gland act as functional sub-units contributing equally to the function of the entire gland. Seven months after an average dose of 22.5 Gy (D50) the functional sub-unit has lost 50% of its excretion fraction. The high inter-patient variability in D50 and the observation that low doses (10-15 Gy) can induce serious loss of function should prompt us in the clinic to reduce the dose to the parotids even lower than the threshold of 22.5 Gy

  20. SU-D-16A-02: A Novel Methodology for Accurate, Semi-Automated Delineation of Oral Mucosa for Radiation Therapy Dose-Response Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The significant morbidity caused by radiation-induced acute oral mucositis means that studies aiming to elucidate dose-response relationships in this tissue are a high priority. However, there is currently no standardized method for delineating the mucosal structures within the oral cavity. This report describes the development of a methodology to delineate the oral mucosa accurately on CT scans in a semi-automated manner. Methods: An oral mucosa atlas for automated segmentation was constructed using the RayStation Atlas-Based Segmentation (ABS) module. A radiation oncologist manually delineated the full surface of the oral mucosa on a planning CT scan of a patient receiving radiotherapy (RT) to the head and neck region. A 3mm fixed annulus was added to incorporate the mucosal wall thickness. This structure was saved as an atlas template. ABS followed by model-based segmentation was performed on four further patients sequentially, adding each patient to the atlas. Manual editing of the automatically segmented structure was performed. A dose comparison between these contours and previously used oral cavity volume contours was performed. Results: The new approach was successful in delineating the mucosa, as assessed by an experienced radiation oncologist, when applied to a new series of patients receiving head and neck RT. Reductions in the mean doses obtained when using the new delineation approach, compared with the previously used technique, were demonstrated for all patients (median: 36.0%, range: 25.6% – 39.6%) and were of a magnitude that might be expected to be clinically significant. Differences in the maximum dose that might reasonably be expected to be clinically significant were observed for two patients. Conclusion: The method developed provides a means of obtaining the dose distribution delivered to the oral mucosa more accurately than has previously been achieved. This will enable the acquisition of high quality dosimetric data for use in dose-response studies. We would like to thank the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council for funding. We acknowledge support from the NIHR RM/ICR Biomedical Research Centre. RayStatation was used under an evaluation agreement with RaySearch Laboratories AB

  1. A Threshold Exists in the Dose-response Relationship for Somatic Mutation Frequency Inducted by X-ray Irradiation of Drosophia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koana, T.; Takashima, Y.; Okada, M. O.; Ikehata, M.; Miyakoshi, J.; Sakai, K.

    2004-07-01

    The dose-response relationship of ionizing radiation and its stochastic effects has been thought to be linear without any thresholds. The basic data for this model was obtained from mutational assays in the male germ cells of fruits fly Drosophila melanogaster. However, carcinogenic activity should be examined more appropriately in somatic cells than in germ cells. Here, the dose-response relationship of X- ray irradiation and somatic mutation is examined in Drosophila. A threshold at approximately 1Gy was observed in the DNA repair proficient flies. In the repair deficient siblings, the threshold was smaller and the inclination of the dose-response curve was much steeper. These results suggest that the dose-response relationship between X-ray irradiation and somatic mutation has a threshold, and that the DNA repair function contributes to its formation. (Author) 35 refs.

  2. Biologically Based Dose-Response Modeling. What is the potential for accurate description of the biological linkages in the applied dose - tissue dose-health effect continuum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given knowledge of exposure, the shape of the dose response curve is the key to predicting health risk, which in turn determines allowable levels of exposure and the associated economic costs of compliance....

  3. An apparent threshold dose response in ferrous xylenol-orange gel dosimeters when scanned with a yellow light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freshly prepared radiochromic ferrous xylenol-orange (FX) gels optically scanned with a light source exhibit a threshold dose response that is thermally and wavelength dependent. Correction for this threshold dose leads to accurate dose calibration and better reproducibility in multiple fraction radiation exposures. The objective of this study was to determine the cause of the threshold dose effect and to control it through improved dose calibration procedures. The results of a systematic investigation into the chemical cause revealed that impurities within the various FX gel constituents (i.e. xylenol-orange, gelatin, sulfuric acid and ferrous ammonium sulfate) were not directly responsible for the threshold dose. Rather, it was determined that the threshold dose response stems from a spectral sensitivity to different chemical complexes that are formed at different dose levels in FX gels between ferric (Fe(III)) ions and xylenol-orange (XO), i.e. Fe(III)i:XOj. A double Fe(III)2:XO1 complex preferentially absorbs at longer wavelengths (i.e. yellow), while at shorter wavelengths (i.e. green) the sensitivity is biased toward the single Fe(III)1:XO1 complex. As a result, when scanning with yellow light, freshly prepared FX gels require a minimum concentration of Fe(III) ions to shift the equilibrium concentration to favor the predominant production of the double Fe(III)2:XO1 complex a(III)2:XO1 complex at low doses. This can be accomplished via pre-irradiation of freshly prepared gels to a priming dose of ?0.5 Gy or allowing auto-oxidation to generate the startup concentration of Fe(III) ions required to negate the apparent threshold dose response

  4. Dose-response relationship of {gamma}-H2AX foci induction in human lymphocytes after X-rays exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandina, Tania [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/41y 47 Miramar, AP 6195 C. Habana (Cuba); Roch-Lefevre, Sandrine H.; Voisin, Pascale [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), DRPH, SRBE, LDB, BP17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Lamadrid, Ana I.; Romero, Ivonne [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/41y 47 Miramar, AP 6195 C. Habana (Cuba); Garcia, Omar, E-mail: omar@cphr.edu.cu [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/41y 47 Miramar, AP 6195 C. Habana (Cuba); Voisin, Philippe; Roy, Laurence [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), DRPH, SRBE, LDB, BP17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2011-09-15

    Biological dosimeters are recommended for dose estimation in case of human overexposure to ionising radiation. Rapid measurement of {gamma}-H2AX foci as a marker of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) induction has been recently tested with this purpose. Here we reported a dose-response relationship after X-ray irradiation at different times post-exposure. Blood samples were obtained from several healthy donors and exposed to doses between 0 and 2 Gy. After irradiation, blood samples were incubated at 37 deg. C during 0.5 h, 5 h, and 8 h. Scoring of cells and {gamma}-H2AX foci was performed by software. The dose-response curves for different incubation times were as follows: Y{sub (0.5h)} = 11.66D + 0.15 (R{sup 2} = 0.99), Y{sub (5h)} = 2.44D + 0.15 (R{sup 2} = 0.99), Y{sub (8h)} = 1.57D + 0.22 (R{sup 2} = 0.99). At 0.5 h post-exposure, the dose-response relationship for X-irradiated lymphocytes was similar to the one obtained after gamma-irradiation using the same protocol. On the other hand, the results were not similar after 8 h due to different kinetics after gamma- and X-irradiation. Our results confirm the possibilities of using {gamma}-H2AX foci method for dose estimation in a period from 0.5 h up to 8 h post X-irradiation and support the hypothesis of differences in {gamma}-H2AX foci kinetics after gamma- and X-irradiation in vitro.

  5. Waterborne microbial risk assessment : a population-based dose-response function for Giardia spp. (E.MI.R.A study)

    OpenAIRE

    Hartemann Ph; Gofti-Laroche L; Zmirou-Navier D

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Dose-response parameters based on clinical challenges are frequently used to assess the health impact of protozoa in drinking water. We compare the risk estimates associated with Giardia in drinking water derived from the dose-response parameter published in the literature and the incidence of acute digestive conditions (ADC) measured in the framework of an epidemiological study in a general population. Methods The study combined a daily follow-up of digestive morbidity am...

  6. Dose-response relationships in chemical carcinogenesis: renal mesenchymal tumours induced in the rat by single dose dimethylnitrosamine.

    OpenAIRE

    Driver, H. E.; White, I. N.; Butler, W. H.

    1987-01-01

    A single intraperitoneal dose of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) given to weanling rats after 3 days' treatment with a protein-free diet results in the induction of renal mesenchymal tumours, the incidence of which is related to the dose of DMN in a sigmoid dose-response curve. The number of tumours per kidney is small, most animals given 40 mg/kg DMN (the TD100) having either one or two tumours in each kidney. However, within a few days of dosing a large number of small proliferative foci of mesen...

  7. Effect of nitric oxide inhibition on blood pressure and renal sodium handling : a dose-response study in healthy man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas; Mose, Frank Holden

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a ubiquitous vasodilator and an important regulator of renal sodium excretion. To further investigate the role of NO in renal sodium handling, we studied the effects of the NO synthase inhibitor, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), in a crossover dose-response study. During NO inhibition mean arterial pressure increased dose-dependently and reached a plateau after 20 minutes of infusion. On the contrary, the fractional excretion of sodium was reduced equally in all three L-NMMA doses. This indicates that sodium excretion is highly sensitive to even small changes in renal NO bioavailability in healthy human.

  8. Dose-response relationship for two components of the sex pheromone of lightbrown apple moth,Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellas, T E; Bartell, R J

    1983-06-01

    Bioassay studies with mixtures of the two components from the sex pheromone ofE. postvittana are used to construct a dose-response surface. The surface clearly shows the existence of a response maximum and that an optimum ratio of the two components applies over a wide range of concentrations. Probit transformations of the same data are used to construct an isobologram. The isobole has a sharp minimum at a ratio for the two components close to the ratio produced by the females. PMID:24407619

  9. Inhibition of the early asthmatic response to inhaled allergen by the 5-lipoxygenase activating protein inhibitor GSK2190915: a dose–response study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh D

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dave Singh,1 Malcolm Boyce,2 Virginia Norris,3 Sandra E Kent,3 Jane H Bentley31University of Manchester, Medicines Evaluation Unit, University Hospital of South Manchester, Manchester, UK; 2Hammersmith Medicines Research, London, UK; 3GlaxoSmithKline, Middlesex, UKBackground: GSK2190915, a 5-lipoxygenase activating protein inhibitor, inhibits the production of cysteinyl leukotrienes and leukotriene B4 and 5-oxo-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid. We have previously reported that GSK2190915 100 mg daily inhibits early and late asthmatic responses to inhaled allergen; the effects of lower doses have not been reported. This study assessed the dose–response effects of GSK2190915 10 mg and 50 mg on the early asthmatic response (EAR to inhaled allergen.Methods: Nineteen subjects with mild asthma and an EAR were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, three-way crossover study of GSK2190915 10 mg, 50 mg, and placebo orally once-daily for 3 days. Allergen challenge was performed 2 hours after the third dose.Results: Compared with placebo, GSK2190915 10 mg and 50 mg caused significant, dose-dependent attenuation of the minimum forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1 absolute change from baseline; mean treatment differences were 0.21 L (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04 L, 0.38 L and 0.41 L (95% CI 0.24 L, 0.58 L, respectively. GSK2190915 50 mg was more effective than 10 mg; mean difference between treatments was 0.20 L, (95% CI 0.03 L, 0.36 L. Compared with placebo, GSK2190915 50 mg, but not 10 mg, significantly inhibited the weighted mean FEV1 absolute change from baseline.Conclusion: GSK2190915 50 mg attenuated the EAR similarly to GSK2190915 100 mg in our previous study, suggesting 50 mg is at the top of the dose–response curve. GSK2190915 10 mg is a suboptimal dose. The EAR can be used to assess the therapeutic dose of a new treatment for asthma.Keywords: GSK2190915, FLAP inhibitor, early asthmatic response

  10. PSOD: an interactive Fortran program to simulate the radiation dose response of membrane populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Program PSOD was written to simulate the distribution in responses of membrane populations subjected to random radiation doses and dose rates. It computes the response (damage) according to one of three formulas selected by the user, and outputs statistical results to the terminal. It will plot simulated dose- and response-frequency distributions in two or three dimensions. Doses and dose rates are selected from the log normal distribution; other distributions can be incorporated as the need arises. A true log normal curve with defined mean and standard deviation can also be generated. The purpose of this documentation is to provide a complete operating manual for the program. A user guide is available on-line after initiating a session of PSOD. Detailed examinations of the statistical validity of various steps have been included to aid future modifications and updating

  11. Health effects of low doses at low dose rates: dose-response relationship modeling in a cohort of workers of the nuclear industry; Effets sanitaires des faibles doses a faibles debits de dose: modelisation de la relation dose-reponse dans une cohorte de travailleurs du nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz-Flamant, Camille

    2011-09-19

    The aim of this thesis is to contribute to a better understanding of the health effects of chronic external low doses of ionising radiation. This work is based on the French cohort of CEA-AREVA NC nuclear workers. The mains stages of this thesis were (1) conducting a review of epidemiological studies on nuclear workers, (2) completing the database and performing a descriptive analysis of the cohort, (3) quantifying risk by different statistical methods and (4) modelling the exposure-time-risk relationship. The cohort includes monitored workers employed more than one year between 1950 and 1994 at CEA or AREVA NC companies. Individual annual external exposure, history of work, vital status and causes of death were reconstructed for each worker. Standardized mortality ratios using French national mortality rates as external reference were computed. Exposure-risk analysis was conducted in the cohort using the linear excess relative risk model, based on both Poisson regression and Cox model. Time dependent modifying factors were investigated by adding an interaction term in the model or by using exposure time windows. The cohort includes 36, 769 workers, followed-up until age 60 in average. During the 1968- 2004 period, 5, 443 deaths, 2, 213 cancers, 62 leukemia and 1, 314 cardiovascular diseases were recorded. Among the 57% exposed workers, the mean cumulative dose was 21.5 milli-sieverts (mSv). A strong Healthy Worker Effect is observed in the cohort. Significant elevated risks of pleura cancer and melanoma deaths were observed in the cohort but not associated with dose. No significant association was observed with solid cancers, lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. A significant dose-response relationship was observed for leukemia excluding chronic lymphatic leukemia, mainly for doses received less than 15 years before and for yearly dose rates higher than 10 mSv. This PhD work contributes to the evaluation of risks associated to chronic external radiation exposure. Our study finds a risk of leukemia associated with chronic external exposure and allows taking into account modifying factors of this relation. Additional follow-up allows to improve the precision of the estimated dose-response relationship. A combined analysis including the present cohort and other nuclear cohorts could quantify more precisely the risks associated with low doses at low dose rates, in order to validate current underlying hypotheses of the radiation protection system. (author)

  12. The dose-response-relation of erythema of the domestic pig induced by UVC-radiation (254 nm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For domestic pigs the time-course and the dose-response-relationship of erythemal effective UVC-radiation was investigated. By the chromameter CR 300 (Minolta) the redness of the skin was measured, using the international L*a*b*-system. As UVC-source a germicidal lamp (TUV, Philips) was housed in a tube. The irradiance of the 10 zylindric holes were attenuated by a wire mash, changing the intensity along a logarithmic decrement. For the experiment 10 pigs were used. Each pig could be irradiated with 40 dose-steps. The redness of the marked skin-areas was not only determined once before the irradiation but also several times within 36 hours. The reaction of the skin of the pigs to UVC-radiation was different to human's. The time-course of the UVC-erythema was biphasical. The second erythema-maximum could not be explained by the pigmentation, which had just begun, but by an new increase of the reddening of the skin. No dose-response-correlation like the human's UVC-erythema could be detected. Therefore, the domestic pig can not be used as a human's photo-biological model for UVC. (author)

  13. Evaluation of biological effect of 90Sr beta radiation in human blood cells and dose-response curve elaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among several environmental genotoxins, ionizing radiation has been received special attention because of its mutagenic, carcinogenic and teratogenic potential. In this context, the aim of this study was evaluate the effects of 90Sr beta radiation in human cells, in view of the scarcity of literature data. For that, blood cells of five healthy donors were irradiated in vitro with doses between 0.2 and 5.0 Gy in a 90Sr source (0.2 Gy/min) and were processed for chromosome aberration analysis and for comet assay. Cytogenetic results showed that the type of structural chromosome aberrations found more frequently were acentric fragments, double minutes and dicentrics. The values of ? and ? coefficient of linear-quadratic model used to fit dose response curves showed that 90Sr beta radiation was more efficient in induction of lesions from only one ionizing track than two independent tracks in chromosome aberration formation. Apparently, 90Sr beta radiation neither influenced the modal number of chromosome in irradiated cells nor in cell cycle kinetic of analyzed dose interval. Concerning the comet assay, there was an increase in DNA migration in a dose dependent manner, evaluated by either image analysis system (tail moment) or visual classification (DNA damage), which dose-response relation was adequately fitted to non-linear regression model. Both adopted techniques were complement in evaluating the biological effect of valuating the biological effect of 90Sr beta radiation in human cells. (author)

  14. Insulin dose response studies in severely insulin resistant type 2 diabetes - evidence for effectiveness of very high insulin doses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opstrup, Ulla Kampmann; Hoeyem, P

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To combat diabetic complications strict glycaemic control is desirable in type 2 diabetes, but some patients are severely insulin resistant and it is not known whether high doses of insulin are effective. This study was designed to determine the acute dose response effects of insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes and severe insulin resistance. Materials and Methods: We included 8 insulin resistant (mean insulin dose: 186 IU/d. BMI: 35) subjects with type 2 diabetes in a single-blinded, randomised crossover study. Each subject was studied on two occasions. On each occasion subjects underwent two 3-h hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamps. The subjects were randomised to two low-dose insulin infusions (0.5 and 1.5 mU/kg/min in random order) on one occasion and to two high-dose insulin infusions (3.0 and 5.0 mU/kg/min in random order) on another occasion. Results: On all occasions steady state glucose infusion rates (GIR) were accomplished and we observed a clear dose response relation with GIR values of 0.4 ±0.2 (SE), 2.6 ±0.6, 3.7 ±0.8, and 4.9 ±0.9 mg/kg/min during the 0.5, 1.5, 3.0, and 5.0 mU/kg/min insulin infusions, respectively(P 800 IU/d, suggesting effectiveness of very high insulin doses in severely insulin resistant subjects.

  15. Coffee consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippa, Alessio; Discacciati, Andrea; Larsson, Susanna C; Wolk, Alicja; Orsini, Nicola

    2014-10-15

    Several studies have analyzed the relationship between coffee consumption and mortality, but the shape of the association remains unclear. We conducted a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies to examine the dose-response associations between coffee consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and all cancers. Pertinent studies, published between 1966 and 2013, were identified by searching PubMed and by reviewing the reference lists of the selected articles. Prospective studies in which investigators reported relative risks of mortality from all causes, CVD, and all cancers for 3 or more categories of coffee consumption were eligible. Results from individual studies were pooled using a random-effects model. Twenty-one prospective studies, with 121,915 deaths and 997,464 participants, met the inclusion criteria. There was strong evidence of nonlinear associations between coffee consumption and mortality for all causes and CVD (P for nonlinearity < 0.001). The largest risk reductions were observed for 4 cups/day for all-cause mortality (16%, 95% confidence interval: 13, 18) and 3 cups/day for CVD mortality (21%, 95% confidence interval: 16, 26). Coffee consumption was not associated with cancer mortality. Findings from this meta-analysis indicate that coffee consumption is inversely associated with all-cause and CVD mortality. PMID:25156996

  16. Radiation dose response of normal lung assessed by Cone Beam CT - A potential tool for biologically adaptive radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Density changes of healthy lung tissue during radiotherapy as observed by Cone Beam CT (CBCT) might be an early indicator of patient specific lung toxicity. This study investigates the time course of CBCT density changes and tests for a possible correlation with locally delivered dose. Methods: A total of 665 CBCTs in 65 lung cancer patients treated with IMRT/VMAT to 60 or 66 Gy in 2 Gy fractions were analyzed. For each patient, CBCT lung density changes during the treatment course were related to the locally delivered dose. Results: A dose response is observed for the patient population at the end of the treatment course. However, the observed dose response is highly variable among patients. Density changes at 10th and 20th fraction are clearly correlated to those observed at the end of the treatment course. Conclusions: CBCT density changes in healthy lung tissue during radiotherapy correlate with the locally delivered dose and can be detected relatively early during the treatment. If these density changes are correlated to subsequent clinical toxicity this assay could form the basis for biological adaptive radiotherapy.

  17. Radiotherapy dose–response analysis for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with a complete response to chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorth Jennifer A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To examine the efficacy of different radiation doses after achievement of a complete response to chemotherapy in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL. Methods Patients with stage I-IV DLBCL treated from 1995–2009 at Duke Cancer Institute who achieved a complete response to chemotherapy were reviewed. In-field control, event-free survival, and overall survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Dose response was evaluated by grouping treated sites by delivered radiation dose. Results 105 patients were treated with RT to 214 disease sites. Chemotherapy (median 6 cycles was R-CHOP (65%, CHOP (26%, R-CNOP (2%, or other (7%. Post-chemotherapy imaging was PET/CT (88%, gallium with CT (1%, or CT only (11%. The median RT dose was 30?Gy (range, 12–40?Gy. The median radiation dose was higher for patients with stage I-II disease compared with patients with stage III-IV disease (30 versus 24.5?Gy, p? Conclusion In-field control was excellent with a combined modality approach when a complete response was achieved after chemotherapy without a clear radiation dose response.

  18. Comparison of different methods to evaluate population dose-response and relative potency: importance of interoccasion variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, R L; Ouellet, D; Kimanani, E K; Potvin, D; Vaughan, L M; Hill, M R

    1999-02-01

    Different mixed-effects models were compared to evaluate the population dose-response and relative potency of two albuterol inhalers. Bronchodilator response was measured after ascending doses of each inhaler in 37 asthmatic patients. A linear mixed-effects model was developed based on the approach proposed by Finney for the evaluation of bioassay data. A nonlinear mixed-effects (Emax) model with interindividual and interoccasion variability (IOV) in the different pharmacodynamic parameters was also fit to the data. Both methods produced a similar estimate of relative potency. However, the estimate of relative potency was 22% lower with the nonlinear mixed-effects model if IOV was not taken into account. Monte Carlo simulations based on a similar study design demonstrated that more biased and variable estimates of ED50 and relative potency were obtained when the nonlinear mixed-effects model ignored the presence of IOV in the data. Furthermore, the linear mixed-effects model that did not account for IOV produced confidence intervals for relative potency that were too narrow and thus could lead to erroneous conclusions. These problems were avoided when the estimation model could account for IOV. Results of the simulations were consistent with those of the experimental data. Although the linear or the nonlinear mixed-effects model may be used to evaluate population dose-response and relative potency, there are important differences in the assumptions made by each method. PMID:10533698

  19. Induction of MRSA Biofilm by Low-Dose ?-Lactam Antibiotics: Specificity, Prevalence and Dose-Response Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Mandy; Epstein, Samuel B; Callahan, Mary T; Piotrowski, Brian O; Simon, Gary L; Roberts, Afsoon D; Keiser, John F; Kaplan, Jeffrey B

    2014-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a leading cause of hospital- and community-associated infections. The formation of adherent clusters of cells known as biofilms is an important virulence factor in MRSA pathogenesis. Previous studies showed that subminimal inhibitory (sub-MIC) concentrations of methicillin induce biofilm formation in the community-associated MRSA strain LAC. In this study we measured the ability sub-MIC concentrations of eight other ?-lactam antibiotics and six non-?-lactam antibiotics to induce LAC biofilm. All eight ?-lactam antibiotics, but none of the non-?-lactam antibiotics, induced LAC biofilm. The dose-response effects of the eight ?-lactam antibiotics on LAC biofilm varied from biphasic and bimodal to near-linear. We also found that sub-MIC methicillin induced biofilm in 33 out of 39 additional MRSA clinical isolates, which also exhibited biphasic, bimodal and linear dose-response curves. The amount of biofilm formation induced by sub-MIC methicillin was inversely proportional to the susceptibility of each strain to methicillin. Our results demonstrate that induction of biofilm by sub-MIC antibiotics is a common phenotype among MRSA clinical strains and is specific for ?-lactam antibiotics. These findings may have relevance to the use of ?-lactam antibiotics in clinical and agricultural settings. PMID:24659939

  20. Joint action of chemicals in algal toxicity tests: Influence of response level and dose-response regression model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, E.R.; Chen, D.

    2001-01-01

    The joint toxicity of nonylamine and decylamine and of atrazine and decylamine was evaluated in assays with the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum based on an isobologram method. In this method, curves of constant response, isoboles, are plotted versus concentrations of two toxicants. The response parameter was growth rate based on biomass, and several response levels were used. Dose–response curves were developed for dilution series using fixed ratios between concentrations in toxic units of the compounds. Probit and Weibull dose–response curves were then determined by nonlinear regression. A model for isoboles for partially similar action was used when applicable. The no-effect concentration (NEC or EC0) was estimated based on a newly proposed model containing median effective concentration (EC50) and EC0 as explicit variables. Results show that nonylamine and decylamine are nearly concentration additive at EC50 and EC10 (similarity parameter l 5 0.70–0.76) and to a lesser extent at EC0. By contrast, the mixtures of atrazine and decylamine show antagonism in that atrazine acts as an antidote to decylamine. The shapes of these isoboles are independent of response level. The EC50 values (mg/L) for chemicals acting singly were 0.090 (nonylamine), 0.039 to 0.044 (decylamine), and 0.225 (atrazine). In order to determine NEC effectively, the level of inhibition must be fairly low, with observed growth rates between 0.6 and 1.0 times the average growth rate of the controls.

  1. Overcoming the Bell-Shaped Dose-Response of Cannabidiol by Using Cannabis Extract Enriched in Cannabidiol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Gallily

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cannabidiol (CBD, a major constituent of Cannabis, has been shown to be a powerful anti-inflammatory and anti-anxiety drug, without exerting a psychotropic effect. However, when given either intraperitoneally or orally as a purified product, a bell-shaped dose-response was observed, which limits its clinical use. In the present study, we have studied in mice the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of standardized plant extracts derived from the Cannabis sativa L., clone 202, which is highly enriched in CBD and hardly contains any psychoactive ingredients. In stark contrast to purified CBD, the clone 202 extract, when given either intraperitoneally or orally, provided a clear correlation between the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive responses and the dose, with increasing responses upon increasing doses, which makes this plant medicine ideal for clinical uses. The clone 202 extract reduced zymosan-induced paw swelling and pain in mice, and prevented TNF? production in vivo. It is likely that other components in the extract synergize with CBD to achieve the desired anti-inflammatory action that may contribute to overcoming the bell-shaped dose-response of purified CBD. We therefore propose that Cannabis clone 202 (Avidekel extract is superior over CBD for the treatment of inflammatory conditions.

  2. Benchmarking B-Cell Epitope Prediction with Quantitative Dose-Response Data on Antipeptide Antibodies: Towards Novel Pharmaceutical Product Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caoili, Salvador Eugenio C.

    2014-01-01

    B-cell epitope prediction can enable novel pharmaceutical product development. However, a mechanistically framed consensus has yet to emerge on benchmarking such prediction, thus presenting an opportunity to establish standards of practice that circumvent epistemic inconsistencies of casting the epitope prediction task as a binary-classification problem. As an alternative to conventional dichotomous qualitative benchmark data, quantitative dose-response data on antibody-mediated biological effects are more meaningful from an information-theoretic perspective in the sense that such effects may be expressed as probabilities (e.g., of functional inhibition by antibody) for which the Shannon information entropy (SIE) can be evaluated as a measure of informativeness. Accordingly, half-maximal biological effects (e.g., at median inhibitory concentrations of antibody) correspond to maximally informative data while undetectable and maximal biological effects correspond to minimally informative data. This applies to benchmarking B-cell epitope prediction for the design of peptide-based immunogens that elicit antipeptide antibodies with functionally relevant cross-reactivity. Presently, the Immune Epitope Database (IEDB) contains relatively few quantitative dose-response data on such cross-reactivity. Only a small fraction of these IEDB data is maximally informative, and many more of them are minimally informative (i.e., with zero SIE). Nevertheless, the numerous qualitative data in IEDB suggest how to overcome the paucity of informative benchmark data. PMID:24949474

  3. Dose response chemopreventive potential of allyl isothiocyanate against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced mammary carcinogenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakumar, Thangarasu; Pugalendhi, Pachaiappan; Thilagavathi, Subbaiyan

    2015-04-25

    The present study aimed to investigate the dose response chemopreventive potential of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced mammary carcinogenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Mammary tumor was induced by a single dose of DMBA (25 mg/rat) injected subcutaneously near mammary gland. We observed reduced body weight and increased in total number of tumors, tumor incidence and tumor volume in DMBA-induced rats. We also observed decreased antioxidant status (SOD, CAT, GPX and GSH) and increased lipid peroxidation (TBARS and LOOH) in plasma and mammary tissues. Increased levels of CYP450, Cyt-b5 and decreased levels of phase II (GST and GR) biotransformation enzymes noticed in liver and mammary tissues of DMBA-induced rats. Further, increased levels of lipid profile (TC, TG, PL and FFA) and lipoprotein (LDL and VLDL) were noticed. Whereas, decreased level of HDL in plasma and decreased levels of PL and FFA in mammary tissue. Oral administration of AITC different doses (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg bw) inhibited the tumor incidence and restored levels of biochemical markers. Biochemical findings are supported by histopathological studies. These results suggested that AITC at a dose of 20 mg/kg bw significantly exert chemopreventive potential against DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis. PMID:25744308

  4. A dose-response relationship between exposure to a large-scale HIV preventive intervention and consistent condom use with different sexual partners of female sex workers in southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deering Kathleen N

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Avahan Initiative, a large-scale HIV preventive intervention targeted to high-risk populations including female sex workers (FSWs, was initiated in 2003 in six high-prevalence states in India, including Karnataka. This study assessed if intervention exposure was associated with condom use with FSWs’ sexual partners, including a dose-response relationship. Methods Data were from a cross-sectional study (2006-07 of 775 FSWs in three districts in Karnataka. Survey methods accounted for the complex cluster sampling design. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression was used to separately model the relationships between each of five intervention exposure variables and five outcomes for consistent condom use (CCU= always versus frequently/sometimes/never with different sex partners, including with: all clients; occasional clients; most recent repeat client; most recent non-paying partner; and the husband or cohabiting partner. Linear tests for trends were conducted for three continuous intervention exposure variables. Results FSWs reported highest CCU with all clients (81.7%; CCU was lowest with FSWs’ husband or cohabiting partner (9.6%. In multivariable analysis, the odds of CCU with all clients and with occasional clients were 6.3-fold [95% confidence intervals, CIs: 2.8-14.5] and 2.3-fold [95% CIs: 1.4-4.1] higher among FSWs contacted by intervention staff and 4.9-fold [95% CIs: 2.6-9.3] and 2.3-fold [95% CIs: 1.3-4.1] higher among those who ever observed a condom demonstration by staff, respectively, compared to those who had not. A significant dose-response relationship existed between each of these CCU outcomes and increased duration since first contacted by staff (P=0.001; P=0.006 and numbers of condom demonstrations witnessed (P=0.004; P=0.026; a dose-response relationship was also observed between condom use with all clients and number of times contacted by staff (P=0.047. Intervention exposure was not associated with higher odds of CCU with the most recent repeat client, most recent non-paying partner or with the husband or cohabiting partner. Conclusion Study findings suggest that exposure to a large-scale HIV intervention for FSWs was associated with increased CCU with commercial clients. Moreover, there were dose-response relationships between CCU with clients and increased duration since first contacted by staff, times contacted by staff and number of condom demonstrations. Additional program effort is required to increase condom use with non-commercial partners.

  5. Low dose effects and non-monotonic dose responses for endocrine active chemicals: Science to practice workshop: Workshop summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beausoleil, Claire; Ormsby, Jean-Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    A workshop was held in Berlin September 12–14th 2012 to assess the state of the science of the data supporting low dose effects and non-monotonic dose responses (“low dose hypothesis”) for chemicals with endocrine activity (endocrine disrupting chemicals or EDCs). This workshop consisted of lectures to present the current state of the science of EDC action and also the risk assessment process. These lectures were followed by breakout sessions to integrate scientists from various backgrounds to discuss in an open and unbiased manner the data supporting the “low dose hypothesis”. While no consensus was reached the robust discussions were helpful to inform both basic scientists and risk assessors on all the issues. There were a number of important ideas developed to help continue the discussion and improve communication over the next few years.

  6. DOE program--developing a scientific basis for responses to low-dose exposures: impact on dose-response relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Antone L; Couch, Lezlie

    2007-01-01

    The DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Program focuses on biological mechanisms involved in response to low doses of both low and high-LET radiation (DNA damage and repair, changes in gene expression, adaptive responses and bystander effects. However, information from this cellular-molecular level cannot be directly extrapolated to risks in human populations. Links must be carefully developed between dose-response relationships at the cell and tissue levels and risk to human populations. The challenge and the ultimate goal of the Program is to determine if basic scientific data can be combined with more traditional epidemiological methods to improve the estimation of radiation risk from low level radiation exposures. PMID:18648552

  7. High-Throughput Dose-Response Measurement Using a Label-Free Microarray-in-Microplate Assay Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, J P; Malovichko, G; Zhu, X D

    2015-06-01

    Microarray-based binding assays facilitate the discovery of protein ligands from large collections of small molecules. Hundreds of ligands can be identified, yet only a small portion of them have interfering effects (competitive or noncompetitive) on a specific protein-receptor binding reaction. Further efficient screening of ligands for those with specific modifying effect is needed in order to take the full advantage of throughputs of microarray-based assays for drug discovery. We report a label-free "microarray-in-microplate" assay platform for simultaneous acquisition of at least 32 dose-response curves in a single experiment, each curve having 12 concentration points. When combined with ligand discovery, this makes the microarray-based platform a true high-throughout means of finding inhibitors to specific protein-receptor reactions starting from a large collection of small-molecule libraries. PMID:25921700

  8. Interpretation of dose-response curves for cell killing and induction of chromosome aberrations using Calkins' enzyme-kinetic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental data on Chinese hamster (V79) cells are presented which show that the number of dicentric aberrations produced by gamma radiation is reduced if the cells are held in stationary phase for 6 h after irradiation, before plating. This result suggests that misrepair does not take place at the same time as correct repair, as is assumed in the ''lethal-potentially lethal'' model, but that it takes place at the end of the repair period, and involves lesions which the enzyme system has not been able to repair within the time available. The use of Calkins' enzyme-kinetic model of radiation response was investigated and it was shown that it can account for the shapes of low LET survival and dicentric aberration response curves, and for the repair of potentially lethal and sub-lethal damage. It predicts that reparable damage contributes to the initial slope of a dose-response curve. (author)

  9. Comment on the treatment of dose-response relationship for the epidemiological data of atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, Tatsuo [Radiation Education Forum, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    As for the dose-response relationship for solid cancer incidence rate at low dose radiation, the epidemiological study of atomic bomb survivors by RERF have been regarded to be the most important and authentic, and ICRP has its conceptual basis in the policy of radiation protection on this data for adopting the linear, non-threshold (LNT) model. However, we have found that there are two fundamental problems in the way of treatment of the data, and we believe it may bring an important modification on the validity of the LNT model for the interpretation of the radiation effect at low dose. The first point is that in estimating the exposure dose of the survivors, the chronic dose received by them should be considered in addition to the acute dose calculated by T65D or DS86, which only estimates the dose at the instant of explosion of the bomb. It seems there are ample evidences that the survivors received additional chronic dose due to the radioactivity contained both in the fallout and in the induced radioactivity by the neutron bombardment of the environmental materials. For example, it is a well-known fact that there was a heavy temporary shower (so to speak ''black rain'') in a wide region of the city after the bomb explosion, which contained much radioactivity due to the fission products. According to a literature, in the case of residents at Nishiyama District in Nagasaki, which is located 3 km from the explosion center but is shielded by a mountain from the instantaneous bomb explosion, the cumulative dose received by 280 residents there was estimated to be as much as 0.2 Gy, which caused an abnormal increase in the number of leukocytes for most of the residents. For the case of Hiroshima, a literature reports that the dose due to the black rain was about 0.03-0.04 Gy. In both cities, a substantial percentage of the survivors had stayed for considerable time in the contaminated area in the city after bombing, such as for the purpose of searching their families and relatives, and they must have received additional chronic dose due to the residual radioactivity remained in the city. Thus, as to the values to be used for the abscissa of the dose-response curve, not only the instantaneous radiation dose, those added by the chronic dose should be used. If this additional chronic dose for all survivors is regarded to be on the average, say, as 0.05 Gy, the dose-response curve shall shift rightward by this value, thus the dose-response relationship should show a threshold of ca 0.05 Gy. The second aspect for the treatment of the data is the fact that the doses for the exposed group below 0.01 Gy has until 1996 been treated as ''zero dose group'', and the data for this group was used as ''control''. (Since 1996 the zero group has become the cohort of <0.005 Gy.) If a hormetic effect actually had occurred in this cohort of the lowest dose level, every other value observed at higher dose groups, referred to this control, which may have inherently negative incidence rate, will show as if there is only the positive risk, as the presently available data. The consideration above, along with other recent experimental findings at low dose radiation, supports the proposal that the LNT model should be abandoned for the fundamental policy of radiation protection, as several other researchers claim. (author)

  10. Evaluation of the Comet Assay for Assessing the Dose-Response Relationship of DNA Damage Induced by Ionizing Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Liu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Dose- and time-response curves were combined to assess the potential of the comet assay in radiation biodosimetry. The neutral comet assay was used to detect DNA double-strand breaks in lymphocytes caused by ?-ray irradiation. A clear dose-response relationship with DNA double-strand breaks using the comet assay was found at different times after irradiation (p < 0.001. A time-response relationship was also found within 72 h after irradiation (p < 0.001. The curves for DNA double-strand breaks and DNA repair in vitro of human lymphocytes presented a nice model, and a smooth, three-dimensional plane model was obtained when the two curves were combined.

  11. Dose-response curve for blood exposed to gamma-neutron mixed field by conventional cytogenetic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Jose Odinilson de C.; Souza, Priscilla L.G.; Santos, Joelan A.L.; Vilela, Eudice C.; Lima, Fabiana F., E-mail: jodinilson@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: fflima@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: jasantos@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Calixto, Merilane S.; Santos, Neide, E-mail: santos_neide@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica

    2009-07-01

    There is increasing concern about airline crew members (about one million worldwide) are exposed to measurable neutrons doses. Historically, cytogenetic biodosimetry assays have been based on quantifying asymmetrical chromosome alterations (dicentrics, centric rings and acentric fragments) in mytogen-stimulated T-lymphocytes in their first mitosis after radiation exposure. Increased levels of chromosome damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes are a sensitive indicator of radiation exposure and they are routinely exploited for assessing radiation absorbed dose after accidental or occupational exposure. Since radiological accidents are not common, not all nations feel that it is economically justified to maintain biodosimetry competence. However, dependable access to biological dosimetry capabilities is completely critical in event of an accident. In this paper the dose-response curve was measured for the induction of chromosomal alterations in peripheral blood lymphocytes after chronic exposure in vitro to neutron-gamma mixes field. Blood was obtained from one healthy donor and exposed to two neutron-gamma mixed field from sources {sup 241}AmBe (20 Ci) at the Neutron Calibration Laboratory (NCL-CRCN/NE-PE-Brazil). The evaluated absorbed doses were 0.2 Gy; 1.0 Gy and 2.5 Gy. The dicentric chromosomes were observed at metaphase, following colcemid accumulation and 1000 well-spread metaphase figures were analyzed for the presence of dicentrics by two experienced scorers after painted by giemsa 5%. Our preliminary results showed a linear dependence between radiations absorbed dose and dicentric chromosomes frequencies. Dose-response curve described in this paper will contribute to the construction of calibration curve that will be used in our laboratory for biological dosimetry. (author)

  12. Dose-response curve for blood exposed to gamma-neutron mixed field by conventional cytogenetic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is increasing concern about airline crew members (about one million worldwide) are exposed to measurable neutrons doses. Historically, cytogenetic biodosimetry assays have been based on quantifying asymmetrical chromosome alterations (dicentrics, centric rings and acentric fragments) in mytogen-stimulated T-lymphocytes in their first mitosis after radiation exposure. Increased levels of chromosome damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes are a sensitive indicator of radiation exposure and they are routinely exploited for assessing radiation absorbed dose after accidental or occupational exposure. Since radiological accidents are not common, not all nations feel that it is economically justified to maintain biodosimetry competence. However, dependable access to biological dosimetry capabilities is completely critical in event of an accident. In this paper the dose-response curve was measured for the induction of chromosomal alterations in peripheral blood lymphocytes after chronic exposure in vitro to neutron-gamma mixes field. Blood was obtained from one healthy donor and exposed to two neutron-gamma mixed field from sources 241AmBe (20 Ci) at the Neutron Calibration Laboratory (NCL-CRCN/NE-PE-Brazil). The evaluated absorbed doses were 0.2 Gy; 1.0 Gy and 2.5 Gy. The dicentric chromosomes were observed at metaphase, following colcemid accumulation and 1000 well-spread metaphase figures were analyzed for the presence of dicentrics by two experienced scorers after painted by giemsa 5%. Our preliminary results showed a linear dependence between radiations absorbed dose and dicentric chromosomes frequencies. Dose-response curve described in this paper will contribute to the construction of calibration curve that will be used in our laboratory for biological dosimetry. (author)

  13. Dose-response relationship of sertindole and haloperidol using the pharmacopsychometric triangle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P; TanghØj, P

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Renewed insight into dose-related effects of sertindole and haloperidol was sought by re-analysing published data for antipsychotic effect, extrapyramidal effect, and patient wellbeing – i.e., the important pharmacopsychometric triangle domains. Method: Selected Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) subscales and the Simpson–Angus scale were tested for validity. Standardized effect sizes [last observation carried forward (LOCF)] at endpoint were calculated. Results: The scales were found to be valid instruments. The PANSS11 psychotic subscale showed clinically significant effect sizes for all doses of sertindole (12, 20, and 24 mg) and haloperidol (4, 8, and 16 mg). Extrapyramidal effects were evident for all doses of haloperidol, but absent for the lower doses of sertindole. The PANSS6 depression subscale, a proxy measure of quality of life, showed a clinically significant effect for sertindole 20 mg and no effect for haloperidol. Conclusion: This re-analysis confirmed the antipsychotic effect and absence of extrapyramidal effects for sertindole and, in addition, showed a clinically significant antidepressant effect. A profile for bipolar states emerged.

  14. Dose-response studies of depletion and repopulation of rat intestinal mucosal mast cells after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of radiation on gut mucosal mast cells (MMC) and tissue eosinophils were examined. Groups of rats were given single doses of whole-body irradiation from 0.5 to 5 Gy. Serum rat mast cell protease II (RMCPII) concentration showed a significant dose-dependent fall after 1 Gy on day 3 and 1.5 Gy on day 7. MMC counts and tissue RMCPII values on day 7 decreased significantly by 70% after 1 Gy and were undetectable with larger doses. Rats with normal and expanded MMC populations were irradiated or given anaphylaxis. Serum RMCPII concentrations did not change after irradiation, but there was a 10-fold increase in RMCPII after anaphylaxis. Tissue eosinophils in jejunum were 50% of control at 7 days after 2 Gy, and this effect was progressively more marked with higher doses. Similar effects on MMC and eosinophils were demonstrated in ileum, ascending colon and rectum. After 4.5 Gy, repopulation of the gut with MMC did not occur until week 3-4 postirradiation and MMC counts were still 50% below those of controls at 5 weeks postirradiation. Counts of tisse eosinophils 5 weeks after 4.5 Gy irradiation had returned to control levels in jejunum but were still significantly depleted in colon. (Author)

  15. Dose-response studies with biosynthetic human growth hormone (GH) in GH-deficient patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, J O; Flyvbjerg, A

    1988-01-01

    Increasing doses of biosynthetic human GH (R-hGH) were given sc to seven GH-deficient patients for three consecutive 14-day periods (2, 4, and 6 IU/day at 2000 h), followed by 14 days of no GH therapy. At the end of each period each patient was hospitalized for frequent blood sampling from 2000 to 1100 h the following day. A dose-dependent increase in serum GH and serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels occurred. However, the time course of the serum IGF-I concentrations was different on the four occasions; there was a significant fall in the evening when no therapy was given (P less than 0.01), a significant increase after injections of 2 IU R-hGH, and constant levels during treatment with 4 and 6 IU R-hGH. Plasma glucose levels were within the normal range, with a significantly lower fasting level (at 0400 h) when no GH was given. Breakfast induced a plasma glucose rise when GH was administered, but no rise without GH, and a postprandial serum insulin response that was GH dose dependent. GH therapy increased serum FFA (P less than 0.05) and blood 3-hydroxybutyrate levels, but had no effect on blood alanine or lactate or serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels. We conclude that the serum IGF-I response to GH is dose dependent, and that a GH replacement dose of 2 IU/day (equalling 1.5 IU/m2.day) is insufficient to maintain normal diurnal serum IGF-I levels. Furthermore, a GH-independent diurnal variation in serum IGF-I in these patients is suggested. This GH preparation also has diabetogenic and lipolytic actions.

  16. Unveiling time in dose-response models to infer host susceptibility to pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Delphine; Souto-Maior, Caetano; Gjini, Erida; Lopes, Joao S; Ceña, Bruno; Codeço, Cláudia T; Gomes, M Gabriela M

    2014-08-01

    The biological effects of interventions to control infectious diseases typically depend on the intensity of pathogen challenge. As much as the levels of natural pathogen circulation vary over time and geographical location, the development of invariant efficacy measures is of major importance, even if only indirectly inferrable. Here a method is introduced to assess host susceptibility to pathogens, and applied to a detailed dataset generated by challenging groups of insect hosts (Drosophila melanogaster) with a range of pathogen (Drosophila C Virus) doses and recording survival over time. The experiment was replicated for flies carrying the Wolbachia symbiont, which is known to reduce host susceptibility to viral infections. The entire dataset is fitted by a novel quantitative framework that significantly extends classical methods for microbial risk assessment and provides accurate distributions of symbiont-induced protection. More generally, our data-driven modeling procedure provides novel insights for study design and analyses to assess interventions. PMID:25121762

  17. Dose–response analysis of phthalate effects on gene expression in rat whole embryo culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rat postimplantation whole embryo culture (WEC) model serves as a potential screening tool for developmental toxicity. In this model, cultured rat embryos are exposed during early embryogenesis and evaluated for morphological effects. The integration of molecular-based markers may lead to improved objectivity, sensitivity and predictability of WEC in assessing developmental toxic properties of compounds. In this study, we investigated the concentration-dependent effects of two phthalates differing in potency, mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and monomethyl phthalate (MMP, less toxic), on the transcriptome in WEC to examine gene expression in relation with dysmorphogenesis. MEHP was more potent than MMP in inducing gene expression changes as well as changes on morphology. MEHP induced significant enrichment of cholesterol/lipid/steroid (CLS) metabolism and apoptosis pathways which was associated with developmental toxicity. Regulation of genes within CLS metabolism pathways represented the most sensitive markers of MEHP exposure, more sensitive than classical morphological endpoints. As shown in direct comparisons with toxicogenomic in vivo studies, alterations in the regulation of CLS metabolism pathways has been previously identified to be associated with developmental toxicity due to phthalate exposure in utero. Our results support the application of WEC as a model to examine relative phthalate potency through gene expression and morphological responses. Additionally, our results further define the applicability domain of the WEC model for developmental toxicological investigations. -- Highlights: ? We examine the effect of two phthalates on gene expression and morphology in WEC. ? MEHP is more potent than MMP in inducing gene expression changes and dysmorphogenesis. ? MEHP significantly disrupts cholesterol metabolism pathways in a dose-dependent manner. ? Specific phthalate-related mechanisms in WEC are relevant to mechanisms in vivo.

  18. Dose-Finding when the Target Dose Is on a Plateau of a Dose-Response Curve: Comparison of Fully Sequential Designs

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Anastasia; Xiao, Changfu

    2013-01-01

    Consider the problem of estimating a dose with a certain response rate. Many multistage dose-finding designs for this problem were originally developed for oncology studies where the mean dose-response is strictly increasing in dose. In non-oncology Phase II dose-finding studies the dose-response curve often plateaus in the range of interest and there are several doses with the mean response equal to the target. In this case it is usually of interest to find the lowest of these doses since hi...

  19. Analyses of dose-response in radiotherapy for patients with mature T/NK-cell lymphomas according to the WHO classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: This study was conducted to analyze the influence of radiotherapy doses and chemotherapy doses and clinical parameters on in-field disease control in order to assess the optimal radiation doses for treatment of mature T/NK-cell lymphomas according to the newly proposed WHO classification. Patients and methods: Subjects consisted of 62 patients with mature T/NK-cell lymphomas treated with radiotherapy at four Japanese institutions between 1983 and 2002. We reevaluated all histopathological specimens of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL), using the WHO classification. Radiation therapy was usually delivered to the involved field. The majority of patients also received adriamycin-based chemotherapy such as CHOP, modified CHOP, or more intensive chemotherapy. Results: There were no significant differences in radiosensitivity among subtypes of mature T/NK-cell lymphomas, at least between extranodal NK/T-cell lymphomas, nasal type and peripheral T-cell lymphomas, unspecified. There was a radiation dose-response in non-bulky mature T/NK-cell lymphomas, indicating that radiation doses of more than 52 Gy may be required to obtain in-field control. However, it was difficult to obtain local control of bulky T-cell lymphomas, even with high doses of irradiation. Conclusions: Mature T/NK-cell lymphomas were more radioresistant than B-cell lymphomas such as diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL). The chemotherapy including adriamycin did not improve the in-field g adriamycin did not improve the in-field control of mature T/NK-cell lymphomas. These results were obtained by using non-randomized data and the significance of these results is limited by bias in data. However, our results suggest that the treatment strategy which is usually used for DLBCL, that is, a combined modality of CHOP and around 40 Gy of radiotherapy, may not be sufficiently effective for mature T/NK-cell lymphomas

  20. Bone cancer from radium: canine dose response explains data for mice and humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of lifetime studies of 243 beagles with skeletal burdens of radium-226 shows that the distribution of bone cancers clusters about a linear function of the logarithms of radiation dose rate to the skeleton and time from exposure until death. Similar relations displaced by species-dependent response ratios also provide satisfactory descriptions of the reported data on deaths from primary bone cancers in people and mice exposed to radium-226. The median cumulative doses (or times) leading to death from bone tumors are 2.9 times larger for dogs than for mice and 3.6 times larger for people than for dogs. These response ratios are well correlated with the normal life expectancies. The cumulative radiation dose required to give significant risk of bone cancer is found to be much less at lower dose rates than at higher rates, but the time required for the tumors to be manifested is longer. At low dose rates, this time exceeds the normal life-span and appears as a practical threshold, which for bone cancer is estimated to occur at an average cumulative radiation dose to the skeleton of about 50 to 110 rads for the three species

  1. Comparison study of in vivo dose response to laser-driven versus conventional electron beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppelt, Melanie; Baumann, Michael; Bergmann, Ralf; Beyreuther, Elke; Brüchner, Kerstin; Hartmann, Josefin; Karsch, Leonhard; Krause, Mechthild; Laschinsky, Lydia; Leßmann, Elisabeth; Nicolai, Maria; Reuter, Maria; Richter, Christian; Sävert, Alexander; Schnell, Michael; Schürer, Michael; Woithe, Julia; Kaluza, Malte; Pawelke, Jörg

    2015-05-01

    The long-term goal to integrate laser-based particle accelerators into radiotherapy clinics not only requires technological development of high-intensity lasers and new techniques for beam detection and dose delivery, but also characterization of the biological consequences of this new particle beam quality, i.e. ultra-short, ultra-intense pulses. In the present work, we describe successful in vivo experiments with laser-driven electron pulses by utilization of a small tumour model on the mouse ear for the human squamous cell carcinoma model FaDu. The already established in vitro irradiation technology at the laser system JETI was further enhanced for 3D tumour irradiation in vivo in terms of beam transport, beam monitoring, dose delivery and dosimetry in order to precisely apply a prescribed dose to each tumour in full-scale radiobiological experiments. Tumour growth delay was determined after irradiation with doses of 3 and 6 Gy by laser-accelerated electrons. Reference irradiation was performed with continuous electron beams at a clinical linear accelerator in order to both validate the dedicated dosimetry employed for laser-accelerated JETI electrons and above all review the biological results. No significant difference in radiation-induced tumour growth delay was revealed for the two investigated electron beams. These data provide evidence that the ultra-high dose rate generated by laser acceleration does not impact the biological effectiveness of the particles. PMID:25600561

  2. Investigation of emission spectra, dose response and stability of luminescence from NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermoluminescence (TL) from common salt (NaCl) is investigated to determine its suitability as an opportunistic retrospective dosimeter. In this study the TL is analysed from a wide range of domestic salts, sourced from Australasia, Europe, Asia and America. The emission spectra for pre-existing or “Natural” TL (NTL) and laboratory-irradiated “Artificial” TL (ATL) were analysed using a Fourier Transform spectrometer, giving luminescence intensity as a function of temperature and photon energy. Fading behaviour in the candidate TL emission peaks, observed at 200–260 °C under the measurement conditions used, was investigated at various storage temperatures and storage intervals between irradiation and read-out. This included TL emission spectral measurements at storage intervals ranging from minutes to months. Nearly all samples showed strong ATL emission at 590 nm, with much weaker emission from the commonly measured UV-blue region. NTL was very small or undetected for most samples. The storage tests showed that the TL in the 260 °C region is relatively stable and we conclude that TL from NaCl possesses suitable dose sensitivity and stability for use as an opportunistic retrospective dosimeter. - Highlights: ? A 590 nm/260 °C TL peak was found in many commercial salts (NaCl). ? Salt has no significant pre-existing 590 nm/260 °C TL. ? This TL peak is dose-dependent and stable over 2 months (minimum). ? Unless light-exposed, NaCl is suitable as NaCl is suitable as an opportunistic retrospective dosimeter.

  3. Analysis of bias effects on the total ionizing dose response in a 180 nm technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of gamma ray irradiation on the shallow trench isolation (STI) leakage current in a 180 nm technology are investigated. The radiation response is strongly influenced by the bias modes, gate bias during irradiation, substrate bias during irradiation and operating substrate bias after irradiation. We found that the worst case occurs under the ON bias condition for the ON, OFF and PASS bias mode. A positive gate bias during irradiation significantly enhances the STI leakage current, indicating the electric field influence on the charge buildup process during radiation. Also, a negative substrate bias during irradiation enhances the STI leakage current. However a negative operating substrate bias effectively suppresses the STI leakage current, and can be used to eliminate the leakage current produced by the charge trapped in the deep STI oxide. Appropriate substrate bias should be introduced to alleviate the total ionizing dose (TID) response, and lead to acceptable threshold voltage shift and subthreshold hump effect. Depending on the simulation results, we believe that the electric field distribution in the STI oxide is the key parameter influencing bias effects on the radiation response of transistor. - Highlights: ? ON bias is the worst bias condition for the ON, PASS and OFF bias modes. ? Larger gate bias during irradiation leads to more pronounced characteristic degradation. ? TID induced STI leakage can be suppressed by negative operating substratessed by negative operating substrate bias voltage. ? Negative substrate bias during irradiation leads to larger increase of off-state leakage. ? Electric field in the STI oxide greatly influences the device's radiation effect.

  4. Plastic packaging and burn-in effects on ionizing dose response in CMOS microcircuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are reported from an investigation of the effects of packaging and burn-in on the post-irradiation performance of National Semiconductor 54AC02 Quad 2-input NOR gates. The test population was drawn from a single wafer fabricated in the National process qualified under Mil-Prf-38535 to an ionizing radiation hardness of 100 krads(Si). The test sample was divided between plastic and ceramic packages. Additionally, half of the plastic samples and half of the two ceramic samples received a 168 hour/125 C burn-in. Two irradiation schemes were used. The first followed Mil-Std-883 Method 1019.4 (dose rate = 50 rads(Si)/s). The second used a low dose rate (0.1 rads(Si)/s). AC, DC, transfer function and functional behavior were monitored throughout the tests. Significant differences among the package types and burn-in variations were noted with the plastic, burned-in components demonstrating enhanced degradation. They show the worst post-irradiation parameter values as well as very broad post-irradiation parameter distributions. Degradation is highly dependent upon dose rate and anneal conditions. Two different radiation induced leakage paths have been identified, and their characteristics have been correlated to variations in high dose rate and low dose rate circuit performance. Caution is recommended for system developers to ensure that radiation hardness characterization is performed for the same package/burn-in configuration to be used in the system to be used in the system

  5. The high dose response and functional capability of the DT-702/Pd lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, Tyler M; Talmadge, Molly D; Murray, Mark M; Nelson, Martin E; Mueller, Andrew C; Romanyukha, Alexander A; Fairchild, Gregory R; Grypp, Matthew D; Williams, Anthony S

    2015-05-01

    The United States Navy monitors the dose its radiation workers receive using the DT-702/PD thermoluminescent dosimeter, which consists of the Harshaw 8840 holder and the four-element Harshaw 8841 card. There were two main objectives of this research. In the first objective, the dosimeters were exposed to 100 Gy using electron and x-ray beams and found to respond approximately 30-40% lower than the delivered dose. No significant effect on the under-response was found when dose rate, radiation type, dosimeter position on the phantom, and dosimeter material were varied or when the card was irradiated while enclosed in its holder. Since the current naval policy is to remove from occupational use any thermoluminescent dosimeter with an accumulated deep dose equivalent of 0.05 Sv or greater, the functionality of the dosimeter was also investigated at deep dose equivalents of 0.05, 0.15, and 0.25 Sv using 60Co and 137Cs sources as the second main objective. All dosimeters were annealed following exposure and then exposed to 5.0 mSv from a 90Sr source. In all cases, the dosimeters responded within 3% of the delivered dose, indicating that the dosimeters remained functional as defined by naval dosimetry requirements. However, the anneal time required to clear the thermoluminescent dosimeter's reading was found to increase approximately as the cube root with the delivered dose. PMID:25811149

  6. Effect of Dose-Response of Zinc and Manganese on Siderophores Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Ines

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study was conducted to find and determine whether the siderophores of the four environmental Pseudomonas spp. isolates possess a sequestering activity towards essential transition metals (Zn and Mn other than iron. Approach: Four fluorescent Pseudomonads isolated from various environments, were characterized analytically (Isoelectric focusing, biologically (pyoverdine-mediated uptake and genetically (16S rDNA sequencing. By means of spectrophotometric measurements, it was possible to establish and compare the levels of pyoverdine production, in two different nutrient-poor media. Results: The strains were assigned, by sequencing, to P. fluorescens, P. aeruginosa, P. putida and P. mosselii isolated, respectively from soil, compost, sea water and waste water treatment plant. These bacterial strains were recognized as producing diver?s yellow-green siderophores types, when grown under conditions of iron starvation. The highest metabolite concentration was obtained with PsC132 and PsTp171 strains isolated respectively from compost and waste water treatment plant, in CAA medium. Strains grown in CAA medium exhibit a higher PVD level compared to SM medium. Mn (II was found to promote pyoverdine biosynthesis, but rather, Zn (II had no significant effect on siderophore production when compared to control medium. For both strains PsS29 and PsC132, the increase of iron concentration quenched siderophore production especially above 20 ?M. Pyoverdine level declined with the high concentration of zinc but increased with Manganese concentration ranging up to 70 ?M (in case of PsC132 and 300 ?M (in case of PsS29. Conclusion/Recommendations: The ability of fluorescent Pseudomonas, isolated from wastewater treatment plant and from compost, to sequester zinc, point to a unique advantage of these species for divers bioremediation applications.

  7. Ozone dose-response relationships for spring oilseed rape and broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bock, Maarten; Op de Beeck, Maarten; De Temmerman, Ludwig; Guisez, Yves; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Vandermeiren, Karine

    2011-03-01

    Tropospheric ozone is an important air pollutant with known detrimental effects for several crops. Ozone effects on seed yield, oil percentage, oil yield and 1000 seed weight were examined for spring oilseed rape ( Brassica napus cv. Ability). For broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. cv. Italica cv. Monaco) the effects on fresh marketable weight and total dry weight were studied. Current ozone levels were compared with an increase of 20 and 40 ppb during 8 h per day, over the entire growing season. Oilseed rape seed yield was negatively correlated with ozone dose indices calculated from emergence until harvest. This resulted in an R2 of 0.24 and 0.26 ( p rape. The reduction of oilseed rape yield showed the highest correlation with the ozone uptake during the vegetative growth stage: when only the first 47 days after emergence were used to calculate POD 6, R2 values increased up to 0.476 or even 0.545 when the first 23 days were excluded. The highest ozone treatments, corresponding to the future ambient level by 2100 (IPCC, Meehl et al., 2007), led to a reduction of approximately 30% in oilseed rape seed yield in comparison to the current ozone concentrations. Oil percentage was also significantly reduced in response to ozone ( p < 0.001). As a consequence oil yield was even more severely affected by elevated ozone exposure compared to seed yield: critical levels for oil yield dropped to 3.2 ppm h and 3.9 mmol m -2. For broccoli the applied ozone doses had no effect on yield.

  8. Rats avoid exposure to HVdc electric fields: a dose response study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creim, J A; Lovely, R H; Weigel, R J; Forsythe, W C; Anderson, L E

    1993-01-01

    Rats, given the choice, avoid exposure to alternating current (ac) 60-Hz electric fields at intensities > or = 75 kV/m. This study investigated the generality of this behavior by studying the response of rats when exposed to high voltage direct current (HVdc) electric fields. Three hundred eighty male Long Evans rats were studied in 9 experiments with 40 rats per experiment and in one experiment with 20 rats to determine 1) if rats avoid exposure to HVdc electric fields of varying field strengths, and 2) if avoidance did occur, what role, if any, the concentration of air ions would have on the avoidance behavior. In all experiments a three-compartment glass shuttlebox was used; either the left or right compartment could be exposed to a combination of HVdc electric fields and air ions while the other compartment remained sham-exposed. The third, center compartment was a transition zone between exposure and sham-exposure. In each experiment, the rats were individually assessed in 1-h sessions where half of the rats (n = 20) had the choice to locomote between the two sides being exposed or sham-exposed, while the other half of the rats (n = 20) were sham-exposed regardless of their location, except in one experiment where there was no sham-exposed group. The exposure levels for the first six experiments were 80, 55, 42.5, 30, -36, and -55 kV/m, respectively. The air ion concentration was constant at 1.4 x 10(6) ions/cc for the four positive exposure levels and -1.4 x 10(6) ions/cc for the two negative exposure levels. Rats having a choice between exposure and non-exposure relative to always sham-exposed control animals significantly reduced the amount of time spent on the exposed side at 80 kV/m (P HVdc exposure level was held constant at either -55 kV/m (for three experiments) or -55 kV/m (for 1 experiment) while the air ion concentration was varied between experiments at 2.5 x 10(5) ions/cc, 1.0 x 10(4) for two of the experiments and was below the measurement limit (< +/- 2 x 10(3) ions/cc) for the other two experiments at 55 and -55 kV/m.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8216386

  9. Statistical behavior and geological significance of the geochemical distribution of trace elements in the Cretaceous volcanics Cordoba and San Luis, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistical analysis of trace elements in volcanics research s, allowed to distinguish two independent populations with the same geochemical environment. For each component they have variable index of homogeneity resulting in dissimilar average values that reveal geochemical intra telluric phenomena. On the other hand the inhomogeneities observed in these rocks - as reflected in its petrochemical characters - could be exacerbated especially at so remote and dispersed location of their pitches, their relations with the enclosing rocks for the ranges of compositional variation, due differences relative ages

  10. Dose-response relationship of metastases: a mechanistic view based on a stochastic process of metastatic colony formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: To construct a mechanistically oriented model based on a stochastic process of metastatic colony formation in order to predict the clinically observed metastatic-free survival probability and the dose-response relationship for radiation therapy. Materials and Methods: The basic assumptions of the model include exponential growths of the primary tumor and the metastatic colonies, and a Poisson process of metastatic colony establishment. Heterogeneous distribution of metastatic rates among patient populations were also introduced. Clinically relevant metastasis-free survival probability was constructed assuming a limiting detection resolution for metastasis. In vivo murine experiments were performed by implantation of tumor cell lines subcutaneously and assessing the ultimate presence of metastases in the lungs at various time points after the complete excision of the primary tumors. Comparison with clinical data was performed using results published previously by Withers, et al. and other studies, e.g. prostate cancer data from Scardino et al. Results: Theoretical predictions of the model include the existence of a subpopulation of the cohort which has no metastasis at the time of diagnosis of their primary tumors, and that the metastasis-free fraction decreases monotonically as a sigmoid curve when plotted against time. These are supported by the laboratory and clinical observations. Furthermore, the kinetic parameters governing the metastatic proce parameters governing the metastatic processes can be inferred from the data. For example, for MCAK tumor cell line (murine mammary carcinoma), the instantaneous metastatic rate was found to be approximately 10-12 metastatic colony per primary cell per day. Clinically observed metastasis-free survival probability as a function of histopathological features also support the predictions of the model. When normally distributed metastatic rates were incorporated, the expected dose-response curve, although remaining a sigmoid, has a slope which is much shallower than the counterpart for gross disease. This agrees with the results of Withers et al., and provides a rational basis for achieving some benefit from doses less than commonly preferred for treating subclinical metastases. Conclusion: A quantitative model based on a mechanism of metastatic colony formation, specifically via a Poisson process, has been established which appears to be supported by laboratory and clinical data. Its implementation should be useful in planning appropriate therapy for patients at risk of having subclinical metastases

  11. Coffee consumption and risk of nonaggressive, aggressive and fatal prostate cancer—a dose–response meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discacciati, A.; Orsini, N.; Wolk, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Existing epidemiological evidence is controversial regarding the possible associations between coffee consumption and risk of prostate cancer (PCa) by aggressiveness of the disease. Materials and methods We conducted a random-effects dose–response meta-analysis to assess the relationships between coffee consumption and nonaggressive, aggressive and fatal PCa risk. Studies were identified by a search of Medline and Embase databases to 15 July 2013. We carried out separate analyses by grade (Gleason score: low-grade, high-grade) and stage (TNM staging system: localized, advanced) of the tumors. Nonaggressive tumors were defined as low-grade or localized, while aggressive tumors were defined as high-grade or advanced. Results Eight studies (three case–control and five cohort) were included in this meta-analysis. Gleason 7 tumors were classified as high-grade in one study, while in another study, Gleason 7(4 + 3) tumors were classified as high-grade and Gleason 7(3 + 4) as low-grade. In the remaining four studies, Gleason 7 tumors were excluded from the analyses or analyzed separately. The pooled relative risk (RR) for a consumption increment of 3 cups/day was 0.97 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92–1.03] for low-grade PCa (n = 6), 0.97 (95% CI 0.94–0.99) for localized PCa (n = 6), 0.89 (95% CI 0.78–1.00) for high-grade PCa (n = 6), 0.95 (95% CI 0.85–1.06) for advanced PCa (n = 6) and 0.89 (95% CI 0.82–0.97) for fatal PCa (n = 4). No evidence of publication bias was observed. Heterogeneity was absent or marginal (I2 range = 0–26%), with the only exception of the analysis on advanced PCa, where moderate heterogeneity was observed (I2 = 60%). When restricting the analyses only to those studies that defined high-grade tumors as Gleason 8–10, the inverse association became slightly stronger [RR: 0.84 (95% CI 0.72–0.98); n = 4]. Conclusions Results from this dose–response meta-analysis suggest that coffee consumption may be inversely associated with the risk of fatal PCa. No clear evidence of an association with PCa incidence was observed. PMID:24276028

  12. Nano-silver induces dose-response effects on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard-Jensen, Lea; Jensen, Keld Alstrup

    2012-01-01

    Toxicity of nano-formulated silver to eukaryotes was assessed by exposing nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans) to two types of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs): with average primary particle diameters of 1 nm (AgNP1) and 28 nm (AgNP28, PVP coated), respectively. Tests were performed with and without presence of Escherichia coil to evaluate how the presence of a food bacterium affects the AgNP toxicity. A pre-exposure experiment was also conducted with nematodes pre-exposed to 0 and 1 mg AgNP L-1, respectively, for 20 h prior to exposure at higher concentrations of AgNP. Both AgNP1 and AgNP28 showed adverse dose-response effects and mortality on C. elegans. LC50 for AgNP28 was lower than for AgNP1 and, hence, at the present test conditions the PVP-coated AgNP28 was more toxic than AgNP1. Including E. coil in the test medium as a food source increased AgNPs toxicity towards nematodes compared to when bacteria were not present. Pre-exposure to a low-level AgNP1 concentration made the nematodes slightly more sensitive to further exposure at higher concentrations compared to no pre-exposure, indicating that nematodes have no efficient physiological ability to counteract nano-silver toxicity by acclimation. The amount of dissolved Ag+ was 0.18 to 0.21 mg L-1 after 20 h at the highest AgNP1 (10 mg L-1) and AgNP28 (3 mg L-1) doses in the exposure medium, respectively. The upper limit of Ag+ solubility cannot immediately explain the dose-response-related toxic effects of the AgNP nor the difference between AgNP1 and AgNP28. Higher toxicity of AgNP28 than AgNP1 may be explained by a combination of effects of coating, Ag-solubility and higher uptake rates due to agglomeration into mu m-size agglomerates in the exposure medium. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Can dose-response models predict reliable normal tissue complication probabilities in radical radiotherapy of urinary bladder cancer? The impact of alternative radiation tolerance models and parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To analyze the consequences of selecting alternative normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models and parameters for evaluation of radiotherapy of urinary bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: Treatment plans of 24 bladder cancer patients referred to radical 4-field conformal radiotherapy were analyzed. Small intestinal and rectal NTCPs were determined using both the probit and relative seriality models with several sets of published radiation tolerance parameters. Various combinations of NTCP models and parameters were applied to find the prescription dose in individual patients as well as to estimate the benefit of the conformal radiotherapy setup. Results: Different risk estimates were predicted from the two NTCP models, even when the same clinical radiation tolerance doses were fitted into the two models. The demonstrated variability translated into significant deviations (7-10 Gy) in the recommended prescription doses. Even if it was possible to discriminate between a 2-field plan and the 4-field conformal setup using a given complication model and set of tolerance parameters, the estimated benefit of the conformal treatment in terms of permitted dose escalation varied with as much as 10-12 Gy between the different NTCP models/parameters used. Conclusion: Different NTCP models and tolerance parameters might propose different answers to important clinical questions in radiotherapy treatment of bladder cancer, such as dose prescription and scoringcer, such as dose prescription and scoring of rival treatment plans. We therefore recommend that the variability caused by tolerance parameter uncertainty and model selection should be taken into account in dose-response modeling of radiotherapy treatment

  14. Dose response screening of free and encapsulated ellagic Acid against 7,12-Dimethylbenz(aanthracene induced oxidative stress on hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arulmozhi V

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ellagic acid, a phenolic phytonutrient has become a focus of intense research owing to its role in prevention and treatment of cancer. In the present study, we proposed to screen the dose response effect of free ellagic acid (EA and ellagic acid encapsulated nanoparticles (EANP against DMBA induced oxidative stress on hamster buccal pouch model. DMBA (0.5% in mineral oil was topically applied to the left buccal pouch of male Syrian hamsters 3 times a week for 14 weeks. Treatment groups received EA (20, 40, 80 mg/kg bw and EANP (10, 20, 40 mg/kg bw via oral gavage 3 times a week from 10 to 21 weeks. Animals were sacrificed at the end of the experimental period and free radical mediated oxidative damage was estimated using various biochemical markers such as lipid peroxidation and antioxidants (GSH, SOD, CAT & GPx which are the key indicators for cancer risk at the precancerous stage. DMBA induced positive controls showed altered levels of lipid peroxidation which is associated with diminished cellular antioxidant status. Treatment with EA and EANP significantly augmented the activities of cellular antitoxidants and ultimately diminished the levels of lipid peroxidation which point towards suppression of preneoplastic lesions thereby reduces the cancerous risk.  Thus from the aforementioned results it is showed that treatment with EA at the dose of 40 mg/kg bw and EANP at the dose of 20 mg/kg bw was found to be the optimal dose which proved antioxidant activity against DMBA induced oxidative stress on hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  15. In search of a dose-response relationship with radiotherapy in the management of recurrent rectal carcinoma in the pelvis: a systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to address the question: ''What is the most effective dose fractionation schedule for the relief of symptoms in patients with pelvic recurrence from rectal or colorectal carcinoma?'' Methods and Materials: Cancerlit/Medline-computerized databases were searched between the years 1966-1996. Studies that explored the response to radiotherapy in patients with pelvic recurrence from rectal/rectosigmoid carcinoma were included. Factors that may contribute to differences in results were postulated in advance and the variations encountered between articles were presented. Articles with data applicable to recurrent disease only were included in the primary analysis. The effect of including articles that reported outcomes of recurrences with unresectable primaries and residual disease was presented as a sensitivity analysis. Results: Only retrospective series (level V evidence) were available. The many sources of potential bias inherent in retrospective analyses make the data suitable for hypothesis generation only. Comparison of response was made between 'lower' vs. 'higher' doses, using 45-50 Gy as the dividing dose, base on the primary analysis. There were no significant differences observable in terms of initial response and the proportion maintaining a response at 6 months, within the range of doses employed. When data from articles that reported outcomes of recurrent disease with primary untreated cancers and psease with primary untreated cancers and postoperative residual disease were included, there was a suggestion for a more favorable response with higher doses. This requires cautious interpretation within the methodological limitations of the data. Conclusion: The optimal dose fractionation schedule for the palliation of pelvic recurrence from rectal carcinoma remains undefined. Well-designed randomized studies, with study arms that are sufficiently diverse biologically to allow the detection of a dose-response relationship if one existed, equipped with suitable symptom control end points, are necessary to provide a clinically relevant answer

  16. Comparative effects of insecticides with different mechanisms of action on Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae): lethal, sublethal and dose-response effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joao Zotti, Moises; Dionel Grutzmacher, Anderson; Heres Lopes, Isac; Smagghe, Guy

    2013-12-01

    The comprehensive knowledge that the delayed systemic and reproduction side effects can be even more deleterious than acute toxicity, has caused a shift in focus toward sublethal effects assessment on physiology and behavior of beneficial insects. In this study, we assessed the risks posed by some insecticides with different mode of action through lethal and delayed systemic sublethal effects on the pupation, adult emergence, and reproduction of the chrysopid Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861; Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), an important predator in pest biological control. The maximum field recommended dose (MFRD) and twice (2×MFRD) for chlorantraniliprole, tebufenozide, and pyriproxyfen were harmless to C. externa. In contrast, all the tested chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs) were highly detrimental to the predator, despite of their lack of acute lethal toxicity. Therefore, the safety assumed by using IGRs toward beneficial insects is not valid for chrysopids. Dose-response data showed that although all CSIs have a similar mechanism of action, the relative extent of toxicity may differ (novaluron > lufenuron > teflubenzuron). For CSIs, the delayed systemic effects became obvious at adult emergence, where the predicted no observable effect dose (NOED) was 1/2 048 of the MFRD for novaluron (0.085 ng/insect), and 1/256 of the MFRD for both lufenuron (0.25 ng/insect) and teflubenzuron (0.6 ng/insect). Finally, this work emphasized the significance of performing toxicity risk assessments with an adequate posttreatment period to avoid underestimating the toxicities of insecticides, as the acute lethal toxicity assays may not provide accurate information regarding the long-range effects of hazardous compounds. PMID:23956013

  17. Dose-response relationship in cyclophosphamide-treated B-cell lymphoma xenografts monitored with [{sup 18}F]FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brepoels, Lieselot; Saint-Hubert, Marijke de; Mortelmans, Luc [University Hospital Gasthuisberg Leuven, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Stroobants, Sigrid [University Hospital Antwerpen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Edegem (Belgium); Verhoef, Gregor [University Hospital Gasthuisberg Leuven, Department of Hematology, Leuven (Belgium); Balzarini, Jan [KU Leuven, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Leuven (Belgium); Mottaghy, Felix M. [University Hospital Gasthuisberg Leuven, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Universitaetsklinikum der RWTH Aachen, Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Aachen (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    Although [{sup 18}F]FDG PET can measure therapy response sooner and more accurately than morphological imaging techniques, there is still some debate as to whether [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake really reflects changes in the viable cell fraction. In this study changes in [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake were investigated in a lymphoma model at several time-points after treatment and with different doses of chemotherapy. Data were analysed in terms of several parameters. SCID mice were subcutaneously inoculated with 5 x 10{sup 6} Daudi cells in the right thigh. One group was not treated (control group). The other groups received cyclophosphamide 75 mg/kg (low-dose group), 125 mg/kg (medium-dose group) and 175 mg/kg (high-dose group) on day 0. Sequential [{sup 18}F]FDG small-animal PET ({mu}PET) scans were performed on days 0, 2, 6, 9, 13 and 16 after treatment. The mean and maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub mean} and SUV{sub max}), metabolic tumour volume (Vol{sub metab}) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were calculated. A significant decrease in [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake was observed on day 2 in the medium-dose and high-dose groups and on day 6 in the low-dose group, all preceding morphological changes. SUV{sub mean} and SUV{sub max} formed a plateau from day 6 to day 9, corresponding to the known influx of inflammatory cells. No obvious plateau was observed with TLG which was found to be the most sensitive parameter clearly differentiating the low-dose group from the medium- and high-dose groups early after therapy. [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake was able to reflect the dose-response relationship for cyclophosphamide. TLG was the best parameter for dose-related response assessment in this tumour model. (orig.)

  18. Experimental investigation of the 100 keV X-ray dose response of the high-temperature thermoluminescence in LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100): theoretical interpretation using the unified interaction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, J; Horowitz, Y S; Oster, L; Datz, H; Lerch, M; Rosenfeld, A; Horowitz, A

    2010-03-01

    The dose response of LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) chips was measured from 1 to 50,000 Gy using 100 keV X rays at the European Synchroton Radiation Facility. Glow curves were deconvoluted into component glow peaks using a computerised glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) code based on first-order kinetics. The normalised dose response, f(D), of glow peaks 4 and 5 and 5b (the major components of composite peak 5), as well as peaks 7 and 8 (two of the major components of the high-temperature thermoluminescence (HTTL) at high levels of dose) was separately determined and theoretically interpreted using the unified interaction model (UNIM). The UNIM is a nine-parameter model encompassing both the irradiation/absorption stage and the thermally induced relaxation/recombination stage with an admixture of both localised and delocalised recombination mechanisms. The effects of radiation damage are included in the present modelling via the exponential removal of luminescent centres (LCs) at high dose levels. The main features of the experimentally measured dose response are: (i) increase in f(D)(max) with glow peak temperature, (ii) increase in D(max) (the dose level at which f(D)(max) occurs) with increasing glow peak temperature, and (iii) decreased effects of radiation damage with increasing glow peak temperature. The UNIM interpretation of this behaviour requires both strongly decreasing values of ks (the relative contribution of localised recombination) as a function of glow peak temperature and, as well, significantly different values of the dose-filling constants of the trapping centre (TC) and LC for peaks 7 and 8 than those used for peaks 4 and 5. This suggests that different TC/LC configurations are responsible for HTTL. The relative intensity of peak 5a (a low-temperature satellite of peak 5 arising from localised recombination) was found to significantly increase at higher dose levels due to preferential electron and hole population of the trapping/recombination complex giving rise to composite glow peak 5. It is also demonstrated that possible changes in the trapping cross section of the LC and the competitive centres due to increasing sample/glow peak temperature do not significantly influence these observations/conclusions. PMID:19934115

  19. Possible uses of animal databases for further statistical evaluation and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many studies have been performed in animals which mimic potential exposures of people in order to understand how factors modify radiation dose-response relationships. Cooperative analyses by investigators in different laboratories have a large potential for strengthening the conclusions that can be drawn from individual studies. When information on each animal is combined, then formal tests can be made to demonstrate that apparent consistencies or inconsistencies are statistically significant. Statistical methods must be carefully chosen so that differences between laboratories or studies can be controlled or described as part of the analysis in the interpretation of the conclusions. In this report, the example of bone cancer of the large number of studies of modifying factors for bone cancer available from studies in US and European laboratories

  20. TIME COURSE AND DOSE RESPONSE ASSESSMENT OF CHOLINESTERASE (CHE) INHIBITION IN ADULT RATS TREATED ACUTELY WITH CARBARYL, METHOMYL, METHIOCARB, OXAMYL, OR PROPOXUR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To compare the toxicity of 5 N-methyl carbamates, the time course and dose response profiles for ChE inhibition were established for each. For the time course comparison, adult male Long Evans rats (n=5 dose group) were dosed orally with either carbaryl (CB; 30 mg/kg in corn oi...

  1. Dose-response and time-course of neurotoxicity and tissue concentrations of carbaryl in Brown Norway rats from preweaning to senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factors impacting sensitivity to chemicals across life stages include toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic changes. We systematically compared the dose-response (3, 7.5, 15,22.5 mg/kg) and time-course (3 or 15 mg/kg at 30, 60, 120, 240 min) of acute effects of carbaryl (oral gavage) i...

  2. A dose-response of consuming high fructose corn syrup-sweetened beverages on lipid/lipoprotein risk factors for cardiovascular disease in young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data show increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality with increased intake of added sugar across quintiles. Objective: To determine the dose response effects of consuming beverages sweetened with high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) at zero, ...

  3. Cytogenetics dosimetry: dose-response curve for low doses of X-ray; Dosimetria citogenetica: curva dosis-respuesta para bajas dosis de rayos-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, Virginia E. Noval; Pineda Bolivar, William R.; Riano, Victor M. Pabon, E-mail: venovall.15@hotmail.com, E-mail: wrpineda@misena.edu.co, E-mail: vmpabonr@udistrital.edu.co [Universidad Distrital Francisco Jose de Caldas (UD), Bogota (Colombia). Grupo de Investigacion en Ciencia y Tecnologia Nuclear; Ureana, Cecilia Crane, E-mail: cecicrane@yahoo.com [Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS), Bogota (Colombia). Laboratorio de Genetica

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a preliminary study for the standardization in the future, the dose-response curve for low doses of X-rays, through the analysis of in vitro cultures of peripheral blood samples of 3 men and 3 women occupationally not exposed to artificial sources of ionizing radiation, age 18-40 years, where possible nonsmokers.

  4. Health risks from arsenic-contaminated soil in Flin Flon-Creighton, Canada: Integrating geostatistical simulation and dose-response model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elevated concentrations of arsenic were detected in surface soils adjacent to a smelting complex in northern Canada. We evaluated the cancer risks caused by exposure to arsenic in two communities through combining geostatistical simulation with demographic data and dose-response models in a framework. Distribution of arsenic was first estimated using geostatistical circulant-embedding simulation method. We then evaluated the exposures from inadvertent ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact. Risks of skin caner and three internal cancers were estimated at both grid scale and census-unit scale using parametric dose-response models. Results indicated that local residents could face non-negligible cancer risks (skin cancer and liver cancer mainly). Uncertainties of risk estimates were discussed from the aspects of arsenic concentrations, exposed population and dose-response model. Reducing uncertainties would require additional soil sampling, epidemic records as well as complementary studies on land use, demographic variation, outdoor activities and bioavailability of arsenic. - Cancer risks induced by arsenic in soil were evaluated using geostatistical simulation and dose-response model.

  5. Dose-response associations between cycling activity and risk of hypertension in regular cyclists: The UK Cycling for Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, M; Harper, A; Hamer, M

    2015-04-01

    Most population studies on physical activity and health have involved largely inactive men and women, thus making it difficult to infer if health benefits occur at exercise levels above the current minimum guidelines. The aim was to examine associations between cycling volume and classical cardiovascular risk markers, including hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, in a population sample of habitual cyclists. A nationwide sample comprising 6949 men and women (aged 47.6 years on average) completed questions about their cycling levels, demographics and health. Nearly the entire sample (96.3%) achieved the current minimum physical activity recommendation through cycling alone. There was a dose-response association between cycling volume and risk of diagnosed hypertension (P-trend =0.001), with odds ratios of 0.98 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.80-1.21), 0.86 (0.70, 1.06), 0.67 (95% CI, 0.53-0.83) across categories of 23-40, 40-61 and >61 metabolic equivalent hours/week (MET-h/week) compared with cyclists suggest that additional cardiovascular health benefits can be achieved beyond the current minimum physical activity recommendation. PMID:25273856

  6. Pancreatic beta cell function increases in a linear dose-response manner following exercise training in adults with prediabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malin, Steven K; Solomon, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    While some studies suggest that a linear dose-response relationship exists between exercise and insulin sensitivity, the exercise dose required to enhance pancreatic beta-cell function is unknown. Thirty-five older, obese adults with prediabetes underwent a progressive 12-week supervised exercise intervention (5d/wk for 60min at ~85% HRmax). Insulin and C-peptide (n=23) responses to an OGTT were used to define the first and second phase disposition index (DI; beta-cell function = glucose-stimulated insulin secretion x clamp-derived insulin sensitivity). Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) and body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography) were also measured before and after the intervention. Exercise dose was computed using VO2-heart rate derived linear-regression equations. Subjects expended 474.5±8.8 kcal/session (2372.5±44.1 kcal/week) during the intervention, and lost ~8% body weight. Exercise increased first and second phase DI (P2000 kcal/week) are necessary to enhance beta-cell function in adults with poor insulin secretion capacity.

  7. Dose Response for Chromosome Aberrations in Human Lymphocytes and Fibroblasts after Exposure to Very Low Doses of High LET Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, M.; George, Kerry; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between biological effects and low doses of absorbed radiation is still uncertain, especially for high LET radiation exposure. Estimates of risks from low-dose and low-dose-rates are often extrapolated using data from Japanese atomic bomb survivors with either linear or linear quadratic models of fit. In this study, chromosome aberrations were measured in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and normal skin fibroblasts cells after exposure to very low dose (1-20 cGy) of 170 MeV/u Si-28- ions or 600 MeV/u Fe-56-ions. Chromosomes were analyzed using the whole chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique during the first cell division after irradiation, and chromosome aberrations were identified as either simple exchanges (translocations and dicentrics) or complex exchanges (involving greater than 2 breaks in 2 or more chromosomes). The curves for doses above 10 cGy were fitted with linear or linear-quadratic functions. For Si-28- ions no dose response was observed in the 2-10 cGy dose range, suggesting a non-target effect in this range.

  8. Vigabatrin pediatric dosing information for refractory complex partial seizures: results from a population dose-response analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jace C; Tolbert, Dwain; Patel, Mahlaqa; Kowalski, Kenneth G; Wesche, David L

    2014-12-01

    We predicted vigabatrin dosages for adjunctive therapy for pediatric patients with refractory complex partial seizures (rCPS) that would produce efficacy comparable to that observed for approved adult dosages. A dose-response model related seizure-count data to vigabatrin dosage to identify dosages for pediatric rCPS patients. Seizure-count data were obtained from three pediatric and two adult rCPS clinical trials. Dosages were predicted for oral solution and tablet formulations. Predicted oral solution dosages to achieve efficacy comparable to that of a 1 g/day adult dosage were 350 and 450 mg/day for patients with body weight ranges 10-15 and >15-20 kg, respectively. Predicted oral solution dosages for efficacy comparable to a 3 g/day adult dosage were 1,050 and 1,300 mg/day for weight ranges 10-15 and >15-20 kg, respectively. Predicted tablet dosage for efficacy comparable to a 1 g/day adult dosage was 500 mg/day for weight ranges 25-60 kg. Predicted tablet dosage for efficacy comparable to a 3 g/day adult dosage was 2,000 mg for weight ranges 25-60 kg. Vigabatrin dosages were identified for pediatric rCPS patients with body weights ?10 kg. PMID:25311090

  9. Dose–Response Effect of Mother–Infant Clinical Home Visiting on Aggressive Behavior Problems in Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    MELNICK, SHARON

    2006-01-01

    Objective The Objective of this follow-up study was to assess the long-term effects of clinical infant home-visiting services on child outcomes at school entry. Method Participants were 63 five-year-olds from low-income families, half of whom were referred to parent–infant home-visiting services during the first 18 months of life due to concerns about the caretaking environment. Families received between 0 and 18 months of weekly home visits based on infant age at entry into the study. At age 5, children were rated by teachers on the Preschool Behavior Questionnaire for behavior problems in the classroom and by parents both on the Simmons Behavior Checklist for behavior problems at home and on the Achenbach Social Competence Items for positive play behaviors with friends. Results With initial family risk status and child gender controlled, teacher-rated hostile behavior problems decreased in dose–response relation to the duration of early home-visiting services, which accounted for 15% of the variance in child hostile behavior. Parents' reports of positive play behaviors were positively linearly related to service duration. Parents' reports of behavior problems were less reliably related to service duration than teacher reports. Conclusions Early home-visiting services reduced the incidence of aggressive behavior problems among socially at-risk children for up to 3.5 years after the end of services. PMID:15167086

  10. Deriving ozone dose-response of photosynthesis in adult forest trees from branch-level cuvette gas exchange assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branch-level gas exchange provided the basis for assessing ozone flux in order to derive the dose-response relationship between cumulative O3 uptake (COU) and carbon gain in the upper sun crown of adult Fagus sylvatica. Fluxes of ozone, CO2 and water vapour were monitored simultaneously by climatized branch cuvettes. The cuvettes allowed branch exposure to an ambient or twice-ambient O3 regime, while tree crowns were exposed to the same O3 regimes (twice-ambient generated by a free-air canopy O3 exposure system). COU levels higher than 20 mmol m-2 led to a pronounced decline in carbon gain under elevated O3. The limiting COU range is consistent with findings on neighbouring branches exposed to twice-ambient O3 through free-air fumigation. The cuvette approach allows to estimate O3 flux at peripheral crown positions, where boundary layers are low, yielding a meso-scale within-crown resolution of photosynthetic foliage sensitivity under whole-tree free-air O3 fumigation. - Branch-level O3 dose dependence of photosynthesis derived from cuvette assessment yields sun-crown foliage sensitivity under whole-tree free-air O3 fumigation

  11. Dose response relationship of disturbed migration of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum due to X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darmanto, W.; Inouye, Minoru; Hayasaka, Shizu; Takagishi, Yoshiko; Aolad, H.; Murata, Yoshiharu [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. of Environmental Medicine

    1998-10-01

    Pregnant rats were exposed to 2.0, 2.25 or 2.5 Gy X-irradiation on gestation day 21. Pups were sacrificed 12 hr after exposure, and on postnatal day 5 (P5), P7 and P9. Their cerebella were observed immunohistochemically using anti-inositol 1,4,5 triphosphate (IP3) receptor antibody to identify Purkinje cells. These cells were disturbed to migrate and remained in the internal granular layer and white matter of the cerebellum. They had short dendrites, and some showed an abnormal direction of dendrites in rats exposed to 2.25 or 2.5 Gy. Alignment of Purkinje cells was also disturbed when examined either on P5, P7 or P9 especially by doses of 2.25 and 2.5 Gy. There was a relationship between X-ray doses and the number of cells piling up in the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum. The dose-response relationship with the number of ectopic Purkinje cells was noted in the anterior lobes of the cerebellum. (author)

  12. Can exposure limitations for well-known contact allergens be simplified? An analysis of dose-response patch test data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Louise Arup; Menné, Torkil

    2011-01-01

    Background. Allergic contact dermatitis is triggered by chemicals in the environment. Primary prevention is aimed at minimizing the risk of induction, whereas secondary and tertiary prevention are aimed at reducing elicitation. Objectives. To identify the elicitation doses that will elicit an allergic reaction in 10% of allergic individuals under patch test conditions (ED10 patch test) for different allergens, and to compare the results with those for different allergens and with animal data indicating sensitizing potency from the literature. Materials and methods. The literature was searched for patch test elicitation studies that fulfilled six selected criteria. The elicitation doses were calculated, and fitted dose–response curves were drawn. Results. Sixteen studies with eight different allergens–methylchloroisothiazolinone/ methylisothiazolinone, formaldehyde, nickel, cobalt, chromium, isoeugenol, hydroxyiso hexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde, and methyldibromo glutaronitrile–were selected. The median ED10 value was 0.835 µg/cm2. The ED10 patch test values were all within a factor of 7 from the lowest to the highest value, leaving out three outliers. No obvious patterns between the sensitization and elicitation doses for the allergens were found. Conclusions. We found a rather small variation in the ED10 patch test between the allergens, and no clear relationship between induction potency and elicitation threshold of a range of allergens. This knowledge may stimulate thoughts on introducing a generic approach for limitations in exposure to well-known allergens.

  13. Pancreatic ?-cell function increases in a linear dose-response manner following exercise training in adults with prediabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malin, Steven K; Solomon, Thomas P J

    2013-01-01

    Although some studies suggest that a linear dose-response relationship exists between exercise and insulin sensitivity, the exercise dose required to enhance pancreatic ?-cell function is unknown. Thirty-five older obese adults with prediabetes underwent a progressive 12-wk supervised exercise intervention (5 days/wk for 60 min at ~85% HRmax). Insulin and C-peptide responses to an OGTT were used to define the first- and second-phase disposition index (DI; ?-cell function = glucose-stimulated insulin secretion × clamp-derived insulin sensitivity). Maximum oxygen consumption (Vo2max) and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography) were also measured before and after the intervention. Exercise dose was computed using Vo2/heart-rate derived linear regression equations. Subjects expended 474.5 ± 8.8 kcal/session (2,372.5 ± 44.1 kcal/wk) during the intervention and lost ~8% body weight. Exercise increased first- and second-phase DI (P 2,000 kcal/wk) are necessary to enhance ?-cell function in adults with poor insulin secretion capacity.

  14. Dose-response relationship of nasopharyngeal carcinoma above conventional tumoricidal level: A study by the Hong Kong nasopharyngeal carcinoma study group (HKNPCSG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To define the dose-response relationship of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) above the conventional tumoricidal dose level of 66 Gy when the basic radiotherapy (RT) course was given by the 2D Ho's technique. Patients and methods: Data from all five regional cancer centers in Hong Kong were pooled for this retrospective study. All patients (n=2426) were treated with curative-intent RT with or without chemotherapy between 1996 and 2000 with the basic RT course using the Ho's technique. The primary endpoint was local control. The prognostic significance of dose-escalation ('boost') after 66 Gy, T-stage, N-stage, use of chemotherapy, sex and age (?40 years vs >40 years) was studied. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results: On multivariate analysis, T-stage (P< 0.01; hazard ratio [HR], 1.58) and optimal boost (P=0.01; HR, 0.34) were the only significant factors affecting local failure for the whole study population, and for the population of patients treated by radiotherapy alone, but not for patients who also received chemotherapy. The following were independent determinants of local failure for patient groups with different T-stages treated by radiotherapy alone: use of a boost in T1/T2a disease (P=0.01; HR, 0.33); use of a boost (P<0.01; HR, 0.60) and age (P=0.01; HR, 1.02) in T3/T4 tumors. Among patients with T2b tumors treated by radiotherapy alone and given a boost, the use of a 20 Gy-boost gave a lower local failure 20 Gy-boost gave a lower local failure rate than a 10 Gy-boost. There was no apparent excess mortality attributed to RT complications. Conclusions: Within the context of a multi-center retrospective study, dose-escalation above 66 Gy significantly improved local control for T1/T2a and T3/4 tumors when the primary RT course was based on the 2D Ho's technique without additional chemotherapy. 'Boosting' in NPC warrants further investigation. Caution should be taken when boosting is considered because of possible increase in radiation toxicity

  15. Are atomic-bomb dose-response data from ABCC/RERF reasonable for assessment of radiation risk?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, O. [Hiroshima International Univ. (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    Ever since ABCC was established in 1948, the Unified Program, conceived in 1955 and a fixed population sample (Life Span Study extended) was selected from the A-Bomb survivors Supplementary Schedules of 1950 National Census, originally consisted of approximately 110,000 persons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Since 1958, the AHS, a fixed sub-sample of LSS-extend sample, originally consisting of nearly 20,000 persons, has been followed for long-term clinical examinations for any late ionizing radiation effects of the A-bombs. AHS participants are thus provided complete physical examinations and laboratory tests during their biennial ''cycle'' visits to the ABCC/RERF clinics. The AHS sample includes persons NIC as the control groups. On the basis of the survey of the fixed population sample, ABCC/RERF have published many papers upto the present. Those data became the basis for reports of ICRP (1979, 1990), UNSCEAR (1977, 1933), and BEIR (1990). The author would like to raise a question whether the use of ABCC/RERF data was reasonable or not. Based on the cancer incidence in Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors, LNT model that radiation risk is always proportional to dose, no matter how small, was adopted by ICRP, UNSCEAR, and BEIR for the assessment of risk at low doses and for recommendation of dose limits. RERF reported the cancer incidence in A-bomb survivors, 1958-1987 (1994). A linear dose-response relationship was expressed for all solid cancers. In the ABCC/RERF study, however, abscissa of dose-response curves is done from A-bomb with no consideration of dose-rate in spite that the dose-rate is a great factor for the incidence. Incidence is affected not only with radiation dose but also with radiation dose-rate both of which are in inverse proportion to distance from the A-bomb explosion center. The patients were exposed to the radiation at the different dose-rate depending on the distance. Real animal experimental data from HTO administration by Yamamoto et al. (1998, 2000) showed different incidence of tumors at different dose-rates. Dose on abscissa of data from ABCC/RERF has to be corrected to (Dose){sup dose-rate} {sup factor}. The contaminated medical radiation dose is not included in ''dose'' in ABCC/RERF reports. Our medical X-ray dosimetry program was begum in 1962. A report has been published by Yamamoto et al. (1988) as the initial analysis for potential contamination of A-bomb doses by medical X-ray doses received by the members in the AHS sample through the end of 1982. For the lowest A-bomb exposed group, the contamination rate is 25% in average. Sixteen percent of subjects has more than 100% contamination and a few percent has 250-500% contamination. Such contamination rate for the lowest A-bomb exposed group is very serious for assessment of radiation risk. For the middle A-bomb exposed group, the contamination rate is still effective, though it is very low for the highest A-bomb dose group. The contamination rate at the present has to be much more. The medical X-ray doses should be taken into consideration for the correction at least to the subjects exposed to A-bomb dose less than 0.1 Gy. (author)

  16. Chronic exposure to odorous chemicals in residential areas and effects on human psychosocial health: dose-response relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Bælum, Jesper; Nadimi, Esmaeil S; Løfstrøm, Per; Christensen, Lars P

    2014-08-15

    Perceived air pollution, including environmental odor pollution, is known to be an environmental stressor that affects individuals' psychosocial health and well-being. However, very few studies have been able to quantify exposure-response associations based on individual-specific residential exposures to a proxy gas and to examine the mechanisms underlying these associations. In this study, individual-specific exposures in non-urban residential environments during 2005-2010 on a gas released from animal biodegradable wastes (ammonia, NH3) were calculated by the Danish Eulerian long-range transport model and the local-scale transport deposition model. We used binomial and multinomial logistic regression and mediation analyses to examine the associations between average exposures and questionnaire-based data on psychosocial responses, after controlling for person-specific covariates. About 45% of the respondents were annoyed by residential odor pollution. Exposures were associated with annoyance (adjusted odds ratio [ORadj]=3.54, 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.33-5.39), health risk perception (ORadj=4.94; 95% CI=1.95-12.5) and behavioral interference (ORadj=3.28; 95% CI=1.77-6.11), for each unit increase in loge(NH3 exposure). Annoyance was a strong mediator in exposure-behavior interference and exposure-health risk perception relationships (81% and 44% mediation, respectively). Health risk perception did not play a mediating role in exposure-annoyance or exposure-behavioral interference relationships. This is the first study to provide a quantitative estimation of the dose-response associations between ambient NH3 exposures and psychosocial effects caused by odor pollution in non-urban residential outdoor environments. It further shows that these effects are both direct and mediated by other psychosocial responses. The results support the use of NH3 as a proxy gas of air pollution from animal biodegradable wastes in epidemiologic studies. PMID:24880544

  17. Biological effects in lymphocytes irradiated with 99mTc: determination of the curve dose-response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological dosimetry estimates the absorbed dose taking into account changes in biological parameters. The most used biological indicator of an exposition to ionizing radiation is the quantification of chromosomal aberrations of lymphocytes from irradiated individuals. The curves of dose versus induced biological effects, obtained through bionalyses, are used in used in retrospective evaluations of the dose, mainly in the case of accidents. In this research, a simple model for electrons and photons transports was idealized to simulate the irradiation of lymphocytes with 99m Tc, representing a system used for irradiation of blood cells. The objective of the work was to establish a curve of dose versus frequencies of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of human blood. For the irradiation of blood samples micro spheres of human serum of albumin (HSAM) market with 99m Tc were used, allowing the irradiation of blood with different administered activities of 99m Tc, making possible the study the cytogenetical effects as a function of such activities. The conditions of irradiation in vivo using HSAM spheres marked with 99m Tc were simulated with MCNP 4C (Monte Carlo N-Particle) code to obtain the dose-response curve. Soft tissue composition was employed to simulate blood tissue and the analyses of the curve of dose versus biological effect showed a linear quadratic response of the unstable chromosomal aberrations. As a result, the response of dose versus chromosomal aberrations of blood irradiation with 99m Tc was best fitted by the curve Y=(8,99 ±2,06) x 1--4 + (1,24 ±0,62) x 10-2 D + (5,67 ± 0,64) x 10-2 D2. (author)

  18. Salvage Radiotherapy for Rising Prostate-Specific Antigen Levels After Radical Prostatectomy for Prostate Cancer: Dose-Response Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the association between external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) dose and biochemical failure (BcF) of prostate cancer in patients who received salvage prostate bed EBRT for a rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level after radical prostatectomy. Methods and Materials: We evaluated patients with a rising PSA level after prostatectomy who received salvage EBRT between July 1987 and October 2007. Patients receiving pre-EBRT androgen suppression were excluded. Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate the association between EBRT dose and BcF. Dose was considered as a numeric variable and as a categoric variable (low, 66.6 Gy). Results: A total of 364 men met study selection criteria and were followed up for a median of 6.0 years (range, 0.1-19.3 years). Median pre-EBRT PSA level was 0.6 ng/mL. The estimated cumulative rate of BcF at 5 years after EBRT was 50% overall and 57%, 46%, and 39% for the low-, moderate-, and high-dose groups, respectively. In multivariable analysis adjusting for potentially confounding variables, there was evidence of a linear trend between dose and BcF, with risk of BcF decreasing as dose increased (relative risk [RR], 0.77 [5.0-Gy increase]; p = 0.05). Compared with the low-dose group, there was evidence of a decreased risk of BcF for the high-dose group (RR, 0.60; p = 0.04), but no difference for the moderate-dose group (RR, 0.85; p = 0.41). Conclusions: Our results 0.85; p = 0.41). Conclusions: Our results suggest a dose response for salvage EBRT. Doses higher than 66.6 Gy result in decreased risk of BcF.

  19. Dose Response Effects of Dermally applied Diethanolamine on Neurogenesis in Fetal Mouse Hippocampus and Potential Exposure of Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciunescu, Corneliu N.; Niculescu, Mihai D.; Guo, Zhong; Johnson, Amy R.; Fischer, Leslie; Zeisel, Steven H.

    2009-01-01

    Diethanolamine (DEA) is a common ingredient of personal care products. Dermal administration of DEA diminishes hepatic stores of the essential nutrient choline and alters brain development. We previously reported that 80 mg/kg/day of DEA during pregnancy in mice reduced neurogenesis and increased apoptosis in the fetal hippocampus. This study was designed to establish the dose-response relationships for this effect of DEA. Timed-pregnant C57BL/6 mouse dams were dosed dermally from gestation day 7–17 with DEA at 0 (controls), 5, 40, 60, and 80 mg/kg body/day. Fetuses (embryonic day 17 [E17]) from dams treated dermally with 80 mg/kg body/day DEA had decreased neural progenitor cell mitosis at the ventricular surface of the ventricular zone (hippocampus, 54.1 ± 5.5%; cortex, 58.9 ± 6.8%; compared to controls; p < 0.01). Also, this dose of DEA to dams increased rates of apoptosis in E17 fetal hippocampus (to 177.2 ± 21.5% of control; measured using activated caspase-3; p < 0.01). This dose of DEA resulted in accumulation of DEA and its metabolites in liver and in plasma. At doses of DEA less than 80 mg/kg body/day to dams, there were no differences between treated and control groups. In a small group of human subjects, dermal treatment for 1 month with a commercially available skin lotion containing 1.8 mg DEA per gram resulted in detectable plasma concentrations of DEA and dimethyldiethanolamine, but these were far below those concentrations associated with perturbed brain development in the mouse. PMID:18948303

  20. SU-E-T-116: Dose Response in the Treatment of Unresectable Cholangiocarcinoma with Yttrium-90 Microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, S; Green, G; Sehgal, V; Samford, G; Kuo, J; Imagawa, D; Fernando, D; Al-Ghazi, M [University of California, Orange, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess the dose response of radioembolization using yttrium-90 (Y-90) microspheres in patients treated for unresectable cholangiocarcinoma. This study utilized partition dosimetry model for the dose calculation. The results show survival benefit with dose escalation. Methods: Between February 2009 and March 2013, ten patients with pathology proven unresectable cholangiocarcinoma were radioembolized with Y-90 microspheres. Patients underwent initial pre-treatment angiographic assessment for blood flow and 99mTc- MAA for lung shunt evaluation. Activity of Y-90 administration was calculated using the Body Surface Area (BSA) and target volumes which were determined by contouring the pre-treatment MRI/CT images using a radiation therapy treatment planning system. Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) method was used to assess the dosimetric results of Y90. Partition model based on the tumor to-liver activity uptake estimated from pretreatment 99mTc- MAA study was used to calculate the dose delivered to the target. The variables assessed included: administered dose, toxicity based on clinical changes, imaging based tumor response, and survival. Results: Ten patients were radioembolized with Y-90 microspheres to either one hepatic lobe or both left and right lobes. Patients were stratified by dose. Four patients who received dose greater than 140Gy (p < 0.05) all survived. The corresponding activity they received was greater than 35 mCi. Six out of ten patients died of disease with median survival of 18 weeks (range 12–81wks). Conclusion: Given the growing body of data for Y-90 microspheres in the context of cholangiocarcinoma, radioembolization may become an important treatment modality for an appropriately selected group of patients. Our study further substantiates past studies and shows additional evidence of a survival benefit with dose escalation.

  1. Dose-response relationship between alcohol use and blood pressure among drivers of commercial vehicles in Calabar, Southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassey Ikpeme

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is a sedative/hypnotic with effects similar to those of barbiturates.1 The type of alcoholic beverages consumed depends on the social context and financial capability. Alcoholic beverages may be in form of beer, wine, dry gin. Drinking alcohol is an activity that many people enjoy; taking a few drinks occasionally is generally harmless. Most people do not have problems as a result of drinking alcohol in this manner, although this may predispose to heavy use. Heavy alcohol consumption has been shown in observational studies to have a strong positive association with elevated blood pressure.2-4 Further evidence have been shown by clinical trials5,6 that have demonstrated that reduction in alcohol intake among individuals who drink heavily (i.e. three or more drinks per day can lower blood pressure in normotensive and hypertensive men. Some studies have recorded a linear dose-response relationship sometimes starting with a consumption threshold of three drinks per day (30 g of ethanol.7-13 In others, the relationship has been non-linear especially in women, and some authors have speculated that ingestion of small quantities may reduce blood pressure.14-22 These discrepancies may reflect differences in investigational design, methods and populations.23 Many studies have been done in this area in developed countries like the United States, United Kingdom and Australia. This is however, not a commonly researched area in this part of the world. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between alcohol consumption and blood pressure of drivers of commercial vehicles.

  2. Dose-responsiveness and persistence of microRNA expression alterations induced by cigarette smoke in mouse lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izzotti, Alberto; Larghero, Patrizia; Longobardi, Mariagrazia; Cartiglia, Cristina; Camoirano, Anna [Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Steele, Vernon E. [National Cancer Institute (NCI), Rockville, MD (United States); De Flora, Silvio, E-mail: sdf@unige.it [Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy)

    2011-12-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that exposure to cigarette smoke (CS), either mainstream or environmental, results in a remarkable downregulation of microRNA expression in the lung of both mice and rats. The goals of the present study were to evaluate the dose responsiveness to CS and the persistence of microRNA alterations after smoking cessation. ICR (CD-1) neonatal mice were exposed whole-body to mainstream CS, at the doses of 119, 292, 438, and 631 mg/m{sup 3} of total particulate matter. Exposure started within 12 h after birth and continued daily for 4 weeks. The levels of bulky DNA adducts and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2 Prime -deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) were measured by {sup 32}P postlabeling procedures, and the expression of 697 mouse microRNAs was analyzed by microarray. The highest CS dose was lethal. Exposure to CS caused a dose-dependent increase of DNA alterations. DNA adducts and, even more sharply, 8-oxodGuo were reverted 1 and 4 weeks after smoking cessation. Exposure to CS resulted in an evident dysregulation of microRNA expression profiles, mainly in the sense of downregulation. The two lowest doses were not particularly effective, while the highest nonlethal dose produced extensive microRNA alterations. The expression of most downregulated microRNAs, including among others 7 members of the let-7 family, was restored one week after smoking cessation. However, the recovery was incomplete for a limited array of microRNAs, including mir-34b, mir-345, mir-421, mir-450b, mir-466, and mir-469. Thus, it appears that microRNAs mainly behave as biomarkers of effect and that exposure to high-dose, lasting for an adequate period of time, is needed to trigger the CS-related carcinogenesis process in the experimental animal model used.

  3. Structures, sensory activity, and dose/response functions of 2,5-diketopiperazines in roasted cocoa nibs (Theobroma cacao).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Timo; Hofmann, Thomas

    2005-09-01

    The taste compounds inducing the blood-like, metallic bitter taste sensation reported recently for a dichloromethane extract prepared from roasted cocoa nibs were identified as a series of 25 diketopiperazines by means of HPLC degustation, LC-MS/MS, and independent synthesis. Among these 25 compounds, 13 cis-configured diketopiperazines, namely, cyclo(L-IIe-L-Phe), cyclo(L-Val-L-Leu), cyclo(L-Pro-L-Pro), cyclo(L-IIe-L-Pro), cyclo(L-Val-L-Tyr), cyclo(L-Ala-L-Tyr), cyclo(L-Phe-L-Ser), cyclo(L-Ala-L-IIe), cyclo(L-Leu-L-Phe), cyclo(L-Pro-L-Val), cyclo(L-Pro-L-Thr), cyclo(L-Pro-L-Tyr), and cyclo(L-Val-L-Val) were identified for the first time in cocoa. In addition, the taste recognition thresholds for the metallic as well as the bitter taste of the diketopiperazines were determined, and after quantitative analysis by using two diastereomeric diketopiperazines as the internal standards, the sensory impact of the diketopiperazines was evaluated on the basis of their dose-over-threshold (DoT) factors calculated as the ratio of the concentration and the threshold concentration of a compound. These data revealed DoT factors above 1.0 exclusively for cis-cyclo(L-Pro-L-Val), cis-cyclo(L-Val-L-Leu), cis-cyclo(L-Ala-L-Ile), cis-cyclo(L-Ala-L-Leu), and cis-cyclo(L-Ile-L-Pro), whereas all of the other diketopiperazines were present below their individual bitter taste threshold concentrations and should therefore not contribute to the cocoa taste. Because the DoT factors do not consider the nonlinear relationship between the concentration and gustatory response of an individual compound, we, for the first time, report on the recording of dose/response functions describing the human bitter taste perception of diketopiperazines more precisely. PMID:16131134

  4. Dose-responsiveness and persistence of microRNA expression alterations induced by cigarette smoke in mouse lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our previous studies demonstrated that exposure to cigarette smoke (CS), either mainstream or environmental, results in a remarkable downregulation of microRNA expression in the lung of both mice and rats. The goals of the present study were to evaluate the dose responsiveness to CS and the persistence of microRNA alterations after smoking cessation. ICR (CD-1) neonatal mice were exposed whole-body to mainstream CS, at the doses of 119, 292, 438, and 631 mg/m3 of total particulate matter. Exposure started within 12 h after birth and continued daily for 4 weeks. The levels of bulky DNA adducts and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) were measured by 32P postlabeling procedures, and the expression of 697 mouse microRNAs was analyzed by microarray. The highest CS dose was lethal. Exposure to CS caused a dose-dependent increase of DNA alterations. DNA adducts and, even more sharply, 8-oxodGuo were reverted 1 and 4 weeks after smoking cessation. Exposure to CS resulted in an evident dysregulation of microRNA expression profiles, mainly in the sense of downregulation. The two lowest doses were not particularly effective, while the highest nonlethal dose produced extensive microRNA alterations. The expression of most downregulated microRNAs, including among others 7 members of the let-7 family, was restored one week after smoking cessation. However, the recovery was incomplete for a limited array of microRNAs, including mir-34b, mir-345, mmicroRNAs, including mir-34b, mir-345, mir-421, mir-450b, mir-466, and mir-469. Thus, it appears that microRNAs mainly behave as biomarkers of effect and that exposure to high-dose, lasting for an adequate period of time, is needed to trigger the CS-related carcinogenesis process in the experimental animal model used.

  5. Characterization of the dose response relationship for lung injury following acute radiation exposure in three well-established murine strains: developing an interspecies bridge to link animal models with human lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Isabel L; Xu, Pu-Ting; Nguyen, Giao; Down, Julian D; Johnson, Cynthia S; Katz, Barry P; Hadley, Caroline C; Vujaskovic, Zeljko

    2014-01-01

    Approval of radiation countermeasures through the FDA Animal Rule requires pivotal efficacy screening in one or more species that are expected to react with a response similar to humans (21 C.F.R. § 314.610, drugs; § 601.91, biologics). Animal models used in screening studies should reflect the dose response relationship (DRR), clinical presentation, and pathogenesis of lung injury in humans. Over the past 5 y, the authors have characterized systematically the temporal onset, dose-response relationship (DRR), and pathologic outcomes associated with acute, high dose radiation exposure in three diverse mouse strains. In these studies, C57L/J, CBA/J, and C57BL/6J mice received wide field irradiation to the whole thorax with shielding of the head, abdomen, and forelimbs. Doses were delivered at a rate of 69 cGy min using an x-ray source operated at 320 kVp with half-value layer (HVL) of 1 mm Cu. For all strains, radiation dose was associated significantly with 180 d mortality (p < 0.0001). The lethal dose for 50% of animals within the first 180 d (LD50/180) was 11.35 Gy (95% CI 11.1-11.6 Gy) for C57L/J mice, 14.17 Gy (95% CI 13.9-14.5 Gy) for CBA/J mice, and 14.10 Gy (95% CI 12.2-16.4 Gy) for C57BL/6J mice. The LD50/180 in the C57L/J strain was most closely analogous to the DRR for clinical incidence of pneumonitis in non-human primates (10.28 Gy; 95% CI 9.9-10.7 Gy) and humans (10.60 Gy; 95% CI 9.9-12.1 Gy). Furthermore, in the C57L/J strain, there was no gender-specific difference in DRR (p = 0.5578). The reliability of the murine models is demonstrated by the reproducibility of the dose-response and consistency of disease presentation across studies.Health Phys. 106(1):000-000; 2014. PMID:24276549

  6. Radiosensitive xrs-5 and parental CHO cells show identical DNA neutral filter elution dose-response: implications for a relationship between cell radiosensitivity and induction of DNA double-strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work was to investigate a possible correlation between DNA elution dose-response and cell radiosensitivity. For this purpose neutral (pH 9.6) DNA filter elution dose-response curves were measured with radiosensitive xrs-5 and the parental Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in the logarithmic and plateau phase of growth. No difference was observed between the two cell types in the DNA elution dose-response curves either in logarithmic or plateau phase, despite the dramatic differences in cell radiosensitivity. This observation indicates that the shape of the DNA elution dose-response curve and the shape of the cell survival curve are not causally related. It is proposed that the shoulder observed in the DNA elution dose-response curve reflects either partial release of DNA from chromatin, or cell cycle-specific alterations in the physicochemical properties of the DNA. (author)

  7. Percentage of Biopsy Cores Positive for Malignancy and Biochemical Failure Following Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy in 3,264 Men: Statistical Significance Without Predictive Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To define and incorporate the impact of the percentage of positive biopsy cores (PPC) into a predictive model of prostate cancer radiotherapy biochemical outcome. Methods and Materials: The data of 3264 men with clinically localized prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy at four institutions were retrospectively analyzed. Standard prognostic and treatment factors plus the number of biopsy cores collected and the number positive for malignancy by transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy were available. The primary endpoint was biochemical failure (bF, Phoenix definition). Multivariate proportional hazards analyses were performed and expressed as a nomogram and the model's predictive ability assessed using the concordance index (c-index). Results: The cohort consisted of 21% low-, 51% intermediate-, and 28% high-risk cancer patients, and 30% had androgen deprivation with radiotherapy. The median PPC was 50% (interquartile range [IQR] 29-67%), and median follow-up was 51 months (IQR 29-71 months). Percentage of positive biopsy cores displayed an independent association with the risk of bF (p = 0.01), as did age, prostate-specific antigen value, Gleason score, clinical stage, androgen deprivation duration, and radiotherapy dose (p < 0.001 for all). Including PPC increased the c-index from 0.72 to 0.73 in the overall model. The influence of PPC varied significantly with radiotherapy dose and clinical stage (p = 0.02 for both interactions), with doses = 0.02 for both interactions), with doses <66 Gy and palpable tumors showing the strongest relationship between PPC and bF. Intermediate-risk patients were poorly discriminated regardless of PPC inclusion (c-index 0.65 for both models). Conclusions: Outcome models incorporating PPC show only minor additional ability to predict biochemical failure beyond those containing standard prognostic factors

  8. Data mining-based statistical analysis of biological data uncovers hidden significance: clustering Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients based on the response of their PBMC with IL-2 and IFN-? secretion to stimulation with Hsp60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonello, Lucio; Conway de Macario, Everly; Marino Gammazza, Antonella; Cocchi, Massimo; Gabrielli, Fabio; Zummo, Giovanni; Cappello, Francesco; Macario, Alberto J L

    2015-03-01

    The pathogenesis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis includes autoimmunity involving thyroid antigens, autoantibodies, and possibly cytokines. It is unclear what role plays Hsp60, but our recent data indicate that it may contribute to pathogenesis as an autoantigen. Its role in the induction of cytokine production, pro- or anti-inflammatory, was not elucidated, except that we found that peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMC) from patients or from healthy controls did not respond with cytokine production upon stimulation by Hsp60 in vitro with patterns that would differentiate patients from controls with statistical significance. This "negative" outcome appeared when the data were pooled and analyzed with conventional statistical methods. We re-analyzed our data with non-conventional statistical methods based on data mining using the classification and regression tree learning algorithm and clustering methodology. The results indicate that by focusing on IFN-? and IL-2 levels before and after Hsp60 stimulation of PBMC in each patient, it is possible to differentiate patients from controls. A major general conclusion is that when trying to identify disease markers such as levels of cytokines and Hsp60, reference to standards obtained from pooled data from many patients may be misleading. The chosen biomarker, e.g., production of IFN-? and IL-2 by PBMC upon stimulation with Hsp60, must be assessed before and after stimulation and the results compared within each patient and analyzed with conventional and data mining statistical methods. PMID:25408301

  9. Evaluation of dose-response models and parameters predicting radiation induced pneumonitis using clinical data from breast cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the predictive strength of the relative seriality, parallel and LKB normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models regarding the incidence of radiation pneumonitis, in a large group of patients following breast cancer radiotherapy, and furthermore, to illustrate statistical methods for examining whether certain published radiobiological parameters are compatible with a clinical treatment methodology and patient group characteristics. The study is based on 150 consecutive patients who received radiation therapy for breast cancer. For each patient, the 3D dose distribution delivered to lung and the clinical treatment outcome were available. Clinical symptoms and radiological findings, along with a patient questionnaire, were used to assess the manifestation of radiation-induced complications. Using this material, different methods of estimating the likelihood of radiation effects were evaluated. This was attempted by analysing patient data based on their full dose distributions and associating the calculated complication rates with the clinical follow-up records. Additionally, the need for an update of the criteria that are being used in the current clinical practice was also examined. The patient material was selected without any conscious bias regarding the radiotherapy treatment technique used. The treatment data of each patient were applied to the relative seriality, LKB and parallel NTCP models, using published parametellel NTCP models, using published parameter sets. Of the 150 patients, 15 experienced radiation-induced pneumonitis (grade 2) according to the radiation pneumonitis scoring criteria used. Of the NTCP models examined, the relative seriality model was able to predict the incidence of radiation pneumonitis with acceptable accuracy, although radiation pneumonitis was developed by only a few patients. In the case of modern breast radiotherapy, radiobiological modelling appears to be very sensitive to model and parameter selection giving clinically acceptable results in certain cases selectively (relative seriality model with Seppenwoolde et al (2003 Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 55 724-35) and Gagliardi et al (2000 Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 46 373-81) parameter sets). The use of published parameters should be considered as safe only after their examination using local clinical data. The variation of inter-patient radiosensitivity seems to play a significant role in the prediction of such low incidence rate complications. Scoring grades were combined to give stronger evidence of radiation pneumonitis since their differences could not be strictly associated with dose. This obviously reveals a weakness of the scoring related to this endpoint, and implies that the probability of radiation pneumonitis induction may be too low to be statistically analysed with high accuracy, at least with the latest advances of dose delivery in breast radiotherapy

  10. Evaluation of dose response models and parameters predicting radiation induced pneumonitis using clinical data from breast cancer radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsougos, Ioannis; Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Rajala, Juha; Theodorou, Kyriaki; Järvenpää, Ritva; Pitkänen, Maunu A.; Holli, Kaija; Ojala, Antti T.; Lind, Bengt K.; Hyödynmaa, Simo; Kappas, Constantin

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the predictive strength of the relative seriality, parallel and LKB normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models regarding the incidence of radiation pneumonitis, in a large group of patients following breast cancer radiotherapy, and furthermore, to illustrate statistical methods for examining whether certain published radiobiological parameters are compatible with a clinical treatment methodology and patient group characteristics. The study is based on 150 consecutive patients who received radiation therapy for breast cancer. For each patient, the 3D dose distribution delivered to lung and the clinical treatment outcome were available. Clinical symptoms and radiological findings, along with a patient questionnaire, were used to assess the manifestation of radiation-induced complications. Using this material, different methods of estimating the likelihood of radiation effects were evaluated. This was attempted by analysing patient data based on their full dose distributions and associating the calculated complication rates with the clinical follow-up records. Additionally, the need for an update of the criteria that are being used in the current clinical practice was also examined. The patient material was selected without any conscious bias regarding the radiotherapy treatment technique used. The treatment data of each patient were applied to the relative seriality, LKB and parallel NTCP models, using published parameter sets. Of the 150 patients, 15 experienced radiation-induced pneumonitis (grade 2) according to the radiation pneumonitis scoring criteria used. Of the NTCP models examined, the relative seriality model was able to predict the incidence of radiation pneumonitis with acceptable accuracy, although radiation pneumonitis was developed by only a few patients. In the case of modern breast radiotherapy, radiobiological modelling appears to be very sensitive to model and parameter selection giving clinically acceptable results in certain cases selectively (relative seriality model with Seppenwoolde et al (2003 Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 55 724-35) and Gagliardi et al (2000 Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 46 373-81) parameter sets). The use of published parameters should be considered as safe only after their examination using local clinical data. The variation of inter-patient radiosensitivity seems to play a significant role in the prediction of such low incidence rate complications. Scoring grades were combined to give stronger evidence of radiation pneumonitis since their differences could not be strictly associated with dose. This obviously reveals a weakness of the scoring related to this endpoint, and implies that the probability of radiation pneumonitis induction may be too low to be statistically analysed with high accuracy, at least with the latest advances of dose delivery in breast radiotherapy.

  11. Linear DNA elution dose response curves obtained in CHO cells with non-unwinding filter elution after appropriate selection of the lysis conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of detergent type, pH and temperature during lysis on the DNA elution dose response was studied under non-winding conditions in exponentially growing, plateau-phase and synchronous S-phase CHO cells. These results suggest that the shoulder observed in the DNA elution dose-response curve reflects partial separation of DNA from associated proteins. A direct and unconditional correlation of the DNA filter elution behaviour, as observed under non-unwinding conditions, with the induction of DNA dsb may thus not always be justified. Caution is required when elution results are used to establish correlations between the level of induction of DNA dsb and cell killing. (author)

  12. Dissolution and subsequent re-crystallization as zeroing mechanism, thermal properties and component resolved dose response of salt (NaCl) for retrospective dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymeris, George S; Kitis, George; Kiyak, Nafiye G; Sfamba, Ioanna; Subedi, Bhagawan; Pagonis, Vasilis

    2011-09-01

    In the present study we report dosimetric properties of iodized salt aiming at using it as an accidental luminescent dosimeter. It was found that the very good sensitivity of its main dosimetric peak is strongly affected by thermal treatments. This is also the case for OSL emission. The sensitivity loss due to heating implies that caution should be exercised while applying single aliquot protocols for dose evaluation. The sequence of dissolution and subsequent re-crystallization was established to be an extremely effective zeroing mechanism for the TL signal. The linearity in the dose response was also monitored in the case of dissolved and subsequently re-crystallized salt. In the case of naturally occurring salt, zeroing of the TL signal due to dissolution as well as the linearity of dose response up to doses as large as 100 Gy were found to be very promising features for dating applications. PMID:21514833

  13. Blue light dose–responses of leaf photosynthesis, morphology, and chemical composition of Cucumis sativus grown under different combinations of red and blue light

    OpenAIRE

    Hogewoning, S.W.; Trouwborst, G.; Maljaars, H.; Poorter, H.; Ieperen, W., van; Harbinson, J.

    2010-01-01

    The blue part of the light spectrum has been associated with leaf characteristics which also develop under high irradiances. In this study blue light dose–response curves were made for the photosynthetic properties and related developmental characteristics of cucumber leaves that were grown at an equal irradiance under seven different combinations of red and blue light provided by light-emitting diodes. Only the leaves developed under red light alone (0% blue) displayed dysfunctional photos...

  14. Validation of dose-response curve of CRCN-NE - Regional Center for Nuclear Sciences from Northeast Brazil for 60Co: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cytogenetic study has the chromosomal alterations as biomarkers in absorbed dose estimation by the body of individuals involved in exposure to ionizing radiation by interpreting a dose response calibration curve. Since the development of the technique to the analysis of data, you can see protocol characteristics, leading the International Atomic Energy Agency indicate that any laboratory with intention to carry out biological dosimetry establish their own calibration curves. The Biological Dosimetry Laboratory of the Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN), Brazil, recently established the calibration curve related to gamma radiation (60Co). Thus, this work aimed to start the validation of this calibration curve from samples of three different blood donors which were irradiated with an absorbed known single dose of 1 Gy. Samples were exposed to 60Co source (Glaucoma 220) located in the Department of Nuclear Energy (DEN/UFPE). After fixation with methanol and acetic acid and 5% Giemsa staining, the frequency of chromosomal alterations (dicentric chromosomes, acentric rings and fragments) were established from reading of 500 metaphases per sample and doses were estimated using Dose Estimate program. The results showed that, using the dose-response curve calibration for dicentrics, the dose absorbed estimated for the three individuals ranged from 0.891 - 1,089Gy, taking into account the range of confidence of 95%. By using the dose-response curve for dicentrics added to rings and for the same interval of confidence the doses ranged from 0,849 - 1,081Gy. Thus, the estimative encompassed known absorbed dose the three individuals in confidence interval of 95%. These preliminary results seems to demonstrate that dicentric dose-response curves and dicentrics plus rings established by CRCN-NE / CNEN are valid for dose estimation in exposed individuals. This validation will continue with samples from different individuals at different doses

  15. Dose-Response Analysis in the Joint Action of Two Effectors. A New Approach to Simulation, Identification and Modelling of Some Basic Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Murado García, Miguel Anxo; Prieto, Miguel Ángel

    2013-01-01

    In systems with several effectors, the results of dose-response (DR) experiments are usually assessed by checking them against two hypotheses: independent action (IA) and concentration addition (CA). Both are useful simplifications, but do not represent the only possible responses, and avoid to a large extent the analysis of the interactions that are possible in the system. In addition, these are often applied in such a way that they produce insufficient descriptions of the pro...

  16. Dose-Response Assessment of Nephrotoxicity from a 7-Day Combined Exposure to Melamine and Cyanuric Acid in F344 Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, Cristina C.; Reimschuessel, Renate; Von Tungeln, Linda S.; Olson, Greg R.; Warbritton, Alan R.; Hattan, David G.; Beland, Frederick A.; Gamboa Da Costa, Gonc?alo

    2010-01-01

    The intentional adulteration of pet food with melamine and derivatives, including cyanuric acid, has been implicated in the kidney failure and death of a large number of cats and dogs in the United States. Although individually these compounds present low toxicity, coexposure can lead to the formation of melamine cyanurate crystals in the nephrons and eventual kidney failure. To determine the dose-response for nephrotoxicity upon coadministration of melamine and cyanuric acid, groups of male ...

  17. A Comparison of Dose-Response Models for the Parotid Gland in a Large Group of Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The dose-response relationship of the parotid gland has been described most frequently using the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model. However, various other normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models exist. We evaluated in a large group of patients the value of six NTCP models that describe the parotid gland dose response 1 year after radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 347 patients with head-and-neck tumors were included in this prospective parotid gland dose-response study. The patients were treated with either conventional radiotherapy or intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Dose-volume histograms for the parotid glands were derived from three-dimensional dose calculations using computed tomography scans. Stimulated salivary flow rates were measured before and 1 year after radiotherapy. A threshold of 25% of the pretreatment flow rate was used to define a complication. The evaluated models included the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model, the mean dose model, the relative seriality model, the critical volume model, the parallel functional subunit model, and the dose-threshold model. The goodness of fit (GOF) was determined by the deviance and a Monte Carlo hypothesis test. Ranking of the models was based on Akaike's information criterion (AIC). Results: None of the models was rejected based on the evaluation of the GOF. The mean dose model was ranked as the best model based on the AIC. The TD50 in these models was approximately 39 Gy. Conclusio models was approximately 39 Gy. Conclusions: The mean dose model was preferred for describing the dose-response relationship of the parotid gland.

  18. Waterborne microbial risk assessment : a population-based dose-response function for Giardia spp. (E.MI.R.A study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartemann Ph

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dose-response parameters based on clinical challenges are frequently used to assess the health impact of protozoa in drinking water. We compare the risk estimates associated with Giardia in drinking water derived from the dose-response parameter published in the literature and the incidence of acute digestive conditions (ADC measured in the framework of an epidemiological study in a general population. Methods The study combined a daily follow-up of digestive morbidity among a panel of 544 volunteers and a microbiological surveillance of tap water. The relationship between incidence of ADC and concentrations of Giardia cysts was modeled with Generalized Estimating Equations, adjusting on community, age, tap water intake, presence of bacterial indicators, and genetic markers of viruses. The quantitative estimate of Giardia dose was the product of the declared amount of drinking water intake (in L by the logarithm of cysts concentrations. Results The Odds Ratio for one unit of dose [OR = 1.76 (95% CI: 1.21, 2.55] showed a very good consistency with the risk assessment estimate computed after the literature dose-response, provided application of a 20 % abatement factor to the cysts counts that were measured in the epidemiological study. Doing so, a daily water intake of 2 L and a Giardia concentration of 10 cysts/100 L, would yield an estimated relative excess risk of 12 % according to the Rendtorff model, against 11 % when multiplying the baseline rate of ADC by the corresponding OR. This abatement parameter encompasses uncertainties associated with germ viability, infectivity and virulence in natural settings. Conclusion The dose-response function for waterborne Giardia risk derived from clinical experiments is consistent with epidemiological data. However, much remains to be learned about key characteristics that may heavily influence quantitative risk assessment results.

  19. Dose-response relationships with embryonal radiation damage using as an example the skeleton of a mouse after prenatal neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dose-response relationships after acute neutron irradiation on the seventh or tenth day p.c. in the dose range between 0.05, resp. 0,125 Gy and 0.75, resp. 1 Gy, were studied. There then followed an anatomically undifferentiated listing of the skeletal aberrations with exclusive consideration of the in each case most serious damage per fetus. With increasing radiation doses a shifting of the skeletal aberrations into the next higher damage category was recognisable. There was also a phase-dependent resistence increase from the 7th to the 10th day p.c. A comparison of the dose-response curves shows pronounced shoulder curves after x-radiation compared to approximately straight-lined curves after neutron irradiation. The recovery capacity is thereafter largely suppressed by the densely ionising radiation. From each of the dose-response curves different damage niveaus of the RBW factors between 1.6 and 3.6 can be determined. (orig./MG)

  20. A Randomized Trial of Vitamin D3 Supplementation in Children: Dose-Response Effects on Vitamin D Metabolites and Calcium Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, E. M.; Hill Gallant, K. M.; Hall, D. B.; McCabe, G. P.; Hausman, D. B.; Martin, B. R.; Warden, S. J.; Peacock, M.; Weaver, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Changes in serum vitamin D metabolites and calcium absorption with varying doses of oral vitamin D3 in healthy children are unknown. Objective: Our objective was to examine the dose-response effects of supplemental vitamin D3 on serum vitamin D metabolites and calcium absorption in children living at two U.S. latitudes. Design: Black and white children (n = 323) participated in a multisite (U.S. latitudes 34° N and 40° N), triple-masked trial. Children were randomized to receive oral vitamin D3 (0, 400, 1000, 2000, and 4000 IU/d) and were sampled over 12 weeks in winter. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) were measured using RIA and intact PTH (iPTH) by immunoradiometric assay. Fractional calcium absorption was determined from an oral stable isotope 44Ca (5 mg) in a 150-mg calcium meal. Nonlinear and linear regression models were fit for vitamin D metabolites, iPTH, and calcium absorption. Results: The mean baseline 25(OH)D value for the entire sample was 70.0 nmol/L. Increases in 25(OH)D depended on dose with 12-week changes ranging from ?10 nmol/L for placebo to 76 nmol/L for 4000 IU. Larger 25(OH)D gains were observed for whites vs blacks at the highest dose (P < .01). Gains for 1,25(OH)2D were not significant (P = .07), and decreases in iPTH were not dose-dependent. There was no dose effect of vitamin D on fractional calcium absorption when adjusted for pill compliance, race, sex, or baseline 25(OH)D. Conclusion: Large increases in serum 25(OH)D with vitamin D3 supplementation did not increase calcium absorption in healthy children living at 2 different latitudes. Supplementation with 400 IU/d was sufficient to maintain wintertime 25(OH)D concentrations in healthy black, but not white, children. PMID:24092833

  1. Steep Dose-Response Relationship for Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Using Hypofractionated High-Dose Irradiation by Real-Time Tumor-Tracking Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical outcomes of patients with pathologically proven, peripherally located, Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer who had undergone stereotactic body radiotherapy using real-time tumor tracking radiotherapy during the developmental period. Methods and Materials: A total of 41 patients (25 with Stage T1 and 16 with Stage T2) were admitted to the study between February 2000 and June 2005. A 5-mm planning target volume margin was added to the clinical target volume determined with computed tomography at the end of the expiratory phase. The gating window ranged from ±2 to 3 mm. The dose fractionation schedule was 40 or 48 Gy in four fractions within 1 week. The dose was prescribed at the center of the planning target volume, giving more than an 80% dose at the planning target volume periphery. Results: For 28 patients treated with 48 Gy in four fractions, the overall actuarial survival rate at 3 years was 82% for those with Stage IA and 32% for those with Stage IB. For patients treated with 40 Gy in four fractions within 1 week, the overall actuarial survival rate at 3 years was 50% for those with Stage IA and 0% for those with Stage IB. A significant difference was found in local control between those with Stage IB who received 40 Gy vs. 48 Gy (p = 0.0015) but not in those with Stage IA (p = 0.5811). No serious radiation morbidity was observed with either dose schedule. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that 48 Gy in four fractstudy have shown that 48 Gy in four fractions within 1 week is a safe and effective treatment for peripherally located, Stage IA non-small-cell lung cancer. A steep dose-response curve between 40 and 48 Gy using a daily dose of 12 Gy delivered within 1 week was identified for Stage IB non-small-cell lung cancer in stereotactic body radiotherapy using real-time tumor tracking radiotherapy

  2. The incidence of radioepidermitis and the dose-response relationship in parotid gland cancer patients treated with 125I seed brachytherapy. Incidence of radioepidermitis and the dose-response relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Ming-Hui; Zheng, Lei; Gao, Hong; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Shu-ming; Huang, Ming-wei; Shi, Yan [Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Beijing (China); Zhang, Jian-Guo [Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Beijing (China); Fujian Provincial Hospital, Fujian (China)

    2014-09-09

    We studied the incidence and dose-response relationship of radioepidermitis in parotid gland carcinoma patients treated with [{sup 125}I] seed brachytherapy in the hopes of designing an optimized pre-implant treatment plan that would reduce the incidence and severity of radioepidermitis in patients receiving this therapy. Between January 2007 and May 2010, 100 parotid gland cancer patients were treated postoperatively with [{sup 125}I] seed brachytherapy. The matched peripheral dose (MPD) was 80-140 Gy, and [{sup 125}I] seed activity was 0.7-0.8 mCi. The mean dose delivered to the skin was calculated in the post-implant CT on day 0 following implantation. Grades of acute and late dermatitis were evaluated at 2, 6, 12, and 18 months post-implantation. Most patients experienced grade 0-2 acute and late skin side effects (86 and 97 %, respectively), though a small subset developed severe complications. Most grade 1-3 effects resolved within 6 months of implantation, though some grade 1-3 effects and all grade 4 effects remained unchanged throughout the 18-month follow-up period. Grade 3 and 4 effects were most prominent (75 and 25 %, respectively) with doses of 110-140 Gy; doses higher than 140 Gy produced only grade 4 effects. [{sup 125}I] seed brachytherapy produced acceptable levels of acute and late radioepidermitis with a good clinical outcome. A mean dose under 100 Gy delivered to the skin was safe, though doses of 110-140 Gy should be given with caution and extra monitoring; doses greater than 140 Gy are dangerous and likely to produce grade 4-5 effects. (orig.) [German] Wir untersuchten die Inzidenz und die Dosis-Wirkung-Beziehung bei Patienten mit Ohrspeicheldruesenkrebs, die mit [{sup 125}I]-Seed-Brachytherapie behandelt wurden, in der Hoffnung, eine optimierte praeimplantologische Behandlung zu entwickeln, welche die Inzidenz und Schwere der Radioepidermitis bei Patienten, die diese Therapie erhalten haben, reduziert. Zwischen Januar 2007 und Mai 2010 wurden 100 Patienten mit Ohrspeicheldruesenkrebs postoperativ mit [{sup 125}I]-Seed-Brachytherapie behandelt. Die angeglichene periphere Dosis (MPD) betrug 80-140 Gy und die Aktivitaet der [{sup 125}I]-Seed war 0,7-0,8 mCi. Die durchschnittliche Dosis, die auf die Haut gebracht wurde, wurde beim postimplantologischen CT am Tag 0 nach der Implantation kalkuliert. Die Grade von akuter und verspaeteter Dermatitis wurden nach 2, 6, 12 und 18 Monaten postimplantologisch ausgewertet. Die meisten Patienten erlebten akute und verspaetete Nebenwirkungen (86 % bzw. 97 %) auf der Haut vom Grad 0-2, obwohl eine kleine Untergruppe schwere Komplikationen entwickelte. Die meisten Grad-1- bis Grad-3-Wirkungen hatten sich innerhalb von 6 Monaten nach der Implantation aufgeloest, obwohl einige der Grad-3- bis Grad-4-Wirkungen und alle Grad-4-Wirkungen waehrend des 18-monatigen Nachfolgezeitraums unveraendert geblieben sind. Die Grad-3- bis Grad-4-Wirkungen waren am bedeutendsten (75 % bzw. 25 %) mit der Dosis von 110-140 Gy; eine Dosis hoeher als 140 Gy erzeugte nur Grad-4-Wirkungen. Die [{sup 125}I]-Seed-Brachytherapie erzeugt akzeptable Ebenen von akuter und verspaeteter Radioepidermitis mit einem guten klinischen Ergebnis. Eine durchschnittliche Dosis unter 100 Gy, die auf die Haut aufgebracht wurde, war sicher, obwohl Dosen von 110-140 Gy mit Vorsicht und zusaetzlicher Ueberwachung gegeben werden sollten; Dosen hoeher als 140 Gy sind gefaehrlich und werden wahrscheinlich Grad-4-Wirkungen erzeugen. (orig.)

  3. Statistical significance of variables driving systematic variation

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Neo Christopher; Storey, John D

    2013-01-01

    There are a number of well-established methods such as principal components analysis (PCA) for automatically capturing systematic variation due to latent variables in large-scale genomic data. PCA and related methods may directly provide a quantitative characterization of a complex biological variable that is otherwise difficult to precisely define or model. An unsolved problem in this context is how to systematically identify the genomic variables that are drivers of system...

  4. Statistical Significance of the Netflix Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Feuerverger, Andrey; He, Yu; Khatri, Shashi

    2012-01-01

    Inspired by the legacy of the Netflix contest, we provide an overview of what has been learned---from our own efforts, and those of others---concerning the problems of collaborative filtering and recommender systems. The data set consists of about 100 million movie ratings (from 1 to 5 stars) involving some 480 thousand users and some 18 thousand movies; the associated ratings matrix is about 99% sparse. The goal is to predict ratings that users will give to movies; systems ...

  5. Statistical Comparison of Carcinogenic Effects and Dose-Response Relationships in Rats and Mice for 2,4-Toluene Diamine to those Ascribed to Toluene Diisocyanate

    OpenAIRE

    Sielken, Robert L.; Bretzlaff, Robert S.; Valdez-flores, Ciriaco; Parod, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) conducted 2-year bioassays of commercial grade toluene diisocyanate (TDI) (80% 2,4-TDI and 20% 2,6-TDI) and 2,4-toluene diamine (TDA) and concluded that both were carcinogenic in rodents. In the TDI study, there was an unproven but likely formation of TDA either because of flawed test-substance handling and storage conditions and/or the atypical exposure conditions employed. Although the carcinogenic responses in both studies were qualitatively simil...

  6. "Clinical" Significance: "Clinical" Significance and "Practical" Significance are NOT the Same Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lisa S.

    2008-01-01

    Clinical significance is an important concept in research, particularly in education and the social sciences. The present article first compares clinical significance to other measures of "significance" in statistics. The major methods used to determine clinical significance are explained and the strengths and weaknesses of clinical significance

  7. Dose-response effects of systemic anandamide administration in mice sequentially submitted to the open field and elevated plus-maze tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ribeiro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system is involved in the control of many physiological functions, including the control of emotional states. In rodents, previous exposure to an open field increases the anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze. Anxiolytic-like effects of pharmacological compounds that increase endocannabinoid levels have been well documented. However, these effects are more evident in animals with high anxiety levels. Several studies have described characteristic inverted U-shaped dose-response effects of drugs that modulate the endocannabinoid levels. However, there are no studies showing the effects of different doses of exogenous anandamide, an endocannabinoid, in animal models of anxiety. Thus, in the present study, we determined the dose-response effects of exogenous anandamide at doses of 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mg/kg in C57BL/6 mice (N = 10/group sequentially submitted to the open field and elevated plus-maze. Anandamide was diluted in 0.9% saline, ethyl alcohol, Emulphor® (18:1:1 and administered ip (0.1 mL/10 g body weight; control animals received the same volume of anandamide vehicle. Anandamide at the dose of 0.1 mg/kg (but not of 0.01 or 1 mg/kg increased (P < 0.05 the time spent and the distance covered in the central zone of the open field, as well as the exploration of the open arms of the elevated plus-maze. Thus, exogenous anandamide, like pharmacological compounds that increase endocannabinoid levels, promoted a characteristic inverted U-shaped dose-response effect in animal models of anxiety. Furthermore, anandamide (0.1 mg/kg induced an anxiolytic-like effect in the elevated plus-maze (P < 0.05 after exposing the animals to the open field test.

  8. Dicentric chromosomes and ?-H2AX foci formation in lymphocytes of human blood samples exposed to a CT scanner: A direct comparison of dose response relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments using the induction of dicentric chromosomes (dicentrics) as well as the ?-H2AX foci formation in lymphocytes of blood samples from a healthy donor were performed to directly evaluate the radiation sensitivity of both biological endpoints. For computed tomography scans at dose levels from 0.025 to 1 Gy, a linear-quadratic dose - response relationship for dicentrics and a linear dose - response relationship for ?-H2AX foci were obtained. The coefficients of the dose - response relationship for dicentrics are ? = (3.76 ± 0.29) x 10-2 Gy-1 and ? = (5.54 ± 0.45) x 10-2 Gy-2, the linear coefficient for ?-H2AX foci is (7.38 ± 0.11) Gy-1. The findings indicate that scoring of dicentrics as well as microscopic analysis of ?-H2AX foci are sensitive methods to quantify a radiation-induced biological damage at low doses. However, since ?-H2AX foci can be partially repaired within a few hours, biological damages present for days or even months, which constitute the clinically relevant endpoints, can only be quantified reliably by scoring of chromosome aberrations. Thus currently the quantification of dicentrics or reciprocal translocations remains the recommended method for estimating the effect of exposures to low dose levels of radiation ('biological dosimetry'). However, owing to the high radiation sensitivity of the ?-H2AX foci assay observed in the present study, further investigations on the effecher investigations on the effectiveness of low-linear energy transfer radiation qualities in producing ?-H2AX foci in lymphocytes from healthy donors should be performed. (authors)

  9. SU-D-16A-03: A Radiation Pneumonitis Dose-Response Model Incorporating Non- Local Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, J; Snyder, K; Zhong, H; Chetty, I [Henry Ford Health System, Dept. Radiation Oncology, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Dose-response models that can reliably predict radiation pneumonitis (RP) to guide radiation therapy (RT) for lung cancer presently do not exist. A model is proposed that incorporates non-local radiationinduced bystander effect (RIBE). Methods: A single sigmoid response function, derived from published data for whole lung irradiation, relates RP probability to cumulative lung damage, regardless of fractionation scheme. Lung damage is assumed to be caused by direct local radiation damage, quantified via the linear-quadratic (LQ) model, and RIBE. Based on published data, RIBE is assumed to be activated when per-fraction dose rises above ?0.6 Gy, but is constant with dose above that threshold. Integral RIBE damage is assumed proportional to lung volume irradiated above ?0.6 Gy per fraction. Key model parameters include LQ ? and ?, and two RIBE parameters: the single-fraction probability ? of damage, and a proportionality parameter ? that relates the potential for RIBE damage to irradiated lung volume. All parameters are tentatively fitted from published data, the RIBE parameters from published RP rates for conventionally fractionated RT (CFRT) and stereotactic body RT (SBRT). Results: The model predicts dose-response curves that are consistent with clinical experience. It provides a tentative explanation for why V20 (33 fractions), V13 (20 fractions) and V5 (<10 fractions) are observed to be correlated with RP. It also provides a plausible explanation for the success of SBRT — RIBE damage increases with the number of fractions, so penalizes CFRT relative to SBRT. Conclusion: The proposed model is relatively simple, extrapolates from published data, plausibly explains several clinical observations, and produces dose-response curves that are consistent with clinical experience. While capable of elaboration, its ability to explain doseresponse experience with different fractionation schemes using a small number of assumptions and parameters is an advantage.

  10. SU-D-16A-03: A Radiation Pneumonitis Dose-Response Model Incorporating Non- Local Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Dose-response models that can reliably predict radiation pneumonitis (RP) to guide radiation therapy (RT) for lung cancer presently do not exist. A model is proposed that incorporates non-local radiationinduced bystander effect (RIBE). Methods: A single sigmoid response function, derived from published data for whole lung irradiation, relates RP probability to cumulative lung damage, regardless of fractionation scheme. Lung damage is assumed to be caused by direct local radiation damage, quantified via the linear-quadratic (LQ) model, and RIBE. Based on published data, RIBE is assumed to be activated when per-fraction dose rises above ?0.6 Gy, but is constant with dose above that threshold. Integral RIBE damage is assumed proportional to lung volume irradiated above ?0.6 Gy per fraction. Key model parameters include LQ ? and ?, and two RIBE parameters: the single-fraction probability ? of damage, and a proportionality parameter ? that relates the potential for RIBE damage to irradiated lung volume. All parameters are tentatively fitted from published data, the RIBE parameters from published RP rates for conventionally fractionated RT (CFRT) and stereotactic body RT (SBRT). Results: The model predicts dose-response curves that are consistent with clinical experience. It provides a tentative explanation for why V20 (33 fractions), V13 (20 fractions) and V5 (<10 fractions) are observed to be correlated with RP. It also provides a plausible explanation for the success of SBRT — RIBE damage increases with the number of fractions, so penalizes CFRT relative to SBRT. Conclusion: The proposed model is relatively simple, extrapolates from published data, plausibly explains several clinical observations, and produces dose-response curves that are consistent with clinical experience. While capable of elaboration, its ability to explain doseresponse experience with different fractionation schemes using a small number of assumptions and parameters is an advantage

  11. Dose-response relationship of induction kinetics of In vivo DNA damage and repair in mouse leukocytes exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Unicellular electrophoresis in gel technique is a useful tool in the determination of simple ruptures and labile sites to the alkali in DNA of eucariontes cells. The determination of the induction kinetics of damage and repair of DNA can give more information. The objective of this work was to determine whether the analysis of the area under the damage/repair induction kinetics curve in comets percent or the comets frequency in the two peaks of maximum induction is adequate for determining the dose-response relationship. The mice were exposed at the doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 Gy. (Author)

  12. Comparative dose-response study of three anticholinergic agents and fenoterol using a metered dose inhaler in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, A.; Nishimura, K.; Koyama, H.; Izumi, T.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Inhaled anticholinergics and beta agonists are widely used in the treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, dosage requirements have not been thoroughly evaluated and comparative dose-response data for these agents are limited. METHODS--Twenty men with stable COPD of mean (SD) age 69.4 (5.8) years and FEV1 0.93 (0.38) litres were studied in randomised, double blind, crossover, placebo controlled experiments. All of the patients received two,...

  13. Red and processed meat consumption and the risk of lung cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis of 33 published studies

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Xiu-juan; Gao, Qing; Qiao, Jian-hong; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Cui-ping; Liu, Ju

    2014-01-01

    This meta-analysis was to summarize the published studies about the association between red/processed meat consumption and the risk of lung cancer. 5 databases were systematically reviewed, and random-effect model was used to pool the study results and to assess dose-response relationships. Results shown that six cohort studies and twenty eight case-control studies were included in this meat-analysis. The pooled Risk Radios (RR) for total red meat and processed meat were 1.44 (95% CI, 1.29-1....

  14. In search of a statistical probability model for petroleum-resource assessment : a critique of the probabilistic significance of certain concepts and methods used in petroleum-resource assessment : to that end, a probabilistic model is sketched

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossling, Bernardo F.

    1975-01-01

    Exploratory drilling is still in incipient or youthful stages in those areas of the world where the bulk of the potential petroleum resources is yet to be discovered. Methods of assessing resources from projections based on historical production and reserve data are limited to mature areas. For most of the world's petroleum-prospective areas, a more speculative situation calls for a critical review of resource-assessment methodology. The language of mathematical statistics is required to define more rigorously the appraisal of petroleum resources. Basically, two approaches have been used to appraise the amounts of undiscovered mineral resources in a geologic province: (1) projection models, which use statistical data on the past outcome of exploration and development in the province; and (2) estimation models of the overall resources of the province, which use certain known parameters of the province together with the outcome of exploration and development in analogous provinces. These two approaches often lead to widely different estimates. Some of the controversy that arises results from a confusion of the probabilistic significance of the quantities yielded by each of the two approaches. Also, inherent limitations of analytic projection models-such as those using the logistic and Gomperts functions --have often been ignored. The resource-assessment problem should be recast in terms that provide for consideration of the probability of existence of the resource and of the probability of discovery of a deposit. Then the two above-mentioned models occupy the two ends of the probability range. The new approach accounts for (1) what can be expected with reasonably high certainty by mere projections of what has been accomplished in the past; (2) the inherent biases of decision-makers and resource estimators; (3) upper bounds that can be set up as goals for exploration; and (4) the uncertainties in geologic conditions in a search for minerals. Actual outcomes can then be viewed as phenomena subject to statistical uncertainty and responsive to changes in economic and technologic factors.

  15. Ovarian response to recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone : a randomized, antimüllerian hormone-stratified, dose-response trial in women undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arce, Joan-Carles; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the dose-response relationship of a novel recombinant human FSH (rhFSH; FE 999049) with respect to ovarian response in patients undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment; and prospectively study the influence of initial antimüllerian hormone (AMH) concentrations. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled, assessor-blinded, AMH-stratified (low: 5.0-14.9 pmol/L [0.7-<2.1 ng/mL]; high: 15.0-44.9 pmol/L [2.1-6.3 ng/mL]) trial. SETTING: Seven infertility centers in four countries. PATIENT(S): Two hundred sixty-five women aged ?37 years. INTERVENTION(S): Controlled ovarian stimulation with either 5.2, 6.9, 8.6, 10.3, or 12.1 ?g of rhFSH, or 11 ?g (150 IU) of follitropin alfa in a GnRH antagonist cycle. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Number of oocytes retrieved. RESULT(S): The number of oocytes retrieved increased in an rhFSH dose-dependent manner, from 5.2 ± 3.3 oocytes with 5.2 ?g/d to 12.2 ± 5.9 with 12.1 ?g/d. The slopes of the rhFSH dose-response curves differed significantly betweenthe two AMH strata, demonstrating that a 10% increase in dose resulted in 0.5 (95% confidence interval 0.2-0.7) and 1.0 (95% confidence interval 0.7-1.3) more oocytes in the low and high AMH stratum, respectively. Fertilization rate and blastocyst/oocyte ratio decreased significantly with increasing rhFSH doses in both AMH strata. No linear relationship was observed between rhFSH dose and number of blastocysts overall or by AMH strata. Five cases of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome were reported for the three highest rhFSH doses and in the high AMH stratum. CONCLUSION(S): Increasing rhFSH doses results in a linear increase in number of oocytes retrieved in an AMH-dependent manner. The availability of blastocysts is less influenced by the rhFSH dose and AMH level. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01426386.

  16. Dose-response curve of EBT, EBT2, and EBT3 radiochromic films to synchrotron-produced monochromatic x-ray beams

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Thomas A D; Alvarez, Diane; Matthews, Kenneth L; Ham, Kyungmin; Dugas, Joseph P; 10.1118/1.4767770

    2012-01-01

    This work investigates the dose-response curves of GAFCHROMIC EBT, EBT2, and EBT3 radiochromic films using synchrotron-produced monochromatic x-ray beams. EBT2 film is being utilized for dose verification in photoactivated Auger electron therapy at the Louisiana State University CAMD synchrotron facility. Monochromatic beams of 25, 30, and 35 keV were generated on the tomography beamline at CAMD. Ion chamber depth-dose measurements were used to determine the dose delivered to films irradiated at depths from 0.7 to 8.5 cm in a 10x10x10-cm3 PMMA phantom. AAPM TG-61 protocol was applied to convert measured ionization into dose. Films were digitized using an Epson 1680 Professional flatbed scanner and analyzed using the net optical density (NOD) derived from the red channel. A dose-response curve was obtained at 35 keV for EBT film, and at 25, 30, and 35 keV for EBT2 and EBT3 films. Calibrations of films for 4 MV x-rays were obtained for comparison using a radiotherapy accelerator at Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Cent...

  17. The Relationship between Zinc Intake and Serum/Plasma Zinc Concentration in Children: A Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola M. Lowe

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Recommendations for zinc intake during childhood vary widely across Europe. The EURRECA project attempts to consolidate the basis for the definition of micronutrient requirements, taking into account relationships among intake, status and health outcomes, in order to harmonise these recommendations. Data on zinc intake and biomarkers of zinc status reported in randomised controlled trials (RCTs can provide estimates of dose-response relationships which may be used for underpinning zinc reference values. This systematic review included all RCTs of apparently healthy children aged 1–17 years published by February 2010 which provided data on zinc intake and biomarkers of zinc status. An intake-status regression coefficient ( was calculated for each individual study and calculated the overall pooled  and SE ( using random effects meta-analysis on a double log scale. The pooled dose-response relationship between zinc intake and zinc status indicated that a doubling of the zinc intake increased the serum/plasma zinc status by 9%. This evidence can be utilised, together with currently used balance studies and repletion/depletion studies, when setting zinc recommendations as a basis for nutrition policies.

  18. Dose-response effects of systemic anandamide administration in mice sequentially submitted to the open field and elevated plus-maze tests

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Ribeiro; V., Ferraz-de-Paula; M.L., Pinheiro; J., Palermo-Neto.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system is involved in the control of many physiological functions, including the control of emotional states. In rodents, previous exposure to an open field increases the anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze. Anxiolytic-like effects of pharmacological compounds that in [...] crease endocannabinoid levels have been well documented. However, these effects are more evident in animals with high anxiety levels. Several studies have described characteristic inverted U-shaped dose-response effects of drugs that modulate the endocannabinoid levels. However, there are no studies showing the effects of different doses of exogenous anandamide, an endocannabinoid, in animal models of anxiety. Thus, in the present study, we determined the dose-response effects of exogenous anandamide at doses of 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mg/kg in C57BL/6 mice (N = 10/group) sequentially submitted to the open field and elevated plus-maze. Anandamide was diluted in 0.9% saline, ethyl alcohol, Emulphor® (18:1:1) and administered ip (0.1 mL/10 g body weight); control animals received the same volume of anandamide vehicle. Anandamide at the dose of 0.1 mg/kg (but not of 0.01 or 1 mg/kg) increased (P

  19. Investigations into the reliability of SAR-OSL equivalent doses obtained for quartz samples displaying dose response curves with more than one component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast component dominated quartz single aliquot regenerative dose optically stimulated luminescence (SAR-OSL) dose response curves that display continuing growth at high doses are increasingly reported in literature. This behaviour would result in higher equivalent doses being obtained. Here we document the characteristics of OSL signals from fine (4–11 ?m) and coarse (63–90 ?m) quartz extracted from Romanian loess that display such behaviour. For very high doses (>1 kGy up to 5–15 kGy) the data could be closely fitted to a double saturating exponential regression model. Nonetheless, the saturation charcteristics of these fine and coarse quartz grains are very different, with average saturation chracteristic doses of D01 ? 175 Gy and D02 ? 1800 Gy in the case of the fine material, while in the case of the coarse material values of D01 ? 55 Gy and D02 ? 600 Gy have been obtained. Our results imply a hitherto unexplained mechanism in OSL production at high doses and question the reliability of obtaining SAR-OSL equivalent doses in the high dose region when a second function is needed to describe the dose response.

  20. Dose–response analysis of acute oral mucositis and pharyngeal dysphagia in patients receiving induction chemotherapy followed by concomitant chemo-IMRT for head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose–response curves (DRCs) and the quantitative parameters describing these curves were generated for grade 3 oral mucositis and dysphagia in 144 patients using individual patient DVHs. Curve fits to the oral mucositis clinical data yielded parameter values of mean dose in 2 Gy equivalent, MD50 = 51 Gy (95% CI 40–61), slope of the curve, k = 1(95% CI 0.6–1.5). R2 value for the goodness of fit was 0.80. Fits to the grade 3 dysphagia clinical data yielded parameter values of MD50 = 44.5 Gy (95% CI 36–53), k = 2.6 (95% CI 0.8–4.5). R2 value for the goodness of fit was 0.65. This is the first study to derive DRCs in patients receiving induction chemotherapy followed by chemo-radiation (IC-C-IMRT) for head and neck cancer. The dose–response model described in this study could be useful for comparing acute mucositis rates for different dose–fractionation schedules when using IMRT for head and neck cancer.

  1. Nonlinear dose-response relationship between radon exposure and the risk of lung cancer: evidence from a meta-analysis of published observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Peng; Quan, Chao; Hu, Chunhui; Zhang, Jicai; Xie, Fei; Hu, Xiuxue; Yu, Zongtao; Gao, Bo; Liu, Zhixiang; Zheng, Hong; Liu, Changjiang; Wang, Chengmin; Yu, Tingting; Qi, Suqin; Fu, Wenjuan; Kourouma, Ansoumane; Yang, Kedi

    2015-07-01

    Although radon exposure (RE) has been confirmed to increase the risk of lung cancer (LC), questions remain about the shape of the dose-response relationship between RE and the risk of LC. We carried out a dose-response meta-analysis to investigate and quantify the potential dose-response association between residential and occupational exposure to radon and the risk of LC. All cohort and case-control studies published in English and Chinese on Embase, PubMed, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) digital databases through November 2013 were identified systematically. We extracted effect measures (relative risk, odds ratio, standardized mortality ratio, standardized incidence ratio, or standardized rate ratio) from individual studies to generate pooled results using meta-analysis approaches. We derived meta-analytic estimates using random-effects models taking into account the correlation between estimates. Restricted cubic splines and generalized least-squares regression methods were used to model a potential curvilinear relationship and to carry out a dose-response meta-analysis. Stratified analysis, sensitivity analysis, and assessment of bias were performed in our meta-analysis. Sixty publications fulfilling the inclusion criteria for this meta-analysis were finally included. Occupational RE was associated with LC [risk ratio 1.86, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.67-2.09; I=92.2%; 27 prospective studies], for pooled risk estimate of the: standardized mortality ratio [2.00 (95% CI=1.82-2.32)]; standardized incidence ratio [1.45 (95% CI=1.20-1.74)]; relative risk [2.10 (95% CI=1.64-2.69)]. In a subgroup analysis of uranium miners and residents exposed to occupational uranium, the summary risk was 2.23 (95% CI=1.86-2.68) and 1.23 (95% CI=1.05-1.44). The overall meta-analysis showed evidence of a nonlinear association between RE and the risk of LC (Pnonlinearity<0.014); in addition, the point value of residential radon also improved the results quantitatively, where odds ratios were 1.11 (95% CI=1.07-1.15) and 1.21 (95% CI=1.14-1.29) when the radon concentration was at the point of 100 and 200?Bq/m compared with the lowest. For 17 prospective studies with at least three categories of occupational cumulative radon dose, the dose-risk model estimated a risk ratio of 1.26 (95% CI=1.21-1.30) for 100 working level months and 1.51 (95% CI=1.38-1.65) for 200 working level months, respectively. The assessment of risk of bias within individual studies and across studies indicated risk that was unlikely to alter these results markedly. This meta-analysis shows a nonlinear dose-response association between environmental RE and the risk of LC. This increased risk is particularly apparent when the cumulative exposure to radon is well beyond that resulting from exposure to the recommended limit concentration for a prolonged period of time. PMID:25117725

  2. Investigating the dose-response relation between air pollution and total mortality in the APHEA-2 multicity project

    OpenAIRE

    Samoli, E.; Touloumi, G.; Zanobetti, A.; Le Tertre, A.; Schindler, C.; Atkinson, R.; Vonk, J.; Rossi, G.; Saez, M.; Rabczenko, D.; Schwartz, J.; Katsouyanni, K.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Several recent studies have reported significant health effects of air pollution even at low levels of air pollutants, but in most of these studies linear non-threshold relations were assumed.